Science.gov

Sample records for effective team performance

  1. Effects of Team Emotional Authenticity on Virtual Team Performance.

    PubMed

    Connelly, Catherine E; Turel, Ofir

    2016-01-01

    Members of virtual teams lack many of the visual or auditory cues that are usually used as the basis for impressions about fellow team members. We focus on the effects of the impressions formed in this context, and use social exchange theory to understand how these impressions affect team performance. Our pilot study, using content analysis (n = 191 students), suggested that most individuals believe that they can assess others' emotional authenticity in online settings by focusing on the content and tone of the messages. Our quantitative study examined the effects of these assessments. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis (n = 81 student teams) suggested that team-level trust and teamwork behaviors mediate the relationship between team emotional authenticity and team performance, and illuminate the importance of team emotional authenticity for team processes and outcomes.

  2. Effects of Team Emotional Authenticity on Virtual Team Performance

    PubMed Central

    Connelly, Catherine E.; Turel, Ofir

    2016-01-01

    Members of virtual teams lack many of the visual or auditory cues that are usually used as the basis for impressions about fellow team members. We focus on the effects of the impressions formed in this context, and use social exchange theory to understand how these impressions affect team performance. Our pilot study, using content analysis (n = 191 students), suggested that most individuals believe that they can assess others' emotional authenticity in online settings by focusing on the content and tone of the messages. Our quantitative study examined the effects of these assessments. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis (n = 81 student teams) suggested that team-level trust and teamwork behaviors mediate the relationship between team emotional authenticity and team performance, and illuminate the importance of team emotional authenticity for team processes and outcomes. PMID:27630605

  3. Encounter Group Effects of Soccer Team Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magen, Zipora

    1980-01-01

    Suggests that a positive relationship exists between encounter group experience and the soccer team performance--a conclusion worthy of consideration in further research in the fields of psychology and sociology of sports. (Author)

  4. Team Cohesion Effects on Business Game Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Joseph; Box, Thomas M.

    1988-01-01

    Discussion of teamwork and group decision making focuses on study of undergraduates conducted to identify the variables that affect team cohesion in a business game. A literature review on small groups and business games is presented, hypotheses tested are described, discriminant analyses are explained, and suggestions for further research are…

  5. Teams in organizations: recent research on performance and effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Guzzo, R A; Dickson, M W

    1996-01-01

    This review examines recent research on groups and teams, giving special emphasis to research investigating factors that influence the effectiveness of teams at work in organizations. Several performance-relevant factors are considered, including group composition, cohesiveness, and motivation, although certain topics (e.g. composition) have been more actively researched than others in recent years and so are addressed in greater depth. Also actively researched are certain types of teams, including flight crews, computer-supported groups, and various forms of autonomous work groups. Evidence on basic processes in and the performance effectiveness of such groups is reviewed. Also reviewed are findings from studies of organizational redesign involving the implementation of teams. Findings from these studies provide some of the strongest support for the value of teams to organizational effectiveness. The review concludes by briefly considering selected open questions and emerging directions in group research.

  6. Nonlinear effects of team tenure on team psychological safety climate and climate strength: Implications for average team member performance.

    PubMed

    Koopmann, Jaclyn; Lanaj, Klodiana; Wang, Mo; Zhou, Le; Shi, Junqi

    2016-07-01

    The teams literature suggests that team tenure improves team psychological safety climate and climate strength in a linear fashion, but the empirical findings to date have been mixed. Alternatively, theories of group formation suggest that new and longer tenured teams experience greater team psychological safety climate than moderately tenured teams. Adopting this second perspective, we used a sample of 115 research and development teams and found that team tenure had a curvilinear relationship with team psychological safety climate and climate strength. Supporting group formation theories, team psychological safety climate and climate strength were higher in new and longer tenured teams compared with moderately tenured teams. Moreover, we found a curvilinear relationship between team tenure and average team member creative performance as partially mediated by team psychological safety climate. Team psychological safety climate improved average team member task performance only when team psychological safety climate was strong. Likewise, team tenure influenced average team member task performance in a curvilinear manner via team psychological safety climate only when team psychological safety climate was strong. We discuss theoretical and practical implications and offer several directions for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Team cohesiveness, team size and team performance in team-based learning teams.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Britta M; Haidet, Paul; Borges, Nicole J; Carchedi, Lisa R; Roman, Brenda J B; Townsend, Mark H; Butler, Agata P; Swanson, David B; Anderson, Michael P; Levine, Ruth E

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among variables associated with teams in team-based learning (TBL) settings and team outcomes. We administered the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Psychiatry Subject Test first to individuals and then to teams of Year three students at four medical schools that used TBL in their psychiatry core clerkships. Team cohesion was analysed using the Team Performance Scale (TPS). Bivariate correlation and linear regression analysis were used to analyse the relationships among team-level variables (mean individual TPS scores for each team, mean individual NBME scores of teams, team size, rotation and gender make-up) and team NBME test scores. A hierarchical linear model was used to test the effects of individual TPS and individual NBME test scores within each team, as well as the effects of the team-level variables of team size, team rotation and gender on team NBME test scores. Individual NBME test and TPS scores were nested within teams and treated as subsampling units. Individual NBME test scores and individual TPS scores were positively and statistically significantly (p < 0.01) associated with team NBME test scores, when team rotation, team size and gender make-up were controlled for. Higher team NBME test scores were associated with teams rotating later in the year and larger teams (p < 0.01). Gender make-up was not significantly associated. The results of an NBME Psychiatry Subject Test administered to TBL teams at four medical schools suggest that larger teams on later rotations score higher on a team NBME test. Individual NBME test scores and team cohesion were positively and significantly associated with team NBME test scores. These results suggest the need for additional studies focusing on team outcomes, team cohesion, team size, rotation and other factors as they relate to the effective and efficient performance of TBL teams in health science education. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Team Knowledge Sharing Intervention Effects on Team Shared Mental Models and Student Performance in an Undergraduate Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikorski, Eric G.; Johnson, Tristan E.; Ruscher, Paul H.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a shared mental model (SMM) based intervention on student team mental model similarity and ultimately team performance in an undergraduate meteorology course. The team knowledge sharing (TKS) intervention was designed to promote team reflection, communication, and improvement planning.…

  9. Team Knowledge Sharing Intervention Effects on Team Shared Mental Models and Student Performance in an Undergraduate Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikorski, Eric G.; Johnson, Tristan E.; Ruscher, Paul H.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a shared mental model (SMM) based intervention on student team mental model similarity and ultimately team performance in an undergraduate meteorology course. The team knowledge sharing (TKS) intervention was designed to promote team reflection, communication, and improvement planning.…

  10. Getting Groups to Develop Good Strategies: Effects of Reflexivity Interventions on Team Process, Team Performance, and Shared Mental Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurtner, Andrea; Tschan, Franziska; Semmer, Norbert K.; Nagele, Christof

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the effect of guided reflection on team processes and performance, based on West's (1996, 2000) concept of reflexivity. Communicating via e-mail, 49 hierarchically structured teams (one commander and two specialists) performed seven 15 min shifts of a simulated team-based military air-surveillance task (TAST) in two meetings, a…

  11. Getting Groups to Develop Good Strategies: Effects of Reflexivity Interventions on Team Process, Team Performance, and Shared Mental Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurtner, Andrea; Tschan, Franziska; Semmer, Norbert K.; Nagele, Christof

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the effect of guided reflection on team processes and performance, based on West's (1996, 2000) concept of reflexivity. Communicating via e-mail, 49 hierarchically structured teams (one commander and two specialists) performed seven 15 min shifts of a simulated team-based military air-surveillance task (TAST) in two meetings, a…

  12. Leader-team complementarity: Exploring the interactive effects of leader personality traits and team power distance values on team processes and performance.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jia; Judge, Timothy A

    2017-06-01

    Integrating the leader trait perspective with dominance complementarity theory, we propose team power distance as an important boundary condition for the indirect impact of leader extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness on team performance through a team's potency beliefs and through relational identification with the leader. Using time-lagged, 3-source data from 71 teams, we found that leader extraversion had a positive indirect impact on team in-role and extrarole performance through relational identification, but only for high power distance teams; leader conscientiousness had a positive influence on team in-role performance through team potency, but only for high power distance teams; and leader agreeableness had a positive effect on team in-role and extrarole performance via relational identification and on team in-role performance via team potency, but only for low power distance teams. The findings address prior inconsistencies regarding the relationships between leader traits and team effectiveness, identify an important boundary condition and key team processes that bridge the links, and provide a deeper understanding of the role of leader traits in teams. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Effect of training load on simulated team sport match performance.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Katie May; Wallace, Lee Kenneth; Bentley, David John; Coutts, Aaron James

    2012-04-01

    This study examined the effect of training load on running performance and plasma markers of anaerobic metabolism, muscle damage, and inflammation during a simulated team sport match performance. Seven team sport athletes (maximal oxygen uptake, 47.6 ± 4.2 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) completed a 60-min simulated team sport match before and after either 4 days of HIGH or LOW training loads. Venous blood samples were taken pre-match, immediately post-match, and 2 h post-match for interlukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, xanthine oxidase (XO), and hypoxanthine. Following HIGH training load, sprint velocity decreased (p < 0.001) and total distance covered was reduced (HIGH 5495 ± 670 m, LOW 5608 ± 674 m, p = 0.02) was observed during the simulated match protocol compared with the LOW match simulation. Decreased performance capacity was accompanied by a significant increase in serum CK concentration (HIGH 290 ± 62 U·L(-1), LOW 199 ± 33 U·L(-1), p = 0.005). The HIGH training also resulted in a decreased post-match hypoxanthine and MCP-1 and an increase in XO concentration 2 h post-match. Four days of increased training load reduced running performance during the match simulation and altered the metabolic and inflammatory response to high-intensity intermittent exercise.

  14. Effective Team Performance in Military Environments. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Robert; And Others

    Identification of psychological factors influencing team performance in the chemical, biological, and radiological defense (CBR-D) environment were identified by a system for task classification: (1) combining Herold's task demands and Holland's taxonomy of work environments and (2) describing the development and evaluation of team tasks. This…

  15. The Effect of Personality Style and Team Organization on Team Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    of work, quantity of work, initiative, interpersonal skills, planning and allocation, commitment to the team, and overall team performance. The...which a person is outgoing and is willing to interact with other people. The facets of extraversion are warmth , gregariousness, assertiveness...Discipline Impulsiveness Deliberation Vulnerability Extraversion Warmth Gregariousness Assertiveness Avtivity Excitement-Seeking Positive Emotions Figure

  16. Does Virtual Team Composition Matter? Trait and Problem-Solving Configuration Effects on Team Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turel, Ofir; Zhang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Due to the increased importance and usage of self-managed virtual teams, many recent studies have examined factors that affect their success. One such factor that merits examination is the configuration or composition of virtual teams. This article tackles this point by (1) empirically testing trait-configuration effects on virtual team…

  17. Does Virtual Team Composition Matter? Trait and Problem-Solving Configuration Effects on Team Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turel, Ofir; Zhang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Due to the increased importance and usage of self-managed virtual teams, many recent studies have examined factors that affect their success. One such factor that merits examination is the configuration or composition of virtual teams. This article tackles this point by (1) empirically testing trait-configuration effects on virtual team…

  18. Building the infrastructure: the effects of role identification behaviors on team cognition development and performance.

    PubMed

    Pearsall, Matthew J; Ellis, Aleksander P J; Bell, Bradford S

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to extend theory and research regarding the emergence of mental models and transactive memory in teams. Utilizing Kozlowski, Gully, Nason, and Smith's (1999) model of team compilation, we examined the effect of role identification behaviors and posited that such behaviors represent the initial building blocks of team cognition during the role compilation phase of team development. We then hypothesized that team mental models and transactive memory would convey the effects of these behaviors onto team performance in the team compilation phase of development. Results from 60 teams working on a command-and-control simulation supported our hypotheses.

  19. Effect of obstetric team training on team performance and medical technical skills: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Fransen, A F; van de Ven, J; Merién, A E R; de Wit-Zuurendonk, L D; Houterman, S; Mol, B W; Oei, S G

    2012-10-01

    To determine whether obstetric team training in a medical simulation centre improves the team performance and utilisation of appropriate medical technical skills of healthcare professionals. Cluster randomised controlled trial. The Netherlands. The obstetric departments of 24 Dutch hospitals. The obstetric departments were randomly assigned to a 1-day session of multiprofessional team training in a medical simulation centre or to no such training. Team training was given with high-fidelity mannequins by an obstetrician and a communication expert. More than 6 months following training, two unannounced simulated scenarios were carried out in the delivery rooms of all 24 obstetric departments. The scenarios, comprising a case of shoulder dystocia and a case of amniotic fluid embolism, were videotaped. The team performance and utilisation of appropriate medical skills were evaluated by two independent experts. Team performance evaluated with the validated Clinical Teamwork Scale (CTS) and the employment of two specific obstetric procedures for the two clinical scenarios in the simulation (delivery of the baby with shoulder dystocia in the maternal all-fours position and conducting a perimortem caesarean section within 5 minutes for the scenario of amniotic fluid embolism). Seventy-four obstetric teams from 12 hospitals in the intervention group underwent teamwork training between November 2009 and July 2010. The teamwork performance in the training group was significantly better in comparison to the nontraining group (median CTS score: 7.5 versus 6.0, respectively; P = 0.014). The use of the predefined obstetric procedures for the two clinical scenarios was also significantly more frequent in the training group compared with the nontraining group (83 versus 46%, respectively; P = 0.009). Team performance and medical technical skills may be significantly improved after multiprofessional obstetric team training in a medical simulation centre. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An

  20. The content of the message matters: The differential effects of promotive and prohibitive team voice on team productivity and safety performance gains.

    PubMed

    Li, Alex Ning; Liao, Hui; Tangirala, Subrahmaniam; Firth, Brady M

    2017-08-01

    We propose that it is important to take the content of team voice into account when examining its impact on team processes and outcomes. Drawing on regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997), we argue that promotive team voice and prohibitive team voice help teams achieve distinct collective outcomes-that is, team productivity performance gains and team safety performance gains, respectively. Further, we identify mechanisms through which promotive and prohibitive team voices uniquely influence team outcomes as well as boundary conditions for such influences. In data collected from 88 production teams, we found that promotive team voice had a positive association with team productivity performance gains. By contrast, prohibitive team voice had a positive association with team safety performance gains. The relationship between promotive team voice and team productivity performance gains was mediated by team innovation, and the relationship between prohibitive team voice and team safety performance gains was mediated by team monitoring. In addition, the indirect effect of prohibitive team voice on team safety performance gains via team monitoring was stronger when prior team safety performance was lower. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Assessing Team Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Susan; Rottier, Jerry

    Interdisciplinary middle school level teams capitalize on the idea that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Administrators and team members can maximize the advantages of teamwork using team assessments to increase the benefits for students, teachers, and the school environment. Assessing team performance can lead to high performing…

  2. Student Teams and Achievement Divisions: Effects on Academic Performance, Mutual Attraction, and Attitudes. Report No. 233.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.

    Two instructional techniques, Teams-Games-Tournament (TGT), and Student Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD), contain a team component and a comparison-among-equals component. To separate the effects of these two components on academic performance, mutual attraction, and student attitudes, a 2 x 2 factorial design was used, varying reward structure…

  3. The power of "we": effects of psychological collectivism on team performance over time.

    PubMed

    Dierdorff, Erich C; Bell, Suzanne T; Belohlav, James A

    2011-03-01

    We examined the influences of different facets of psychological collectivism (Preference, Reliance, Concern, Norm Acceptance, and Goal Priority) on team functioning at 3 different performance depictions: initial team performance, end-state team performance, and team performance change over time. We also tested the extent to which team-member exchange moderated the relationships between facets of psychological collectivism and performance change over time. Results from multilevel growth modeling of 66 teams (N = 264) engaged in a business simulation revealed differential effects across facets of psychological collectivism and across different performance measurements. Whereas facets concerned with affiliation (Preference and Concern) were positively related to initial team performance, reliance was negatively related to initial team performance. Goal Priority was a strong predictor of end-state performance. Team-member exchange moderated the relationship between performance change and 3 of the 5 facets of psychological collectivism (Preference, Reliance, Norm Acceptance). Implications for team composition and team training are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. [Are we all on the same temporal page? The moderating effects of temporal team cognition on the polychronicity diversity–team performance relationship].

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Susan; Nadkarni, Sucheta

    2014-05-01

    Integrating research on polychronicity, team diversity, and team cognition, we hypothesized that shared temporal cognition (overlapping knowledge) and temporal transactive memory systems (differentiated knowledge) would moderate the effects of polychronicity diversity on team performance. Results from 71 teams in an Indian organization revealed opposing moderating effects in that shared temporal cognition attenuated, but temporal transactive memory systems amplified, the negative effects of polychronicity diversity on team performance. Shared temporal cognition also exerted a strong, positive effect on team performance. Study results provide support for the continued examination of polychronicity diversity and temporal team cognition. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Trust and team performance: A meta-analysis of main effects, moderators, and covariates.

    PubMed

    De Jong, Bart A; Dirks, Kurt T; Gillespie, Nicole

    2016-08-01

    Cumulating evidence from 112 independent studies (N = 7,763 teams), we meta-analytically examine the fundamental questions of whether intrateam trust is positively related to team performance, and the conditions under which it is particularly important. We address these questions by analyzing the overall trust-performance relationship, assessing the robustness of this relationship by controlling for other relevant predictors and covariates, and examining how the strength of this relationship varies as a function of several moderating factors. Our findings confirm that intrateam trust is positively related to team performance, and has an above-average impact (ρ = .30). The covariate analyses show that this relationship holds after controlling for team trust in leader and past team performance, and across dimensions of trust (i.e., cognitive and affective). The moderator analyses indicate that the trust-performance relationship is contingent upon the level of task interdependence, authority differentiation, and skill differentiation in teams. Finally, we conducted preliminary analyses on several emerging issues in the literature regarding the conceptualization and measurement of trust and team performance (i.e., referent of intrateam trust, dimension of performance, performance objectivity). Together, our findings contribute to the literature by helping to (a) integrate the field of intrateam trust research, (b) resolve mixed findings regarding the trust-performance relationship, (c) overcome scholarly skepticism regarding the main effect of trust on team performance, and (d) identify the conditions under which trust is most important for team performance. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Performance and retention of professional employees who work in teams: the effects of commitment and support.

    PubMed

    Bishop, J W

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of support and commitment on job performance and turnover intentions of professionals working in a team environment. As hypothesized, the results indicated that job performance was influenced positively by both professional and team commitment as well as by perceived organizational and team support. Intention to quit the organization went down as organizational support and commitment went up, and intention to leave the profession similarly was related to team support and commitment Interestingly, professional commitment had a deleterious effect on intention to quit the organization, whereas organizational support had a positive effect on professional commitment.

  7. The effects of extended work under sleep deprivation conditions on team-based performance.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, June J; Vander Wood, Melissa A; O'Connell, Kristina L

    2011-07-01

    Teamwork is becoming increasingly common in today's workplaces; however, little research has examined how well teams perform under sleep deprivation conditions. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of extended work under sleep deprivation conditions on team performance. A total of 24 participants were sleep deprived for 30 h and completed 16 h of sustained operations during the last portion of the sleep deprivation period. The participants completed the Wombat, a complex task including vigilance and cognitive components, with a partner in four 24-min testing sessions during the sustained operations period. The results indicated that team performance increased during the work period while, within each testing session, team performance on vigilance tasks remained stable and overall performance decreased. The current results suggest that performance on two-person teams results in improved performance but does not fully counteract the decreases in performance within each work period. Performance in two-person teams increased across an extended work shift under sleep deprivation conditions. However, vigilance performance remained stable while overall performance decreased when examining performance in 8-min segments. These results suggest that averaging team-based performance over a longer testing period may mask the negative effects of sleep deprivation. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Performance in two-person teams increased across an extended work shift under sleep deprivation conditions. However, vigilance performance remained stable while overall performance decreased when examining performance in 8-min segments. These results suggest that averaging team-based performance over a longer testing period may mask the negative effects of sleep deprivation.

  8. The effects of intrapersonal, intragroup, and intergroup conflict on team performance effectiveness and work satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Cox, Kathleen B

    2003-01-01

    Although numerous studies have focused on conflict management, few have considered the effects of unit technology and intrapersonal, intragroup, and intergroup conflict on team performance effectiveness and work satisfaction. The model was tested using a nonexperimental design. Path analysis using multiple regression was used to test the model. The nonrandom sample consisted of 141 nurses employed on 13 inpatient units at a state-supported, 597-bed academic medical center in a southeastern city. Findings indicated that intrapersonal conflict had a direct negative impact on intragroup conflict and work satisfaction. Intragroup conflict had direct negative effects on work satisfaction and team performance effectiveness. Unit technology had a direct negative impact on work satisfaction. Findings have implications for administrators to implement strategies to decrease a stressful work environment and increase team-building activities.

  9. Encounter Preparedness, Satisfaction, and Performance Effects of Influence in Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) Teams.

    PubMed

    Pisansky, Andrew J; Wholey, Douglas R; Cain, Cindy; Zhu, Xi

    2017-07-01

    Assertive community treatment (ACT) teams are linked to high quality outcomes for individuals with severe mental illness. This paper tests arguments that influence shared between team members is associated with better encounter preparedness, higher work satisfaction, and improved performance in ACT teams. Influence is conceptualized in three ways: the average level according to team members, the team's evaluation of the dispersion of team member influence, and as the person-organization fit of individual perception of empowerment. The study design is a retrospective observational design using survey data from a longitudinal study of 26 ACT teams (approximately 275 team members total) over 18 months. This study finds that average team influence and person-organization fit are positively correlated with encounter preparedness and satisfaction. Dispersion of influence was not significantly correlated with study outcomes. Influence in ACT teams has multiple dimensions, each with differential effects on team outcomes. These findings provide guidance as to how one might encourage equal and substantive contribution from ACT team members.

  10. The Mediating Effect of Team-Level Knowledge Creation on Organizational Procedural Justice and Team Performance Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Ingu; Song, Ji Hoon; Kim, Woocheol

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how organizational procedural justice affects team performance through team-level knowledge creation practices and the extent to which these practices mediate the association between organizational procedural justice and team performance. The target samples were drawn from six organizations in Korea. A total of 348 cases were…

  11. The Mediating Effect of Team-Level Knowledge Creation on Organizational Procedural Justice and Team Performance Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Ingu; Song, Ji Hoon; Kim, Woocheol

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how organizational procedural justice affects team performance through team-level knowledge creation practices and the extent to which these practices mediate the association between organizational procedural justice and team performance. The target samples were drawn from six organizations in Korea. A total of 348 cases were…

  12. The Effect of Team Training Strategies on Team Mental Model Formation and Team Performance under Routine and Non-Routine Environmental Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Katherine L.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined how the type of training a team receives (team coordination training vs. cross-training) influences the type of team mental model structures that form and how those mental models in turn impact team performance under different environmental condition (routine vs. non-routine). Three-hundred and fifty-two undergraduate…

  13. The Effect of Team Training Strategies on Team Mental Model Formation and Team Performance under Routine and Non-Routine Environmental Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Katherine L.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined how the type of training a team receives (team coordination training vs. cross-training) influences the type of team mental model structures that form and how those mental models in turn impact team performance under different environmental condition (routine vs. non-routine). Three-hundred and fifty-two undergraduate…

  14. Do team processes really have an effect on clinical performance? A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Schmutz, J; Manser, T

    2013-04-01

    There is a growing literature on the relationship between team processes and clinical performance. The purpose of this review is to summarize these articles and examine the impact of team process behaviours on clinical performance. We conducted a literature search in five major databases. Inclusion criteria were: English peer-reviewed papers published between January 2001 and May 2012, which showed or tried to show (i) a statistical relationship of a team process variable and clinical performance or (ii) an improvement of a performance variable through a team process intervention. Study quality was assessed using predefined quality indicators. For every study, we calculated the relevant effect sizes. We included 28 studies in the review, seven of which were intervention studies. Every study reported at least one significant relationship between team processes or an intervention and performance. Also, some non-significant effects were reported. Most of the reported effect sizes were large or medium. The study quality ranged from medium to high. The studies are highly diverse regarding the specific team process behaviours investigated and also regarding the methods used. However, they suggest that team process behaviours do influence clinical performance and that training results in increased performance. Future research should rely on existing theoretical frameworks, valid, and reliable methods to assess processes such as teamwork or coordination and focus on the development of adequate tools to assess process performance, linking them with outcomes in the clinical setting.

  15. The Power of "We": Effects of Psychological Collectivism on Team Performance over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dierdorff, Erich C.; Bell, Suzanne T.; Belohlav, James A.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the influences of different facets of psychological collectivism (Preference, Reliance, Concern, Norm Acceptance, and Goal Priority) on team functioning at 3 different performance depictions: initial team performance, end-state team performance, and team performance change over time. We also tested the extent to which team-member…

  16. The Power of "We": Effects of Psychological Collectivism on Team Performance over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dierdorff, Erich C.; Bell, Suzanne T.; Belohlav, James A.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the influences of different facets of psychological collectivism (Preference, Reliance, Concern, Norm Acceptance, and Goal Priority) on team functioning at 3 different performance depictions: initial team performance, end-state team performance, and team performance change over time. We also tested the extent to which team-member…

  17. Effects of chemical protective equipment on team process performance in small unit rescue operations.

    PubMed

    Grugle, Nancy L; Kleiner, Brian M

    2007-09-01

    In the event of a nuclear, biological, or chemical terrorist attack against civilians, both military and civilian emergency response teams must be able to respond and operate efficiently while wearing protective equipment. Chemical protective equipment protects the user by providing a barrier between the individual and hazardous environment. Unfortunately, the same equipment that is designed to support the user can potentially cause heat stress, reduced task efficiency, and reduced range-of-motion. Targeted Acceptable Responses to Generated Events of Tasks (TARGETS), an event-based team performance measurement methodology was used to investigate the effects of Mission Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP) on the behavioral processes underlying team performance during simulated rescue tasks. In addition, this study determined which team processes were related to team performance outcomes. Results of six primary analyses indicated that team process performance was not degraded by MOPP 4 on any rescue task and that the team processes critical for successful task performance are task-dependent. This article discusses the implications of these results with respect to the study design and the limitations of using an event-based team performance measurement methodology.

  18. Game location and team quality effects on performance profiles in professional soccer.

    PubMed

    Lago-Peñas, Carlos; Lago-Ballesteros, Joaquin

    2011-01-01

    Home advantage in team sports has an important role in determining the outcome of a game. The aim of the present study was to identify the soccer game- related statistics that best discriminate home and visiting teams according to the team quality. The sample included all 380 games of the Spanish professional men's league. The independent variables were game location (home or away) and the team quality. Teams were classified into four groups according to their final ranking at the end of the league. The game-related statistics registered were divided into three groups: (i) variables related to goals scored; (ii) variables related to offense and (iii) variables related to defense. A univariate (t-test and Mann-Whitney U) and multivariate (discriminant analysis) analysis of data was done. Results showed that home teams have significantly higher means for goal scored, total shots, shots on goal, attacking moves, box moves, crosses, offsides committed, assists, passes made, successful passes, dribbles made, successful dribbles, ball possession, and gains of possession, while visiting teams presented higher means for losses of possession and yellow cards. In addition, the findings of the current study confirm that game location and team quality are important in determining technical and tactical performances in matches. Teams described as superior and those described as inferior did not experience the same home advantage. Future research should consider the influence of other confounding variables such as weather conditions, game status and team form. Key pointsHome teams have significantly higher figures for attack indicators probably due to facilities familiarity and crowd effects.The teams' game-related statistics profile varied according to game location and team quality.Teams described as superior and those described as inferior did not experience the same home advantage.

  19. The Effect of Reported Head Injury on Team Performance and Partner Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-17

    the simulation in the DDD task. 9 One possible explanation for not finding significant negative effects of prior head injury on team...differences in evaluation. Conclusions In conclusion, the present study failed to find negative effects of working with a partner with a...USAARL Report No. 2015-06 The Effect of Reported Head Injury on Team Performance and Partner Evaluation By Thomas W. Britt1 Stephanie

  20. The Development of Team Trust over Time and Its Effect on Performance When Using Michaelsen's Team-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preast, Vanessa A.

    2012-01-01

    Proponents of Michaelsen's Team-Based Learning (TBL) have claimed this teaching method quickly produces highly effective teams which are characterized by high trust among team members. Presumably, the high trust boosts performance because members feel less inhibited during discussions involving sharing personal views and challenging…

  1. The Development of Team Trust over Time and Its Effect on Performance When Using Michaelsen's Team-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preast, Vanessa A.

    2012-01-01

    Proponents of Michaelsen's Team-Based Learning (TBL) have claimed this teaching method quickly produces highly effective teams which are characterized by high trust among team members. Presumably, the high trust boosts performance because members feel less inhibited during discussions involving sharing personal views and challenging…

  2. Rudeness and Medical Team Performance.

    PubMed

    Riskin, Arieh; Erez, Amir; Foulk, Trevor A; Riskin-Geuz, Kinneret S; Ziv, Amitai; Sela, Rina; Pessach-Gelblum, Liat; Bamberger, Peter A

    2017-02-01

    Rudeness is routinely experienced by medical teams. We sought to explore the impact of rudeness on medical teams' performance and test interventions that might mitigate its negative consequences. Thirty-nine NICU teams participated in a training workshop including simulations of acute care of term and preterm newborns. In each workshop, 2 teams were randomly assigned to either an exposure to rudeness (in which the comments of the patient's mother included rude statements completely unrelated to the teams' performance) or control (neutral comments) condition, and 2 additional teams were assigned to rudeness with either a preventative (cognitive bias modification [CBM]) or therapeutic (narrative) intervention. Simulation sessions were evaluated by 2 independent judges, blind to team exposure, who used structured questionnaires to assess team performance. Rudeness had adverse consequences not only on diagnostic and intervention parameters (mean therapeutic score 3.81 ± 0.36 vs 4.31 ± 0.35 in controls, P < .01), but also on team processes (such as information and workload sharing, helping and communication) central to patient care (mean teamwork score 4.04 ± 0.34 vs 4.43 ± 0.37, P < .05). CBM mitigated most of these adverse effects of rudeness, but the postexposure narrative intervention had no significant effect. Rudeness has robust, deleterious effects on the performance of medical teams. Moreover, exposure to rudeness debilitated the very collaborative mechanisms recognized as essential for patient care and safety. Interventions focusing on teaching medical professionals to implicitly avoid cognitive distraction such as CBM may offer a means to mitigate the adverse consequences of behaviors that, unfortunately, cannot be prevented. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Short-Term Effects of Midseason Coach Turnover on Team Performance in Soccer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balduck, Anne-Line; Buelens, Marc; Philippaerts, Renaat

    2010-01-01

    The present study addressed the issue of short-term performance effects of midseason coach turnover in soccer. The goal of this study was to examine this effect on subsequent short-term team performance. The purposes of this study were to (a) examine whether midseason coach turnover improved results in the short term, and (b) examine how team…

  4. Short-Term Effects of Midseason Coach Turnover on Team Performance in Soccer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balduck, Anne-Line; Buelens, Marc; Philippaerts, Renaat

    2010-01-01

    The present study addressed the issue of short-term performance effects of midseason coach turnover in soccer. The goal of this study was to examine this effect on subsequent short-term team performance. The purposes of this study were to (a) examine whether midseason coach turnover improved results in the short term, and (b) examine how team…

  5. On teams, teamwork, and team performance: discoveries and developments.

    PubMed

    Salas, Eduardo; Cooke, Nancy J; Rosen, Michael A

    2008-06-01

    We highlight some of the key discoveries and developments in the area of team performance over the past 50 years, especially as reflected in the pages of Human Factors. Teams increasingly have become a way of life in many organizations, and research has kept up with the pace. We have characterized progress in the field in terms of eight discoveries and five challenges. Discoveries pertain to the importance of shared cognition, the measurement of shared cognition, advances in team training, the use of synthetic task environments for research, factors influencing team effectiveness, models of team effectiveness, a multidisciplinary perspective, and training and technological interventions designed to improve team effectiveness. Challenges that are faced in the coming decades include an increased emphasis on team cognition; reconfigurable, adaptive teams; multicultural influences; and the need for naturalistic study and better measurement. Work in human factors has contributed significantly to the science and practice of teams, teamwork, and team performance. Future work must keep pace with the increasing use of teams in organizations. The science of teams contributes to team effectiveness in the same way that the science of individual performance contributes to individual effectiveness.

  6. Team performance in networked supervisory control of unmanned air vehicles: effects of automation, working memory, and communication content.

    PubMed

    McKendrick, Ryan; Shaw, Tyler; de Visser, Ewart; Saqer, Haneen; Kidwell, Brian; Parasuraman, Raja

    2014-05-01

    Assess team performance within a net-worked supervisory control setting while manipulating automated decision aids and monitoring team communication and working memory ability. Networked systems such as multi-unmanned air vehicle (UAV) supervision have complex properties that make prediction of human-system performance difficult. Automated decision aid can provide valuable information to operators, individual abilities can limit or facilitate team performance, and team communication patterns can alter how effectively individuals work together. We hypothesized that reliable automation, higher working memory capacity, and increased communication rates of task-relevant information would offset performance decrements attributed to high task load. Two-person teams performed a simulated air defense task with two levels of task load and three levels of automated aid reliability. Teams communicated and received decision aid messages via chat window text messages. Task Load x Automation effects were significant across all performance measures. Reliable automation limited the decline in team performance with increasing task load. Average team spatial working memory was a stronger predictor than other measures of team working memory. Frequency of team rapport and enemy location communications positively related to team performance, and word count was negatively related to team performance. Reliable decision aiding mitigated team performance decline during increased task load during multi-UAV supervisory control. Team spatial working memory, communication of spatial information, and team rapport predicted team success. An automated decision aid can improve team performance under high task load. Assessment of spatial working memory and the communication of task-relevant information can help in operator and team selection in supervisory control systems.

  7. Taking the reins: the effects of new leader status and leadership style on team performance.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Stephen J

    2011-05-01

    New leaders face a challenging task when they take charge of their teams. They have to determine how best to guide the work process, and they must understand how their behaviors will affect the members of their team. This research examines how a newly assigned team leader's status moderates subordinates' reactions to different leadership styles to affect assessments of the leader's self-confidence and effectiveness, and how this impacts team performance. Across 2 experimental studies, results demonstrate that low-status leaders are rated as more effective when they use a directive style, whereas high-status leaders are viewed as more effective when they use a participative style, and this relationship is mediated by perceptions of self-confidence. In addition, teams whose leaders are viewed more favorably perform better on a complex group task. These findings imply that low-status individuals are able to enhance their level of personal power by drawing on whatever positional power they hold, whereas high-status individuals are better off relying solely on their personal power to influence others. This research also provides a clear demonstration that assessments of new leaders' behaviors are subject to an appraisal that is clouded by observers' status perceptions and attributions.

  8. Pay Dispersion and Performance in Teams

    PubMed Central

    Bucciol, Alessandro; Foss, Nicolai J.; Piovesan, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Extant research offers conflicting predictions about the effect of pay dispersion on team performance. We collected a unique dataset from the Italian soccer league to study the effect of intra-firm pay dispersion on team performance, under different definitions of what constitutes a “team”. This peculiarity of our dataset can explain the conflicting evidence. Indeed, we also find positive, null, and negative effects of pay dispersion on team performance, using the same data but different definitions of team. Our results show that when the team is considered to consist of only the members who directly contribute to the outcome, high pay dispersion has a detrimental impact on team performance. Enlarging the definition of the team causes this effect to disappear or even change direction. Finally, we find that the detrimental effect of pay dispersion is due to worse individual performance, rather than a reduction of team cooperation. PMID:25397615

  9. Team Leader Structuring for Team Effectiveness and Team Learning in Command-and-Control Teams.

    PubMed

    van der Haar, Selma; Koeslag-Kreunen, Mieke; Euwe, Eline; Segers, Mien

    2017-04-01

    Due to their crucial and highly consequential task, it is of utmost importance to understand the levers leading to effectiveness of multidisciplinary emergency management command-and-control (EMCC) teams. We argue that the formal EMCC team leader needs to initiate structure in the team meetings to support organizing the work as well as facilitate team learning, especially the team learning process of constructive conflict. In a sample of 17 EMCC teams performing a realistic EMCC exercise, including one or two team meetings (28 in sum), we coded the team leader's verbal structuring behaviors (1,704 events), rated constructive conflict by external experts, and rated team effectiveness by field experts. Results show that leaders of effective teams use structuring behaviors more often (except asking procedural questions) but decreasingly over time. They support constructive conflict by clarifying and by making summaries that conclude in a command or decision in a decreasing frequency over time.

  10. Team Leader Structuring for Team Effectiveness and Team Learning in Command-and-Control Teams

    PubMed Central

    van der Haar, Selma; Koeslag-Kreunen, Mieke; Euwe, Eline; Segers, Mien

    2017-01-01

    Due to their crucial and highly consequential task, it is of utmost importance to understand the levers leading to effectiveness of multidisciplinary emergency management command-and-control (EMCC) teams. We argue that the formal EMCC team leader needs to initiate structure in the team meetings to support organizing the work as well as facilitate team learning, especially the team learning process of constructive conflict. In a sample of 17 EMCC teams performing a realistic EMCC exercise, including one or two team meetings (28 in sum), we coded the team leader’s verbal structuring behaviors (1,704 events), rated constructive conflict by external experts, and rated team effectiveness by field experts. Results show that leaders of effective teams use structuring behaviors more often (except asking procedural questions) but decreasingly over time. They support constructive conflict by clarifying and by making summaries that conclude in a command or decision in a decreasing frequency over time. PMID:28490856

  11. Effectiveness of quality-control aids in verifying K-9-team explosive detection performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallowell, Susan F.; Fischer, Douglas S.; Brasher, Jeffrey D.; Malone, Robert L.; Gresham, Garold L.; Rae, Cathy

    1997-02-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and supporting agencies conducted a developmental test and evaluation (DTE) to determine if quality control aids (QCAs) could be developed that would provide effective surrogates to actual explosives used for training and testing K-9 explosives detection teams. Non-detonable surrogates are required to alleviate logistics and contamination issues with explosives used sa training aids. Comparative K-9 team detection performance for explosives used as training aids and QCAs configurations of each explosive type were evaluated to determine the optimal configuration for the QCA configuration of each explosive type were evaluated to determine the optimal configuration for the QCAs. The configurations were a paper patch impregnated with a solution of the explosive, a cloth pouch filed with small amounts of solid explosive, and the non-hazardous explosive for security training and testing material. The DTE was conducted at Lackland Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas, where the K-9 teams undergo initial training. Six FAA certified operational teams participated. All explosives and QCAs were presented to the K-9 teams using a 10 scent box protocol. The results show that K-9 team as are more sensitive to explosives than the candidate QCAs. More importantly, it was discovered that the explosives at Lackland AFB are cross-contaminated, meaning that explosives possessed volatile artifacts from other explosives. There are two potential hypotheses explaining why the dogs did not detect the QCAs. First, the cross-contamination of Lackland training explosives may mean that K-9 teams are only trained to detect the explosives with the most volatile chemical signatures. Alternatively, the QCA configurations may have been below the trained detection threshold of the K-9s. It is recommended that K-9 teams train on uncontaminated odors from properly designed QCAs to ensure that dogs respond to the appropriate explosive components, and not some

  12. Effect of CRM team leader training on team performance and leadership behavior in simulated cardiac arrest scenarios: a prospective, randomized, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Fernandez Castelao, Ezequiel; Boos, Margarete; Ringer, Christiane; Eich, Christoph; Russo, Sebastian G

    2015-07-24

    Effective team leadership in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is well recognized as a crucial factor influencing performance. Generally, leadership training focuses on task requirements for leading as well as non-leading team members. We provided crisis resource management (CRM) training only for designated team leaders of advanced life support (ALS) trained teams. This study assessed the impact of the CRM team leader training on CPR performance and team leader verbalization. Forty-five teams of four members each were randomly assigned to one of two study groups: CRM team leader training (CRM-TL) and additional ALS-training (ALS add-on). After an initial lecture and three ALS skill training tutorials (basic life support, airway management and rhythm recognition/defibrillation) of 90-min each, one member of each team was randomly assigned to act as the team leader in the upcoming CPR simulation. Team leaders of the CRM-TL groups attended a 90-min CRM-TL training. All other participants received an additional 90-min ALS skill training. A simulated CPR scenario was videotaped and analyzed regarding no-flow time (NFT) percentage, adherence to the European Resuscitation Council 2010 ALS algorithm (ADH), and type and rate of team leader verbalizations (TLV). CRM-TL teams showed shorter, albeit statistically insignificant, NFT rates compared to ALS-Add teams (mean difference 1.34 (95% CI -2.5, 5.2), p = 0.48). ADH scores in the CRM-TL group were significantly higher (difference -6.4 (95% CI -10.3, -2.4), p = 0.002). Significantly higher TLV proportions were found for the CRM-TL group: direct orders (difference -1.82 (95% CI -2.4, -1.2), p < 0.001); undirected orders (difference -1.82 (95% CI -2.8, -0.9), p < 0.001); planning (difference -0.27 (95% CI -0.5, -0.05) p = 0.018) and task assignments (difference -0.09 (95% CI -0.2, -0.01), p = 0.023). Training only the designated team leaders in CRM improves performance of the entire team, in

  13. Computer-assisted communication and team decision-making performance: the moderating effect of openness to experience.

    PubMed

    Colquitt, Jason A; Hollenbeck, John R; Ilgen, Daniel R; LePine, Jeffrey A; Sheppard, Lori

    2002-04-01

    This study examined the effects of computer-assisted communication on team decision-making performance as a function of the team's openness to experience. Seventy-nine teams performing a multiple-cue probability learning task were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental conditions: (a) verbal communication or (b) computer-assisted communication (which combined verbal and computerized communication). The results indicated that access to computer-assisted communication improved the decision-making performance of teams, but only when the teams were high in openness to experience. This effect was observed using both global openness and more specific openness facets, as well as a variety of team-level aggregation strategies. Moreover, the beneficial effects of openness in computer-assisted conditions were mediated by the efficiency with which teams integrated verbal and computerized forms of communication.

  14. Effects of team-based learning on perceived teamwork and academic performance in a health assessment subject.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyung-Ran; Kim, Chun-Ja; Park, Jee-Won; Park, Eunyoung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of team-based learning (a well-recognized learning and teaching strategy), applied in a health assessment subject, on nursing students' perceived teamwork (team-efficacy and team skills) and academic performance (individual and team readiness assurance tests, and examination scores). A prospective, one-group, pre- and post-test design enrolled a convenience sample of 74 second-year nursing students at a university in Suwon, Korea. Team-based learning was applied in a 2-credit health assessment subject over a 16-week semester. All students received written material one week before each class for readiness preparation. After administering individual- and team-readiness assurance tests consecutively, the subject instructor gave immediate feedback and delivered a mini-lecture to the students. Finally, students carried out skill based application exercises. The findings showed significant improvements in the mean scores of students' perceived teamwork after the introduction of team-based learning. In addition, team-efficacy was associated with team-adaptability skills and team-interpersonal skills. Regarding academic performance, team readiness assurance tests were significantly higher than individual readiness assurance tests over time. Individual readiness assurance tests were significantly related with examination scores, while team readiness assurance tests were correlated with team-efficacy and team-interpersonal skills. The application of team-based learning in a health assessment subject can enhance students' perceived teamwork and academic performance. This finding suggests that team-based learning may be an effective learning and teaching strategy for improving team-work of nursing students, who need to collaborate and effectively communicate with health care providers to improve patients' health.

  15. The Effects of Programmed Culture Training Upon the Performance of Volunteer Medical Teams in Central America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Gordon E.; And Others

    This study compares the performance of volunteer medical teams who received a programmed culture assimilator test with teams who did not receive the assimilator. All team members, citizens of the United States, worked for three-week periods in Honduras and Guatemala and were rated on their success in conducting clinics and managing community…

  16. Embracing transformational leadership: team values and the impact of leader behavior on team performance.

    PubMed

    Schaubroeck, John; Lam, Simon S K; Cha, Sandra E

    2007-07-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between transformational leadership behavior and group performance in 218 financial services teams that were branches of a bank in Hong Kong and the United States. Transformational leadership influenced team performance through the mediating effect of team potency. The effect of transformational leadership on team potency was moderated by team power distance and team collectivism, such that higher power distance teams and more collectivistic teams exhibited stronger positive effects of transformational leadership on team potency. The model was supported by data in both Hong Kong and the United States, which suggests a convergence in how teams function in the East and West and highlights the importance of team values.

  17. Making Teamwork Work: Team Knowledge for Team Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Guchait, Priyanko; Lei, Puiwa; Tews, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the impact of two types of team knowledge on team effectiveness. The study assessed the impact of taskwork knowledge and teamwork knowledge on team satisfaction and performance. A longitudinal study was conducted with 27 service-management teams involving 178 students in a real-life restaurant setting. Teamwork knowledge was found to impact both team outcomes. Furthermore, team learning behavior was found to mediate the relationships between teamwork knowledge and team outcomes. Educators and managers should therefore ensure these types of knowledge are developed in teams along with learning behavior for maximum effectiveness.

  18. Relationships between cohesion, collective efficacy and performance in professional basketball teams: an examination of mediating effects.

    PubMed

    Heuzé, Jean-Philippe; Raimbault, Nicolas; Fontayne, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine mediating effects in the relationships between cohesion, collective efficacy and performance in professional basketball teams. A secondary aim was to examine the correlates of collective efficacy in a professional sport. A total of 154 French and foreign professional players completed French or English versions of questionnaires about cohesion and collective efficacy. Two composite measures of individual performance were used (pre- and post-performance). Individual-level analyses were performed. Regression analyses supported two mediating relationships with collective efficacy as a mediator of the pre-performance - Group integration-task relationship, and Group integration-task as a mediator of the pre-performance - collective efficacy relationship. Statistical analyses indicated that neither Group integration-task nor collective efficacy was a better mediator in the relationship between pre-performance and the other group variables. Results also revealed positive relationships between three dimensions of cohesion (i.e. Individual attractions to the group-task, Group integration-task, Group integration-social) and collective efficacy. These findings suggest that in professional basketball teams, staff members should look after athletes who perform at a lower or below their usual level because their performances might lead them into a downward cohesion - collective efficacy spiral. Staff members should also develop a high quality of group functioning, both on and off the basketball court, given its relationship with collective efficacy.

  19. Laying the foundation for successful team performance trajectories: The roles of team charters and performance strategies.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, John E; Rapp, Tammy L

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the influences of team charters and performance strategies on the performance trajectories of 32 teams of master's of business administration students competing in a business strategy simulation over time. The authors extended existing theory on team development by demonstrating that devoting time to laying a foundation for both teamwork (i.e., team charters) and taskwork (performance strategies) can pay dividends in terms of more effective team performance over time. Using random coefficients growth modeling techniques, they found that teams with high-quality performance strategies outperformed teams with poorer quality strategies. However, a significant interaction between quality of the charters of teams and their performance strategies was found, such that the highest sustained performances were exhibited by teams that were high on both features. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. The Effects of a Team Charter on Student Team Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaron, Joshua R.; McDowell, William C.; Herdman, Andrew O.

    2014-01-01

    The authors contribute to growing evidence that team charters contribute positively to performance by empirically testing their effects on key team process outcomes. Using a sample of business students in a team-based task requiring significant cooperative and coordinative behavior, the authors compare emergent team norms under a variety of team…

  1. The Effects of a Team Charter on Student Team Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaron, Joshua R.; McDowell, William C.; Herdman, Andrew O.

    2014-01-01

    The authors contribute to growing evidence that team charters contribute positively to performance by empirically testing their effects on key team process outcomes. Using a sample of business students in a team-based task requiring significant cooperative and coordinative behavior, the authors compare emergent team norms under a variety of team…

  2. FMEA team performance in health care: A qualitative analysis of team member perceptions.

    PubMed

    Wetterneck, Tosha B; Hundt, Ann Schoofs; Carayon, Pascale

    2009-06-01

    : Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is a commonly used prospective risk assessment approach in health care. Failure mode and effects analyses are time consuming and resource intensive, and team performance is crucial for FMEA success. We evaluate FMEA team members' perceptions of FMEA team performance to provide recommendations to improve the FMEA process in health care organizations. : Structured interviews and survey questionnaires were administered to team members of 2 FMEA teams at a Midwest Hospital to evaluate team member perceptions of FMEA team performance and factors influencing team performance. Interview transcripts underwent content analysis, and descriptive statistics were performed on questionnaire results to identify and quantify FMEA team performance. Theme-based nodes were categorized using the input-process-outcome model for team performance. : Twenty-eight interviews and questionnaires were completed by 24 team members. Four persons participated on both teams. There were significant differences between the 2 teams regarding perceptions of team functioning and overall team effectiveness that are explained by difference in team inputs and process (e.g., leadership/facilitation, team objectives, attendance of process owners). : Evaluation of team members' perceptions of team functioning produced useful insights that can be used to model future team functioning. Guidelines for FMEA team success are provided.

  3. The comparative effect of subjective and objective after-action reviews on team performance on a complex task.

    PubMed

    Villado, Anton J; Arthur, Winfred

    2013-05-01

    The after-action review (AAR; also known as the after-event review or debriefing) is an approach to training based on a review of trainees' performance on recently completed tasks or performance events. Used by the military for decades, nonmilitary organizations' use of AARs has increased dramatically in recent years. Despite the prevalence of AARs, empirical research investigating their effectiveness has been limited. This study sought to investigate the comparative effectiveness of objective AARs (reviews based on an objective recording and playback of trainees' recent performance) and subjective AARs (reviews based on a subjective, memory-based recall of trainees' recent performance). One hundred eighty-eight individuals, participating in 47 4-person teams, were assigned to 1 of 3 AAR conditions and practiced and tested on a cognitively complex performance task. Although there were no significant differences between objective and subjective AAR teams across the 5 training outcomes, AAR teams had higher levels of team performance, team efficacy, openness of communication, and cohesion than did non-AAR teams but no differences in their levels of team declarative knowledge. Our results suggest that AARs are effective at enhancing training outcomes. Furthermore, AARs may not be dependent on objective reviews and therefore may be a viable training intervention when objective reviews are not feasible or possible. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Improving Team Performance for Public Health Preparedness.

    PubMed

    Peck, Megan; Scullard, Mickey; Hedberg, Craig; Moilanen, Emily; Radi, Deborah; Riley, William; Bowen, Paige Anderson; Petersen-Kroeber, Cheryl; Stenberg, Louise; Olson, Debra K

    2017-02-01

    Between May 2010 and September 2011, the University of Minnesota School of Public Health partnered with the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) to assess the effect of exercises on team performance during public health emergency response. Participants were divided into 3 research teams exposed to various levels of intervention. Groups consisted of a control group that was given standard MDH training exercises, a didactic group exposed to team dynamics and communication training, and a treatment group that received the didactic training in addition to a post-exercise facilitated debriefing. To assess differences in team performance, teams engaged in 15 functional exercises. Differences in team performance across the 3 groups were identified, although there was no trend in team performance over time for any of the groups. Groups demonstrated fluctuation in team performance during the study period. Attitudinal surveys demonstrated an increase in workplace satisfaction and confidence in training among all groups throughout the study period. Findings from this research support that a critical link exists between training type and team performance during public health emergency response. This research supports that intentional teamwork training for emergency response workers is essential for effective public health emergency response. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:7-10).

  5. Effective Team Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Male, Mary

    1991-01-01

    The Student Study Team (SST) is described as a California intervention model that encourages effective multidisciplinary team participation. The development, training, operation, and evaluation of such teams are discussed, and implementation recommendations are offered. The article includes a flow chart of the SST process, a meeting competency…

  6. Transactive memory system links work team characteristics and performance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Xue; Hempel, Paul S; Han, Yu-Lan; Tjosvold, Dean

    2007-11-01

    Teamwork and coordination of expertise among team members with different backgrounds are increasingly recognized as important for team effectiveness. Recently, researchers have examined how team members rely on transactive memory system (TMS; D. M. Wegner, 1987) to share their distributed knowledge and expertise. To establish the ecological validity and generality of TMS research findings, this study sampled 104 work teams from a variety of organizational settings in China and examined the relationships between team characteristics, TMS, and team performance. The results suggest that task interdependence, cooperative goal interdependence, and support for innovation are positively related to work teams' TMS and that TMS is related to team performance; moreover, structural equation analysis indicates that TMS mediates the team characteristics-performance links. Findings have implications both for team leaders to manage their work teams effectively and for team members to improve their team performance. (c) 2007 APA

  7. We will be champions: Leaders' confidence in 'us' inspires team members' team confidence and performance.

    PubMed

    Fransen, K; Steffens, N K; Haslam, S A; Vanbeselaere, N; Vande Broek, G; Boen, F

    2016-12-01

    The present research examines the impact of leaders' confidence in their team on the team confidence and performance of their teammates. In an experiment involving newly assembled soccer teams, we manipulated the team confidence expressed by the team leader (high vs neutral vs low) and assessed team members' responses and performance as they unfolded during a competition (i.e., in a first baseline session and a second test session). Our findings pointed to team confidence contagion such that when the leader had expressed high (rather than neutral or low) team confidence, team members perceived their team to be more efficacious and were more confident in the team's ability to win. Moreover, leaders' team confidence affected individual and team performance such that teams led by a highly confident leader performed better than those led by a less confident leader. Finally, the results supported a hypothesized mediational model in showing that the effect of leaders' confidence on team members' team confidence and performance was mediated by the leader's perceived identity leadership and members' team identification. In conclusion, the findings of this experiment suggest that leaders' team confidence can enhance members' team confidence and performance by fostering members' identification with the team. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Relation between social cohesion and team performance in soccer teams.

    PubMed

    Tziner, Aharon; Nicola, Nicola; Rizac, Anis

    2003-02-01

    Investigations of the influence on team performance of team composition, in terms of task-related attributes, e.g., personality traits, cognitive abilities, often assumes this relation to be mediated by the strength (intensity) of the interpersonal relations (social cohesion) among team members. However, there has been little empirical examination of how much social cohesion actually affects team outcomes. This preliminary study sought to examine this issue using soccer teams, which have been held to resemble workplace teams. Perceptions of team cohesion were collected from 198 Israeli soccer players (comprising 36 national league teams) during the week preceding their weekly games. A significant correlation was found between the perceptions of social cohesion and the results of the soccer matches, indicating a link between team social cohesion and team performance. Implications of the results, as well as the study's limitations, are discussed, and avenues for research are suggested.

  9. Quality charters or quality members? A control theory perspective on team charters and team performance.

    PubMed

    Courtright, Stephen H; McCormick, Brian W; Mistry, Sal; Wang, Jiexin

    2017-10-01

    Though prevalent in practice, team charters have only recently received scholarly attention. However, most of this work has been relatively devoid of theory, and consequently, key questions about why and under what conditions team charter quality affects team performance remain unanswered. To address these gaps, we draw on macro organizational control theory to propose that team charter quality serves as a team-level "behavior" control mechanism that builds task cohesion through a structured exercise. We then juxtapose team charter quality with an "input" team control mechanism that influences the emergence of task cohesion more organically: team conscientiousness. Given their redundant effects on task cohesion, we propose that the effects of team charter quality and team conscientiousness on team performance (through task cohesion) are substitutive such that team charter quality primarily impacts team performance for teams that are low (vs. high) on conscientiousness. We test and find support for our hypotheses in a sample of 239 undergraduate self-managing project teams. Our study contributes to the groups and teams literature in the following ways: first, relative to previous studies, we take a more theory-driven approach toward understanding team charters, and in doing so, uncover when and why team charter quality impacts team performance; second, we integrate two normally disparate perspectives on team effectiveness (team development and team selection) to offer a broader perspective on how teams are "built"; and third, we introduce team charter quality as a performance-enhancing mechanism for teams lower on conscientiousness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Physiological compliance and team performance.

    PubMed

    Elkins, Amanda N; Muth, Eric R; Hoover, Adam W; Walker, Alexander D; Carpenter, Thomas L; Switzer, Fred S

    2009-11-01

    Physiological compliance (PC) refers to the correlation between physiological measures of team members over time. The goals of this study were to examine ways of measuring PC in heart rate variability (HRV) data and the relationship between PC and team performance. Teams were tasked with entering both real and simulated rooms and "shooting" individuals with a weapon and identifying individuals without a weapon. The linear correlation and directional agreement PC methods were shown to be the most sensitive to differences in performance, with greater PC being associated with better performance. The correlation method when applied to a measure of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) revealed a significant difference between high and low performers (t[8]=-2.31, p=0.03) and the directional agreement applied to inter-beat-intervals and RSA revealed trend-level differences (t[4.62]=-1.86, p=0.06 and t[8]=-1.68, p=0.07). These results suggest that PC may have merit for predicting team performance.

  11. Teams make it work: how team work engagement mediates between social resources and performance in teams.

    PubMed

    Torrente, Pedro; Salanova, Marisa; Llorens, Susana; Schaufeli, Wilmar B

    2012-02-01

    In this study we analyze the mediating role of team work engagement between team social resources (i.e., supportive team climate, coordination, teamwork), and team performance (i.e., in-role and extra-role performance) as predicted by the Job Demands-Resources Model. Aggregated data of 533 employees nested within 62 teams and 13 organizations were used, whereas team performance was assessed by supervisor ratings. Structural equation modeling revealed that, as expected, team work engagement plays a mediating role between social resources perceived at the team level and team performance as assessed by the supervisor.

  12. When Goal Orientations Collide: Effects of Learning and Performance Orientation on Team Adaptability in Response to Workload Imbalance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Christopher O. L. H.; Webb, Justin W.; Gogus, Celile Itir

    2010-01-01

    The authors draw on resource allocation theory (Kanfer & Ackerman, 1989) to develop hypotheses regarding the conditions under which collective learning and performance orientation have interactive effects and the nature of those effects on teams' ability to adapt to a sudden and dramatic change in workload. Consistent with the theory, results…

  13. When Goal Orientations Collide: Effects of Learning and Performance Orientation on Team Adaptability in Response to Workload Imbalance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Christopher O. L. H.; Webb, Justin W.; Gogus, Celile Itir

    2010-01-01

    The authors draw on resource allocation theory (Kanfer & Ackerman, 1989) to develop hypotheses regarding the conditions under which collective learning and performance orientation have interactive effects and the nature of those effects on teams' ability to adapt to a sudden and dramatic change in workload. Consistent with the theory, results…

  14. The Effect of Communication Strategy and Planning Intervention on the Processes and Performance of Course Material Development Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padmo Putri, Dewi A.

    2012-01-01

    In most open and distance learning institutions, the development of learning materials, whether in print or electronic form, is created by teams consisting of people with different skills. Team communication has a critical influence on the development of team shared mental models (SMMs) as well as team performance. A review of the literature…

  15. The Effect of Communication Strategy and Planning Intervention on the Processes and Performance of Course Material Development Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padmo Putri, Dewi A.

    2012-01-01

    In most open and distance learning institutions, the development of learning materials, whether in print or electronic form, is created by teams consisting of people with different skills. Team communication has a critical influence on the development of team shared mental models (SMMs) as well as team performance. A review of the literature…

  16. Effective Team Performance Under Stress and Normal Conditions: An Experimental Paradigm, Theory and Data for Studying Team Decision Making in Hierarchical Teams with Distributed Expertise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    Fiedler, Claremont- McKenna College, The Claremont Colleges, Claremont, CA. 20. Ilgen, D. R. (1991, March). Team research in the 1990s: Making...Florida University of Illinois Orlando, FL 32816 603 East Daniel Street Champaign, IL 61820 Dr. Paul Lehner Dr. Terence R. Mitchell Dept of Information

  17. Effects of Short Term Camp Periods on Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance Parameters in Ice Hockey National Team Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eler, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted for determining the effects of trainings, applied to athletes during short term camp period, on their aerobic and anaerobic performance. Measurements were made by the participation of 28 volunteer male ice hockey national team players. During the 15-day camp period, 10-minute running and stretching for warming and then…

  18. Team perfectionism and team performance: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Hill, Andrew P; Stoeber, Joachim; Brown, Anna; Appleton, Paul R

    2014-06-01

    Perfectionism is a personality characteristic that has been found to predict sports performance in athletes. To date, however, research has exclusively examined this relationship at an individual level (i.e., athletes' perfectionism predicting their personal performance). The current study extends this research to team sports by examining whether, when manifested at the team level, perfectionism predicts team performance. A sample of 231 competitive rowers from 36 boats completed measures of self-oriented, team-oriented, and team-prescribed perfectionism before competing against one another in a 4-day rowing competition. Strong within-boat similarities in the levels of team members' team-oriented perfectionism supported the existence of collective team-oriented perfectionism at the boat level. Two-level latent growth curve modeling of day-by-day boat performance showed that team-oriented perfectionism positively predicted the position of the boat in midcompetition and the linear improvement in position. The findings suggest that imposing perfectionistic standards on team members may drive teams to greater levels of performance.

  19. The effects of form training on foul-shooting performance in members of a women's college basketball team.

    PubMed Central

    Kladopoulos, C N; McComas, J J

    2001-01-01

    The effects of instruction and feedback in proper form on foul-shooting performance was evaluated in 3 players of a women's NCAA Division II college basketball team. Players showed an increase in percentage of shots made and in correct form compared to baseline shooting without instruction or feedback. All players reached criterion within seven training sessions. The results suggest that training proper form is an effective strategy for improving foul-shooting performance. PMID:11678527

  20. Team and Collective Performance Measurement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    missions with specific as well as general questions. Relationships between the indices have been analyzed by means of structural equation modeling [21... equation modeling with the SIMPLIS command language’. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 1993. [17] Berggren, P. (2000). ‘Situational awareness...2004. TEAM AND COLLECTIVE PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT RTO-TR-HFM-121-Part-II 7 - 15 [16] Jöreskog, K.G. and Sörbom, D. ‘LISREL8: Structural

  1. Physician assistants and nurse practitioners perform effective roles on teams caring for Medicare patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Everett, Christine; Thorpe, Carolyn; Palta, Mari; Carayon, Pascale; Bartels, Christie; Smith, Maureen A

    2013-11-01

    One approach to the patient-centered medical home, particularly for patients with chronic illnesses, is to include physician assistants (PAs) and nurse practitioners (NPs) on primary care teams. Using Medicare claims and electronic health record data from a large physician group, we compared outcomes for two groups of adult Medicare patients with diabetes whose conditions were at various levels of complexity: those whose care teams included PAs or NPs in various roles, and those who received care from physicians only. Outcomes were generally equivalent in thirteen comparisons. In four comparisons, outcomes were superior for the patients receiving care from PAs or NPs, but in three other comparisons the outcomes were superior for patients receiving care from physicians only. Specific roles performed by PAs and NPs were associated with different patterns in the measure of the quality of diabetes care and use of health care services. No role was best for all outcomes. Our findings suggest that patient characteristics, as well as patients' and organizations' goals, should be considered when determining when and how to deploy PAs and NPs on primary care teams. Accordingly, training and policy should continue to support role flexibility for these health professionals.

  2. Team Profiles and Team Performance in a Business Management Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, C.; Delahaye, B.

    1990-01-01

    A study of the effects of team roles on the success of teams in business simulations found, contrary to expectation, that teams analyzing data on the basis of beliefs and values rather than logic were more successful. Implications for use of simulation in management education are discussed. (Author/MSE)

  3. The role of team goal monitoring in the curvilinear relationship between team efficacy and team performance.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Tammy L; Bachrach, Daniel G; Rapp, Adam A; Mullins, Ryan

    2014-09-01

    In this research, we apply a team self-regulatory perspective to build and test theory focusing on the relationships between team efficacy and 2 key team performance criteria: a performance behavior (i.e., team effort) and a performance outcome (i.e., objective team sales). We theorize that rather than having a linear association, the performance benefits of team efficacy reach a point of inflection, reflective of too much of a good thing. Further, in an effort to establish a boundary condition of the inverted-U shaped relationship we predict, we also test the moderating role played by team goal monitoring in the nonmonotonic relationship between team efficacy and team performance. The results from a lagged field test, in which we collect multisource data from 153 technology sales teams, reveal a significant curvilinear association that is moderated by team goal monitoring behavior. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Interactions of team mental models and monitoring behaviors predict team performance in simulated anesthesia inductions.

    PubMed

    Burtscher, Michael J; Kolbe, Michaela; Wacker, Johannes; Manser, Tanja

    2011-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated how two team mental model properties (similarity vs. accuracy) and two forms of monitoring behavior (team vs. systems) interacted to predict team performance in anesthesia. In particular, we were interested in whether the relationship between monitoring behavior and team performance was moderated by team mental model properties. Thirty-one two-person teams consisting of anesthesia resident and anesthesia nurse were videotaped during a simulated anesthesia induction of general anesthesia. Team mental models were assessed with a newly developed measurement tool based on the concept-mapping technique. Monitoring behavior was coded by two organizational psychologists using a structured observation system. Team performance was rated by two expert anesthetists using a performance-checklist. Moderated multiple regression analysis revealed that team mental model similarity moderated the relationship between team monitoring and performance; a higher level of team monitoring in the absence of a similar team mental model had a negative effect on performance. Furthermore, team mental model similarity and accuracy interacted to predict team performance. Our findings provide new insights on factors influencing the relationship between team processes and team performance in health care. When investigating the effectiveness of a specific team coordination behavior, team cognition has to be taken into account. This represents a necessary and compelling extension of the popular process-outcome relationship on which previous teamwork research in health care has focused. Moreover, the current study adds further external validity to the concept of team mental models by highlighting its usefulness in health care. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Fluid Balance in Team Sport Athletes and the Effect of Hypohydration on Cognitive, Technical, and Physical Performance.

    PubMed

    Nuccio, Ryan P; Barnes, Kelly A; Carter, James M; Baker, Lindsay B

    2017-05-15

    Sweat losses in team sports can be significant due to repeated bursts of high-intensity activity, as well as the large body size of athletes, equipment and uniform requirements, and environmental heat stress often present during training and competition. In this paper we aimed to: (1) describe sweat losses and fluid balance changes reported in team sport athletes, (2) review the literature assessing the impact of hypohydration on cognitive, technical, and physical performance in sports-specific studies, (3) briefly review the potential mechanisms by which hypohydration may impact team sport performance, and (4) discuss considerations for future directions. Significant hypohydration (mean body mass loss (BML) >2%) has been reported most consistently in soccer. Although American Football, rugby, basketball, tennis, and ice hockey have reported high sweating rates, fluid balance disturbances have generally been mild (mean BML <2%), suggesting that drinking opportunities were sufficient for most athletes to offset significant fluid losses. The effect of hydration status on team sport performance has been studied mostly in soccer, basketball, cricket, and baseball, with mixed results. Hypohydration typically impaired performance at higher levels of BML (3-4%) and when the method of dehydration involved heat stress. Increased subjective ratings of fatigue and perceived exertion consistently accompanied hypohydration and could explain, in part, the performance impairments reported in some studies. More research is needed to develop valid, reliable, and sensitive sport-specific protocols and should be used in future studies to determine the effects of hypohydration and modifying factors (e.g., age, sex, athlete caliber) on team sport performance.

  6. Effect of oral contraceptive cycle phase on performance in team sport players.

    PubMed

    Rechichi, Claire; Dawson, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether common team sport performance variables (anaerobic power, reactive strength and repeat sprint ability) are affected by acute hormonal fluctuation within a monophasic oral contraceptive (OC) cycle. Ten female team sport athletes completed performance tests at three time points of a single OC cycle, during the consumption phase (CONS), early (WITH1) and late in the withdrawal phase (WITH2). Tests included drop jumps (30cm and 45cm heights), a counter movement jump, a 10s cycle sprint test and a 5x 6s repeated sprint cycle test. Resting endogenous serum oestradiol and progesterone concentrations were also measured. No significant differences were observed between phases for the counter movement jump and cycle tests (total work and peak power). Reactive strength measured from the 30cm drop height was significantly lower during WITH2 (162+/-38cms(-1)) compared to both CONS (177+/-44cms(-1)) and WITH1 (178+/-40cms(-1)) (p<0.05). Reactive strength measured from the 45cm drop height was significantly higher in CONS (178+/-48cms(-1)) compared to both WITH1 and WITH2 (161+/-39cms(-1) and 158+/-29cms(-1), respectively) (p<0.05). Serum oestradiol levels were greater during WITH2 compared to both WITH1 and CONS (p<0.05) but there was no difference in serum progesterone levels. The results demonstrate that for female team sport athletes, only reactive strength varied significantly throughout an OC cycle, possibly due to the action of hormones on neuromuscular timing and the stretch-shortening cycle.

  7. Augmenting team cognition in human-automation teams performing in complex operational environments.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Haydee M; Fiore, Stephen M; Caldwell, Barrett S; Strater, Laura

    2007-05-01

    There is a growing reliance on automation (e.g., intelligent agents, semi-autonomous robotic systems) to effectively execute increasingly cognitively complex tasks. Successful team performance for such tasks has become even more dependent on team cognition, addressing both human-human and human-automation teams. Team cognition can be viewed as the binding mechanism that produces coordinated behavior within experienced teams, emerging from the interplay between each team member's individual cognition and team process behaviors (e.g., coordination, communication). In order to better understand team cognition in human-automation teams, team performance models need to address issues surrounding the effect of human-agent and human-robot interaction on critical team processes such as coordination and communication. Toward this end, we present a preliminary theoretical framework illustrating how the design and implementation of automation technology may influence team cognition and team coordination in complex operational environments. Integrating constructs from organizational and cognitive science, our proposed framework outlines how information exchange and updating between humans and automation technology may affect lower-level (e.g., working memory) and higher-level (e.g., sense making) cognitive processes as well as teams' higher-order "metacognitive" processes (e.g., performance monitoring). Issues surrounding human-automation interaction are discussed and implications are presented within the context of designing automation technology to improve task performance in human-automation teams.

  8. Performance implications of leader briefings and team-interaction training for team adaptation to novel environments.

    PubMed

    Marks, M A; Zaccaro, S J; Mathieu, J E

    2000-12-01

    The authors examined how leader briefings and team-interaction training influence team members' knowledge structures concerning processes related to effective performance in both routine and novel environments. Two-hundred thirty-seven undergraduates from a large mid-Atlantic university formed 79 three-member tank platoon teams and participated in a low-fidelity tank simulation. Team-interaction training, leader briefings, and novelty of performance environment were manipulated. Findings indicated that both leader briefings and team-interaction training affected the development of mental models, which in turn positively influenced team communication processes and team performance. Mental models and communication processes predicted performance more strongly in novel than in routine environments. Implications for the role of team-interaction training, leader briefings, and mental models as mechanisms for team adaptation are discussed.

  9. Effects of Fatigue on Throwing Performance in Experienced Team Handball Players

    PubMed Central

    Nuño, Alberto; van den Tillaar, Roland; Guisado, Rafael; Martín, Ignacio; Martinez, Isidoro; Chirosa, Luis J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of central and peripheral physiological fatigue on throwing accuracy and ball release velocity in team handball. Twenty male subjects (age 24.7 ± 3.9 yrs, body mass 88.5 ± 5.0 kg, body height 1.86 ± 0.05 m, training experience 12.7 ± 3.8 yrs) from one handball team participated in this study. The participants completed four sets of eight laps of a circuit that consisted of specific team handball drills/exercises, with decreasing recovery times between the laps in each set in order to induce physiological fatigue. Duration of the recovery intervals determined the description of the effort made in each set: “light" (80 s recovery between laps), “moderate" (40 s), “hard" (20 s) and “very hard" (10 s). A heart rate, concentration of lactate in blood and the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded. Ball velocity and accuracy were measured after each set and they both decreased during a fatigue protocol. However, accuracy only decreased significantly in the end of the protocol, while ball release was already affected after the first round of the protocol. The results substantiate the initial hypothesis and confirm that both throwing accuracy and ball release velocity decrease significantly as physiological fatigue increases. These variables began to decrease when the fatigue quantification values were high or very high. The findings can be used by coaches to develop training programs to teach players how to identify fatigue thresholds and combat the effects of fatigue through decision-making skills at critical game moments. PMID:28031762

  10. Effects of Fatigue on Throwing Performance in Experienced Team Handball Players.

    PubMed

    Nuño, Alberto; Chirosa, Ignacio J; van den Tillaar, Roland; Guisado, Rafael; Martín, Ignacio; Martinez, Isidoro; Chirosa, Luis J

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of central and peripheral physiological fatigue on throwing accuracy and ball release velocity in team handball. Twenty male subjects (age 24.7 ± 3.9 yrs, body mass 88.5 ± 5.0 kg, body height 1.86 ± 0.05 m, training experience 12.7 ± 3.8 yrs) from one handball team participated in this study. The participants completed four sets of eight laps of a circuit that consisted of specific team handball drills/exercises, with decreasing recovery times between the laps in each set in order to induce physiological fatigue. Duration of the recovery intervals determined the description of the effort made in each set: "light" (80 s recovery between laps), "moderate" (40 s), "hard" (20 s) and "very hard" (10 s). A heart rate, concentration of lactate in blood and the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded. Ball velocity and accuracy were measured after each set and they both decreased during a fatigue protocol. However, accuracy only decreased significantly in the end of the protocol, while ball release was already affected after the first round of the protocol. The results substantiate the initial hypothesis and confirm that both throwing accuracy and ball release velocity decrease significantly as physiological fatigue increases. These variables began to decrease when the fatigue quantification values were high or very high. The findings can be used by coaches to develop training programs to teach players how to identify fatigue thresholds and combat the effects of fatigue through decision-making skills at critical game moments.

  11. Individual and team performance in team-handball: a review.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Herbert; Finkenzeller, Thomas; Würth, Sabine; von Duvillard, Serge P

    2014-12-01

    Team handball is a complex sport game that is determined by the individual performance of each player as well as tactical components and interaction of the team. The aim of this review was to specify the elements of team-handball performance based on scientific studies and practical experience, and to convey perspectives for practical implication. Scientific studies were identified via data bases of PubMed, Web of Knowledge, SPORT Discus, Google Scholar, and Hercules. A total of 56 articles met the inclusion criteria. In addition, we supplemented the review with 13 additional articles, proceedings and book sections. It was found that the specific characteristics of team-handball with frequent intensity changes, team-handball techniques, hard body confrontations, mental skills and social factors specify the determinants of coordination, endurance, strength and cognition. Although we found comprehensive studies examining individual performance in team-handball players of different experience level, sex or age, there is a lack of studies, particularly for team-handball specific training, as well as cognition and social factors. Key PointsThe specific characteristics of team-handball with frequent intensity changes, specific skills, hard body confrontations, mental skills and social factors define the determinants of coordination, endurance, strength and cognition.To increase individual and team performance in team-handball specific training based on these determinants have been suggested.Although there are comprehensive studies examining individual performance in team-handball players of different experience level, sex, or age are published, there is a lack of training studies, particularly for team-handball specific techniques and endurance, as well as cognition and social factors.

  12. Individual and Team Performance in Team-Handball: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Herbert; Finkenzeller, Thomas; Würth, Sabine; von Duvillard, Serge P.

    2014-01-01

    Team handball is a complex sport game that is determined by the individual performance of each player as well as tactical components and interaction of the team. The aim of this review was to specify the elements of team-handball performance based on scientific studies and practical experience, and to convey perspectives for practical implication. Scientific studies were identified via data bases of PubMed, Web of Knowledge, SPORT Discus, Google Scholar, and Hercules. A total of 56 articles met the inclusion criteria. In addition, we supplemented the review with 13 additional articles, proceedings and book sections. It was found that the specific characteristics of team-handball with frequent intensity changes, team-handball techniques, hard body confrontations, mental skills and social factors specify the determinants of coordination, endurance, strength and cognition. Although we found comprehensive studies examining individual performance in team-handball players of different experience level, sex or age, there is a lack of studies, particularly for team-handball specific training, as well as cognition and social factors. Key Points The specific characteristics of team-handball with frequent intensity changes, specific skills, hard body confrontations, mental skills and social factors define the determinants of coordination, endurance, strength and cognition. To increase individual and team performance in team-handball specific training based on these determinants have been suggested. Although there are comprehensive studies examining individual performance in team-handball players of different experience level, sex, or age are published, there is a lack of training studies, particularly for team-handball specific techniques and endurance, as well as cognition and social factors. PMID:25435773

  13. Dietary supplements and team-sport performance.

    PubMed

    Bishop, David

    2010-12-01

    A well designed diet is the foundation upon which optimal training and performance can be developed. However, as long as competitive sports have existed, athletes have attempted to improve their performance by ingesting a variety of substances. This practice has given rise to a multi-billion-dollar industry that aggressively markets its products as performance enhancing, often without objective, scientific evidence to support such claims. While a number of excellent reviews have evaluated the performance-enhancing effects of most dietary supplements, less attention has been paid to the performance-enhancing claims of dietary supplements in the context of team-sport performance. Dietary supplements that enhance some types of athletic performance may not necessarily enhance team-sport performance (and vice versa). Thus, the first aim of this review is to critically evaluate the ergogenic value of the most common dietary supplements used by team-sport athletes. The term dietary supplements will be used in this review and is defined as any product taken by the mouth, in addition to common foods, that has been proposed to have a performance-enhancing effect; this review will only discuss substances that are not currently banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Evidence is emerging to support the performance-enhancing claims of some, but not all, dietary supplements that have been proposed to improve team-sport-related performance. For example, there is good evidence that caffeine can improve single-sprint performance, while caffeine, creatine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have all been demonstrated to improve multiple-sprint performance. The evidence is not so strong for the performance-enhancing benefits of β-alanine or colostrum. Current evidence does not support the ingestion of ribose, branched-chain amino acids or β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, especially in well trained athletes. More research on the performance-enhancing effects of the dietary supplements

  14. Developing a theory of the strategic core of teams: a role composition model of team performance.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Stephen E; Morgeson, Frederick P; Mannor, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Although numerous models of team performance have been articulated over the past 20 years, these models have primarily focused on the individual attribute approach to team composition. The authors utilized a role composition approach, which investigates how the characteristics of a set of role holders impact team effectiveness, to develop a theory of the strategic core of teams. Their theory suggests that certain team roles are most important for team performance and that the characteristics of the role holders in the "core" of the team are more important for overall team performance. This theory was tested in 778 teams drawn from 29 years of major league baseball (1974'-2002). Results demonstrate that although high levels of experience and job-related skill are important predictors of team performance, the relationships between these constructs and team performance are significantly stronger when the characteristics are possessed by core role holders (as opposed to non-core role holders). Further, teams that invest more of their financial resources in these core roles are able to leverage such investments into significantly improved performance. These results have implications for team composition models, as they suggest a new method for considering individual contributions to a team's success that shifts the focus onto core roles. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. The Romance of Learning from Disagreement. The Effect of Cohesiveness and Disagreement on Knowledge Sharing Behavior and Individual Performance Within Teams.

    PubMed

    van Woerkom, Marianne; Sanders, Karin

    2010-03-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of disagreement and cohesiveness on knowledge sharing in teams, and on the performance of individual team members. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: Data were obtained from a survey among 1,354 employees working in 126 teams in 17 organizations. FINDINGS: The results show that cohesiveness has a positive effect on the exchange of advice between team members and on openness for sharing opinions, whereas disagreement has a negative effect on openness for sharing opinions. Furthermore, the exchange of advice in a team has a positive effect on the performance of individual team members and acts as a mediator between cohesiveness and individual performance. IMPLICATIONS: Managers who want to stimulate knowledge sharing processes and performance within work teams may be advised to take measures to prevent disagreement between team members and to enhance team cohesiveness. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: Although some gurus in organizational learning claim that disagreement has a positive effect on group processes such as knowledge sharing and team learning, this study does not support this claim.

  16. Team Assembly Mechanisms Determine Collaboration Network Structure and Team Performance

    PubMed Central

    Guimerà, Roger; Uzzi, Brian; Spiro, Jarrett; Nunes Amaral, Luís A.

    2007-01-01

    Agents in creative enterprises are embedded in networks that inspire, support, and evaluate their work. Here, we investigate how the mechanisms by which creative teams self-assemble determine the structure of these collaboration networks. We propose a model for the self-assembly of creative teams that has its basis in three parameters: team size, the fraction of newcomers in new productions, and the tendency of incumbents to repeat previous collaborations. The model suggests that the emergence of a large connected community of practitioners can be described as a phase transition. We find that team assembly mechanisms determine both the structure of the collaboration network and team performance for teams derived from both artistic and scientific fields. PMID:15860629

  17. Initiating and utilizing shared leadership in teams: The role of leader humility, team proactive personality, and team performance capability.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chia-Yen Chad; Owens, Bradley P; Tesluk, Paul E

    2016-12-01

    The present study was designed to produce novel theoretical insight regarding how leader humility and team member characteristics foster the conditions that promote shared leadership and when shared leadership relates to team effectiveness. Drawing on social information processing theory and adaptive leadership theory, we propose that leader humility facilitates shared leadership by promoting leadership-claiming and leadership-granting interactions among team members. We also apply dominance complementary theory to propose that team proactive personality strengthens the impact of leader humility on shared leadership. Finally, we predict that shared leadership will be most strongly related to team performance when team members have high levels of task-related competence. Using a sample composed of 62 Taiwanese professional work teams, we find support for our proposed hypothesized model. The theoretical and practical implications of these results for team leadership, humility, team composition, and shared leadership are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. The effects of "Prevent Injury and Enhance Performance Program" in a female soccer team.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Cristina; Echegoyen, Soledad; Aoyama, Takeshi

    2017-02-21

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the changes of muscle strength in lower limbs and knee valgus alignment using the Prevent Injury and Enhance Performance Program (PEP program) to prevent ACL injuries in female soccer players during an entire season. A longitudinal and prospective study was done in twenty female soccer players at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, from a senior team. During 24 weeks the training program was applied three times a week as a part of the team workouts. Video analysis of dynamic knee valgus alignment and maximal strength of quadriceps, hamstrings and gastrocnemius were evaluated pre and post training. Quadriceps and hamstring strength increased on the right pelvic limb (p<0.001). In addition the quadriceps/hamstrings ratio decreased from 3.38 to 2.3 in the right side, and from 1.99 to 1.09 in the left side. The mechanics of jump improved in 20% of the female soccer players. Muscle strength in quadriceps and hamstrings increased in right pelvic limb (p<0.001), and the quadriceps/hamstrings ratio decreased from 3.38 to 2.3 in right side and from 1.99 to 1.09 in left side. Although injuries did not decrease during this period no ACL injury was registered. Until now there are no reports about muscle strength and jump technique assessment with the application of the PEP program. The neuromuscular training and muscle balance are important to prevent ACL injuries. We advise that this program is integrated to women ́s soccer training.

  19. Verbal communication improves laparoscopic team performance.

    PubMed

    Shiliang Chang; Waid, Erin; Martinec, Danny V; Bin Zheng; Swanstrom, Lee L

    2008-06-01

    The impact of verbal communication on laparoscopic team performance was examined. A total of 24 dyad teams, comprised of residents, medical students, and office staff, underwent 2 team tasks using a previously validated bench model. Twelve teams (feedback groups) received instant verbal instruction and feedback on their performance from an instructor which was compared with 12 teams (control groups) with minimal or no verbal feedback. Their performances were both video and audio taped for analysis. Surgical backgrounds were similar between feedback and control groups. Teams with more verbal feedback achieved significantly better task performance (P = .002) compared with the control group with less feedback. Impact of verbal feedback was more pronounced for tasks requiring team cooperation (aiming and navigation) than tasks depending on individual skills (knotting). Verbal communication, especially the instructions and feedback from an experienced instructor, improved team efficiency and performance.

  20. Effects of Above Real Time Training (ARTT) On Individual Skills and Contributions to Crew/Team Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Syed Firasat; Khan, M. Javed; Rossi, Marcia J.; Crane, Peter; Guckenberger, Dutch; Bageon, Kellye

    2001-01-01

    Above Real Time Training (ARTT) is the training acquired on a real time simulator when it is modified to present events at a faster pace than normal. The experiments on training of pilots performed by NASA engineers and others have indicated that real time training (RTT) reinforced with ARTT would offer an effective training strategy for such tasks which require significant effort at time and workload management. A study was conducted to find how ARTT and RTT complement each other for training of novice pilot-navigator teams to fly on a required route. In the experiment, each of the participating pilot-navigator teams was required to conduct simulator flights on a prescribed two-legged ground track while maintaining required air speed and altitude. At any instant in a flight, the distance between the actual spatial point location of the airplane and the required spatial point was used as a measure of deviation from the required route. A smaller deviation represented better performance. Over a segment of flight or over complete flight, an average value of the deviation represented consolidated performance. The deviations were computed from the information on latitude, longitude, and altitude. In the combined ARTT and RTT program, ARTT at intermediate training intervals was beneficial in improving the real time performance of the trainees. It was observed that the team interaction between pilot and navigator resulted in maintaining high motivation and active participation throughout the training program.

  1. Common Factors of High Performance Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Bruce; Madsen, Susan R.

    2005-01-01

    Utilization of work teams is now wide spread in all types of organizations throughout the world. However, an understanding of the important factors common to high performance teams is rare. The purpose of this content analysis is to explore the literature and propose findings related to high performance teams. These include definition and types,…

  2. Forming Student Online Teams for Maximum Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Joel D.; Ringhand, Darlene G.; Kalinski, Ray C.; Ziegler, James G.

    2015-01-01

    What is the best way to assign graduate business students to online team-based projects? Team assignments are frequently made on the basis of alphabet, time zones or previous performance. This study reviews personality as an indicator of student online team performance. The personality assessment IDE (Insights Discovery Evaluator) was administered…

  3. Team learning and effectiveness in virtual project teams: the role of beliefs about interpersonal context.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Aída; Sánchez-Manzanares, Miriam; Gil, Francisco; Rico, Ramón

    2010-05-01

    There has been increasing interest in team learning processes in recent years. Researchers have investigated the impact of team learning on team effectiveness and analyzed the enabling conditions for the process, but team learning in virtual teams has been largely ignored. This study examined the relationship between team learning and effectiveness in virtual teams, as well as the role of team beliefs about interpersonal context. Data from 48 teams performing a virtual consulting project over 4 weeks indicate a mediating effect of team learning on the relationship between beliefs about the interpersonal context (psychological safety, task interdependence) and team effectiveness (satisfaction, viability). These findings suggest the importance of team learning for developing effective virtual teams.

  4. Markers for enhancing team cognition in complex environments: the power of team performance diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Salas, Eduardo; Rosen, Michael A; Burke, C Shawn; Nicholson, Denise; Howse, William R

    2007-05-01

    Team cognition has been identified as a key component to achieve mission goals in dynamic, team-based, stressful, distributed and multicultural operations. Effective team performance in complex environments requires that team members hold a shared understanding of the task, their equipment, and their teammates. So, many of the simulation-based training (SBT) systems and programs have been designed (partly) to enhance shared/team cognition. However, these simulation systems lack the sufficient robustness in their performance assessment tools or capabilities (if they have any) to allow for a rich and deep understanding of team cognition. Therefore, the purpose of this article is fourfold: I) to present a brief account of team cognition; 2) to develop the concept of performance diagnosis and present SBT as an approach to the performance diagnosis of team cognition; 3) to present a set of illustrative behavioral markers of team cognition; and 4) to explicate how these elements (performance diagnosis, team cognition, and SBT) can be leveraged to increase training effectiveness through the development of performance profiles--a rich, detailed, and informative set of metrics--and cognitive and behavioral indicators or illustrative markers of team cognition. Research needs are discussed in terms of realizing the potential of this approach in operational and embedded training contexts.

  5. How can leaders foster team learning? Effects of leader-assigned mastery and performance goals and psychological safety.

    PubMed

    Ashauer, Shirley A; Macan, Therese

    2013-01-01

    Learning and adapting to change are imperative as teams today face unprecedented change. Yet, an important part of learning involves challenging assumptions and addressing differences of opinion openly within a group--the kind of behaviors that pose the potential for embarrassment or threat. How can leaders foster an environment in which team members feel it is safe to take interpersonal risks in order to learn? In a study of 71 teams, we found that psychological safety and learning behavior were higher for teams with mastery than performance goal instructions or no goal instructions. Team psychological safety mediated the relationship between mastery and performance goal instructions and learning behavior. Findings contribute to our understanding of how leader-assigned goals are related to psychological safety and learning behavior in a team context, and suggest approaches to foster such processes.

  6. [When do bad apples not spoil the barrel? Negative relationships in teams, team performance, and buffering mechanisms].

    PubMed

    de Jong, Jeroen P; Curşeu, Petru L; Leenders, Roger Th A J

    2014-05-01

    The study of negative relationships in teams has primarily focused on the impact of negative relationships on individual team member attitudes and performance in teams. The mechanisms and contingencies that can buffer against the damaging effects of negative relationships on team performance have received limited attention. Building on social interdependence theory and the multilevel model of team motivation, we examine in a sample of 73 work teams the team-level attributes that foster the promotive social interaction that can neutralize the adverse effect of negative relationships on team cohesion and, consequently, on team performance. The results indicate that high levels of team-member exchange as well as high task-interdependence attenuate how team cohesion and team performance suffer from negative relationships. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. A multiple-goal, multilevel model of feedback effects on the regulation of individual and team performance.

    PubMed

    DeShon, Richard P; Kozlowski, Steve W J; Schmidt, Aaron M; Milner, Karen R; Wiechmann, Darin

    2004-12-01

    When working as a member of a team, individuals must make decisions concerning the allocation of resources (e.g., effort) toward individual goals and team goals. As a result, individual and team goals, and feedback related to progress toward these goals, should be potent levers for affecting resource allocation decisions. This research develops a multilevel, multiple-goal model of individual and team regulatory processes that affect the allocation of resources across individual and team goals resulting in individual and team performance. On the basis of this model, predictions concerning the impact of individual and team performance feedback are examined empirically to evaluate the model and to understand the influence of feedback on regulatory processes and resource allocation. Two hundred thirty-seven participants were randomly formed into 79 teams of 3 that performed a simulated radar task that required teamwork. Results support the model and the predicted role of feedback in affecting the allocation of resources when individuals strive to accomplish both individual and team goals.

  8. Practice effects on intra-team synergies in football teams.

    PubMed

    Silva, Pedro; Chung, Dante; Carvalho, Thiago; Cardoso, Tiago; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2016-04-01

    Developing synchronised player movements for fluent competitive match play is a common goal for coaches of team games. An ecological dynamics approach advocates that intra-team synchronization is governed by locally created information, which specifies shared affordances responsible for synergy formation. To verify this claim we evaluated coordination tendencies in two newly-formed teams of recreational players during association football practice games, weekly, for fifteen weeks (thirteen matches). We investigated practice effects on two central features of synergies in sports teams - dimensional compression and reciprocal compensation here captured through near in-phase modes of coordination and time delays between coupled players during forward and backwards movements on field while attacking and defending. Results verified that synergies were formed and dissolved rapidly as a result of the dynamic creation of informational properties, perceived as shared affordances among performers. Practising once a week led to small improvements in the readjustment delays between co-positioning team members, enabling faster regulation of coordinated team actions. Mean values of the number of player and team synergies displayed only limited improvements, possibly due to the timescales of practice. No relationship between improvements in dimensional compression and reciprocal compensation were found for number of shots, amount of ball possession and number of ball recoveries made. Findings open up new perspectives for monitoring team coordination processes in sport.

  9. "We've Got Creative Differences": The Effects of Task Conflict and Participative Safety on Team Creative Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairchild, Joshua; Hunter, Samuel T.

    2014-01-01

    Although both participative safety and team task conflict are widely thought to be related to team creative performance, the nature of this relationship is still not well understood, and prior studies have frequently yielded conflicting results. This study examines the ambiguity in the extant literature and proposes that "both"…

  10. Systems Engineering Knowledge Asset (SEKA) Management for Higher Performing Engineering Teams: People, Process and Technology toward Effective Knowledge-Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelby, Kenneth R., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Systems engineering teams' value-creation for enterprises is slower than possible due to inefficiencies in communication, learning, common knowledge collaboration and leadership conduct. This dissertation outlines the surrounding people, process and technology dimensions for higher performing engineering teams. It describes a true experiment…

  11. "We've Got Creative Differences": The Effects of Task Conflict and Participative Safety on Team Creative Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairchild, Joshua; Hunter, Samuel T.

    2014-01-01

    Although both participative safety and team task conflict are widely thought to be related to team creative performance, the nature of this relationship is still not well understood, and prior studies have frequently yielded conflicting results. This study examines the ambiguity in the extant literature and proposes that "both"…

  12. Systems Engineering Knowledge Asset (SEKA) Management for Higher Performing Engineering Teams: People, Process and Technology toward Effective Knowledge-Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelby, Kenneth R., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Systems engineering teams' value-creation for enterprises is slower than possible due to inefficiencies in communication, learning, common knowledge collaboration and leadership conduct. This dissertation outlines the surrounding people, process and technology dimensions for higher performing engineering teams. It describes a true experiment…

  13. Stability and change in person-team and person-role fit over time: the effects of growth satisfaction, performance, and general self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    DeRue, D Scott; Morgeson, Frederick P

    2007-09-01

    Although considerable research has focused on various forms of person-environment fit, little research has examined how person-team and person-role fit operate over time in team contexts. To address this gap, the authors examined the dynamic nature of values-based person-team fit and person-role fit. They identified several factors that influence these fit perceptions over time. Individuals were composed into teams that worked intensively over an extended time period. Results suggest that person-team fit, when conceptualized as values congruence, is generally stable over time, but perceptions of person-role fit in teams are dynamic. Individuals' growth satisfaction and performance were positively related to increases in person-role fit over time. Furthermore, the effect of performance on person-role fit was moderated by individuals' general self-efficacy. Implications for managerial practice and future research are discussed.

  14. Enhancing Team Performance for Long-Duration Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith M.

    2009-01-01

    Success of exploration missions will depend on skilled performance by a distributed team that includes both the astronauts in space and Mission Control personnel. Coordinated and collaborative teamwork will be required to cope with challenging complex problems in a hostile environment. While thorough preflight training and procedures will equip creW'S to address technical problems that can be anticipated, preparing them to solve novel problems is much more challenging. This presentation will review components of effective team performance, challenges to effective teamwork, and strategies for ensuring effective team performance. Teamwork skills essential for successful team performance include the behaviors involved in developing shared mental models, team situation awareness, collaborative decision making, adaptive coordination behaviors, effective team communication, and team cohesion. Challenges to teamwork include both chronic and acute stressors. Chronic stressors are associated with the isolated and confined environment and include monotony, noise, temperatures, weightlessness, poor sleep and circadian disruptions. Acute stressors include high workload, time pressure, imminent danger, and specific task-related stressors. Of particular concern are social and organizational stressors that can disrupt individual resilience and effective mission performance. Effective team performance can be developed by training teamwork skills, techniques for coping with team conflict, intracrew and intercrew communication, and working in a multicultural team; leadership and teamwork skills can be fostered through outdoor survival training exercises. The presentation will conclude with an evaluation of the special requirements associated with preparing crews to function autonomously in long-duration missions.

  15. Developing high-performance cross-functional teams: Understanding motivations, functional loyalties, and teaming fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.A.

    1996-08-01

    Teamwork is the key to the future of effective technology management. Today`s technologies and markets have become too complex for individuals to work alone. Global competition, limited resources, cost consciousness, and time pressures have forced organizations and project managers to encourage teamwork. Many of these teams will be cross-functional teams that can draw on a multitude of talents and knowledge. To develop high-performing cross-functional teams, managers must understand motivations, functional loyalties, and the different backgrounds of the individual team members. To develop a better understanding of these issues, managers can learn from experience and from literature on teams and teaming concepts. When studying the literature to learn about cross-functional teaming, managers will find many good theoretical concepts, but when put into practice, these concepts have varying effects. This issue of varying effectiveness is what drives the research for this paper. The teaming concepts were studied to confirm or modify current understanding. The literature was compared with a {open_quotes}ground truth{close_quotes}, a survey of the reality of teaming practices, to examine the teaming concepts that the literature finds to be critical to the success of teams. These results are compared to existing teams to determine if such techniques apply in real-world cases.

  16. Management team learning orientation and business unit performance.

    PubMed

    Bunderson, J Stuart; Sutcliffe, Kathleen M

    2003-06-01

    Although research has suggested that teams can differ in the extent to which they encourage proactive learning and competence development among their members (a team learning orientation), the performance consequences of these differences are not well understood. Drawing from research on goal orientation and team learning, this article suggests that, although a team learning orientation can encourage adaptive behaviors that lead to improved performance, it is also possible for teams to compromise performance in the near term by overemphasizing learning, particularly when they have been performing well. A test of this proposition in a sample of business unit management teams provides strong support. The results confirm that an appropriate emphasis on learning can have positive consequences for team effectiveness.

  17. Preoperative cross functional teams improve OR performance.

    PubMed

    Bitter, Justin; van Veen-Berkx, Elizabeth; van Amelsvoort, Pierre; Gooszen, Hein

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the effect of the introduction of cross-functional team (CFT)-based organization, rather than, on planning and performance of OR teams. In total, two surgical departments of the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center (RUNMC) in the Netherlands were selected to illustrate the effect on performance. Data were available for a total of seven consecutive years from 2005 until 2012 and consisted of 4,046 OR days for surgical Department A and 1,154 OR days for surgical Department B on which, respectively 8,419 and 5,295 surgical cases were performed. The performance indicator "raw utilization" of the two surgical Departments was presented as box-and-whisker plots per year (2005-2011). The relationship between raw utilization (y) and years (x) was analyzed with linear regression analysis, to observe if performance changed over time. Based on the linear regression analysis, raw utilization of surgical Department A showed a statistically significant increase since 2006. The variation in raw utilization reduced from IQR 33 percent in 2005 to IQR 8 percent in 2011. Surgical Department B showed that raw utilization increased since 2005. The variation in raw utilization reduced from IQR 21 percent in 2005 to IQR 8 percent in 2011. Hospitals need to improve their productivity and efficiency in response to higher societal demands and rapidly escalating costs. The RUNMC increased their OR performance significantly by introduction of CFT-based organization in the operative process and abandoning the so called functional silos. The stepwise reduction of variation - a decrease of IQR during the years - indicates an organizational learning effect. This study demonstrates that introducing CFTs improve OR performance by working together as a team.

  18. Effects of simulated domestic and international air travel on sleep, performance, and recovery for team sports.

    PubMed

    Fowler, P; Duffield, R; Vaile, J

    2015-06-01

    The present study examined effects of simulated air travel on physical performance. In a randomized crossover design, 10 physically active males completed a simulated 5-h domestic flight (DOM), 24-h simulated international travel (INT), and a control trial (CON). The mild hypoxia, seating arrangements, and activity levels typically encountered during air travel were simulated in a normobaric, hypoxic altitude room. Physical performance was assessed in the afternoon of the day before (D - 1 PM) and in the morning (D + 1 AM) and afternoon (D + 1 PM) of the day following each trial. Mood states and physiological and perceptual responses to exercise were also examined at these time points, while sleep quantity and quality were monitored throughout each condition. Sleep quantity and quality were significantly reduced during INT compared with CON and DOM (P < 0.01). Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 1 test performance was significantly reduced at D + 1 PM following INT compared with CON and DOM (P < 0.01), where performance remained unchanged (P > 0.05). Compared with baseline, physiological and perceptual responses to exercise, and mood states were exacerbated following the INT trial (P < 0.05). Attenuated intermittent-sprint performance following simulated international air travel may be due to sleep disruption during travel and the subsequent exacerbated physiological and perceptual markers of fatigue.

  19. Relations between mental health team characteristics and work role performance.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Bamvita, Jean-Marie; Farand, Lambert

    2017-01-01

    Effective mental health care requires a high performing, interprofessional team. Among 79 mental health teams in Quebec (Canada), this exploratory study aims to 1) determine the association between work role performance and a wide range of variables related to team effectiveness according to the literature, and to 2) using structural equation modelling, assess the covariance between each of these variables as well as the correlation with other exogenous variables. Work role performance was measured with an adapted version of a work role questionnaire. Various independent variables including team manager characteristics, user characteristics, team profiles, clinical activities, organizational culture, network integration strategies and frequency/satisfaction of interactions with other teams or services were analyzed under the structural equation model. The later provided a good fit with the data. Frequent use of standardized procedures and evaluation tools (e.g. screening and assessment tools for mental health disorders) and team manager seniority exerted the most direct effect on work role performance. While network integration strategies had little effect on work role performance, there was a high covariance between this variable and those directly affecting work role performance among mental health teams. The results suggest that the mental healthcare system should apply standardized procedures and evaluation tools and, to a lesser extent, clinical approaches to improve work role performance in mental health teams. Overall, a more systematic implementation of network integration strategies may contribute to improved work role performance in mental health care.

  20. Effects of adding a weekly eccentric-overload training session on strength and athletic performance in team-handball players.

    PubMed

    Sabido, Rafael; Hernández-Davó, Jose Luis; Botella, Javier; Navarro, Angel; Tous-Fajardo, Julio

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the influence of adding a weekly eccentric-overload training (EOT) session in several athletic performance's tests, 18 team-handball players were assigned either to an EOT (n = 11) or a Control (n = 7) group. Both groups continued to perform the same habitual strength training, but the EOT group added one session/week during a 7-week training programme consisting of four sets of eight repetitions for the bilateral half-squat and unilateral lunge exercises. The test battery included handball throwing velocity, maximum dynamic strength (1RM), countermovement jump (CMJ), 20 m sprint, triple hop for distance, and eccentric/concentric power in both the half-squat and lunge exercises. Data were analysed using magnitude-based inferences. Both groups improved their 1RM in the half squat, 20 m sprint time, and CMJ performance to a similar extent, but the EOT group showed a beneficial effect for both right [(42/58/0), possibly positive] and left [(99/1/0), very likely positive] triple hop for distance performance. In addition, the EOT group showed greater power output improvements in both eccentric and concentric phases of the half-squat (difference in percent of change ranging from 6.5% to 22.0%) and lunge exercises (difference in per cent of change ranging from 13.1% to 24.9%). Nevertheless, no group showed changes in handball throwing velocity. Selected variables related to team-handball performance (i.e. functional jumping performance, power output) can be improved by adding a single EOT session per week, highlighting the usefulness of this low-volume/high-intensity training when aiming at optimizing dynamic athletic performance.

  1. The effects on team emotions and team effectiveness of coaching in interprofessional health and social care teams.

    PubMed

    Dimas, Isabel Dórdio; Renato Lourenço, Paulo; Rebelo, Teresa

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of coaching behaviours provided by peers and by the leader on the emotions experienced by interprofessional health and social care teams and on members' satisfaction with the team, as well as on team performance. Data were obtained from a survey among 344 employees working in 52 interprofessional health and social care teams from nine Portuguese organizations. The results show that leader coaching and peer coaching have a positive effect on the level of team members' satisfaction with the team and on positive emotions, and a negative effect on negative emotions. Furthermore, coaching provided by peers presents a positive effect on team performance as assessed by the leader of the team. Our findings put forward the importance of engaging in coaching behaviours to promote quality of the team experience, as well as the achievement of team performance objectives. Further studies should explore how coaching behaviours impact the patient, whose well-being is the ultimate objective of a team in the health and social care system, namely in terms of the patient's perception of quality care or patient outcomes.

  2. Greater effect of east vs. west travel on jet-lag, sleep and team-sport performance.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Peter M; Knez, Wade; Crowcroft, Stephen; Mendham, Amy E; Miller, Joanna; Sargent, Charlie; Halson, Shona; Duffield, Rob

    2017-07-17

    Determine the recovery timeline of sleep, subjective jet-lag and fatigue, and team-sport physical performance following east and west long-haul travel. Ten, physically-trained males underwent testing at 09:00 (AM) and 17:00 (PM) local time on four consecutive days two weeks prior to outbound travel (BASE), and the first four days following 21 h of outbound (WEST) and return (EAST) air travel across eight time-zones between Australia and Qatar. Data collection included performance (countermovement jump [CMJ], 20-m sprint and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 1 [YYIR1] test) and perceptual (jet-lag, motivation, perceived exertion and physical feeling) measures. In addition, sleep was measured via wrist activity monitors and self-report diaries throughout the aforementioned data collection periods. Compared to the corresponding day at BASE, the reduction in YYIR1 distance following EAST was significantly different to the increase WEST on day 1 post-travel (p<0.001). On day 2, significantly slower 20-m sprint times were detected in EAST compared to WEST (p=0.03), with large effect sizes also indicating a greater reduction in YYIR1 distance in EAST compared to WEST (d=1.06). Mean sleep onset and offset were significantly later and mean time in bed and sleep duration were significantly reduced across the four days in EAST compared to BASE and WEST (p<0.05). Lastly, mean jet-lag, fatigue and motivation ratings across the four days were significantly worse in EAST compared to BASE and WEST (p<0.05), and WEST compared to BASE (p<0.05). Long-haul transmeridian travel can impede team-sport physical performance. Specifically, travel east has a greater detrimental effect on sleep, subjective jet-lag, fatigue and motivation. Consequently, maximal- and intermittent-sprint performance is also reduced following travel east, particularly within 72 h following arrival.

  3. The moderating role of team resources in translating nursing teams' accountability into learning and performance: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Rashkovits, Sarit; Drach-Zahavy, Anat

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to test the moderated-mediation model suggesting that nursing teams' accountability affects team effectiveness by enhancing team learning when relevant resources are available to the team. Disappointing evidence regarding improvement in nurses' safe and quality care elevate the need in broadening our knowledge regarding the factors that enhance constant learning in nursing teams. Accountability is considered as crucial for team learning and quality of care but empirical findings have shown mixed evidence. A cross-sectional design. Forty-four nursing teams participated in the study. Data were collected in 2013-2014: Head nurses completed validated questionnaires, regarding team resources for learning (time availability, team autonomy and team performance feedback), and nursing teams' effectiveness; and nurses answered questionnaires regarding teams' accountability and learning (answers were aggregated to the team level). The model was tested using a moderated-mediation analysis with resources as moderating variables, and team learning as the mediator in the team accountability-team effectiveness link. The results of a mixed linear regression show that, as expected, nursing teams' accountability was positively linked to nursing teams' learning, when time availability, and team autonomy were high rather than low, and team performance feedback was low rather than high. Nurturing team accountability is not enough for achieving team learning and subsequent team effectiveness. Rather there is a need to provide nursing teams with adequate time, autonomy, and be cautious with performance feedback, as the latter may motivate nurses to repeat routine work strategies rather than explore improved ones. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Team Training for Dynamic Cross-Functional Teams in Aviation: Behavioral, Cognitive, and Performance Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Littlepage, Glenn E; Hein, Michael B; Moffett, Richard G; Craig, Paul A; Georgiou, Andrea M

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of a training program designed to improve cross-functional coordination in airline operations. Teamwork across professional specializations is essential for safe and efficient airline operations, but aviation education primarily emphasizes positional knowledge and skill. Although crew resource management training is commonly used to provide some degree of teamwork training, it is generally focused on specific specializations, and little training is provided in coordination across specializations. The current study describes and evaluates a multifaceted training program designed to enhance teamwork and team performance of cross-functional teams within a simulated airline flight operations center. The training included a variety of components: orientation training, position-specific declarative knowledge training, position-specific procedural knowledge training, a series of high-fidelity team simulations, and a series of after-action reviews. Following training, participants demonstrated more effective teamwork, development of transactive memory, and more effective team performance. Multifaceted team training that incorporates positional training and team interaction in complex realistic situations and followed by after-action reviews can facilitate teamwork and team performance. Team training programs, such as the one described here, have potential to improve the training of aviation professionals. These techniques can be applied to other contexts where multidisciplinary teams and multiteam systems work to perform highly interdependent activities. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  5. Teaching Teams about Teamwork: Preparation, Practice, and Performance Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Lisa Gueldenzoph

    2009-01-01

    Focusing on preparation, practice, and performance review to teach teams about teamwork provides a well-supported and effective methodology that both enhances students' collaborative skills and contributes to an effective team project experience. Preparation includes aspects of coaching to introduce and explain effective group processes. After…

  6. Maintaining Team Performance. For the Practicing Manager. An Ideas into Action Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanaga, Kim; Browning, Henry

    This booklet provides ways for organizational team leaders to assess their team's effectiveness at regular intervals and to monitor their team's performance. The booklet identifies six key aspects, or dimensions, consistent across all teams. If all six dimensions are strong within a team, the team has the means to conduct its work and perform…

  7. Maintaining Team Performance. For the Practicing Manager. An Ideas into Action Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanaga, Kim; Browning, Henry

    This booklet provides ways for organizational team leaders to assess their team's effectiveness at regular intervals and to monitor their team's performance. The booklet identifies six key aspects, or dimensions, consistent across all teams. If all six dimensions are strong within a team, the team has the means to conduct its work and perform…

  8. Team Effectiveness and Team Development in CSCL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fransen, Jos; Weinberger, Armin; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    There is a wealth of research on computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) that is neglected in computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) research. CSCW research is concerned with contextual factors, however, that may strongly influence collaborative learning processes as well, such as task characteristics, team formation, team members'…

  9. Team Effectiveness and Team Development in CSCL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fransen, Jos; Weinberger, Armin; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    There is a wealth of research on computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) that is neglected in computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) research. CSCW research is concerned with contextual factors, however, that may strongly influence collaborative learning processes as well, such as task characteristics, team formation, team members'…

  10. Empowering interprofessional teams to perform effective handoffs through online hybrid simulation education.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Laura; N-Wilfong, Donamarie

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the health care field has recognized the importance of handoff communications, as these crucial events may have serious implications for patient safety if not completed properly. To perform these handoffs correctly, patient information and responsibility must be exchanged accurately and thoroughly between health care providers despite any distractions, interruptions, and/or cultural issues that may exist. To overcome any such obstacles, institutions have experimented with various approaches over the years to determine the best method to ensure the highest probability of effective exchanges. This article describes major barriers that exist to efficient handoff communications and proposes an online, hybrid simulation course as a primary solution to many of the interpersonal obstacles. This highly accessible course uses the dynamic approach of teaching handoff communication with pretests/posttests, videos, a PowerPoint presentation, and interactive exercises. This course emphasizes the importance of teamwork and the SBAR standardization method and has been well received by residents, fellows, and employees of a large health system.

  11. The Effects of Plyometric Type Neuromuscular Training on Postural Control Performance of Male Team Basketball Players.

    PubMed

    Asadi, Abbas; Saez de Villarreal, Eduardo; Arazi, Hamid

    2015-07-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are common in basketball athletes; common preventive programs for decreasing these injures may be enhancing postural control (PC) or balance with plyometric training. This study investigated the efficiency of plyometric training program within basketball practice to improve PC performance in young basketball players. Sixteen players were recruited and assigned either to a plyometric + basketball training group (PT) or basketball training group (BT). All players trained twice per week, but the PT + BT followed a 6-week plyometric program implemented within basketball practice, whereas the BT followed regular practice. The star excursion balance test (SEBT) at 8 directions (anterior, A; anteromedial, AM; anterolateral, AL; medial, M; lateral, L; posterior, P; posteromedial, PM; and posterolateral, PL) was measured before and after the 6-week period. The PT group induced significant improvement (p ≤ 0.05) and small to moderate effect size in the SEBT (A = 0.95, AM = 0.62, AL = 0.61, M = 0.36, L = 0.47, P = 0.27, PM = 0.25, PL = 0.24). No significant improvements were found in the BT group. Also, there were significant differences between groups in all directions except PM and PL. An integrated plyometric program within the regular basketball practice can lead to significant improvements in SEBT and consequently PC. It can be recommended that strength and conditioning professionals use PT to enhance the athletes' joint awareness and PC to reduce possible future injuries in the lower extremity.

  12. Laying the Foundation for Successful Team Performance Trajectories: The Roles of Team Charters and Performance Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, John E.; Rapp, Tammy L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the influences of team charters and performance strategies on the performance trajectories of 32 teams of master's of business administration students competing in a business strategy simulation over time. The authors extended existing theory on team development by demonstrating that devoting time to laying a foundation for…

  13. Laying the Foundation for Successful Team Performance Trajectories: The Roles of Team Charters and Performance Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, John E.; Rapp, Tammy L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the influences of team charters and performance strategies on the performance trajectories of 32 teams of master's of business administration students competing in a business strategy simulation over time. The authors extended existing theory on team development by demonstrating that devoting time to laying a foundation for…

  14. Introducing a Short Measure of Shared Servant Leadership Impacting Team Performance through Team Behavioral Integration.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Milton; Van Dierendonck, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The research reported in this paper was designed to study the influence of shared servant leadership on team performance through the mediating effect of team behavioral integration, while validating a new short measure of shared servant leadership. A round-robin approach was used to collect data in two similar studies. Study 1 included 244 undergraduate students in 61 teams following an intense HRM business simulation of 2 weeks. The following year, study 2 included 288 students in 72 teams involved in the same simulation. The most important findings were that (1) shared servant leadership was a strong determinant of team behavioral integration, (2) information exchange worked as the main mediating process between shared servant leadership and team performance, and (3) the essence of servant leadership can be captured on the key dimensions of empowerment, humility, stewardship and accountability, allowing for a new promising shortened four-dimensional measure of shared servant leadership.

  15. Introducing a Short Measure of Shared Servant Leadership Impacting Team Performance through Team Behavioral Integration

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Milton; Van Dierendonck, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    The research reported in this paper was designed to study the influence of shared servant leadership on team performance through the mediating effect of team behavioral integration, while validating a new short measure of shared servant leadership. A round-robin approach was used to collect data in two similar studies. Study 1 included 244 undergraduate students in 61 teams following an intense HRM business simulation of 2 weeks. The following year, study 2 included 288 students in 72 teams involved in the same simulation. The most important findings were that (1) shared servant leadership was a strong determinant of team behavioral integration, (2) information exchange worked as the main mediating process between shared servant leadership and team performance, and (3) the essence of servant leadership can be captured on the key dimensions of empowerment, humility, stewardship and accountability, allowing for a new promising shortened four-dimensional measure of shared servant leadership. PMID:26779104

  16. The effect of flipped teaching combined with modified team-based learning on student performance in physiology.

    PubMed

    Gopalan, Chaya; Klann, Megan C

    2017-09-01

    Flipped classroom is a hybrid educational format that shifts guided teaching out of class, thus allowing class time for student-centered learning. Although this innovative teaching format is gaining attention, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of flipped teaching on student performance. We compared student performance and student attitudes toward flipped teaching with that of traditional lectures using a partial flipped study design. Flipped teaching expected students to have completed preclass material, such as assigned reading, instructor-prepared lecture video(s), and PowerPoint slides. In-class activities included the review of difficult topics, a modified team-based learning (TBL) session, and an individual assessment. In the unflipped teaching format, students were given PowerPoint slides and reading assignment before their scheduled lectures. The class time consisted of podium-style lecture, which was captured in real time and was made available for students to use as needed. Comparison of student performance between flipped and unflipped teaching showed that flipped teaching improved student performance by 17.5%. This was true of students in both the upper and lower half of the class. A survey conducted during this study indicated that 65% of the students changed the way they normally studied, and 69% of the students believed that they were more prepared for class with flipped learning than in the unflipped class. These findings suggest that flipped teaching, combined with TBL, is more effective than the traditional lecture. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Analyses of WIN Team Functioning and Job Requirements, Final Report: Duties Performed and Style of Functioning, in Relation to Team Effectiveness. Technical Report 72-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Richard P.

    Data were collected from a total of 110 WIN (Work Incentive Programs) Employability Development Teams to obtain information regarding the staffing composition of WIN teams, the extent to which distribution of job effort among team members emphasizes duty area specialization by job position title, the style of functioning in making client-oriented…

  18. Effects of team-based learning on problem-solving, knowledge and clinical performance of Korean nursing students.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hae-Ran; Song, Yeoungsuk; Lindquist, Ruth; Kang, Hee-Young

    2016-03-01

    Team-based learning (TBL) has been used as a learner-centered teaching strategy in efforts to improve students' problem-solving, knowledge and practice performance. Although TBL has been used in nursing education in Korea for a decade, few studies have studied its effects on Korean nursing students' learning outcomes. To examine the effects of TBL on problem-solving ability and learning outcomes (knowledge and clinical performance) of Korean nursing students. Randomized controlled trial. 63 third-year undergraduate nursing students attending a single university were randomly assigned to the TBL group (n=32), or a control group (n=31). The TBL and control groups attended 2h of class weekly for 3weeks. Three scenarios with pulmonary disease content were employed in both groups. However, the control group received lectures and traditional case study teaching/learning strategies instead of TBL. A questionnaire of problem-solving ability was administered at baseline, prior to students' exposure to the teaching strategies. Students' problem-solving ability, knowledge of pulmonary nursing care, and clinical performance were assessed following completion of the three-week pulmonary unit. After the three-week educational interventions, the scores on problem-solving ability in the TBL group were significantly improved relative to that of the control group (t=10.89, p<.001). In addition, there were significant differences in knowledge, and in clinical performance with standardized patients between the two groups (t=2.48, p=.016, t=12.22, p<.001). This study demonstrated that TBL is an effective teaching strategy to enhance problem-solving ability, knowledge and clinical performance. More research on other specific learning outcomes of TBL for nursing students is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Improving Team Performance: Proceedings of the Rand Team Performance Workshop.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    computing systems . Human experts often rely on knowledge that is fuzzy or incomplete and reasoning that gives only approximate...expertise: incremental enhancement over time. The best human experts con- tinue to improve their performance over the span of a career. Computer - based ...Videodisc- based audiovisual system Below we take a brief, but more in-depth look at some of these features. Automated Speech Automated speech includes

  20. Measuring teamwork performance: Validity testing of the Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM) with clinical resuscitation teams.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Simon; Cant, Robyn; Connell, Cliff; Sims, Lyndall; Porter, Joanne E; Symmons, Mark; Nestel, Debra; Liaw, Sok Ying

    2016-04-01

    To test the resuscitation non-technical Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM) for feasibility, validity and reliability, in two Australian Emergency Departments (ED). Non-technical (teamwork) skills have been identified as inadequate and as such have a significant impact on patient safety. Valid and reliable teamwork assessment tools are an important element of performance assessment and debriefing processes. A quasi experimental design based on observational ratings of resuscitation non-technical skills in two metropolitan ED. Senior nursing staff rated 106 adult resuscitation team events over a ten month period where three or more resuscitation team members attended. Resuscitation events, team performance and validity and reliability data was collected for the TEAM. Most rated events were for full cardiac resuscitation (43%) with 3-15 team members present for an average of 45 min. The TEAM was found to be feasible and quickly completed with minimal or no training. Discriminant validity was good as was internal consistency with a Cronbach alpha of 0.94. Uni-dimensional and concurrent validity also reached acceptable standards, 0.94 and >0.63 (p=<0.001), respectively, and a single 'teamwork' construct was identified. Non-technical skills overall were good but leadership was rated notably lower than task and teamwork performance indicating a need for leadership training. The TEAM is a feasible, valid and reliable non-technical assessment measure in simulated and real clinical settings. Emergency teams need to develop leadership skills through training and reflective debriefing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Performance assessment task team progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, D.E.; Curl, R.U.; Armstrong, D.R.; Cook, J.R.; Dolenc, M.R.; Kocher, D.C.; Owens, K.W.; Regnier, E.P.; Roles, G.W.; Seitz, R.R.

    1994-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters EM-35, established a Performance Assessment Task Team (referred to as the Team) to integrate the activities of the sites that are preparing performance assessments (PAs) for disposal of new low-level waste, as required by Chapter III of DOE Order 5820.2A, {open_quotes}Low-Level Waste Management{close_quotes}. The intent of the Team is to achieve a degree of consistency among these PAs as the analyses proceed at the disposal sites. The Team`s purpose is to recommend policy and guidance to the DOE on issues that impact the PAs, including release scenarios and parameters, so that the approaches are as consistent as possible across the DOE complex. The Team has identified issues requiring attention and developed discussion papers for those issues. Some issues have been completed, and the recommendations are provided in this document. Other issues are still being discussed, and the status summaries are provided in this document. A major initiative was to establish a subteam to develop a set of test scenarios and parameters for benchmarking codes in use at the various sites. The activities of the Team are reported here through December 1993.

  2. Immersion team training in a realistic environment improves team performance in trauma resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Siriratsivawong, Kris; Kang, Jeff; Riffenburgh, Robert; Hoang, Tuan N

    2016-09-01

    In the US military, it is common for health care teams to be formed ad hoc and expected to function cohesively as a unit. Poor team dynamics decreases the effectiveness of trauma care delivery. The US Navy Fleet Surgical Team Three has developed a simulation-based trauma initiative-the Shipboard Surgical Trauma Training (S2T2) Course-that emphasizes team dynamics to improve the delivery of trauma care to the severely injured patient. The S2T2 Course combines classroom didactics with hands-on simulation over a period of 6 days, culminating in a daylong, mass casualty scenario. Each resuscitation team was initially evaluated with a simulated trauma resuscitation scenario then retested on the same scenario after completing the course. A written exam was also administered individually both before and after the course. A survey was administered to assess the participants' perceived effectiveness of the course on overall team training. From the evaluation of 20 resuscitation teams made up of 123 medical personnel, there was a decrease in the mean time needed to perform the simulated trauma resuscitation, from a mean of 24.4 minutes to 13.5 minutes (P < .01), a decrease in the mean number of critical events missed, from 5.15 to 1.00 (P < .01), and a mean improvement of 41% in written test scores. More than 90% of participants rated the course as highly effective for improving team dynamics. A team-based trauma course with immersion in a realistic environment is an effective tool for improving team performance in trauma training. This approach has high potential to improve trauma care and patient outcomes. The benefits of this team-based course can be adapted to the civilian rural sector, where gaps have been identified in trauma care. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Electronic collaboration: Some effects of telecommunication media and machine intelligence on team performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellens, A. Rodney

    1991-01-01

    Both NASA and DoD have had a long standing interest in teamwork, distributed decision making, and automation. While research on these topics has been pursued independently, it is becoming increasingly clear that the integration of social, cognitive, and human factors engineering principles will be necessary to meet the challenges of highly sophisticated scientific and military programs of the future. Images of human/intelligent-machine electronic collaboration were drawn from NASA and Air Force reports as well as from other sources. Here, areas of common concern are highlighted. A description of the author's research program testing a 'psychological distancing' model of electronic media effects and human/expert system collaboration is given.

  4. Team Communication Influence on Procedure Performance: Findings From Interprofessional Simulations with Nursing and Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Reising, Deanna L; Carr, Douglas E; Gindling, Sally; Barnes, Roxie; Garletts, Derrick; Ozdogan, Zulfukar

    Interprofessional team performance is believed to be dependent on the development of effective team communication skills. Yet, little evidence exists in undergraduate nursing programs on whether team communication skills affect team performance. A secondary analysis of a larger study on interprofessional student teams in simulations was conducted to determine if there is a relationship between team communication and team procedure performance. The results showed a positive, significant correlation between interprofessional team communication ratings and procedure accuracy in the simulation. Interprofessional team training in communication skills for nursing and medical students improves the procedure accuracy in a simulated setting.

  5. Building effective clinical teams in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Ezziane, Zoheir; Maruthappu, Mahiben; Gawn, Lynsey; Thompson, Emily A; Athanasiou, Thanos; Warren, Oliver J

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to review teamwork and the creation of effective teams within healthcare. By combining research material found in management, psychology and health services research the article explores the drivers increasing the importance of teamwork, reviews the current knowledge base on how to build a team and focuses on some of the barriers to effective team performance. The simultaneous inflation of healthcare costs and necessity to improve quality of care has generated a demand for novel solutions in policy, strategy, commissioning and provider organisations. A critical, but commonly undervalued means by which quality can be improved is through structured, formalised incentivisation and development of teams, and the ability of individuals to work collectively and in collaboration. Several factors appear to contribute to the development of successful teams, including effective communication, comprehensive decision making, safety awareness and the ability to resolve conflict. Not only is strong leadership important if teams are to function effectively but the concept and importance of followership is also vital. Building effective clinical teams is difficult. The research in this area is currently limited, as is the authors' understanding of the different requirements faced by those working in different areas of the health and social care environment. This article provides a starting place for those interested in leading and developing teams of clinicians.

  6. Team effectiveness in academic primary health care teams.

    PubMed

    Delva, Dianne; Jamieson, Margaret; Lemieux, Melissa

    2008-12-01

    Primary health care is undergoing significant organizational change, including the development of interdisciplinary health care teams. Understanding how teams function effectively in primary care will assist training programs in teaching effective interprofessional practices. This study aimed to explore the views of members of primary health care teams regarding what constitutes a team, team effectiveness and the factors that affect team effectiveness in primary care. Focus group consultations from six teams in the Department of Family Medicine at Queen's University were recorded and transcribed and qualitative analysis was used to identify themes. Twelve themes were identified that related to the impact of dual goals/obligations of education and clinical/patient practice on team relationships and learners; the challenges of determining team membership including nonattendance of allied health professionals except nurses; and facilitators and barriers to effective team function. This study provides insight into some of the challenges of developing effective primary care teams in an academic department of family medicine. Clear goals and attention to teamwork at all levels of collaboration is needed if effective interprofessional education is to be achieved. Future research should clarify how best to support the changes required for increasingly effective teamwork.

  7. Developing Pupils' Performance in Team Invasion Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Shirley; Sproule, John

    2011-01-01

    Background: To develop pupils' team invasion games (TIG) performance within physical education (PE), practitioners have traditionally adopted teacher-centred, skill-focused approaches. Teaching Games for Understanding and the Tactical approach are alternative approaches to TIG teaching that aim to develop overall game performance, including…

  8. A Taxonomy for Composing Effective Naval Teams. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driskell, James E.; And Others

    Since teams perform a majority of mission-critical Navy tasks, a significant applied research problem is how to compose maximally effective task teams. Two problems have traditionally hindered the attainment of this goal: how to compose teams on bases other than ability or technical skill and how to classify team tasks, so that predictions can be…

  9. A Contingency Model of Conflict and Team Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Jason D.; Zhu, Jing; Duffy, Michelle K.; Scott, Kristin L.; Shih, Hsi-An; Susanto, Ely

    2011-01-01

    The authors develop and test theoretical extensions of the relationships of task conflict, relationship conflict, and 2 dimensions of team effectiveness (performance and team-member satisfaction) among 2 samples of work teams in Taiwan and Indonesia. Findings show that relationship conflict moderates the task conflict-team performance…

  10. Testing Belbin's Team Role Theory of Effective Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prichard, Jane S.; Stanton, Neville A.

    1999-01-01

    Belbin's theory that teams with a wide range of roles are more effective than those with role imbalance was tested with six teams composed of individuals with homogenous roles and six with mixed roles. Mixed teams performed better on team tasks. (SK)

  11. A Contingency Model of Conflict and Team Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Jason D.; Zhu, Jing; Duffy, Michelle K.; Scott, Kristin L.; Shih, Hsi-An; Susanto, Ely

    2011-01-01

    The authors develop and test theoretical extensions of the relationships of task conflict, relationship conflict, and 2 dimensions of team effectiveness (performance and team-member satisfaction) among 2 samples of work teams in Taiwan and Indonesia. Findings show that relationship conflict moderates the task conflict-team performance…

  12. The Effects of Collaborative Technologies on Individual and Team Performance in a Network Centric Warfare (NCW) Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    Environment Joseph W. Guthrie Michael A. Rosen Eduardo Salas Department of Psychology Institute for Simulation & Training University of...Robert S. Bolia** 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER CF 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Department of Psychology * Institute for Simulation...implementing them more readily into their daily business practices. The ubiquitous nature of teams in organizations and the current organizational trend of

  13. Rapid response teams: qualitative analysis of their effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Leach, Linda Searle; Mayo, Ann M

    2013-05-01

    Multidisciplinary rapid response teams focus on patients' emergent needs and manage critical situations to prevent avoidable deaths. Although research has focused primarily on outcomes, studies of the actual team effectiveness within the teams from multiple perspectives have been limited. To describe effectiveness of rapid response teams in a large teaching hospital in California that had been using such teams for 5 years. The grounded-theory method was used to discover if substantive theory might emerge from interview and/or observational data. Purposeful sampling was used to conduct in-person semistructured interviews with 17 key informants. Convenience sampling was used for the 9 observed events that involved a rapid response team. Analysis involved use of a concept or indicator model to generate empirical results from the data. Data were coded, compared, and contrasted, and, when appropriate, relationships between concepts were formed. Results Dimensions of effective team performance included the concepts of organizational culture, team structure, expertise, communication, and teamwork. Professionals involved reported that rapid response teams functioned well in managing patients at risk or in crisis; however, unique challenges were identified. Teams were loosely coupled because of the inconsistency of team members from day to day. Team members had little opportunity to develop relationships or team skills. The need for team training may be greater than that among teams that work together regularly under less time pressure to perform. Communication between team members and managing a crisis were critical aspects of an effective response team.

  14. 101 Tips, Traps, and To-Dos for Creating Teams: A Guidebook for School Leaders. Guiding Groups To Become Teams, Facilitating Them To Become High-Performance Teams, and Empowering Them To Become Technology-Based Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Gerald D.; Ross, Tweed; Bailey, Gwen L.; Lumley, Dan

    Using teams is an effective way to meet the challenges of breaking down teacher isolation, halting curriculum fragmentation, and creating a learning organization. This guide is designed to help school leaders train groups to become teams, guide them to become high-performance teams, and empower them to become technology-based teams. It contains…

  15. [Transactive memory in decision-making teams: implications for team effectiveness].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Manzanares, Miriam; Rico, Ramón; Gil, Francisco; San Martín, Rafael

    2006-11-01

    The transactive memory system (TMS) construct is one of the most extended theoretical approaches to understand the role of cognitive processes at group level in the effectiveness of work teams. This study examined the relationships among TMS, performance, satisfaction and functional communication in decision-making teams. 40 four-person teams were asked to suppose they were expert consulting teams advising a fictitious organization on how to solve a problem with their employees. Results showed a mediating effect of TMS on the relationships between functional communication, perceived team performance and satisfaction. Contrary to our expectations, TMSs were not related to performance as evaluated by external raters. These findings suggest the importance of team communication in the formation of TMSs, as well as their implications for the effectiveness of decision-making teams.

  16. Team Culture and Business Strategy Simulation Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, William J.; Fornaciari, Charles J.; Drew, Stephen A. W.; Marlin, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Many capstone strategic management courses use computer-based simulations as core pedagogical tools. Simulations are touted as assisting students in developing much-valued skills in strategy formation, implementation, and team management in the pursuit of superior strategic performance. However, despite their rich nature, little is known regarding…

  17. Team Culture and Business Strategy Simulation Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, William J.; Fornaciari, Charles J.; Drew, Stephen A. W.; Marlin, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Many capstone strategic management courses use computer-based simulations as core pedagogical tools. Simulations are touted as assisting students in developing much-valued skills in strategy formation, implementation, and team management in the pursuit of superior strategic performance. However, despite their rich nature, little is known regarding…

  18. Performance of student software development teams: the influence of personality and identifying as team members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaghan, Conal; Bizumic, Boris; Reynolds, Katherine; Smithson, Michael; Johns-Boast, Lynette; van Rooy, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    One prominent approach in the exploration of the variations in project team performance has been to study two components of the aggregate personalities of the team members: conscientiousness and agreeableness. A second line of research, known as self-categorisation theory, argues that identifying as team members and the team's performance norms should substantially influence the team's performance. This paper explores the influence of both these perspectives in university software engineering project teams. Eighty students worked to complete a piece of software in small project teams during 2007 or 2008. To reduce limitations in statistical analysis, Monte Carlo simulation techniques were employed to extrapolate from the results of the original sample to a larger simulated sample (2043 cases, within 319 teams). The results emphasise the importance of taking into account personality (particularly conscientiousness), and both team identification and the team's norm of performance, in order to cultivate higher levels of performance in student software engineering project teams.

  19. Leader-team congruence in power distance values and team effectiveness: the mediating role of procedural justice climate.

    PubMed

    Cole, Michael S; Carter, Min Z; Zhang, Zhen

    2013-11-01

    We examine the effect of (in)congruence between leaders' and teams' power distance values on team effectiveness. We hypothesize that the (in)congruence between these values would differentially predict team effectiveness, with procedural justice climate serving as a mediator. Using multisource data and polynomial regression, we found that similarities (and differences) between leaders' and their teams' power distance values can have consequential effects on teams' justice climate and, ultimately, their effectiveness (viz., team performance and team organizational citizenship behavior). We conclude that to fully understand the implications of power distance, one should consider the multiple perspectives of both leaders and team members.

  20. Do great teams think alike? An examination of team mental models and their impact on team performance.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Aimee K; Scott, Daniel J; AbdelFattah, Kareem R

    2017-05-01

    Team mental models represent the shared understanding of team members within their relevant environment. Thus, team mental models should have a substantial impact on a team's ability to engage in purposeful and coordinated action. We sought to examine the impact of shared team mental models on team performance and to investigate if team mental models increase over time as teams continue to work together. New surgery interns were assigned randomly to 1 of 10 teams. Each team participated in one unique simulation every day for 5 days, each followed by video-based debriefing with a facilitator. Participants also completed independently a concept similarity tool validated previously in nonmedical team literature to assess team mental models. All performances were video recorded and evaluated with a scenario-specific team performance tool by a single, blinded junior surgeon under an institutional review board-approved protocol. Changes in performance and team mental models over time were assessed with paired samples t tests. Regression analysis was used to examine the extent to which team mental models predicted team performance. Thirty interns (age 27; 77% men) participated in the training program. Percentage of items achieved (x¯ ± SD) on the performance evaluation was 39 ± 20, 51 ± 14, 22 ± 17, 63 ± 14, and 77 ± 25 for Days 1-5, respectively. Team mental models were 30 ± 5, 28 ± 6, 27 ± 8, 26 ± 7, and 25 ± 6 for Days 1-5 respectively, such that larger values corresponded to greater differences in team mental models. Paired sample t tests indicated that both average performance and team mental models similarity improved from the first to last day (P < .01, P < .05, respectively). Additionally, regression analyses indicated that team mental models predicted team performance on Days 2-5 (all P < .05) but not on the first day of simulations. These results demonstrate that greater sharing of team mental models among the teams leads

  1. Performance of Student Software Development Teams: The Influence of Personality and Identifying as Team Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Conal; Bizumic, Boris; Reynolds, Katherine; Smithson, Michael; Johns-Boast, Lynette; van Rooy, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    One prominent approach in the exploration of the variations in project team performance has been to study two components of the aggregate personalities of the team members: conscientiousness and agreeableness. A second line of research, known as self-categorisation theory, argues that identifying as team members and the team's performance norms…

  2. Interactions of Team Mental Models and Monitoring Behaviors Predict Team Performance in Simulated Anesthesia Inductions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burtscher, Michael J.; Kolbe, Michaela; Wacker, Johannes; Manser, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated how two team mental model properties (similarity vs. accuracy) and two forms of monitoring behavior (team vs. systems) interacted to predict team performance in anesthesia. In particular, we were interested in whether the relationship between monitoring behavior and team performance was moderated by team…

  3. Interactions of Team Mental Models and Monitoring Behaviors Predict Team Performance in Simulated Anesthesia Inductions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burtscher, Michael J.; Kolbe, Michaela; Wacker, Johannes; Manser, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated how two team mental model properties (similarity vs. accuracy) and two forms of monitoring behavior (team vs. systems) interacted to predict team performance in anesthesia. In particular, we were interested in whether the relationship between monitoring behavior and team performance was moderated by team…

  4. Performance of Student Software Development Teams: The Influence of Personality and Identifying as Team Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Conal; Bizumic, Boris; Reynolds, Katherine; Smithson, Michael; Johns-Boast, Lynette; van Rooy, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    One prominent approach in the exploration of the variations in project team performance has been to study two components of the aggregate personalities of the team members: conscientiousness and agreeableness. A second line of research, known as self-categorisation theory, argues that identifying as team members and the team's performance norms…

  5. Motivational needs on team performance of Korean nursing students.

    PubMed

    Yi, Y J; Park, K H

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an individual's motivational needs on team performance, centering on the needs for affiliation, power and achievement, following the McClelland's Achievement Motivation Theory. Most previous studies related to McClelland's Achievement Motivation Theory have focused on achievement motivation as a predictor of team performance. In contrast, affiliation and power motivations were relatively little known in connection with team performance. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study using data from 181 junior nursing students in Korea. Data were collected from a questionnaire when the subjects' teamwork task was completed in November 2013. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the influence of motivational needs on team performance. Each group having high levels of the need for affiliation, or the need for power and/or the need for achievement showed a significantly high level of teamwork skills and team effectiveness. The factors influencing teamwork skills were the need for affiliation and the need for achievement. Additionally, the factors influencing team effectiveness were also the need for affiliation and the need for achievement. The study reconfirmed the positive influence of the need for achievement, which was the focus of most previous research, in regard to personal and organizational growth. Furthermore, it identified that the need for affiliation, another type of internal motive, positively affected team performance as well. Nursing schools and nursing organizations should pay attention to their members' affiliation and achievement needs to enhance organizational efficiencies. Through efforts such as developing diverse continuing education programmes for need training, they could enhance their members' needs for affiliation or achievement and consequently increase nursing team performance. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.

  6. The Effectiveness of Teamwork Training on Teamwork Behaviors and Team Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Interventions

    PubMed Central

    McEwan, Desmond; Ruissen, Geralyn R.; Eys, Mark A.; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Beauchamp, Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of teamwork interventions that were carried out with the purpose of improving teamwork and team performance, using controlled experimental designs. A literature search returned 16,849 unique articles. The meta-analysis was ultimately conducted on 51 articles, comprising 72 (k) unique interventions, 194 effect sizes, and 8439 participants, using a random effects model. Positive and significant medium-sized effects were found for teamwork interventions on both teamwork and team performance. Moderator analyses were also conducted, which generally revealed positive and significant effects with respect to several sample, intervention, and measurement characteristics. Implications for effective teamwork interventions as well as considerations for future research are discussed. PMID:28085922

  7. The Effectiveness of Teamwork Training on Teamwork Behaviors and Team Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Interventions.

    PubMed

    McEwan, Desmond; Ruissen, Geralyn R; Eys, Mark A; Zumbo, Bruno D; Beauchamp, Mark R

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of teamwork interventions that were carried out with the purpose of improving teamwork and team performance, using controlled experimental designs. A literature search returned 16,849 unique articles. The meta-analysis was ultimately conducted on 51 articles, comprising 72 (k) unique interventions, 194 effect sizes, and 8439 participants, using a random effects model. Positive and significant medium-sized effects were found for teamwork interventions on both teamwork and team performance. Moderator analyses were also conducted, which generally revealed positive and significant effects with respect to several sample, intervention, and measurement characteristics. Implications for effective teamwork interventions as well as considerations for future research are discussed.

  8. Examining the Linkages between Team Learning Behaviors and Team Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Christopher C. A.; Lim, Lynn; Keasberry, Siew Kuan

    2003-01-01

    A survey on learning processes received 90% response from 141 managers in Brunei. Individual learning was not significantly related to organizational learning. Learning within teams was partially related to organizational learning. Cross-functional team learning was significantly related to organizational learning. A three-factor model of…

  9. Examining the Linkages between Team Learning Behaviors and Team Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Christopher C. A.; Lim, Lynn; Keasberry, Siew Kuan

    2003-01-01

    A survey on learning processes received 90% response from 141 managers in Brunei. Individual learning was not significantly related to organizational learning. Learning within teams was partially related to organizational learning. Cross-functional team learning was significantly related to organizational learning. A three-factor model of…

  10. Motivating Your Team: Coaching for Performance in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Peter R.

    2007-01-01

    Designed to help you get the best out of your team, this practical book shows you how to motivate and engage people through the effective design, application and review of performance management. Checklists and practical guidance notes are provided to help you understand the principles and practice of effective performance management and how the…

  11. Team Collectivist Culture: A Remedy for Creating Team Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAtavey, Jean; Nikolovska, Irena

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a review of literature on collective orientation and effective teams by theoretically elucidating the relationship between these two constructs. The relationship between these two constructs is found by identifying the elements that go into creating an effective team, which are also found in a collectivist orientation. As…

  12. Tools for evaluating team performance in simulation-based training

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Michael A; Weaver, Sallie J; Lazzara, Elizabeth H; Salas, Eduardo; Wu, Teresa; Silvestri, Salvatore; Schiebel, Nicola; Almeida, Sandra; King, Heidi B

    2010-01-01

    Teamwork training constitutes one of the core approaches for moving healthcare systems toward increased levels of quality and safety, and simulation provides a powerful method of delivering this training, especially for face-paced and dynamic specialty areas such as Emergency Medicine. Team performance measurement and evaluation plays an integral role in ensuring that simulation-based training for teams (SBTT) is systematic and effective. However, this component of SBTT systems is overlooked frequently. This article addresses this gap by providing a review and practical introduction to the process of developing and implementing evaluation systems in SBTT. First, an overview of team performance evaluation is provided. Second, best practices for measuring team performance in simulation are reviewed. Third, some of the prominent measurement tools in the literature are summarized and discussed relative to the best practices. Subsequently, implications of the review are discussed for the practice of training teamwork in Emergency Medicine. PMID:21063558

  13. Tools for evaluating team performance in simulation-based training.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Michael A; Weaver, Sallie J; Lazzara, Elizabeth H; Salas, Eduardo; Wu, Teresa; Silvestri, Salvatore; Schiebel, Nicola; Almeida, Sandra; King, Heidi B

    2010-10-01

    Teamwork training constitutes one of the core approaches for moving healthcare systems toward increased levels of quality and safety, and simulation provides a powerful method of delivering this training, especially for face-paced and dynamic specialty areas such as Emergency Medicine. Team performance measurement and evaluation plays an integral role in ensuring that simulation-based training for teams (SBTT) is systematic and effective. However, this component of SBTT systems is overlooked frequently. This article addresses this gap by providing a review and practical introduction to the process of developing and implementing evaluation systems in SBTT. First, an overview of team performance evaluation is provided. Second, best practices for measuring team performance in simulation are reviewed. Third, some of the prominent measurement tools in the literature are summarized and discussed relative to the best practices. Subsequently, implications of the review are discussed for the practice of training teamwork in Emergency Medicine.

  14. Team effectiveness in Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) projects.

    PubMed

    Latif, Khawaja Fawad; Williams, Nigel

    2017-10-01

    The incorporation of team context into research and practice regarding team effectiveness in NGOs projects is a constant challenge. The research seeks to address the gap and identify the critical determinants of team effectiveness in projects undertaken by non-governmental organizations. Using a systematic process, the study involved both literature and focus group discussions to generate the required items. A total of 157 respondents (Team Members and Team Leaders) were part of the study that filled the questionnaires. Using exploratory factor analysis followed by confirmatory factor analysis, both convergent and discriminant validity was established. The present study found that team effectiveness in NGO social projects has a total of seven dimensions namely: Inter team coordination, community social linkage, team performance, knowledge, skills, and attitudes, leadership communication and engagement, decision making and information sharing, and team formation. There is a significant lack of research on team effectiveness in NGO projects. Where considerably large proportion of research on team effectiveness has focused on the corporate sector, the non-governmental teams have been neglected. This study clearly highlights the determinants that make up team effectiveness in NGOs. The determinants identified will help to specifically look at the effectiveness of teams in NGO projects. The study would help NGOs identify the dimensions in which they may be performing in a weaker manner and direct their energies in improving the factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Reviewing Cancer Care Team Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Taplin, Stephen H.; Weaver, Sallie; Salas, Eduardo; Chollette, Veronica; Edwards, Heather M.; Bruinooge, Suanna S.; Kosty, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The management of cancer varies across its type, stage, and natural history. This necessitates involvement of a variety of individuals and groups across a number of provider types. Evidence from other fields suggests that a team-based approach helps organize and optimize tasks that involve individuals and groups, but team effectiveness has not been fully evaluated in oncology-related care. Methods: We undertook a systematic review of literature published between 2009 and 2014 to identify studies of all teams with clear membership, a comparator group, and patient-level metrics of cancer care. When those teams included two or more people with specialty training relevant to the care of patients with cancer, we called them multidisciplinary care teams (MDTs). After reviews and exclusions, 16 studies were thoroughly evaluated: two addressing screening and diagnosis, 11 addressing treatment, two addressing palliative care, and one addressing end-of-life care. The studies included a variety of end points (eg, adherence to quality indicators, patient satisfaction with care, mortality). Results: Teams for screening and its follow-up improved screening use and reduced time to follow-up colonoscopy after an abnormal screen. Discussion of cases within MDTs improved the planning of therapy, adherence to recommended preoperative assessment, pain control, and adherence to medications. We did not see convincing evidence that MDTs affect patient survival or cost of care, or studies of how or which MDT processes and structures were associated with success. Conclusion: Further research should focus on the association between team processes and structures, efficiency in delivery of care, and mortality. PMID:25873056

  16. Leading multiple teams: average and relative external leadership influences on team empowerment and effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Luciano, Margaret M; Mathieu, John E; Ruddy, Thomas M

    2014-03-01

    External leaders continue to be an important source of influence even when teams are empowered, but it is not always clear how they do so. Extending research on structurally empowered teams, we recognize that teams' external leaders are often responsible for multiple teams. We adopt a multilevel approach to model external leader influences at both the team level and the external leader level of analysis. In doing so, we distinguish the influence of general external leader behaviors (i.e., average external leadership) from those that are directed differently toward the teams that they lead (i.e., relative external leadership). Analysis of data collected from 451 individuals, in 101 teams, reporting to 25 external leaders, revealed that both relative and average external leadership related positively to team empowerment. In turn, team empowerment related positively to team performance and member job satisfaction. However, while the indirect effects were all positive, we found that relative external leadership was not directly related to team performance, and average external leadership evidenced a significant negative direct influence. Additionally, relative external leadership exhibited a significant direct positive influence on member job satisfaction as anticipated, whereas average external leadership did not. These findings attest to the value in distinguishing external leaders' behaviors that are exhibited consistently versus differentially across empowered teams. Implications and future directions for the study and management of external leaders overseeing multiple teams are discussed.

  17. High-performance teams and the physician leader: an overview.

    PubMed

    Majmudar, Aalap; Jain, Anshu K; Chaudry, Joseph; Schwartz, Richard W

    2010-01-01

    The complexity of health care delivery within the United States continues to escalate in an exponential fashion driven by an explosion of medical technology, an ever-expanding research enterprise, and a growing emphasis on evidence-based practices. The delivery of care occurs on a continuum that spans across multiple disciplines, now requiring complex coordination of care through the use of novel clinical teams. The use of teams permeates the health care industry and has done so for many years, but confusion about the structure and role of teams in many organizations contributes to limited effectiveness and suboptimal outcomes. Teams are an essential component of graduate medical education training programs. The health care industry's relative lack of focus regarding the fundamentals of teamwork theory has contributed to ineffective team leadership at the physician level. As a follow-up to our earlier manuscripts on teamwork, this article clarifies a model of teamwork and discusses its application to high-performance teams in health care organizations. Emphasized in this discussion is the role played by the physician leader in ensuring team effectiveness. By educating health care professionals on the fundamentals of high-performance teamwork, we hope to stimulate the development of future physician leaders who use proven teamwork principles to achieve the goals of trainee education and excellent patient care.

  18. TEAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document presents materials covering the television campaign against drunk driving called "TEAM" (Techniques for Effective Alcohol Management). It is noted that TEAM's purpose is to promote effective alcohol management in public facilities and other establishments that serve alcoholic beverages. TEAM sponsors are listed, including…

  19. Using teams and committees effectively.

    PubMed

    Spilker, B

    1998-09-01

    In a corporate setting, the term "team" usually refers to members of a group with different responsibilities and/or skills working together to achieve a common goal or objective. The major reason why a company desires group as opposed to individual involvement is to derive sounder decisions. Two essential issues to resolve in establishing teams or committees are 1) who should be a member or representative; and 2) what is the charter or mandate for the group. Representatives join a team or group in numerous ways; four common methods are 1) appointment by the group member's supervisor; 2) recruitment by the team leader; 3) appointment by a senior manager; and 4) volunteering. There are various profiles of how groups can approach a decision, including "groupthink," the "ideal group process" and the "debating society" approach. Group meetings must be structured to ensure that decisions are reached and then implemented. Foresight and planning are essential prerequisites to have efficient teams and committees that work effectively and achieve their goals. (c) 1998 Prous Science. All rights reserved.

  20. Virtual Team Governance: Addressing the Governance Mechanisms and Virtual Team Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Yihong; Bai, Yu; Liu, Ziheng

    As technology has improved and collaborative software has been developed, virtual teams with geographically dispersed members spread across diverse physical locations have become increasingly prominent. Virtual team is supported by advancing communication technologies, which makes virtual teams able to largely transcend time and space. Virtual teams have changed the corporate landscape, which are more complex and dynamic than traditional teams since the members of virtual teams are spread on diverse geographical locations and their roles in the virtual team are different. Therefore, how to realize good governance of virtual team and arrive at good virtual team performance is becoming critical and challenging. Good virtual team governance is essential for a high-performance virtual team. This paper explores the performance and the governance mechanism of virtual team. It establishes a model to explain the relationship between the performance and the governance mechanisms in virtual teams. This paper is focusing on managing virtual teams. It aims to find the strategies to help business organizations to improve the performance of their virtual teams and arrive at the objectives of good virtual team management.

  1. Sustaining Team Performance: A Systems Model\\

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-31

    to sustain proficiency. 2. Skill on procedural tasks decays more rapidly than on continuous control tasks. Therefore, procedural tasks need more...What is needed is more knowledge of team, crew or group- skill retention, and about the organizational structure in which the groups function. Purpose...procedural tasks need more training, more frequently. VII-1 3. Since skill performance aids (e.g., technical manuals and other job aids) reduce reliance on

  2. The Evolving Manager Stereotype: The Effects of Industry Gender Typing on Performance Expectations for Leaders and Their Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrera, Susan F.; Sauer, Stephen J.; Thomas-Hunt, Melissa C.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how external evaluators' assessments of a management team and its leader are impacted by congruence between the leader's gender and the gender typing of the industry in which the team works. We experimentally tested our theory using industries that are either male typed or gender neutral, with teams led by male and female…

  3. Using a Dual Role Assignment to Improve Group Dynamics and Performance: The Effects of Facilitating Social Capital in Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aquino, Karl; Serva, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a project that simulates the interplay between management and development project teams in a business environment. Each student team was assigned a management role supervising one project and a development role implementing another project. Results indicate that teams that communicate regularly and interact socially outside…

  4. Carbohydrate Nutrition and Team Sport Performance.

    PubMed

    Williams, Clyde; Rollo, Ian

    2015-11-01

    The common pattern of play in 'team sports' is 'stop and go', i.e. where players perform repeated bouts of brief high-intensity exercise punctuated by lower intensity activity. Sprints are generally 2-4 s long and recovery between sprints is of variable length. Energy production during brief sprints is derived from the degradation of intra-muscular phosphocreatine and glycogen (anaerobic metabolism). Prolonged periods of multiple sprints drain muscle glycogen stores, leading to a decrease in power output and a reduction in general work rate during training and competition. The impact of dietary carbohydrate interventions on team sport performance have been typically assessed using intermittent variable-speed shuttle running over a distance of 20 m. This method has evolved to include specific work to rest ratios and skills specific to team sports such as soccer, rugby and basketball. Increasing liver and muscle carbohydrate stores before sports helps delay the onset of fatigue during prolonged intermittent variable-speed running. Carbohydrate intake during exercise, typically ingested as carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions, is also associated with improved performance. The mechanisms responsible are likely to be the availability of carbohydrate as a substrate for central and peripheral functions. Variable-speed running in hot environments is limited by the degree of hyperthermia before muscle glycogen availability becomes a significant contributor to the onset of fatigue. Finally, ingesting carbohydrate immediately after training and competition will rapidly recover liver and muscle glycogen stores.

  5. Health care interprofessional education: encouraging technology, teamwork, and team performance.

    PubMed

    2014-04-01

    It is critical to prepare nurses for future practice to work in teams by engaging students in interprofessional education (IPE) that fosters positive attitudes toward teamwork. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of computer-supported IPE on students’ attitudes and perceptions toward health care teamwork and team performance. A hybrid approach to IPE was used to provide students with an educational experience that combined the benefits of traditional face-to-face communication methodology with a computer-mediated platform that focused on reflection and team building. A statistically significant difference was found in students’ perceptions of team performance after engaging in computer-supported IPE. No statistically significant difference in students’ pretest–posttest composite attitude toward teamwork scores was noted; however, there was a positive trend toward improved scores.

  6. A contingency model of conflict and team effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Jason D; Zhu, Jing; Duffy, Michelle K; Scott, Kristin L; Shih, Hsi-An; Susanto, Ely

    2011-03-01

    The authors develop and test theoretical extensions of the relationships of task conflict, relationship conflict, and 2 dimensions of team effectiveness (performance and team-member satisfaction) among 2 samples of work teams in Taiwan and Indonesia. Findings show that relationship conflict moderates the task conflict-team performance relationship. Specifically, the relationship is curvilinear in the shape of an inverted U when relationship conflict is low, but the relationship is linear and negative when relationship conflict is high. The results for team-member satisfaction are more equivocal, but the findings provide some evidence that relationship conflict exacerbates the negative relationship between task conflict and team-member satisfaction.

  7. Cultural Diversity in Military Teams: Which Factors Influence Effectiveness?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    could lead to problems in terms of team satisfaction and team performance. Some studies have addressed the impact of cultural diversity on team... leading to better performance and more satisfaction. Watson. Johnson, and Zgourides (2002) compared ethnically diverse and non-diverse teams of...operationalized diversity in terms of ethnic minority as well as gender and persons with disabilities and found a positive effect of gender and minority

  8. Variables associated with work performance in multidisciplinary mental health teams

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Bamvita, Jean-Marie; Chiocchio, François

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigates work performance among 79 mental health teams in Quebec (Canada). We hypothesized that work performance was positively associated with the use of standardized clinical tools and clinical approaches, integration strategies, “clan culture,” and mental health funding per capita. Methods: Work performance was measured using an adapted version of the Work Role Questionnaire. Variables were organized into four key areas: (1) team attributes, (2) organizational culture, (3) inter-organizational interactions, and (4) external environment. Results: Work performance was associated with two types of organizational culture (clan and hierarchy) and with two team attributes (use of standardized clinical tools and approaches). Discussion and conclusion: This study was innovative in identifying associations between work performance and best practices, justifying their implementation. Recommendations are provided to develop organizational cultures promoting a greater focus on the external environment and integration strategies that strengthen external focus, service effectiveness, and innovation. PMID:28839935

  9. The Compositional Impact of Team Diversity on Performance: Theoretical Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwitz, Sujin K.

    2005-01-01

    During the past 2 decades, numerous theories have been postulated to test the compositional effects of member characteristics on group and organizational performance. However, the impact of team composition on performance and moderating variables potentially affecting this relationship is still not clearly understood, and research endeavors have,…

  10. An Analysis of Team Composition as It Affects Simulation Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishnakumar, Parameswar; Chisholm, Thomas Alexander

    This study investigated the extent to which sex composition and average team academic achievement of student simulation teams affect team effectiveness. Seventy-four students in two sections of a marketing principles class were divided into 20 teams to test their decision-making skills. For 10 weeks, each team operated a simulated supermarket…

  11. An Analysis of Team Composition as It Affects Simulation Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishnakumar, Parameswar; Chisholm, Thomas Alexander

    This study investigated the extent to which sex composition and average team academic achievement of student simulation teams affect team effectiveness. Seventy-four students in two sections of a marketing principles class were divided into 20 teams to test their decision-making skills. For 10 weeks, each team operated a simulated supermarket…

  12. Ready to rumble: how team personality composition and task conflict interact to improve performance.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Bret H; Klotz, Anthony C; Postlethwaite, Bennett E; Brown, Kenneth G

    2013-03-01

    Although prior work has proposed a number of conditions under which task conflict in teams may improve performance, composition variables have been left unexplored. Given the effects of personality traits on team processes and outcomes demonstrated in prior work, investigating whether specific personality compositions influence the effect of task conflict on team performance is critical to researchers' understanding of conflict in teams. Our results indicate that team-level averages of both openness to experience and emotional stability function as moderators of the relationship between task conflict and team performance. Specifically, task conflict had a positive impact on performance in teams with high levels of openness or emotional stability; in contrast, task conflict had a negative impact on performance in teams with low levels of openness or emotional stability. Thus, when task conflict emerges, teams composed of members who are open minded or emotionally stable are best able to leverage conflict to improve performance. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  13. Antecedents of team potency and team effectiveness: an examination of goal and process clarity and servant leadership.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jia; Liden, Robert C

    2011-07-01

    Integrating theories of self-regulation with team and leadership literatures, this study investigated goal and process clarity and servant leadership as 3 antecedents of team potency and subsequent team effectiveness, operationalized as team performance and organizational citizenship behavior. Our sample of 304 employees represented 71 teams in 5 banks. Results showed that team-level goal and process clarity as well as team servant leadership served as 3 antecedents of team potency and subsequent team performance and team organizational citizenship behavior. Furthermore, we found that servant leadership moderated the relationships between both goal and process clarity and team potency, such that the positive relationships between both goal and process clarity and team potency were stronger in the presence of servant leadership.

  14. Problem-Solving Teams and the Improvement of Organizational Performance in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkin, Alan B.; Wanat, Carolyn L.

    1994-01-01

    Problem-solving teams substantially influence organizational performance in restructured schools. This article examines the concepts of teamwork and team effectiveness, as related to functions of problem-solving teams. A case study of a successful team effort to improve elementary students' reading scores provides a framework for developing…

  15. The Relationship between Shared Mental Models and Task Performance in an Online Team- Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tristan E.; Lee, Youngmin

    2008-01-01

    In an effort to better understand learning teams, this study examines the effects of shared mental models on team and individual performance. The results indicate that each team's shared mental model changed significantly over the time that subjects participated in team-based learning activities. The results also showed that the shared mental…

  16. Teaming Up for Performance Support: A Model of Roles, Skills, and Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Burt; Lippincott, Jenifer; McMahon, Cathie; Witt, Catherine

    1999-01-01

    Discusses roles, skills, and competencies that comprise a development team engaged in creating electronic performance support systems (EPSS). Explains intrinsic, extrinsic, and external EPSS, presents case studies for each type, and suggests effective team strategies that include team formation and team-client communication. (LRW)

  17. Climate uniformity: its influence on team communication quality, task conflict, and team performance.

    PubMed

    González-Romá, Vicente; Hernández, Ana

    2014-11-01

    We investigated whether climate uniformity (the pattern of climate perceptions of organizational support within the team) is related to task conflict, team communication quality, and team performance. We used a sample composed of 141 bank branches and collected data at 3 time points. The results obtained showed that, after controlling for aggregate team climate, climate strength, and their interaction, a type of nonuniform climate pattern (weak dissimilarity) was directly related to task conflict and team communication quality. Teams with weak dissimilarity nonuniform patterns tended to show higher levels of task conflict and lower levels of team communication quality than teams with uniform climate patterns. The relationship between weak dissimilarity patterns and team performance was fully mediated by team communication quality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. [Investigation of team processes that enhance team performance in business organization].

    PubMed

    Nawata, Kengo; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Hatano, Toru; Aoshima, Mika

    2015-02-01

    Many researchers have suggested team processes that enhance team performance. However, past team process models were based on crew team, whose all team members perform an indivisible temporary task. These models may be inapplicable business teams, whose individual members perform middle- and long-term tasks assigned to individual members. This study modified the teamwork model of Dickinson and McIntyre (1997) and aimed to demonstrate a whole team process that enhances the performance of business teams. We surveyed five companies (member N = 1,400, team N = 161) and investigated team-level-processes. Results showed that there were two sides of team processes: "communication" and "collaboration to achieve a goal." Team processes in which communication enhanced collaboration improved team performance with regard to all aspects of the quantitative objective index (e.g., current income and number of sales), supervisor rating, and self-rating measurements. On the basis of these results, we discuss the entire process by which teamwork enhances team performance in business organizations.

  19. A rater training protocol to assess team performance.

    PubMed

    Eppich, Walter; Nannicelli, Anna P; Seivert, Nicholas P; Sohn, Min-Woong; Rozenfeld, Ranna; Woods, Donna M; Holl, Jane L

    2015-01-01

    Simulation-based methodologies are increasingly used to assess teamwork and communication skills and provide team training. Formative feedback regarding team performance is an essential component. While effective use of simulation for assessment or training requires accurate rating of team performance, examples of rater-training programs in health care are scarce. We describe our rater training program and report interrater reliability during phases of training and independent rating. We selected an assessment tool shown to yield valid and reliable results and developed a rater training protocol with an accompanying rater training handbook. The rater training program was modeled after previously described high-stakes assessments in the setting of 3 facilitated training sessions. Adjacent agreement was used to measure interrater reliability between raters. Nine raters with a background in health care and/or patient safety evaluated team performance of 42 in-situ simulations using post-hoc video review. Adjacent agreement increased from the second training session (83.6%) to the third training session (85.6%) when evaluating the same video segments. Adjacent agreement for the rating of overall team performance was 78.3%, which was added for the third training session. Adjacent agreement was 97% 4 weeks posttraining and 90.6% at the end of independent rating of all simulation videos. Rater training is an important element in team performance assessment, and providing examples of rater training programs is essential. Articulating key rating anchors promotes adequate interrater reliability. In addition, using adjacent agreement as a measure allows differentiation between high- and low-performing teams on video review. © 2015 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on Continuing Medical Education, Association for Hospital Medical Education.

  20. Teamwork education improves trauma team performance in undergraduate health professional students.

    PubMed

    Baker, Valerie O'Toole; Cuzzola, Ronald; Knox, Carolyn; Liotta, Cynthia; Cornfield, Charles S; Tarkowski, Robert D; Masters, Carolynn; McCarthy, Michael; Sturdivant, Suzanne; Carlson, Jestin N

    2015-01-01

    Effective trauma resuscitation requires efficient and coordinated care from a team of providers; however, providers are rarely instructed on how to be effective members of trauma teams. Team-based learning using Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPS) has been shown to improve team dynamics among practicing professionals, including physicians and nurses. The impact of TeamSTEPPS on students being trained in trauma management in an undergraduate health professional program is currently unknown. We sought to determine the impact of TeamSTEPPS on team dynamics among undergraduate students being trained in trauma resuscitation. We enrolled teams of undergraduate health professional students from four programs: nursing, physician assistant, radiologic science, and respiratory care. After completing an online training on trauma resuscitation principles, the participants completed a trauma resuscitation scenario. The participants then received teamwork training using TeamSTEPPS and completed a second trauma resuscitation scenario identical to the first. All resuscitations were recorded and scored offline by two blinded research assistants using both the Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM) and Trauma Team Performance Observation Tool (TPOT) scoring systems. Pre-test and post-test TEAM and TPOT scores were compared. We enrolled a total of 48 students in 12 teams. Team leadership, situational monitoring, and overall communication improved with TeamSTEPPS training (P=0.04, P=0.02, and P=0.03, respectively), as assessed by the TPOT scoring system. TeamSTEPPS also improved the team's ability to prioritize tasks and work together to complete tasks in a rapid manner (P<0.01 and P=0.02, respectively) as measured by TEAM. Incorporating TeamSTEPPS into trauma team education leads to improved TEAM and TPOT scores among undergraduate health professionals.

  1. Task versus relationship conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Weingart, Laurie R

    2003-08-01

    This study provides a meta-analysis of research on the associations between relationship conflict, task conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction. Consistent with past theorizing, results revealed strong and negative correlations between relationship conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction. In contrast to what has been suggested in both academic research and introductory textbooks, however, results also revealed strong and negative (instead of the predicted positive) correlations between task conflict team performance, and team member satisfaction. As predicted, conflict had stronger negative relations with team performance in highly complex (decision making, project, mixed) than in less complex (production) tasks. Finally, task conflict was less negatively related to team performance when task conflict and relationship conflict were weakly, rather than strongly, correlated.

  2. A multilevel study of leadership, empowerment, and performance in teams.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gilad; Kirkman, Bradley L; Kanfer, Ruth; Allen, Don; Rosen, Benson

    2007-03-01

    A multilevel model of leadership, empowerment, and performance was tested using a sample of 62 teams, 445 individual members, 62 team leaders, and 31 external managers from 31 stores of a Fortune 500 company. Leader-member exchange and leadership climate related differently to individual and team empowerment and interacted to influence individual empowerment. Also, several relationships were supported in more but not in less interdependent teams. Specifically, leader-member exchange related to individual performance partially through individual empowerment; leadership climate related to team performance partially through team empowerment; team empowerment moderated the relationship between individual empowerment and performance; and individual performance was positively related to team performance. Contributions to team leadership theory, research, and practices are discussed. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. How fun are your meetings? Investigating the relationship between humor patterns in team interactions and team performance.

    PubMed

    Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Allen, Joseph A

    2014-11-01

    Research on humor in organizations has rarely considered the social context in which humor occurs. One such social setting that most of us experience on a daily basis concerns the team context. Building on recent theorizing about the humor-performance link in teams, this study seeks to increase our understanding of the function and effects of humor in team interaction settings. We examined behavioral patterns of humor and laughter in real teams by videotaping and coding humor and laughter during 54 regular organizational team meetings. Performance ratings were obtained immediately following the team meetings as well as at a later time point from the teams' supervisors. At the behavioral unit level within the team interaction process, lag sequential analysis identified humor and laughter patterns occurring above chance (e.g., a joke followed by laughter, followed by another joke). Moreover, humor patterns triggered positive socioemotional communication, procedural structure, and new solutions. At the team level, humor patterns (but not humor or laughter alone) positively related to team performance, both immediately and 2 years later. Team-level job insecurity climate was identified as a boundary condition: In low job insecurity climate conditions, humor patterns were positively related to performance, whereas in high job insecurity climate conditions, humor patterns did not relate to team performance. The role of job insecurity as a boundary condition persisted at both time points. These findings underscore the importance of studying team interactions for understanding the role of humor in organizations and considering team-level boundary conditions over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Effects of Role Division, Interaction, and Shared Mental Model on Team Performance in Project-Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jo, Il-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cognitive mechanism of project-based learning teams of college students on the basis of the Shared Mental Model (SMM) theory. The study participants were 237 female college students in Korea organized into 51 project teams. To test the study hypotheses, a structural equation modeling was employed.…

  5. Effects of Role Division, Interaction, and Shared Mental Model on Team Performance in Project-Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jo, Il-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cognitive mechanism of project-based learning teams of college students on the basis of the Shared Mental Model (SMM) theory. The study participants were 237 female college students in Korea organized into 51 project teams. To test the study hypotheses, a structural equation modeling was employed.…

  6. Democracy, Performance, and Outcomes in Interdisciplinary Health Care Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coopman, Stephanie J.

    2001-01-01

    Examines interdisciplinary health care teams, focusing on perceptions of team processes and their relationship to assessments of team performance and individual outcomes. Suggests that hospice interdisciplinary teams are perceived by their members as only somewhat democratic in the practice of decision making. (SG)

  7. Developing Diverse Teams to Improve Performance in the Organizational Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeager, Katherine L.; Nafukho, Fredrick M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The use of teams in organizations given the current trend toward globalization, population changes, and an aging workforce, especially in high-income countries, makes the issue of diverse team building critical. The purpose of this paper is to explore the issue of team diversity and team performance through the examination of theory and…

  8. Developing Diverse Teams to Improve Performance in the Organizational Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeager, Katherine L.; Nafukho, Fredrick M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The use of teams in organizations given the current trend toward globalization, population changes, and an aging workforce, especially in high-income countries, makes the issue of diverse team building critical. The purpose of this paper is to explore the issue of team diversity and team performance through the examination of theory and…

  9. Advanced Modeling of Teaming Data to Enable Superior Team Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-04

    PATENT , TRADEMARK, OR COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT. This material has been approved...permission should be directed to the Software Engineering Institute at permission@sei.cmu.edu. CMMI® is registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark...Operations Team Culture Cost Quality Schedule Survey Q1 Survey Q2 Survey Q3 Survey Q4 Survey Q5 Survey Q6 Survey Q7 Survey Q8 Survey Q9 Survey Q10 Survey

  10. Effective healthcare teams require effective team members: defining teamwork competencies

    PubMed Central

    Leggat, Sandra G

    2007-01-01

    Background Although effective teamwork has been consistently identified as a requirement for enhanced clinical outcomes in the provision of healthcare, there is limited knowledge of what makes health professionals effective team members, and even less information on how to develop skills for teamwork. This study identified critical teamwork competencies for health service managers. Methods Members of a state branch of the professional association of Australian health service managers participated in a teamwork survey. Results The 37% response rate enabled identification of a management teamwork competency set comprising leadership, knowledge of organizational goals and strategies and organizational commitment, respect for others, commitment to working collaboratively and to achieving a quality outcome. Conclusion Although not part of the research question the data suggested that the competencies for effective teamwork are perceived to be different for management and clinical teams, and there are differences in the perceptions of effective teamwork competencies between male and female health service managers. This study adds to the growing evidence that the focus on individual skill development and individual accountability and achievement that results from existing models of health professional training, and which is continually reinforced by human resource management practices within healthcare systems, is not consistent with the competencies required for effective teamwork. PMID:17284324

  11. Teamwork education improves trauma team performance in undergraduate health professional students

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Valerie O’Toole; Cuzzola, Ronald; Knox, Carolyn; Liotta, Cynthia; Cornfield, Charles S.; Tarkowski, Robert D.; Masters, Carolynn; McCarthy, Michael; Sturdivant, Suzanne; Carlson, Jestin N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Effective trauma resuscitation requires efficient and coordinated care from a team of providers; however, providers are rarely instructed on how to be effective members of trauma teams. Team-based learning using Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPS) has been shown to improve team dynamics among practicing professionals, including physicians and nurses. The impact of TeamSTEPPS on students being trained in trauma management in an undergraduate health professional program is currently unknown. We sought to determine the impact of TeamSTEPPS on team dynamics among undergraduate students being trained in trauma resuscitation. Methods: We enrolled teams of undergraduate health professional students from four programs: nursing, physician assistant, radiologic science, and respiratory care. After completing an online training on trauma resuscitation principles, the participants completed a trauma resuscitation scenario. The participants then received teamwork training using TeamSTEPPS and completed a second trauma resuscitation scenario identical to the first. All resuscitations were recorded and scored offline by two blinded research assistants using both the Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM) and Trauma Team Performance Observation Tool (TPOT) scoring systems. Pre-test and post-test TEAM and TPOT scores were compared. Results: We enrolled a total of 48 students in 12 teams. Team leadership, situational monitoring, and overall communication improved with TeamSTEPPS training (P=0.04, P=0.02, and P=0.03, respectively), as assessed by the TPOT scoring system. TeamSTEPPS also improved the team’s ability to prioritize tasks and work together to complete tasks in a rapid manner (P<0.01 and P=0.02, respectively) as measured by TEAM. Conclusions: Incorporating TeamSTEPPS into trauma team education leads to improved TEAM and TPOT scores among undergraduate health professionals. PMID:26101404

  12. The composition of surgical teams in the operating room and its impact on surgical team performance in China.

    PubMed

    He, Wenjing; Ni, Shenghao; Chen, Gengzhen; Jiang, Xuewu; Zheng, Bin

    2014-05-01

    Previous studies on surgical team composition have shown that surgical team size had an independent impact on surgical performance in US and Canadian hospitals. We aimed to investigate the impact of team composition on surgical performance in two Chinese hospitals. General surgery procedures performed from April 2011 to June 2012 were retrospectively reviewed to record the number of attendees in the operating room (OR) and the procedure time (PT). A total of 1,900 valid procedures, mostly laparoscopic, were performed during the study period. The mean PT was 90.5 min. On average, there were a total of 6 (range = 3-8) team members per procedure: 3 (range = 1-5) surgeons, 2 nurses, and 1 anesthesiologist. Unlike the data reported for the US and Canada, the number of nurses and anesthesiologists remained stable in most cases, whereas the number of surgeons differed by procedure. Multiple-regression analysis revealed that both the complexity of the operation and the team size significantly affected PT. When procedure complexity and patient condition were kept constant, adding one team member in our data analysis predicted an increase of 34.7 min in the PT. The surgical team size has a measurable effect on PT. Aside from surgical complexity, the team composition and member stability affected PT in the OR. Optimizing surgical teams and developing a strategy to maintain team stability are of great importance for improving OR efficiency.

  13. Performance assessment in complex individual and team tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddy, Douglas R.

    1992-01-01

    Described here is an eclectic, performance based approach to assessing cognitive performance from multiple perspectives. The experience gained from assessing the effects of antihistamines and scenario difficulty on C (exp 2) decision making performance in Airborne Warning and Control Systems (AWACS) weapons director (WD) teams can serve as a model for realistic simulations in space operations. Emphasis is placed on the flexibility of measurement, hierarchical organization of measurement levels, data collection from multiple perspectives, and the difficulty of managing large amounts of data.

  14. Is perceived athlete leadership quality related to team effectiveness? A comparison of three professional sports teams.

    PubMed

    Fransen, Katrien; Haslam, S Alexander; Mallett, Clifford J; Steffens, Niklas K; Peters, Kim; Boen, Filip

    2017-08-01

    Researchers have argued that leadership is one of the most important determinants of team effectiveness. The present study examined the extent to which the perceived quality of athlete leadership was related to the effectiveness of elite sports teams. Three professional football teams (N=135) participated in our study during the preparation phase for the Australian 2016 season. Players and coaching staff were asked to assess players' leadership quality in four leadership roles (as task, motivational, social, and external leader) via an online survey. The leadership quality in each of these roles was then calculated in a social network analysis by averaging the indegree centralities of the three best leaders in that particular role. Participants also rated their team's performance and its functioning on multiple indicators. As hypothesized, the team with the highest-quality athlete leadership on each of the four leadership roles excelled in all indicators of team effectiveness. More specifically, athletes in this team had a stronger shared sense of the team's purpose, they were more highly committed to realizing the team's goals, and they had a greater confidence in their team's abilities than athletes in the other teams. Moreover, this team demonstrated a higher task-involving and a lower ego-involving climate, and excelled on all measures of performance. High-quality athlete leadership is positively related to team effectiveness. Given the importance of high-quality athlete leadership, the study highlights the need for well-designed empirically-based leadership development programs. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. What is the impact of multidisciplinary team simulation training on team performance and efficiency of patient care? An integrative review.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Margaret; Curtis, Kate; McCloughen, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    In hospital emergencies require a structured team approach to facilitate simultaneous input into immediate resuscitation, stabilisation and prioritisation of care. Efforts to improve teamwork in the health care context include multidisciplinary simulation-based resuscitation team training, yet there is limited evidence demonstrating the value of these programmes.(1) We aimed to determine the current state of knowledge about the key components and impacts of multidisciplinary simulation-based resuscitation team training by conducting an integrative review of the literature. A systematic search using electronic (three databases) and hand searching methods for primary research published between 1980 and 2014 was undertaken; followed by a rigorous screening and quality appraisal process. The included articles were assessed for similarities and differences; the content was grouped and synthesised to form three main categories of findings. Eleven primary research articles representing a variety of simulation-based resuscitation team training were included. Five studies involved trauma teams; two described resuscitation teams in the context of intensive care and operating theatres and one focused on the anaesthetic team. Simulation is an effective method to train resuscitation teams in the management of crisis scenarios and has the potential to improve team performance in the areas of communication, teamwork and leadership. Team training improves the performance of the resuscitation team in simulated emergency scenarios. However, the transferability of educational outcomes to the clinical setting needs to be more clearly demonstrated. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhancing team-sport athlete performance: is altitude training relevant?

    PubMed

    Billaut, François; Gore, Christopher J; Aughey, Robert J

    2012-09-01

    Field-based team sport matches are composed of short, high-intensity efforts, interspersed with intervals of rest or submaximal exercise, repeated over a period of 60-120 minutes. Matches may also be played at moderate altitude where the lower oxygen partial pressure exerts a detrimental effect on performance. To enhance run-based performance, team-sport athletes use varied training strategies focusing on different aspects of team-sport physiology, including aerobic, sprint, repeated-sprint and resistance training. Interestingly, 'altitude' training (i.e. living and/or training in O(2)-reduced environments) has only been empirically employed by athletes and coaches to improve the basic characteristics of speed and endurance necessary to excel in team sports. Hypoxia, as an additional stimulus to training, is typically used by endurance athletes to enhance performance at sea level and to prepare for competition at altitude. Several approaches have evolved in the last few decades, which are known to enhance aerobic power and, thus, endurance performance. Altitude training can also promote an increased anaerobic fitness, and may enhance sprint capacity. Therefore, altitude training may confer potentially-beneficial adaptations to team-sport athletes, which have been overlooked in contemporary sport physiology research. Here, we review the current knowledge on the established benefits of altitude training on physiological systems relevant to team-sport performance, and conclude that current evidence supports implementation of altitude training modalities to enhance match physical performances at both sea level and altitude. We hope that this will guide the practice of many athletes and stimulate future research to better refine training programmes.

  17. Centrality and Charisma: Comparing How Leader Networks "and" Attributions Affect Team Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkundi, Prasad; Kilduff, Martin; Harrison, David A.

    2011-01-01

    When leaders interact in teams with their subordinates, they build social capital that can have positive effects on team performance. Does this social capital affect team performance because subordinates come to see the leader as charismatic? We answered this question by examining 2 models. First, we tested the charisma-to-centrality model…

  18. Centrality and Charisma: Comparing How Leader Networks "and" Attributions Affect Team Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkundi, Prasad; Kilduff, Martin; Harrison, David A.

    2011-01-01

    When leaders interact in teams with their subordinates, they build social capital that can have positive effects on team performance. Does this social capital affect team performance because subordinates come to see the leader as charismatic? We answered this question by examining 2 models. First, we tested the charisma-to-centrality model…

  19. Building effective critical care teams

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Critical care is formulated and delivered by a team. Accordingly, behavioral scientific principles relevant to teams, namely psychological safety, transactive memory and leadership, apply to critical care teams. Two experts in behavioral sciences review the impact of psychological safety, transactive memory and leadership on medical team outcomes. A clinician then applies those principles to two routine critical care paradigms: daily rounds and resuscitations. Since critical care is a team endeavor, methods to maximize teamwork should be learned and mastered by critical care team members, and especially leaders. PMID:21884639

  20. Performance feedback: an exploratory study to examine the acceptability and impact for interdisciplinary primary care teams.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Sharon; Green, Michael; Thille, Patricia; Savage, Colleen; Roberts, Lynn; Russell, Grant; Hogg, William

    2011-03-29

    This mixed methods study was designed to explore the acceptability and impact of feedback of team performance data to primary care interdisciplinary teams. Seven interdisciplinary teams were offered a one-hour, facilitated performance feedback session presenting data from a comprehensive, previously-conducted evaluation, selecting highlights such as performance on chronic disease management, access, patient satisfaction and team function. Several recurrent themes emerged from participants' surveys and two rounds of interviews within three months of the feedback session. Team performance measurement and feedback was welcomed across teams and disciplines. This feedback could build the team, the culture, and the capacity for quality improvement. However, existing performance indicators do not equally reflect the role of different disciplines within an interdisciplinary team. Finally, the effect of team performance feedback on intentions to improve performance was hindered by a poor understanding of how the team could use the data. The findings further our understanding of how performance feedback may engage interdisciplinary team members in improving the quality of primary care and the unique challenges specific to these settings. There is a need to develop a shared sense of responsibility and agenda for quality improvement. Therefore, more efforts to develop flexible and interactive performance-reporting structures (that better reflect contributions from all team members) in which teams could specify the information and audience may assist in promoting quality improvement.

  1. Leadership in anaesthesia teams: the most effective leadership is shared.

    PubMed

    Künzle, Barbara; Zala-Mezö, Enikö; Wacker, Johannes; Kolbe, Michaela; Spahn, Donat R; Grote, Gudela

    2010-12-01

    Leadership plays a crucial role in teams working in complex environments, and research has shown that shared leadership where all team members perform leadership functions is an effective strategy. The authors aimed to describe shared leadership patterns during anaesthesia induction and show how they are linked to team performance. 12 anaesthesia teams consisting of one resident and one nurse during a simulated anaesthesia induction including a non-routine event (asystole) were videotaped, and two kinds of leadership behaviour (content-oriented and structuring) were coded. Team performance was operationalised as the reaction time to the non-routine event. The amount of leadership sharedness was compared between low- and high-performing teams by performing a univariate analysis of variance. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to analyse the distribution of the two kinds of leadership behaviour among team members. Statistical analysis revealed that in high-performing teams, residents and nurses shared their leadership, while in low-performing teams, residents showed significantly higher levels of leadership behaviour than nurses. Further analyses revealed different distributions of leadership functions among team members. While residents of low-performing teams assumed both kinds of leadership behaviour, members of high-performing teams seemed to have distinct leadership roles: nurses mainly used content-oriented leadership behaviour, and residents tended to show structuring leadership behaviour. The study documents the effectiveness of shared leadership in situations with high task complexity and indicates that a clear distribution of content-oriented and structuring leadership among team members is an effective strategy. The findings have implications for training in shared leadership and also give rise to a number of recommendations for further research. ClinicalTrials (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov) registration number is NCT00706108.

  2. Measuring the Impact of the Micronegotiation Technique on Team Member Satisfaction and Team Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Jeffery David

    2013-01-01

    Conflict is not an uncommon element of team interactions and processes; however, if unchecked it can cause issues in the ability of the team to achieve maximum performance. Research on task conflict and relationship conflict by de Wit, Greer, and Jehn (2012) found that while in many cases task conflict and relationship conflict within teams can…

  3. Virtual Team Culture and the Amplification of Team Boundary Permeability on Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The implementation of virtual teams is briskly increasing, particularly among transnational organizations that find global virtual teams a natural way to address their needs for global reach. While proximal and virtual teams share many attributes, including similar performance measures, they differ in characteristics in the nature of the work.…

  4. Virtual Team Culture and the Amplification of Team Boundary Permeability on Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The implementation of virtual teams is briskly increasing, particularly among transnational organizations that find global virtual teams a natural way to address their needs for global reach. While proximal and virtual teams share many attributes, including similar performance measures, they differ in characteristics in the nature of the work.…

  5. Measuring the Impact of the Micronegotiation Technique on Team Member Satisfaction and Team Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Jeffery David

    2013-01-01

    Conflict is not an uncommon element of team interactions and processes; however, if unchecked it can cause issues in the ability of the team to achieve maximum performance. Research on task conflict and relationship conflict by de Wit, Greer, and Jehn (2012) found that while in many cases task conflict and relationship conflict within teams can…

  6. Athlete Characteristics and Team Competitive Performance as Moderators for the Relationship Between Coach Transformational Leadership and Athlete Performance.

    PubMed

    Bormann, Kai C; Schulte-Coerne, Paul; Diebig, Mathias; Rowold, Jens

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the effects of coaches' transformational leadership on player performance. To advance existing research, we examine (a) effects on individual and team performance and (b) consider joint moderating effects of players' win orientation and teams' competitive performance on the leadership- individual performance link. In a three-source sample from German handball teams, we collected data on 336 players and 30 coaches and teams. Results showed positive main effects of transformational leadership's facet of articulating a vision (AV) on team and individual performance and negative main effects of providing an appropriate model (PAM) on team performance. With regard to moderating effects, AV increased and PAM decreased individual performance when both moderators were low, and intellectual stimulation had a positive effect when both were high. This study expands insights into the potential and limitation of transformational leadership with a strong focus on the role of situational contingencies.

  7. The Relationships between Work Team Strategic Intent and Work Team Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-30

    objectives (Bennis & Biederman, 1997). In the classic written about teams, The Wisdom of Teams, authors Jon R. Katzenbach and Nicholas K. Smith identify... Katzenbach and Smith (2003) have accomplished extensive work in the study of teams and their effectiveness. They admitted that no empirical data exist...to prove their theories on team effectiveness. This research study provides data to support Katzenbach and Smith’s study (2003) and theories on

  8. Improving Pediatric Rapid Response Team Performance Through Crew Resource Management Training of Team Leaders.

    PubMed

    Siems, Ashley; Cartron, Alexander; Watson, Anne; McCarter, Robert; Levin, Amanda

    2017-02-01

    Rapid response teams (RRTs) improve the detection of and response to deteriorating patients. Professional hierarchies and the multidisciplinary nature of RRTs hinder team performance. This study assessed whether an intervention involving crew resource management training of team leaders could improve team performance. In situ observations of RRT activations were performed pre- and post-training intervention. Team performance and dynamics were measured by observed adherence to an ideal task list and by the Team Emergency Assessment Measure tool, respectively. Multiple quartile (median) and logistic regression models were developed to evaluate change in performance scores or completion of specific tasks. Team leader and team introductions (40% to 90%, P = .004; 7% to 45%, P = .03), floor team presentations in Situation Background Assessment Recommendation format (20% to 65%, P = .01), and confirmation of the plan (7% to 70%, P = .002) improved after training in patients transferred to the ICU (n = 35). The Team Emergency Assessment Measure metric was improved in all 4 categories: leadership (2.5 to 3.5, P < .001), teamwork (2.7 to 3.7, P < .001), task management (2.9 to 3.8, P < .001), and global scores (6.0 to 9.0, P < .001) for teams caring for patients who required transfer to the ICU. Targeted crew resource management training of the team leader resulted in improved team performance and dynamics for patients requiring transfer to the ICU. The intervention demonstrated that training the team leader improved behavior in RRT members who were not trained. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Changing Systems Through Effective Teams: A Role for Simulation.

    PubMed

    Rosenman, Elizabeth D; Fernandez, Rosemarie; Wong, Ambrose H; Cassara, Michael; Cooper, Dylan D; Kou, Maybelle; Laack, Torrey A; Motola, Ivette; Parsons, Jessica R; Levine, Benjamin R; Grand, James A

    2017-07-20

    Teams are the building blocks of the healthcare system, with growing evidence linking the quality of health care to team effectiveness, and team effectiveness to team training. Simulation has been identified as an effective modality for team training and assessment. Despite this, there are gaps in methodology, measurement, and implementation that prevent maximizing the impact of simulation modalities on team performance. As part of the 2017 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference "Catalyzing System Change through Health Care Simulation: Systems, Competency, and Outcomes," we explored the impact of simulation on various aspects of team effectiveness. The consensus process included an extensive literature review, group discussions, and the conference "work-shop" involving emergency medicine physicians, medical educators, and team science experts. The objectives of this work are to: (1) explore the antecedents and processes that support team effectiveness, (2) summarize the current role of simulation in developing and understanding team effectiveness, and (3) identify research targets to further improve team-based training and assessment, with the ultimate goal of improving health care systems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Process Variables Critical for Team Effectiveness: A Delphi Study of Wraparound Team Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Janetta L.; Monda-Amaya, Lisa E.

    2001-01-01

    Wraparound team members (n=20) identified as teaming experts rated 109 items that support team effectiveness across six categories: team goals, member roles and membership, communication, cohesion, logistics, and outcomes. Items in the team outcomes, goals, and cohesion categories were ranked most critical to team effectiveness. (Contains…

  11. Effects of Leadership Style on Team Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucic, Tania; Robinson, Linda; Ramburuth, Prem

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to explore the effect of leadership style of a team leader on team-member learning in organizations, to conceptually extend an initial model of leadership and to empirically examine the new model of ambidextrous leadership in a team context. Design/methodology/approach: Qualitative research utilizing the case study method…

  12. Effects of Leadership Style on Team Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucic, Tania; Robinson, Linda; Ramburuth, Prem

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to explore the effect of leadership style of a team leader on team-member learning in organizations, to conceptually extend an initial model of leadership and to empirically examine the new model of ambidextrous leadership in a team context. Design/methodology/approach: Qualitative research utilizing the case study method…

  13. Implicit Coordination Strategies for Effective Team Communication.

    PubMed

    Butchibabu, Abhizna; Sparano-Huiban, Christopher; Sonenberg, Liz; Shah, Julie

    2016-06-01

    We investigated implicit communication strategies for anticipatory information sharing during team performance of tasks with varying degrees of complexity. We compared the strategies used by teams with the highest level of performance to those used by the lowest-performing teams to evaluate the frequency and methods of communications used as a function of task structure. High-performing teams share information by anticipating the needs of their teammates rather than explicitly requesting the exchange of information. As the complexity of a task increases to involve more interdependence among teammates, the impact of coordination on team performance also increases. This observation motivated us to conduct a study of anticipatory information sharing as a function of task complexity. We conducted an experiment in which 13 teams of four people performed collaborative search-and-deliver tasks with varying degrees of complexity in a simulation environment. We elaborated upon prior characterizations of communication as implicit versus explicit by dividing implicit communication into two subtypes: (a) deliberative/goal information and (b) reactive status updates. We then characterized relationships between task structure, implicit communication, and team performance. We found that the five teams with the fastest task completion times and lowest idle times exhibited higher rates of deliberative communication versus reactive communication during high-complexity tasks compared with the five teams with the slowest completion times and longest idle times (p = .039). Teams in which members proactively communicated information about their next goal to teammates exhibited improved team performance. The findings from our work can inform the design of communication strategies for team training to improve performance of complex tasks. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  14. Effects of Visual Communication Tool and Separable Status Display on Team Performance and Subjective Workload in Air Battle Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    respect or capacity”; Peirce , 1931) as part of meaningful semiotic ‘sign systems’. According to semiotics , meaningful communication can be transmitted...agents can share relevant knowledge (Flach & Bennett, 1996; Schwartz, Flach, Nelson, & Stokes, 2007). According to semiotics , both visual and...management teams. Proceedings of the Symposium on Human Factors Issues in Network-Centric Warfare, Sydney, Australia. Peirce , C.S. (1931): Collected

  15. Distributed Cognition in Sports Teams: Explaining Successful and Expert Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Kellie; Cox, Rochelle

    2014-01-01

    In this article we use a hybrid methodology to better understand the skilful performance of sports teams as an exemplar of distributed cognition. We highlight key differences between a team of individual experts (an aggregate system) and an expert team (an emergent system), and outline the kinds of shared characteristics likely to be found in an…

  16. Distributed Cognition in Sports Teams: Explaining Successful and Expert Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Kellie; Cox, Rochelle

    2014-01-01

    In this article we use a hybrid methodology to better understand the skilful performance of sports teams as an exemplar of distributed cognition. We highlight key differences between a team of individual experts (an aggregate system) and an expert team (an emergent system), and outline the kinds of shared characteristics likely to be found in an…

  17. Does trust matter more in virtual teams? A meta-analysis of trust and team effectiveness considering virtuality and documentation as moderators.

    PubMed

    Breuer, Christina; Hüffmeier, Joachim; Hertel, Guido

    2016-08-01

    Team trust has often been discussed both as requirement and as challenge for team effectiveness, particularly in virtual teams. However, primary studies on the relationship between trust and team effectiveness have provided mixed findings. The current review summarizes existing studies on team trust and team effectiveness based on meta-analytic methodology. In general, we assumed team trust to facilitate coordination and cooperation in teams, and therefore to be positively related with team effectiveness. Moreover, team virtuality and documentation of interactions were considered as moderators of this relationship because they should affect perceived risks during teamwork. While team virtuality should increase, documentation of interaction should decrease the relationship between team trust and team effectiveness. Findings from 52 studies with 54 independent samples (representing 12,615 individuals in 1,850 teams) confirmed our assumptions. In addition to the positive overall relationship between team trust and team effectiveness criteria (ρ = .33), the relationship between team trust and team performance was stronger in virtual teams (ρ = .33) as compared to face-to-face teams (ρ = .22), and weaker when team interactions were documented (ρ = .20) as compared to no such documentation (ρ = .29). Thus, documenting team interactions seems to be a viable complement to trust-building activities, particularly in virtual teams. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Team Cohesion, Player Attitude, and Performance Expectations in Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellington, William J.; Faria, A. J.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the relationship of team cohesion, participant attitude, and performance expectations to actual performance results in a simulation competition. Findings indicate a strong relationship between beginning team cohesion and performance expectations and final game performance, but little relationship between beginning participant attitudes…

  19. Command and Control Teams: Techniques for Assessing Team Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    size is negatively re- lated to performance (Frank & Anderson, 1971; Marriot , 1949). 4 3. The relationship between group size ard performatice may...Psychology, 1955, 41, 103-113. Marriot , R. Size of working group and output. Occupational Psychology, 1949, 23, 47-57. Martens, R., & Peterson, J.A. Group

  20. Effect of Pre-Cooling on Repeat-Sprint Performance in Seasonally Acclimatised Males During an Outdoor Simulated Team-Sport Protocol in Warm Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Brade, Carly J.; Dawson, Brian T.; Wallman, Karen E.

    2013-01-01

    Whether precooling is beneficial for exercise performance in warm climates when heat acclimatised is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of precooling on repeat-sprint performance during a simulated team-sport circuit performed outdoors in warm, dry field conditions in seasonally acclimatised males (n = 10). They performed two trials, one with precooling (PC; ice slushy and cooling jacket) and another without (CONT). Trials began with a 30-min baseline/cooling period followed by an 80 min repeat-sprint protocol, comprising 4 x 20-min quarters, with 2 x 5-min quarter breaks and a 10-min half-time recovery/cooling period. A clear and substantial (negative; PC slower) effect was recorded for first quarter circuit time. Clear and trivial effects were recorded for overall circuit time, third and fourth quarter sprint times and fourth quarter best sprint time, otherwise unclear and trivial effects were recorded for remaining performance variables. Core temperature was moderately lower (Cohen's d=0.67; 90% CL=-1.27, 0.23) in PC at the end of the precooling period and quarter 1. No differences were found for mean skin temperature, heart rate, thermal sensation, or rating of perceived exertion, however, moderate Cohen's d effect sizes suggested a greater sweat loss in PC compared with CONT. In conclusion, repeat- sprint performance was neither clearly nor substantially improved in seasonally acclimatised players by using a combination of internal and external cooling methods prior to and during exercise performed in the field in warm, dry conditions. Of practical importance, precooling appears unnecessary for repeat-sprint performance if athletes are seasonally acclimatised or artificially acclimated to heat, as it provides no additional benefit. Key Points Pre-cooling did not improve repeated sprint performance during a prolonged team-sport circuit in field conditions. If individuals are already heat acclimatised/acclimated, pre-cooling is

  1. The Effects of Supplementary Low-Load Blood Flow Restriction Training on Morphological and Performance-Based Adaptations in Team Sport Athletes.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brendan R; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Goods, Paul S R

    2017-08-01

    Scott, BR, Peiffer, JJ, and Goods, PSR. The effects of supplementary low-load blood flow restriction training on morphological and performance-based adaptations in team sport athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2147-2154, 2017-Low-load resistance training with blood flow restriction (BFR) may be a method to enhance muscular development even in trained athletes. This study aimed to assess whether supplemental low-load BFR training can improve muscle size, strength, and physical performance characteristics in team sport athletes. Twenty-one semiprofessional Australian football athletes were assessed for 3-repetition maximum (3RM) and muscular endurance in the back squat, vastus lateralis muscle architecture, and performance in sprint and vertical jump tasks. Participants then undertook a 5-week training program, consisting of normal high-load resistance training supplemented by low-load squats with (LLBFR) or without (LL) BFR. Participants also performed regular conditioning and football training during this period. After the training intervention, participants again completed the pretraining testing battery. Squat 3RM and endurance increased from pretraining levels in both LL (3RM = 12.5% increase; endurance = 24.1% increase; p ≤ 0.007) and LLBFR (3RM = 12.3% increase; endurance = 21.2% increase; p = 0.007) groups, though there were no between-group differences. No post-training changes were observed for muscle architecture, or performance in sprinting and jumping tasks. Although squat 3RM and endurance performance increased in both groups, adding BFR during supplemental exercise did not enhance these responses. Similarly, there were no large differences in the assessments of sprint, acceleration, and jumping performance between the groups after training. These findings suggest that although LLBFR did not negatively affect adaptive responses to resistance training, this training strategy may not provide added benefit for healthy Australian football athletes

  2. Maximizing Team Performance: The Critical Role of the Nurse Leader.

    PubMed

    Manges, Kirstin; Scott-Cawiezell, Jill; Ward, Marcia M

    2017-01-01

    Facilitating team development is challenging, yet critical for ongoing improvement across healthcare settings. The purpose of this exemplary case study is to examine the role of nurse leaders in facilitating the development of a high-performing Change Team in implementing a patient safety initiative (TeamSTEPPs) using the Tuckman Model of Group Development as a guiding framework. The case study is the synthesis of 2.5 years of critical access hospital key informant interviews (n = 50). Critical juncture points related to team development and key nurse leader actions are analyzed, suggesting that nurse leaders are essential to maximize clinical teams' performance. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Impacts of dairy diagnostic teams on herd performance.

    PubMed

    Weinand, D; Conlin, B J

    2003-05-01

    This study evaluated impacts of educational diagnostic teams of consultants used to transfer technology to dairy farms. Herd management performance changes were measured by comparing Dairy Herd Improvement data from 38 project farms to data from herds that were geographical contemporaries. The value of focused goals for effecting change was also assessed. Interviews provided producers' perception of project outcomes and insight on organization and conduct of dairy diagnostic teams. Changes observed in project herds were small compared with controls with tendencies for increased herd size and improved milk production per cow. Focused goals had greater impacts on increasing herd size, milk per cow, first lactation peak milk, reducing age at first calving, and percentages of cows with subclinical mastitis. Time, money, facility limitations, labor, and alternative priorities were the most cited constraints to implementing changes. Satisfaction scores of producers were significantly related to the degree that team recommendations were followed. Improved attitudes, quality of life, and financial well-being were benefits listed by a majority of producers from participation in the project. If similar projects were to be offered, 83% said they would participate again, and 69% indicated they would pay at least some of the costs. Project farms served as demonstration farms for 1930 other producers in their respective locales, resulting in a multiplier effect of original advice given by consultant teams. Suggestions by farmer participants for improvements in dairy diagnostic teams included needs for at least some unbiased team members, more frequent meetings, more follow-up on recommendations, and consistency of recommendations with family goals.

  4. Rumination and Performance in Dynamic, Team Sport

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Michael M.; Memmert, Daniel; Frees, Anastasia; Radzevick, Joseph; Pretz, Jean; Noël, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    People high in rumination are good at tasks that require persistence whereas people low in rumination is good at tasks that require flexibility. Here we examine real world implications of these differences in dynamic, team sport. In two studies, we found that professional male football (soccer) players from Germany and female field hockey players on the US national team were lower in rumination than were non-athletes. Further, low levels of rumination were associated with a longer career at a higher level in football players. Results indicate that athletes in dynamic, team sport might benefit from the flexibility associated with being low in rumination. PMID:26779110

  5. Implications for studying team cognition and team performance in network-centric warfare paradigms.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Gerald P; Banderet, Louis E

    2007-05-01

    Network-centric warfare's (NCW) information-rich systems involving sophisticated sensors, tracking systems, smart weapons, and enhanced digital communications threaten to overload combatants with voluminous amounts of data. It is unclear whether warfighters will perceive such extensive data as actionable information to which they will respond accurately in a timely enough manner. Members of small teams in command and control centers, operating in crew-served vehicles, or simply "grunting it out" as ground-pounding infantrymen, may be disparately separated by space, but will communicate and be connected by electronic linkages, e.g., radio, text messages, situation displays, or global positioning data. However, team members will also have to remember shared mental models of tasks at hand, pay attention to and share common situation awareness in complex operational environments, perform team cognition and team coordination, and integrate both lower and higher cognitive processes with those of team behaviors. Such exceptional capabilities are required more now than ever before; such capabilities today are far from assured. After two workshops to establish performance metrics for assessing cognitive performance of military personnel in NCW, this preface introduces five manuscripts addressing team cognition and team performance from both a theoretical and a practical perspective. The authors of this preface question if NCW, and perhaps the politico-social ramifications of modern warfare, have already outstripped behavioral scientists' approach to researching team cognition and team performance-expertise that is so crucially needed for combatants on the rapidly changing 21st-century battlegrounds.

  6. Nonlinear dynamics of team performance and adaptability in emergency response.

    PubMed

    Guastello, Stephen J

    2010-04-01

    The impact of team size and performance feedback on adaptation levels and performance of emergency response (ER) teams was examined to introduce a metric for quantifying adaptation levels based on nonlinear dynamical systems (NDS) theory. NDS principles appear in reports surrounding Hurricane Katrina, earthquakes, floods, a disease epidemic, and the Southeast Asian tsunami. They are also intrinsic to coordination within teams, adaptation levels, and performance in dynamic decision processes. Performance was measured in a dynamic decision task in which ER teams of different sizes worked against an attacker who was trying to destroy a city (total N = 225 undergraduates). The complexity of teams' and attackers' adaptation strategies and the role of the opponents' performance were assessed by nonlinear regression analysis. An optimal group size for team performance was identified. Teams were more readily influenced by the attackers' performance than vice versa. The adaptive capabilities of attackers and teams were impaired by their opponents in some conditions. ER teams should be large enough to contribute a critical mass of ideas but not so large that coordination would be compromised. ER teams used self-organized strategies that could have been more adaptive, whereas attackers used chaotic strategies. The model and results are applicable to ER processes or training maneuvers involving dynamic decisions but could be limited to nonhierarchical groups.

  7. Requirements of team effectiveness in neurosurgical rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Kemper, B; von Wild, K

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to stress the importance of working with interdisciplinary teams in neurorehabilitation and describe requirements of team effectiveness. It is not sufficient to focus only on different impairments associated with brain injury and offer individuals a variety of therapy. The essential aspect in neurorehabilitation is the integration of disciplines and consistent goal setting to regard individual patient's needs. Interdisciplinary teams benefit from a leader qualified for neuroscience, neurorehabilitation, clinical neuropsychology and psychotherapy. A good structural organization of the team, notice of basic communication rules, understanding typical group dynamics and stressors of interdisciplinary teams, conflict management and a definite decision making increase productive interdisciplinary working and enable the team to continue to mature. Further empirical research is necessary to support the effectiveness of interdisciplinary teams as an important variable in the evaluation of rehabilitation outcome and quality control.

  8. Factors Contributing to Research Team Effectiveness: Testing a Model of Team Effectiveness in an Academic Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omar, Zoharah; Ahmad, Aminah

    2014-01-01

    Following the classic systems model of inputs, processes, and outputs, this study examined the influence of three input factors, team climate, work overload, and team leadership, on research project team effectiveness as measured by publication productivity, team member satisfaction, and job frustration. This study also examined the mediating…

  9. Cooperative Learning and Peer Evaluation: The Effect of Free Riders on Team Performance and the Relationship between Course Performance and Peer Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingel, Molly J.; Wei, Wei; Huq, Aminul

    2013-01-01

    Cooperative learning has gained popularity in higher educational settings. However, assigning grades equitably to all team members in a way that rewards them for their contributions remains challenging. In this paper, we ask whether having free riders on a team lowers the quality of submitted work, and whether students' course performance…

  10. Effectiveness of U.S. Military Female Engagement Teams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    MILITARY FEMALE ENGAGEMENT TEAMS by Gail C. Long September 2012 Thesis Co-Advisors: Douglas Porch Thomas Bruneau THIS PAGE...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Effectiveness of U.S. Military Female Engagement Teams 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Gail C. Long 7. PERFORMING...ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Female Engagement Teams (FET) are one of many efforts that have gained visibility since the U.S. entered Iraq and

  11. Team effectiveness: beyond skills and cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Neuman, G A; Wright, J

    1999-06-01

    On the basis of job analysis results, the validity of using measures of general cognitive ability, job-specific skills, and personality traits jointly at both the individual level and the group level to predict the performance of 79 four-person, human resource work teams was evaluated. Team member trait and job skill scores were aggregated with a conjunctive model of task performance. At the individual level of analysis, measures of personality (i.e., Agreeableness and Conscientiousness) predicted peer ratings of team member performance beyond measures of job-specific skills and general cognitive ability. Similarly, at the group level of analysis, both Agreeableness and Conscientiousness predicted supervisor ratings of work team performance, objective measures of work team accuracy, and work completed. At both the individual and group levels, the trait of Agreeableness predicted Interpersonal Skills.

  12. A meta-analysis of shared leadership and team effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Wang, Danni; Waldman, David A; Zhang, Zhen

    2014-03-01

    A growing number of studies have examined the "sharedness" of leadership processes in teams (i.e., shared leadership, collective leadership, and distributed leadership). We meta-analytically cumulated 42 independent samples of shared leadership and examined its relationship to team effectiveness. Our findings reveal an overall positive relationship (ρ = .34). But perhaps more important, what is actually shared among members appears to matter with regard to team effectiveness. That is, shared traditional forms of leadership (e.g., initiating structure and consideration) show a lower relationship (ρ = .18) than either shared new-genre leadership (e.g., charismatic and transformational leadership; ρ = .34) or cumulative, overall shared leadership (ρ = .35). In addition, shared leadership tends to be more strongly related to team attitudinal outcomes and behavioral processes and emergent team states, compared with team performance. Moreover, the effects of shared leadership are stronger when the work of team members is more complex. Our findings further suggest that the referent used in measuring shared leadership does not influence its relationship with team effectiveness and that compared with vertical leadership, shared leadership shows unique effects in relation to team performance. In total, our study not only cumulates extant research on shared leadership but also provides directions for future research to move forward in the study of plural forms of leadership.

  13. Determinants of team-sport performance: implications for altitude training by team-sport athletes

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1–2 h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance. PMID:24282200

  14. Determinants of team-sport performance: implications for altitude training by team-sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier

    2013-12-01

    Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1-2 h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance.

  15. The effect of teamwork training on team performance and clinical outcome in elective orthopaedic surgery: a controlled interrupted time series study

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Lauren; Hadi, Mohammed; Pickering, Sharon; Robertson, Eleanor; Griffin, Damian; Collins, Gary; Rivero-Arias, Oliver; Catchpole, Ken; McCulloch, Peter; New, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of aviation-style teamwork training in improving operating theatre team performance and clinical outcomes. Setting 3 operating theatres in a UK district general hospital, 1 acting as a control group and the other 2 as the intervention group. Participants 72 operations (37 intervention, 35 control) were observed in full by 2 trained observers during two 3-month observation periods, before and after the intervention period. Interventions A 1-day teamwork training course for all staff, followed by 6 weeks of weekly in-service coaching to embed learning. Primary and secondary outcome measures We measured team non-technical skills using Oxford NOTECHS II, (evaluating the whole team and the surgical, anaesthetic and nursing subteams, and evaluated technical performance using the Glitch count. We evaluated compliance with the WHO checklist by recording whether time-out (T/O) and sign-out (S/O) were attempted, and whether T/O was fully complied with. We recorded complications, re-admissions and duration of hospital stay using hospital administrative data. We compared the before–after change in the intervention and control groups using 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression modelling. Results Mean NOTECHS II score increased significantly from 71.6 to 75.4 in the active group but remained static in the control group (p=0.047). Among staff subgroups, the nursing score increased significantly (p=0.006), but the anaesthetic and surgical scores did not. The attempt rate for WHO T/O procedures increased significantly in both active and control groups, but full compliance with T/O improved only in the active group (p=0.003). Mean glitch rate was unchanged in the control group but increased significantly (7.2–10.2/h, p=0.002) in the active group. Conclusions Teamwork training was associated with improved non-technical skills in theatre teams but also with a rise in operative glitches. PMID:25897025

  16. The effect of teamwork training on team performance and clinical outcome in elective orthopaedic surgery: a controlled interrupted time series study.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Lauren; Hadi, Mohammed; Pickering, Sharon; Robertson, Eleanor; Griffin, Damian; Collins, Gary; Rivero-Arias, Oliver; Catchpole, Ken; McCulloch, Peter; New, Steve

    2015-04-20

    To evaluate the effectiveness of aviation-style teamwork training in improving operating theatre team performance and clinical outcomes. 3 operating theatres in a UK district general hospital, 1 acting as a control group and the other 2 as the intervention group. 72 operations (37 intervention, 35 control) were observed in full by 2 trained observers during two 3-month observation periods, before and after the intervention period. A 1-day teamwork training course for all staff, followed by 6 weeks of weekly in-service coaching to embed learning. We measured team non-technical skills using Oxford NOTECHS II, (evaluating the whole team and the surgical, anaesthetic and nursing subteams, and evaluated technical performance using the Glitch count. We evaluated compliance with the WHO checklist by recording whether time-out (T/O) and sign-out (S/O) were attempted, and whether T/O was fully complied with. We recorded complications, re-admissions and duration of hospital stay using hospital administrative data. We compared the before-after change in the intervention and control groups using 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression modelling. Mean NOTECHS II score increased significantly from 71.6 to 75.4 in the active group but remained static in the control group (p=0.047). Among staff subgroups, the nursing score increased significantly (p=0.006), but the anaesthetic and surgical scores did not. The attempt rate for WHO T/O procedures increased significantly in both active and control groups, but full compliance with T/O improved only in the active group (p=0.003). Mean glitch rate was unchanged in the control group but increased significantly (7.2-10.2/h, p=0.002) in the active group. Teamwork training was associated with improved non-technical skills in theatre teams but also with a rise in operative glitches. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Evaluating trauma team performance in a Level I trauma center: Validation of the trauma team communication assessment (TTCA-24).

    PubMed

    DeMoor, Stephanie; Abdel-Rehim, Shady; Olmsted, Richard; Myers, John G; Parker-Raley, Jessica

    2017-07-01

    Nontechnical skills (NTS), such as team communication, are well-recognized determinants of trauma team performance and good patient care. Measuring these competencies during trauma resuscitations is essential, yet few valid and reliable tools are available. We aimed to demonstrate that the Trauma Team Communication Assessment (TTCA-24) is a valid and reliable instrument that measures communication effectiveness during activations. Two tools with adequate psychometric strength (Trauma Nontechnical Skills Scale [T-NOTECHS], Team Emergency Assessment Measure [TEAM]) were identified during a systematic review of medical literature and compared with TTCA-24. Three coders used each tool to evaluate 35 stable and 35 unstable patient activations (defined according to Advanced Trauma Life Support criteria). Interrater reliability was calculated between coders using the intraclass correlation coefficient. Spearman rank correlation coefficient was used to establish concurrent validity between TTCA-24 and the other two validated tools. Coders achieved an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.87 for stable patient activations and 0.78 for unstable activations scoring excellent on the interrater agreement guidelines. The median score for each assessment showed good team communication for all 70 videos (TEAM, 39.8 of 54; T-NOTECHS, 17.4 of 25; and TTCA-24, 87.4 of 96). A significant correlation between TTTC-24 and T-NOTECHS was revealed (p = 0.029), but no significant correlation between TTCA-24 and TEAM (p = 0.77). Team communication was rated slightly better across all assessments for stable versus unstable patient activations, but not statistically significant. TTCA-24 correlated with T-NOTECHS, an instrument measuring nontechnical skills for trauma teams, but not TEAM, a tool that assesses communication in generic emergency settings. TTCA-24 is a reliable and valid assessment that can be a useful adjunct when evaluating interpersonal and team communication during trauma

  18. The Impact of Rudeness on Medical Team Performance: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Riskin, Arieh; Erez, Amir; Foulk, Trevor A; Kugelman, Amir; Gover, Ayala; Shoris, Irit; Riskin, Kinneret S; Bamberger, Peter A

    2015-09-01

    Iatrogenesis often results from performance deficiencies among medical team members. Team-targeted rudeness may underlie such performance deficiencies, with individuals exposed to rude behavior being less helpful and cooperative. Our objective was to explore the impact of rudeness on the performance of medical teams. Twenty-four NICU teams participated in a training simulation involving a preterm infant whose condition acutely deteriorated due to necrotizing enterocolitis. Participants were informed that a foreign expert on team reflexivity in medicine would observe them. Teams were randomly assigned to either exposure to rudeness (in which the expert's comments included mildly rude statements completely unrelated to the teams' performance) or control (neutral comments). The videotaped simulation sessions were evaluated by 3 independent judges (blinded to team exposure) who used structured questionnaires to assess team performance, information-sharing, and help-seeking. The composite diagnostic and procedural performance scores were lower for members of teams exposed to rudeness than to members of the control teams (2.6 vs 3.2 [P = .005] and 2.8 vs 3.3 [P = .008], respectively). Rudeness alone explained nearly 12% of the variance in diagnostic and procedural performance. A model specifying information-sharing and help-seeking as mediators linking rudeness to team performance explained an even greater portion of the variance in diagnostic and procedural performance (R(2) = 52.3 and 42.7, respectively). Rudeness had adverse consequences on the diagnostic and procedural performance of the NICU team members. Information-sharing mediated the adverse effect of rudeness on diagnostic performance, and help-seeking mediated the effect of rudeness on procedural performance. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Student-Led Project Teams: Significance of Regulation Strategies in High- and Low-Performing Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Judith

    2016-01-01

    We studied group and individual co-regulatory and self-regulatory strategies of self-managed student project teams using data from intragroup peer evaluations and a postproject survey. We found that high team performers shared their research and knowledge with others, collaborated to advise and give constructive criticism, and demonstrated moral…

  20. The Influence of Proactive Socialization Behaviors and Team Socialization on Individual Performance in the Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennaforte, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of the role and the social exchange theories, this research investigated the direct and indirect antecedents of three dimensions of team performance (proficiency, adaptivity, proactivity) developed through cooperative education. The theoretical model examined how proactive socialization behaviors led to team socialization and team…

  1. Student-Led Project Teams: Significance of Regulation Strategies in High- and Low-Performing Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Judith

    2016-01-01

    We studied group and individual co-regulatory and self-regulatory strategies of self-managed student project teams using data from intragroup peer evaluations and a postproject survey. We found that high team performers shared their research and knowledge with others, collaborated to advise and give constructive criticism, and demonstrated moral…

  2. Increasing Student-Learning Team Effectiveness with Team Charters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, Phillip; Pavett, Cynthia; Hunsaker, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    Because teams are a ubiquitous part of most organizations today, it is common for business educators to use team assignments to help students experientially learn about course concepts and team process. Unfortunately, students frequently experience a number of problems during team assignments. The authors describe the results of their research and…

  3. Increasing Student-Learning Team Effectiveness with Team Charters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, Phillip; Pavett, Cynthia; Hunsaker, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    Because teams are a ubiquitous part of most organizations today, it is common for business educators to use team assignments to help students experientially learn about course concepts and team process. Unfortunately, students frequently experience a number of problems during team assignments. The authors describe the results of their research and…

  4. Team members' interaction anxiety and team-training effectiveness: a catastrophic relationship?

    PubMed

    Naber, Andrew M; McDonald, Jennifer N; Asenuga, Olabisi A; Arthur, Winfred

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, we examined the relationship between team members' interaction anxiety and team-training effectiveness. Training in the context of teams can be focused on either individual or team outcomes. Relatedly, the individual differences of team members can hinder or facilitate the effectiveness of training for both individuals and the team as a collective. Interaction anxiety is an understudied individual difference that has been shown to be negatively related to training effectiveness in individual contexts. However, its effects in team-training contexts are yet to be investigated. A sample of 492 students in 123 four-person teams was trained to operate a complex, computer-based team task Interaction anxiety negatively related to team cohesion and team-training effectiveness. A cusp catastrophe model fit the data and showed that teams with more than one high-interaction-anxiety member were negatively affected. Interaction anxiety inhibits the social activities of team training, in turn reducing team-training effectiveness when there is more than one high-interaction-anxiety individual on the training team. These results highlight the importance of examining interaction anxiety as a training team compositional variable that may inhibit behaviors and team processesnecessary to capitalize on the positive social activities on which team training depends since the interaction anxiety composition of training teams may serve as an important boundary condition on the effectiveness team-training interventions.

  5. The performance environment of the England youth soccer teams.

    PubMed

    Pain, Matthew A; Harwood, Chris

    2007-10-01

    In the present study, we examined the performance environment of the England youth soccer teams. Using a semi-structured protocol with a prospective sample, national coaches (n = 6), sport scientists (n = 3), and players (n = 4) were interviewed directly following international tournaments about the factors that positively and negatively influenced performance. Qualitative content analysis revealed the following factors as major positive influences on performance: adhering to a consistent tournament strategy, player understanding, strong team cohesion, organized entertainment activities, detailed knowledge of opposition, an effective physical rest/recovery strategy, and previous tournament experience. Major factors perceived to have negatively influenced performance included: over-coaching, player boredom, player anxiety, physical superiority of the opposition, physical fatigue over the tournament, problems sleeping, and lack of information on the opposition. Eight overall dimensions emerged to describe the performance environment: planning and organization, physical environment, tactical factors, development and performance philosophy, psychological factors, physical factors, social factors, and coaching. The findings support recent work that suggests the performance environment is multifaceted, with performance being contingent upon a broad range of interacting factors that go beyond the traditional psychosocial and physical domains.

  6. Evaluating the effectiveness of health care teams.

    PubMed

    Mickan, Sharon M

    2005-05-01

    While it is recognised that effective health care teams are associated with quality patient care, the literature is comparatively sparse in defining the outcomes of effective teamwork. This literature review of the range of organisational, team and individual benefits of teamwork complements an earlier article which summarised the antecedent conditions for (input) and team processes (throughput) of effective teams. This article summarises the evidence for a range of outcome measures of effective teams. Organisational benefits of teamwork include reduced hospitalisation time and costs, reduced unanticipated admissions, better accessibility for patients, and improved coordination of care. Team benefits include efficient use of health care services, enhanced communication and professional diversity. Patients report benefits of enhanced satisfaction, acceptance of treatment and improved health outcomes. Finally, team members report enhanced job satisfaction, greater role clarity and enhanced well-being. Due to the inherent complexity of teamwork, a constituency model of team evaluation is supported where key stakeholders identify and measure the intended benefits of a team.

  7. Female College Athlete Leadership and Team Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galicinao, Brianne M.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study contributes to the research on athlete leadership and team effectiveness in college sports. Athletic departments and sports coaches could benefit from a study about athlete leadership and team effectiveness in order to assist their student-leaders with leadership development and explore additional means to help improve team…

  8. Female College Athlete Leadership and Team Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galicinao, Brianne M.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study contributes to the research on athlete leadership and team effectiveness in college sports. Athletic departments and sports coaches could benefit from a study about athlete leadership and team effectiveness in order to assist their student-leaders with leadership development and explore additional means to help improve team…

  9. Team Primacy Concept (TPC) Based Employee Evaluation and Job Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muniute, Eivina I.; Alfred, Mary V.

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative study explored how employees learn from Team Primacy Concept (TPC) based employee evaluation and how they use the feedback in performing their jobs. TPC based evaluation is a form of multirater evaluation, during which the employee's performance is discussed by one's peers in a face-to-face team setting. The study used Kolb's…

  10. The Effect of Restoration of a Field of View on Stinger Team Performance in a Chemical Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-01

    overcomes the performance deficit associated with a particular article of chemical protective clothing or with the entire ensemble (Headley, Brecht...Col- lectina NASA workload ratinas: A DaDer-and-Dencil Dackage (version 2.11. Moffet Field, CA: NASA-Ames Research Center. Spielberger, C. D. (1983

  11. The Effects of Cognitive Thinking Styles, Trust, Conflict Management on Online Students' Learning and Virtual Team Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiaojing; Magjuka, Richard J.; Lee, Seung-hee

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive style has been regarded as one of the important variables to predict individual cognitive functioning. This paper describes an empirical study that examined the role of thinking styles in relation to students' online learning and teamwork performance. Two hundred and eight students in an online MBA (Master of Business Administration)…

  12. Is team confidence the key to success? The reciprocal relation between collective efficacy, team outcome confidence, and perceptions of team performance during soccer games.

    PubMed

    Fransen, Katrien; Decroos, Steven; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; Vande Broek, Gert; De Cuyper, Bert; Vanroy, Jari; Boen, Filip

    2015-01-01

    The present manuscript extends previous research on the reciprocal relation between team confidence and perceived team performance in two ways. First, we distinguished between two types of team confidence; process-oriented collective efficacy and outcome-oriented team outcome confidence. Second, we assessed both types not only before and after the game, but for the first time also during half-time, thereby providing deeper insight into their dynamic relation with perceived team performance. Two field studies were conducted, each with 10 male soccer teams (N = 134 in Study 1; N = 125 in Study 2). Our findings provide partial support for the reciprocal relation between players' team confidence (both collective efficacy and team outcome confidence) and players' perceptions of the team's performance. Although both types of players' team confidence before the game were not significantly related to perceived team performance in the first half, players' team confidence during half-time was positively related to perceived team performance in the second half. Additionally, our findings consistently demonstrated a relation between perceived team performance and players' subsequent team confidence. Considering that team confidence is a dynamical process, which can be affected by coaches and players, our findings open new avenues to optimise team performance.

  13. Centrality and charisma: comparing how leader networks and attributions affect team performance.

    PubMed

    Balkundi, Prasad; Kilduff, Martin; Harrison, David A

    2011-11-01

    When leaders interact in teams with their subordinates, they build social capital that can have positive effects on team performance. Does this social capital affect team performance because subordinates come to see the leader as charismatic? We answered this question by examining 2 models. First, we tested the charisma-to-centrality model according to which the leader's charisma facilitates the occupation of a central position in the informal advice network. From this central position, the leader positively influences team performance. Second, we examined the centrality-to-charisma model according to which charisma is attributed to those leaders who are socially active in terms of giving and receiving advice. Attributed charisma facilitates increased team performance. We tested these 2 models in 2 different studies. In the first study, based on time-separated, multisource data emanating from members of 56 work teams, we found support for the centrality-to-charisma model. Formal leaders who were central within team advice networks were seen as charismatic by subordinates, and this charisma was associated with high team performance. To clarify how leader network centrality affected the emergence of charismatic leadership, we designed Study 2 in which, for 79 student teams, we measured leader networking activity and leader charisma at 2 different points in time and related these variables to team performance measured at a third point in time. On the basis of this temporally separated data set, we again found support for the centrality-to-charisma model.

  14. Advanced practice nursing, health care teams, and perceptions of team effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Kelley; Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie; Ritchie, Judith A; Lamothe, Lise

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of an extensive review of the organizational and health care literature of advanced practice nursing (APN) roles, health care teams, and perceptions of team effectiveness. Teams have a long history in health care. Managers play an important role in mobilizing resources, guiding expectations of APN roles in teams and within organizations, and facilitating team process. Researchers have identified a number of advantages to the addition of APN roles in health care teams. The process within health care teams are dynamic and responsive to their surrounding environment. It appears that teams and perceptions of team effectiveness need to be understood in the broader context in which the teams are situated. Key team process are identified for team members to perceive their team as effective. The concepts of teamwork, perceptions of team effectiveness, and the introduction of APN roles in teams have been studied disparately. An exploration of the links between these concepts may further our understanding the health care team's perceptions of team effectiveness when APN roles are introduced. Such knowledge could contribute to the effective deployment of APN roles in health care teams and improve the delivery of health care services to patients and families.

  15. Advanced practice nursing, health care teams, and perceptions of team effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Kelley; Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie; Ritchie, Judith A; Lamothe, Lise

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of an extensive review of the organizational and health care literature of advanced practice nursing (APN) roles, health care teams, and perceptions of team effectiveness. Teams have a long history in health care. Managers play an important role in mobilizing resources, guiding expectations of APN roles in teams and within organizations, and facilitating team process. Researchers have identified a number of advantages to the addition of APN roles in health care teams. The process within health care teams are dynamic and responsive to their surrounding environment. It appears that teams and perceptions of team effectiveness need to be understood in the broader context in which the teams are situated. Key team process are identified for team members to perceive their team as effective. The concepts of teamwork, perceptions of team effectiveness, and the introduction of APN roles in teams have been studied disparately. An exploration of the links between these concepts may further our understanding the health care team's perceptions of team effectiveness when APN roles are introduced. Such knowledge could contribute to the effective deployment of APN roles in health care teams and improve the delivery of health care services to patients and families.

  16. A Review of Computerized Team Performance Measures to Identify Military-Relevant, Low-to-Medium Fidelity Tests of Small Group Effectiveness during Shared Information Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    Scientific Meeting of the Aerospace Medical Association’s, May, in Anchorage, AK. Lenox, T., Hahn, S., Lewis, M., and Roth , E. 1999. Improving...2007. Measurement of the behavioural, cognitive, and motivational factors underlying team performance. Fishermans Bend, Victoria , Australia: Defense

  17. Social-physiological compliance as a determinant of team performance.

    PubMed

    Henning, R A; Boucsein, W; Gil, M C

    2001-04-01

    A cybernetic model of behavior predicts that team performance may depend on physiological compliance among participants. This laboratory study tested if compliance in electrodermal activity (EDA), heart rate or breathing in two-person teams (N=16) was predictive of team performance or coordination in a continuous tracking task simulating teleoperation. Visual contact among participants was manipulated. Physiological compliance was scored with weighted coherence and cross correlation. Separate multiple regression analyses revealed that the task completion time was predicted by coherence measures for EDA and heart, but only at a trend level for breathing. Task completion time was also predicted by heart cross correlation. Team tracking error was predicted by coherence measures for EDA, heart and breathing, and also heart cross correlation. While social-visual contact did not have an impact, physiological compliance was predictive of improved performance, with coherence robust over all three physiological measures. Heart cross correlation showed the strongest predictive relationships. These results provide evidence that physiological compliance among team members may benefit team performance. While further study is needed, physiological compliance may someday provide a needed tool for the study of team work, and an objective means to guide the ergonomic design of complex sociotechnical systems requiring a high degree of team proficiency.

  18. Developing observational measures of performance in surgical teams

    PubMed Central

    Healey, A; Undre, S; Vincent, C

    2004-01-01

    Team performance is increasingly recognised as an essential foundation of good surgical care and a determinant of good surgical outcome. To understand team performance and to develop team training, reliable and valid measures of team performance are necessary. Currently there is no firm consensus on how to measure teamwork, partly because of a lack of empirical data to validate measures. The input–process–output model provides a framework for surgical team studies. Objective observational measures are needed in surgery as a basis for interdisciplinary team assessment and training. The "observational teamwork assessment for surgery" (OTAS) tool assesses two facets of the surgical process. Observer 1 monitors specific tasks carried out by team members, under the categories patient, environment, equipment, provisions, and communications. Observer 2 uses a behavioural observation scale to rate behaviour for the three surgical phases (pre-operative, operative, and post-operative) with components of teamwork: cooperation, leadership, coordination, awareness, and communication. Illustrative data from an initial series of 50 cases is presented here. The OTAS tool enables two independent observers, a surgeon and psychologist, to record detailed information both on what the theatre team does and how they do it, and has the potential to identify constraints on performance that might relate to surgical outcome. PMID:15465953

  19. Studies in interactive communication. II - The effects of four communication modes on the linguistic performance of teams during cooperative problem solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapanis, A.; Parrish, R. N.; Ochsman, R. B.; Weeks, G. D.

    1977-01-01

    Two-man teams solved credible, 'real world' problems for which computer assistance has been or could be useful. Conversations were carried on in one of four modes of communication: typewriting, handwriting, voice, and natural unrestricted communication. Performance was assessed on three classes of dependent measures: time to solution, behavioral measures of activity, and linguistic measures. Significant differences among the communication modes were found in each of the three classes. This paper is concerned mainly with the results of the linguistic analyses. Linguistic performance was assessed with 182 measures, most of which turned out to be redundant and some of which were useless or meaningless. Those that remain show that although problems can be solved faster in the oral modes than in the hard-copy modes, the oral modes are characterized by many more messages, sentences, words, and unique words; much higher communication rates; but lower type-token ratios. Although a number of significant problem and job-role effects were found, there were relatively few significant interactions of modes with thsse variables. It appears, therefore, that the mode effects hold for both problems and for both job roles assigned to the subjects.

  20. Studies in interactive communication. II - The effects of four communication modes on the linguistic performance of teams during cooperative problem solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapanis, A.; Parrish, R. N.; Ochsman, R. B.; Weeks, G. D.

    1977-01-01

    Two-man teams solved credible, 'real world' problems for which computer assistance has been or could be useful. Conversations were carried on in one of four modes of communication: typewriting, handwriting, voice, and natural unrestricted communication. Performance was assessed on three classes of dependent measures: time to solution, behavioral measures of activity, and linguistic measures. Significant differences among the communication modes were found in each of the three classes. This paper is concerned mainly with the results of the linguistic analyses. Linguistic performance was assessed with 182 measures, most of which turned out to be redundant and some of which were useless or meaningless. Those that remain show that although problems can be solved faster in the oral modes than in the hard-copy modes, the oral modes are characterized by many more messages, sentences, words, and unique words; much higher communication rates; but lower type-token ratios. Although a number of significant problem and job-role effects were found, there were relatively few significant interactions of modes with thsse variables. It appears, therefore, that the mode effects hold for both problems and for both job roles assigned to the subjects.

  1. Performance and Perceptions of Student Teams Created and Stratified Based on Academic Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Kostka-Rokosz, Maria; Tataronis, Gary; Goldman, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To compare student performance, elements of peer evaluation and satisfaction of teams created according to students’ course entrance grade point average (GPA). Methods. Two course sections were divided into teams of four to five students utilizing Comprehensive Assessment of Team Member Effectiveness (CATME) software. Results. Of 336 students enrolled, 324 consented to participation. Weekly team quiz averages were 99.1% (higher GPA), 97.2% (lower GPA), 97.7% (mixed GPA). Weekly individual quiz averages were 87.2% (higher GPA), 83.3% (lower GPA), 85.2% (mixed GPA). Students with same GPA performed similarly individually independent of team assignment. Satisfaction ranged from 4.52 (higher GPA), 4.73 (lower GPA), 4.53 (mixed GPA). Conclusion. Academically stronger students in mixed GPA teams appeared to be at a slight disadvantage compared to similar students in higher GPA teams. There was no difference in team performance for academically weaker students in lower GPA versus mixed GPA teams. Team satisfaction was higher in lower GPA teams. PMID:28496267

  2. Highly effective cystic fibrosis clinical research teams: critical success factors.

    PubMed

    Retsch-Bogart, George Z; Van Dalfsen, Jill M; Marshall, Bruce C; George, Cynthia; Pilewski, Joseph M; Nelson, Eugene C; Goss, Christopher H; Ramsey, Bonnie W

    2014-08-01

    Bringing new therapies to patients with rare diseases depends in part on optimizing clinical trial conduct through efficient study start-up processes and rapid enrollment. Suboptimal execution of clinical trials in academic medical centers not only results in high cost to institutions and sponsors, but also delays the availability of new therapies. Addressing the factors that contribute to poor outcomes requires novel, systematic approaches tailored to the institution and disease under study. To use clinical trial performance metrics data analysis to select high-performing cystic fibrosis (CF) clinical research teams and then identify factors contributing to their success. Mixed-methods research, including semi-structured qualitative interviews of high-performing research teams. CF research teams at nine clinical centers from the CF Foundation Therapeutics Development Network. Survey of site characteristics, direct observation of team meetings and facilities, and semi-structured interviews with clinical research team members and institutional program managers and leaders in clinical research. Critical success factors noted at all nine high-performing centers were: 1) strong leadership, 2) established and effective communication within the research team and with the clinical care team, and 3) adequate staff. Other frequent characteristics included a mature culture of research, customer service orientation in interactions with study participants, shared efficient processes, continuous process improvement activities, and a businesslike approach to clinical research. Clinical research metrics allowed identification of high-performing clinical research teams. Site visits identified several critical factors leading to highly successful teams that may help other clinical research teams improve clinical trial performance.

  3. The Nut Island effect. When good teams go wrong.

    PubMed

    Levy, P F

    2001-03-01

    The team that operated the Nut Island sewage treatment plant in Quincy, Massachusetts, was every manager's dream. Members of the group performed difficult, dangerous work without complaint. They needed little supervision. They improvised their way around operational difficulties and budgetary constraints. They were dedicated to the organization's mission. But their hard work led to catastrophic failure. How could such a good team go so wrong? In this article, the author tells the story of the Nut Island plant and identifies a common, yet destructive organizational dynamic that can strike any business. The Nut Island effect begins with a deeply committed team that is isolated from a company's mainstream activities. Pitted against this team is its senior management. Preoccupied with high-visibility problems, management assigns the team a vital but behind-the-scenes task. Allowed considerable autonomy, team members become adept at managing themselves. Management takes the team's self-sufficiency for granted and ignores team members when they ask for help. When trouble strikes and management is unresponsive, team members feel betrayed and develop an us-against-the-world mentality. They stay out of management's line of sight, hiding problems. The team begins to make up its own rules, which mask grave problems in its operations. Management, disinclined in the first place to focus on the team's work, is easily misled by team members' skillful disguising of its performance deficiencies. The resulting stalemate typically can be broken only by an external event. The Nut Island story serves as a warning to managers who concentrate their efforts on their organization's most visible shortcomings: sometimes the most debilitating problems are the ones we can't see.

  4. Speech acts, communication problems, and fighter pilot team performance.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Jonathan; Andersson, Jan

    Two aspects of team communication, speech acts and communication problems, and their relation to team performance in a team air combat simulator were studied. The purpose was to enhance the understanding of how team performance is related to team communication. Ten Swedish fighter pilots and four fighter controllers of varying experience participated. Data were collected during fighter simulator training involving four pilots and one fighter controller in each of two teams. Speech acts were collapsed over seven categories and communication problems over five categories. Communication was studied from two perspectives: critical situation outcome and mission outcome. Some problems were closely related to particular speech acts. Speech act frequency, especially meta-communications and tactics, was highest when winning. However, the timing of tactics in critical situations needs further research. Communication problem frequency was highest for runs which ended equally. The most common problem was simultaneous speech, possibly because of the simulator radio system. The number of speech acts was related to enhanced performance but in a complex manner. Thus in order to work efficiently team members need to communicate, but to communicate sufficiently and at appropriate times. This work has applications for fighter pilot and controller team training and the development of communication standards.

  5. Effects of 4-Week Training Intervention with Unknown Loads on Power Output Performance and Throwing Velocity in Junior Team Handball Players

    PubMed Central

    Sabido, Rafael; Hernández-Davó, Jose Luis; Botella, Javier; Moya, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the effect of 4-week unknown vs known loads strength training intervention on power output performance and throwing velocity in junior team handball players. Methods Twenty-eight junior team-handball players (17.2 ± 0.6 years, 1.79 ± 0.07 m, 75.6 ± 9.4 kg)were divided into two groups (unknown loads: UL; known loads: KL). Both groups performed two sessions weekly consisting of four sets of six repetitions of the bench press throw exercise, using the 30%, 50% and 70% of subjects’ individual 1 repetition maximum (1RM). In each set, two repetitions with each load were performed, but the order of the loads was randomised. In the KL group, researchers told the subjects the load to mobilise prior each repetition, while in the UL group, researchers did not provide any information. Maximal dynamic strength (1RM bench press), power output (with 30, 50 and 70% of 1RM) and throwing velocity (7 m standing throw and 9 m jumping throw) were assessed pre- and post-training intervention. Results Both UL and KL group improved similarly their 1RM bench press as well as mean and peak power with all loads. There were significant improvements in power developed in all the early time intervals measured (150 ms) with the three loads (30, 50, 70% 1RM) in the UL group, while KL only improved with 30% 1RM (all the time intervals) and with 70% 1RM (at certain time intervals). Only the UL group improved throwing velocity in both standing (4.7%) and jumping (5.3%) throw (p > 0.05). Conclusions The use of unknown loads has led to greater gains in power output in the early time intervals as well as to increases in throwing velocity compared with known loads. Therefore unknown loads are of significant practical use to increase both strength and in-field performance in a short period of training. PMID:27310598

  6. Knowledge Sharing in Virtual Teams: The Impact on Trust, Collaboration, and Team Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsharo, Mohammad K.

    2013-01-01

    Virtual teams are utilized by organizations to gather experts to collaborate online in order to accomplish organizational tasks. However, the characteristics of these teams create challenges to effective collaboration and effective team outcome. Collaboration is an essential component of teamwork, the notion of forming teams in organizations is…

  7. Knowledge Sharing in Virtual Teams: The Impact on Trust, Collaboration, and Team Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsharo, Mohammad K.

    2013-01-01

    Virtual teams are utilized by organizations to gather experts to collaborate online in order to accomplish organizational tasks. However, the characteristics of these teams create challenges to effective collaboration and effective team outcome. Collaboration is an essential component of teamwork, the notion of forming teams in organizations is…

  8. Improving code team performance and survival outcomes: implementation of pediatric resuscitation team training.

    PubMed

    Knight, Lynda J; Gabhart, Julia M; Earnest, Karla S; Leong, Kit M; Anglemyer, Andrew; Franzon, Deborah

    2014-02-01

    To determine whether implementation of Composite Resuscitation Team Training is associated with improvement in survival to discharge and code team performance after pediatric in-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest. We conducted a prospective observational study with historical controls at a 302-bed, quaternary care, academic children's hospital. Inpatients who experienced cardiopulmonary arrest between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2009, were included in the control group (123 patients experienced 183 cardiopulmonary arrests) and between July 1, 2010, and June 30, 2011, were included in the intervention group (46 patients experienced 65 cardiopulmonary arrests). Code team members were introduced to Composite Resuscitation Team Training and continued training throughout the intervention period (January 1, 2010-June 30, 2011). Training was integrated via in situ code blue simulations (n = 16). Simulations were videotaped and participants were debriefed for education and process improvement. Primary outcome was survival to discharge after cardiopulmonary arrest. Secondary outcome measures were 1) change in neurologic morbidity from admission to discharge, measured by Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category, and 2) code team adherence to resuscitation Standard Operating Performance variables. The intervention group was more likely to survive than the control group (60.9% vs 40.3%) (unadjusted odds ratio, 2.3 [95% CI, 1.15-4.60]) and had no significant change in neurologic morbidity (mean change in Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category 0.11 vs 0.27; p = 0.37). Code teams exposed to Composite Resuscitation Team Training were more likely than control group to adhere to resuscitation Standard Operating Performance (35.9% vs 20.8%) (unadjusted odds ratio, 2.14 [95% CI, 1.15-3.99]). After adjusting for adherence to Standard Operating Performance, survival remained improved in the intervention period (odds ratio, 2.13 [95% CI, 1.06-4.36]). With implementation of Composite

  9. Organizational Leadership For Building Effective Health Care Teams

    PubMed Central

    Taplin, Stephen H.; Foster, Mary K.; Shortell, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    The movement toward accountable care organizations and patient-centered medical homes will increase with implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). The ACA will therefore give further impetus to the growing importance of teams in health care. Teams typically involve 2 or more people embedded in a larger social system who differentiate their roles, share common goals, interact with each other, and perform tasks affecting others. Multiple team types fit within this definition, and they all need support from leadership to succeed. Teams have been invoked as a necessary tool to address the needs of patients with multiple chronic conditions and to address medical workforce shortages. Invoking teams, however, is much easier than making them function effectively, so we need to consider the implications of the growing emphasis on teams. Although the ACA will spur team development, organizational leadership must use what we know now to train, support, and incentivize team function. Meanwhile, we must also advance research regarding teams in health care to give those leaders more evidence to guide their work. PMID:23690329

  10. Organizational leadership for building effective health care teams.

    PubMed

    Taplin, Stephen H; Foster, Mary K; Shortell, Stephen M

    2013-01-01

    The movement toward accountable care organizations and patient-centered medical homes will increase with implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). The ACA will therefore give further impetus to the growing importance of teams in health care. Teams typically involve 2 or more people embedded in a larger social system who differentiate their roles, share common goals, interact with each other, and perform tasks affecting others. Multiple team types fit within this definition, and they all need support from leadership to succeed. Teams have been invoked as a necessary tool to address the needs of patients with multiple chronic conditions and to address medical workforce shortages. Invoking teams, however, is much easier than making them function effectively, so we need to consider the implications of the growing emphasis on teams. Although the ACA will spur team development, organizational leadership must use what we know now to train, support, and incentivize team function. Meanwhile, we must also advance research regarding teams in health care to give those leaders more evidence to guide their work.

  11. Finding the key to a better code: code team restructure to improve performance and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Prince, Cynthia R; Hines, Elizabeth J; Chyou, Po-Huang; Heegeman, David J

    2014-09-01

    Code teams respond to acute life threatening changes in a patient's status 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. If any variable, whether a medical skill or non-medical quality, is lacking, the effectiveness of a code team's resuscitation could be hindered. To improve the overall performance of our hospital's code team, we implemented an evidence-based quality improvement restructuring plan. The code team restructure, which occurred over a 3-month period, included a defined number of code team participants, clear identification of team members and their primary responsibilities and position relative to the patient, and initiation of team training events and surprise mock codes (simulations). Team member assessments of the restructured code team and its performance were collected through self-administered electronic questionnaires. Time-to-defibrillation, defined as the time the code was called until the start of defibrillation, was measured for each code using actual time recordings from code summary sheets. Significant improvements in team member confidence in the skills specific to their role and clarity in their role's position were identified. Smaller improvements were seen in team leadership and reduction in the amount of extra talking and noise during a code. The average time-to-defibrillation during real codes decreased each year since the code team restructure. This type of code team restructure resulted in improvements in several areas that impact the functioning of the team, as well as decreased the average time-to-defibrillation, making it beneficial to many, including the team members, medical institution, and patients. © 2014 Marshfield Clinic.

  12. Creating Effective Teams: A Guide for Members and Leaders. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelan, Susan A.

    2005-01-01

    "Creating Effective Teams: A Guide for Members and Leaders" is a practical guide for building and sustaining top performing teams. Based on the author's many years of consulting experience with teams in the public and private sector, the Second Edition describes why teams are important, how they function, and what makes them productive. A…

  13. A Meta-Analysis of Research on Student Team Effectiveness: A Proposed Application of Phased Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Charlotte S.

    Despite the increased emphasis on team work in the academic environment, managing a student team so that the team process is effective remains problematic. In fact, some professors believe students are being taught ineffective team behavior such as free loading or relying on star performers and procrastination . Most research on student team…

  14. Team performance and collective efficacy in the dynamic psychology of competitive team: a Bayesian network analysis.

    PubMed

    Fuster-Parra, P; García-Mas, A; Ponseti, F J; Leo, F M

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this paper was to discover the relationships among 22 relevant psychological features in semi-professional football players in order to study team's performance and collective efficacy via a Bayesian network (BN). The paper includes optimization of team's performance and collective efficacy using intercausal reasoning pattern which constitutes a very common pattern in human reasoning. The BN is used to make inferences regarding our problem, and therefore we obtain some conclusions; among them: maximizing the team's performance causes a decrease in collective efficacy and when team's performance achieves the minimum value it causes an increase in moderate/high values of collective efficacy. Similarly, we may reason optimizing team collective efficacy instead. It also allows us to determine the features that have the strongest influence on performance and which on collective efficacy. From the BN two different coaching styles were differentiated taking into account the local Markov property: training leadership and autocratic leadership. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Teamwork skills, shared mental models, and performance in simulated trauma teams: an independent group design

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Non-technical skills are seen as an important contributor to reducing adverse events and improving medical management in healthcare teams. Previous research on the effectiveness of teams has suggested that shared mental models facilitate coordination and team performance. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether demonstrated teamwork skills and behaviour indicating shared mental models would be associated with observed improved medical management in trauma team simulations. Methods Revised versions of the 'Anesthetists' Non-Technical Skills Behavioural marker system' and 'Anti-Air Teamwork Observation Measure' were field tested in moment-to-moment observation of 27 trauma team simulations in Norwegian hospitals. Independent subject matter experts rated medical management in the teams. An independent group design was used to explore differences in teamwork skills between higher-performing and lower-performing teams. Results Specific teamwork skills and behavioural markers were associated with indicators of good team performance. Higher and lower-performing teams differed in information exchange, supporting behaviour and communication, with higher performing teams showing more effective information exchange and communication, and less supporting behaviours. Behavioural markers of shared mental models predicted effective medical management better than teamwork skills. Conclusions The present study replicates and extends previous research by providing new empirical evidence of the significance of specific teamwork skills and a shared mental model for the effective medical management of trauma teams. In addition, the study underlines the generic nature of teamwork skills by demonstrating their transferability from different clinical simulations like the anaesthesia environment to trauma care, as well as the potential usefulness of behavioural frequency analysis in future research on non-technical skills. PMID:20807420

  16. Human Performance Modeling and Simulation for Launch Team Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peaden, Cary J.; Payne, Stephen J.; Hoblitzell, Richard M., Jr.; Chandler, Faith T.; LaVine, Nils D.; Bagnall, Timothy M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes ongoing research into modeling and simulation of humans for launch team analysis, training, and evaluation. The initial research is sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA)'s Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA) and NASA's Exploration Program and is focused on current and future launch team operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The paper begins with a description of existing KSC launch team environments and procedures. It then describes the goals of new Simulation and Analysis of Launch Teams (SALT) research. The majority of this paper describes products from the SALT team's initial proof-of-concept effort. These products include a nominal case task analysis and a discrete event model and simulation of launch team performance during the final phase of a shuttle countdown; and a first proof-of-concept training demonstration of launch team communications in which the computer plays most roles, and the trainee plays a role of the trainee's choice. This paper then describes possible next steps for the research team and provides conclusions. This research is expected to have significant value to NASA's Exploration Program.

  17. High-performance teams for current and future physician leaders: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Jain, Anshu K; Thompson, Jon M; Chaudry, Joseph; McKenzie, Shaun; Schwartz, Richard W

    2008-01-01

    The scope of patient management increasingly crosses the defined lines of multiple medical specialties and services to meet patient needs. Concurrently, many hospitals and health-care systems have adapted new multidisciplinary team structures that provide patient-centric care as opposed to the more traditional discipline-centered delivery of care. As health care continues to evolve, the use of teams becomes even more critical in allowing interdependence between multiple disciplines to provide excellent care delivery and ongoing patient management. The use of teams permeates the health-care industry (and has done so for many years), but confusion about the structure, role, and use of teams contributes to limited effectiveness. The health-care industry's underuse of the fundamentals of corporate teamwork has, in part, created ineffective team leadership at the physician level. As the first in a series of documents on teamwork, this article is intended to introduce the reader to the rudiments of team theory and to present an introduction to a model of teamwork. The role of current and future physician leaders in ensuring team effectiveness is emphasized in this discussion. By educating health-care professionals on the foundations of high-performance teamwork, we hope to accomplish two main goals. The first goal is to help create a common and systematic taxonomy that physician leaders and institutional management can agree on and refer to concerning the development of high-performance health-care teams. The second goal is to stimulate the development of future physician leaders who use proven teamwork principles as a powerful modality to achieve efficient and optimal patient care. Most importantly, we wish to emphasize that health care, both philosophically and practically, is delivered best through high-performance teams. For such teams to perform properly, the organizational environment must support the team concept tangibly. In concert, we believe the best manner in

  18. Agility in Team Sports: Testing, Training and Factors Affecting Performance.

    PubMed

    Paul, Darren J; Gabbett, Tim J; Nassis, George P

    2016-03-01

    Agility is an important characteristic of team sports athletes. There is a growing interest in the factors that influence agility performance as well as appropriate testing protocols and training strategies to assess and improve this quality. The objective of this systematic review was to (1) evaluate the reliability and validity of agility tests in team sports, (2) detail factors that may influence agility performance, and (3) identify the effects of different interventions on agility performance. The review was undertaken in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We conducted a search of PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and SPORTDiscus databases. We assessed the methodological quality of intervention studies using a customized checklist of assessment criteria. Intraclass correlation coefficient values were 0.80-0.91, 0.10-0.81, and 0.81-0.99 for test time using light, video, and human stimuli. A low-level reliability was reported for youth athletes using the video stimulus (0.10-0.30). Higher-level participants were shown to be, on average, 7.5% faster than their lower level counterparts. Reaction time and accuracy, foot placement, and in-line lunge movement have been shown to be related to agility performance. The contribution of strength remains unclear. Efficacy of interventions on agility performance ranged from 1% (vibration training) to 7.5% (small-sided games training). Agility tests generally offer good reliability, although this may be compromised in younger participants responding to various scenarios. A human and/or video stimulus seems the most appropriate method to discriminate between standard of playing ability. Decision-making and perceptual factors are often propositioned as discriminant factors; however, the underlying mechanisms are relatively unknown. Research has focused predominantly on the physical element of agility. Small-sided games and video training may offer effective

  19. Effects of Team-Initiated Problem Solving on Decision Making by Schoolwide Behavior Support Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Anne W.; Horner, Robert H.; Newton, J. Stephen; Algozzine, Robert F.; Algozzine, Kate M.; Frank, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the problem-solving practices of school teams engaged in implementing and improving schoolwide behavior support implementation. A multiple baseline design across 4 elementary school teams was used to assess the effects of the Team-Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) training program (1 day of team training plus 2 coached…

  20. Team Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, David C.

    1963-01-01

    A study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of principals in structuring teaching teams; to assess background and personality characteristics appearing essential to successful individual and team performance; and to select personality factor scores which would predict individual and team success. Subjects were 31 teaching teams (99…

  1. The Impact of Team Identification on Biased Predictions of Player Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wann, Daniel L.; Koch, Katrina; Knoth, Tasha; Fox, David; Aljubaily, Hesham; Lantz, Christopher D.

    2006-01-01

    The current investigation examined sport fans' impressions of an athlete described as a potential member of their team or a potential member of a rival team. In Study 1, we predicted that individuals would exhibit an ingroup favoritism effect by reporting more positive evaluations of the player's performance when he was described as a…

  2. Finding the Key to a Better Code: Code Team Restructure to Improve Performance and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Cynthia R.; Hines, Elizabeth J.; Chyou, Po-Huang; Heegeman, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Code teams respond to acute life threatening changes in a patient’s status 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. If any variable, whether a medical skill or non-medical quality, is lacking, the effectiveness of a code team’s resuscitation could be hindered. To improve the overall performance of our hospital’s code team, we implemented an evidence-based quality improvement restructuring plan. The code team restructure, which occurred over a 3-month period, included a defined number of code team participants, clear identification of team members and their primary responsibilities and position relative to the patient, and initiation of team training events and surprise mock codes (simulations). Team member assessments of the restructured code team and its performance were collected through self-administered electronic questionnaires. Time-to-defibrillation, defined as the time the code was called until the start of defibrillation, was measured for each code using actual time recordings from code summary sheets. Significant improvements in team member confidence in the skills specific to their role and clarity in their role’s position were identified. Smaller improvements were seen in team leadership and reduction in the amount of extra talking and noise during a code. The average time-to-defibrillation during real codes decreased each year since the code team restructure. This type of code team restructure resulted in improvements in several areas that impact the functioning of the team, as well as decreased the average time-to-defibrillation, making it beneficial to many, including the team members, medical institution, and patients. PMID:24667218

  3. Becoming Team Players: Team Members' Mastery of Teamwork Knowledge as a Predictor of Team Task Proficiency and Observed Teamwork Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschfeld, Robert R.; Jordan, Mark H.; Feild, Hubert S.; Giles, William F.; Armenakis, Achilles A.

    2006-01-01

    The authors explored the idea that teams consisting of members who, on average, demonstrate greater mastery of relevant teamwork knowledge will demonstrate greater task proficiency and observed teamwork effectiveness. In particular, the authors posited that team members' mastery of designated teamwork knowledge predicts better team task…

  4. Becoming Team Players: Team Members' Mastery of Teamwork Knowledge as a Predictor of Team Task Proficiency and Observed Teamwork Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschfeld, Robert R.; Jordan, Mark H.; Feild, Hubert S.; Giles, William F.; Armenakis, Achilles A.

    2006-01-01

    The authors explored the idea that teams consisting of members who, on average, demonstrate greater mastery of relevant teamwork knowledge will demonstrate greater task proficiency and observed teamwork effectiveness. In particular, the authors posited that team members' mastery of designated teamwork knowledge predicts better team task…

  5. Quantifying the Performance of Individual Players in a Team Activity

    PubMed Central

    Duch, Jordi; Waitzman, Joshua S.; Amaral, Luís A. Nunes

    2010-01-01

    Background Teamwork is a fundamental aspect of many human activities, from business to art and from sports to science. Recent research suggest that team work is of crucial importance to cutting-edge scientific research, but little is known about how teamwork leads to greater creativity. Indeed, for many team activities, it is not even clear how to assign credit to individual team members. Remarkably, at least in the context of sports, there is usually a broad consensus on who are the top performers and on what qualifies as an outstanding performance. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to determine how individual features can be quantified, and as a test bed for other team-based human activities, we analyze the performance of players in the European Cup 2008 soccer tournament. We develop a network approach that provides a powerful quantification of the contributions of individual players and of overall team performance. Conclusions/Significance We hypothesize that generalizations of our approach could be useful in other contexts where quantification of the contributions of individual team members is important. PMID:20585387

  6. Believing in "us": exploring leaders' capacity to enhance team confidence and performance by building a sense of shared social identity.

    PubMed

    Fransen, Katrien; Haslam, S Alexander; Steffens, Niklas K; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; De Cuyper, Bert; Boen, Filip

    2015-03-01

    The present study examined the impact of athlete leaders' perceived confidence on their teammates' confidence and performance. Male basketball players (N = 102) participated in groups of 4. To manipulate leaders' team confidence, the appointed athlete leader of each newly formed basketball team (a confederate) expressed either high or low team confidence. The results revealed an effect of team confidence contagion such that team members had greater team confidence when the leader expressed high (rather than low) confidence in the team's success. Second, the present study sought to explain the mechanisms through which this contagion occurs. In line with the social identity approach to leadership, structural equation modeling demonstrated that this effect was partially mediated by team members' increased team identification. Third, findings indicated that when leaders expressed high team confidence, team members' performance increased during the test, but when leaders expressed low confidence, team members' performance decreased. Athlete leaders thus have the capacity to shape team members' confidence--and hence their performance--in both positive and negative ways. In particular, by showing that they believe in "our team," leaders are able not only to make "us" a psychological reality, but also to transform "us" into an effective operational unit. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Testing Game-Based Performance in Team-Handball.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Herbert; Orwat, Matthias; Hinz, Matthias; Pfusterschmied, Jürgen; Bacharach, David W; von Duvillard, Serge P; Müller, Erich

    2016-10-01

    Wagner, H, Orwat, M, Hinz, M, Pfusterschmied, J, Bacharach, DW, von Duvillard, SP, and Müller, E. Testing game-based performance in team-handball. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2794-2801, 2016-Team-handball is a fast paced game of defensive and offensive action that includes specific movements of jumping, passing, throwing, checking, and screening. To date and to the best of our knowledge, a game-based performance test (GBPT) for team-handball does not exist. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and validate such a test. Seventeen experienced team-handball players performed 2 GBPTs separated by 7 days between each test, an incremental treadmill running test, and a team-handball test game (TG) (2 × 20 minutes). Peak oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak), blood lactate concentration (BLC), heart rate (HR), sprinting time, time of offensive and defensive actions as well as running intensities, ball velocity, and jump height were measured in the game-based test. Reliability of the tests was calculated using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Additionally, we measured V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak in the incremental treadmill running test and BLC, HR, and running intensities in the team-handball TG to determine the validity of the GBPT. For the test-retest reliability, we found an ICC >0.70 for the peak BLC and HR, mean offense and defense time, as well as ball velocity that yielded an ICC >0.90 for the V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak in the GBPT. Percent walking and standing constituted 73% of total time. Moderate (18%) and high (9%) intensity running in the GBPT was similar to the team-handball TG. Our results indicated that the GBPT is a valid and reliable test to analyze team-handball performance (physiological and biomechanical variables) under conditions similar to competition.

  8. Team-building through sailing: effects on health status, job satisfaction and work performance of health care professionals involved in organ and tissue donation.

    PubMed

    Ponzin, Diego; Fasolo, Adriano; Vidale, Enrico; Pozzi, Annalaura; Bottignolo, Elisa; Calabrò, Francesco; Rupolo, Giampietro

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a team-building learning project on job satisfaction, psychological wellbeing, and performance of health care workers involved in the process of organ and tissue donation. The project was conducted between June and September 2011 and consisted of two one-day meetings and a one week sailing, involving 20 staff members. GHQ-12, MBI-HSS, and 25 items taken from the Multidimensional Organizational Health Questionnaire (MOHQ) were used to assess health status, burnout, and job satisfaction. Results of the descriptive analyses were expressed as mean ± SD and as counts and percentages; Chi-square test was used to evaluate statistical significance of differences before and after the initiative. 6 (30,0%) participants showed the likelihood to suffering from anxiety and depression (i.e. recognized as 'cases' by the GHQ-12), 3 (15.0%) of them at baseline and 3 (15.0%), different from the previous ones, in the post-intervention. The presence of stress was revealed in 9 (45.0%) and 12 subjects (60.0%) before and after the experience, respectively (6 subjects showed the presence of stress in both circumstances). We documented 4 burnout cases, 3 (15.0%) at baseline and 1 (5.0%) after the experience. Nevertheless, about 80% of the participants showed a high degree ofjob satisfaction, in terms of positive influence of job in the professional satisfaction and of clear satisfaction for the organization, during both evaluation. In respect to 2010, the number of organ donors and that of ocular tissue donors improved of about 16% and 10%, respectively, during the year of the project and in the following year (mean value). We recognize that our team-building project for personnel involved in the stressful and demanding setting of organ and tissue donation, worthwhile and recompensing at the same time, possibly influenced the personal commitment and the quality of job provided. The high level of stress showed by participants should be

  9. Performance Assessment of Military Teams in Simulator and Live Exercises

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    correlation coefficient ρ. A Kruskal- Wallis analysis of variance (ANOVA) accounted for tied ranks to compare ranks across teams, and post-hoc Steel...exercises in 2014 and 2017 . The demands for operational effectiveness and competitive advantage on the battlefield create a need for effective...rank-order correlation coefficient ρ (Siegel & Castellan, 1988). A Kruskal- Wallis ANOVA accounted for tied ranks to compare ranks across teams, and

  10. Employee Knowledge Sharing in Work Teams: Effects of Team Diversity, Emergent States, and Team Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noh, Jae Hang

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge sharing in work teams is one of the critical team processes. Without sharing of knowledge, work teams and organizations may not be able to fully utilize the diverse knowledge brought into work teams by their members. The purpose of this study was to investigate antecedents and underlying mechanisms influencing the extent to which team…

  11. Employee Knowledge Sharing in Work Teams: Effects of Team Diversity, Emergent States, and Team Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noh, Jae Hang

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge sharing in work teams is one of the critical team processes. Without sharing of knowledge, work teams and organizations may not be able to fully utilize the diverse knowledge brought into work teams by their members. The purpose of this study was to investigate antecedents and underlying mechanisms influencing the extent to which team…

  12. Adaptation of teams in response to unforeseen change: effects of goal difficulty and team composition in terms of cognitive ability and goal orientation.

    PubMed

    LePine, Jeffery A

    2005-11-01

    Halfway through a 3-hour experiment in which 64 3-person teams needed to make a series of decisions, a communications channel began to deteriorate, and teams needed to adapt their system of roles in order to perform effectively. Consistent with previous research, team composition with respect to members' cognitive ability was positively associated with adaptation. Adaptation was also influenced by interactions of team goal difficulty and team composition with respect to team members' goal orientation. Teams with difficult goals and staffed with high-performance orientation members were especially unlikely to adapt. Teams with difficult goals and staffed with high-learning orientation members were especially likely to adapt. Supplemental analyses provided insight into the observed effects in that the difficulty of team goals and members' goal orientation predicted interpersonal, transition, and action processes, all of which predicted team adaptation.

  13. Becoming team players: team members' mastery of teamwork knowledge as a predictor of team task proficiency and observed teamwork effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Hirschfeld, Robert R; Jordan, Mark H; Feild, Hubert S; Giles, William F; Armenakis, Achilles A

    2006-03-01

    The authors explored the idea that teams consisting of members who, on average, demonstrate greater mastery of relevant teamwork knowledge will demonstrate greater task proficiency and observed teamwork effectiveness. In particular, the authors posited that team members' mastery of designated teamwork knowledge predicts better team task proficiency and higher observer ratings of effective teamwork, even while controlling for team task proficiency. The authors investigated these hypotheses by developing a structural model and testing it with field data from 92 teams (1,158 team members) in a United States Air Force officer development program focusing on a transportable set of teamwork competencies. The authors obtained proficiency scores on 3 different types of team tasks as well as ratings of effective teamwork from observers. The empirical model supported the authors' hypotheses.

  14. Negative affect reduces team awareness: the effects of mood and stress on computer-mediated team communication.

    PubMed

    Pfaff, Mark S

    2012-08-01

    This article presents research on the effects of varying mood and stress states on within-team communication in a simulated crisis management environment, with a focus on the relationship between communication behaviors and team awareness. Communication plays a critical role in team cognition along with cognitive factors such as attention, memory, and decision-making speed. Mood and stress are known to have interrelated effects on cognition at the individual level, but there is relatively little joint exploration of these factors in team communication in technologically complex environments. Dyadic communication behaviors in a distributed six-person crisis management simulation were analyzed in a factorial design for effects of two levels of mood (happy, sad) and the presence or absence of a time pressure stressor. Time pressure and mood showed several specific impacts on communication behaviors. Communication quantity and efficiency increased under time pressure, though frequent requests for information were associated with poor performance. Teams in happy moods showed enhanced team awareness, as revealed by more anticipatory communication patterns and more detailed verbal responses to teammates than those in sad moods. Results show that the attention-narrowing effects of mood and stress associated with individual cognitive functions demonstrate analogous impacts on team awareness and information-sharing behaviors and reveal a richer understanding of how team dynamics change under adverse conditions. Disentangling stress from mood affords the opportunity to target more specific interventions that better support team awareness and task performance.

  15. Peer-based control in self-managing teams: linking rational and normative influence with individual and group performance.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Greg L; Courtright, Stephen H; Barrick, Murray R

    2012-03-01

    The authors use a multilevel framework to introduce peer-based control as a motivational state that emerges in self-managing teams. The authors specifically describe how peer-based rational control, which is defined as team members perceiving the distribution of economic rewards as dependent on input from teammates, extends and interacts with the more commonly studied normative control force of group cohesion to explain both individual and collective performance in teams. On the basis of data from 587 factory workers in 45 self-managing teams at 3 organizations, peer-based rational control corresponded with higher performance for both individuals and collective teams. Results further demonstrated that the rational and normative mechanism of peer-based control interacted to explain performance at both the individual and team levels. Increased peer-based rational control corresponded with higher individual and collective performance in teams with low cohesion, but the positive effects on performance were attenuated in cohesive teams.

  16. Oxytocin and the biopsychology of performance in team sports.

    PubMed

    Pepping, Gert-Jan; Timmermans, Erik J

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the biopsychological underpinnings of expert performance in team sports. In this paper we show that there is a vast support for oxytocin as a neuropeptide involved in the encouragement of important processes linked to greater team performance in sport. We argue that oxytocin is related to biopsychological processes aimed at convergence of emotions and moods between people, and in doing so it is a critical neuropeptide involved in the shaping of important team processes in sport such as trust, generosity, altruism, cohesion, cooperation, and social motivation, and also envy and gloating. Future research should examine the role of oxytocin in these essential components of sport performance. In particular, the link between oxytocin, emotional contagion and the cultivation of experiences of positive emotions is a worthwhile line of investigation for sport participation and development as well as high performance in sport.

  17. Oxytocin and the Biopsychology of Performance in Team Sports

    PubMed Central

    Pepping, Gert-Jan; Timmermans, Erik J.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the biopsychological underpinnings of expert performance in team sports. In this paper we show that there is a vast support for oxytocin as a neuropeptide involved in the encouragement of important processes linked to greater team performance in sport. We argue that oxytocin is related to biopsychological processes aimed at convergence of emotions and moods between people, and in doing so it is a critical neuropeptide involved in the shaping of important team processes in sport such as trust, generosity, altruism, cohesion, cooperation, and social motivation, and also envy and gloating. Future research should examine the role of oxytocin in these essential components of sport performance. In particular, the link between oxytocin, emotional contagion and the cultivation of experiences of positive emotions is a worthwhile line of investigation for sport participation and development as well as high performance in sport. PMID:22997498

  18. Learning about teams by participating in teams.

    PubMed

    Magrane, Diane; Khan, Omar; Pigeon, Yvette; Leadley, Jennifer; Grigsby, R Kevin

    2010-08-01

    As the work of academic health centers becomes increasingly oriented toward teams and collaboration, professional development in effective team skills becomes increasingly important. The authors sought to determine whether a transdisciplinary program for enhancing teamwork was effective in educating individual team members to translate lessons into productive outcomes of their own institutions' teams. Between 2006 and 2008, the authors used the Learning in Teams model of collaborative team development to design and implement two applications of a national professional development program for members of academic organizations' teams. The purpose of the program was to foster individual skill development in collaborative teamwork. Using pre/post surveys to determine changes in team functioning over the course of the program, the authors evaluated participants' perceptions of the effectiveness of their professional development programs' learning teams and of their home institutions' teams. They analyzed narrative reports of participants' institutional teams' progress for elements including team task management, member dynamics, and institutional outcomes. Pre/post self-assessments of team performance and participants' progress reports on their home teams revealed enhancement of team skills, including clarifying team charge, exploring team purpose, and evaluating team process. Program participants improved their team skills and enhanced productivity of their institutions' teams. The Learning in Teams model can support individual team skills development, enhance institutional team performance in academic health centers, and provide a basis for research in team skills development and team process improvement. It can be adapted to various programs to enhance skills in teamwork.

  19. The Effects of Team Training on Team Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delise, Lisa A.; Gorman, C. Allen; Brooks, Abby M.; Rentsch, Joan R.; Steele-Johnson, Debra

    2010-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to determine relationships between team training and team effectiveness. Results from the 21 studies provided evidence that training is positively related to team effectiveness and effectiveness in five outcome categories: affective, cognitive, subjective task-based skill, objective task-based skill, and teamwork…

  20. Sleep Loss and Complex Team Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    Joseph Fischer General Dynamics Advanced Information Engineering Services Richard Harrison Donald Harville Air Force Research Laboratory...Air Force Material Command ≈General Dynamics Air Force Research Laboratory Human Effectiveness Directorate Advanced Information Services...medications for sleep, depression, or ADHD . The mean age of the participants was 26.1 (±2.6) years. Prior to the experimental session start on Friday

  1. Assessing and developing team effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Stahl, R A; Andersen, S L

    1995-05-01

    Introduction of new decision-oriented information technology, a powerful means of improving competitive performance, can be viewed as one of six elements of culture change. By creating more knowledgeable employees, old hierarchical norms become counterproductive. This demands upgrading job descriptions, collaborative skills, cross-functional networking, pay and progression systems, and leadership styles.

  2. Profile of an Effective Hospice Team Member.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basile, Joseph L.; Stone, Donald B.

    1987-01-01

    Examined competencies that hospice practitioners and experts in the field would agree upon as necessary attributes to being an effective hospice team member. Results indicated strong positive agreement between the rankings of the practitioners on emotional and interpersonal characteristics needed by hospice personnel to effectively function with…

  3. Profile of an Effective Hospice Team Member.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basile, Joseph L.; Stone, Donald B.

    1987-01-01

    Examined competencies that hospice practitioners and experts in the field would agree upon as necessary attributes to being an effective hospice team member. Results indicated strong positive agreement between the rankings of the practitioners on emotional and interpersonal characteristics needed by hospice personnel to effectively function with…

  4. The Role of a Multidimensional Concept of Trust in the Performance of Global Virtual Teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodensteiner, Nan Muir; Stecklein, Jonette M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on the concept of trust as an important ingredient of effective global virtual team performance. Definitions of trust and virtual teams are presented. The concept of trust is developed from its unilateral application (trust, absence of trust) to a multidimensional concept including cognitive and affective components. The special challenges of a virtual team are then discussed with particular emphasis on how a multidimensional concept of trust impacts these challenges. Propositions suggesting the multidimensional concept of trust moderates the negative impacts of distance, cross cultural and organizational differences, the effects of electronically mediated communication, reluctance to share information and a lack of hi story/future on the performance of virtual teams are stated. The paper concludes with recommendations and a set of techniques to build both cognitive and affective trust in virtual teams.

  5. Development of a team performance scale to assess undergraduate health professionals.

    PubMed

    Sigalet, Elaine; Donnon, Tyrone; Cheng, Adam; Cooke, Suzette; Robinson, Traci; Bissett, Wendy; Grant, Vincent

    2013-07-01

    Interprofessional simulation-based team training is strongly endorsed as a potential solution for improving teamwork in health care delivery. Unfortunately, there are few teamwork evaluation instruments. The present study developed and tested the psychometric characteristics of the newly developed KidSIM Team Performance Scale checklist. A quasi-experimental research design engaging a convenience sample of 196 undergraduate medical, nursing, and respiratory therapy students was completed in the 2010-2011 academic year. Multidisciplinary student teams participated in a simulation-based curriculum that included the completion of two acute illness management scenarios, resulting in 282 independent reviews by evaluators from medicine, nursing, and respiratory therapy. The authors investigated the underlying factors of the performance checklist and examined the performance scores of an experimental and a control team-training-curriculum group. Participation in the supplemental team training curriculum was related to higher team performance scores (P < .001). All teams at Time 2 achieved higher scores than at Time 1 (P < .05). The reliability coefficient for the total performance scale was α = 0.90. Factor analysis supported a three-factor solution (accounting for 67.9% of the variance) with an emphasis on roles and responsibilities (five items) and communication (six items) subscale factors. When simulation is used in acute illness management training, the KidSIM Team Performance Scale provides reliable, valid score interpretation of undergraduates' team process based on communication effectiveness and identification of roles and responsibilities. Implementation of a supplementary team training curriculum significantly enhances students' performance in multidisciplinary simulation-based scenarios at the undergraduate level.

  6. Performance factors in women's team handball: physical and physiological aspects--a review.

    PubMed

    Manchado, Carmen; Tortosa-Martínez, Juan; Vila, Helena; Ferragut, Carmen; Platen, Petra

    2013-06-01

    Team handball is an Olympic sport played professionally in many European countries. Nevertheless, a scientific knowledge regarding women's elite team handball demands is limited. Thus, the purpose of this article was to review a series of studies (n = 33) on physical characteristics, physiological attributes, physical attributes, throwing velocity, and on-court performances of women's team handball players. Such empirical and practical information is essential to design and implement successful short-term and long-term training programs for women's team handball players. Our review revealed that (a) players that have a higher skill level are taller and have a higher fat-free mass; (b) players who are more aerobically resistant are at an advantage in international level women team handball; (c) strength and power exercises should be emphasized in conditioning programs, because they are associated with both sprint performance and throwing velocity; (d) speed drills should also be implemented in conditioning programs but after a decrease in physical training volume; (e) a time-motion analysis is an effective method of quantifying the demands of team handball and provides a conceptual framework for the specific physical preparation of players. According to our results, there are only few studies on on-court performance and time-motion analysis for women's team handball players, especially concerning acceleration profiles. More studies are needed to examine the effectiveness of different training programs of women's team handball players' physiological and physical attributes.

  7. Individual deals within teams: Investigating the role of relative i-deals for employee performance.

    PubMed

    Vidyarthi, Prajya R; Singh, Satvir; Erdogan, Berrin; Chaudhry, Anjali; Posthuma, Richard; Anand, Smriti

    2016-11-01

    The authors extend i-deals theory to an individual-within-a-team context. Drawing upon social comparison theory, they contend that individuals will react to their own i-deals within the context of group members' i-deals. Therefore, they examine the role of relative i-deals (an individual's i-deals relative to the team's average) in relation to employee performance. Furthermore, integrating social comparison theory with social identity theory the authors assert that the behavioral outcomes of relative i-deals are influenced by the team's social and structural attributes of team orientation and task interdependence. Finally, they contend that the perceptions of one's relative standing with the leader, or leader-member exchange social comparison (LMXSC), mediate the i-deals-outcome relationship in groups with low team orientation and task interdependence. Results of multilevel modeling using time-lagged data from 321 employees nested in 46 teams demonstrated that the positive relationship between relative i-deals and employee performance was stronger in groups with low team orientation and task interdependence, and the mediation effect of LMXSC was stronger in teams with low rather than high team orientation. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Review of Research on Team Effectiveness: Implications for Teams in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abelson, Michael A.; Woodman, Richard W.

    1983-01-01

    Characteristics of new teams are reviewed with attention being given to variables that must be addressed to ensure their effectiveness. A process model of team building also is described, and implications of research on group effectiveness for multidisciplinary teams in schools are discussed. (Author/PN)

  9. The impact of relational norms on the effectiveness of health and human service teams.

    PubMed

    Amundson, Susan J

    2005-01-01

    This investigation examined the relationship between relational norms with the perceived effectiveness of an infrequently studied team-the health care and human service team. Twenty health care and human service teams and their team supervisors from 11 medical and social service centers participated. In separate team sessions, 85 health care and human service professionals completed the Group Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire, a team effectiveness scale, and a demographic form. Each team's supervisor also rated the team's performance. Based on a Model of Group Emotional Intelligence (ie, group interaction levels, relational norms), significant correlations were found between group emotional competence and member-perceived team effectiveness. No correlations were found between supervisor-perceived team effectiveness and team group emotional competence. The relational norms of creating an affirmative environment, demonstrating a caring orientation, and building relationships beyond the team predicted member-perceived team effectiveness. This study makes an important contribution to the theory and practice of teams in health care and human service organizations. The results of the study suggest that a positive, caring, and supportive work environment impacts a team's effectiveness within such an organization.

  10. Cognition-based and affect-based trust as mediators of leader behavior influences on team performance.

    PubMed

    Schaubroeck, John; Lam, Simon S K; Peng, Ann Chunyan

    2011-07-01

    We develop a model in which cognitive and affective trust in the leader mediate the relationship between leader behavior and team psychological states that, in turn, drive team performance. The model is tested on a sample of 191 financial services teams in Hong Kong and the U.S. Servant leadership influenced team performance through affect-based trust and team psychological safety. Transformational leadership influenced team performance indirectly through cognition-based trust. Cognition-based trust directly influenced team potency and indirectly (through affect-based trust) influenced team psychological safety. The effects of leader behavior on team performance were fully mediated through the trust in leader variables and the team psychological states. Servant leadership explained an additional 10% of the variance in team performance beyond the effect of transformational leadership. We discuss implications of these results for research on the relationship between leader behavior and team performance, and for efforts to enhance leader development by combining knowledge from different leadership theories.

  11. Effectiveness of team training on fall prevention.

    PubMed

    Spiva, LeeAnna; Robertson, Bethany; Delk, Marcia L; Patrick, Sara; Kimrey, Margaret Michelle; Green, Beverly; Gallagher, Erin

    2014-01-01

    A longitudinal, repeated-measures design with intervention and comparison groups was used to evaluate the effect of a training curriculum based on TeamSTEPPS with video vignettes focusing on fall prevention. Questionnaires, behavioral observations, and fall data were collected over 9 months from both groups located at separate hospitals. The intervention group questionnaire scores improved on all measures except teamwork perception, while observations revealed an improvement in communication compared with the control group. Furthermore, a 60% fall reduction rate was reported in the intervention group. Team training may be a promising intervention to reduce falls.

  12. Enhancing Mental Models for Team Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Mathieu, Maynard, Rapp, & Mangos , 2010) propose that there are two types of TMM that essentially represent two domains of knowledge, one that is task... Mangos , P. M. (2010). Interactive effects of team and task shared mental models as related to air traffic controllers’ collective efficacy and

  13. Group Development of Effective Governance Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mar, Deborah Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the behaviors of effective governance teams as they move through stages of group development during regular school board meetings, utilizing the task and process behaviors identified in the Group Development Assessment (Jones & Bearley, 1994). Methodology. This mixed-methods…

  14. Group Development of Effective Governance Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mar, Deborah Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the behaviors of effective governance teams as they move through stages of group development during regular school board meetings, utilizing the task and process behaviors identified in the Group Development Assessment (Jones & Bearley, 1994). Methodology. This mixed-methods…

  15. Team Proactivity as a Linking Mechanism between Team Creative Efficacy, Transformational Leadership, and Risk-Taking Norms and Team Creative Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Yuhyung; Eom, Chanyoung

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing body of research on creativity in team contexts, very few attempts have been made to explore the team-level antecedents and the mediating processes of team creative performance on the basis of a theoretical framework. To address this gap, drawing on Paulus and Dzindolet's (2008) group creativity model, this study proposed team…

  16. Team Proactivity as a Linking Mechanism between Team Creative Efficacy, Transformational Leadership, and Risk-Taking Norms and Team Creative Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Yuhyung; Eom, Chanyoung

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing body of research on creativity in team contexts, very few attempts have been made to explore the team-level antecedents and the mediating processes of team creative performance on the basis of a theoretical framework. To address this gap, drawing on Paulus and Dzindolet's (2008) group creativity model, this study proposed team…

  17. Teacher Professionalism and Team Performance Pay: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Pamela; Combs, Julie P.; Bustamante, Rebecca M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods research study was to explore teachers' perceptions of their professional behaviors when they worked in schools that awarded team performance pay. Teachers' archival responses from two questionnaires were analyzed using mixed methods data analysis techniques (Year 1, n = 368; Year 2, n = 649). Most teachers had…

  18. Team Performance Pay and Motivation Theory: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Pamela; Combs, Julie P.; Bustamante, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore teachers' perceptions of a team performance pay program in a large suburban school district through the lens of motivation theories. Mixed data analysis was used to analyze teacher responses from two archival questionnaires (Year 1, n = 368; Year 2, n = 649). Responses from teachers who participated in the team…

  19. Morning-evening difference of team-handball-related short-term maximal physical performances in female team handball players.

    PubMed

    Mhenni, Thouraya; Michalsik, Lars Bojsen; Mejri, Mohamed Arbi; Yousfi, Narimen; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar; Chamari, Karim

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated the two different time-of-day effect on team-handball-related short-term maximal physical performances. At two different time-of-day, fifteen young female team handball players performed different physical tests: HandGrip (HG) test, Ball-Throwing Velocity (BTV) test, Modified Agility T-test (MAT) and Repeated Shuttle-Sprint and Jump Ability (RSSJA) test. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale was determined following the termination of the last test. Measurements were performed at two separate testing sessions (i.e., in the morning (7:00-8:30 h) and in the early evening (17:00-18:30 h)) in a randomised and counter-balanced setting on non-consecutive days. The results showed that HG (P = 0.0013), BTV (P = 0.0027) and MAT (P < 0.001) performances were better in the evening compared with the morning. During RSSJA, both best and mean sprint times were shorter in the evening compared to the morning (P < 0.001). Moreover, during the latter test, mean jump performance was higher in the evening compared to the morning (P = 0.026). However, there was no morning-evening difference in the best jump performance during RSSJA. Likewise, jump performance decrement was not affected by the time-of-day of testing. On the other hand, RPE fluctuated, with morning nadirs and afternoon/early evening highest values. The findings suggest that in female team handball players, team-handball-related short-term maximal physical performances were better in the afternoon than in the morning.

  20. Team-Based Learning Enhances Performance in Introductory Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Given the problems associated with the traditional lecture method, the constraints associated with large classes, and the effectiveness of active learning, continued development and testing of efficient student-centered learning approaches are needed. This study explores the effectiveness of team-based learning (TBL) in a large-enrollment…

  1. Grasping the Dynamic Complexity of Team Learning: An Integrative Model for Effective Team Learning in Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decuyper, Stefan; Dochy, Filip; Van den Bossche, Piet

    2010-01-01

    In this article we present an integrative model of team learning. Literature shows that effective team learning requires the establishment of a dialogical space amongst team members, in which communicative behaviours such as "sharing", "co-construction" and "constructive conflict" are balanced. However, finding this balance is not enough.…

  2. Grasping the Dynamic Complexity of Team Learning: An Integrative Model for Effective Team Learning in Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decuyper, Stefan; Dochy, Filip; Van den Bossche, Piet

    2010-01-01

    In this article we present an integrative model of team learning. Literature shows that effective team learning requires the establishment of a dialogical space amongst team members, in which communicative behaviours such as "sharing", "co-construction" and "constructive conflict" are balanced. However, finding this balance is not enough.…

  3. The impact of positive and negative intraoperative surgeons' leadership behaviors on surgical team performance.

    PubMed

    Barling, Julian; Akers, Amy; Beiko, Darren

    2017-07-18

    The effects of surgeons' leadership on team performance are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the simultaneous effects of transformational, passive, abusive supervision and over-controlling leadership behaviors by surgeons on surgical team performance. Trained observers attended 150 randomly selected operations at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Observers recorded instances of the four leadership behaviors enacted by the surgeon. Postoperatively, team members completed validated questionnaires rating team cohesion and collective efficacy. Multiple regression analyses were computed. Data were analyzed using the complex modeling function in MPlus. Surgeons' abusive supervision was negatively associated with psychological safety (unstandardized B = -0.352, p < 0.01). Both surgeons' abusive supervision (unstandardized B = -0.237, p < 0.01), and over-controlling leadership (unstandardized B = -0.230, p < 0.05) were negatively associated with collective efficacy. This study is the first to assess the simultaneous effects of surgeons' positive and negative leadership behaviors on intraoperative team performance. Significant effects only surfaced for negative leadership behaviors; transformational leadership did not positively influence team performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effective interprofessional teams: "contact is not enough" to build a team.

    PubMed

    Sargeant, Joan; Loney, Elaine; Murphy, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    Teamwork and interprofessional practice and learning are becoming integral to health care. It is anticipated that these approaches can maximize professional resources and optimize patient care. Current research, however, suggests that primary health care teams may lack the capacity to function at a level that enhances the individual contributions of their members and team effectiveness. This study explores perceptions of effective primary health care teams to determine the related learning needs of primary health care professionals. Primary health care team members with a particular interest in teamwork shared perspectives of effective teamwork and educational needs in interprofessional focus groups. Transcripts from nine focus groups with a total of 61 participants were analyzed using content analysis and grounded hermeneutic approaches to identify themes. Five themes of primary care team effectiveness emerged: (1) understanding and respecting team members' roles, (2) recognizing that teams require work, (3) understanding primary health care, (4) working together: practical "know-how" for sharing patient care, and (5) communication. Communication was identified as the essential factor in effective primary health care teams. Several characteristics of effective primary health care teams and the related knowledge and skills that professionals require as effective team members are identified. Effective teamwork requires specific cognitive, technical, and affective competence.

  5. Integrated manufacturing approach to attain benchmark team performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shau-Ron; Nguyen, Andrew; Naguib, Hussein

    1994-09-01

    A Self-Directed Work Team (SDWT) was developed to transfer a polyimide process module from the research laboratory to our wafer fab facility for applications in IC specialty devices. The SDWT implemented processes and tools based on the integration of five manufacturing strategies for continuous improvement. These were: Leadership Through Quality (LTQ), Total Productive Maintenance (TMP), Cycle Time Management (CTM), Activity-Based Costing (ABC), and Total Employee Involvement (TEI). Utilizing these management techniques simultaneously, the team achieved six sigma control of all critical parameters, increased Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) from 20% to 90%, reduced cycle time by 95%, cut polyimide manufacturing cost by 70%, and improved its overall team member skill level by 33%.

  6. Sports teams as superorganisms: implications of sociobiological models of behaviour for research and practice in team sports performance analysis.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Ricardo; Araújo, Duarte; Correia, Vanda; Davids, Keith

    2012-08-01

    Significant criticisms have emerged on the way that collective behaviours in team sports have been traditionally evaluated. A major recommendation has been for future research and practice to focus on the interpersonal relationships developed between team players during performance. Most research has typically investigated team game performance in subunits (attack or defence), rather than considering the interactions of performers within the whole team. In this paper, we offer the view that team performance analysis could benefit from the adoption of biological models used to explain how repeated interactions between grouping individuals scale to emergent social collective behaviours. We highlight the advantages of conceptualizing sports teams as functional integrated 'super-organisms' and discuss innovative measurement tools, which might be used to capture the superorganismic properties of sports teams. These tools are suitable for revealing the idiosyncratic collective behaviours underlying the cooperative and competitive tendencies of different sports teams, particularly their coordination of labour and the most frequent channels of communication and patterns of interaction between team players. The principles and tools presented here can serve as the basis for novel approaches and applications of performance analysis devoted to understanding sports teams as cohesive, functioning, high-order organisms exhibiting their own peculiar behavioural patterns.

  7. The Influence of Unsportsmanlike Fouls on Basketball Teams' Performance According to Context-Related Variables.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Miguel-Ángel; Ortega Toro, Enrique; Furley, Philip

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to analyze the temporal effects that unsportsmanlike fouls may have on basketball teams' scoring performance under consideration of context-related variables. The authors analyzed 130 unsportsmanlike fouls from 362 elite basketball games (men's and women's Olympic Games, European and World Championships). The context-related variables studied were score-line, quality of opposition, timeout situation, minutes remaining, and player status. The data were analyzed with linear-regression models. The results showed that both teams (the team that made the foul and the opponent) had similar positive scoring performances during 1 and 3 ball possessions after the unsportsmanlike foul (short-term effect). However, 5 ball possessions after the foul (midterm effect), the team that made the foul had a scoring disadvantage (-0.96) and the opponent team an advantage (0.78). The context-related variable quality of opposition was significant only during 1 ball possession, with negative effects for the team that made the foul and positive effects for the opponent. The final outcome showed a positive effect for score-line when the unsportsmanlike foul was made (0.96) and for quality of opposition (0.64).

  8. An Experimental Study of Team Size and Performance on a Complex Task.

    PubMed

    Mao, Andrew; Mason, Winter; Suri, Siddharth; Watts, Duncan J

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between team size and productivity is a question of broad relevance across economics, psychology, and management science. For complex tasks, however, where both the potential benefits and costs of coordinated work increase with the number of workers, neither theoretical arguments nor empirical evidence consistently favor larger vs. smaller teams. Experimental findings, meanwhile, have relied on small groups and highly stylized tasks, hence are hard to generalize to realistic settings. Here we narrow the gap between real-world task complexity and experimental control, reporting results from an online experiment in which 47 teams of size ranging from n = 1 to 32 collaborated on a realistic crisis mapping task. We find that individuals in teams exerted lower overall effort than independent workers, in part by allocating their effort to less demanding (and less productive) sub-tasks; however, we also find that individuals in teams collaborated more with increasing team size. Directly comparing these competing effects, we find that the largest teams outperformed an equivalent number of independent workers, suggesting that gains to collaboration dominated losses to effort. Importantly, these teams also performed comparably to a field deployment of crisis mappers, suggesting that experiments of the type described here can help solve practical problems as well as advancing the science of collective intelligence.

  9. An Experimental Study of Team Size and Performance on a Complex Task

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Andrew; Mason, Winter; Suri, Siddharth; Watts, Duncan J.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between team size and productivity is a question of broad relevance across economics, psychology, and management science. For complex tasks, however, where both the potential benefits and costs of coordinated work increase with the number of workers, neither theoretical arguments nor empirical evidence consistently favor larger vs. smaller teams. Experimental findings, meanwhile, have relied on small groups and highly stylized tasks, hence are hard to generalize to realistic settings. Here we narrow the gap between real-world task complexity and experimental control, reporting results from an online experiment in which 47 teams of size ranging from n = 1 to 32 collaborated on a realistic crisis mapping task. We find that individuals in teams exerted lower overall effort than independent workers, in part by allocating their effort to less demanding (and less productive) sub-tasks; however, we also find that individuals in teams collaborated more with increasing team size. Directly comparing these competing effects, we find that the largest teams outperformed an equivalent number of independent workers, suggesting that gains to collaboration dominated losses to effort. Importantly, these teams also performed comparably to a field deployment of crisis mappers, suggesting that experiments of the type described here can help solve practical problems as well as advancing the science of collective intelligence. PMID:27082239

  10. Using Linguistic Analysis to Identify High Performing Teams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    linguistic analysis (specifically the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count, LIWC) in identifying potential high performing teams. In a series of studies...usefulness of one technological tool, the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count (LIWC; Pennebaker, Francis, & Booth, 2001), in identifying productive groups. The...LIWC analyzes text on a word -by- word basis, categorizes each word using 72 linguistic dimensions (e.g., pronoun, present tense, cognitive process), and

  11. The impact of subgroup type and subgroup configurational properties on work team performance.

    PubMed

    Carton, Andrew M; Cummings, Jonathon N

    2013-09-01

    Scholars have invoked subgroups in a number of theories related to teams, yet certain tensions in the literature remain unresolved. In this article, we address 2 of these tensions, both relating to how subgroups are configured in work teams: (a) whether teams perform better with a greater number of subgroups and (b) whether teams perform better when they have imbalanced subgroups (majorities and minorities are present) or balanced subgroups (subgroups are of equal size). We predict that the impact of the number and balance of subgroups depends on the type of subgroup-whether subgroups are formed according to social identity (i.e., identity-based subgroups) or information processing (i.e., knowledge-based subgroups). We first propose that teams are more adversely affected by 2 identity-based subgroups than by any other number, yet the uniquely negative impact of a 2-subgroup configuration is not apparent for knowledge-based subgroups. Instead, a larger number of knowledge-based subgroups is beneficial for performance, such that 2 subgroups is worse for performance when compared with 3 or more subgroups but better for performance when compared with no subgroups or 1 subgroup. Second, we argue that teams perform better when identity-based subgroups are imbalanced yet knowledge-based subgroups are balanced. We also suggest that there are interactive effects between the number and balance of subgroups-however, the nature of this interaction depends on the type of subgroup. To test these predictions, we developed and validated an algorithm that measures the configurational properties of subgroups in organizational work teams. Results of a field study of 326 work teams from a multinational organization support our predictions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Recognizing "me" benefits "we": Investigating the positive spillover effects of formal individual recognition in teams.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Zheng, Xiaoming; Harris, T Brad; Liu, Xin; Kirkman, Bradley L

    2016-07-01

    Many organizations use formal recognition programs (e.g., "employee of the month") as a way to publically acknowledge an individual employee's outstanding performance and motivate continued high performance. However, it remains unclear whether emphasizing individual achievement in a team context is beneficial or detrimental for recipients' teammates and, by extension, the team as a whole. Drawing on a social influence perspective, we examine potential spillover effects of individual formal recognition programs in teams. We hypothesize that a single team member's recognition will produce positive spillover effects on other team members' performance, as well as overall team performance, via social influence processes, especially when the award recipient is located in a central position in a team. Findings from 2 lab experiments of 24 teams and 40 teams (Study 1 and Study 2, respectively) and a field experiment of 52 manufacturing teams (Study 3) reveal that formally recognizing a team member leads to positive changes in her/his teammates' individual and collective performance. Thus, formal social recognition programs can potentially provide a motivational effect beyond individual recipients. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. The influence of personality and ability on undergraduate teamwork and team performance.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Jinny; Parent, David; Basu, Anuradha

    2013-12-01

    The ability to work effectively on a team is highly valued by employers, and collaboration among students can lead to intrinsic motivation, increased persistence, and greater transferability of skills. Moreover, innovation often arises from multidisciplinary teamwork. The influence of personality and ability on undergraduate teamwork and performance is not comprehensively understood. An investigation was undertaken to explore correlations between team outcomes, personality measures and ability in an undergraduate population. Team outcomes included various self-, peer- and instructor ratings of skills, performance, and experience. Personality measures and ability involved the Five-Factor Model personality traits and GPA. Personality, GPA, and teamwork survey data, as well as instructor evaluations were collected from upper division team project courses in engineering, business, political science, and industrial design at a large public university. Characteristics of a multidisciplinary student team project were briefly examined. Personality, in terms of extraversion scores, was positively correlated with instructors' assessment of team performance in terms of oral and written presentation scores, which is consistent with prior research. Other correlations to instructor-, students' self- and peer-ratings were revealed and merit further study. The findings in this study can be used to understand important influences on successful teamwork, teamwork instruction and intervention and to understand the design of effective curricula in this area moving forward. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/2193-1801-2-16) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  14. Coach Mid-Season Replacement and Team Performance in Professional Soccer

    PubMed Central

    Lago-Peñas, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The coaching carousel or turnover is an extreme but frequently occurring phenomenon in soccer. Among the reasons for firing a coach, the most common is the existence of a shock-effect: a new coach would be able to motivate the players better and therefore to improve results. Using data from the Spanish Soccer League during the seasons from 1997–1998 to 2006–2007, this paper investigates the relationship between team performance and coach change over time. The empirical analysis shows that the shock effect of a turnover has a positive impact on team performance in the short term. Results reveal no impact of coach turnover in the long term. The favourable short-term impact on team performance of a coach turnover is followed by continued gradual worsening of results. The turnover effect is nonexistent when the comparison between the new coach and the old coach is done over 10, 15 or 20 matches before and after termination. PMID:23487177

  15. Confluence and convergence: team effectiveness in complex systems.

    PubMed

    Porter-OʼGrady, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Complex adaptive systems require nursing leadership to rethink organizational work and the viability and effectiveness of teams. Much of emergent thinking about complexity and systems and organizations alter the understanding of the nature and function of teamwork and the configuration and leadership of team effort. Reflecting on basic concepts of complexity and their application to team formation, dynamics, and outcomes lays an important foundation for effectively guiding the strategic activity of systems through the focused tactical action of teams. Basic principles of complexity, their impact on teams, and the fundamental elements of team effectiveness are explored.

  16. Using Team-Based Learning to Teach Grade 7 Biology: Student Satisfaction and Improved Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarjoura, Christiane; Tayeh, Paula Abou; Zgheib, Nathalie K.

    2015-01-01

    Team-based learning (TBL) is an innovative form of collaborative learning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate TBL's effect on the performance and satisfaction of grade 7 students in biology in a private school in Lebanon, as well as teachers' willingness to implement this new methodology. An exploratory study was performed whereby two…

  17. Using Team-Based Learning to Teach Grade 7 Biology: Student Satisfaction and Improved Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarjoura, Christiane; Tayeh, Paula Abou; Zgheib, Nathalie K.

    2015-01-01

    Team-based learning (TBL) is an innovative form of collaborative learning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate TBL's effect on the performance and satisfaction of grade 7 students in biology in a private school in Lebanon, as well as teachers' willingness to implement this new methodology. An exploratory study was performed whereby two…

  18. Do you see what we see? The complex effects of perceptual distance between leaders and teams.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Cristina B; Cooper, Cecily D; Conger, Jay A

    2009-01-01

    Previous distance-related theories and concepts (e.g., social distance) have failed to address the sometimes wide disparity in perceptions between leaders and the teams they lead. Drawing from the extensive literature on teams, leadership, and cognitive models of social information processing, the authors develop the concept of leader-team perceptual distance, defined as differences between a leader and a team in perceptions of the same social stimulus. The authors investigate the effects of perceptual distance on team performance, operationalizing the construct with 3 distinct foci: goal accomplishment, constructive conflict, and decision-making autonomy. Analyzing leader, member, and customer survey responses for a large sample of teams, the authors demonstrate that perceptual distance between a leader and a team regarding goal accomplishment and constructive conflict have a nonlinear relationship with team performance. Greater perceptual differences are associated with decreases in team performance. Moreover, this effect is strongest when a team's perceptions are more positive than the leader's are (as opposed to the reverse). This pattern illustrates the pervasive effects that perceptions can have on team performance, highlighting the importance of developing awareness of perceptions in order to increase effectiveness. Implications for theory and practice are delineated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Measuring the effect of conflict on software engineering teams.

    PubMed

    Karn, J S; Cowling, A J

    2008-05-01

    This article describes a project that aimed to uncover the effects of different forms of conflict on team performance during the important feasibility, requirements analysis, and design phases of software engineering (SE) projects. The research subjects were master of science students who were working to produce software commissioned by real-world clients. A template was developed that allowed researchers to record details of any conflicts that occurred. It was found that some forms of conflict were more damaging than others and that the frequency and intensity of specific conflicts are important factors to consider. The experience of the researchers when using the final template suggests that it is a valuable weapon to have in one's arsenal if one is interested in observing and recording the details of conflict in either SE teams or teams in different contexts.

  20. The Five-Factor Model Personality Assessment for Improved Student Design Team Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogot, Madara; Okudan, Gul E.

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have long noted the correlation of various personality traits and team performance. Studies relating aggregate team personality traits to team performance are scattered in the literature and may not always be relevant to engineering design teams. This paper synthesizes the results from applicable Five-Factor Model (FFM)-based…

  1. Technical performance and match-to-match variation in elite football teams.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongyou; Gómez, Miguel-Angel; Gonçalves, Bruno; Sampaio, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that match-to-match variation adds important information to performance descriptors in team sports, as it helps measure how players fine-tune their tactical behaviours and technical actions to the extreme dynamical environments. The current study aims to identify the differences in technical performance of players from strong and weak teams and to explore match-to-match variation of players' technical match performance. Performance data of all the 380 matches of season 2012-2013 in the Spanish First Division Professional Football League were analysed. Twenty-one performance-related match actions and events were chosen as variables in the analyses. Players' technical performance profiles were established by unifying count values of each action or event of each player per match into the same scale. Means of these count values of players from Top3 and Bottom3 teams were compared and plotted into radar charts. Coefficient of variation of each match action or event within a player was calculated to represent his match-to-match variation of technical performance. Differences in the variation of technical performances of players across different match contexts (team and opposition strength, match outcome and match location) were compared. All the comparisons were achieved by the magnitude-based inferences. Results showed that technical performances differed between players of strong and weak teams from different perspectives across different field positions. Furthermore, the variation of the players' technical performance is affected by the match context, with effects from team and opposition strength greater than effects from match location and match outcome.

  2. Modeling Team Performance in the Air Defense Warfare Domain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    members as envisioned by the system designers. In Figures 6 we depict the different task flows between an ideal team (that envisioned by the system...Figure 1. The main difference between the ideal team and the tested teams is the degree to which the team members passed tasks between...themselves. The ideal team members handle tasks independently and in parallel; however, for teams 1 and 2 there were various degrees of “meddling” between

  3. Prosocial Bonuses Increase Employee Satisfaction and Team Performance

    PubMed Central

    Anik, Lalin; Aknin, Lara B.; Norton, Michael I.; Dunn, Elizabeth W.; Quoidbach, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    In three field studies, we explore the impact of providing employees and teammates with prosocial bonuses, a novel type of bonus spent on others rather than on oneself. In Experiment 1, we show that prosocial bonuses in the form of donations to charity lead to happier and more satisfied employees at an Australian bank. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we show that prosocial bonuses in the form of expenditures on teammates lead to better performance in both sports teams in Canada and pharmaceutical sales teams in Belgium. These results suggest that a minor adjustment to employee bonuses – shifting the focus from the self to others – can produce measurable benefits for employees and organizations. PMID:24058691

  4. Human and team performance in extreme environments: Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuster, J.

    1998-01-01

    Analogous experience is often instructive when attempting to understand human behavior in extreme environments. The current paper refers to the experiences of polar explorers and remote duty personnel to help identify the factors that influence individual and team performance when small groups are isolated and confined for long durations. The principal factors discussed include organizational structure, intracrew communications, interpersonal relations, leadership style, personnel selection, and training. Behavioral implications also are addressed for the design of procedures and equipment to facilitate sustained individual and group performance under conditions of isolation and confinement. To be consistent with the theme of the symposium, this paper emphasizes the crew requirements for an international expedition to Mars.

  5. Human and team performance in extreme environments: Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Stuster, J

    1998-09-01

    Analogous experience is often instructive when attempting to understand human behavior in extreme environments. The current paper refers to the experiences of polar explorers and remote duty personnel to help identify the factors that influence individual and team performance when small groups are isolated and confined for long durations. The principal factors discussed include organizational structure, intracrew communications, interpersonal relations, leadership style, personnel selection, and training. Behavioral implications also are addressed for the design of procedures and equipment to facilitate sustained individual and group performance under conditions of isolation and confinement. To be consistent with the theme of the symposium, this paper emphasizes the crew requirements for an international expedition to Mars.

  6. Human and team performance in extreme environments: Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuster, J.

    1998-01-01

    Analogous experience is often instructive when attempting to understand human behavior in extreme environments. The current paper refers to the experiences of polar explorers and remote duty personnel to help identify the factors that influence individual and team performance when small groups are isolated and confined for long durations. The principal factors discussed include organizational structure, intracrew communications, interpersonal relations, leadership style, personnel selection, and training. Behavioral implications also are addressed for the design of procedures and equipment to facilitate sustained individual and group performance under conditions of isolation and confinement. To be consistent with the theme of the symposium, this paper emphasizes the crew requirements for an international expedition to Mars.

  7. Team-oriented leadership: the interactive effects of leader group prototypicality, accountability, and team identification.

    PubMed

    Giessner, Steffen R; van Knippenberg, Daan; van Ginkel, Wendy; Sleebos, Ed

    2013-07-01

    We examined the interactive effects of leader group prototypicality, accountability, and team identification on team-oriented behavior of leaders, thus extending the social identity perspective on leadership to the study of leader behavior. An experimental study (N = 152) supported our hypothesis that leader accountability relates more strongly to team-oriented behavior for group nonprototypical leaders than for group prototypical leaders. A multisource field study with leaders (N = 64) and their followers (N = 209) indicated that this interactive effect is more pronounced for leaders who identify more strongly with their team. We discuss how these findings further develop the social identity analysis of leadership.

  8. Effective student teams for collaborative learning in an introductory university physics course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlow, Jason J. B.; Harrison, David M.; Meyertholen, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    We have studied the types of student teams that are most effective for collaborative learning in a large freshman university physics course. We compared teams in which the students were all of roughly equal ability to teams with a mix of student abilities, we compared teams with three members to teams with four members, and we examined teams with only one female student and the rest of the students male. We measured team effectiveness by the gains on the Force Concept Inventory and by performance on the final examination. None of the factors that we examined had significant impact on student learning. We also investigated student satisfaction as measured by responses to an anonymous evaluation at the end of the term, and found small but statistically significant differences depending on how the nine teams in the group were constructed.

  9. Building high-performance teams in the operating room.

    PubMed

    Sax, Harry C

    2012-02-01

    Building effective teams requires the delineation of clear goals, an understanding of each member's role in reaching that goal, and continuous feedback as issues are identified. The solo mentality required to become a health care provider needs to be modified to see a bigger picture. Finally, consistent buy-in and support from senior administration to deal with disruptive personalities is vital for long-term success. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. From Loose Groups to Effective Teams: The Nine Key Factors of the Team Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheard, A. G.; Kakabadse, A. P.

    2002-01-01

    A loose group of individuals working on a task differs from an effective team on nine factors: clearly defined goals, priorities, roles and responsibilities, self-awareness, leadership, group dynamics, communications, content, and infrastructure. Ways to eliminate barriers and speed formation of effective teams could be based on those factors.…

  11. Outperforming whom? A multilevel study of performance-prove goal orientation, performance, and the moderating role of shared team identification.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Bart; van Knippenberg, Daan; Hirst, Giles; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D

    2015-11-01

    Performance-prove goal orientation affects performance because it drives people to try to outperform others. A proper understanding of the performance-motivating potential of performance-prove goal orientation requires, however, that we consider the question of whom people desire to outperform. In a multilevel analysis of this issue, we propose that the shared team identification of a team plays an important moderating role here, directing the performance-motivating influence of performance-prove goal orientation to either the team level or the individual level of performance. A multilevel study of salespeople nested in teams supports this proposition, showing that performance-prove goal orientation motivates team performance more with higher shared team identification, whereas performance-prove goal orientation motivates individual performance more with lower shared team identification. Establishing the robustness of these findings, a second study replicates them with individual and team performance in an educational context. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Training to Enhance Design Team Performance: A Cure for Tunnel Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, James W.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Design Team performance is a function of the quality and degree of academic training and the cumulative, learned experience of the individual members of the team. Teamwork, leadership, and communications certainly are factors that affect the measure of the performance of the team, but they are not addressed here. This paper focuses on accelerating the learned experience of team members and describes an organizational approach that can significantly increase the effective experience level for any engineering design team. The performance measure of the whole team can be increased by increasing the engineering disciplines' cross awareness of each other and by familiarizing them with their affect at the system level. Discipline engineers know their own discipline well, but typically are not intimately familiar with their technical interaction with and dependencies on all the other disciplines of engineering. These dependencies are design integration functions and are worked out well by the discipline engineers as long as they are involved in the design of types of systems that they have experience with.

  13. Impact of Process Protocol Design on Virtual Team Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordes, Christofer Sean

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examined the influence of action process dimensions on team decision performance, and attitudes toward team work environment and procedures given different degrees of collaborative technology affordance. Process models were used to provide context for understanding team behavior in the experimental task, and clarify understanding…

  14. Impact of Process Protocol Design on Virtual Team Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordes, Christofer Sean

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examined the influence of action process dimensions on team decision performance, and attitudes toward team work environment and procedures given different degrees of collaborative technology affordance. Process models were used to provide context for understanding team behavior in the experimental task, and clarify understanding…

  15. Helping fluid teams work: A research agenda for effective team adaptation in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Bedwell, Wendy L; Ramsay, P Scott; Salas, Eduardo

    2012-12-01

    Although membership changes within teams are a common practice, research into this phenomenon is relatively nascent (Summers et al.; Acad Manag J 55:314-338, 2012). The small literature base, however, does provide insight into skills required for effective adaptation. The purpose of this effort is to provide a brief research synopsis, leading to research hypotheses about medical team training. By generalizing previous scientific findings regarding skills required for effective membership adaptation in different kinds of teams, we posit mechanisms whereby teamwork training might also support adaptation among medical teams (Burke et al.; Qual & Saf Health Care 13:i96-i104, 2004 and Salas et al.; Theor Issues Ergon Sci 8:381-394, 2007). We provide an overview of the membership change literature. Drawing upon literature from both within and outside of the medical domain, we suggest a framework and research propositions to aid in research efforts designed to determine the best content for helping to create adaptable medical teams through team training efforts. For effective adaptation, we suggest ad hoc teams should be trained on generalizable teamwork skills, to share just "enough" and the "right" information, to engage in shared leadership, and to shift from explicit to implicit coordination. Our overarching goal was to present what is known from the general research literature on successful team adaptation to membership changes, and to propose a research agenda to evaluate whether findings generalize to member changes in medical teams.

  16. Team Assignments Can Be Effective Cooperative Learning Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holter, Norma C.

    1994-01-01

    Recommends team assignments as an effective technique for business courses. Addresses peer evaluation and dealing with students who evade responsibility through a formal method of disassociating them from the team. (SK)

  17. Modelling the Progression of Competitive Performance of an Academy's Soccer Teams.

    PubMed

    Malcata, Rita M; Hopkins, Will G; Richardson, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Progression of a team's performance is a key issue in competitive sport, but there appears to have been no published research on team progression for periods longer than a season. In this study we report the game-score progression of three teams of a youth talent-development academy over five seasons using a novel analytic approach based on generalised mixed modelling. The teams consisted of players born in 1991, 1992 and 1993; they played totals of 115, 107 and 122 games in Asia and Europe between 2005 and 2010 against teams differing in age by up to 3 years. Game scores predicted by the mixed model were assumed to have an over-dispersed Poisson distribution. The fixed effects in the model estimated an annual linear pro-gression for Aspire and for the other teams (grouped as a single opponent) with adjustment for home-ground advantage and for a linear effect of age difference between competing teams. A random effect allowed for different mean scores for Aspire and opposition teams. All effects were estimated as factors via log-transformation and presented as percent differences in scores. Inferences were based on the span of 90% confidence intervals in relation to thresholds for small factor effects of x/÷1.10 (+10%/-9%). Most effects were clear only when data for the three teams were combined. Older teams showed a small 27% increase in goals scored per year of age difference (90% confidence interval 13 to 42%). Aspire experienced a small home-ground advantage of 16% (-5 to 41%), whereas opposition teams experienced 31% (7 to 60%) on their own ground. After adjustment for these effects, the Aspire teams scored on average 1.5 goals per match, with little change in the five years of their existence, whereas their opponents' scores fell from 1.4 in their first year to 1.0 in their last. The difference in progression was trivial over one year (7%, -4 to 20%), small over two years (15%, -8 to 44%), but unclear over >2 years. In conclusion, the generalized mixed model

  18. Adaptation in anaesthesia team coordination in response to a simulated critical event and its relationship to clinical performance.

    PubMed

    Burtscher, M J; Manser, T; Kolbe, M; Grote, G; Grande, B; Spahn, D R; Wacker, J

    2011-06-01

    Recent studies in anaesthesia and intensive care indicate that a team's ability to adapt its coordination activities to changing situational demands is crucial for effective teamwork and thus, safe patient care. This study addresses the relationship between adaptation of team coordination and markers of clinical performance in response to a critical event, particularly regarding which types of coordination activities are used and which team member engages in those coordination activities. Video recordings of 15 two-person anaesthesia teams (anaesthesia trainee plus anaesthesia nurse) performing a simulated induction of general anaesthesia were coded, using a structured observation system for coordination activities. The simulation involved a critical event-asystole during laryngoscopy. Clinical performance was assessed using two separate reaction times related to the critical event. Analyses of variance revealed a significant effect of the critical event on team coordination: after the occurrence of the asystole, team members adapted their coordination activities by spending more time on information management-a specific type of coordination activity (F(1,28)=15.17, P=0.001). No significant effect was found for task management. The increase in information management was related to faster decisions regarding how to respond to the critical event, but only for trainees and not for nurses. Our findings support the claim that adaptation of coordination activities is related to improved team performance in healthcare. Moreover, adaptation and its relationship to team performance were found to vary with regard to type of coordination activities and team member.

  19. A Framework for Cross-Disciplinary Team Learning and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Scott P.; Lei, Kimfong; Paulino, Lisette Reyes

    2008-01-01

    The construct of teamwork has been of considerable interest to researchers and practitioners across domains. The literature on teams includes many studies related to team composition, processes, and roles, but it pays much less attention to how teams learn and innovate. Studies examining how cross-disciplinary teams interact during projects are…

  20. Perceptions of team workers in youth care of what makes teamwork effective.

    PubMed

    Buljac-Samardzic, M; van Wijngaarden, J D H; van Wijk, K P; van Exel, N J A

    2011-05-01

    In youth care, little is known about what makes teamwork effective. What is known mostly reflects the view of managers in care organisations, as objective outcome measures are lacking. The objective of this article was to explore the views of youth care workers in different types of teams on the relative importance of characteristics of teamwork for its effectiveness. Q methodology was used. Fifty-one respondents rank-order 34 opinion statements regarding characteristics of teamwork. Individual Q sorts were analysed using by-person factor analysis. The resulting factors, which represented team workers' views of what is important for effective teamwork, were interpreted and described using composite rankings of the statements for each factor and corresponding team workers' explanations. We found three views of what makes teamwork effective. One view emphasised interaction between team members as most important for team effectiveness. A second view pointed to team characteristics that help sustain communication within teams as being most important. In the third view, the team characteristics that facilitate individuals to perform as a team member were put forward as most important for teamwork to be effective. In conclusion, different views exist on what makes a team effective in youth care. These views correspond with the different types of teams active in youth care as well as in other social care settings. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Performance analysis of elite men's and women's wheelchair basketball teams.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Miguel Ángel; Pérez, Javier; Molik, Bartosz; Szyman, Robert J; Sampaio, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify which game-related statistics discriminate winning and losing teams in men's and women's elite wheelchair basketball. The sample comprised all the games played during the Beijing Paralympics 2008 and the World Wheelchair Basketball Championship 2010. The game-related statistics from the official box scores were gathered and data were analysed in 2 groups: balanced games (final score differences ≤ 12 points) and unbalanced games (final score differences >13 points). Discriminant analysis allowed identifying the successful 2-point field-goals and free-throws, the unsuccessful 3-point field-goals and free-throws, the assists and fouls received as discriminant statistics between winning and losing teams in men's balanced games. In women's games, the teams were discriminated only by the successful 2-point field-goals. Linear regression analysis showed that the quality of opposition had great effects in final point differential. The field-goals percentage and free-throws rate were the most important factors in men's games, and field-goals percentage and offensive rebounding percentage in women's games. The identified trends allow improving game understanding and helping wheelchair basketball coaches to plan accurate practice sessions and, ultimately, deciding better in competition.

  2. Performance level affects the dietary supplement intake of both individual and team sports athletes.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62) between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775) and team sports (n = 2008). To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44%) compared to team sport athletes (35%) (p < 0.001). Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations. Key points37% of Mediterranean athletes of various sports and levels have reported taking dietary supplements.The performance level of the athletes affects the dietary supplementation intake.Athletes in individual sports appear to have a higher DS intake compared to team sport athletes.Male athletes appear to take more dietary supplements compared to female athletes.

  3. Performance Level Affects the Dietary Supplement Intake of Both Individual and Team Sports Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62) between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775) and team sports (n = 2008). To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44%) compared to team sport athletes (35%) (p < 0.001). Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations. Key points 37% of Mediterranean athletes of various sports and levels have reported taking dietary supplements. The performance level of the athletes affects the dietary supplementation intake. Athletes in individual sports appear to have a higher DS intake compared to team sport athletes. Male athletes appear to take more dietary supplements compared to female athletes. PMID

  4. When Task Conflict Becomes Personal: The Impact of Perceived Team Performance.

    PubMed

    Guenter, Hannes; van Emmerik, Hetty; Schreurs, Bert; Kuypers, Tom; van Iterson, Ad; Notelaers, Guy

    2016-10-01

    Although potentially beneficial, task conflict may threaten teams because it often leads to relationship conflict. Prior research has identified a set of interpersonal factors (e.g., team communication, team trust) that help attenuate this association. The purpose of this article is to provide an alternative perspective that focuses on the moderating role of performance-related factors (i.e., perceived team performance). Using social identity theory, we build a model that predicts how task conflict associates with growth in relationship conflict and how perceived team performance influences this association. We test a three-wave longitudinal model by means of random coefficient growth modeling, using data from 60 ongoing teams working in a health care organization. Results provide partial support for our hypotheses. Only when perceived team performance is low, do task conflicts relate with growth in relationship conflict. We conclude that perceived team performance seems to enable teams to uncouple task from relationship conflict.

  5. Overcoming the ten most common barriers to effective team communication.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Communication is at the heart of medical practice management. Yet there are many barriers to effective communication that can interfere with the smooth running of the practice. This article describes the 10 most common barriers to effective medical practice team communication and offers six steps the practice manager can take to break them down. This article also suggests that the practice develop a team communication strategy. It suggests 10 communication principles readers can share directly with their teams and describes three hallmarks of effective team communication. Finally, this article provides a list of 25 practical questions practice managers can use to improve their team's communication.

  6. The effect of action recognition and robot awareness in cooperative robot teams

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.

    1995-03-01

    Previous research in cooperative robotics has investigated several possible ways of coordinating the actions of cooperative teams -- from implicit cooperation through sensory feedback to explicit cooperation using the exchange of communicated messages. These various approaches differ in the extent to which robot team members arc aware of, or recognize, the actions of their teammates, and the extent to which they use this information to effect their own actions. The research described in this paper investigates this issue of robot awareness of team member actions and its effect on cooperative team performance by examining the results of a series of experiments on teams of physical mobile robots performing a laboratory version of hazardous waste cleanup. In these experiments. we vary the team size (and thus the level of redundancy in team member capabilities) and the level of awareness robots have of their teammates` current actions and evaluate the team`s performance using two metrics: time and energy. The results indicate that the impact of action awareness on cooperative team performance is a function not only of team size and the metric of evaluation. but also on the degree to which the effects of actions can be sensed through the world, the relative amount of work that is available per robot, and the cost of replicated actions. From these empirical studies, we propose a number of principles regarding the use of action recognition and robot awareness of team member actions in cooperative teams -- principles which will help guide engineers in the design and composition of the proper cooperative team for a given robotic mission.

  7. Team Competition Effects on Classroom Group Process. Report Number 174.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVries, David L.; And Others

    This study examined the effects of a unique form of team competition involving competition among individuals and teams on a variety of classroom group processes. A 3 x 2 (treatment x teacher) design was employed using intact high school social studies classes over a 12-week period. When compared to individual competitions, the team competition…

  8. Uncovering Transdisciplinary Team Project Outcomes through Ripple Effect Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Catherine H.; Chalker-Scott, Linda; Martini, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The Garden Team at Washington State University is a transdisciplinary, geographically dispersed group of faculty and staff. As with many such teams, member retention requires effort, as busy individuals may not see the overall benefits of active team membership. Ripple effect mapping is a strategy that can illustrate the tangible and often…

  9. Uncovering Transdisciplinary Team Project Outcomes through Ripple Effect Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Catherine H.; Chalker-Scott, Linda; Martini, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The Garden Team at Washington State University is a transdisciplinary, geographically dispersed group of faculty and staff. As with many such teams, member retention requires effort, as busy individuals may not see the overall benefits of active team membership. Ripple effect mapping is a strategy that can illustrate the tangible and often…

  10. Factors Affecting University Teaching Team Effectiveness in Detached Working Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Roger; Kane, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the outcomes of a study of the factors that contribute to teaching team effectiveness in situations where team members rarely meet face to face. Academic faculty within a university Business School were asked to report the degrees to which they believed that the module teaching teams to which they belonged contained members who…

  11. Factors Affecting University Teaching Team Effectiveness in Detached Working Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Roger; Kane, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the outcomes of a study of the factors that contribute to teaching team effectiveness in situations where team members rarely meet face to face. Academic faculty within a university Business School were asked to report the degrees to which they believed that the module teaching teams to which they belonged contained members who…

  12. An examination of the cohesion-performance relationship in university hockey teams.

    PubMed

    Slater, M R; Sewell, D F

    1994-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess, using the Group Environment Questionnaire, whether team cohesion in university-level field hockey was a cause for, or an effect of, successful performance. A quasi-experimental longitudinal design with cross-lagged correlational analysis was adopted and measures of cohesion and performance were taken midway and later in the season. The results of the synchronous correlations showed a positive relationship (with good stationarity) between team cohesion and performance outcome. Although non-significant cross-lagged differentials indicated a circular relationship, the magnitudes of both the cross-lagged correlations and the partial correlations, together with multiple-regression analyses, revealed that the stronger flow was from cohesion to performance. The socially oriented aspects of cohesion, in particular, had significant associations with performance. The results imply that cohesion-performance relationships should be examined within a circular model, in which cohesion and performance are interdependent.

  13. Factors that Facilitated an Alabama School Assistance Team's Success in a Low-Performing School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Virginia; Kochan, Frances

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the perceived factors that enabled an Alabama School Assistance Team (ASAT) to be effective in helping improve a low performing school. A case study was conducted with the ASATs and the Local Education Agency (LEA) site they served. Data were collected from interviews, documents and observations. The perceptions explored in…

  14. Examining the Critical Factors of Success in Virtual Team Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Brent

    2011-01-01

    Virtual teams are a burgeoning presence in the corporate environment today. Research shows that virtual teams have begun to surpass conventional teams in meeting the demands of organizations that are increasingly called on to apply and respond to new technologies that support, and in some cases, require a virtual teamwork approach. In order to…

  15. Assessment of Individual Student Performance in Online Team Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alden, Jay

    2011-01-01

    The use of team projects has been shown to be beneficial in higher education. There is also general agreement that team efforts should be assessed and that the grading ought to represent both (1) the quality of the product developed jointly by the team, as well as (2) the degree of participation and quality of contribution by each individual…

  16. Examining the Critical Factors of Success in Virtual Team Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Brent

    2011-01-01

    Virtual teams are a burgeoning presence in the corporate environment today. Research shows that virtual teams have begun to surpass conventional teams in meeting the demands of organizations that are increasingly called on to apply and respond to new technologies that support, and in some cases, require a virtual teamwork approach. In order to…

  17. Monitoring and talking to the room: autochthonous coordination patterns in team interaction and performance.

    PubMed

    Kolbe, Michaela; Grote, Gudela; Waller, Mary J; Wacker, Johannes; Grande, Bastian; Burtscher, Michael J; Spahn, Donat R

    2014-11-01

    This paper builds on and extends theory on team functioning in high-risk environments. We examined 2 implicit coordination behaviors that tend to emerge autochthonously within high-risk teams: team member monitoring and talking to the room. Focusing on nonrandom patterns of behavior, we examined sequential patterns of team member monitoring and talking to the room in higher- and lower-performing action teams working in a high-risk health care environment. Using behavior observation methods, we coded verbal and nonverbal behaviors of 27 anesthesia teams performing an induction of general anesthesia in a natural setting and assessed team performance with a Delphi-validated checklist-based performance measure. Lag sequential analyses revealed that higher-performing teams were characterized by patterns in which team member monitoring was followed by speaking up, providing assistance, and giving instructions and by patterns in which talking to the room was followed by further talking to the room and not followed by instructions. Higher- and lower-performing teams did not differ with respect to the frequency of team member monitoring and talking to the room occurrence. The results illustrate the importance of patterns of autochthonous coordination behaviors and demonstrate that the interaction patterns, as opposed to the behavior frequencies, discriminated higher- from lower-performing teams. Implications for future research and for team training are included. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. The Impact of a Good Season Start on Team Performance in Elite Handball.

    PubMed

    Lago-Peñas, Carlos; Fernández-Villarino, María A; González-García, Iván; Sánchez-Fernández, Patricio; Sampaio, Jaime

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the current study was (i) to identify how important was a good season start in relation to elite handball teams' performance, and (ii) to examine if this impact was related to the clubs' financial budget. The match performances and annual budgets of all teams were collected from the Spanish Professional Handball League during ten seasons. The dependent variable was the difference between the ranking of each team in accordance to the annual budget and the ranking of each team at the end of the season. A k-means cluster analysis classified the clubs according to their budget as High Range Budget Clubs (HRBC), Upper-Mid Range Budget Clubs (UMRBC), Lower-Mid Range Budget Clubs (LMRBC) and Low Range Budget Clubs (LRBC). Data were examined through linear regression models. Overall, the results suggested that the better the team performance at the beginning of the season, the better the ranking at the end of the season. Each position in the ranking above expected in accordance to the budget of the teams in Rounds 3, 4 or 5 improved by 0.47, 0.50 or 0.49, respectively, in the ranking at the end of the season (p<0.05). However, the impact of the effect depended on the clubs' annual budget. For UMRBC, LMRBC and LRBC a good start to the season had a positive effect on the final outcome (p<0.05). Nevertheless, for HRBC, a good or a bad start of the season did not explain their final position. These variables can be used to develop accurate models to estimate final rankings. UMRBC, LMRBC and LRBC can benefit from fine-tuning preseason planning in order to accelerate the acquisition of optimal performances.

  19. Functional Heterogeneity and Senior Management Team Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoliel, Pascale; Somech, Anit

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: There has been an increasing trend toward the creation of senior management teams (SMTs) which are characterized by a high degree of functional heterogeneity. Although such teams may create better linkages to information, along with the benefits of functional heterogeneity comes the potential for conflicts that stem from the value…

  20. Functional Heterogeneity and Senior Management Team Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoliel, Pascale; Somech, Anit

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: There has been an increasing trend toward the creation of senior management teams (SMTs) which are characterized by a high degree of functional heterogeneity. Although such teams may create better linkages to information, along with the benefits of functional heterogeneity comes the potential for conflicts that stem from the value…

  1. From Group to Team: Skilled Facilitation Moves a Group from a Collection of Individuals to an Effective Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ginny V.

    2009-01-01

    School-based learning depends on teachers' capacity to engage with each other around central issues of teaching and learning. While such collaboration is readily welcomed by some educators, others remain wedded to an "independent contractor" concept of teaching. Supporting teachers to view themselves as team members and to perform effectively as a…

  2. The Discipline of Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzenbach, Jon R.; Smith, Douglas K.

    1993-01-01

    Teams share commitment, translate purpose into performance goals, and have members be accountable with and to their teammates. Types of teams are those that recommend, make or do things, and run things. The distinction between teams and other working groups is performance: an effective team is worth more than the sum of its parts. (SK)

  3. Team Performance Assessment and Measurement: Theory, Methods, and Applications. Series in Applied Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannick, Michael T., Ed.; Salas, Eduardo, Ed.; Prince, Carolyn, Ed.

    This volume presents thoughts on measuring team performance written by experts currently working with teams in fields such as training, evaluation, and process consultation. The chapters are: (1) "An Overview of Team Performance Measurement" (Michael T. Brannick and Carolyn Prince); (2) "A Conceptual Framework for Teamwork Measurement" (Terry L.…

  4. Improving the Performance of Online Learning Teams--A Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ying Chieh; Burn, Janice M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares the processes of Face-To-Face (FTF) teams and Online Learning Teams (OLTs) and proposes methods to improve the performance of OLTs. An empirical study reviewed the performance of fifteen FTF teams and OLTs and their communication patterns were coded by the TEMPO system developed by Futoran et al. (1989) in order to develop a…

  5. Regressing Team Performance on Collective Efficacy: Considerations of Temporal Proximity and Concordance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Nicholas D.; Paiement, Craig A.; Feltz, Deborah L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine to what degree collective efficacy judgments based on summative team performance capabilities exhibited different levels of prediction for three additive intervals of team performance in women's ice hockey. Collective efficacy beliefs of 12 teams were assessed prior to Friday's game and Saturday's game…

  6. Team Performance Assessment and Measurement: Theory, Methods, and Applications. Series in Applied Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannick, Michael T., Ed.; Salas, Eduardo, Ed.; Prince, Carolyn, Ed.

    This volume presents thoughts on measuring team performance written by experts currently working with teams in fields such as training, evaluation, and process consultation. The chapters are: (1) "An Overview of Team Performance Measurement" (Michael T. Brannick and Carolyn Prince); (2) "A Conceptual Framework for Teamwork Measurement" (Terry L.…

  7. Regressing Team Performance on Collective Efficacy: Considerations of Temporal Proximity and Concordance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Nicholas D.; Paiement, Craig A.; Feltz, Deborah L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine to what degree collective efficacy judgments based on summative team performance capabilities exhibited different levels of prediction for three additive intervals of team performance in women's ice hockey. Collective efficacy beliefs of 12 teams were assessed prior to Friday's game and Saturday's game…

  8. Contingent leadership and effectiveness of trauma resuscitation teams.

    PubMed

    Yun, Seokhwa; Faraj, Samer; Sims, Henry P

    2005-11-01

    This research investigated leadership and effectiveness of teams operating in a high-velocity environment, specifically trauma resuscitation teams. On the basis of the literature and their own ethnographic work, the authors proposed and tested a contingency model in which the influence of leadership on team effectiveness during trauma resuscitation differs according to the situation. Results indicated that empowering leadership was more effective when trauma severity was low and when team experience was high. Directive leadership was more effective when trauma severity was high or when the team was inexperienced. Findings also suggested that an empowering leader provided more learning opportunities than did a directive leader. The major contribution of this article is the linkage of leadership to team effectiveness, as moderated by relatively specific situational contingencies. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. 'In situ simulation' versus 'off site simulation' in obstetric emergencies and their effect on knowledge, safety attitudes, team performance, stress, and motivation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Unexpected obstetric emergencies threaten the safety of pregnant women. As emergencies are rare, they are difficult to learn. Therefore, simulation-based medical education (SBME) seems relevant. In non-systematic reviews on SBME, medical simulation has been suggested to be associated with improved learner outcomes. However, many questions on how SBME can be optimized remain unanswered. One unresolved issue is how 'in situ simulation' (ISS) versus 'off site simulation' (OSS) impact learning. ISS means simulation-based training in the actual patient care unit (in other words, the labor room and operating room). OSS means training in facilities away from the actual patient care unit, either at a simulation centre or in hospital rooms that have been set up for this purpose. Methods and design The objective of this randomized trial is to study the effect of ISS versus OSS on individual learning outcome, safety attitude, motivation, stress, and team performance amongst multi-professional obstetric-anesthesia teams. The trial is a single-centre randomized superiority trial including 100 participants. The inclusion criteria were health-care professionals employed at the department of obstetrics or anesthesia at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, who were working on shifts and gave written informed consent. Exclusion criteria were managers with staff responsibilities, and staff who were actively taking part in preparation of the trial. The same obstetric multi-professional training was conducted in the two simulation settings. The experimental group was exposed to training in the ISS setting, and the control group in the OSS setting. The primary outcome is the individual score on a knowledge test. Exploratory outcomes are individual scores on a safety attitudes questionnaire, a stress inventory, salivary cortisol levels, an intrinsic motivation inventory, results from a questionnaire evaluating perceptions of the simulation and suggested changes needed in the

  10. 'In situ simulation' versus 'off site simulation' in obstetric emergencies and their effect on knowledge, safety attitudes, team performance, stress, and motivation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Jette Led; Van der Vleuten, Cees; Lindschou, Jane; Gluud, Christian; Østergaard, Doris; LeBlanc, Vicki; Johansen, Marianne; Ekelund, Kim; Albrechtsen, Charlotte Krebs; Pedersen, Berit Woetman; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Weikop, Pia; Ottesen, Bent

    2013-07-17

    Unexpected obstetric emergencies threaten the safety of pregnant women. As emergencies are rare, they are difficult to learn. Therefore, simulation-based medical education (SBME) seems relevant. In non-systematic reviews on SBME, medical simulation has been suggested to be associated with improved learner outcomes. However, many questions on how SBME can be optimized remain unanswered. One unresolved issue is how 'in situ simulation' (ISS) versus 'off site simulation' (OSS) impact learning. ISS means simulation-based training in the actual patient care unit (in other words, the labor room and operating room). OSS means training in facilities away from the actual patient care unit, either at a simulation centre or in hospital rooms that have been set up for this purpose. The objective of this randomized trial is to study the effect of ISS versus OSS on individual learning outcome, safety attitude, motivation, stress, and team performance amongst multi-professional obstetric-anesthesia teams.The trial is a single-centre randomized superiority trial including 100 participants. The inclusion criteria were health-care professionals employed at the department of obstetrics or anesthesia at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, who were working on shifts and gave written informed consent. Exclusion criteria were managers with staff responsibilities, and staff who were actively taking part in preparation of the trial. The same obstetric multi-professional training was conducted in the two simulation settings. The experimental group was exposed to training in the ISS setting, and the control group in the OSS setting. The primary outcome is the individual score on a knowledge test. Exploratory outcomes are individual scores on a safety attitudes questionnaire, a stress inventory, salivary cortisol levels, an intrinsic motivation inventory, results from a questionnaire evaluating perceptions of the simulation and suggested changes needed in the organization, a team-based score on video

  11. Effects of Team Composition on Problem Solving: An Empirical Investigation of the Assembly Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, James L.

    2007-01-01

    Problem: The study sought to determine the common set of conditions and processes necessary to improve the performance of problem-solving teams beyond the abilities of individuals. Research Hypotheses: (H1) Controlling for differences in ability, the team scores of heterogeneous teams are significantly lower than team scores of homogeneous teams.…

  12. Hyper-Realistic, Team-Centered Fleet Surgical Team Training Provides Sustained Improvements in Performance.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Tuan N; Kang, Jeff; Siriratsivawong, Kris; LaPorta, Anthony; Heck, Amber; Ferraro, Jessica; Robinson, Douglas; Walsh, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The high-stress, fast-paced environment of combat casualty care relies on effective teamwork and communication which translates into quality patient care. A training course was developed for U.S. Navy Fleet Surgical Teams to address these aspects of patient care by emphasizing efficiency and appropriate patient care. An effective training course provides knowledge and skills to pass the course evaluation and sustain the knowledge and skills acquired over time. The course included classroom didactic hours, and hands-on simulation sessions. A pretest was administered before the course, a posttest upon completion, and a sustainment test 5 months following course completion. The evaluation process measured changes in patient time to disposition and critical errors made during patient care. Naval Base San Diego, with resuscitation and surgical simulations carried out within the shipboard medical spaces. United States Navy medical personnel including physicians of various specialties, corpsmen, nurses, and nurse anesthetists deploying aboard ships. Time to disposition improved significantly, 11 ± 3 minutes, from pretest to posttest, and critical errors improved by 4 ± 1 errors per encounter. From posttest to sustainment test, time to disposition increased by 3 ± 1, and critical errors decreased by 1 ± 1. This course showed value in improving teamwork and communication skills of participants, immediately upon completion of the course, and after 5 months had passed. Therefore, with ongoing sustainment activities within 6 months, this course can substantially improve trauma care provided by shipboard deployed Navy medical personnel to wounded service members. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Using a human patient simulator to study the relationship between communication and nursing students' team performance.

    PubMed

    Hirokawa, Randy Y; Daub, Katharyn; Lovell, Eileen; Smith, Sarah; Davis, Alice; Beck, Christine

    2012-11-01

    This study examined the relationship between communication and nursing students' team performance by determining whether variations in team performance are related to differences in communication regarding five task-relevant functions: assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation. The study results indicate a positive relationship between nursing students' team performance and comments focused on the implementation of treatment(s) and the evaluation of treatment options. A negative relationship between nursing students' team performance and miscellaneous comments made by team members was also observed. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. How should a scientific team be effectively formed and managed.

    PubMed

    Isohanni, Matti; Isohanni, Irene; Veijola, Juha

    2002-01-01

    In the research process, hypotheses, observations and raw data are systematically transformed into new knowledge and scientific rules. People and human input are essential features of the research; the intellectual process performed by the individual scientists and their team. Unplanned administration and human conflicts are the major causes of unsuccessful research. In this article, some essential organizational and psychological aspects of the scientific team are described and discussed. In addition, practical guidelines on forming, working and managing a research team are presented.

  15. Effects of team-building on communication and teamwork among nursing students.

    PubMed

    Yi, Y J

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of team-building on communication and teamwork (i.e. teamwork skills and team effectiveness) among nursing students. Team-building is effective for improving communication and teamwork among the nursing organization. However, the effects of team-building are not well known especially in Korea. This study used a quasi-experimental design. The sample was composed of 195 junior-year nursing students in Korea. The experimental group (100 subjects) participated in team-building activities over a 100-day period, whereas no intervention was applied to the control group (95 subjects). Pretest was conducted in both groups, and post-test was conducted after the 100-day intervention. The pre-post change in mean communication competence score did not differ between the two groups. However, the mean scores for teamwork skills and team effectiveness differed significantly between the two groups after team-building activity. This study was not a double-blind test, and randomized sampling was not implemented. Caution should thus be used when interpreting the findings. Team-building activities were effective for improving the teamwork skills and team effectiveness among Korean nursing students. It is recommended that team-building activities should be included regularly as an integral educational approach in nursing education. The findings suggest that suggests that team-building for improving communication and teamwork should be designated as one of the required criteria for nursing college programme accreditation in many countries, including Korea. However team-building requires further testing to verify this across cultures. Nurses need to receive formal team-building training for improving communication and teamwork, and formal education should be included in their job training schedule. It is recommended that communication competence and teamwork be used as one of job performance evaluations in their workplace. © 2015

  16. Linking clinician interaction and coordination to clinical performance in Patient-Aligned Care Teams.

    PubMed

    Hysong, Sylvia J; Thomas, Candice L; Spitzmüller, Christiane; Amspoker, Amber B; Woodard, LeChauncy; Modi, Varsha; Naik, Aanand D

    2016-01-15

    Team coordination within clinical care settings is a critical component of effective patient care. Less is known about the extent, effectiveness, and impact of coordination activities among professionals within VA Patient-Aligned Care Teams (PACTs). This study will address these gaps by describing the specific, fundamental tasks and practices involved in PACT coordination, their impact on performance measures, and the role of coordination task complexity. First, we will use a web-based survey of coordination practices among 1600 PACTs in the national VHA. Survey findings will characterize PACT coordination practices and assess their association with clinical performance measures. Functional job analysis, using 6-8 subject matter experts who are 3rd and 4th year residents in VA Primary Care rotations, will be utilized to identify the tasks involved in completing clinical performance measures to standard. From this, expert ratings of coordination complexity will be used to determine the level of coordinative complexity required for each of the clinical performance measures drawn from the VA External Peer Review Program (EPRP). For objective 3, data collected from the first two methods will evaluate the effect of clinical complexity on the relationships between measures of PACT coordination and their ratings on the clinical performance measures. Results from this study will support successful implementation of coordinated team-based work in clinical settings by providing knowledge regarding which aspects of care require the most complex levels of coordination and how specific coordination practices impact clinical performance.

  17. Designing student learning teams improving team performance in a college biology laboratory by designing learning teams based on student's intra-team function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, Lisarenee

    Cooperative learning is likely the most utilized form of classroom management in college science laboratory courses. Time restrictions, equipment availability and physical space limitations promote use of cooperation if for no other reason than convenience and necessity. In college laboratory courses, students are often assigned to learning teams the first day of class. Student placement in these learning teams is usually a task for the instructor in charge and may depend on student preference, proximity, or random assignment according to an arbitrary character such as the student's last name. Regardless of placement method, learning teams often experience negative outcomes due to friction between team members. This study addresses the possibility that friction is caused by intra team competition and that intra team competition can be eliminated through team design using the Intra-Team Function Assay (ITFA) (English 2001). Eight hundred and ninety one college students, in 62 sections of an introductory biology laboratory course, participated in the ITFA study during the Fall 2001, Spring 2002, and Summer 2002 semesters. Using a Latin Square all laboratory sections were assigned to one of the following groups: control, Hawthorne, or experimental. Students in the control and Hawthorne sections were assigned to student teams randomly without regard for the ITFA results, while students in the experimental group were assigned to teams dependent on their identified intra-team function. In seven out of ten grade assessments, students in the experimental group earned significantly higher grades than did students in the control group; with no significant difference in the remaining three measures. Student grades in the experimental group where significantly higher than student grades in the Hawthorne group on all team assessments with the exception of the final examination. Students in the experimental group also earned higher semester grades than did students in either the

  18. Changes in surgical team performance and safety climate attitudes following expansion of perioperative services: a repeated-measures study.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Brigid M; Harbeck, Emma; Kang, Evelyn; Steel, Catherine; Fairweather, Nicole; Chaboyer, Wendy

    2017-08-10

    Objective The aim of the present study was to describe process changes in surgical team performance and team members' attitudes to safety culture following hospital relocation and expansion of perioperative services.Methods The study was a naturalistic study using structured observations and surveys to assess non-technical skills (NTS; i.e. communication, teamwork, situational awareness, decision making and leadership) in surgery. This interrupted time series design used mixed-linear regression models to examine the effect of phase (before and after hospital relocation) on surgical teams' NTS and their processes that may affect performance. Differences in self-reported teamwork and safety climate attitudes were also examined.Results In all, 186 procedures (100 before and 81 after hospital relocation) were observed across teams working in general, paediatric, orthopaedic and thoracic surgeries. Interobserver agreement ranged from 86% to 95%. An effect of phase was found, indicating that there were significant improvements after relocation in the use of NTS by the teams observed (P=0.020; 95% confidence interval 1.9-4.7).Conclusions The improvements seen in surgical teams' NTS performance and safety culture attitudes may be related to the move to a new state-of-the-art perioperative department.What is known about the topic? Patient safety in surgery relies on optimal team performance, underpinned by effective NTS.What does this paper add? The NTS of surgical teams may be improved through ergonomic innovations that promote teams' shared mental models.What are the implications for practitioners? Effective multidisciplinary teamwork relies on a combination of NTS and ergonomic factors, which inherently contribute to team performance and safety climate attitudes.

  19. Case study: Comparison of motivation for achieving higher performance between self-directed and manager-directed aerospace engineering teams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlick, Katherine

    "The stereotype of engineers is that they are not people oriented; the stereotype implies that engineers would not work well in teams---that their task emphasis is a solo venture and does not encourage social aspects of collaboration" (Miner & Beyerlein, 1999, p. 16). The problem is determining the best method of providing a motivating environment where design engineers may contribute within a team in order to achieve higher performance in the organization. Theoretically, self-directed work teams perform at higher levels. But, allowing a design engineer to contribute to the team while still maintaining his or her anonymity is the key to success. Therefore, a motivating environment must be established to encourage greater self-actualization in design engineers. The purpose of this study is to determine the favorable motivational environment for design engineers and describe the comparison between two aerospace design-engineering teams: one self-directed and the other manager directed. Following the comparison, this study identified whether self-direction or manager-direction provides the favorable motivational environment for operating as a team in pursuit of achieving higher performance. The methodology used in this research was the case study focusing on the team's levels of job satisfaction and potential for higher performance. The collection of data came from three sources, (a) surveys, (b) researcher observer journal and (c) collection of artifacts. The surveys provided information regarding personal behavior characteristics, potentiality for higher performance and motivational attributes. The researcher journal provided information regarding team dynamics, individual interaction, conflict and conflict resolution. The milestone for performance was based on the collection of artifacts from the two teams. The findings from this study illustrated that whether the team was manager-directed or self-directed does not appear to influence the needs and wants of the

  20. Survival of the fittest: implications of self-reliance and coping for leaders and team performance.

    PubMed

    Daus, C S; Joplin, J R

    1999-01-01

    Using a laboratory methodology, the authors sought to establish an association between self-reliance (based on attachment theory) and team performance and satisfaction. Three hypotheses (direct effect, mediator, and moderator) were tested. With a sample of 187 students, the authors compared leader self-reliance characteristics with group member self-reliance characteristics (group n = 50) as predictors of group performance and satisfaction. Only group member counterdependence was predictive of decreased performance. Further, the authors examined the possible mediating and moderating effects of coping on the self-reliance-group effectiveness relationships. Coping did not mediate the relationship but did operate as a significant moderator in some instances.

  1. Workforce diversity: implications for the effectiveness of health care delivery teams.

    PubMed

    Dreachslin, J L; Hunt, P L; Sprainer, E

    2000-05-01

    This paper examines the implications of racial diversity for the self-perceived communication effectiveness of nursing care teams. An RN leads the nursing care team (NCT) and delivers care in collaboration with two or more nonlicensed caregivers. Overlap is intentionally designed into the roles of NCT members and the range of duties the team performs is generally expanded to include functions previously performed by personnel from centralized departments. NCTs are highly reliant on mutual respect and effective communication among team members. Team conflict and miscommunication can be exacerbated by the strong correlation between role on the nursing care team (NCT) and race. Verbatim transcripts of fourteen focus groups from two study hospitals were used to develop a grounded theory of the role that race plays in the self-perceived communication effectiveness of nursing care teams. Two themes that emerged from the focus group discussions constitute the overarching framework within which racially diverse team members evaluate team communication effectiveness: different perspectives and alternative realities. Three additional themes, social isolation, selective perception and stereotypes, that serve as reinforcing factors were also identified, i.e., these factors deepen the conflict and dissatisfaction with team communication that occurs as a natural consequence of the overarching framework of different perspectives and alternative realities. Leadership emerged as a powerful mitigating factor in the model of how race influences the self-perceived communication effectiveness of nursing care teams. Leaders who can transcend racial identity as evidenced by the ability to validate alternative realities and appreciate different perspectives appear to moderate the potential negative effects of racial diversity on team communication processes and strengthen the positive aspects of diversity.

  2. Cross-Cultural Team Effectiveness for MBA Students Studying in an Immersion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden-Barnes, Stephen; Menzies, Jane L.

    2016-01-01

    We focus on cross-cultural team effectiveness for MBA students involved in an immersion program, examining the development of knowledge about cultural traits, the challenges associated with teamwork, and factors that promote or hinder team performance, based on qualitative results of a survey of 20 students who participated in the program. Key…

  3. Portraying the Contribution of Individual Behaviors to Team Cohesion and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parke, Bonny; Orasanu, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Behaviors of individuals in teams both contribute to and are molded by team dynamics. How they do so has been the subject of much research. A method of portraying individuals' behaviors in teams, the Team Diagramming Method (TDM) is presented. Behaviors are rated by other team members on three important dimensions: positivity/negativity, dominant/submissive, and task-orientedness/expressiveness. A study of 5-person teams engaging in a 3-day moon simulation task demonstrated that measures of these perceived behaviors as well as the variances of these behaviors correlated with cohesion measures and performance. The method shows strengths and weaknesses of particular teams and, by comparison with high-performing teams, suggests interventions based on individual as well as team behaviors. The primary goal of this study was to determine the extent to which these team level variables, derived from all team members' rated behaviors, were associated with previous methods of measuring cohesion and with performance. A secondary goal was to determine the stability of TDM measures over time by comparing team level variables based on ratings early and later in the team s work together.

  4. The Impact of a Good Season Start on Team Performance in Elite Handball

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Villarino, María A.; González-García, Iván; Sánchez-Fernández, Patricio; Sampaio, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the current study was (i) to identify how important was a good season start in relation to elite handball teams’ performance, and (ii) to examine if this impact was related to the clubs’ financial budget. The match performances and annual budgets of all teams were collected from the Spanish Professional Handball League during ten seasons. The dependent variable was the difference between the ranking of each team in accordance to the annual budget and the ranking of each team at the end of the season. A k-means cluster analysis classified the clubs according to their budget as High Range Budget Clubs (HRBC), Upper-Mid Range Budget Clubs (UMRBC), Lower-Mid Range Budget Clubs (LMRBC) and Low Range Budget Clubs (LRBC). Data were examined through linear regression models. Overall, the results suggested that the better the team performance at the beginning of the season, the better the ranking at the end of the season. Each position in the ranking above expected in accordance to the budget of the teams in Rounds 3, 4 or 5 improved by 0.47, 0.50 or 0.49, respectively, in the ranking at the end of the season (p<0.05). However, the impact of the effect depended on the clubs’ annual budget. For UMRBC, LMRBC and LRBC a good start to the season had a positive effect on the final outcome (p<0.05). Nevertheless, for HRBC, a good or a bad start of the season did not explain their final position. These variables can be used to develop accurate models to estimate final rankings. UMRBC, LMRBC and LRBC can benefit from fine-tuning preseason planning in order to accelerate the acquisition of optimal performances. PMID:28149357

  5. Team Performance in the Army Acquisition Program Office

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    6 A. INTRODUCTION ................ ................. 6 B. PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND THE IMPORTANCE OF TEAMS 6 C. MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS OF THE TEAM... INTRODUCTION This literature review will introduce the concept of project management and the management functions that are integral to its operation. It also... Introduction , 1993, p. 11) This structure consists of program management offices that manage the development and acquisition of a specific system. For

  6. Improving Resident Performance Through a Simulated Rapid Response Team: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Burke, Peter A; Vest, Michael T; Kher, Hemant; Deutsch, Joseph; Daya, Sneha

    2015-07-01

    The Joint Commission requires hospitals to develop systems in which a team of clinicians can rapidly recognize and respond to changes in a patient's condition. The rapid response team (RRT) concept has been widely adopted as the solution to this mandate. The role of house staff in RRTs and the impact on resident education has been controversial. At Christiana Care Health System, eligible residents in their second through final years lead the RRTs. To evaluate the use of a team-based, interdisciplinary RRT training program for educating and training first-year residents in an effort to improve global RRT performance before residents start their second year. This pilot study was administered in 3 phases. Phase 1 provided residents with classroom-based didactic sessions using case-based RRT scenarios. Multiple choice examinations were administered, as well as a confidence survey based on a Likert scale before and after phase 1 of the program. Phase 2 involved experiential training in which residents engaged as mentored participants in actual RRT calls. A qualitative survey was used to measure perceived program effectiveness after phase 2. In phase 3, led by senior residents, simulated RRTs using medical mannequins were conducted. Participants were divided into 5 teams, in which each resident would rotate in the roles of leader, nurse, and respiratory therapist. This phase measured resident performance with regard to medical decision making, data gathering, and team behaviors during the simulated RRT scenarios. Performance was scored by an attending and a senior resident. A total of 18 residents were eligible (N=18) for participation. The average multiple choice test score improved by 20% after didactic training. The average confidence survey score before training was 3.44 out of 5 (69%) and after training was 4.13 (83%), indicating a 14% improvement. High-quality team behaviors correlated with medical decision making (0.92) more closely than did high-quality data

  7. Evaluating Team Work on Student Projects: The Use of Behaviorally Anchored Scales To Evaluate Student Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levi, Daniel; Cadiz, David

    One of the biggest problems students face in team projects is social loafing, a situation in which students may view team projects as a free ride. Social loafers let others do the work, knowing that the professor will only grade the completed project. This research examined the performance of students grading other student team members on a group…

  8. Shared Mental Models on the Performance of e-Learning Content Development Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jo, Il-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of the study was to investigate team-based e-Learning content development projects from the perspective of the shared mental model (SMM) theory. The researcher conducted a study of 79 e-Learning content development teams in Korea to examine the relationship between taskwork and teamwork SMMs and the performance of the teams.…

  9. Share (And Not) Share Alike: Improving Virtual Team Climate and Decision Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordes, Sean

    2017-01-01

    Virtual teams face unique communication and collaboration challenges that impact climate development and performance. First, virtual teams rely on technology mediated communication which can constrain communication. Second, team members lack skill for adapting process to the virtual setting. A collaboration process structure was designed to…

  10. Shared Mental Models on the Performance of e-Learning Content Development Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jo, Il-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of the study was to investigate team-based e-Learning content development projects from the perspective of the shared mental model (SMM) theory. The researcher conducted a study of 79 e-Learning content development teams in Korea to examine the relationship between taskwork and teamwork SMMs and the performance of the teams.…

  11. Cross-Level Effects Between Neurophysiology and Communication During Team Training.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Jamie C; Martin, Melanie J; Dunbar, Terri A; Stevens, Ronald H; Galloway, Trysha L; Amazeen, Polemnia G; Likens, Aaron D

    2016-02-01

    We investigated cross-level effects, which are concurrent changes across neural and cognitive-behavioral levels of analysis as teams interact, between neurophysiology and team communication variables under variations in team training. When people work together as a team, they develop neural, cognitive, and behavioral patterns that they would not develop individually. It is currently unknown whether these patterns are associated with each other in the form of cross-level effects. Team-level neurophysiology and latent semantic analysis communication data were collected from submarine teams in a training simulation. We analyzed whether (a) both neural and communication variables change together in response to changes in training segments (briefing, scenario, or debriefing), (b) neural and communication variables mutually discriminate teams of different experience levels, and (c) peak cross-correlations between neural and communication variables identify how the levels are linked. Changes in training segment led to changes in both neural and communication variables, neural and communication variables mutually discriminated between teams of different experience levels, and peak cross-correlations indicated that changes in communication precede changes in neural patterns in more experienced teams. Cross-level effects suggest that teamwork is not reducible to a fundamental level of analysis and that training effects are spread out across neural and cognitive-behavioral levels of analysis. Cross-level effects are important to consider for theories of team performance and practical aspects of team training. Cross-level effects suggest that measurements could be taken at one level (e.g., neural) to assess team experience (or skill) on another level (e.g., cognitive-behavioral). © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  12. Mental Workload and Performance Experiment (MWPE) Team in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured is the Mental Workload and Performance Experiment (MWPE) team in the SL POCC) during STS-42, IML-1 mission.

  13. Mental Workload and Performance Experiment (MWPE) Team in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured is the Mental Workload and Performance Experiment (MWPE) team in the SL POCC) during STS-42, IML-1 mission.

  14. Team Pay for Performance: Experimental Evidence from the Round Rock Pilot Project on Team Incentives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Pane, John F.; Le, Vi-Nhuan; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Burns, Susan Freeman; Hamilton, Laura S.; Stecher, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Education policymakers have shown increased interest in incentive programs for teachers based on the outcomes of their students. This article examines a program in which bonuses were awarded to teams of middle school teachers based on their collective contribution to student test score gains. The study employs a randomized controlled trial to…

  15. Enhancing the Effectiveness of Work Groups and Teams.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, Steve W J; Ilgen, Daniel R

    2006-12-01

    Teams of people working together for a common purpose have been a centerpiece of human social organization ever since our ancient ancestors first banded together to hunt game, raise families, and defend their communities. Human history is largely a story of people working together in groups to explore, achieve, and conquer. Yet, the modern concept of work in large organizations that developed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries is largely a tale of work as a collection of individual jobs. A variety of global forces unfolding over the last two decades, however, has pushed organizations worldwide to restructure work around teams, to enable more rapid, flexible, and adaptive responses to the unexpected. This shift in the structure of work has made team effectiveness a salient organizational concern. Teams touch our lives everyday and their effectiveness is important to well-being across a wide range of societal functions. There is over 50 years of psychological research-literally thousands of studies-focused on understanding and influencing the processes that underlie team effectiveness. Our goal in this monograph is to sift through this voluminous literature to identify what we know, what we think we know, and what we need to know to improve the effectiveness of work groups and teams. We begin by defining team effectiveness and establishing the conceptual underpinnings of our approach to understanding it. We then turn to our review, which concentrates primarily on topics that have well-developed theoretical and empirical foundations, to ensure that our conclusions and recommendations are on firm footing. Our review begins by focusing on cognitive, motivational/affective, and behavioral team processes-processes that enable team members to combine their resources to resolve task demands and, in so doing, be effective. We then turn our attention to identifying interventions, or "levers," that can shape or align team processes and thereby provide tools and

  16. Using scripted video to assess interdisciplinary team effectiveness training outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hyer, Kathryn; Skinner, John H; Kane, Robert L; Howe, Judith L; Whitelaw, Nancy; Wilson, Nancy; Flaherty, Ellen; Halstead, Lois; Fulmer, Terry

    2003-01-01

    As part of the Geriatric Interdisciplinary Team Training (GITT) Program funded by the John A. Hartford Foundation, the authors of this article worked to create an instrument, the Trainee Test of Team Dynamics, to assess health care trainees' understanding of team dynamics. The Trainee Test of Team Dynamics is a five-question written test designed to capture GITT trainees' knowledge of team process and skills in addressing conflict that is administered after watching a five-minute videotape of a simulated interdisciplinary health care team meeting. The test was created to measure health professions students' abilities to recognize effective geriatric health care teams, to respond to effective and ineffective team behaviors, and to determine whether or not the team meeting achieved its purpose: to meet the patient's needs for an interdisciplinary care plan. Scripts and test items developed and tested by practitioners in social work, medicine, public health, nursing and others assured a product that compensated for differences in educational level and occupation, yet captured accurate and appropriate responses. The results reported here include an analysis of 740 trainees' baseline responses from the multi-site educational programs to determine the construct validity of the new measure.

  17. Technical match characteristics and influence of body anthropometry on playing performance in male elite team handball.

    PubMed

    Michalsik, Lars Bojsen; Madsen, Klavs; Aagaard, Per

    2015-02-01

    Modern team handball match-play imposes substantial physical and technical demands on elite players. However, only limited knowledge seems to exist about the specific working requirements in elite team handball. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the physical demands imposed on male elite team handball players in relation to playing position and body anthropometry. Based on continuous video recording of individual players during elite team handball match-play (62 tournament games, ∼4 players per game), computerized technical match analysis was performed in male elite team handball players along with anthropometric measurements over a 6 season time span. Technical match activities were distributed in 6 major types of playing actions (shots, breakthroughs, fast breaks, tackles, technical errors, and defense errors) and further divided into various subcategories (e.g., hard or light tackles, type of shot, claspings, screenings, and blockings). Players showed 36.9 ± 13.1 (group mean ± SD) high-intense technical playing actions per match with a mean total effective playing time of 53.85 ± 5.87 minutes. In offense, each player performed 6.0 ± 5.2 fast breaks, received 34.5 ± 21.3 tackles in total, and performed in defense 3.7 ± 3.5 blockings, 3.9 ± 3.0 claspings, and 5.8 ± 3.6 hard tackles. Wing players (84.5 ± 5.8 kg, 184.9 ± 5.7 cm) were less heavy and smaller (p < 0.001) than backcourt players (94.7 ± 7.1 kg, 191.9 ± 5.4 cm) and pivots (99.4 ± 6.2 kg, 194.8 ± 3.6 cm). In conclusion, modern male elite team handball match-play is characterized by a high number of short-term, high-intense intermittent technical playing actions. Indications of technical fatigue were observed. Physical demands differed between playing positions with wing players performing more fast breaks and less physical confrontations with opponent players than backcourt players and pivots. Body anthropometry seemed to have an important influence on playing performance

  18. The Culture for Quality: Effective Faculty Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanDyke, Patt, Ed.

    This book contains eight chapters by faculty at Northwest Missouri State University (NMSU) describing their experiences in academic teams implementing the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award criteria in terms of adapting the process to the classroom. An introductory chapter is titled "Developing the Culture for Quality," (Annelle…

  19. Improving Team Performance and Participation via Computer-mediated Turn Taking and Informational Prompts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    competitive motivation, interpersonal attraction , and personal satisfaction. We expected that use of the equal timesharing rule and informational...quality of group thinking. Human Relations, 1952, 5, 277-288. McCroskey , J. C. Special reports: Measure of communication-bound anxiety. Speech...leading to a higher quality of team performance on the major problem- solving measure . The EQTS turn-taking rule had its most profound effect by enhancing

  20. Virtual Team E-Leadership: The Effects of Leadership Style and Conflict Management Mode on the Online Learning Performance of Students in a Business-Planning Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Wen-Long; Lee, Chun-Yi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of leadership style, whether transactional or transformational, and conflict management mode on the online learning performance of students in a business-planning course. Conflict management was performed using the following five approaches: (1) avoidance, (2) accommodation, (3) competition,…

  1. Virtual Team E-Leadership: The Effects of Leadership Style and Conflict Management Mode on the Online Learning Performance of Students in a Business-Planning Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Wen-Long; Lee, Chun-Yi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of leadership style, whether transactional or transformational, and conflict management mode on the online learning performance of students in a business-planning course. Conflict management was performed using the following five approaches: (1) avoidance, (2) accommodation, (3) competition,…

  2. Cooperative outcome interdependence, task reflexivity, and team effectiveness: a motivated information processing perspective.

    PubMed

    De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2007-05-01

    A motivated information processing perspective (C. K. W. De Dreu & P. J. D. Carnevale, 2003; see also V. B. Hinsz, R. S. Tindale, & D. A. Vollrath, 1997) was used to predict that perceived cooperative outcome interdependence interacts with team-level reflexivity to predict information sharing, learning, and team effectiveness. A cross-sectional field study involving management and cross-functional teams (N = 46) performing nonroutine, complex tasks corroborated predictions: The more team members perceived cooperative outcome interdependence, the better they shared information, the more they learned and the more effective they were, especially when task reflexivity was high. When task reflexivity was low, no significant relationship was found between cooperative outcome interdependence and team processes and performance. The author concludes that the motivated information processing perspective is valid outside the confines of the laboratory and can be extended toward teamwork in organizations. 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  3. The development of a tool to predict team performance.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, M A; Siemieniuch, C E; Haslam, R A; Henshaw, M J D C; Evans, L

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the development of a tool to predict quantitatively the success of a team when executing a process. The tool was developed for the UK defence industry, though it may be useful in other domains. It is expected to be used by systems engineers in initial stages of systems design, when concepts are still fluid, including the structure of the team(s) which are expected to be operators within the system. It enables answers to be calculated for questions such as "What happens if I reduce team size?" and "Can I reduce the qualifications necessary to execute this process and still achieve the required level of success?". The tool has undergone verification and validation; it predicts fairly well and shows promise. An unexpected finding is that the tool creates a good a priori argument for significant attention to Human Factors Integration in systems projects. The simulations show that if a systems project takes full account of human factors integration (selection, training, process design, interaction design, culture, etc.) then the likelihood of team success will be in excess of 0.95. As the project derogates from this state, the likelihood of team success will drop as low as 0.05. If the team has good internal communications and good individuals in key roles, the likelihood of success rises towards 0.25. Even with a team comprising the best individuals, p(success) will not be greater than 0.35. It is hoped that these results will be useful for human factors professionals involved in systems design.

  4. Effects of Team and Organizational Commitment--A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neininger, Alexandra; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone; Henschel, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Retention management, i.e., keeping qualified employees, is a top priority for contemporary organizations. Commitment, and especially team commitment, can be the key to mastering this challenge. There is a lack of longitudinal research concerning the development and the direction of the effects of team commitment over time. In a longitudinal…

  5. Effects of Team and Organizational Commitment--A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neininger, Alexandra; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone; Henschel, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Retention management, i.e., keeping qualified employees, is a top priority for contemporary organizations. Commitment, and especially team commitment, can be the key to mastering this challenge. There is a lack of longitudinal research concerning the development and the direction of the effects of team commitment over time. In a longitudinal…

  6. Games and Teams: An Effective Combination in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulten, Burma H.

    Research investigated the relative contributions of team competition and peer group practice sessions to the effectiveness of a classroom instructional technique known as Teams-Games-Tournament. Eight mathematics classes with 240 seventh grade students participated in a ten-week field experiment. A 2x2 design was employed. The factors were (1)…

  7. The Impact of Leadership Modes on Team Dynamics and Performance in Undergraduate Management Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markulis, Peter; Jassawalla, Avan R.; Sashittal, Hemant

    2006-01-01

    In business school environments, teamwork often factors into discussions about effective pedagogy. However, leadership of classroom teams has attracted virtually no attention from scholars. How teams should be led in the classroom and what kinds of outcomes different types of team leaders produce remain underdeveloped areas of inquiry. In this…

  8. Effective Team Leadership: A Competitive Advantage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    networking—requires an  extroverted   personality, many successful military leaders are  introverts .  The boundary spanning  requirement for senior...leader teams dictates that  introverted  military leaders stretch their  personal limits to develop a wide‐range of relationships with potential

  9. Real teams and their effect on the quality of care in nursing homes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Use of teams has shown to be an important factor for organizational performance. However, research has shown that a team has to meet certain criteria and operate in a certain way to realize the potential benefits of team organizing. There are few studies that have examined how teams operate in the nursing home sector and their effect on quality of care. This study investigates the relationship between teams that meet an academic definition of the team concept and quality of care in nursing homes. Methods A cross-sectional survey of forty nursing home wards throughout Norway was used to collect the data. Five sources of data were utilized to test our research question: (1) self-report questionnaires to 444 employees, (2) interviews with 40 ward managers, (3) self-report questionnaires to 40 ward managers, (4) telephone interviews with 378 relatives, and (5) 900 hours of field observations. Use of teams in nursing home wards was assessed by field observations and by interviews with ward mangers. Quality of care was assessed by data from surveys and interviews with relatives and staff and through field observations. All data were aggregated to the ward level and two-level analyses were used to assess the relationships. Results The multi-level analyses showed that teams – as operationalized in the present study – were significantly positively related to two out of the three quality of care indices when controlled for ward size, days of sick leave and care level. One significant interaction effect was found between teams and days of sick leave, implying that the effect of teams decreased with higher numbers of days of sick leave. Conclusions The results suggest that teams are related to higher levels of quality of care in nursing homes. However, the study shows that there is a substantial difference between real, functional teams that meet an academic definition of the concept and quasi teams, the latter having a significantly lower effect on quality of

  10. Real teams and their effect on the quality of care in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Havig, Anders Kvale; Skogstad, Anders; Veenstra, Marijke; Romøren, Tor Inge

    2013-12-01

    Use of teams has shown to be an important factor for organizational performance. However, research has shown that a team has to meet certain criteria and operate in a certain way to realize the potential benefits of team organizing. There are few studies that have examined how teams operate in the nursing home sector and their effect on quality of care. This study investigates the relationship between teams that meet an academic definition of the team concept and quality of care in nursing homes. A cross-sectional survey of forty nursing home wards throughout Norway was used to collect the data. Five sources of data were utilized to test our research question: (1) self-report questionnaires to 444 employees, (2) interviews with 40 ward managers, (3) self-report questionnaires to 40 ward managers, (4) telephone interviews with 378 relatives, and (5) 900 hours of field observations. Use of teams in nursing home wards was assessed by field observations and by interviews with ward mangers. Quality of care was assessed by data from surveys and interviews with relatives and staff and through field observations. All data were aggregated to the ward level and two-level analyses were used to assess the relationships. The multi-level analyses showed that teams - as operationalized in the present study - were significantly positively related to two out of the three quality of care indices when controlled for ward size, days of sick leave and care level. One significant interaction effect was found between teams and days of sick leave, implying that the effect of teams decreased with higher numbers of days of sick leave. The results suggest that teams are related to higher levels of quality of care in nursing homes. However, the study shows that there is a substantial difference between real, functional teams that meet an academic definition of the concept and quasi teams, the latter having a significantly lower effect on quality of care. Hence, nursing home leaders

  11. High-performance teams in wildlife conservation: A species reintroduction and recovery example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Tim W.; Westrum, Ron

    1989-11-01

    Reintroduction of animals to the wild to establish free-ranging viable populations is a valuable conservation tool, but ecological skills alone are not enough to ensure a successful reintroduction; also needed to do the work are effectively designed and managed programs. This article suggests general guidelines for organizing and managing reintroduction programs, reviews some basic organizational issues, and considers ways to develop high-performance teams The need to integrate reintroduction programs into their larger interorganizational context is discussed. The reintroduction program's structure must be appropriate for its function and should be properly staffed, led, and buffered from its political environment It should process information well, learn rapidly from its own mistakes, and be creative A high-performance team devotes most of its energies to solving external rather than internal problems

  12. Effective Team Support: From Modeling to Software Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, Roger W. (Technical Monitor); John, Bonnie; Sycara, Katia

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this research contract was to perform multidisciplinary research between CMU psychologists, computer scientists and engineers and NASA researchers to design a next generation collaborative system to support a team of human experts and intelligent agents. To achieve robust performance enhancement of such a system, we had proposed to perform task and cognitive modeling to thoroughly understand the impact technology makes on the organization and on key individual personnel. Guided by cognitively-inspired requirements, we would then develop software agents that support the human team in decision making, information filtering, information distribution and integration to enhance team situational awareness. During the period covered by this final report, we made substantial progress in modeling infrastructure and task infrastructure. Work is continuing under a different contract to complete empirical data collection, cognitive modeling, and the building of software agents to support the teams task.

  13. Validation of team performance assessment of multidisciplinary tumor boards.

    PubMed

    Jalil, Rozh; Akhter, Waseem; Lamb, Benjamin W; Taylor, Cath; Harris, Jenny; Green, James S A; Sevdalis, Nick

    2014-09-01

    We construct validated the instrument to evaluate assessor learning curves and the feasibility and interrater reliability of MTB-MODe for assessing the decision making process using video recorded multidisciplinary tumor board meetings. Multidisciplinary tumor boards are becoming standard practice for managing cancer internationally but no standards have been agreed on to assess the efficacy of such teams. The MTB-MODe tool assesses the process of multidisciplinary tumor board decision making by standardized observation (1 to 5 anchored scales) of the quality of information presented at the multidisciplinary tumor board as well as board member contributions to the case review. We assessed 683 multidisciplinary tumor board case discussions using MTB-MODe in a multiphase study, including 332 cases (9 urology boards) by 1 urologist in vivo and 224 cases (6 urology boards) by 2 urologists in vivo. The instrument was refined and subsequently used to rate 127 video recorded case discussions (5 tumor types) by a total of 8 multidisciplinary tumor boards. Good interrater reliability was achieved in vivo and at the video recorded multidisciplinary tumor board meetings (ICC ≥0.70). MTB-MODe scores were higher in cases that resulted in a decision than in cases in which no decision was made (mean ± SD 2.54 ± 0.47 vs 2.02 ± 0.65, p ≤0.001). A standardized method to assess the quality of multidisciplinary tumor board discussions can enhance the quality of cancer care and the ability of the boards to self-evaluate performance, thus, promoting good practice. Video recordings offer a feasible, reliable method of assessing how multidisciplinary tumor boards work. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Using geographic information systems to track polio vaccination team performance: pilot project report.

    PubMed

    Gammino, Victoria M; Nuhu, Adamu; Chenoweth, Paul; Manneh, Fadinding; Young, Randall R; Sugerman, David E; Gerber, Sue; Abanida, Emmanuel; Gasasira, Alex

    2014-11-01

    The application of geospatial data to public health problems has expanded significantly with increased access to low-cost handheld global positioning system (GPS) receivers and free programs for geographic information systems analysis. In January 2010, we piloted the application of geospatial analysis to polio supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in northern Nigeria. SIA teams carried GPS receivers to compare hand-drawn catchment area route maps with GPS tracks of actual vaccination teams. Team tracks overlaid on satellite imagery revealed that teams commonly missed swaths of contiguous households and indicated that geospatial data can improve microplanning and provide nearly real-time monitoring of team performance.

  15. Picking Teams: Motivational Effects of Team Selection Strategies in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, David; Prusak, Keven A.; Beddoes, Zack; Eggett, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    The tacitly sanctioned practice of publicly picking teams in physical education has been categorized as instructionally inappropriate, yet its practice persists. Therefore, the purpose of this two-study article was to examine its effects on achievement goals orientations and motivational profiles of male junior high school physical education…

  16. Big Hitters: Important Factors Characterizing Team Effectiveness in Professional Cricket

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Leonie V.; Hardy, James; Hardy, Lew

    2017-01-01

    While organizational psychology attests to the multidimensional nature of team effectiveness, insight regarding the most important factors contributing to the effectiveness of sports teams, especially elite teams, is lacking. An abductive method of qualitative enquiry was adopted to capture participants' construal of team effectiveness, drawing on the extant literature in both sport and organizational psychology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 players, coaches, and psychologists involved in elite cricket, with resultant data analyzed inductively initially, before being reanalyzed deductively. Although, the narratives endorsed the value of many of the deductively derived factors, other constructs more prominent in organizational psychology (e.g., trust and intra-group conflict) appeared to be more important than traditional sport psychology group factors. The results revealed six broad themes; culture and environment, values, communication, understanding, leadership, and unique individuals, with some gender differences apparent throughout. Based on our elite sample's construal of team effectiveness, we propose a new model representing a practical, parsimonious, and novel conceptualization of the most important attributes of team effectiveness in cricket, with conceivable transferability to other team sports. PMID:28744235

  17. Improving Team Performance Through Simulation-Based Learning.

    PubMed

    Volk, Mark S

    2017-10-01

    American health care is facing an epidemic of medical errors. A major cause of these errors is poor teamwork. Crisis resource management (CRM) is a set of teamwork principles derived from the airline industry. Medical simulation is an educational tool that affords health care providers a means of improving teamwork by learning and practicing CRM. This article (1) discusses the case for teaching team training, (2) reviews the principles of medical simulation as they pertain to team training, (3) provides practical guidelines for using medical simulation in otolaryngology education, (4) discusses current evidence for the efficacy of medical simulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Circadian Phenotype Composition is a Major Predictor of Diurnal Physical Performance in Teams.

    PubMed

    Facer-Childs, Elise; Brandstaetter, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Team performance is a complex phenomenon involving numerous influencing factors including physiology, psychology, and management. Biological rhythms and the impact of circadian phenotype have not been studied for their contribution to this array of factors so far despite our knowledge of the circadian regulation of key physiological processes involved in physical and mental performance. This study involved 216 individuals from 12 different teams who were categorized into circadian phenotypes using the novel RBUB chronometric test. The composition of circadian phenotypes within each team was used to model predicted daily team performance profiles based on physical performance tests. Our results show that the composition of circadian phenotypes within teams is variable and unpredictable. Predicted physical peak performance ranged from 1:52 to 8:59 p.m. with performance levels fluctuating by up to 14.88% over the course of the day. The major predictor for peak performance time in the course of a day in a team is the occurrence of late circadian phenotypes. We conclude that circadian phenotype is a performance indicator in teams that allows new insight and a better understanding of team performance variation in the course of a day as often observed in different groupings of individuals.

  19. Circadian Phenotype Composition is a Major Predictor of Diurnal Physical Performance in Teams

    PubMed Central

    Facer-Childs, Elise; Brandstaetter, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Team performance is a complex phenomenon involving numerous influencing factors including physiology, psychology, and management. Biological rhythms and the impact of circadian phenotype have not been studied for their contribution to this array of factors so far despite our knowledge of the circadian regulation of key physiological processes involved in physical and mental performance. This study involved 216 individuals from 12 different teams who were categorized into circadian phenotypes using the novel RBUB chronometric test. The composition of circadian phenotypes within each team was used to model predicted daily team performance profiles based on physical performance tests. Our results show that the composition of circadian phenotypes within teams is variable and unpredictable. Predicted physical peak performance ranged from 1:52 to 8:59 p.m. with performance levels fluctuating by up to 14.88% over the course of the day. The major predictor for peak performance time in the course of a day in a team is the occurrence of late circadian phenotypes. We conclude that circadian phenotype is a performance indicator in teams that allows new insight and a better understanding of team performance variation in the course of a day as often observed in different groupings of individuals. PMID:26483754

  20. Six habits to enhance MET performance under stress: A discussion paper reviewing team mechanisms for improved patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fein, Erich C; Mackie, Benjamin; Chernyak-Hai, Lily; O'Quinn, C Richard V; Ahmed, Ezaz

    2016-05-01

    Effective team decision making has the potential to improve the quality of health care outcomes. Medical Emergency Teams (METs), a specific type of team led by either critical care nurses or physicians, must respond to and improve the outcomes of deteriorating patients. METs routinely make decisions under conditions of uncertainty and suboptimal care outcomes still occur. In response, the development and use of Shared Mental Models (SMMs), which have been shown to promote higher team performance under stress, may enhance patient outcomes. This discussion paper specifically focuses on the development and use of SMMs in the context of METs. Within this process, the psychological mechanisms promoting enhanced team performance are examined and the utility of this model is discussed through the narrative of six habits applied to MET interactions. A two stage, reciprocal model of both nonanalytic decision making within the acute care environment and analytic decision making during reflective action learning was developed. These habits are explored within the context of a MET, illustrating how applying SMMs and action learning processes may enhance team-based problem solving under stress. Based on this model, we make recommendations to enhance MET decision making under stress. It is suggested that the corresponding habits embedded within this model could be imparted to MET members and tested by health care researchers to assess the efficacy of this integrated decision making approach in respect to enhanced team performance and patient outcomes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Harming high performers: a social comparison perspective on interpersonal harming in work teams.

    PubMed

    Lam, Catherine K; Van der Vegt, Gerben S; Walter, Frank; Huang, Xu

    2011-05-01

    This study developed a multilevel model of the interpersonal harming behavior associated with social comparison processes in work teams. We tested this model using temporally lagged data from a sample of student teams (Study 1) and cross-sectional data from a sample of work teams in a telecommunication services company (Study 2). In both studies, social relations analyses revealed that in teams with less cooperative goals, comparison to a higher performing team member was positively associated with interpersonal harming behavior, but only when expectations of future performance similarity to that member were low. The interactive relationship of social comparison and expected future performance similarity with interpersonal harming was buffered, however, in teams with more cooperative goals.

  2. A meta-analysis of team-efficacy, potency, and performance: interdependence and level of analysis as moderators of observed relationships.

    PubMed

    Gully, Stanley M; Incalcaterra, Kara A; Joshi, Aparna; Beauien, J Matthew

    2002-10-01

    Meta-analytic techniques were used to examine level of analysis and interdependence as moderators of observed relationships between task-specific team-efficacy, generalized potency, and performance. Sixty-seven empirical studies yielding 256 effect sizes were identified and meta-analyzed. Results demonstrated that relationships are moderated by level of analysis. Effect sizes were stronger at the team level (p = .39) than at the individual level (p = .20). At the team level, both team-efficacy and potency had positive relationships with performance (ps = .41 and .37, respectively). Interdependence significantly moderated the relationship between team-efficacy and performance, but not between potency and performance. The relationship between team-efficacy and performance was stronger when interdependence was high (p = .45) than when it was low (p = .34).

  3. Effective Student Teams for Collaborative Learning in an Introductory University Physics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlow, Jason J. B.; Harrison, David M.; Meyertholen, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the types of student teams that are most effective for collaborative learning in a large freshman university physics course. We compared teams in which the students were all of roughly equal ability to teams with a mix of student abilities, we compared teams with three members to teams with four members, and we examined teams with…

  4. Effective Student Teams for Collaborative Learning in an Introductory University Physics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlow, Jason J. B.; Harrison, David M.; Meyertholen, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the types of student teams that are most effective for collaborative learning in a large freshman university physics course. We compared teams in which the students were all of roughly equal ability to teams with a mix of student abilities, we compared teams with three members to teams with four members, and we examined teams with…

  5. Distributed collaborative team effectiveness: measurement and process improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R.; Hihn, J.; Wilkinson, B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a measurement methodology developed for assessing the readiness, and identifying opportunities for improving the effectiveness, of distributed collaborative design teams preparing to conduct a coccurent design session.

  6. Enhancing decision-making effectiveness in problem-solving teams.

    PubMed

    Bazan, S

    1998-01-01

    Active participation by all group members as well as the generation, presentation, and critical evaluation of a wide range of perspectives and alternatives are hallmarks of effective problem-solving teams. Diverse groups with an odd number of participants (five to seven members are generally best) are manageable and provide an adequate range of perspectives and alternatives. Several problems limit the effectiveness of problem-solving teams. Dysfunctional concurrence or "groupthink" occurs when concurrence seeking in cohesive groups overrides the realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action. Managers initially should withhold their own opinions, assign members the role of critical evaluators, and bring in people from outside the initial group to minimize this problem. Domination by a select few is also a problem because it can squelch the presentation of diverse opinions. Brainstorming and nominal group technique can mitigate this problem. In nominal group technique, a manager guides the group through steps involving brainstorming, recording, and voting on the merits of various alternatives before open discussion is allowed. Decision-making dropouts are group members who withdraw from active participation in the group. Managers can reduce this problem by emphasizing the importance of active participation and by monitoring performance.

  7. Conceptual framework of acute care nurse practitioner role enactment, boundary work, and perceptions of team effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Kelley; Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie; Lamothe, Lise; Ritchie, Judith A; Doran, Diane

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a new conceptual framework for acute care nurse practitioner role enactment, boundary work and perceptions of team effectiveness. Acute care nurse practitioners contribute positively to patient care by enacting an expanded scope of practise. Researchers have found both positive and negative reactions to the introduction of acute care nurse practitioners in healthcare teams. The process of role enactment, shifting role boundaries, and perceptions of team effectiveness has been studied disparately. A framework linking team structures and processes to desirable outcomes is needed. Literature was obtained by searching CINAHL, PsycInfo, MedLine, PubMed, British Nursing Index, Cochrane Library, JSTOR Archive, Web of Science, and Google Scholar from 1985-2010. A descriptive multiple-case study was completed from March 2009-May 2009. A new conceptual framework describing how role enactment and boundary work affect perceptions of team effectiveness was developed by combining theoretical and empirical sources. The framework proposes proximal indicators used by team members to assess their team's performance. The framework identifies the inter-related dimensions and concepts that different stakeholders need to consider when introducing nurse practitioners in healthcare teams. Further study is needed to identify team-level outcomes that reflect the contributions of all providers to quality patient care, and explore the patients' and families' perceptions of team effectiveness following the introduction of acute care nurse practitioners. The new framework can guide decision-making and research related to the structures, processes, and outcomes of nurse practitioner roles in healthcare teams. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Recruit for Attitude, Train for Skills: Creating High Performing Leadership Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodall, Janet

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on research investigating the factors which impact on the recruitment and support of high performing leadership teams, funded by the National College. The research involved a comprehensive literature review and case studies of nine English schools. The results show that four themes emerged in relation to high performing teams:…

  9. Extending Organizational Contingency Theory to Team Performance - An Information Processing and Knowledge Flows Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    ORGANIZATIONAL CONTINGENCY THEORY TO TEAM PERFORMANCE – AN INFORMATION PROCESSING AND KNOWLEDGE FLOWS PERSPECTIVE by Tara A. Leweling...Contingency Theory to Team Performance – An Information Processing and Knowledge Flows Perspective 6. AUTHOR(S): Tara A. Leweling 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7...contingency framework, I suggest that the intersection of the information processing structures and the contigent influence of knowledge sharing is an

  10. Toward Automated Computer-Based Visualization and Assessment of Team-Based Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifenthaler, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    A considerable amount of research has been undertaken to provide insights into the valid assessment of team performance. However, in many settings, manual and therefore labor-intensive assessment instruments for team performance have limitations. Therefore, automated assessment instruments enable more flexible and detailed insights into the…

  11. Team Satisfaction and Student Group Performance: A Cross-Cultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitun, Rami M.; Abdulqader, Khalid Shams; Alshare, Khaled A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between team satisfaction and students' performance in group projects in two universities, one from the United States and one from Qatar. The results showed that there is a significant positive correlation between team satisfaction and group performance only for the American students. Demographic factors such…

  12. Toward Automated Computer-Based Visualization and Assessment of Team-Based Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifenthaler, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    A considerable amount of research has been undertaken to provide insights into the valid assessment of team performance. However, in many settings, manual and therefore labor-intensive assessment instruments for team performance have limitations. Therefore, automated assessment instruments enable more flexible and detailed insights into the…

  13. Team Satisfaction and Student Group Performance: A Cross-Cultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitun, Rami M.; Abdulqader, Khalid Shams; Alshare, Khaled A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between team satisfaction and students' performance in group projects in two universities, one from the United States and one from Qatar. The results showed that there is a significant positive correlation between team satisfaction and group performance only for the American students. Demographic factors such…

  14. Recruit for Attitude, Train for Skills: Creating High Performing Leadership Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodall, Janet

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on research investigating the factors which impact on the recruitment and support of high performing leadership teams, funded by the National College. The research involved a comprehensive literature review and case studies of nine English schools. The results show that four themes emerged in relation to high performing teams:…

  15. PERSPECTIVES ON MULTIDISCIPLINARY TEAM PROCESSES AMONG HEALTHCARE EXECUTIVES: PROCESSES THAT FACILITATE TEAM EFFECTIVENESS.

    PubMed

    Landry, Amy; Erwin, Cathleen

    2015-01-01

    Multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) are used in healthcare organizations to address both clinical and managerial functions. Despite their prevalence, little is known about how team processes work to facilitate effectiveness among MDT leadership teams. This study explores perceptions of MDT participation experienced by organizational leaders in healthcare organizations in the United States. A survey of American College of Healthcare Executives members was conducted to assess involvement and perceptions of MDTs among health care management professionals. Descriptive statistics, independent T-Tests and Chi-square analyses were used to examine participation in MDTs, perception of MDT processes, and the association of participation and perceived processes with employee and organizational characteristics. The survey yielded a sample comprised of 492 healthcare executive or executive-track employees. An overwhelming majority indicated participation in MDTs. The study identified team processes that could use improvement including communication, cooperation, and conflict resolution. The study provides evidence that can help guide the development of training programs that focus on providing managerial leaders with strategies aimed at improving communication, coordination, and conflict resolution that will improve the effectiveness of MDT functioning in healthcare organizations.

  16. Measuring multidisciplinary team effectiveness in a ward-based healthcare setting: development of the team functioning assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Gigi; Liao, Jenny; Jimmieson, Nerina L; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D

    2011-01-01

    Nontechnical skills relating to team functioning are vital to the effective delivery of patient care and safety. In this study, we develop a reliable behavioral marker tool for assessing nontechnical skills that are critical to the success of ward-based multidisciplinary healthcare teams. The Team Functioning Assessment Tool (TFAT) was developed and refined using a literature review, focus groups, card-sorting exercise, field observations, and final questionnaire evaluation and refinement process. Results demonstrated that Clinical Planning, Executive Tasks, and Team Relations are important facets of effective multidisciplinary healthcare team functioning. The TFAT was also shown to yield acceptable inter-rater agreement.

  17. The discipline of teams.

    PubMed

    Katzenbach, J R; Smith, D K

    1993-01-01

    Groups don't become teams because that is what someone calls them. Nor do teamwork values by themselves ensure team performance. So what is a team? How can managers know when the team option makes sense and what they can do to ensure team success? In this article, drawn from their recent book The Wisdom of Teams, McKinsey partners Jon Katzenbach and Douglas Smith answer these questions and outline the discipline that makes a real team. The essence of a team is shared commitment. Without it, groups perform as individuals; with it, they become a powerful unit of collective performance. The best teams invest a tremendous amount of time shaping a purpose that they can own. The best teams also translate their purpose into specific performance goals. And members of successful teams pitch in and become accountable with and to their teammates. The fundamental distinction between teams and other forms of working groups turns on performance. A working group relies on the individual contributions of its members for group performance. But a team strives for something greater than its members could achieve individually. In short, an effective team is always worth more than the sum of its parts. Katzenbach and Smith identify three basic types of teams: teams that recommend things--task forces or project groups; teams that make or do things--manufacturing, operations, or marketing groups; and teams that run things--groups that oversee some significant functional activity. For managers, the key is knowing where in the organization real teams should be encouraged. Team potential exists anywhere hierarchy or organizational boundaries inhibit good performance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Team effectiveness in academic medical libraries: a multiple case study*

    PubMed Central

    Russo Martin, Elaine

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to apply J. Richard Hackman's framework on team effectiveness to academic medical library settings. Methods: The study uses a qualitative, multiple case study design, employing interviews and focus groups to examine team effectiveness in three academic medical libraries. Another site was selected as a pilot to validate the research design, field procedures, and methods to be used with the cases. In all, three interviews and twelve focus groups, with approximately seventy-five participants, were conducted at the case study libraries. Findings: Hackman identified five conditions leading to team effectiveness and three outcomes dimensions that defined effectiveness. The participants in this study identified additional characteristics of effectiveness that focused on enhanced communication, leadership personality and behavior, and relationship building. The study also revealed an additional outcome dimension related to the evolution of teams. Conclusions: Introducing teams into an organization is not a trivial matter. Hackman's model of effectiveness has implications for designing successful library teams. PMID:16888659

  19. Effective healthcare process redesign through an interdisciplinary team approach.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Rita; Huynh, Nathan; Cai, Bo; Vidal, José; Bennett, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare process redesign is a complex and often high risk undertaking. Typically, there is a limited understanding of the baseline process and often inadequate tools by which to assess it. This can be confounded by narrow redesign team expertise that can result in unanticipated and/or unintended redesign consequences. Interdisciplinary research teams of healthcare, biostatistics, engineering and computer science experts provide broad support for a more effective and safer approach to healthcare process redesign. We describe an interdisciplinary research team focused on medication administration process (MAP)redesign and its achievements and challenges.

  20. Are self-directed work teams successful and effective tools for today`s organization?

    SciTech Connect

    Arnwine, A.D.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to (1) show the effectiveness and success of self-directed work teams within the organization, (2) emphasize the importance of team building in the success of the team, and (3) assist organizations in building self-directed work teams. The researcher used a direct survey and studied the following team building techniques: (1) Is the team`s mission clearly defined to each team member? (2) Are the goals clearly defined and achievable by all team members? (3) Will empowerment (decision-making power) be given equally to all team members? (4) Will open and honest communication be allowed among team members? (5) Will each team member be respected and valued for his/her position on the team? (6) Are self-directed work teams effectively rewarded for accomplishments? (7) Have team members received adequate training to effectively complete their job tasks? Upon completion of the literature review and statistical data, and after analyzing the seven areas of team building techniques, it was determined three of the four teams were successful and effective. The only area of concern to the organization is that the participants felt they did not have true ownership of their teams; that is, team members were not given full empowerment. According to this study and the review of literature, full empowerment must be given to achieve successful and effective teams. If true empowerment is not given, the team will suffer in other areas of team building, and the organization will lose a valuable tool.

  1. Positive affective tone and team performance: The moderating role of collective emotional skills.

    PubMed

    Collins, Amy L; Jordan, Peter J; Lawrence, Sandra A; Troth, Ashlea C

    2016-01-01

    Research on affect as a group-level phenomenon has shown that over time, individual members within a group become highly similar in their affect (i.e., members experience and display similar emotions and moods), and often become similar enough that the aggregation of individuals' affect can meaningfully represent the "affective tone" of the group. It is generally assumed that a more positive affective tone will lead to better team performance. We challenge the conclusion that positive affective tone is always good for team performance, suggesting that the relationship between positive affective tone and team performance is subject to moderating influences. Across two studies, we demonstrate that the self-reported collective emotional skills of team members play a crucial role in determining whether positive affective tone is beneficial or detrimental to team performance. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  2. The Effects of Development Team Skill on Software Product Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaver, Justin M.; Schiavone, Guy A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the effect of the skill/experience of the software development team on the quality of the final software product. A method for the assessment of software development team skill and experience is proposed, and was derived from a workforce management tool currently in use by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Using data from 26 smallscale software development projects, the team skill measures are correlated to 5 software product quality metrics from the ISO/IEC 9126 Software Engineering Product Quality standard. in the analysis of the results, development team skill is found to be a significant factor in the adequacy of the design and implementation. In addition, the results imply that inexperienced software developers are tasked with responsibilities ill-suited to their skill level, and thus have a significant adverse effect on the quality of the software product. Keywords: software quality, development skill, software metrics

  3. What makes age diverse teams effective? Results from a six-year research program.

    PubMed

    Wegge, J; Jungmann, F; Liebermann, S; Shemla, M; Ries, B C; Diestel, S; Schmidt, K-H

    2012-01-01

    Based on a new model of productivity in age diverse tams, findings from a six-year research program are reported in which data from more than 745 natural teams with 8,848 employees in three different fields (car production, administrative work, financial services) were collected. Moreover, central assumptions of this model were tested with a representative survey of the German workforce (N = 2,000). Results support both significant advantages and disadvantages for age-mixed teams. Based on the findings, the following preconditions for the effectiveness of age diverse teams are identified: high task complexity, low salience and high appreciation of age diversity, a positive team climate, low age-discrimination, ergonomic design of work places, and the use of age differentiated leadership. Based on these insights, we developed a new training for supervisors, which addresses the aforementioned aspects and seeks to improve team performance and health of team members. It was found that the training reduces age stereotypes, team conflicts and enhances innovation. Thus, we can conclude that effective interventions for a successful integration of elderly employees in work groups are available and that combinations of measures that address ergonomic design issues, team composition and leadership are to be strongly recommended for practice.

  4. Selecting team players: Considering the impact of contextual performance and workplace deviance on selection decisions in the National Football League.

    PubMed

    Whiting, Steven W; Maynes, Timothy D

    2016-04-01

    Contextual performance and workplace deviance likely influence team functioning and effectiveness and should therefore be considered when evaluating job candidates for team-based roles. However, obtaining this information is difficult given a lack of reliable sources and the desire of job applicants to present themselves in a favorable light. Thus, it is unknown whether those selecting employees for teams incorporate prior contextual performance and workplace deviance into their evaluations, or whether doing so improves the quality of selection decisions. To address these issues, we examined the impact of prior task performance, contextual performance, and workplace deviance on National Football League (NFL) decision maker (organizational insider) and external expert (organizational outsider) evaluations of college football players in the NFL draft, using a content analysis methodology to generate measures of contextual performance and workplace deviance. Our findings indicate that insiders value contextual performance more than outsiders, which is likely because of differing interests and goals that lead to different levels of motivation and/or ability to acquire information about prior contextual performance. We also propose that prior task performance, contextual performance, and workplace deviance will predict player performance in the NFL. Our results support this prediction for task and contextual performance. In addition, we investigated the quality of insider and outsider judgments using Brunswik's (1952) lens model. Implications of our findings for the team selection, contextual performance, and workplace deviance literatures are discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Effective Team Performance in Military Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    demands are personally problem- complex. One best atic. Form of alternative is not response is based obvious and easTTy mostly on social agreed upon. group...RESPONSIBLE INDIVIDUAL 22b. TELEPHONE OrIclude Area Code) j22c. OFFICE SYMBOL James E. Driskell , 305-646-5130 1 Code 712 )D FORM 1473, 84 MAR 83 APR...Predictions .................... 30 List of Appendices Appendix Page A Description of Holland Classifications ............. 44 B Task Profile Form

  6. Developing a customer-service and cost-effectiveness team.

    PubMed

    Haynie, L; Garrett, B

    1999-01-01

    A healthcare organization in northeast Georgia developed a team approach to meet the challenge of unacceptable customer service scores, improve numerous system inefficiencies, promote staff accountability, and maintain an emphasis on cost-effective and efficient utilization of resources. This article describes the development of a team comprising a variety of staff members to support all managers in this effort. The outcome was an improvement in customer satisfaction scores from the lower half of the survey database to the top third.

  7. Cognition-Based and Affect-Based Trust as Mediators of Leader Behavior Influences on Team Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaubroeck, John; Lam, Simon S. K.; Peng, Ann Chunyan

    2011-01-01

    We develop a model in which cognitive and affective trust in the leader mediate the relationship between leader behavior and team psychological states that, in turn, drive team performance. The model is tested on a sample of 191 financial services teams in Hong Kong and the U.S. Servant leadership influenced team performance through affect-based…

  8. Cognition-Based and Affect-Based Trust as Mediators of Leader Behavior Influences on Team Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaubroeck, John; Lam, Simon S. K.; Peng, Ann Chunyan

    2011-01-01

    We develop a model in which cognitive and affective trust in the leader mediate the relationship between leader behavior and team psychological states that, in turn, drive team performance. The model is tested on a sample of 191 financial services teams in Hong Kong and the U.S. Servant leadership influenced team performance through affect-based…

  9. Improved Clinical Performance and Teamwork of Pediatric Interprofessional Resuscitation Teams With a Simulation-Based Educational Intervention.

    PubMed

    Gilfoyle, Elaine; Koot, Deanna A; Annear, John C; Bhanji, Farhan; Cheng, Adam; Duff, Jonathan P; Grant, Vincent J; St George-Hyslop, Cecilia E; Delaloye, Nicole J; Kotsakis, Afrothite; McCoy, Carolyn D; Ramsay, Christa E; Weiss, Matthew J; Gottesman, Ronald D

    2017-02-01

    To measure the effect of a 1-day team training course for pediatric interprofessional resuscitation team members on adherence to Pediatric Advanced Life Support guidelines, team efficiency, and teamwork in a simulated clinical environment. Multicenter prospective interventional study. Four tertiary-care children's hospitals in Canada from June 2011 to January 2015. Interprofessional pediatric resuscitation teams including resident physicians, ICU nurse practitioners, registered nurses, and registered respiratory therapists (n = 300; 51 teams). A 1-day simulation-based team training course was delivered, involving an interactive lecture, group discussions, and four simulated resuscitation scenarios, each followed by a debriefing. The first scenario of the day (PRE) was conducted prior to any team training. The final scenario of the day (POST) was the same scenario, with a slightly modified patient history. All scenarios included standardized distractors designed to elicit and challenge specific teamwork behaviors. Primary outcome measure was change (before and after training) in adherence to Pediatric Advanced Life Support guidelines, as measured by the Clinical Performance Tool. Secondary outcome measures were as follows: 1) change in times to initiation of chest compressions and defibrillation and 2) teamwork performance, as measured by the Clinical Teamwork Scale. Correlation between Clinical Performance Tool and Clinical Teamwork Scale scores was also analyzed. Teams significantly improved Clinical Performance Tool scores (67.3-79.6%; p < 0.0001), time to initiation of chest compressions (60.8-27.1 s; p < 0.0001), time to defibrillation (164.8-122.0 s; p < 0.0001), and Clinical Teamwork Scale scores (56.0-71.8%; p < 0.0001). A positive correlation was found between Clinical Performance Tool and Clinical Teamwork Scale (R = 0.281; p < 0.0001). Participation in a simulation-based team training educational intervention significantly improved surrogate measures

  10. How to improve the performance of a good medical practice team: twelve techniques.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura

    2013-01-01

    It is incredibly easy to ignore the medical practice team that is doing a good job. However, when we allow good performers to continue as they are, they probably won't improve. Their performance may even worsen. This is unfortunate because with a little bit of effort and support, good performers can often learn to excel. This article offers 12 techniques medical practice managers can use to bring their team members from good performance to excellent. It describes how to use goal-setting, work assignments, modeling, confidence building, team retreats, rewards, incentives, and reinforcement to ratchet up a good medical practice team's performance. This article also identifies the signs of medical employee mediocrity. It describes why setting higher expectations of your medical practice employees will ultimately improve their performance. Finally, this article suggests 10 practical and affordable strategies that medical practice managers can use to reinforce excellent performance in their good employees.

  11. Modeling reciprocal team cohesion-performance relationships, as impacted by shared leadership and members' competence.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, John E; Kukenberger, Michael R; D'Innocenzo, Lauren; Reilly, Greg

    2015-05-01

    Despite the lengthy history of team cohesion-performance research, little is known about their reciprocal relationships over time. Using meta-analysis, we synthesize findings from 17 CLP design studies, and analyze their results using SEM. Results support that team cohesion and performance are related reciprocally with each other over time. We then used longitudinal data from 205 members of 57 student teams who competed in a complex business simulation over 10 weeks, to test: (a) whether team cohesion and performance were related reciprocally over multiple time periods, (b) the relative magnitude of those relationships, and (c) whether they were stable over time. We also considered the influence of team members' academic competence and degree of shared leadership on these dynamics. As anticipated, cohesion and performance were related positively, and reciprocally, over time. However, the cohesion → performance relationship was significantly higher than the performance → cohesion relationship. Moreover, the cohesion → performance relationship grew stronger over time whereas the performance → cohesion relationship remained fairly consistent over time. As expected, shared leadership related positively to team cohesion but not directly to their performance; whereas average team member academic competence related positively to team performance but was unrelated to team cohesion. Finally, we conducted and report a replication using a second sample of students competing in a business simulation. Our earlier substantive relationships were mostly replicated, and we illustrated the dynamic temporal properties of shared leadership. We discuss these findings in terms of theoretical importance, applied implications, and directions for future research. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Personal Skills, Job Satisfaction, and Productivity in Members of High Performance Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes-Flores, Patricia; Campos-Rodriguez, Javier Arturo

    2008-01-01

    The intention of the study is to identify the development of personal skills, as well as the increase of job satisfaction and productivity of the employee, as a result of their participation in high performance teams. Volunteered in the study 139 members of self-managed teams belonging to the Production Area, 39 of Operational Administrative…

  13. Personal Skills, Job Satisfaction, and Productivity in Members of High Performance Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes-Flores, Patricia; Campos-Rodriguez, Javier Arturo

    2008-01-01

    The intention of the study is to identify the development of personal skills, as well as the increase of job satisfaction and productivity of the employee, as a result of their participation in high performance teams. Volunteered in the study 139 members of self-managed teams belonging to the Production Area, 39 of Operational Administrative…

  14. High quality diabetes care: testing the effectiveness of strategies of regional implementation teams.

    PubMed

    Drach-Zahavy, Anat; Shadmi, Efrat; Freund, Anat; Goldfracht, Margalit

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify and test the effectiveness of work strategies employed by regional implementation teams to attain high quality care for diabetes patients. The study was conducted in a major health maintenance organization (HMO) that provides care for 70 per cent of Israel's diabetes patients. A sequential mixed model design, combining qualitative and quantitative methods was employed. In-depth interviews were conducted with members of six regional implementation teams, each responsible for the care of 25,000-34,000 diabetic patients. Content analysis of the interviews revealed that teams employed four key strategies: task-interdependence, goal-interdependence, reliance on top-down standardised processes and team-learning. These strategies were used to predict the mean percentage performance of eight evidence-based indicators of diabetes care: percentage of patients with HbA1c < 7 per cent, blood pressure < or = 130/80 and cholesterol < or = 100; and performance of: HbA1c tests, LDL cholesterol tests, blood pressure measurements, urine protein tests, and ophthalmic examinations. Teams were found to vary in their use of the four strategies. Mixed linear models analysis indicated that type of indicator (simple process, compound process, and outcome) and goal interdependence were significantly linked to team effectiveness. For simple-process indicators, reliance on top-down standardised processes led to team effectiveness, but for outcome measures this strategy was ineffective, and even counter-effective. For outcome measures, team-learning was more beneficial. The findings have implications for the management of chronic diseases. The advantage of allowing team members flexibility in the choice of the best work strategy to attain high quality diabetes care is attested.

  15. Collective-efficacy as a mediator of the relationship of leaders' personality traits and team performance: A cross-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoshan; Zhou, Mingjie; Zhao, Na; Zhang, Shanshan; Zhang, Jianxin

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between a leader's personality and his team's performance has been established in organisational research, but the underlying process and mechanism responsible for this effect have not been fully explored. Both the traditional multiple linear regression and the multilevel structural equation model approaches were used in this study to test a proposed mediating model of subordinates' perception of collective efficacy between leader personality and team performance. The results show that the team leader's extraversion and conscientiousness personality traits were related positively to both the team-average (individual) perception of collective efficacy and team performance, and the collective efficacy mediated the relationship of the leader's personality traits and team performance. This study also discusses how Chinese cultural elements play a role in such a mediating model. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  16. Computerized Tests of Team Performance and Crew Coordination Suitable for Military/Aviation Settings.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Ben D; Britt, Thomas W; Kelley, Amanda M; Athy, Jeremy R; Legan, Shauna M

    2017-08-01

    The coordination of team effort on shared tasks is an area of inquiry. A number of tests of team performance in challenging environments have been developed without comparison or standardization. This article provides a systematic review of the most accessible and usable low-to-medium fidelity computerized tests of team performance and determines which are most applicable to military- and aviation-relevant research, such as studies of group command, control, communication, and crew coordination. A search was conducted to identify computerized measures of team performance. In addition to extensive literature searches (DTIC, Psychinfo, PubMed), the authors reached out to team performance researchers at conferences and through electronic communication. Identified were 57 potential tests according to 6 specific selection criteria (e.g., the requirement for automated collection of team performance and coordination processes, the use of military-relevant scenarios). The following seven tests (listed alphabetically) were considered most suitable for military needs: Agent Enabled Decision Group Environment (AEDGE), C3Conflict, the C3 (Command, Control, & Communications) Interactive Task for Identifying Emerging Situations (NeoCITIES), Distributed Dynamic Decision Making (DDD), Duo Wondrous Original Method Basic Awareness/Airmanship Test (DuoWOMBAT), the Leader Development Simulator (LDS), and the Planning Task for Teams (PLATT). Strengths and weaknesses of these tests are described and recommendations offered to help researchers identify the test most suitable for their particular needs. Adoption of a few standard computerized test batteries to study team performance would facilitate the evaluation of interventions intended to enhance group performance in multiple challenging military and aerospace operational environments.Lawson BD, Britt TW, Kelley AM, Athy JR, Legan SM. Computerized tests of team performance and crew coordination suitable for military/aviation settings

  17. Why simulation-based team training has not been used effectively and what can be done about it.

    PubMed

    Masiello, Italo

    2012-05-01

    Advanced medical education simulators are broadly used today to train both technical/procedural and team-based skills. While there is convincing evidence of the benefits of training technical skills, this is not the case for team-based skills. Research on medical expertise could drive the creation of a new regime of simulation-based team training. The new regime includes first the understanding of complex systems such as the hospital and the operating room; then the performance of work-place assessment; thirdly, the deliberate training of weaknesses and team performance skills; and lastly the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of team competence. A new regime of deliberate training proposed by the author, which would need to be evaluated and validated, could elucidate the underlying mechanisms of team competence while providing evidence of the effect of simulation-based team training.

  18. Measurement of the Behavioural, Cognitive, and Motivational Factors Underlying Team Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    interdependence. Effective teams are seen to possess greater potential to manage work environments of this nature than are employees working...contexts for the fulfilment of operational requirements. The ability of personnel to contribute as members of a team in a dynamic military environment ... environments that are dynamic, complex, stressful, and time-pressured. Examples of such teams include military command and control (C2), fire

  19. The impact of team building and leadership development on nuclear plant performance

    SciTech Connect

    Fiedler, P.B.; Long, R.L.; Childress, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Within the nuclear utility industry, the pressures of complex technologies, increasing regulations, and critical public scrutiny create a working environment filled with numerous pressures. The difficult nature of the industry puts a premium on effective teamwork, interdepartmental cooperation, and communication skills. A well-conceived and implemented team building and leadership development program can substantially improve the operating performance of a nuclear plant. This paper describes one such implementation effort at GPU Nuclear Corporation and at the Oyster Creek nuclear generating station (OCNGS) over an 18-month period.

  20. Predicting Team Performance through Human Behavioral Sensing and Quantitative Workflow Instrumentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-27

    on team performance . Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Seattle, WA, pp. 630-634 (1993) 14. Andres, H.P. The impact of...Predicting Team Performance Through Human Behavioral Sensing and Quantitative Workflow Instrumentation Matthew Daggett1, Kyle O’Brien1, Michael...study of human -system interactions, and joint qualitative- quantitative methodologies are being developed to improve human performance characterization