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Sample records for effective venous thromboembolism

  1. Epidemiology of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed Central

    Coon, W W

    1977-01-01

    This review of the epidemiology of venous thromboembolism includes estimates of incidence and prevalence of venous thrombosis and its sequelae, a discussion geographical, annual and seasonal variations and data concerning possible risk factors. Selection of patients at increased risk for development of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism for specific diagnostic screening or for prophylactic therapy with low-dose heparin may be a more effective approach to lowering morbidity and mortality from this disease. PMID:329779

  2. Prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism: analysis of cost effectiveness.

    PubMed Central

    Salzman, E W; Davies, G C

    1980-01-01

    The rapidly expanding literature regarding prevention of venous thromboembolism is confusing and contradictory, but, when analysed in the aggregate, the collective experience permits a judgment about the relative efficacy of different prophylactic regimens in specific patient populations, who vary in the risk factors predisposing them to thromboembolism. The dollar cost of the several approaches to prevention and their consequences should also be a matter of concern. Efficacy and dollar cost together determine cost effectiveness, which provides a practical guide to selection of the prophylactic approach appropriate to an individual patient. PMID:6767449

  3. Occupational effect on the occurrence of idiopathic venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Randall J; Jankosky, Christopher; Olsen, Cara H; Mallon, Timothy

    2012-10-01

    Few studies have explored the effects of various occupations on venous thromboembolism occurrence. We examined idiopathic venous thromboembolism (IVTE) occurrence by occupation, body size, and age in the U.S. military. To capture idiopathic cases, exclusion criteria included recognized venous thromboembolism risk factors. Each case was matched to three controls on branch of service, sex, rank/grade, race, and education level. Body mass index, age, and occupation were analyzed with chi2 and logistic regression. Of 2,167 cases, most were male (87%), white (69%), enlisted (78%), averaging 36 years old. IVTE odds increased with age (p < 0.001). Every occupation showed greater odds than pilots/aircrew (p < 0.001), especially infantry/artillery/combat arms, which showed twice the odds, followed by health care workers. Normal weight was protective, especially in pilots/aircrew (OR 0.52, p = 0.03) and repair/engineering (OR 0.72, p < 0.001). Our analysis found a lower risk of IVTE among pilots and aircrew compared to other military occupations. Body size had less impact than expected in aircraft and vehicle operators. Greater odds in health care workers and infantry/artillery/combat arms than in pilots/aircrew and armor/motor transport occupational groups may reflect prolonged standing. Limitations include potential miscoding of health records and potential misclassification. Future IVTE research should explore job functions and worker characteristics.

  4. [Travel and venous thromboembolism].

    PubMed

    Hallundbæk Mikkelsen, Kristian; Knudsen, Stine Ulrik; Nannestad Jørgensen, Lars

    2013-10-28

    A literature study on the association between travel and venous thromboembolism (VTE) is conducted. Studies examining the risk of travel-associated VTE, predisposing factors and prophylactic measures are presented. It is concluded that the absolute risk of travel-associated VTE is low and holds a 2-4 fold increase after travel. The risk increases with duration, presence of other risk factors for VTE and extremes of height. Stockings reduces the risk of asymptomatic VTE. Heparin is presumed to constitute protection whereas there is no evidence of a prophylactic effect of acetylsalicylic acid.

  5. Epidemiology of venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Heit, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Thrombosis can affect any venous circulation. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) includes deep-vein thrombosis of the leg or pelvis, and its complication, pulmonary embolism. VTE is a fairly common disease, particularly in older age, and is associated with reduced survival, substantial health-care costs, and a high rate of recurrence. VTE is a complex (multifactorial) disease, involving interactions between acquired or inherited predispositions to thrombosis and various risk factors. Major risk factors for incident VTE include hospitalization for surgery or acute illness, active cancer, neurological disease with leg paresis, nursing-home confinement, trauma or fracture, superficial vein thrombosis, and—in women—pregnancy and puerperium, oral contraception, and hormone therapy. Although independent risk factors for incident VTE and predictors of VTE recurrence have been identified, and effective primary and secondary prophylaxis is available, the occurrence of VTE seems to be fairly constant, or even increasing. PMID:26076949

  6. Overview of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Abad Rico, José Ignacio; Llau Pitarch, Juan Vicente; Rocha, Eduardo

    2010-12-14

    Thrombosis occurs at sites of injury to the vessel wall, by inflammatory processes leading to activation of platelets, platelet adherence to the vessel wall and the formation of a fibrin network. A thrombus that goes on to occlude a blood vessel is known as a thromboembolism. Venous thromboembolism begins with deep vein thrombosis (DVT), which forms in the deep veins of the leg (calf) or pelvis. In some cases, the DVT becomes detached from the vein and is transported to the right-hand side of the heart, and from there to the pulmonary arteries, giving rise to a pulmonary embolism (PE). Certain factors predispose patients toward the development of venous thromboembolism (VTE), including surgery, trauma, hospitalization, immobilization, cancer, long-haul travel, increased age, obesity, major medical illness and previous VTE; in addition, there may also be a genetic component to VTE. VTE is responsible for a substantial number of deaths per annum in Europe. Anticoagulants are the mainstay of both VTE treatment and VTE prevention, and many professional organizations have published guidelines on the appropriate use of anticoagulant therapies for VTE. Treatment of VTE aims to prevent morbidity and mortality associated with the disease, and any long-term complications such as VTE recurrence or post-thrombotic syndrome. Generally, guidelines recommend the use of low molecular weight heparins (LMWH), unfractionated heparin (UFH) or fondaparinux for the pharmacological prevention and treatment of VTE, with the duration of therapy varying according to the baseline characteristics and risk profile of the individual. Despite evidence showing that the use of anticoagulation prevents VTE, the availability of several convenient, effective anticoagulant therapies and the existence of clear guideline recommendations, thromboprophylaxis is underused, particularly in patients not undergoing surgery. Greater adherence to guideline-recommended therapies, such as LMWH, which can be

  7. [Venous thromboembolism as an adverse effect of antipsychotic treatment].

    PubMed

    Bałkowiec-Iskra, Ewa; Cessak, Grzegorz; Kryńska, Łucja; Łoza, Bartosz; Wojnar, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Many studies, suggest an association between the use of antipsychotics (APs) and occurrence of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Thromboembolism is often related to a significant r'iisk of disability or death. Despite many years of investigating the interrelationsbetween use of APs and VTE, they have not been specified yet. This paper aims to summarize reports on the VTE risk factors in patients using APs. Based on the analyzed clinical studies, meta-analyses and.data published by European Medicines Agency, it has been determined, that the main risk factors for VTE are duration of treatment and patient-related factors, such as gender, age, body mass, and physical activity. Current data do not allow to identify the prothrombotic potential for individual APs or indicate a higher risk for developing VTE in patients treated ' with newer atypical APs. Due to the complex pathogenesis of VTE it would benecessaryto perform large, comparative studies, allowing to identify precisely differences in prothrombotic potential of individual APs. It is necessary to specify products with the lowest VTE risk, what would be useful in the treatment of high-risk patients. All patients treated with APs should be assessed with the risk ofVTE and, if needed, appropriate prevention methods (including most of all the elimination of modifiable risk factors) should be implemented. Moreover, patients should be educated in scope of VTE prodromal symptoms. All patients with the higher VTE risk should be diagnosed as soon as possible and adequate treatment should be implemented.

  8. Venous Thromboembolism and Marathon Athletes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Venous Thromboembolism and Marathon Athletes Claire M. Hull and Julia A. Harris ... general adult population are indisputable. However, for the marathon athlete who trains intensively and for long periods ...

  9. Joint effects of cancer and variants in the factor 5 gene on the risk of venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Gran, Olga V.; Smith, Erin N.; Brækkan, Sigrid K.; Jensvoll, Hilde; Solomon, Terry; Hindberg, Kristian; Wilsgaard, Tom; Rosendaal, Frits R.; Frazer, Kelly A.; Hansen, John-Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism occurs frequently in cancer patients. Two variants in the factor 5 gene (F5), rs6025 encoding for the factor V Leiden mutation R506Q, and rs4524 encoding K858R, have been found to be associated with venous thromboembolism. We assessed the joint effect of active cancer and these two F5 variants on venous thromboembolism risk in a case-cohort study. Cases with a first venous thromboembolism (n=609) and a randomly selected age-weighted cohort (n=1,691) were sampled from the general population in Tromsø, Norway. Venous thromboembolism was classified as cancer-related if it occurred in the period 6 months before to 2 years after a diagnosis of cancer. Active cancer was associated with an 8.9-fold higher risk of venous thromboembolism (95% CI 7.2–10.9). The risk of cancer-related venous thromboembolism was 16.7-fold (95% CI 9.9–28.0) higher in subjects heterozygous for rs6025 compared with non-carriers of this variant without active cancer. In subjects with active cancer the risk of venous thromboembolism was 15.9-fold higher (95% CI 9.1–27.9) in those with one risk allele at rs4524, and 21.1-fold (95% CI 12.4–35.8) higher in those with two risk alleles compared with non-carriers without active cancer. A synergistic interaction was observed between active cancer and factor V Leiden (relative excess risk due to interaction 7.0; 95% CI 0.5–14.4) and rs4524 (relative excess risk due to interaction 15.0; 95% CI 7.5–29.2). The incidence of venous thromboembolism during the initial 6 months following a diagnosis of cancer was particularly high in subjects with risk alleles at these loci. This implies that the combination of cancer and F5 variants synergistically increases venous thromboembolism risk. PMID:27479824

  10. [Prevention of venous thromboembolism in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Malý, R; Masopust, J; Konupcíková, K

    2006-03-01

    The hospitalized patients of the psychiatric wards represent a risk group for the development of venous thromboembolism. Apart from sedative administration, total movement reduction, bad life style and daily routine and increased body weight, there is negative impact of dehydration, prolonged hospitalization and sometimes immobilisation in consequence of mechanical restraints. A large amount of patients are treated with antipsychotics that have a series of adverse effects. Depending of the drug used, the most frequent of them are somnolence, fatigue, extrapyramidal syndrome, hypotension, hepatotoxicity, increased body weight, prolongation of the QT interval of the ECG with a risk of ventricular arrhythmias, hematopoietic disorders, lipid or glycide metabolism disorders or hyperprolactinemia. Another potential adverse effect of these drugs is the heightened risk of venous thromboembolism development (deep vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism). There is the risk of a pathological blood clotting event in psychiatric patients, especially those treated with antipsychotics. Although it is not high, it can have fatal consequences when combined with a relatively frequent pulmonary embolism and difficult diagnostics of thromboembolism. An algorithm for thromboembolism prevention has been developed. It involves important general risk factors of venous thrombosis (VTE history, immobilisation, malignancy, age over 75 years etc.) and also markers (physical restraints, dehydration, obesity, antipsychotics use) that can participate in the pathogenesis of venous thrombosis in the hospitalized psychiatric patients with limited motility. The authors believe that this prophylaxis is indicated, safe, effective and that it improves the quality of life at relatively low costs.

  11. [Prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism].

    PubMed

    Otero Candelera, Remedios; Grau Segura, Enric; Jiménez Castro, David; Uresandi Romero, Fernando; López Villalobos, José Luis; Calderón Sandubete, Enrique; Medrano Ortega, Francisco Javier; Cayuela Domínguez, Aurelio

    2008-03-01

    The recommendations on venous thromboprophylaxis have been updated on the basis of current evidence reviewed by a multidisciplinary team. The problem has been approached with regard to its relevance in both surgical and nonsurgical patients. It should be noted that these recommendations were drawn up for use in Spain and, therefore, should be implemented with the drugs and therapeutic practices authorized and generally accepted in this country.

  12. Air travel and venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed Central

    Mendis, Shanthi; Yach, Derek; Alwan, Ala

    2002-01-01

    There has recently been increased publicity on the risk of venous thrombosis after long-haul flights. This paper reviews the evidence base related to the association between air travel and venous thromboembolism. The evidence consists only of case reports, clinical case-control studies and observational studies involving the use of intermediate end-points, or expert opinion. Some studies have suggested that there is no clear association, whereas others have indicated a strong relationship. On the whole it appears that there is probably a link between air travel and venous thrombosis. However, the link is likely to be weak, mainly affecting passengers with additional risk factors for venous thromboembolism. The available evidence is not adequate to allow quantification of the risk. There are insufficient scientific data on which to base specific recommendations for prevention, other than that leg exercise should be taken during travel. Further studies are urgently needed in order to identify prospectively the incidence of the condition and those at risk. PMID:12077617

  13. Venous Thromboembolism in Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, ZJ; Costa, KA; Novelli, EM; Smith, RE

    2014-01-01

    The cirrhosis population represents a unique subset of patients who are at risk for both bleeding and developing venous thrombotic embolic events (VTE). It has been commonly misunderstood that these patients are naturally protected from thrombosis by deficiencies in coagulation factors. As a result, the cirrhosis population is often falsely perceived to be ‘autoanticoagulated’. However, the concept of ‘autoanticoagulation’ conferring protection from thrombosis is a misnomer. While patients with cirrhosis may have a bleeding predisposition, not uncommonly they also experience thrombotic events. The concern for this increased bleeding risk often makes anticoagulation a difficult choice. Prophylactic and therapeutic management of VTE in patients with cirrhosis is a difficult clinical problem with the lack of clear established guidelines. The elucidation of laboratory and/or clinical predictors of VTE will be useful in this setting. This review serves to examine VTE, and the use of anticoagulation in the cirrhosis population. PMID:23076776

  14. [News on venous thromboembolic disease].

    PubMed

    Arcelus, J I; García-Bragado, F; Jiménez, D; Lozano Sánchez, F S; Lecumberri, R; Román Sánchez, P

    2012-09-01

    This paper brings together the latest developments that have occurred in different aspects of venous thromboembolism (VTE): VTE prophylaxis in high-risk orthopedic surgery and acutely ill hospitalized medical patients; therapeutic advances in pulmonary embolism and superficial vein thrombosis and VTE future prospects. It summarizes the reviews that five speakers made in-depth for the Second Day in New Anticoagulant Treatment, held in Madrid on November 18, 2011, organized by the Foundation for the Study of Thromboembolic Disease in Spain and endorsed by the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine, Spanish Society of Pneumology and Thoracic Surgery, Spanish Society of Cardiology, Spanish Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis and the Spanish Society of Angiology and Vascular Surgery.

  15. [Venous thromboembolic disease: presentation of a case].

    PubMed

    Mirpuri-Mirpuri, P G; Álvarez-Cordovés, M M; Pérez-Monje, A

    2013-01-01

    Venous thromboembolic disease in its clinical spectrum includes both deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism, which is usually a complication of deep vein thrombosis. It is a relatively common disease with significant morbidity and requires an accurate diagnosis. They are numerous risk factors for venous thromboembolism, and there is evidence that the risk of thromboembolic disease increases proportionally to the number of predisposing risk factors present. The primary care physician should know the risk factors and suspect the presence of venous thromboembolic disease when there is a compatible clnical picture. The treatment for this pathology is anticoagulation. We report a patient with cardiovascular risk factors who was seen with pain in the right leg and shortness of breath and referred to the hospital with suspected venous thromboembolism, atrial fibrillation and pleural effusion.

  16. Cost-effective prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism after total joint arthroplasty: warfarin versus aspirin.

    PubMed

    Mostafavi Tabatabaee, Reza; Rasouli, Mohammad R; Maltenfort, Mitchell G; Parvizi, Javad

    2015-02-01

    Although recent guidelines suggest aspirin for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis in low risk patients following total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA), there are no cost-effectiveness studies comparing aspirin and warfarin. In a Markov cohort cost-effectiveness analysis, we found that aspirin cost less and saved more quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) than warfarin in all age groups. Cost per QALY gained by aspirin was $24,506.20 at age of 55 and $47,148.10 at the age of 85 following THA and $15,117.20 and $24,458.10 after TKA, which were greater than warfarin. In patients undergoing THA/TKA without prior VTE, aspirin is more cost-effective prophylactic agent than warfarin. Warfarin might be a better prophylaxis in TKA patients with high probability of VTE and very low probability of bleeding. PMID:25534862

  17. Venous thromboembolism in women taking hormonal contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Molina, Angeles; Monreal, Manuel

    2010-02-01

    Hormonal contraceptives are a popular method of contraception, but their use has been associated with an increased risk for venous thromboembolism. In order to reduce such risk, these compounds have been changed in their dosage, chemical composition and route of administration. The absolute risk of death from pulmonary embolism in contraceptive users has been estimated to be 10.5 (95% CI: 6.2-16.6) per million woman-years. The safest option is an oral contraceptive containing levonorgestrel combined with a low dose of estrogen. Identifying women at increased risk for venous thromboembolism is difficult, and greater use of thromboprophylaxis during immobility or minor surgery should be warranted. Several authors have called for all women to be screened for thrombophilia before prescription of hormonal contraceptives, but its cost-effectiveness remains uncertain.

  18. Venous Thromboembolism in Patients with Membranous Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Lionaki, Sophia; Derebail, Vimal K.; Hogan, Susan L.; Barbour, Sean; Lee, Taewoo; Hladunewich, Michelle; Greenwald, Allen; Hu, Yichun; Jennette, Caroline E.; Jennette, J. Charles; Falk, Ronald J.; Cattran, Daniel C.; Nachman, Patrick H.; Reich, Heather N.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives The aims of this study were to determine the frequency of venous thromboembolic events in a large cohort of patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy and to identify predisposing risk factors. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We studied patients with biopsy-proven membranous nephropathy from the Glomerular Disease Collaborative Network (n=412) and the Toronto Glomerulonephritis Registry (n=486) inception cohorts. The cohorts were pooled after establishing similar baseline characteristics (total n=898). Clinically apparent and radiologically confirmed venous thromboembolic events were identified. Potential risk factors were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression models. Results Sixty-five (7.2%) subjects had at least one venous thromboembolic event, and this rate did not differ significantly between registries. Most venous thromboembolic events occurred within 2 years of first clinical assessment (median time to VTE = 3.8 months). After adjusting for age, sex, proteinuria, and immunosuppressive therapy, hypoalbuminemia at diagnosis was the only independent predictor of a venous thromboembolic event. Each 1.0 g/dl reduction in serum albumin was associated with a 2.13-fold increased risk of VTE. An albumin level <2.8 g/dl was the threshold below which risk for a venous thromboembolic event was greatest. Conclusions We conclude that clinically apparent venous thromboembolic events occur in about 7% of patients with membranous nephropathy. Hypoalbuminemia, particularly <2.8 g/dl, is the most significant independent predictor of venous thrombotic risk. PMID:22076873

  19. [Current status of the management of venous thromboembolism in Japan].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Mashio

    2014-07-01

    In the past, unfractionated heparin and warfarin have been used as anticoagulants for treatment of venous thromboembolism in Japan. Although it has been effective anticoagulants, these uses are accompanied by several pitfalls, which have led to research and the discovery of new additional groups of anticoagulants: parenteral factor Xa inhibitors, such as fondaparinux, and oral direct factor Xa inhibitors, such as rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban. These new anticoagulants are fast-acting, noninferior to heparin and warfarin in preventing recurrence of venous thromboembolism, and do not require monitoring. These new anticoagulants show promise for improvement of long-term outcome for venous thromboembolism.

  20. Effect of Statins on Venous Thromboembolic Events: A Meta-analysis of Published and Unpublished Evidence from Randomised Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Kazem; Bhala, Neeraj; Kamphuisen, Pieter; Emberson, Jonathan; Biere-Rafi, Sara; Krane, Vera; Robertson, Michele; Wikstrand, John; McMurray, John

    2012-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that statins substantially reduce the risk of venous thromboembolic events. We sought to test this hypothesis by performing a meta-analysis of both published and unpublished results from randomised trials of statins. Methods and Findings We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL up to March 2012 for randomised controlled trials comparing statin with no statin, or comparing high dose versus standard dose statin, with 100 or more randomised participants and at least 6 months' follow-up. Investigators were contacted for unpublished information about venous thromboembolic events during follow-up. Twenty-two trials of statin versus control (105,759 participants) and seven trials of an intensive versus a standard dose statin regimen (40,594 participants) were included. In trials of statin versus control, allocation to statin therapy did not significantly reduce the risk of venous thromboembolic events (465 [0.9%] statin versus 521 [1.0%] control, odds ratio [OR] = 0.89, 95% CI 0.78–1.01, p = 0.08) with no evidence of heterogeneity between effects on deep vein thrombosis (266 versus 311, OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.72–1.01) and effects on pulmonary embolism (205 versus 222, OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.76–1.12). Exclusion of the trial result that provided the motivation for our meta-analysis (JUPITER) had little impact on the findings for venous thromboembolic events (431 [0.9%] versus 461 [1.0%], OR = 0.93 [95% CI 0.82–1.07], p = 0.32 among the other 21 trials). There was no evidence that higher dose statin therapy reduced the risk of venous thromboembolic events compared with standard dose statin therapy (198 [1.0%] versus 202 [1.0%], OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.80–1.20, p = 0.87). Risk of bias overall was small but a certain degree of effect underestimation due to random error cannot be ruled out. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary. Conclusions The findings from this meta-analysis do not support the

  1. Increased thromboxane production in women with a history of venous thromboembolic event: effect of heparins.

    PubMed

    Kaaja, R; Pettilä, V; Leinonen, P; Ylikorkala, O

    2001-09-01

    We investigated the production of prostacyclin and thromboxane in pregnant women with a previous venous thromboembolic event before, during and after the use of unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparin (dalteparin). Twenty women were studied before starting heparin prophylaxis (before 20 weeks of gestation), during heparin prophylaxis (at 30 weeks of gestation) and after heparin prophylaxis (16 weeks after delivery). Ten pregnant women with no history of thromboembolism were studied as the control group. Urinary output of the stable metabolite of prostacyclin (2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF1alpha) and that of thromboxane A2 (2,3-dinor-TxB2), as well as a number of markers of thrombophilia were measured and expressed as mean (+/-SEM). Women with a history of thromboembolism were characterized by normal prostacyclin production but elevated thromboxane production (44.0 +/- 4.1 versus 19.0 +/- 3.6 ng/mmol creatinine, P < 0.001) at 12 weeks of pregnancy. Heparin prophylaxis (regardless of the type) had abolished elevated thromboxane concentrations at 30 weeks of gestation. Four months after delivery, thromboxane dominance had returned (25.2 +/- 3.5 versus 13.6 +/- 2.1 ng/mmol creatinine, P < 0.01). The presence of hereditary thrombophilia (9/20) was not associated with any changes in prostanoid concentrations. Thus, women with a history of venous thromboembolic events have thromboxane dominance during and after pregnancy, but this dominance can be eliminated through the use of heparins. PMID:11552994

  2. New Anticoagulants for the Prevention and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    McRae, Simon J; Ginsberg, Jeffrey S

    2005-01-01

    Anticoagulant therapy is effective at preventing the development of venous thromboembolism in high-risk patients, and reduces morbidity and mortality in individuals with established thromboembolic disease. Vitamin K antagonists and heparins are currently the most commonly used anticoagulant drugs, but they have practical limitations. Therefore, new antithrombotic agents with predictable dose-responses (thereby decreasing the need for monitoring without compromising efficacy or safety), ideally available in an oral formulation and with a rapidly reversible anticoagulant effect, are needed. New drugs fulfilling some of the above criteria have been developed and have proven to be effective agents for the treatment and prevention of venous thromboembolism. PMID:17319097

  3. Why does aspirin decrease the risk of venous thromboembolism? On old and novel antithrombotic effects of acetyl salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Undas, A; Brummel-Ziedins, K; Mann, K G

    2014-11-01

    It is well established that aspirin, an irreversible inhibitor of platelet cyclooxygenase activity, is effective in secondary prevention of arterial thromboembolic events. The pooled results of the recent randomized, multicenter WARFASA and ASPIRE aspirin trials showed a 32% reduction in the rate of recurrence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients receiving aspirin following VTE. These clinical data support evidence that platelets contribute to the initiation and progression of venous thrombosis and aspirin inhibits thrombin formation and thrombin-mediated coagulant reactions. In addition to the known acetylation of serine 529 residue in platelet cyclooxygenase-1, the postulated mechanisms of aspirin-induced antithrombotic actions also involve the acetylation of other proteins in blood coagulation, including fibrinogen, resulting in more efficient fibrinolysis. This review summarizes current knowledge on the aspirin-induced antithrombotic effects that potentially explain clinical studies showing reduced rates of VTE events in aspirin-treated subjects.

  4. [Outpatient treatment of venous thromboembolic disease].

    PubMed

    Malý, Radovan; Malý, Jaroslav

    2015-05-01

    Venous thromboembolic disease which includes both venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is a frequent and potentially fatal disease. Based on the introduction of low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) into practice it has been proved that outpatient treatment of venous thrombosis is effective and safe for a large number of patients with VTE. The growing volume of data on LMWH outpatient treatment in recent years shows that up to 50 % of patients with clinically stable pulmonary embolism can be treated at home. In spite of these facts home treatment of pulmonary embolism has not been established as part of common practice as yet. If we were to summarize the conditions for home treatment, we would consider outpatient care for patients at low risk based on auxiliary criteria, free from hemodynamic instability (primarily without a shock state), free from right ventricular failure, prior chronic heart or lung disease, serious comorbidities (gastrointestinal tract disease, kidney disease, blood diseases, advanced cancers), at low risk of early thromboembolism recurrence, free from other indications for hospitalization (pain requiring parenteral analgesics, infections etc.), at low risk of bleeding and with guaranteed patients cooperation and well-organized home care. PMID:26075852

  5. [Management of venous thromboembolism: A 2015 update].

    PubMed

    Galanaud, J-P; Messas, E; Blanchet-Deverly, A; Quéré, I; Wahl, D; Pernod, G

    2015-11-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) constitute venous thromboembolic disease (VTE). Venous thromboembolic disease is a common, serious, and multifactorial disease, the incidence of which increases with age. Risk factors, whether transient (surgery, plaster immobilization, bed rest/hospitalization) or chronic/persistent (age, cancer, clinical or biological thrombophilia, etc.), modulate the duration of treatment. In the absence of pathognomonic clinical sign or symptom, diagnostic management relies in the evaluation of the clinical pre-test probability followed by a laboratory or an imaging testing. So far, compression ultrasound and multidetector computed tomography angiography are the best diagnostic tests to make a positive diagnosis of DVT or PE, respectively. Anticoagulants at therapeutic dose for at least 3months constitute the cornerstone of VTE management. Availability of new direct oral anticoagulants, which have recently been shown to be as effective and as safe as vitamin K antagonist in clinical trials, should facilitate ambulatory management of VTE and favour extended treatments for individuals with unprovoked VTE or VTE provoked by a chronic/persistent risk factor.

  6. Edoxaban in venous thromboembolism and stroke prevention: an appraisal.

    PubMed

    Proietti, Marco; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2016-01-01

    Oral anticoagulation is the therapeutic cornerstone in preventing thromboembolic risk in both atrial fibrillation (AF) and venous thromboembolism (VTE). After decades of the sole therapeutic oral anticoagulation option being warfarin, the introduction of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants has heralded a new era. Edoxaban is the latest addition to these available for clinical use. Edoxaban was as effective and safer than warfarin in preventing thromboembolic risk in AF patients. Similarly, edoxaban effectiveness and safety was evident when treating VTE patients to prevent recurrent VTE or VTE-related death. Therefore, edoxaban represents a valuable alternative in treating thromboembolic risk for AF and VTE patients. PMID:27013883

  7. Treating venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Piatek, Caroline; O’Connell, Casey L; Liebman, Howard A

    2015-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with cancer. Although much is known about the factors that contribute to VTE risk, pre-emptive therapy in high-risk populations is clearly indicated in only a few clinical situations. Low-molecular-weight heparin is still the recommended class of anticoagulants for cancer-associated VTE. Management of VTE in patients with renal failure, hemorrhagic brain metastases, thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy remains challenging with few safe and effective alternatives. Novel oral agents are currently being investigated and may play a role in the future in the treatment of cancer-associated VTE. PMID:22475288

  8. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) and glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Yust-Katz, Shlomit; Mandel, Jacob J; Wu, Jimin; Yuan, Ying; Webre, Courtney; Pawar, Tushar A; Lhadha, Harshad S; Gilbert, Mark R; Armstrong, Terri S

    2015-08-01

    The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is high for patients with brain tumors (11-20 %). Glioblastoma (GBM) patients, in particular, have the highest risk of VTE (24-30 %). The Khorana scale is the most commonly used clinical scale to evaluate the risk of VTE in cancer patients but its efficacy in patients with GBM remains unclear. The aim of this study is to estimate the frequency of VTE in GBM patients and identify potential risk factors for the development of VTE during adjuvant chemotherapy. Furthermore, we intend to examine whether the Khorana scale accurately predicts the risk of VTE in GBM patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of GBM patients treated at MD Anderson during the years 2005-2011. The study cohort included 440 patients of which 64 (14.5 %) developed VTE after the start of adjuvant treatment. The median time to develop VTE was 6.5 months from the start of adjuvant treatment. On multivariate analysis male sex, BMI ≥ 35, KPS ≤ 80, history of VTE and steroid therapy were significantly associated with the development of VTE. The Khorana scale was found to be an invalid VTE predictive model in GBM patients due to poor specificity. Of the 64 patients who developed a VTE, 36 were treated with anticoagulation, 2 with an IVC filter, and 21 with both. Complications (intracranial hemorrhage, bleeding in other organs and thrombocytopenia) secondary to anticoagulation were reported in 16 % (n = 10). VTE is common in patients with GBM. Our results did not validate the Khorana scale in GBM patients. Additional studies identifying which GBM patients are at highest risk for VTE are needed to enable further evaluation of VTE preventive measures in this selected group.

  9. Menopausal hormone therapy and venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) is the most effective method of treating vasomotor symptoms and other climacteric symptoms related to estrogen deficiency in peri- and postmenopausal period. In addition to estrogen replacement, women with preserved uterus require the addition of progestagen in order to ensure endometrial safety. One of rare but severe complications of MHT is venous thromboembolism (VTE). The incidence of VTE rises in parallel to women's age and body weight. The condition is also linked to hereditary and acquired risk factors. Oral estrogens increase the risk of venous thromboembolic complications to varying extents, probably depending on their type and dose used. Observational studies have not found an association between an increased risk of VTE and transdermal estrogen treatment regardless of women's age and body mass index (BMI). Micronized progesterone and pregnanes, including dydrogesterone, have no effect on the risk of VTE, whereas norpregnane progestagens cause an additional increase in risk. Among hormonal preparations which are commercially available in Poland, the combination of transdermal estradiol with oral dydrogesterone appears to be the optimum choice, as it does not elevate the risk of VTE (compared to patients not using MHT), and dydrogesterone seems to be the progestagen of choice. PMID:26327865

  10. Effective management of venous thromboembolism in the community: non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Raj

    2016-01-01

    Anticoagulation therapy is essential for the effective treatment and secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE). For many years, anticoagulation for acute VTE was limited to the use of initial parenteral heparin, overlapping with and followed by a vitamin K antagonist. Although highly effective, this regimen has several limitations and is particularly challenging when given in an ambulatory setting. Current treatment pathways for most patients with deep-vein thrombosis typically involve initial hospital or community-based ambulatory care with subsequent follow-up in a secondary care setting. With the introduction of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) into routine clinical practice, it is now possible for the initial acute management of patients with deep-vein thrombosis to be undertaken by primary care. As hospital admissions associated with VTE become shorter, primary care will play an increasingly important role in the long-term management of these patients. Although the NOACs can potentially simplify patient management and improve clinical outcomes, primary care physicians may be less familiar with these new treatments compared with traditional therapy. To assist primary care physicians in further understanding the role of the NOACs, this article outlines the main differences between NOACs and traditional anticoagulation therapy and discusses the benefit–risk profile of the different NOACs in the treatment and secondary prevention of recurrent VTE. Key considerations for the use of NOACs in the primary care setting are highlighted, including dose transition, risk assessment and follow-up, duration of anticoagulant therapy, how to minimize bleeding risks, and the importance of patient education and counseling. PMID:27217793

  11. PROPHYLAXIS OF VENOUS THROMBOEMBOLISM IN ORTHOPAEDIC SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    Leme, Luiz Eugênio Garcez; Sguizzatto, Guilherme Turolla

    2015-01-01

    The relevance of prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism and its complications in orthopedic surgery is increasingly significant. This review discusses the pathophysiology of thrombus formation in general and orthopedic surgery, its incidence, predisposing factors and complications. It also presents an updated presentation and critique of prophylaxis currently available in our environment. PMID:27047885

  12. Pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism: risk and the effect of thromboprophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Lussana, Federico; Coppens, Michiel; Cattaneo, Marco; Middeldorp, Saskia

    2012-06-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a leading cause of maternal mortality and morbidity during pregnancy in developed countries. The incidence of VTE per pregnancy-year increases about 4-fold during pregnancy and at least 14-fold during the puerperium. Risk factors include a personal history of VTE, presence of inherited or acquired thrombophilia, a family history of VTE and general medical conditions, such as immobilisation, overweight, varicose veins, some haematological diseases and inflammatory disorders. VTE is considered potentially preventable with the prophylactic administration of anticoagulants, but there are no high quality randomized clinical trials that compared different strategies of thromboprophylaxis in pregnant women. Balancing the absolute risk of VTE against the risks of exposure to anticoagulants, this review provides advice regarding which women may benefit from thromboprophylaxis during and after pregnancy.

  13. Dabigatran for the treatment of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Schellong, Sebastian M

    2015-08-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and individuals with a first VTE are at risk of recurrent VTE. VTE treatment is divided into three phases: a first short phase of acute (traditionally parenteral) anticoagulation, followed by a second maintenance phase with an oral anticoagulant, which may be continued into a third extended maintenance phase in patients considered to be at increased risk of recurrent VTE. Vitamin K antagonists are effective oral anticoagulants but have well-known limitations; non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants including dabigatran etexilate (DE) were therefore developed. DE was approved for VTE treatment on the basis of an extensive clinical trial program that evaluated DE during both the maintenance phase and the extended maintenance phase of VTE treatment. This article provides a comprehensive overview of DE in VTE treatment, from its preclinical characteristics and pharmacokinetic properties to its efficacy and safety in major clinical trials.

  14. Prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism in orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin-tao; Ma, Bao-tong

    2006-08-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE), which is manifested as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), represents a significant cause of death, disability, and discomfort. They are frequent complications of various surgical procedures. The aging population and the survival of more severely injured patients may suggest an increasing risk of thromboembolism in the trauma patients. Expanded understanding of the population at risk challenges physicians to carefully examine risk factors for VTE to identify high-risk patients who can benefit from prophylaxis. An accurate knowledge of evidence-based risk factors is important in predicting and preventing postoperative DVT, and can be incorporated into a decision support system for appropriate thromboprophylaxis use. Standard use of DVT prophylaxis in a high-risk trauma population leads to a low incidence of DVT. The incidence of VTE is common in Asia. The evaluation includes laboratory tests, Doppler test and phlebography. Screening Doppler sonography should be performed for surveillance on all critically injured patients to identify DVT. D-Dimer is a useful marker to monitor prophylaxis in trauma surgery patients. The optimal time to start prophylaxis is between 2 hours before and 10 hours after surgery, but the risk of PE continues for several weeks. Thromboprophylaxis includes graduated compression stockings and anticoagulants for prophylaxis. Anticoagulants include Warfarin, which belongs to Vitamin K antagonists, unfractionated heparin, low molecular weight heparins, factor Xa indirect inhibitor Fondaparinux, and the oral IIa inhibitor Melagatran and ximelagatran. Recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin is a new and highly effective antithrombotic agent. Prophylactic placement of vena caval filters in selected trauma patients may decrease the incidence of PE. The indications for prophylactic inferior vena cava filter insertion include prolonged immobilization with multiple injuries, closed head injury, pelvic

  15. Serum albumin and risk of venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Folsom, Aaron. R.; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Cushman, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Summary The incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is increased in patients with albuminuria. However, whether a low serum albumin concentration is associated with increased risk of VTE has been a matter of controversy. We determined the association of serum albumin with VTE incidence in two large, prospective, population-based cohorts: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (n = 15,300) and the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) (n = 5,400). Validated VTE occurrence (n=462 in ARIC and n=174 in CHS) was ascertained during follow-up. In both studies, after adjustment for age, sex, race, use of hormone replacement therapy, estimated GFR, history of cancer, and diabetes, serum albumin tended to be associated inversely with VTE. The adjusted hazard ratio per standard deviation lower albumin was 1.18 (95% CI = 1.08, 1.31) in ARIC and 1.10 (95% CI = 0.94, 1.29) in CHS. The hazard ratio for albumin below (versus above) the fifth percentile was 1.28 (95% CI = 0.90, 1.84) in ARIC and 1.80 (95% CI = 1.11, 2.93) in CHS. In conclusion, low serum albumin was a modest marker of increased VTE risk. The observed association likely does not reflect cause and effect, but rather that low serum albumin reflects a hyperinflammatory or hypercoagulable state. Whether this association has clinical relevance warrants further study. PMID:20390234

  16. Direct oral anticoagulants and venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio

    2016-09-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE), consisting of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is a major clinical concern associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The cornerstone of management of VTE is anticoagulation, and traditional anticoagulants include parenteral heparins and oral vitamin K antagonists. Recently, new oral anticoagulant drugs have been developed and licensed, including direct factor Xa inhibitors (e.g. rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban) and thrombin inhibitors (e.g. dabigatran etexilate). This narrative review focusses on the characteristics of these direct anticoagulants and the main results of published clinical studies on their use in the prevention and treatment of VTE. PMID:27581829

  17. Venous thromboembolism and pancreatic cancer: incidence, pathogenesis and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Mandalà, Mario; Moro, Cecilia; Labianca, Roberto

    2008-03-01

    Pancreatic cancer is still a major clinical challenge. Recent efforts to improve survival in locally advanced and metastatic disease have focused on combining cytotoxic drugs with targeted therapies. One of the major complications of pancreatic cancer is venous thromboembolism (VTE). Despite the general perception that patients with mucinous carcinoma of the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract present a high incidence of thromboembolic complications, there is little data regarding the incidence and pathogenesis of VTE in pancreatic cancer patients. Clinical data suggest that, among patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer, the occurrence of VTE may be associated with reduced overall survival. Furthermore emerging clinical data strongly suggest that anticoagulant treatments may improve cancer patient survival by decreasing thromboembolic complications as well as by anticancer effects. Given the lack of extensive data and the clinical relevance of this topic for both physicians and basic research scientists, this overview focuses attention on the incidence, pathogenesis and clinical implications of VTE in pancreatic cancer patients.

  18. How I manage venous thromboembolism risk in hospitalized medical patients.

    PubMed

    Dobromirski, Mark; Cohen, Alexander T

    2012-08-23

    Venous thromboembolism is a significant cause of illness and death worldwide. Large bodies of evidence support the heightened risk status of hospitalized medical patients, and that prophylactic measures significantly reduce the risk of thrombosis, yet these patients often fail to receive adequate prophylactic therapy. This failure may be accounted for by a lack of awareness of the relevant indications, poorly designed implementation systems, and clinical concerns over the side effects of anticoagulant medications. This article briefly summarizes our understanding of the clinical factors relevant to the evaluation of venous thromboembolism risk in hospitalized medical patients. We describe our approach to the use of thromboprophylaxis, through which we aim to minimize the disease burden of this under-recognized and preventable pathology.

  19. Effectiveness of self-managed oral anticoagulant therapy in patients with recurrent venous thromboembolism. A propensity-matched cohort study.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Torben Bjerregaard; Skjøth, Flemming; Grove, Erik Lerkevang; Nielsen, Peter Brønnum; Christensen, Thomas Decker

    2016-08-30

    Patient-self-management (PSM) of oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) with vitamin K antagonists for venous thromboembolism (VTE) has demonstrated efficacy in randomised, controlled trials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of PSM of OAT in everyday clinical practice. Prospectively registered patient data were obtained from databases at two hospitals, and cross-linkage with national patient registries provided detailed information on comorbidities and events. Patients with VTE performing PSM affiliated to major PSM centres were included as cases (N=444). A control group of patients on conventional treatment was propensity score selected in a ratio of 1:5 (N=2220) within matched groups. The effectiveness and safety was estimated using recurrent VTE, major bleeding events and all-cause death as outcomes. We found a lower rate of recurrent VTE among PSM patients compared to the control group with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.63; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.42-0.95, whereas no difference was seen with bleeding (HR: 0.95; 95 % CI 0.44-2.02). The risk of all-cause death was lower for PSM patients (HR: 0.41; 95 % CI 0.21-0.81). A net clinical benefit analysis sums the effect on recurrent VTE and bleeding up to a weighted rate difference of 0.86 (95 % CI 0.00-1.72) in favour of PSM. In conclusion, PSM of anticoagulant treatment was associated with a statistically significant lower rate of recurrent VTE and all-cause death compared to patients on conventionally managed anticoagulant treatment. All major thromboembolic outcomes were less frequent among self-managed patients, whereas bleedings were observed with similar frequency. PMID:27412804

  20. Chronic kidney disease and venous thromboembolism: epidemiology and mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Wattanakit, Keattiyoat; Cushman, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review An estimated 13% of Americans have kidney disease. We sought to describe the association of kidney disease with risk of venous thromboembolism and discuss possible mechanisms explaining this association. Recent findings All severities of kidney disease appear to increase the risk of venous thromboembolism. In the general population the risk associated with mild to moderate kidney disease is 1.3–2-fold increased, and present even for microalbuminuria, although stage 1 chronic kidney disease itself has not been studied. End-stage renal disease is also associated with a 2.3-fold increased risk, compared to the general population. Although data are limited, risk increases after kidney transplant and with nephrotic syndrome as well. Summary Rates of kidney disease are increasing rapidly in the population and kidney disease is a risk factor for venous thromboembolism. An improved understanding of mechanisms linking kidney disease with venous thromboembolism will allow further study of best prevention efforts. PMID:19561505

  1. Incidence of Venous Thromboembolic Events Among Nursing Home Residents

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Josephine P; Shaheen, Wassim H; Truong, Son V; Brown, Edward F; Beasley, Brent W; Gajewski, Byron J

    2003-01-01

    Chronic care facility stay has been shown to be an independent risk factor for venous thromboembolism. Review of the literature, however, reveals a paucity of data addressing the issue of venous thromboembolism in nursing home residents. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of venous thromboembolic events among nursing home residents. A retrospective cohort study was derived from data compiled in the State of Kansas Minimum Data Set (MDS) for nursing home residents from July 1, 1997 to July 1, 1998. A total of 18,661 residents (median age, 85 years, 74% female, 95% white) satisfied the study criteria. The outcome measures of the primary endpoint—development of a venous thromboembolic event (VTE)—were obtained from the MDS quarterly health assessments and the Medicare ICD-9 codes. We determined the incidence of VTE among nursing home residents as 1.30 events per 100 person-years of observation. PMID:14687280

  2. The up-to-date management of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Anob M

    2015-08-01

    There have been a number of developments in the management of venous thromboembolism over the past few years. Old questions, such as thrombolysis, have been revisited in recent trials. New initiatives, such as ambulatory care pathways, are being established across the country. This conference brought together doctors from the UK, USA, Spain and Australia to review the up-to-date management of venous thromboembolism.

  3. Massachusetts Health Reform was Cost Saving for Individuals with New Venous Thromboembolism: A Cost-effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Alok; Shaffer, Nicholas; Hanchate, Amresh; Roberts, Mark; Smith, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) require access to comprehensive physician and pharmacy benefits to prevent recurrence and hemorrhage. Prior to 2006, Massachusetts provided these benefits through a program restricted to safety net hospitals called Free Care. Providing portable health insurance through Massachusetts health reform could improve outcomes for uninsured with VTE but its cost-effectiveness is unknown. Methods and Results We constructed a Markov decision analysis model comparing our conceptualization of the Massachusetts health reform (“health reform strategy”) to no health reform strategy for a patient beginning warfarin for new episode of VTE. In the model, a patient may develop recurrent VTE or develop hemorrhage or stop warfarin after 6 months if no event occurs. To measure effectiveness, we analyzed laboratory data from Boston Medical Center, the largest safety net hospital in Massachusetts. Specifically, we measured the probability of having a subtherapeutic warfarin level for patients newly insured compared to those on Free Care pre-reform adjusting for secular trends. To calculate inpatient costs, we used the Health Care Utilization Project (HCUP). We then calculated the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) for the health reform strategy adjusted to 2014 USD per quality adjusted life year (QALY) and performed sensitivity analyses. The health reform strategy cost less and gained more QALYS than the no health reform strategy. Our result was most sensitive to the odds that Health Reform protected against a subtherapeutic warfarin level, the cost of Health Reform, and the percentage of total health care costs attributable to VTE in Massachusetts. Conclusions The health reform strategy cost less and was more effective than the no health reform strategy for patients with VTE. PMID:26908086

  4. Alcohol consumption and venous thromboembolism: friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Franchini, Massimo

    2015-12-01

    A light to moderate consumption of certain types of alcoholic beverages may exert a favorable effect on cardiovascular risk, but no conclusive information is available on the putative relationship between alcohol intake and the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). We performed an electronic search on Medline and Scopus, using the keywords "venous thromboembolism", "venous thrombosis" and "alcohol", to identify clinical studies linking alcohol intake and VTE risk. The literature search generated 16 studies, 4 of which are case-control, 1 cross-sectional and 11 prospective. Significant reduction of VTE associated with alcohol intake is observed in only 4/16 studies, and in all these the association is only meaningful for a moderate amount of alcohol (i.e., 2-4 glasses). Unlike these trials, two other studies observe that alcohol intake is associated with an increased risk of VTE, whereas the association is insignificant in the remainder. Binge drinking increases the VTE risk in one study but not in another. The consumption of beer is associated with a decreased VTE risk in one study but not in two others. We hence conclude that the relationship between intake of alcoholic beverages and increased or decreased risk of VTE is largely elusive. PMID:26446524

  5. Postorthopedic Surgery Joint Replacement Surgery Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Louis M; Kimball, Jon A

    2016-10-01

    Elective total hip or knee arthroplasty places patients at risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). As our understanding of the pathophysiology of VTE after joint arthroplasty has increased, pharmacologic strategies have been developed to target different aspects of the coagulation cascade. Various approaches have been used as risk reduction strategies. In 2011 and 2014 the Food and Drug Administration approved rivaroxaban and apixaban as new oral antithrombotic agents. Although controversies remain with regard to the ideal VTE pharmacoprophylactic agent, this class of novel oral anticoagulants has been demonstrated to be safe and to be more effective than enoxaparin. PMID:27637304

  6. Increased risk of venous thromboembolism in patients with acute leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Mohren, M; Markmann, I; Jentsch-Ullrich, K; Koenigsmann, M; Lutze, G; Franke, A

    2006-01-01

    Patients with malignancies have an increased risk for venous thromboembolisms (VTE), but data on patients with acute leukaemia are very limited so far. We found VTE in 12% of 455 patients with acute leukaemia, half of which occurred in association with central venous catheters, with equal risk of ALL and AML. PMID:16421591

  7. Dabigatran for the Treatment and Secondary Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism; A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis for the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Stevanović, J.; de Jong, L. A.; Kappelhoff, B. S.; Dvortsin, E. P.; Voorhaar, M.; Postma, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dabigatran was proven to have similar effect on the prevention of recurrence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and a lower risk of bleeding compared to vitamin K antagonists (VKA). The aim of this study is to assess the cost-effectiveness (CE) of dabigatran for the treatment and secondary prevention in patients with VTE compared to VKAs in the Dutch setting. Methods Previously published Markov model was modified and updated to assess the CE of dabigatran and VKAs for the treatment and secondary prevention in patients with VTE from a societal perspective in the base-case analysis. The model was populated with efficacy and safety data from major dabigatran trials (i.e. RE-COVER, RECOVER II, RE-MEDY and RE-SONATE), Dutch specific costs, and utilities derived from dabigatran trials or other published literature. Univariate, probabilistic sensitivity and a number of scenario analyses evaluating various decision-analytic settings (e.g. the perspective of analysis, use of anticoagulants only for treatment or only for secondary prevention, or comparison to no treatment) were tested on the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Results In the base-case scenario, patients on dabigatran gained an additional 0.034 quality adjusted life year (QALY) while saving €1,598. Results of univariate sensitivity analysis were quite robust. The probability that dabigatran is cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of €20,000/QALY was 98.1%. From the perspective of healthcare provider, extended anticoagulation with dabigatran compared to VKAs was estimated at €2,158 per QALY gained. The ICER for anticoagulation versus no treatment in patients with equipoise risk of recurrent VTE was estimated at €33,379 per QALY gained. Other scenarios showed dabigatran was cost-saving. Conclusion From a societal perspective, dabigatran is likely to be a cost-effective or even cost-saving strategy for treatment and secondary prevention of VTE compared to VKAs in the

  8. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism in immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Bever, Katherine M.; Masha, Luke I.; Sun, Fangui; Stern, Lauren; Havasi, Andrea; Berk, John L.; Sanchorawala, Vaishali; Seldin, David C.; Sloan, J. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis are at risk for both thrombotic and bleeding complications. While the hemostatic defects have been extensively studied, less is known about thrombotic complications in this disease. This retrospective study examined the frequency of venous thromboembolism in 929 patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis presenting to a single referral center, correlated risk of venous thromboembolism with clinical and laboratory factors, and examined complications of anticoagulation in this population. Sixty-five patients (7%) were documented as having at least one venous thromboembolic event. Eighty percent of these patients had events within one year prior to or following diagnosis. Lower serum albumin was associated with increased risk of VTE, with a hazard ratio of 4.30 (CI 1.60–11.55; P=0.0038) for serum albumin less than 3 g/dL compared to serum albumin greater than 4 g/dL. Severe bleeding complications were observed in 5 out of 57 patients with venous thromboembolism undergoing treatment with anticoagulation. Prospective investigation should be undertaken to better risk stratify these patients and to determine the optimal strategies for prophylaxis against and management of venous thromboembolism. PMID:26452981

  9. SP-05VENOUS THROMBOEMBOLISM AND GLIOBLASTOMA

    PubMed Central

    Yust-Katz, Shlomit; Mandel, Jacob; Ying, Yuan; Wu, Jimin; Courtney, C.; Ladha, Harshad; Pawar, Tushar; Gilbert, Mark; Armstrong, Terri

    2014-01-01

    The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is very high for patients with brain tumors; Glioblastoma (GB) specifically is one of the most at risk cancers. The aim of this study is to estimate the frequency and identify potential risk factors of GB patients developing VTE during adjuvant chemotherapy and to test if the Khorana scale accurately predicts the risk of VTE among this patient population. We retrospectively reviewed patients with GB treated at MD Anderson during the years 2005-2011. The target population of our study was patients who developed VTE after starting adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients were excluded if they did not start treatment with the established standard of care, had less than 6 months follow up or if they developed VTE before starting adjuvant treatment. The study sample included 440 patients. 64 (14.5%) of them developed VTE. The median time to develop VTE was 6.5 months. On multivariate analysis male sex, BMI≥ 35, KPS ≤80, history of VTE and steroid therapy were significantly associated with the development of VTE. We also found that in this patient sample, the Khorana scale was not a valid predictive model in GB patients due to very poor specificity. Of the 64 patients who developed a VTE, 36 were treated with anticoagulation, 2 with an IVC filter, and 21 with both. Complications secondary to anticoagulation were reported in 16% (n = 10) of patients. The complications included intracranial hemorrhage, bleeding to other organs and thrombocytopenia. VTE is very common in patients with GB. Currently, we are lacking a scale that accurately predicts the risk of VTE among GB patients. Predictive scales used for other cancers do not seem valid for GB due to the unique nature of the disease. Future studies are needed to create an accurate predictive model for VTE in GB patients.

  10. Cancer-Associated Venous Thromboembolic Disease, Version 1.2015.

    PubMed

    Streiff, Michael B; Holmstrom, Bjorn; Ashrani, Aneel; Bockenstedt, Paula L; Chesney, Carolyn; Eby, Charles; Fanikos, John; Fenninger, Randolph B; Fogerty, Annemarie E; Gao, Shuwei; Goldhaber, Samuel Z; Hendrie, Paul; Kuderer, Nicole; Lee, Alfred; Lee, Jason T; Lovrincevic, Mirjana; Millenson, Michael M; Neff, Anne T; Ortel, Thomas L; Paschal, Rita; Shattil, Sanford; Siddiqi, Tanya; Smock, Kristi J; Soff, Gerald; Wang, Tzu-Fei; Yee, Gary C; Zakarija, Anaadriana; McMillian, Nicole; Engh, Anita M

    2015-09-01

    The NCCN Guidelines for Cancer-Associated Venous Thromboembolic Disease outline strategies for treatment and prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in adult patients with a diagnosis of cancer or for whom cancer is clinically suspected. VTE is a common complication in patients with cancer, which places them at greater risk for morbidity and mortality. Therefore, risk-appropriate prophylaxis is an essential component for the optimal care of inpatients and outpatients with cancer. Critical to meeting this goal is ensuring that patients get the most effective medication in the correct dose. Body weight has a significant impact on blood volume and drug clearance. Because obesity is a common health problem in industrialized societies, cancer care providers are increasingly likely to treat obese patients in their practice. Obesity is a risk factor common to VTE and many cancers, and may also impact the anticoagulant dose needed for safe and effective prophylaxis. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize the data supporting new dosing recommendations for VTE prophylaxis in obese patients with cancer. PMID:26358792

  11. Management of venous thrombo-embolism: an update.

    PubMed

    Konstantinides, Stavros; Torbicki, Adam

    2014-11-01

    Venous thrombo-embolism is the third most frequent acute cardiovascular syndrome after myocardial infarction and stroke. Recently published landmark trials paved the way for significant progress in the management of the disease and provided the evidence for the ESC Pulmonary Embolism (PE) Guidelines 2014 update. Risk stratification strategies for non-high-risk PE continue to evolve, with an increasing emphasis on clinical prediction rules and right ventricular (RV) assessment on computed tomographic pulmonary angiography. In the field of anticoagulation treatment, pharmacogenetic testing for vitamin K antagonists on top of clinical parameters was not found to offer a significant benefit during the initiation phase; on the other hand, dosing based on the patient's clinical data seems superior to fixed loading regimens. The phase 3 trial programme of new oral anticoagulants in the treatment of venous thrombo-embolism has been completed, and the results indicate that these agents are at least as effective and probably cause less major bleeding than currently standard treatment. A multicentre prospective phase 4 trial will determine whether early discharge and out-of-hospital treatment of low-risk PE with the oral factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban is feasible, effective, and safe. For intermediate-risk PE defined on the basis of imaging tests and laboratory biomarkers, the bleeding risks of full-dose thrombolytic treatment appear too high to justify its use, unless clinical signs of haemodynamic decompensation appear. Patients in whom PE has resulted in chronic thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension and who are not suitable for pulmonary endarterectomy, may be expected to benefit from emerging pharmaceutical and interventional treatment options. PMID:25179762

  12. Vegetables intake and venous thromboembolism: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Franchini, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    A higher intake of vegetables has been convincingly associated with a decreased risk of arterial thrombotic disorders, so that a similar association may be expected with venous thromboembolism. An electronic search was conducted in Medline, Web of Science and Scopus to identify epidemiological studies that investigated the independent association between intake of vegetables and risk of venous thrombosis. Our systematic literature search allowed to identify four prospective and one case-control studies. Although a lower risk of venous thromboembolism was reported in one prospective and one case-control studies, no significant association was found between larger intake of vegetables and risk of venous thrombosis in the remaining three large prospective studies. Taken together, the epidemiological data available in the current scientific literature do not support the notion that higher consumption of vegetables may have a significant impact on the risk of venous thrombosis. PMID:27023878

  13. Sulodexide for the Prevention of Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Bignamini, Angelo A.; Davì, Giovanni; Palareti, Gualtiero; Matuška, Jiří; Holý, Martin; Pawlaczyk-Gabriel, Katarzyna; Džupina, Andrej; Sokurenko, German Y.; Didenko, Yury P.; Andrei, Laurentia D.; Lessiani, Gianfranco; Visonà, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Background— Patients with a first episode of unprovoked venous thromboembolism have a high risk of recurrence after discontinuation of anticoagulant therapy. Extending anticoagulation reduces the risk of recurrence but is associated with increased bleeding. Sulodexide, a glycosaminoglycan, exerts antithrombotic and profibrinolytic actions with a low bleeding risk when administered orally, but its benefit for preventing recurrent venous thromboembolism is not well known. Methods and Results— In this multicenter, double-blind study, 615 patients with first-ever unprovoked venous thromboembolism who had completed 3 to 12 months of oral anticoagulant treatment were randomly assigned to sulodexide 500 lipasemic units twice daily or placebo for 2 years, in addition to elastic stockings. The primary efficacy outcome was recurrence of venous thromboembolism. Major or clinically relevant bleeding was the primary safety outcome. Venous thromboembolism recurred in 15 of the 307 patients who received sulodexide and in 30 of the 308 patients who received placebo (hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27–0.92; P=0.02). The analysis in which lost to follow-up was assigned to failure yielded a risk ratio among treated versus control subjects of 0.54 (95% confidence interval, 0.35–0.85; P=0.009). No major bleeding episodes occurred; 2 patients in each treatment group had a clinically relevant bleeding episode. Adverse events were similar in the 2 groups. Conclusion— Sulodexide given after discontinuation of anticoagulant treatment reduced the risk of recurrence in patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism, with no apparent increase of bleeding risk. Clinical Trial Registration— URL: https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/. Identifier: EudraCT number 2009-016923-77. PMID:26408273

  14. Pharmacological prophylaxis of venous thrombo-embolism.

    PubMed

    Flute, P T

    1976-02-01

    The pathogenesis of venous thrombosis is briefly discussed as a basis for the understanding of preventive measures used in this condition. Prophylaxis in venous thrombosis is then reviewed with emphasis on pharmacological treatment, and more particularly on heparin.

  15. National Partnership for Maternal Safety: Consensus Bundle on Venous Thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    D'Alton, Mary E; Friedman, Alexander M; Smiley, Richard M; Montgomery, Douglas M; Paidas, Michael J; D'Oria, Robyn; Frost, Jennifer L; Hameed, Afshan B; Karsnitz, Deborah; Levy, Barbara S; Clark, Steven L

    2016-10-01

    Obstetric venous thromboembolism is a leading cause of severe maternal morbidity and mortality. Maternal death from thromboembolism is amenable to prevention, and thromboprophylaxis is the most readily implementable means of systematically reducing the maternal death rate. Observational data support the benefit of risk-factor-based prophylaxis in reducing obstetric thromboembolism. This bundle, developed by a multidisciplinary working group and published by the National Partnership for Maternal Safety under the guidance of the Council on Patient Safety in Women's Health Care, supports routine thromboembolism risk assessment for obstetric patients, with appropriate use of pharmacologic and mechanical thromboprophylaxis. Safety bundles outline critical clinical practices that should be implemented in every maternity unit. The safety bundle is organized into four domains: Readiness, Recognition, Response, and Reporting and Systems Learning. Although the bundle components may be adapted to meet the resources available in individual facilities, standardization within an institution is strongly encouraged. PMID:27636577

  16. National Partnership for Maternal Safety: Consensus Bundle on Venous Thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    D'Alton, Mary E; Friedman, Alexander M; Smiley, Richard M; Montgomery, Douglas M; Paidas, Michael J; D'Oria, Robyn; Frost, Jennifer L; Hameed, Afshan B; Karsnitz, Deborah; Levy, Barbara S; Clark, Steven L

    2016-01-01

    Obstetric venous thromboembolism is a leading cause of severe maternal morbidity and mortality. Maternal death from thromboembolism is amenable to prevention, and thromboprophylaxis is the most readily implementable means of systematically reducing the maternal death rate. Observational data support the benefit of risk-factor-based prophylaxis in reducing obstetric thromboembolism. This bundle, developed by a multidisciplinary working group and published by the National Partnership for Maternal Safety under the guidance of the Council on Patient Safety in Women's Health Care, supports routine thromboembolism risk assessment for obstetric patients, with appropriate use of pharmacologic and mechanical thromboprophylaxis. Safety bundles outline critical clinical practices that should be implemented in every maternity unit. The safety bundle is organized into four domains: Readiness, Recognition, Response, and Reporting and Systems Learning. Although the bundle components may be adapted to meet the resources available in individual facilities, standardization within an institution is strongly encouraged. PMID:27619099

  17. [Venous thromboembolism's risk assessment: rationale, objectives, and methodology--the ARTE study].

    PubMed

    França, Ana; De Sousa, Joaquim Abreu; Felicíssimo, Paulo; Ferreira, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Venous thromboembolism is a frequent clinical condition with high impact on both morbidity and mortality. Venous thromboembolism risk is particularly high in hospitalized patients as well as in oncologic patients, being a factor of poor prognosis for the oncologic disease. Several clinical studies have shown the need to develop effective hospital strategies using a systematic and individualized assessment of venous thromboembolism risk, and additionally to optimize the institution of prophylaxis treatment and its proper use in the context of in-hospital and outpatient management. The ARTE national study is a non-interventional, multicentre, prospective study which is divided in two phases. In the first phase patients are followed in the hospital; in the second phase patients are followed in ambulatory context for a period of 6 months after discharge. Four thousand patients will be included, equally distributed over medical, surgical, oncologic and orthopaedic patients. Data will be collected from the patient's clinical files and through direct clinical evaluation of risk factors for venous thromboembolism, in the departments of medicine, oncology, surgery, and orthopaedics of the participating centres. The main objectives of the study are to assess the risk profile of venous thromboembolism of the study population using a risk assessment model adapted from the Caprini and Khorana et al models, and the validation of the score for the Portuguese population. Simultaneously, the secondary objectives are as follows: to determine the proportion of patients with venous thromboembolism risk, according to the risk assessment model, that are doing prophylaxis; to determine the duration of prophylaxis during the hospitalization; to determine the proportion of patients doing long-term prophylaxis, at the moment of the discharge; to determine the incidence of thromboembolic events (deep venous thrombosis; stroke; pulmonary thromboembolism; transient ischemic attack

  18. [Venous thromboembolism's risk assessment: rationale, objectives, and methodology--the ARTE study].

    PubMed

    França, Ana; De Sousa, Joaquim Abreu; Felicíssimo, Paulo; Ferreira, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Venous thromboembolism is a frequent clinical condition with high impact on both morbidity and mortality. Venous thromboembolism risk is particularly high in hospitalized patients as well as in oncologic patients, being a factor of poor prognosis for the oncologic disease. Several clinical studies have shown the need to develop effective hospital strategies using a systematic and individualized assessment of venous thromboembolism risk, and additionally to optimize the institution of prophylaxis treatment and its proper use in the context of in-hospital and outpatient management. The ARTE national study is a non-interventional, multicentre, prospective study which is divided in two phases. In the first phase patients are followed in the hospital; in the second phase patients are followed in ambulatory context for a period of 6 months after discharge. Four thousand patients will be included, equally distributed over medical, surgical, oncologic and orthopaedic patients. Data will be collected from the patient's clinical files and through direct clinical evaluation of risk factors for venous thromboembolism, in the departments of medicine, oncology, surgery, and orthopaedics of the participating centres. The main objectives of the study are to assess the risk profile of venous thromboembolism of the study population using a risk assessment model adapted from the Caprini and Khorana et al models, and the validation of the score for the Portuguese population. Simultaneously, the secondary objectives are as follows: to determine the proportion of patients with venous thromboembolism risk, according to the risk assessment model, that are doing prophylaxis; to determine the duration of prophylaxis during the hospitalization; to determine the proportion of patients doing long-term prophylaxis, at the moment of the discharge; to determine the incidence of thromboembolic events (deep venous thrombosis; stroke; pulmonary thromboembolism; transient ischemic attack

  19. Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Plastic Surgery: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Sergio; Valdes, Jorge; Salama, Moises

    2016-06-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major health concern because it increases morbidity and mortality after a surgical procedure. A number of well-defined, evidence-based guidelines are available delineating suitable use of prophylaxis to prevent deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Despite the available literature, there are clear gaps between recommendations and clinical practice, affecting the incidence of VTE. Plastic surgeons underuse the substantiated literature and risk stratification tools that are available to decrease the incidence of VTE in the office-based surgical setting because of fear of bleeding or hematoma complications postoperatively. Venous thromboembolism creates an economic burden on both the patient and the healthcare system. The intent of this literature review is to determine existing VTE risk using assessment models available to aid in the implementation of protocols for VTE prevention, specifically for high-risk cosmetic surgical patients in office-based settings.

  20. Hokusai-VTE: Edoxaban for the treatment of venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Said, Karim

    2013-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism is associated with a high morbidity and, if left untreated, may progress to fatal outcome. The standard treatment of venous thromboembolism consists of heparin followed by long-term treatment with a vitamin K antagonist. However, the use of vitamin K antagonist has several inherent problems and practical challenges. These challenges have prompted the search for new oral anticoagulant drugs including direct factor Xa inhibitors (e.g., rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban) and thrombin inhibitors (e.g., dabigatran). To date, results for dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, for the treatment of VTE have been published. Recently, results of the 4th new oral anticoagulant agent, edoxaban, have been published in the Hokusai-VTE study. This review discusses the Hokusai-VTE study with special emphasis on its salient features (compared to other new oral anticoagulant studies) in addition to an overview on some key lessons learnt. PMID:24749116

  1. Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Plastic Surgery: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Sergio; Valdes, Jorge; Salama, Moises

    2016-06-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major health concern because it increases morbidity and mortality after a surgical procedure. A number of well-defined, evidence-based guidelines are available delineating suitable use of prophylaxis to prevent deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Despite the available literature, there are clear gaps between recommendations and clinical practice, affecting the incidence of VTE. Plastic surgeons underuse the substantiated literature and risk stratification tools that are available to decrease the incidence of VTE in the office-based surgical setting because of fear of bleeding or hematoma complications postoperatively. Venous thromboembolism creates an economic burden on both the patient and the healthcare system. The intent of this literature review is to determine existing VTE risk using assessment models available to aid in the implementation of protocols for VTE prevention, specifically for high-risk cosmetic surgical patients in office-based settings. PMID:27501651

  2. Venous thromboembolic events in minimally invasive gynecologic surgery.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Pedro T; Nick, Alpa M; Frumovitz, Michael; Schmeler, Kathleen M

    2013-01-01

    The rate of venous thromboembolic events (VTEs) including deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism among women undergoing gynecologic surgery is high, particularly for women with a gynecologic malignancy. Current guidelines recommend VTE thrombopropylaxis in the immediate postoperative period for patients undergoing open surgery. However, the VTE prophylaxis recommendations for women undergoing minimally invasive gynecologic surgery are not as well established. The risk of VTEs in patients undergoing minimally invasive surgery appears to be low based on retrospective analyses. To date, there are no established guidelines that specifically provide a standard of care for patients undergoing minimally invasive gynecologic surgery for benign or malignant disease.

  3. Venous Thromboembolism Following Dantrolene Treatment for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Po-Hao; Lane, Hsien-Yuan; Lin, Chieh-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is one of the most severe iatrogenic emergencies in clinical service. The symptoms including sudden consciousness change, critical temperature elevation and electrolytes imbalance followed by mutli-organ system failure were common in NMS. In addition to aggressive interventions with intravenous fluid resuscitation and antipyretics, several antidotes have been suggested to prevent further progression of the muscle damage. Dantrolene has been reported to be one of the most effective treatments for NMS. However, the adverse effects of dantrolene treatment for NMS have not yet been evaluated thoroughly. Here we report a young male patient with bipolar I disorder who developed NMS after rapid tranquilization with haloperidol. Dantrolene was given intravenously for the treatment of NMS. However, fever accompanied with local tenderness, hardness with clear border and swelling with heat over the patient’s left forearm occurred on the sixth day of dantrolene treatment. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) over intravenous indwelling site at the patient’s forearm was noted and confirmed by Doppler ultrasound. The patient’s VTE recovered after heparin and warfarin thrombolytic therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first case report demonstrating the possible relationship between dantrolene use and VTE in a patient with antipsychotic treatment. Although the causal relationship and the underlying pathogenesis require further studies, dantrolene should be used with caution for patients with NMS. PMID:27776396

  4. New anticoagulants for the treatment of venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Caio Julio Cesar dos Santos; Júnior, José Leonidas Alves; Gavilanes, Francisca; Prada, Luis Felipe; Morinaga, Luciana Kato; Souza, Rogerio

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, venous thromboembolism (VTE) is among the leading causes of death from cardiovascular disease, surpassed only by acute myocardial infarction and stroke. The spectrum of VTE presentations ranges, by degree of severity, from deep vein thrombosis to acute pulmonary thromboembolism. Treatment is based on full anticoagulation of the patients. For many decades, it has been known that anticoagulation directly affects the mortality associated with VTE. Until the beginning of this century, anticoagulant therapy was based on the use of unfractionated or low-molecular-weight heparin and vitamin K antagonists, warfarin in particular. Over the past decades, new classes of anticoagulants have been developed, such as factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors, which significantly changed the therapeutic arsenal against VTE, due to their efficacy and safety when compared with the conventional treatment. The focus of this review was on evaluating the role of these new anticoagulants in this clinical context. PMID:27167437

  5. Venous thromboembolism and antithrombotic therapy in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wee-Shian; Rey, Evelyne; Kent, Nancy E; Chan, Wee-Shian; Kent, Nancy E; Rey, Evelyne; Corbett, Thomas; David, Michèle; Douglas, M Joanne; Gibson, Paul S; Magee, Laura; Rodger, Marc; Smith, Reginald E

    2014-06-01

    Objectif : Présenter une approche, fondée sur les données actuelles, envers le diagnostic, la prise en charge et la thromboprophylaxie de la thromboembolie veineuse pendant la grossesse et la période postpartum. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed, Medline, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library entre novembre 2011 et juillet 2013 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé (p. ex. « pregnancy », « venous thromboembolism », « deep vein thrombosis », « pulmonary embolism », « pulmonary thrombosis ») et de mots clés (p. ex. « maternal morbidity », « pregnancy complications », « thromboprophylaxis », « antithrombotic therapy ») appropriés. Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles publiés en anglais ou en français. Aucune restriction n’a été imposée en matière de dates. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats est évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (Tableau). Recommandations 1. La tenue d’un examen objectif s’avère requise lorsque la présence d’une thrombose veineuse profonde ou d’une embolie pulmonaire est soupçonnée sur le plan clinique. (II-2A) 2. Pour diagnostiquer la présence d’une thrombose veineuse profonde, il est recommandé d’avoir recours à une échographie; lorsque l’examen initial donne des résultats n

  6. Prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism during HRT: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Rott, Hannelore

    2014-01-01

    Many large trials in the past 15 years have proven an increased risk of vascular complications in women using oral, mostly non-bioidentical, hormone therapy. The risk of vascular complications depends on the route of administration (oral versus transdermal), age, duration of administration, and type of hormones (bioidentical versus non-bioidentical). Acquired and/or hereditary thrombophilias (eg, factor V Leiden, prothrombin mutation G20210A, and others) lead to a further increase of risk for venous thromboembolism, stroke, or myocardial infarction. Therefore, bioidentical hormone therapy via the transdermal route seems to be the safest opportunity for hormone replacement therapy, although large trials for bioidentical hormone therapy are needed. PMID:25210472

  7. A Rare Occurrence of Simultaneous Venous and Arterial Thromboembolic Events – Lower Limb Deep Venous Thrombosis and Pulmonary Thromboembolism as Initial Presentation in Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Kutiyal, Aditya S.; Dharmshaktu, Pramila; Kataria, Babita; Garg, Abhilasha

    2016-01-01

    The development of acute myeloid leukemia has been attributed to various factors, including hereditary, radiation, drugs, and certain occupational exposures. The association between malignancy and venous thromboembolism events is well established. Here, we present a case of a 70-year-old Indian man who had presented with arterial and venous thrombosis, and the patient was later diagnosed with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). In our case, the patient presented with right lower limb deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism four months prior to the diagnosis of APL. Although thromboembolic event subsequent to the diagnosis of malignancy, and especially during the chemotherapy has been widely reported, this prior presentation with simultaneous occurrence of both venous and arterial thromboembolism has rarely been reported. We take this opportunity to state the significance of a complete medical evaluation in cases of recurrent or unusual thrombotic events. PMID:26949347

  8. [Actual questions about the prevention of venous thromboembolism in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Losonczy, Hajna; Nagy, Ágnes; Tar, Attila

    2016-02-01

    Cancer patients have a 2-7 fold increased risk of venous thromboembolism compared with the general population and, since 1990, this is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This review summarizes the current knowledge on venous thromboembolism and cancer. Notably, the risk of venous thromboembolism varies depending on the type and stage of cancer. For instance, pancreatic and brain cancer patients have a higher risk of venous thromboembolism than breast and prostate cancer patients. Moreover, patients with metastatic disease have a higher risk than those with localized tumors. Tumor-derived procoagulant factors, cytokines and growth factors may directly and indirectly enhance venous thromboembolism. Chemotherapy produces ~6,5 fold increase in venous thromboembolism incidence in cancer patients compared to the general population. Prevention of this complication is challenging. The authors review the development of guidelines concerning venous thromboembolism prevention in hospitalized and also in ambulatory cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Current guidelines recommend the use of low-molecular-weight heparin. Understanding the underlying mechanisms may allow the development of new therapies to safely prevent venous thromboembolism in cancer patients. PMID:27120721

  9. Venous Thromboembolism – Current Diagnostic and Treatment Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Bosevski, Marijan; Srbinovska-Kostovska, Elizabeta

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary embolism and deep venous thrombosis, known as venous thromboembolism (VTE), are associated with a high proportion of morbidity and mortality. AIM: Aim of this review is to emphasise current diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for VTE. RESULTS: No differences have been noticed in European and American guidelines in diagnostic approach of this disorder. Today there is enough clinical information for the use of heparin (either, unfractionated or low molecular) and vitamin K antagonists in the treatment of acute and chronic phases of VTE. Novel oral anticoagulants seem to have some advantages in the treatment of this disorder. Rivaroxaban has been approved widespread, for use as a single-drug approach of VTE. CONCLUSION: Both guidelines are almost similar and good basis for evidence-based treatment of this disorder. PMID:27703586

  10. Pharmacological prevention of venous thromboembolism in orthopaedic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Prisco, Domenico; Cenci, Caterina; Silvestri, Elena; Emmi, Giacomo; Ciucciarelli, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Summary The prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism (VTE) with anticoagulant drugs is a long-established practice in hip and knee replacement surgery, as well as in the treatment of femoral neck fractures, while there are few data regarding the prevention of VTE in other fields of orthopaedic surgery and traumatology. In order to provide practical recommendations for daily management of VTE prophylaxis in orthopaedic patients, recently the Italian Societies of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, Orthopaedics and Traumatology and Anaesthesia have drawn up a first Intersociety Consensus on antithrombotic prophylaxis in total hip and knee replacement surgery, and in the treatment of femoral neck fracture, then updated in 2013, and a subsequent Intersocietary Consensus, in cooperation also with the Society of general practitioners, concerning antithrombotic prophylaxis in other types of orthopaedic surgery and traumatology. Before starting any prophylactic treatment it is of crucial importance the assessment of both thrombotic and bleeding risk of patients undergoing surgery. Thromboembolic prophylaxis is recommended with low molecular weight heparins (LMWH), fondaparinux (FON) or with the new oral anticoagulants (NOA) in patients undergoing hip and knee replacement surgery while patients undergoing treatment of femoral neck fracture should be treated with LMWH or FON. Regarding the non-prosthetic orthopaedic surgery and traumatology, it is recommended prophylaxis with LMWH or FON in situations of high thromboembolic risk or in the case of interventions or trauma involving pelvis, acetabulum or knee. PMID:25568652

  11. Venous thromboembolism in Latin America: a review and guide to diagnosis and treatment for primary care

    PubMed Central

    Ceresetto, Jose Manuel

    2016-01-01

    There are various region-specific challenges to the diagnosis and effective treatment of venous thromboembolism in Latin America. Clear guidance for physicians and patient education could improve adherence to existing guidelines. This review examines available information on the burden of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis in Latin America and the regional issues surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis. Potential barriers to appropriate care, as well as treatment options and limitations on their use, are discussed. Finally, an algorithmic approach to the diagnosis and treatment of venous thromboembolism in ambulatory patients is proposed and care pathways for patients with pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis are outlined for primary care providers in Latin America. PMID:26872082

  12. Venous thromboembolism in Latin America: a review and guide to diagnosis and treatment for primary care.

    PubMed

    Ceresetto, Jose Manuel

    2016-01-01

    There are various region-specific challenges to the diagnosis and effective treatment of venous thromboembolism in Latin America. Clear guidance for physicians and patient education could improve adherence to existing guidelines. This review examines available information on the burden of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis in Latin America and the regional issues surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis. Potential barriers to appropriate care, as well as treatment options and limitations on their use, are discussed. Finally, an algorithmic approach to the diagnosis and treatment of venous thromboembolism in ambulatory patients is proposed and care pathways for patients with pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis are outlined for primary care providers in Latin America.

  13. Venous thromboembolism in the ICU: main characteristics, diagnosis and thromboprophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Minet, Clémence; Potton, Leila; Bonadona, Agnès; Hamidfar-Roy, Rébecca; Somohano, Claire Ara; Lugosi, Maxime; Cartier, Jean-Charles; Ferretti, Gilbert; Schwebel, Carole; Timsit, Jean-François

    2015-08-18

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE), including pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep venous thrombosis (DVT), is a common and severe complication of critical illness. Although well documented in the general population, the prevalence of PE is less known in the ICU, where it is more difficult to diagnose and to treat. Critically ill patients are at high risk of VTE because they combine both general risk factors together with specific ICU risk factors of VTE, like sedation, immobilization, vasopressors or central venous catheter. Compression ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) scan are the primary tools to diagnose DVT and PE, respectively, in the ICU. CT scan, as well as transesophageal echography, are good for evaluating the severity of PE. Thromboprophylaxis is needed in all ICU patients, mainly with low molecular weight heparin, such as fragmine, which can be used even in cases of non-severe renal failure. Mechanical thromboprophylaxis has to be used if anticoagulation is not possible. Nevertheless, VTE can occur despite well-conducted thromboprophylaxis.

  14. L-asparaginase and venous thromboembolism in acute lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Gaurav; Bhatt, Vijaya Raj

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in acute lymphocytic leukemia patients receiving L-asparaginase therapy may cause significant morbidity, neurological sequela and possibly worse outcomes. The prophylactic use of antithrombin infusion (to keep antithrombin activity >60%) or low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) may reduce the risk of VTE. The decision to continue L-asparaginase therapy after the development of VTE should be based on anticipated benefits, severity of VTE and the ability to continue therapeutic anticoagulation. In patients receiving asparaginase rechallenge, the use of therapeutic LMWH, monitoring of anti-Xa level and antithrombin level are important. Novel oral anticoagulants are not dependent on antithrombin level, hence offer theoretical advantages over LMWH for the prevention and therapy of asparaginase-related VTE.

  15. Epidemiology, risk and outcomes of venous thromboembolism in cancer.

    PubMed

    Falanga, A; Russo, L

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is associated with a fourfold increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The risk of VTE varies according to the type of malignancy (i. e. pancreatic cancer, brain cancer, lymphoma) and its disease stage and individual factors (i. e. sex, race, age, previous VTE history, immobilization, obesity). Preventing cancer-associated VTE is important because it represents a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. In order to identify cancer patient at particularly high risk, who need thromboprophylaxis, risk prediction models have become available and are under validation. These models include clinical risk factors, but also begin to incorporate biological markers. The major American and European scientific societies have issued their recommendations to guide the management of VTE in patients with cancer. In this review the principal aspects of epidemiology, risk factors and outcome of cancer-associated VTE are summarized.

  16. Prevalence of Venous Thromboembolism in Patients With Secondary Polycythemia

    PubMed Central

    Nadeem, Omar; Gui, Jiang; Ornstein, Deborah L.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate an association between secondary polycythemia and venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk, we performed a case–control study to compare the prevalence of VTE in participants with secondary polycythemia due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; N = 86) to that in age- and sex-matched controls with COPD without secondary polycythemia (N = 86). Although there was a significant difference in mean hematocrit between cases and controls (53.5% vs 43.6%, respectively; P < .005), we identified no difference in the number of total or idiopathic VTE events in the 2 groups. Patients with VTE, however, had a significantly higher body mass index than patients without VTE. Our findings suggest that secondary polycythemia alone may not be a significant risk factor for VTE but that VTE risk in this population may be related to known risk factors such as obesity. The role of phlebotomy for VTE risk reduction secondary polycythemia is therefore questionable. PMID:23007895

  17. [Duration of anticoagulant therapy in venous thromboembolic complications].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, M R; Leontyev, S G; Neskhodimov, L A; Tolstikhin, V Yu; Khotinskiy, A A

    2016-01-01

    Adequate anticoagulant therapy is a general approach to treatment of deep vein thrombosis. However, the duration of anticoagulant therapy is not strictly specified in everyday clinical practice. The present article deals with various approaches to selecting the duration of therapy with anticoagulants based on the findings of studies, national and foreign clinical guidelines. The minimal duration of therapy for deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism amounts to 3 months in accordance with the national and American recommendations. For some cohorts of patients, continuation of therapy above 3 months is considered: patients with idiopathic thrombosis (the recommended duration of therapy of not less than 6 months), patients having persisting risk factor for relapse of thrombosis on termination of the main therapeutic course, oncological patients (6 month therapy followed by assessing the risk and benefit of continuing therapy with anticoagulants). Prolonged therapy of venous thromboembolism using unfractionated heparin or low-molecular-weight heparin followed by changing over to vitamin K antagonists is associated with decreased risk for thrombosis relapse approximately by 90%, however increasing the risk of haemorrhage. Currently, as an alternative, it is possible to consider administration of novel oral anticoagulants (rivaroxaban, dabigatran, apixaban) which beside high efficacy are associated with less risk of bleeding. The route of administration, no necessity to control the INR, and the minimal number of drug and food interactions make administration of new oral anticoagulants an attractive alternative to therapy with heparins and vitamin K antagonists.

  18. [Duration of anticoagulant therapy in venous thromboembolic complications].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, M R; Leontyev, S G; Neskhodimov, L A; Tolstikhin, V Yu; Khotinskiy, A A

    2016-01-01

    Adequate anticoagulant therapy is a general approach to treatment of deep vein thrombosis. However, the duration of anticoagulant therapy is not strictly specified in everyday clinical practice. The present article deals with various approaches to selecting the duration of therapy with anticoagulants based on the findings of studies, national and foreign clinical guidelines. The minimal duration of therapy for deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism amounts to 3 months in accordance with the national and American recommendations. For some cohorts of patients, continuation of therapy above 3 months is considered: patients with idiopathic thrombosis (the recommended duration of therapy of not less than 6 months), patients having persisting risk factor for relapse of thrombosis on termination of the main therapeutic course, oncological patients (6 month therapy followed by assessing the risk and benefit of continuing therapy with anticoagulants). Prolonged therapy of venous thromboembolism using unfractionated heparin or low-molecular-weight heparin followed by changing over to vitamin K antagonists is associated with decreased risk for thrombosis relapse approximately by 90%, however increasing the risk of haemorrhage. Currently, as an alternative, it is possible to consider administration of novel oral anticoagulants (rivaroxaban, dabigatran, apixaban) which beside high efficacy are associated with less risk of bleeding. The route of administration, no necessity to control the INR, and the minimal number of drug and food interactions make administration of new oral anticoagulants an attractive alternative to therapy with heparins and vitamin K antagonists. PMID:27100556

  19. Antiplatelet therapy in prevention of cardio- and venous thromboembolic events.

    PubMed

    Steinhubl, Steven R; Eikelboom, John W; Hylek, Elaine M; Dauerman, Harold L; Smyth, Susan S; Becker, Richard C

    2014-04-01

    The contribution of platelets in the pathophysiology of low-shear thrombosis-specifically, in atrial fibrillation (AF) and venous thromboembolic events (VTE)-remains less clear than for arterial thrombosis. AF itself appears to lead to platelet activation, offering a potential target for aspirin and other antiplatelet agents. Randomized trial results suggest a small benefit of aspirin over placebo, and of dual antiplatelet therapy (aspirin plus clopidogrel) over aspirin alone, for prevention of cardioembolic events in AF. Antiplatelet therapy thus can represent an option for patients with AF who are unsuitable for therapy with warfarin or novel oral anticoagulant agents. For VTE, the rationale for antiplatelet therapy reflects the venous response to disrupted blood flow-interactions among monocytes, neutrophil extracellular traps, and platelets. Early randomized trials generally showed poorer performance of aspirin relative to heparins and danaparoid sodium in prevention of VTE. However, results from large placebo- and dalteparin-controlled randomized trials have spurred changes in the most recent practice guidelines-aspirin is now recommended after major orthopedic surgery for patients who cannot receive other antithrombotic therapies. PMID:24221804

  20. CDC Grand Rounds: preventing hospital-associated venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Streiff, Michael B; Brady, Jeffrey P; Grant, Althea M; Grosse, Scott D; Wong, Betty; Popovic, Tanja

    2014-03-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot in a large vein, usually in the leg or pelvis. Sometimes a DVT detaches from the site of formation and becomes mobile in the blood stream. If the circulating clot moves through the heart to the lungs it can block an artery supplying blood to the lungs. This condition is called pulmonary embolism. The disease process that includes DVT and/or pulmonary embolism is called venous thromboembolism (VTE). Each year in the United States, an estimated 350,000-900,000 persons develop incident VTE, of whom approximately 100,000 die, mostly as sudden deaths, the cause of which often goes unrecognized. In addition, 30%-50% of persons with lower-extremity DVT develop postthrombotic syndrome (a long-term complication that causes swelling, pain, discoloration, and, in severe cases, ulcers in the affected limb). Finally, 10%-30% of persons who survive the first occurrence of VTE develop another VTE within 5 years. PMID:24598595

  1. Risk of venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction associated with factor V Leiden and prothrombin mutations and blood type

    PubMed Central

    Sode, Birgitte F.; Allin, Kristine H.; Dahl, Morten; Gyntelberg, Finn; Nordestgaard, Børge G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: ABO blood type locus has been reported to be an important genetic determinant of venous and arterial thrombosis in genome-wide association studies. We tested the hypothesis that ABO blood type alone and in combination with mutations in factor V Leiden R506Q and prothrombin G20210A is associated with the risk of venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction in the general population. Methods: We used data from 2 Danish studies that followed members of the general public from 1977 through 2010. We obtained the genotype of 66 001 white participants for ABO blood type, factor V Leiden R506Q and prothrombin G20210A. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) and population attributable risk. Our main outcome measures were venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction. Results: The multivariable adjusted HR for venous thromboembolism was 1.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3–1.5) for non-O blood type (v. O blood type). For the factor V Leiden R506Q mutation, the adjusted HR was 2.2 (95% CI 2.0–2.5) for heterozygous participants and 7.0 (95%CI 4.8–10) for homozygous participants (v. participants without the mutation). For prothrombin G20210A, the adjusted HR was 1.5 (95%CI 1.2–1.9) for heterozygous participants and 11 (95% CI 2.8–44) for homozygous participants (v. participants without the mutation). When we combined ABO blood type and factor V Leiden R506Q or prothrombin G20210A genotype, there was a stepwise increase in the risk of venous thromboembolism (trend, p < 0.001). The population attributable risk of venous thromboembolism was 20% for ABO blood type, 10% for factor V Leiden R506Q and 1% for prothrombin G20210A. Multivariable adjusted HRs for myocardial infarction by genotypes did not differ from 1.0. Interpretation: ABO blood type had an additive effect on the risk of venous thromboembolism when combined with factor V Leiden R506Q and prothrombin G20210A mutations; blood type was the most important risk factor for venous thromboembolism in

  2. Limited evidence on persistence with anticoagulants, and its effect on the risk of recurrence of venous thromboembolism: a systematic review of observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Pareen; Soriano-Gabarró, Montse; Suzart, Kiliana; Persson Brobert, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) recurrence is high following an initial VTE event, and it persists over time. This recurrence risk decreases rapidly after starting with anticoagulation treatment and reduces by ~80%–90% with prolonged anticoagulation. Nonpersistence with anticoagulants could lead to increased risk of VTE recurrence. This systematic review aimed to estimate persistence at 3, 6, and 12 months with anticoagulants in patients with VTE, and to evaluate the risk of VTE recurrence in nonpersistent patients. Methods PubMed and Embase® were searched up to May 3, 2014 and the search results updated to May 31, 2015. Studies involving patients with VTE aged ≥18 years, treatment with anticoagulants intended for at least 3 months or more, and reporting data for persistence were included. Proportions were transformed using Freeman–Tukey double arcsine transformation and pooled using the DerSimonian–Laird random-effects approach. Results In total, 12 observational studies (7/12 conference abstracts) were included in the review. All 12 studies either reported or provided data for persistence. The total number of patients meta-analyzed to estimate persistence at 3, 6, and 12 months was 71,969 patients, 58,940 patients, and 68,235 patients, respectively. The estimated persistence for 3, 6, and 12 months of therapy was 83% (95% confidence interval [CI], 78–87; I2=99.3%), 62% (95% CI, 58–66; I2=98.1%), and 31% (95% CI, 22–40; I2=99.8%), respectively. Only two studies reported the risk of VTE recurrence based on nonpersistence – one at 3 months and the other at 12 months. Conclusion Limited evidence showed that persistence was suboptimal with an estimated 17% patients being nonpersistent with anticoagulants in the crucial first 3 months. Persistence declined over 6 and 12 months. Observational data on persistence with anticoagulation treatment, especially direct oral anticoagulants, in patients with VTE and its effect on risk of VTE

  3. Limited evidence on persistence with anticoagulants, and its effect on the risk of recurrence of venous thromboembolism: a systematic review of observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Pareen; Soriano-Gabarró, Montse; Suzart, Kiliana; Persson Brobert, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) recurrence is high following an initial VTE event, and it persists over time. This recurrence risk decreases rapidly after starting with anticoagulation treatment and reduces by ~80%–90% with prolonged anticoagulation. Nonpersistence with anticoagulants could lead to increased risk of VTE recurrence. This systematic review aimed to estimate persistence at 3, 6, and 12 months with anticoagulants in patients with VTE, and to evaluate the risk of VTE recurrence in nonpersistent patients. Methods PubMed and Embase® were searched up to May 3, 2014 and the search results updated to May 31, 2015. Studies involving patients with VTE aged ≥18 years, treatment with anticoagulants intended for at least 3 months or more, and reporting data for persistence were included. Proportions were transformed using Freeman–Tukey double arcsine transformation and pooled using the DerSimonian–Laird random-effects approach. Results In total, 12 observational studies (7/12 conference abstracts) were included in the review. All 12 studies either reported or provided data for persistence. The total number of patients meta-analyzed to estimate persistence at 3, 6, and 12 months was 71,969 patients, 58,940 patients, and 68,235 patients, respectively. The estimated persistence for 3, 6, and 12 months of therapy was 83% (95% confidence interval [CI], 78–87; I2=99.3%), 62% (95% CI, 58–66; I2=98.1%), and 31% (95% CI, 22–40; I2=99.8%), respectively. Only two studies reported the risk of VTE recurrence based on nonpersistence – one at 3 months and the other at 12 months. Conclusion Limited evidence showed that persistence was suboptimal with an estimated 17% patients being nonpersistent with anticoagulants in the crucial first 3 months. Persistence declined over 6 and 12 months. Observational data on persistence with anticoagulation treatment, especially direct oral anticoagulants, in patients with VTE and its effect on risk of VTE

  4. Venous Thromboembolism After Removal of Retrievable Inferior Vena Cava Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Yamagami, Takuji Tanaka, Osamu; Yoshimatsu, Rika; Miura, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2010-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence of new or recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) after retrieval of inferior vena cava (IVC) filters and risk factors associated with such recurrence. Between March 2001 and September 2008, at our institution, implanted retrievable vena cava filters were retrieved in 76 patients. The incidence of new or recurrent VTE after retrieval was reviewed and numerous variables were analyzed to assess risk factors for redevelopment of VTE after filter retrieval. In 5 (6.6%) of the 76 patients, redevelopment or worsening of VTE was seen after retrieval of the filter. Three patients (4.0%) had recurrent deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in the lower extremities and 2 (2.6%) had development of pulmonary embolism, resulting in death. Although there was no significant difference in the incidence of new or recurrent VTE related to any risk factor investigated, a tendency for development of VTE after filter retrieval was higher in patients in whom DVT in the lower extremities had been so severe during filter implantation that interventional radiological therapies in addition to traditional anticoagulation therapies were required (40% in patients with recurrent VTE vs. 23% in those without VTE; p = 0.5866 according to Fisher's exact probability test) and in patients in whom DVT remained at the time of filter retrieval (60% in patients with recurrent VTE vs. 37% in those without VTE; p = 0.3637). In conclusion, new or recurrent VTE was rare after retrieval of IVC filters but was most likely to occur in patients who had severe DVT during filter implantation and/or in patients with a DVT that remained at the time of filter retrieval. We must point out that the fatality rate from PE after filter removal was high (2.6%).

  5. Clinical study of venous thromboembolism during pregnancy and puerperium.

    PubMed

    Adachi, T; Hashiguchi, K; Arai, Y; Ohta, H

    2001-01-01

    We encountered 16 cases of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in women during pregnancy and/or puerperium over the past 15 years at our perinatal center, representing 0.14% of all patients who delivered babies. The present study was undertaken to analyze the risk factors, clinical course and outcomes in these 16 cases. The ages of the patients varied from 29 to 39 years. Four women had pulmonary embolism (PE), 3 of which after caesarean section (C/S) at 35 to 40 weeks, and one case after ovarian cystectomy at 13 weeks of gestation. Twelve cases had deep venous thrombosis (DVT), 4 of which during pregnancy, and the remaining 8 cases after C/S. Four patients who had DVT during a normal course of pregnancy had severe thrombophilia: antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, a history of thrombosis and antithrombin (AT) deficiency. They were treated with heparin with or without AT and had healthy babies via successful vaginal deliveries. The common risk factors in 3 cases of PE with C/S was prolonged bed rest due to threatened premature delivery with total placenta previa, uterine myoma and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Other risk factors were massive bleeding, and positive lupus anticoagulant. However, the case of the ovarian cystectomy had only one risk factor, which was obesity. This patient died but the remaining patients recovered with treatment. Because of the low incidence of thrombosis in the Japanese population, prophylactic anticoagulant therapy has not routinely been given to patients undergoing obstetrical operations. However, proper management including prophylactic anticoagulant therapy might be considered for risk patients, depending on the risk factors.

  6. Methods and Guidelines for Venous Thromboembolism Prevention in Polytrauma Patients with Pelvic and Acetabular Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Chana-Rodríguez, Francisco; Mañanes, Rubén Pérez; Rojo-Manaute, José; Haro, José Antonio Calvo; Vaquero-Martín, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Sequential compression devices and chemical prophylaxis are the standard venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention for trauma patients with acetabular and pelvic fractures. Current chemical pharmacological contemplates the use of heparins or fondaparinux. Other anticoagulants include coumarins and aspirin, however these oral agents can be challenging to administer and may need monitoring. When contraindications to anticoagulation in high-risk patients are present, prophylactic inferior vena cava filters can be an option to prevent pulmonary emboli. Unfortunately strong evidence about the most effective method, and the timing of their commencement, in patients with pelvic and acetabular fractures remains controversial. PMID:26312115

  7. Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Stacy A; Eleazer, G Paul; Rondina, Matthew T

    2016-09-01

    Older adults have a significantly greater risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, than younger adults. The cause of this greater risk is thought to be multifactorial, including age-related changes in hemostatic factors and greater comorbid conditions and hospitalizations, but is not completely understood. Moreover, VTE remains underrecognized in older adults and may present atypically. Thus, a low index of clinical suspicion is essential when evaluating older adults with possible VTE. Despite this underrecognition in older adults, the diagnostic approach remains similar for all age groups and includes estimation of pretest probability, measurement of the D-dimer, and imaging. Antithrombotic agents are the mainstay of VTE treatment and, when used appropriately, substantially reduce VTE recurrence and complications. The approval of novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs), including dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban, provide clinicians with new therapeutic options. In some individuals, NOACs may offer advantages over warfarin, including fewer drug interactions, more-predictable anticoagulation, and lower risk of bleeding. Nevertheless, anticoagulation of VTE in older adults should always be performed cautiously, because age is a risk factor for bleeding complications. Identifying modifiable bleeding risk factors and balancing the risks of VTE recurrence with hemorrhage are important considerations when using anticoagulants in older adults. PMID:27556937

  8. Current and future management of pediatric venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Kerlin, Bryce A.

    2013-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an increasingly common complication encountered in tertiary care pediatric settings. The purpose of this review is to summarize the epidemiology, current and emerging pharmacotherapeutic options, and management of this disease. Over 70% of VTE occur in children with chronic diseases. Although they are seen in children of all ages, adolescents are at greatest risk. Pediatric VTE is associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality; recurrent VTE and post-thrombotic syndrome are commonly seen in survivors. In recent years, anticoagulation with low molecular weight heparin has emerged as the mainstay of therapy, but compliance is limited by its onerous subcutaneous administration route. New anticoagulants either already approved for use in adults or in the pipeline offer the possibility of improved dose stability and oral routes of administration. Current recommended anticoagulation course durations are derived from very limited case series and cohort data, or extrapolations from adult literature. However, the pathophysiologic underpinnings of pediatric VTE are dissimilar from those seen in adults and are often variable within groups of pediatric patients. Clinical studies and trials in pediatric VTE are underway which will hopefully improve the quality of evidence from which therapeutic guidelines are derived. PMID:22367975

  9. Venous thromboembolism and occult cancer: impact on clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Gheshmy, Afshan; Carrier, Marc

    2016-04-01

    Unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE) can be the first manifestation of cancer. Given this relationship between unprovoked VTE and cancer, it is appealing for clinicians to screen their patients with a first episode of acute unprovoked VTE for a potential occult malignancy. Five different studies have compared a limited (thorough history and physical exam, basic bloodwork) to a more extensive occult cancer screening strategy (e.g. computed tomography, fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, etc.). Most of these studies have failed to show that an extensive occult cancer screening strategy diagnoses more occult cancer (including early cancers), misses fewer cancers during follow-up or improves overall and/or cancer-related mortality suggesting that extensive occult cancer screening should not be performed routinely. Therefore, patients with a first unprovoked VTE should undergo a limited cancer screening only and clinicians should ensure that their patients are up to date regarding age- and gender- specific cancer screening (colon, breast, cervix and prostate) as per their national recommendations. Current evidence does not support a net clinical benefit to perform an extensive occult cancer screening on all patients, and a decision to do additional testing should be made on a case by case basis.

  10. Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism With New Anticoagulant Agents.

    PubMed

    Becattini, Cecilia; Agnelli, Giancarlo

    2016-04-26

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common disease associated with high risk for recurrences, death, and late sequelae, accounting for substantial health care costs. Anticoagulant agents are the mainstay of treatment for deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. The recent availability of oral anticoagulant agents that can be administered in fixed doses, without laboratory monitoring and dose adjustment, is a landmark change in the treatment of VTE. In Phase III trials, rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban (antifactor Xa agents), and dabigatran (an antithrombin agent) were noninferior and probably safer than conventional anticoagulation therapy (low-molecular-weight heparin followed by vitamin K antagonists). These favorable results were confirmed in specific patient subgroups, such as the elderly and fragile. However, some patients, such as those with cancer or with intermediate- to high-risk pulmonary embolism, were underrepresented in the Phase III trials. Further clinical research is required before new oral anticoagulant agents can be considered standard of care for the full spectrum of patients with VTE. PMID:27102510

  11. Risk Factors for Venous Thromboembolism in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Victor; Goel, Nishant; Gangar, Jinal; Zhao, Huaqing; Ciccolella, David E.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Crapo, James D.; Criner, Gerard J.

    2015-01-01

    Background COPD patients are at increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). VTE however remains under-diagnosed in this population and the clinical profile of VTE in COPD is unclear. Methods Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages II-IV participants in the COPD Genetic Epidemiology (COPDGene) study were divided into 2 groups: VTE+, those who reported a history of VTE by questionnaire, and VTE−, those who did not. We compared variables in these 2 groups with either t-test or chi-squared test for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. We performed a univariate logistic regression for VTE, and then a multivariate logistic regression using the significant predictors of interest in the univariate analysis to ascertain the determinants of VTE. Results The VTE+ group was older, more likely to be Caucasian, had a higher body mass index (BMI), smoking history, used oxygen, had a lower 6-minute walk distance, worse quality of life scores, and more dyspnea and respiratory exacerbations than the VTE− group. Lung function was not different between groups. A greater percentage of the VTE+ group described multiple medical comorbidities. On multivariate analysis, BMI, 6-minute walk distance, pneumothorax, peripheral vascular disease, and congestive heart failure significantly increased the odds for VTE by history. Conclusions BMI, exercise capacity, and medical comorbidities were significantly associated with VTE in moderate to severe COPD. Clinicians should suspect VTE in patients who present with dyspnea and should consider possibilities other than infection as causes of COPD exacerbation. PMID:25844397

  12. Risk assessment models for cancer-associated venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Dutia, Mrinal; White, Richard H; Wun, Ted

    2012-07-15

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is common in cancer patients, and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Several factors, including procoagulant agents secreted by tumor cells, immobilization, surgery, indwelling catheters, and systemic treatment (including chemotherapy), contribute to an increased risk of VTE in cancer patients. There is growing interest in instituting primary prophylaxis in high-risk patients to prevent incident (first-time) VTE events. The identification of patients at sufficiently high risk of VTE to warrant primary thromboprophylaxis is essential, as anticoagulation may be associated with a higher risk of bleeding. Current guidelines recommend the use of pharmacological thromboprophylaxis in postoperative and hospitalized cancer patients, as well as ambulatory cancer patients receiving thalidomide or lenalidomide in combination with high-dose dexamethasone or chemotherapy, in the absence of contraindications to anticoagulation. However, the majority of cancer patients are ambulatory, and currently primary thromboprophylaxis is not recommended for these patients, even those considered at very high risk. In this concise review, the authors discuss risk stratification models that have been specifically developed to identify cancer patients at high risk for VTE, and thus might be useful in future studies designed to determine the potential benefit of primary thromboprophylaxis.

  13. Venous thromboembolism and occult cancer: impact on clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Gheshmy, Afshan; Carrier, Marc

    2016-04-01

    Unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE) can be the first manifestation of cancer. Given this relationship between unprovoked VTE and cancer, it is appealing for clinicians to screen their patients with a first episode of acute unprovoked VTE for a potential occult malignancy. Five different studies have compared a limited (thorough history and physical exam, basic bloodwork) to a more extensive occult cancer screening strategy (e.g. computed tomography, fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, etc.). Most of these studies have failed to show that an extensive occult cancer screening strategy diagnoses more occult cancer (including early cancers), misses fewer cancers during follow-up or improves overall and/or cancer-related mortality suggesting that extensive occult cancer screening should not be performed routinely. Therefore, patients with a first unprovoked VTE should undergo a limited cancer screening only and clinicians should ensure that their patients are up to date regarding age- and gender- specific cancer screening (colon, breast, cervix and prostate) as per their national recommendations. Current evidence does not support a net clinical benefit to perform an extensive occult cancer screening on all patients, and a decision to do additional testing should be made on a case by case basis. PMID:27067984

  14. Prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in elderly patients with multimorbidity.

    PubMed

    Marcucci, Maura; Iorio, Alfonso; Nobili, Alessandro; Tettamanti, Mauro; Pasina, Luca; Djade, Codjo Djignefa; Marengoni, Alessandra; Salerno, Francesco; Corrao, Salvatore; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio

    2013-09-01

    Pharmacological thromboprophylaxis (TP) is known to reduce venous thromboembolism (VTE) in medical inpatients, but the criteria for risk-driven prescription, safety and impact on mortality are still debated. We analyze data on elderly patients with multimorbidities admitted in the year 2010 to the Italian internal medicine wards participating in the REPOSI registry to investigate the rate of TP during the hospital stay, and analyze the factors that are related to its prescription. Multivariate logistic regression, area under the ROC curve and CART analysis were performed to look for independent predictors of TP prescription. Association between TP and VTE, bleeding and death in hospital and during the 3-month post-discharge follow-up were explored by logistic regression and propensity score analysis. Among the 1,380 patients enrolled, 171 (15.2 %) were on TP during the hospital stay (162 on low molecular weight heparins, 9 on fondaparinux). The disability Barthel index was the main independent predictor of TP prescription. Rate of fatal and non-fatal VTE and bleeding during and after hospitalization did not differ between TP and non-TP patients. In-hospital and post-discharge mortality was significantly higher in patients on TP, that however was not an independent predictor of mortality. Among elderly medical patients there was a relatively low rate of TP, that was more frequently prescribed to patients with a higher degree of disability and who had an overall higher mortality.

  15. Venous thromboembolism has the same risk factors as atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Yuhong; Yan, Shufeng; Lu, Yanhui; Liang, Ying; Li, Chunsheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Previous studies have shown that idiopathic pulmonary embolism is positively associated with other cardiovascular events, such as myocardial infarction and stroke, suggesting a potentially important association between atherosclerosis risk factors and venous thromboembolism (VTE). We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the correlation between risk factors for atherosclerosis and VTE. Methods: In December 2014, we searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for studies evaluating the associations between VTE and risk factors for atherosclerosis and pooled outcome data using random-effects meta-analysis. In addition, we analyzed publication bias. Results: Thirty-three case-control and cohort studies with a total of 185,124 patients met the inclusion criteria. We found that participants with body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2 had a significantly higher prevalence of VTE than those with BMI <30 kg/m2 in both case-control studies (odds ratio [OR] = 2.45, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.78–3.35) and cohort studies (relative risk [RR] = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.79–3.17). VTE was more prevalent in patients with hypertension than without hypertension (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.06–1.84; RR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.11–1.67). The findings were similar for VTE prevalence between patients with and without diabetes (OR = 1.78, 95% CI: 1.17–2.69; RR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.20–1.66). Current smoking was significantly associated with VTE prevalence in case-control studies (OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.01–1.77), but not in cohort studies (RR = 1.29, 95% CI: 0.96–1.72). In addition, we found that total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were significantly higher in patients with VTE than without VTE (weighted mean differences [WMD] = 8.94 mg/dL, 95% CI: 3.52–14.35 mg/dL, and WMD = 14.00 mg/dL, 95% CI: 8.85–19.16 mg/dL, respectively). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower in patients with VTE

  16. Recurrence risk after anticoagulant treatment of limited duration for late, second venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    van der Hulle, Tom; Tan, Melanie; den Exter, Paul L.; van Roosmalen, Mark J.G.; van der Meer, Felix J.M.; Eikenboom, Jeroen; Huisman, Menno V.; Klok, Frederikus A.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with a second venous thromboembolism generally receive anticoagulant treatment indefinitely, although it is known that the recurrence risk diminishes over time while the risk of hemorrhage persists with continued anticoagulation and increases with age. Based on these arguments and limited evidence for indefinitely prolonged treatment, the Dutch guidelines recommend considering treatment of a limited duration (i.e. 12 months) for a ‘late’ second venous thromboembolism, defined by a second venous thromboembolism diagnosed more than 1 year after discontinuing treatment for a first event. It is hypothesized that the risk of continued anticoagulation might outweigh the benefits in such circumstances. We evaluated this management in daily practice. Since 2003, limited duration of treatment was systematically considered at our hospital in consecutive patients, in whom we determined the recurrence risk. Of 131 patients with late second venous thromboembolism, 77 were treated for a limited duration, of whom 26 developed a symptomatic third venous thromboembolism thereafter during a cumulative follow-up of 277 years, resulting in an incidence rate of 9.4/100 patient-years (95% confidence interval: 6.1–14). The incidence rates in patients with unprovoked and provoked venous thromboembolism were 12/100 patient-years (95% confidence interval: 7.4–19) and 5.6/100 patient-years (95% confidence interval: 2.2–12), respectively [adjusted hazard ratio 2.8 (95% confidence interval: 1.1–7.2)]. The recurrence risk after treatment of limited duration for ‘late’ second venous thromboembolism exceeded the risk of hemorrhage associated with extended anticoagulation. Most patients may, therefore, be better served by treatment of indefinite duration, although the risk-benefit ratio of extended anticoagulation should be weighed for every patient. PMID:25261098

  17. Family History of Venous Thromboembolism and Identifying Factor V Leiden Carriers During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Amanda L.; Momirova, Valerija; Dizon-Townson, Donna; Wenstrom, Katharine; Wendel, George; Samuels, Philip; Sibai, Baha; Spong, Catherine Y.; Cotroneo, Margaret; Sorokin, Yoram; Miodovnik, Menachem; O’Sullivan, Mary J.; Conway, Deborah; Wapner, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To estimate whether there is a correlation between family history of venous thromboembolism and factor V Leiden mutation carriage in gravid women without personal history of venous thromboembolism. Methods This is a secondary analysis of a prospective observational study of the frequency of pregnancy-related thromboembolic events among carriers of the factor V Leiden mutation. Family history of venous thromboembolism in either first- or second-degree relatives was self-reported. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of family history to predict factor V Leiden mutation carrier status were calculated. Results Women with a negative personal venous thromboembolism history and available DNA were included (n=5,168). One-hundred forty women (2.7%, 95%CI 2.3- 3.2%) were factor V Leiden mutation-positive. Four-hundred twelve women (8.0%, 95%CI 7.3–8.7%) reported a family history of venous thromboembolism. Women with a positive family history were twofold more likely to be factor V Leiden mutation carriers than those with a negative family history (23/412 (5.6%) versus 117/4,756 (2.5%), p<.001). The sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of a family history of a first or second degree relative for identifying factor V Leiden carriers were 16.4% (95%CI 10.7–23.6%), 92.3% (95%CI 91.5–93.0%) and 5.6% (95%CI 3.6–8.3 %), respectively. Conclusion While a family history of venous thromboembolism is associated with factor V Leiden mutation in thrombosis- free gravid women, the sensitivity and positive predictive values are too low to recommend screening women for the factor V Leiden mutation based solely on a family history. PMID:20177282

  18. Diet as prophylaxis and treatment for venous thromboembolism?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Both prophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE: deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary emboli (PE)) with anticoagulants are associated with significant risks of major and fatal hemorrhage. Anticoagulation treatment of VTE has been the standard of care in the USA since before 1962 when the U.S. Food and Drug Administration began requiring randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) showing efficacy, so efficacy trials were never required for FDA approval. In clinical trials of 'high VTE risk' surgical patients before the 1980s, anticoagulant prophylaxis was clearly beneficial (fatal pulmonary emboli (FPE) without anticoagulants = 0.99%, FPE with anticoagulants = 0.31%). However, observational studies and RCTs of 'high VTE risk' surgical patients from the 1980s until 2010 show that FPE deaths without anticoagulants are about one-fourth the rate that occurs during prophylaxis with anticoagulants (FPE without anticoagulants = 0.023%, FPE while receiving anticoagulant prophylaxis = 0.10%). Additionally, an FPE rate of about 0.012% (35/28,400) in patients receiving prophylactic anticoagulants can be attributed to 'rebound hypercoagulation' in the two months after stopping anticoagulants. Alternatives to anticoagulant prophylaxis should be explored. Methods and Findings The literature concerning dietary influences on VTE incidence was reviewed. Hypotheses concerning the etiology of VTE were critiqued in relationship to the rationale for dietary versus anticoagulant approaches to prophylaxis and treatment. Epidemiological evidence suggests that a diet with ample fruits and vegetables and little meat may substantially reduce the risk of VTE; vegetarian, vegan, or Mediterranean diets favorably affect serum markers of hemostasis and inflammation. The valve cusp hypoxia hypothesis of DVT/VTE etiology is consistent with the development of VTE being affected directly or indirectly by diet. However, it is less consistent with the rationale of using

  19. Physician Alerts to Prevent Symptomatic Venous Thromboembolism in Hospitalized Patients

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, Gregory; Rosenbaum, Erin J.; Pendergast, William; Jacobson, Joseph O.; Pendleton, Robert C.; McLaren, Gordon D.; Elliott, C. Gregory; Stevens, Scott M.; Patton, William F.; Dabbagh, Ousama; Paterno, Marilyn D.; Catapane, Elaine; Li, Zhongzhen; Goldhaber, Samuel Z.

    2010-01-01

    Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis remains underutilized among hospitalized patients. We designed and carried out a large multicenter randomized controlled trial to test the hypothesis that an alert from a hospital staff member to the Attending Physician will reduce the rate of symptomatic VTE among high-risk patients not receiving prophylaxis. Methods and Results We enrolled patients using a validated point score system to detect hospitalized patients at high risk for symptomatic VTE who were not receiving prophylaxis. 2,493 patients (82% on Medical Services) from 25 study sites were randomized to the intervention group (n=1,238), in which the responsible physician was alerted by another hospital staff member, versus the control group (n=1,255), in which no alert was issued. The primary end point was symptomatic, objectively confirmed VTE within 90 days. Patients whose physicians were alerted were more than twice as likely to receive VTE prophylaxis as controls (46.0% versus 20.6%, p<0.0001). The symptomatic VTE rate was lower in the intervention group (2.7% versus 3.4%; hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.50 to 1.25), but the difference did not achieve statistical significance. The rate of major bleeding at 30 days in the alert group was similar to the control group (2.1% versus 2.3%, p=0.68). Conclusions A strategy of direct staff member to physician notification increases prophylaxis utilization and leads toward reducing the rate of symptomatic VTE in hospitalized patients. However, VTE prophylaxis continues to be underutilized even after physician notification, especially among Medical Service patients. PMID:19364975

  20. Novel genetic predictors of venous thromboembolism risk in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Wenndy; Gamazon, Eric R.; Smithberger, Erin; O’Brien, Travis J.; Harralson, Arthur F.; Tuck, Matthew; Barbour, April; Kittles, Rick A.; Cavallari, Larisa H.

    2016-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the third most common life-threatening cardiovascular condition in the United States, with African Americans (AAs) having a 30% to 60% higher incidence compared with other ethnicities. The mechanisms underlying population differences in the risk of VTE are poorly understood. We conducted the first genome-wide association study in AAs, comprising 578 subjects, followed by replication of highly significant findings in an independent cohort of 159 AA subjects. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between genetic variants and VTE risk. Through bioinformatics analysis of the top signals, we identified expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) in whole blood and investigated the messenger RNA expression differences in VTE cases and controls. We identified and replicated single-nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosome 20 (rs2144940, rs2567617, and rs1998081) that increased risk of VTE by 2.3-fold (P < 6 × 10−7). These risk variants were found in higher frequency among populations of African descent (>20%) compared with other ethnic groups (<10%). We demonstrate that SNPs on chromosome 20 are cis-eQTLs for thrombomodulin (THBD), and the expression of THBD is lower among VTE cases compared with controls (P = 9.87 × 10−6). We have identified novel polymorphisms associated with increased risk of VTE in AAs. These polymorphisms are predominantly found among populations of African descent and are associated with THBD gene expression. Our findings provide new molecular insight into a mechanism regulating VTE susceptibility and identify common genetic variants that increase the risk of VTE in AAs, a population disproportionately affected by this disease. PMID:26888256

  1. Sex Differences in Patients Receiving Anticoagulant Therapy for Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Blanco-Molina, Angeles; Enea, Iolanda; Gadelha, Telma; Tufano, Antonella; Bura-Riviere, Alessandra; Di Micco, Pierpaolo; Bounameaux, Henri; González, José; Villalta, Jaume; Monreal, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE), the outcome during the course of anticoagulant therapy may differ according to the patient’s sex. We used the RIETE (Registro Informatizado Enfermedad TromboEmbólica) database to compare the rate of VTE recurrences, major bleeding, and mortality due to these events according to sex. As of August 2013, 47,499 patients were enrolled in RIETE, of whom 24,280 (51%) were women. Women were older, more likely presented with pulmonary embolism (PE), and were more likely to have recent immobilization but less likely to have cancer than men. During the course of anticoagulation (mean duration: 253 d), 659 patients developed recurrent deep vein thrombosis (DVT), 576 recurrent PE, 1368 bled, and 4506 died. Compared with men, women had a lower rate of DVT recurrences (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.67–0.91), a similar rate of PE recurrences (HR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.83–1.15), a higher rate of major bleeding (HR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.09–1.35), and higher mortality due to PE (HR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.04–1.47). On multivariable analysis, any influence of sex on the risk for recurrent DVT (HR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.75–1.03), major bleeding (HR: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.98–1.24), or fatal PE (HR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.84–1.22) was no longer statistically significant. In conclusion, women had fewer DVT recurrences and more bleeds than men during the course of anticoagulation. These differences were not due to sex, but very likely to other patient characteristics more common in female patients and differences in treatment choice. PMID:25398066

  2. The Effect of High-Dose Vitamin D3 on Soluble P-Selectin and hs-CRP Level in Patients With Venous Thromboembolism: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Gholami, Kheirollah; Talasaz, Azita Hajhossein; Entezari-Maleki, Taher; Salarifar, Mojtaba; Hadjibabaie, Molouk; Javadi, Mohammad Reza; Dousti, Samaneh; Hamishehkar, Hadi; Maleki, Saleh

    2016-07-01

    High plasma level of P-selectin is associated with the development of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Furthermore, supplementation of vitamin D could decrease thrombotic events. Hence, this study was designed to examine whether the administration of vitamin D can influence the plasma level of P-selectin in patients with VTE. In the randomized controlled trial, 60 patients with confirmed acute deep vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism (PE) were randomized into the intervention (n = 20) and control (n = 40) groups. The intervention arm was given an intramuscular single dose of 300 000 IU vitamin D3 Plasma level of 25-hydroxy vitamin D, P-selectin, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was measured at baseline and 4 weeks after. The plasma level of P-selectin (95% confidence interval = -5.99 to -1.63, P = .022) and hs-CRP (P = .024) significantly declined in vitamin D-treated group, while only hs-CRP was significantly decreased in the control group (P = .011). However, the magnitude of these reductions was not statistically significant. This study could not support the potential benefit of the high-dose vitamin D on plasma level of P-selectin and hs-CRP in patients with VTE.

  3. [Thrombophilia in pregnancy and its influence on venous thromboembolism and recurrent miscarriages].

    PubMed

    Kempf Haber, Małgorzata; Klimek, Marek

    2005-01-01

    Thrombophilia can be defined as a predisposition to thrombosis. Inherited or acquired thrombophilias have been associated with venous thromboembolism and recurrent pregnancy loss. Abnormalities in haemostasis that are associated with clinical thrombophilia include heritable defects, such as mutation in genes encoding antithrombin III, protein C and S, prothrombin, factor V, hyperhomocysteinemia or acquired defects such as antiphospholipids. Women with thrombophilic tendency have an increased risk of other vascular pregnancy complications such as premature placental abruption and intrauterine growth retardation. In this paper there are different types of thrombophilias described. It is suggested that women with personal or family history of venous thromboembolism or recurrent fetal loss should be screened to improve pregnancy outcome.

  4. Heparin and related drugs for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis: subcutaneous or intravenous continuous infusion?

    PubMed

    Izadpanah, Mandana; Khalili, Hossein; Dashti-Khavidaki, Simin; Mohammadi, Mostafa

    2015-03-01

    In this article, the most evidenced approaches of unfractionated heparin administration for prevention of venous thromboembolism in medical and surgical hospitalized patients will be reviewed. Present data were collected by searching Scopus, PubMed, MEDLINE, Science direct, Clinical trials and Cochrane database systematic reviews. Subcutaneous low doses of unfractionated heparin (10000-15000 IU) in two or three divided doses per day are commonly administrated for venous thromboembolism prevention in different medical and surgical populations. In some populations such as obese surgical and critically ill patients, due to altered pharmacokinetics behavior of unfractionated heparin, continuous intravenous infusion of the low doses of unfractionated heparin has been proposed.

  5. BET 4: quantifying the risk of venous thromboembolism for temporary lower limb immobilisation in ambulatory patients.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rachel; Wood, Ellena

    2012-09-01

    A short cut review was carried out to establish whether the risk of a venous thromboembolic event could be quantified for patients with temporary immobilisation of the lower limb after injury. Five papers were directly relevant to the question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of these papers are tabulated. The clinical bottom line is that the incidence of venous thromboembolism following temporary immobilisation for isolated lower limb trauma in ambulatory patients is approximately 11%.

  6. Multilocus Genetic Risk Scores for Venous Thromboembolism Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Soria, José Manuel; Morange, Pierre‐Emmanuel; Vila, Joan; Souto, Juan Carlos; Moyano, Manel; Trégouët, David‐Alexandre; Mateo, José; Saut, Noémi; Salas, Eduardo; Elosua, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Background Genetics plays an important role in venous thromboembolism (VTE). Factor V Leiden (FVL or rs6025) and prothrombin gene G20210A (PT or rs1799963) are the genetic variants currently tested for VTE risk assessment. We hypothesized that primary VTE risk assessment can be improved by using genetic risk scores with more genetic markers than just FVL‐rs6025 and prothrombin gene PT‐rs1799963. To this end, we have designed a new genetic risk score called Thrombo inCode (TiC). Methods and Results TiC was evaluated in terms of discrimination (Δ of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) and reclassification (integrated discrimination improvement and net reclassification improvement). This evaluation was performed using 2 age‐ and sex‐matched case–control populations: SANTPAU (248 cases, 249 controls) and the Marseille Thrombosis Association study (MARTHA; 477 cases, 477 controls). TiC was compared with other literature‐based genetic risk scores. TiC including F5 rs6025/rs118203906/rs118203905, F2 rs1799963, F12 rs1801020, F13 rs5985, SERPINC1 rs121909548, and SERPINA10 rs2232698 plus the A1 blood group (rs8176719, rs7853989, rs8176743, rs8176750) improved the area under the curve compared with a model based only on F5‐rs6025 and F2‐rs1799963 in SANTPAU (0.677 versus 0.575, P<0.001) and MARTHA (0.605 versus 0.576, P=0.008). TiC showed good integrated discrimination improvement of 5.49 (P<0.001) for SANTPAU and 0.96 (P=0.045) for MARTHA. Among the genetic risk scores evaluated, the proportion of VTE risk variance explained by TiC was the highest. Conclusions We conclude that TiC greatly improves prediction of VTE risk compared with other genetic risk scores. TiC should improve prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of VTE. PMID:25341889

  7. Platelet count and outcome in patients with acute venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Di Micco, Pierpaolo; Ruiz-Giménez, Nuria; Nieto, José Antonio; Aujesky, Drahomir; del Molino, Fátima; Valle, Reina; Barrón, Manuel; Maestre, Ana; Monreal, Manuel

    2013-11-01

    The relationship between platelet count and outcome in patients with acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) has not been consistently explored. RIETE is an ongoing registry of consecutive patients with acute VTE. We categorised patients as having very low- (<80,000/µl), low- (80,000/µl to 150,000/µl), normal- (150,000/µl to 300,000/µl), high- (300,000/µl to 450,000/µl), or very high (>450,000/µl) platelet count at baseline, and compared their three-month outcome. As of October 2012, 43,078 patients had been enrolled in RIETE: 21,319 presenting with pulmonary embolism and 21,759 with deep-vein thrombosis. In all, 502 patients (1.2%) had very low-; 5,472 (13%) low-; 28,386 (66%) normal-; 7,157 (17%) high-; and 1,561 (3.6%) very high platelet count. During the three-month study period, the recurrence rate was: 2.8%, 2.2%, 1.8%, 2.1% and 2.2%, respectively; the rate of major bleeding: 5.8%, 2.6%, 1.7%, 2.3% and 4.6%, respectively; the rate of fatal bleeding: 2.0%, 0.9%, 0.3%, 0.5% and 1.2%, respectively; and the mortality rate: 29%, 11%, 6.5%, 8.8% and 14%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, patients with very low-, low-, high- or very high platelet count had an increased risk for major bleeding (odds ratio [OR]: 2.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.85-3.95; 1.43 [1.18-1.72]; 1.23 [1.03-1.47]; and 2.13 [1.65-2.75]) and fatal bleeding (OR: 3.70 [1.92-7.16], 2.10 [1.48-2.97], 1.29 [0.88-1.90] and 2.49 [1.49-4.15]) compared with those with normal count. In conclusion, we found a U-shaped relationship between platelet count and the three-month rate of major bleeding and fatal bleeding in patients with VTE.

  8. A Comprehensive Overview of Direct Oral Anticoagulants for the Management of Venous Thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Comerota, Anthony J; Ramacciotti, Eduardo

    2016-07-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a prevalent, potentially fatal health problem. Although standard anticoagulant therapy is effective when compared with the newer direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), it has disadvantages. Heparin and its derivatives must be administered parenterally, whereas use of oral vitamin K antagonists is complicated by unpredictable pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, drug-food and drug-drug interactions and the requirement for frequent laboratory monitoring. Randomized phase 3 trials have demonstrated that patients receive similarly effective anticoagulation with the DOACs dabigatran, edoxaban, rivaroxaban and apixaban when compared with warfarin, with similar or reduced risk of bleeding. Extended therapy trials have consistently demonstrated superior effectiveness for DOAC treatment when compared with placebo in preventing VTE recurrence. This article presents a comprehensive review of the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and accumulated clinical trial evidence for each DOAC for short-term, long-term and extended VTE therapy, and it considers the potential implications these agents have for the clinical management of VTE. PMID:27432042

  9. Implementation of vertical clinical pharmacist service on venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in hospitalized medical patients

    PubMed Central

    Haga, Celina Setsuko; Mancio, Cassio Massashi; Pioner, Micheline da Costa; Alves, Fabricia Aparecida de Lima; Lira, Andreia Ramos; da Silva, João Severino; Ferracini, Fábio Teixeira; Borges, Wladimir Mendes; Guerra, João Carlos de Campos; Laselva, Claudia Regina

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the vertical clinical pharmacist service's interventions in prevention of venous thromboembolism. Methods: This prospective study was done at a private hospital. From January to May 2012, the clinical pharmacist evaluated medical patients without prophylaxis for thromboembolism. If the patient fulfilled criteria for thromboembolism and did not have contraindications, the clinical pharmacist suggested inclusion of pharmacologic agents and/or mechanical methods for venous thromboembolism prevention. In addition, the appropriate dose, route of administration, duplicity and replacement of the drug were suggested. Results: We evaluated 9,000 hospitalized medical patients and carried out 77 pharmaceutical interventions. A total of 71 cases (92.21%) adhered to treatment so that non-adherence occurred in 6 cases (7.79%). In 25 cases pharmacologic agents were included and in 20 cases mechanical prophylaxis. Dose adjustments, route, frequency, duplicity and replacement made up 32 cases. Conclusion: The vertical clinical pharmacist service included the prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism and promotion of appropriate use of medicines in the hospital. PMID:24728242

  10. Preventing Venous Thromboembolism with Use of Intermittent Pneumatic Compression after Total Hip Arthroplasty in Korean Patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent Pneumatic Compression (IPC) device has been used to prevent venous thromboembolism (VTE). This study investigated the effectiveness of IPC device. We evaluated incidences of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) in total hip arthroplasty (THA) patients after use of IPC device, and compared with historical incidences from our institution. We applied IPC device in 741 patients who underwent 870 elective primary THAs from January 2010 to December 2013, DVT was detected in 3 patients (0.3%) by sonography, and one (0.1%) of them was symptomatic. Symptomatic PE occurred in 1 patient (0.1%) and there were no cases of fatal PE. The incidence of symptomatic DVT was significantly lower than the historical control (P = 0.042). The IPC is a safe and effective prophylaxis of VTE after primary THA in Korea. PMID:27478345

  11. Recent pharmacological advances for treating venous thromboembolism: are we witnessing the demise of warfarin?

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Shankar; Howell, John; Mattock, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin K antagonists, such as warfarin, have been the mainstay in treatment and prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism. However, warfarin has many disadvantages including a narrow therapeutic window, numerous potential drug interactions, modulation of effect by alcohol and foods containing vitamin K and genetic variation in metabolism of warfarin, all of which contribute to the unpredictability of therapy. This has provided the impetus for developing new oral anticoagulants with a rapid onset of action, wide therapeutic window, predictable and reversible action, with few drug or dietary interactions, no requirement for routine coagulation monitoring or dose adjustment and acceptable cost. No single agent incorporates all these characteristics, but new factor Xa and direct thrombin inhibitors are being introduced into clinical practice that fulfil some of these aims. Here, we briefly discuss the current practice with its limitations and pitfalls, and then review important trials that have launched new oral anticoagulants into clinical practice. PMID:24025228

  12. Risk impact of edoxaban in the management of stroke and venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Katherine V; O’Callaghan, John Matthew; Handa, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    The new generation of target-specific oral anticoagulants is being prescribed for increasing numbers of patients at risk of stroke or venous thromboembolism (VTE). These drugs offer valuable benefits due to fast onset anticoagulation, a fixed anticoagulation effect (allowing administration of specified doses), and no requirement for routine monitoring. Edoxaban is a fast-acting oral anticoagulant, approved for use in the prevention of stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) and in the treatment of acute VTE. Like many of the new oral anticoagulants, it selectively inhibits factor Xa, in a concentration-dependent manner. Multiple Phase II clinical trials have shown edoxaban to be noninferior to vitamin K antagonists in the prevention of stroke and VTE, with a good safety profile. To date, the pivotal studies to endorse edoxaban’s clinical use have been ENGAGE AF-TIMI and Hokusai-VTE, both of which have compared its efficacy to standard warfarin treatment. This paper aims at reviewing the use of edoxaban in the management of stroke and thromboembolic disease, highlighting the key study results that have led to its current license. PMID:27563246

  13. Risk impact of edoxaban in the management of stroke and venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Katherine V; O'Callaghan, John Matthew; Handa, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    The new generation of target-specific oral anticoagulants is being prescribed for increasing numbers of patients at risk of stroke or venous thromboembolism (VTE). These drugs offer valuable benefits due to fast onset anticoagulation, a fixed anticoagulation effect (allowing administration of specified doses), and no requirement for routine monitoring. Edoxaban is a fast-acting oral anticoagulant, approved for use in the prevention of stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) and in the treatment of acute VTE. Like many of the new oral anticoagulants, it selectively inhibits factor Xa, in a concentration-dependent manner. Multiple Phase II clinical trials have shown edoxaban to be noninferior to vitamin K antagonists in the prevention of stroke and VTE, with a good safety profile. To date, the pivotal studies to endorse edoxaban's clinical use have been ENGAGE AF-TIMI and Hokusai-VTE, both of which have compared its efficacy to standard warfarin treatment. This paper aims at reviewing the use of edoxaban in the management of stroke and thromboembolic disease, highlighting the key study results that have led to its current license. PMID:27563246

  14. Benchmark for Time in Therapeutic Range in Venous Thromboembolism: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Erkens, Petra M. G.; ten Cate, Hugo; Büller, Harry R.; Prins, Martin H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The percentage of time within the target INR range 2.0 to 3.0 (TTR) in patients treated with vitamin K antagonists varies considerably among efficacy-studies of novel anticoagulants. In order to properly asses the quality of anticoagulant control in upcoming cost-effectiveness studies and real life registries this systematic review reports a benchmark of TTR for different treatment durations in patients with venous thromboembolism and discusses ways to calculate TTR. Methods Medline and Embase were searched for studies published between January 1990 and May 2012. Randomized controlled trials and cohort studies reporting the TTR in patients with objectively confirmed venous thromboembolism treated with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) were eligible. Duplicate reports, studies only reporting INR during initial treatment or with VKA treatment less than 3 months were excluded. Three authors assessed trials for inclusion and extracted data independently. Discrepancies were resolved by discussion between the reviewers. A meta-analysis was performed by calculating a weighted mean, based on the number of participants in each included study, for each time-period in which the TTR was measured since the confirmation of the diagnosis of VTE. Results Forty studies were included (26064 patients). The weighted means of TTR were 54.0% in the first month since the start of treatment, 55.6% in months 1 to 3, 60.0% in months 2 to 3, 60.0% in the months1 to 6+ and 75.2% in months 4 to 12+. Five studies reported TTR in classes. The INR in these studies was ≥67% of time in therapeutic range in 72.0% of the patients. Conclusion Reported quality of VKA treatment is highly dependent on the time-period since the start of treatment, with TTR ranging from approximately 56% in studies including the 1st month to 75% in studies excluding the first 3 months. PMID:23049730

  15. Venous Thromboembolism Risk and Adequacy of Prophylaxis in High Risk Pregnancy in the Arabian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    Alsayegh, Faisal; Al-Jassar, Waleed; Wani, Salima; Tahlak, Muna; Al-Bahar, Awatef; Al-Kharusi, Lamya; Al-Tamimi, Halima; El-Taher, Faten; Mahmood, Naeema; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk factors in pregnancy and the proportion of pregnancies at risk of VTE that received the recommended prophylaxis according to the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) 2012 published guidelines in antenatal clinics in the Arabian Gulf. Methods: The evaluation of venous thromboembolism (EVE)-Risk project was a non-interventional, cross-sectional, multi-centre, multi-national study of all eligible pregnant women (≥17 years) screened during antenatal clinics from 7 centres in the Arabian Gulf countries (United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar and Oman). Pregnant women were recruited during a 3-month period between September and December 2012. Results: Of 4,131 screened pregnant women, 32% (n=1,337) had ≥1 risk factors for VTE. Common VTE risk factors included obesity (76%), multiparity (33%), recurrent miscarriages (9.1%), varicose veins (6.9%), thrombophilia (2.6%), immobilization (2.0%), sickle cell disease (2.8%) and previous VTE (1.6%). Only 8.3% (n=111) of the high risk patients were on the recommended VTE prophylaxis. Enoxaparin was used in 80% (n=89) of the cases followed by tinzaparin (4%; n=4). Antiplatelet agents were prescribed in 11% (n=149) of pregnant women. Of those on anticoagulants (n=111), 59% (n=66) were also co-prescribed antiplatelet agents. Side effects (mainly local bruising at the injection site) were reported in 12% (n=13) of the cases. Conclusion: A large proportion of pregnant women in the Arabian Gulf countries have ≥1 VTE risk factor with even a smaller fraction on prophylaxis. VTE risk assessment must be adopted to identify those at risk who would need VTE prophylaxis.

  16. Changing practice: implementation of a venous thromboembolism prophylaxis protocol at an academic medical center

    PubMed Central

    Pannucci, Christopher J.; Jaber, Reda M.; Zumsteg, Justin M.; Golgotiu, Vlad; Spratke, Lisa M.; Wilkins, Edwin G.

    2011-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine has identified a “quality chasm” between existing evidence and actual clinical practice. The Venous Thromboembolism Prevention Study (VTEPS) has shown that enoxaparin prophylaxis is a safe and effective way to prevent post-operative venous thromboembolism (VTE). Here, we present a “how-to” guide for implementation of a VTE prophylaxis protocol. Methods The VTEPS prophylaxis protocol included provision of post-operative, prophylactic dose enoxaparin for the duration of inpatient stay. “Compliance” was considered at the individual patient level, and was defined as appropriate provision of protocol-appropriate enoxaparin prophylaxis. Multiple simultaneous interventions to improve protocol compliance were undertaken. Both physician and physician assistant “champions” were identified. Interventions included staff and surgeon educational sessions, discussion of VTE-themed articles at journal club, and monthly email reminders specific to the protocol, among others. Compliance rates over time were compared using the chi-squared test. Results We reviewed medical records from 945 consecutive admissions to the plastic surgery service who met VTEPS eligibility criteria over a 30-month period. Initial education sessions significantly increased compliance over baseline (55% vs. 10%, p<0.001). After formal protocol adoption, compliance increased steadily over the first nine months and peaked by one year. In the absence of any direct intervention, compliance remained stable at 90% for the final 12 months of the study. This was significantly increased when compared to the period of time immediately following protocol adoption (90% vs. 77%, p<0.001). Conclusions This manuscript provides readers with a practical approach for implementation of a VTE prophylaxis protocol at their hospital. PMID:21738084

  17. Bleeding events with dabigatran or warfarin in patients with venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Ammar; Goldhaber, Samuel Z; Kakkar, Ajay; Kearon, Clive; Eriksson, Henry; Kreuzer, Jörg; Feuring, Martin; Hantel, Stephan; Friedman, Jeffrey; Schellong, Sebastian; Schulman, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Dabigatran was as effective as warfarin for the acute treatment of venous thromboembolism in the RE-COVER and RE-COVER II trials. We compared the incidence of bleeding with dabigatran versus warfarin in pooled data from these studies. The localisation, bleeding severity, and the impact of key factors on the incidence of bleeding, were compared between the dabigatran and warfarin treatment group. Altogether, 2553 patients received dabigatran and 2554 warfarin, each for a mean of 164 days. The incidence of any bleeding event was significantly lower with dabigatran (hazard ratio [HR] 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-0.79), as was the incidence of the composite of MBEs and clinically relevant non-major bleeding events (HR 0.62; 95% CI, 0.50-0.76). The incidence of major bleeding events (MBEs) was also significantly lower with dabigatran in the double-dummy phase (HR, 0.60; 95%CI, 0.36-0.99) but not statistically different between the two treatment arms when the entire treatment period is considered (HR 0.73 95% CI, 0.48-1.11). Increasing age, reduced renal function, Asian ethnicity, and concomitant antiplatelet therapy were associated with higher bleeding rates in both treatment groups. The reduction in bleeding with dabigatran compared to warfarin was consistent among the subgroups and with a similar pattern for intracranial, and urogenital major bleeding. In conclusion, treatment of venous thromboembolism with dabigatran is associated with a lower risk of bleeding compared to warfarin. This reduction did not differ with respect to the location of bleeding or among predefined subgroups.

  18. Venous Thromboembolism in Cancer: An Update of Treatment and Prevention in the Era of Newer Anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Waqas; Ali, Zeeshan; Amjad, Waseem; Alirhayim, Zaid; Farooq, Hina; Qadir, Shayan; Khalid, Fatima; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H

    2016-01-01

    Cancer patients are at major risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE), resulting in increased morbidity and economic burden. While a number of theories try to explain its pathophysiology, its risk stratification can be broadly done in cancer-related, treatment-related, and patient-related factors. Studies report the prophylactic use of thrombolytic agents to be safe and effective in decreasing VTE-related mortality/morbidity especially in postoperative cancer patients. Recent data also suggest the prophylactic use of low molecular weight Heparins (LMWHs) and Warfarin to be effective in reducing VTEs related to long-term central venous catheter use. In a double-blind, multicenter trial, a new ultra-LMWH Semuloparin has shown to be efficacious in preventing chemotherapy-associated VTE's along with other drugs, such as Certoparin and Nadoparin. LMWHs are reported to be very useful in preventing recurrent VTEs in advanced cancers and should be preferred over full dose Warfarin. However, their long-term safety beyond 6 months has not been established yet. Furthermore, this paper discusses the safety and efficacy of different drugs used in the treatment and prevention of recurrent VTEs, including Bemiparin, Semuloparin, oral direct thrombin inhibitors, parenteral and direct oral factor Xa inhibitors. PMID:27517038

  19. Venous Thromboembolism in Cancer: An Update of Treatment and Prevention in the Era of Newer Anticoagulants

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Waqas; Ali, Zeeshan; Amjad, Waseem; Alirhayim, Zaid; Farooq, Hina; Qadir, Shayan; Khalid, Fatima; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer patients are at major risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE), resulting in increased morbidity and economic burden. While a number of theories try to explain its pathophysiology, its risk stratification can be broadly done in cancer-related, treatment–related, and patient-related factors. Studies report the prophylactic use of thrombolytic agents to be safe and effective in decreasing VTE-related mortality/morbidity especially in postoperative cancer patients. Recent data also suggest the prophylactic use of low molecular weight Heparins (LMWHs) and Warfarin to be effective in reducing VTEs related to long-term central venous catheter use. In a double-blind, multicenter trial, a new ultra-LMWH Semuloparin has shown to be efficacious in preventing chemotherapy-associated VTE’s along with other drugs, such as Certoparin and Nadoparin. LMWHs are reported to be very useful in preventing recurrent VTEs in advanced cancers and should be preferred over full dose Warfarin. However, their long-term safety beyond 6 months has not been established yet. Furthermore, this paper discusses the safety and efficacy of different drugs used in the treatment and prevention of recurrent VTEs, including Bemiparin, Semuloparin, oral direct thrombin inhibitors, parenteral and direct oral factor Xa inhibitors. PMID:27517038

  20. Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis after total hip or knee arthroplasty: a survey of Canadian orthopedic surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Michael; Anderson, David R.; Nagpal, Seema; O’Brien, Bernie

    1999-01-01

    Objective To determine the pharmacologic and physical modalities used by orthopedic surgeons in Canada to prevent venous thromboembolism (deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) after total hip or knee arthroplasty. Design Mail survey sent to all members of the Canadian Orthopaedic Association. Setting A nation-wide study. Methods A total of 828 questionnaires, designed to identify the type and frequency of prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism that were used after hip and knee arthroplasty were mailed to orthopedic surgeons. Outcome measures Demographic data and the frequency and type of thromboprophylaxis. Results Of the 828 surveys mailed 445 (54%) were returned, and 397 were included in this analysis. Of the respondents, 97% used prophylaxis routinely for patients who undergo total hip or knee arthroplasty. Three of the 397 (0.8%) did not use any method of prophylaxis. Warfarin was the most common agent used (46%), followed by low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) (36%). Combination therapy with both mechanical and pharmacologic methods were used in 39% of patients. Objective screening tests were not frequently performed before discharge. Extended prophylaxis beyond the duration of hospitalization was used by 36% of physicians. Conclusion Prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism with warfarin or LMWH has become standard care after total hip or knee arthroplasty in Canada. PMID:10593248

  1. Arterial complications, venous thromboembolism and deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Rob Paulus Augustinus; Reijman, Max; Janssen, Daan Martijn; van Mourik, Jan Bernardus Antonius

    2016-01-01

    AIM To summarize the current knowledge on vascular complications and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. METHODS A systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, Web of Science, CINAHL, PubMed publisher, and Google scholar medical literature databases were searched up to November 10, 2015. Any arthroscopic surgical method of primary or revision intra-articular ACL reconstruction of all graft types in humans was included. A risk of bias assessment was determined. RESULTS Fourty-seven studies were included in the review. Pseudaneurysms were the most frequently reported arterial complication after ACL reconstruction, irrespective of graft type or method of graft fixation with an incidence of 0.3%. The time to diagnosis of arterial complications after ACL reconstruction varied from days to mostly weeks but even years. After ACL reconstruction without thromboprophylaxis, the incidence of DVT was 9.7%, of which 2.1% was symptomatic. The incidence of pulmonary embolism was 0.1%. Tourniquet time > 2 h was related to venous thromboembolism. Thromboprophylaxis is indicated in patients with risk factors for venous thromboembolism. CONCLUSION After ACL reconstruction, the incidence of arterial complications, symptomatic DVT and pulmonary embolism was 0.3%, 2.1% and 0.1% respectively. Arterial complications may occur with all types of arthroscopic ACL reconstruction, methods of graft fixation as well as any type of graft. Patients considered to be at moderate or high risk of venous thromboembolism should routinely receive thromboprophylaxis after ACL reconstruction.

  2. Arterial complications, venous thromboembolism and deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Rob Paulus Augustinus; Reijman, Max; Janssen, Daan Martijn; van Mourik, Jan Bernardus Antonius

    2016-01-01

    AIM To summarize the current knowledge on vascular complications and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. METHODS A systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, Web of Science, CINAHL, PubMed publisher, and Google scholar medical literature databases were searched up to November 10, 2015. Any arthroscopic surgical method of primary or revision intra-articular ACL reconstruction of all graft types in humans was included. A risk of bias assessment was determined. RESULTS Fourty-seven studies were included in the review. Pseudaneurysms were the most frequently reported arterial complication after ACL reconstruction, irrespective of graft type or method of graft fixation with an incidence of 0.3%. The time to diagnosis of arterial complications after ACL reconstruction varied from days to mostly weeks but even years. After ACL reconstruction without thromboprophylaxis, the incidence of DVT was 9.7%, of which 2.1% was symptomatic. The incidence of pulmonary embolism was 0.1%. Tourniquet time > 2 h was related to venous thromboembolism. Thromboprophylaxis is indicated in patients with risk factors for venous thromboembolism. CONCLUSION After ACL reconstruction, the incidence of arterial complications, symptomatic DVT and pulmonary embolism was 0.3%, 2.1% and 0.1% respectively. Arterial complications may occur with all types of arthroscopic ACL reconstruction, methods of graft fixation as well as any type of graft. Patients considered to be at moderate or high risk of venous thromboembolism should routinely receive thromboprophylaxis after ACL reconstruction. PMID:27672574

  3. Hyperhomocysteinemia and venous thromboembolism: a risk factor more prevalent in the elderly and in idiopathic cases.

    PubMed

    Hainaut, Philippe; Jaumotte, Carine; Verhelst, David; Wallemacq, Pierre; Gala, Jean-Luc; Lavenne, Edith; Heusterspreute, Michel; Zech, Francis; Moriau, Maurice

    2002-04-15

    Fasting plasma homocysteine level and the related clinical findings were analysed in 240 consecutive patients with venous thromboembolism. Hyperhomocysteinemia, defined as a plasma level above 20 micromol/l (corresponding to the percentile 95th in the controls), was present in 11.2% of the patients. Plasma homocysteine level was similar in patients presenting with either deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism or both conditions. It was significantly higher in patients with primary (unprovoked) VTE than in patients with secondary disease (associated with at least one risk factor): 12.3 vs. 9.55 micromol/l (p < 0.005). Mean homocysteine was higher in male than in female patients (14.51 vs. 12.9 micromol/l, p < 0.05) and increased significantly with age. Hyperhomocysteinemia was more frequent in patients with relapsing disease (14 of 76, 18.4%) than in those presenting with a single episode (13 of 164, 7.9%) (p = 0.034). Furthermore, hyperhomocysteinemia was correlated with reduced protein C level (p = 0.013). In a multivariate analysis, two factors were significantly associated with hyperhomocysteinemia: older age (p < 0.0001) and idiopathic occurrence (p < 0.02). Since the frequency of homozygous MTHFR thermolabile variant was rather similar in patients and controls, testing for C677T mutation was not helpful in screening VTE patients. However, the homozygous mutation was significantly more prevalent among hyperhomocysteinemia patients, confirming its role in the genesis of hyperhomocysteinemia. According to its prevalence, to the putative role in venous and arterial disease and the availability of an effective and low-cost corrective therapy, hyperhomocysteinemia deserves interest, especially in the elderly and in the patients with idiopathic VTE disease. PMID:12182910

  4. [Protein C deficiency in black African with venous thromboembolism in Cotonou, Benin].

    PubMed

    Houénassi, D M; Bigot, A; Tchabi, Y; Vehounkpé-Sacca, J; Akindes-Dossou Yovo, R; Gbaguidi, L; d'Almeida-Massougbodji, M; Agboton, H

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the frequency of protein C deficiency in venous thromboembolism in black African patients of Benin. It is a descriptive study. Inclusion criteria were: acceptance- having a venous thromboembolism. No exlusion criteria was retained. Protein C deficiency was diagnosed by quantitative technic with a Minividas materiel in the blood. Protein C dosage has been done before antivitamin k therapy and a second dosage has been done if the first one demonstrated a low level of protein C. Acuired aetiology have been research. For the 54 patients of this study mean age was 52.7±14.1 and sex-ratio 1.08. The frequency of protein C deficiency was 9.3% in all patients and 12.5% in those with clinical thrombophily (p=1). No acquired deficit has been found.

  5. Comparative risk impact of edoxaban in the management of stroke and venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Tellor, Katie B; Van Tuyl, Joseph S; Armbruster, Anastasia L

    2016-01-01

    Edoxaban, a factor Xa inhibitor, was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration in 2015 for stroke prevention in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and treatment of venous thromboembolism. It is the fourth target-specific oral anticoagulant to be approved. Edoxaban is noninferior for efficacy compared to warfarin for both approved indications. Edoxaban is superior to warfarin for the first major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding event in venous thromboembolism and major bleeding in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Edoxaban is dosed once daily for both indications and requires dose adjustment for renal function. In patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, use is not recommended in patients with a creatinine clearance greater than 95 mL/min due to reduced efficacy. Edoxaban offers a new therapeutic alternative to the currently available options in the market. PMID:27217759

  6. [Successful treatment of venous thromboembolism with a Factor Xa inhibitor, edoxaban, in patients with lenalidomide-treated multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Masato; Uchimura, Norio; Okuda, Yuko; Konuma, Satomi; Nehashi, Yoshio

    2015-08-01

    Two multiple myeloma (MM) patients developed venous thromboembolism (VTE) while being treated with lenalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone. Aspirin is recommended for VTE prophylaxis when using lenalidomide/dexamethasone for MM patients with a standard risk of VTE. Despite aspirin administration, however, these two patients experienced VTE. Following VTE development, warfarin and then a Factor Xa inhibitor, edoxaban, were administered. The edoxaban treatment, especially, resulted in favorable and effective control of VTE. Considering these observations, Factor Xa inhibitors may in future become a preferred option for prevention and treatment of VTE when managing MM patients. PMID:26345573

  7. Risk of future arterial cardiovascular events in patients with idiopathic venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Green, David

    2009-01-01

    Venous and arterial thromboses have traditionally been considered distinct pathophysiologic entities. However, the two disorders have many features in common, and there is evidence that persons with venous thrombosis may be at greater risk for arterial events. The pathogenesis of both disorders includes endothelial injury, platelet activation, elevated levels of intrinsic clotting factors and inflammatory markers, increased fibrinogen, and impaired fibrinolysis. In addition, older age, obesity, dyslipidemia, and smoking predispose to both venous and arterial thrombosis. While the evidence that arterial disease is a risk factor for venous thrombosis is inconclusive, arterial disease does appear to occur with a modestly increased frequency in patients with a history of venous thromboembolism. Reported odds ratios in such patients were 1.2 for myocardial infarction, 1.3 for stroke, 2.3 for carotid plaque, and 4.3 for coronary calcification. Of note, in persons under age 40 with unprovoked venous thrombosis, the odds ratio for acute myocardial infarction was as high as 3.9. In general, however, venous disease is considered to be a weak risk factor for arterial thrombosis, and the use of agents specifically targeted to the prevention of heart attack or stroke in the majority of persons with VTE cannot be recommended at present.

  8. Venous thromboembolism risk associated with protracted work- and computer-related seated immobility: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Bridget; Cameron, Laird; Weatherall, Mark; Beasley, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between venous thromboembolism and prolonged work- and computer-related seated immobility. Design A case-control study. Participants and setting Cases were 200 patients attending venous thromboembolism clinics with a history of deep vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism in the past six months, and controls were 200 patients treated in fracture clinic for an upper limb injury in the past six months. Main outcome measures Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between venous thromboembolism and prolonged work- and computer-related seated immobility in the 28 days before the index event. Prolonged work- and computer-related seated immobility was defined firstly as a categorical variable with at least 10 h seated in a 24-h period, including at least 2 h without getting up; and secondly as the actual time spent seated in a 24-h period. Results Prolonged work- and computer-related seated immobility (categorical variable) was present in 36 (18%) cases and 31 (15.5%) controls. In multivariate analysis, there was no significant association between prolonged seated immobility and venous thromboembolism, odds ratio 1.18 (95% CI 0.56 to 2.48), P = 0.67. For the mean and maximum number of hours seated in a 24-h period, the odds ratios for the association per additional hour seated with venous thromboembolism were 1.08 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.6), P = 0.02 and 1.04 (95% CI 0.99 to 1.09), P = 0.08, respectively. Conclusion This study found a weak association between venous thromboembolism and prolonged work- and computer-related seated immobility, with increasing mean hours seated associated with a higher risk of venous thromboembolism. PMID:27540486

  9. Adjuvant therapy in breast cancer and venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Mandalà, Mario; Tondini, Carlo

    2012-10-01

    Breast cancer patients are considered to be at relatively low risk of developing a TEE. The highest incidence of VTE events occurs in metastatic breast cancer patients likely due to extension of disease, immobility for pathologic bone fractures, cancer cachexia and venous compression by the tumour mass. Although thrombosis is less common in patients with early stage cancer compared to those with more advanced disease, it does occur and is clinically challenging. The adjuvant setting is of particular interest in order to assess the specific thrombogenic potential of systemic chemotherapy, because of the low tumor burden with only microscopic tumor foci at the time of treatment administration. This review summarizes risk factors, incidence and strategies to avoid VTE in breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant therapy.

  10. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk assessment: rural nurses' knowledge and use in a rural acute care hospital.

    PubMed

    Gaston, Sherryl; White, Sarahlouise

    2013-02-01

    It is estimated that about 2000 people die as a result of venous thromboembolism (VTE) each year, with a further 30,000 being hospitalized. Prophylaxis significantly reduces VTE morbidity and mortality, and thus represents a real long-term health-care benefit. The aim of this study was twofold: (i) to assess the current level of compliance to VTE risk assessment and prophylaxis best practice guidelines within an Australian rural hospital; and (ii) to determine the effectiveness of nurse education on that compliance. VTE compliance information was obtained from auditing patient notes for a 3-month period prior to nurse education and was repeated after the education. Nurse knowledge of VTE risk assessment and prophylaxis use was also measured. Both compliance with and knowledge of best practice VTE risk assessment and prophylaxis increased following nurse education. Although the sample size was relatively small, this study has shown nurse education to be effective at increasing VTE compliance and awareness within an Australian rural hospital. This relatively inexpensive and simple intervention bears consideration and could lead to reductions in the morbidity and mortality associated with VTE, as well as reduction in associated health-care costs.

  11. Rivaroxaban in the treatment of venous thromboembolism and the prevention of recurrences: a practical approach.

    PubMed

    Arcelus, Juan I; Domènech, Pere; Fernández-Capitan, Ma Del Carmen; Guijarro, Ricardo; Jiménez, David; Jiménez, Sonia; Lozano, Francisco S; Monreal, Manel; Nieto, José A; Páramo, José A

    2015-05-01

    Anticoagulation therapy is the standard treatment of patients with symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Until recently, treatment of VTE was based on parenteral or low-molecular-weight heparin for initial therapy (5-10 days) and oral vitamin K antagonists for long-term therapy. Those treatments have some limitations, including parenteral administration (heparins), the need for frequent monitoring and dose adjustments, interactions with several medications, and dietary restrictions (vitamin K antagonists). Rivaroxaban is a new oral direct factor Xa inhibitor with a wide therapeutic window, predictable anticoagulant effect, no food interactions, and few drug interactions. Consequently, no periodic monitoring of anticoagulation is needed, and fixed doses can be prescribed. EINSTEIN program demonstrated that rivaroxaban was as effective as and significantly safer than standard therapy for treatment of VTE. Rivaroxaban was recently authorized so doubts exist about how to use it in daily clinical practice. This document aims to clarify common questions formulated by clinicians regarding the use of this new drug. PMID:25504999

  12. Potential role of new anticoagulants for prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism in cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Outes, Antonio; Suárez-Gea, M Luisa; Lecumberri, Ramón; Terleira-Fernández, Ana Isabel; Vargas-Castrillón, Emilio; Rocha, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE), encompassing deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer. Low molecular weight heparins are the preferred option for anticoagulation in cancer patients according to current clinical practice guidelines. Fondaparinux may also have a place in prevention of VTE in hospitalized cancer patients with additional risk factors and for initial treatment of VTE. Although low molecular weight heparins and fondaparinux are effective and safe, they require daily subcutaneous administration, which may be problematic for many patients, particularly if long-term treatment is needed. Studying anticoagulant therapy in oncology patients is challenging because this patient group has an increased risk of VTE and bleeding during anticoagulant therapy compared with the population without cancer. Risk factors for increased VTE and bleeding risk in these patients include concomitant treatments (surgery, chemotherapy, placement of central venous catheters, radiotherapy, hormonal therapy, angiogenesis inhibitors, antiplatelet drugs), supportive therapies (ie, steroids, blood transfusion, white blood cell growth factors, and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents), and tumor-related factors (local vessel damage and invasion, abnormalities in platelet function, and number). New anticoagulants in development for prophylaxis and treatment of VTE include parenteral compounds for once-daily administration (ie, semuloparin) or once-weekly dosing (ie, idraparinux and idrabiotaparinux), as well as orally active compounds (ie, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban, betrixaban). In the present review, we discuss the pharmacology of the new anticoagulants, the results of clinical trials testing these new compounds in VTE, with special emphasis on studies that included cancer patients, and their potential advantages and drawbacks compared with existing therapies. PMID:23674896

  13. Venous thromboembolism secondary to uterine fibroids: a case of phlegmasia cerulea dolens and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Michael B; Woo, Karen; Weaver, Fred A

    2015-02-01

    Uterine fibroids are usually benign soft tissue tumors, however, when they become large, they can cause external venous compression. We present a case of a 45-year-old woman who presented with phlegmasia cerulea dolens from a large uterine fibroid. She was successfully treated with hysterectomy, venous thrombectomy, and fasciotomy. We review the literature for previous reports of venous thromboembolism resulting from uterine fibroids. The patient characteristics, thrombotic complications, and treatment modalities are reviewed. PMID:25463329

  14. The management of antenatal venous thromboembolism in the UK and Ireland: a prospective multicentre observational survey.

    PubMed

    Voke, Jennifer; Keidan, Jane; Pavord, Sue; Spencer, Neil H; Hunt, Beverley J

    2007-11-01

    This prospective observational study reports on 126 women from 25 UK centres with image-proven antenatal venous thromboembolism (VTE), 62% deep vein thrombosis and 38% pulmonary embolism. Thrombophilia screening was of limited benefit except to identify antithrombin deficiency. Sixteen (13%) patients had previous VTE, all but one was related to previous pregnancy or combined oral contraceptive and 12 received no thromboprophylaxis in the index pregnancy, the other four thus received inadequate low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) doses. Treatment was with dalteparin in 25%, enoxaparin in 47%, tinzaparin in 25% and unfractionated heparin alone in 3%. 66% of patients received once-daily LMWH. Anti-activated factor X (anti-Xa) monitoring was performed at 90% of centres, with a wide range of target values. Thus current management of antenatal VTE, despite widely diverse clinical practice, appeared effective and safe, for there were no recurrent events and postpartum haemorrhage was not increased when compared to known rates. Larger studies are required to confirm this. The need for twice as opposed to once daily LMWH and for anti-Xa monitoring is questioned by this study. The importance of clinical risk assessment and adherence to the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists guidelines on antenatal thromboprophylaxis, with adequate LMWH dosing is confirmed.

  15. Current and emerging strategies in the management of venous thromboembolism: benefit-risk assessment of dabigatran.

    PubMed

    Fanola, Christina L

    2015-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a disease state that carries significant morbidity and mortality, and is a known cause of preventable death in hospitalized and orthopedic surgical patients. There are many identifiable risk factors for VTE, yet up to half of VTE incident cases have no identifiable risk factor and carry a high likelihood of recurrence, which may warrant extended therapy. For many years, parenteral unfractionated heparin, low-molecular weight heparin, fondaparinux, and oral vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) have been the standard of care in VTE management. However, limitations in current drug therapy options have led to suboptimal treatment, so there has been a need for rapid-onset, fixed-dosing novel oral anticoagulants in both VTE treatment and prophylaxis. Oral VKAs have historically been challenging to use in clinical practice, with their narrow therapeutic range, unpredictable dose responsiveness, and many drug-drug and drug-food interactions. As such, there has also been a need for novel anticoagulant therapies with fewer limitations, which has recently been met. Dabigatran etexilate is a fixed-dose oral direct thrombin inhibitor available for use in acute and extended treatment of VTE, as well as prophylaxis in high-risk orthopedic surgical patients. In this review, the risks and overall benefits of dabigatran in VTE management are addressed, with special emphasis on clinical trial data and their application to general clinical practice and special patient populations. Current and emerging therapies in the management of VTE and monitoring of dabigatran anticoagulant-effect reversal are also discussed.

  16. Guidance for the practical management of the heparin anticoagulants in the treatment of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Smythe, Maureen A; Priziola, Jennifer; Dobesh, Paul P; Wirth, Diane; Cuker, Adam; Wittkowsky, Ann K

    2016-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious and often fatal medical condition with an increasing incidence. Despite the changing landscape of VTE treatment with the introduction of the new direct oral anticoagulants many uncertainties remain regarding the optimal use of traditional parenteral agents. This manuscript, initiated by the Anticoagulation Forum, provides clinical guidance based on existing guidelines and consensus expert opinion where guidelines are lacking. This specific chapter addresses the practical management of heparins including low molecular weight heparins and fondaparinux. For each anticoagulant a list of the most common practice related questions were created. Each question was addressed using a brief focused literature review followed by a multidisciplinary consensus guidance recommendation. Issues addressed included initial anticoagulant dosing recommendations, recommended baseline laboratory monitoring, managing dose adjustments, evidence to support a relationship between laboratory tests and meaningful clinical outcomes, special patient populations including extremes of weight and renal impairment, duration of necessary parenteral therapy during the transition to oral therapy, candidates for outpatient treatment where appropriate and management of over-anticoagulation and adverse effects including bleeding and heparin induced thrombocytopenia. This article concludes with a concise table of clinical management questions and guidance recommendations to provide a quick reference for the practical management of heparin, low molecular weight heparin and fondaparinux.

  17. Controversies in venous thromboembolism: the unique case of isolated distal deep vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Porfidia, Angelo; Carnicelli, Annamaria; Bonadia, Nicola; Pola, Roberto; Landolfi, Raffaele

    2016-09-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) represents the third leading cause of cardiovascular mortality, and it is the main cause of preventable mortality in hospitalized patients. Among VTE, there is the unique case of isolated distal deep vein thrombosis (IDDVT), which still lacks an agreement in terms of optimal therapeutic strategy. Although most IDDVTs are self-limiting and associated with a very low risk of embolic complications, still not all IDDVTs can be safely identified as stable. Lack of strong scientific evidence, fear of thromboembolic complications, and risk of bleeding upon initiation of anticoagulant treatment result in very heterogeneous therapeutic strategies among physicians. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the literature, highlight the many controversial issues regarding IDDVTs, and call for a consensus of experts aimed to shed new light on the gray areas of IDDVT management and therapy. PMID:27126683

  18. The Efficacy of Low Molecular Weight Heparin for the Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism after Hip Fracture Surgery in Korean Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang-Kyoun; Won, Ye-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in Korean patients who underwent hip fracture surgery (HFS). Materials and Methods Prospectively, a total 181 cases were classified into the LMWH user group (116 cases) and LMWH non-user group (65 cases). Each group was sub-classified according to fracture types as follows: 81 cases of intertrochanteric fracture (group A: 49, group B: 32) and 100 cases of neck fracture (group C: 67, group D: 33). We compared the incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) according to LMWH use. Results Of the 181 cases, four DVTs were found in the LMWH user groups (1 in group A, and 3 in group C). One case of PE was found in LMWH non-user group D. The incidences of DVT and PE showed no statistically significant differences between the LMWH user and non-user groups (p=0.298 and 0.359, respectively). In subgroup analysis, no statistically significant differences were found between groups A and B and between groups C and D. Conclusion The administration of LMWH was not effective in the prevention of venous thromboembolism and PE in the Korean patients who underwent HFS. PMID:27401653

  19. Common genetic risk factors of venous thromboembolism in Western and Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Huang, S S; Liu, Y; Jing, Z C; Wang, X J; Mao, Y M

    2016-03-04

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a multifactorial disorder involving both acquired and genetic risk factors. The common genetic factors in Western populations have been studied and reported for several decades, while studies on Asian populations are relatively scarce. Evidence suggests that the prevalence and genetic risk factors of VTE vary significantly among ethnic populations. In this review, we summarize the common genetic risk factors of VTE in both Western and Asian populations. In addition to the development of DNA sequencing technology, genome-wide association studies have many advantages and are becoming more important in identifying new genetic risk factors and susceptible loci. They can therefore help in the prediction and prevention of VTE.

  20. Medical Management of Tumor Lysis Syndrome, Postprocedural Pain, and Venous Thromboembolism Following Interventional Radiology Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Faramarzalian, Ali; Armitage, Keith B.; Kapoor, Baljendra; Kalva, Sanjeeva P.

    2015-01-01

    The rapid expansion of minimally invasive image-guided procedures has led to their extensive use in the interdisciplinary management of patients with vascular, hepatobiliary, genitourinary, and oncologic diseases. Given the increased availability and breadth of these procedures, it is important for physicians to be aware of common complications and their management. In this article, the authors describe management of select common complications from interventional radiology procedures including tumor lysis syndrome, acute on chronic postprocedural pain, and venous thromboembolism. These complications are discussed in detail and their medical management is outlined according to generally accepted practice and evidence from the literature. PMID:26038627

  1. Use of the Direct Oral Anticoagulants for the Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Riva, Nicoletta; Ageno, Walter

    2016-10-01

    In the past 2 decades, the direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have emerged as alternatives to the standard therapy (unfractionated or low-molecular-weight heparin followed by vitamin K antagonists [VKA]), for the acute and extended treatment of venous thromboembolism. The DOACs have a more favorable pharmacologic profile and a predictable anticoagulant response and, therefore, have the potential to overcome some of the limitations associated with the use of VKA. Several ongoing registries are evaluating the use of the DOACs in routine clinical practice and will provide additional information in less selected patient populations. PMID:27637306

  2. [Venous thrombo-embolic disease in cancer. Low molecular weight heparin indications].

    PubMed

    Nou, M; Laroche, J-P

    2016-05-01

    Cancer and venous thrombo-embolic disease (VTE) are closely related. Indeed, cancer can reveal VTE and VTE can be the first sign of cancer. Low molecular weight heparin (LWMH) is now the first line treatment in cancer patients. Compliance with marketing authorizations and guidelines are crucial for patient-centered decision-making. This work deals with the prescription of LWMH in patients who develop VTE during cancer in order to better recognize what should or should not be done. The patient's wishes must be taken into consideration when making the final therapeutic decision. The other treatments are discussed: vitamin K antagonists and direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) may be useful. PMID:27146099

  3. Medical management of tumor lysis syndrome, postprocedural pain, and venous thromboembolism following interventional radiology procedures.

    PubMed

    Faramarzalian, Ali; Armitage, Keith B; Kapoor, Baljendra; Kalva, Sanjeeva P

    2015-06-01

    The rapid expansion of minimally invasive image-guided procedures has led to their extensive use in the interdisciplinary management of patients with vascular, hepatobiliary, genitourinary, and oncologic diseases. Given the increased availability and breadth of these procedures, it is important for physicians to be aware of common complications and their management. In this article, the authors describe management of select common complications from interventional radiology procedures including tumor lysis syndrome, acute on chronic postprocedural pain, and venous thromboembolism. These complications are discussed in detail and their medical management is outlined according to generally accepted practice and evidence from the literature. PMID:26038627

  4. Comparison of a single end point to determine optimal initial warfarin dosing (5 mg versus 10 mg) for venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, Rene; Gerhard-Herman, Marie; Kosowsky, Joshua M; DeSantis, Stacia M; Kucher, Nils; McKean, Sylvia C; Goldhaber, Samuel Z

    2006-08-15

    There remains considerable controversy regarding optimal initial warfarin dosing in patients with acute venous thromboembolism. Therefore, an open-label, randomized trial comparing 2 warfarin initiation nomograms (5 vs 10 mg) was conducted in patients with acute venous thromboembolism. All participants received fondaparinux for > or = 5 days as a "bridge" to warfarin. The primary end point was defined as the number of days necessary to achieve 2 consecutive international normalized ratio laboratory test values > 1.9. A total of 50 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to each of the treatment arms. The median time to 2 consecutive international normalized ratios was 5 days in the 2 groups. There was no statistical difference in achieving the primary end point using either the 5- or the 10-mg nomogram (p = 0.69). These results should provide clinicians with increased warfarin dosing options in patients presenting with acute venous thromboembolism.

  5. Markers of Endothelial Dysfunction, Coagulation and Tissue Fibrosis Independently Predict Venous Thromboembolism in HIV

    PubMed Central

    MUSSELWHITE, Laura W.; SHEIKH, Virginia; NORTON, Thomas D.; RUPERT, Adam; PORTER, Brian O.; PENZAK, Scott R.; SKINNER, Jeff; MICAN, JoAnn M.; HADIGAN, Colleen; SERETI, Irini

    2015-01-01

    Objective HIV infection is associated with coagulation abnormalities and significantly increased risk of venous thrombosis. It has been shown that higher plasma levels of coagulation and inflammatory biomarkers predicted mortality in HIV. We investigated the relationship between venous thrombosis and HIV-related characteristics, traditional risk factors of hypercoagulability and pre-event levels of biomarkers. Design A retrospective case-control study of 23 HIV-infected individuals who experienced an incident venous thromboembolic (VTE) event while enrolled in National Institutes of Health studies from 1995–2010 and 69 age and sex-matched HIV-infected individuals without known VTE. Methods Biomarkers of inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, coagulation, tissue fibrosis, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation were assessed by ELISA-based assays and PCR using plasma obtained prior to the event. Results VTE events were related to nadir CD4 count, lifetime history of multiple opportunistic infections, CMV disease, CMV viremia, immunological AIDS, active infection and provocation (i.e. recent hospitalization, surgery or trauma). VTE events were independently associated with increased plasma levels of P-selectin, P=0.002; D-dimer, P=0.01; and hyaluronic acid, P=0.009 in a multivariate analysis. No significant differences in antiretroviral or interleukin 2 exposures, plasma HIV viremia, or other traditional risk factors were observed. Conclusion Severe immunodeficiency, active infection and provocation are associated with venous thromboembolic disease in HIV. Biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction, coagulation and tissue fibrosis may help identify HIV-infected patients at elevated risk of VTE. PMID:21412059

  6. Thrombophilia and venous thromboembolism in pregnancy: a meta-analysis of genetic risk.

    PubMed

    Ziakas, Panayiotis D; Poulou, Loukia S; Pavlou, Matthaios; Zintzaras, Elias

    2015-08-01

    Three common polymorphic variants, namely Factor V Leiden (FVL), Prothrombin G20210A (PT G20210A) and Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) C677T are candidate genes for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in pregnancy. We performed a literature review and meta-analysis of pertinent genetic association studies (GAS) in pregnancy, to quantify the genetic risk of VTE in pregnancy. We used the model-free approach of generalized odds ratio (ORG) to estimate gene-to-disease association and explored the mode of inheritance using the degree of dominance h index. Twelve case-control GAS studies provided the full genotype distributions for at least one candidate gene to assess the genetic risk. FVL was associated with a significant risk of VTE in pregnancy (ORG 7.28; 95% confidence interval 5.53-9.58) and a dominant mode of inheritance (h=0.76), that is the effect of heterozygous carriers will lie close to the homozygous mutant genotype. PT G20210A mutation was also associated with a significant VTE risk (ORG 5.43; 95% CI 3.66-8.03) and had an over-dominant mode of inheritance (h=1.5), suggesting that the effect of heterozygous carriers may exceed that of homozygous mutant. MTHFR C677T had no association with VTE risk in pregnancy (ORG 1.24; 95% CI 0.88-1.73). Our analysis provided robust data on VTE in pregnancy, relative to FVL and PT G20210A status and suggested that the genetic effects of heterozygous over homozygous carriers do not justify stratification of heterozygous as "lower risk" over homozygous mutants. On clinical grounds this may impact decisions to preferentially exclude heterozygous from anticoagulation prophylaxis. PMID:26115054

  7. Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism in a Patient with Heterozygous Factor V Leiden Mutation

    PubMed Central

    White, C. Whitney; Prince, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To report a patient case identifying risk for recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) associated with heterozygous Factor V Leiden mutation. Case Summary: A 54-year-old Caucasian male was diagnosed with heterozygous Factor V Leiden mutation in 2008 after experiencing a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and bilateral pulmonary embolism. The patient was treated appropriately and started on anticoagulation therapy with warfarin through an anticoagulation management clinic. After approximately 17 months of warfarin therapy without incident, warfarin was discontinued. Within 2 months after discontinuation of anticoagulation therapy, the patient experienced his second DVT and left pulmonary artery embolus. Discussion: The risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with heterozygous Factor V Leiden mutation is documented as an approximate 1.4-fold increase compared to patients without thrombophilia. However, the risk increases dramatically when nonreversible (age) or reversible risk factors (obesity, smoking, and long air flights) are present in this population. Conclusion: Based on recent literature, heterozygous Factor V Leiden mutation exponentially increases the risk of recurrent VTE, especially in the presence of other risk factors. Health care providers should complete a comprehensive review of the patients’ other risk factors when deciding on duration of anticoagulation therapy for patients with positive heterozygous Factor V Leiden mutation. PMID:25477600

  8. Genetic Risk Factors in Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism: A Multilocus, Population-Based, Prospective Approach

    PubMed Central

    Zee, Robert YL; Bubes, Vadim; Shrivastava, Sanjay; Ridker, Paul M; Glynn, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    Background Recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common, complex disorder; however, genetic factors have been suggested to play a role in the disease development. We therefore conducted a multi-locus genetic study examining the potential associations of candidate gene variants in inflammation, thrombosis, coagulation, and lipid metabolism pathways, individually or interactively, with risk of recurrent VTE. Methods Using DNA samples collected at baseline in the Prevention of Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism trial (PREVENT), we genotyped 86 candidate genes polymorphisms among 43 individuals who subsequently developed recurrent VTE and among 396 individuals who remained free of recurrent event over a mean follow-up period of 2.1 years to prospectively determine whether these gene polymorphisms contribute to the risk of recurrent VTE. Results Using a single-marker ‘uncorrected’ analysis, CCR5 A(-2459)G [rs1799864], MMP3 5A(-1171)6A [rs3025058] and PON1 gln192arg [rs662] gene variants were associated with increased risk, and CETP C(-629)A [rs1800775] gene variant with reduced risk of recurrent VTE, respectively. Furthermore, potentially important gene-gene-interactions were detected by the Monte Carlo Markov chain Logic Regression method. Conclusions Although the present findings are hypothesis-generating and require confirmation in an independent investigation, our study provides a practical example of detecting epistasis in common, complex diseases. PMID:19263529

  9. [The PROMET study: Prophylaxis for venous thromboembolic disease in at-risk patients hospitalized in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Guermaz, R; Belhamidi, S; Amarni, A

    2015-07-01

    PROMET is an observational study aimed to assess the management of patients at venous thromboembolism risk in the Algerian hospitals and to evaluate the proportion of at-risk patients treated with an adequate prophylaxis. Following the ENDORSE study achieved five years before with a similar protocol, PROMET included 435hospitalized patients (229 in medical units and 206 in surgical units). Compared to the ENDORSE results, the PROMET data reflect progress in the management of venous thromboembolism: 73.3% of at-risk patients received prophylaxis (57.6% of medical patients and 90.8% of surgical patients). In 93.1% of cases, this prophylaxis was provided by a low molecular weight heparin, mainly at the dose of one injection per day. In medical population, the prescription was triggered by long-term immobilization (P=0.01; OR=5.8 95%CI [1.5-23.0]), associated risk factors (P=0.025; OR=4.13 [1.2-14.2]) and the cause of hospitalization (P=0.056). In surgical departments, the therapeutic decision depended on the nature of the surgical intervention and was influenced by the presence of a contraindication for prophylaxis (P<0.001; OR=0.02 [0.00-0.14]) or a high hemorrhagic risk (P<0.001; OR=0.02). The assessment and management of thromboembolic risk were in accordance with ACCP recommendations for surgical patients. However efforts are needed for medical patients for whom the risk is underestimated and insufficiently supported. Unlike surgery where procedures are well established, there are real difficulties in medicine to define the at-risk patients who will benefit from thromboprophylaxis. The process of preventive treatment (particularly the optimal duration) needs to be clarified.

  10. Use of Provider-Level Dashboards and Pay-for-Performance in Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis*

    PubMed Central

    Michtalik, Henry J.; Carolan, Howard T.; Haut, Elliott R.; Lau, Brandyn D.; Streiff, Michael B.; Finkelstein, Joseph; Pronovost, Peter J.; Durkin, Nowella; Brotman, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite safe and cost-effective venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention measures, VTE prophylaxis rates are often suboptimal. Healthcare reform efforts emphasize transparency through programs to report performance, and payment incentives through programs to pay-for-performance. Objective To sequentially examine an individualized physician dashboard and pay-for-performance program to improve VTE prophylaxis rates amongst hospitalists. Design Retrospective analysis of 3144 inpatient admissions. After a baseline observation period, VTE prophylaxis compliance was compared during both interventions. Setting 1060-bed tertiary care medical center. Participants 38 part- and full-time academic hospitalists. Interventions A Web-based hospitalist dashboard provided VTE prophylaxis feedback. After 6 months of feedback only, a pay-for-performance program was incorporated, with graduated payouts for compliance rates of 80-100%. Measurements Prescription of American College of Chest Physicians guideline-compliant VTE prophylaxis and subsequent pay-for-performance payments. Results Monthly VTE prophylaxis compliance rates were 86% (95% CI: 85, 88), 90% (95% CI: 88, 93), and 94% (95% CI: 93, 96) during the baseline, dashboard, and combined dashboard/pay-for-performance periods, respectively. Compliance significantly improved with the use of the dashboard (p=0.01) and addition of the pay-for-performance program (p=0.01). The highest rate of improvement occurred with the dashboard (1.58%/month; p=0.01). Annual individual physician performance payments ranged from $53 to $1244 (mean $633; SD ±350). Conclusions Direct feedback using dashboards was associated with significantly improved compliance, with further improvement after incorporating an individual physician pay-for-performance program. Real-time dashboards and physician-level incentives may assist hospitals in achieving higher safety and quality benchmarks. PMID:25545690

  11. Patient characteristics associated with venous thromboembolic events: a cohort study using pooled electronic health record data

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Wendy; Gilder, Jason; Love, Thomas E; Jain, Anil K

    2012-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the potential of de-identified clinical data from multiple healthcare systems using different electronic health records (EHR) to be efficiently used for very large retrospective cohort studies. Materials and methods Data of 959 030 patients, pooled from multiple different healthcare systems with distinct EHR, were obtained. Data were standardized and normalized using common ontologies, searchable through a HIPAA-compliant, patient de-identified web application (Explore; Explorys Inc). Patients were 26 years or older seen in multiple healthcare systems from 1999 to 2011 with data from EHR. Results Comparing obese, tall subjects with normal body mass index, short subjects, the venous thromboembolic events (VTE) OR was 1.83 (95% CI 1.76 to 1.91) for women and 1.21 (1.10 to 1.32) for men. Weight had more effect then height on VTE. Compared with Caucasian, Hispanic/Latino subjects had a much lower risk of VTE (female OR 0.47, 0.41 to 0.55; male OR 0.24, 0.20 to 0.28) and African-Americans a substantially higher risk (female OR 1.83, 1.76 to 1.91; male OR 1.58, 1.50 to 1.66). This 13-year retrospective study of almost one million patients was performed over approximately 125 h in 11 weeks, part time by the five authors. Discussion As research informatics tools develop and more clinical data become available in EHR, it is important to study and understand unique opportunities for clinical research informatics to transform the scale and resources needed to perform certain types of clinical research. Conclusions With the right clinical research informatics tools and EHR data, some types of very large cohort studies can be completed with minimal resources. PMID:22759621

  12. Recurrent venous thromboembolism and abnormal uterine bleeding with anticoagulant and hormone therapy use

    PubMed Central

    Lensing, Anthonie W. A.; Middeldorp, Saskia; Levi, Marcel; Beyer-Westendorf, Jan; van Bellen, Bonno; Bounameaux, Henri; Brighton, Timothy A.; Cohen, Alexander T.; Trajanovic, Mila; Gebel, Martin; Lam, Phuong; Wells, Philip S.; Prins, Martin H.

    2016-01-01

    Women receiving vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) require adequate contraception because of the potential for fetal complications. It is unknown whether the use of hormonal therapy, especially those containing estrogens, is associated with recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) during anticoagulation. Despite the absence of data, World Health Organization guidelines state that use of estrogen-containing contraceptives confers an “unacceptable health risk” during established anticoagulation for VTE. We compared the incidences of recurrent VTE and abnormal uterine bleeding with and without concomitant hormonal therapy in women aged <60 years who were receiving anticoagulation with rivaroxaban or enoxaparin/VKA for confirmed VTE. Incidence densities in percentage per year were computed for the on and off estrogen-containing or progestin-only therapy periods. Cox regression models were fitted, with hormonal therapy (on vs off) as a time-dependent variable to derive the hazard ratio (HR) for the effects on recurrent VTE and abnormal uterine bleeding. In total, 1888 women were included. VTE incidence densities on and off hormonal therapy were 3.7%/year and 4.7%/year (adjusted HR, 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23-1.39), respectively, and were 3.7%/year and 3.8%/year, respectively, for estrogen-containing and progestin-only therapy. The adjusted HR for all abnormal uterine bleeding (on vs off hormonal therapy) was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.66-1.57). Abnormal uterine bleeding occurred more frequently with rivaroxaban than with enoxaparin/VKA (HR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.57-2.89). Hormonal therapy was not associated with an increased risk of recurrent VTE in women receiving therapeutic anticoagulation. The observed increased risk of abnormal uterine bleeding with rivaroxaban needs further exploration. PMID:26696010

  13. High incidence of venous thromboembolism despite electronic alerts for thromboprophylaxis in hospitalised cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Lecumberri, Ramón; Marqués, Margarita; Panizo, Elena; Alfonso, Ana; García-Mouriz, Alberto; Gil-Bazo, Ignacio; Hermida, José; Schulman, Sam; Páramo, José A

    2013-07-01

    Many cancer patients are at high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) during hospitalisation; nevertheless, thromboprophylaxis is frequently underused. Electronic alerts (e-alerts) have been associated with improvement in thromboprophylaxis use and a reduction of the incidence of VTE, both during hospitalisation and after discharge, particularly in the medical setting. However, there are no data regarding the benefit of this tool in cancer patients. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of a computer-alert system for VTE prevention in patients with cancer, particularly in those admitted to the Oncology/Haematology ward, comparing the results with the rest of inpatients at a university teaching hospital. The study included 32,167 adult patients hospitalised during the first semesters of years 2006 to 2010, 9,265 (28.8%) with an active malignancy. Appropriate prophylaxis in medical patients, significantly increased over time (from 40% in 2006 to 57% in 2010) and was maintained over 80% in surgical patients. However, while e-alerts were associated with a reduction of the incidence of VTE during hospitalisation in patients without cancer (odds ratio [OR] 0.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.15-0.64), the impact was modest in cancer patients (OR 0.89; 95% CI, 0.42-1.86) and no benefit was observed in patients admitted to the Oncology/Haematology Departments (OR 1.11; 95% CI, 0.45-2.73). Interestingly, 60% of VTE episodes in cancer patients during recent years developed despite appropriate prophylaxis. Contrary to the impact on hospitalised patients without cancer, implementation of e-alerts for VTE risk did not prevent VTE effectively among those with malignancies. PMID:23677515

  14. No increased venous thromboembolism risk in Asian breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant tamoxifen.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tom Wei-Wu; Chen, Ho-Min; Lin, Ching-Hung; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Cheng, Ann-Lii; Lai, Mei-Shu; Lu, Yen-Shen

    2014-11-01

    Tamoxifen is an effective endocrine treatment for early breast cancer (EBC) but increases the risk of venous thromboembolism. Whether Asian EBC patients (pts) bear the same risk when treated with adjuvant tamoxifen is uncertain. EBC pts diagnosed between 2004 and 2009 were selected from a population database in Taiwan. The pts were followed up from the index date to December 31, 2011 to collect events of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Cumulative incidence rates and hazard ratios (HRs) were used to compare the risk between pts treated with and without tamoxifen. In addition, comorbidities were included in an adjusted model of the risk of DVT and PE. A total of 28,029 EBC pts, including 17,843 (63.8 %) in the tamoxifen group and 10,155 (36.2 %) in the nontamoxifen group, were analyzed. The 7-year cumulative incidence rates for DVT and PE were 2.58 and 0.32 % in the tamoxifen group and 2.51 and 0.32 % in the nontamoxifen group (P = 0.92 for DVT, P = 0. 65 for PE), respectively. The HR for the nonadjusted and adjusted models showed no differences in DVT and PE risks between the tamoxifen and nontamoxifen groups. The uterine cancer risk was significantly increased in the pts receiving tamoxifen (adjusted HR = 2.79, P < 0.001), suggesting tamoxifen compliance. The risks of developing DVT and PE are not increased in Asian EBC pts receiving adjuvant tamoxifen. Ethnicity differences should be considered when discussing optimal endocrine treatments with EBC pts.

  15. The design and rationale for the Acute Medically Ill Venous Thromboembolism Prevention with Extended Duration Betrixaban (APEX) study.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alexander T; Harrington, Robert; Goldhaber, Samuel Z; Hull, Russell; Gibson, C Michael; Hernandez, Adrian F; Kitt, Michael M; Lorenz, Todd J

    2014-03-01

    Randomized clinical trials have identified a population of acute medically ill patients who remain at risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) beyond the standard duration of therapy and hospital discharge. The aim of the APEX study is to determine whether extended administration of oral betrixaban (35-42 days) is superior to a standard short course of prophylaxis with subcutaneous enoxaparin (10 ± 4 days followed by placebo) in patients with known risk factors for post-discharge VTE. Patients initially are randomized to receive either betrixaban or enoxaparin (and matching placebo) in a double dummy design. Following a standard duration period of enoxaparin treatment (with placebo tablets) or betrixaban (with placebo injections), patients receive only betrixaban (or alternative matching placebo). Patients are considered for enrollment if they are older than 40 years, have a specified medical illness, and restricted mobility. They must also meet the APEX criteria for increased VTE risk (aged ≥75 years, baseline D-Dimer ≥2× upper the limit of "normal", or 2 additional ancillary risk factors for VTE). The primary efficacy end point is the composite of asymptomatic proximal deep venous thrombosis, symptomatic deep venous thrombosis, non-fatal (pulmonary embolus) pulmonary embolism, or VTE-related death through day 35. The primary safety outcome is the occurrence of major bleeding. We hypothesize that extended duration betrixaban VTE prophylaxis will be safe and more effective than standard short duration enoxaparin in preventing VTE in acute medically ill patients with known risk factors for post hospital discharge VTE. PMID:24576517

  16. Efficiency and effectiveness of the use of an acenocoumarol pharmacogenetic dosing algorithm versus usual care in patients with venous thromboembolic disease initiating oral anticoagulation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hemorrhagic events are frequent in patients on treatment with antivitamin-K oral anticoagulants due to their narrow therapeutic margin. Studies performed with acenocoumarol have shown the relationship between demographic, clinical and genotypic variants and the response to these drugs. Once the influence of these genetic and clinical factors on the dose of acenocoumarol needed to maintain a stable international normalized ratio (INR) has been demonstrated, new strategies need to be developed to predict the appropriate doses of this drug. Several pharmacogenetic algorithms have been developed for warfarin, but only three have been developed for acenocoumarol. After the development of a pharmacogenetic algorithm, the obvious next step is to demonstrate its effectiveness and utility by means of a randomized controlled trial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of an acenocoumarol dosing algorithm developed by our group which includes demographic, clinical and pharmacogenetic variables (VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP4F2 and ApoE) in patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE). Methods and design This is a multicenter, single blind, randomized controlled clinical trial. The protocol has been approved by La Paz University Hospital Research Ethics Committee and by the Spanish Drug Agency. Two hundred and forty patients with VTE in which oral anticoagulant therapy is indicated will be included. Randomization (case/control 1:1) will be stratified by center. Acenocoumarol dose in the control group will be scheduled and adjusted following common clinical practice; in the experimental arm dosing will be following an individualized algorithm developed and validated by our group. Patients will be followed for three months. The main endpoints are: 1) Percentage of patients with INR within the therapeutic range on day seven after initiation of oral anticoagulant therapy; 2) Time from the start of oral anticoagulant treatment to achievement of a

  17. Risk of venous thromboembolism associated with single and combined effects of Factor V Leiden, Prothrombin 20210A and Methylenetethraydrofolate reductase C677T: a meta-analysis involving over 11,000 cases and 21,000 controls

    PubMed Central

    Simone, B; De Stefano, V; Leoncini, E; Zacho, J; Martinelli, I; Emmerich, J; Rossi, E; Folsom, AR; Almawi, WY; Scarabin, PY; den Heijer, M; Cushman, M; Penco, S; Vaya, A; Angchaisuksiri, P; Okumus, G; Gemmati, D; Cima, S; Akar, N; Oguzulgen, KI; Ducros, V; Lichy, C; Fernandez-Miranda, C; Szczeklik, A; Nieto, JA; Torres, JD; Le Cam-Duchez, V; Ivanov, P; Cantu, C; Shmeleva, VM; Stegnar, M; Ogunyemi, D; Eid, SS; Nicolotti, N; De Feo, E; Ricciardi, W; Boccia, S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Genetic and environmental factors interact in determining the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The risk associated with the polymorphic variants G1691A of factor V (Factor V Leiden,FVL), G20210A of prothrombin (PT20210A) and C677T of methylentetrahydrofolate reductase (C677T MTHFR) genes has been investigated in many studies. METHODS We performed a pooled analysis of case-control and cohort studies investigating in adults the association between each variant and VTE, published on Pubmed, Embase or Google through January 2010. Authors of eligible papers, were invited to provide all available individual data for the pooling. The Odds Ratio (OR) for first VTE associated with each variant, individually and combined with the others, were calculated with a random effect model, in heterozygotes and homozygotes (dominant model for FVL and PT20210A; recessive for C677T MTHFR). RESULTS We analysed 31 databases, including 11,239 cases and 21,521 controls. No significant association with VTE was found for homozygous C677T MTHFR (OR: 1.38; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.98–1.93), whereas the risk was increased in carriers of either heterozygous FVL or PT20210 (OR=4.22; 95% CI: 3.35–5.32; and OR=2.79;95% CI: 2.25–3.46, respectively), in double hterozygotes (OR=3.42; 95%CI 1.64-7.13), and in homozygous FVL or PT20210A (OR=11.45; 95%CI: 6.79-19.29; and OR: 2.79; 95%CI: 2.25 – 3.46, respectively). The stratified analyses showed a stronger effect of FVL on individuals ≤45 years (p-value for interaction = 0.036) and of PT20210A in women using oral contraceptives (p-value for interaction = 0.045). CONCLUSIONS In this large pooled analysis, inclusive of large studies like MEGA, no effect was found for C677T MTHFR on VTE; FVL and PT20210A were confirmed to be moderate risk factors. Notably, double carriers of the two genetic variants produced an impact on VTE risk significantly increased but weaker than previously thought. PMID:23900608

  18. Venous thromboembolism in pediatric patients: a single institution experience in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Chang Won; Kim, Heon Min; Park, Hye Won

    2016-01-01

    Background While venous thromboembolism (VTE) is uncommon, its incidence is increasing in children. We aimed to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, treatment, and outcome of pediatric VTE cases at a single tertiary hospital in Korea. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the records of consecutive pediatric VTE patients admitted to the Seoul National University Bundang Hospital between April 2003 and March 2016. Results Among 70,462 hospitalizations, 25 pediatric VTE cases were identified (3.27 cases per 10,000 admissions). Fifteen patients (60%) were male, 8 were neonates (32%), and the median age at diagnosis was 10.9 years (range, 0 days‒17 yr). Doppler ultrasonography was the most frequently used imaging modality. Thrombosis occurred in the intracerebral (20%), upper venous (64%), lower venous (12%), and combined upper and lower venous systems (4%). Twenty patients (80%) had underlying clinical conditions including venous catheterization (24%), malignancy (20%), and systemic diseases (12%). Protein C, protein S, and antithrombin deficiencies occurred in 2 of 13, 4 of 13, and 1 of 14 patients tested, respectively. Six patients were treated with heparin followed by warfarin, while 4 were treated with heparin or warfarin. Thrombectomy and inferior vena cava filter and/or thrombolysis were performed in 5 patients. Two patients died of pulmonary embolism, and 2 developed a post-thrombotic syndrome. Conclusion Compared with the reports from Western countries, VTE occurrence was lower in the Korean pediatric population under study, although similar clinical characteristics including bimodal age distribution, underlying diseases, treatment pattern, and outcomes were observed. PMID:27722126

  19. Impact of inherited thrombophilia on the risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism onset in Georgian population.

    PubMed

    Pirtskhelani, N; Kochiashvili, N; Makhaldiani, L; Pargalava, N; Gaprindashvili, E; Kartvelishvili, K

    2014-02-01

    Inherited thrombophilia means a predisposition of an individual to thrombosis caused by genetic disorders of homeostasis system. Purpose of the conducted study was to establish the role of point mutations of prothrombin (PGM) - 20210G/A; Factor V Leiden (FVL) - 1691G/A and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) - 677C/T genes, i.e. inherited thrombophilia in the pathogenesis of primary and recurrent venous thromboembolism in patients of the Georgian population. The above mentioned mutations were detected by PCR and single nucleotide primer extension reaction, followed by Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA) in 93 patients with venous thromboembolism, out of which: 56 patients were diagnosed with unprovoked, primary thromboembolism confirmed by objective studies and 37 patients were diagnosed with recurrent thromboembolism. According to statistical analysis of the results, incidence of FVL mutation in the group of patients with recurrent thrombosis was significantly higher compared to patients with primary thrombosis - respectively 0.21 and 0.44 (p=0.0164<0.05). It should also be mentioned that homozygous carriage of FVL mutation was confirmed only with patients having recurrent thrombosis. Similar tendency was observed during study of prothrombin gene; however the difference was not statistically significant. Similar tendencies were not observed in case of homozygous carriage of MTHFR gene C677T mutation. Double and triple heterozygous/homozygous carriage of studied mutations (total of 20 cases) was observed in patients of both groups. Distribution of these genotypes in the recurrent thrombosis group was higher compared to patients with primary thrombosis - respectively 27% and 17.9%. Herewith, it should be mentioned that the patients with primary thrombosis were much younger than those with recurrent thrombosis and their age did not exceed 50 years. According to the results obtained by us, it is possible to consider Leiden mutation, especially its

  20. The Association of Active Cancer With Venous Thromboembolism Location: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Tafur, Alfonso J.; Kalsi, Henna; Wysokinski, Waldemar E.; McBane, Robert D.; Ashrani, Aneel A.; Marks, Randolph S.; Crusan, Daniel J.; Petterson, Tanya M.; Bailey, Kent R.; Heit, John A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test active cancer for an association with venous thromboembolism (VTE) location. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using the resources of the Rochester Epidemiology Project, we identified all Olmsted County, MN, residents with incident VTE during the 35-year period 1966-2000 (N=3385). We restricted analyses to residents with objectively diagnosed VTE during the 17-year period from January 1, 1984, to December 31, 2000 (N=1599). For each patient, we reviewed the complete medical records in the community for patient age, gender, and most recent body mass index at VTE onset; VTE event type and location; and previously identified independent VTE risk factors (ie, surgery, hospitalization for acute medical illness, active cancer, leg paresis, superficial venous thrombosis, and varicose veins). Using logistic regression we tested active cancer for an association with each of 4 symptomatic VTE locations (arm or intra-abdominal deep venous thrombosis [DVT], intra-abdominal DVT, pulmonary embolism, and bilateral leg DVT), adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, and other VTE risk factors. RESULTS: In multivariate analyses, active cancer was independently associated with arm or intra-abdominal DVT (odds ratio [OR], 1.76; P=.01), intra-abdominal DVT (OR, 2.22; P=.004), and bilateral leg DVT (OR, 2.09; P=.02), but not pulmonary embolism (OR, 0.93). CONCLUSION: Active cancer is associated with VTE location. Location of VTE may be useful in decision making regarding cancer screening. PMID:21193652

  1. Lower extremity deep venous thrombosis with fatal pulmonary thromboembolism caused by benign pelvic space-occupying lesions--an overview.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Hannah; Byard, Roger W

    2012-05-01

    Venous stasis predisposes to thrombosis. One hundred and sixty cases of fatal pulmonary thromboembolism were reviewed to determine how many cases had deep venous thromboses associated with venous blood flow reduction caused by external pressure from benign pelvic masses. Three cases were identified, representing 2% of cases overall (3/160): a 44-year-old woman with a large uterine leiomyoma (1048 g); a 74-year-old man with prostatomegaly and bladder distension (containing 1 L of urine); and a 70-year-old man with prostatomegaly and bladder distension (containing 3 L of urine). Although a rare cause of fatal deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism, space-occupying pelvic lesions can lead to extrinsic pressure on adjacent veins reducing blood flow and causing stasis and thrombosis. Individuals with large pelvic masses may, therefore, be at increased risk of pulmonary thromboembolism from deep venous thrombosis, particularly in the presence of concurrent risk factors such as immobility, thrombophilias, malignancy, and significant cardiopulmonary disease.

  2. Inferior Vena Cava Filtration in the Management of Venous Thromboembolism: Filtering the Data

    PubMed Central

    Molvar, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality. This is especially true for hospitalized patients. Pulmonary embolism (PE) is the leading preventable cause of in-hospital mortality. The preferred method of both treatment and prophylaxis for VTE is anticoagulation. However, in a subset of patients, anticoagulation therapy is contraindicated or ineffective, and these patients often receive an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter. The sole purpose of an IVC filter is prevention of clinically significant PE. IVC filter usage has increased every year, most recently due to the availability of retrievable devices and a relaxation of thresholds for placement. Much of this recent growth has occurred in the trauma patient population given the high potential for VTE and frequent contraindication to anticoagulation. Retrievable filters, which strive to offer the benefits of permanent filters without time-sensitive complications, come with a new set of challenges including methods for filter follow-up and retrieval. PMID:23997414

  3. Low risk of symptomatic venous thromboembolic events during growth factor administration for PBSC mobilization.

    PubMed

    Naina, H V; Pruthi, R K; Inwards, D J; Dingli, D; Litzow, M R; Ansell, S M; William, H J; Dispenzieri, A; Buadi, F K; Elliott, M A; Gastineau, D A; Gertz, M A; Hayman, S R; Johnston, P B; Lacy, M Q; Micallef, I N; Porrata, L F; Kumar, S

    2011-02-01

    The use of erythropoietic agents has been associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolic events (VTEs), especially in patients with underlying malignancies. However, it is not known whether there is an increased risk of VTE associated with granulocyte growth factors. We reviewed 621 patients undergoing PBSC mobilization using granulocyte growth factors, alone or in combination with CY. Patients with a diagnosis of AL amyloidosis (AL: 114; 18%), multiple myeloma (MM: 278; 44%) Hodgkin lymphoma (HL: 20; 3%) or non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL: 209; 33%) were included. Symptomatic VTE occurred in six (0.97%) patients: two AL, two MM and two NHL. Of the six patients, two had pulmonary embolism, one developed deep vein thrombosis and three developed symptomatic catheter related thrombosis. Two patients with AL had heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis. We found a low incidence of VTE among patients undergoing PBSC mobilization.

  4. Direct Costs of Aspirin versus Warfarin for Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis after Total Knee or Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Gutowski, Christina J; Zmistowski, Benjamin M; Lonner, Jess H; Purtill, James J; Parvizi, Javad

    2015-09-01

    Interest in aspirin as an alternative strategy for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis after arthroplasty has grown, as studies have suggested improved clinical efficacy and lower complication rates with aspirin compared to warfarin. The goal of this study was to compare the direct costs of an episode of arthroplasty care, when using aspirin instead of warfarin. The charts of patients who either received aspirin or warfarin after arthroplasty from January 2008 to March 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Charges were recorded for their index admission, and for subsequent admissions related to either VTE or complications of prophylaxis. Multivariate analysis revealed that aspirin was an independent predictor of decreased cost of index hospitalization, and total episode of care charges, achieved largely through a shorter length of hospitalization. PMID:26073347

  5. A Novel Prioritization Method in Identifying Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism-Related Genes

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Ruiqiang; Chen, Binbin; Huang, Hao; Li, Yiran; He, Yuehan; Lv, Junjie; He, Weiming; Chen, Lina

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the genes involved in venous thromboembolism (VTE) recurrence is important not only for understanding the pathogenesis but also for discovering the therapeutic targets. We proposed a novel prioritization method called Function-Interaction-Pearson (FIP) by creating gene-disease similarity scores to prioritize candidate genes underling VTE. The scores were calculated by integrating and optimizing three types of resources including gene expression, gene ontology and protein-protein interaction. As a result, 124 out of top 200 prioritized candidate genes had been confirmed in literature, among which there were 34 antithrombotic drug targets. Compared with two well-known gene prioritization tools Endeavour and ToppNet, FIP was shown to have better performance. The approach provides a valuable alternative for drug targets discovery and disease therapy. PMID:27050193

  6. Does acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) have a role in the prevention of venous thromboembolism?

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Eikelboom, John W; Turpie, Alexander G G; Hirsh, Jack

    2009-07-01

    Guidelines differ on whether acetyl salicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) should be used for prophylaxis in patients at high-risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), principally because of differences in perceptions of its efficacy. ASA is an attractive therapeutic option because it is inexpensive, easy to administer and does not require monitoring. We critically reappraised the evidence from randomized controlled trials for the efficacy of ASA in VTE prevention. ASA is clearly efficacious in preventing VTE compared to placebo or no treatment, but appears to be less efficacious than the low molecular weight heparins in small trials. There is little data for ASA in comparison with unfractionated heparin and warfarin. A large randomized controlled trial is required to clarify the role of ASA compared to contemporary anticoagulant strategies for the prevention of VTE.

  7. Regulatory, policy and quality update for venous thromboembolism and stroke in United States hospitals.

    PubMed

    Mahan, Charles E

    2012-10-01

    Stroke and venous thromboembolism (VTE) have a large impact on the United States (US) healthcare system. It is estimated that up to 1.7million new and recurrent stroke and VTE events are occurring in the US on an annual basis with the combined cost approaching over $200billion per year. A significant amount of stroke and VTE are preventable from appropriate antithrombotic use in at-risk patients and the Center for Medicaid and Medicare Services, the Joint Commission, the National Quality Forum and other key quality and regulatory entities have prioritized minimizing the impact of morbidity, mortality and avoidable costs related to these diseases. This review provides a brief history, overview, and update for the development of quality measures, quality systems, and regulatory and policy changes as related to stroke and VTE within the US healthcare system. PMID:22841661

  8. Clinical utility of apixaban in the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism: current evidence

    PubMed Central

    Zalpour, Ali; Oo, Thein Hlaing

    2014-01-01

    Anticoagulation with heparin and vitamin K antagonist has been the mainstay of prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) for many years. In recent years, novel oral anticoagulants such as dabigatran etexilate (a direct thrombin inhibitor) and rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban (a direct factor Xa inhibitor) have emerged for the prevention and treatment of VTE. Novel oral anticoagulants have been shown to be noninferior to vitamin K antagonist or heparin in the prevention and treatment of VTE. This review specifically examines the role of apixaban in the prevention and treatment of VTE based on the available literature. The management of apixaban in the perioperative setting is also explored because some patients on apixaban may require surgical intervention. Finally, we discuss the management of apixaban-induced major bleeding complications, the relevance of drug–drug interactions, and patient education. PMID:25395835

  9. Incidence of clinically significant venous thromboembolic events in Asian patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty without anticoagulation.

    PubMed

    Bin Abd Razak, Hamid Rahmatullah; Soon, Ang Teng; Dhanaraj, Ian Dominic; Tan, Andrew Hwee Chye

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of clinically significant venous thromboembolic events (VTE) in Asian patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) without anticoagulation. All patients who underwent TKA by a single surgeon from 2006 to 2010 in Singapore General Hospital were reviewed. Only symptomatic patients were referred for ultrasonography. Of the 531 patients reviewed, 3 patients developed symptoms of deep vein thrombosis with subsequent ultrasonographic confirmation, whereas 1 patient developed fatal pulmonary embolism without any clinical or radiologic evidence of deep vein thrombosis. Hence, the incidence of clinically significant VTE was 0.75%. Given the low incidence of clinically significant VTE, there is a need to review the current practice of routine chemoprophylaxis in Asian patients undergoing TKA.

  10. Direct Costs of Aspirin versus Warfarin for Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis after Total Knee or Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Gutowski, Christina J; Zmistowski, Benjamin M; Lonner, Jess H; Purtill, James J; Parvizi, Javad

    2015-09-01

    Interest in aspirin as an alternative strategy for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis after arthroplasty has grown, as studies have suggested improved clinical efficacy and lower complication rates with aspirin compared to warfarin. The goal of this study was to compare the direct costs of an episode of arthroplasty care, when using aspirin instead of warfarin. The charts of patients who either received aspirin or warfarin after arthroplasty from January 2008 to March 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Charges were recorded for their index admission, and for subsequent admissions related to either VTE or complications of prophylaxis. Multivariate analysis revealed that aspirin was an independent predictor of decreased cost of index hospitalization, and total episode of care charges, achieved largely through a shorter length of hospitalization.

  11. Adipsic diabetes insipidus and venous thromboembolism (VTE): recommendations for addressing its hypercoagulability.

    PubMed

    Miljic, Dragana; Miljic, Predrag; Doknic, Mirjana; Pekic, Sandra; Stojanovic, Marko; Petakov, Milan; Popovic, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Adipsic diabetes insipidus (ADI) is a rare disorder. It can occur after transcranial surgery for craniopharyngeoma, suprasellar pituitary adenoma and anterior communicating artery aneurysm but also with head injury, toluene exposure and developmental disorders. It is often associated with significant hypothalamic dysfunction and complications like obesity, sleep apnea, thermoregulatory disorders, seizures and venous thromboembolism (VTE). Morbidity and mortality data have been reported as single case reports with only one large series suggesting increased risk for VTE in patients with ADI. Here we report a mini-series of four patients with ADI and VTE. Post-surgery immobilization, obesity, infection, with prolonged hospitalization, hemoconcentration and changes in coagulation which might be induced by inadequate hormone treatment in the postoperative period (high doses of glucocorticoids, sex steroids and DDAVP replacement) may all contribute to the pathogenesis of VTE. Thromboprophylactic treatment after pituitary surgery and during episodes of hypernatremia is therefore warranted.

  12. Improving evidence on anticoagulant therapies for venous thromboembolism in children: key challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Neil A; Takemoto, Clifford M; Yee, Donald L; Kittelson, John M; Massicotte, M Patricia

    2015-12-10

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is increasingly diagnosed in pediatric patients, and anticoagulant use in this population has become common, despite the absence of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for this indication. Guidelines for the use of anticoagulants in pediatrics are largely extrapolated from large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in adults, smaller dose-finding and observational studies in children, and expert opinion. The recently FDA-approved direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), such as dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban, provide potential advantages over oral vitamin K antagonists and subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs). However, key questions arise regarding their potential off-label clinical application in pediatric thromboembolic disease. In this Perspective, we provide background on the use of LMWHs such as enoxaparin as the mainstay of treatment of pediatric provoked VTE; identify key questions and challenges with regard to DOAC trials and future DOAC therapy in pediatric VTE; and discuss applicable lessons learned from the recent pilot/feasibility phase of a large multicenter RCT of anticoagulant duration in pediatric VTE. The challenges and lessons learned present opportunities to improve evidence for anticoagulant therapies in pediatric VTE through future clinical trials.

  13. Venous thromboembolism and cancer: guidelines of the Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM).

    PubMed

    Mandalà, M; Falanga, A; Piccioli, A; Prandoni, P; Pogliani, E M; Labianca, R; Barni, S

    2006-09-01

    Thromboembolic complications represent one of the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. Although several data have been published demonstrating the strong association between cancer and venous thromboembolism (VTE), there is poor perception, among oncologists, of the level of risk of thrombosis and of relevance of managing VTE in these patients. The Associazione Italiana di Oncologia Medica (AIOM) has provided some recommendations to direct clinical practice according to evidence-based data concerning cancer and VTE. In fact, we conducted an extensive literature review (1996-2005) to produce evidence-based recommendations to improve perceptions of the magnitude of this risk among Italian medical and surgical oncologists and alert on the new approaches to prophylaxis and treatment of VTE in cancer patients. Levels of evidence are given according to a five-point rating system, and similarly for each key recommendation a five-point rating system suggests if the evidence is strong and indicate that the benefits do, or do not, outweigh risks and burden. PMID:16837209

  14. Differential benefit risk assessment of DOACs in the treatment of venous thromboembolism: focus on dabigatran.

    PubMed

    Leung, Timothy S; Law, Ernest H

    2015-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism includes deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism and is a serious medical condition that requires anticoagulation as part of treatment. Currently, standard therapy consists of parenteral anticoagulation followed by a vitamin K antagonist (VKA). The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of the direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) differ from VKAs, which overcome some of the limitations of VKAs and have practical implications on their use in clinical situations. Dabigatran is a prodrug that undergoes primarily renal elimination and does not affect cytochrome P450 enzymes. Assays to quantify the degree of anticoagulation and the therapeutic level of DOAC are either unavailable for routine clinical use or require specific calibration. Routine monitoring of DOACs is not recommended at this time. Dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban are DOACs that have been studied for treatment of venous thromboembolism. Clinical trials comparing DOACs with standard therapy have shown them to be non-inferior for acute and extended therapy. Each DOAC has a unique benefit and harm profile that should be considered prior to use. The distinguishing characteristics of dabigatran include a requirement of parenteral anticoagulation prior to acute treatment, clinical trial results comparing it with a VKA for extended treatment, association with upper gastrointestinal adverse events, and increased risk of gastrointestinal bleed. Rivaroxaban is the only DOAC that has once-daily dosing while apixaban is the only DOAC that has lower risk of overall, major, and gastrointestinal bleeding compared with VKA. A common drawback of DOACs is the lack of an available reversal agent. Clinical trials of reversal agents are ongoing and one application for approval has been submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration. Selection of a DOAC for acute and extended therapy requires a shared decision-making approach that includes a comprehensive assessment of the benefits and

  15. Incidence of Venous Thromboembolism after Elective Knee Arthroscopic Surgery: A Historical Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Mauck, Karen F.; Froehling, David A.; Daniels, Paul R.; Dahm, Diane L.; Ashrani, Aneel A.; Crusan, Daniel J.; Petterson, Tanya M.; Bailey, Kent R.; Heit, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background The incidence of symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) after knee arthroscopy is uncertain. In this study, we estimate the incidence of symptomatic VTE after knee arthroscopy. Objectives To estimate the incidence of symptomatic VTE after arthroscopic knee surgery. Methods In a population-based historical cohort study, all Olmsted County, MN residents undergoing a first arthroscopic knee surgery over the 18-year period, 1988-2005, were followed forward in time for incident deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE). The cumulative incidence of VTE after knee arthroscopy was determined using the Kaplan-Meier product limit estimator. Patient age at surgery, sex, calendar year of surgery, body mass index, anesthesia characteristics and hospitalization were tested as potential predictors of VTE using Cox proportional hazards modeling, both univariately and adjusted for age and sex. Results Among 4833 Olmsted County residents with knee arthroscopy, 18 developed postoperative VTE, all within the first 6 weeks after surgery. The cumulative incidence rates of symptomatic VTE at 7, 14 and 35 days were 0.2%, 0.3% and 0.4%, respectively. The hazard for postoperative VTE was significantly increased for older patient age (HR=1.34 for each ten-year increase in patient age; p=0.03) and hospitalization either prior to or after knee arthroscopy (HR=14.1; p<0.001). Conclusions The incidence of symptomatic VTE after arthroscopic knee surgery is very low. Older age and hospitalization are associated with increased risk. Routine prophylaxis to prevent symptomatic venous thromboembolism is likely not needed in this patient population. PMID:23648016

  16. [How to implement a guideline from theory to practice: the example of the venous thromboembolism prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    Paiva, Edison F; Rocha, Ana T C

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this manuscript is to discuss the existing barriers for the dissemination of medical guidelines, and to present strategies that facilitate the adaptation of the recommendations into clinical practice. The literature shows that it usually takes several years until new scientific evidence is adopted in current practice, even when there is obvious impact in patients' morbidity and mortality. There are some examples where more than thirty years have elapsed since the first case reports about the use of a effective therapy were published until its utilization became routine. That is the case of fibrinolysis for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. Some of the main barriers for the implementation of new recommendations are: the lack of knowledge of a new guideline, personal resistance to changes, uncertainty about the efficacy of the proposed recommendation, fear of potential side-effects, difficulties in remembering the recommendations, inexistence of institutional policies reinforcing the recommendation and even economical restrains. In order to overcome these barriers a strategy that involves a program with multiple tools is always the best. That must include the implementation of easy-to-use algorithms, continuous medical education materials and lectures, electronic or paper alerts, tools to facilitate evaluation and prescription, and periodic audits to show results to the practitioners involved in the process. It is also fundamental that the medical societies involved with the specific medical issue support the program for its scientific and ethical soundness. The creation of multidisciplinary committees in each institution and the inclusion of opinion leaders that have pro-active and lasting attitudes are the key-points for the program's success. In this manuscript we use as an example the implementation of a guideline for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis, but the concepts described here can be easily applied to any other guideline

  17. Increased risk of venous thromboembolism in patients with bullous pemphigoid. The INVENTEP (INcidence of VENous ThromboEmbolism in bullous Pemphigoid) study.

    PubMed

    Cugno, Massimo; Marzano, Angelo V; Bucciarelli, Paolo; Balice, Ylenia; Cianchini, Giuseppe; Quaglino, Pietro; Calzavara Pinton, Piergiacomo; Caproni, Marzia; Alaibac, Mauro; De Simone, Clara; Patrizi, Annalisa; Cozzani, Emanuele; Papini, Manuela; Tedeschi, Alberto; Berti, Emilio; Rosendaal, Frits R

    2016-01-01

    Activation of blood coagulation has been demonstrated in bullous pemphigoid (BP), a rare autoimmune blistering disease, potentially leading to a prothrombotic state. In order to evaluate the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in BP, a cohort study was carried out on 432 BP patients (59% females; median age 76 years, interquartile range [IQR]: 68-82). At diagnosis, autoimmune bullous skin disorder intensity score (ABSIS) was calculated. VTE incidence was standardised with rates of the general population. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the hazard ratio of VTE according to ABSIS and concomitant risk factors. During a median follow-up of 4.2 years, 31 objectively-diagnosed VTE events were recorded. The incidence rate of VTE (per 1000 patient-years) was 17.2 overall (95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.1-23.2), 56.7 (95%CI: 33.0-80.4) during acute phase (22 VTE) and 6.3 (95%CI: 2.8-11.3) during remission (9 VTE). The standardised incidence ratio was 4.06 (95%CI: 2.73-5.65), higher during the acute phase (14.86, 95%CI: 9.20-21.88) than during remission (1.48, 0.66-2.63). The adjusted hazard ratio of VTE was 2.74 (95%CI: 1.07-7.04) for ABSIS > 48 vs ABSIS < 28, and 2.56 (95%CI: 1.00-6.70) in patients with ≥ 2 concomitant risk factors. In conclusion, BP patients have a 15-fold increased VTE risk during acute phase, proportional to disease severity and heightened by concomitant risk factors. PMID:26245987

  18. Venous thromboembolism prevention during asparaginase-based therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Sibai, H.; Seki, J.T.; Wang, T.Q.; Sakurai, N.; Atenafu, E.G.; Yee, K.W.L.; Schuh, A.C.; Gupta, V.; Minden, M.D.; Schimmer, A.D.; Brandwein, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Venous thromboembolism (vte) is a recognized complication in patients treated with asparaginase-containing chemotherapy regimens; the optimal preventive strategy is unclear. We assessed the safety and efficacy of prophylaxis using low-dose low molecular weight heparin in adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in complete remission treated with an asparaginase-based post-remission chemotherapy regimen. Methods As part of the intensification phase of the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute 91-01 regimen, asparaginase was administered weekly to 41 consecutive patients for 21–30 weeks; these patients also received prophylaxis with enoxaparin 40 mg daily (60 mg for patients ≥80 kg). Outcomes were assessed against outcomes in a comparable cohort of 99 patients who received the same chemotherapy regimen without anticoagulation prophylaxis. Results The overall rate of symptomatic venous thrombosis was not significantly different in the prophylaxis and non-prophylaxis cohorts (18.92% and 21.74% respectively). Among patients receiving prophylaxis, vte occurred in higher proportion in those who weighed at least 80 kg (42.86% vs. 4.35%, p = 0.0070). No major bleeding complications occurred in the prophylaxis group (minor bleeding: 8.1%). Conclusions Prophylaxis with low-dose enoxaparin during the intensification phase was safe, but was not associated with a lower overall proportion of vte. PMID:27536184

  19. Canadian consensus recommendations on the management of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer. Part 2: treatment

    PubMed Central

    Easaw, J.C.; Shea–Budgell, M.A.; Wu, C.M.J.; Czaykowski, P.M.; Kassis, J.; Kuehl, B.; Lim, H.J.; MacNeil, M.; Martinusen, D.; McFarlane, P.A.; Meek, E.; Moodley, O.; Shivakumar, S.; Tagalakis, V.; Welch, S.; Kavan, P.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with cancer are at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (vte). Anticoagulation therapy is used to treat vte; however, patients with cancer have unique clinical circumstances that can often make decisions surrounding the administration of therapeutic anticoagulation complicated. No national Canadian guidelines on the management of established cancer-associated thrombosis have been published. We therefore aimed to develop a consensus-based, evidence-informed guideline on the topic. PubMed was searched for clinical trials and meta-analyses published between 2002 and 2013. Reference lists of key articles were hand-searched for additional publications. Content experts from across Canada were assembled to review the evidence and make recommendations. Low molecular weight heparin is the treatment of choice for cancer patients with established vte. Direct oral anticoagulants are not recommended for the treatment of vte at this time. Specific clinical scenarios, including the presence of an indwelling venous catheter, renal insufficiency, and thrombocytopenia, warrant modifications in the therapeutic administration of anticoagulation therapy. Patients with recurrent vte should receive extended (>3 months) anticoagulant therapy. Incidental vte should generally be treated in the same manner as symptomatic vte. There is no evidence to support the monitoring of anti–factor Xa levels in clinically stable cancer patients receiving prophylactic anticoagulation; however, levels of anti–factor Xa could be checked at baseline and periodically thereafter in patients with renal insufficiency. Follow-up and education about the signs and symptoms of vte are important components of ongoing patient care. PMID:25908913

  20. Venous Thromboembolism after Allogeneic Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Single-Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Azık, Fatih; Gürlek Gökçebay, Dilek; Tavil, Betül; Işık, Pamir; Tunç, Bahattin; Uçkan, Duygu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) in children who undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has high morbidity. The aim of this study is to assess the incidence of VTE in allogeneic pediatric HSCT recipients and the contribution of pretransplant prothrombotic risk factors to thrombosis. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 92 patients between April 2010 and November 2012 undergoing allogeneic HSCT who had completed 100 days post-HSCT. Before HSCT, coagulation profiles; acquired and inherited prothrombotic risk factors including FV G1691A (factor V Leiden), prothrombin G20210A, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, and MTHFR A1298C mutations; and serum homocysteine and lipoprotein (a), plasma antithrombin III, protein C, and protein S levels were obtained from all patients. Results: In the screening of thrombophilia, 8 patients (9%) were heterozygous for factor V Leiden, 5 (6%) were homozygous for MTHFR 677TT, 12 (14%) were homozygous for MTHFR 1298CC, and 2 (2%) were heterozygous for prothrombin G20210A mutation. We observed VTE in 5 patients (5.4%); a prothrombotic risk factor was found in 3 out of these 5 patients, while 4 out of 5 patients had central venous catheters. It was determined there was no significant relationship between VTE and inherited prothrombotic risk factors. Conclusion: VTE after HSCT seems to be a low-frequency event that may be due to low-dose, low-molecular-weight heparin prophylaxis, and the role of inherited prothrombotic risk factors cannot be entirely excluded without a prospective study. PMID:25912774

  1. The Mean Platelet Volume Is Decreased in Patients Diagnosed with Venous Thromboembolism in the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Buonocore, Ruggero; Cervellin, Gianfranco

    2016-09-01

    Platelets are small corpuscular elements, which play an essential role in hemostasis and thrombosis. As active players in the thrombotic process, hyperactive platelets are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disorders. Nevertheless, the role of platelet size, as a biological marker of platelet activation, remains debated in the setting of venous thrombosis. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective case-control study to clarify the potential association between mean platelet volume (MPV) and newly diagnosed venous thromboembolism (VTE) by reviewing data of all consecutive patients receiving a diagnosis of VTE at the emergency department (ED) of the University Hospital of Parma (Italy) between January and December, 2014. The control population was represented by outpatients undergoing routine laboratory testing for health checkup at the phlebotomy center of the same University Hospital during the same period. MPV was found to be comparatively decreased in the entire cohort of patients with VTE compared with the outpatient population, as well as in those with isolated deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE). A decreased MPV value (i.e., < 10.8 fL) was found to be associated with an increased risk of diagnosing VTE (relative risk, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.09-1.28; p < 0.001), as well as of diagnosing isolated DVT (relative risk, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.07-1.31; p = 0.001) and isolated PE (relative risk, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.04-1.30; p = 0.007). A decreased MPV value in active cancer patients was associated with the highest risk of diagnosing thrombosis (relative risk, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.10-1.51; p = 0.002). These results support an inverse association between MPV and the risk of venous thrombosis at diagnosis. PMID:27074441

  2. [Assessment of bleeding risk in patients with venous thromboembolism: we are still a long way from home].

    PubMed

    Klok, F A; Huisman, M V

    2016-01-01

    Recent American, European and Dutch guidelines recommend lifelong anticoagulation after a diagnosis of unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE) in the absence of high bleeding risk. Major bleeding events may, however, be devastating, and are reported to have a higher case fatality rate than recurrent venous thromboembolism itself. Unfortunately, there are no validated risk assessment tools for major bleeding that help physicians determine the optimal duration of anticoagulant therapy after VTE. Furthermore, the scarce studies on this subject have focused on vitamin K antagonist treatment regimens only, covering mainly the initial weeks and first month, during which period the level of anticoagulation is unstable. New studies focusing on bleeding risk during the 'chronic' treatment period with modern anticoagulants, i.e. the direct oral anticoagulants or 'DOACs', are urgently needed. Until these are available, the 2016 Dutch guideline on anticoagulation therapy provides a table with a summary of known individual risk factors that can be applied in clinical practice. PMID:27378261

  3. Characteristics of Venous Thromboembolism in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma in East Asian Ethnics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Chan; Ro, Young Sun; Cho, Junhyeon; Park, Yohan; Lee, Ji Hye; Hwang, Jin-Hyeok; Choi, Hye Jin; Lee, Soohyeon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pancreatic cancer (PC) is known to be frequently associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE). Although treatment and prophylaxis strategies for VTE in PC patients were updated recently, these were mainly based on data from Western populations and were not verified in East Asian ethnic populations. We investigated the clinical characteristics of VTE in East Asian PC patients. We reviewed electronic medical records (EMR) of 1334 patients diagnosed with pancreatic adenocarcinoma from 2005 to 2010 at single tertiary hospital in Korea. All the patients with newly diagnosed VTE were classified by anatomical site and manifestation of symptoms. The primary outcomes of interest were 2-year cumulative incidence of VTE events. Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze associations between risk factors and clinical outcomes. A total of 1115 patients were eligible for enrollment. The 2-year cumulative VTE incidence was 9.2%. Major risk factors associated with VTE event were advanced cancer stage, major surgery, and poor performance status. Risk factors associated with mortality after PC diagnosis included advanced cancer stage, poor performance score, leukocytosis, and lower albumin level. The overall VTE did not affected mortality. However in subgroup analysis, symptomatic VTE and deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary thromboembolism (DVT/PTE) showed worse prognosis than incidental or intra-abdominal VTE. The overall incidence of VTE events in Korean PC patients was lower than previous studies. Advanced cancer stage was the most important factor for VTE event and mortality. Unlike Western population group, VTE event did not affect overall prognosis after PC diagnosis. However, symptomatic VTE and DVT/PTE showed higher mortality after VTE event. PMID:27124043

  4. Tumor-Derived Tissue Factor-Bearing Microparticles are Associated with Venous Thromboembolic Events in Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Zwicker, Jeffrey I.; Liebman, Howard A.; Neuberg, Donna; Lacroix, Romaric; Bauer, Kenneth A.; Furie, Barbara C.; Furie, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Despite the strong association between malignant disease and thromboembolic disorders, the molecular and cellular basis of this relationship remains uncertain. We evaluated the hypothesis that tumor-derived tissue factor-bearing microparticles in plasma contribute to cancer-associated thrombosis. Experimental Design We developed impedance-based flow cytometry to detect, quantitate and size microparticles in platelet-poor plasma. We evaluated the number of tissue factor-bearing microparticles in a cohort of cancer patients of different histologies (N=96) and performed a case control study of 30 cancer patients diagnosed with an acute venous thromboembolic event (VTE) compared to 60 cancer patients of similar age, stage, sex, diagnosis without known VTE as well as 22 patients with an idiopathic VTE. Results Tissue factor-bearing microparticles were detected in patients with advanced malignancy including two thirds of patients with pancreatic carcinoma. Elevated levels of tissue factor-bearing microparticles were associated VTE in cancer patients (adjusted OR 3.72, 95% CI 1.18-11.76, P=0.01). In cancer patients without VTE, a retrospective analysis revealed a one-year cumulative incidence of VTE of 34.8% in patients with tissue factor-bearing microparticles versus 0% those without detectable tissue factor-bearing microparticles (Gray test p-value=0.002). The median number of tissue factor-bearing microparticles in the cancer VTE cohort (7.1 × 104 microparticles/μl) was significantly greater than both the idiopathic VTE and cancer-no VTE groups (P=0.002 and P=0.03, respectively). Pancreatectomy in three patients eliminated or nearly eliminated these microparticles which co-expressed the epithelial tumor antigen, MUC-1. Conclusion We conclude that tumor-derived tissue factor-bearing microparticles are associated with VTE in cancer patients and may be central to the pathogenesis of cancer-associated thrombosis. PMID:19861441

  5. Incidence of Venous Thromboembolic Complications in Instrumental Spinal Surgeries with Preoperative Chemoprophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Riazi, Mahdieh

    2015-01-01

    Objective Venous thromboembolism (VTE) after spinal surgery affects a patients' postoperative recovery and also carries a mortality risk. Some studies recommended chemical prophylaxis for high-risk patients and for those after complex spinal surgeries. However, chemoprophylaxis for VTE in spinal surgery is underemployed and there is no agreement on the use of VTE prophylaxis in spinal surgery. The aim of this study was to document the incidence of VTE after an elective instrumental spinal surgery, among those receiving preoperative chemoprophylaxis as compared with patients who did not receive it. Methods This study was carried out on eighty-nine patients allocated randomly to receive either low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) or no prophylaxis before elective instrumental spinal surgery. All patients received postoperative compression stockings. A compression Doppler ultrasonography was performed for all patients to detect postoperative deep vein thrombosis. In addition, further imaging studies were performed for patients suspected of VTE. Results Three (3.3%) patients were diagnosed with VTE. One of them had received preoperative chemoprophylaxis. There were no significant difference in incidence of VTE between the two groups (p>0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.06-8.7). Laterality of gender and postsurgical recumbence duration were all independent predictors of VTE (p=0.01 and p<0.001, respectively). Conclusion The difference in the incidence of thromboembolic complications between the two groups was not significant. Moreover, we found that preoperative prophylactic LMWH injection has no major bleeding complications altering postoperative course; still, the issue concerning the initiation time of chemoprophylaxis in spinal surgery remains unclear. PMID:25733992

  6. Prognostic significance of the absolute monocyte counts in lung cancer patients with venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Go, Se-Il; Kim, Rock Bum; Song, Haa-Na; Kang, Myoung Hee; Lee, Un Seok; Choi, Hye Jung; Jo, Wonyong; Lee, Seung Jun; Cho, Yu Ji; Jeong, Yi Yeong; Kim, Ho Cheol; Lee, Jong Deog; Kim, Seok-Hyun; Kang, Jung-Hun; Lee, Gyeong-Won

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the clinical significance of the absolute monocyte count (AMC) as a predictor of the response to anticoagulation and survival in lung cancer patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE). We retrospectively reviewed 1707 patients with pathologically proven lung cancer who visited the hospital between July 2008 and May 2014. Among them, the clinical data of patients newly diagnosed with VTE and treated with anticoagulation were compared between the low and high AMC groups according to the median value of AMC (640/μL) at the time of VTE diagnosis. The incidence of VTE was 7.9 % during the study period. Most of the patients had non-small-cell lung cancer (82.1 %), stage IV (64.2 %), and pulmonary thromboembolism (76.1 %) and were incidentally diagnosed with VTE (76.9 %). The patients' characteristics and laboratory values were not significantly different between the low and high AMC groups. Among patients available for evaluation of the response to anticoagulation, the high AMC group was significantly more refractory to anticoagulation than the low AMC group (no response to anticoagulation, 21.7 vs. 6.8 %, respectively; p = 0.044). Additionally, the high AMC group showed worse overall survival (OS) than the low AMC group (median, 9.6 vs. 5.9 months; p = 0.038). On multivariate analysis, high AMC, low albumin, and advanced stage were independent poor prognostic factors for OS. High AMC is associated with refractoriness to anticoagulation and poor prognosis in lung cancer patients with VTE.

  7. Pulmonary Thromboembolism Caused by Prolonged Compression at the Femoral Access Site and a Venous Aneurysm of the Ipsilateral Popliteal Vein

    PubMed Central

    Himeno, Hideo; Kirigaya, Jin; Otomo, Fumie; Nakahashi, Hidefumi; Shimizu, Satoru; Endo, Mitsuaki; Kimura, Kazuo; Umemura, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    A 51-year-old female with dilated cardiomyopathy underwent a cardiac catheterization via right common femoral vein and artery. Prolonged compression with a bandage and extension of supine bed rest were needed. Immediately after standing up, she lost consciousness and developed electromechanical dissociation. The echocardiogram revealed a huge thrombus filling the main pulmonary trunk and massive enlargement of right ventricle, which suggested acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). Images of computed tomography taken 2 months later detected a huge venous aneurysm of the right popliteal vein. Prolonged compression at the groin area might enhance blood stasis of the ipsilateral popliteal venous aneurysm, followed by life-threatening PTE. PMID:27087876

  8. Venous thromboembolism risk and prophylaxis in hospitalised medically ill patients. The ENDORSE Global Survey.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Jean-Francois; Cohen, Alexander T; Tapson, Victor F; Goldhaber, Samuel Z; Kakkar, Ajay K; Deslandes, Bruno; Huang, Wei; Anderson, Frederick A

    2010-04-01

    Limited data are available regarding the risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) and VTE prophylaxis use in hospitalised medically ill patients. We analysed data from the global ENDORSE survey to evaluate VTE risk and prophylaxis use in this population according to diagnosis, baseline characteristics, and country. Data on patient characteristics, VTE risk, and prophylaxis use were abstracted from hospital charts. VTE risk and prophylaxis use were evaluated according to the 2004 American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) guidelines. Multivariable analysis was performed to identify factors associated with use of ACCP-recommended prophylaxis. Data were evaluated for 37,356 hospitalised medical patients across 32 countries. VTE risk varied according to medical diagnosis, from 31.2% of patients with gastrointestinal/hepatobiliary diseases to 100% of patients with acute heart failure, active non-infectious respiratory disease, or pulmonary infection (global rate, 41.5%). Among those at risk for VTE, ACCP-recommended prophylaxis was used in 24.4% haemorrhagic stroke patients and 40-45% of cardiopulmonary disease patients (global rate, 39.5%). Large differences in prophylaxis use were observed among countries. Markers of disease severity, including central venous catheters, mechanical ventilation, and admission to intensive care units, were strongly associated with use of ACCP-recommended prophylaxis. In conclusion, VTE risk varies according to medical diagnosis. Less than 40% of at-risk hospitalised medical patients receive ACCP-recommended prophylaxis. Prophylaxis use appears to be associated with disease severity rather than medical diagnosis. These data support the necessity to improve implementation of available guidelines for evaluating VTE risk and providing prophylaxis to hospitalised medical patients.

  9. Cirrhosis is Associated with an Increased 30-Day Mortality After Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Søgaard, Kirstine Kobberøe; Horváth-Puhó, Erzsébet; Montomoli, Jonathan; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Patients with cirrhosis are at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), but the impact of cirrhosis on the clinical course following VTE is unclear. In a nationwide cohort study, we examined 30-day mortality among patients with cirrhosis and VTE. Methods: We used Danish population-based health-care databases (1994–2011) to identify patients with incident VTE, i.e., deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), and portal vein thrombosis (PVT). Among these, we identified 745 patients with cirrhosis and 3647 patients without cirrhosis (matched on gender, year of birth, calendar year of VTE diagnosis and VTE type). We assessed the 30-day mortality risk among VTE patients with and without cirrhosis, and the mortality rate ratios (MRRs), using an adjusted Cox model with 95% confidence interval. We obtained information on immediate cause of death for patients who died within 30 days after VTE. Results: The 30-day mortality risk for DVT was 7% for patients with cirrhosis and 3% for patients without cirrhosis. Corresponding PE-related mortality risks were 35% and 16%, and PVT-related mortality risks were 19% and 15%, respectively. The adjusted 30-day MRRs were 2.17 (1.24–3.79) for DVT, 1.83 (1.30–2.56) for PE, and 1.30 (0.80–2.13) for PVT. Though overall mortality was higher in patients with cirrhosis than patients without cirrhosis, the proportions of deaths due to PE were similar among patients (25% and 24%, respectively). Conclusions: Cirrhosis is a predictor for increased short-term mortality following VTE, with PE as the most frequent cause of death. PMID:26133110

  10. Venous thromboembolism risk and prophylaxis in hospitalised medically ill patients. The ENDORSE Global Survey.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Jean-Francois; Cohen, Alexander T; Tapson, Victor F; Goldhaber, Samuel Z; Kakkar, Ajay K; Deslandes, Bruno; Huang, Wei; Anderson, Frederick A

    2010-04-01

    Limited data are available regarding the risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) and VTE prophylaxis use in hospitalised medically ill patients. We analysed data from the global ENDORSE survey to evaluate VTE risk and prophylaxis use in this population according to diagnosis, baseline characteristics, and country. Data on patient characteristics, VTE risk, and prophylaxis use were abstracted from hospital charts. VTE risk and prophylaxis use were evaluated according to the 2004 American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) guidelines. Multivariable analysis was performed to identify factors associated with use of ACCP-recommended prophylaxis. Data were evaluated for 37,356 hospitalised medical patients across 32 countries. VTE risk varied according to medical diagnosis, from 31.2% of patients with gastrointestinal/hepatobiliary diseases to 100% of patients with acute heart failure, active non-infectious respiratory disease, or pulmonary infection (global rate, 41.5%). Among those at risk for VTE, ACCP-recommended prophylaxis was used in 24.4% haemorrhagic stroke patients and 40-45% of cardiopulmonary disease patients (global rate, 39.5%). Large differences in prophylaxis use were observed among countries. Markers of disease severity, including central venous catheters, mechanical ventilation, and admission to intensive care units, were strongly associated with use of ACCP-recommended prophylaxis. In conclusion, VTE risk varies according to medical diagnosis. Less than 40% of at-risk hospitalised medical patients receive ACCP-recommended prophylaxis. Prophylaxis use appears to be associated with disease severity rather than medical diagnosis. These data support the necessity to improve implementation of available guidelines for evaluating VTE risk and providing prophylaxis to hospitalised medical patients. PMID:20135072

  11. Primary prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolic events in patients with gastrointestinal cancers - Review

    PubMed Central

    Riess, Hanno; Habbel, Piet; Jühling, Anja; Sinn, Marianne; Pelzer, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism event (VTE) is a common and morbid complication in cancer patients. Patients with gastrointestinal cancers often suffer from symptomatic or incidental splanchnic vein thrombosis, impaired liver function and/or thrombocytopenia. These characteristics require a thorough risk/benefit evaluation for individual patients. Considering the risk factors for the development of VTE and bleeding events in addition to recent study results may be helpful for correct initiation of primary pharmacological prevention and treatment of cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT), preferably with low molecular weight heparins (LMWH). Whereas thromboprophylaxis is most often recommended in hospitalized surgical and non-surgical patients with malignancy, there is less agreement as to its duration. With regard to ambulatory cancer patients, the lack of robust data results in low grade recommendations against routine use of anticoagulant drugs. Anticoagulation with LMWH for the first months is the evidence-based treatment for acute CAT, but duration of secondary prevention and the drug of choice are unclear. Based on published guidelines and literature, this review will focus on prevention and treatment strategies of VTE in patients with gastrointestinal cancers. PMID:26989461

  12. The humanistic and economic burden of venous thromboembolism in cancer patients: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kourlaba, Georgia; Relakis, John; Mylonas, Charalambos; Kapaki, Vasiliki; Kontodimas, Stathis; Holm, Majbrit V; Maniadakis, Nikos

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to present evidence on the epidemiology, health outcomes and economic burden of cancer-related venous thromboembolism (VTE). Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Econlit, Science Direct, JSTOR, Oxford Journals and Cambridge Journals were searched. The systematic literature search was limited to manuscripts published from January 2000 to December 2012. On the basis of the literature, cancer patients experience between two-fold and 20-fold higher risk of developing VTE than noncancer patients. They are more likely to experience a VTE event during the first 3-6 months after cancer diagnosis. In addition, an increased risk of VTE in patients with distant metastases and certain types of cancer (i.e. pancreatic or lung) was revealed. VTE was found to be a leading cause of mortality in cancer patients. The annual average total cost for cancer patients with VTE was found to be almost 50% higher than that of cancer patients without VTE. Inpatient care costs accounted for more than 60% of total cost. The existing evidence assessed in the present review demonstrated the significant health and economic consequences of cancer-related VTE, which make a strong case for the importance of its proper and efficient prevention and management. PMID:25202884

  13. Predicting recurrence after unprovoked venous thromboembolism: prospective validation of the updated Vienna Prediction Model.

    PubMed

    Tritschler, Tobias; Méan, Marie; Limacher, Andreas; Rodondi, Nicolas; Aujesky, Drahomir

    2015-10-15

    The updated Vienna Prediction Model for estimating recurrence risk after an unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE) has been developed to identify individuals at low risk for VTE recurrence in whom anticoagulation (AC) therapy may be stopped after 3 months. We externally validated the accuracy of the model to predict recurrent VTE in a prospective multicenter cohort of 156 patients aged ≥65 years with acute symptomatic unprovoked VTE who had received 3 to 12 months of AC. Patients with a predicted 12-month risk within the lowest quartile based on the updated Vienna Prediction Model were classified as low risk. The risk of recurrent VTE did not differ between low- vs higher-risk patients at 12 months (13% vs 10%; P = .77) and 24 months (15% vs 17%; P = 1.0). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for predicting VTE recurrence was 0.39 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25-0.52) at 12 months and 0.43 (95% CI, 0.31-0.54) at 24 months. In conclusion, in elderly patients with unprovoked VTE who have stopped AC, the updated Vienna Prediction Model does not discriminate between patients who develop recurrent VTE and those who do not. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00973596.

  14. Guidance for the practical management of warfarin therapy in the treatment of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Witt, Daniel M; Clark, Nathan P; Kaatz, Scott; Schnurr, Terri; Ansell, Jack E

    2016-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious and often fatal medical condition with an increasing incidence. The treatment of VTE is undergoing tremendous changes with the introduction of the new direct oral anticoagulants and clinicians need to understand new treatment paradigms. This article, initiated by the Anticoagulation Forum, provides clinical guidance based on existing guidelines and consensus expert opinion where guidelines are lacking. Well-managed warfarin therapy remains an important anticoagulant option and it is hoped that anticoagulation providers will find the guidance contained in this article increases their ability to achieve optimal outcomes for their patients with VTE Pivotal practical questions pertaining to this topic were developed by consensus of the authors and were derived from evidence-based consensus statements whenever possible. The medical literature was reviewed and summarized using guidance statements that reflect the consensus opinion(s) of all authors and the endorsement of the Anticoagulation Forum's Board of Directors. In an effort to provide practical and implementable information about VTE and its treatment, guidance statements pertaining to choosing good candidates for warfarin therapy, warfarin initiation, optimizing warfarin control, invasive procedure management, excessive anticoagulation, subtherapeutic anticoagulation, drug interactions, switching between anticoagulants, and care transitions are provided. PMID:26780746

  15. Prophylaxis for venous thrombo-embolism in neurocritical care: a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Raslan, Ahmed M; Fields, Jeremy D; Bhardwaj, Anish

    2010-04-01

    Venous thrombo-embolism (VTE) is frequently encountered in critically ill neurological and neurosurgical patients admitted to intensive care units. This patient population includes those with brain neoplasm, intracranial hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, pre- and post-operative patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures and those with traumatic brain injury, and acute spinal cord injury (SCI). There is a wide variability in clinical practice for thromboprophylaxis in these patients, in part due to paucity of data based on randomized clinical trials. Here, we review the current literature on the incidence of VTE in the critically ill neurological and neurosurgical patients as well as appraise available data to support particular practice paradigms for specific subsets of these patients. Data synthesis was conducted via search of Medline, Cochrane databases, and manual review of article bibliographies. Critically ill neurological and neurosurgical patients have higher susceptibility to VTE. Intermittent compression devices with or without anti-thrombotics is generally the method of choice for thromboprophylaxis. Low molecular weight heparin is the method of choice in certain patient subgroups such as those with SCI and ischemic stroke. Inferior vena cava filters may play a role in thromboprophylaxis in selected cases. Without clear guidelines that can be universally applied to this diverse group of patients, prophylaxis for VTE should be tailored to the individual patient with cautious assessment of benefits versus risks. There is a need for higher level evidence to guide VTE prophylaxis in certain subgroups of this patient population.

  16. Venous thromboembolism in African-Americans: a literature-based commentary.

    PubMed

    Hooper, W Craig

    2010-01-01

    Among the cardiovascular diseases and after ischemic heart disease and stroke, venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the third leading cause of death in the U.S. (3). Although VTE is seen across most ethnic groups in the U.S. as well as throughout the world, the rate varies. In the U.S., American Indians/Alaskan Natives as well as Asians have been reported to have a significantly lower rate of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) as compared to blacks and whites. In sharp conrast blacks appear to have much higher rates than whites. Although these rate differences are thought in part by some to be attributable to disparities in diagnosis and care as well as genetics, it nevertheless is important to define as well as to understand the true incidence and impact so that both public health and clinical resources can be maximally utilized. The purpose of this commentary is to review the VTE burden in the U.S. with respect to ethnicity in terms of clinical demographics and genetics with particular emphasis on blacks.

  17. Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism in Pregnancy: A Review of Guidelines, 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Okoroh, Ekwutosi M.; Azonobi, Ijeoma C.; Grosse, Scott D.; Grant, Althea M.; Atrash, Hani K.; James, Andra H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pregnant women are four to five times more likely than nonpregnant women to develop venous thromboembolism (VTE). The aim of this review is to provide an overview of guidelines in the literature on VTE risk assessment, screening for thrombophilias, and thromboprophylaxis dissemination among pregnant women. Methods We performed a review of the published literature to identify evidence-based guidelines published between the years 2000 and 2011. We searched for guidelines from U.S. and international organizations that identified clinically based practice recommendations to healthcare providers on how VTE risk should be assessed, thrombophilias screened, and thromboprophylaxis disseminated among pregnant women. Results We found nine guidelines that met our requirements for assessing VTE risk and found seven guidelines addressing thrombophilia screening. Seven of the nine agreed that all women should undergo a risk factor assessment for VTE either in early pregnancy or in the preconception period. Seven of the nine agreed that pregnant women with more than one additional VTE risk factor be considered for thromboprophylaxis, and five of the seven groups addressing thrombophilia screening agreed that selected at-risk populations should be considered for thrombophilia screening. Conclusions There is some agreement between U.S. and international guidelines that women should be assessed for VTE risk during preconception and again in pregnancy. Although there is agreement that the general population of women should not be screened for thrombophilias, no agreement exists as to the clinical subgroups for which screening should be done. PMID:22553908

  18. Relation between preclinical atherosclerosis and venous thromboembolism in patients with thrombophilias - longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Auzký, O; Dembovská, R; Mrázková, J; Nováková, Š; Pagáčová, L; Piťha, J

    2014-01-01

    Preclinical atherosclerosis may represent a risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE). In longitudinal study we followed longitudinally 96 patients (32 men) with thrombophilias with (n=51) and without (n=45) history of VTE. In both groups we studied the changes of preclinical atherosclerosis at peripherally located arteries detected by ultrasound. In addition, we assessed changes in selected risk factors of atherosclerosis. During the mean follow-up of 56.0+/-7.62 months we did not find significant change in preclinical atherosclerosis defined as Belcaro score in either group (-3 % in the VTE group vs 0 % in non VTE group). Significant increase in body mass index (1.03+/-1.98 kg*m(-2), resp. 1.21+/-1.67 kg*m(-2), p<0.01) and non-significant increase in systolic blood pressure were detected in both groups. Waist circumference increased significantly only in patients without VTE (4.11+/-7.84 cm, p<0.05). No differences in changes of risk factors under study between both groups were detected. In summary, patients with thrombophilia and history of VTE showed no evidence of greater progression of atherosclerosis or increase in traditional risk factors of atherosclerosis than patients with thrombophilia without history of VTE. Unfavorable changes of body mass index, waist circumference and systolic blood pressure were detected in both groups during study period.

  19. Risk-assessment algorithm and recommendations for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in medical patients

    PubMed Central

    T Rocha, Ana; F Paiva, Edison; Lichtenstein, Arnaldo; Milani, Rodolfo; Cavalheiro-Filho, Cyrillo; H Maffei, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    The risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in medical patients is high, but risk assessment is rarely performed because there is not yet a good method to identify candidates for prophylaxis. Purpose To perform a systematic review about VTE risk factors (RFs) in hospitalized medical patients and generate recommendations (RECs) for prophylaxis that can be implemented into practice. Data sources A multidisciplinary group of experts from 12 Brazilian Medical Societies searched MEDLINE, Cochrane, and LILACS. Study selection Two experts independently classified the evidence for each RF by its scientific quality in a standardized manner. A risk-assessment algorithm was created based on the results of the review. Data synthesis Several VTE RFs have enough evidence to support RECs for prophylaxis in hospitalized medical patients (eg, increasing age, heart failure, and stroke). Other factors are considered adjuncts of risk (eg, varices, obesity, and infections). According to the algorithm, hospitalized medical patients ≥40 years-old with decreased mobility, and ≥1 RFs should receive chemoprophylaxis with heparin, provided they don’t have contraindications. High prophylactic doses of unfractionated heparin or low-molecular-weight-heparin must be administered and maintained for 6–14 days. Conclusions A multidisciplinary group generated evidence-based RECs and an easy-to-use algorithm to facilitate VTE prophylaxis in medical patients. PMID:17969384

  20. Recurrence of Venous Thromboembolism in Patients With Cancer Treated With Warfarin.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Ariela L; Campigotto, Federico; Neuberg, Donna; Rowe, Betty; Connors, Jean M

    2015-10-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication in patients with cancer. Previous randomized studies have demonstrated that the rates of recurrent VTE are lower in patients treated with low-molecular-weight heparin compared to warfarin. We performed a retrospective analysis of 236 patients with cancer managed by a dedicated oncology anticoagulation management service to compare "real-world" rates of recurrent VTE and bleeding in patients treated with warfarin versus parenteral anticoagulants. Initial anticoagulant regimen included a parenteral agent with transition to warfarin in 132 (55.9%) patients, enoxaparin in 53 (22.5%), dalteparin in 37 (15.7%), and fondaparinux in 14 (5.9%). Taking into account the competing risk of death, cumulative incidence of VTE recurrence at 6 months was 4.0% with warfarin, 10.3% with enoxaparin, 3.0% with dalteparin, and 7.7% with fondaparinux (P = .004). Bleeding complications occurred in 10.6% of patients on warfarin, 17.0% on enoxaparin, 27.0% on dalteparin, and 14.3% on fondaparinux (P = .089). In a dedicated anticoagulation clinic, specific for patients with cancer, warfarin may be an acceptable treatment for first thrombotic events in patients with cancer.

  1. Prophylaxis for Venous Thromboembolism Following Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Survey of Korean Knee Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam Ki; Kim, Tae Kyun; Kim, Jong Min

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to provide information on the actual status and prevailing trend of prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism (VTE) following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in South Korea. Materials and Methods The Korean Knee Society (KKS) developed a questionnaire with 6 clinical questions on VTE. The questionnaire was distributed to all members of KKS by both postal and online mail. Participants were asked to supply details on their specialty and to select methods of prophylaxis they employ. Of the total members of KKS, 27.9% participated in the survey. Results The percentage of surgeons who routinely performed prophylaxis for VTE was 60.4%; 19.4% performed prophylaxis depending on the patient's health condition; and the remaining 20.2% never implemented prophylaxis after surgery. The common prophylactic methods among the responders were compression stocking (72.9%), pneumatic leg compression (63.3%), perioral direct factor Xa inhibitor (46.9%), and low-molecular-weight heparin (39.5%). For the respondents who did not perform prophylaxis, the main reason (51.5%) was the low risk of postoperative VTE considering the low incidences in Asians. Conclusions The present study involving members of the KKS will help to comprehend the actual status of VTE prevention in South Korea. The results of this study may be useful to design VTE guidelines appropriate for Koreans in the future. PMID:27595074

  2. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk assessment and prophylaxis in acute orthopaedic admissions: improving compliance with national guidelines.

    PubMed

    Watts, Laura; Grant, David

    2014-01-01

    "Each year over 25,000 people die from Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) contracted in hospital. This is more than the combined total of deaths from breast cancer, AIDS and traffic accidents". (1) Orthopaedic patients are at particular risk of VTE. In 2011, the project team carried out an audit into compliance with national VTE assessment guidelines on all acute trauma and orthopaedic admissions during a two week period at a District General Hospital. The study demonstrated that compliance was initially low, but showed a large improvement following the implementation of simple measures. The measures included: asking consultants to remind junior doctors, putting posters up in the trauma doctors office, asking nursing staff to check for a VTE assessment on admission to the ward, and putting reminders on the patient name board. The project team subsequently recommended an alteration to the hospital's computer system to incorporate a check of VTE assessment and prophylaxis. A second assessment using the same methodology sought to assess whether the previous improvements were sustained and the impact of this computer system alteration. Overall, compliance with national VTE guidance improved further.

  3. The humanistic and economic burden of venous thromboembolism in cancer patients: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kourlaba, Georgia; Relakis, John; Mylonas, Charalambos; Kapaki, Vasiliki; Kontodimas, Stathis; Holm, Majbrit V; Maniadakis, Nikos

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to present evidence on the epidemiology, health outcomes and economic burden of cancer-related venous thromboembolism (VTE). Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Econlit, Science Direct, JSTOR, Oxford Journals and Cambridge Journals were searched. The systematic literature search was limited to manuscripts published from January 2000 to December 2012. On the basis of the literature, cancer patients experience between two-fold and 20-fold higher risk of developing VTE than noncancer patients. They are more likely to experience a VTE event during the first 3-6 months after cancer diagnosis. In addition, an increased risk of VTE in patients with distant metastases and certain types of cancer (i.e. pancreatic or lung) was revealed. VTE was found to be a leading cause of mortality in cancer patients. The annual average total cost for cancer patients with VTE was found to be almost 50% higher than that of cancer patients without VTE. Inpatient care costs accounted for more than 60% of total cost. The existing evidence assessed in the present review demonstrated the significant health and economic consequences of cancer-related VTE, which make a strong case for the importance of its proper and efficient prevention and management.

  4. Pharmacologic Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis after Traumatic Brain Injury: A Critical Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Despite the frequency and morbidity of venous thromboembolism (VTE) development after traumatic brain injury (TBI), no national standard of care exists to guide TBI caregivers for the use of prophylactic anticoagulation. Fears of iatrogenic propagation of intracranial hemorrhage patterns have led to a dearth of research in this field, and it is only relatively recently that studies dedicated to this question have been performed. These have generally been limited to retrospective and/or observational studies in which patients are classified in a binary fashion as having the presence or absence of intracranial blood. This methodology does not account for the fact that smaller injury patterns stabilize more rapidly, and thus may be able to safely tolerate earlier initiation of prophylactic anticoagulation than larger injury patterns. This review seeks to critically assess the literature on this question by examining the existing evidence on the safety and efficacy of pharmacologic VTE prophylaxis in the setting of elective craniotomy (as this is the closest model available from which to extrapolate) and after TBI. In doing so, we critique studies that approach TBI as a homogenous or a heterogenous study population. Finally, we propose our own theoretical protocol which stratifies patients into low, moderate, and high risk for the likelihood of natural progression of their hemorrhage pattern, and which allows one to tailor a unique VTE prophylaxis regimen to each individual arm. PMID:22651698

  5. Evidence-based guidance on venous thromboembolism in patients with solid tumours

    PubMed Central

    Shea–Budgell, M.A.; Wu, C.M.J.; Easaw, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (vte) is a serious, life-threatening complication of cancer. Anticoagulation therapy such as low molecular weight heparin (lmwh) has been shown to treat and prevent vte. Cancer therapy is often complex and ongoing, making the management of vte less straightforward in patients with cancer. There are no published Canadian guidelines available to suggest appropriate strategies for the management of vte in patients with solid tumours. We therefore aimed to develop a clear, evidence-based guideline on this topic. A systematic review of clinical trials and meta-analyses published between 2002 and 2013 in PubMed was conducted. Reference lists were hand-searched for additional publications. The National Guidelines Clearinghouse was searched for relevant guidelines. Recommendations were developed based on the best available evidence. In patients with solid tumours, lmwh is recommended for those with established vte and for those without established vte but with a high risk for developing vte. Options for lmwh include dalteparin, enoxaparin, and tinzaparin. No one agent can be recommended over another, but in the setting of renal insufficiency, tinzaparin is preferred. Unfractionated heparin can be used under select circumstances only (that is, when rapid clearance of the anticoagulant is desired). The most common adverse event is bleeding, but major events are rare, and with appropriate follow-up care, bleeding can be monitored and appropriately managed. PMID:24940110

  6. Venous thromboembolism in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: focus on prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Papa, Alfredo; Gerardi, Viviana; Marzo, Manuela; Felice, Carla; Rapaccini, Gian Lodovico; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2014-03-28

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients have an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), which represents a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The most common sites of VTE in IBD patients are the deep veins of the legs and pulmonary system, followed by the portal and mesenteric veins. However, other sites may also be involved, such as the cerebrovascular and retinal veins. The aetiology of VTE is multifactorial, including both inherited and acquired risk factors that, when simultaneously present, multiply the risk to the patient. VTE prevention involves correcting modifiable risk factors, such as disease activity, vitamin deficiency, dehydration and prolonged immobilisation. The role of mechanical and pharmacological prophylaxis against VTE using anticoagulants is also crucial. However, although guidelines recommend thromboprophylaxis for IBD patients, this method is still poorly implemented because of concerns about its safety and a lack of awareness of the magnitude of thrombotic risk in these patients. Further efforts are required to increase the rate of pharmacological prevention of VTE in IBD patients to avoid preventable morbidity and mortality.

  7. Do pregnant women have a higher risk for venous thromboembolism following air travel?

    PubMed Central

    Izadi, Morteza; Alemzadeh-Ansari, Mohammad Javad; Kazemisaleh, Davood; Moshkani-Farahani, Maryam; Shafiee, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    International travel has become increasingly common and accessible, and it is part of everyday life in pregnant women. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious public health disorder that occurs following long-haul travel, especially after air travel. The normal pregnancy is accompanied by a state of hypercoagulability and hypofibrinolysis. Thus, it seems that pregnant women are at a higher risk of VTE following air travel, and, if they have preexisting risk factors, this risk would increase. There is limited data about travel-related VTE in pregnant women; therefore, in the present study, we tried to evaluate the pathogenesis of thrombosis, association of thrombosis and air travel, risk factors and prevention of VTE in pregnant women based on available evidences. Pregnancy is associated with a five- to 10-fold increased risk of VTE compared with nonpregnant women; however, during the postpartum period, this risk would increase to 20–80-fold. Furthermore, the risk of thrombosis is higher in individuals with preexisting risk factors, and the most common risk factor for VTE during pregnancy is a previous history of VTE. Pregnant women are at a higher risk for thrombosis compared with other women. Thus, the prevention of VTE and additional risk factors should be considered for all pregnant women who travel by plane. PMID:25802829

  8. Prophylaxis for Venous Thromboembolism Following Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Survey of Korean Knee Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam Ki; Kim, Tae Kyun; Kim, Jong Min

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to provide information on the actual status and prevailing trend of prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism (VTE) following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in South Korea. Materials and Methods The Korean Knee Society (KKS) developed a questionnaire with 6 clinical questions on VTE. The questionnaire was distributed to all members of KKS by both postal and online mail. Participants were asked to supply details on their specialty and to select methods of prophylaxis they employ. Of the total members of KKS, 27.9% participated in the survey. Results The percentage of surgeons who routinely performed prophylaxis for VTE was 60.4%; 19.4% performed prophylaxis depending on the patient's health condition; and the remaining 20.2% never implemented prophylaxis after surgery. The common prophylactic methods among the responders were compression stocking (72.9%), pneumatic leg compression (63.3%), perioral direct factor Xa inhibitor (46.9%), and low-molecular-weight heparin (39.5%). For the respondents who did not perform prophylaxis, the main reason (51.5%) was the low risk of postoperative VTE considering the low incidences in Asians. Conclusions The present study involving members of the KKS will help to comprehend the actual status of VTE prevention in South Korea. The results of this study may be useful to design VTE guidelines appropriate for Koreans in the future.

  9. Elevated risk of venous thromboembolic events in patients with inflammatory myopathies.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Michał; Królak-Nowak, Katarzyna; Sobolewska-Włodarczyk, Aleksandra; Fichna, Jakub; Włodarczyk, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a multifactorial disease manifesting as either deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. Its prevalence makes VTE a significant issue for both the individual - as a negative factor influencing the quality of life and prognosis - and the society due to economic burden. VTE is the third most common vascular disorder in Western countries, after myocardial infarction and stroke, making it a major cause of in-hospital mortality, responsible for 5%-10% of hospital deaths. Despite many studies conducted, only 50%-60% provoking factors have been identified, while the remaining 40%-50% have been classified as idiopathic or unprovoked. Chronic inflammatory disorders, with their underlying prothrombotic state, reveal an increased risk of VTE (six to eight times) compared with the general population. Among the inflammatory disorders, we can identify inflammatory myopathies - a group of rare, chronic diseases featuring weakness and inflammation of muscles with periods of exacerbation and remission; their main classes are polymyositis and dermatomyositis. The objective of this review is to emphasize the need of VTE prophylaxis in individuals with inflammatory myopathies in order to reduce morbidity and mortality rates among those patients and improve their quality of life and prognosis. PMID:27350751

  10. Evidence-based guidance on venous thromboembolism in patients with solid tumours.

    PubMed

    Shea-Budgell, M A; Wu, C M J; Easaw, J C

    2014-06-01

    Venous thromboembolism (vte) is a serious, life-threatening complication of cancer. Anticoagulation therapy such as low molecular weight heparin (lmwh) has been shown to treat and prevent vte. Cancer therapy is often complex and ongoing, making the management of vte less straightforward in patients with cancer. There are no published Canadian guidelines available to suggest appropriate strategies for the management of vte in patients with solid tumours. We therefore aimed to develop a clear, evidence-based guideline on this topic. A systematic review of clinical trials and meta-analyses published between 2002 and 2013 in PubMed was conducted. Reference lists were hand-searched for additional publications. The National Guidelines Clearinghouse was searched for relevant guidelines. Recommendations were developed based on the best available evidence. In patients with solid tumours, lmwh is recommended for those with established vte and for those without established vte but with a high risk for developing vte. Options for lmwh include dalteparin, enoxaparin, and tinzaparin. No one agent can be recommended over another, but in the setting of renal insufficiency, tinzaparin is preferred. Unfractionated heparin can be used under select circumstances only (that is, when rapid clearance of the anticoagulant is desired). The most common adverse event is bleeding, but major events are rare, and with appropriate follow-up care, bleeding can be monitored and appropriately managed.

  11. Outpatient-based treatment protocols in the management of venous thromboembolic disease.

    PubMed

    Spyropoulos, A C

    2000-11-01

    Clinical trial data are demonstrating that the safety and efficacy of treating deep vein thrombosis (DVT) on an outpatient basis with low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) are equal to inpatient care with unfractionated heparin (UFH). Moreover, LMWH therapy offers multiple advantages, including improved bioavailability at lower doses, reduced heparin resistance, a longer half-life, and potentially, less bleeding. Although these potential advantages are acknowledged, patient selection and risk stratification criteria for patients being considered for LMWH therapy are discussed less frequently; nonetheless, they deserve careful consideration. The protocol utilized by Lovelace Health Systems, a staff model health maintenance organization, features an outpatient-based DVT treatment program that includes exclusionary risk factors for outpatient treatment of venous thromboembolic disease (VTE). Evidence from clinical findings at Lovelace suggests that patients without absolute exclusionary risk factors can successfully be treated with LMWH as outpatients. Specific study results show that 61% of patients were eligible for outpatient therapy and had fewer recurrences of VTE (1.9%) than those comorbid matched patients who were hospitalized with traditional UFH therapy the previous year (4.1%). These findings suggest that LMWH is both safe and efficacious in the home treatment of VTE in a managed care setting when established patient selection criteria and risk stratification strategies are carefully maintained.

  12. Elevated risk of venous thromboembolic events in patients with inflammatory myopathies

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Michał; Królak-Nowak, Katarzyna; Sobolewska-Włodarczyk, Aleksandra; Fichna, Jakub; Włodarczyk, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a multifactorial disease manifesting as either deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. Its prevalence makes VTE a significant issue for both the individual – as a negative factor influencing the quality of life and prognosis – and the society due to economic burden. VTE is the third most common vascular disorder in Western countries, after myocardial infarction and stroke, making it a major cause of in-hospital mortality, responsible for 5%–10% of hospital deaths. Despite many studies conducted, only 50%–60% provoking factors have been identified, while the remaining 40%–50% have been classified as idiopathic or unprovoked. Chronic inflammatory disorders, with their underlying prothrombotic state, reveal an increased risk of VTE (six to eight times) compared with the general population. Among the inflammatory disorders, we can identify inflammatory myopathies – a group of rare, chronic diseases featuring weakness and inflammation of muscles with periods of exacerbation and remission; their main classes are polymyositis and dermatomyositis. The objective of this review is to emphasize the need of VTE prophylaxis in individuals with inflammatory myopathies in order to reduce morbidity and mortality rates among those patients and improve their quality of life and prognosis. PMID:27350751

  13. [Prophylaxis of venous thromboembolic disease in high-risk orthopedic surgery].

    PubMed

    Meza Reyes, Gilberto Eduardo; Esquivel Gómez, Ricardo; Martínez del Campo Sánchez, Antonio; Espinosa-Larrañaga, Francisco; Martínez Guzmán, Miguel Ángel Enrique; Torres González, Rubén; de la Fuente Zuno, Juan Carlos; Méndez Huerta, Juan Vicente; Villalobos Garduño, Enrique; Cymet Ramírez, José; Ibarra Hirales, Efrén; Díaz Borjón, Efraín; Aguilera Zepeda, José Manuel; Valles Figueroa, Juan Francisco; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a worldwide public health problem, with an annual incidence of 1-2 cases/1,000 individuals in the general population and a 1-5% associated mortality. Orthopedic surgery is a major surgical risk factor for VTE, but the problem is more important for patients with hip and knee joint replacement, multiple traumatisms, severe damage to the spine, or large fractures. Thromboprophylaxis is defined as the strategy and actions necessary to diminish the risk of VTE in high-risk orthopedic surgery. Antithrombotics may prevent VTE. At the end of this paper, we describe a proposal of thromboprophylaxis actions for patients requiring high-risk orthopedic surgery, based on the opinion of specialists in Orthopedics and Traumatology who work with high-risk orthopedic surgery patients. A search for evidence about this kind of surgery was performed and a 100-item inquiring instrument was done in order to know the opinions of the participants. Then, recommendations and considerations were built. In conclusion, this document reviews the problem of VTE in high-risk orthopedic surgery patients and describes the position of the Colegio Mexicano de Ortopedia y Traumatología related to VTE prevention in this setting.

  14. Progressive Mobility Protocol Reduces Venous Thromboembolism Rate in Trauma Intensive Care Patients: A Quality Improvement Project.

    PubMed

    Booth, Kathryn; Rivet, Josh; Flici, Richelle; Harvey, Ellen; Hamill, Mark; Hundley, Douglas; Holland, Katelyn; Hubbard, Sandra; Trivedi, Apurva; Collier, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The intensive care unit (ICU) trauma population is at high risk for complications associated with immobility. The purpose of this project was to compare ICU trauma patient outcomes before and after implementation of a structured progressive mobility (PM) protocol. Outcomes included hospital and ICU stays, ventilator days, falls, respiratory failure, pneumonia, or venous thromboembolism (VTE). In the preintervention cohort, physical therapy (PT) consults were placed 53% of the time. This rose to more than 90% during the postintervention period. PT consults seen within 24 hr rose from a baseline 23% pre- to 74%-94% in the 2 highest compliance postintervention months. On average, 40% of patients were daily determined to be too unstable for mobility per protocol guidelines-most often owing to elevated intracranial pressure. During PM sessions, there were no adverse events (i.e., extubation, hypoxia, fall). There were no significant differences in clinical outcomes between the 2 cohorts regarding hospital and ICU stays, average ventilator days, mortality, falls, respiratory failure, or pneumonia overall or within ventilated patients specifically. There was, however, a difference in the incidence of VTE between the preintervention cohort (21%) and postintervention cohort (7.5%) (p = .0004). A PM protocol for ICU trauma patients is safe and may reduce patient deconditioning and VTE complications in this high-risk population. Multidisciplinary commitment, daily protocol reinforcement, and active engagement of patients/families are the cornerstones to success in this ICU PM program. PMID:27618376

  15. The cost of outpatient venous thromboembolism prophylaxis following lower limb injuries.

    PubMed

    Menakaya, C U; Pennington, N; Muthukumar, N; Joel, J; Ramirez Jimenez, A J; Shaw, C J; Mohsen, A

    2013-05-01

    This paper reports the cost of outpatient venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis following 388 injuries of the lower limb requiring immobilisation in our institution, from a total of 7408 new patients presenting between May and November 2011. Prophylaxis was by either self-administered subcutaneous dalteparin (n = 128) or oral dabigatran (n = 260). The mean duration of prophylaxis per patient was 46 days (6 to 168). The total cost (pay and non-pay) for prophylaxis with dalteparin was £107.54 and with dabigatran was £143.99. However, five patients in the dalteparin group required nurse administration (£23 per home visit), increasing the cost of dalteparin to £1142.54 per patient. The annual cost of VTE prophylaxis in a busy trauma clinic treating 12 700 new patients (2010/11), would be £92 526.33 in the context of an income for trauma of £1.82 million, which represents 5.3% of the outpatient tariff. Outpatient prophylaxis in a busy trauma clinic is achievable and affordable in the context of the clinical and financial risks involved.

  16. Venous thromboembolism following prolonged cast immobilisation for injury to the tendo Achillis.

    PubMed

    Healy, B; Beasley, R; Weatherall, M

    2010-05-01

    We report an audit of 208 patients with a mean age of 39 years (16 to 65) attending the Orthopaedic Assessment Unit at the Wellington Hospital between January 2006 and December 2007 with an injury of the tendo Achillis requiring immobilisation in a cast. Information on assessment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk, prophylactic measures and VTE events for all patients was obtained from the medical records. A VTE risk factor was documented in the records of three (1%) patients. One of the 208 patients received aspirin prophylaxis; none received low molecular weight heparin. In all, 13 patients (6.3%, 95% confidence interval 3.4 to 10.5) developed symptomatic VTE during immobilisation in a cast, including six with a distal deep-vein thrombosis (DVT), four with a proximal DVT, and three with a confirmed pulmonary embolus. This incidence of symptomatic VTE is similar to that reported following elective hip replacement. We propose that consideration is given to VTE prophylaxis during prolonged immobilisation of the lower limbs in a cast, to ensure that the same level of protection is provided as for patients undergoing elective hip replacement.

  17. New orally active anticoagulant agents for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism in cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Gerotziafas, Grigoris T; Mahé, Isabelle; Elalamy, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Patients with cancer have a 6–7-fold higher risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) as compared with non-cancer patients. Effective and safe anticoagulation for the prevention and treatment of VTE is the cornerstone of the management of patients with cancer, aiming to decrease morbidity and mortality and to improve quality of life. Unfractionated heparin, low molecular weight heparins, fondaparinux and vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) are used in the prevention and treatment of VTE in cancer patients. Heparins and fondaparinux are administered subcutaneously. VKAs are orally active, but they have a narrow therapeutic window, numerous food and drug interactions, and treatment requires regular laboratory monitoring and dose adjustment. These limitations among others have important negative impact on the quality of life of patients and decrease adherence to the treatment. New orally active anticoagulant (NOAC) agents are specific inhibitors of activated factor Xa (FXa) (rivaroxaban and apixaban) or thrombin (dabigatran). It is expected that NOACs will improve antithrombotic treatment. Cancer patients are a particular group that could benefit from treatment with NOACs. However, NOACs present some significant interactions with drugs frequently used in cancer patients, which might influence their pharmacokinetics, compromising their efficacy and safety. In the present review, we analyzed the available data from the subgroups of patients with active cancer who were included in Phase III clinical trials that assessed the efficacy and safety of NOACs in the prevention and treatment of VTE. The data from the Phase III trials in prophylaxis of VTE by rivaroxaban or apixaban highlight that these two agents, although belonging to the same pharmacological group (direct inhibitors of factor Xa), have substantially different profiles of efficacy and safety, especially in hospitalized acutely ill medical patients with active cancer. A limited number of patients with VTE and active

  18. Low-molecular-weight heparins are superior to vitamin K antagonists for the long term treatment of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer: a cochrane systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Akl, Elie A; Barba, Maddalena; Rohilla, Sandeep; Terrenato, Irene; Sperati, Francesca; Muti, Paola; Schünemann, Holger J

    2008-01-01

    Background Cancer and its therapies increase the risk of venous thromboembolism. Compared to patients without cancer, patients with cancer anticoagulated for venous thromboembolism are more likely to develop recurrent thrombotic events and major bleeding. Addressing all important outcomes including harm is of great importance to make evidence based health care decisions. The objective of this study was to compare low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and oral anticoagulants (vitamin K antagonist (VKA) and ximelagatran) for the long term treatment of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer. Methods A systematic review of the medical literature. We followed the Cochrane Collaboration methodology for conducting systematic reviews. We assessed methodological quality for each outcome by grading the quality of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. Results Eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were eligible and reported data for patients with cancer. The quality of evidence was low for death and moderate for recurrent venous thromboembolism. LMWH, compared to VKA provided no statistically significant survival benefit (Hazard ratio (HR) = 0.96; 95% CI 0.81 to 1.14) but a statistically significant reduction in venous thromboembolism (HR = 0.47; 95% (Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.32 to 0.71). There was no statistically significant difference between LMWH and VKA in bleeding outcomes (RR = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.64 to 1.31) or thrombocytopenia (RR = 1.02; 95% CI = 0.60 to 1.74). Conclusion For the long term treatment of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer, LMWH compared to VKA reduces venous thromboembolism but not death. PMID:18634550

  19. Postoperative prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients undergoing high ligation and stripping of the great saphenous vein (GSV).

    PubMed

    Wang, Haitao; Sun, Zhanfeng; Jiang, Weiliang; Zhang, Yingnan; Li, Xianwei; Wu, Yalei

    2015-04-01

    To analyze the necessity of venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis for patients undergoing high ligation and stripping of the great saphenous vein (GSV) and to estimate the efficacy and safety of different anticoagulant protocols in a single-center randomized controlled trial with large sample size. A total of 2196 patients undergoing high ligation and stripping of the GSV were randomized to one of the following postoperative VTE prophylaxis protocols: group A, no VTE prophylaxis (n=542); group B, subcutaneous low-dose unfractionated heparin (LDUH) hypodermic injection, 125 U/kg per day in three divided doses (n=531); group C, low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) 6000 IU once a day (n=573); and group D, LMWH 4000 IU twice daily (n=550). Groups were compared for the incidence of VTE and major hemorrhage within 1 month following surgery. Varicose vein severity was classified by CEAP (Clinical, Etiologic, Anatomic, Pathophysiologic elements) score. The clinical characteristics of the patients were equally matched between groups. Postoperative deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) were significantly higher in group A (DVT 5.17%, PE 1.48%) compared to groups B (0.56%, 0%), C (0.35%, 0%) and D (0.36%, 0%) (p<0.01). The incidence of VTE did not differ between the three active chemoprophylaxis arms. Hemorrhagic complications were low for each group but higher in group B (0.75%) compared to the other groups (group A 0.18%; group C 0.17%; group D 0.18%, p<0.01). Hemorrhagic complications did not differ amongst groups A, C and D. In conclusion, postoperative VTE chemoprophylaxis following high ligation and GSV stripping effectively reduces the venous thrombosis complications of this procedure. Of the three active strategies tested, no difference in efficacy was noted; however, thrice daily LDUH did increase bleeding complications.

  20. Risk indicators for venous thrombosis in first-degree relatives of patients with recurrent venous thromboembolism in Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lianxing; Li, Chunsheng; Shao, Rui; Fang, Yingying

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Having encountered several subjects with venous thromboembolism (VTE) in 1 family in which 1 proband has recurrent VTE (rVTE), we aimed to assess the risk of VTE in first-degree relatives, especially the children of individuals with rVTE, and to investigate the association of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) G894T polymorphism between Chinese persons with rVTE and their offspring. We collected information about family histories and blood samples from 126 individuals with rVTE who had presented to our institute from 2003 to 2014, and 126 population-based controls and the first-degree relatives of subjects in these 2 groups. We tested blood samples for heritable thrombophilia and calculated odds ratios (ORs) and kappa coefficients. First-degree relatives of individuals with rVTE patients had a statistically significant risk of developing VTE (OR 2.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.61–4.26, P < 0.001). For siblings, the OR was 2.72 (95% CI 1.56–4.73, P < .001). Moreover, for each year that the patient was older, the OR was 0.98 (95% CI 0.97–0.99, P = 0.03). One (11.2%) of the 9 individuals who had the same eNOS G894T polymorphism as their probands had a history of VTE, whereas none of the 17 relatives without the same polymorphism had developed VTE. The associations between patients and their children were statistically significant for VTE (kappa = 0.23, P < 0.001) and for eNOS G894T (kappa = 0.03, P = 0.04). In this case-controlled study, we demonstrated a higher risk of VTE among first-degree relatives of individuals with rVTE, especially in siblings of younger subjects with rVTE. We also found that eNOS G894T polymorphism may be a predictor of VTE in offspring of individuals with rVTE. PMID:27741098

  1. A Genetic Risk Score Comprising Known Venous Thromboembolism Loci is Associated with Chronic Venous Disease in a Multi-Ethnic Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Wassel, Christina L; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Callas, Peter W.; Denenberg, Julie O.; Durda, Peter; Reiner, Alexander P.; Smith, Nicholas L.; Allison, Matthew A.; Rosendaal, Frits R.; Criqui, Michael H.; Cushman, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic venous disease is common and shares some risk factors with venous thromboembolism (VTE). Several genetic loci have been discovered and well-replicated for VTE in European descent populations. We examined associations of a genetic risk score (GRS), comprising known VTE loci, with chronic venous disease. Methods The San Diego Population Study (SDPS) is a multi-ethnic cohort that evaluated 2404 men and women aged 29–91 from 1994 – 1998 for chronic venous disease. The current study includes 1447 participants genotyped for 33 variants in 22 established VTE risk loci. Using these variants, unweighted and weighted GRS were constructed. Logistic regression was used to examine associations with venous disease. Results In non-Hispanic Whites, African-Americans, Hispanics, and Asians, each standard deviation increment higher of the unweighted 33-SNP GRS was associated with a 1.45-fold (95% CI (1.26, 1.67)), 1.74-fold (1.18, 2.55), a 1.80-fold (1.30, 2.51), and 1.88-fold (1.30, 2.73) greater odds, respectively, for moderate plus severe disease. The difference in c-statistics was significant between a known venous risk factor model and a model adding the 33-SNP GRS for Whites (p=0.008), African-Americans (0.03), and Hispanics (p=0.04), with marginal significance in Asians (p=0.06). Conclusions GRS comprising variants primarily from VTE findings in European descent populations were associated with chronic venous disease across all race/ethnic groups, and contributed significantly to prediction, indicating some level of generalizability to other race/ethnic groups. Future work should focus on more in depth examination of racial/ethnic group genetic architecture in relation to chronic venous disease. PMID:26442836

  2. Extended anticoagulation with apixaban reduces hospitalisations in patients with venous thromboembolism. An analysis of the AMPLIFY-EXT trial.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianchen; Thompson, John; Phatak, Hemant; Mardekian, Jack; Porcari, Anthony; Johnson, Margot; Cohen, Alexander T

    2016-01-01

    Treatment with apixaban versus placebo for 12 months significantly reduced symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) or all-cause death without increasing the rate of major bleeding in the AMPLIFY-EXT trial. This analysis examined the effects of apixaban versus placebo on the rate of all-cause hospitalisations, time to first hospitalisation, and predictors of first hospitalisation in patients with VTE enrolled in AMPLIFY-EXT. Treatment with apixaban 2.5 mg and 5 mg twice daily significantly reduced the rate of all-cause hospitalisations versus placebo (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 0.64 [0.43, 0.95]; p=0.026 and 0.54 [0.36, 0.82]; p=0.004, respectively). Apixaban prolonged mean time to first hospitalisation versus placebo by 43 and 49 days for the 2.5-mg and 5-mg twice-daily groups, respectively. Median length of hospital stay during the first hospitalisation was longer for placebo than for apixaban 2.5 mg or 5 mg twice daily (7.0, 5.0, and 4.5 days, respectively). Treatment with apixaban was a significant predictor of lower rates of hospitalisations versus placebo, and severe/moderate renal impairment was a significant predictor of an increased rate. This study supports extended use of apixaban for reducing all-cause hospitalisations and extending time to first hospitalisation in patients with VTE enrolled in AMPLIFY-EXT (www.clinicaltrials.gov registration: #NCT00633893). PMID:26446706

  3. Edoxaban for treatment of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer. Rationale and design of the Hokusai VTE-cancer study.

    PubMed

    van Es, Nick; Di Nisio, Marcello; Bleker, Suzanne M; Segers, Annelise; Mercuri, Michele F; Schwocho, Lee; Kakkar, Ajay; Weitz, Jeffrey I; Beyer-Westendorf, Jan; Boda, Zoltan; Carrier, Marc; Chlumsky, Jaromir; Décousus, Hervé; Garcia, David; Gibbs, Harry; Kamphuisen, Pieter W; Monreal, Manuel; Ockelford, Paul; Pabinger, Ingrid; Verhamme, Peter; Grosso, Michael A; Büller, Harry R; Raskob, Gary E

    2015-11-25

    Direct oral anticoagulants may be effective and safe for treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in cancer patients, but they have not been compared with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), the current recommended treatment for these patients. The Hokusai VTE-cancer study is a randomised, open-label, clinical trial to evaluate whether edoxaban, an oral factor Xa inhibitor, is non-inferior to LMWH for treatment of VTE in patients with cancer. We present the rationale and some design features of the study. One such feature is the composite primary outcome of recurrent VTE and major bleeding during a 12-month study period. These two complications occur frequently in cancer patients receiving anticoagulant treatment and have a significant impact. The evaluation beyond six months will fill the current gap in the evidence base for the long-term treatment of these patients. Based on the observation that the risk of recurrent VTE in patients with active cancer is similar to that in those with a history of cancer, the Hokusai VTE-cancer study will enrol patients if whose cancer was diagnosed within the past two years. In addition, patients with incidental VTE are eligible because their risk of recurrent VTE is similar to that in patients with symptomatic disease. The unique design features of the Hokusai VTE-cancer study should lead to enrolment of a broad spectrum of cancer patients with VTE who could benefit from oral anticoagulant treatment.

  4. A survey of current practice patterns in prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism (VTE) and gastrointestinal (GI) ulceration among Canadian burn centers.

    PubMed

    Abedi, Nasim; Papp, Anthony

    2011-11-01

    Prospective data on efficacy of routine thromboprophylaxis in burn population remains limited. We believe that this uncertainty has lead to diverse management practices across Canada. Similarly, despite data supporting effectiveness of early enteral nutrition (EEN) for gastrointestinal (GI) ulcer prophylaxis, we hypothesize that many burn centers continue to use additional medical prophylaxis. A questionnaire was sent to 16 Canadian burn units regarding their practices of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and GI ulcer prophylaxis. We had 50% response rate. Fifty percent of respondents reported routine use of VTE prophylaxis in all their burn patients regardless of risk factors, 75% of these were among the largest burn centers in Canada. Only 1 center reported use of low molecular weight heparin, Enoxaparin, as their only mode of prophylaxis. With regards to GI ulcer prophylaxis, 62.5% of respondents indicated limiting use of ulcer prophylactic medications to ICU patients. Three (37.5%) centers reported practicing EEN for prophylaxis, 1 of which administered it as the sole modality. 7 of 8 centers used additional pharmacologic prophylaxis, most commonly an H2-blocker, ranitidine. There remains lack of consensus among Canadian burn centers in areas of VTE and GI ulcer prophylaxis, reflecting the limited prospective data in these fields. PMID:21767915

  5. Treatment with dabigatran or warfarin in patients with venous thromboembolism and cancer.

    PubMed

    Schulman, Sam; Goldhaber, Samuel Z; Kearon, Clive; Kakkar, Ajay K; Schellong, Sebastian; Eriksson, Henry; Hantel, Stefan; Feuring, Martin; Kreuzer, Jörg

    2015-07-01

    The efficacy and safety of dabigatran for treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) were demonstrated in two trials. It is unclear if the results pertain to patients with cancer and VTE. Data from two randomised trials comparing dabigatran and warfarin for acute VTE were pooled. Primary efficacy outcome was symptomatic recurrent VTE and related death from randomisation to the end of the treatment period. Safety outcomes were major, major and clinically relevant non-major, and any bleeding during the oral-only treatment period. Patients with active cancer (=within 5 years) at baseline or diagnosed during the study were analysed. Compared with 4,772 patients without cancer, recurrent VTE occurred more frequently in 335 patients with cancer at any time (hazard ratio [HR] 3.3; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 2.1-5.3) and more often in 114 with cancer diagnosed during the study compared to 221 with cancer at baseline (HR 2.6; 95 % CI, 1.1-6.2). There was no significant difference in efficacy between dabigatran and warfarin for cancer at baseline (HR 0.75; 95 % CI, 0.20-2.8) or diagnosed during the study (HR 0.63; 95 % CI, 0.20-2.0). Major bleeding (HR 4.1; 95 % CI, 2.2-7.5) and any bleeding (HR 1.5; 95 % CI, 1.2-2.0) were more frequent in patients with cancer than without, but with similar incidence in cancer with dabigatran or warfarin. In conclusion, in cancer patients, dabigatran provided similar clinical benefit as warfarin. VTE recurrence or bleeding were similar in patients on dabigatran or warfarin. The efficacy of dabigatran has not been assessed in comparison with low-molecular-weight heparin.

  6. Breast cancer-associated venous thromboembolism: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Rebouças, Danilo; Costa, Maria; Thuler, Luiz; Garces, Alvaro; Aquino, Luciana; Bines, José

    2016-08-01

    Breast cancer is frequently associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE). VTE may result in significant morbidity, a substantial economic burden and even leads to patients' death. Risk factor identification and management of VTE in breast cancer patients remains poorly studied. We evaluated breast cancer patients' baseline and treatment characteristics in predicting VTE occurrence as well as its prognosis. We conducted a case-control study of all breast cancer patients with a VTE diagnosed between January 2007 and December 2011 at the Instituto Nacional de Câncer (INCA) in Brazil. Two hundred and twenty five patients developed VTE and were compared with 225 controls, in the 5-year study period. The bulk of the thrombotic events were unilateral (94.2%) VTEs of the lower extremity (78.7%), largely proximally located (78%). VTE occurred more often within the first 3 years after the diagnosis of cancer (66.2%), being more common in the first 6 months (21.8%). Significant predictors of developing VTE were age 50 years and over (OR 1.85, 95% CI: 1.16-2.95), PS equal to or above 3 (OR 2.01, 95% CI: 1.24-3.26), and the presence of a CVC (OR 2.56, 95% CI: 1.42-4.62). This large retrospective analysis of VTE in breast cancer patients confirms that most events occur early in the treatment course. The incidence of VTE was associated with patients' age, PS, and the presence of CVC. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate outpatient thromboprophylaxis for selected groups of patients.

  7. Emotional states and future risk of venous thromboembolism: the Tromsø Study.

    PubMed

    Enga, Kristin F; Brækkan, Sigrid K; Hansen-Krone, Ida J; Hansen, John-Bjarne

    2012-03-01

    Emotional states of depression and loneliness are reported to be associated with higher risk and optimism with lower risk of arterial cardiovascular disease (CVD) and death. The relation between emotional states and risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) has not been explored previously. We aimed to investigate the associations between self-reported emotional states and risk of incident VTE in a population-based, prospective study. The frequency of feeling depressed, lonely and happy/optimistic were registered by self-administered questionnaires, along with major co-morbidities and lifestyle habits, in 25,964 subjects aged 25-96 years, enrolled in the Tromsø Study in 1994-1995. Incident VTE-events were registered from the date of inclusion until September 1, 2007. There were 440 incident VTE-events during a median of 12.4 years of follow-up. Subjects who often felt depressed had 1.6-fold (95% CI:1.02-2.50) higher risk of VTE compared to those not depressed in analyses adjusted for other risk factors (age, sex , body mass index, oestrogens), lifestyle (smoking, alcohol consumption, educational level) and co-morbidities (diabetes, CVD, and cancer). Often feeling lonely was not associated with VTE. However, the incidence rate of VTE in subjects who concurrently felt often lonely and depressed was higher than for depression alone (age-and sex-adjusted incidence rate: 3.27 vs. 2.21). Oppositely, subjects who often felt happy/optimistic had 40% reduced risk of VTE (HR 0.60, 95% CI: 0.41-0.87). Our findings suggest that self-reported emotional states are associated with risk of VTE. Depressive feelings were associated with increased risk, while happiness/optimism was associated with reduced risk of VTE. PMID:22318455

  8. Indications, applications, and outcomes of inferior vena cava filters for venous thromboembolism in Japanese patients.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yugo; Unoki, Takashi; Takagi, Daisuke; Hamatani, Yasuhiro; Ishii, Mitsuru; Iguchi, Moritake; Ogawa, Hisashi; Masunaga, Nobutoyo; Wada, Hiromichi; Hasegawa, Koji; Abe, Mitsuru; Akao, Masaharu

    2016-07-01

    A recent multicenter registry study of venous thromboembolism (VTE) patients in Japan demonstrated a high prevalence of inferior vena cava (IVC) filter placement. However, data regarding indications, applications, and outcomes of IVC filters in Japanese patients are quite limited. This study was an observational, single-center, retrospective cohort study of all consecutive patients with acute VTE treated between March 2006 and February 2014. Data extracted included patient demographics, indications, applications, and complications of IVC filters, as well as VTE recurrence and death. A total of 257 consecutive patients were analyzed. Seventy-eight patients (30 %) received IVC filters. The proportions of IVC filter placement were 26 % for deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) alone, 10 % for pulmonary embolism (PE) alone, and 46 % for both DVT and PE. There was no significant difference in patient demographics between the IVC filter group and no-IVC filter group. Stated indications for filter placement were 24 cases (30 %) of DVT in intrapelvic veins, 16 cases (20 %) of DVT in proximal veins, and 11 cases (14 %) of contraindication to anticoagulant therapy. In the IVC filter group, cases of class I indication (guidelines: JCS 75:1258-1281, 2009) numbered only 6 (8 %). Many of the retrievable IVC filters were not removed and placed permanently and the retrieval rate was 42 %. We found complications of IVC filters in 8 cases (10 %). IVC filter placement was significantly associated with a better survival rate and a higher incidence of DVT recurrence during a mean observation period of 541 days. Our research suggests the frequent use of IVC filters for VTE treatment, combined with a low retrieval rate. Most of the stated indications of IVC filter placement for VTE in Japanese patients were cases of DVT in intrapelvic veins or proximal veins, not cases of contraindication to anticoagulant therapy.

  9. Differential co-expression analysis of venous thromboembolism based on gene expression profile data

    PubMed Central

    MING, ZHIBING; DING, WENBIN; YUAN, RUIFAN; JIN, JIE; LI, XIAOQIANG

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to screen differentially co-expressed genes and the involved transcription factors (TFs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) in venous thromboembolism (VTE). Microarray data of GSE19151 were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus, including 70 patients with VTE and 63 healthy controls. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed using R software. Differential co-expression analysis was performed using R, followed by screening of modules using Cytoscape. Functional annotation was performed using Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery. Moreover, Fisher test was used to screen key TFs and miRNAs for the modules. PCA revealed the disease and healthy samples could not be distinguished at the gene expression level. A total of 4,796 upregulated differentially co-expressed genes (e.g. zinc finger protein 264, electron-transfer-flavoprotein, beta polypeptide and Janus kinase 2) and 3,629 downregulated differentially co-expressed genes (e.g. adenylate cyclase 7 and single-stranded DNA binding protein 2) were identified, which were further mined to obtain 17 and eight modules separately. Functional annotation revealed that the largest upregulated module was primarily associated with acetylation and the largest downregulated module was mainly involved in mitochondrion. Moreover, 48 TFs and 62 miRNA families were screened for the 17 upregulated modules, such as E2F transcription factor 4, miR-30 and miR-135 regulating the largest module. Conversely, 35 TFs and 18 miRNA families were identified for the 8 downregulated modules, including mitochondrial ribosomal protein S12 and miR-23 regulating the largest module. Differentially co-expressed genes regulated by TFs and miRNAs may jointly contribute to the abnormal acetylation and mitochondrion presentation in the progression of VTE. PMID:27284300

  10. Risk of venous thromboembolism in patients with splenic injury and splenectomy. A nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiun-Nong; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Lin, Ming-Chia; Lai, Chung-Hsu; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Yang, Chih-Hui; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    The spleen is a crucial organ in humans. However, little is known about the association of venous thromboembolism (VTE) with splenic injury and splenectomy in trauma patients. The aim of this study was to determine the subsequent risk of VTE following splenic injury and splenectomy. A nationwide retrospective cohort study was conducted by analysing data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We included 6,162 splenic injury patients (3,033 splenectomised and 3,129 nonsplenectomised patients) and 24,648 comparison patients who were selected by frequency match based on sex, age, and the index year during 2000-2006. All patients were followed until the occurrence of VTE, 31 December, 2011, death, or withdrawal from the insurance program. The age of patients with splenic injury was 41.93 ± 16.44 years. The incidence rates of VTE were 11.81, 8.46, and 5.21 per 10,000 person-years in the splenic injury patients with splenectomy, splenic injury patients without splenectomy, and comparison patients, respectively. Compared with the comparison cohort, splenic injury patients with splenectomy exhibited a 2.21-fold risk of VTE (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.43-3.43), whereas those without splenectomy exhibited a 1.71-fold risk of VTE (95% CI, 1.05-2.80). The overall incidence rate of VTE was 1.97-fold higher in the splenic injury cohort than the comparison cohort (95% CI, 1.38-2.81). Although splenectomy increased the risk of VTE 1.35-fold compared with no splenectomy, the difference was not statistically significant (95% CI, 0.74-2.45). These results may alert physicians and patients to the complications of splenic injury and splenectomy.

  11. Osteoporosis and venous thromboembolism: a retrospective cohort study in the UK General Practice Research Database

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, C.; Meyer, O.; Speirs, C.; Deltour, N.; Reginster, J. Y.

    2009-01-01

    Summary In a retrospective cohort study using the General Practice Research Database (GPRD), there was a greater association of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in osteoporotic than in non-osteoporotic female patients. No greater association was shown in treated patients with strontium ranelate or alendronate compared to untreated osteoporotic female patients. Introduction We explored the risk of VTE in usual practice in osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic women with and without anti-osteoporotic treatment. Methods A retrospective study was conducted using the GPRD in the UK. The cohorts consisted of untreated osteoporotic women (N = 11,546), osteoporotic women treated with alendronate (N = 20,084), or strontium ranelate (N = 2,408), and a sample of non-osteoporotic women (N = 115,009). Cohorts were compared using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results There was a significantly increased relative risk for VTE in untreated osteoporotic women versus non-osteoporotic women (annual incidence 5.6 and 3.2 per 1,000 patient–years, respectively; relative risk 1.75 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09–1.84]). Results were confirmed using adjusted models. The annual incidences of VTE in osteoporotic patients treated with strontium ranelate and alendronate were 7.0 and 7.2 per 1,000 patient–years, respectively, with no significant difference between untreated and treated patients whatever the treatment. Adjusted hazard ratios for treated versus untreated osteoporotic women were 1.09 (95% CI, 0.60–2.01) for strontium ranelate and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.63–1.33) for alendronate. Conclusion This study shows a greater association of VTE in osteoporotic compared to non-osteoporotic patients, but does not show any greater association in treated patients with strontium ranelate or alendronate compared to untreated osteoporotic patients. PMID:19806285

  12. Appropriate Enoxaparin Dose for Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Patients with Extreme Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Shelkrot, Max; Miraka, Jonida

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the appropriate dose of enoxaparin for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis in patients with extreme obesity. Methods: A literature search was performed using MEDLINE (1950-April 2013) to analyze all English-language articles that evaluated incidence of VTE and/or anti-Xa levels with enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis in patients with extreme obesity. Results: Eight studies were included in the analysis. Six of the studies were done in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Mean body mass index ranged from 44.9 to 63.4 kg/m2 within studies. Studies done with bariatric surgery patients utilized doses of enoxaparin that ranged from the standard dose of 30 mg subcutaneous (SQ) every 12 hours to 60 mg SQ every 12 hours. Other studies evaluated doses ranging from 40 mg SQ every 24 hours to 0.5 mg/kg/day. Only 3 studies evaluated the incidence of VTE as the primary endpoint; the other studies evaluated anti-Xa levels. The studies showed that appropriate anti-Xa levels were achieved more often with higher than standard doses of enoxaparin. One study showed that enoxaparin 40 mg SQ every 12 hours decreased the incidence of VTE in patients undergoing bariatric surgery compared to standard doses. Overall risk of bleeding was similar between study groups. Conclusions: Higher than standard doses of enoxaparin may be needed for patients with extreme obesity. Patients undergoing bariatric surgery may benefit from enoxaparin 40 mg SQ every 12 hours. Additional large randomized, controlled trials are needed to determine the efficacy and safety of higher than standard doses of enoxaparin for VTE prophylaxis in patients with extreme obesity. PMID:25477599

  13. Anticoagulation Management Practices and Outcomes in Elderly Patients with Acute Venous Thromboembolism: A Clinical Research Study

    PubMed Central

    Insam, Charlène; Angelillo-Scherrer, Anne; Aschwanden, Markus; Banyai, Martin; Beer, Juerg- Hans; Bounameaux, Henri; Egloff, Michael; Frauchiger, Beat; Husmann, Marc; Kucher, Nils; Lämmle, Bernhard; Matter, Christian; Osterwalder, Joseph; Righini, Marc; Staub, Daniel; Rodondi, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Whether anticoagulation management practices are associated with improved outcomes in elderly patients with acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) is uncertain. Thus, we aimed to examine whether practices recommended by the American College of Chest Physicians guidelines are associated with outcomes in elderly patients with VTE. We studied 991 patients aged ≥65 years with acute VTE in a Swiss prospective multicenter cohort study and assessed the adherence to four management practices: parenteral anticoagulation ≥5 days, INR ≥2.0 for ≥24 hours before stopping parenteral anticoagulation, early start with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) ≤24 hours of VTE diagnosis, and the use of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) or fondaparinux. The outcomes were all-cause mortality, VTE recurrence, and major bleeding at 6 months, and the length of hospital stay (LOS). We used Cox regression and lognormal survival models, adjusting for patient characteristics. Overall, 9% of patients died, 3% had VTE recurrence, and 7% major bleeding. Early start with VKA was associated with a lower risk of major bleeding (adjusted hazard ratio 0.37, 95% CI 0.20–0.71). Early start with VKA (adjusted time ratio [TR] 0.77, 95% CI 0.69–0.86) and use of LMWH/fondaparinux (adjusted TR 0.87, 95% CI 0.78–0.97) were associated with a shorter LOS. An INR ≥2.0 for ≥24 hours before stopping parenteral anticoagulants was associated with a longer LOS (adjusted TR 1.2, 95% CI 1.08–1.33). In elderly patients with VTE, the adherence to recommended anticoagulation management practices showed mixed results. In conclusion, only early start with VKA and use of parenteral LMWH/fondaparinux were associated with better outcomes. PMID:26906217

  14. D-dimer testing: advantages and limitations in emergency medicine for managing acute venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Siragusa, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    D-dimer values can be rapidly determined and used for the management of acute venous thromboembolism (VTE). However, its role in the setting of emergency still remains unclear and inappropriate testing is a significant clinical problem. This review discusses the currently used assays, clinical indications, and limitations of D-dimer measurement. Studies in English language were identified by searching PubMed from December 1985 to December 2005. Available literature on D-dimer was identified from Medline, along with cross referencing from the reference lists of major articles and reviews on this subject. Among 56 articles collected, 14 papers, 4 overviews and 1 systemic review were selected accordingly to predefined criteria. Data synthesis shows that D-dimer testing has sufficient diagnostic accuracy for ruling out acute VTE if used in combination with standardised clinical judgement. D-dimer seems to be also a useful tool for managing suspected VTE patients in absence of immediate imaging. Attention should be paid to exclude conditions that may affect the accuracy of the test, such as concomitant disease, heparin administration and symptom duration >15 days. Although enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay determination has the highest accuracy, immunoturbidimetric assay seems the most suitable on an emergency basis because of its rapid performance. In conclusion, at present D-dimer testing can be safely used in the management of acute VTE in emergency medicine. However, because of its heterogeneity related to the method used and setting implemented, it is preferable to assess D-dimer accuracy before its implementation in management strategies for VTE. PMID:16941816

  15. High incidence of symptomatic venous thromboembolism in Thai hospitalized medical patients without thromboprophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Aniwan, Satimai; Rojnuckarin, Ponlapat

    2010-06-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common preventable cause of mortality during hospitalization. However, prophylaxis is frequently under-utilized due to the belief that it is rare in Asia. The objective of the study was to estimate the incidence of symptomatic VTE in hospitalized nonsurgical Thai patients. We performed a prospective study in medical wards in Chulalongkorn Hospital, a tertiary care university-based center, from June 2007 to December 2008. We included adult patients admitted beyond 3 days. Patients with VTE before admissions or undergoing major surgery during hospitalization were excluded. According to the usual practice, heparin prophylaxis was not given. However, the program of primary physician education and fast-track diagnostic imaging were implemented. Forty-two VTEs from 7126 susceptible patients [0.59%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41-0.77%] were found; 20 (48%) definite pulmonary embolism, four of which also had symptomatic deep vein thrombosis (DVT), 19 (45%) definite DVT and three sudden deaths from possible pulmonary embolism. Immobilization (74%), active cancer (52%) and rheumatologic diseases (12%), including arthritis of lower extremities and systemic lupus erythematosus with antiphospholipid, were common VTE risk factors, which were present in our patients. The incidences in total cases of arthritis, cancer, mechanical ventilation and congestive heart failure were 7.7, 1.8, 1.5 and 0.5%, respectively. Notably, nine of 23 (39%) pulmonary embolism cases were fatal and two more patients (9.5%) expired from bleeding after treatment (one pulmonary embolism and one DVT). In conclusion, VTE contributes significant hazard to hospitalized nonsurgical Thai patients. Appropriate measures to assure proper thromboprophylaxis in high-risk patients are strongly needed.

  16. Venous thromboembolism in Croatia – Croatian Cooperative Group for Hematologic Diseases (CROHEM) study

    PubMed Central

    Pulanić, Dražen; Gverić-Krečak, Velka; Nemet-Lojan, Zlatka; Holik, Hrvoje; Coha, Božena; Babok-Flegarić, Renata; Komljenović, Mili; Knežević, Dijana; Petrovečki, Mladen; Zupančić Šalek, Silva; Labar, Boris; Nemet, Damir

    2015-01-01

    Aim To analyze the incidence and characteristics of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in Croatia. Methods The Croatian Cooperative Group for Hematologic Diseases conducted an observational non-interventional study in 2011. Medical records of patients with newly diagnosed VTE hospitalized in general hospitals in 4 Croatian counties (Šibenik-Knin, Koprivnica-Križevci, Brod-Posavina, and Varaždin County) were reviewed. According to 2011 Census, the population of these counties comprises 13.1% of the Croatian population. Results There were 663 patients with VTE; 408 (61.54%) had deep vein thrombosis, 219 (33.03%) had pulmonary embolism, and 36 (5.43%) had both conditions. Median age was 71 years, 290 (43.7%) were men and 373 (56.3%) women. Secondary VTE was found in 57.3% of participants, idiopathic VTE in 42.7%, and recurrent VTE in 11.9%. There were no differences between patients with secondary VTE and patients with idiopathic VTE in disease recurrence and sex. The most frequent causes of secondary VTE were cancer (40.8%), and trauma, surgery, and immobilization (38.2%), while 42.9% patients with secondary VTE had ≥2 causes. There were 8.9% patients ≤45 years; 3.3% with idiopathic or recurrent VTE. Seventy patients (10.6%) died, more of whom had secondary (81.4%) than idiopathic (18.6%) VTE (P < 0.001), and in 50.0% VTE was the main cause of death. Estimated incidence of VTE in Croatia was 1.185 per 1000 people. Conclusion Characteristics of VTE in Croatia are similar to those reported in large international studies. Improved thromboprophylaxis during the presence of risk factors for secondary VTE might substantially lower the VTE burden. PMID:26718761

  17. Venous thromboembolism in medical outpatients - a cross-sectional survey of risk assessment and prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Lawall, Holger; Matthiessen, Andreas; Hohmann, Volker; Bramlage, Peter; Haas, Sylvia; Schellong, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    The degree of thromboprophylaxis in medical outpatients is low despite a substantial risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). This may be attributable to difficulties in assessing risk. Assessment tools like the Haas' scorecard aid in determining the need for thromboprophylaxis. We aimed at evaluating how the use of this tool may aid physicians in appropriately using anticoagulants. This was an epidemiological, cross-sectional survey of acute medically ill patients with limited mobility treated by general practitioners and internists. Risk assessment for VTE by the treating physician was compared to calculated risk. Of 8,123 patients evaluated between August 2006 and April 2008, 7,271 fulfilled the in- and exclusion criteria. Mean age was 69.4 ± 13.6 years, and 45.2% were male. Of these 82.8% were high risk based on their acute medical condition, 37.9% based on their underlying chronic condition. Immobilisation, heart failure, pneumonia, age, obesity, and major varicosis were the most frequently encountered risk factors. The agreement between the Haas' scorecard and physician indicated risk was high. At least 94.1% of patients with high risk received adequate anticoagulation mostly as low molecular weight heparins for a mean duration of 15.1 ± 30.5 days. There is a substantial risk for VTE in medical outpatients. Using a simple structured scorecard resulted in an overall appropriate risk assessment and high degree of anticoagulation. The scorecard may provide a tool to improve the overall awareness for VTE risk in medical outpatients, substantially improving the degree of prophylaxis in a patient population with largely underestimated risk.

  18. Management of Venous Thromboembolisms: Part I. The Consensus for Deep Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kang-Ling; Chu, Pao-Hsien; Lee, Cheng-Han; Pai, Pei-Ying; Lin, Pao-Yen; Shyu, Kou-Gi; Chang, Wei-Tien; Chiu, Kuan-Ming; Huang, Chien-Lung; Lee, Chung-Yi; Lin, Yen-Hung; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Yen, Hsueh-Wei; Yin, Wei-Hsian; Yeh, Hung-I; Chiang, Chern-En; Lin, Shing-Jong; Yeh, San-Jou

    2016-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a potentially catastrophic condition because thrombosis, left untreated, can result in detrimental pulmonary embolism. Yet in the absence of thrombosis, anticoagulation increases the risk of bleeding. In the existing literature, knowledge about the epidemiology of DVT is primarily based on investigations among Caucasian populations. There has been little information available about the epidemiology of DVT in Taiwan, and it is generally believed that DVT is less common in Asian patients than in Caucasian patients. However, DVT is a multifactorial disease that represents the interaction between genetic and environmental factors, and the majority of patients with incident DVT have either inherited thrombophilia or acquired risk factors. Furthermore, DVT is often overlooked. Although symptomatic DVT commonly presents with lower extremity pain, swelling and tenderness, diagnosing DVT is a clinical challenge for physicians. Such a diagnosis of DVT requires a timely systematic assessment, including the use of the Wells score and a D-dimer test to exclude low-risk patients, and imaging modalities to confirm DVT. Compression ultrasound with high sensitivity and specificity is the front-line imaging modality in the diagnostic process for patients with suspected DVT in addition to conventional invasive contrast venography. Most patients require anticoagulation therapy, which typically consists of parenteral heparin bridged to a vitamin K antagonist, with variable duration. The development of non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants has revolutionized the landscape of venous thromboembolism treatment, with 4 agents available,including rivaroxaban, dabigatran, apixaban, and edoxaban. Presently, all 4 drugs have finished their large phase III clinical trial programs and come to the clinical uses in North America and Europe. It is encouraging to note that the published data to date regarding Asian patients indicates that such new therapies are safe and

  19. Early venous thromboembolic events are associated with worse prognosis in patients with lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kourelis, Taxiarchis V.; Wysokinska, Ewa M; Wang, Yi; Yang, Ping; Mansfield, Aaron S.; Tafur, Alfonso J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Venous thromboembolic events (VTE) are a leading cause of death in cancer patients. We hypothesized that early VTE (EVTE, within 3 months of diagnosis) in patients with lung cancer (LC) are associated with worse overall survival (OS). Materials and methods We identified 727 patients with LC between 1998 and 2011. Late VTE (LVTE) were defined as VTE occurring after 3 months from LC diagnosis. Advance disease (AD) was defined as patients with Stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or extensive stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC), and non-advanced disease (non-AD) was defined as ≤ Stage III NSCLC or limited stage SCLC. Results Out of 727 patients included in our review, 617 patients had NSCLC (85%), 94 (13%) SCLC, and 16 (2%) low grade neuroendocrine tumors. Ninety five patients (13%) experienced VTE, 44 (6%) experienced an EVTE and 49 (7%) had a LVTE. Patients with an EVTE had worse OS when compared to all other patients (medians 4 vs. 17 months, p < 0.0001). EVTE were associated with worse OS in patients with non-AD (medians 12 vs. 42 months, p = 0.01) and AD (medians 4 vs. 6 months, p = 0.02). When considering patients with NSCLC only, in a multivariate model that included age, stage, performance status > 2, administration of chemotherapy and Charlson comorbidity index, EVTE were an independent predictor of increased mortality (HR 2.4; 95% CI 1.6–3.3). Conclusions EVTE are associated with worse OS, irrespective of stage of the disease. Our findings underscore the need for an efficient preventive strategy for VTE among patients with lung cancer. PMID:25453848

  20. Total Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor and Venous Thrombosis: The Longitudinal Investigation of Thromboembolism Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Zakai, Neil A.; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Cushman, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) inhibits tissue factor, a potent coagulation initiator. Limited evidence suggests that low TFPI levels are associated with increased risk of venous thrombosis (VTE). We measured total TFPI in a nested case-control study in the Longitudinal Investigation of Thromboembolism Etiology. Control subjects were frequency matched 2:1 to cases on age, sex, race, and cohort. Odds ratio for VTE by TFPI levels were computed using logistic regression models adjusting for age, race, sex, coagulation factors (factors VII, VIII, IX, XI, D-dimer), and body mass index. To evaluate for greater than additive interactions, we calculated the percent relative excess risk due to interaction between TFPI and other VTE risk factors. 534 cases of VTE occurred and matched to 1091 controls. Mean baseline TFPI in ng/mL (standard deviation) in those who developed VTE and controls was 36.4 (12.8) and 35.0 (11.1), respectively. Higher TFPI was associated with male sex, age, body mass index, factors VII, VIII, IX, XI, and D-dimer. TFPI level did not differ by ethnicity, factor V Leiden, or prothrombin G20210A. Compared with those in the upper 95%, the bottom 5% of TFPI had an age-, sex-, race-, and study-adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) of 1.35 (0.86, 2.12) for VTE. Adjusting for factors VII, VIII, IX, and XI the odds ratio was 1.93 (1.05, 3.53). Further addition of D-dimer and BMI to this model the odds ratio was 1.70 (0.98, 2.93). Low TFPI did not demonstrate greater than additive interaction with other VTE risk factors. PMID:20431849

  1. Managing venous thromboembolism in Asia: winds of change in the era of new oral anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alexander; Chiu, Kuan Ming; Park, Kihyuk; Jeyaindran, Sinnadurai; Tambunan, Karmel L; Ward, Christopher; Wong, Raymond; Yoon, Sung-Soo

    2012-09-01

    Despite advances in the management of venous thromboembolism (VTE), treatment of many patients worldwide, especially in Asia, remains inadequate and/or discordant with prevailing guidelines. Although epidemiological studies consistently report lower incidences of VTE in Asians than Caucasians, VTE rates in Asia have probably been gravely underestimated, partly due to comparatively lesser ascertainment. It is becoming evident that Asians are at much higher risk of VTE than was hitherto supposed. Nevertheless, VTE risk-assessment is not routine in Asia and thromboprophylaxis rates are much lower than in Western nations. It is important to base decisions about anticoagulation on individual circumstances and weigh the potential benefits and risks. The conventional VTE management paradigm is not ideal. New oral anticoagulants offer advantages over current modalities that may help to streamline patient care and reduce healthcare costs. Initially, they will be mainly used in uncomplicated cases and, in the absence of clear differences in efficacy or safety, convenience, tolerability/adherence and cost will determine treatment choice. There is clear scope to improve VTE prevention and treatment in Asia. Key priorities are raising awareness of best practice and properly implementing guidelines. Uncertainty about the burden of VTE and concern about bleeding are barriers. High-quality Asian epidemiological data are needed to guide healthcare policy and evidence-based practice. More data on the occurrence and management of bleeding complications in Asian patients are also required. Meanwhile, physicians should remain vigilant and strive to act early, decisively and appropriately to diagnose and treat VTE, particularly in patients at high risk. PMID:22766512

  2. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β levels and unprovoked recurrent venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Memon, Ashfaque A; Sundquist, Kristina; Wang, Xiao; Svensson, Peter J; Sundquist, Jan; Zöller, Bengt

    2014-10-01

    Prediction of recurrence in patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains a challenge. Studies of atherosclerosis suggest a protective role of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. However, the role of TGF-β has not been studied in VTE. The aim of this study was to investigate TGF-β as a predictive marker of recurrent VTE in patients with a first episode of unprovoked VTE. Patients in the Malmö Thrombophilia Study (MATS) were followed after the discontinuation of anticoagulant treatment until the diagnosis of recurrent VTE or the end of the study in December 2008 (mean ± SD 38.5 months ± 27). Among patients with a first episode of unprovoked VTE, we identified 42 patients with recurrent VTE during the follow-up period. Two age- and sex-matched control subjects without recurrent VTE were selected for each patient (n = 84). Plasma levels of the three isoforms of TGF-β (TGF-β1, TGF-β2 and TGF-β3) were quantified simultaneously by TGF-β 3-plex immunoassay. Compared to controls, plasma levels of TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 were significantly lower in patients with recurrent VTE (p < 0.05), whereas no difference was found for TGF-β3. In a multivariate Cox regression analyses, adjusted for inherited thrombophilia, age, sex and BMI, low levels of TGF-β1 [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-4.3; p = 0.02] and TGF-β2 (HR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.7; p = 0.01) were independently associated with a higher risk of recurrent VTE. We propose TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 as potential predictive markers for recurrence in patients with unprovoked VTE.

  3. Patient Preferences for Receiving Education on Venous Thromboembolism Prevention – A Survey of Stakeholder Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Shihab, Hasan M.; Farrow, Norma E.; Shaffer, Dauryne L.; Hobson, Deborah B.; Kulik, Susan V.; Zaruba, Paul D.; Shermock, Kenneth M.; Kraus, Peggy S.; Pronovost, Peter J.; Streiff, Michael B.; Haut, Elliott R.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients and is largely preventable. Strategies to decrease the burden of VTE have focused on improving clinicians’ prescribing of prophylaxis with relatively less emphasis on patient education. Objective To develop a patient-centered approach to education of patients and their families on VTE: including importance, risk factors, and benefit/harm of VTE prophylaxis in hospital settings. Design, Setting and Participants The objective of this study was to develop a patient-centered approach to education of patients and their families on VTE: including importance, risk factors, and benefit/harm of VTE prophylaxis in hospital settings. We implemented a three-phase, web-based survey (SurveyMonkey) between March 2014 and September 2014 and analyzed survey data using descriptive statistics. Four hundred twenty one members of several national stakeholder organizations and a single local patient and family advisory board were invited to participate via email. We assessed participants’ preferences for VTE education topics and methods of delivery. Participants wanted to learn about VTE symptoms, risk factors, prevention, and complications in a context that emphasized harm. Although participants were willing to learn using a variety of methods, most preferred to receive education in the context of a doctor-patient encounter. The next most common preferences were for video and paper educational materials. Conclusions Patients want to learn about the harm associated with VTE through a variety of methods. Efforts to improve VTE prophylaxis and decrease preventable harm from VTE should target the entire continuum of care and a variety of stakeholders including patients and their families. PMID:27031330

  4. A venous thromboembolism risk assessment model for patients with Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zilio, Marialuisa; Mazzai, Linda; Sartori, Maria Teresa; Barbot, Mattia; Ceccato, Filippo; Daidone, Viviana; Casonato, Alessandra; Saggiorato, Graziella; Noventa, Franco; Trementino, Laura; Prandoni, Paolo; Boscaro, Marco; Arnaldi, Giorgio; Scaroni, Carla

    2016-05-01

    Cushing's syndrome (CS) is associated with an incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) about ten times higher than in the normal population. The aim of our study was to develop a model for identifying CS patients at higher risk of VTE. We considered clinical, hormonal, and coagulation data from 176 active CS patients and used a forward stepwise logistic multivariate regression analysis to select the major independent risk factors for thrombosis. The risk of VTE was calculated as a 'CS-VTE score' from the sum of points of present risk factors. VTE developed in 20 patients (4 pulmonary embolism). The group of CS patients with VTE were older (p < 0.001) and had more cardiovascular events (p < 0.05), infections and reduced mobility (both p < 0.001), higher midnight plasma cortisol levels (p < 0.05), and shorter APTT (p < 0.01) than those without. We identified six major independent risk factors for VTE: age ≥69 years and reduced mobility were given two points each, whereas acute severe infections, previous cardiovascular events, midnight plasma cortisol level >3.15 times the normality and shortened APTT were given one point each. A CS-VTE score <2 anticipated no risk of VTE; a CS-VTE score of two mild risk (10 %); a CS-VTE score of three moderate risk (46 %); a CS-VTE score ≥4 high risk (85 %). Considering a score ≥3 as predictive of VTE, 94 % of the patients were correctly classified. A simple score helps stratify the VTE risk in CS patients and identify those who could benefit from thromboprophylaxis.

  5. Long-Term Anticoagulant Therapy of Patients with Venous Thromboembolism. What Are the Practices?

    PubMed Central

    Mahé, Isabelle; Sterpu, Raluca; Bertoletti, Laurent; López-Jiménez, Luciano; Mellado Joan, Meritxell; Trujillo-Santos, Javier; Ballaz, Aitor; Hernández Blasco, Luis Manuel; Marchena, Pablo Javier; Monreal, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Current guidelines of antithrombotic therapy suggest early initiation of vitamin K antagonists (VKA) in non-cancer patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE), and long-term therapy with low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) for those with cancer. We used data from RIETE (international registry of patients with VTE) to report the use of long-term anticoagulant therapy over time and to identify predictors of anticoagulant choice (regarding international guidelines) in patients with- and without cancer. Among 35,280 patients without cancer, 82% received long-term VKA (but 17% started after the first week). Among 4,378 patients with cancer, 66% received long term LMWH as monotherapy. In patients without cancer, recent bleeding (odds ratio [OR] 2.70, 95% CI 2.26–3.23), age >70 years (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.06–1.24), immobility (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.93–2.19), renal insufficiency (OR 2.42, 95% CI 2.15–2.71) and anemia (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.65–1.87) predicted poor adherence to guidelines. In those with cancer, anemia (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.64–2.06), immobility (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.30–1.76) and metastases (OR 3.22, 95% CI 2.87–3.61) predicted long-term LMWH therapy. In conclusion, we report practices of VTE therapy in real life and found that a significant proportion of patients did not receive the recommended treatment. The perceived increased risk for bleeding has an impact on anticoagulant treatment decision. PMID:26076483

  6. Apolipoprotein(a) Kringle-IV Type 2 Copy Number Variation Is Associated with Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Sticchi, Elena; Magi, Alberto; Kamstrup, Pia R.; Marcucci, Rossella; Prisco, Domenico; Martinelli, Ida; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Abbate, Rosanna; Giusti, Betti

    2016-01-01

    In addition to the established association between high lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] concentrations and coronary artery disease, an association between Lp(a) and venous thromboembolism (VTE) has also been described. Lp(a) is controlled by genetic variants in LPA gene, coding for apolipoprotein(a), including the kringle-IV type 2 (KIV-2) size polymorphism. Aim of the study was to investigate the role of LPA gene KIV-2 size polymorphism and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs1853021, rs1800769, rs3798220, rs10455872) in modulating VTE susceptibility. Five hundred and sixteen patients with VTE without hereditary and acquired thrombophilia and 1117 healthy control subjects, comparable for age and sex, were investigated. LPA KIV-2 polymorphism, rs3798220 and rs10455872 SNPs were genotyped by TaqMan technology. Concerning rs1853021 and rs1800769 SNPs, PCR-RFLP assay was used. LPA KIV-2 repeat number was significantly lower in patients than in controls [median (interquartile range) 11(6–17) vs 15(9–25), p<0.0001]. A significantly higher prevalence of KIV-2 repeat number ≤7 was observed in patients than in controls (33.5% vs 15.5%, p<0.0001). KIV-2 repeat number was independently associated with VTE (p = 4.36 x10-9), as evidenced by the general linear model analysis adjusted for transient risk factors. No significant difference in allele frequency for all SNPs investigated was observed. Haplotype analysis showed that LPA haplotypes rather than individual SNPs influenced disease susceptibility. Receiver operating characteristic curves analysis showed that a combined risk prediction model, including KIV-2 size polymorphism and clinical variables, had a higher performance in identifying subjects at VTE risk than a clinical-only model, also separately in men and women. PMID:26900838

  7. Risk of Site-Specific Cancer in Incident Venous Thromboembolism: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Petterson, Tanya M.; Marks, Randolph S.; Ashrani, Aneel A.; Bailey, Kent R.; Heit, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) by cancer site is uncertain. Objective To estimate VTE risk by tumor site. Methods We enumerated observed active cancers by cancer site for Olmsted County, MN residents with incident VTE over the 13-year period, 1988–2000 (n=345 of 1417). We used 1988–2000 Iowa State Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data to estimate the expected age-specific prevalence of cancer by cancer site for all VTE cases; standardized Morbidity Ratios (SMR) for each cancer site were estimated by dividing the observed number of cancers in the VTE incident cohort by the expected number. Relative risk regression was used to model the observed number of cancers of each site, adjusting for the expected value based on SEER prevalence data, using generalized linear regression with a Poisson error and the natural log of the age- and sex-group expected count as an offset. Results For men and women with VTE, all cancer sites had an increased SMR, ranging from 4.1 for head neck cancer to 47.3 for brain cancer. Among women, the SMR for breast, ovarian and other gynecologic cancers were 8.4, 13.0 and 8.4, respectively; for men, prostate cancer SMR was 7.9. Adjusting for age and sex, the relative risk (RR) of cancer in VTE cases was associated with cancer site in a multivariable model (p<0.001). Adjusting for age and sex, pancreatic, brain, other digestive cancers, and lymphoma had significantly higher RRs than the grouped comparison cancers. Conclusions Incident VTE risk can be stratified by cancer site. PMID:25547213

  8. Menstrual Cycle Control in Female Astronauts and the Associated Risk of Venous Thromboembolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Varsha; Wotring, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common and serious condition affecting approximately 1-2 per 1000 people in the USA every year. There have been no documented case reports of VTE in female astronauts during spaceflight in the published literature. Some female astronauts use hormonal contraception to control their menstrual cycles and it is currently unknown how this affects their risk of VTE. Current terrestrial risk prediction models do not account for the spaceflight environment and the physiological changes associated with it. We therefore aim to estimate a specific risk score for female astronauts who are taking hormonal contraception for menstrual cycle control, to deduce whether they are at an elevated risk of VTE. A systematic review of the literature was conducted in order to identify and quantify known terrestrial risk factors for VTE. Studies involving analogues for the female astronaut population were also reviewed, for example, military personnel who use the oral contraceptive pill for menstrual suppression. Well known terrestrial risk factors, for example, obesity or smoking would not be applicable to our study population as these candidates would have been excluded during astronaut selection processes. Other risk factors for VTE include hormonal therapy, lower limb paralysis, physical inactivity, hyperhomocysteinemia, low methylfolate levels and minor injuries, all of which potentially apply to crew members LSAH data will be assessed to identify which of these risk factors are applicable to our astronaut population. Using known terrestrial risk data, an overall estimated risk of VTE for female astronauts using menstrual cycle control methods will therefore be calculated. We predict this will be higher than the general population but not significantly higher requiring thromboprophylaxis. This study attempts to delineate what is assumed to be true of our astronaut population, for example, they are known to be a healthy fit cohort of individuals, and

  9. Fatal Events in Cancer Patients Receiving Anticoagulant Therapy for Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Farge, Dominique; Trujillo-Santos, Javier; Debourdeau, Philippe; Bura-Riviere, Alessandra; Rodriguez-Beltrán, Eva Maria; Nieto, Jose Antonio; Peris, Maria Luisa; Zeltser, David; Mazzolai, Lucia; Hij, Adrian; Monreal, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In cancer patients treated for venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), analyzing mortality associated with recurrent VTE or major bleeding is needed to determine the optimal duration of anticoagulation. This was a cohort study using the Registro Informatizado de Enfermedad TromboEmbólica (RIETE) Registry database to compare rates of fatal recurrent PE and fatal bleeding in cancer patients receiving anticoagulation for VTE. As of January 2013, 44,794 patients were enrolled in RIETE, of whom 7911 (18%) had active cancer. During the course of anticoagulant therapy (mean, 181 ± 210 days), 178 cancer patients (4.3%) developed recurrent PE (5.5 per 100 patient-years; 95% CI: 4.8–6.4), 194 (4.7%) had recurrent DVT (6.2 per 100 patient-years; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.3–7.1), and 367 (8.9%) bled (11.3 per 100 patient-years; 95% CI: 10.2–12.5). Of 4125 patients initially presenting with PE, 43 (1.0%) died of recurrent PE and 45 (1.1%) of bleeding; of 3786 patients with DVT, 19 (0.5%) died of PE, and 55 (1.3%) of bleeding. During the first 3 months of anticoagulation, there were 59 (1.4%) fatal PE recurrences and 77 (1.9%) fatal bleeds. Beyond the third month, there were 3 fatal PE recurrences and 23 fatal bleeds. In RIETE cancer patients, the rate of fatal recurrent PE or fatal bleeding was much higher within the first 3 months of anticoagulation therapy. PMID:26266353

  10. Is There an Association between Component Separation and Venous Thromboembolism? Analysis of the NSQIP

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kuylhee; Mella, Juan Rodolfo; Ibrahim, Ahmed M. S.; Koolen, Pieter G. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients undergoing incisional/ventral hernia repair are at risk of developing several postoperative complications particularly venous thromboembolism (VTE), which is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess 30-day postoperative morbidity and mortality of patients undergoing incisional/ventral hernia repair and to determine the association between component separation and VTE. Methods: We reviewed the 2005–2011 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program databases to identify patients undergoing incisional/ventral hernia repair. Preoperative variables and postoperative outcomes were compared between a component separation group and a non–component separation group. The χ2 tests and Fisher’s exact test were used for categorical variables and t tests for continuous variables. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine preoperative predictors for complications in both groups. Results: Thirty-four thousand five hundred forty-one patients were included in our study; 501 patients underwent a component separation procedure. A higher rate of wound complications, minor/major morbidity, mortality, and return to the operating room occurred in the component separation group. However, there was no statistically significant difference in deep vein thrombosis/thrombophlebitis and pulmonary embolism rates between the 2 groups (P = 0.780 and P = 0.591, respectively). Several risk factors were significantly associated with postoperative complications in both groups. Conclusions: Component separation is used for large and complex incisional/ventral hernia repairs to achieve tension-free midline closure. Although component separation hernia repair is associated with higher incidence of wound complication, morbidity, and mortality, perhaps because of the complexity of the defects, it does not seem to be associated with increased VTE rates. PMID:26180730

  11. How to avoid venous thromboembolism in women at increased risk--with special focus on low-risk periods.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, Pelle G; von Känel, Roland

    2015-09-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major cause of mortality during Western women's fertile life. Although half of thromboembolic events occur during times of low-risk situations, almost all our knowledge is focused on medical thromboprophylaxis during high-risk situations. Thus, since we only use medical thromboprophylaxis at high-risk periods, lifestyle advice could be an attractive complement both during high- and low-risk situations. The knowledge of how lifestyle factors affect VTE risk has grown in recent years, and women at high risk are often highly motivated to make changes in order to reduce their risk. This review is focused on modifiable risk factors for VTE and advice that may be given to women at increased risk of VTE.

  12. Multifaceted Intervention to Prevent Venous Thromboembolism in Patients Hospitalized for Acute Medical Illness: A Multicenter Cluster-Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Pierre-Marie; Rachas, Antoine; Meyer, Guy; Le Gal, Grégoire; Durieux, Pierre; El Kouri, Dominique; Honnart, Didier; Schmidt, Jeannot; Legall, Catherine; Hausfater, Pierre; Chrétien, Jean-Marie; Mottier, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Background Misuse of thromboprophylaxis may increase preventable complications for hospitalized medical patients. Objectives To assess the net clinical benefit of a multifaceted intervention in emergency wards (educational lectures, posters, pocket cards, computerized clinical decision support systems and, where feasible, electronic reminders) for the prevention of venous thromboembolism. Patients/Methods Prospective cluster-randomized trial in 27 hospitals. After a pre-intervention period, centers were randomized as either intervention (n = 13) or control (n = 14). All patients over 40 years old, admitted to the emergency room, and hospitalized in a medical ward were included, totaling 1,402 (712 intervention and 690 control) and 15,351 (8,359 intervention and 6,992 control) in the pre-intervention and intervention periods, respectively. Results Symptomatic venous thromboembolism or major bleeding (primary outcome) occurred at 3 months in 3.1% and 3.2% of patients in the intervention and control groups, respectively (adjusted odds ratio: 1.02 [95% confidence interval: 0.78–1.34]). The rates of thromboembolism (1.9% vs. 1.9%), major bleedings (1.2% vs. 1.3%), and mortality (11.3% vs. 11.1%) did not differ between the groups. Between the pre-intervention and intervention periods, the proportion of patients who received prophylactic anticoagulant treatment more steeply increased in the intervention group (from 35.0% to 48.2%: +13.2%) than the control (40.7% to 44.1%: +3.4%), while the rate of adequate thromboprophylaxis remained stable in both groups (52.4% to 50.9%: -1.5%; 49.1% to 48.8%: -0.3%). Conclusions Our intervention neither improved adequate prophylaxis nor reduced the rates of clinical events. New strategies are required to improve thromboembolism prevention for hospitalized medical patients. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01212393 PMID:27227406

  13. Competing Risk Analysis for Evaluation of Dalteparin Versus Unfractionated Heparin for Venous Thromboembolism in Medical-Surgical Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guowei; Cook, Deborah J.; Levine, Mitchell A.H.; Guyatt, Gordon; Crowther, Mark; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Holbrook, Anne; Lamontagne, Francois; Walter, Stephen D.; Ferguson, Niall D.; Finfer, Simon; Arabi, Yaseen M.; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Cooper, D. Jamie; Thabane, Lehana

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Failure to recognize the presence of competing risk or to account for it may result in misleading conclusions. We aimed to perform a competing risk analysis to assess the efficacy of the low molecular weight heparin dalteparin versus unfractionated heparin (UFH) in venous thromboembolism (VTE) in medical-surgical critically ill patients, taking death as a competing risk. This was a secondary analysis of a prospective randomized study of the Prophylaxis for Thromboembolism in Critical Care Trial (PROTECT) database. A total of 3746 medical-surgical critically ill patients from 67 intensive care units (ICUs) in 6 countries receiving either subcutaneous UFH 5000 IU twice daily (n = 1873) or dalteparin 5000 IU once daily plus once-daily placebo (n = 1873) were included for analysis. A total of 205 incident proximal leg deep vein thromboses (PLDVT) were reported during follow-up, among which 96 were in the dalteparin group and 109 were in the UFH group. No significant treatment effect of dalteparin on PLDVT compared with UFH was observed in either the competing risk analysis or standard survival analysis (also known as cause-specific analysis) using multivariable models adjusted for APACHE II score, history of VTE, need for vasopressors, and end-stage renal disease: sub-hazard ratio (SHR) = 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.70–1.21, P-value = 0.56 for the competing risk analysis; hazard ratio (HR) = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.68–1.23, P-value = 0.57 for cause-specific analysis. Dalteparin was associated with a significant reduction in risk of pulmonary embolism (PE): SHR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.31–0.94, P-value = 0.02 for the competing risk analysis; HR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.30–0.88, P-value = 0.01 for the cause-specific analysis. Two additional sensitivity analyses using the treatment variable as a time-dependent covariate and using as-treated and per-protocol approaches demonstrated similar findings. This competing risk analysis

  14. Competing Risk Analysis for Evaluation of Dalteparin Versus Unfractionated Heparin for Venous Thromboembolism in Medical-Surgical Critically Ill Patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Guowei; Cook, Deborah J; Levine, Mitchell A H; Guyatt, Gordon; Crowther, Mark; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Holbrook, Anne; Lamontagne, Francois; Walter, Stephen D; Ferguson, Niall D; Finfer, Simon; Arabi, Yaseen M; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Cooper, D Jamie; Thabane, Lehana

    2015-09-01

    Failure to recognize the presence of competing risk or to account for it may result in misleading conclusions. We aimed to perform a competing risk analysis to assess the efficacy of the low molecular weight heparin dalteparin versus unfractionated heparin (UFH) in venous thromboembolism (VTE) in medical-surgical critically ill patients, taking death as a competing risk.This was a secondary analysis of a prospective randomized study of the Prophylaxis for Thromboembolism in Critical Care Trial (PROTECT) database. A total of 3746 medical-surgical critically ill patients from 67 intensive care units (ICUs) in 6 countries receiving either subcutaneous UFH 5000 IU twice daily (n = 1873) or dalteparin 5000 IU once daily plus once-daily placebo (n = 1873) were included for analysis.A total of 205 incident proximal leg deep vein thromboses (PLDVT) were reported during follow-up, among which 96 were in the dalteparin group and 109 were in the UFH group. No significant treatment effect of dalteparin on PLDVT compared with UFH was observed in either the competing risk analysis or standard survival analysis (also known as cause-specific analysis) using multivariable models adjusted for APACHE II score, history of VTE, need for vasopressors, and end-stage renal disease: sub-hazard ratio (SHR) = 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.70-1.21, P-value = 0.56 for the competing risk analysis; hazard ratio (HR) = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.68-1.23, P-value = 0.57 for cause-specific analysis. Dalteparin was associated with a significant reduction in risk of pulmonary embolism (PE): SHR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.31-0.94, P-value = 0.02 for the competing risk analysis; HR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.30-0.88, P-value = 0.01 for the cause-specific analysis. Two additional sensitivity analyses using the treatment variable as a time-dependent covariate and using as-treated and per-protocol approaches demonstrated similar findings.This competing risk analysis yields no

  15. Competing Risk Analysis for Evaluation of Dalteparin Versus Unfractionated Heparin for Venous Thromboembolism in Medical-Surgical Critically Ill Patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Guowei; Cook, Deborah J; Levine, Mitchell A H; Guyatt, Gordon; Crowther, Mark; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Holbrook, Anne; Lamontagne, Francois; Walter, Stephen D; Ferguson, Niall D; Finfer, Simon; Arabi, Yaseen M; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Cooper, D Jamie; Thabane, Lehana

    2015-09-01

    Failure to recognize the presence of competing risk or to account for it may result in misleading conclusions. We aimed to perform a competing risk analysis to assess the efficacy of the low molecular weight heparin dalteparin versus unfractionated heparin (UFH) in venous thromboembolism (VTE) in medical-surgical critically ill patients, taking death as a competing risk.This was a secondary analysis of a prospective randomized study of the Prophylaxis for Thromboembolism in Critical Care Trial (PROTECT) database. A total of 3746 medical-surgical critically ill patients from 67 intensive care units (ICUs) in 6 countries receiving either subcutaneous UFH 5000 IU twice daily (n = 1873) or dalteparin 5000 IU once daily plus once-daily placebo (n = 1873) were included for analysis.A total of 205 incident proximal leg deep vein thromboses (PLDVT) were reported during follow-up, among which 96 were in the dalteparin group and 109 were in the UFH group. No significant treatment effect of dalteparin on PLDVT compared with UFH was observed in either the competing risk analysis or standard survival analysis (also known as cause-specific analysis) using multivariable models adjusted for APACHE II score, history of VTE, need for vasopressors, and end-stage renal disease: sub-hazard ratio (SHR) = 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.70-1.21, P-value = 0.56 for the competing risk analysis; hazard ratio (HR) = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.68-1.23, P-value = 0.57 for cause-specific analysis. Dalteparin was associated with a significant reduction in risk of pulmonary embolism (PE): SHR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.31-0.94, P-value = 0.02 for the competing risk analysis; HR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.30-0.88, P-value = 0.01 for the cause-specific analysis. Two additional sensitivity analyses using the treatment variable as a time-dependent covariate and using as-treated and per-protocol approaches demonstrated similar findings.This competing risk analysis yields no

  16. Evaluation of the risk of venous thromboembolism after quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination among US females.

    PubMed

    Yih, W Katherine; Greene, Sharon K; Zichittella, Lauren; Kulldorff, Martin; Baker, Meghan A; de Jong, Jill L O; Gil-Prieto, Ruth; Griffin, Marie R; Jin, Robert; Lin, Nancy D; McMahill-Walraven, Cheryl N; Reidy, Megan; Selvam, Nandini; Selvan, Mano S; Nguyen, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    After the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) licensed quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4) in 2006, reports suggesting a possible association with venous thromboembolism (VTE) emerged from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System and the Vaccine Safety Datalink. Our objective was to determine whether HPV4 increased VTE risk. The subjects were 9-26-year-old female members of five data partners in the FDA's Mini-Sentinel pilot project receiving HPV4 during 2006-2013. The outcome was radiologically confirmed first-ever VTE among potential cases identified by diagnosis codes in administrative data during Days 1-77 after HPV4 vaccination. With a self-controlled risk interval design, we compared counts of first-ever VTE in risk intervals (Days 1-28 and Days 1-7 post-vaccination) and control intervals (Days 36-56 for Dose 1 and Days 36-63 for Doses 2 and 3). Combined hormonal contraceptive use was treated as a potential confounder. The main analyses were: (1) unadjusted for time-varying VTE risk from contraceptive use, (2) unadjusted but restricted to cases without such time-varying risk, and (3) adjusted by incorporating the modeled risk of VTE by week of contraceptive use in the analysis. Of 279 potential VTE cases identified following 1,423,399 HPV4 doses administered, 225 had obtainable charts, and 53 were confirmed first-ever VTE. All 30 with onsets in risk or control intervals had known risk factors for VTE. VTE risk was not elevated in the first 7 or 28 days following any dose of HPV in any analysis (e.g. relative risk estimate (95% CI) from both unrestricted analyses, for all-doses, 28-day risk interval: 0.7 (0.3-1.4)). Temporal scan statistics found no clustering of VTE onsets after any dose. Thus, we found no evidence of an increased risk of VTE associated with HPV4 among 9-26-year-old females. A particular strength of this evaluation was its control for both time-invariant and contraceptive-related time-varying potential confounding. PMID:26549364

  17. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in interleukin-6 and their association with venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Umesh; Mahemuti, Ailiman; Hu, Xuemei; Abudureheman, Kailibinure; Xia, Yuning; Tang, Baopeng; Upur, Halmurat

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to reveal the contribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms of the interleukin‑6 (IL‑6) gene and the progression of venous thromboembolism (VTE). A case‑control study composed of 246 VTE patients, including 160 from the Han population (76 males and 84 females, mean age 57.41±13.25 years), 86 from the Uyghur population (41 males and 45 females, mean age 51.61±13.73 years) and 292 gender and ethnicity‑matched control participants, including 170 from the Han population (91 males and 79 females, mean age 55.82±11.83 years) and 122 from the Uyghur population (64 males and 58 females, mean age 53.52±13.64 years) were enrolled in the present study. The results demonstrated that the serum levels of IL‑6, C‑reactive protein (CRP), D‑dimer, fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor‑1 and leptin were significantly higher in the VTE group compared with the control group (P<0.05). The frequencies of the ‑572C/G promoter polymorphisms of the IL‑6 genotypes CC, CG and GG were identified to be 34, 48 and 18% in the Han population and 33, 47 and 20% in the Uyghur population, respectively. The allele frequency distributions of the C and G alleles were 58 and 42% in the Han population and 56 and 43% in the Uyghur population, respectively. Significant differences were identified in the ‑572C/G promoter polymorphisms between the VTE group and the control group (P<0.05). For the ‑597G/A polymorphism, all individuals carried the GG and GA genotype; AA genotypes were not detected. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the risk factors for VTE, adjusting by confounding factors, the results of which demonstrated that the CC homozygote of the IL‑6 ‑572G/C, CRP, IL‑6 and high‑density lipoprotein‑cholesterol were independent risk factors of VTE (P<0.05). In conclusion, the ‑572G/C genotype of IL‑6 may be a genetic marker of VTE in the Han and Uyghur populations. PMID:25625484

  18. Evaluation of the risk of venous thromboembolism after quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination among US females.

    PubMed

    Yih, W Katherine; Greene, Sharon K; Zichittella, Lauren; Kulldorff, Martin; Baker, Meghan A; de Jong, Jill L O; Gil-Prieto, Ruth; Griffin, Marie R; Jin, Robert; Lin, Nancy D; McMahill-Walraven, Cheryl N; Reidy, Megan; Selvam, Nandini; Selvan, Mano S; Nguyen, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    After the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) licensed quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4) in 2006, reports suggesting a possible association with venous thromboembolism (VTE) emerged from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System and the Vaccine Safety Datalink. Our objective was to determine whether HPV4 increased VTE risk. The subjects were 9-26-year-old female members of five data partners in the FDA's Mini-Sentinel pilot project receiving HPV4 during 2006-2013. The outcome was radiologically confirmed first-ever VTE among potential cases identified by diagnosis codes in administrative data during Days 1-77 after HPV4 vaccination. With a self-controlled risk interval design, we compared counts of first-ever VTE in risk intervals (Days 1-28 and Days 1-7 post-vaccination) and control intervals (Days 36-56 for Dose 1 and Days 36-63 for Doses 2 and 3). Combined hormonal contraceptive use was treated as a potential confounder. The main analyses were: (1) unadjusted for time-varying VTE risk from contraceptive use, (2) unadjusted but restricted to cases without such time-varying risk, and (3) adjusted by incorporating the modeled risk of VTE by week of contraceptive use in the analysis. Of 279 potential VTE cases identified following 1,423,399 HPV4 doses administered, 225 had obtainable charts, and 53 were confirmed first-ever VTE. All 30 with onsets in risk or control intervals had known risk factors for VTE. VTE risk was not elevated in the first 7 or 28 days following any dose of HPV in any analysis (e.g. relative risk estimate (95% CI) from both unrestricted analyses, for all-doses, 28-day risk interval: 0.7 (0.3-1.4)). Temporal scan statistics found no clustering of VTE onsets after any dose. Thus, we found no evidence of an increased risk of VTE associated with HPV4 among 9-26-year-old females. A particular strength of this evaluation was its control for both time-invariant and contraceptive-related time-varying potential confounding.

  19. Screening for occult malignancy with FDG-PET/CT in patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Ana; Redondo, Margarita; Rubio, Tomás; Del Olmo, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Wilhelmi, Pablo; García-Velloso, María J; Richter, José A; Páramo, José A; Lecumberri, Ramón

    2013-11-01

    Extensive screening strategies to detect occult cancer in patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE) are complex and no benefit in terms of survival has been reported. FDG-PET/CT (2-[F-18] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography), a noninvasive technique for the diagnosis and staging of malignancies, could be useful in this setting. Consecutive patients ≥ 50 years with a first unprovoked VTE episode were prospectively included. Screening with FDG-PET/CT was performed 3-4 weeks after the index event. If positive, appropriate diagnostic work-up was programmed. Clinical follow-up continued for 2 years. Blood samples were collected to assess coagulation biomarkers. FDG-PET/CT was negative in 68/99 patients (68.7%), while suspicious FDG uptake was detected in 31/99 patients (31.3%). Additional diagnostic work-up confirmed a malignancy in 7/31 patients (22.6%), with six of them at early stage. During follow-up, two patients with negative FDG-PET/CT were diagnosed with cancer. Sensitivity (S), positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) of FDG-PET/CT as single tool for the detection of occult malignancy were 77.8% (95% CI: 0.51-1), 22.6% (95% CI: 0.08-0.37) and 97.1% (95% CI: 0.93-1), respectively. Median tissue factor (TF) activity in patients with occult cancer was 5.38 pM vs. 2.40 pM in those without cancer (p = 0.03). Limitation of FDG-PET/CT screening to patients with TF activity > 2.8 pM would improve the PPV to 37.5% and reduce the costs of a single cancer diagnosis from 20,711€ to 11,670€. FDG-PET/CT is feasible for the screening of occult cancer in patients with unprovoked VTE, showing high S and NPV. The addition of TF activity determination may be useful for patient selection. PMID:23616232

  20. Introduction of a Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis Protocol for Older Adult Psychiatric Patients.

    PubMed Central

    Croxford, Anna; Clare, Adam; McCurdy, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Hospital-Acquired venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in older adults. In psychiatric patients these risks are increased due to multiple factors including poor mobility, restraint, catatonia, sedation, and conventional antipsychotic use. Diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric patients presenting with signs and symptoms of a VTE can be delayed due to a patient's communication difficulties, non-compliance, or attribution of symptoms to a psychosomatic cause. However, despite the increased risk, approved VTE prophylaxis protocols are infrequently used on Psychiatric wards. On one Older Adult Psychiatric Ward, two patients presented with VTE (a fatal pulmonary embolism and a symptomatic deep vein thrombosis) over a 6 month period demonstrating the necessity for prophylactic assessment. A baseline audit over 3 months showed that 63-83% of patients on the ward had received no assessment of VTE risk, on any given week, although this improved slightly following the critical incidents. A VTE prophylaxis protocol, based on NICE guidance for VTE risk assessment in Medical and Surgical patients, was developed with consideration given to additional Psychiatric risk factors. This took the form of a pro-forma with a tick-box design that included mobility assessment, VTE risk factors, bleeding risk factors, and guidance on prescribing decisions. This was implemented on an Older Adult Psychiatric ward and prophylaxis was provided to those meeting the threshold. Weekly audit of all pro-formas (including assessments completed within 48 hours of admission and prophylaxis prescription) was conducted after the pro-forma introduction from 1st February 2013 to 24th May 2013. Frequency of assessments increased after protocol implementation with between 36% and 85% of all patients being assessed for VTE risk post intervention. Fluctuations in numbers assessed may have related to ward pressures, staff changes, and practicalities of pro-forma use. After

  1. Risk of Venous Thromboembolism in Patients with Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Horsted, Freesia; West, Joe; Grainge, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Background People with cancer are known to be at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), and this risk is believed to vary according to cancer type, stage of disease, and treatment modality. Our purpose was to summarise the existing literature to determine precisely and accurately the absolute risk of VTE in cancer patients, stratified by malignancy site and background risk of VTE. Methods and Findings We searched the Medline and Embase databases from 1 January 1966 to 14 July 2011 to identify cohort studies comprising people diagnosed with one of eight specified cancer types or where participants were judged to be representative of all people with cancer. For each included study, the number of patients who developed clinically apparent VTE, and the total person-years of follow-up were extracted. Incidence rates of VTE were pooled across studies using the generic inverse variance method. In total, data from 38 individual studies were included. Among average-risk patients, the overall risk of VTE was estimated to be 13 per 1,000 person-years (95% CI, 7 to 23), with the highest risk among patients with cancers of the pancreas, brain, and lung. Among patients judged to be at high risk (due to metastatic disease or receipt of high-risk treatments), the risk of VTE was 68 per 1,000 person-years (95% CI, 48 to 96), with the highest risk among patients with brain cancer (200 per 1,000 person-years; 95% CI, 162 to 247). Our results need to be considered in light of high levels of heterogeneity, which exist due to differences in study population, outcome definition, and average duration of follow-up between studies. Conclusions VTE occurs in greater than 1% of cancer patients each year, but this varies widely by cancer type and time since diagnosis. The absolute VTE risks obtained from this review can aid in clinical decision-making about which people with cancer should receive anticoagulant prophylaxis and at what times. Please see later in the article for the

  2. Risk of venous thromboembolism in people with lung cancer: a cohort study using linked UK healthcare data

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Alex J; Baldwin, David R; Card, Tim R; Powell, Helen A; Hubbard, Richard B; Grainge, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a potentially preventable cause of death in people with lung cancer. Identification of those most at risk and high-risk periods may provide the opportunity for better targeted intervention. Methods: We conducted a cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink linked to Hospital Episode Statistics and Cancer Registry data. Our cohort comprises 10 598 people with lung cancer diagnosed between 1997 and 2006 with follow-up continuing to the end of 2010. Cox regression analysis was performed to determine which demographic, tumour and treatment-related factors (time-varying effects of chemotherapy and surgery) independently affected VTE risk. We also determined the effect of a VTE diagnosis on the survival of people with lung cancer. Results: People with lung cancer had an overall VTE incidence of 39.2 per 1000 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI), 35.4–43.5), though rates varied depending on the patient group and treatment course. Independent factors associated with increased VTE risk were metastatic disease (hazard ratio (HR)=1.9, CI 1.2–3.0 vs local disease); adenocarcinoma subtype (HR=2.0, CI 1.5–2.7, vs squamous cell; chemotherapy administration (HR=2.1, CI 1.4–3.0 vs outside chemotherapy courses); and diagnosis via emergency hospital admission (HR=1.7, CI 1.2–2.3 vs other routes to diagnosis). Patients with VTE had an approximately 50% higher risk of mortality than those without VTE. Conclusions: People with lung cancer have especially high risk of VTE if they have advanced disease, adenocarcinoma or are undergoing chemotherapy. The presence of VTE is an independent risk factor for death. PMID:27253177

  3. [The new guidelines for deep venous thromboembolic disease prophylaxis in elective hip and knee replacement surgery. Are we nearer or further away from a consensus?].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Iban, M A; Díaz-Heredia, J; Elías-Martín, M E; Martos-Rodríguez, L A; Cebreiro-Martínez del Val, I; Pascual-Martín-Gamero, F J

    2012-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism events (VTE) prophylaxis after elective hip or knee replacement surgery is a subject of controversy. Three sets of guidelines (NICE, ACCP and AAOS) on this topic have recently been updated. The guidelines have points in common: prophylaxis is necessary, it is recommended to combine mechanical and pharmacological prophylaxis in patients who have suffered a previous VTE, isolated mechanical measures and low molecular weight heparins are effective, the new oral anticoagulants and fondaparinux are effective drugs. There is some consensus in recommending regional anaesthesia, in advising against echography studies in asymptomatic patients, and in the promotion of early mobilisation of the patient. There is controversy over the most suitable pharmacological treatment and the time of starting, and the duration of this, as well as on vena cava filters, antiplatelet drugs, and VTE or bleeding risk factors.

  4. Association of MTHFR genetic polymorphisms with venous thromboembolism in Uyghur population in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhao; Yadav, Umesh; Mahemuti, Ailiman; Tang, Bao-Peng; Upur, Halmurat

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to reveal the association between Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene mutations (C677T, A1298C and C1317T) and risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in Han and Uyghur population in Xinjiang. Material and method: We conducted a case control study composed of 246 cases, including 86 Uyghur and 160 Han ethnic diagnosed VTE were admitted in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University between January 2008 to December 2012, and 292 population including 122 Uyghur ethnic and 170 Han ethnic were studied as controls. To detect the polymorphism of MTHFR gene C677T, A1298T, and C1317T, Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was applied. Fluorescence polarization immunoassay was adopted to determine the plasma levels Homocysteine (Hcy), folic acid and vitaminB12 (VitB12). The association of the polymorphism of MTHFR and levels Hcy, folic acid and VitB12 with VTE was analyzed. Results: The MTHFR gene C677T genotypes distribution in Uyghur VTE patients and control groups were: TT (27.91% vs. 12.29%), CT (41.86% vs. 52.46%) and CC (30.23% vs. 35.25%), respectively; and in Han VTE patients and control groups were: TT (27.49% vs. 14.71%), CT (44.38% vs. 53.53%) and CC (28.13% vs. 31.76%), respectively, and there were significant differences in TT genotype of MTHFRC677T between VTE patients and controls in both Uyghur and Han ethnic (Uyghur: x2=8.070, P=0.005; Han: x2=8.159, P=0.004). However, there were no significant differences in the MTHFR gene A1298T and C1317T genotyping distribution frequency in Uygur and Han ethnic between VTE patients and controls (P>0.05). Plasma levels of Hcy in MTHFR gene TT genotype were statistically higher than CT and CC genotype (P<0.05). After adjusting for age, gender, smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes and MTHFR genotype for plasma Hcy levels, multifactor logistic regression analysis showed (OR=1.025, 95% CI 1.003-1.046, P=0

  5. Management of venous thromboembolism secondary to ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: A case report documenting the first use of a superior vena caval filter for upper limb venous thromboembolism in pregnancy, and the difficulties and complications relating to anticoagulation in antenatal and peri-partum periods.

    PubMed

    Mitchell-Jones, Nicola; McEwan, Michael; Johnson, Mark

    2016-06-01

    The management of venous thromboembolism and subsequent pulmonary embolism in pregnancy remains hugely challenging. In this case, we report the first use of a superior vena caval filter in pregnancy as an adjunct to pharmacological anticoagulation. This is the first reported use of a superior vena caval filter in pregnancy. We discuss the complexities of managing thromboembolism in pregnancy and the peri-partum period. PMID:27512501

  6. Low molecular weight heparin in one or two doses for the initial treatment of venous thromboembolic disease?

    PubMed

    Albornoz, Juan Pablo; Valenzuela, Andrés; Aizman, Andrés

    2015-11-20

    The preferred dosification for low molecular weight heparins is in two doses for most patients with venous thromboembolic disease. A daily dose would make treatment simpler, less expensive and more comfortable while retaining a similar benefit and safety. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified two systematic reviews including five randomized trials. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded it is not clear whether the risk of recurrence differs between the two alternatives because the certainty of the evidence is very low, and that administering low molecular weight heparin in two doses might be associated to little or no difference in the risk of major bleeding and mortality.

  7. Low molecular weight heparin in one or two doses for the initial treatment of venous thromboembolic disease?

    PubMed

    Albornoz, Juan Pablo; Valenzuela, Andrés; Aizman, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    The preferred dosification for low molecular weight heparins is in two doses for most patients with venous thromboembolic disease. A daily dose would make treatment simpler, less expensive and more comfortable while retaining a similar benefit and safety. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified two systematic reviews including five randomized trials. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded it is not clear whether the risk of recurrence differs between the two alternatives because the certainty of the evidence is very low, and that administering low molecular weight heparin in two doses might be associated to little or no difference in the risk of major bleeding and mortality. PMID:26609705

  8. Venous thromboembolic disease management patterns in total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty patients: a survey of the AAHKS membership.

    PubMed

    Mesko, J W; Brand, R A; Iorio, R; Gradisar, I; Heekin, R; Leighton, R; Thornberry, R

    2001-09-01

    The American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons (AAHKS) distributed a survey to its members exploring practice patterns implemented to prevent venous thromboembolic disease (VTED) in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Of 720 (33%) members, 236 responded. Prophylaxis was prescribed for 100% of patients during the course of hospitalization for THA and TKA. Warfarin was the commonest pharmacologic treatment used for THA (66%) and TKA (59%) patients. Low-molecular-weight heparin was used in 16% of THA patients and 18% of TKA patients. The most commonly employed mechanical modality was pneumatic devices in THA (51%) and TKA (50%). Universal acceptance of the need for prophylaxis administration for patients undergoing THA and TKA is shown. The method and duration remain highly variable; although the survey illustrates such variation, it suggests there is no one best method of prophylaxis.

  9. Using a framework for spread of best practices to implement successful venous thromboembolism prophylaxis throughout a large hospital system.

    PubMed

    Morgenthaler, Timothy I; Lovely, Jenna K; Cima, Robert R; Berardinelli, Carl F; Fedraw, Leslie A; Wallerich, Timothy J; Hinrichs, Deborah J; Varkey, Prathibha

    2012-01-01

    Best practices take time to spread passively, at times contributing to suboptimal results in health care. Managed diffusion, often referred to as "spread," may hasten broad-scale implementation of best practices. At our institution, appropriate use of venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis had been markedly improved in select areas by 2 independent quality improvement teams. We wanted to accelerate the adaptation of those locally learned best practices across our entire institution and did so by following an explicit framework for spread. We report our experience using this framework, noting both how the framework helped anticipate needs and what challenges we encountered that were not anticipated based on the spread plan. Using our framework, we were able to spread the changes across more than 79 distinct hospital services, improving use of appropriate VTE prophylaxis to more than 95%. Use of an explicit, well-constructed spread plan allows for an orderly management of diffusion of best practices.

  10. Abnormalities in the cellular phase of blood fibrinolytic activity in systemic lupus erythematosus and in venous thromboembolism

    SciTech Connect

    Moroz, L.A.; MacLean, L.D.; Langleben, D.

    1986-09-15

    Fibrinolytic activities of whole blood and plasma were determined by /sup 125/I-fibrin radiometric assay in 16 normal subjects, and in 11 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 14 with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), 23 with venous thromboembolic disease, and 20 patients awaiting elective surgery. Mean whole blood and plasma activities for patients with PSS, and for those awaiting elective surgery, were similar to normal values, as was the mean plasma activity in patients with SLE. However, mean whole blood activity in SLE was significantly decreased compared with normals (p less than 0.05), with mean plasma activity accounting for 44% of mean whole blood activity (compared with 17% in normal subjects), representing a 67% decrease in mean calculated cellular phase activity in SLE, when compared with normals. Since the numbers of cells (neutrophils, monocytes) possibly involved in cellular activity were not decreased, the findings suggest a functional defect in fibrinolytic activity of one or more blood cell types in SLE. An additional finding was the participation of the cellular phase as well as the well-known plasma phase of blood in the fibrinolytic response to thromboembolism.

  11. Hospital-associated venous thromboembolism in pediatrics: a systematic review and meta-analysis of risk factors and risk-assessment models

    PubMed Central

    Mahajerin, Arash; Branchford, Brian R.; Amankwah, Ernest K.; Raffini, Leslie; Chalmers, Elizabeth; van Ommen, C. Heleen; Goldenberg, Neil A.

    2015-01-01

    Hospital-associated venous thromboembolism, including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is increasing in pediatric centers. The objective of this work was to systematically review literature on pediatric hospital-acquired venous thromboembolism risk factors and risk-assessment models, to inform future prevention research. We conducted a literature search on pediatric venous thromboembolism risk via PubMed (1946–2014) and Embase (1980–2014). Data on risk factors and risk-assessment models were extracted from case-control studies, while prevalence data on clinical characteristics were obtained from registries, large (n>40) retrospective case series, and cohort studies. Meta-analyses were conducted for risk factors or clinical characteristics reported in at least three studies. Heterogeneity among studies was assessed with the Cochran Q test and quantified by the I2 statistic. From 394 initial articles, 60 met the final inclusion criteria (20 case-control studies and 40 registries/large case series/cohort studies). Significant risk factors among case-control studies were: intensive care unit stay (OR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.97–2.32); central venous catheter (OR: 2.12, 95% CI: 2.00–2.25); mechanical ventilation (OR: 1.56, 95%CI: 1.42–1.72); and length of stay in hospital (per each additional day, OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.03–1.03). Three studies developed/applied risk-assessment models from a combination of these risk factors. Fourteen significant clinical characteristics were identified through non-case-control studies. This meta-analysis confirms central venous catheter, intensive care unit stay, mechanical ventilation, and length of stay as risk factors. A few pediatric hospital-acquired venous thromboembolism risk scores have emerged employing these factors. Prospective validation is necessary to inform risk-stratified prevention trials. PMID:26001789

  12. Hospital-associated venous thromboembolism in pediatrics: a systematic review and meta-analysis of risk factors and risk-assessment models.

    PubMed

    Mahajerin, Arash; Branchford, Brian R; Amankwah, Ernest K; Raffini, Leslie; Chalmers, Elizabeth; van Ommen, C Heleen; Goldenberg, Neil A

    2015-08-01

    Hospital-associated venous thromboembolism, including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is increasing in pediatric centers. The objective of this work was to systematically review literature on pediatric hospital-acquired venous thromboembolism risk factors and risk-assessment models, to inform future prevention research. We conducted a literature search on pediatric venous thromboembolism risk via PubMed (1946-2014) and Embase (1980-2014). Data on risk factors and risk-assessment models were extracted from case-control studies, while prevalence data on clinical characteristics were obtained from registries, large (n>40) retrospective case series, and cohort studies. Meta-analyses were conducted for risk factors or clinical characteristics reported in at least three studies. Heterogeneity among studies was assessed with the Cochran Q test and quantified by the I(2) statistic. From 394 initial articles, 60 met the final inclusion criteria (20 case-control studies and 40 registries/large case series/cohort studies). Significant risk factors among case-control studies were: intensive care unit stay (OR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.97-2.32); central venous catheter (OR: 2.12, 95% CI: 2.00-2.25); mechanical ventilation (OR: 1.56, 95%CI: 1.42-1.72); and length of stay in hospital (per each additional day, OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.03-1.03). Three studies developed/applied risk-assessment models from a combination of these risk factors. Fourteen significant clinical characteristics were identified through non-case-control studies. This meta-analysis confirms central venous catheter, intensive care unit stay, mechanical ventilation, and length of stay as risk factors. A few pediatric hospital-acquired venous thromboembolism risk scores have emerged employing these factors. Prospective validation is necessary to inform risk-stratified prevention trials.

  13. Oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy, thrombophilias and risk of venous thromboembolism: a systematic review. The Thrombosis: Risk and Economic Assessment of Thrombophilia Screening (TREATS) Study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Olivia; Robertson, Lindsay; Langhorne, Peter; Twaddle, Sara; Lowe, Gordon D O; Clark, Peter; Greaves, Mike; Walker, Isobel D; Brenkel, Ivan; Regan, Lesley; Greer, Ian A

    2005-07-01

    Combined oral contraceptives, oral hormone replacement therapy and thrombophilias are recognised risk factors for venous thromboembolism in women. The objective of this study was to assess the risk of thromboembolism among women with thrombophilia who are taking oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy, conducting a systematic review and metaanalysis. Of 201 studies identified, only nine met the inclusion criteria. Seven studies included pre-menopausal women on oral contraceptives and two studies included peri-menopausal women on hormone replacement therapy. For oral contraceptive use, significant associations of the risk of venous thromboembolism were found in women with factor V Leiden (OR 15.62; 95%CI 8.66 to 28.15); deficiencies of antithrombin (OR 12.60; 95%CI 1.37 to 115.79), protein C (OR 6.33; 95%CI 1.68 to 23.87), or protein S (OR 4.88; 95%CI 1.39 to 17.10), elevated levels of factor VIIIc (OR 8.80; 95%CI 4.13 to 18.75); and factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A (OR 7.85; 95%CI 1.65 to 37.41). For hormone replacement therapy, a significant association was found in women with factor V Leiden (OR 13.16; 95%CI 4.28 to 40.47). Although limited by the small number of studies, the findings of this study support the presence of interaction between thrombophilia and venous thromboembolism among women taking oral contraceptives. However, further studies are required to establish with greater confidence the associations of these, and other, thrombophilias with venous thromboembolism among hormone users.

  14. Cancer Screening in Patients with Idiopathic Venous Thromboembolism--a Position Paper of the German Society of Hematology and Oncology Working Group on Hemostasis.

    PubMed

    Matzdorff, Axel; Riess, Hanno; Bergmann, Frauke; Bisping, Guido; Koschmieder, Steffen; Parmentier, Stefani; Petrides, Petro E; Sosada, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Cancer can trigger thromboembolism. There is a 4-10% chance of finding an asymptomatic occult cancer in patients with idiopathic venous thromboembolism (VTE). Current guidelines recommend limited cancer screening with history, physical examination, and screening examinations according to age after idiopathic VTE. Recent studies found that a more extensive screening program, including endoscopy and computed tomography, may increase the cancer detection rate. The Hemostasis Working Group of the German Society of Hematology and Oncology recommends a more extensive screening program after idiopathic VTE.

  15. Ambient Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Venous Thromboembolism in the Women’s Health Initiative Hormone Therapy Trials

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Regina A.; Griffin, Beth Ann; Salkowski, Nicholas; Jewell, Adria; Eibner, Christine; Bird, Chloe E.; Liao, Duanping; Cushman, Mary; Margolis, Helene G.; Eaton, Charles B.; Whitsel, Eric A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The putative effects of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the association between particulate matter (PM) air pollution and venous thromboembolism (VTE) have not been assessed in a randomized trial of hormone therapy, despite its widespread use among postmenopausal women. Objective In this study, we examined whether hormone therapy modifies the association of PM with VTE risk. Methods Postmenopausal women 50–79 years of age (n = 26,450) who did not have a history of VTE and who were not taking anticoagulants were enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative Hormone Therapy trials at 40 geographically diverse U.S. clinical centers. The women were randomized to treatment with estrogen versus placebo (E trial) or to estrogen plus progestin versus placebo (E + P trial). We used age-stratified Cox proportional hazard models to examine the association between time to incident, centrally adjudicated VTE, and daily mean PM concentrations spatially interpolated at geocoded addresses of the participants and averaged over 1, 7, 30, and 365 days. Results During the follow-up period (mean, 7.7 years), 508 participants (2.0%) had VTEs at a rate of 2.6 events per 1,000 person-years. Unadjusted and covariate-adjusted VTE risk was not associated with concentrations of PM < 2.5 μm (PM2.5) or < 10 μm (PM10)] in aerodynamic diameter and PM × active treatment interactions were not statistically significant (p > 0.05) regardless of PM averaging period, either before or after combining data from both trials [e.g., combined trial-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) per 10 μg/m3 increase in annual mean PM2.5 and PM10, were 0.93 (0.54–1.60) and 1.05 (0.72–1.53), respectively]. Findings were insensitive to alternative exposure metrics, outcome definitions, time scales, analytic methods, and censoring dates. Conclusions In contrast to prior research, our findings provide little evidence of an association between short-term or long-term PM exposure and VTE, or

  16. Association of Mild to Moderate Chronic Kidney Disease with Venous Thromboembolism: Pooled Analysis of Five Prospective General Population Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoodi, Bakhtawar K.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Næss, Inger Anne; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Brækkan, Sigrid K.; Veeger, Nic J. G. M.; Brodin, Ellen E.; Meijer, Karina; Sang, Yingying; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Hallan, Stein I.; Hammerstrøm, Jens; Cannegieter, Suzanne C.; Astor, Brad C.; Coresh, Josef; Folsom, Aaron R.; Hansen, John-Bjarne; Cushman, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent findings suggest that chronic kidney disease (CKD) may be associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Given the high prevalence of mild-to-moderate CKD in the general population, in depth analysis of this association is warranted. Methods and Results We pooled individual participant data from five community-based cohorts from Europe (HUNT2, PREVEND and Tromsø study) and United States (ARIC and CHS study) to assess the association of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), albuminuria and CKD with objectively verified VTE. To estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for VTE, categorical and continuous spline models were fit using Cox regression with shared-frailty or random-effect meta-analysis. A total of 1,178 VTE events occurred over 599,453 person-years follow-up. Relative to eGFR 100 mL/min/1.73m2, HRs for VTE were 1.29 (95%CI, 1.04-1.59) for eGFR 75, 1.31 (1.00-1.71) for 60, 1.82 (1.27-2.60) for 45 and 1.95 (1.26-3.01) for 30 mL/min/1.73m2. Compared with albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) of 5.0 mg/g, the HRs for VTE were 1.34 (1.04-1.72) for 30 mg/g, 1.60 (1.08-2.36) for 300 mg/g and 1.92 (1.19-3.09) for 1000 mg/g. There was no interaction between clinical categories of eGFR and ACR (P=0.20). The adjusted HR for CKD defined as eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73m2 or albuminuria ≥30 mg/g (vs. no CKD) was 1.54 (95%CI, 1.15-2.06). Associations were consistent in subgroups according to age, gender, and comorbidities as well as for unprovoked versus provoked VTE. Conclusions Both eGFR and ACR are independently associated with increased risk of VTE in the general population, even across the normal eGFR and ACR ranges. PMID:22977129

  17. Estimated annual costs of prophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolic events associated with major orthopedic surgery in France.

    PubMed

    Tilleul, Patrick; LaFuma, Antoine; Colin, Xavier; Ozier, Yves

    2006-10-01

    Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) remains a major complication following orthopedic surgery despite heparin prophylaxis. Clinical consequences associated with this complication are deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism, and long-term consequences of DVT, especially Postthrombotic syndrome (PTS). The purpose of the present study was to estimate the annual direct costs of VTE following major orthopedic surgery of the lower limb in France. This cost of illness study was performed by using available information from health system databases (1999) and literature and specific surveys (2002). Direct costs were calculated by using estimates of the number of patients with major orthopedic surgery in France during one year. Patients presenting with VTE were identified from the national disease-related group inpatient database. Additional resource consumption was identified by comparison with disease-related groups without the VTE complications. Ambulatory care costs after hospitalization, for recurrences and PTS, were estimated from specific surveys of general practitioners and venous disease specialists. Total annual costs of VTE associated with major orthopedic surgery for the French Sickness Fund were estimated to be approximately 60 million euros over 1 year with 28 million euros for inpatient care and 30 million euros for recurrences and PTS.

  18. Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis and Treatment in Cancer: A Consensus Statement of Major Guidelines Panels and Call to Action

    PubMed Central

    Khorana, Alok A.; Streiff, Michael B.; Farge, Dominique; Mandala, Mario; Debourdeau, Philippe; Cajfinger, Francis; Marty, Michel; Falanga, Anna; Lyman, Gary H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an increasingly frequent complication of cancer and its treatments, and is associated with worsened mortality and morbidity in patients with cancer. Design The Italian Association of Medical Oncology, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, the American Society of Clinical Oncology, the French National Federation of the League of Centers Against Cancer, and the European Society of Medical Oncology have recently published guidelines regarding VTE in patients with cancer. This review, authored by a working group of members from these panels, focuses on the methodology and areas of consensus and disagreement in the various clinical guidelines as well as directions for future research. Results There is broad consensus regarding the importance of thromboprophylaxis in hospitalized patients with cancer, including prolonged prophylaxis in high-risk surgical patients. Prophylaxis is not currently recommended for ambulatory patients with cancer (with exceptions) or for central venous catheters. All of the panels agree that low molecular weight heparins are preferred for the long-term treatment of VTE in cancer. Areas that warrant further research include the benefit of prophylaxis in the ambulatory setting, the risk/benefit ratio of prophylaxis for hospitalized patients with cancer, an understanding of incidental VTE, and the impact of anticoagulation on survival. Conclusion We call for a sustained research effort to investigate the clinical issues identified here to reduce the burden of VTE and its consequences in patients with cancer. PMID:19720907

  19. Impact of D-Dimer for Prediction of Incident Occult Cancer in Patients with Unprovoked Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Han, Donghee; ó Hartaigh, Bríain; Lee, Ji Hyun; Cho, In-Jeong; Shim, Chi Young; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Hong, Geu-Ru; Ha, Jong-Won; Chung, Namsik

    2016-01-01

    Background Unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE) is related to a higher incidence of occult cancer. D-dimer is clinically used for screening VTE, and has often been shown to be present in patients with malignancy. We explored the predictive value of D-dimer for detecting occult cancer in patients with unprovoked VTE. Methods We retrospectively examined data from 824 patients diagnosed with deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary thromboembolism. Of these, 169 (20.5%) patients diagnosed with unprovoked VTE were selected to participate in this study. D-dimer was categorized into three groups as: <2,000, 2,000–4,000, and >4,000 ng/ml. Cox regression analysis was employed to estimate the odds of occult cancer and metastatic state of cancer according to D-dimer categories. Results During a median 5.3 (interquartile range: 3.4–6.7) years of follow-up, 24 (14%) patients with unprovoked VTE were diagnosed with cancer. Of these patients, 16 (67%) were identified as having been diagnosed with metastatic cancer. Log transformed D-dimer levels were significantly higher in those with occult cancer as compared with patients without diagnosis of occult cancer (3.5±0.5 vs. 3.2±0.5, P-value = 0.009, respectively). D-dimer levels >4,000 ng/ml was independently associated with occult cancer (HR: 4.12, 95% CI: 1.54–11.04, P-value = 0.005) when compared with D-dimer levels <2,000 ng/ml, even after adjusting for age, gender, and type of VTE (e.g., deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary thromboembolism). D-dimer levels >4000 ng/ml were also associated with a higher likelihood of metastatic cancer (HR: 9.55, 95% CI: 2.46–37.17, P-value <0.001). Conclusion Elevated D-dimer concentrations >4000 ng/ml are independently associated with the likelihood of occult cancer among patients with unprovoked VTE. PMID:27073982

  20. Venous thromboembolism and subsequent risk of cancer in patients with liver disease: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Montomoli, Jonathan; Erichsen, Rune; Søgaard, Kirstine Kobberøe; Körmendiné Farkas, Dóra; Bloch Münster, Anna-Marie; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2015-01-01

    Objective Venous thromboembolism (VTE) may be a marker of occult cancer in the general population. While liver disease is known to increase the risk of VTE and cancer, it is unclear whether VTE in patients with liver disease is also a marker of occult cancer. Design A population-based cohort study. Setting Denmark. Participants We used population-based health registries to identify all patients with liver disease in Denmark with a first-time diagnosis of VTE (including superficial or deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) during 1980–2010. Patients with non-cirrhotic liver disease and patients with liver cirrhosis were followed as two separate cohorts from the date of their VTE. Measures For each cohort, we computed the absolute and relative risk (standardised incidence ratio; SIR) of cancer after VTE. Results During the study period, 1867 patients with non-cirrhotic liver disease and 888 with liver cirrhosis were diagnosed with incident VTE. In the first year following VTE, the absolute risk of cancer was 2.7% among patients with non-cirrhotic liver disease and 4.3% among those with liver cirrhosis. The SIR for the first 90 days of follow-up was 9.96 (95% CI 6.85 to 13.99) among patients with non-cirrhotic liver disease and 13.11 (95% CI 8.31 to 19.67) among patients with liver cirrhosis. After 1 year of follow-up, SIRs declined, but remained elevated in patients with non-cirrhotic liver disease (SIR=1.50, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.81) and patients with liver cirrhosis (SIR=1.95, 95% CI 1.45 to 2.57). Conclusions VTE may be a marker of occult cancer in patients with liver disease. PMID:26462285

  1. A preliminary study of inherited thrombophilic risk factors in different clinical manifestations of venous thromboembolism in central Iran

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Ali; Abolhasani, Marziyeh; Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori, Morteza; Pourgheysari, Batoul

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Inherited thrombophilia is known to be an important risk factor for developing venous thromboembolism. Whether such abnormalities may impact the development of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) differently is not well defined. This preliminary study was undertaken to compare thrombophilic polymorphism in patients with DVT and PE. Methods: A total of 35 DVT, 23 DVT/PE, and 37 PE patients admitted to the Hajar Hospital, Shahrekord, Iran, between October 2009 and February 2011 were included in the study and 306 healthy volunteers matched by age and sex from the same geographical area with no history of venous or arterial diseases were included as control group. Factor V Leiden (FV 1691G/A, rs6025), prothrombin (FII 20210G/A), methylene tetrahydrofulate reductase (MTHFR 677C/T, rs1801133), and PLA2 polymorphisms of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GpIIIa 1565T/C, rs5918) were investigated by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results: The number of patients with the investigated polymorphisms and homozygous carriers was significantly different among the groups (P<0.05). No significant difference was observed in the presence of FV 1691G/A and FII 20210G/A between any of the patients groups and the control group. GpIIIa 1565T/C and homozygous MTHFR 677C/T polymorphisms were higher in DVT patients compared with the control group (OR=6.65, 95% CI=3.09-14.30 and OR=4.08, 95% CI=1.35-12.38, respectively). Interpretation & conclusions: As none of the investigated polymorphisms were associated with PE, other thrombophilia polymorphisms may have a role in the pathogenesis of PE in these patients and should be investigated. Because of different prognostic risk factors among different types of patients, the treatment approach could be different. PMID:26261166

  2. Outpatient treatment of low-risk venous thromboembolism with monotherapy oral anticoagulation: patient quality of life outcomes and clinician acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Jeffrey A; Kahler, Zachary P; Beam, Daren M

    2016-01-01

    Background Oral monotherapy anticoagulation has facilitated home treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in outpatients. Objectives The aim of this study was to measure efficacy, safety, as well as patient and physician perceptions produced by a protocol that selected VTE patients as low-risk patients by the Hestia criteria, and initiated home anticoagulation with an oral factor Xa antagonist. Methods Patients were administered the Venous Insufficiency Epidemiological and Economic Study Quality of life/Symptoms questionnaire [VEINEs QoL/Sym] and the physical component summary [PCS] from the Rand 36-Item Short Form Health Survey [SF36]). The primary outcomes were VTE recurrence and hemorrhage at 30 days. Secondary outcomes compared psychometric test scores between patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) to those with pulmonary embolism (PE). Patient perceptions were abstracted from written comments and physician perceptions specific to PE outpatient treatment obtained from structured survey. Results From April 2013 to September 2015, 253 patients were treated, including 67 with PE. Within 30 days, 2/253 patients had recurrent DVT and 2/253 had major hemorrhage; all four had DVT at enrollment. The initial PCS scores did not differ between DVT and PE patients (37.2±13.9 and 38.0±12.1, respectively) and both DVT and PE patients had similar improvement over the treatment period (42.2±12.9 and 43.4±12.7, respectively), consistent with prior literature. The most common adverse event was menorrhagia, present in 15% of women. Themes from patient-written responses reflected satisfaction with increased autonomy. Physicians’ (N=116) before-to-after protocol comfort level with home treatment of PE increased 48% on visual analog scale. Conclusion Hestia-negative VTE patients treated with oral monotherapy at home had low rates of VTE recurrence and bleeding, as well as quality of life measurements similar to prior reports. PMID:27143861

  3. Impact of risk factors on the timing of first postpartum venous thromboembolism: a population-based cohort study from England.

    PubMed

    Abdul Sultan, Alyshah; Grainge, Matthew J; West, Joe; Fleming, Kate M; Nelson-Piercy, Catherine; Tata, Laila J

    2014-10-30

    Impact on the timing of first postpartum venous thromboembolism (VTE) for women with specific risk factors is of crucial importance when planning the duration of thromboprophylaxis regimen. We observed this using a large linked primary and secondary care database containing 222 334 pregnancies resulting in live and stillbirth births between 1997 and 2010. We assessed the impact of risk factors on the timing of postpartum VTE in term of absolute rates (ARs) and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) using a Poisson regression model. Women with preeclampsia/eclampsia and postpartum acute systemic infection had the highest risk of VTE during the first 3 weeks postpartum (ARs ≥2263/100 000 person-years; IRR ≥2.5) and at 4-6 weeks postpartum (AR ≥1360; IRR ≥3.5). Women with body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m(2) or those having cesarean delivery also had elevated rates up to 6 weeks (AR ≥1425 at 1-3 weeks and ≥722 at 4-6 weeks). Women with postpartum hemorrhage or preterm birth, had significantly increased VTE rates only in the first 3 weeks (AR ≥1736; IRR ≥2). Our findings suggest that the duration of the increased VTE risk after childbirth varies based on the type of risk factors and can extend up to the first 3 to 6 weeks postpartum.

  4. The Impact of the Choice of Data Source in Record Linkage Studies Estimating Mortality in Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Arlene M.; Williams, Tim; Leufkens, Hubert G. M.; de Vries, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Linked electronic healthcare databases are increasingly being used in observational research. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the choice of data source in estimating mortality following VTE, with a secondary aim to investigate the influence of the denominator definition. We used the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) to identify patients aged 18+ with venous thromboembolism (VTE). Multiple cohorts were identified in order to assess how mortality rates differed with a range of data sources. For each of the cohorts, incidence rates per 1,000 person years (/1000py) and relative rates (RRs) of all-cause mortality were calculated. The lowest mortality rate was found when only primary care data were used for both the exposure (VTE) and the outcome (death) (108.4/1000py). The highest mortality rate was found for patients diagnosed in secondary care (237.2/1000py). When linked primary and secondary care data were included for eligible patients and for the overlapping period of data collection, a mortality rate of 173.2/1000py was found. Sensitivity analyses varying the denominator definition provided a range of results (140.6–164.3/1000py). The relative rates of mortality by gender and age were comparable across all cohorts. Depending on the choice of data source, the population studied may be different. This may have substantial impact on the main findings, in particular on incidence rates of mortality following VTE. PMID:26863417

  5. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism in women under combined oral contraceptive. The PILl Genetic RIsk Monitoring (PILGRIM) Study.

    PubMed

    Suchon, Pierre; Al Frouh, Fadi; Henneuse, Agathe; Ibrahim, Manal; Brunet, Dominique; Barthet, Marie-Christine; Aillaud, Marie-Françoise; Venton, Geoffroy; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Identifying women at risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major public health issue. The objective of this study was to identify environmental and genetic determinants of VTE risk in a large sample of women under combined oral contraceptives (COC). A total of 968 women who had had one event of VTE during COC use were compared to 874 women under COC but with no personal history of VTE. Clinical data were collected and a systematic thrombophilia screening was performed together with ABO blood group assessment. After adjusting for age, family history, and type and duration of COC use, main environmental determinants of VTE were smoking (odds ratio [OR] =1.65, 95% confidence interval [1.30-2.10]) and a body mass index higher than 35 kg.m⁻² (OR=3.46 [1.81-7.03]). In addition, severe inherited thrombophilia (OR=2.13 [1.32-3.51]) and non-O blood groups (OR=1.98 [1.57-2.49]) were strong genetic risk factors for VTE. Family history poorly predicted thrombophilia as its prevalence was similar in patients with or without first degree family history of VTE (29.3% vs 23.9%, p=0.09). In conclusion, this study confirms the influence of smoking and obesity and shows for the first time the impact of ABO blood group on the risk of VTE in women under COC. It also confirms the inaccuracy of the family history of VTE to detect inherited thrombophilia.

  6. The validity of ICD codes coupled with imaging procedure codes for identifying acute venous thromboembolism using administrative data.

    PubMed

    Alotaibi, Ghazi S; Wu, Cynthia; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; McMurtry, M Sean

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of using a combination of International Classification of Diseases (ICD) diagnostic codes and imaging procedure codes for identifying deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) within administrative databases. Information from the Alberta Health (AH) inpatients and ambulatory care administrative databases in Alberta, Canada was obtained for subjects with a documented imaging study result performed at a large teaching hospital in Alberta to exclude venous thromboembolism (VTE) between 2000 and 2010. In 1361 randomly-selected patients, the proportion of patients correctly classified by AH administrative data, using both ICD diagnostic codes and procedure codes, was determined for DVT and PE using diagnoses documented in patient charts as the gold standard. Of the 1361 patients, 712 had suspected PE and 649 had suspected DVT. The sensitivities for identifying patients with PE or DVT using administrative data were 74.83% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 67.01-81.62) and 75.24% (95% CI: 65.86-83.14), respectively. The specificities for PE or DVT were 91.86% (95% CI: 89.29-93.98) and 95.77% (95% CI: 93.72-97.30), respectively. In conclusion, when coupled with relevant imaging codes, VTE diagnostic codes obtained from administrative data provide a relatively sensitive and very specific method to ascertain acute VTE. PMID:25834115

  7. Impact of the national venous thromboembolism risk assessment tool in secondary care in England: retrospective population-based database study.

    PubMed

    Catterick, David; Hunt, Beverly J

    2014-09-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common and important cause of death in hospital patients. We therefore investigated possible associations between the introduction of the compulsory national VTE risk assessment tool in England in 2010 and patient outcomes. A retrospective database study, using data from the Health and Social Care Information Centre and Office of National Statistics, was undertaken. The main outcome measures were VTE-related secondary diagnosis rates, 30-day and 90-day readmission rates and mortality rates. The observed mean VTE-related secondary diagnosis rate for 2011-2012 was 91% of the rate estimated from a linear regression model of the data for 2006-2007 to 2010-2011 (P = 0.001). Similarly, the observed mean 30-day VTE-related readmission rate for 2011 was 96% of the estimated rate (P = 0.067) and the observed mean 90-day VTE-related readmission rate for 2011 was 96% of the estimated rate (P = 0.022). The observed annual VTE-related national mortality rate was 91% of the estimated rate for 2011 and 92% of the estimated rate for 2012. This study shows a reduction in VTE-related secondary diagnoses and readmissions among adults admitted to hospital, and a reduction in VTE-related population mortality, since the introduction of a national VTE risk assessment screening tool in England. Despite some study limitations, this suggests that the concerted effort made by NHS England to improve prevention of hospital-acquired VTE has been successful.

  8. Practical aspects of treatment with target specific anticoagulants: initiation, payment and current market, transitions, and venous thromboembolism treatment.

    PubMed

    Mahan, Charles E

    2015-04-01

    Target specific anticoagulants (TSOACs) have recently been introduced to the US market for multiple indications including venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention in total hip and knee replacement surgeries, VTE treatment and reduction in the risk of stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Currently, three TSOACs are available including rivaroxaban, apixaban, and dabigatran with edoxaban currently under Food and Drug Administration review for VTE treatment and stroke prevention in NVAF. The introduction of these agents has created a paradigm shift in anticoagulation by considerably simplifying treatment and anticoagulant initiation for patients by giving clinicians the opportunity to use a rapid onset, rapid offset, oral agent. The availability of these rapid onset TSOACs is allowing for outpatient treatment of low risk pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis which can greatly reduce healthcare costs by avoiding inpatient hospitalizations and treatment for the disease. Additionally with this practice, the complications of an inpatient hospitalization may also be avoided such as nosocomial infections. Single-agent approaches with TSOACs represent a paradigm shift in the treatment of VTE versus the complicated overlap of a parenteral agent with warfarin. Transitions between anticoagulants, including TSOACs, are a high-risk period for the patient, and clinicians must carefully consider patient characteristics such as renal function as well as the agents that are being transitioned. TSOAC use appears to be growing slowly with improved payment coverage throughout the US.

  9. Novel Oral Anticoagulants for Venous Thromboembolism with Special Emphasis on Risk of Hemorrhagic Complications and Reversal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Zaheer; Hassan, Seemeen; Salzman, Gary A.

    2016-01-01

    Warfarin was the only oral anticoagulant available for the treatment of venous thromboembolism for about half a century until the recent approval of novel oral agents dabigatran, rivoraxaban and apixaban. This presents new classes of medications less cumbersome to use. They do not require frequent laboratory monitoring or have nurmerous drug interactions. On the other hand it also poses a challenge to the physicians deciding which agent to use in specific patient populations, how to predict the bleeding risk compared to warfarin and between the different novel agents and how to manage bleeding with relatively recent discovery of few potential antidotes. This review summarizes the major trials that led to the approval of these agents and their exclusion criteria helping physicians understand which patient types might not benefit from these agents. It provides clinical pearls invaluable in everyday practice such as transitioning between traditional and novel anticoagulants, dose adjustments for high risk populations, drug interactions and cost analysis. Futhermore, the review provides direct comparisons with warfarin and indirect comparisons among the novel agents in terms of efficacy and bleeding risk narrating the numbers of patients with intracranial, gastrointestinal and fatal hemorrhages in each of the major trials. We hope that this review will help the physicians inform their patients about the benefits and risks of these agents and enable them to make an informed selection of the most appropriate anticoagulant. PMID:27594818

  10. Venous Thromboembolism and Cerebrovascular Events in Patients with Giant Cell Arteritis: A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Crowson, Cynthia S.; Makol, Ashima; Ytterberg, Steven R.; Saitta, Antonino; Salvarani, Carlo; Matteson, Eric L.; Warrington, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and cerebrovascular events in a community-based incidence cohort of patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA) compared to the general population. Methods A population-based inception cohort of patients with incident GCA between January 1, 1950 and December 31, 2009 in Olmsted County, Minnesota and a cohort of non-GCA subjects from the same population were assembled and followed until December 31, 2013. Confirmed VTE and cerebrovascular events were identified through direct medical record review. Results The study population included 244 patients with GCA with a mean ± SD age at diagnosis of 76.2 ± 8.2 years (79% women) and an average length of follow-up of 10.2 ± 6.8 years. Compared to non-GCA subjects of similar age and sex, patients diagnosed with GCA had a higher incidence (%) of amaurosis fugax (cumulative incidence ± SE: 2.1 ± 0.9 versus 0, respectively; p = 0.014) but similar rates of stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), and VTE. Among patients with GCA, neither baseline characteristics nor laboratory parameters at diagnosis reliably predicted risk of VTE or cerebrovascular events. Conclusion In this population-based study, the incidence of VTE, stroke and TIA was similar in patients with GCA compared to non-GCA subjects. PMID:26901431

  11. Impact of risk factors on the timing of first postpartum venous thromboembolism: a population-based cohort study from England

    PubMed Central

    Grainge, Matthew J.; West, Joe; Fleming, Kate M.; Nelson-Piercy, Catherine; Tata, Laila J.

    2014-01-01

    Impact on the timing of first postpartum venous thromboembolism (VTE) for women with specific risk factors is of crucial importance when planning the duration of thromboprophylaxis regimen. We observed this using a large linked primary and secondary care database containing 222 334 pregnancies resulting in live and stillbirth births between 1997 and 2010. We assessed the impact of risk factors on the timing of postpartum VTE in term of absolute rates (ARs) and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) using a Poisson regression model. Women with preeclampsia/eclampsia and postpartum acute systemic infection had the highest risk of VTE during the first 3 weeks postpartum (ARs ≥2263/100 000 person-years; IRR ≥2.5) and at 4-6 weeks postpartum (AR ≥1360; IRR ≥3.5). Women with body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m2 or those having cesarean delivery also had elevated rates up to 6 weeks (AR ≥1425 at 1-3 weeks and ≥722 at 4-6 weeks). Women with postpartum hemorrhage or preterm birth, had significantly increased VTE rates only in the first 3 weeks (AR ≥1736; IRR ≥2). Our findings suggest that the duration of the increased VTE risk after childbirth varies based on the type of risk factors and can extend up to the first 3 to 6 weeks postpartum. PMID:25157182

  12. Has incentive payment improved venous thrombo-embolism risk assessment and treatment of hospital in-patients?

    PubMed Central

    Child, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on financial incentives rewarding successful implementation of guidelines in the UK National Health Service (NHS). In particular, it assesses the implementation of National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) venous thrombo-embolism (VTE) guidance in 2010 on the risk assessment and secondary prevention of VTE in hospital in-patients and the financial incentives driving successful implementation introduced by the Commissioning for Quality and Innovation for Payment Framework (CQUIN) for 2010-2011. We systematically compared the implementation of evidence-based national guidance on VTE prevention across two specialities (general medicine and orthopaedics) in four hospital sites in the greater South West of England by auditing and evaluating VTE prevention activity for 2009 (i.e. before the 2010 NICE guideline) and late 2010 (almost a year after the guideline was published). Analysis of VTE prevention activity reported in 816 randomly selected orthopaedic and general medical in-patient medical records was complemented by a qualitative study into the practical responses to revised national guidance. This paper’s contribution to knowledge is to suggest that by financially rewarding the implementation of national guidance on VTE prevention, paradoxes and contradictions have become apparent between the ‘payment by volume system’ of Healthcare Resource Groups and the ‘payment by results’ system of CQUIN. PMID:24358864

  13. Reducing the risk of venous thromboembolism using apixaban – patient perspectives and considerations. Should more attention be given to females?

    PubMed Central

    Fabbian, Fabio; De Giorgi, Alfredo; Tiseo, Ruana; Zucchi, Beatrice; Manfredini, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Background New oral anticoagulant agents, such as apixaban, rivaroxaban, dabigatran, or endoxaban, have recently become for patients an alternative option to conventional treatment in the therapy of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Thus, we aimed to review the available information on adverse events (AEs) of apixaban compared to conventional therapy (heparin or vitamin K antagonists) in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on patients treated for VTE, with a particular attention to sex subgroups. Methods An electronic search in MEDLINE and Embase was performed by using the keywords “apixaban” and “venous thromboembolism”. All RCTs focused on apixaban in the treatment and prevention of VTE were evaluated for the presence of AEs. AEs were classified as serious, bleeding, and cause of discontinuation. Moreover, we also searched by using the keywords “gender” and “venous thromboembolism” and “anticoagulants”. Results Considering all subjects enrolled in the eleven RCTs as a whole to investigate the occurrence of AEs, we extrapolated an events/subjects rate of 57.8% for AEs (6,445/11,144), 7.7% for serious AEs (975/12,647), 9.1% for bleeding events (1,229/13,454), and 3.2% for discontinuation of apixaban (421/13,039). The percentage of AEs was lower in subjects treated with apixaban than in those treated with conventional VTE therapy (53% vs 56.3%, respectively). However, only one study provided data on separate analysis by sex of either efficacy or safety of apixaban. Conclusion Under the patient’s perspective, apixaban could represent a good choice in the treatment of VTE, due to its pharmacological, economical, and safety profile. These positive aspects are certainly present in both sexes, since the available studies include a correct percentage of women, but data with separate analyses by sex are extremely limited. Future clinical trials should include in their results on clinical impact and outcomes a stratification by sex, and studies aimed to

  14. Heparin based prophylaxis to prevent venous thromboembolic events and death in patients with cancer - a subgroup analysis of CERTIFY

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients with cancer have an increased risk of VTE. We compared VTE rates and bleeding complications in 1) cancer patients receiving LMWH or UFH and 2) patients with or without cancer. Methods Acutely-ill, non-surgical patients ≥70 years with (n = 274) or without cancer (n = 2,965) received certoparin 3,000 UaXa o.d. or UFH 5,000 IU t.i.d. for 8-20 days. Results 1) Thromboembolic events in cancer patients (proximal DVT, symptomatic non-fatal PE and VTE-related death) occurred at 4.50% with certoparin and 6.03% with UFH (OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.23-2.39). Major bleeding was comparable and minor bleedings (0.75 vs. 5.67%) were nominally less frequent. 7.5% of certoparin and 12.8% of UFH treated patients experienced serious adverse events. 2) Thromboembolic event rates were comparable in patients with or without cancer (5.29 vs. 4.13%) as were bleeding complications. All cause death was increased in cancer (OR 2.68; 95%CI 1.22-5.86). 10.2% of patients with and 5.81% of those without cancer experienced serious adverse events (OR 1.85; 95% CI 1.21-2.81). Conclusions Certoparin 3,000 UaXa o.d. and 5,000 IU UFH t.i.d. were equally effective and safe with respect to bleeding complications in patients with cancer. There were no statistically significant differences in the risk of thromboembolic events in patients with or without cancer receiving adequate anticoagulation. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00451412 PMID:21791091

  15. Two doses of rivaroxaban versus aspirin for prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism. Rationale for and design of the EINSTEIN CHOICE study.

    PubMed

    Weitz, Jeffrey I; Bauersachs, Rupert; Beyer-Westendorf, Jan; Bounameaux, Henri; Brighton, Timothy A; Cohen, Alexander T; Davidson, Bruce L; Holberg, Gerlind; Kakkar, Ajay; Lensing, Anthonie W A; Prins, Martin; Haskell, Lloyd; van Bellen, Bonno; Verhamme, Peter; Wells, Philip S; Prandoni, Paolo

    2015-08-31

    Patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE) are at high risk for recurrence. Although rivaroxaban is effective for extended VTE treatment at a dose of 20 mg once daily, use of the 10 mg dose may further improve its benefit-to-risk ratio. Low-dose aspirin also reduces rates of recurrent VTE, but has not been compared with anticoagulant therapy. The EINSTEIN CHOICE study is a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, active-controlled, event-driven study comparing the efficacy and safety of two once daily doses of rivaroxaban (20 and 10 mg) with aspirin (100 mg daily) for the prevention of recurrent VTE in patients who completed 6-12 months of anticoagulant therapy for their index acute VTE event. All treatments will be given for 12 months. The primary efficacy objective is to determine whether both doses of rivaroxaban are superior to aspirin for the prevention of symptomatic recurrent VTE, while the principal safety outcome is the incidence of major bleeding. The trial is anticipated to enrol 2,850 patients from 230 sites in 31 countries over a period of 27 months. In conclusion, the EINSTEIN CHOICE study will provide new insights into the optimal antithrombotic strategy for extended VTE treatment by comparing two doses of rivaroxaban with aspirin (clinicaltrials.gov NCT02064439).

  16. CERTIFY: prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in patients with severe renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Bauersachs, R; Schellong, S M; Haas, S; Tebbe, U; Gerlach, H-E; Abletshauser, C; Sieder, C; Melzer, N; Bramlage, P; Riess, H

    2011-06-01

    Patients with severe renal insufficiency (sRI) have been suggested to be at an increased risk of bleeding with low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH). We aimed at assessing the benefits and risks of certoparin in comparison to unfractionated heparin (UFH) in these patients. In this subgroup analysis of the CERTIFY trial, acutely ill, non-surgical patients ≥70 years received certoparin 3,000U aXa o.d. or UFH 5,000 IU t.i.d. One hundred eighty-nine patients had a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) ≤30 ml/min/1.73 m2, 3,050 patients served as controls. Patients with sRI had a mean age of 85.9 ± 6.6 years (controls 78.4 ± 6.0) and were treated for a mean of 9.3 ± 3.7 days (9.9 ± 4.3). Thromboembolic event rates were comparable (4.55 vs. 4.21%; OR1.08; 95%CI 0.5-2.37) but bleeding was increased in sRI (9.52 vs. 3.54%; OR2.87; 95%CI 1.70-4.83). The incidence of the combined end-point of proximal DVT, symptomatic non-fatal PE and VTE related death was 6.49% with certoparin and 2.60% with UFH (OR2.60; 95%CI 0.49-13.85). There was a decrease in total bleeding with certoparin (OR0.33; 95%CI 0.11-0.97), which was non-significant in patients with GFR >30 ml/min/1.73 m2. In two multivariable regression models certoparin and immobilisation <10 days were associated with less bleeding while a GFR ≤30 ml/min/1.73 m2 was associated with increased bleeding. A total of 11.3% of certoparin- and 18.5% of UFH-treated patients experienced serious adverse events (14.8 in patients with a GFR ≤30 vs. 5.6% vs. >30 ml/min/1.73 m2). In conclusion, certoparin 3,000U anti Xa o.d. was as efficacious as 5,000 IU UFH t.i.d. in patients with sRI but had a reduced risk of bleeding.

  17. Risk of venous thromboembolic disease and adequacy of prophylaxis in hospitalized patients in Argentina: a multicentric cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Venous thromboembolic disease (VTE) is associated with high morbi-mortality. Adherence rate to the recommendations of antithrombotic prophylaxis guidelines (ATPG) is suboptimal. The aim of this study was to describe the adequacy of antithrombotic prophylaxis (ATP) in hospitalized patients as the initial stage of a program designed to improve physician adherence to –ATP recommendations in Argentina. Methods This study was a multicenter, cross-sectional study that included 28 Institutions throughout 5 provinces in Argentina. Results 1315 patients were included, 729 (55.4%) were hospitalized for medical (clinical) reasons, and 586 (44.6%) for surgical reasons. Adequate ATP was provided to 66.9% of the patients and was more frequent in surgical (71%) compared to clinical (63.6%) subjects (p < 0.001). Inadequate ATP resulted from underuse in 76.6% of the patients. Among clinical, 203 (16%) had increased bleeding risk and mechanical ATP was used infrequently. Conclusions The adequacy of ATP was better in low VTE risk clinical and surgical patients and high VTE risk in orthopedic patients. There was worse adequacy in high risk patients (with active neoplasm) and in those with pharmacological ATP contraindications, in which the use of mechanical methods was scarce. The adequacy of ATP was greater at institutions with < 150 beds compared with larger institutions. This is the first multicentric study reporting ATP in Argentina. Understanding local characteristics of medical performance within our territory is the first step in order to develop measures for improving ATP in our environment. PMID:25024645

  18. Pattern of Venous Thromboembolism Occurrence in Gynecologic Malignancy: Incidence, Timing, and Distribution a 10-Year Retrospective Single-institutional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Shuang; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Jiaxin; Cao, Dongyan; Huang, Huifang; Wu, Ming; Lang, Jinghe; Shen, Keng

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this single-institutional 10-year retrospective study was to investigate the clinical pattern (incidence, type, timing, and location) of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in Chinese patients with gynecologic cancer. Cases were identified by searching institutional Electronic Discharge Database. A comprehensive review of medical documentation was then performed to collect relevant data. The detection of VTE was symptom-triggered. A total of 155 VTE events were identified out of 7562 cases over the past 10-year period in our hospital. The incidence of clinically significant VTE was 2.0% in gynecologic malignancy, with vulvar cancer (3.7%) and ovarian cancer (2.5%) being the high-risk types (P = 0.01, Chi-square test). Perioperative period (35.1%) and preoperation (29.1%) were the 2 incidence peaks. Seventeen cases of pulmonary embolism (PE) occurred prior to surgery. Ovarian cancer patients were more likely to present preoperative PE compared to other site of cancer (76.4%; P = 0.01, Chi-square test). More preoperative VTE cases were complicated by PE than those in the perioperative period (39.5% vs 17.3%, P = 0.02, Chi-square test). Bilateral lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) accounted for 32.6% and there existed a preponderance of left-sided DVT (47.5% vs 17.0%, ratio 2.79:1). Femoral vein (36.6%) was the most common location for DVT. About 2.0% of the Chinese patients with gynecologic carcinoma developed clinical VTE, mostly during perioperative period and the time of diagnosis. The true incidence might have been under-estimated due to several reasons. The need for increased patient education and awareness of VTE is of importance. PMID:26683971

  19. Inflammation Markers and Incident Venous Thromboembolism: the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Nels C.; Cushman, Mary; Lutsey, Pamela L.; McClure, Leslie A.; Judd, Suzanne; Tracy, Russell P.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Zakai, Neil A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Inflammation biomarkers are associated with the venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk factors obesity and age, however the relationships of inflammation with VTE risk remain controversial. Objectives To examine associations of four inflammation biomarkers, C-reactive protein (CRP), serum albumin, white blood cell count (WBC), and platelet count (PLTC), with incident VTE, and determine whether they mediate the association of age or obesity with VTE. Patients/Methods Hazards models adjusted for VTE risk factors were used to calculate prospective associations of each biomarker with incident VTE in 30,239 participants of the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. Mediation of the associations of obesity and age with VTE were examined by bootstrapping. Over 4.6 years, there were 268 incident VTE events. Adjusting for VTE risk factors, the hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) was 1.25 (1.09, 1.43) per standard deviation (SD) higher log-CRP and 1.25 (1.06, 1.48) per SD lower albumin, with no associations for WBC or PLTC. The association of BMI, but not age, with VTE was partially mediated by CRP and albumin. In risk factor-adjusted models, the percent attenuation of the BMI HR for VTE by introducing CRP or albumin to the models was 15.4% (95% CI: 7.7%, 33.3%) and 41.0% (95% CI: 12.8%, 79.5%), respectively. Conclusion Higher CRP and lower serum albumin were associated with increased VTE risk, and statistically mediated part of the association of BMI with VTE. These data suggest inflammation may be a potential mechanism underlying the relationship of obesity and VTE risk. PMID:25292154

  20. Post-discharge compliance to venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in high-risk orthopaedic surgery: results from the ETHOS registry.

    PubMed

    Bergqvist, David; Arcelus, Juan I; Felicissimo, Paulo

    2012-02-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk persists for several weeks following high-risk orthopaedic surgery (HROS). The ETHOS registry evaluated post-operative VTE prophylaxis prescribed, and actual VTE prophylaxis received, compared with the 2004 American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) guidelines in HROS patients. We performed a subanalysis of ETHOS to assess patient compliance with ACCP-adherent prophylaxis after discharge and the factors predicting poor compliance. Consecutive patients undergoing hip fracture surgery, total hip arthroplasty, or knee arthroplasty were enrolled at discharge from 161 centres in 17 European countries if they had received adequate in-hospital VTE prophylaxis. Data on prescribed and actual prophylaxis received were obtained from hospital charts and patient post-discharge diaries. Good compliance was defined as percentage treatment intake ≥80% with no more than two consecutive days without treatment. A total of 3,484 patients (79.4%) received ACCP-adherent anticoagulant prescription at discharge and 2,999 (86.0%) had an evaluable patient diary. In total, 87.7% of evaluable patients were compliant with prescribed treatment after discharge. The most common reason for non-compliance (33.4%) was "drug was not bought". Injection of treatment was not a barrier to good compliance. Main factors affecting compliance related to purchase of and access to treatment, patient education, the person responsible for administering injections, country, and type of hospital ward at discharge. Within our study population, patient compliance with ACCP-adherent thromboprophylaxis prescribed at discharge was good. Improvements in patient education and prescribing practices at discharge may be important in further raising compliance levels in high-risk orthopaedic surgery patients.

  1. Educational Level, Anticoagulation Quality, and Clinical Outcomes in Elderly Patients with Acute Venous Thromboembolism: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Eveline; Faller, Nicolas; Limacher, Andreas; Méan, Marie; Tritschler, Tobias; Rodondi, Nicolas; Aujesky, Drahomir

    2016-01-01

    Whether the level of education is associated with anticoagulation quality and clinical outcomes in patients with acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) is uncertain. We thus aimed to investigate the association between educational level and anticoagulation quality and clinical outcomes in elderly patients with acute VTE. We studied 817 patients aged ≥65 years with acute VTE from a Swiss prospective multicenter cohort study (09/2009-12/2013). We defined three educational levels: 1) less than high school, 2) high school, and 3) post-secondary degree. The primary outcome was the anticoagulation quality, expressed as the percentage of time spent in the therapeutic INR range (TTR). Secondary outcomes were the time to a first recurrent VTE and major bleeding. We adjusted for potential confounders and periods of anticoagulation. Overall, 56% of patients had less than high school, 25% a high school degree, and 18% a post-secondary degree. The mean percentage of TTR was similar across educational levels (less than high school, 61%; high school, 64%; and post-secondary, 63%; P = 0.36). Within three years of follow-up, patients with less than high school, high school, and a post-secondary degree had a cumulative incidence of recurrent VTE of 14.2%, 12.9%, and 16.4%, and a cumulative incidence of major bleeding of 13.3%, 15.1%, and 15.4%, respectively. After adjustment, educational level was neither associated with anticoagulation quality nor with recurrent VTE or major bleeding. In elderly patients with VTE, we did not find an association between educational level and anticoagulation quality or clinical outcomes. PMID:27606617

  2. Educational Level, Anticoagulation Quality, and Clinical Outcomes in Elderly Patients with Acute Venous Thromboembolism: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Eveline; Faller, Nicolas; Limacher, Andreas; Méan, Marie; Tritschler, Tobias; Rodondi, Nicolas; Aujesky, Drahomir

    2016-01-01

    Whether the level of education is associated with anticoagulation quality and clinical outcomes in patients with acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) is uncertain. We thus aimed to investigate the association between educational level and anticoagulation quality and clinical outcomes in elderly patients with acute VTE. We studied 817 patients aged ≥65 years with acute VTE from a Swiss prospective multicenter cohort study (09/2009-12/2013). We defined three educational levels: 1) less than high school, 2) high school, and 3) post-secondary degree. The primary outcome was the anticoagulation quality, expressed as the percentage of time spent in the therapeutic INR range (TTR). Secondary outcomes were the time to a first recurrent VTE and major bleeding. We adjusted for potential confounders and periods of anticoagulation. Overall, 56% of patients had less than high school, 25% a high school degree, and 18% a post-secondary degree. The mean percentage of TTR was similar across educational levels (less than high school, 61%; high school, 64%; and post-secondary, 63%; P = 0.36). Within three years of follow-up, patients with less than high school, high school, and a post-secondary degree had a cumulative incidence of recurrent VTE of 14.2%, 12.9%, and 16.4%, and a cumulative incidence of major bleeding of 13.3%, 15.1%, and 15.4%, respectively. After adjustment, educational level was neither associated with anticoagulation quality nor with recurrent VTE or major bleeding. In elderly patients with VTE, we did not find an association between educational level and anticoagulation quality or clinical outcomes. PMID:27606617

  3. Prospective study of plasma D-dimer and incident venous thromboembolism: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Folsom, Aaron R.; Alonso, Alvaro; George, Kristen M.; Roetker, Nicholas S.; Tang, Weihong; Cushman, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Plasma D-dimer is a useful clinical test for acute venous thromboembolism (VTE), and concentrations remain higher in VTE patients after treatment than in controls. Yet, evidence is limited on whether higher basal D-dimer concentrations in the general population are associated with greater risk of first VTE. Objective To assess the prospective association between D-dimer and incident VTE over a long follow-up. Methods We measured plasma D-dimer in 12,097 participants, initially free of VTE, in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Over a median follow-up of 17 years, we identified 521 VTEs. We calculated hazard ratios of VTE using proportional hazards regression. Results The age, race, and sex adjusted hazard ratios of VTE across quintiles of D-dimer were 1, 1.5, 1.8, 2.1, and 3.2 (p for trend <0.0001). For the first 10 years of follow-up, the hazard ratio for the highest versus lowest quintile was 3.5, and was 2.9 after 10 years. In both whites and African Americans, VTE risk remained strongly associated with D-dimer after further adjustment for diabetes, body mass index, kidney function, and several thrombophilia genetic markers. D-dimer was associated with both unprovoked and provoked VTE, but more strongly with unprovoked. Conclusions A higher basal level of plasma D-dimer in the general population, presumably reflecting a predisposition to thrombosis, is a strong, long-term risk factor for a first VTE. PMID:26337932

  4. Venous Thromboembolism Following Hip and Knee Replacement Arthroplasty in Korea: A Nationwide Study Based on Claims Registry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sahnghoon; Hwang, Jee-In; Kim, Yunjung; Yoon, Pil Whan; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Yoo, Jeong Joon

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the incidence and trends of clinically relevant venous thromboembolism (VTE) including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) after hip and knee replacement arthroplasty (HKRA) in Korea. Between January 1 and December 31, 2010, 22,127 hip replacement arthroplasty (HRA) patients and 52,882 knee replacement arthroplasty (KRA) patients were enrolled in the analysis using the administrative claims database of the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA). All available parameters including procedure history and clinically relevant VTE during the 90 days after HKRA were identified based on diagnostic and electronic data interchange (EDI) codes. The overall incidence of VTE, DVT, and PE during the 90 days was 3.9% (n=853), 2.7% (n=597), and 1.5% (n=327) after HRA, while the incidence was 3.8% (n=1,990), 3.2% (n=1,699), and 0.7% (n=355) after KRA. The incidence of VTE after HKRA was significantly higher in patients who had previous VTE history (odds ratio [OR], 10.8 after HRA, OR, 8.5 after KRA), chronic heart failure (2.1, 1.3), arrhythmia (1.8, 1.7), and atrial fibrillation (3.4, 2.1) than in patients who did not. The VTE incidence in patients with chemoprophylaxis was higher than that in patients without chemoprophylaxis. The incidence of VTEs revealed in this retrospective review was not low compared with the results of the studies targeting other Asian or Caucasian populations. It may warrant routine prevention including employment of chemoprophylaxis. However, the limitation of the reviewed data mandates large scale prospective investigation to affirm this observation. PMID:26770042

  5. Systematic review of prognostic models for recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) post-treatment of first unprovoked VTE

    PubMed Central

    Ensor, Joie; Riley, Richard D; Moore, David; Bayliss, Susan; Fitzmaurice, David

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To review studies developing or validating a prognostic model for individual venous thromboembolism (VTE) recurrence risk following cessation of therapy for a first unprovoked VTE. Prediction of recurrence risk is crucial to informing patient prognosis and treatment decisions. The review aims to determine whether reliable prognostic models exist and, if not, what further research is needed within the field. Design Bibliographic databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library) were searched using index terms relating to the clinical field and prognosis. Screening of titles, abstracts and subsequently full texts was conducted by 2 reviewers independently using predefined criteria. Quality assessment and critical appraisal of included full texts was based on an early version of the PROBAST (Prediction study Risk Of Bias Assessment Tool) for risk of bias and applicability in prognostic model studies. Setting Studies in any setting were included. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome for the review was the predictive accuracy of identified prognostic models in relation to VTE recurrence risk. Results 3 unique prognostic models were identified including the HERDOO2 score, Vienna prediction model and DASH score. Quality assessment highlighted the Vienna, and DASH models were developed with generally strong methodology, but the HERDOO2 model had many methodological concerns. Further, all models were considered at least at moderate risk of bias, primarily due to the need for further external validation before use in practice. Conclusions Although the Vienna model shows the most promise (based on strong development methodology, applicability and having some external validation), none of the models can be considered ready for use until further, external and robust validation is performed in new data. Any new models should consider the inclusion of predictors found to be consistently important in existing models (sex, site of index

  6. A Survey of the Knowledge of Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis among the Medical Staff of Intensive Care Units in North China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiao; Sun, Bing; Yang, Yuanhua; Tong, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    Background Guideline concordance for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis in critically ill patients in intensive care units (ICUs) varies across different countries. Objective To explore how the medical staff of ICUs in China comprehend and practice VTE prophylaxis. Method Questionnaires comprising 39 questions and including 4 dimensions of thromboprophylaxis were administered in ICUs in North China. Results In all, 52 ICUs at 23 tertiary hospitals in 7 Chinese provinces and municipalities were surveyed. A total of 2500 questionnaires were sent, and 1861 were returned, corresponding to a response rate of approximately 74.4%. Of all surveyed medical staff, 36.5% of physicians and 22.2% of nurses were aware of the guidelines in China, and 19.0% of physicians and 9.5% of nurses comprehended the 9th edition of the guidelines of the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP). Additionally, 37.6% of the medical staff chose a prophylaxis method based on the related guidelines, and 10.3% could demonstrate the exact indication for mechanical pattern application. Worries about skin injury, difficulty with removal and discomfort during mechanical thromboprophylaxis were cited by more than 30% of nurses, which was significantly more frequent than for physicians (graduated compression stockings: 54.3% VS 34.1%, 60.7% VS 49%, and 59.4% VS 54%, p = 0.000; intermittent pneumatic compression: 31% VS 22.2%, 19.2% VS 13.9%, and 37.8% VS 27.2%, p = 0.000). Conclusions and Relevance The knowledge of VTE prophylaxis among the medical staff of ICUs in North China remains limited, which may lead to a lack of standardization of VTE prophylaxis. Strengthened, standardized training may help medical staff to improve their comprehension of the relevant guidelines and may finally reduce the occurrence of VTE in ICUs and improve the prognosis of critically ill patients with VTE. PMID:26418162

  7. When are breast cancer patients at highest risk of venous thromboembolism? A cohort study using English health care data

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Alex J.; West, Joe; Card, Tim R.; Crooks, Colin; Kirwan, Cliona C.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with breast cancer are at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), particularly in the peridiagnosis period. However, no previous epidemiologic studies have investigated the relative impact of breast cancer treatments in a time-dependent manner. We aimed to determine the impact of breast cancer stage, biology, and treatment on the absolute and relative risks of VTE by using several recently linked data sources from England. Our cohort comprised 13 202 patients with breast cancer from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (linked to Hospital Episode Statistics and Cancer Registry data) diagnosed between 1997 and 2006 with follow-up continuing to the end of 2010. Cox regression analysis was performed to determine which demographic, treatment-related, and biological factors independently affected VTE risk. Women had an annual VTE incidence of 6% while receiving chemotherapy which was 10.8-fold higher (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.2-14.4; absolute rate [AR], 59.6 per 1000 person-years) than that in women who did not receive chemotherapy. After surgery, the risk was significantly increased in the first month (hazard ratio [HR], 2.2; 95% CI, 1.4-3.4; AR, 23.5; reference group, no surgery), but the risk was not increased after the first month. Risk of VTE was noticeably higher in the 3 months after initiation of tamoxifen compared with the risk before therapy (HR, 5.5; 95% CI, 2.3-12.7; AR, 24.1); however, initiating therapy with aromatase inhibitors was not associated with VTE (HR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.5-1.4; AR, 28.3). In conclusion, women receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer have a clinically important risk of VTE, whereas an increased risk of VTE immediately after endocrine therapy is restricted to tamoxifen. PMID:26574606

  8. Characteristic and Prognostic Implication of Venous Thromboembolism in Ovarian Clear Cell Carcinoma: A 12-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Shuang; Yang, Jiaxin; Cao, Dongyan; Bai, Huimin; Huang, Huifang; Wu, Ming; Chen, Jie; You, Yan; Lang, Jinghe; Shen, Keng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To profile the characteristic and prognostic implications of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in Chinese ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC) patients. Methods We identified all of the cases between 2000 and 2012 by searching our institutional Ovarian CCC Database. A comprehensive review of the medical documentation was performed to collect relevant data. Kaplan-Meier models and Cox regression were employed for survival analysis. Results Of the 227 patients, 33 (14.5%) experienced VTE events. There was no significant difference between VTE and non-VTE group patients regarding age, serum cancer antigen 125 or tumor size. The optimal cytoreduction rate was higher in patients without VTE (70.1%) than in those with VTE (51.5%). VTE events were more likely to occur at presentation (36.4%) and recurrence (33.3%), followed by an adjuvant chemotherapy period (18.2%). VTE was more common in patients with advanced-stage disease than those with early-stage disease (P=0.003), whereas pulmonary embolism (PE) was 10-fold as common in advanced-stage disease as in early-stage disease (8.6% vs. 0.8%, P = 0.012). Patients with advanced disease tended to have thrombi in the proximal veins. Two patients died of PE, as confirmed by autopsy. Patients with VTE had reduced survival compared to those without VTE (median overall survival 54 vs. 140 months, P<0.001; median progression-free survival 17 vs. 43 months, P<0.001). Conclusions Overall, 14.5% of the patients with ovarian CCC experienced VTE, mainly before their cancer diagnosis or at a time of recurrence. VTE adversely impacted patient survival. PMID:25793293

  9. Adding Chemoprophylaxis to Sequential Compression May Not Reduce the Risk of Venous Thromboembolism in Bariatric Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gagner, Michel; Selzer, Faith; Belle, Steve H.; Bessler, Marc; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Dakin, Gregory; Davis, Dan; Inabnet, William B.; Mitchell, James E.; Pomp, Alfons; Strain, Gladys; Pories, Walter J.; Wolfe, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Background Anticoagulation, the use of sequential compression devices on lower extremities peri-operatively, and early ambulation are thought to reduce venous thromboembolism (VTE) postoperatively and are recommended to reduce VTE risk. However, the evidence upon which this recommendation is based is not particularly strong. We demonstrate that even a large, multi-center cohort with carefully collected prospective data is inadequate to provide sufficient evidence to support, or refute, this recommendation. Methods The Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (LABS) participants from 10 centers in the United States who underwent their first bariatric surgery between March, 2005 and December, 2007 comprise the study group. We examined the ability to address the question of whether anti-coagulation therapy, in addition to sequential compression, reduces the 30 day incidence of VTE or death sufficiently to recommend the use of prophylactic anticoagulation, a therapy that is not without risk. Results Of 4416 patients, 396 (9.0%) received sequential compression alone, while the others also received anticoagulation therapy. The incidence of VTE within 30 days of surgery was small (0.25% among those receiving sequential compression alone, 0.47% when anticoagulation therapy was added), and the 30 days incidence of death was also small (0.25% vs. 0.34%, p = 0.76, for sequential compression alone vs. sequential compression plus anticoagulation therapy). Estimates of the number of cases required to address the question of whether there is a difference in outcome related to VTE chemoprophylaxis, or whether the outcome rates are equivalent, range from 13,680 to at least 35,760 patients, depending upon whether superiority or equivalence is being analyzed. Conclusion Sufficient evidence from a clinical trial study to determine whether prophylactic anticoagulation added to compression devices further prevents VTEs is not available and such a trial is likely to be impractical

  10. Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis with unfractionated heparin in the hospitalized medical patient: the case for thrice daily over twice daily dosing.

    PubMed

    Mahan, Charles E; Pini, Mario; Spyropoulos, Alex C

    2010-08-01

    For venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention in the hospitalized medical patient, no head-to-head trials have been performed of unfractionated heparin (UFH) 5,000 U subcutaneously thrice (i.e. q8 h or TID) daily versus twice daily (q12 h or BID). Several meta-analyses have been undertaken in attempts to determine whether one regimen may be more beneficial for safety and efficacy. Currently, not all international guidelines include a recommended frequency for UFH. Delineation of this frequency may be helpful to the practicing clinician. Primary studies (with a modified Jadad score of >or=6 to demonstrate a stronger study design) that compared low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and UFH, and UFH and placebo were evaluated. Meta-analyses evaluating safety and efficacy of LMWH versus UFH, or TID UFH versus BID UFH were also evaluated. Although BID UFH shows some efficacy in one primary study, it is no more beneficial than no prophylaxis in another study. LMWH appears to be more efficacious than BID UFH, but comparable in safety and efficacy to TID UFH. Meta-analytic data demonstrates that BID UFH may have some reduction in deep vein thrombosis. Meta-analytic data also suggests that TID UFH is more efficacious than BID UFH at the cost of more major bleeding. The medical patient with risk factors for the development of VTE appears to be at moderate to high risk. International guidelines for VTE prevention should incorporate a frequency for UFH to guide use. TID UFH is superior in efficacy to BID UFH even when taking into consideration the increased rate of major bleeds. Newly published risk-assessment models may be beneficial in determining which patients would best benefit from BID UFH or TID UFH.

  11. New Combinational Assay Using Soluble Fibrin and D-Dimer Determinations: A Promising Strategy for Identifying Patients with Suspected Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Mirshahi, Shahsoltan; Soria, Claudine; Kouchakji, Basile; Kierzek, Gérald; Borg, Jeanne Yvonne; Varin, Rémi; Chidiac, Jean; Drouet, Ludovic; Mirshahi, Massoud; Soria, Jeannette

    2014-01-01

    Aim To establish a new and reliable assay for quantification of the soluble fibrin (SF) in combination with that of D-dimer for early diagnosis of venous thromboembolism. Methods and Samples The SF assay is based on D-dimer generated after incubation of plasma with tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA). SF and standard D-dimer assays, run in blind, were used to test 119 untreated outpatients with clinically suspected deep-vein thrombosis (DVT, 49 patients) or pulmonary embolism (PE, 70 patients) consulting at the emergency unit of the hospital. Thromboses were confirmed by current imaging methods such as ultrasonography, scintigraphy, computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) and ventilation/perfusion scan. Results SF assay was validated in 270 healthy volunteers [51.8% males; mean age years ± SD: 41±13; age range 19 to 65]. Among these normal plasmas, SF levels were ≤200 ng/mL in 97.8% of them, and 200–250 ng/mL in the remainder [26–46 years old; 50% males]. ROC curves were used to determine the SF cut-off value for plasma SF positivity, which was found to be 300 ng/mL. In patients with suspected venous thromboembolism, SF sensitivities for DVT and PE (92% and 94%, respectively) were comparable to those of D-dimer (96% and 94%), whereas SF specificities (86% and 95%) were higher than those of D-dimer (50% and 54%). Positive-predictive values for SF (89% and 94%) were again higher than those of D-dimer (70% and 65%) in DVT and PE. The amount of circulating SF normalized rapidly after anticoagulant therapy. Conclusion Results from this small group of patients suggest that the evaluation of plasma SF, in combination with that of D-dimer, represents a potentially useful tool for the early diagnosis of venous thromboembolism, provided that the patients have not been treated previously by anticoagulants. PMID:24664182

  12. Hormonal contraceptives and venous thromboembolism: Are inflammatory bowel disease patients at increased risk? A retrospective study on a prospective database

    PubMed Central

    Pellino, Gianluca; Sciaudone, Guido; Caprio, Francesca; Candilio, Giuseppe; De Fatico, G. Serena; Reginelli, Alfonso; Canonico, Silvestro; Selvaggi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies showed an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients receiving oral hormonal contraceptives. Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) often affect young patients and represent a pro-coagulant condition. This could result from active inflammation, but a potential role for genetic and molecular factors has been suggested. Hormonal contraceptives have also been associated with increased risk of VTE and the risk may be greater in IBD patients that already are in a pro-coagulant status, but no definitive data are available in this population. The purpose of our study was to seek for differences of the risk of VTE in IBD patients receiving hormonal contraceptives compared with controls. This is a retrospective study. We interrogated a prospectively maintained database of IBD patients observed at our outpatient clinic between 2000 and 2014. All female patients managed conservatively, with no active disease, who were taking oral hormone contraceptives in the study period, were included. Patients observed for other-than-IBD conditions at our Unit and at the Unit of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, receiving contraceptives, served as controls (ratio 1:2). Patients with cancer, those receiving hormonal therapy, and those with known genetic predisposition to VTE were excluded. We included 146 six IBD patients and 290 controls. One patient in each group developed VTE. Overall, the incidence of VTE associated with oral contraceptives was 0.5%. IBD was associated with increased risk of VTE (OR 1.9, 95% CI 0.12–32.12, p > 0.99). Active smokers since 10 years (17.2%) had higher risks of VTE (OR 8.6, 95% CI 1.16–19.25, p = 0.03). Our data show that patients with IBD in remission are not at higher risk of VTE due to oral oestrogen-containing contraceptives compared with non-IBD controls. Smokers are at increased risk, irrespective of the baseline disease. PMID:26779335

  13. Venous thromboembolism in medical patients during hospitalisation and 3 months after hospitalisation: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Kirkby, Brooke E; Wong, Sophia; Foong, Yi Chao; Ranjan, Nishant; Luttrell, James; Mathew, Ronnie; Chilvers, Charles M; Mauldon, Emily; Sharp, Colin; Hannan, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to assess the incidence and risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in a cohort of medical patients both during the period of hospitalisation and following discharge. Design This was a prospective observational study to document the risk profile and incidence of VTE posthospitalisation among all medical patients admitted to our institution during the trial period. Settings Primary healthcare. Single tertiary referral centre, Tasmania, Australia. Participants A total of 986 patients admitted to the medical ward between January 2012 and September 2012 were included in the study with male to female ratio of 497:489. The mean age of patients was 68 years (range 17–112, SD 16). Results Overall, 54/986 patients (5.5%) had a VTE during the study period. Of these, 40/54 (74.1%) occurred during hospitalisation and 14/54 (25.9%) occurred following discharge. VTE risk factors revealed in multivariate analysis to be associated with a previous diagnosis of VTE (p<0.001, OR=6.63, 95% CI 3.3 to 13.36), the occurrence of surgery within the past 30 days (p<0.001, OR=2.52, 95% CI 1.33 to 4.79) and an admission diagnosis of pulmonary disease (p<0.01, OR 3.61, 95% CI 1.49 to 8.76). Mobility within 24 hours of admission was not associated with an increased risk. There was risk of VTE when the length of stay prolonged (p=0.046, OR=1.01, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.03), however it was not sustained with multivariate modelling. VTE-specific prophylaxis was used in 53% of the studied patients. Anticoagulation including antiplatelet agents were administered in 63% of patients who developed VTE. Conclusions This prospective observational study found that 5.5% of the studied patients developed VTE. Among those, 25.9% (14/54) of patients had a detected VTE posthospitalisation with this risk being increased if there was a history of VTE, recent surgery and pulmonary conditions. Thromboprophylaxis may be worth considering in these cohorts. Further study to

  14. Diagnostic Value of Elevated D-Dimer Level in Venous Thromboembolism in Patients With Acute or Subacute Brain Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon Jin; Im, Sun; Jang, Yong Jun; Park, So Young; Sohn, Dong Gyun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To define the risk factors that influence the occurrence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with acute or subacute brain lesions and to determine the usefulness of D-dimer levels for VTE screening of these patients. Methods Medical data from January 2012 to December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Mean D-dimer levels in those with VTE versus those without VTE were compared. Factors associated with VTE were analyzed and the odds ratios (ORs) were calculated. The D-dimer cutoff value for patients with hemiplegia was defined using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results Of 117 patients with acute or subacute brain lesions, 65 patients with elevated D-dimer levels (mean, 5.1±5.8 mg/L; positive result >0.55 mg/L) were identified. Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of VTE was 3.9 times higher in those with urinary tract infections (UTIs) (p=0.0255). The risk of VTE was 4.5 times higher in those who had recently undergone surgery (p=0.0151). Analysis of the ROC showed 3.95 mg/L to be the appropriate D-dimer cutoff value for screening for VTE (area under the curve [AUC], 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5-0.8) in patients with acute or subacute brain lesions. This differs greatly from the conventional D-dimer cutoff value of 0.55 mg/L. D-dimer levels less than 3.95 mg/L in the absence of surgery showed a negative predictive value of 95.8% (95% CI, 78.8-99.8). Conclusion Elevated D-dimer levels alone have some value in VTE diagnosis. However, the concomitant presence of UTI or a history of recent surgery significantly increased the risk of VTE in patients with acute or subacute brain lesions. Therefore, a different D-dimer cutoff value should be applied in these cases. PMID:26798616

  15. Contraceptive knowledge and attitudes of Austrian adolescents after mass media reports linking third-generation oral contraceptives with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Egarter, C; Strohmer, H; Lehner, R; Földy, M; Leitich, H; Berghammer, P

    1997-09-01

    We performed a representative survey to determine the level of knowledge of 1,010 Austrian adolescents aged 14 to 24 years about selected facts relating to the recent massive news coverage of the increase in the risk of venous thromboembolism in users of third-generation oral contraceptives and to assess the contraceptive behavior of this population. The overall use rate of oral contraceptives and condoms had increased significantly between 1991 and 1996. Sixty-six percent of the adolescents surveyed stated not having heard or read any media reports on oral contraceptives. Only 8% of those who had knew that most reports focused on the pill as a possible cause of venous thromboembolism, whereas the majority of respondents indicated that the media conveyed doubts regarding the health safety of oral contraceptives in general. Nearly half of adolescents were unable to define what a thrombosis was. Thus, although the mass media play an important role in transmitting medical information, the dissemination of practical, accurate advice on the risks of a drug and competent patient counseling is reserved for the health care professionals. PMID:9347204

  16. High Pretreatment Plasma D-dimer Levels Are Associated With Poor Prognosis in Patients With Ovarian Cancer Independently of Venous Thromboembolism and Tumor Extension

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Manabu; Satoh, Toyomi; Matsumoto, Koji; Michikami, Hiroo; Nakamura, Yuko; Nakao, Sari; Ochi, Hiroyuki; Onuki, Mamiko; Minaguchi, Takeo; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Objective Elevated plasma D-dimer (DD) is associated with decreased survival among patients with breast, lung, and colon cancers. The present study clarifies the prognostic significance of pretreatment plasma DD levels in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Methods We investigated pretreatment DD levels and other variables for overall survival using univariate and multivariate analyses in 134 consecutive patients with EOC stages II to IV who were initially treated between November 2004 and December 2010. Results The median follow-up period was 53 (7–106) months. Univariate analysis significantly associated elevated pretreatment DD (≥2.0 μg/mL) levels to poor 5-year overall survival rates irrespective of previously treated venous thromboembolism (72.2% vs 52.6%, P = 0.039). Cancer antigen 125 levels of 200 U/mL or higher (P = 0.011), distant metastases (P = 0.0004), residual tumors (P < 0.0001), and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage III/IV (P = 0.0033) were also poor prognostic factors. Multivariate analysis independently associated DD levels of 2.0 μg/mL or higher (P = 0.041), distant metastases (P = 0.013), and residual tumors (P < 0.0001) with poor overall survival. Conclusions High pretreatment DD levels are associated with poor overall survival in patients with EOC independently of venous thromboembolism and tumor extension and might comprise a promising prognostic biomarker for patients with EOC. PMID:25756402

  17. An update on prevention of venous thromboembolism in hospitalized acutely ill medical patients

    PubMed Central

    Samama, Meyer Michel; Kleber, Franz-Xaver

    2006-01-01

    Both the recently updated consensus guidelines published by the American College of Chest Physicians, and the International Union of Angiology recommend thromboprophylaxis with either low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) or unfractionated heparin (UFH) in medical patients at risk of VTE. However, no guidance is given regarding the appropriate dosing regimens that should be used for thromboprophylaxis in this patient group. LMWH (enoxaparin and dalteparin) and UFH have been shown to be effective for thromboprophylaxis in at-risk hospitalized medical patients. Although LMWH once daily (o.d.) has been shown to be as effective as UFH three times daily (t.i.d.) for thromboprophylaxis in at-risk medical patients, there are no data to show that UFH twice daily (b.i.d) is as effective as either LMWH o.d. or UFH t.i.d. On the basis of currently available evidence, the LMWHs enoxaparin and dalteparin are more attractive alternatives to UFH for the prevention of VTE in hospitalized medical patients because of their convenient once-daily administration and better safety profile, demonstrated in terms of reduced bleeding, HIT, and other adverse events. PMID:16817957

  18. Pulmonary embolism risk stratification by European Society of Cardiology is associated with recurrent venous thromboembolism: Findings from a long-term follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai; Zhai, Zhenguo; Yang, Yuanhua; Zhu, Jianguo; Kuang, Tuguang; Xie, Wanmu; Yang, Suqiao; Liu, Fangfang; Gong, Juanni; Shen, Ying H; Wang, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) recurrence carries significant mortality and morbidity. Accurate risk assessment and effective treatment for patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is important for VTE recurrence prevention. We examined the association of VTE recurrence with risk stratification and PE treatment. We enrolled 627 patients with a first episode of confirmed PE. Baseline clinical information was collected. PE severity was assessed by the European Society of Cardiology's (ESC) risk stratification, the simplified PE Severity Index (sPESI) and the Qanadli score of clot burden. Patients were followed for 1-5 years. The cumulative recurrent VTE and all-cause death were documented. The association between recurrent VTE and risk factors was analyzed. The cumulative incidences of recurrent VTE were 4.5%, 7.3%, and 13.9% at 1, 2, and 5 years of follow-up, respectively. The VTE recurrence was associated with higher (high- and intermediate-) risk stratification predicted by ESC model (HR 1.838, 95% CI 1.318-2.571, P<0.001), as well as with unprovoked PE (HR 2.809, 95% CI 1.650-4.781, P b 0.001) and varicose veins (HR 4.747, 95% CI 2.634-8.557, P<0.001). The recurrence was negatively associated with longer (≥6 months) anticoagulation (HR 0.473, 95% CI 0.285-0.787, P=0.004), especially in patients with higher risk (HR 0.394, 95% CI 0.211-0.736, P=0.003) and unprovoked PE (HR 0.248, 95% CI 0.122-0.504, P<0.001). ESC high-risk and intermediate-risk PE, unprovoked PE and varicose veins increase recurrence risk. Longer anticoagulation treatment reduces recurrence, especially in higher risk and unprovoked PE patients.

  19. A prospective multicenter study of venous thromboembolism in patients with newly-diagnosed high-grade glioma: hazard rate and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xiaobu; Kickler, Thomas S.; Desideri, Serena; Jani, Jayesh; Fisher, Joy; Grossman, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication in patients with high-grade gliomas. The purpose of this prospective multicenter study was to determine the hazard rate of first symptomatic VTE in newly-diagnosed glioma patients and identify clinical and laboratory risk factors. On enrollment, demographic and clinical information were recorded and a comprehensive coagulation evaluation was performed. Patients were followed until death. The study end point was objectively-documented symptomatic VTE. One hundred seven patients were enrolled with a median age of 57 years (range 29–85) between June 2005 and April 2008. Ninety-one (85 %) had glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). During an average survival of 17.7 months, 26 patients (24 %) (95 % CI 17–34 %) developed VTE (hazard rate 0.15 per person-year) and 94 patients (88 %) died. Median time to VTE was 14.2 weeks post-operation (range 3–126). Patients with an initial tumor biopsy were 3.0 fold more likely to suffer VTE (p = 0.02). Patients with an elevated factor VIII activity (>147 %) were 2.1-fold more likely to develop VTE. ABO blood group, D dimer and thrombin generation were not associated with VTE. No fatal VTE occurred. VTE is a common complication in patients with newly-diagnosed high grade gliomas, particularly in the first six months after diagnosis. Patients with an initial tumor biopsy and elevated factor VIII levels are at increased risk. However, VTE was not judged to be pri-marily responsible for any patient deaths. Therefore, out-patient primary VTE prophylaxis remains investigational until more effective primary prophylaxis strategies and therapies for glioma are identified. PMID:26100546

  20. Improved compliance with venous thromboembolism (VTE) pharmacologic prophylaxis for patients with gynecologic malignancies hospitalized for nonsurgical indications did not reduce VTE incidence

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Lauren S.; Kidin, Lisa M.; Downs, Rebecca L.; Cleveland, David J.; Wilson, Ginger L.; Munsell, Mark F.; DeJesus, Alma Y.; Cain, Katherine E.; Ramirez, Pedro T.; Kroll, Michael H.; Levenback, Charles F.; Schmeler, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective National guidelines recommend prophylactic anticoagulation for all hospitalized patients with cancer to prevent hospital-acquired venous thromboembolism (VTE). However, adherence to these evidence-based recommended practice patterns remains low. We performed a quality improvement project to increase VTE pharmacologic prophylaxis rates among patients with gynecologic malignancies hospitalized for nonsurgical indications and evaluated the resulting effect on rates of development of VTE. Methods/materials In June 2011, departmental VTE practice guidelines were implemented for patients with gynecologic malignancies who were hospitalized for nonsurgical indications. A standardized VTE prophylaxis module was added to the admission electronic order sets. Outcome measures included: number of admissions receiving VTE pharmacologic prophylaxis within 24 hours of admission; and number of potentially preventable hospital-acquired VTEs diagnosed within 30 and 90 days of discharge. Outcomes were compared between a pre-guideline implementation cohort (N=99), a post-guideline implementation cohort (N=127), and a sustainability cohort assessed 2 years after implementation (N=109). Patients were excluded if upon admission they had a VTE, were considered low risk for VTE, or had a documented contraindication to pharmacologic prophylaxis. Results Administration of pharmacologic prophylaxis within 24 hours of admission increased from 20.8% to 88.2% immediately following the implementation of guidelines, but declined to 71.8% in our sustainability cohort (p<0.001). There was no difference in VTE incidence among the three cohorts (n=2 (4.2%) v. n=3 (3.9%) v. n=3 (4.2%), respectively; p=1.00). Conclusions Our quality improvement project improved pharmacologic VTE prophylaxis rates. A small decrease in prophylaxis over the subsequent 2 years suggests a need for continued surveillance to optimize quality improvement initiatives. Despite increased adherence to guidelines, VTE rates

  1. Oral rivaroxaban versus standard therapy for the treatment of symptomatic venous thromboembolism: a pooled analysis of the EINSTEIN-DVT and PE randomized studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Standard treatment for venous thromboembolism (VTE) consists of a heparin combined with vitamin K antagonists. Direct oral anticoagulants have been investigated for acute and extended treatment of symptomatic VTE; their use could avoid parenteral treatment and/or laboratory monitoring of anticoagulant effects. Methods A prespecified pooled analysis of the EINSTEIN-DVT and EINSTEIN-PE studies compared the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban (15 mg twice-daily for 21 days, followed by 20 mg once-daily) with standard-therapy (enoxaparin 1.0 mg/kg twice-daily and warfarin or acenocoumarol). Patients were treated for 3, 6, or 12 months and followed for suspected recurrent VTE and bleeding. The prespecified noninferiority margin was 1.75. Results A total of 8282 patients were enrolled; 4151 received rivaroxaban and 4131 received standard-therapy. The primary efficacy outcome occurred in 86 (2.1%) rivaroxaban-treated patients compared with 95 (2.3%) standard-therapy-treated patients (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66–1.19; pnoninferiority < 0.001). Major bleeding was observed in 40 (1.0%) and 72 (1.7%) patients in the rivaroxaban and standard-therapy groups, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.37–0.79; p = 0.002). In key subgroups, including fragile patients, cancer patients, patients presenting with large clots, and those with a history of recurrent VTE, the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban were similar compared with standard-therapy. Conclusion The single-drug approach with rivaroxaban resulted in similar efficacy to standard-therapy and was associated with a significantly lower rate of major bleeding. Efficacy and safety results were consistent among key patient subgroups. Trial registration EINSTEIN-PE: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00439777; EINSTEIN-DVT: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00440193. PMID:24053656

  2. Age at menopause, reproductive history and venous thromboembolism risk among postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Canonico, Marianne; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève; O’Sullivan, Mary Jo; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Cochrane, Barbara; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate VTE risk in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy and time since menopause, as well as any interaction with randomized HT assignment among postmenopausal women. Methods Using pooled data from the Women’s Health Initiative HT clinical trials including 27,035 postmenopausal women ages 50 to 79 years with no history of VTE, we assessed the risk of VTE in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy and time since menopause by Cox proportional hazard models. Linear trends, quadratic relationships and interactions of reproductive life characteristics with HT on VTE risk were systematically tested. Results During the follow-up, 426 women reported a first VTE, including 294 nonprocedure-related events. No apparent interaction of reproductive life characteristics with HT assignment on VTE risk was detected and there was any significant association of VTE with age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, oophorectomy or time since menopause. However, analyses restricted to nonprocedure-related VTE showed a U-shaped relationship between age at menopause and thrombotic risk that persisted after multivariable analysis (p<0.01). Compared to women aged 40 to 49 years at menopause, those with early menopause (age<40 years) or with late menopause (age>55 years) had a significant increased VTE risk (HR=1.8;95%CI:1.2–2.7 and HR=1.5;95%CI:1.0–2.4, respectively). Conclusion Reproductive life characteristics have little association with VTE and do not seem to influence the effect of HT on thrombotic risk among postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, early and late onset of menopause might be newly identified risk factors for nonprocedure-related VTE. PMID:23760439

  3. Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)

    MedlinePlus

    ... with DVT. Most DVTs are associated with leg pain or mild swelling only, and the perception that there should be obvious symptoms has likely resulted in many delayed or missed diagnoses of VTE. It is the combination ... swelling of one leg • Pain or tenderness in the calf muscle or groin • ...

  4. Comparison of Venous Thromboembolism after Total Artificial Joint Replacement between Musculoskeletal Tumors and Osteoarthritis of the Knee by a Single Surgeon

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Dong; Zhao, Yiqiong; Shen, Jiakang; Cai, Zhengdong; Hua, Yingqi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare and evaluate the event of VTE (Venous Thromboembolism Event) after total artificial joint replacement between two groups diagnosed with either musculoskeletal tumors or osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. From 2004 to 2014, a total of 1,402 patients (308 in tumor group, 1,094 in OA group) were involved in this study. The rate of asymptomatic DVT (Deep vein thrombosis) was significantly higher in tumor group when compared with OA group. Though both the incidence of symptomatic DVT and PE (Pulmonary embolism) were slightly higher in tumor group, no significant difference was detected. Tumor patients suffered an almost equal risk of VTE compared with OA patients except a higher rate of asymptomatic DVT after total artificial joint replacement. For patients with tumor, no significant association was observed between any potential risk factor and DVT. PMID:27352130

  5. Association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and venous thromboembolism risk in the Chinese population: a meta-analysis of 24 case-controlled studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peijin; Gao, Xiuyin; Zhang, Yanyan; Hu, Yuewen; Ma, He; Wang, Wei; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Hao; Lu, Zhaojun

    2015-05-01

    The association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms and venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk in the Chinese population has been widely reported, but results were inconsistent and underpowered. To elucidate the variable results, a meta-analysis and systematic review were performed from all case-controlled studies relating MTHFR C677T polymorphism by pooling data on them. We estimated the pooled odds ratio with its 95% confidence intervals to assess this possible association. Finally, a total of 24 studies with 2339 cases and 4048 controls were included in the current meta-analysis. Significant association was found with VTE risk for all genetic models. Subgroup analyses by type of VTE further identified the above-mentioned association in deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolism and splanchnic vein thrombosis. The findings from our meta-analysis support the associations of MTHFR C677T polymorphism with VTE risk in the Chinese population.

  6. Idraparinux or Idrabiotaparinux for Long-Term Venous Thromboembolism Treatment: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yanzhi; Li, Xiaodong; Pavithra, Settipalli; Li, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a prevalent disease with potential serious consequences. Idraparinux and idrabiotaparinux are two kinds of long-acting pentasaccharides. Evidence has shown that idraparinux and idrabiotaparinux are effective anticoagulants. However, up to now, there is no consensus on whether they are better than other anticoagulation methods for long-term VTE treatment. Objective To evaluate the effect of idraparinux or idrabiotaparinux versus other anticoagulation methods for long-term VTE treatment. Methods We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, Embase, Web of science, clinical trial registry web sites (clinical trials,WHO clinical trial registry), Googlescholar, PubMed related articles and companies' web sites electronically up to Dec 30th, 2012 and manually searched the reference lists and conference proceedings. Only randomized controlled trial (RCT) involving adult patients comparing idraparinux and/or idrabiotaparinux versus other anticoagulation methods for long-term VTE treatment was included. Two reviewers evaluated the studies and extracted data independently. Pooled risk ratios (RRs) were calculated as outcome measures and Revman 5.2 software was used to analyze data. Our primary efficacy and safety outcomes were the recurrent VTE and major bleeding rates. Results We included four RCTs and involved 8584 participants on idraparinux or idrabiotaparinux versus standard warfarin for VTE treatment from 9364 references. We did not perform meta-analysis on the VTE rate because of the significant heterogeneity. We used the fixed effect model to analyze the safety outcomes and demonstrated that idraparinux or idrabiotaparinux decreased major bleeding rate significantly (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.98, P = 0.04) but had a trend to increase the all cause mortality (RR 1.26, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.57, P = 0.05) compared with warfarin. Conclusions Until now there is not sufficient evidence to clarify whether

  7. An INR-based definition of acute traumatic coagulopathy is associated with mortality, venous thromboembolism, and multiple organ failure after injury

    PubMed Central

    Peltan, Ithan D.; Vande Vusse, Lisa K.; Maier, Ronald V.; Watkins, Timothy R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) is associated with adverse outcomes including death. Previous studies examining ATC's relationship with mortality are limited by inconsistent criteria for syndrome diagnosis, inadequate control of confounding and single-center designs. In this study, we validated the admission international normalized ratio (INR) as an independent risk factor for death and other adverse outcomes after trauma and compared two common INR-based definitions for ATC. Design Multicenter prospective observational study. Setting Nine level I trauma centers in the United States. Patients 1,031 blunt trauma patients with hemorrhagic shock. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results INR exhibited a positive adjusted association with all-cause in-hospital mortality, hemorrhagic shock-associated in-hospital mortality, venous thromboembolism, and multiple organ failure. ATC affected 50% of subjects if defined as an INR >1.2 and 21% of subjects if defined by INR >1.5. After adjustment for potential confounders, ATC defined as an INR >1.5 was significantly associated with all-cause death (OR 1.88, p<0.001), hemorrhagic shock-associated death (OR 2.44, p=0.001), venous thromboembolism (1.73, p<0.001), and multiple organ failure (OR 1.38, p=0.02). ATC defined as an INR >1.2 was not associated with an increased risk for the studied outcomes. Conclusions Elevated INR on hospital admission is a risk factor for mortality and morbidity after severe trauma. Our results confirm this association in a prospectively-assembled multicenter cohort of severely injured patients. Defining ATC using an INR >1.5 but not an INR >1.2 identified a clinically-meaningful subset of trauma patients who, adjusting for confounding factors, suffered more adverse outcomes. Targeting future therapies for ATC to patients with an INR >1.5 may yield greater returns than using a lower INR threshold. PMID:25816119

  8. Multicentre validation of the Geneva Risk Score for hospitalised medical patients at risk of venous thromboembolism. Explicit ASsessment of Thromboembolic RIsk and Prophylaxis for Medical PATients in SwitzErland (ESTIMATE).

    PubMed

    Nendaz, M; Spirk, D; Kucher, N; Aujesky, D; Hayoz, D; Beer, J H; Husmann, M; Frauchiger, B; Korte, W; Wuillemin, W A; Jäger, K; Righini, M; Bounameaux, H

    2014-03-01

    There is a need to validate risk assessment tools for hospitalised medical patients at risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). We investigated whether a predefined cut-off of the Geneva Risk Score, as compared to the Padua Prediction Score, accurately distinguishes low-risk from high-risk patients regardless of the use of thromboprophylaxis. In the multicentre, prospective Explicit ASsessment of Thromboembolic RIsk and Prophylaxis for Medical PATients in SwitzErland (ESTIMATE) cohort study, 1,478 hospitalised medical patients were enrolled of whom 637 (43%) did not receive thromboprophylaxis. The primary endpoint was symptomatic VTE or VTE-related death at 90 days. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01277536. According to the Geneva Risk Score, the cumulative rate of the primary endpoint was 3.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.2-4.6%) in 962 high-risk vs 0.6% (95% CI 0.2-1.9%) in 516 low-risk patients (p=0.002); among patients without prophylaxis, this rate was 3.5% vs 0.8% (p=0.029), respectively. In comparison, the Padua Prediction Score yielded a cumulative rate of the primary endpoint of 3.5% (95% CI 2.3-5.3%) in 714 high-risk vs 1.1% (95% CI 0.6-2.3%) in 764 low-risk patients (p=0.002); among patients without prophylaxis, this rate was 3.2% vs 1.5% (p=0.130), respectively. Negative likelihood ratio was 0.28 (95% CI 0.10-0.83) for the Geneva Risk Score and 0.51 (95% CI 0.28-0.93) for the Padua Prediction Score. In conclusion, among hospitalised medical patients, the Geneva Risk Score predicted VTE and VTE-related mortality and compared favourably with the Padua Prediction Score, particularly for its accuracy to identify low-risk patients who do not require thromboprophylaxis.

  9. Prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism: low molecular weight heparin compared to the selective anticoagulants rivaroxaban, dabigatran and fondaparinux.

    PubMed

    Welzel, D; Hull, R; Fareed, J

    2011-06-01

    Newer therapeutic options available in the prevention of postoperative thromboembolism, currently focused on fondaparinux, rivaroxaban and dabigatran warrant an overall therapeutic assessment. The constitutive comparisons with enoxaparin are based on a combined outcome measure solely driven by the incidence of "asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis". Its validity as a clinically relevant endpoint is missing if antithrombotics of different classes are compared. This is because they target different phases of thrombogenesis i. e. ahead and beyond the asymptomatic stage of thrombosis. Additional concerns refer to the dosing-regimens and their practical administration: Fondaparinux, rivaroxaban and dabigatran are dosed to achieve maximum effects very close to their limits of tolerance whereas wide dosing spectra for the low molecular weight herparin (LMWH)'s indicate the potential for dose adaptation and increase. The other disadvantage to the control-heparin originates in the timing for the 1st administration which doesn't fit in with the "just-in-time" principle. So the enoxaparin-regimen is lacking in benchmark-quality - with the consequence that the meaning of the Phase III-trials does'nt go beyond a mere technical demarcation from the marketed variant of the product as defined by the stipulations in the package insert. As to tolerance the selective anticoagulants exhibit an increased risk of major and other clinically relevant bleeding, exceeding that of enoxaparin by 30% (P<0.001). The outcome of the meta-analyses on fondaparinux, rivaroxaban and dabigatran is supported by product-specific calculations and assessments of the European Medicine Equivalence Agency (EMEA). Rivaroxaban and dabigatran show significant age-dependent renal accumulation. Because the dose-finding studies were restricted to patients over 60 year old the regimens definitely established are not applicable to younger patients. The reason for the limited therapeutic index of the selective

  10. Incidence of Venous Thromboembolism in Patients Undergoing Major Hip Surgeries at a Single Institution: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Yamanaka, Yasuhiro; Ito, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Venous thoromboembolism (VTE) is one of the most significant complications after hip surgeries. Many studies have been reported about the incidence of VTE after THA, but a small number of reports were found concerning Periacetabular osteotomy, Revision THA and Surgery for hip fracture postoperatively. Furthermore, there exists no comparative study of the incidence of VTE among major hip surgeries at a single institution. We reported the incidence of VTE among hip surgeries performed at a single institution. Methods: A total of 820 Hip surgeries were performed at same institution. The procedures included 420 hips that underwent primary total hip arthroplasties (THA), 91 revision or removal of total hip arthroplasties (Revision THA), 144 periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) and 165 surgery for hip fracture (SHF) between 2006 and 2012. VTE was detected by Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) that scanned 768 cases and by ultrasound that scanned 52cases postoperative 10-14 days. Results: The overall incidence of VTE was 12.2% (100 of 820). The incidence of VTE after THA was 13.1% (55 of 420), Revision THA was 13.2% (12 of 91), PAO was 2.1% (3 of 144) and SHF was 18.1% (30 of 165). The incidence of VTE was significantly higher in SHF than in PAO. Conclusion: This data indicates that the incidence of VTE after PAO is significantly lower than SHF and relatively lower than THA and Revision THA. A younger age and non-invasion of the bone marrow of the femur may have affected the result. Prophylaxis therapy was effective especially on SHF. PMID:27499823

  11. An Evaluation of Candidate Genes of Inflammation and Thrombosis in Relation to the Risk of Venous Thromboembolism: The Women’s Genome Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Zee, Robert YL; Glynn, Robert J; Cheng, Suzanne; Steiner, Lori; Rose, Lynda; Ridker, Paul M

    2009-01-01

    Background While pathways associated with hemostasis and thrombosis are well-documented to impact upon venous thromboembolism (VTE), whether or not the inflammatory cascade also influences VTE risk is uncertain Methods and Results We evaluated 51 polymorphisms from 32 inflammation-related genes (and an additional 19 polymorphisms from 15 thrombosis-related genes) as potential determinants of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in a prospective cohort of 22,413 white women followed over a 10-year period. Hazard ratios for incident VTE according to the different genotypes were assessed by Cox proportional-hazards models. The false discovery rate (FDR) was used for correction for multiple testing with a 0.20 cut-point. During follow-up, 158 idiopathic and 180 secondary VTE events occurred. As anticipated, factor V Leiden (hazard ratio=3.22, 95%CI=1.92–5.40, p<0.0001, FDR=0.004), and the prothrombin mutation (hazard ratio=2.57, 95%CI=1.64–4.02, p<0.0001, FDR=0.004) were both strongly associated with incident idiopathic VTE, as was the rs6046 polymorphism in the factor VII gene (hazard ratio=0.54, 95%CI=0.35–0.86, p=0.008, FDR=0.12). With regard to polymorphism in the inflammatory genes, variation at rs1143634 in the interleukin-1 beta gene was associated with a reduced risk of idiopathic VTE (hazard ratio=0.59, 95%CI=0.44–0.80, p=0.0007, FDR=0.02) while variation at rs1800872 in the interleukin-10 gene was associated with increased risk (hazard ratio=1.42, 95%CI=1.12–1.80, p=0.004, FDR=0.07). By contrast, no significant associations were found for secondary VTE events. Conclusion In addition to previously reported polymorphisms associated with hemostasis and thrombosis, these prospective cohort data suggest that genetic variation in IL-1 beta and IL-10 genes may also influence the risk of idiopathic VTE. PMID:20031567

  12. Comparison of peripheral blood T lymphocyte immune function among venous thromboembolism patients with and without infection and patients with simple infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lin; Mao, Yu; Wang, Lemin; Jiang, Jinfa; Xu, Wenjun; Xu, Jiahong; Song, Haoming

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the differences of T lymphocyte subgroups and high-sensitivity C reactive protein (HsCRP) levels among patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE), VTE patients with infection, simple infection patients and the normal controls. Method: 289 patients were enrolled in this study and divided into control group, VTE group, VTE with infection group and simple infection group. Result: Compared with the control group, the serum levels of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ T lymphocytes significantly decreased and CD4+/CD8+ ratio significantly increased in simple infection group (P < 0.05); CD3+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes significantly decreased and CD4+/CD8+ ratio significantly increased in VTE and VTE with infection group (P < 0.05); the proportion of declined CD3+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes increased, and the proportion of increased CD4+/CD8+ ratio statistically elevated in three disease groups. As an important inflammatory factor, all HsCRP levels in three disease groups significantly increased when compared with the control group. Conclusion: Immune dysfunction exists in both of VTE and infection patients, while VTE patients tend to be accompanied with infections. The changes of T lymphocyte subgroups in VTE patients, who were independent from infection, could cause T lymphocyte immune dysfunction, suggesting that there were abnormalities of T lymphocyte immune function in VTE itself. The overall T lymphocyte functions of recognizing antigens and transducing activation signals decline in VTE patients. Besides, the function of T lymphocyte of directly killing virus microbes declines significantly and the inflammatory mechanisms are involved in the occurrence and development of venous thrombosis. PMID:26131289

  13. Red cell distribution width is associated with incident venous thromboembolism (VTE) and case-fatality after VTE in a general population.

    PubMed

    Ellingsen, Trygve S; Lappegård, Jostein; Skjelbakken, Tove; Brækkan, Sigrid K; Hansen, John-Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest an association between red cell distribution width (RDW) and incident venous thromboembolism (VTE). We aimed to investigate the impact of RDW on risk of incident and recurrent VTE, and case-fatality, in a general population. RDW was measured in 26,223 participants enrolled in the Tromsø Study in 1994-1995. Incident and recurrent VTE events and deaths during follow-up were registered until January 1, 2012. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). There were 647 incident VTE events during a median of 16.8 years of follow-up. Individuals with RDW in the highest quartile (RDW≥13.3%) had 50% higher risk of an incident VTE than those in the lowest quartile (RDW≤12.3%). The association was strongest for unprovoked deep-vein thrombosis (HR highest vs lowest quartile of RDW: 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-3.1). VTE patients with baseline RDW≥13.3% had 30% higher risk of all-cause mortality after the initial VTE event than VTE patients with RDW<13.3%. There were no association between RDW and risk of recurrent VTE. Our findings suggest that high RDW is a risk factor of incident VTE, and that RDW is a predictor of all-cause mortality in VTE patients.

  14. MELISSE, a large multicentric observational study to determine risk factors of venous thromboembolism in patients with multiple myeloma treated with immunomodulatory drugs.

    PubMed

    Leleu, Xavier; Rodon, Philippe; Hulin, Cyrille; Daley, Laurent; Dauriac, Charles; Hacini, Maya; Decaux, Olivier; Eisemann, Jean-Claude; Fitoussi, Olivier; Lioure, Bruno; Voillat, Laurent; Slama, Borhane; Al Jijakli, Ahmad; Benramdane, Riad; Chaleteix, Carinne; Costello, Régis; Thyss, Antoine; Mathiot, Claire; Boyle, Eileen; Maloisel, Frédéric; Stoppa, Anne-Marie; Kolb, Brigitte; Michallet, Mauricette; Lamblin, Anne; Natta, Patrick; Facon, Thierry; Elalamy, Ismail; Fermand, Jean-Paul; Moreau, Philippe

    2013-10-01

    Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) are associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in multiple myeloma (MM) patients. We designed MELISSE, a multicentre prospective observational study, to evaluate VTE incidence and identify risk factors in IMiDs-treated MM. Our objective was to determine the real-life practice of VTE prophylaxis strategy. A total of 524 MM patients were included, and we planned to collect information at baseline, at four and at 12 months, on MM therapy, on VTE risk factors and management. VTE incidence was 7% (n=31), including 2.5% pulmonary embolism (PE) (n=11), similar at four or 12 months. VTE was observed at all risk assessment levels, although the increased risk assessment level correlated to a lower rate of VTE, maybe due to the implemented thromboprophylaxis strategy. VTE occurred in 7% on aspirin vs 3% on low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) prophylaxis, and none on vitamin K antagonists (VKA). New risk factors for VTE in IMiDs-treated MM were identified. In conclusion, VTE prophylaxis is compulsory in IMiDs-treated MM, based on individualised VTE risk assessment. Anticoagulation prophylaxis with LMWH should clearly be prioritised in MM patients with high VTE risk, along with VKA. Further prospective studies will identify most relevant VTE risk factors in IMiDs-treated MM to select accurately which MM patients should receive LMWH prophylaxis and for which duration to optimise VTE risk reduction.

  15. Significant reduction of the risk of venous thromboembolism in all long-term immobile patients a few months after the onset of immobility.

    PubMed

    Gaber, Tarek A-Z K

    2005-01-01

    Prophylactic anticoagulation is a standard practice in patients with sudden lower limbs paralysis. Thromboprophylaxis is usually continued until the patient regains independent mobility. The duration of anticoagulation in long-term immobile patients is unknown. Spinal cord injury patients are the only population that was comprehensively studied and prophylactic anticoagulation is discontinued after 4 months as the risk of venous thromboembolism drops dramatically after 3-4 months. Development of muscle spasticity has been traditionally considered to be the reason for this low risk as lower limbs spasticity/spasms might be able to improve the calf muscle pump action. We are presenting the evidence from physiological studies of the lower limbs vascular system that cast doubt over this explanation and present an alternative hypothesis backed by several clinical circumstantial evidence suggesting that the vascular changes following long term lower limbs inactivity which are universal to all immobile patients is probably the main protecting factor. We suggest that prophylactic anticoagulation is necessary only on the first 4 months following the acute onset of immobility in all neurologically impaired immobile patients regardless of their muscle tone state.

  16. [Joint position statement of the Mexican College of Orthopedics and Traumatology: prophylaxis for venous thromboembolic disease in high-risk orthopedic surgery].

    PubMed

    Meza-Reyes, G E; Cymet-Ramírez, J; Esquivel-Gómez, R; del Campo-Sánchez, Martínez A; Martínez-Guzmán, M A E; Espinosa-Larrañaga, F; Majluf-Cruz, A; Torres-González, R; De la Fuente-Zuno, J C; Villalobos-Garduño, E; Méndez-Huerta, J V; Ibarra-Hirales, E; Valles-Figueroa, J F; Aguilera-Zepeda, J M; Díaz-Borjón, E

    2011-01-01

    Venous thromboembolic disease (VTED) is a public health problem worldwide. In the United States it causes 2 million annual cases. Its annual incidence is 1-2 cases per 1,000 individuals in the general population. It is a disease frequently associated with life threatening complications and its mortality rate is 1-5% of cases. Due to its high complication rate, its slow recovery, and the need for prolonged disability, it is considered as a high-cost disease. VTED may occur in both surgical and medical patients; the known associated risk factors include prolonged rest, active cancer, congestive heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and stroke, among the major medical conditions. Orthopedic surgery represents the main surgical risk factor for VTED, including mainly hip and knee replacements, as well as polytraumatized patients with severe spinal lesions, and major fractures. VTED may be prevented with the appropriate use of antithrombotics. The participants in this consensus defined thromboprophylaxis as the strategy and actions undertaken to reduce the risk of VTED in patients undergoing high risk orthopedic surgery. The position of the Mexican College of Orthopedics and Traumatology regarding the prevention of VTED in orthopedic surgery is described herein.

  17. Thromboembolism in Patients with Cancer.

    PubMed

    Büyükçelik, Abdullah; Akbulut, Hakan

    2004-03-01

    One hundred and forty years ago, Armand Trousseau described phlegmasia alba dolens as a sign of internal malignancy. Nowadays, it is commonly believed that the presence malignant tumaor increases the risk of venous thromboembolism (i.e deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) However, cancer is usually associated with other factors such as old age, extensive surgery,immobility, etc., which may predispose to thromboembolism. The majority of thrombotic events occur in the venous system; the incidence of arterial thrombosis is much lower.Recurrent thromboembolism in cancer patients frequently and diminishes the quality of life of the patients.Furthermore, if the thromboembolism is massive, destipte of early and aggressive treatment, it may result in death. In this article, we review thromboembolic complications in cancer patients.

  18. A genome-wide association study for venous thromboembolism: the extended Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Pankratz, Nathan; Leebeek, Frank W.; Paré, Guillaume; de Andrade, Mariza; Tzourio, Christophe; Psaty, Bruce M.; Basu, Saonli; Ruiter, Rikje; Rose, Lynda; Armasu, Sebastian M.; Lumley, Thomas; Heckbert, Susan R.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Lathrop, Mark; Rice, Kenneth M.; Cushman, Mary; Hofman, Albert; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Glazer, Nicole L.; Pankow, James S.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.; Amouyel, Philippe; Bis, Joshua C.; Bovill, Edwin G.; Kong, Xiaoxiao; Tracy, Russell P.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Rotter, Jerome I.; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Loth, Daan W.

    2014-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common, heritable disease resulting in high rates of hospitalization and mortality. Yet few associations between VTE and genetic variants, all in the coagulation pathway, have been established. To identify additional genetic determinants of VTE, we conducted a 2-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) among individuals of European ancestry in the extended CHARGE VTE consortium. The discovery GWAS comprised 1,618 incident VTE cases out of 44,499 participants from six community-based studies. Genotypes for genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were imputed to ~2.5 million SNPs in HapMap and association with VTE assessed using study-design appropriate regression methods. Meta-analysis of these results identified two known loci, in F5 and ABO. Top 1,047 tag SNPs (p≤0.0016) from the discovery GWAS were tested for association in an additional 3,231 cases and 3,536 controls from three case-control studies. In the combined data from these two stages, additional genome-wide significant associations were observed on 4q35 at F11 (top SNP rs4253399, intronic to F11) and on 4q28 at FGG (rs6536024, 9.7 kb from FGG) (p<5.0×10−13 for both). The associations at the FGG locus were not completely explained by previously reported variants. Loci at or near SUSD1 and OTUD7A showed borderline yet novel associations (p<5.0×10-6) and constitute new candidate genes. In conclusion, this large GWAS replicated key genetic associations in F5 and ABO, and confirmed the importance of F11 and FGG loci for VTE. Future studies are warranted to better characterize the associations with F11 and FGG and to replicate the new candidate associations. PMID:23650146

  19. High prevalence of protein C, protein S, antithrombin deficiency, and Factor V Leiden mutation as a cause of hereditary thrombophilia in patients of venous thromboembolism and cerebrovascular accident

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Nadir; Ayyub, Muhammad; Khan, Saleem Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the frequency of Protein C, Protein S (PC & PS), antithrombin deficiency (AT III) and Factor V Leiden mutation (FVL) as a cause of thrombophilia in the patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) and cerebrovascular accident (CVA). Methods: It was an observational study conducted at Department of Haematology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, Pakistan. All patients referred for thrombophilia screening from July 2009 to June 2012 were screened. Patients with evidence of VTE or CVA were screened for PC & PS, AT III deficiency, and FVL. Results: Total 404 patients of age between 1-71 years mean 33 ± 14 with male to female ratio of 2.4:1 had evidence of thrombophilia. Two hundred eighteen (54%) patients presented with CVA, 116 (29%) with deep vein thrombosis (DVT), 42 (10.5%) with pulmonary embolism (PE), and 28 (7.5%) with portal or mesenteric vein thrombosis (PV). Protein C & S deficiency was detected in 35/404 (8.7%), ATIII in 9/404 (2%), and FVL in 25/173 patients (14.5%). The findings were suggestive of a significant association of FVL mutation for developing DVT (OR=11.0, 95% C I 4.6-26.3), CVA (OR=5.7, 95% C I 2.1-15.1), and PV (OR=5.4, 95% C I 1.3-21.9). PC & PS deficiency was a significant risk factor for developing PE (OR=3, 95% C I 0.8-11.4). Conclusion: FVL mutation and Protein C & S are the leading causes of thrombophilia with strong association of Factor V Leiden mutation as risk for developing DVT. PMID:25674132

  20. External validation of a risk assessment model for venous thromboembolism in the hospitalised acutely-ill medical patient (VTE-VALOURR).

    PubMed

    Mahan, Charles E; Liu, Yang; Turpie, A Graham; Vu, Jennifer T; Heddle, Nancy; Cook, Richard J; Dairkee, Undaleeb; Spyropoulos, Alex C

    2014-10-01

    Venous thromboembolic (VTE) risk assessment remains an important issue in hospitalised, acutely-ill medical patients, and several VTE risk assessment models (RAM) have been proposed. The purpose of this large retrospective cohort study was to externally validate the IMPROVE RAM using a large database of three acute care hospitals. We studied 41,486 hospitalisations (28,744 unique patients) with 1,240 VTE hospitalisations (1,135 unique patients) in the VTE cohort and 40,246 VTE-free hospitalisations (27,609 unique patients) in the control cohort. After chart review, 139 unique VTE patients were identified and 278 randomly-selected matched patients in the control cohort. Seven independent VTE risk factors as part of the RAM in the derivation cohort were identified. In the validation cohort, the incidence of VTE was 0.20%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.18-0.22, 1.04%; 95%CI 0.88-1.25, and 4.15%; 95%CI 2.79-8.12 in the low, moderate, and high VTE risk groups, respectively, which compared to rates of 0.45%, 1.3%, and 4.74% in the three risk categories of the derivation cohort. For the derivation and validation cohorts, the total percentage of patients in low, moderate and high VTE risk occurred in 68.6% vs 63.3%, 24.8% vs 31.1%, and 6.5% vs 5.5%, respectively. Overall, the area under the receiver-operator characteristics curve for the validation cohort was 0.7731. In conclusion, the IMPROVE RAM can accurately identify medical patients at low, moderate, and high VTE risk. This will tailor future thromboprophylactic strategies in this population as well as identify particularly high VTE risk patients in whom multimodal or more intensive prophylaxis may be beneficial.

  1. Atherosclerotic Risk Factors and Risk of Myocardial Infarction and Venous Thromboembolism; Time-Fixed versus Time-Varying Analyses. The Tromsø Study

    PubMed Central

    Småbrekke, Birgit; Rinde, Ludvig Balteskard; Hindberg, Kristian; Hald, Erin Mathiesen; Vik, Anders; Wilsgaard, Tom; Løchen, Maja-Lisa; Njølstad, Inger; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B.; Hansen, John-Bjarne; Brækkan, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Background Single measurements of modifiable risk factors may underestimate associations with outcomes in cohorts. We aimed to compare risk estimates of myocardial infarction (MI) and venous thromboembolism (VTE) by atherosclerotic risk factors during long follow-up using time-fixed analyses without and with correction for regression dilution and time-varying analyses. Methods The study included 5970 subjects enrolled in the fourth survey of the Tromsø Study (1994/95). Blood pressure, lipid levels, body mass index (BMI), diabetes and smoking status were measured at baseline, and subjects still alive at the fifth (2001/02, n = 5179) and sixth (2007/08, n = 4391) survey were re-measured. Incident events of MI (n = 714) and VTE (n = 214) were recorded until December 2010. Time-fixed and time-varying Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for MI and VTE adjusted for age and sex. Results Variations in BMI, blood pressure and lipid levels were small, and did not alter the risk estimates when time-varying analyses were compared to time-fixed analyses. For MI, variables that changed considerably over time yielded the greatest changes in risk estimates (HR for smoking changed from 1.80 (95% CI 1.55–2.10) to 2.08 (95% CI 1.78–2.42)). For VTE, only BMI was associated with increased risk in both time-fixed and time-varying analysis, but the risk estimates weakened in the time-varying analysis. Correction of time-fixed HRs with Rosner´s method tended to overestimate risk estimates compared to time-varying analysis. Comment For MI and VTE, risk estimates based on baseline and repeated measures corresponded well, whereas correction for regression dilution tended to overestimate risks. PMID:27635655

  2. Development of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients undergoing surgery for brain tumors: results from a single center over a 10 year period.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy R; Nanney, Allan D; Lall, Rishi R; Graham, Randall B; McClendon, Jamal; Lall, Rohan R; Adel, Joseph G; Zakarija, Anaadriana; Cote, David J; Chandler, James P

    2015-03-01

    Patients who undergo craniotomy for brain neoplasms have a high risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thromboses (DVT) and pulmonary emboli (PE). The reasons for this correlation are not fully understood. This retrospective, single-center review aimed to determine the risk factors for VTE in patients who underwent neurosurgical resection of brain tumors at Northwestern University from 1999 to 2010. Our cohort included 1148 patients, 158 (13.7%) of whom were diagnosed with DVT and 38 (3.3%) of whom were diagnosed with PE. A variety of clinical factors were studied to determine predictors of VTE, including sex, ethnicity, medical co-morbidities, surgical positioning, length of hospital stay, tumor location, and tumor histology. Use of post-operative anticoagulants and hemorrhagic complications were also investigated. A prior history of VTE was found to be highly predictive of post-operative DVT (odds ratio [OR]=7.6, p=0.01), as was the patient's sex (OR=14.2, p<0.001), ethnicity (OR=0.5, p=0.04), post-operative intensive care unit days (OR=0.2, p=0.003), and tumor histology (OR=-0.16, p=0.01). Contrary to reports in the literature, the data collected did not indicate that the administration of post-operative medical prophylaxis for VTE was significant in preventing their formation (OR=-0.14, p=0.76). Hemorrhagic complications were low (2.2%) and resultant neurologic deficit was lower still (0.7%). The study indicates that patients with high-grade primary brain tumors and metastatic lesions should receive aggressive preventative measures in the post-operative period.

  3. Dose reduction of edoxaban preserves efficacy and safety for the treatment of venous thromboembolism. An analysis of the randomised, double-blind HOKUSAI VTE trial.

    PubMed

    Verhamme, Peter; Wells, Philip S; Segers, Annelise; Ageno, Walter; Brekelmans, Marjolein P A; Cohen, Alexander T; Meyer, Guy; Grosso, Michael A; Raskob, Gary; Weitz, Jeffrey I; Zhang, George; Buller, Harry

    2016-09-27

    Direct oral anticoagulants simplify venous thromboembolism (VTE) treatment by obviating the need for coagulation monitoring. Nonetheless, renal function, body weight and P-glycoprotein inhibitors influence drug levels. The objective of this analysis was to determine whether reduction in edoxaban dose based on clinical criteria avoids excess drug exposure and preserves efficacy and safety in the Hokusai-VTE study. After initial heparin, patients received edoxaban or warfarin for 3-12 months. Edoxaban was given once daily at a dose of 60 mg, which was reduced to 30 mg in patients with a creatinine clearance of 30-50 ml/minute, body weight ≤60 kg or receiving certain P-glycoprotein inhibitors. The primary efficacy outcome was recurrent VTE and the principal safety outcome was major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding. A total of 8292 patients with acute VTE were randomised, 733 and 719 patients in the edoxaban and warfarin groups met the criteria for dose reduction. These patients were older, more often female or Asian and had more extensive VTE. Edoxaban levels were lower in the 30 mg edoxaban group. Rates of recurrent VTE and bleeding with the 30 mg and 60 mg edoxaban dose were comparable: VTE rates were 3.0 % and 3.2 % and clinically relevant bleeding rates were 7.9 % and 8.6 %, respectively. Rates of recurrent VTE and bleeding in the warfarin-treated patients meeting the criteria for dose reduction were 4.2 % and 12.8 %, respectively. The reduced dose edoxaban regimen maintained efficacy and safety compared with the 60 mg dose but was safer than warfarin in patients meeting the criteria for dose reduction.

  4. Admission rates for emergency department patients with venous thromboembolism and estimation of the proportion of low risk pulmonary embolism patients: a US perspective

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Adam J.; Thode, Henry C.; Peacock, W. Frank

    2016-01-01

    Objective Introduction of target specific anticoagulants and recent guidelines encourage outpatient management of low risk patients with venous thromboembolism. We describe hospital admission rates over time for patients presenting to US emergency departments (EDs) with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) and estimate the proportion of low-risk PE patients who could potentially be managed as outpatients. Methods We performed a structured analysis of the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (a nationally representative weighted sampling of US ED visits) database for the years 2006–2010 including all adult patients with a primary diagnosis of DVT or PE. Simplified pulmonary embolus scoring index (sPESI) scores were determined in patients with PE to identify low risk patients. Results There were an estimated 652,000 and 394,000 ED visits for DVT and PE over the 5-year period (0.17%). Mean (SE) age was 59 (1.3), 50% were female, and 40% were > 65 years. Admission rates for DVT and PE were 52% and 90% respectively with no significant changes over time. In patients with DVT, predictors for admission were age (odds ratio, 1.03 per year of age [95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 1.05]) and race (odds ratio, 4.1 [95% confidence interval, 0.9 to 19.8] for Hispanics and 2.9 [1.2 to 7.4] for Blacks). Of all ED patients with PE, 51% were low risk based on sPESI scores. Conclusion Admission rates for DVT and PE have remained high and unchanged, especially with PE, minorities, and in older patients. Based on sPESI scores, up to half of PE patients might be eligible for early discharge or outpatient therapy. PMID:27752630

  5. A genome-wide association study of venous thromboembolism identifies risk variants in chromosomes 1q24.2 and 9q

    PubMed Central

    Heit, John A.; Armasu, Sebastian M.; Asmann, Yan W.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Matsumoto, Martha E.; Petterson, Tanya M.; de Andrade, Mariza

    2012-01-01

    Summary Objectives To identify venous thromboembolism (VTE) disease-susceptibility genes. Patients/Methods We performed in silico genome wide association (GWAS) analyses using genotype data imputed to ~2.5 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from adults with objectively-diagnosed VTE (n=1503), and controls frequency-matched on age and sex (n=1459; discovery population). SNPs exceeding genome-wide significance were replicated in a separate population (VTE cases, n=1407; controls, n=1418). Genes associated with VTE were resequenced. Results Seven SNPs exceeded genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10-8); four on chromosome 1q24.2 (F5 rs6025 [Factor V Leiden], BLZF1 rs7538157, NME7 rs16861990 and SLC19A2 rs2038024) and three on chromosome 9q34.2 (ABO rs2519093 [ABO intron 1], rs495828, rs8176719 [ABO blood type O allele]). The replication study confirmed a significant association of F5, NME7, and ABO with VTE. However, F5 was the main signal on 1q24.2 as only ABO SNPs remained significantly associated with VTE after adjusting for F5 rs6025. This 1q24.2 region was shown to be inherited as a haplotype block. ABO resequencing identified 15 novel single nucleotide variations (SNV) in ABO intron 6 and the ABO 3’ UTR that were strongly associated with VTE (P < 10-4) and belonged to three distinct linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks; none were in LD with ABO rs8176719 or rs2519093. Our sample size provided 80% power to detect odds ratios=2.0 and 1.51 for minor allele frequencies=0.05 and 0.5, respectively (α=1 × 10-8; 1% VTE prevalence). Conclusions Aside from F5 rs6025, ABO rs8176719 and rs2519093, and F2 rs1799963, additional common and high VTE-risk SNPs among whites are unlikely. PMID:22672568

  6. Serum uric acid is associated with increased risk of idiopathic venous thromboembolism in high HDL-C population: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    YU, MIAO; LING, KEN; TENG, YUNFEI; LI, QIN; MEI, FEI; LI, YIQING; OUYANG, CHENXI

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have indicated that metabolic disorders are positively correlated with idiopathic venous thromboembolism (VTE), whereas the risk factor serum uric acid (SUA) for idiopathic VTE has yet to be investigated. In this retrospective case-control study, 276 idiopathic VTE patients and 536 gender- and age-matched control subjects were included. The subjects in the case and control groups exhibiting common known VTE risk factors and the patients with a first VTE onset in one month were excluded. For the control group, primary and secondary VTE patients were excluded. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, and current smoking were significantly associated with idiopathic VTE in the univariate analysis. Hyperuricemia was detected in 56/276 (20.29%) idiopathic patients compared with 71/536 (13.25%) in the control group. HDL-C was considered the most prominent interactive factor for SUA in idiopathic VTE by the interaction analysis. After testing for the interaction terms, SUA was closely associated with idiopathic VTE in the high HDL-C population (P=0.0026 for interaction), while there was no such correlation in the low HDL-C group. The results indicated no obvious correlation between triglyceride and hypertension to idiopathic VTE. In conclusion, SUA is closely associated with an increased risk of idiopathic VTE in the high HDL-C population. The abnormality of SUA may act as an important linkage between atherosclerosis and idiopathic VTE through HDL-C. PMID:27284315

  7. Dose reduction of edoxaban preserves efficacy and safety for the treatment of venous thromboembolism. An analysis of the randomised, double-blind HOKUSAI VTE trial.

    PubMed

    Verhamme, Peter; Wells, Philip S; Segers, Annelise; Ageno, Walter; Brekelmans, Marjolein P A; Cohen, Alexander T; Meyer, Guy; Grosso, Michael A; Raskob, Gary; Weitz, Jeffrey I; Zhang, George; Buller, Harry

    2016-09-27

    Direct oral anticoagulants simplify venous thromboembolism (VTE) treatment by obviating the need for coagulation monitoring. Nonetheless, renal function, body weight and P-glycoprotein inhibitors influence drug levels. The objective of this analysis was to determine whether reduction in edoxaban dose based on clinical criteria avoids excess drug exposure and preserves efficacy and safety in the Hokusai-VTE study. After initial heparin, patients received edoxaban or warfarin for 3-12 months. Edoxaban was given once daily at a dose of 60 mg, which was reduced to 30 mg in patients with a creatinine clearance of 30-50 ml/minute, body weight ≤60 kg or receiving certain P-glycoprotein inhibitors. The primary efficacy outcome was recurrent VTE and the principal safety outcome was major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding. A total of 8292 patients with acute VTE were randomised, 733 and 719 patients in the edoxaban and warfarin groups met the criteria for dose reduction. These patients were older, more often female or Asian and had more extensive VTE. Edoxaban levels were lower in the 30 mg edoxaban group. Rates of recurrent VTE and bleeding with the 30 mg and 60 mg edoxaban dose were comparable: VTE rates were 3.0 % and 3.2 % and clinically relevant bleeding rates were 7.9 % and 8.6 %, respectively. Rates of recurrent VTE and bleeding in the warfarin-treated patients meeting the criteria for dose reduction were 4.2 % and 12.8 %, respectively. The reduced dose edoxaban regimen maintained efficacy and safety compared with the 60 mg dose but was safer than warfarin in patients meeting the criteria for dose reduction. PMID:27440518

  8. A genome-wide association study for venous thromboembolism: the extended cohorts for heart and aging research in genomic epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium.

    PubMed

    Tang, Weihong; Teichert, Martina; Chasman, Daniel I; Heit, John A; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel; Li, Guo; Pankratz, Nathan; Leebeek, Frank W; Paré, Guillaume; de Andrade, Mariza; Tzourio, Christophe; Psaty, Bruce M; Basu, Saonli; Ruiter, Rikje; Rose, Lynda; Armasu, Sebastian M; Lumley, Thomas; Heckbert, Susan R; Uitterlinden, André G; Lathrop, Mark; Rice, Kenneth M; Cushman, Mary; Hofman, Albert; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Glazer, Nicole L; Pankow, James S; Witteman, Jacqueline C; Amouyel, Philippe; Bis, Joshua C; Bovill, Edwin G; Kong, Xiaoxiao; Tracy, Russell P; Boerwinkle, Eric; Rotter, Jerome I; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Loth, Daan W; Stricker, Bruno H Ch; Ridker, Paul M; Folsom, Aaron R; Smith, Nicholas L

    2013-07-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common, heritable disease resulting in high rates of hospitalization and mortality. Yet few associations between VTE and genetic variants, all in the coagulation pathway, have been established. To identify additional genetic determinants of VTE, we conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) among individuals of European ancestry in the extended cohorts for heart and aging research in genomic epidemiology (CHARGE) VTE consortium. The discovery GWAS comprised 1,618 incident VTE cases out of 44,499 participants from six community-based studies. Genotypes for genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were imputed to approximately 2.5 million SNPs in HapMap and association with VTE assessed using study-design appropriate regression methods. Meta-analysis of these results identified two known loci, in F5 and ABO. Top 1,047 tag SNPs (P ≤ 0.0016) from the discovery GWAS were tested for association in an additional 3,231 cases and 3,536 controls from three case-control studies. In the combined data from these two stages, additional genome-wide significant associations were observed on 4q35 at F11 (top SNP rs4253399, intronic to F11) and on 4q28 at FGG (rs6536024, 9.7 kb from FGG; P < 5.0 × 10(-13) for both). The associations at the FGG locus were not completely explained by previously reported variants. Loci at or near SUSD1 and OTUD7A showed borderline yet novel associations (P < 5.0 × 10(-6) ) and constitute new candidate genes. In conclusion, this large GWAS replicated key genetic associations in F5 and ABO, and confirmed the importance of F11 and FGG loci for VTE. Future studies are warranted to better characterize the associations with F11 and FGG and to replicate the new candidate associations.

  9. Risk of venous and arterial thromboembolic events associated with anti-VEGF agents in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis and systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dianbao; Zhang, Xianfen; Zhao, Chunling

    2016-01-01

    Aims To assess the incidence and risk of arterial and venous thromboembolic events (ATEs and VTEs) associated with antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents, including VEGF receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors and VEGF monoclonal antibodies, in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods We performed a broad search of PubMed for relevant trials. Prospective randomized trials evaluating therapy with or without anti-VEGF agents in patients with advanced NSCLC were included for analysis. Data on VTEs and ATEs were extracted. The overall incidence, Peto odds ratio (Peto OR), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled according to the heterogeneity of included trials. Results A total of 13,436 patients from 23 trials were included for analysis. Our results showed that anti-VEGF agents significantly increased the risk of developing high-grade ATEs (Peto OR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.00–2.07, P=0.048), but not for all-grade ATEs (Peto OR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.56–1.59, P=0.82) compared with controls. Additionally, no increased risk of all-grade and high-grade VTEs (Peto OR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.67–1.31, P=0.71 and Peto OR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.73–1.22, P=0.67, respectively) was observed in advanced NSCLC patients receiving anti-VEGF agents. Conclusion The use of anti-VEGF agents in advanced NSCLC patients significantly increased the risk of high-grade ATEs, but not for VTEs. Clinicians should be aware of the risk of severe ATEs with administration of these drugs in advanced NSCLC patients. PMID:27382307

  10. Depressive Symptoms as a Novel Risk Factor for Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism: A Longitudinal Observational Study in Patients Referred for Thrombophilia Investigation

    PubMed Central

    von Känel, Roland; Margani, Angelina; Stauber, Stefanie; Meyer, Fiorenza A.; Demarmels Biasiutti, Franziska; Vökt, Franziska; Wissmann, Thomas; Lämmle, Bernhard; Lukas, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence suggests that psychosocial factors, including depression predict incident venous thromboembolism (VTE) against a background of genetic and acquired risk factors. The role of psychosocial factors for the risk of recurrent VTE has not previously been examined. We hypothesized that depressive symptoms in patients with prior VTE are associated with an increased risk of recurrent VTE. Methods In this longitudinal observational study, we investigated 271 consecutive patients, aged 18 years or older, referred for thrombophilia investigation with an objectively diagnosed episode of VTE. Patients completed the depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D). During the observation period, they were contacted by phone and information on recurrent VTE, anticoagulation therapy, and thromboprophylaxis in risk situations was collected. Results Clinically relevant depressive symptoms (HADS-D score ≥8) were present in 10% of patients. During a median observation period of 13 months (range 5-48), 27 (10%) patients experienced recurrent VTE. After controlling for sociodemographic and clinical factors, a 3-point increase on the HADS-D score was associated with a 44% greater risk of recurrent VTE (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.02, 2.06). Compared to patients with lower levels of depressive symptoms (HADS-D score: range 0-2), those with higher levels (HADS-D score: range 3-16) had a 4.1-times greater risk of recurrent VTE (OR 4.07, 95% CI 1.55, 10.66). Conclusions The findings suggest that depressive symptoms might contribute to an increased risk of recurrent VTE independent of other prognostic factors. An increased risk might already be present at subclinical levels of depressive symptoms. PMID:25938663

  11. Treatment of venous thromboembolism with rivaroxaban in relation to body weight. A sub-analysis of the EINSTEIN DVT/PE studies.

    PubMed

    Di Nisio, Marcello; Vedovati, Maria C; Riera-Mestre, Antoni; Prins, Martin H; Mueller, Katharina; Cohen, Alexander T; Wells, Philip S; Beyer-Westendorf, Jan; Prandoni, Paolo; Bounameaux, Henri; Kubitza, Dagmar; Schneider, Jonas; Pisters, Ron; Fedacko, Jan; Fontes-Carvalho, Ricardo; Lensing, Anthonie W A

    2016-09-27

    The pharmacokinetics of oral rivaroxaban are highly predictable and only affected to a limited extent by bodyweight; therefore, dose adjustments for bodyweight are not required. However, this raises concerns among physicians for potential under- or overdosing. This substudy of the randomised EINSTEIN DVT and EINSTEIN PE trials, which compared rivaroxaban with enoxaparin/vitamin K antagonist (VKA) therapy, aimed to determine the incidence of major bleeding in patients with a low bodyweight and recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with a high bodyweight during rivaroxaban or enoxaparin/VKA therapy. More than 8,000 patients with objectively diagnosed deep-vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism were included. Adjusted hazard ratios for recurrent VTE and bleeding were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards model. Analyses were performed for both the first 21 days of treatment and the whole treatment period. For rivaroxaban recipients, there was no association between bodyweight or body mass index (BMI) and risk of recurrent VTE (ptrend=0.87 and 0.62, respectively), major bleeding (ptrend=0.24 and 0.36, respectively) or clinically relevant bleeding (ptrend=0.17 and 0.63, respectively). Major bleeding events were numerically lower in rivaroxaban patients across all bodyweight and BMI categories. Hazard ratios for rivaroxaban vs enoxaparin/VKA were similar in all bodyweight and BMI categories, both during the first 21 days and the whole treatment period. The fixed-dose rivaroxaban regimen is not associated with an increased risk of major bleeding or recurrent VTE in patients with either a low or high bodyweight. A high BMI was not associated with an increased risk of recurrent VTE during anticoagulation.

  12. A prospective study on the incidence of postoperative venous thromboembolism in Korean gastric cancer patients: an inquiry into the application of Western guidelines to Asian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Won; Chun, Eun Ju; Choi, Sang Il; Park, Do Joong; Kim, Hyung-Ho; Bang, Soo-Mee; Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Ju-Hee; Lee, Moon-Soo; Lee, Jeong-Ok; Kim, Yu Jung; Kim, Jee Hyun; Lee, Jong Seok; Lee, Keun-Wook

    2013-01-01

    Several Western guidelines recommend the routine use of pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis for cancer surgery patients to prevent venous thromboembolism (VTE). However, the necessity of routine pharmacologic perioperative thromboprophylaxis in Asian gastric cancer (GC) patients has not been clearly determined. To determine the necessity of routine perioperative pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis in Korean gastric cancer patients, the incidence of postoperative VTE was prospectively evaluated in gastric cancer patients receiving surgery. Among 610 GC patients who had received surgery, 375 patents underwent routine duplex Doppler ultrasonography (DUS) on days 5-12 following surgery to detect VTE and then VTE-related symptoms and signs were checked at 4 weeks after surgery (cohort A). The 235 patients that declined DUS were registered to cohort B and the occurrence of postoperative VTE was retrospectively analyzed. In cohort A, symptomatic or asymptomatic VTE until 4 weeks after surgery was detected in 9 patients [2.4%; 95% confidence interval (CI); 0.9-3.9]. Tumor stage was a significant factor related to VTE development [stage I, 1.4%; stage II/III, 2.4%; stage IV, 9.7% (P = 0.008)]. In multivariate analysis, patients with stage IV had a higher postoperative VTE development [odds ratio, 8.18 (95% CI, 1.54-43.42)] than those with stage I. In cohort B, a low incidence of postoperative VTE was reaffirmed; only one postoperative VTE case (0.4%) was observed. In conclusion, the incidence of postoperative VTE in Korean GC patients was only 2.4%. Risk-stratified applications of perioperative pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis are thought to be more appropriate than the routine pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis in Korean GC patients receiving surgery.

  13. Protected Iliofemoral Venous Thrombectomy

    PubMed Central

    Neri, Eugenio; Civeli, Letizia; Benvenuti, Antonio; Toscano, Thomas; Miraldi, Fabio; Capannini, Gianni; Muzzi, Luigi; Sassi, Carlo

    2002-01-01

    Although thromboembolism is uncommon during pregnancy and the postpartum period, physicians should be alert to the possibility because the complications, such as pulmonary embolism, are often life threatening. Pregnant women who present with thromboembolic occlusion are particularly difficult to treat because thrombolysis is hazardous to the fetus and surgical intervention by any of several approaches is controversial. A 22-year-old woman, in her 11th week of gestation, experienced an episode of pulmonary embolism and severe ischemic venous thrombosis of the left lower extremity. The cause was determined to be a severe protein S deficiency in combination with compression of the left iliac vein by the enlarged uterus. The patient underwent emergency insertion of a retrievable vena cava filter and surgical iliofemoral venous thrombectomy with concomitant creation of a temporary femoral arteriovenous fistula. The inferior vena cava filter was inserted before the venous thrombectomy to prevent pulmonary embolism from clots dislodged during thrombectomy. When the filter was removed, medium-sized clots were found trapped in its coils, indicating the effectiveness of this approach. The operation resolved the severe ischemic venous thrombosis of the left leg, and the patency of the iliac vein was maintained throughout the pregnancy without embolic recurrence. At full term, the woman spontaneously delivered an 8-lb, 6-oz, healthy male infant. (Tex Heart Inst J 2002;29:130–2) PMID:12075871

  14. Pulmonary thrombo-embolism in pregnancy: diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Ormesher, Laura; Tower, Clare; Greer, Ian A

    2015-01-01

    Key points Venous thromboembolism (VTE) in pregnancy remains a leading cause of direct maternal mortality in the developed world and identifiable risk factors are increasing in incidence. VTE is approximately 10-times more common in the pregnant population (compared with non-pregnant women) with an incidence of 1 in 1000 and the highest risk in the postnatal period. If pulmonary imaging is required, ventilation perfusion scanning is usually the preferred initial test to detect pulmonary embolism within pregnancy. Treatment should be commenced on clinical suspicion and not be withheld until an objective diagnosis is obtained. The mainstay of treatment for pulmonary thromboembolism in pregnancy is anticoagulation with low molecular weight heparin for a minimum of 3 months in total duration and until at least 6 weeks postnatal. Low molecular weight heparin is safe, effective and has a low associated bleeding risk. Educational aims To inform readers about the current guidance for diagnosis and management of pulmonary thromboembolism in pregnancy. To highlight the risks of venous thromboembolism during pregnancy. To introduce the issues surrounding management of pulmonary thromboembolism around labour and delivery PMID:27066121

  15. The HAS-BLED Score Identifies Patients with Acute Venous Thromboembolism at High Risk of Major Bleeding Complications during the First Six Months of Anticoagulant Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kooiman, Judith; van Hagen, Nadja; Iglesias del Sol, Antonio; Planken, Erwin V.; Lip, Gregory Y. H.; van der Meer, Felix J. M.; Cannegieter, Suzanne C.; Klok, Frederikus A.; Huisman, Menno V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The HAS-BLED score enables a risk estimate of major bleeds in patients with atrial fibrillation on vitamin K-antagonists (VKA) treatment, but has not been validated for patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE). We analyzed whether the HAS-BLED score accurately identifies patients at high risk of major bleeds during VKA treatment for acute VTE. Methods Medical records of 537 patients with acute VTE (primary diagnosis pulmonary embolism in 223, deep vein thrombosis in 314) starting VKA treatment between 2006-2007 were searched for items on the HAS-BLED score and the occurrence of major bleeds during the first 180 days of follow-up. The hazard ratio (HR) for the occurrence of major bleeds comparing non-high with high-risk patients as defined by a HAS-BLED score ≥ 3 points was calculated using Cox-regression analysis. Results Major bleeds occurred in 11/537 patients (2.0%, 5.2/100 person years, 95% CI 2.8-9.2). Cumulative incidences of major bleeds were 1.3% (95% CI 0.1-2.5) in the non-high (HAS-BLED < 3) and 9.6% (95%CI 2.2-17.0) in the high-risk group (HAS-BLED ≥ 3), (p <0.0001 by Log-Rank test), with a HR of 8.7 (95% CI 2.7-28.4). Of the items in the HAS-BLED score, abnormal renal function (HR 10.8, 95% CI 1.9-61.7) and a history of bleeding events (HR 10.4, 95% CI 2.5-42.5) were independent predictors of major bleeds during follow-up. Conclusion Acute VTE patients with a HAS-BLED score ≥ 3 points are at increased risk of major bleeding. These results warrant for correction of the potentially reversible risk factors for major bleeding and careful International Normalized Ratio monitoring in acute VTE patients with a high HAS-BLED score. PMID:25905638

  16. Hospitalisation for venous thromboembolism in cancer patients and the general population: a population-based cohort study in Denmark, 1997–2006

    PubMed Central

    Cronin-Fenton, D P; Søndergaard, F; Pedersen, L A; Fryzek, J P; Cetin, K; Acquavella, J; Baron, J A; Sørensen, H T

    2010-01-01

    Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) frequently complicates cancer. Data on tumour-specific VTE predictors are limited, but may inform strategies to prevent thrombosis. Methods: We computed incidence rates (IRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for VTE hospitalisation in a cohort of cancer patients (n=57 591) and in a comparison general-population cohort (n=287 476) in Denmark. The subjects entered the study in 1997–2005, and the follow-up continued through 2006. Using Cox proportional-hazards regression, we estimated relative risks (RRs) for VTE predictors, while adjusting for comorbidity. Results: Throughout the follow-up, VTE IR was higher among the cancer patients (IR=8.0, 95% CI=7.6–8.5) than the general population (IR=4.7, 95% CI=4.3–5.1), particularly in the first year after cancer diagnosis (IR=15.0, 95% CI=13.8–16.2, vs IR=8.6, 95% CI=7.6–9.9). Incidence rates of VTE were highest in patients with pancreas (IR=40.9, 95% CI=29.5–56.7), brain (IR=17.7, 95% CI=11.3–27.8) or liver (IR=20.4, 95% CI=9.2–45.3) tumours, multiple myeloma (IR=22.6, 95% CI=15.4–33.2) and among patients with advanced-stage cancers (IR=27.7, 95% CI=24.0–32.0) or those who received chemotherapy or no/symptomatic treatment. The adjusted RR (aRR) for VTE was highest among patients with pancreas (aRR=16.3, 95% CI=8.1–32.6) or brain cancer (aRR=19.8 95% CI=7.1–55.2), multiple myeloma (aRR=46.1, 95% CI=13.1–162.0) and among patients receiving chemotherapy, either alone (aRR=18.5, 95% CI=11.9–28.7) or in combination treatments (aRR=16.2, 95% CI=12.0–21.7). Conclusions: Risk of VTE is higher among cancer patients than in the general population. Predictors of VTE include recency of cancer diagnosis, cancer site, stage and the type of cancer-directed treatment. PMID:20842120

  17. Prevalence of renal insufficiency in hospitalised patients with venous thromboembolic events: a retrospective analysis based on 6,725 VTE patients.

    PubMed

    Böttger, Björn; Wehling, Martin; Bauersachs, Rupert M; Amann, Steffen; Schuchert, Andreas; Reinhold, Christian; Kümpers, Philipp; Wilke, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Renal impairment (RI) is an important factor in the selection of anticoagulant therapy in venous thromboembolic event (VTE) patients. In particular, the risk of bleeding events is higher for VTE patients with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) below 30 mL/min. The aim of this study was to collect data on the prevalence of RI in hospitalised VTE patients in Germany. Furthermore, we investigated how renal function changed during inpatient treatment. We conducted a retrospective chart review in six German hospitals. All patients with a VTE diagnosis who were treated as inpatients from 2007-2011 were included. Patients were categorised according to their renal function. RI was estimated from serum creatinine values. Persistent RI was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of <30 mL/min over at least 72 hours. Renal function could be determined for 5,710 VTE patients. Of these 21.4% had an eGFR>90 mL/min, 38.1% had an eGFR of 60-89 mL/min, 17.3% had an eGFR of 45-59 mL/min, 12.5% had an eGFR of 30-44 mL/min, 7.2% had an eGFR of 15-29 mL/min and 3.6% of the VTE patients had end-stage renal disease. Persistent severe RI was observed in 74.8% of patients with an eGFR <30 mL/min. Overall, 40.6% of the VTE patients investigated had an eGFR <60 mL/min; 10.8% had an eGFR <30 mL/min. Almost three quarters of RI-VTE patients suffered from persistent severe RI. These results suggest that more than one in ten VTE patients is exposed to a high risk of accumulating anticoagulants; most of these RI patients also face an increased risk of mortality.

  18. Improving venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis in acute urological admissions during out of hours through the introduction of a urological admission proforma.

    PubMed

    Gerakopoulos, Efstratios

    2015-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) kills more people than breast cancer, road traffic accidents, and AIDS combined, accounting for approximately 25,000 in-hospital deaths in England annually. The cost to the NHS is estimated at £640 million/annum. The most important element of VTE risk assessment strategy in England is to risk assess all patients for VTE on admission. The aim of our quality improvement programme (QIP) was to monitor our practice regarding VTE prophylaxis of the patients' admitted urgently in our department, and then implement a measure to increase compliance if found to be poor. Our standards were based on the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines which state that all urgently admitted patients must have a completed VTE assessment form within 24 hours of admission and receive appropriate VTE prophylaxis including low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and/or TED stockings. Our initial audit was conducted over a period of five weeks. All adult patients acutely admitted out of hours (5pm to 8am) were included. We then introduced a specially designed urological admissions proforma and organised several teaching sessions for junior doctors who facilitated acute admissions. Re-audit was performed using the same methods and timescale measuring improvement. Second re-audit six months after the introduction of the proforma, following the induction of the new cohort of junior doctors. - Primary audit: n=44. Proportion of: completed VTE form=56%, LMWH appropriately prescribed=65%,TEDS=35%. VTE related complications=3 - 1st re-audit: n=42. Proportion of: completed VTE form=93%, LMWH appropriately prescribed=83%,TEDS=64%. VTE related complications=0 - 2nd re-audit:n=43. Proportion of: completed VTE form=92%, LMWH prescribed=84%, TEDS=76%. VTE related complications=1 There has been a significant increase of compliance with the NICE guidelines regarding VTE prophylaxis within our department through introducing the specially designed

  19. Independent predictors of poor vitamin K antagonist control in venous thromboembolism patients. Data from the EINSTEIN-DVT and PE studies.

    PubMed

    Kooistra, Hilde A M; Gebel, Martin; Sahin, Kurtulus; Lensing, Anthonie W A; Meijer, Karina

    2015-11-25

    Vitamin K antagonists (VKA) are used to prevent recurrent disease in patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE). Their efficacy and safety depend on individual time in therapeutic range (iTTR) and variability of International Normalised Ratios (INR). We aimed to identify independent predictors of poor VKA control > 28 days. In a prospective cohort of 3825 VTE patients, separate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of low iTTR (first quartile) and instability (iTTR median). Subsequently, the association between these predictors and clinical outcomes was investigated. Weight < 50 kg (odds ratio [OR]=1.89; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.03-3.49), active cancer at baseline (OR=1.52; CI1.05-2.19), secondary VTE (OR=1.42; CI1.20-1.68), and INR < 2.0 at stop of double therapy (OR=1.35; CI1.09-1.67) were independent predictors of low iTTR. The first two were also predictive for instability (OR=1.96; CI1.06-3.63 and OR=1.95; CI1.36-2.80, respectively). ORs of early (≤ 28 days) low iTTR and instability depended on VKA type. In acenocoumarol users, early low iTTR was an independent predictor of subsequent low iTTR (OR=1.92; CI1.31-2.80) and instability (OR=1.55; CI1.07-2.23). In warfarin users, early low iTTR (OR=1.36; CI1.09-1.69) and instability (OR=1.25; CI1.01-1.55) were additionally predictive for low iTTR, but only the latter was predictive for instability (OR=1.91; CI1.57-2.32). Many predictors of VKA control also predicted premature discontinuation, but only region was prognostic for clinical outcome. In conclusion, we identified several independent predictors of low iTTR and instability > 28 days, which showed some similarities but did not fully overlap. Early VKA control was of additional value for prediction of both, but had to be interpreted in the context of VKA type.

  20. Platelet Count and Major Bleeding in Patients Receiving Vitamin K Antagonists for Acute Venous Thromboembolism, Findings From Real World Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Giorgi-Pierfranceschi, Matteo; Di Micco, Pierpaolo; Cattabiani, Chiara; Guida, Anna; Pagán, Barbara; Morales, Maria del Valle; Salgado, Estuardo; Suriñach, José Maria; Tolosa, Carles; Monreal, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The outcome of patients with acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) and abnormal platelet count (PlC) at baseline has not been consistently studied. In real-world clinical practice, a number of patients with abnormal PlC receive vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) to treat acute VTE despite their higher risk of bleeding. We used the Registro Informatizado de Enfermedad TromboEmbólica registry database to compare the rate of major bleeding in patients receiving VKA for long-term therapy of acute VTE according to PlC levels at baseline. Patients were categorized as having very low (<100,000/μL), low (100,000–150,000/μL), normal (150,000–300,000/μL), high (300,000–450,000/μL), or very high (>450,000/μL) PlC at baseline. Of 55,369 patients recruited as of January 2015, 37,000 (67%) received long-term therapy with VKA. Of these, 611 patients (1.6%) had very low PlC, 4006 (10.8%) had low PlC, 25,598 (69%) had normal PlC, 5801 (15.6%) had high PlC, and 984 (2.6%) had very high PlC at baseline. During the course of VKA therapy (mean, 192 days), there were no differences in the duration or intensity (as measured by international normalized ratio levels) of treatment between subgroups. The rate of major bleeding was 3.6%, 2.1%, 1.9%, 2.1%, and 3.7%, respectively, and the rate of fatal bleeding was 0.98%, 0.17%, 0.29%, 0.34%, and 0.50%, respectively. Patients with very low or very high PlC levels were more likely to have severe comorbidities. We found a nonlinear “U-shaped” relationship between PlC at baseline and major bleeding during therapy with VKA for VTE. Consistent alteration of PlC values at baseline suggested a greater frailty. PMID:26632687

  1. The impact of the DoH Commissioning for Quality and Innovation incentive on the success of venous thromboembolism risk assessment in hospitalised patients. A single institution experience in a quality outcome improvement over a 4-year cycle

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Polly; Ali, Vernisha; Jones, Garth; Baker, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To i) demonstrate compliance with the Commissioning for Quality and Innovation for venous thromboembolism risk assessment ii) to undertake root cause analysis of Hospital Acquired Thrombosis and to investigate its impact on quality of care. Design Prospective monitoring of all admissions. Setting Imperial College Healthcare Hospitals, London. Participants All Hospital Provider Spells as defined on the NHS Data Model and Dictionary. Main outcome measures i) Percentage of patients undergoing Venous Thromboembolism Risk Assessment (VTE-RA) at and 24-hours after admission ii) root cause analysis of Hospital Acquired Thrombosis up to 90 days following discharge. Results Over a 48-month cycle 83% were overall VTE-RA assessed with 36% in the first 12 months but with significant improvement to ≥95% between April 2013 and April 2015, achieving compliance target since April 2012 involving a massive 633, 850 Spells over the 4 year period. We undertook root cause analysis of all VTE episodes from April 2013 to March 2014, to ascertain Hospital Acquired Thrombosis (HAT), we analysed 433, 174 inpatient days and found a HAT rate of 1 per 1000 with 23% and 24% for DVTs and PEs potentially avoidable respectively. We further analysed VTE risk stratification (n = 1000) and found 37.0% at high risk, 44.4% at medium risk and 18.6 % at low risk, indicating the need of thromboprophylaxis in 81.4% (high and medium) of whom 33.6% were excluded. Conclusions We achieved 95% RA compliance which has favourably impacted on our daily practice and improved the quality of the clinical care. PMID:27293773

  2. Dose dependence and therapeutic window for the neuroprotective effects of curcumin in thromboembolic model of rat.

    PubMed

    Dohare, Preeti; Garg, Puja; Jain, Vikas; Nath, Chandishwar; Ray, Madhur

    2008-11-21

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), an active ingredient of turmeric, obtained from the powdered rhizomes of Curcuma longa Linn., has been traditionally recognized for treatment of several diseases. To evaluate the potential clinical use of curcumin, we determined the dose dependence of its effects in the therapeutic window and of the neuroprotective efficacy in a cerebral thromboembolic model of the rat. Rats were subjected to occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAo) by a thrombus and treated with different doses of curcumin or the vehicle at 4h after ischemia. The animals were assessed after 24h for motor performance and neurological deficit. The rats were sacrificed immediately afterwards for evaluation of infarct, edema volume, estimation of nitrate and nitrite levels, neutrophil infiltration and levels of GSH and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in brain tissue. Curcumin reduced in a dose-dependent manner the ischemia-induced cerebral infarct and edema volume and attenuated neurological deficits observed after 24h. Curcumin reduced post-ischemic brain neutrophil infiltration, nitrate and nitrite levels and ameliorated the loss of GSH-Px and tends to increase the GSH levels but not significantly in the brain tissue. Neuronal levels of reactive oxygen species, peroxynitrite, and nitric oxide were lowered and in brain cryosections inducible nitric oxide synthase expression were significantly inhibited after treatment with curcumin. The present study is the first evidence of effectiveness of curcumin when given 4h post-ischemia in the rat thromboembolic stroke models, as it reduces infarct volume, ameliorates the sensory motor function and significantly attenuated the nitrosative stress. PMID:18611416

  3. Partial Aortic Occlusion and Cerebral Venous Steal: Venous Effects of Arterial Manipulation in Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Pranevicius, Osvaldas; Pranevicius, Mindaugas; Liebeskind, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Acute ischemic stroke therapy emphasizes early arterial clot lysis or removal. Partial aortic occlusion has recently emerged as an alternative hemodynamic approach to augment cerebral perfusion in acute ischemic stroke. The exact mechanism of cerebral flow augmentation with partial aortic occlusion remains unclear and may involve more than simple diversion of arterial blood flow from the lower body to cerebral collateral circulation. The cerebral venous steal hypothesis suggests that even a small increase in tissue pressure in the ischemic area will divert blood flow to surrounding regions with lesser tissue pressures. This may cause no-reflow (absence of flow after restoration of arterial patency) in the ischemic core and “luxury perfusion” in the surrounding regions. Such maldistribution may be reversed with increased venous pressure titrated to avoid changes in intracranial pressure. We propose that partial aortic occlusion enhances perfusion in the brain by offsetting cerebral venous steal. Partial aortic occlusion redistributes blood volume into the upper part of the body, manifest by an increase in central venous pressure. Increased venous pressure recruits the collapsed vascular network and, by eliminating cerebral venous steal, corrects perifocal perfusion maldistribution, analogous to positive end expiratory pressure recruitment of collapsed airways to decrease ventilation/perfusion mismatch in the lungs. PMID:21441149

  4. Role of IVC Filters in Endovenous Therapy for Deep Venous Thrombosis: The FILTER-PEVI (Filter Implantation to Lower Thromboembolic Risk in Percutaneous Endovenous Intervention) Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Sharifi, Mohsen; Bay, Curt; Skrocki, Laura; Lawson, David; Mazdeh, Shahnaz

    2012-12-15

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the necessity of and recommend indications for inferior vena cava (IVC) filter implantation during percutaneous endovenous intervention (PEVI) for deep venous thrombosis (DVT).BackgroundPEVI has emerged as a powerful tool in the management of acute proximal DVT. Instrumentation of extensive fresh thrombus is potentially associated with iatrogenic pulmonary embolism (PE). The true frequency of this complication has not been studied in a randomized fashion. We evaluated IVC filter implantation during PEVI for DVT. Methods: A total of 141 patients with symptomatic proximal DVT undergoing PEVI for symptomatic DVT were randomized to receive an IVC filter (70 patients) or no filter (71 patients; control group). The anticoagulation and PEVI regimen were similar between the two groups. Patients with development of symptoms suggestive of PE underwent objective testing for PE. Results: PE developed in 1 of the 14 symptomatic patients in the filter group and 8 of the 22 patients in the control group (P = 0.048). There was no mortality in any group. Three patients (4.2%) in the control group had transient hemodynamic instability necessitating resuscitory efforts. Predictors of iatrogenic PE were found to be PE at admission; involvement of two or more adjacent venous segments with acute thrombus; inflammatory form of DVT (severe erythema, edema, pain, and induration); and vein diameter of {>=}7 mm with preserved architecture. Conclusions: IVC filter implantation during PEVI reduces the risk of iatrogenic PE by eightfold without a mortality benefit. A selective approach may be exercised in filter implantation during PEVI.

  5. Thromboembolic complications in the nephrotic syndrome: pathophysiology and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Rajni; Brimble, K Scott

    2006-01-01

    Patients with the nephrotic syndrome are at increased risk of developing venous and arterial thromboembolism, the most common of which is renal vein thrombosis. There are several unanswered or controversial issues relating to the nephrotic syndrome and thromboembolism, which include the mechanism of thromboembolism, and optimal diagnostic and anticoagulant management strategies. This review will discuss several of these issues: the epidemiology and clinical spectrum of thromboembolic disease occurring in patients with the nephrotic syndrome; the pathophysiology of the hypercoagulable state associated with the nephrotic syndrome; the diagnosis of renal vein thrombosis in the nephrotic syndrome; and the evidence for prophylactic and therapeutic anticoagulation strategies in such patients.

  6. Prophylaxis and management of venous thromboembolism in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms: consensus statement of the Haemostasis Working Party of the German Society of Hematology and Oncology (DGHO), the Austrian Society of Hematology and Oncology (ÖGHO) and Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis Research (GTH e.V.).

    PubMed

    Kreher, Stephan; Ochsenreither, Sebastian; Trappe, Ralf U; Pabinger, Ingrid; Bergmann, Frauke; Petrides, Petro E; Koschmieder, Steffen; Matzdorff, Axel; Tiede, Andreas; Griesshammer, Martin; Riess, Hanno

    2014-12-01

    Patients with Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) like polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia are at increased risk of arterial and venous thrombosis. Strategies of prevention may consist of platelet aggregation inhibitors and/or cytoreductive agents depending on the underlying disease and the individual risk. Clinical evidence for management of acute venous thromboembolic events in MPN patients is limited. Modality and duration of therapeutic anticoagulation after venous thrombosis has to be evaluated critically with special regard to the increased risk for spontaneous bleeding events associated with the underlying diseases. Both for therapy of the acute event and for secondary prophylaxis, low-molecular-weight heparins should preferentially be used. A prolongation of the therapeutic anticoagulation beyond the usual 3 to 6 months can only be recommended in high-risk settings and after careful evaluation of potential risks and benefits for the individual patient. New direct oral anticoagulants (NOAC) should not preferentially be used due to lack of clinical experience in patients with MPN and potential drug interactions (e.g. with JAK inhibitors). Consequent treatment of the underlying myeloproliferative disease and periodical evaluation of the response to therapy is crucial for optimal secondary prophylaxis of thromboembolic events in those patients.

  7. Thromboembolic disease in vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Tomasson, Gunnar; Monach, Paul A.; Merkel, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of review To give an overview of recent clinical findings of thromboembolic disease in vasculitis and provide insight into possible explanations of the association between thrombosis and inflammation. Recent findings A high incidence of venous thrombotic events has recently been described in four distinct cohorts of patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies-associated vasculitis (AAV), especially during periods of active disease. No factors other than the vasculitis itself have been identified that explain this high occurrence of thrombosis. Several studies have shown an increased rate of thrombosis in Behçet’s disease, with a different clinical presentation than that observed in AAV. Recent laboratory findings provide exciting insights into a bidirectional feedback loop between coagulation and inflammation that may be applicable to vasculitis. Summary Thrombosis is an important clinical manifestation of some types of vasculitis. Better understanding of the association of thrombosis with inflammation in vasculitis might lead to development of clinically useful biomarkers and new approaches to therapy. Additionally, study of the specific factors involved in thrombosis in systemic vasculitis could help explain the role of inflammation in more common settings of venous thrombotic events. PMID:19077717

  8. Saddle pulmonary thromboembolism with zero Wells' score.

    PubMed

    Pai, Rajasree Pai Ramachandra; Kangath, Raghesh Varot; Brown, Thomas A

    2011-02-01

    A retrospective cohort study of 2,218 patients with deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism during a 25-year period from 1966-1990 in Minnesota showed an annual incidence of venous thromboembolism of 117 per 100,000 (deep vein thrombosis, 48 per 100,000; pulmonary embolism, 69 per 100,000). Higher rates were found in males than females (130 vs 110 per 100,000, respectively) after adjusting for age. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of DVT and PE have been shown to significantly reduce mortality and morbidity. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism include alterations in blood flow (surgery, injury or long-distance air travel, pregnancy, obesity), hypercoagulability (factor V Leiden mutation, prothrombin mutation, protein C deficiency, protein S deficiency, antithrombin deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, antiphospholipid syndrome, nephrotic syndrome, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria) and vessel wall abnormalities. Eighty percent of deep venous thrombosis resolves spontaneously and less than 15% embolize to pulmonary arteries. PMID:21476378

  9. Low-molecular-weight heparin in the treatment of deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed Central

    Hauer, K E

    1998-01-01

    Traditionally, acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is treated with intravenous heparin followed by oral anticoagulants. With the advent of the low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs), this strategy is changing dramatically. LMWHs are compounds derived from standard unfractionated heparin that offer distinct clinical advantages over unfractionated heparin, including better bioavailability, longer half-life, and a more predictable anticoagulant response that obviates the need for laboratory monitoring. The common side effects of unfractionated heparin, including bleeding, thrombocytopenia, and osteoporosis, may be less common with LMWH. For the treatment of established venous thromboembolism, LMWH is at least as safe and effective as unfractionated heparin. Recent studies demonstrate that home therapy of DVT with LMWH, compared with inpatient therapy with unfractionated heparin, produces comparable clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction, with dramatic cost savings. With careful patient selection, home therapy of venous thromboembolism is quickly becoming the new standard of care. PMID:9795594

  10. Venous thrombosis: an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.W.

    1986-07-01

    Venous thromboembolic disease contributes to morbidity and mortality in certain groups of hospitalized patients, particularly those who have undergone surgery. Although principles of treatment have changed relatively little during the past 20 years, significant advances have been made in the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Venography, once the only reliable diagnostic technique, has been largely replaced by noninvasive tests: impedance plethysmography, venous Doppler, /sup 125/I-radiofibrinogen-uptake test, and phleborheography. Virchow's triad of stasis, vessel injury, and hypercoagulability remains a valid explanation of the pathogenesis of thrombus formation, but laboratory and clinical data have refined our knowledge of how these factors interact to result in clinically significant disease. Knowledge of the natural history of venous thrombosis, plus heightened awareness of the long-term morbidity and expense associated with the postphlebitic syndrome, have led to increased interest in preventing DVT. Clinically and economically, venous thrombosis is best managed by prevention. 61 references.

  11. Comparison of the Non-VKA Oral Anticoagulants Apixaban, Dabigatran, and Rivaroxaban in the Extended Treatment and Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism: Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, A. T.; Hamilton, M.; Bird, A.; Mitchell, S. A.; Li, S.; Horblyuk, R.; Batson, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Historically, warfarin or aspirin have been the recommended therapeutic options for the extended treatment (>3 months) of VTE. Data from Phase III randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are now available for non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in this indication. The current systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) were conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of anticoagulants for the extended treatment of VTE. Methods Electronic databases (accessed July 2014 and updated April 2016) were systematically searched to identify RCTs evaluating apixaban, aspirin, dabigatran, edoxaban, rivaroxaban, and warfarin for the extended treatment of VTE. Eligible studies included adults with an objectively confirmed deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism or both. A fixed-effect Bayesian NMA was conducted, and results were presented as relative risks (RRs). Sensitivity analyses examining (i) the dataset employed according to the time frame for outcome assessment (ii) the model used for the NMA were conducted. Results Eleven Phase III RCTs (examining apixaban, aspirin, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, warfarin and placebo) were included. The risk of the composite efficacy outcome (VTE and VTE-related death) was statistically significantly lower with the NOACs and warfarin INR 2.0–3.0 compared with aspirin, with no significant differences between the NOACs. Treatment with apixaban (RR 0.23, 95% CrI 0.10, 0.55) or dabigatran (RR 0.55, 95% Crl 0.43, 0.71) was associated with a statistically significantly reduced risk of ‘major or clinically relevant non-major bleed’ compared with warfarin INR 2.0–3.0. Apixaban also showed a significantly reduced risk compared with dabigatran (RR 0.42, 95% Crl 0.18, 0.97) and rivaroxaban (RR 0.23, 95% Crl 0.09, 0.59). Sensitivity analyses indicate that results were dependent on the dataset, but not on the type of NMA model employed. Conclusions Results from the NMA indicate that NOACs are an effective treatment for prevention of

  12. Biomolecular markers of cancer-associated thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Diana L.; White, Richard H.; Wun, Ted

    2013-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE; deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) is associated with a poor prognosis in most malignancies and is a major cause of death among cancer patients. Universal anticoagulation for primary thromboprophylaxis in the outpatient setting is precluded by potential bleeding complications, especially without sufficient evidence that all patients would benefit from such prophylaxis. Therefore, appropriately targeting cancer patients for thromboprophylaxis is key to reducing morbidity and perhaps mortality. Predictive biomarkers could aid in identifying patients at high risk for VTE. Possible biomarkers for VTE include C-reactive protein, platelet and leukocyte counts, D-dimer and prothrombin fragment 1+2, procoagulant factor VIII, tissue factor, and soluble P-selectin. Evidence is emerging to support the use of risk assessment models in selecting appropriate candidates for primary thromboprophylaxis in the cancer setting. Further studies are needed to optimize these models and determine utility in reducing morbidity and mortality from cancer-associated thromboembolism. PMID:23522921

  13. [Recommendations for the management of pulmonary thromboembolism, 2010].

    PubMed

    Terra-Filho, Mario; Menna-Barreto, Sérgio Saldanha

    2010-03-01

    Pulmonary thromboembolism and deep vein thrombosis together constitute a condition designated venous thromboembolism. Despite the advances, the morbidity and the mortality attributed to this condition are still high, because the patients present with more complex diseases, are submitted to a greater number of invasive procedures and survive longer. Although there are various international guidelines available, we decided to write these recommendations for their application in medical practice in Brazil. These recommendations are based on the best evidence in the literature and the opinion of the advisory committee. This document is only a tool for use in the management of patients. Although the recommendations it contains can be applied to most situations, physicians should adapt its content depending on their local context and on a case-by-case basis. Pulmonary thromboembolism is diagnosed by evaluating pre-test clinical probability (scores) together with the results of imaging studies, the current method of choice being CT angiography. Stratification of the risk for an unfavorable outcome is fundamental. Hemodynamic instability is the most important predictor. Low-risk patients should be treated with heparin, commonly low-molecular-weight heparins. High-risk patients require intensive monitoring and, in some cases, thrombolytic therapy. In the long term, patients should receive anticoagulants for at least three months. The decision to prolong this treatment is made based on the presence of risk factors for the recurrence of the condition and the probability of bleeding. Prophylaxis is highly effective and should be widely used in clinical and surgical patients alike, according to their risk group. Finally, we include recommendations regarding the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary thromboembolism.

  14. Association between postoperative thromboembolism prophylaxis and complications following urological surgery

    PubMed Central

    CERRUTO, MARIA ANGELA; D'ELIA, CAROLINA; PICCOLI, MARCO; CACCIAMANI, GIOVANNI; DE MARCHI, DAVIDE; CORSI, PAOLO; DE MARCO, VINCENZO; CAVALLERI, STEFANO; ARTIBANI, WALTER

    2016-01-01

    Thromboembolism represents the most significant complication and cause of non-surgical mortality in major urological surgery. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between the type of pharmacological thromboembolism prophylaxis and the postoperative complication rate in a cohort of patients undergoing major urological surgery. All consecutive patients treated with major urological surgery between December 2011 and March 2013 were evaluated. For each patient, clinical and demographic data, as well as information on the post-surgical complications and the type of pharmacological thromboembolism prophylaxis, were collected. In total, 453 patients (mean age, 63.36±12.05 years) were recruited (43.5% for prostate surgery, 33.1% for renal surgery, 12.1% for bladder surgery and 11.3% for other surgery). Postoperative blood transfusions were required in 50 cases (11.0%). A total of 32 patients (7.1%) underwent re-intervention due to the occurrence of grade ≥3 complications, with a readmission rate of 2.0%. According to the Clavien-Dindo Classification, the complications were grade 1 in 36.0% of the cases, grade 2 in 19.4%, grade 3 in 6.0%, grade 4 in 2.0% and grade 5 (mortality) in 0.7%. Only 1 case of deep venous thrombosis not associated with pulmonary thromboembolism was observed. Univariate analyses showed a significant negative association (higher risk of complications) between the use of >4,000 IU enoxaparin as the thromboembolism prophylaxis and postoperative blood transfusion rate (P=0.045), re-intervention rate (P=0.001) and the occurrence of grade ≥3 complications (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis confirmed the significant association between the use of >4,000 IU enoxaparin and both re-intervention rate (P=0.013) and occurrence of grade ≥3 complications (P=0.002). High doses of enoxaparin (>4,000 IU) may lead to an increased risk of re-intervention and severe postoperative complications following major urological surgery. Randomised

  15. Post-operative thromboembolism in neurosurgery. A study on the prophylactic effect of calf muscle stimulation plus dextran compared to low-dose heparin.

    PubMed

    Boström, S; Holmgren, E; Jonsson, O; Lindberg, S; Lindström, B; Winsö, I; Zachrisson, B

    1986-01-01

    This study compares the safety and effectiveness of two methods for the prophylaxis of post-operative thromboembolism in neurosurgical patients: A: low-dose heparin (5,000 IU X 2 s.c.) started preoperatively and continued daily for one week post-operatively, and B: per-operative electrical calf muscle stimulation with groups of impulses plus post-operative dextran infusions every other day for one week. Neurosurgical patients aged 40 years or more with normal laboratory coagulation values and operated under general anaesthesia were included. The 125:I-fibrinogen uptake test (FUT) was used for screening and phlebography for verification of deep venous thrombosis (DVT). 122 patients entered the study and 104 completed the prophylactic protocol, 58 in group A and 46 in group B. The two groups were comparable according to pre-operative data and distribution of diagnoses. 89 patients completed screening for post-operative DVT. We found an overall incidence of 5/49 (10 percent) DVT in group A and 5/40 (13 percent) in group B, compared to a frequency of 32-50 percent for controls without prophylaxis reported in the literature, In spite of prophylaxis our patients with intracranial neoplasms and intracranial vascular disease showed a relatively higher incidence of DVT, 4/23 (17 percent) and 4/14 (29 percent) respectively, compared to patients with spinal diagnoses 2/25 (8 percent). In combination with cranial diagnoses paretic lower limbs meant an apparent risk factor, 4/7 (57 percent). However, paretic limbs appearing in cases with spinal disorders did not predetermine an unsuccessful prophylaxis, 2/14 (14 percent). Blood loss, transfusion requirements and post-operative complications did not differ significantly between the two prophylactic groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2424279

  16. The effects of a low international normalized ratio on thromboembolic and bleeding complications in patients with mechanical mitral valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mechanical heart valve replacement has an inherent risk of thromboembolic events (TEs). Current guidelines recommend an international normalized ratio (INR) of at least 2.5 after mechanical mitral valve replacement (MVR). This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a low INR (2.0–2.5) on thromboembolic and bleeding complications in patients with mechanical MVR on warfarin therapy. Methods One hundred and thirty-five patients who underwent mechanical MVR were enrolled in this study. The end points of this study were defined as TEs (valve thrombosis, transient ischemic attack, stroke) and bleeding (all minor and major bleeding) complications. Patients were followed up for a mean of 39.6 months and the mean INR of the patients was calculated. After data collection, patients were divided into 3 groups according to their mean INR, as follows: group 1 (n = 34), INR <2.0; group 2 (n = 49), INR 2.0–2.5; and group 3 (n = 52), INR >2.5. Results A total of 22 events (10 [7.4%] thromboembolic and 12 [8.8%] bleeding events) occurred in the follow-up period. The mean INR was an independent risk factor for the development of TEs. Mean INR and neurological dysfunction were independent risk factors for the development of bleeding events. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between the log mean INR and all bleeding events, and a negative correlation was found between the log mean INR and all TEs. The total number of events was significantly lower in group 2 than in groups 1 and 3 (P = 0.036). Conclusions This study showed that a target INRs of 2.0–2.5 are acceptable for preventing TEs and safe in terms of bleeding complications in patients with mechanical MVR. PMID:24885719

  17. Ultrasound Screening for Deep Venous Thrombosis Detection: A Prospective Evaluation of 200 Plastic Surgery Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background: Our understanding of the pathophysiology of venous thromboembolism is largely based on the experience of orthopedic patients undergoing total joint replacement. Little is known regarding the natural history of venous thromboembolism in plastic surgery outpatients. Today, ultrasound screening, including compression and Doppler color flow imaging, represents the standard for detecting deep venous thromboses. Methods: Ultrasound screening was offered to 200 consecutive plastic surgery outpatients undergoing 205 operations. Patients were scanned before surgery, on the day after surgery, and approximately 1 week after surgery. No patient declined to participate (inclusion rate, 100%). Spontaneous breathing, Avoid gas, Face up, Extremities mobile anesthesia was used, with no chemoprophylaxis. Patient surveys were administered. Results: Six hundred ultrasound screening tests were performed. All scans performed the day after surgery were negative. Only one examination was positive, 8 days after a lipoabdominoplasty. Subsequent scans revealed complete resolution of the thrombosis with anticoagulation. Ninety percent of surveyed patients would choose to have ultrasound screening in the future. Conclusions: The natural history of thromboembolism in plastic surgery outpatients differs from orthopedic patients. The risk of a deep venous thrombosis in a patient treated with Spontaneous breathing, Avoid gas, Face up, Extremities mobile anesthesia is approximately 0.5%. Thromboses are unlikely to develop intraoperatively. In the single affected patient, the thrombosis was located distally, in a location that is less prone to embolism and highly susceptible to anticoagulation. Ultrasound screening is an effective and highly feasible method to identify affected patients for treatment. PMID:25878943

  18. Effect of Hydroxyethylrutosides on Blood Oxygen Levels and Venous Insufficiency Symptoms in Varicose Veins

    PubMed Central

    McEwan, Andrew J.; McArdle, Colin S.

    1971-01-01

    Oxygen levels (tension, saturation, and content) in blood from varicose leg veins were found to be significantly lower than those in blood from normal leg veins at the same site on the limb under the same laboratory conditions. Treatment with hydroxyethylrutosides significantly increased the oxygen levels in blood from varicose veins, and this was associated with an improvement in leg symptoms attributable to venous insufficiency. Hydroxyethylrutosides have been shown to have a beneficial effect on capillary dysfunction in venous stasis. PMID:5581491

  19. Venous Congestion, Endothelial and Neurohormonal Activation in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure: Cause or Effect?

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Paolo C.; Doran, Amanda C.; Onat, Duygu; Wong, Ka Yuk; Ahmad, Myra; Sabbah, Hani N.; Demmer, Ryan T.

    2015-01-01

    Venous congestion and endothelial and neurohormonal activation are known to occur in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), yet the temporal role of these processes in the pathophysiology of decompensation is not fully understood. Conventional wisdom presumes congestion to be a consequence of worsening cardiovascular function; however, the biomechanically driven effects of venous congestion are biologically plausible contributors to ADHF that remain largely unexplored in vivo. Recent experimental evidence from human models suggests that fluid accumulation and venous congestion are not simply consequences of poor cardiovascular function, but rather are fundamental pro-oxidant, pro-inflammatory, and hemodynamic stimuli that contribute to acute decompensation. The latest advances in the monitoring of volume status using implantable devices allow for the detection of venous congestion before symptoms arise. This may ultimately lead to improved treatment strategies including not only diuretics, but also specific, adjuvant interventions to counteract endothelial and neurohormonal activation during early preclinical decompensation. PMID:25740404

  20. Effect of body temperature on peripheral venous pressure measurements and its agreement with central venous pressure in neurosurgical patients.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Altan; Salman, M Alper; Salman, A Ebru; Aypar, Ulka

    2005-04-01

    Previous studies suggest a correlation of central venous pressure (CVP) with peripheral venous pressure (PVP) in different clinical settings. The effect of body temperature on PVP and its agreement with CVP in patients under general anesthesia are investigated in this study. Fifteen American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II patients undergoing elective craniotomy were included in the study. CVP, PVP, and core (Tc) and peripheral (Tp) temperatures were monitored throughout the study. A total of 950 simultaneous measurements of CVP, PVP, Tc, and Tp from 15 subjects were recorded at 5-minute intervals. The measurements were divided into low- and high-Tc and -Tp groups by medians as cutoff points. Bland-Altman assessment for agreement was used for CVP and PVP in all groups. PVP measurements were within range of +/-2 mm Hg of CVP values in 94% of the measurements. Considering all measurements, mean bias was 0.064 mm Hg (95% confidence interval -0.018-0.146). Corrected bias for repeated measurements was 0.173 +/- 3.567 mm Hg (mean +/- SD(corrected)). All of the measurements were within mean +/- 2 SD of bias, which means that PVP and CVP are interchangeable in our setting. As all the measurements were within 1 SD of bias when Tc was > or = 35.8 degrees C, even a better agreement of PVP and CVP was evident. The effect of peripheral hypothermia was not as prominent as core hypothermia. PVP measurement may be a noninvasive alternative for estimating CVP. Body temperature affects the agreement of CVP and PVP, which deteriorates at lower temperatures.

  1. The Pathobiology of Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lang, Irene M; Dorfmüller, Peter; Vonk Noordegraaf, Anton

    2016-07-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a late sequel of venous thromboembolism that cannot be completely reproduced in animal models. The prevalence of CTEPH in humans is estimated at roughly 17-20 per million; however, partly because up to 50% of patients with CTEPH never experience symptomatic pulmonary embolism, precise numbers on the incidence and prevalence are not known. Because CTEPH is diagnosed at a median age of 63 years in patients who often have other concomitant cardiovascular disease or lung disease, assessment of pathophysiology in patients can be challenging, We do know that CTEPH is a dual vascular disorder. Stenoses, webs, and occlusions predominate in large and medium-sized pulmonary arteries at the sites of previous pulmonary emboli. A "secondary vasculopathy" resembling the pulmonary arteriopathy encountered in other forms of pulmonary hypertension predominates in low-resistance vessels. Anastomoses between bronchial artery branches and precapillary pulmonary arterioles appear during evolution of the disease. Other acquired vascular connections between bronchial arteries and pulmonary veins may trigger venous remodeling. Current concepts regarding the pathophysiology of CTEPH include contributions of hyperactive coagulation (e.g., high coagulation factor VIII, combined coagulation defects, dysfibrinogenemias), insufficient anticoagulation, non-O blood groups, and misguided thrombus resolution (e.g., infection, inflammation, dysfunctional innate immunity, abnormal circulating phospholipids). Current research focuses on the question as to whether a genetic predisposition leads to misguided vascular healing after pulmonary thromboembolism in susceptible individuals. PMID:27571003

  2. A case in which danaparoid sodium was effective for portal venous thrombosis developed after endoscopic injection sclerotherapy for esophageal varices.

    PubMed

    Shudo, Ryushi; Yazaki, Yasuyuki; Honda, Mitsunori; Sugawara, Kenji

    2008-10-01

    We report a case of hepatitis C type liver cirrhosis with portal venous thrombosis in which danaparoid sodium was very effective. The patient developed portal venous thrombosis, esophageal ulcer, and esophageal stenosis at the same time after sclerotherapy. Since it was confirmed by abdominal computed tomography that there was no portal venous thrombosis before sclerotherapy, development of the thrombosis was considered to be associated with sclerotherapy. The patient was treated with balloon dilation therapy for esophageal stenosis, and with anticoagulation therapy using danaparoid sodium for portal venous thrombosis. The portal venous thrombosis disappeared 4 weeks after the treatment. Despite the condition of esophageal ulcer being caused by sclerotherapy, the patient was safely treated without any adverse effects and complications, and the clinical course has been good. It was indicated that danaparoid sodium was an anticoagulant unlikely to cause adverse effects such as hemorrhage and might be an effective drug for treatment of portal venous thrombosis. PMID:26193648

  3. Effectiveness of papain gel in venous ulcer treatment: randomized clinical trial1

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Ana Luiza Soares; de Oliveira, Beatriz Guitton Renaud Baptista; Futuro, Débora Omena; Secoli, Silvia Regina

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to assess the effectiveness of 2% papain gel compared to 2% carboxymethyl cellulose in the treatment of chronic venous ulcer patients. METHOD: randomized controlled clinical trial with 12-week follow-up. The sample consisted of 18 volunteers and 28 venous ulcers. In the trial group, 2% papain gel was used and, in the control group, 2% carboxymethyl cellulose gel. RESULTS: the trial group showed a significant reduction in the lesion area, especially between the fifth and twelfth week of treatment, with two healed ulcers and a considerable increase in the amount of epithelial tissue in the wound bed. CONCLUSION: 2% papain gel demonstrated greater effectiveness in the reduction of the lesion area, but was similar to 2% carboxymethyl cellulose gel regarding the reduction in the amount of exudate and devitalized tissue. Multicenter research is suggested to evidence the effectiveness of 2% papain gel in the healing of venous ulcers. UTN number: U1111-1157-2998 PMID:26155004

  4. Nephrotic syndrome-induced thromboembolism in adults

    PubMed Central

    Al-Azzawi, Hasan F.; Obi, Onyekachi C.; Safi, Javeryah; Song, Mingchen

    2016-01-01

    Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a well-defined syndrome characterized by the presence of nephrotic range of proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and hyperlipidemia. Although venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a well-reported complication associated with NS, the incidence, prevalence, risk factors, treatment options, and preventative strategies are not well-established. Thromboembolic phenomena in nephrotic patients are postulated to be a result of the urinary loss of antithrombotic factors by affected kidneys and increased production of prothrombotic factors by the liver. Most cases of VTE associated with NS reported in the literature have a known diagnosis of NS. We report a case of a young female presenting with dyspnea and a pulmonary embolism. She was found to have NS and right renal vein thrombosis. We review the available literature to highlight the best approach for clinicians treating VTE in patients with NS. PMID:27308257

  5. [Potential endovascular prophylaxis for pulmonary thromboembolism in the combined treatment of cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Bocharov, A V; Cherenkov, V G; Ukhanov, A P; Chentsov, V I

    2011-01-01

    Our study was concerned with the role of ultrasound examination of the lower extremity veins to detect deep venous thrombosis and to evaluate complex prophylaxis of thromboembolism of pulmonary arteries (TEPA). The procedure involved vena cava filter placement in patients with neoplasia and high risk of TEPA as compared with controls receiving conservative therapy alone. A positive correlation was established between surgery and/or polychemotherapy, on the one hand, and higher stage and high risk of TEPA, on the other. Patients with deep venous thrombosis and neoplasia were referred to groups of extremely high risk of that pathology. Angiological history, physical examination and ultrasound check-ups of the lower vein must be carried out in cancer patients. Vena cava filter placement proved to be an effective and safe measure of TEPA prophylaxis. It lowered the risk of lethal outcome in 24 during surgery and polychemotherapy. Lethality rate among controls was 43.5 +/- 0.51%. PMID:22191245

  6. Effect of therapeutic doses of optical radiation on gas composition of venous blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalesskaya, G. A.; Laskina, O. V.

    2013-05-01

    We have studied the effect of in vivo irradiation of blood by radiation at different wavelengths (254 nm, 632.8 nm, and 670 nm), which can be absorbed by blood, on the absorption spectra and gas composition of venous blood for individual patients. We have determined the differences in short-term and long-term changes in both spectral characteristics and the gas composition of blood induced by irradiation. During and immediately after irradiation, for all the patients we observed an increase in the partial pressure of oxygen and a decrease in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in venous blood. After irradiation was completed, the changes in the partial pressures of blood gases were different for different patients: the gas pressures both increased and decreased, depending on the photo-induced changes in the level of hemoglobin oxygen saturation in venous blood.

  7. Effects of Long Duration Spaceflight on Venous and Arterial Compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ribeiro, L. C.; Lee, S. M. C.; Martin, D. S.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Stenger, M. B.; Westby, C. M.; Platts, S. H.

    2014-01-01

    The visual impairment and intracranial pressure syndrome (VIIP) is a newly described space flight-associated medical condition made up of a constellation of symptoms affecting at least 34% of American astronauts who have flown International Space Station (ISS) missions. VIIP is defined primarily by visual acuity deficits and anatomical changes to eye structures, and is thought to be related to elevated intracranial pressure secondary to space flightinduced cephalad fluid shifts. Loss of visual acuity could be a significant threat to crew health and performance and may be suggestive of other adaptations with implications for years post-flight. Our primary objective is to determine whether vascular compliance is altered by space flight and whether such adaptations are related to the incidence of VIIP. In particular, we will measure ocular parameters and vascular compliance in vessels of the head and neck in astronauts who have no space flight experience, in astronauts before, during, and after space flight, and in bed rest subjects with conditions similar to space flight. Additionally, we will analyze astronaut data from the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) archive to determine which factors might be predictive of the development of VIIP. The project will be conducted in four separate but related parts. To understand the baseline condition of astronauts without any prior space flight experience, we will study 10 astronauts who have never flown in space by performing a comprehensive evaluation of the vasculature of the head, neck and eyes. Hemodynamic data (stroke volume and blood pressure), ocular (tonometry and ocular ultrasound), venous and arterial parameters will be acquired across a range of tilt angles (20, 10, 0, -10, -20 degrees). Vessels to be studied include the temporal, jugular, and vertebral veins and the cerebral, carotid and vertebral arteries. Ophthalmic data from the annual physical will be obtained through data sharing. To examine

  8. Living-Engineered Valves for Transcatheter Venous Valve Repair

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Benedikt; Robert, Jérôme; Ksiazek, Agnieszka; Wyss, Yves; Frese, Laura; Slamecka, Jaroslav; Kehl, Debora; Modregger, Peter; Peter, Silvia; Stampanoni, Marco; Proulx, Steven; Falk, Volkmar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) represents a major global health problem with increasing prevalence and morbidity. CVI is due to an incompetence of the venous valves, which causes venous reflux and distal venous hypertension. Several studies have focused on the replacement of diseased venous valves using xeno- and allogenic transplants, so far with moderate success due to immunologic and thromboembolic complications. Autologous cell-derived tissue-engineered venous valves (TEVVs) based on fully biodegradable scaffolds could overcome these limitations by providing non-immunogenic, non-thrombogenic constructs with remodeling and growth potential. Methods: Tri- and bicuspid venous valves (n=27) based on polyglycolic acid–poly-4-hydroxybutyrate composite scaffolds, integrated into self-expandable nitinol stents, were engineered from autologous ovine bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and endothelialized. After in vitro conditioning in a (flow) pulse duplicator system, the TEVVs were crimped (n=18) and experimentally delivered (n=7). The effects of crimping on the tissue-engineered constructs were investigated using histology, immunohistochemistry, scanning electron microscopy, grating interferometry (GI), and planar fluorescence reflectance imaging. Results: The generated TEVVs showed layered tissue formation with increasing collagen and glycosaminoglycan levels dependent on the duration of in vitro conditioning. After crimping no effects were found on the MSC level in scanning electron microscopy analysis, GI, histology, and extracellular matrix analysis. However, substantial endothelial cell loss was detected after the crimping procedure, which could be reduced by increasing the static conditioning phase. Conclusions: Autologous living small-diameter TEVVs can be successfully fabricated from ovine BM-MSCs using a (flow) pulse duplicator conditioning approach. These constructs hold the potential to overcome the limitations of

  9. [Venous thrombosis of atypical location in patients with cancer].

    PubMed

    Campos Balea, Begoña; Sáenz de Miera Rodríguez, Andrea; Antolín Novoa, Silvia; Quindós Varela, María; Barón Duarte, Francisco; López López, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a complication that frequently occurs in patients with neoplastic diseases. Several models have therefore been developed to identify patient subgroups diagnosed with cancer who are at increased risk of developing VTE. The most common forms of thromboembolic episodes are deep vein thrombosis in the lower limbs and pulmonary thromboembolism. However, venous thrombosis is also diagnosed in atypical locations. There are few revisions of unusual cases of venous thrombosis. In most cases, VTE occurs in the upper limbs and in the presence of central venous catheters, pacemakers and defibrillators. We present the case of a patient diagnosed with breast cancer and treated with surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy who developed a thrombosis in the upper limbs (brachial and axillary).

  10. An effective and biocompatible antibiofilm coating for central venous catheter.

    PubMed

    Silva Paes Leme, Annelisa Farah; Ferreira, Aline Siqueira; Alves, Fernanda Aparecida Oliveira; de Azevedo, Bruna Martinho; de Bretas, Liza Porcaro; Farias, Rogerio Estevam; Oliveira, Murilo Gomes; Raposo, Nádia Rezende Barbosa

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo efficacy and the tissue reaction of an antibiofilm coating composed of xylitol, triclosan, and polyhexamethylene biguanide. The antimicrobial activity was analyzed by a turbidimetric method. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the antiadherent property of central venous catheter (CVC) fragments impregnated with an antibiofilm coating (I-CVC) in comparison with noncoated CVC (NC-CVC) fragments. Two in vivo assays using subcutaneous implantation of NC-CVC and I-CVC fragments in the dorsal area of rats were performed. The first assay comprised hematological and microbiological analysis. The second assay evaluated tissue response by examining the inflammatory reactions after 7 and 21 days. The formulation displayed antimicrobial activity against all tested strains. A biofilm disaggregation with significant reduction of microorganism's adherence in I-CVC fragments was observed. In vivo antiadherence results demonstrated a reduction of early biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, mainly in an external surface of the I-CVC, in comparison with the NC-CVC. All animals displayed negative hemoculture. No significant tissue reaction was observed, indicating that the antibiofilm formulation could be considered biocompatible. The use of I-CVC could decrease the probability of development of localized or systemic infections. PMID:25826042

  11. Hormones and pregnancy: thromboembolic risks for women.

    PubMed

    Kujovich, Jody L

    2004-08-01

    During their lifetimes, women face several unique situations with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Doctors in a variety of specialties must advise women on the risks of oral contraceptives (OC), hormone replacement or pregnancy. Modern 'low dose' OC are associated with a three to sixfold increased relative risk of VTE. Hormone replacement and selective oestrogen receptor modulators confer a similar two to fourfold increase in thrombotic risk. However, because the baseline incidence of thrombosis is higher in older postmenopausal women, the absolute risk is higher than in younger OC users. The risk of venous thrombosis is six to 10-fold higher during pregnancy than in non-pregnant women of similar age. Thrombophilic disorders increase the thrombotic risk of OC, hormone replacement and pregnancy, especially in women with homozygous or combined defects. This review focuses on recent data estimating the thrombotic risk of hormonal therapies and pregnancy in women with and without other thrombotic risk factors.

  12. Evaluating the effectiveness of the customized Unna boot when treating patients with venous ulcers*

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Bruna Suelen Raymundo; Araujo, Cristina Souza; Atzingen, Dênia Amélia Novato Castelli Von; Mendonça, Adriana Rodrigues dos Anjos; Mesquita Filho, Marcos; de Medeiros, Mauricéia Lins

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lower limb ulcers are a serious medical and socioeconomic problem throughout the world. One type of chronic wound of the lower extremities is the venous ulcer. Therapeutic methods for treating venous ulcer include the use of the Unna boot. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effectiveness of the customized Unna boot in the treatment of venous ulcers and to monitor the subsequent development and healing of the lesions. METHODS Prospective exploratory and quantitative longitudinal study, conducted at the "Outpatients Department (Wound Care) of the Grupo da Fraternidade Espírita Irmão Alexandre" in the city of Pouso Alegre (MG), Brazil, in 2008. The sample consisted of 32 patients with venous ulcers who underwent treatment with the Unna boot and 11 patients (control group), who used a simple bandage application. The patients'lesions were monitored over a three month period. RESULTS The average age of the predominently female (65.1%) patients was 61.88. From observing the differences in healing times at the three evaluation stages, it was clear that after the initial evaluation the wound area decreased in Groups 1 and 2 (p>0.05). CONCLUSION The use of the customized Unna boot contributes to quicker healing. However, over a period of three months the simple bandage applications were seen to be just as effective as the Unna boot method. PMID:23539002

  13. Therapeutic Effect of Ligustilide-Stimulated Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in a Mouse Thromboembolic Stroke Model.

    PubMed

    Chi, Kang; Fu, Ru-Huei; Huang, Yu-Chuen; Chen, Shih-Yin; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Huang, Pi-Chun; Lin, Po-Cheng; Chang, Fu-Kuei; Liu, Shih-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a result of cerebral ischemia that triggers a cascade of both physiological and biochemical events. No effective treatment is available for stroke; however, stem cells have the potential to rescue tissue from the effects of stroke. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are an abundant source of adult stem cells; therefore, ADSC therapy can be considered as a future strategy for regenerative medicine. However, more research is required to improve the effectiveness of transplanted ADSCs as a treatment for stroke in the mouse stroke model. Ligustilide, isolated from the herb Angelica sinensis, exhibits a protective effect on neurons and inhibits inflammation. We also demonstrated that ligustilide treatment increases the expression levels of homing factors such as SDF-1 and CXCR4. In the present study, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of ADSC transplantation and ligustilide treatment in a mouse thromboembolic stroke model by behavioral tests, including beam walking, locomotor activity, and rotarod analysis. ADSCs pretreated with ligustilide were transplanted into the brains of stroke mice. The results showed that the therapeutic effect of ADSCs pretreated with ligustilide was better than that of ADSCs without ligustilide pretreatment. There was no difference between the recovery of mice treated by ADSC transplantation combined with subcutaneous ligustilide injection and that of mice treated only with ADSCs. The TUNEL assay showed fewer apoptotic cells in the brains of mice transplanted with ADSCs pretreated with ligustilide as well as in those without pretreatment. In summary, pretreatment of ADSCs with ligustilide improves the therapeutic efficacy of ADSC transplantation. The results of this study will help improve stem cell therapies being developed for future clinical applications. PMID:26787228

  14. Mock circulatory system of the Fontan circulation to study respiration effects on venous flow behavior.

    PubMed

    Vukicevic, Marija; Chiulli, John A; Conover, Timothy; Pennati, Giancarlo; Hsia, Tain Yen; Figliola, Richard S

    2013-01-01

    We describe an in vitro model of the Fontan circulation with respiration to study subdiaphragmatic venous flow behavior. The venous and arterial connections of a total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) test section were coupled with a physical lumped parameter (LP) model of the circulation. Intrathoracic and subdiaphragmatic pressure changes associated with normal breathing were applied. This system was tuned for two patients (5 years, 0.67 m2; 10 years, 1.2 m2) to physiological values. System function was verified by comparison to the analytical model on which it was based and by consistency with published clinical measurements. Overall, subdiaphragmatic venous flow was influenced by respiration. Flow within the arteries and veins increased during inspiration but decreased during expiration, with retrograde flow in the inferior venous territories. System pressures and flows showed close agreement with the analytical LP model (p < 0.05). The ratio of the flow rates occurring during inspiration to expiration were within the clinical range of values reported elsewhere. The approach used to set up and control the model was effective and provided reasonable comparisons with clinical data.

  15. Effects of epidural-and-general anesthesia combined versus general anesthesia alone on the venous hemodynamics of the lower limb. A randomized study.

    PubMed

    Delis, Konstantinos T; Knaggs, Alison L; Mason, Peter; Macleod, Ken G

    2004-11-01

    >0.1([Mann-Whitney])), but was significantly higher in Group EA/GA at surgery (PE: 54 ml/min; 95% CI: 18, 159 ml/min; p = 0.045([Mann-Whitney])) and recovery (PE: 49 ml/min; 95% CI: 16, 129 ml/min; p=0.0037([Mann-Whitney])). Peak velocity, V(mean) and V(Q) increased significantly post epidural in Group EA/GA. Contrary to the venous leg flow attenuation in elective abdominal surgery under GA and upon its recovery, EA administered as part of GA is associated with a significant enhancement of both V(mean) and V(Q). This beneficial hemodynamic effect of EA at the vulnerable stage of recovery may be critically essential in light of enhanced blood viscosity, fibrinolytic shut-down, endothelial/platelet activation and immobility, acting in synergy with putative cardiorespiratory protection. The results of this study lend support to the preferential selection of combined EA/GA in subjects at high risk for venous thromboembolism, particularly when optimal DVT prophylaxis is practically unattainable due to limitations pertaining to the nature of surgery. PMID:15543327

  16. Dabigatran for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Enriquez, Andres; Baranchuk, Adrian; Redfearn, Damian; Simpson, Christopher; Abdollah, Hoshiar; Michael, Kevin

    2015-05-01

    Dabigatran, an oral direct thrombin inhibitor, was the first of a new class of drugs referred to as non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants. Dabigatran is better than warfarin for stroke prevention in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (dose of 150 mg twice a day), non-inferior to enoxaparin for venous thromboembolism prevention after orthopedic surgery and non-inferior to warfarin in preventing recurrence after acute venous thromboembolism. The safety profile is similar to standard anticoagulants, with significant reduction observed in intracranial hemorrhage. Other advantages include a rapid onset of action and a predictable pharmacokinetic profile, allowing a fixed-dose regimen without the need for routine anticoagulation monitoring. In the event of bleeding, general support measures are recommended and if severe, the use of non-specific hemostatic agents such as prothrombin complex concentrates and recombinant factor VIIa must be considered. A specific reversal agent (idarucizumab) is in development.

  17. [Thromboembolic prophylaxis and central blocks].

    PubMed

    Vincenti, E

    2001-09-01

    Epidural and spinal blocks are widely used in several surgical settings in order to obtain analgesic advantages and reduce blood loss and thromboembolic complications. However, many high risk patients receive perioperatively some anti-coagulant treatments for preventing venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Although a number of large observations has demonstrated a very low rate of major neurological impairment due to spinal haematomas, in the last years an increasing number of case reports seems to cause an excessive anxiety to the anaesthesiologists. On the other hand, spinal haematomas occurred in same cases without anti-coagulant therapy. An other question concerns the onset time from an epidural/spinal puncture and the development of neurological symptoms of spinal compression, which may appear even after days or weeks. Female gender, aged patients, vascular surgery, uncontrolled positions on the table, number of spinal punctures, large gauge of needle and low degree of skill are the main factors involving in the haemorrhagic phenomena around spinal cord. Accurate anamnesis, no anti-coagulant medication before surgery, and a perfect technique of managing spinal/epidural block are essential elements for reducing probability of severe bleeding and consequent expansive haematomas. Also, informed consent of patients and careful judgement of advantages vs risks of a central block for every high risk case determine the final decision about the regional anaesthesia: to do or not to do.

  18. Effects of different frequencies of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on venous vascular reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Franco, O.S.; Paulitsch, F.S.; Pereira, A.P.C.; Teixeira, A.O.; Martins, C.N.; Silva, A.M.V.; Plentz, R.D.M.; Irigoyen, M.C.; Signori, L.U.

    2014-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a type of therapy used primarily for analgesia, but also presents changes in the cardiovascular system responses; its effects are dependent upon application parameters. Alterations to the cardiovascular system suggest that TENS may modify venous vascular response. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of TENS at different frequencies (10 and 100 Hz) on venous vascular reactivity in healthy subjects. Twenty-nine healthy male volunteers were randomized into three groups: placebo (n=10), low-frequency TENS (10 Hz, n=9) and high-frequency TENS (100 Hz, n=10). TENS was applied for 30 min in the nervous plexus trajectory from the superior member (from cervical to dorsal region of the fist) at low (10 Hz/200 μs) and high frequency (100 Hz/200 μs) with its intensity adjusted below the motor threshold and intensified every 5 min, intending to avoid accommodation. Venous vascular reactivity in response to phenylephrine, acetylcholine (endothelium-dependent) and sodium nitroprusside (endothelium-independent) was assessed by the dorsal hand vein technique. The phenylephrine effective dose to achieve 70% vasoconstriction was reduced 53% (P<0.01) using low-frequency TENS (10 Hz), while in high-frequency stimulation (100 Hz), a 47% increased dose was needed (P<0.01). The endothelium-dependent (acetylcholine) and independent (sodium nitroprusside) responses were not modified by TENS, which modifies venous responsiveness, and increases the low-frequency sensitivity of α1-adrenergic receptors and shows high-frequency opposite effects. These changes represent an important vascular effect caused by TENS with implications for hemodynamics, inflammation and analgesia. PMID:24820225

  19. Effects of different frequencies of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on venous vascular reactivity.

    PubMed

    Franco, O S; Paulitsch, F S; Pereira, A P C; Teixeira, A O; Martins, C N; Silva, A M V; Plentz, R D M; Irigoyen, M C; Signori, L U

    2014-05-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a type of therapy used primarily for analgesia, but also presents changes in the cardiovascular system responses; its effects are dependent upon application parameters. Alterations to the cardiovascular system suggest that TENS may modify venous vascular response. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of TENS at different frequencies (10 and 100 Hz) on venous vascular reactivity in healthy subjects. Twenty-nine healthy male volunteers were randomized into three groups: placebo (n=10), low-frequency TENS (10 Hz, n=9) and high-frequency TENS (100 Hz, n=10). TENS was applied for 30 min in the nervous plexus trajectory from the superior member (from cervical to dorsal region of the fist) at low (10 Hz/200 μs) and high frequency (100 Hz/200 μs) with its intensity adjusted below the motor threshold and intensified every 5 min, intending to avoid accommodation. Venous vascular reactivity in response to phenylephrine, acetylcholine (endothelium-dependent) and sodium nitroprusside (endothelium-independent) was assessed by the dorsal hand vein technique. The phenylephrine effective dose to achieve 70% vasoconstriction was reduced 53% (P<0.01) using low-frequency TENS (10 Hz), while in high-frequency stimulation (100 Hz), a 47% increased dose was needed (P<0.01). The endothelium-dependent (acetylcholine) and independent (sodium nitroprusside) responses were not modified by TENS, which modifies venous responsiveness, and increases the low-frequency sensitivity of α1-adrenergic receptors and shows high-frequency opposite effects. These changes represent an important vascular effect caused by TENS with implications for hemodynamics, inflammation and analgesia.

  20. CEREBRAL VENOUS THROMBOSIS AND TURNER SYNDROME: A RARE REPORTED ASSOCIATION.

    PubMed

    Guler, A; Alpaydin, S; Bademkiran, F; Sirin, H; Celebisoy, N

    2015-01-01

    Turner Syndrome is the only known viable chromosomal monosomy, characterised by the complete or partial absence of an X chromosome. It's the most common chromosomal abnormality in females. Apart from the well known dysmorphic features of the syndrome, it has been associated with a number of vascular pathologies; mainly involving the cardiovascular, renovascular, peripheral vascular and cerebrovascular system. It seems striking that thromboembolism is not considered as a feature of the syndrome. Most of the thromboembolism cases are related to the arterial vascular system; except for some rare reported portal venous thrombosis cases, peripheral venous thrombosis cases and to the best of our knowledge a single case of cerebral venous thrombosis with Dandy Walker malformation and polymicrogyria. We herein report a cerebral venous thrombosis case with Turner Syndrome. With no other found underlying etiology, we want to highlight that Turner Syndrome, itself, may have a relationship not only with the cerebral arterial vascular system pathologies but also with the cerebral venous thrombosis.

  1. Deep Venous Thrombosis in Teen With Crouzon Syndrome Post-Le Fort III Osteotomy With Rigid External Distraction.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Lauren O; Myers, Rene P; Girotto, John A

    2015-11-01

    Venous thromboembolic events are rare in pediatric patients. Risk factors associated with the development of venous thromboembolic events in pediatric patients include the use of central venous catheters, hospitalization, cancer, sepsis, trauma, surgery, and congenital prothrombotic disorders.The authors present the case of a 14-year-old man with Crouzon syndrome who required Le Fort III osteotomy with rigid external distraction for significant midface hypoplasia who presented postoperatively with an extensive deep venous thrombosis. This is the first reported case of symptomatic venous thrombosis post-Le Fort III osteotomy and rigid external distraction. Although rare, surgeons should be aware of this potential complication.

  2. Deep Venous Thrombosis in Teen With Crouzon Syndrome Post-Le Fort III Osteotomy With Rigid External Distraction.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Lauren O; Myers, Rene P; Girotto, John A

    2015-11-01

    Venous thromboembolic events are rare in pediatric patients. Risk factors associated with the development of venous thromboembolic events in pediatric patients include the use of central venous catheters, hospitalization, cancer, sepsis, trauma, surgery, and congenital prothrombotic disorders.The authors present the case of a 14-year-old man with Crouzon syndrome who required Le Fort III osteotomy with rigid external distraction for significant midface hypoplasia who presented postoperatively with an extensive deep venous thrombosis. This is the first reported case of symptomatic venous thrombosis post-Le Fort III osteotomy and rigid external distraction. Although rare, surgeons should be aware of this potential complication. PMID:26595005

  3. Medical Therapy in Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pepke-Zaba, Joanna; Jais, Xavier; Channick, Richard

    2016-07-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a rare but life-threatening condition resulting from unresolved thromboembolic obstructions. Pulmonary endarterectomy surgery is currently the standard of treatment, as it is potentially curative; however, not all cases are amenable to surgical intervention due to distal distribution of the organized thromboembolic material or the presence of comorbidities. Up to one-third of patients have persistent or recurrent pulmonary hypertension after pulmonary endarterectomy. In addition to the occlusive organized thromboembolic material, there is a small-vessel vasculopathy in nonoccluded parts of the pulmonary circulation that is histologically similar to that described in pulmonary arterial hypertension. This observation has led to frequent off-license use of approved pulmonary arterial hypertension therapies in CTEPH. Small uncontrolled trials have investigated prostacyclin analogs, endothelin receptor antagonists, and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors in CTEPH with mixed results. A phase III study of the endothelin receptor antagonist bosentan met only one of its two coprimary end points. The first large randomized controlled trial showing a positive treatment effect was the Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Stimulator Trial (CHEST). This study led to the licensing of riociguat for use in inoperable or persistent recurrent CTEPH. Rigorous randomized controlled trials of medical therapy for CTEPH are needed, and several are underway or planned. In the future, outcomes research may be facilitated by identification of novel end points specific to CTEPH. PMID:27571006

  4. Intraocular pressure effects of water loading and venous compression tests in normal and denervated pigmented rabbits.

    PubMed

    Gual, A; Mintenig, G M; Belmonte, C

    1989-03-01

    We have compared IOP elevations induced by water-loading and by increased cephalic venous pressure in normal and denervated pigmented rabbits. Denervations were performed by sympathetic ganglionectomy and/or blockade of the sensory and autonomic innervation of the eye through retrobulbar anesthesia; retrobulbar anesthesia induced significant decreases of the basal IOP in control but not in ganglionectomized eyes. The water-loading test induced a peak pressure elevation approximately 30 min after water administration that could be counteracted by retrobulbar anesthesia. Ganglionectomized rabbits exhibited steeper IOP rises and greater IOP increases following water-loading than the control eyes; retrobulbar anesthesia in ganglionectomized eyes delayed the IOP response to water-loading. Compressions of the neck lasting 30 min elicited significant IOP elevations that were more pronounced in ganglionectomized eyes. In these eyes, retrobulbar anesthesia further increased the IOP rise elicited by neck compression. An IOP decrease below control values was observed at the end of the venous compression. The results indicate that an intact efferent innervation of the eye contributes to buffer IOP elevations induced by water-loading or cephalic venous stasis, presumably through the vascular effects of the ocular autonomic nerves.

  5. Effects of Long Duration Spaceflight on Venous and Arterial Compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platts, Steven H.; Ribeiro, L. Christine; Laurie, Steven S.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Martin, David S.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert J.; Stenger, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome is a spaceflight-associated medical condition consisting of a constellation of symptoms affecting approximately 70 percent of American astronauts who have flown long-duration missions to the International Space Station (ISS). VIIP is defined primarily by visual acuity deficits and anatomical changes to eye structures and has been hypothesized to be related to elevated intracranial pressure secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts. Loss of visual acuity could be a significant threat to crew health and performance and have significant consequences during and post spaceflight. Purpose: The primary objective is to determine whether alterations in vascular compliance are related to the incidence of VIIP. Ocular structural and functional measures and vascular ultrasound of the head and neck were acquired in bed rest subjects completing 10-14 days in 6deg head-down tilt. Specific Aims: To evaluate the effect of age and simulated spaceflight (6 degrees head-down bed rest and sodium ingestion similar to International Space Station (ISS) astronauts) on vascular compliance and on the development of VIIP.

  6. [Venous ulcer].

    PubMed

    Böhler, Kornelia

    2016-06-01

    Venous disorders causing a permanent increase in venous pressure are by far the most frequent reason for ulcers of the lower extremity. With a prevalence of 1 % in the general population rising to 4 % in the elderly over 80 and its chronic character, 1 % of healthcare budgets of the western world are spent on treatment of venous ulcers. A thorough investigation of the underlying venous disorder is the prerequisite for a differenciated therapy. This should comprise elimination of venous reflux as well as local wound management. Chronic ulcers can successfully be treated by shave therapy and split skin grafting. Compression therapy is a basic measure not only in venous ulcer treatment but also in prevention of ulcer recurrence. Differential diagnosis which have to be considered are arterial ulcers, vasculitis and neoplasms. PMID:27405863

  7. Thromboembolic Complications and Prophylaxis Patterns in Colorectal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an important complication of colorectal surgery, but its incidence is unclear in the era of VTE prophylaxis. OBJECTIVE To describe the incidence of and risk factors associated with thromboembolic complications and contemporary VTE prophylaxis patterns following colorectal surgery. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Prospective data from the Washington State Surgical Care and Outcomes Assessment Program (SCOAP) linked to a statewide hospital discharge database. At 52 Washington State SCOAP hospitals, participants included consecutive patients undergoing colorectal surgery between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2011. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Venous thromboembolism complications in-hospital and up to 90 days after surgery. RESULTS Among 16 120 patients (mean age, 61.4 years; 54.5% female), the use of perioperative and in-hospital VTE chemoprophylaxis increased significantly from 31.6% to 86.4% and from 59.6% to 91.4%, respectively, by 2011 (P < .001 for trend for both). Overall, 10.6% (1399 of 13 230) were discharged on a chemoprophylaxis regimen. The incidence of VTE was 2.2% (360 of 16 120). Patients undergoing abdominal operations had higher rates of 90-day VTE compared with patients having pelvic operations (2.5% [246 of 9702] vs 1.8% [114 of 6413], P = .001). Those having an operation for cancer had a similar incidence of 90-day VTE compared with those having an operation for nonmalignant processes (2.1% [128 of 6213] vs 2.3% [232 of 9902], P = .24). On adjusted analysis, older age, nonelective surgery, history of VTE, and operations for inflammatory disease were associated with increased risk of 90-day VTE (P < .05 for all). There was no significant decrease in VTE over time. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Venous thromboembolism rates are low and largely unchanged despite increases in perioperative and postoperative prophylaxis. These data should be considered in developing future guidelines. PMID:26060977

  8. Experimental investigation of the effects of inserting a bovine venous valve in the inferior vena cava of Fontan circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Johnson, Jacob; Kotz, Monica; Tang, Elaine; Khiabani, Reza; Yoganathan, Ajit; Maher, Kevin

    2012-11-01

    The Fontan procedure is a palliative surgery performed on patients with single ventricle (SV) congenital heart defects. The SV is used for systemic circulation and the venous return from the inferior vena cava (IVC) and superior vena cava (SVC) is routed to the pulmonary arteries (PA), resulting in a total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC). Hepatic venous hypertension is commonly manifested in the Fontan circulation, leading to long-term complications including liver congestion and cirrhosis. Respiratory intrathoracic pressure changes affect the venous return from the IVC to the PA. Using a physical model of an idealized TCPC, we examine placement of a unidirectional bovine venous valve within the IVC as a method of alleviating hepatic venous hypertension. A piston pump is used to provide pulsatility in the internal flow through the TCPC, while intrathoracic pressure fluctuations are imposed on the external walls of the model using a pair of linear actuators. When implanted in the extrathoracic position, the hepatic venous pressure is lowered from baseline condition. The effects of changing caval flow distribution and intrathoracic pressure on TCPC hemodynamics will be examined.

  9. Effects of Venous Superdrainage and Arterial Supercharging on Dorsal Perforator Flap in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jun; Xi, Shanshan; Ding, Maochao; Li, Hong; Xu, Wei; Tang, Maolin; Chen, Shixin

    2016-01-01

    Objective To comparatively assess the effects of venous superdrainage and arterial supercharging on dorsal perforator flap survival. Materials and Methods Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats (450–550g) were randomly divided into three groups (n = 20), including control group (Control) and experimental groups A (venous superdrainage, Exp. A) and B (arterial supercharging, Exp. B). At postoperative day 7, survival areas of the flaps were evaluated and all animals underwent angiography. Laser Doppler was used to evaluate flap perfusion from 0h to 7days after surgery. Histology with hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to count microvessels. Tissue of “Choke vessels”was excised for quantification of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by western blot assay at 6h and 7days after surgery. Results In the Exp. A group, almost all flaps survived (98.2±1.6%); in the Exp. B and control group, survival areas accounted for 78.8±8.5% and 60.3±7.8%, respectively (P <0.001). In addition, Exp. A animals showed improved anastomosis of choke vessels 2 compared with the Exp. B and Control groups. Furthermore, flap blood flow and partial pressure of oxygen in the Exp. A group were significantly higher compared with values obtained for the Exp. B and Control groups, from 6 hours to 7 days after surgery. More microvessels were found in the Exp. A group (11.65±1.33) than in Exp. B (9.25±0.34) and control (7.25±0.91) animals on POD 7. The relative expression level of HIF-1α and VEGF were significant at 6h and 7days after surgery. Conclusions Venous superdrainage in rat dorsal perforator flap is more effective than arterial supercharging in promoting flap survival, and could effectively alter hemodynamics in the microcirculation and stimulate blood vessel formation. PMID:27513520

  10. [Microcirculatory consequences of a venous striction in the rat. Effect of a coumarine-rutine association].

    PubMed

    Laemmel, E; Stücker, O; Pons, C; Duverger, J P; Dedieu, F; Leutenegger, E

    1998-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the consequences of a venous striction on capillary red blood cell distribution and venular blood return and the effect of a coumarin derivative-rutoside combination. The study was conducted, in vivo, in the rat cremaster muscle using intravital microscopy. The striction lasted thirty minutes and was obtained by clamping the epigastric vein. This mechanical constraint was sufficient to induce microcirculatory modifications without disrupting microvessels. Before the striction (t-5 min), the velocities and diameters of the veins and arteries were comparable in all groups. After the striction (t5 min), in the control group, venous blood flow decreased by 60%, from 0.48 +/- 0.09 mm3/s (t-5 min) to 0.20 +/- 0.06 mm3/s (t5 min). The results showed that after thirty minutes reperfusion, venular blood flow in the control animals was only 34% of initial blood flow. The mean red blood cell velocity dropped by 56%, the percentage of low perfused capillaries increased from 7.5% to 50%. Treatment of animals with a coumarin derivative-rutoside combination, particularly at 4 mg/kg coumarin derivative-100 mg/kg rutoside, has significantly improved the microcirculation. After thirty minutes reperfusion venular blood flow was 60% and the percentage of low perfused capillaries was only 10%. The effect seemed to be more pronounced for rutoside than coumarin derivatives. The interest of this study was to set up an experimental model of a venous striction not too severe to induce micro-hemorrages but enough to modify microcirculation. This model was used to quantify the beneficial effects of a coumarin derivative-rutoside combination.

  11. [Surgical treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Mercier, Olaf; Fadel, Elie; Mussot, Sacha; Fabre, Dominique; Ladurie, François-Leroy; Angel, Claude; Brenot, Philippe; Riou, Jean-Yves; Bourkaib, Riad; Lehouerou, Daniel; Musat, Andy; Stephan, François; Rohnean, Adéla; Jaïs, Xavier; Humbert, Marc; Sitbon, Olivier; Simonneau, Gérald; Dartevelle, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is a rare but underdiagnosed disease. The development of imaging played a crucial role for the screening and the decision of operability over the past few years. Indeed, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is the only type of pulmonary hypertension with a potential curative treatment: pulmonary endarterectomy. It is a complexe surgical procedure performed under cardiopulmonary bypass with deep hypothermia and circulatory arrest. The aim of the procedure is to completely remove the scar tissue inside the pulmonary arteries down to the segmental and sub-segmental levels. Compared to lung transplantation, which carries a postoperative mortality of 15-20% and a 5-year survival of 50%, pulmonary endarterectomy is a curative treatment with a postoperative mortality of less than 3%. However, lung transplantation remains an option for young patients with inoperable distal disease or after pulmonary endarterectomy failure. Considering that medical history of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism is lacking in 25 to 50%, the diagnosis of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension remains challenging. The lung V/Q scan is useful for the diagnosis showing ventilation and perfusion mismatches. Lesions located at the level of the pulmonary artery, the lobar or segmental arteries may be accessible to surgical removal. The pulmonary angiogram with the lateral view and the pulmonary CT scan help to determine the level of the intravascular lesions. If there is a correlation between the vascular obstruction assessed by imaging and the pulmonary resistance, pulmonary endarterectomy carries a postoperative mortality of less than 3% and has a high rate of success. If the surgery is performed at a later stage of the disease, pulmonary arteriolitis developed mainly in unobstructed territories and participated in the elevated vascular resistance. At this stage, postoperative risk is higher. PMID:25154908

  12. Pancreatic cancer and thromboembolic disease, 150 years after Trousseau

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Daniel; Andersson, Roland; Andrén-Sandberg, Åke

    2015-01-01

    The connection between pancreatic cancer and venous thrombosis has been discussed for almost 150 years. The exact pathophysiological mechanisms are still partly understood, but it is known that pancreatic cancer induces a prothrombotic and hypercoagulable state and genetic events involved in neoplastic transformation (e.g., KRAS, c-MET, p53), procoagulant factors [e.g., tissue factor (TF), platelet factor 4 (PF4), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1)], mucin production (e.g., through activation of P- and L-selectin) and pro-inflammatory factors [e.g., cytokines, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)] may be implicated. Also pancreatitis, both acute and chronic, is associated with increased risk of venous thrombosis, but in this circumstance a direct inflammatory process may be more important. This article discusses the incidence, treatment and outcome of venous thromboembolism (VTE) complicating pancreatic disease, with special emphasis on new knowledge obtained during the last fifteen years. PMID:26605280

  13. [Extended options of anticoagulant treatment in thromboembolism].

    PubMed

    Karetová, Debora; Bultas, Jan

    2014-11-01

    Thromboembolic disease (TD) is a relatively common disease with acute risk of death and potential long-term consequences in term of postthrombotic syndrome or chronic pulmonary hypertension. Anticoagulant therapy is the basic therapeutic procedure; thrombolytic therapy and the introduction cava filter are appropriately indicated for individual cases. In past few years, new direct oral anticoagulant drugs (NOAC) have occurred - Xa factor or thrombin inhibitors which have demonstrated the same efficacy and even higher safety in comparison to conventional treatment. In mid 2014, 3 drugs of this group are registered in Czech Republic - rivaroxaban (Xarelto®), dabigatran (Pradaxa®) and apixaban (Eliquis®). These drugs have comparable efficacy and safety but they differ in schedule of dose administration. Rivaroxaban and apixaban can be administered immediately after diagnosis of venous thrombosis or hemodynamically stable pulmonary embolism. LMWH application has to precede few days the administration of dabigatran. Limitation of new drugs is their price. Unavailability of antidotes is temporary because current researches continue to find one for dabigatran and another for both of xabans. Duration of anticoagulant treatment after acute phase depends on the presence of thrombosis risk factors and the individual bleeding risk. Minimal duration of anticoagulant therapy is 3 months, commonly 6-12 months and in high risk patients it is "long term" treatment. Good results of new anticoagulant drugs in trials in term of thromboembolism recurrence prevention may change established habits in TD patients with long term treatment. PMID:25600045

  14. Factor V Leiden Is Associated with Higher Risk of Deep Venous Thrombosis of Large Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Arsov, Todor; Miladinova, Daniela; Spiroski, Mirko

    2006-01-01

    Aim To determine the prevalence of factor V Leiden mutation in patients with different presentation of venous thromboembolic disease and healthy individuals in the Republic of Macedonia. Methods The retrospective case-control study involved 190 patients with venous thromboembolic disease and 200 healthy individuals, who were screened for the presence of factor V Leiden mutation, using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The prevalence of factor V Leiden was analyzed according to the localization of thrombosis, presence of risk factors, and family history of thrombosis. The odds of deep venous thrombosis were calculated with respect to the presence of factor V Leiden mutation. Results The prevalence of factor V Leiden mutation among patients with venous thromboembolic disease was 21.1%, compared with 5.5% in the healthy individuals. Factor V Leiden positive patients had the first episode of deep venous thrombosis at a younger age, and the prevalence of the mutation was the highest among patients with a positive family history of thrombosis (33.9%, P = 0.003) and in patients with deep venous thrombosis affecting a large blood vessel (37.7%, P = 0.001). The prevalence of factor V Leiden mutation was lower in patients with calf deep venous thrombosis and primary thromboembolism (13.3% and 13.1%, respectively; P>0.05). The odds ratio for iliofemoral or femoral deep venous thrombosis in factor V Leiden carriers was 10.4 (95% confidence interval, 4.7-23.1). Conclusion The prevalence of factor V Leiden mutation was high in patients with venous thromboembolic disease and healthy individuals in the Republic of Macedonia. Factor V Leiden carriers have the highest odds of developing deep venous thrombosis affecting a large venous blood vessel. PMID:16758522

  15. Laser irradiation effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms isolated from venous leg ulcer.

    PubMed

    Baffoni, Marina; Bessa, Lucinda J; Grande, Rossella; Di Giulio, Mara; Mongelli, Matteo; Ciarelli, Antonio; Cellini, Luigina

    2012-10-01

    Chronic wounds, including diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers and venous leg ulcers, represent a significant cause of morbidity in developed countries, predominantly in older patients. The aetiology of these wounds is probably multifactorial, but the role of bacteria in their pathogenesis is still unclear. Moreover, the presence of bacterial biofilms has been considered an important factor responsible for wounds chronicity. We aimed to investigate the laser action as a possible biofilm eradicating strategy, in order to attempt an additional treatment to antibiotic therapy to improve wound healing. In this work, the effect of near-infrared (NIR) laser was evaluated on mono and polymicrobial biofilms produced by two pathogenic bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus PECHA10 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PECHA9, both isolated from a chronic venous leg ulcer. Laser effect was assessed by biomass measurement, colony forming unit count and cell viability assay. It was shown that the laser treatment has not affected the biofilms biomass neither the cell viability, although a small disruptive action was observed in the structure of all biofilms tested. A reduction on cell growth was observed in S. aureus and in polymicrobial biofilms. This work represents an initial in vitro approach to study the influence of NIR laser treatment on bacterial biofilms in order to explain its potentially advantageous effects in the healing process of chronic infected wounds.

  16. Effect of PEEP, blood volume, and inspiratory hold maneuvers on venous return.

    PubMed

    Berger, David; Moller, Per W; Weber, Alberto; Bloch, Andreas; Bloechlinger, Stefan; Haenggi, Matthias; Sondergaard, Soren; Jakob, Stephan M; Magder, Sheldon; Takala, Jukka

    2016-09-01

    According to Guyton's model of circulation, mean systemic filling pressure (MSFP), right atrial pressure (RAP), and resistance to venous return (RVR) determine venous return. MSFP has been estimated from inspiratory hold-induced changes in RAP and blood flow. We studied the effect of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and blood volume on venous return and MSFP in pigs. MSFP was measured by balloon occlusion of the right atrium (MSFPRAO), and the MSFP obtained via extrapolation of pressure-flow relationships with airway occlusion (MSFPinsp_hold) was extrapolated from RAP/pulmonary artery flow (QPA) relationships during inspiratory holds at PEEP 5 and 10 cmH2O, after bleeding, and in hypervolemia. MSFPRAO increased with PEEP [PEEP 5, 12.9 (SD 2.5) mmHg; PEEP 10, 14.0 (SD 2.6) mmHg, P = 0.002] without change in QPA [2.75 (SD 0.43) vs. 2.56 (SD 0.45) l/min, P = 0.094]. MSFPRAO decreased after bleeding and increased in hypervolemia [10.8 (SD 2.2) and 16.4 (SD 3.0) mmHg, respectively, P < 0.001], with parallel changes in QPA Neither PEEP nor volume state altered RVR (P = 0.489). MSFPinsp_hold overestimated MSFPRAO [16.5 (SD 5.8) vs. 13.6 (SD 3.2) mmHg, P = 0.001; mean difference 3.0 (SD 5.1) mmHg]. Inspiratory holds shifted the RAP/QPA relationship rightward in euvolemia because inferior vena cava flow (QIVC) recovered early after an inspiratory hold nadir. The QIVC nadir was lowest after bleeding [36% (SD 24%) of preinspiratory hold at 15 cmH2O inspiratory pressure], and the QIVC recovery was most complete at the lowest inspiratory pressures independent of volume state [range from 80% (SD 7%) after bleeding to 103% (SD 8%) at PEEP 10 cmH2O of QIVC before inspiratory hold]. The QIVC recovery thus defends venous return, possibly via hepatosplanchnic vascular waterfall.

  17. Effect of PEEP, blood volume, and inspiratory hold maneuvers on venous return.

    PubMed

    Berger, David; Moller, Per W; Weber, Alberto; Bloch, Andreas; Bloechlinger, Stefan; Haenggi, Matthias; Sondergaard, Soren; Jakob, Stephan M; Magder, Sheldon; Takala, Jukka

    2016-09-01

    According to Guyton's model of circulation, mean systemic filling pressure (MSFP), right atrial pressure (RAP), and resistance to venous return (RVR) determine venous return. MSFP has been estimated from inspiratory hold-induced changes in RAP and blood flow. We studied the effect of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and blood volume on venous return and MSFP in pigs. MSFP was measured by balloon occlusion of the right atrium (MSFPRAO), and the MSFP obtained via extrapolation of pressure-flow relationships with airway occlusion (MSFPinsp_hold) was extrapolated from RAP/pulmonary artery flow (QPA) relationships during inspiratory holds at PEEP 5 and 10 cmH2O, after bleeding, and in hypervolemia. MSFPRAO increased with PEEP [PEEP 5, 12.9 (SD 2.5) mmHg; PEEP 10, 14.0 (SD 2.6) mmHg, P = 0.002] without change in QPA [2.75 (SD 0.43) vs. 2.56 (SD 0.45) l/min, P = 0.094]. MSFPRAO decreased after bleeding and increased in hypervolemia [10.8 (SD 2.2) and 16.4 (SD 3.0) mmHg, respectively, P < 0.001], with parallel changes in QPA Neither PEEP nor volume state altered RVR (P = 0.489). MSFPinsp_hold overestimated MSFPRAO [16.5 (SD 5.8) vs. 13.6 (SD 3.2) mmHg, P = 0.001; mean difference 3.0 (SD 5.1) mmHg]. Inspiratory holds shifted the RAP/QPA relationship rightward in euvolemia because inferior vena cava flow (QIVC) recovered early after an inspiratory hold nadir. The QIVC nadir was lowest after bleeding [36% (SD 24%) of preinspiratory hold at 15 cmH2O inspiratory pressure], and the QIVC recovery was most complete at the lowest inspiratory pressures independent of volume state [range from 80% (SD 7%) after bleeding to 103% (SD 8%) at PEEP 10 cmH2O of QIVC before inspiratory hold]. The QIVC recovery thus defends venous return, possibly via hepatosplanchnic vascular waterfall. PMID:27422991

  18. Effects of Purified Saccharomyces cerevisiae (1→3)-β-Glucan on Venous Ulcer Healing

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Sarah Dantas Viana; Cordeiro, Sara Lima; Cavalcanti, Jéssica Escorel Chaves; Melchuna, Karina Mendes; Lima, Aleida Maria da Silva; Filho, Irami Araújo; Medeiros, Aldo Cunha; Rocha, Keyla Borges Ferreira; Oliveira, Elizabeth Maia; Faria, Eduardo Dantas Baptista; Sassaki, Guilherme Lanzi; Rocha, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira; Sales, Valéria Soraya Farias

    2012-01-01

    Water-insoluble glucan was isolated from the baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The yeast cells were treated with alkali and the residue then with acid. Chemical and NMR (1D and 2D) analyses showed that a linear (1→3)-β-glucan was purified that was not contaminated with other carbohydrates, proteins or phenolic compounds. The effects of the glucan on wound healing were assessed in human venous ulcers by histopathological analysis after 30 days of topical treatment. (1→3)-β-glucan enhanced ulcer healing and increased epithelial hyperplasia, as well as increased inflammatory cells, angiogenesis and fibroblast proliferation. In one patient who had an ulcer that would not heal for over 15 years, glucan treatment caused a 67.8% decrease in the area of the ulcer. This is the first study to investigate the effects of (1→3)-β-glucan on venous ulcer healing in humans; our findings suggest that this glucan is a potential natural biological response modifier in wound healing. PMID:22942695

  19. Denoising of arterial and venous Doppler signals using discrete wavelet transform: effect on clinical parameters.

    PubMed

    Tokmakçi, Mahmut; Erdoğan, Nuri

    2009-05-01

    In this paper, the effects of a wavelet transform based denoising strategy on clinical Doppler parameters are analyzed. The study scheme included: (a) Acquisition of arterial and venous Doppler signals by sampling the audio output of an ultrasound scanner from 20 healthy volunteers, (b) Noise reduction via decomposition of the signals through discrete wavelet transform, (c) Spectral analysis of noisy and noise-free signals with short time Fourier transform, (d) Curve fitting to spectrograms, (e) Calculation of clinical Doppler parameters, (f) Statistical comparison of parameters obtained from noisy and noise-free signals. The decomposition level was selected as the highest level at which the maximum power spectral density and its corresponding frequency were preserved. In all subjects, noise-free spectrograms had smoother trace with less ripples. In both arterial and venous spectrograms, denoising resulted in a significant decrease in the maximum (systolic) and mean frequency, with no statistical difference in the minimum (diastolic) frequency. In arterial signals, this leads to a significant decrease in the calculated parameters such as Systolic/Diastolic Velocity Ratio, Resistivity Index, Pulsatility Index and Acceleration Time. Acceleration Index did not change significantly. Despite a successful denoising, the effects of wavelet decomposition on high frequency components in the Doppler signal should be challenged by comparison with reference data, or, through clinical investigations. PMID:19470316

  20. Effect of hand-arm exercise on venous blood constituents during leg exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, N.; Silver, J. E.; Greenawalt, S.; Kravik, S. E.; Geelen, G.

    1985-01-01

    Contributions by ancillary hand and arm actions to the changes in blood constituents effected by leg exercises on cycle ergometer were assessed. Static or dynamic hand-arm exercises were added to the leg exercise (50 percent VO2 peak)-only control regimens for the subjects (19-27 yr old men) in the two experimental groups. Antecubital venous blood was analyzed at times 0, 15, and 30 min (T0, T15, and T30) for serum Na(+), K(+), osmolality, albumin, total CA(2+), and glucose; blood hemoglobin, hematocrit, and lactic acid; and change in plasma volume. Only glucose and lactate values were affected by additional arm exercise. Glucose decreased 4 percent at T15 and T30 after static exercise, and by 2 percent at T15 (with no change at T30) after dynamic arm exercise. Conversely, lactic acid increased by 20 percent at T30 after static exercise, and by 14 percent by T15 and 6 percent at T30 after dynamic arm exercise. It is concluded that additional arm movements, performed usually when gripping the handle-bar on the cycle ergometer, could introduce significant errors in measured venous concentrations of glucose and lactate in the leg-exercised subjects.

  1. [Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Zonzin, Pietro; Vizza, Carmine Dario; Favretto, Giuseppe

    2003-10-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is due to unresolved or recurrent pulmonary embolism. In the United States the estimated prevalence is 0.1-0.5% among survived patients with pulmonary embolism. The survival rate at 5 years was 30% among patients with a mean pulmonary artery pressure > 40 mmHg at the time of diagnosis and only 10% among those with a value > 50 mmHg. The interval between the onset of disturbances and the diagnosis may be as long as 3 years. Doppler echocardiography permits to establish the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension. Radionuclide scanning determines whether pulmonary hypertension has a thromboembolic basis. Right heart catheterization and pulmonary angiography are performed in order to establish the extension and the accessibility to surgery of thrombi and to rule out other causes. The surgical treatment is thromboendarterectomy. A dramatic reduction in the pulmonary vascular resistance can be achieved; corresponding improvements in the NYHA class--from class III or IV before surgery to class I-II after surgery--are usually observed. Patients who are not considered candidates for thromboendarterectomy may be considered candidates for lung transplantation. PMID:14664293

  2. Effects of Hypochlorous Acid Solutions on Venous Leg Ulcers (VLU): Experience With 1249 VLUs in 897 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bongiovanni, Cheryl M.

    2016-01-01

    In order to assess the impact of comorbidities and identify factors that accelerate the healing rate of venous leg ulcers we performed an extensive, retrospective analysis of our experience in a diverse population. From June, 2006 to June, 2014, 897 patients with 1249 venous leg ulcers were treated at Lake Wound Clinics. Treatment protocols utilized the standard regimen of wound cleaning, debridement and compression bandaging. Wound cleaning, autolytic debridement, packing and dressing of venous leg ulcers utilized aqueous solutions of hypochlorous acid (HCA) rather than the standard normal saline. This protocol caused all ulcers to close completely. Comorbidities that delayed healing included uncontrolled or poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, advanced peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAD), active smoking, use of steroid medications and/or street drugs, large initial ulcer size and significant depth. Other factors, including advanced age, recurrent venous ulceration, stasis dermatitis, lipodermatosclerosis, morbid obesity and infection with one or more multidrug resistant organisms did not delay closure. From this experience we conclude that venous leg ulcer care protocols that clean, debride, pack and dress with hypochlorous acid solutions can reduce the effects of some comorbidities while accelerating healing times. Additional benefits are described. PMID:27104143

  3. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in children with nephrotic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gera, D. N.; Yadav, D. K.; Kute, V. B.; Patil, S. B.; Trivedi, H. L.

    2012-01-01

    Nephrotic syndrome in infancy and childhood can be associated with thromboembolic complications. We describe two cases of nephrotic syndrome who presented with non-specific findings. Magnetic resonance imaging brain with magnetic resonance venography showed thrombosis of multiple venous sinuses. Patients were successfully treated with anticoagulants and there was complete resolution of thrombosis on repeat imaging. PMID:23439670

  4. Venous Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Caprini, J.A.; Partsch, H.; Simman, R.

    2013-01-01

    Venous leg ulcers are the most frequent form of wounds seen in patients. This article presents an overview on some practical aspects concerning diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment. Duplex ultrasound investigations are essential to ascertain the diagnosis of the underlying venous pathology and to treat venous refluxes. Differential diagnosis includes mainly other vascular lesions (arterial, microcirculatory causes), hematologic and metabolic diseases, trauma, infection, malignancies. Patients with superficial venous incompetence may benefit from endovenous or surgical reflux abolition diagnosed by Duplex ultrasound. The most important basic component of the management is compression therapy, for which we prefer materials with low elasticity applied with high initial pressure (short-stretch bandages and Velcro-strap devices). Local treatment should be simple, absorbing and not sticky dressings keeping adequate moisture balance after debridement of necrotic tissue and biofilms are preferred. After the ulcer is healed compression therapy should be continued in order to prevent recurrence. PMID:26236636

  5. Venous Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Caprini, J A; Partsch, H; Simman, R

    2012-09-01

    Venous leg ulcers are the most frequent form of wounds seen in patients. This article presents an overview on some practical aspects concerning diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment. Duplex ultrasound investigations are essential to ascertain the diagnosis of the underlying venous pathology and to treat venous refluxes. Differential diagnosis includes mainly other vascular lesions (arterial, microcirculatory causes), hematologic and metabolic diseases, trauma, infection, malignancies. Patients with superficial venous incompetence may benefit from endovenous or surgical reflux abolition diagnosed by Duplex ultrasound. The most important basic component of the management is compression therapy, for which we prefer materials with low elasticity applied with high initial pressure (short-stretch bandages and Velcro-strap devices). Local treatment should be simple, absorbing and not sticky dressings keeping adequate moisture balance after debridement of necrotic tissue and biofilms are preferred. After the ulcer is healed compression therapy should be continued in order to prevent recurrence.

  6. Biological effects of hyaluronan in connective tissues, eye, skin, venous wall. Role in aging.

    PubMed

    Robert, L; Robert, A-M; Renard, G

    2010-06-01

    Hyaluronan, as most macromolecules of the extracellular matrix, are produced by the differentiated mesenchymal cells. These cells produce also enzymes degrading hyaluronan. This results in the presence of several hyaluronan pools of different molecular weights, all capable of interacting with surrounding cells, mediated by hyaluronan binding proteins and receptors. These interactions modulate cell phenotype and produce a variety of effects conditioning the specific functions of tissues. We shall discuss here several examples studied in our laboratory, concerning skin, cornea and the venous wall. Some of these actions might even be harmful, and could play an important role in aging of connective tissues with loss of function. Some of these age-dependent modifications mediated by hyaluronan will be reviewed and commented, especially the upregulation of matrix degrading enzymes as MMP-2 and MMP-9. We shall also mention some of our experiments for finding molecules capable of counteracting the harmful effects mediated by hyaluronan.

  7. Manual Aspiration Thrombectomy with Stent Placement: Rapid and Effective Treatment for Phlegmasia Cerulea Dolens with Impending Venous Gangrene

    SciTech Connect

    Oguzkurt, Levent Tercan, Fahri; Ozkan, Ugur

    2008-01-15

    Phlegmasia cerulea dolens is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening complication of acute deep vein thrombosis. It is an emergency and delay in treatment may cause death or loss of the patient's limb. Surgical thrombectomy is the recommended treatment in venous gangrene. Catheter-directed intrathrombus thrombolysis has been reported as successful, but it may require a lengthy infusion. Manual aspiration thrombectomy may clear the entire thrombus with no need for thrombolytic administration and provide rapid and effective treatment for patients with phlegmasia cerulea dolens with impending venous gangrene.

  8. Effect of body repositioning after venous air embolism. An echocardiographic study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geissler, H. J.; Allen, S. J.; Mehlhorn, U.; Davis, K. L.; Morris, W. P.; Butler, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current therapy for massive venous air embolism (VAE) may include the use of the left lateral recumbent (LLR) position, although its effectiveness has been questioned. This study used transesophageal echocardiography to evaluate the effect of body repositioning on intracardiac air and acute cardiac dimension changes. METHODS: Eighteen anesthetized dogs in the supine position received a venous air injection of 2.5 ml/kg at a rate of 5 ml/ s. After 1 min the dogs were repositioned into either the LLR, LLR 10 degrees head down (LLR-10 degrees), right lateral recumbence, or remained in the supine position. RESULTS: Repositioning after VAE resulted in relocation of intracardiac air to nondependent areas of the right heart. Peak right ventricular (RV) diameter increase and mean arterial pressure decrease were greater in the repositioned animals compared with those in the supine position (P < 0.05). Right ventricular diameter and mean arterial pressure showed an inverse correlation (r = 0.81). Peak left atrial diameter decrease was greater in the LLR and LLR-10 degrees positions compared with the supine position (P < 0.05). Repositioning did not influence peak pulmonary artery pressure increase, and no correlation was found between RV diameter and pulmonary artery pressure. All animals showed electrocardiogram and echocardiographic changes reconcilable with myocardial ischemia. CONCLUSIONS: In dogs, body repositioning after VAE provided no benefit in hemodynamic performance or cardiac dimension changes, although relocation of intracardiac air was demonstrated. Right ventricular air did not appear to result in significant RV outflow obstruction, as pulmonary artery pressure increased uniformly in all groups and was not influenced by the relocation of intracardiac air. The combination of increased RV afterload and arterial hypotension, possibly with subsequent RV ischemia rather than RV outflow obstruction by an airlock appeared to be the primary mechanism for

  9. Arterial and Venous Thrombosis in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Blann, Andrew D.; Dunmore, Simon

    2011-01-01

    The most frequent ultimate cause of death is myocardial arrest. In many cases this is due to myocardial hypoxia, generally arising from failure of the coronary macro- and microcirculation to deliver enough oxygenated red cells to the cardiomyocytes. The principle reason for this is occlusive thrombosis, either by isolated circulating thrombi, or by rupture of upstream plaque. However, an additionally serious pathology causing potentially fatal stress to the heart is extra-cardiac disease, such as pulmonary hypertension. A primary cause of the latter is pulmonary embolus, considered to be a venous thromboembolism. Whilst the thrombotic scenario has for decades been the dominating paradigm in cardiovascular disease, these issues have, until recently, been infrequently considered in cancer. However, there is now a developing view that cancer is also a thrombotic disease, and notably a disease predominantly of the venous circulation, manifesting as deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Indeed, for many, a venous thromboembolism is one of the first symptoms of a developing cancer. Furthermore, many of the standard chemotherapies in cancer are prothrombotic. Accordingly, thromboprophylaxis in cancer with heparins or oral anticoagulation (such as Warfarin), especially in high risk groups (such as those who are immobile and on high dose chemotherapy), may be an important therapy. The objective of this communication is to summarise current views on the epidemiology and pathophysiology of arterial and venous thrombosis in cancer. PMID:21403876

  10. Effects of Long Duration Spaceflight on Venous and Arterial Compliance in Astronants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platts, Steven; Ribeiro, L. Christine

    2014-01-01

    1. Project Overview Visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) is a spaceflight-associated medical condition affecting at least a third of American astronauts who have flown International Space Station (ISS) missions. VIIP is defined primarily by visual acuity deficits and anatomical changes to eye structures. In some astronauts, eye-related changes do not revert back to the preflight state upon return to Earth. Our team will study some of the possible causes for this syndrome. This will be achieved by reviewing previous astronaut data for factors that may predispose astronauts to higher rates of developing this syndrome or greater severity of symptoms. Additionally, we will conduct 3 separate experiments that will characterize vessels in the head and neck and measure the effects of the experimental conditions on ocular structures and function. 2. Technical Summary The primary objective of this study is to determine whether vascular compliance is altered by spaceflight and whether such adaptations are related to the incidence of the VIIP. In particular, we will measure ocular parameters and vascular compliance in vessels of the head and neck in astronauts who have no spaceflight experience (Ground), in astronauts before, during, and after spaceflight (Flight), and in bed rest subjects with conditions similar to spaceflight (Bed Rest). Additionally, we will analyze astronaut data from the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) archives to determine which factors might be predictive of the development of VIIP (Data Mining). The project will be conducted in four separate, but related parts. Hypothesis The central hypothesis of this proposal is that exposure to the spaceflight environment aboard the ISS may lead to development of the VIIP syndrome (increased intracranial pressure and impaired visual acuity) and that this may be related to alterations in venous and/or arterial compliance in the head and neck. Specific Aims 1. To determine whether

  11. Comparison of Partial Volume Effects in Arterial and Venous Contrast Curves in CT Brain Perfusion Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Riordan, Alan J.; Bennink, Edwin; Dankbaar, Jan Willem; Viergever, Max A.; Velthuis, Birgitta K.; Smit, Ewoud J.; de Jong, Hugo W. A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In brain CT perfusion (CTP), the arterial contrast bolus is scaled to have the same area under the curve (AUC) as the venous outflow to correct for partial volume effects (PVE). This scaling is based on the assumption that large veins are unaffected by PVE. Measurement of the internal carotid artery (ICA), usually unaffected by PVE due to its large diameter, may avoid the need for partial volume correction. The aims of this work are to examine i) the assumptions behind PVE correction and ii) the potential of selecting the ICA obviating correction for PVE. Methods The AUC of the ICA and sagittal sinus were measured in CTP datasets from 52 patients. The AUCs were determined by i) using commercial CTP software based on a Gaussian curve-fitting to the time attenuation curve, and ii) by simple integration of the time attenuation curve over a time interval. In addition, frames acquired up to 3 minutes after first bolus passage were used to examine the ratio of arterial and venous enhancement. The impact of selecting the ICA without PVE correction was illustrated by reporting cerebral blood volume (CBV) measurements. Results In 49 of 52 patients, the AUC of the ICA was significantly larger than that of the sagittal sinus (p = 0.017). Measured after the first pass bolus, contrast enhancement remained 50% higher in the ICA just after the first pass bolus, and 30% higher 3 minutes later. CBV measurements were significantly lowered when the ICA was used without PVE correction. Conclusions Contradicting the assumptions underlying PVE correction, contrast in the ICA was significantly higher than in the sagittal sinus, even 3 minutes after the first pass of the contrast bolus. PVE correction might lead to overestimation of CBV if the CBV is calculated using the AUC of the time attenuation curves. PMID:24858308

  12. Effect of commercially available pantyhose on venous return in the lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Godin, M S; Rice, J C; Kerstein, M D

    1987-06-01

    Although compression stockings have long been recognized as a physiologically significant tool for the promotion of venous return from the lower extremity, the role of nonprescription, commercially available support hose has not been assessed in this regard. The present study involved 100 consecutive women with no known prior history of vascular disease, who responded to an advertisement for free evaluation of the venous status of their legs. The subjects, all of whom wore commercial support hose routinely, were screened for the presence of venous disease by means of Doppler ultrasonography, phleborheography, and a detailed history focusing on risk factors and unrecognized symptoms of venous disease. Photoplethysmography (PPG) was then used to evaluate the efficiency of venous return from the lower extremity with and without the support hose in place. Worsening of PPG results occurred in 43% of the women with commercial stockings in place, whereas 23% improved and 34% showed no change. Women 50 years of age and older had a somewhat higher tendency toward poorer PPG results while wearing the support hose. Furthermore, measurements in women who showed evidence of venous disease by an abnormality in one or more of the screening tests were significantly different from the overall group (p = 0.025): 61% exhibited worsening of PPG results when wearing stockings, only 14% showed improvement, and 25% were unchanged. These results suggest that the use of a commercial support hose may be particularly deleterious to older women and is contraindicated in those with evidence of venous disease in the lower extremity. PMID:3295307

  13. [Venous thromboembolism in patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ryabinkina, Yu V; Piradov, M A; Gnedovskaya, E V; Suponeva, N A; Prokazova, P R

    2016-01-01

    Цель исследования. Углубленный проспективный анализ частоты встречаемости, факторов риска, особенностей течения венозных тромбоэмболических осложнений (ВТЭО) и динамики венозного тромбообразования на фоне терапии низкомолекулярными гепаринами у больных с различными формами и тяжестью течения синдрома Гийена—Барре (СГБ), находящихся в отделении реанимации и интенсивной терапии. Материал и методы. Впервые проанализированы частота, факторы риска и особенности течения ВТЭО у 65 больных с различными формами и тяжестью течения СГБ. Всем больным при поступлении и в динамике проводили оценку неврологического статуса, дуплексное сканирование сосудов системы нижней полой вены. Результаты и заключение. Несмотря на проведение профилактических мероприятий с использованием низкомолекулярных гепаринов, у 1/2 больных с СГБ, независимо от его формы, в период нарастания неврологической симптоматики развивались ВТЭО: у 52% — острые венозные тромбозы, у 15% — тромбоэмболия легочной артерии. Значимыми факторами риска являлись тяжелое течение заболевания, требующее проведения ИВЛ (V стадия по Североамериканской шкале нарушений двигательных функций), постельный режим свыше 3 сут, инфекционные осложнения, наличие катетера в центральной вене, возраст старше 40 лет. Тромбообразование в системе нижней полой вены у больных с СГБ не отличается от такового при других критических состояниях, что говорит об универсальности данного патологического процесса. Очевиден факт недостаточной эффективности проводимых профилактических мероприятий для этой категории больных, что требует поиска иных профилактических стратегий.

  14. Diagnostic Evaluation of Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Gopalan, Deepa; Blanchard, Daniel; Auger, William R

    2016-07-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is defined by a mean pulmonary artery pressure greater than 25 mm Hg. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is defined as pulmonary hypertension in the presence of an organized thrombus within the pulmonary vascular bed that persists at least 3 months after the onset of anticoagulant therapy. Because CTEPH is potentially curable by surgical endarterectomy, correct identification of patients with this form of pulmonary hypertension and an accurate assessment of surgical candidacy are essential to provide optimal care. Patients most commonly present with symptoms of exertional dyspnea and otherwise unexplained decline in exercise capacity. Atypical chest pain, a nonproductive cough, and episodic hemoptysis are observed less frequently. With more advanced disease, patients often develop symptoms suggestive of right ventricular compromise. Physical examination findings are minimal early in the course of this disease, but as pulmonary hypertension progresses, may include nonspecific finding of right ventricular failure, such as a tricuspid regurgitation murmur, pedal edema, and jugular venous distention. Chest radiographs may suggest pulmonary hypertension, but are neither sensitive nor specific for the diagnosis. Radioisotopic ventilation-perfusion scanning is sensitive for detecting CTEPH, making it a valuable screening study. Conventional catheter-based pulmonary angiography retains an important role in establishing the presence and extent of chronic thromboembolic disease. However, computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging are playing a growing diagnostic role. Innovative technologies such as dual-energy computed tomography, dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, and optical coherence tomography show promise for contributing diagnostic information and assisting in the preoperative characterization of patients with CTEPH. PMID:27571004

  15. The natural history of postoperative venous thromboemboli in gynecologic oncology: a prospective study of 382 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke-Pearson, D.L.; Synan, I.S.; Colemen, R.E.; Hinshaw, W.; Creasman, W.T.

    1984-04-15

    Three hundred eighty-two patients who underwent major operations for gynecologic malignancy were studied prospectively to determine the natural history of postoperative venous thromboemboli. Iodine 125-labeled fibrinogen leg counting, to diagnose deep venous thrombosis, was performed daily. Sixty-three patients (17%) developed postoperative venous thromboembolic complications. Deep venous thrombosis initially arose in the calf veins in 52 patients. Twenty-seven percent of these thrombi lysed spontaneously. Four percent of thrombi in the calf veins progressed to deep venous thrombosis in the femoral vein, and 4% resulted in pulmonary emboli. Nine other patients developed proximal deep venous thrombosis without prior thrombosis in the calf veins. One patient with proximal deep venous thrombosis also had a pulmonary embolus. Two patients with no evidence of deep venous thrombosis on prospective /sup 125/I-labeled fibrinogen leg counting developed pulmonary emboli, including one fatal pulmonary embolus that was found at autopsy to have arisen from the internal iliac veins. Fifty percent of all venous thromboemboli were detected within 48 hours of operation, although two patients developed significant deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary emboli after discharge from the hospital. These results add important information to our understanding of this disease process, and raise issues related to appropriate treatment and prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in patients after gynecologic operations.

  16. Prostaglandin E synthase is upregulated by Gas6 during cancer-induced venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Aghourian, Meghedi N; Lemarié, Catherine A; Bertin, Francois-René; Blostein, Mark D

    2016-02-11

    Venous thromboembolism is a common complication of cancer. Based on recent evidence that (1) growth arrest-specific 6 (Gas6) regulates the expression of tissue factor during venous thrombosis, and (2) cancer promotes a procoagulant milieu, we hypothesize that Gas6 may be involved in cancer-induced coagulopathy. Venous thrombi were induced in both wild-type (WT) and Gas6-deficient ((-/-)) mice with cancer. WT mice with cancer developed larger thrombi than their healthy counterparts; these larger thrombi induced by cancer were not seen in Gas6(-/-) mice. Whole genome microarray analysis of differential gene expression in WT and Gas6(-/-) endothelial cells exposed to M27 murine lung carcinoma cells reveal that Gas6 increases prostaglandin E synthase (Ptges) expression in endothelial cells. This was confirmed using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence staining. Culture of WT endothelial cells with M27 increases the secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), the enzymatic product of Ptges, in WT but not in Gas6(-/-) endothelial cells. In WT endothelial cells, Ptges expression was regulated through extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation (ERK1/2). In vitro, PGE2 activates platelets after binding to its receptor, EP3. In vivo, EP3 receptor antagonism reversed the effect of cancer-induced thrombosis in WT mice. These results show that Gas6, through upregulation of PGE2, contributes to cancer-induced venous thrombosis. PMID:26585956

  17. Difficult-to-heal wounds of mixed arterial/venous and venous etiology: a cost-effectiveness analysis of extracellular matrix

    PubMed Central

    Romanelli, Marco; Gilligan, Adrienne M; Waycaster, Curtis R; Dini, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Importance Difficult-to-heal wounds pose clinical and economic challenges, and cost-effective treatment options are needed. Objective The aim of this study is to determine the cost-effectiveness of extracellular matrix (ECM) relative to standard of care (SC) on wound closure for the treatment of mixed arterial/venous (A/V) or venous leg ulcers (VLUs). Design, setting, and participants A two-stage Markov model was used to predict the expected costs and outcomes of wound closure for ECM and SC. Outcome data used in the analysis were taken from an 8-week randomized clinical trial that directly compared ECM and SC. Patients were followed up for an additional 6 months to assess wound closure. Forty-eight patients completed the study; 25 for ECM and 23 for SC. SC was defined as a standard moist wound dressing. Transition probabilities for the Markov states were estimated from the clinical trial. Main outcomes and measures The economic outcome of interest was direct cost per closed-wound week. Resource utilization was based on the treatment regimen used in the clinical trial. Costs were derived from standard cost references. The payer’s perspective was taken. Results ECM-treated wounds closed, on average, after 5.4 weeks of treatment, compared with 8.3 weeks for SC wounds (P=0.02). Furthermore, complete wound closure was significantly higher in patients treated with ECM (P<0.05), with 20 wounds closed in the ECM group (80%) and 15 wounds closed in the SC group (65%). After 8 months, patients treated with ECM had substantially higher closed-wound weeks compared with SC (26.0 weeks versus 22.0 weeks, respectively). Expected direct costs per patient were $2,527 for ECM and $2,540 for SC (a cost savings of $13). Conclusion and relevance ECM yielded better clinical outcomes at a slightly lower cost in patients with mixed A/V and VLUs. ECM is an effective treatment for wound healing and should be considered for use in the management of mixed A/V and VLUs. PMID:27217787

  18. Association of vWA and TPOX Polymorphisms with Venous Thrombosis in Mexican Mestizos

    PubMed Central

    Meraz-Ríos, Marco Antonio; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham; Santana, Carla; Noris, Gino; Camacho-Mejorado, Rafael; Acosta-Saavedra, Leonor C.; Calderón-Aranda, Emma S.; Hernández-Juárez, Jesús; Magaña, Jonathan J.; Gómez, Rocío

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a multifactorial disorder and, worldwide, the most important cause of morbidity and mortality. Genetic factors play a critical role in its aetiology. Microsatellites are the most important source of human genetic variation having more phenotypic effect than many single nucleotide polymorphisms. Hence, we evaluate a possible relationship between VTE and the genetic variants in von Willebrand factor, human alpha fibrinogen, and human thyroid peroxidase microsatellites to identify possible diagnostic markers. Methods. Genotypes were obtained from 177 patients with VTE and 531 nonrelated individuals using validated genotyping methods. The allelic frequencies were compared; Bayesian methods were used to correct population stratification to avoid spurious associations. Results. The vWA-18, TPOX-9, and TPOX-12 alleles were significantly associated with VTE. Moreover, subjects bearing the combination vWA-18/TPOX-12 loci exhibited doubled risk for VTE (95% CI = 1.02–3.64), whereas the combination vWA-18/TPOX-9 showed an OR = 10 (95% CI = 4.93–21.49). Conclusions. The vWA and TPOX microsatellites are good candidate biomarkers in venous thromboembolism diseases and could help to elucidate their origins. Additionally, these polymorphisms could become useful markers for genetic studies of VTE in the Mexican population; however, further studies should be done owing that this data only show preliminary evidence. PMID:25250329

  19. Venous and arterial thrombotic risks with thalidomide: evidence and practical guidance.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, Antonio; Palladino, Carmela

    2012-10-01

    Oral immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs), namely thalidomide, lenalidomide and pomalidomide, interfere with several pathways important for disease progression. Today they play a crucial role in the treatment of multiple myeloma patients, and have considerably improved myeloma outcomes. These agents, and thalidomide in particular, are associated with higher rates of thromboembolic events, both venous and arterial. Individual risk factors for thromboembolic events include advanced age, previous history of thromboembolism, an indwelling central venous catheter, comorbid conditions (e.g. infections, diabetes, cardiac disease, obesity), current or recent immobilization, recent surgery and inherited thrombophilic abnormalities. Cancer therapy and cancer itself also increase the risk of thromboembolic events. The aim of this review is to help clinicians to define the risk of thrombotic events in patients treated with thalidomide and thus to provide practical recommendations to manage thromboprophylaxis in these patients.

  20. Venous and arterial thrombotic risks with thalidomide: evidence and practical guidance

    PubMed Central

    Palladino, Carmela

    2012-01-01

    Oral immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs), namely thalidomide, lenalidomide and pomalidomide, interfere with several pathways important for disease progression. Today they play a crucial role in the treatment of multiple myeloma patients, and have considerably improved myeloma outcomes. These agents, and thalidomide in particular, are associated with higher rates of thromboembolic events, both venous and arterial. Individual risk factors for thromboembolic events include advanced age, previous history of thromboembolism, an indwelling central venous catheter, comorbid conditions (e.g. infections, diabetes, cardiac disease, obesity), current or recent immobilization, recent surgery and inherited thrombophilic abnormalities. Cancer therapy and cancer itself also increase the risk of thromboembolic events. The aim of this review is to help clinicians to define the risk of thrombotic events in patients treated with thalidomide and thus to provide practical recommendations to manage thromboprophylaxis in these patients. PMID:25083240

  1. Malignancy and venous thrombosis in the critical care patient.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cynthia; Lee, Agnes Y

    2010-02-01

    Venous thromboembolic disease has significant clinical consequences. There are few data available to guide its management in the critically ill cancer patient, perhaps the most complex and challenging patient population encountered. Multiple interacting and often unique factors contribute to both the thrombotic and bleeding risk in such patients. Anticoagulants are effective for prophylaxis and treatment; heparins are the best-studied agents in this setting. Whether unfractionated or low-molecular-weight heparin is the most appropriate agent depends on the exact clinical situation. Prevention of venous thrombosis is a well-recognized health priority, but thromboprophylaxis remains underused, especially in some high-risk populations such as cancer patients. Enhanced recognition of the thrombotic risk factors and a better understanding of the risks and benefits of anticoagulant therapy are necessary to improve utilization, and much research is needed to address how to implement effective thromboprophylaxis strategies. Careful consideration of the patient's overall prognosis is necessary to develop safe, effective, and individualized approaches to treating thrombosis.

  2. [Cerebral venous thrombosis and hereditary protein C deficiency].

    PubMed

    Massons, J; Arboix, A; Oliveres, M; Besses, C; Muñoz, C; Titus, F

    1992-01-01

    Protein C together with its plasmatic cofactor protein S and antithrombin III probably represent the most important plasmatic inhibitor in coagulation. Protein C deficiency constitutes a high risk factor for venous thrombosis. Cerebral venous thrombosis is a manifestation which is scarcely referred to in protein C deficiency. The case of a 32 year old patient with protein C deficiency is presented. The patient was admitted for an endocraneal hypertension syndrome. CT and MR demonstrated multiple hemorrhagic cerebral infarctions. Arteriography confirmed vertebral venous thrombosis. Only six cases sufficiently documenting cerebral venous thrombosis due to protein C deficiency were found in the literature. In most cases coadjuvant factors exist predisposing thromboembolic disease. The present clinical case demonstrates the importance of considering protein C deficiency in the diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis in young adults.

  3. [Risk Factors for Oxaliplatin-Induced Phlebitis and Venous Pain, and Evaluation of the Preventive Effect of Preheating with a Hot Compress for Administration of Oxaliplatin].

    PubMed

    Nakauchi, Kana; Kawazoe, Hitoshi; Miyajima, Risa; Waizumi, Chieko; Rokkaku, Yuki; Tsuneoka, Kikue; Higuchi, Noriko; Fujiwara, Mitsuko; Kojima, Yoh; Yakushijin, Yoshihiro

    2015-11-01

    Venous pain induced by oxaliplatin(L-OHP)is a clinical issue related to adherence to the Cape OX regimen. To prevent LOHP- induced venous pain, we provided nursing care to outpatients who were administered a preheated L -OHP diluted solution using a hot compress. We retrospectively evaluated the risk factors for colorectal cancer patients who had L -OHP induced phlebitis and venous pain. Furthermore, the preventive effect of nursing care was compared between inpatients and outpatients from January 2010 to March 2012. At the L-OHP administration site, any symptoms were defined as phlebitis, whereas pain was defined as venous pain. A total of 132 treatment courses among 31 patients were evaluated. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that both phlebitis and venous pain were significantly more common in female patients (adjusted odds ratio, 2.357; 95%CI: 1.053-5.418; and adjusted odds ratio, 5.754; 95%CI: 2.119-18.567, respectively). The prevalence of phlebitis and venous pain did not differ between inpatients and outpatients (phlebitis, 61.3% vs 67.7%; venous pain, 29.0%vs 19.4%). These results suggest that administration of L-OHP via a central venous route should be considered in female patients.

  4. Medical management of venous ulcers.

    PubMed

    Pascarella, Luigi; Shortell, Cynthia K

    2015-03-01

    Venous disease is the most common cause of chronic leg ulceration and represents an advanced clinical manifestation of venous insufficiency. Due to their frequency and chronicity, venous ulcers have a high socioeconomic impact, with treatment costs accounting for 1% of the health care budget in Western countries. The evaluation of patients with venous ulcers should include a thorough medical history for prior deep venous thrombosis, assessment for an hypercoagulable state, and a physical examination. Use of the CEAP (clinical, etiology, anatomy, pathophysiology) Classification System and the revised Venous Clinical Severity Scoring System is strongly recommended to characterize disease severity and assess response to treatment. This venous condition requires lifestyle modification, with affected individuals performing daily intervals of leg elevation to control edema; use of elastic compression garments; and moderate physical activity, such as walking wearing below-knee elastic stockings. Meticulous skin care, treatment of dermatitis, and prompt treatment of cellulitis are important aspects of medical management. The pharmacology of chronic venous insufficiency and venous ulcers include essentially two medications: pentoxifylline and phlebotropic agents. The micronized purified flavonoid fraction is an effective adjunct to compression therapy in patients with large, chronic ulceration.

  5. [Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Kim, Nick H; Delcroix, Marion; Jenkins, David P; Channick, Richard; Dartevelle, Philippe; Jansa, Pavel; Lang, Irene; Madani, Michael M; Ogino, Hitoshi; Pengo, Vittorio; Mayer, Eckhard

    2014-10-01

    Since the last World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension in 2008, we have witnessed numerous and exciting developments in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Emerging clinical data and advances in technology have led to reinforcing and updated guidance on diagnostic approaches to pulmonary hypertension, guidelines that we hope will lead to better recognition and more timely diagnosis of CTEPH. We have new data on treatment practices across international boundaries as well as long-term outcomes for CTEPH patients treated with or without pulmonary endarterectomy. Furthermore, we have expanded data on alternative treatment options for select CTEPH patients, including data from multiple clinical trials of medical therapy, including 1 recent pivotal trial, and compelling case series of percutaneous pulmonary angioplasty. Lastly, we have garnered more experience, and on a larger international scale, with pulmonary endarterectomy, which is the treatment of choice for operable CTEPH. This report overviews and highlights these important interval developments as deliberated among our task force of CTEPH experts and presented at the 2013 World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension in Nice, France. (J Am Coil Cardiol 2013;62:D92-9) ©2013 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.

  6. Pulmonary thromboembolism in cats.

    PubMed

    Schermerhorn, Thomas; Pembleton-Corbett, Julie R; Kornreich, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is rarely diagnosed in cats, and the clinical features of the disease are not well known. PTE was diagnosed at postmortem examination in 17 cats, a prevalence of 0.06% over a 24-year period. The age of affected cats ranged from 10 months to 18 years, although young (<4 years) and old (>10 years) cats were more commonly affected than were middle-aged cats. Males and females were equally affected. The majority of cats with PTE (n = 16) had concurrent disease, which was often severe. The most common diseases identified in association with PTE were neoplasia, anemia of unidentified cause, and pancreatitis. Cats with glomerulonephritis, encephalitis, pneumonia, heart disease, and hepatic lipidosis were also represented in this study. Most cats with PTE demonstrated dyspnea and respiratory distress before death or euthanasia, but PTE was not recognized ante mortem in any cat studied. In conclusion, PTE can affect cats of any age and is associated with a variety of systemic and inflammatory disorders. It is recommended that the same clinical criteria used to increase the suspicion of PTE in dogs should also be applied to cats. PMID:15320593

  7. Peak Thrombin Generation and Subsequent Venous Thromboembolism: The Longitudinal Investigation of Thromboembolism Etiology (LITE)

    PubMed Central

    Lutsey, Pamela L.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Cushman, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Background Thrombin is an enzyme essential to the acceleration of the coagulation cascade and the conversion of fibrinogen to clottable fibrin. Objectives We evaluated the relation of basal peak thrombin generation to risk of future VTE, and determined whether associations were independent of other coagulation markers. Methods LITE ascertained VTE in two prospective population-based cohorts: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study and the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). Peak thrombin generation was measured on stored plasma in a nested case-control sample (434 cases, 1,004 controls). Logistic regression was used to estimate the relation of peak thrombin generation to VTE, adjusted for age, sex, race, center and BMI. Mediation was evaluated by additionally adjusting for factor VIII and D-dimer. Results Relative to the first quartile of peak thrombin generation, the odds ratio (95% CI) of VTE for those above the median was 1.74 (1.28–2.37). The association was modestly attenuated by adjustment for factor VIII and D-dimer 1.47 (1.05–2.05). Associations appeared stronger for idiopathic than for secondary VTE. Elevated peak thrombin generation more than added to the VTE risk associated with Factor V Leiden or low aPTT. Conclusions In this prospective study of two independent cohorts, elevated basal peak thrombin generation was associated with subsequent risk of VTE, independent of established VTE risk factors. PMID:19656279

  8. Efficacy and Safety of Danshen Compound Tablets in Preventing Thalidomide-Associated Thromboembolism in Patients with Multiple Myeloma: A Multicenter Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Qing-song; Chen, Lin; Mi, Rui-hua; Ai, Hao; Yin, Jun-jie; Liu, Xiao-juan; Wei, Xu-dong

    2016-01-01

    Background Currently available antithrombotic prophylaxis is not perfectly reliable in elderly patients. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Compound Danshen Tablet (CDT) in preventing thromboembolism in multiple myeloma (MM) patients treated with thalidomide-based regimens. Material/Methods MM patients treated with thalidomide-based regimens were retrospectively reviewed between January 2008 and March 2015. Patients were categorized into 3 cohorts based on thromboembolic prophylaxis used: CDT, Warfarin Tablet, and no prophylaxis. Venous thromboembolism (VTE), other adverse effects (AEs), and the changes of D-dimer and fibrinogen levels were monitored. Results Seven out of 313 MM patients (2.24%) developed venous thrombosis events (VTE) in this retrospective study, all clustering in the no prophylaxis cohort. Three patients of the Warfarin cohort (3.19%) experienced hemorrhage. Neither VTE events nor serious AEs were observed in the CDT cohort. Following Compound Danshen or Warfarin treatment for 3 months, the D-dimer and fibrinogen levels (in particular the D-dimer level) (all P<0.05), were obviously decreased relative to their respective baselines and the no prophylaxis cohort. In contrast, the 2 blotting parameters were significantly increased in the no prophylaxis cohort relative to the baseline level (All P<0.05), and were even higher in the patients experiencing VTE compared to the no VTE patients (P<0.0001 and P=0.016, respectively). Conclusions Our findings indicate CDT is an effective therapy for preventing VTE in MM patients treated with thalidomide-based regimens, and is well tolerated in long-term use. PMID:27760978

  9. Carotid Thromboembolism Associated with Nephrotic Syndrome Treated with Dabigatran

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Yosuke; Raita, Yoshihiko; Uehara, Genta; Higa, Yasushi; Miyasato, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Nephrotic syndrome (NS) may be complicated by thromboembolism, which occasionally manifests as stroke. Although the optimal, standardized approach to the prophylaxis and management of thromboembolic complications associated with NS has not been established, anticoagulation with heparin and subsequent warfarin is the de facto standard of treatment. Dabigatran, a novel direct thrombin inhibitor, has become a substitute for warfarin and heparin for many indications, including the prophylaxis of stroke associated with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and postoperative thromboprophylaxis in orthopedic patients. We report a 35-year-old male with NS due to membranous nephropathy (MN) that presented with carotid thromboembolism. Because the patient developed drug-induced hepatitis due to warfarin, we attempted treatment with dabigatran and were successful in continuing the medication without any complications. We also reviewed the literature on stroke associated with NS. Twenty-one prior cases have been reported, and the review of these cases revealed some interesting points. The age of onset ranged from 19 to 59 years. Most of the reported cases sustained a stroke at earlier ages than patients with atherosclerosis and atrial fibrillation, which suggests that NS may independently predispose individuals to arterial and venous thromboses. MN was the most common underlying pathology. Given that a standardized approach to the prophylaxis and management of thrombotic complications associated with NS has not been established, our experience suggests that dabigatran is a valid new treatment option for thrombotic complications of NS. PMID:24803917

  10. Cost-effectiveness analysis of apixaban compared to low-molecularweight heparins and vitamin k antagonists for treatment and secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Elías, Isabel; Oyagüez, Itziar; Alvarez-Sala, Luis Antonio; García-Bragado, Fernando; Navarro, Andrés; González, Paloma; De Andrés-Nogales, Fernando; Soto, Javier

    2016-05-01

    Objetivo: Analizar la relación coste-efectividad de 6 meses de tratamiento con apixaban (10 mg/12 h, 7 primeros días; 5 mg/12 h después) para el primer evento de tromboembolismo venoso (TEV) y prevención de recurrencias, frente a heparinas de bajo peso molecular/antagonistas de vitamina K (HBPM/ AVK). Material y métodos: Se ha empleado un modelo de Markov con 13 estados de salud que describen la evolución de la enfermedad a lo largo de la vida de los pacientes. Los datos de eficacia y seguridad se han obtenido de los ensayos clínicos AMPLIFY y AMPLIFY- EXT, calculándose los años de vida ganados (AVG) y los años de vida ajustados por calidad (AVAC) de las opciones terapéuticas evaluadas. En este análisis se adoptó la perspectiva del Sistema Nacional de Salud (SNS). El coste de la medicación, de las complicaciones y del manejo del TEV se obtuvo de distintas fuentes españolas (€, 2014). Se aplicó una tasa de descuento anual del 3% a costes y beneficios en salud. Se realizaron análisis de sensibilidad univariante y probabilístico (ASP) para evaluar la robustez de los resultados. Resultados: Apixaban generó mejores resultados en salud con 7,182 AVG y 5,865 AVAC, frente a 7,160 AVG y 5,838 AVAC para HBPM/AVK, y con menor coste total (13.374,70 € versus 13.738,30 €). El ASP confirmó la dominancia de apixaban (produce mejores resultados con menores costes asociados) en el 89% de las simulaciones. Conclusiones: Apixaban 5 mg/12 h versus HBPM/AVK fue una estrategia eficiente para el SNS en el tratamiento y prevención de recurrencias de TEV.

  11. Effects of argon, dye, and Nd:YAG lasers on epidermis, dermis, and venous vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Landthaler, M.; Haina, D.; Brunner, R.; Waidelich, W.; Braun-Falco, O.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of the present study, which was performed at the dorsal aspects of the ears of guinea pigs, was to compare effects of different lasers on epidermis, dermis, and small venous vessels. Irradiations were performed with argon, dye, and Nd:YAG lasers. In the first series tissue repair processes were studied after argon laser application. Laser defects were excised after 1, 4, 8, and 14 days and were prepared for routine histological examination. The breadth of epidermal defect and extent of dermal coagulation and occlusion of vessels by thrombus formation were examined histologically. In a second series parameters of irradiation (ie, exposure time, laser power) of the three different lasers were changed systematically. Laser-induced morphological tissue changes could be best observed 24 hours after irradiation. Each of the lasers led to occlusion of vessels by thrombus formation and also coagulated epidermis and dermis. The extent of dermal and epidermal coagulation was less pronounced after dye laser application. Using short exposure times it was possible to reduce the extent of epidermal damage caused by argon and Nd:YAG lasers. Only 50-msec dye laser pulses led to intravascular thrombus formation without epidermal and dermal damage.

  12. Preventive effect of a novel diosgenin derivative on arterial and venous thrombosis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Huajie; Wei, Zeliang; Xin, Guang; Ji, Chengjie; Wen, Li; Xia, Qing; Niu, Hai; Huang, Wen

    2016-07-15

    Current therapy for blood vessel thrombosis has the risk of leading to gastrointestinal bleeding and thrombocytopenia. We previously reported that a new derivative of diosgenin, compound 5, had significant anti-inflammatory activity superior to that of aspirin, prolonged bleeding time, and inhibited platelet aggregation in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the in vivo efficacy and safety of compound 5 using the ferric chloride (FeCl3)-induced arterial and