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Sample records for effective warning labels

  1. The Age-related Positivity Effect and Tobacco Warning Labels.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Megan E; Peters, Ellen; Ferketich, Amy K; Klein, Elizabeth G

    2016-04-01

    This study tested whether age is a factor in viewing time for tobacco warning labels. The approach drew from previous work demonstrating an age-related positivity effect, whereby older adults show preferences toward positive and away from negative stimuli. Participants were 295 daily smokers from Appalachian Ohio (age range: 21-68). All participants took part in an eye-tracking paradigm that captured the attention paid to elements of health warning labels in the context of magazine advertisements. Participants also reported on their past cessation attempts and their beliefs about the dangers of smoking. Consistent with theory on age-related positivity, older age predicted weaker beliefs about smoking risks, but only among those with no past-year quit attempts. In support of our primary hypothesis, older age was also related to a lower percentage of time spent viewing tobacco warning labels, both overall (text + image) and for the graphic image alone. These associations remained after controlling for cigarettes smoked per day. Overall, findings suggest that age is an important consideration for the design of future graphic warning labels and other tobacco risk communications. For older adults, warning labels may need to be tailored to overcome the age-related positivity effect.

  2. The Age-related Positivity Effect and Tobacco Warning Labels

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Megan E.; Peters, Ellen; Ferketich, Amy K.; Klein, Elizabeth G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study tested whether age is a factor in viewing time for tobacco warning labels. The approach drew from previous work demonstrating an age-related positivity effect, whereby older adults show preferences toward positive and away from negative stimuli. Methods Participants were 295 daily smokers from Appalachian Ohio (age range: 21–68). All participants took part in an eye-tracking paradigm that captured the attention paid to elements of health warning labels in the context of magazine advertisements. Participants also reported on their past cessation attempts and their beliefs about the dangers of smoking. Results Consistent with theory on age-related positivity, older age predicted weaker beliefs about smoking risks, but only among those with no past-year quit attempts. In support of our primary hypothesis, older age was also related to a lower percentage of time spent viewing tobacco warning labels, both overall (text + image) and for the graphic image alone. These associations remained after controlling for cigarettes smoked per day. Conclusions Overall, findings suggest that age is an important consideration for the design of future graphic warning labels and other tobacco risk communications. For older adults, warning labels may need to be tailored to overcome the age-related positivity effect. PMID:27617273

  3. Adolescents perceived effectiveness of the proposed European graphic tobacco warning labels.

    PubMed

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Connolly, Gregory; Karamanolis, Kostas; Kafatos, Anthony

    2009-04-01

    Graphical tobacco product labelling is a prominent source of health information and has an important position among tobacco control initiatives. However, little is known about its effectiveness among adolescents. With this above in mind, we aimed to research into how adolescents perceive the proposed EU graphic tobacco product warning labels as an effective means of preventing smoking initiation in comparison to the current EU text-only warning labels. Five hundred seventy four adolescents (13-18, 54% male) from Greece were privately interviewed, with the use of a digital questionnaire and randomly shown seven existing EU text-only and proposed EU graphic warning labels. Non-smoking respondents were asked to compare and rate the warnings effectiveness in regard to preventing them from smoking on a 1-5 Likert type scale. Irrespective of the warning category shown, on all occasions, non-smoking adolescents rated the suggested EU graphic labels as more effective in preventing them from smoking in comparison to the existing EU text-only warnings. Controlling for gender, age, current smoking status and number of cigarettes smoked per month, younger adolescents were found to opt for graphic warnings more often, and also perceive graphic warning labels as a more effective means of preventing them from smoking, in comparison to their elder peers (P < 0.001). The proposed EU graphic warning labels may play an important role in preventing of smoking initiation during the crucial years of early adolescence when smoking experimentation and early addiction usually take place.

  4. Communicating tobacco health risks: How effective are the warning labels on tobacco products?

    PubMed

    Chopra, Amandeep; Rao, Nanak Chand; Gupta, Nidhi; Vashisth, Shelja

    2014-09-01

    Health hazards of tobacco are well known but only small numbers of tobacco users are fully aware of the harmful effects of tobacco. Warning labels on tobacco products are an effective way of communicating the consequences of tobacco use and bring about behavioural changes like quitting and reducing the tobacco consumption. So the present study was conducted to investigate the awareness and effectiveness of warning labels on tobacco products among health and non-healthcare professional of Barwala, Panchkula. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was carried out among 408 subjects who were randomly selected from different professional colleges of Barwala, Panchkula. Data obtained were anlysed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square test using SPSS 20.0. Most of study participants has noticed the warnings on tobacco products and most of them believe that they could understand warning labels. More that 70% believe that warnings create awareness about health hazards of tobacco and help in reducing or quitting tobacco. Pictorial warning was found to be better as compared to text warning. Health professionals were able to assess pictorial warnings more correctly as compared to non-healthcare professionals. Warning labels on tobacco packs effectively inform people about adverse health effects of tobacco but the mandated warnings do not serve the desired purpose since they are not properly understood.

  5. Short and Sweet: The Persuasive Effects of Message Framing and Temporal Context in Antismoking Warning Labels.

    PubMed

    Mollen, Saar; Engelen, Susanne; Kessels, Loes T E; van den Putte, Bas

    2017-01-01

    Current warning labels on cigarette packages are generally focused on long-term losses that can be incurred if one continues smoking. This study compares the effects of these labels against warning labels that stress short-term losses of smoking as well as labels that stress short- and long-term benefits that can be obtained when one quits smoking. A 2 (message frame: gain vs. loss) × 2 (temporal context: short vs. long term) between-subjects experiment was conducted among 132 smokers, with attitude toward quitting smoking and intention to quit smoking, as well as information-seeking behavior and message recall, as the dependent variables. Findings were in line with theory regarding message framing and temporal discounting, showing enhanced effects of gain over loss frames and short-term over long-term consequences on warning labels for attitudes and intentions. In addition, an interaction between message frame and temporal context was found. Especially, gain-framed messages showed stronger effects on intentions to quit smoking than loss-framed messages when warning labels concerned short-term outcomes. Findings suggest that current warning labels, with an emphasis on long-term negative health outcomes, should be reconsidered.

  6. Effectiveness of cigarette warning labels: examining the impact of graphics, message framing, and temporal framing.

    PubMed

    Nan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiaoquan; Yang, Bo; Iles, Irina

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of cigarette warning labels, with a specific focus on the impact of graphics, message framing (gain vs. loss), and temporal framing (present-oriented vs. future-oriented) among nonsmokers in the United States. A controlled experiment (N = 253) revealed that graphic warning labels were perceived as more effective, stronger in argument strength, and were generally liked more compared to text-only labels. In addition, loss-framed labels, compared to their gain-framed counterparts, were rated higher in perceived effectiveness, argument strength, and liking. No significant difference was observed between the present- and future-oriented frames on any of the dependent variables. Implications of the findings for antismoking communication efforts are discussed.

  7. Enhancing the effectiveness of alcohol warning labels with a self-affirming implementation intention.

    PubMed

    Armitage, Christopher J; Arden, Madelynne A

    2016-10-01

    Excess alcohol consumption extorts significant social and economic costs that are increasing despite the presence of mandatory warning labels on packaged alcoholic beverages. We used a novel approach by adding a brief statement based on self-affirmation theory to alcohol warning labels. In two studies (N = 85 and N = 58), we randomized regular wine drinkers recruited from university campuses to complete a wine-pouring task with bottles that had standard labeling or bottles that added a self-affirming implementation intention to the standard labeling. Alcohol consumption, behavioral intention, and self-efficacy were measured premanipulation; message acceptance was measured postmanipulation; and alcohol consumption, behavioral intention, and self-efficacy were measured again at follow-up. In both studies, the self-affirming implementation intention significantly reduced subsequent alcohol consumption (ds = 0.70 and 0.91, respectively). However, message acceptance, behavioral intention, and self-efficacy did not significantly mediate the observed effects. Self-affirming implementation intentions augmented the effect of alcohol warning labels to reduce subsequent alcohol consumption, but-consistent with the broader self-affirmation literature-it was not clear what mediated the effects. Further research is required to examine the effects of self-affirming implementation intentions on other kinds of public health-related labeling. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. The effect of graphic cigarette warning labels on smoking behavior: evidence from the Canadian experience.

    PubMed

    Azagba, Sunday; Sharaf, Mesbah F

    2013-03-01

    There is a substantial literature that graphic tobacco warnings are effective; however, there is limited evidence based on actual smoking behavior. The objective of this paper is to assess the effect of graphic cigarette warning labels on smoking prevalence and quit attempts. A nationally representative sample of individuals aged 15 years and older from the Canadian National Population Health Survey 1998-2008 is used. The sample consists of 4,853 individuals for the smoking prevalence regression and 1,549 smokers for quit attempts. The generalized estimating equation (GEE) model was used to examine the population-averaged (marginal) effects of tobacco graphic warnings on smoking prevalence and quit attempts. To assess the effect of graphic tobacco health warnings on smoking behavior, we used a scaled variable that takes the value of 0 for the first 6 months in 2001, then increases gradually to 1 from December 2001. We found that graphic warnings had a statistically significant effect on smoking prevalence and quit attempts. In particular, the warnings decreased the odds of being a smoker (odds ratio [OR] = 0.875; 95% CI = 0.821-0.932) and increased the odds of making a quit attempt (OR = 1.330, CI = 1.187-1.490). Similar results were obtained when we allowed for more time for the warnings to appear in retail outlets. This study adds to the growing body of evidence on the effectiveness of graphic warnings. Our findings suggest that warnings had a significant effect on smoking prevalence and quit attempts in Canada.

  9. Pictorial Cigarette Warning Labels: Effects of Severity and Likelihood of Risk Messages.

    PubMed

    Nagelhout, Gera E; Janssen, Eva; Ruiter, Robert A C; de Vries, Hein

    2016-05-01

    Pictorial cigarette warning labels often contain text-messages about severity of health risks and less often about the likelihood of health risks. We aimed to examine the influence of severity of risk versus likelihood of risk text-messages on information-seeking behavior. Study 1: An experimental study with a 2 (severity) × 2 (likelihood) between-subjects design (n = 260); Study 2: An experimental study with a 2 (severity) × 2 (likelihood) × 2 (picture) between-subjects design (n = 537). Main outcome measures were information-seeking intention and information-seeking behavior (accepting a brochure about smoking cessation in Study 1; clicking on a link to a smoking cessation webpage in Study 2). In Study 1, exposure to likelihood text-messages was associated with more information-seeking behavior but not with attitudes and intention to quit. In Study 2, exposure to likelihood text-messages was not associated with information-seeking behavior, but was associated with higher warning label ratings and with more positive attitudes towards quitting when it was a pictorial cigarette warning label; exposure to severity text-messages was associated with higher warning label ratings and higher risk perceptions. Presence of a picture with smokers' diseased lungs in Study 2 was associated with higher warning label ratings and with higher risk perceptions, but did not influence attitudes and intention to quit. We found preliminary indications that pictorial cigarette labels with likelihood of risk text-messages may be effective in influencing behavior. However, results from our two studies were not consistent. Therefore, future studies should examine this further. Although we can only draw preliminary conclusions from our study that should be replicated in future studies, our findings suggest that it is worthwhile to further explore the addition of likelihood of risk text-messages to pictorial cigarette warning labels, which is not the current practice in most countries.

  10. Linguistic and location effects in compliance with pesticide warning labels for amateur and professional users.

    PubMed

    Edworthy, Judy; Hellier, Elizabeth; Morley, Nicola; Grey, Clare; Aldrich, Kirsteen; Lee, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Three studies explored amateur and professional users' compliance with pesticide warning labels. Professionals were classified as people working in a profession in which the use of pesticides is a necessary part of their job. Amateurs used pesticides only in their leisure time. The first study showed that the wording used affected perception of the appropriateness of hazard statements, one of the most effective variations being the use of the personal pronoun (statements beginning "You should..."). The location of warning information was also found to affect actual compliance: Compliance increased when warning information was presented in the directions for use section. A supplemental directive increased compliance only for professional users. In a final study, "best-case" and "worst-case" linguistic variations were combined with best-case and worst-case locations for safety information. Instruction statements using the personal pronoun and presented in the directions for use section resulted in the highest levels of compliance. The differences in compliance between amateur and professional users are interpreted within the framework of Rasmussen's (1986) distinction among skill-, rule-, and knowledge-based behavior. Actual or potential applications of this research include the design of warning labels and safety information.

  11. Effectiveness of FDA's new over-the-counter acetaminophen warning label in improving consumer risk perception of liver damage.

    PubMed

    Goyal, R K; Rajan, S S; Essien, E J; Sansgiry, S S

    2012-12-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued new organ-specific warning label requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) analgesic products in order to make consumers aware of the risk of liver damage when using acetaminophen. However, awareness of a health risk alone cannot ensure consumers' engagement in safe and preventive behaviour. In this study, we attempted to: (i) measure consumer risk perception of liver damage due to the OTC acetaminophen products and (ii) analyse the effectiveness of the new organ-specific warning label in improving consumer risk perception of liver damage and intention to perform protective behaviours while using OTC acetaminophen products. This within-subject experimental study used a convenience sample of English-speaking adults visiting OTC segments of selected pharmacy stores in Houston. Participants were randomly exposed to the old and new warning labels and their respective risk perception (measured on a visual analogue scale, 0%, no risk, to 100%, extreme risk) and behavioural intention (measured on a 7-point Likert scale) were recorded using a validated, self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were performed using sas statistical software (v 9.2) at a priori significance level of 0.05. Majority of participants (74.4%) were not aware of the new warnings; however, majority (67.8%) had prior knowledge of the risk. The mean risk perception score for the new warning label was found to be significantly higher (72.2% vs. 65.9%, P < 0.0001) than the old warning label. Similarly, the average intention score for the new warning label was significantly higher (5.06 vs. 4.86, P < 0.0001) than the old warning label. The new warning label mandated by FDA is effective in improving consumer risk perception of potential liver damage and may encourage protective behaviour. However, future studies are essential to assess the impact of the new label on actual changes in consumer behaviour

  12. Effects of and attention to graphic warning labels on cigarette packages.

    PubMed

    Süssenbach, Philipp; Niemeier, Sarah; Glock, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects of graphic cigarette warnings compared to text-only cigarette warnings on smokers' explicit (i.e. ratings of the packages, cognitions about smoking, perceived health risk, quit intentions) and implicit attitudes. In addition, participants' visual attention towards the graphic warnings was recorded using eye-tracking methodology. Sixty-three smokers participated in the present study and either viewed graphic cigarette warnings with aversive and non-aversive images or text-only warnings. Data were analysed using analysis of variance and correlation analysis. Especially, graphic cigarette warnings with aversive content drew attention and elicited high threat. However, whereas attention directed to the textual information of the graphic warnings predicted smokers' risk perceptions, attention directed to the images of the graphic warnings did not. Moreover, smokers' in the graphic warning condition reported more positive cognitions about smoking, thus revealing cognitive dissonance. Smokers employ defensive psychological mechanisms when confronted with threatening warnings. Although aversive images attract attention, they do not promote health knowledge. Implications for graphic health warnings and the importance of taking their content (i.e. aversive vs. non-aversive images) into account are discussed.

  13. Effects of plain packaging, warning labels, and taxes on young people's predicted sugar-sweetened beverage preferences: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Bollard, Tessa; Maubach, Ninya; Walker, Natalie; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2016-09-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with increased risk of obesity, diabetes, heart disease and dental caries. Our aim was to assess the effects of plain packaging, warning labels, and a 20 % tax on predicted SSB preferences, beliefs and purchase probabilities amongst young people. A 2 × 3 × 2 between-group experimental study was conducted over a one-week period in August 2014. Intervention scenarios were delivered, and outcome data collected, via an anonymous online survey. Participants were 604 New Zealand young people aged 13-24 years who consumed soft drinks regularly. Participants were randomly allocated using a computer-generated algorithm to view one of 12 experimental conditions, specifically images of branded versus plain packaged SSBs, with either no warning, a text warning, or a graphic warning, and with or without a 20 % tax. Participant perceptions of the allocated SSB product and of those who might consume the product were measured using seven-point Likert scales. Purchase probabilities were measured using 11-point Juster scales. Six hundred and four young people completed the survey (51 % female, mean age 18 (SD 3.4) years). All three intervention scenarios had a significant negative effect on preferences for SSBs (plain packaging: F (6, 587) = 54.4, p <0.001; warning label: F (6, 588) = 19.8, p <0.001; 20 % tax: F (6, 587) = 11.3, p <0.001). Plain packaging and warning labels also had a significant negative impact on reported likelihood of purchasing SSB's (p = <0.001). A 20 % tax reduced participants' purchase probability but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.2). Plain packaging and warning labels significantly reduce young people's predicted preferences for, and reported probability of purchasing, SSBs.

  14. The role of equipment warning labels in the industrial workplace.

    PubMed

    McGrath, John M

    2011-01-01

    Among the many ways in which workers can get safety information, the role of equipment warning labels has not been well articulated. Presumably, warning labels help prevent accidents, but questions remain about how well those labels can be expected to work. This essay describes how contextual analysis can assist our understanding of warning label effectiveness. A contextual approach was conceptualized in terms of underlying communication variables and an exploratory study was conducted in which workers were asked if they noticed and remembered warning labels on an industrial table saw that they used over a 3-month period. Results showed that equipment warning labels had a limited impact on workers. The contextual approach explained the relative effectiveness of multiple sources of information. Implications for safety training and accident liability are discussed.

  15. Believability of Cigar Warning Labels Among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kowitt, Sarah D; Jarman, Kristen; Ranney, Leah M; Goldstein, Adam O

    2017-03-01

    Despite high rates of cigar use among youth, little information exists about how cigar warnings are received by youth. We examined believability of different cigar warning messages with different sources among adolescents in a national phone survey. Adolescents (aged 13-17 years) in the US (N = 1,125; total response rate, 66%) were randomized to receive one of three health messages ("cigar smoking can cause cancers of the mouth and throat, even if you do not inhale," "cigar smoking can cause lung cancer and heart disease," and "cigars are not a safe alternative to cigarettes") and one of four warning sources (Food and Drug Administration, Surgeon General, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and no source). Believability was assessed with "how believable is this warning," and responses were dichotomized for "not at all or somewhat" versus "very." Weighted logistic regression results indicated that most youth found the cigar warnings very believable (60.5%). Messages about mouth and throat cancer (regardless of inhalation) and the safety of cigars in comparison to cigarettes were rated as significantly less believable than messages about lung cancer and heart disease related to cigars. There were no significant differences by source or other demographics. However, youth susceptible to using cigarettes were less likely to report the cigar warnings to be very believable. The messages of cigar warning labels are not viewed as equally believable among adolescents. Future studies should examine how youth process messages about health effects of cigars and the impact of different cigar warnings on youth experimentation with and use of cigars. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Alcohol Warning Label Perceptions: Do Warning Sizes and Plain Packaging Matter?

    PubMed

    Al-Hamdani, Mohammed; Smith, Steven M

    2017-01-01

    There is a dearth of research on the effectiveness of stringent alcohol warning labels. Our experiment tested whether increasing the size of an alcohol health warning lowers product-based ratings. We examined whether plain packaging lowers ratings of alcohol products and the consumers who use them, increases ratings of bottle "boringness," and enhances warning recognition compared with branded packaging. A total of 440 adults (51.7% female) viewed one of three warning sizes (50%, 75%, or 90% of label surface) on either a plain or branded bottle of distilled spirits, wine, and beer. Participants also rated alcohol bottles on product-based (assessing the product itself), consumer-based (assessing perceptions of consumers of the product), and bottle boringness ratings, and then attempted to recognize the correct warning out of four choices. As expected, the size of warning labels lowered product-based ratings. Similarly, plain packaging lowered product-based and consumer-based ratings and increased bottle boringness but only for wine bottles. Further, plain packaging increased the odds of warning recognition on bottles of distilled spirits. This study shows that plain packaging and warning size (similar to the graphic warnings on cigarette packages) affect perceptions about alcohol bottles. It also shows that plain packaging increases the likelihood for correct health warning recognition, which builds the case for alcohol warning and packaging research and policy.

  17. A study comparing the effectiveness of three warning labels on the package of driving-impairing medicines.

    PubMed

    Emich, Bas; van Dijk, Liset; Monteiro, Susana P; de Gier, Johan J

    2014-12-01

    Several medicines are known to potentially impair patients' driving fitness. Appropriate communication towards patients about this risk can be supported by the use of package warning labels. To compare the effectiveness of a standing practice yellow/black label-with written warning-with a newly developed rating model in communicating risk on driving-impairing medicines (DIMs). Furthermore, the added value of a side-text in the rating model was determined. Community pharmacies in the Netherlands. In a cross-sectional study, patients with a first dispensing of a DIM were asked by their community pharmacists (n = 38) to fill out a written questionnaire to compare each of the three warning labels. A 2 [yellow/black label vs. rating model (pair 1) and rating model with side-text vs. rating model without side-text (pair 2)] × 3 [category of driving-impairment: I = minor risk, II = moderate risk, III = severe risk] design was used. The category of driving-impairment varied per respondent, depending on the DIM the patient collected. (1) estimated level of driving risk valued by patients (2) intention to change driving behaviour after seeing the warning label. An estimated number of 992 patients were approached. As 298 questionnaires were analysed, the net response rate was 30%. With the yellow/black label, respondents considered DIMs of all three categories of driving-impairment to equally impair driving fitness, while with the rating model the estimated risk was higher when the category referred to a higher level of driving-impairment. Addition of a side-text to the rating model resulted in a significantly higher estimated level of driving risk and a significant increase in intention to change driving behaviour. Only 8.0% of the patients using a category III DIM estimated the level of driving risk correctly when seeing the yellow/black label, while this was 26.7% for the rating model and 43.0% for the rating model with side-text. The yellow/black label, which is standing

  18. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Warning Labels: Lessons Learned From the Tobacco Industry

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco warning labels effectively educate consumers about the harms of tobacco and reduce smoking behavior. Lessons from tobacco warning labels can be applied to developing and implementing warning labels for sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Large pictorial rotating warnings are particularly effective. Dental professionals can be an important voice in countering the industry’s efforts to create controversy around the effects of SSBs and in advocating for effective warning labels based on the evidence from the tobacco warning labels. Sugar, rum and tobacco are commodities which are nowhere necessaries of life, which are become objects of almost universal consumption and which are therefore extremely proper subjects of taxation.1 PMID:28190943

  19. 40 CFR 763.95 - Warning labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.95 Warning labels. (a) The local education agency shall...: ASBESTOS. HAZARDOUS. DO NOT DISTURB WITHOUT PROPER TRAINING AND EQUIPMENT....

  20. 40 CFR 763.95 - Warning labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.95 Warning labels. (a) The local education agency shall...: ASBESTOS. HAZARDOUS. DO NOT DISTURB WITHOUT PROPER TRAINING AND EQUIPMENT....

  1. 40 CFR 763.95 - Warning labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.95 Warning labels. (a) The local education agency shall...: ASBESTOS. HAZARDOUS. DO NOT DISTURB WITHOUT PROPER TRAINING AND EQUIPMENT....

  2. 40 CFR 763.95 - Warning labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.95 Warning labels. (a) The local education agency shall...: ASBESTOS. HAZARDOUS. DO NOT DISTURB WITHOUT PROPER TRAINING AND EQUIPMENT....

  3. 40 CFR 763.95 - Warning labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.95 Warning labels. (a) The local education agency shall...: ASBESTOS. HAZARDOUS. DO NOT DISTURB WITHOUT PROPER TRAINING AND EQUIPMENT. ...

  4. The effect of e-cigarette warning labels on college students' perception of e-cigarettes and intention to use e-cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsiao-Yun; Lin, Hsien-Chang; Seo, Dong-Chul; Lohrmann, David K

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the effect of two e-cigarette warning labels on college students' perceived advantages and risks of e-cigarette use, as well as students' intentions to use e-cigarettes. The company-produced e-cigarette warning label carries abundant information with small font size while the governmental warning label has only two sentences presented in large font size. The effect of both labels have not yet been examined and verified. Data were collected in October 2015 from college students at a Midwestern university. A pretest-posttest design was employed with 338 students exposed to the warning label proposed by the FDA and 328 students exposed to the label created by e-cigarette companies. Structural equation modeling analysis was implemented to examine the effect of warning labels with the analytical model grounded in the Theory of Planned Behavior. Findings showed that college students' perceived advantages of e-cigarette use were positively related to their intentions to use e-cigarettes, while perceived risks were negatively associated with their intentions. When comparing two labels, the governmental label was found to reduce college students' intentions to use e-cigarettes via increasing perceived risks of e-cigarette use (β=0.10, p<0.05), however, not via decreasing perceived advantages of e-cigarette use. The warning label currently used by e-cigarette companies showed no influence on beliefs about or intentions to use e-cigarettes. The warning label proposed by the FDA is more effective than that created by e-cigarette companies, however, has room for improvement to make a greater impact on e-cigarette use intention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effectiveness of text versus pictorial health warning labels and predictors of support for plain packaging of tobacco products within the European Union.

    PubMed

    Agaku, Israel T; Filippidis, Filippos T; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco product warning labels are a key health communication medium with plain packaging noted as the next step in the evolution of tobacco packaging. We assessed the self-reported impact of text versus pictorial health warnings and the determinants of support for plain packaging of tobacco products in the European Union (EU). The Special Eurobarometer 385 survey was analyzed for 26,566 adults from 27 EU countries in 2012. The self-reported impact of warning labels (text or pictorial) and determinants of EU-wide support for plain packaging were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Current smokers in countries where cigarette pictorial warnings were implemented had higher odds of reporting that health warning labels had any effect on their smoking behavior (making a quit attempt or reducing number of cigarettes smoked per day) compared to respondents in countries with text-only warning labels (adjusted odds ratio, aOR = 1.31; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI: 1.10-1.56). Population support for plain packaging of tobacco packs was higher in countries where cigarette pictorial warnings already existed (aOR = 1.17; 95% CI: 1.07-1.28). These findings indicate that the implementation of pictorial warnings at an EU level may have a positive behavioral impact among smokers and pave the way for population support for plain packaging in the EU.

  6. Cartoon characters as tobacco warning labels.

    PubMed

    Duffy, S A; Burton, D

    2000-12-01

    Multiple studies have indicated that the Joe Camel advertising campaign has been successful in marketing tobacco to children and adolescents, whereas other studies have reported that current tobacco warning messages are ineffective. To determine the importance and believability of familiar and novel tobacco warning messages with and without cartoons that were modeled after Joe Camel. Children and adolescents (N = 580) in Chicago, Ill, public schools were surveyed to determine the believability and importance of 3 cartoon tobacco warnings modeled after Joe Camel developed with the messages "Smoking Causes Lung Cancer, Heart Disease, Emphysema, and May Complicate Pregnancy" or "Smoking Kills" and the same 2 messages without cartoons. Respondents rated all 3 cartoons significantly more believable than the plain condition regardless of the message (P<.05). Furthermore, respondents rated the "Smoking Causes Lung Cancer, Heart Disease, Emphysema, and May Complicate Pregnancy" warning significantly more believable and important than the "Smoking Kills" message across all 4 cartoon conditions (walrus, penguin, bear, and no cartoon) (P<.01). Selected demographic groups found particular cartoon and warning messages more believable and/or important than others. The finding that cartoon tobacco warnings are more believable than plain warnings suggests that it may be desirable to include cartoons in future tobacco warning labels. The lower ratings of believability and importance of the "Smoking Kills" warning is a concern because similar warnings have recently been implemented in at least 2 countries (Australia and Canada) and have been considered for implementation in the United States. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2000;154:1230-1236.

  7. Warning Labels: Safety Compliance and the Effectiveness of Audio, Video, and Written Instructions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    this thesis to my wife, Jane, and our two sons, Justin and Zachary. They are my inspiration and my biggest fans. I am indeed blessed every day by...third experiment inserted "do not use, if you have read this far" in the warning. Compliance for the outline format was 48% versus 16% with the...would be more effective than safety cards with just words. The experiment used 25 government workers who had flown at least once but not more than

  8. Evaluating the perceived effectiveness of pregnancy-related cigarette package health warning labels among different gender/age groups.

    PubMed

    Kollath-Cattano, Christy; Osman, Amira; Thrasher, James F

    2017-03-01

    The impact of pregnancy-related health warning labels (HWLs) appearing on cigarette packages on women of reproductive age and other socio-demographic groups is not well understood. The current study analyzes how different age/gender groups respond to pregnancy-related HWLs as compared to non-pregnancy HWLs. Data were analyzed from four waves of an online longitudinal study with adult smokers aged 18-64 in Australia, Canada, Mexico, and the US. Participants were classified into four age\\gender groups: women 40 and under; men 40 and under; women over 40; men over 40. Participants rated one pregnancy-related and several non-pregnancy related labels on worry, believability, and motivation to quit. Country-specific adjusted linear GEE were estimated regressing ratings for each of the three key outcomes for 1) pregnancy-related HWLs and 2) a rating difference score that subtracted the average ratings of the non-pregnancy warning from the rating of the pregnancy warning. All models adjusted for socio-demographics and smoking related variables. In Mexico and Australia, where graphic pregnancy-related HWL imagery is used (i.e., premature infant), women of reproductive age reported stronger believability, worry, and quit motivation than all other groups. Results were similar in the US, where text only HWLs are used. In contrast in Canada, where the pregnancy-related HWL imagery features a pregnant woman, ratings were unassociated with gender/age groups. Stronger effects among women of reproductive age were limited to pregnancy HWLs in each country, except Canada. HWLs that depict graphic effects to illustrate smoking-related pregnancy risks appear to be perceived as particularly effective among women of reproductive age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Avoidance of smoking: the impact of warning labels in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, B E M; Oliveira, L; Vieira, A S; Joffily, M; Gleiser, S; Pereira, M G; Cavalcante, T; Volchan, E

    2008-12-01

    Research on human emotion shows that pictures drive the activity of specialised brain networks affecting attitude and behaviour. Pictorial warnings on cigarette packages are considered one of the most effective ways to convey information on the health consequences of smoking. However, few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of warning labels to elicit avoidance of smoking. To investigate the impact of pictorial health warnings conveyed by the Brazilian tobacco control programme through a well-established psychometric tool designed for studies on emotion and behaviour. Graphic Brazilian cigarette warnings labels were evaluated. They consisted of the two sets of warning pictures displayed in 2002-4 (n = 9) and 2004-8 (n = 10). Pleasant, unpleasant and neutral pictures selected from a standard catalogue were used as controls. Undergraduate students (n = 212, 18% smokers) evaluated the emotional content of each picture in two affective dimensions: hedonic valence and arousal. Participants were not provided with the sources of distinction between control and warning pictures. The judgements of hedonic content of the warning pictures ranged from neutral to very unpleasant. None was classified as highly arousing. Smokers judged warning pictures representing people smoking significantly more pleasant than pictures without smoking scenes, and significantly more so than non-smokers. No significant differences between smokers and non-smokers were found for warning pictures without these smoking scenes. Previous studies have shown that the most threatening and arousing pictures prompt the greatest evidence of defensive activation. Emotional ratings of Brazilian warning pictures described them as unpleasant but moderately arousing. To intensify avoidance of the packages, future graphic warnings should therefore generate more arousal. The ratings for the Brazilian warning pictures indicated that, except for those depicting people smoking, judgements by smokers and non

  10. 48 CFR 252.223-7001 - Hazard warning labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hazard warning labels. 252... Provisions And Clauses 252.223-7001 Hazard warning labels. As prescribed in 223.303, use the following clause: Hazard Warning Labels (DEC 1991) (a) “Hazardous material,” as used in this clause, is defined in...

  11. 48 CFR 252.223-7001 - Hazard warning labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hazard warning labels. 252... Provisions And Clauses 252.223-7001 Hazard warning labels. As prescribed in 223.303, use the following clause: Hazard Warning Labels (DEC 1991) (a) “Hazardous material,” as used in this clause, is defined in...

  12. 48 CFR 252.223-7001 - Hazard warning labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hazard warning labels. 252... Provisions And Clauses 252.223-7001 Hazard warning labels. As prescribed in 223.303, use the following clause: Hazard Warning Labels (DEC 1991) (a) “Hazardous material,” as used in this clause, is defined in...

  13. 48 CFR 252.223-7001 - Hazard warning labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hazard warning labels. 252... Provisions And Clauses 252.223-7001 Hazard warning labels. As prescribed in 223.303, use the following clause: Hazard Warning Labels (DEC 1991) (a) “Hazardous material,” as used in this clause, is defined in...

  14. 29 CFR 1915.16 - Warning signs and labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Warning signs and labels. 1915.16 Section 1915.16 Labor... Other Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment § 1915.16 Warning signs and labels. (a) Employee...) Posting of large work areas. A warning sign or label required by paragraph (a) of this section need not...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.16 - Warning signs and labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Warning signs and labels. 1915.16 Section 1915.16 Labor... Other Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment § 1915.16 Warning signs and labels. (a) Employee...) Posting of large work areas. A warning sign or label required by paragraph (a) of this section need not...

  16. 48 CFR 252.223-7001 - Hazard warning labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hazard warning labels. 252... Provisions And Clauses 252.223-7001 Hazard warning labels. As prescribed in 223.303, use the following clause: Hazard Warning Labels (DEC 1991) (a) “Hazardous material,” as used in this clause, is defined in...

  17. 29 CFR 1915.16 - Warning signs and labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Warning signs and labels. 1915.16 Section 1915.16 Labor... Other Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment § 1915.16 Warning signs and labels. (a) Employee...) Posting of large work areas. A warning sign or label required by paragraph (a) of this section need not...

  18. 29 CFR 1915.16 - Warning signs and labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Warning signs and labels. 1915.16 Section 1915.16 Labor... Other Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment § 1915.16 Warning signs and labels. (a) Employee...) Posting of large work areas. A warning sign or label required by paragraph (a) of this section need not...

  19. 29 CFR 1915.16 - Warning signs and labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Warning signs and labels. 1915.16 Section 1915.16 Labor... Other Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment § 1915.16 Warning signs and labels. (a) Employee...) Posting of large work areas. A warning sign or label required by paragraph (a) of this section need not...

  20. Exposure to graphic warning labels on cigarette packages: Effects on implicit and explicit attitudes towards smoking among young adults.

    PubMed

    Macy, Jonathan T; Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C; Yeung, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    To test the effect of exposure to the US Food and Drug Administration's proposed graphic images with text warning statements for cigarette packages on implicit and explicit attitudes towards smoking. A two-session web-based study was conducted with 2192 young adults 18-25-years-old. During session one, demographics, smoking behaviour, and baseline implicit and explicit attitudes were assessed. Session two, completed on average 18 days later, contained random assignment to viewing one of three sets of cigarette packages, graphic images with text warnings, text warnings only, or current US Surgeon General's text warnings. Participants then completed post-exposure measures of implicit and explicit attitudes. ANCOVAs tested the effect of condition on the outcomes, controlling for baseline attitudes. Smokers who viewed packages with graphic images plus text warnings demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes compared to smokers in the other conditions (p = .004). For the entire sample, explicit attitudes were more negative for those who viewed graphic images plus text warnings compared to those who viewed current US Surgeon General's text warnings (p = .014), but there was no difference compared to those who viewed text-only warnings. Graphic health warnings on cigarette packages can influence young adult smokers' implicit attitudes towards smoking.

  1. Exposure to Graphic Warning Labels on Cigarette Packages: Effects on Implicit and Explicit Attitudes toward Smoking among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Macy, Jonathan T.; Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C.; Yeung, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Objective Test the effect of exposure to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s proposed graphic images with text warning statements for cigarette packages on implicit and explicit attitudes toward smoking. Design and methods A two-session web-based study was conducted with 2192 young adults 18–25 years old. During session one, demographics, smoking behavior, and baseline implicit and explicit attitudes were assessed. Session two, completed on average 18 days later, contained random assignment to viewing one of three sets of cigarette packages, graphic images with text warnings, text warnings only, or current U.S Surgeon General’s text warnings. Participants then completed post-exposure measures of implicit and explicit attitudes. ANCOVAs tested the effect of condition on the outcomes, controlling for baseline attitudes. Results Smokers who viewed packages with graphic images plus text warnings demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes compared to smokers in the other conditions (p=.004). For the entire sample, explicit attitudes were more negative for those who viewed graphic images plus text warnings compared to those who viewed current U.S. Surgeon General’s text warnings (p=.014), but there was no difference compared to those who viewed text-only warnings. Conclusion Graphic health warnings on cigarette packages can influence young adult smokers’ implicit attitudes toward smoking. PMID:26442992

  2. Nonsmokers' responses to new warning labels on smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Popova, Lucy; Ling, Pamela M

    2014-09-25

    Graphic warning labels are a tobacco control best practice that is mandated in the US for cigarettes under the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. However, smokeless tobacco products are not required to carry graphic warning labels, and as of September 2014, electronic cigarettes in the US carry no warning labels and are aggressively marketed, including with "reduced harm" or "FDA Approved" messages. In this online experiment, 483 US adult non-users of tobacco were randomized to view print advertisements for moist snuff, snus, and e-cigarettes with either warning labels (current warning label, graphic warning label) or "endorsements" (a "lower risk" label proposed by a tobacco company, an "FDA Approved" label) or control (tobacco advertisement with no label, advertisement for a non-tobacco consumer products). Main outcome measures included changes in perceived harm, positive attitudes towards, openness to using, and interest in a free sample of moist snuff, snus, and e-cigarettes. The graphic warning label increased perceived harm of moist snuff and e-cigarettes. "Lower risk" and "FDA Approved" labels decreased perceived harm of moist snuff and snus respectively. Current warning label and graphic warning label significantly lowered positive attitudes towards e-cigarettes. In this sample of non-users of tobacco, 15% were interested in a free sample of alternative tobacco products (predominantly e-cigarettes). Proportion of participants interested in a free sample did not differ significantly across the conditions, but those interested in a free sample had significantly lower perceptions of harm of corresponding tobacco products. Regulatory agencies should not allow "lower risk" warning labels, which have similar effects to the "FDA Approved" label, which is prohibited, and should consider implementing graphic warning labels for smokeless tobacco products and e-cigarettes.

  3. Graphic warning labels in cigarette advertisements: recall and viewing patterns.

    PubMed

    Strasser, Andrew A; Tang, Kathy Z; Romer, Daniel; Jepson, Christopher; Cappella, Joseph N

    2012-07-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Control Act gave the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) legal authority to mandate graphic warning labels on cigarette advertising and packaging. The FDA requires that these graphic warning labels be embedded into cigarette advertising and packaging by September 2012. The aim of this study was to examine differences in recall and viewing patterns of text-only versus graphic cigarette warning labels and the association between viewing patterns and recall. Participants (current daily smokers; N=200) were randomized to view a cigarette advertisement with either text-only or graphic warning labels. Viewing patterns were measured using eye-tracking, and recall was later assessed. Sessions were conducted between November 2008 and November 2009. Data analysis was conducted between March 2011 and July 2011. There was a significant difference in percentage correct recall of the warning label between those in the text-only versus graphic warning label condition, 50% vs 83% (χ(2)=23.74, p=0.0001). Time to first viewing of the graphic warning label text and dwell time duration (i.e., time spent looking) on the graphic image were significantly associated with correct recall. Warning labels that drew attention more quickly and resulted in longer dwell times were associated with better recall. Graphic warning labels improve smokers' recall of warning and health risks; these labels do so by drawing and holding attention. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Graphic Warning Labels in Cigarette Advertisements: Recall and Viewing Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Andrew A.; Tang, Kathy Z.; Romer, Daniel; Jepson, Chris; Cappella, Joseph N.

    2012-01-01

    Background The Family Smoking Prevention and Control Act gave the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) legal authority to mandate graphic warning labels on cigarette advertising and packaging. The FDA requires that these graphic warning labels be embedded into cigarette advertising and packaging by September 2012. Purpose The aim of this study was to examine differences in recall and viewing patterns of text-only versus graphic cigarette warning labels; and, the association between viewing patterns and recall. Methods Participants (current daily smokers; N=200) were randomized to view a cigarette advertisement with either text-only or graphic warning labels. Viewing patterns were measured using eye-tracking, and recall was later assessed. Sessions were conducted between November 2008 and November 2009. Data analysis was conducted between March 2011 and July 2011. Results There was a significant difference in percentage correct recall of the warning label between those in the text-only versus graphic warning label condition, 50% versus 83% (χ2 =23.74, p=0.0001). Time to first view of the graphic warning label text, and dwell time duration (i.e., time spent looking) on the graphic image were significantly associated with correct recall. Warning labels that drew attention more quickly and resulted in longer dwell times were associated with better recall. Conclusions Graphic warning labels improve smokers’ recall of warning and health risks; they do so by drawing and holding attention. PMID:22704744

  5. Do graphic health warning labels have an impact on adolescents' smoking-related beliefs and behaviours?

    PubMed

    White, Victoria; Webster, Bernice; Wakefield, Melanie

    2008-09-01

    To assess the impact of the introduction of graphic health warning labels on cigarette packets on adolescents at different smoking uptake stages. School-based surveys conducted in the year prior to (2005) and approximately 6 months after (2006) the introduction of the graphic health warnings. The 2006 survey was conducted after a TV advertising campaign promoting two new health warnings. Secondary schools in greater metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. Students in year levels 8-12: 2432 students in 2005, and 2050 in 2006, participated. Smoking uptake stage, intention to smoke, reported exposure to cigarette packs, knowledge of health effects of smoking, cognitive processing of warning labels and perceptions of cigarette pack image. At baseline, 72% of students had seen cigarette packs in the previous 6 months, while at follow-up 77% had seen packs and 88% of these had seen the new warning labels. Cognitive processing of warning labels increased, with students more frequently reading, attending to, thinking and talking about warning labels at follow-up. Experimental and established smokers thought about quitting and forgoing cigarettes more at follow-up. At follow-up intention to smoke was lower among those students who had talked about the warning labels and had forgone cigarettes. Graphic warning labels on cigarette packs are noticed by the majority of adolescents, increase adolescents' cognitive processing of these messages and have the potential to lower smoking intentions. Our findings suggest that the introduction of graphic warning labels may help to reduce smoking among adolescents.

  6. Warning labels formulated as questions positively influence smoking-related risk perception.

    PubMed

    Glock, Sabine; Müller, Barbara C N; Ritter, Simone M

    2013-02-01

    Research on warning labels printed on cigarette packages has shown that fear inducing health warnings might provoke defensive responses. This study investigated whether reformulating statements into questions could avoid defensive reactions. Smokers were presented with either warning labels formulated as questions, textual warning labels, graphic warning labels, or no warning labels. Participants' smoking-related risk perception was higher after exposure to warning labels formulated as questions or no warning labels than after exposure to textual or graphic warning labels. These results indicate that reformulating statements into questions can avoid defensive responses elicited by textual- and graphic warning labels.

  7. Cigarette pack warning labels in Russia: how graphic should they be?

    PubMed

    Wade, Benjamin; Merrill, Ray M; Lindsay, Gordon B

    2011-06-01

    Tobacco warning labels on cigarette packs have been shown to reduce cigarette consumption. The current study measures the Russian population's acceptance and preference of graphic (picture + text) tobacco warning labels. Nationally representative data were collected from 1778 participants in the Russian Federation in October 2009. A cross-sectional survey was conducted through person-to-person household interviews with respondents aged ≥ 14 years. Survey questions included standard demographic queries and three study-specific questions. Participants rated the strength of 13 cigarette warning labels according to their effectiveness to deter from smoking. Smoking status and the population's acceptance of similar warning labels was also measured. A dose-response pattern is apparent between the degree of graphic content of cigarette warning labels and the public's perception regarding the warning label's ability to discourage smoking. Approximately 87% of all respondents thought Russian authorities should require tobacco manufacturers to place graphic warning labels on cigarette packs, while 80% of current smokers wanted their government to enact such enforcement. The Russian population would strongly support government policy that would require graphic warning labels to be placed on cigarette packs in their country. In order to best deter from smoking, future cigarette warning labels in Russia should be as graphic as possible.

  8. Reactions to FDA-Proposed Graphic Warning Labels Affixed to U.S. Smokers’ Cigarette Packs

    PubMed Central

    Kreuter, Matthew W.; Boyum, Sonia; Thompson, Vetta S.; Caburnay, Charlene A.; Waters, Erika A.; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; Rath, Suchitra; Fu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Graphic warning labels have been shown to be more effective than text-only labels in increasing attention and perceived health risks, but most U.S. studies have involved single exposures in laboratory or Internet settings. Methods: We recruited a convenience sample (N = 202) of U.S. adult smokers from population subgroups with higher rates of smoking and smoking-related deaths who had participated in a larger survey about graphic warning labels. Participants were randomized to get 1 of 9 graphic + text labels or a text-only label. Research staff affixed a warning label sticker to participants’ cigarette pack(s) at enrollment. Color graphic labels covered slightly more than the lower half of packs. Black and white labels of current U.S. text-only warnings covered the existing side warning to prompt attention to the label (i.e., attention control). Participants received extra stickers of the same label for subsequent packs, and completed 3 telephone interviews in 1 week. Results: Participants reported low avoidance (<34%) and consistent use of the stickers (91%). Smokers consistently paid more attention to graphic than text-only labels. Only 5 of the 9 graphic warning labels were significantly associated with greater thoughts of health risks. Thinking about quitting and stopping smoking did not differ by label. Qualitative data illustrated differences in the “stickiness,” self-referencing, and counterarguments of graphic warning labels. Conclusions: U.S. smokers’ reactions to graphic warning labels on their own packs were similar to other, more controlled studies. Qualitative findings underscore the need for warning labels that encourage self-referential processing without increasing defensive reactions. PMID:25589676

  9. Reactions to FDA-Proposed Graphic Warning Labels Affixed to U.S. Smokers' Cigarette Packs.

    PubMed

    McQueen, Amy; Kreuter, Matthew W; Boyum, Sonia; Thompson, Vetta S; Caburnay, Charlene A; Waters, Erika A; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Rath, Suchitra; Fu, Qiang

    2015-07-01

    Graphic warning labels have been shown to be more effective than text-only labels in increasing attention and perceived health risks, but most U.S. studies have involved single exposures in laboratory or Internet settings. We recruited a convenience sample (N = 202) of U.S. adult smokers from population subgroups with higher rates of smoking and smoking-related deaths who had participated in a larger survey about graphic warning labels. Participants were randomized to get 1 of 9 graphic + text labels or a text-only label. Research staff affixed a warning label sticker to participants' cigarette pack(s) at enrollment. Color graphic labels covered slightly more than the lower half of packs. Black and white labels of current U.S. text-only warnings covered the existing side warning to prompt attention to the label (i.e., attention control). Participants received extra stickers of the same label for subsequent packs, and completed 3 telephone interviews in 1 week. Participants reported low avoidance (<34%) and consistent use of the stickers (91%). Smokers consistently paid more attention to graphic than text-only labels. Only 5 of the 9 graphic warning labels were significantly associated with greater thoughts of health risks. Thinking about quitting and stopping smoking did not differ by label. Qualitative data illustrated differences in the "stickiness," self-referencing, and counterarguments of graphic warning labels. U.S. smokers' reactions to graphic warning labels on their own packs were similar to other, more controlled studies. Qualitative findings underscore the need for warning labels that encourage self-referential processing without increasing defensive reactions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The instrumental role of product information: a study of warning labels for non-prescription drugs.

    PubMed

    Discenza, R; Ferguson, J M

    1992-01-01

    The study extends work in informative labeling, fear appeals, and negative information effects. Respondents were given two labels from two packages, one of which contained the experimental treatment. Warning strength was manipulated at three levels: weak, medium, and strong. The data show that, unlike labels on prescription medications, non-prescription warning labels tend to discourage use of the product. Results have implications for information theorists, marketers, and public policy makers.

  11. Do consumers 'Get the facts'? A survey of alcohol warning label recognition in Australia.

    PubMed

    Coomber, Kerri; Martino, Florentine; Barbour, I Robert; Mayshak, Richelle; Miller, Peter G

    2015-08-22

    There is limited research on awareness of alcohol warning labels and their effects. The current study examined the awareness of the Australian voluntary warning labels, the 'Get the facts' logo (a component of current warning labels) that directs consumers to an industry-designed informational website, and whether alcohol consumers visited this website. Participants aged 18-45 (unweighted n = 561; mean age = 33.6 years) completed an online survey assessing alcohol consumption patterns, awareness of the 'Get the facts' logo and warning labels, and use of the website. No participants recalled the 'Get the facts' logo, and the recall rate of warning labels was 16% at best. A quarter of participants recognised the 'Get the facts' logo, and awareness of the warning labels ranged from 13.1-37.9%. Overall, only 7.3% of respondents had visited the website. Multivariable logistic regression models indicated that younger drinkers, increased frequency of binge drinking, consuming alcohol directly from the bottle or can, and support for warning labels were significantly, positively associated with awareness of the logo and warning labels. While an increased frequency of binge drinking, consuming alcohol directly from the container, support for warning labels, and recognition of the 'Get the facts' logo increased the odds of visiting the website. Within this sample, recall of the current, voluntary warning labels on Australian alcohol products was non-existent, overall awareness was low, and few people reported visiting the DrinkWise website. It appears that current warning labels fail to effectively transmit health messages to the general public.

  12. Effect of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and Voluntary Industry Health Warning Labels on Passage of Mandated Cigarette Warning Labels From 1965 to 2012: Transition Probability and Event History Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Sanders-Jackson, Ashley N.; Song, Anna V.; Hiilamo, Heikki

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We quantified the pattern and passage rate of cigarette package health warning labels (HWLs), including the effect of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and HWLs voluntarily implemented by tobacco companies. Methods. We used transition probability matrices to describe the pattern of HWL passage and change rate in 4 periods. We used event history analysis to estimate the effect of the FCTC on adoption and to compare that effect between countries with voluntary and mandatory HWLs. Results. The number of HWLs passed during each period accelerated, from a transition rate among countries that changed from 2.42 per year in 1965–1977 to 6.71 in 1977–1984, 8.42 in 1984–2003, and 22.33 in 2003–2012. The FCTC significantly accelerated passage of FCTC-compliant HWLs for countries with initially mandatory policies with a hazard of 1.27 per year (95% confidence interval = 1.11, 1.45), but only marginally increased the hazard for countries that had an industry voluntary HWL of 1.68 per year (95% confidence interval = 0.95, 2.97). Conclusions. Passage of HWLs is accelerating, and the FCTC is associated with further acceleration. Industry voluntary HWLs slowed mandated HWLs. PMID:24028248

  13. Low literacy impairs comprehension of prescription drug warning labels.

    PubMed

    Davis, Terry C; Wolf, Michael S; Bass, Pat F; Middlebrooks, Mark; Kennen, Estela; Baker, David W; Bennett, Charles L; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Bocchini, Anna; Savory, Stephanie; Parker, Ruth M

    2006-08-01

    Adverse events resulting from medication error are a serious concern. Patients' literacy and their ability to understand medication information are increasingly seen as a safety issue. To examine whether adult patients receiving primary care services at a public hospital clinic were able to correctly interpret commonly used prescription medication warning labels. In-person structured interviews with literacy assessment. Public hospital, primary care clinic. A total of 251 adult patients waiting for an appointment at the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center in Shreveport (LSUHSC-S) Primary Care Clinic. Correct interpretation, as determined by expert panel review of patients' verbatim responses, for each of 8 commonly used prescription medication warning labels. Approximately one-third of patients (n=74) were reading at or below the 6th-grade level (low literacy). Patient comprehension of warning labels was associated with one's literacy level. Multistep instructions proved difficult for patients across all literacy levels. After controlling for relevant potential confounding variables, patients with low literacy were 3.4 times less likely to interpret prescription medication warning labels correctly (95% confidence interval: 2.3 to 4.9). Patients with low literacy had difficulty understanding prescription medication warning labels. Patients of all literacy levels had better understanding of warning labels that contained single-step versus multiple-step instructions. Warning labels should be developed with consumer participation, especially with lower literate populations, to ensure comprehension of short, concise messages created with familiar words and recognizable icons.

  14. Cigarette Warning Label Policy Alternatives and Smoking-Related Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Andrews, Jeannette O.; Gray, Kevin M.; Alberg, Anthony J.; Navarro, Ashley; Friedman, Daniela B.; Cummings, K. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background Pictorial health warning labels on cigarette packaging have been proposed for the U.S., but their potential influences among populations that suffer tobacco-related health disparities are unknown. Purpose To evaluate pictorial health warning labels, including moderation of their influences by health literacy and race. Methods From July 2011 to January 2012, field experiments were conducted with 981 adult smokers who were randomized to control (i.e., text-only labels, n=207) and experimental conditions (i.e., pictorial labels, n=774). The experimental condition systematically varied health warning label stimuli by health topic and image type. Linear mixed effects (LME) models estimated the influence of health warning label characteristics and participant characteristics on label ratings. Data were analyzed from January 2012 to April 2012. Results Compared to text-only warning labels, pictorial warning labels were rated as more personally relevant (5.7 vs 6.8, p<0.001) and effective (5.4 vs 6.8, p<0.001), and as more credible, but only among participants with low health literacy (7.6 vs 8.2, p<0.001). Within the experimental condition, pictorial health warning labels with graphic imagery had significantly higher ratings of credibility, personal relevance, and effectiveness than imagery of human suffering and symbolic imagery. Significant interactions indicated that labels with graphic imagery produced minimal differences in ratings across racial groups and levels of health literacy, whereas other imagery produced greater group differences. Conclusions Pictorial health warning labels with graphic images have the most-pronounced short-term impacts on adult smokers, including smokers from groups that have in the past been hard to reach. PMID:23159254

  15. Cigarette warning label policy alternatives and smoking-related health disparities.

    PubMed

    Thrasher, James F; Carpenter, Matthew J; Andrews, Jeannette O; Gray, Kevin M; Alberg, Anthony J; Navarro, Ashley; Friedman, Daniela B; Cummings, K Michael

    2012-12-01

    Pictorial health warning labels on cigarette packaging have been proposed for the U.S., but their potential influences among populations that suffer tobacco-related health disparities are unknown. To evaluate pictorial health warning labels, including moderation of their influences by health literacy and race. From July 2011 to January 2012, field experiments were conducted with 981 adult smokers who were randomized to control (i.e., text-only labels, n=207) and experimental conditions (i.e., pictorial labels, n=774). The experimental condition systematically varied health warning label stimuli by health topic and image type. Linear mixed effects (LME) models estimated the influence of health warning label characteristics and participant characteristics on label ratings. Data were analyzed from January 2012 to April 2012. Compared to text-only warning labels, pictorial warning labels were rated as more personally relevant (5.7 vs 6.8, p<0.001) and effective (5.4 vs 6.8, p<0.001), and as more credible, but only among participants with low health literacy (7.6 vs 8.2, p<0.001). Within the experimental condition, pictorial health warning labels with graphic imagery had significantly higher ratings of credibility, personal relevance, and effectiveness than imagery of human suffering and symbolic imagery. Significant interactions indicated that labels with graphic imagery produced minimal differences in ratings across racial groups and levels of health literacy, whereas other imagery produced greater group differences. Pictorial health warning labels with graphic images have the most-pronounced short-term impacts on adult smokers, including smokers from groups that have in the past been hard to reach. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Young Adult Smokers’ Neural Response to Graphic Cigarette Warning Labels

    PubMed Central

    Green, Adam E.; Mays, Darren; Falk, Emily B.; Vallone, Donna; Gallagher, Natalie; Richardson, Amanda; Tercyak, Kenneth P.; Abrams, David B.; Niaura, Raymond S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The study examined young adult smokers’ neural response to graphic warning labels (GWLs) on cigarette packs using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods Nineteen young adult smokers (M age 22.9, 52.6% male, 68.4% non-white, M 4.3 cigarettes/day) completed pre-scan, self-report measures of demographics, cigarette smoking behavior, and nicotine dependence, and an fMRI scanning session. During the scanning session participants viewed cigarette pack images (total 64 stimuli, viewed 4 seconds each) that varied based on the warning label (graphic or visually occluded control) and pack branding (branded or plain packaging) in an event-related experimental design. Participants reported motivation to quit (MTQ) in response to each image using a push-button control. Whole-brain blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional images were acquired during the task. Results GWLs produced significantly greater self-reported MTQ than control warnings (p < .001). Imaging data indicate stronger neural activation in response to GWLs than the control warnings at a cluster-corrected threshold p <.001 in medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, medial temporal lobe, and occipital cortex. There were no significant differences in response to warnings on branded versus plain cigarette packages. Conclusions In this sample of young adult smokers, GWLs promoted neural activation in brain regions involved in cognitive and affective decision-making and memory formation and the effects of GWLs did not differ on branded or plain cigarette packaging. These findings complement other recent neuroimaging GWL studies conducted with older adult smokers and with adolescents by demonstrating similar patterns of neural activation in response to GWLs among young adult smokers. PMID:27019865

  17. Young Adult Smokers' Neural Response to Graphic Cigarette Warning Labels.

    PubMed

    Green, Adam E; Mays, Darren; Falk, Emily B; Vallone, Donna; Gallagher, Natalie; Richardson, Amanda; Tercyak, Kenneth P; Abrams, David B; Niaura, Raymond S

    2016-06-01

    The study examined young adult smokers' neural response to graphic warning labels (GWLs) on cigarette packs using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Nineteen young adult smokers (M age 22.9, 52.6% male, 68.4% non-white, M 4.3 cigarettes/day) completed pre-scan, self-report measures of demographics, cigarette smoking behavior, and nicotine dependence, and an fMRI scanning session. During the scanning session participants viewed cigarette pack images (total 64 stimuli, viewed 4 seconds each) that varied based on the warning label (graphic or visually occluded control) and pack branding (branded or plain packaging) in an event-related experimental design. Participants reported motivation to quit (MTQ) in response to each image using a push-button control. Whole-brain blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional images were acquired during the task. GWLs produced significantly greater self-reported MTQ than control warnings (p < .001). Imaging data indicate stronger neural activation in response to GWLs than the control warnings at a cluster-corrected threshold p <.001 in medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, medial temporal lobe, and occipital cortex. There were no significant differences in response to warnings on branded versus plain cigarette packages. In this sample of young adult smokers, GWLs promoted neural activation in brain regions involved in cognitive and affective decision-making and memory formation and the effects of GWLs did not differ on branded or plain cigarette packaging. These findings complement other recent neuroimaging GWL studies conducted with older adult smokers and with adolescents by demonstrating similar patterns of neural activation in response to GWLs among young adult smokers.

  18. An examination of the effectiveness of health warning labels on smokeless tobacco products in four states in India: findings from the TCP India cohort survey.

    PubMed

    Gravely, Shannon; Fong, Geoffrey T; Driezen, Pete; Xu, Steve; Quah, Anne C K; Sansone, Genevieve; Gupta, Prakash C; Pednekar, Mangesh S

    2016-12-13

    In 2009, after many delays and changes, India introduced a single pictorial health warning label (HWL) on smokeless tobacco (SLT) packing-a symbolic image of a scorpion covering 40% of the front surface. In 2011, the scorpion was replaced with 4 graphic images. This paper tested the effectiveness of SLT HWLs in India and whether the 2011 change from symbolic to graphic images increased their effectiveness. Data were from a cohort of 4733 adult SLT users (age15+) of the Tobacco Control Project (TCP) India Survey from 4 states. The surveys included key indicators of health warning effectiveness, including warning salience, and cognitive, emotional, and behavioral responses to the warnings. The HWL change from symbolic to graphic did not result in significant increases on any of the HWL outcome indicators. A substantial minority of SLT users were unaware that SLT packages contained HWLs (27% at both waves). Noticing the warnings was also remarkably low at both waves (W1 = 34.3%, W2 = 28.1%). These effects carried over to the cognitive and behavioural measures, where among those who noticed HWLs, about one-third reported forgoing SLT at least once because of the HWLs, and fewer than 20% reported that HWLs made them think about SLT risks or about quitting SLT. Even fewer reported avoiding HWLs (8.1 to 11.6%). Among those who quit using SLT by post-policy, awareness that SLT packaging contained HWLs was significantly greater at post-policy (86.8%) compared to pre-policy (77.8%, p = 0.02). Quitters were also significantly more aware of the post-policy HWLs compared to those who continued to use SLT (p < 0.001). Health warnings on SLT packages in India are low in effectiveness, and the change from the symbolic warning (pre-policy) to graphic HWLs (post-policy) did not lead to significant increases of effectiveness on any of the HWL indicators among those who continued to use SLT products, thus suggesting that changing an image alone is not enough to have an

  19. 10 CFR 850.38 - Warning signs and labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CONTAMINATED WITH BERYLLIUM DO NOT REMOVE DUST BY BLOWING OR SHAKING CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE HAZARD (c) Warning... access point to a regulated area with the following information: DANGER BERYLLIUM CAN CAUSE LUNG DAMAGE CANCER HAZARD AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY (b) Warning labels. (1) The responsible employer must affix...

  20. 10 CFR 850.38 - Warning signs and labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CONTAMINATED WITH BERYLLIUM DO NOT REMOVE DUST BY BLOWING OR SHAKING CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE HAZARD (c) Warning... access point to a regulated area with the following information: DANGER BERYLLIUM CAN CAUSE LUNG DAMAGE CANCER HAZARD AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY (b) Warning labels. (1) The responsible employer must affix...

  1. Smokers' responses toward cigarette pack warning labels in predicting quit intention, stage of change, and self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Fathelrahman, Ahmed I; Omar, Maizurah; Awang, Rahmat; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T; Hammond, David; Zain, Zarihah

    2009-03-01

    This paper is concerned with the effects of cigarette pack warning labels on quitting intentions. We examined whether different responses among smokers toward cigarette pack warning labels could predict quit intentions and self-efficacy in quitting. Variables studied were "noticing warning labels during last month," "reading or looking closely at warning labels," "avoiding looking at labels during last month," "thinking about health risks of smoking because of the warning labels, "more likely to quit because of the warning labels," and "stopping from having a cigarette when about to smoke one because of the labels." A total of 2,006 adult smokers in Malaysia were surveyed in face-to-face interviews using a standardized questionnaire. Of those, 1,919 male smokers were included in the analyses. The responses "more likely to quit because of the warning labels" and "stopped from having a cigarette when about to smoke one" significantly predicted all stages of change and self-efficacy, independent of the other measures. In addition, thinking about the health risks and reading the warnings more often added extra predictive capacity but only in the early stages of contemplating change. Less intense processing of the information may be important in initiating thoughts, but cognitions about quitting and foregoing cigarettes are the key mechanisms by which warnings stimulate quitting intentions and help smokers feel capable of succeeding. Malaysian smokers appear to respond to warnings in ways comparable with those from developed countries.

  2. Changing outcome expectancies, drinking intentions, and implicit attitudes toward alcohol: a comparison of positive expectancy-related and health-related alcohol warning labels.

    PubMed

    Glock, Sabine; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine

    2013-11-01

    Although alcohol consumption is a leading risk factor for major illnesses, warning labels are still not being used. Alcohol consumption is related to positive and negative outcome expectancies, which both play a crucial role. This study compared the effectiveness of warning labels that contradicted positive outcome expectancies with health-related warning labels among a college-aged German sample (N = 40). Half of the participants received health-related warning labels while half received positive-related warning labels. Implicit attitudes were assessed before and after warning-label exposure. Explicit attitudes and outcome expectancies were assessed after exposure. Participants' usual drinking behavior was assessed before exposure to warning labels, and their drinking intentions were measured afterwards. Participants exposed to positive-related warning labels had marginally more negative implicit attitudes compared to their own prior attitudes. They tended to perceive lower social and higher negative outcome expectancies than the health-related warning labels group. Importantly, the positive-related warning labels group's drinking intentions tended to be lower than those of the health-related warning labels group. This first test of warning labels that contradict positive alcohol outcome expectancies provided promising results; thus warning labels could be considered as means to influence college-aged people. © 2013 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  3. Low Literacy Impairs Comprehension of Prescription Drug Warning Labels

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Terry C; Wolf, Michael S; Bass, Pat F; Middlebrooks, Mark; Kennen, Estela; Baker, David W; Bennett, Charles L; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Bocchini, Anna; Savory, Stephanie; Parker, Ruth M

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Adverse events resulting from medication error are a serious concern. Patients' literacy and their ability to understand medication information are increasingly seen as a safety issue. OBJECTIVE To examine whether adult patients receiving primary care services at a public hospital clinic were able to correctly interpret commonly used prescription medication warning labels. DESIGN In-person structured interviews with literacy assessment. SETTING Public hospital, primary care clinic. PARTICIPANTS A total of 251 adult patients waiting for an appointment at the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center in Shreveport (LSUHSC-S) Primary Care Clinic. MEASUREMENTS Correct interpretation, as determined by expert panel review of patients' verbatim responses, for each of 8 commonly used prescription medication warning labels. RESULTS Approximately one-third of patients (n=74) were reading at or below the 6th-grade level (low literacy). Patient comprehension of warning labels was associated with one's literacy level. Multistep instructions proved difficult for patients across all literacy levels. After controlling for relevant potential confounding variables, patients with low literacy were 3.4 times less likely to interpret prescription medication warning labels correctly (95% confidence interval: 2.3 to 4.9). CONCLUSIONS Patients with low literacy had difficulty understanding prescription medication warning labels. Patients of all literacy levels had better understanding of warning labels that contained single-step versus multiple-step instructions. Warning labels should be developed with consumer participation, especially with lower literate populations, to ensure comprehension of short, concise messages created with familiar words and recognizable icons. PMID:16881945

  4. 21 CFR 501.17 - Animal food labeling warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Animal food labeling warning statements. 501.17 Section 501.17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 501.17 Animal...

  5. 21 CFR 501.17 - Animal food labeling warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal food labeling warning statements. 501.17 Section 501.17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 501.17 Animal...

  6. 21 CFR 501.17 - Animal food labeling warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Animal food labeling warning statements. 501.17... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 501.17 Animal... with each valve actuation. (iv) Products of a net quantity of contents of less than 1/2 oz. (c) Animal...

  7. 21 CFR 501.17 - Animal food labeling warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Animal food labeling warning statements. 501.17... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 501.17 Animal... with each valve actuation. (iv) Products of a net quantity of contents of less than 1/2 oz. (c) Animal...

  8. 21 CFR 501.17 - Animal food labeling warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Animal food labeling warning statements. 501.17 Section 501.17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 501.17 Animal...

  9. Consumer perceptions of medication warnings about driving: a comparison of French and Australian labels.

    PubMed

    Smyth, T; Sheehan, M; Siskind, V; Mercier-Guyon, C; Mallaret, M

    2013-01-01

    Little research has examined user perceptions of medication warnings about driving. Consumer perceptions of the Australian national approach to medication warnings about driving are examined. The Australian approach to warning presentation is compared with an alternative approach used in France. Visual characteristics of the warnings and overall warning readability are investigated. Risk perceptions and behavioral intentions associated with the warnings are also examined. Surveys were conducted with 358 public hospital outpatients in Queensland, Australia. Extending this investigation is a supplementary comparison study of French hospital outpatients (n = 75). The results suggest that the Australian warning approach of using a combination of visual characteristics is important for consumers but that the use of a pictogram could enhance effects. Significantly higher levels of risk perception were found among the sample for the French highest severity label compared to the analogous mandatory Australian warning, with a similar trend evident in the French study results. The results also indicated that the French label was associated with more cautious behavioral intentions. The results are potentially important for the Australian approach to medication warnings about driving impairment. The research contributes practical findings that can be used to enhance the effectiveness of warnings and develop countermeasures in this area. Hospital pharmacy patients should include persons with the highest level of likelihood of knowledge and awareness of medication warning labeling. Even in this context it appears that a review of the Australian warning system would be useful particularly in the context of increasing evidence relating to associated driving risks. Reviewing text size and readability of messages including the addition of pictograms, as well as clarifying the importance of potential risk in a general community context, is recommended for consideration and further

  10. Self-reported exposure to tobacco warning labels among U.S. middle and high school students.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah E; Wu, Charles C; Coleman, Blair N; Choiniere, Conrad J

    2014-08-01

    Warning labels on tobacco products are a means to communicate information about the negative health effects of tobacco use to current and potential users. Most tobacco use begins in early adolescence, making it particularly important to understand the degree to which warning labels reach adolescents. To examine the extent to which youth report (1) seeing the current warnings on cigarettes and smokeless tobacco (SLT) products in the U.S. and (2) that seeing warnings makes them think about the health risks associated with tobacco use. Exposure to warning labels on cigarettes and SLT, as well as the degree to which adolescents report thinking about health risks in response to warnings, was examined among U.S. middle and high school students using data from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) and analyzed in 2013. Current data suggest that less than half of adolescents who saw a cigarette pack (46.9%) or SLT product (40.3%) reported seeing the warning label "most of the time" or "always." Among adolescents who reported seeing a warning, less than one third reported that cigarette (30.4%) or SLT (25.2%) warning labels made them think about health risks "a lot." These rates were even lower among current tobacco users (<14%). Current warning labels for cigarettes and SLT could be improved by implementing warnings that incorporate features that make them salient and more likely to evoke thoughts about health risks. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Adult Smokers’ Reactions to Pictorial Health Warning Labels on Cigarette Packs in Thailand and Moderating Effects of Type of Cigarette Smoked: Findings From the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In this study, we aimed to examine, in Thailand, the impact on smokers’ reported awareness of and their cognitive and behavioral reactions following the change from text-only to pictorial warnings printed on cigarette packs. We also sought to explore differences by type of cigarette smoked (roll-your-own [RYO] vs. factory-made [FM] cigarettes). Methods: Data came from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey, conducted in Thailand and Malaysia, where a representative sample of 2,000 adult smokers from each country were recruited and followed up. We analyzed data from one wave before (Wave 1) and two waves after the implementation of the new pictorial warnings (two sets introduced at Waves 2 and 3, respectively) in Thailand, with Malaysia, having text-only warnings, serving as a control. Results: Following the warning label change in Thailand, smokers’ reported awareness and their cognitive and behavioral reactions increased markedly, with the cognitive and behavioral effects sustained at the next follow-up. By contrast, no significant change was observed in Malaysia over the same period. Compared to smokers who smoke any FM cigarettes, smokers of only RYO cigarettes reported a lower salience but greater cognitive reactions to the new pictorial warnings. Conclusions: The new Thai pictorial health warning labels have led to a greater impact than the text-only warning labels, and refreshing the pictorial images may have helped sustain effects. This finding provides strong support for introducing pictorial warning labels in low- and middle-income countries, where the benefits may be even greater, given the lower literacy rates and generally lower levels of readily available health information on the risks of smoking. PMID:23291637

  12. Impact of the graphic Canadian warning labels on adult smoking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hammond, D; Fong, G T; McDonald, P W; Cameron, R; Brown, K S

    2003-12-01

    To assess the impact of graphic Canadian cigarette warning labels on current adult smokers. A random-digit-dial telephone survey was conducted with 616 adult smokers in south western Ontario, Canada in October/November 2001, with three month follow up. Smoking behaviour (quitting, quit attempts, and reduced smoking), intentions to quit, and salience of the warning labels. Virtually all smokers (91%) reported having read the warning labels and smokers demonstrated a thorough knowledge of their content. A strong positive relation was observed between a measure of cognitive processing-the extent to which smokers reported reading, thinking about, and discussing the new labels-and smokers' intentions to quit (odds ratio (OR) 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07 to 1.16; p < 0.001). Most important, cognitive processing predicted cessation behaviour at follow up. Smokers who had read, thought about, and discussed the new labels at baseline were more likely to have quit, made a quit attempt, or reduced their smoking three months later, after adjusting for intentions to quit and smoking status at baseline (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.12; p < 0.001). Graphic cigarette warning labels serve as an effective population based smoking cessation intervention. The findings add to the growing literature on health warnings and provide strong support for the effectiveness of Canada's tobacco labelling policy.

  13. Emotional reaction facilitates the brain and behavioural impact of graphic cigarette warning labels in smokers.

    PubMed

    Wang, An-Li; Lowen, Steven B; Romer, Daniel; Giorno, Mario; Langleben, Daniel D

    2015-05-01

    Warning labels on cigarette packages are an important venue for information about the hazards of smoking. The 2009 US Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act mandated replacing the current text-only labels with graphic warning labels. However, labels proposed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were challenged in court by the tobacco companies, who argued successfully that the proposed labels needlessly encroached on their right to free speech, in part because they included images of high emotional salience that indiscriminately frightened rather than informed consumers. We used functional MRI to examine the effects of graphic warning labels' emotional salience on smokers' brain activity and cognition. Twenty-four smokers viewed a random sequence of blocks of graphic warning labels that have been rated high or low on an 'emotional reaction' scale in previous research. We found that labels rated high on emotional reaction were better remembered, associated with reduction in the urge to smoke, and produced greater brain response in the amygdala, hippocampi, inferior frontal gyri and the insulae. Recognition memory and craving are, respectively, correlates of effectiveness of addiction-related public health communications and interventions, and amygdala activation facilitates the encoding of emotional memories. Thus, our results suggest that emotional reaction to graphic warning labels contributes to their public health impact and may be an integral part of the neural mechanisms underlying their effectiveness. Given the urgency of the debate about the constitutional risks and public health benefits of graphic warning labels, these preliminary findings warrant consideration while longitudinal clinical studies are underway. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Emotional reaction facilitates the brain and behavioral impact of graphic cigarette warning labels in smokers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, An-Li; Lowen, Steven B; Romer, Daniel; Giorno, Mario; Langleben, Daniel D

    2015-01-01

    Background Warning labels on cigarette packages are an important venue for information about the hazards of smoking. The 2009 US Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act mandated replacing the current text-only labels with graphic warning labels. However, labels proposed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were challenged in court by the tobacco companies, who argued successfully that the proposed labels needlessly encroached on their right to free speech, in part because they included images of high emotional salience that indiscriminately frightened rather than informed consumers. Methods We used functional MRI to examine the effects of graphic warning labels' emotional salience on smokers' brain activity and cognition. Twenty-four smokers viewed a random sequence of blocks of graphic warning labels that have been rated high or low on an ‘emotional reaction’ scale in previous research. Results We found that labels rated high on emotional reaction were better remembered, associated with reduction in the urge to smoke, and produced greater brain response in the amygdala, hippocampi, inferior frontal gyri and the insulae. Conclusions Recognition memory and craving are, respectively, correlates of effectiveness of addiction related public health communications and interventions, and amygdala activation facilitates the encoding of emotional memories. Thus, our results suggest that emotional reaction to graphic warning labels contributes to their public health impact and may be an integral part of the neural mechanisms underlying their effectiveness. Given the urgency of the debate about the constitutional risks and public health benefits of graphic warning labels, these preliminary findings warrant consideration while longitudinal clinical studies are underway PMID:25564288

  15. Do the ends justify the means? A test of alternatives to the FDA proposed cigarette warning labels.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Sahara; Katz, Sherri Jean; Mathios, Alan; Niederdeppe, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Three studies provide empirical, social scientific tests of alternatives to the originally proposed U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) cigarette package warning labels on health risk beliefs, perceived fear, and effectiveness. Our research addresses questions at the root of the legal disputes surrounding FDA regulation of cigarette package warning labels. Specifically, we describe results from three studies that investigate the mediating role of health beliefs and perceived fear in shaping message effectiveness and intentions to quit. The first study featured nonsmoking young adults, while the second and third studies sampled adult daily smokers. Each study was a randomized experiment with five warning-label image conditions: full-color graphic warning labels, black-and-white graphic warning labels, warning text (no graphic image), Surgeon General's warning labels, and no warning. Results consistently indicate that graphic warning labels (in both color and black-and-white) promote increased perceptions of fear, which in turn are associated with greater (perceived and actual) effectiveness. We conclude with a discussion of the results, highlighting implications, public policy considerations, and suggestions for future research.

  16. Young children's perceptions of health warning labels on cigarette packages: a study in six countries.

    PubMed

    Borzekowski, Dina L G; Cohen, Joanna E

    2014-01-01

    Health warning labels on cigarette packages are one way to reach youth thinking about initiating tobacco use. The purpose of this study was to examine awareness and understanding of current health warning labels among 5 and 6 year old children. Researchers conducted one-on-one interviews with urban and rural 5 and 6 year olds from Brazil, China, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, and Russia. Among the 2,423 participating children, 62 % were unaware of the health warnings currently featured on cigarette packages, with the lowest levels of awareness in India and the highest levels in Brazil. When shown the messages, the same percentage of participating children (62 %) showed no level of message understanding. While youth are receiving social and informational messages promoting tobacco use, health warning labels featured on cigarette packages are not effectively reaching young children with anti-smoking messages.

  17. Impact of the graphic Canadian warning labels on adult smoking behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, D; Fong, G; McDonald, P; Cameron, R; Brown, K

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of graphic Canadian cigarette warning labels on current adult smokers. Design: A random-digit-dial telephone survey was conducted with 616 adult smokers in south western Ontario, Canada in October/November 2001, with three month follow up. Main outcome measures: Smoking behaviour (quitting, quit attempts, and reduced smoking), intentions to quit, and salience of the warning labels. Results: Virtually all smokers (91%) reported having read the warning labels and smokers demonstrated a thorough knowledge of their content. A strong positive relation was observed between a measure of cognitive processing—the extent to which smokers reported reading, thinking about, and discussing the new labels—and smokers' intentions to quit (odds ratio (OR) 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07 to 1.16; p < 0.001). Most important, cognitive processing predicted cessation behaviour at follow up. Smokers who had read, thought about, and discussed the new labels at baseline were more likely to have quit, made a quit attempt, or reduced their smoking three months later, after adjusting for intentions to quit and smoking status at baseline (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.12; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Graphic cigarette warning labels serve as an effective population based smoking cessation intervention. The findings add to the growing literature on health warnings and provide strong support for the effectiveness of Canada's tobacco labelling policy. PMID:14660774

  18. Interpretations of cigarette advertisement warning labels by Philadelphia Puerto Ricans.

    PubMed

    Morris, Nancy; Gilpin, Dawn R; Lenos, Melissa; Hobbs, Renee

    2011-09-01

    This study examined Philadelphia Puerto Ricans' interpretations of the Surgeon General's warnings that appear on cigarette packaging and in advertisements. In-home family focus groups in which participants were asked to comment on magazine cigarette advertisements showed a great variety of interpretations of the legally mandated warning labels. These findings (a) corroborate and add to research in public health and communications regarding the possibility of wide variations in message interpretations and (b) support the call for public health messages to be carefully tested for effectiveness among different social groups. The article's focus on Puerto Ricans addresses the problem of misleading conclusions that can arise from aggregating all Latino subpopulations into one group. The use of a naturalistic setting to examine interpretations of messages about smoking departs from the experimental methods typically used for such research and provides new evidence that even a seemingly straightforward message can be interpreted in multiple ways. Understanding and addressing differences in message interpretation can guide public health campaigns aimed at reducing health disparities. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  19. Responses of young adults to graphic warning labels for cigarette packages

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Linda D.; Pepper, Jessica K.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2010, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposed a series of 36 graphic warning labels for cigarette packages. We sought to evaluate the effects of the labels on fear-related emotions about health consequences of smoking and smoking motivations of young adults. Methods We conducted an experimental study in 2010–2011 with 325 smokers and non-smokers ages 18–30 years whom we recruited through community distribution lists in North Carolina and through a national survey company. Each participant viewed 27 labels (18 of the proposed labels with graphic images and text warnings and 9 with text-only warnings) in a random order, evaluating each label on understandability and its effects on fear-related reactions and discouragement from wanting to smoke. Results Respondents found most of the proposed labels easy to understand. Of the 36 labels, 64% induced greater fear-related reactions and 58% discouraged respondents from wanting to smoke more than the corresponding text-only labels did. Labels with the greatest effects had photographs (as compared with drawings or other art graphics) or depicted diseased body parts or suffering or dead people. In almost every comparison, smokers reported lower fear-related reactions and feeling less discouraged from wanting to smoke relative to non-smokers. Conclusions Most of the proposed labels enhanced fear-related reactions about health consequences of smoking and reduced motivations to smoke relative to text-only labels, although some had larger effects than others. All but one of the nine warning labels recently adopted by the FDA enhanced fear-related reactions and reduced smoking motivations. PMID:23624558

  20. Responses of young adults to graphic warning labels for cigarette packages.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Linda D; Pepper, Jessica K; Brewer, Noel T

    2015-03-01

    In 2010, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposed a series of 36 graphic warning labels for cigarette packages. We sought to evaluate the effects of the labels on fear-related emotions about health consequences of smoking and smoking motivations of young adults. We conducted an experimental study in 2010-2011 with 325 smokers and non-smokers ages 18-30 years whom we recruited through community distribution lists in North Carolina and through a national survey company. Each participant viewed 27 labels (18 of the proposed labels with graphic images and text warnings and 9 with text-only warnings) in a random order, evaluating each label on understandability and its effects on fear-related reactions and discouragement from wanting to smoke. Respondents found most of the proposed labels easy to understand. Of the 36 labels, 64% induced greater fear-related reactions and 58% discouraged respondents from wanting to smoke more than the corresponding text-only labels did. Labels with the greatest effects had photographs (as compared with drawings or other art graphics) or depicted diseased body parts or suffering or dead people. In almost every comparison, smokers reported lower fear-related reactions and feeling less discouraged from wanting to smoke relative to non-smokers. Most of the proposed labels enhanced fear-related reactions about health consequences of smoking and reduced motivations to smoke relative to text-only labels, although some had larger effects than others. All but one of the nine warning labels recently adopted by the FDA enhanced fear-related reactions and reduced smoking motivations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Cigarette graphic warning labels increase both risk perceptions and smoking myth endorsement.

    PubMed

    Evans, Abigail T; Peters, Ellen; Shoben, Abigail B; Meilleur, Louise R; Klein, Elizabeth G; Tompkins, Mary Kate; Tusler, Martin

    2017-04-07

    Cigarette graphic warning labels elicit negative emotion, which increases risk perceptions through multiple processes. We examined whether this emotion simultaneously affects motivated cognitions like smoking myth endorsement (e.g. 'exercise can undo the negative effects of smoking') and perceptions of cigarette danger versus other products. 736 adult and 469 teen smokers/vulnerable smokers viewed one of three warning label types (text-only, low emotion graphic or high emotion graphic) four times over two weeks. Emotional reactions to the warnings were reported during the first and fourth exposures. Participants reported how often they considered the warnings, smoking myth endorsement, risk perceptions and perceptions of cigarette danger relative to smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes. In structural equation models, emotional reactions influenced risk perceptions and smoking myth endorsement through two processes. Emotion acted as information about risk, directly increasing smoking risk perceptions and decreasing smoking myth endorsement. Emotion also acted as a spotlight, motivating consideration of the warning information. Warning consideration increased risk perceptions, but also increased smoking myth endorsement. Emotional reactions to warnings decreased perceptions of cigarette danger relative to other products. Emotional reactions to cigarette warnings increase smoking risk perceptions, but also smoking myth endorsement and misperceptions that cigarettes are less dangerous than potentially harm-reducing tobacco products.

  2. Perceptions of prescription warning labels within an underserved population

    PubMed Central

    Shiyanbola, Olayinka O.; Meyer, Brittney A.; Locke, Michelle R.; Wettergreen, Sara

    Objective To understand how underserved populations attend to prescription warning label (PWL) instructions, examine the importance of PWL instructions to participants and describe the challenges associated with interpreting the information on PWLs. Methods Adults from an underserved population (racial and ethnic minorities, individuals with low income, older adults) who had a history of prescription medication use and were able to understand English took part in semi-structured interviews. Participants were presented with eight different prescription bottles with an attached PWL. Participants were asked, “If this prescription was yours, what information would you need to know about the medicine?” The number of participants who attended to the warning labels was noted. Other questions assessed the importance of PWLs, the challenges with understanding PWLs, and ways a pharmacist could help participant understanding of the PWL. Results There were 103 participants. The mean age was 50.25 years (SD=18.05). Majority attended to the PWL. Participants not currently taking medications and who had limited health literacy were likely to overlook the warning labels. Majority rated the warning instructions to be extremely important (n=86, 83.5 %), wanted the pharmacist to help them understand PWLs by counseling them on the information on the label (n=63, 61.2%), and thought the graphics made the label information easy to understand. Conclusions PWLs are an important method of communicating medication information, as long as they are easily comprehensible to patients. In addition to placing PWLs on prescription bottles, health care providers need to counsel underserved populations on medication warnings, especially individuals with limited health literacy who are not currently using a prescription medication. PMID:24644523

  3. History and evolution of warning labels for automotive friction products.

    PubMed

    Kopelovich, Luda M; Thuett, Kerry A; Chapman, Pamela S; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2014-04-01

    There have been claims over the years that asbestos-containing product manufacturers did not sufficiently warn end users early enough regarding the potential health hazards associated with their products (1930s-1990s). To address this issue, we compared the content of the warnings associated with asbestos-containing friction products (brakes, clutches, and gaskets) manufactured by the US automotive industries to what was expected by regulatory agencies during the time period in which an understanding of asbestos health hazards was being developed. We ended our evaluation around 1990, since asbestos-containing manufacturer supplied automotive products were functionally removed from commerce by 1985 in the United States. We assessed the warnings issued in users' manuals, technical service bulletins, product packaging materials, and labels placed on products themselves. Based on our evaluation, regulatory agencies had no guidelines regarding specific warning language for finished friction products, particularly when a product contained encapsulated asbestos fibers (i.e., modified by a bonding agent). Even today, federal regulations do not require labeling on encapsulated products when, based on professional judgment or sampling, user exposure is not expected to exceed the OSHA PEL. We concluded that, despite limited regulatory guidance, the US automotive industry provided adequate warnings with regards to its friction products.

  4. Department of Defense Hazardous Chemical Warning Labeling System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    LAPELING SYSTEM TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Foreword j Table of Contents ii Introduction 1 Data Elements of the DoD Label 4 Hazardous Material Label Sections 5...Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Polyester Phenolic Resin !-I DoD Hazardous Materials Information System Dart - Benz,’nc AR 1-8 Ma terala Safnty Data...129.u 1ion)2ryLabelli ng (A,•,3I Z129.1I - 19837) 2-1 / DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL WARNING LABELING SYSTEM On August 29, l987, the

  5. 40 CFR 82.112 - Removal of label bearing warning statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Removal of label bearing warning... Substances § 82.112 Removal of label bearing warning statement. (a) Prohibition on removal. Except as... manufacturer of a product that incorporates a product that is accompanied by a label bearing the warning...

  6. The evolution of health warning labels on cigarette packs: the role of precedents, and tobacco industry strategies to block diffusion.

    PubMed

    Hiilamo, Heikki; Crosbie, Eric; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-01-01

    To analyse the evolution and diffusion of health warnings on cigarette packs around the world, including tobacco industry attempts to block this diffusion. We analysed tobacco industry documents and public sources to construct a database on the global evolution and diffusion of health warning labels from 1966 to 2012, and also analysed industry strategies. Health warning labels, especially labels with graphic elements, threaten the tobacco industry because they are a low-cost, effective measure to reduce smoking. Multinational tobacco companies did not object to voluntary innocuous warnings with ambiguous health messages, in part because they saw them as offering protection from lawsuits and local packaging regulations. The companies worked systematically at the international level to block or weaken warnings once stronger more specific warnings began to appear in the 1970s. Since 1985 in Iceland, the tobacco industry has been aware of the effectiveness of graphic health warning labels (GWHL). The industry launched an all-out attack in the early 1990s to prevent GHWLs, and was successful in delaying GHWLs internationally for nearly 10 years. Beginning in 2005, as a result of the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), GHWLs began to spread. Effective implementation of FCTC labelling provisions has stimulated diffusion of strong health warning labels despite industry opposition.

  7. The evolution of health warning labels on cigarette packs: the role of precedents, and tobacco industry strategies to block diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Hiilamo, Heikki; Crosbie, Eric; Glantz, Stanton A

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyse the evolution and diffusion of health warnings on cigarette packs around the world, including tobacco industry attempts to block this diffusion. Methods We analysed tobacco industry documents and public sources to construct a database on the global evolution and diffusion of health warning labels from 1966 to 2012, and also analysed industry strategies. Results Health warning labels, especially labels with graphic elements, threaten the tobacco industry because they are a low-cost, effective measure to reduce smoking. Multinational tobacco companies did not object to voluntary innocuous warnings with ambiguous health messages, in part because they saw them as offering protection from lawsuits and local packaging regulations. The companies worked systematically at the international level to block or weaken warnings once stronger more specific warnings began to appear in the 1970s. Since 1985 in Iceland, the tobacco industry has been aware of the effectiveness of graphic health warning labels (GWHL). The industry launched an all-out attack in the early 1990s to prevent GHWLs, and was successful in delaying GHWLs internationally for nearly 10 years. Conclusions Beginning in 2005, as a result of the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), GHWLs began to spread. Effective implementation of FCTC labelling provisions has stimulated diffusion of strong health warning labels despite industry opposition. PMID:23092884

  8. Graphic Warning Labels Elicit Affective and Thoughtful Responses from Smokers: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Evans, Abigail T; Peters, Ellen; Strasser, Andrew A; Emery, Lydia F; Sheerin, Kaitlin M; Romer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Observational research suggests that placing graphic images on cigarette warning labels can reduce smoking rates, but field studies lack experimental control. Our primary objective was to determine the psychological processes set in motion by naturalistic exposure to graphic vs. text-only warnings in a randomized clinical trial involving exposure to modified cigarette packs over a 4-week period. Theories of graphic-warning impact were tested by examining affect toward smoking, credibility of warning information, risk perceptions, quit intentions, warning label memory, and smoking risk knowledge. Adults who smoked between 5 and 40 cigarettes daily (N = 293; mean age = 33.7), did not have a contra-indicated medical condition, and did not intend to quit were recruited from Philadelphia, PA and Columbus, OH. Smokers were randomly assigned to receive their own brand of cigarettes for four weeks in one of three warning conditions: text only, graphic images plus text, or graphic images with elaborated text. Data from 244 participants who completed the trial were analyzed in structural-equation models. The presence of graphic images (compared to text-only) caused more negative affect toward smoking, a process that indirectly influenced risk perceptions and quit intentions (e.g., image->negative affect->risk perception->quit intention). Negative affect from graphic images also enhanced warning credibility including through increased scrutiny of the warnings, a process that also indirectly affected risk perceptions and quit intentions (e.g., image->negative affect->risk scrutiny->warning credibility->risk perception->quit intention). Unexpectedly, elaborated text reduced warning credibility. Finally, graphic warnings increased warning-information recall and indirectly increased smoking-risk knowledge at the end of the trial and one month later. In the first naturalistic clinical trial conducted, graphic warning labels are more effective than text-only warnings in encouraging

  9. Graphic Warning Labels Elicit Affective and Thoughtful Responses from Smokers: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Abigail T.; Peters, Ellen; Strasser, Andrew A.; Emery, Lydia F.; Sheerin, Kaitlin M.; Romer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective Observational research suggests that placing graphic images on cigarette warning labels can reduce smoking rates, but field studies lack experimental control. Our primary objective was to determine the psychological processes set in motion by naturalistic exposure to graphic vs. text-only warnings in a randomized clinical trial involving exposure to modified cigarette packs over a 4-week period. Theories of graphic-warning impact were tested by examining affect toward smoking, credibility of warning information, risk perceptions, quit intentions, warning label memory, and smoking risk knowledge. Methods Adults who smoked between 5 and 40 cigarettes daily (N = 293; mean age = 33.7), did not have a contra-indicated medical condition, and did not intend to quit were recruited from Philadelphia, PA and Columbus, OH. Smokers were randomly assigned to receive their own brand of cigarettes for four weeks in one of three warning conditions: text only, graphic images plus text, or graphic images with elaborated text. Results Data from 244 participants who completed the trial were analyzed in structural-equation models. The presence of graphic images (compared to text-only) caused more negative affect toward smoking, a process that indirectly influenced risk perceptions and quit intentions (e.g., image->negative affect->risk perception->quit intention). Negative affect from graphic images also enhanced warning credibility including through increased scrutiny of the warnings, a process that also indirectly affected risk perceptions and quit intentions (e.g., image->negative affect->risk scrutiny->warning credibility->risk perception->quit intention). Unexpectedly, elaborated text reduced warning credibility. Finally, graphic warnings increased warning-information recall and indirectly increased smoking-risk knowledge at the end of the trial and one month later. Conclusions In the first naturalistic clinical trial conducted, graphic warning labels are more effective

  10. The Influence of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Health Warning Labels on Parents' Choices.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Christina A; Wong, Diandra; Musicus, Aviva; Hammond, David

    2016-02-01

    US states have introduced bills requiring sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) to display health warning labels. This study examined how such labels may influence parents and which labels are most impactful. In this study, 2381 demographically and educationally diverse parents participated in an online survey. Parents were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 conditions: (1) no warning label (control); (2) calorie label; or (3-6) 1 of 4 text versions of a warning label (eg, Safety Warning: Drinking beverages with added sugar[s] contributes to obesity, diabetes, and tooth decay). Parents chose a beverage for their child in a vending machine choice task, rated perceptions of different beverages, and indicated interest in receiving beverage coupons. Regression analyses controlling for frequency of beverage purchases were used to compare the no warning label group, calorie label group, and all warning label groups combined. Significantly fewer parents chose an SSB for their child in the warning label condition (40%) versus the no label (60%) and calorie label conditions (53%). Parents in the warning label condition also chose significantly fewer SSB coupons, believed that SSBs were less healthy for their child, and were less likely to intend to purchase SSBs. All P values <.05 after correcting for multiple comparisons. There were no consistent differences among different versions of the warning labels. Health warning labels on SSBs improved parents' understanding of health harms associated with overconsumption of such beverages and may reduce parents' purchase of SSBs for their children. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Cigarette Graphic Warning Labels Are Not Created Equal: They Can Increase or Decrease Smokers' Quit Intentions Relative to Text-Only Warnings.

    PubMed

    Evans, Abigail T; Peters, Ellen; Shoben, Abigail B; Meilleur, Louise R; Klein, Elizabeth G; Tompkins, Mary Kate; Romer, Daniel; Tusler, Martin

    2017-10-01

    Cigarette graphic-warning labels elicit negative emotion. Research suggests negative emotion drives greater risk perceptions and quit intentions through multiple processes. The present research compares text-only warning effectiveness to that of graphic warnings eliciting more or less negative emotion. Nationally representative online panels of 736 adult smokers and 469 teen smokers/vulnerable smokers were randomly assigned to view one of three warning types (text-only, text with low-emotion images, or text with high-emotion images) four times over 2 weeks. Participants recorded their emotional reaction to the warnings (measured as arousal), smoking risk perceptions, and quit intentions. Primary analyses used structural equation modeling. Participants in the high-emotion condition reported greater emotional reaction than text-only participants (bAdult = 0.21; bTeen = 0.27, p's < .004); those in the low-emotion condition reported lower emotional reaction than text-only participants (bAdult = -0.18; bTeen = -0.22, p's < .018). Stronger emotional reaction was associated with increased risk perceptions in both samples (bAdult = 0.66; bTeen = 0.85, p's < .001) and greater quit intentions among adults (bAdult = 1.00, p < .001). Compared to text-only warnings, low-emotion warnings were associated with reduced risk perceptions and quit intentions whereas high-emotion warnings were associated with increased risk perceptions and quit intentions. Warning labels with images that elicit more negative emotional reaction are associated with increased risk perceptions and quit intentions in adults and teens relative to text-only warnings. However, graphic warnings containing images which evoke little emotional reaction can backfire and reduce risk perceptions and quit intentions versus text-only warnings. This research is the first to directly manipulate two emotion levels in sets of nine cigarette graphic warning images and compare them with text-only warnings. Among adult and

  12. Graphic warning labels and the demand for cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Starr, Martha A; Drake, Keith

    2017-03-01

    In 2010, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposed requiring tobacco companies to add graphic warning labels (GWLs) to cigarette packs. GWLs are large prominently placed warnings that use both text and photographic images to depict health risks of smoking. The companies challenged FDA's authority on First Amendment grounds; the courts accepted that FDA could compel companies to add GWLs, but argued that FDA had not established that GWLs would significantly reduce smoking. This paper adds new evidence on the question of whether GWLs would have reduced cigarette demand, by examining whether tobacco companies' share prices fell unusually after news indicating a higher likelihood of having GWLs, and rose on the opposite news. Such findings would be expected if investors viewed GWLs as likely to reduce cigarette demand. An event-study approach is used to determine whether the stock prices of US tobacco companies rose or fell unusually after news events in the period when GWLs were proposed, finalised, challenged and withdrawn. Tobacco companies' stock prices indeed realised significant abnormal returns after GWL news, consistent with expected negative effects on cigarette demand. Our estimates suggest investors expected GWLs to reduce the number of smokers by an extra 2.4-6.9 million in the 10 years after the rule took effect. These findings support the view that the GWLs proposed by FDA would have curbed cigarette consumption in the USA in an appreciable way. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. FDA cigarette warning labels lower craving and elicit frontoinsular activation in adolescent smokers

    PubMed Central

    Do, Kathy T.

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is an economically and epidemiologically expensive public health concern. Most adult smokers become addicted during adolescence, rendering it a crucial period for prevention and intervention. Although litigation claims have delayed implementation, graphic warning labels proposed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) may be a promising way to achieve this goal. We aimed to determine the efficacy of the labels in reducing in-scanner craving and to characterize the neurobiological responses in adolescent and adult smokers and non-smokers. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, thirty-nine 13- to 18-year-old adolescent and forty-one 25- to 30-year-old adult smokers and non-smokers rated their desire to smoke when presented with emotionally graphic warning labels and comparison non-graphic labels. Compared with adult smokers, adolescent smokers exhibited greater craving reduction in response to the warning labels. Although smokers evinced overall blunted recruitment of insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) relative to non-smokers, an effect that was stronger in adolescent smokers, parametrically increasing activation of these regions was associated with greater craving reduction. Functional connectivity analyses suggest that greater DLPFC regulation of limbic regions predicted cigarette craving. These data underscore a prominent role of frontoinsular circuitry in predicting the efficacy of FDA graphic warning labels in craving reduction in adult and adolescent smokers. PMID:25887154

  14. Implementation of effective cigarette health warning labels among low and middle income countries: State capacity, path-dependency and tobacco industry activity

    PubMed Central

    Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2014-01-01

    We investigates the effects of ratifying the WHO Framework Convention of Tobacco Control (FTCT), state capacity, path-dependency and tobacco industry activity on the implementation of effective health warning labels (HWL) on cigarette packs among low and middle income countries (LMIC). Using logistic regression in separate analyses for FCTC Article 11 compliant HWLs and graphic HWLs (GHWL), we found that the odds of FCTC compliance increased by a factor of 1.31 for each year after FCTC entered into force in the country (p<0.01). The odds of passing GHWLs increased by a factor of 1.46 (p<0.05) per year after FCTC entered into force. The weaker the capacity of the states were, the less likely they were to have implemented FCTC compliant HWLs (p<0.05). The countries with voluntary HWLs in 1992 were less likely (OR= 0.19, p<0.01) to comply with FCTC 21 years later (in 2013). The FCTC has promoted HWL policies among LMICs. Public health regulations require investments in broader state capacity. As the theory of path-dependency predicts voluntary agreements have long lasting influence on the direction of tobacco control in a country. Adopting voluntary HWL policies reduced likelihood of having FCTC compliant HWLs decades later. The fact that voluntary agreements delayed effective tobacco regulations suggests that policymakers must be careful of accepting industry efforts for voluntary agreements in other areas of public health as well, such as alcohol and junk food. PMID:25462428

  15. "Warning: This image has been digitally altered": The effect of disclaimer labels added to fashion magazine shoots on women's body dissatisfaction.

    PubMed

    Tiggemann, Marika; Brown, Zoe; Zaccardo, Mia; Thomas, Nicole

    2017-06-01

    The present experiment aimed to investigate the impact of the addition of disclaimer labels to fashion magazine shoots on women's body dissatisfaction. Participants were 320 female undergraduate students who viewed fashion shoots containing a thin and attractive model with no disclaimer label, or a small, large, or very large disclaimer label, or product images. Although thin-ideal fashion shoot images resulted in greater body dissatisfaction than product images, there was no significant effect of disclaimer label. Internalisation of the thin ideal was found to moderate the effect of disclaimer label, such that internalisation predicted increased body dissatisfaction in the no label and small label conditions, but not in the larger label conditions. Overall, the results showed no benefit for any size of disclaimer label in ameliorating the negative effect of viewing thin-ideal media images. It was concluded that more extensive research is required before the effective implementation of disclaimer labels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Efficacy of Cigarette Warning Labels on Health Beliefs in the United States and Mexico

    PubMed Central

    MUTTI, SEEMA; HAMMOND, DAVID; REID, JESSICA L.; THRASHER, JAMES F.

    2013-01-01

    Concern over health risks is the most common motivation for quitting smoking. Health warnings on tobacco packages are among the most prominent interventions to convey the health risks of smoking. Face-to-face surveys were conducted in Mexico (n=1,072), and a web-based survey was conducted in the US (n=1,449) to examine the efficacy of health warning labels on health beliefs. Respondents were randomly assigned to view two sets of health warnings (each with one text-only warning and 5–6 pictorial warnings) for two different health effects. Respondents were asked whether they believed smoking caused 12 different health effects. Overall, the findings indicate high levels of health knowledge in both countries for some health effects, although significant knowledge gaps remained; for example: less than half of respondents agreed that smoking causes impotence and less than one third agreed that smoking causes gangrene. Mexican respondents endorsed a greater number of correct beliefs about the health impact of smoking than the US sample. In both countries, viewing related health warning labels increased beliefs about the health risks of smoking, particularly for less well-known health effects, such as gangrene, impotence, and stroke. PMID:23905611

  17. Smokers' responses toward cigarette pack warning labels in predicting quit intention, stage of change, and self-efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Maizurah; Awang, Rahmat; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Hammond, David; Zain, Zarihah

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: This paper is concerned with the effects of cigarette pack warning labels on quitting intentions. We examined whether different responses among smokers toward cigarette pack warning labels could predict quit intentions and self-efficacy in quitting. Variables studied were “noticing warning labels during last month,” “reading or looking closely at warning labels,” “avoiding looking at labels during last month,” “thinking about health risks of smoking because of the warning labels, “more likely to quit because of the warning labels,” and “stopping from having a cigarette when about to smoke one because of the labels.” Methods: A total of 2,006 adult smokers in Malaysia were surveyed in face-to-face interviews using a standardized questionnaire. Of those, 1,919 male smokers were included in the analyses. Results: The responses “more likely to quit because of the warning labels” and “stopped from having a cigarette when about to smoke one” significantly predicted all stages of change and self-efficacy, independent of the other measures. In addition, thinking about the health risks and reading the warnings more often added extra predictive capacity but only in the early stages of contemplating change. Discussion: Less intense processing of the information may be important in initiating thoughts, but cognitions about quitting and foregoing cigarettes are the key mechanisms by which warnings stimulate quitting intentions and help smokers feel capable of succeeding. Malaysian smokers appear to respond to warnings in ways comparable with those from developed countries. PMID:19246625

  18. The Effect of Cancer Warning Statements on Alcohol Consumption Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle I.; Glance, David; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Pratt, Iain S.; Slevin, Terry; Liang, Wenbin; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    In response to increasing calls to introduce warning labels on alcoholic beverages, this study investigated the potential effectiveness of alcohol warning statements designed to increase awareness of the alcohol-cancer link. A national online survey was administered to a diverse sample of Australian adult drinkers (n = 1,680). Along with…

  19. The Effect of Cancer Warning Statements on Alcohol Consumption Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle I.; Glance, David; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Pratt, Iain S.; Slevin, Terry; Liang, Wenbin; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    In response to increasing calls to introduce warning labels on alcoholic beverages, this study investigated the potential effectiveness of alcohol warning statements designed to increase awareness of the alcohol-cancer link. A national online survey was administered to a diverse sample of Australian adult drinkers (n = 1,680). Along with…

  20. The alcohol warning and adolescents: 5-year effects.

    PubMed Central

    MacKinnon, D P; Nohre, L; Pentz, M A; Stacy, A W

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study, a follow-up to the authors earlier report, examined the effects of the alcohol warning label on adolescents during the first 5 years that the warning was required. METHODS: Surveys were administered to 10th-grade (n = 16,661) and 12th-grade (n = 15,856) students from the 1989-1990 school year through the 1994-1995 school year. The measures were awareness of, exposure to, and recognition memory of the alcohol warning label; beliefs about the risks listed on the warning; and open-ended statements about consequences of alcohol use, alcohol consumption, and self-reported driving after drinking. RESULTS: There were increases in warning awareness, exposure, and recognition memory. These effects leveled off approximately 3.5 years after the inclusion of the warning on alcohol beverage containers. There was no beneficial change attributable to the warning in beliefs, alcohol consumption, or driving after drinking. CONCLUSIONS: The initial positive effects of the alcohol warning label on adolescents have leveled off, consistent with theories of repeated exposure to persuasive information. The alcohol warning has not affected adolescents' beliefs about alcohol or alcohol-related behaviors. PMID:11029993

  1. Australia's double standard on Thailand's alcohol warning labels.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Since 2010, members of the World Trade Organization (WTO), including Australia, have opposed Thailand's proposal for graphic warnings on alcohol containers. This paper aims to provide an account of the arguments for/against Thailand and to examine the arguments' legal and political validity. This paper reviews primary WTO records in relation to Thailand's proposal to reveal the arguments for/against Thailand's proposal. The paper analyses these arguments in light of WTO cases to identify the legal strengths and weaknesses of Thailand's position. The paper then considers whether the attacks on Thailand by Australia are justified in light of the Australian Government's position on (i) alcohol warning labels in Australia and (ii) tobacco plain packaging. The legal arguments against Thailand are: only harmful alcohol consumption should be prevented; there is no evidence that graphic warning labels can reduce alcohol-related harm; the labels unnecessarily restrict international trade. There are some legal weaknesses in Thailand's proposal. Yet, Australia's opposition to Thailand cannot be justified whilst Australia is (i) mandating pregnancy-related alcohol warnings in Australia and (ii) defending its plain packaging law against similar WTO attacks. No WTO member is obliged to challenge another member for being non-compliant. The case tests the willingness of WTO members like Australia to respect the autonomy of other countries to pursue their public health goals and trial novel interventions. Australia's actions suggest it is willing to protect its alcohol industry at the expense of public health in Thailand. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  2. Predictive and External Validity of a Pre-Market Study to Determine the Most Effective Pictorial Health Warning Label Content for Cigarette Packages.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Ling; Thrasher, James F; Reid, Jessica L; Hammond, David

    2016-05-01

    Studies examining cigarette package pictorial health warning label (HWL) content have primarily used designs that do not allow determination of effectiveness after repeated, naturalistic exposure. This research aimed to determine the predictive and external validity of a pre-market evaluation study of pictorial HWLs. Data were analyzed from: (1) a pre-market convenience sample of 544 adult smokers who participated in field experiments in Mexico City before pictorial HWL implementation (September 2010); and (2) a post-market population-based representative sample of 1765 adult smokers in the Mexican administration of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey after pictorial HWL implementation. Participants in both samples rated six HWLs that appeared on cigarette packs, and also ranked HWLs with four different themes. Mixed effects models were estimated for each sample to assess ratings of relative effectiveness for the six HWLs, and to assess which HWL themes were ranked as the most effective. Pre- and post-market data showed similar relative ratings across the six HWLs, with the least and most effective HWLs consistently differentiated from other HWLs. Models predicting rankings of HWL themes in post-market sample indicated: (1) pictorial HWLs were ranked as more effective than text-only HWLs; (2) HWLs with both graphic and "lived experience" content outperformed symbolic content; and, (3) testimonial content significantly outperformed didactic content. Pre-market data showed a similar pattern of results, but with fewer statistically significant findings. The study suggests well-designed pre-market studies can have predictive and external validity, helping regulators select HWL content. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Impact of anti-tobacco warning labels on behaviour of tobacco users in one of the cities of Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Shah, V R; Dave, V R; Sonaliya, K N

    2013-06-01

    Tobacco use continues to be the leading global cause of preventable deaths, killing nearly 6 million people worldwide each year. Tobacco control must be given the high priority by scaling up tobacco control measures. In India under Control of Tobacco Product Act, it is mandatory to keep the warning labels over all kind of tobacco products in order to minimise the use of tobacco. Review of the knowledge regarding warning labels printed on tobacco products among its users and to evaluate the impact of them on addicting behaviour. A Cross Sectional study was carried out among the group of people using tobacco in any form. Total 776 tobacco users were enrolled in the study. Mean age of tobacco user was 41.4 years. Out of total 776 tobacco users, 561 (72.3%) had ever noticed warning signals over the tobacco products. Among those who have noticed warning labels, 64.4 % became aware about health effects and 66% have thought to quit tobacco. Tobacco users of young age group (15-45) were more aware regarding warning labels. Females were less aware. As level of education increases number of tobacco users who tried to quit or reduced the daily quantity of tobacco intake were also increases. Positive impact of warning labels has been seen among the tobacco users who have noticed them. Not all the tobacco users were aware regarding the presence of warning labels as per the findings of present study.

  4. Implementation of effective cigarette health warning labels among low and middle income countries: state capacity, path-dependency and tobacco industry activity.

    PubMed

    Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-01-01

    We investigates the effects of ratifying the WHO Framework Convention of Tobacco Control (FTCT), state capacity, path-dependency and tobacco industry activity on the implementation of effective health warning labels (HWL) on cigarette packs among low and middle income countries (LMIC). Using logistic regression in separate analyses for FCTC Article 11 compliant HWLs and graphic HWLs (GHWL), we found that the odds of FCTC compliance increased by a factor of 1.31 for each year after FCTC entered into force in the country (p < 0.01). The odds of passing GHWLs increased by a factor of 1.46 (p < 0.05) per year after FCTC entered into force. The weaker the capacity of the states were, the less likely they were to have implemented FCTC compliant HWLs (p < 0.05). The countries with voluntary HWLs in 1992 were less likely (OR = 0.19, p < 0.01) to comply with FCTC 21 years later (in 2013). The FCTC has promoted HWL policies among LMICs. Public health regulations require investments in broader state capacity. As the theory of path-dependency predicts voluntary agreements have long lasting influence on the direction of tobacco control in a country. Adopting voluntary HWL policies reduced likelihood of having FCTC compliant HWLs decades later. The fact that voluntary agreements delayed effective tobacco regulations suggests that policymakers must be careful of accepting industry efforts for voluntary agreements in other areas of public health as well, such as alcohol and junk food. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Can cigarette warnings counterbalance effects of smoking scenes in movies?

    PubMed

    Golmier, Isabelle; Chebat, Jean-Charles; Gélinas-Chebat, Claire

    2007-02-01

    Scenes in movies where smoking occurs have been empirically shown to influence teenagers to smoke cigarettes. The capacity of a Canadian warning label on cigarette packages to decrease the effects of smoking scenes in popular movies has been investigated. A 2 x 3 factorial design was used to test the effects of the same movie scene with or without electronic manipulation of all elements related to smoking, and cigarette pack warnings, i.e., no warning, text-only warning, and text+picture warning. Smoking-related stereotypes and intent to smoke of teenagers were measured. It was found that, in the absence of warning, and in the presence of smoking scenes, teenagers showed positive smoking-related stereotypes. However, these effects were not observed if the teenagers were first exposed to a picture and text warning. Also, smoking-related stereotypes mediated the relationship of the combined presentation of a text and picture warning and a smoking scene on teenagers' intent to smoke. Effectiveness of Canadian warning labels to prevent or to decrease cigarette smoking among teenagers is discussed, and areas of research are proposed.

  6. Graphic warning labels on plain cigarette packs: will they make a difference to adolescents?

    PubMed

    McCool, Judith; Webb, Lisa; Cameron, Linda D; Hoek, Janet

    2012-04-01

    Graphic warning labels and plain cigarette packaging are two initiatives developed to increase quit behaviour among smokers. Although a little is known about how adolescents interpret graphic warning labels, very few studies have examined how plain cigarette packaging would affect adolescents' perceptions of cigarette smoking and smoking behaviour. We explored how teens interpret and respond to graphic warning labels and the plain packaging of cigarettes, to assess the potential these strategies may offer in deterring smoking initiation. Twelve focus group interviews with a sample of 80 14-16 year old students from a diverse range of schools in Auckland, New Zealand were undertaken between June and August 2009. Textual analysis revealed that graphic warning labels may influence adolescents by reiterating a negative image of smokers. Graphic warning on a plain cigarette pack increased the attention paid to graphic warning labels and the overall perceptions of harm caused by cigarette smoking, and reduced the social appeal of cigarette smoking. This research offers evidence on how adolescents are appraising and interpreting graphic warning labels, and explores how dominant appraisals may affect the role graphic warning labels play in preventing smoking. Not only would plain cigarette packaging enhance the salience and impact of graphic warning labels, but it would potentially bolster the overall message that cigarette smoking is harmful. In the context of a comprehensive tobacco control programme, graphic warning labels on plain cigarette packaging present an explicit message about the risks (to health and image) associated with cigarette smoking.

  7. Linking mass media campaigns to pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages: a cross-sectional study to evaluate effects among Mexican smokers.

    PubMed

    Thrasher, James F; Murukutla, Nandita; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Alday, Jorge; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Cedillo, Claudia; Gutierrez, Juan Pablo

    2013-05-01

    This study assessed the effects of pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) and a linked media campaign in Mexico. Cross-sectional data were collected from a population-based sample of 1756 adult smokers, aged 18-55 years, during the initial implementation of pictorial HWLs, which some smokers had seen on cigarette packages while others had seen only the text-based HWLs. Exposure to the campaign and pictorial HWLs was assessed with aided recall methods, and other questions addressed attention and cognitive impact of HWLs, knowledge related to HWL and campaign content, and quit-related thoughts and behaviours. Logistic and linear regression models were estimated to determine associations between key outcomes and intervention exposure. In bivariate and multivariate adjusted models, recall of pictorial HWLs and of the campaign were positively associated with greater attention to and cognitive impact of HWLs, whereas only pictorial HWL exposure was associated with having refrained from smoking due to HWLs. Both recall of pictorial HWLs and of the campaign were independently associated with greater knowledge of secondhand smoke harms and toxic tobacco constituents. Smokers who recalled only the pictorial HWLs were more likely to try to quit than smokers who recalled neither the pictorial HWLs nor the campaign (17% vs 6%, p<0.001). Consistent with other studies, adult smokers' exposure to new pictorial HWLs in Mexico was associated with psychosocial and behavioural responses related to quit behaviour. Exposure to the complementary media campaign was associated with independent additive effects on campaign-related knowledge, and it enhanced psychosocial responses to pictorial HWLs.

  8. Effects of exposure to thin-ideal media images on body dissatisfaction: testing the inclusion of a disclaimer versus warning label.

    PubMed

    Ata, Rheanna N; Thompson, J Kevin; Small, Brent J

    2013-09-01

    The current study was designed to determine whether the inclusion of a disclaimer (i.e., "Retouched photograph aimed at changing a person's physical appearance.") or warning (i.e., "Warning: Trying to look as thin as this model may be dangerous to your health.") added to images of thin/attractive models would affect body dissatisfaction and intent to diet in female undergraduate students (n=342). Participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups: (a) disclaimer, (b) warning, (c) model control, or (d) car control. Results revealed a significant interaction between group and time, whereby only the car control group reported a significant change (i.e., decrease) in body dissatisfaction over time. Groups did not differ on intent to diet measured at post-exposure. The results largely replicate other findings in this area and call into question advocacy efforts to label media images as a strategy to decrease women's identification with the stimuli. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 40 CFR 82.112 - Removal of label bearing warning statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Removal of label bearing warning... Substances § 82.112 Removal of label bearing warning statement. (a) Prohibition on removal. Except as... manufacturer of a product that incorporates a product that is accompanied by a label bearing the...

  10. 40 CFR 82.112 - Removal of label bearing warning statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Removal of label bearing warning... Substances § 82.112 Removal of label bearing warning statement. (a) Prohibition on removal. Except as... manufacturer of a product that incorporates a product that is accompanied by a label bearing the...

  11. 40 CFR 82.112 - Removal of label bearing warning statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Removal of label bearing warning... Substances § 82.112 Removal of label bearing warning statement. (a) Prohibition on removal. Except as... manufacturer of a product that incorporates a product that is accompanied by a label bearing the...

  12. 40 CFR 82.112 - Removal of label bearing warning statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Removal of label bearing warning... Substances § 82.112 Removal of label bearing warning statement. (a) Prohibition on removal. Except as... manufacturer of a product that incorporates a product that is accompanied by a label bearing the...

  13. The lower effectiveness of text-only health warnings in China compared to pictorial health warnings in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Elton-Marshall, Tara; Xu, Steve Shaowei; Meng, Gang; Quah, Anne C K; Sansone, Genevieve C; Feng, Guoze; Jiang, Yuan; Driezen, Pete; Omar, Maizurah; Awang, Rahmat; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2015-11-01

    In 2009, China changed its health warnings on cigarette packs from side-only text warnings to two text-only warnings on 30% of the bottom of the front and back of the pack. Also in 2009, Malaysia changed from similar text warnings to pictorial health warnings consistent with Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 11 Guidelines. To measure the impact of the change in health warnings in China and to compare the text-only health warnings to the impact of the pictorial health warnings introduced in Malaysia. We measured changes in key indicators of warning effectiveness among a longitudinal cohort sample of smokers from Waves 1 to 3 (2006-2009) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey and from Waves 3 to 4 (2008-2009) of the ITC Malaysia Survey. Each cohort consisted of representative samples of adult (≥18 years) smokers from six cities in China (n=6575) and from a national sample in Malaysia (n=2883). Generalised Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to examine the impact of the health warnings on subsequent changes in salience of warnings, cognitive and behavioural outcomes. Compared to Malaysia, the weak text-only warning labels in China led to a significant change in only two of six key indicators of health warning effectiveness: forgoing cigarettes and reading the warning labels. The change to pictorial health warnings in Malaysia led to significant and substantial increases in five of six indicators (noticing, reading, forgoing, avoiding, thinking about quitting). The delay in implementing pictorial health warnings in China constitutes a lost opportunity for increasing knowledge and awareness of the harms of cigarettes, and for motivating smokers to quit. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Marketing strategies and warning labels on children's toothpaste.

    PubMed

    Basch, Corey Hannah; Rajan, Sonali

    2014-10-01

    The overconsumption of toothpaste has negative consequences, particularly for children. This study's objectives were to describe misleading marketing strategies used in selling children's fluoridated toothpaste and identify warning label characteristics. Two researchers independently coded the packaging from 26 over-the-counter toothpastes that are specifically marketed for children. Aggressive marketing strategies targeting children were identified: every toothpaste in this sample displayed at least 1 children's animated character, 50% had at least 1 picture of a food item, 92.3% stated they were flavored and 26.9% depicted a full swirl of toothpaste, directly contradicting dentist recommendations for young children. Further, on most toothpaste tubes, warnings regarding fluoride overconsumption for young children were only listed on the back and in very small font. Misleading marketing strategies are regularly used in selling children's toothpaste as if it is a food product, while warnings regarding overconsumption among youth are minimized. Dental hygienists are in an important position to help parents of young children implement safe oral care practices. Copyright © 2014 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  15. The design of child restraint system (CRS) labels and warnings affects overall CRS usability.

    PubMed

    Rudin-Brown, Christina M; Greenley, Mike P; Barone, Andrea; Armstrong, Joe; Salway, Alice F; Norris, Beverley J

    2004-03-01

    A study was conducted that assessed the effectiveness of different child restraint system (CRS) label/warning designs on users' installation performance. Forty-eight paid participants installed a convertible CRS in a vehicle, and two child test dummies in a CRS, using one of four label conditions. The label conditions were: (1) no labels, (2) the manufacturer's labels that were already affixed to the CRS ("Current"), (3) labels that were designed according to a combination of the current U.S. regulations concerning CRS labels and recently proposed changes to these regulations ("Proposed"), and (4) labels that were designed according to human factors principles and guidelines, and that were based on a hierarchical behavioral task analysis ("Optimal"). Results demonstrated that, overall, the Optimal labels resulted in higher usability ratings and better task performance. This indicates that labels designed using human factors and task analyses that identify critical task information requirements for label features will result in increased user compliance with instructions, higher usability, and improved task performance. Surprisingly, having no labels on the CRS resulted in better installation performance than when either the Current or the Proposed label conditions were used. This indicates that label design can decrease task performance; the actual physical design of a CRS may be just as critical as label content in the installation choices provided to the user. Collectively, results suggest that implementation of the proposed changes to the U.S. regulations concerning CRS labeling would likely not result in increased performance or usability compared to existing manufacturer labels that follow the current guidelines. In order to achieve significantly better ease-of-use and task performance, it would be necessary to implement features of the Optimal label condition.

  16. 16 CFR 1205.6 - Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... adjacent supporting structure or assembly, with the warning label shown in Fig. 7. The label shall be at... size relation to each other and to the label as shown in Fig. 7. EC03OC91.016 (b) Rotary mowers. Walk-behind rotary mowers shall have one label as shown in Fig. 7, on the blade housing. The label shall be...

  17. Ohio Appalachian residents’ views on smoke-free laws and cigarette warning labels

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, PL; Wewers, ME; Paskett, ED; Klein, EG; Katz, ML

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Smoke-free laws and the addition of graphic warning labels to cigarette packages represent public health policies that can potentially reduce smoking and smoking-related disease. The attitudes and beliefs relating to these policies were examined among residents of Ohio Appalachia, a mostly rural region with high smoking prevalence among its residents. Methods Focus groups were conducted with participants from Ohio Appalachia during the summer of 2007. Groups included healthcare providers (n=37), community leaders (n=31), parents (n=19), and young adult women aged 18–26 years (n=27). Results Most participants were female (94%), non-Hispanic White (94%), and married (65%). Participants believed that most non-smokers supported Ohio’s enforced statewide comprehensive smoke-free law that began in 2007, while some smokers opposed the law due to a perceived infringement of their rights. They also reported that most residents and local businesses were abiding by and enforcing the law. Participants supported the addition of graphic warning labels to cigarette packages in the USA. They believed that such warning labels could help deter adolescents and adult non-smokers from smoking initiation, particularly if the negative aesthetic effects of smoking were emphasized. However, they felt the labels would be less effective among current smokers and older individuals living in their communities. Conclusions Participants generally held positive views about both the smoke-free law and the addition of graphic warning labels to cigarette packages in the USA. These tobacco-related public health policies are promising strategies for potentially reducing smoking and its associated diseases among residents living in Appalachia. Additional research is needed to further examine support for these policies among more diverse Appalachian populations. PMID:22300190

  18. Refining Prescription Warning Labels Using Patient Feedback: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Shiyanbola, Olayinka O; Smith, Paul D; Mansukhani, Sonal Ghura; Huang, Yen-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of written medication information hinders patients' understanding and leads to patient misuse of prescribed medications. Incorporating patient feedback in designing prescription warning labels (PWLs) is crucial in enhancing patient comprehension of medication warning instructions. This qualitative study explored patient feedback on five newly designed PWLs. In-depth semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 21 patients, who were 18 years and older, spoke English, and took a prescription medication. These patients were shown different variations of the five most commonly used PWLs-Take with Food, Do not Drink Alcohol, Take with a Full glass of Water, Do not Chew or Break, and Protect from Sunlight. The 60-minute interviews explored feedback on patient comprehension of the PWL instructions and their suggestions for improving the clarity of the PWLs. At the end of the interview, patient self-reported socio-demographic information was collected with a 3-minute survey and a brief health literacy assessment was completed using the Newest Vital Sign. Twenty-one patients completed the interviews. Most patients were female (n = 15, 71.4%) with ages ranging from 23 to 66 years old (mean: 47.6 ± 13.3). The mean health literacy score was 2.4 on a scale of 0-6. Qualitative content analysis based on the text, pictures, and placement of the PWLs on the pill bottle showed preferences for including 'WARNING' on the PWL to create alertness, inclusion of a picture together with the text, yellow color highlighting behind the text, and placement of the PWL on the front of the pill bottle. Although patients had positive opinions of the redesigned PWLs, patients wanted further improvements to the content and design of the PWLs for enhanced clarity and understandability.

  19. Refining Prescription Warning Labels Using Patient Feedback: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Mansukhani, Sonal Ghura; Huang, Yen-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of written medication information hinders patients’ understanding and leads to patient misuse of prescribed medications. Incorporating patient feedback in designing prescription warning labels (PWLs) is crucial in enhancing patient comprehension of medication warning instructions. This qualitative study explored patient feedback on five newly designed PWLs. In-depth semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 21 patients, who were 18 years and older, spoke English, and took a prescription medication. These patients were shown different variations of the five most commonly used PWLs-Take with Food, Do not Drink Alcohol, Take with a Full glass of Water, Do not Chew or Break, and Protect from Sunlight. The 60-minute interviews explored feedback on patient comprehension of the PWL instructions and their suggestions for improving the clarity of the PWLs. At the end of the interview, patient self-reported socio-demographic information was collected with a 3-minute survey and a brief health literacy assessment was completed using the Newest Vital Sign. Twenty-one patients completed the interviews. Most patients were female (n = 15, 71.4%) with ages ranging from 23 to 66 years old (mean: 47.6 ± 13.3). The mean health literacy score was 2.4 on a scale of 0–6. Qualitative content analysis based on the text, pictures, and placement of the PWLs on the pill bottle showed preferences for including ‘WARNING’ on the PWL to create alertness, inclusion of a picture together with the text, yellow color highlighting behind the text, and placement of the PWL on the front of the pill bottle. Although patients had positive opinions of the redesigned PWLs, patients wanted further improvements to the content and design of the PWLs for enhanced clarity and understandability. PMID:27258026

  20. Implications of Graphic Cigarette Warning Labels on Smoking Behavior: An International Perspective.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo

    2016-03-01

    Graphic warning labels (GWLs) have been developed as a representative non-price policy to block such marketing. This study investigated the current state and effect of the global introduction of GWLs and examines the future tasks related to GWLs. We systematically reviewed literatures on GWL and a tobacco control strategy in the past fifteen years. The policy of enforcing GWLs has spread globally based on the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. GWLs are more effective than text warnings and are implemented in over 70 countries. The policy has showed the impact of GWLs as a preventive effect on adolescents' smoking, inducement of smoking cessation, reduction in the amount of tobacco smoked, and reduction in smoking rates. The success of an anti-smoking policy can manifests itself as an effect of individual policies, the rise of tobacco prices, and the introduction of GWLs.

  1. Implications of Graphic Cigarette Warning Labels on Smoking Behavior: An International Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Minsoo

    2016-01-01

    Graphic warning labels (GWLs) have been developed as a representative non-price policy to block such marketing. This study investigated the current state and effect of the global introduction of GWLs and examines the future tasks related to GWLs. We systematically reviewed literatures on GWL and a tobacco control strategy in the past fifteen years. The policy of enforcing GWLs has spread globally based on the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. GWLs are more effective than text warnings and are implemented in over 70 countries. The policy has showed the impact of GWLs as a preventive effect on adolescents’ smoking, inducement of smoking cessation, reduction in the amount of tobacco smoked, and reduction in smoking rates. The success of an anti-smoking policy can manifests itself as an effect of individual policies, the rise of tobacco prices, and the introduction of GWLs. PMID:27051645

  2. Nutrition warnings as front-of-pack labels: influence of design features on healthfulness perception and attentional capture.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Manuel; Machín, Leandro; Arrúa, Alejandra; Antúnez, Lucía; Curutchet, María Rosa; Giménez, Ana; Ares, Gastón

    2017-10-02

    Warnings are a new directive front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labelling scheme that highlights products with high content of key nutrients. The design of warnings influences their ability to catch consumers' attention and to clearly communicate their intended meaning, which are key determinants of their effectiveness. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the influence of design features of warnings as a FOP nutrition labelling scheme on perceived healthfulness and attentional capture. Five studies with a total of 496 people were carried out. In the first study, the association of colour and perceived healthfulness was evaluated in an online survey in which participants had to rate their perceived healthfulness of eight colours. In the second study, the influence of colour, shape and textual information on perceived healthfulness was evaluated using choice-conjoint analysis. The third study focused on implicit associations between two design features (shape and colour) on perceived healthfulness. The fourth and fifth studies used visual search to evaluate the influence of colour, size and position of the warnings on attentional capture. Perceived healthfulness was significantly influenced by shape, colour and textual information. Colour was the variable with the largest contribution to perceived healthfulness. Colour, size and position of the warnings on the labels affected attentional capture. Results from the experiments provide recommendations for the design of warnings to identify products with unfavourable nutrient profile.

  3. Do cigarette health warning labels comply with requirements: A 14-country study.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joanna E; Brown, Jennifer; Washington, Carmen; Welding, Kevin; Ferguson, Jacqueline; Smith, Katherine C

    2016-12-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, a global health treaty ratified by over 175 countries, calls on countries to ensure that tobacco packages carry health warning labels (HWLs) describing the harmful effects of tobacco use. We assessed the extent of compliance with 14 countries' HWL requirements. Unique cigarette packs were purchased in 2013 using a systematic protocol in 12 distinct neighborhoods within three of the ten most populous cities in the 14 low- and middle-income countries with the greatest number (count) of smokers. HWL compliance codebooks were developed for each country based on the details of country-specific HWL requirements, with up to four common compliance indicators assessed for each country (location, size, label elements, text size). Packs (n=1859) were double coded for compliance. Compliance was examined by country and pack characteristics, including parent company and brand family. Overall, 72% of coded cigarette packs were compliant with all relevant compliance indicators, ranging from 17% in the Philippines to 94% in Mexico. Compliance was highest for location of the warning (ranging from 75%-100%) and lowest for warning size (ranging from 46%-99%). Compliance was higher for packs bought in high SES neighborhoods, and varied by parent company and brand family. This multi-country study found at least one pack in every country - and many packs in some countries - that were not compliant with key requirements for health warning labels in the country of purchase. Non-compliance may be exacerbating health disparities. Tobacco companies should be held accountable for complying with country HWL requirements. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Implicit associations and compensatory health beliefs in smokers: exploring their role for behaviour and their change through warning labels.

    PubMed

    Glock, Sabine; Müller, Barbara C N; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine

    2013-11-01

    Smokers might think that the negative effects of smoking can be compensated for by other behaviours, such as doing exercise or eating healthily. This phenomenon is known as compensatory health beliefs (CHBs). Graphic warning labels on cigarette packets emphasize the negative effects of smoking, which may impact CHBs. Research so far has assessed CHBs explicitly only via questionnaires, although implicit cognition might be an important factor in continuing to smoke. This study investigated the impact of graphic warning labels on CHBs, by testing CHBs both implicitly and explicitly. The study had a three-group experimental design. ANOVAs and multiple regression analyses were run on the results. We assessed explicit CHBs among non-smokers, smokers, and smokers confronted with graphic warning labels (N = 107; 47 females, 23.89 years old, 78 daily smokers). Implicit associations between smoking and CHB-specific behaviours (e.g., eating healthy food) were measured using a Single-Target Implicit Association Test. After the experiment, participants were able to choose between a healthy and unhealthy food reward. Non-smokers and smokers differed in explicit CHBs but not in implicit cognitions. Warning labels influenced implicit associations among smokers but did not affect explicit CHBs. Most interestingly, implicit associations and explicit CHBs predicted food choice and smoking among smokers not confronted with warning labels. Graphic warning labels could be used in interventions to inhibit automatic associations between smoking and healthy behaviours. Unlearning implicit cognitions might in turn affect explicit CHBs, thus decreasing their role in reducing the negative feelings caused by smoking. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  5. 16 CFR 1205.6 - Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR WALK-BEHIND POWER LAWN MOWERS The Standard § 1205.6 Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers. (a) General. Walk-behind power lawn mowers shall be labeled... size relation to each other and to the label as shown in Fig. 7. EC03OC91.016 (b) Rotary mowers....

  6. Are current tobacco pictorial warnings in India effective?

    PubMed

    Oswal, Kunal C; Raute, Lalit J; Pednekar, Mangesh S; Gupta, Prakash C

    2011-01-01

    Warning labels on tobacco products provide an effective way of communicating the consequences of tobacco use. Research has shown that larger and colorful warnings placed on packaging are more effective for informing consumers and general public. However, primarily due to powerful lobbying by the industry, pictorial health warnings in India experienced constant delay in introduction and dilution of content. The current warnings appearing on tobacco products consist of drawing of a scorpion on smokeless forms of tobacco and pictures and X- rays of diseased lungs for smoking forms. To understand people's attitude towards the pictorial warning and their understanding of the pictures, a study was planned in two phases. The first phase was qualitative with focus group discussion and second, a population based survey for validating the findings. The findings of the study suggested that the mandated pictorial warnings do not serve the desired purpose since they are not properly understood. The scorpion becomes associated with the product in a non-scientific manner. X-rays of lung are hardly understood by anybody and pictures of diseased lungs are not used by tobacco manufacturers. The results of both the focus group discussions and the field survey indicate that most people have seen text and pictorial warnings on smokeless and smoking tobacco products, but that they lack relevance to the text messages. Irrespective of education the early proposed pictorial warnings by the government were more effective than the currently implemented warnings. People would like to see the warnings mainly in Hindi and Marathi (local language) and want them to be placed on the top or middle of both sides of tobacco packaging.

  7. 19 CFR 18.4 - Sealing conveyances and compartments; labeling packages; warning cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... packages; warning cards. 18.4 Section 18.4 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Provisions § 18.4 Sealing conveyances and compartments; labeling packages; warning cards. (a)(1) Conveyances... secured with Customs seals, bright red cards, 8 by 101/4 inches in size, which shall be attached near such...

  8. 19 CFR 18.4 - Sealing conveyances and compartments; labeling packages; warning cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... packages; warning cards. 18.4 Section 18.4 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Provisions § 18.4 Sealing conveyances and compartments; labeling packages; warning cards. (a)(1) Conveyances... secured with Customs seals, bright red cards, 8 by 101/4 inches in size, which shall be attached near such...

  9. 19 CFR 18.4 - Sealing conveyances and compartments; labeling packages; warning cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... packages; warning cards. 18.4 Section 18.4 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Provisions § 18.4 Sealing conveyances and compartments; labeling packages; warning cards. (a)(1) Conveyances... secured with Customs seals, bright red cards, 8 by 101/4 inches in size, which shall be attached near such...

  10. 40 CFR 82.110 - Form of label bearing warning statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... matter on the label. The warning statement shall appear in sharp contrast to any background upon which it... contrast are: black letters on a dark blue or dark green background, dark red letters on a light...

  11. An exploratory study of drinkers views of health information and warning labels on alcohol containers.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Lisa M; Vandenberg, Brian; Fitzgerald, John L

    2012-03-01

    To identify general and specific features of health information warning labels on alcohol beverage containers that could potentially inform the development and implementation of a new labelling regime in Australia. Mixed methods, including a cross-sectional population survey and a qualitative study of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours regarding alcohol beverage labelling. The population survey used computer-assisted telephone interviews of 1500 persons in Victoria, Australia to gauge the level of support for health information and warning labels. The qualitative study used six focus groups to test the suitability of 12 prototype labels that were placed in situ on a variety of alcohol beverage containers. The telephone survey found 80% to 90% support for a range of information that could potentially be mandated by government authorities for inclusion on labels (nutritional information, alcohol content, health warning, images). Focus group testing of the prototype label designs found that labels should be integrated with other alcohol-related health messages, such as government social advertising campaigns, and specific labels should be matched appropriately to specific consumer groups and beverage types. There are high levels of public support for health information and warning labels on alcohol beverages. This study contributes much needed empirical guidance for developing alcohol beverage labelling strategies in an Australian context. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  12. Perceptions and acceptability of pictorial health warning labels vs text only--a cross-sectional study in Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Sychareun, Vanphanom; Hansana, Visanou; Phengsavanh, Alongkone; Chaleunvong, Kongmany; Tomson, Tanja

    2015-10-28

    In Lao PDR, health warnings were first introduced with printed warning messages on the side of the cigarette package in 1993 and again in 2004. Lao PDR same year ratified the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) but has not yet implemented pictorial health warnings. This paper aims to examine the perception and opinion of policymakers on "text-only" and "pictorial" health warnings and to understand lay people's perceptions on current health warnings and their opinions on the recommended types of health warnings. A combination of quantitative and qualitative methods were used in this cross-sectional study conducted in 2008. A purposive sample of 15 policymakers, and a representative sample of 1360 smokers and non-smokers were recruited. A range of different areas were covered including consumer attitudes towards current and proposed cigarette package design, views on health warning messages on the flip/slide and inserts, and views on the relative importance of the size, content and pictures of health warning messages. Descriptive statistics and content analysis were used. Policy makers and survey respondents said that the current health warning messages were inappropriate, ineffective, and too small in size. All respondents perceived pictorial health warnings as a potentially powerful element that could be added to the messages that can communicate quickly, and dramatically. The majority of policymakers and survey respondents strongly supported the implementation of pictorial health warnings. The non-smokers agreed that the graphic pictorial health warnings were generally more likely than written health warnings to stimulate thinking about the health risks of smoking, by conveying potential health effects, increasing and reinforcing awareness of the negative health effect of smoking, aiding memorability of the health effects and arousing fear of smoking among smokers. The study suggested that current warnings are too small and that content is

  13. Teaching Generalized Reading of Product Warning Labels to Young Adults with Autism Using the Constant Time Delay Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogoe, Maud S.; Banda, Devender R.; Lock, Robin H.; Feinstein, Rita

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of the constant timed delay procedure for teaching two young adults with autism to read, define, and state the contextual meaning of keywords on product warning labels of common household products. Training sessions were conducted in the dyad format using flash cards. Results indicated that both participants…

  14. Teaching Generalized Reading of Product Warning Labels to Young Adults with Autism Using the Constant Time Delay Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogoe, Maud S.; Banda, Devender R.; Lock, Robin H.; Feinstein, Rita

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of the constant timed delay procedure for teaching two young adults with autism to read, define, and state the contextual meaning of keywords on product warning labels of common household products. Training sessions were conducted in the dyad format using flash cards. Results indicated that both participants…

  15. Speaking out about physical harms from tobacco use: response to graphic warning labels among American Indian/Alaska Native communities.

    PubMed

    Patterson Silver Wolf, David A; Tovar, Molly; Thompson, Kellie; Ishcomer, Jamie; Kreuter, Matthew W; Caburnay, Charlene; Boyum, Sonia

    2016-03-23

    This study is the first to explore the impact of graphic cigarette labels with physical harm images on members of American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. The aim of this article is to investigate how AI/AN respond to particular graphic warning labels. The parent study recruited smokers, at-risk smokers and non-smokers from three different age groups (youths aged 13-17 years, young adults aged 18-24 years and adults aged 25+ years) and five population subgroups with high smoking prevalence or smoking risk. Using nine graphic labels, this study collected participant data in the field via an iPad-administered survey and card sorting of graphic warning labels. This paper reports on findings for AI/AN participants. After viewing graphic warning labels, participants rated their likelihood of talking about smoking risks to friends, parents and siblings higher than their likelihood of talking to teachers and doctors. Further, this study found that certain labels (eg, the label of the toddler in the smoke cloud) made them think about their friends and family who smoke. Given the influence of community social networks on health beliefs and attitudes, health communication using graphic warning labels could effect change in the smoking habits of AI/AN community members. Study findings suggest that graphic labels could serve as stimuli for conversations about the risks of smoking among AI/AN community members, and could be an important element of a peer-to-peer smoking cessation effort. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Speaking out about physical harms from tobacco use: response to graphic warning labels among American Indian/Alaska Native communities

    PubMed Central

    Patterson Silver Wolf, David A; Tovar, Molly; Thompson, Kellie; Ishcomer, Jamie; Kreuter, Matthew W; Caburnay, Charlene; Boyum, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study is the first to explore the impact of graphic cigarette labels with physical harm images on members of American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. The aim of this article is to investigate how AI/AN respond to particular graphic warning labels. Methods The parent study recruited smokers, at-risk smokers and non-smokers from three different age groups (youths aged 13–17 years, young adults aged 18–24 years and adults aged 25+ years) and five population subgroups with high smoking prevalence or smoking risk. Using nine graphic labels, this study collected participant data in the field via an iPad-administered survey and card sorting of graphic warning labels. This paper reports on findings for AI/AN participants. Results After viewing graphic warning labels, participants rated their likelihood of talking about smoking risks to friends, parents and siblings higher than their likelihood of talking to teachers and doctors. Further, this study found that certain labels (eg, the label of the toddler in the smoke cloud) made them think about their friends and family who smoke. Conclusions Given the influence of community social networks on health beliefs and attitudes, health communication using graphic warning labels could effect change in the smoking habits of AI/AN community members. Study findings suggest that graphic labels could serve as stimuli for conversations about the risks of smoking among AI/AN community members, and could be an important element of a peer-to-peer smoking cessation effort. PMID:27009143

  17. Graphic Canadian cigarette warning labels and adverse outcomes: evidence from Canadian smokers.

    PubMed

    Hammond, David; Fong, Geoffrey T; McDonald, Paul W; Brown, K Stephen; Cameron, Roy

    2004-08-01

    We assessed the impact of graphic Canadian cigarette warning labels. We used a longitudinal telephone survey of 616 adult smokers. Approximately one fifth of participants reported smoking less as a result of the labels; only 1% reported smoking more. Although participants reported negative emotional responses to the warnings including fear (44%) and disgust (58%), smokers who reported greater negative emotion were more likely to have quit, attempted to quit, or reduced their smoking 3 months later. Participants who attempted to avoid the warnings (30%) were no less likely to think about the warnings or engage in cessation behavior at follow-up. Policymakers should not be reluctant to introduce vivid or graphic warnings for fear of adverse outcomes.

  18. Health warning labelling practices on narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipe tobacco products and related accessories.

    PubMed

    Nakkash, Rima; Khalil, Joanna

    2010-06-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence is increasing around the globe despite current evidence that smoke emissions are toxic and contain carcinogenic compounds. To evaluate current health warning labelling practices on waterpipe tobacco products and related accessories. All waterpipe tobacco products, as well as waterpipe accessories, were purchased from Lebanon and a convenience sample was obtained from Dubai (United Arab Emirates), Palestine, Syria, Jordan, Bahrain, Canada, Germany and South Africa. Of the total number of waterpipe tobacco products collected from Lebanon, the majority had textual health warning labels covering on average only 3.5% of total surface area of the package. Misleading descriptors were commonplace on waterpipe tobacco packages and related accessories. There are no WHO FCTC compliant waterpipe-specific health warning labels on waterpipe tobacco products and related accessories. Introducing health warnings on waterpipe tobacco products and accessories will probably have worldwide public health benefits.

  19. Health warning labelling practices on narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipe tobacco products and related accessories

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Background Waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence is increasing around the globe despite current evidence that smoke emissions are toxic and contain carcinogenic compounds. Objective To evaluate current health warning labelling practices on waterpipe tobacco products and related accessories. Methods All waterpipe tobacco products, as well as waterpipe accessories, were purchased from Lebanon and a convenience sample was obtained from Dubai (United Arab Emirates), Palestine, Syria, Jordan, Bahrain, Canada, Germany and South Africa. Findings Of the total number of waterpipe tobacco products collected from Lebanon, the majority had textual health warning labels covering on average only 3.5% of total surface area of the package. Misleading descriptors were commonplace on waterpipe tobacco packages and related accessories. Conclusions There are no WHO FCTC compliant waterpipe-specific health warning labels on waterpipe tobacco products and related accessories. Introducing health warnings on waterpipe tobacco products and accessories will probably have worldwide public health benefits. PMID:20501497

  20. The effect of cancer warning statements on alcohol consumption intentions

    PubMed Central

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle I.; Glance, David; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Pratt, Iain S.; Slevin, Terry; Liang, Wenbin; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    In response to increasing calls to introduce warning labels on alcoholic beverages, this study investigated the potential effectiveness of alcohol warning statements designed to increase awareness of the alcohol–cancer link. A national online survey was administered to a diverse sample of Australian adult drinkers (n = 1,680). Along with attitudinal, intentions and demographic items, the survey included an online simulation that exposed respondents to one of six cancer warning statements delivered across a range of situational contexts. Half of the statements made general reference to cancer and half mentioned specific forms of cancer. Respondents reported on the believability, convincingness and personal relevance of the warning statements. Pre- and post-exposure data were captured relating to respondents’ alcohol consumption intentions. Of the six statements tested, Alcohol increases your risk of bowel cancer produced the highest scores across all outcome measures. All statements produced favorable changes in alcohol consumption intentions, including among high-risk drinkers. There is thus the potential for these and similar statements to be used as a suite of rotating warning messages located on alcoholic beverage labels and applied in various public education contexts. PMID:26787351

  1. Women's perspectives on smoking and pregnancy and graphic warning labels.

    PubMed

    Levis, Denise M; Stone-Wiggins, Brenda; O'Hegarty, Michelle; Tong, Van T; Polen, Kara N D; Cassell, Cynthia H; Council, Mary

    2014-09-01

    To explore women's knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about adverse outcomes associated with smoking during pregnancy and which outcomes might motivate cessation; to explore reactions to graphic warnings depicting 2 adverse outcomes. Twelve focus groups were conducted with women of childbearing age who were current smokers. Participants had low to moderate awareness of many outcomes and believed it was acceptable to smoke in the first trimester before knowledge of pregnancy. Perceived susceptibility to outcomes was low. Motivators included risk-focused information, especially serious risks to the baby (eg, stillbirth, SIDS). Graphic warnings produced strong reactions, especially the warning with a real photo. Despite barriers to reducing rates of smoking during pregnancy, educational information and photos depicting babies' risks could motivate women to quit.

  2. The impact of cigarette warning labels and smoke-free bylaws on smoking cessation: evidence from former smokers.

    PubMed

    Hammond, David; McDonald, Paul W; Fong, Geoffrey T; Brown, K Stephen; Cameron, Roy

    2004-01-01

    To effectively address the health burden of tobacco use, tobacco control programs must find ways of motivating smokers to quit. The present study examined the extent to which former smokers' motivation to quit was influenced by two tobacco control policies recently introduced in the Waterloo Region: a local smoke-free bylaw and graphic cigarette warning labels. A random digit-dial telephone survey was conducted with 191 former smokers in southwestern Ontario, Canada in October 2001. Former smokers who had quit in the previous three years rated the factors that influenced their decision to quit and helped them to remain abstinent. Thirty-six percent of former smokers cited smoke-free policies as a motivation to quit smoking. Former smokers who quit following the introduction of a total smoke-free bylaw were 3.06 (CI95 = 1.02-9.19) times more likely to cite smoking bylaws as a motivation to quit, compared to former smokers who quit prior to the bylaw. A total of 31% participants also reported that cigarette warning labels had motivated them to quit. Former smokers who quit following the introduction of the new graphic warning labels were 2.78 (CI9 = 1.20-5.94) times more likely to cite the warnings as a quitting influence than former smokers who quit prior to their introduction. Finally, 38% of all former smokers surveyed reported that smoke-free policies helped them remain abstinent and 27% reported that warning labels helped them do so. More stringent smoke-free and labelling policies were associated with a greater impact upon motivations to quit.

  3. Public support for graphic health warning labels in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Kamyab, Kian; Nonnemaker, James M; Farrelly, Matthew C

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration was required to mandate that graphic health warning labels be placed on cigarette packages and advertisements. To assess public support in the U.S. for graphic health warning labels from 2007 to 2012. Data from 17,498 respondents from 13 waves of the National Adult Tobacco Survey, a list-assisted random-digit-dial survey, were used. Overall support for graphic health warning labels, as well as support by smoking status, and by sociodemographics and smoker characteristics are estimated. Analyses were conducted in 2014. Since 2007, a majority of the public overall has been in favor of labels. Support increased significantly among the public overall and among non-smokers from 2007 through 2009 (p<0.001), after which it remained flat. Among smokers, support levels increased from 2007 through 2011 (p<0.001), but decreased significantly from 2011 through 2012 (p<0.001). Support was high regardless of smoking status, although among smokers, support varied by level of smoking, interest in quitting, and whether labels were seen as an important reason to quit. Support varied by sociodemographic characteristics, particularly among smokers. Younger, less-affluent, and less-educated smokers supported labels at higher levels than their counterparts. A majority of U.S. residents support graphic health warning labels for cigarette packs, though support among smokers declined after 2011. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Estimating the impact of different cigarette package warning label policies: the auction method.

    PubMed

    Thrasher, James F; Rousu, Matthew C; Anaya-Ocampo, Rafael; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2007-12-01

    The study estimated the reduction in demand associated with implementing cigarette package warning labels that contain imagery illustrating the consequences of smoking. The experimental auction method was used, wherein adult smokers in Mexico (n=89) placed separate bids on two packs of cigarettes: one with a text-only warning label and the other with a warning label that included text and a graphic image. Differences in the values attributed to each pack were assessed using t-tests and multivariate regression. The pack with the graphic image had a mean attributed value which was 17% lower ($3.21 pesos) than the pack with the text-only warning, and this difference remained statistically significant within subgroups defined by sociodemographics, amount of smoking, number of quit attempts, and levels of perceived smoking risks. In the multivariate model, the difference in attributed values was greater among females than males, but no such differences were found for other sociodemographic or smoking-related variables. The consistently lower value that smokers attributed to cigarette packages with the graphic warning label indicates that these labels are likely to reduce cigarette demand.

  5. Impact of tobacco-related health warning labels across socioeconomic, race and ethnic groups: results from a randomized web-based experiment.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Jennifer; Vallone, Donna M; Thrasher, James F; Nagler, Rebekah H; Feirman, Shari P; Muenz, Larry R; He, David Y; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 requires updating of the existing text-only health warning labels on tobacco packaging with nine new warning statements accompanied by pictorial images. Survey and experimental research in the U.S. and other countries supports the effectiveness of pictorial health warning labels compared with text-only warnings for informing smokers about the risks of smoking and encouraging cessation. Yet very little research has examined differences in reactions to warning labels by race/ethnicity, education or income despite evidence that population subgroups may differ in their ability to process health information. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential impact of pictorial warning labels compared with text-only labels among U.S. adult smokers from diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic subgroups. Participants were adult smokers recruited from two online research panels (n = 3,371) into a web-based experimental study to view either the new pictorial warnings or text-only warnings. Participants viewed the labels and reported their reactions. Adjusted regression models demonstrated significantly stronger reactions for the pictorial condition for each outcome salience (b = 0.62, p<.001); perceived impact (b = 0.44, p<.001); credibility (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.22-1.62), and intention to quit (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.10-1.53). No significant results were found for interactions between condition and race/ethnicity, education, or income. The only exception concerned the intention to quit outcome, where the condition-by-education interaction was nearly significant (p = 0.057). Findings suggest that the greater impact of the pictorial warning label compared to the text-only warning is consistent across diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic populations. Given their great reach, pictorial health warning labels may be one of the few tobacco control policies that have the potential to reduce

  6. Nutritional information and health warnings on wine labels: Exploring consumer interest and preferences.

    PubMed

    Annunziata, A; Pomarici, E; Vecchio, R; Mariani, A

    2016-11-01

    This paper aims to contribute to the current debate on the inclusion of nutritional information and health warnings on wine labels, exploring consumers' interest and preferences. The results of a survey conducted on a sample of Italian wine consumers (N = 300) show the strong interest of respondents in the inclusion of such information on the label. Conjoint analysis reveals that consumers assign greater utility to health warnings, followed by nutritional information. Cluster analysis shows the existence of three different consumer segments. The first cluster, which included mainly female consumers (over 55) and those with high wine involvement, revealed greater awareness of the links between wine and health and better knowledge of wine nutritional properties, preferring a more detailed nutritional label, such as a panel with GDA%. By contrast, the other two clusters, consisting of individuals who generally find it more difficult to understand nutritional labels, preferred the less detailed label of a glass showing calories. The second and largest cluster comprising mainly younger men (under 44), showed the highest interest in health warnings while the third cluster - with a relatively low level of education - preferred the specification of the number of glasses not to exceed. Our results support the idea that the policy maker should consider introducing a mandatory nutritional label in the easier-to-implement and not-too-costly form of a glass with calories, rotating health warnings and the maximum number of glasses not to exceed.

  7. Does Reactance against Cigarette Warning Labels Matter? Warning Label Responses and Downstream Smoking Cessation amongst Adult Smokers in Australia, Canada, Mexico and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yoo Jin; Thrasher, James F.; Swayampakala, Kamala; Yong, Hua-Hie; McKeever, Robert; Hammond, David; Anshari, Dien; Cummings, K. Michael; Borland, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Objective Some researchers have raised concerns that pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) on cigarette packages may lead to message rejection and reduced effectiveness of HWL messages. This study aimed to determine how state reactance (i.e., negative affect due to perceived manipulation) in response to both pictorial and text-only HWLs is associated with other types of HWL responses and with subsequent cessation attempts. Methods Survey data were collected every 4 months between September 2013 and 2014 from online panels of adult smokers in Australia, Canada, Mexico, and the US were analyzed. Participants with at least one wave of follow-up were included in the analysis (n = 4,072 smokers; 7,459 observations). Surveys assessed psychological and behavioral responses to HWLs (i.e., attention to HWLs, cognitive elaboration of risks due to HWLs, avoiding HWLs, and forgoing cigarettes because of HWLs) and cessation attempts. Participants then viewed specific HWLs from their countries and were queried about affective state reactance. Logistic and linear Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) models regressed each of the psychological and behavioral HWL responses on reactance, while controlling for socio-demographic and smoking-related variables. Logistic GEE models also regressed having attempted to quit by the subsequent survey on reactance, each of the psychological and behavioral HWL responses (analyzed separately), adjustment variables. Data from all countries were initially pooled, with interactions between country and reactance assessed; when interactions were statistically significant, country-stratified models were estimated. Results Interactions between country and reactance were found in all models that regressed psychological and behavioral HWL responses on study variables. In the US, stronger reactance was associated with more frequent reading of HWLs and thinking about health risks. Smokers from all four countries with stronger reactance reported greater

  8. Does Reactance against Cigarette Warning Labels Matter? Warning Label Responses and Downstream Smoking Cessation amongst Adult Smokers in Australia, Canada, Mexico and the United States.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yoo Jin; Thrasher, James F; Swayampakala, Kamala; Yong, Hua-Hie; McKeever, Robert; Hammond, David; Anshari, Dien; Cummings, K Michael; Borland, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Some researchers have raised concerns that pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) on cigarette packages may lead to message rejection and reduced effectiveness of HWL messages. This study aimed to determine how state reactance (i.e., negative affect due to perceived manipulation) in response to both pictorial and text-only HWLs is associated with other types of HWL responses and with subsequent cessation attempts. Survey data were collected every 4 months between September 2013 and 2014 from online panels of adult smokers in Australia, Canada, Mexico, and the US were analyzed. Participants with at least one wave of follow-up were included in the analysis (n = 4,072 smokers; 7,459 observations). Surveys assessed psychological and behavioral responses to HWLs (i.e., attention to HWLs, cognitive elaboration of risks due to HWLs, avoiding HWLs, and forgoing cigarettes because of HWLs) and cessation attempts. Participants then viewed specific HWLs from their countries and were queried about affective state reactance. Logistic and linear Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) models regressed each of the psychological and behavioral HWL responses on reactance, while controlling for socio-demographic and smoking-related variables. Logistic GEE models also regressed having attempted to quit by the subsequent survey on reactance, each of the psychological and behavioral HWL responses (analyzed separately), adjustment variables. Data from all countries were initially pooled, with interactions between country and reactance assessed; when interactions were statistically significant, country-stratified models were estimated. Interactions between country and reactance were found in all models that regressed psychological and behavioral HWL responses on study variables. In the US, stronger reactance was associated with more frequent reading of HWLs and thinking about health risks. Smokers from all four countries with stronger reactance reported greater likelihood of avoiding

  9. Can pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages address smoking-related health disparities? Field experiments in Mexico to assess pictorial warning label content.

    PubMed

    Thrasher, James F; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Villalobos, Victor; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Hammond, David; Carter, Jarvis; Sebrié, Ernesto; Sansores, Raul; Regalado-Piñeda, Justino

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the most effective content of pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) and whether educational attainment moderates these effects. Field experiments were conducted with 529 adult smokers and 530 young adults (258 nonsmokers; 271 smokers). Participants reported responses to different pictorial HWLs printed on cigarette packages. One experiment involved manipulating textual form (testimonial narrative vs. didactic) and the other involved manipulating image type (diseased organs vs. human suffering). Tests of mean ratings and rankings indicated that pictorial HWLs with didactic textual forms had equivalent or significantly higher credibility, relevance, and impact than pictorial HWLs with testimonial forms. Results from mixed-effects models confirmed these results. However, responses differed by participant educational attainment: didactic forms were consistently rated higher than testimonials among participants with higher education, whereas the difference between didactic and testimonial narrative forms was weaker or not statistically significant among participants with lower education. In the second experiment, with textual content held constant, greater credibility, relevance, and impact was found for graphic imagery of diseased organs than imagery of human suffering. Pictorial HWLs with didactic textual forms seem to work better than those with testimonial narratives. Future research should determine which pictorial HWL content has the greatest real-world impact among consumers from disadvantaged groups, including assessment of how HWL content should change to maintain its impact as tobacco control environments strengthen and consumer awareness of smoking-related risks increases.

  10. Can pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages address smoking-related health disparities?: Field experiments in Mexico to assess warning label content

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F.; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Villalobos, Victor; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Hammond, David; Carter, Jarvis; Sebrié, Ernesto; Sansores, Raul; Regalado-Piñeda, Justino

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to determine the most effective content of pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) and whether educational attainment moderates these effects. Methods Field experiments were conducted with 529 adult smokers and 530 young adults (258 nonsmokers; 271 smokers), wherein participants reported responses to different HWLs printed on cigarette packages. One experiment involved manipulating textual form (testimonial narrative vs didactic) and the other involved manipulating imagery type (diseased organs vs human suffering). Results Tests of mean ratings and rankings indicated that HWLs with didactic textual forms had equivalent or significantly higher credibility, relevance, and impact than HWLs with testimonial forms. Results from mixed-effects models confirmed these results. However, responses differed by participant educational attainment: didactic forms were consistently rated higher than testimonials among participants with higher education, whereas the difference between didactic and testimonial narrative forms was weaker or not statistically significant among participants with lower education. In the second experiment, with textual content held constant, greater credibility, relevance and impact was found for graphic imagery of diseased organs than imagery of human suffering. Conclusions Pictorial HWLs with didactic textual forms appear to work better than with testimonial narratives. Future research should determine which pictorial HWL content has the greatest real-world impact among consumers from disadvantaged groups, including assessment of how HWL content should change to maintain its impact as tobacco control environments strengthen and consumer awareness of smoking-related risks increases. PMID:22350859

  11. Misunderstanding of prescription drug warning labels among patients with low literacy.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Michael S; Davis, Terry C; Tilson, Hugh H; Bass, Pat F; Parker, Ruth M

    2006-06-01

    The common causes for misunderstanding prescription drug warning labels (PWLs) among adults with low literacy were studied. A total of 74 patients reading at or below the sixth-grade level and receiving care at the primary care clinic at the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center in Shreveport were recruited to participate in structured interviews. Patients were asked to interpret and comment on eight commonly used warning labels found on prescription medications. Correct interpretation was determined by expert panel review of patients' verbatim responses. Qualitative methods were employed to code responses and generate themes regarding the misunderstanding of these PWLs. Among this sample of patients with low literacy skills, rates of correct interpretation for the eight warning labels ranged from 0% to 78.7%. With the exception of the most basic label, less than half of all patients were able to provide adequate interpretations of the warning label messages. Five themes were derived to describe the common causes for misunderstanding the labels: single-step versus multiple-step instructions, reading difficulty of text, use of icons, use of color, and message clarity. Labels were at greater risk for being misunderstood if they included multiple instructions, had a greater reading difficulty, included unfamiliar terms, or used confusing icons that were discordant with text messages. Participants also frequently imposed an incorrect meaning on label colors, which led to further confusion. Patients with low literacy skills demonstrated a lower rate of correct interpretation of the eight most commonly used PWLs than did those with higher literacy skills. Multiple-step instructions, reading difficulty of text, the use of icons, the use of color, and message clarity were the common causes of label misinterpretation.

  12. Was the media campaign that supported Australia’s new pictorial cigarette warning labels and plain packaging policy associated with more attention to and talking about warning labels?

    PubMed Central

    Nagelhout, Gera E.; Osman, Amira; Yong, Hua-Hie; Huang, Li-Ling; Borland, Ron; Thrasher, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Population-level interventions can possibly enhance each other’s effects when they are implemented simultaneously. When the plain packaging policy was implemented in Australia, pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) on cigarette packages were also updated and a national mass media campaign was aired. This study examined whether smokers who recalled the media campaign reported more attention to and talking about HWLs. Methods Longitudinal survey data was obtained among Australian adult smokers, aged 18 years and older, from an online consumer panel. One survey wave was conducted before (September 2012) and two waves were conducted after (January 2013 and May 2013) the interventions. The sample was replenished to maintain a sample size of 1000 participants at each wave. Generalized Estimating Equations analyses were performed. Results Compared to wave 1, attention to HWLs increased at wave 2 (b = 0.32, SE = 0.06, p < 0.001), but not at wave 3 (b = 0.10, SE = 0.08, p = 0.198). Talking about HWLs increased over time (IRR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.58–2.09 and IRR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.05–1.47, at wave 2 and wave 3 respectively). Campaign recall was significantly associated with more attention to HWLs (b = 0.29, SE = 0.05, p < 0.001) and with more talking about HWLs (IRR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.06–1.29) with similar effects across waves 2 and 3. Conclusions Recall of the campaign was associated with more attention to and talking about HWLs. When adjusting for campaign recall, there was still an increasing trend in attention and talking. This suggests that the media campaign and the new packaging and labeling policies had independent and positive effects on attention to and talking about HWLs. PMID:26050643

  13. Was the media campaign that supported Australia's new pictorial cigarette warning labels and plain packaging policy associated with more attention to and talking about warning labels?

    PubMed

    Nagelhout, Gera E; Osman, Amira; Yong, Hua-Hie; Huang, Li-Ling; Borland, Ron; Thrasher, James F

    2015-10-01

    Population-level interventions can possibly enhance each other's effects when they are implemented simultaneously. When the plain packaging policy was implemented in Australia, pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) on cigarette packages were also updated and a national mass media campaign was aired. This study examined whether smokers who recalled the media campaign reported more attention to and talking about HWLs. Longitudinal survey data was obtained among Australian adult smokers, aged 18 years and older, from an online consumer panel. One survey wave was conducted before (September 2012) and two waves were conducted after (January 2013 and May 2013) the interventions. The sample was replenished to maintain a sample size of 1000 participants at each wave. Generalized Estimating Equations analyses were performed. Compared to wave 1, attention to HWLs increased at wave 2 (b=0.32, SE=0.06, p<0.001), but not at wave 3 (b=0.10, SE=0.08, p=0.198). Talking about HWLs increased over time (IRR=1.82, 95% CI=1.58-2.09 and IRR=1.25, 95% CI=1.05-1.47, at wave 2 and wave 3 respectively). Campaign recall was significantly associated with more attention to HWLs (b=0.29, SE=0.05, p<0.001) and with more talking about HWLs (IRR=1.17, 95% CI=1.06-1.29) with similar effects across waves 2 and 3. Recall of the campaign was associated with more attention to and talking about HWLs. When adjusting for campaign recall, there was still an increasing trend in attention and talking. This suggests that the media campaign and the new packaging and labeling policies had independent and positive effects on attention to and talking about HWLs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessing the Consequences of Implementing Graphic Warning Labels on Cigarette Packs for Tobacco-Related Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Emily; Momjian, Ani; Shapiro-Luft, Dina; Seitz, Holli; Cappella, Joseph N.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Population-level communication interventions, such as graphic warning labels (GWLs) on cigarette packs, have the potential to reduce or exacerbate tobacco-related health disparities depending on their effectiveness among disadvantaged sub-populations. This study evaluated the likely impact of nine GWLs proposed by the US Food and Drug Administration on (1) African American and (2) Hispanic smokers, who disproportionately bear the burden of tobacco-related illness, and (3) low education smokers, who have higher smoking rates. Methods: Data were collected online from current smokers randomly assigned to see GWLs (treatment) or the current text-only warning labels (control). Participants were stratified by age (18–25; 26+) in each of four groups: general population (n = 1246), African Americans (n = 1200), Hispanics (n = 1200), and low education (n = 1790). We tested the effectiveness of GWLs compared to text-only warning labels using eight outcomes that are predictive of quitting intentions or behaviors including negative emotion, intentions to hold back from smoking, intentions to engage in avoidance behaviors, and intentions to quit. Results: Across all outcomes, GWLs were significantly more effective than text-only warning labels more often than expected by chance. Results suggested that African Americans, Hispanics and smokers with low education did not differ from the general population of smokers in their reactions to any of the nine individual GWLs. Conclusions: The nine GWLs were similarly effective for disadvantaged sub-populations and the general population of smokers. Implementation of GWLs is therefore unlikely to reduce or exacerbate existing tobacco-related health disparities, but will most likely uniformly increase intentions and behaviors predictive of smoking cessation. PMID:26180214

  15. Assessing the Consequences of Implementing Graphic Warning Labels on Cigarette Packs for Tobacco-Related Health Disparities.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Laura; Brennan, Emily; Momjian, Ani; Shapiro-Luft, Dina; Seitz, Holli; Cappella, Joseph N

    2015-08-01

    Population-level communication interventions, such as graphic warning labels (GWLs) on cigarette packs, have the potential to reduce or exacerbate tobacco-related health disparities depending on their effectiveness among disadvantaged sub-populations. This study evaluated the likely impact of nine GWLs proposed by the US Food and Drug Administration on (1) African American and (2) Hispanic smokers, who disproportionately bear the burden of tobacco-related illness, and (3) low education smokers, who have higher smoking rates. Data were collected online from current smokers randomly assigned to see GWLs (treatment) or the current text-only warning labels (control). Participants were stratified by age (18-25; 26+) in each of four groups: general population (n = 1246), African Americans (n = 1200), Hispanics (n = 1200), and low education (n = 1790). We tested the effectiveness of GWLs compared to text-only warning labels using eight outcomes that are predictive of quitting intentions or behaviors including negative emotion, intentions to hold back from smoking, intentions to engage in avoidance behaviors, and intentions to quit. Across all outcomes, GWLs were significantly more effective than text-only warning labels more often than expected by chance. Results suggested that African Americans, Hispanics and smokers with low education did not differ from the general population of smokers in their reactions to any of the nine individual GWLs. The nine GWLs were similarly effective for disadvantaged sub-populations and the general population of smokers. Implementation of GWLs is therefore unlikely to reduce or exacerbate existing tobacco-related health disparities, but will most likely uniformly increase intentions and behaviors predictive of smoking cessation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Positive impact of Australian ‘blindness’ tobacco warning labels: findings from the ITC four country survey

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Spafford, Marlee M; Behm, Ilan; Hammond, David; Fong, Geoffrey T; Borland, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Background Smokers with greater knowledge of the health effects of smoking are more likely to quit and remain abstinent. Australia has communicated the causal association of smoking and blindness since the late 1990s. In March 2007, Australia became the first country to include a pictorial warning label on cigarette packages with the message that smoking causes blindness. The current study tested the hypothesis that the introduction of this warning label increased smokers’ knowledge of this important health effect. Methods Six waves of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey were conducted, as a telephone survey of 17,472 adult smokers in Australia, Canada, United Kingdom and the United States, with three waves before and three waves after the blindness health warning was introduced in Australia. The survey measured adult smokers’ knowledge that smoking causes blindness. Results Australian smokers were significantly more likely to report that smoking causes blindness, compared to Canadian, UK and US smokers, where there were neither health campaigns nor health warnings labels about blindness. After the introduction of the blindness warning, Australian smokers were more likely than before the blindness warning to report that they know that smoking causes blindness (62 versus 49 per cent; OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.76, p = 0.04). In Australia, smokers aged over 55 years were less likely than those aged 18 to 24 to report that smoking causes blindness (OR = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.62, p < 0.001). Conclusion While more smokers report that smoking causes blindness in Australia compared to other countries, which have not had national social marketing campaigns, further gains in knowledge were found after pictorial warning labels were introduced in Australia. Findings suggest there is still a need to educate the public about the causal association of smoking and blindness. More education may be needed to redress the knowledge gap in older Australian

  17. Children's misunderstandings of hazard warning signs in the new globally harmonized system for classification and labeling.

    PubMed

    Latham, Garry; Long, Tony; Devitt, Patric

    2013-12-01

    Accidental chemical poisoning causes more than 35 000 child deaths every year across the world, and it leads to disease, disability, and suffering for many more children. Children's ignorance of dangers and their failure to interpret hazard warning signs as intended contribute significantly to this problem. A new Globally Harmonized System for Classification and Labeling is being implemented internationally with a view to unifying the current multiple and disparate national systems. This study was designed to establish a productive, effective means of teaching the new GHS warning signs to primary school children (aged 7-11 years). A pre-test, post-test, follow-up test design was employed, with a teaching intervention informed by a Delphi survey of expert opinion. Children from one school formed the experimental group (n = 49) and a second school provided a control group (n = 23). Both groups showed a gain in knowledge from pre-test to post-test, the experimental group with a larger gain but which was not statistically significant. However, longer-term retention of knowledge, as shown by the follow-up test, was statistically significantly greater in the experimental group (p = 0.001). The employment of teaching to match children's preferred learning styles, and the use of active learning were found to be related to improved retention of knowledge. Part of the study involved eliciting children's interpretation of standard hazard warning symbols, and this provoked considerable concern over the potential for dangerous misinterpretation with disastrous consequences. This article focuses on the reasons for such misconception and the action required to address this successfully in testing the intervention.

  18. Summaries of Safety Labeling Changes Approved by the FDA: Boxed Warnings Highlights July-September 2016.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Teresa

    2016-12-01

    The FDA's MedWatch program safety labeling changes for boxed warnings are compiled quarterly for drugs and therapeutic biologics where important changes have been made to the safety information. Search of Drug Safety Labeling Changes (SLC) database was conducted on October 10, 2016 for date range "7/1/2016-9/30/2016", labeling section "Boxed Warning". These and other label changes are searchable in the Drug Safety Labeling Changes (SLC) database, where data are available to the public in downloadable and searchable formats. (Drug Safety Labeling Changes are available at: http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cder/safetylabelingchanges/?source=govdelivery&utm_medium=email&utm_source=govdelivery.) Boxed warnings are ordinarily used to highlight either: adverse reactions so serious in proportion to the potential benefit from the drug that it is essential that it be considered in assessing the risks and benefits of using the drug; OR serious adverse reactions that can be prevented/reduced in frequency or severity by appropriate use of the drug; OR FDA approved the drug with restrictions to ensure safe use because FDA concluded that the drug can be safely used only if distribution or use is restricted.

  19. 40 CFR 82.110 - Form of label bearing warning statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Form of label bearing warning... contrast are: black letters on a dark blue or dark green background, dark red letters on a light red background, light red letters on a reflective silver background, and white letters on a light gray or...

  20. 40 CFR 82.110 - Form of label bearing warning statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Form of label bearing warning... contrast are: black letters on a dark blue or dark green background, dark red letters on a light red background, light red letters on a reflective silver background, and white letters on a light gray or...

  1. 40 CFR 82.110 - Form of label bearing warning statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Form of label bearing warning... contrast are: black letters on a dark blue or dark green background, dark red letters on a light red background, light red letters on a reflective silver background, and white letters on a light gray or...

  2. 19 CFR 18.4 - Sealing conveyances and compartments; labeling packages; warning cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... commercial shipper seals, Customs red in-bond seals, or other accepted seals. High-security Customs seals... bright red paper, not less than 5 by 8 inches in size, containing the following legend in black or white... warning label, whether as a continuous series in tape form or otherwise, but not less than 11/2 by...

  3. Effectiveness of health warnings for waterpipe tobacco smoking among college students.

    PubMed

    Islam, Farahnaz; Salloum, Ramzi G; Nakkash, Rima; Maziak, Wasim; Thrasher, James F

    2016-07-01

    Youth have the misperception that waterpipe smoking is less harmful than cigarettes despite the evidence that it is associated with nicotine dependence and many of the diseases caused by cigarettes. There is a pressing need to identify effective health warnings that increase awareness about the harmful effects of waterpipe smoking. Our objective was to test the effectiveness of various health warning messages and their location on waterpipe devices. Adult waterpipe smokers from a large US university (N = 367) completed an internet-based survey that tested the effect of text-only and pictorial health warning labels and their location on different parts of waterpipe smoking devices. Text-only messages and pictorial labels warning about harm to children were the most effective in motivating waterpipe smokers to think about quitting. In terms of warning label location, the base, mouthpiece and stem are all equally noticeable locations. This is the first study to test waterpipe-specific warning labels and location on the waterpipe device. Placing waterpipe-specific labels on waterpipe devices may be an effective policy tool to curb waterpipe smoking.

  4. Effectiveness of Health Warnings for Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Farahnaz; Salloum, Ramzi G.; Nakkash, Rima; Maziak, Wasim; Thrasher, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Youth have the misperception that waterpipe smoking is less harmful than cigarettes despite the evidence that it is associated with nicotine dependence and many of the diseases caused by cigarettes. There is a pressing need to identify effective health warnings that increase awareness about the harmful effects of waterpipe smoking. Our objective was to test the effectiveness of various health warning messages and their location on waterpipe devices. Methods Adult waterpipe smokers from a large U.S. university (N=367) completed an internet-based survey that tested the effect of text-only and pictorial health warning labels and their location on different parts of waterpipe smoking devices. Results Text-only messages and pictorial labels warning about harm to children were the most effective in motivating waterpipe smokers to think about quitting. In terms of warning label location, the base, mouthpiece and stem are all equally noticeable locations. Conclusion This is the first study to test waterpipe-specific warning labels and location on the waterpipe device. Placing waterpipe-specific labels on waterpipe devices may be an effective policy tool to curb waterpipe smoking. PMID:26971508

  5. Health Warning Labels for Smokeless Tobacco: The Impact of Graphic Images on Attention, Recall, and Craving.

    PubMed

    Klein, Elizabeth G; Quisenberry, Amanda J; Shoben, Abigail B; Cooper, Sarah; Ferketich, Amy K; Berman, Micah; Peters, Ellen; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2017-10-01

    Little research has examined the impacts of graphic health warnings on the users of smokeless tobacco products. A convenience sample of past-month, male smokeless tobacco users (n = 142; 100% male) was randomly assigned to view a smokeless tobacco advertisement with a graphic health warning (GHW) or a text-only warning. Eye-tracking equipment measured viewing time, or dwell time, in milliseconds. Following the advertisement exposure, participants self-reported smokeless tobacco craving and recalled any content in the health warning message (unaided recall). Linear and logistic regression analyses evaluated the proportion of time viewing the GHW, craving, and GHW recall. Participants who viewed a GHW spent a significantly greater proportion of their ad viewing time on GHWs (2.87 seconds or 30%), compared to those viewing a text-only warning (2.05 seconds or 24%). Although there were no significant differences by condition in total advertisement viewing duration, those participants viewing a GHW had increased recall of health warning messages compared to the text-only warning (76% had any warning message recall compared to 53%; p < .05). Self-reported craving after advertisement exposure was lower in the GHW compared to text-only condition, but the difference was not statistically significant (a rating of 4.4 vs. 5.3 on a 10-point scale; p = .08). GHWs attracted greater attention and greater recall of health warning messages compared to text-only warnings among rural male smokeless tobacco users. Among a sample of rural smokeless tobacco users, GHWs attracted more attention and recall of health warning messages compared to text-only warnings when viewed within smokeless tobacco advertising. These findings provide additional empirical support that GHWs are an effective tobacco control tool for all tobacco products and advertisements.

  6. Ethical and Practical Considerations in Removing Black Box Warnings from Drug Labels.

    PubMed

    Yeh, James S; Sarpatwari, Ameet; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2016-08-01

    Boxed warnings-also known as "black box" warnings-can be a powerful tool in communicating drug risks to physicians and patients. The overall number of boxed warnings has grown in recent years as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved more drugs on the basis of limited pre-marketing information and as new safety issues for marketed drugs have been identified. Two recent manufacturers' petitions to remove boxed warnings on the drugs rosiglitazone (Avandia) and varenicline (Chantix) have led to divergent FDA decisions and revealed different considerations involved in boxed warning imposition and removal. For ethical and practical reasons, the FDA is justified in applying a higher standard for boxed warning removal than for imposition, as removal of a boxed warning may have unintended effects on physician and patient behavior. However, no guidelines on boxed warning removal currently exist. To promote safe use of approved prescription drugs, the FDA should adopt a uniform and transparent process governing decisions to impose or remove boxed warnings.

  7. The role of negative affect and message credibility in perceived effectiveness of smokeless tobacco health warning labels in Navi Mumbai, India and Dhaka, Bangladesh: A moderated-mediation analysis.

    PubMed

    Mutti-Packer, Seema; Reid, Jessica L; Thrasher, James F; Romer, Daniel; Fong, Geoffrey T; Gupta, Prakash C; Pednekar, Mangesh S; Nargis, Nigar; Hammond, David

    2017-10-01

    There is strong evidence showing that pictorial health warnings are more effective than text-only warnings. However, much of this evidence comes from high-income countries and is limited to cigarette packaging. Moreover, few studies have identified mechanisms that might explain the impact of warnings. The current study examined the potential mediating role of negative affect and the moderating influence of message credibility in perceived effectiveness of smokeless tobacco warnings in two low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Field interviews were conducted in India and Bangladesh, with adult (19+ years) smokeless tobacco users (n=1053), and youth (16-18years) users (n=304) and non-users (n=687). Respondents were randomly assigned to view warnings in one of four conditions: (1) Text-only, (2) pictorial with symbolic imagery, (3) pictorial with graphic images of health effects, or (4) pictorial with personalized graphic images plus a personal testimonial. The findings provide support for the mediating influence of negative affect in perceived effectiveness, for adult and youth smokeless tobacco users who viewed pictorial warnings (vs. text-only), and graphic health warnings (vs. personal testimonials). Among adults, message credibility moderated the indirect effect; the association was stronger when credibility was high and weaker when it was low. Among youth users and non-users, message credibility did not moderate the indirect effect. Consistent with research from high-income countries, these findings highlight the importance of selecting imagery that will elicit negative emotional reactions and be perceived as credible. Differential effects among adults and youth highlight the importance of pre-testing images. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effectiveness of the European Union text-only cigarette health warnings: findings from four countries

    PubMed Central

    Mons, Ute; Nagelhout, Gera E.; Guignard, Romain; Mcneill, Ann; Willemsen, Marc C.; Driezen, Pete; Wilquin, Jean-Louis; Beck, François; Du-Roscöat, Enguerrand; Pötschke-Langer, Martina; Hammond, David; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The European Commission requires tobacco products sold in the European Union to display standardized text health warnings. This article examines the effectiveness of the text health warnings among daily cigarette smokers in four Member States. Methods: Data were drawn from nationally representative samples of smokers from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project surveys in France (2007), Germany (2007), the Netherlands (2008) and the UK (2006). We examined: (i) smokers’ ratings of the health warnings on warning salience, thoughts of harm and quitting and forgoing of cigarettes; (ii) impact of the warnings using a Labels Impact Index (LII), with higher scores signifying greater impact; and (iii) differences on the LII by demographic characteristics and smoking behaviour. Results: Scores on the LII differed significantly across countries. Scores were highest in France, lower in the UK, and lowest in Germany and the Netherlands. Across all countries, scores were significantly higher among low-income smokers, smokers who had made a quit attempt in the past year and smokers who smoked fewer cigarettes per day. Conclusion: The impact of the health warnings varies greatly across countries. Impact tended to be highest in countries with more comprehensive tobacco control programmes. Because the impact of the warnings was highest among smokers with the lowest socioeconomic status (SES), this research suggests that health warnings could be more effective among smokers from lower SES groups. Differences in warning label impact by SES should be further investigated. PMID:21920847

  9. Framing Pictorial Cigarette Warning Labels to Motivate Young Smokers to Quit.

    PubMed

    Mays, Darren; Turner, Monique M; Zhao, Xiaoquan; Evans, W Douglas; Luta, George; Tercyak, Kenneth P

    2015-07-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act requires new pictorial warnings for U.S. cigarette packs, but enactment has been delayed by tobacco industry lawsuits. Research can inform implementation of the pictorial warning requirement and identify ways to optimize their public health impact post-implementation. This study investigated the impact of warning label message framing on young smokers' motivation to quit, examining cessation self-efficacy, and perceived risks as moderators of message framing impact. Smokers ages 18-30 (n = 740) completed baseline measures and were randomized to view 4 images of cigarette packs with pictorial health warnings featuring gain- or loss-framed messages. Motivation to quit was assessed after participants viewed the pack images. Linear models accounting for repeated measures and adjusting for baseline covariates examined the impact of message framing and interactions with baseline self-efficacy to quit and perceived risks of smoking. Loss-framed warnings prompted significantly greater motivation to quit among smokers with high self-efficacy compared with smokers with low self-efficacy. Among smokers with low self-efficacy, gain-framed messages were superior to loss-framed messages. Gain-framed warnings generated significantly greater motivation to quit among smokers with high perceived risks compared with smokers with low perceived risks. Among smokers with high perceived risks, gain-framed messages were superior to loss-framed messages. A combination of pictorial warnings featuring risk-based (i.e., loss-framed) and efficacy-enhancing (i.e., gain-framed) information may promote better public health outcomes. Research is needed to investigate how strategically framed warning messages impact smokers' behaviors based on their pre-existing attitudes and beliefs in real-world settings. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved

  10. Framing Pictorial Cigarette Warning Labels to Motivate Young Smokers to Quit

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Monique M.; Zhao, Xiaoquan; Evans, W. Douglas; Luta, George; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act requires new pictorial warnings for U.S. cigarette packs, but enactment has been delayed by tobacco industry lawsuits. Research can inform implementation of the pictorial warning requirement and identify ways to optimize their public health impact post-implementation. This study investigated the impact of warning label message framing on young smokers’ motivation to quit, examining cessation self-efficacy, and perceived risks as moderators of message framing impact. Methods: Smokers ages 18–30 (n = 740) completed baseline measures and were randomized to view 4 images of cigarette packs with pictorial health warnings featuring gain- or loss-framed messages. Motivation to quit was assessed after participants viewed the pack images. Linear models accounting for repeated measures and adjusting for baseline covariates examined the impact of message framing and interactions with baseline self-efficacy to quit and perceived risks of smoking. Results: Loss-framed warnings prompted significantly greater motivation to quit among smokers with high self-efficacy compared with smokers with low self-efficacy. Among smokers with low self-efficacy, gain-framed messages were superior to loss-framed messages. Gain-framed warnings generated significantly greater motivation to quit among smokers with high perceived risks compared with smokers with low perceived risks. Among smokers with high perceived risks, gain-framed messages were superior to loss-framed messages. Conclusions: A combination of pictorial warnings featuring risk-based (i.e., loss-framed) and efficacy-enhancing (i.e., gain-framed) information may promote better public health outcomes. Research is needed to investigate how strategically framed warning messages impact smokers’ behaviors based on their pre-existing attitudes and beliefs in real-world settings. PMID:25143295

  11. Changes in effectiveness of cigarette health warnings over time in Canada and the United States, 2002-2011.

    PubMed

    Hitchman, Sara C; Driezen, Pete; Logel, Christine; Hammond, David; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2014-05-01

    Article 11 of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) requires countries to implement health warnings on tobacco products. The Article 11 guidelines advise countries to periodically rotate warnings to prevent "wearout" of the health warnings. This study investigates potential wearout of cigarette health warnings during a period of 9 years in 2 countries: Canada, where larger pictorial warnings were implemented approximately 1 year prior to the study, and in the United States, where small text-only warnings were in place for 17 years at the beginning of the study. Data were drawn from national samples of smokers from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Surveys in Canada (N = 5,309), and the United States (N = 6,412) who were originally recruited by telephone with random digit dialing. Changes in 4 measures of health warning effectiveness and in a composite Labels Impact Index were examined over 8 waves of survey data (2002-2011). Analyses were conducted in 2012. The health warning effectiveness measures and the Labels Impact Index indicated that the effectiveness of both the Canadian, and the U.S. warnings declined significantly over time. The Canadian warnings showed greater declines in effectiveness than the U.S. warnings, likely due to the initial novelty of the Canadian warnings. Despite the greater decline in Canada, the Canadian pictorial warnings were significantly more effective than the U.S. text-only warnings throughout the study. Health warnings decline in effectiveness over time. Health warnings on tobacco products should be changed periodically to maintain effectiveness.

  12. Changes in Effectiveness of Cigarette Health Warnings Over Time in Canada and the United States, 2002–2011

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Article 11 of the World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) requires countries to implement health warnings on tobacco products. The Article 11 guidelines advise countries to periodically rotate warnings to prevent “wearout” of the health warnings. This study investigates potential wearout of cigarette health warnings during a period of 9 years in 2 countries: Canada, where larger pictorial warnings were implemented approximately 1 year prior to the study, and in the United States, where small text-only warnings were in place for 17 years at the beginning of the study. Methods: Data were drawn from national samples of smokers from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Surveys in Canada (N = 5,309), and the United States (N = 6,412) who were originally recruited by telephone with random digit dialing. Changes in 4 measures of health warning effectiveness and in a composite Labels Impact Index were examined over 8 waves of survey data (2002–2011). Analyses were conducted in 2012. Results: The health warning effectiveness measures and the Labels Impact Index indicated that the effectiveness of both the Canadian, and the U.S. warnings declined significantly over time. The Canadian warnings showed greater declines in effectiveness than the U.S. warnings, likely due to the initial novelty of the Canadian warnings. Despite the greater decline in Canada, the Canadian pictorial warnings were significantly more effective than the U.S. text-only warnings throughout the study. Conclusions: Health warnings decline in effectiveness over time. Health warnings on tobacco products should be changed periodically to maintain effectiveness. PMID:24323572

  13. Cancer illustrations and warning labels on cigarette packs: perceptions of teenagers from high socioeconomic status in Lahore.

    PubMed

    Zil-E-Ali, Ahsan; Ahsen, Noor Fatima; Iqbal, Humaira

    2015-06-01

    Smoking is linked with adverse health outcomes and multi-organ diseases with six million deaths every year. The smoking population includes both genders and the habit is seen in minors as well. The cross-sectional study was conducted in Lahore among teenagers belonging to high socioeconomic class. A sample of 191 students was recruited by convenience sampling. The teenagers were questioned on their perceptions relating to prohibition labels, factors that led them to smoke, and ideas to make health warnings more effective. Overall, 66(34.55%) teenagers were smokers, and of them, 50(75.75%) were boys and 16(24.24%) were girls. Besides, 25(37.9%) smokers were of the view that smoking is a bad habit; 40(60.6%) said prohibition labels would not change the mindset of the smoker; 35(53%)believed that a smoker is completely uninfluenced by prohibition labels. Results suggest that the warning labels on cigarette packs should be made more comprehensible and alarming for smokers.

  14. The role of theory-driven graphic warning labels in motivation to quit: a qualitative study on perceptions from low-income, urban smokers.

    PubMed

    Mead, Erin L; Cohen, Joanna E; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Gallo, Joseph; Latkin, Carl A

    2015-02-07

    Use of communication theories in the development of pictorial health warning labels (graphic warning labels) for cigarette packaging might enhance labels' impact on motivation to quit, but research has been limited, particularly among low socioeconomic status (SES) populations in the U.S. This qualitative study explored perceptions of theory-based graphic warning labels and their role in motivation to quit among low-income smokers. A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted with 25 low-income adult smokers in Baltimore, Maryland, who were purposively sampled from a community-based source population. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted from January to February 2014. Participants were asked about the motivational impact of 12 labels falling into four content categories: negative depictions of the health effects of smoking to smokers and others, and positive depictions of the benefits of quitting to smokers and others. Data were coded using a combined inductive/deductive approach and analyzed thematically through framework analysis. Labels depicting negative health effects to smokers were identified as most motivational, followed by labels depicting negative health effects to others. Reasons included perceived severity of and susceptibility to the effects, negative emotional reactions (such as fear), and concern for children. Labels about the benefits of quitting were described as motivational because of their hopefulness, characters as role models, and desire to improve family health. Reasons why labels were described as not motivational included lack of impact on perceived severity/susceptibility, low credibility, and fatalistic attitudes regarding the inevitability of disease. Labels designed to increase risk perceptions from smoking might be significant sources of motivation for low SES smokers. Findings suggest innovative theory-driven approaches for the design of labels, such as using former smokers as role models, contrasting healthy and

  15. [Impact of cigarette packages warning labels in relation to tobacco-smoking dependence and motivation to quit].

    PubMed

    Mannocci, Alice; Antici, Daniele; Boccia, Antonio; La Torre, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    the principal aim was to assess the impact of health warnings on cigarette packages in Italy, the reduction of daily number of cigarette smoked, in relationship to the tobacco-smoking dependence and motivation to quit. The second aim was to compare the impact of text warnings versus graphi depictions. cross-sectional study (survey). the study was conducted through interviews to an opportunistic sample of smokers.The subject enrolled were adult smokers (years ≥ 18), living in the province of Rome. Data were collected in two outpatient clinics located in Morlupo and Rome. Interviews were administered in the waiting rooms, to patients or to their relatives/ helpers. The survey was conducted in June-September 2010. The sample size (266 participants) was computed using a power of 80%, a confidence level of 95%, an expected frequency of smokers with a low motivation to quit who reduced number of cigarettes due to warnings of 15%, and a frequency of smokers with a higher motivation to quit who reduced number of cigarettes due to warnings of 30%. the effect of the health warnings used in Italy on smoking reduction was measured with the following self-reported items: "Are you or have you been influenced by the health warnings on cigarettes packages (in relation to the daily number of cigarettes smoked)?"; "Have you changed your smoking habits due to the warnings (for example: don't smoking after a coffee.)?"; "Have you ever stopped smoking due to the warnings?" The effect of labels that used shock images on cigarette boxes was measured using followed self-reported questions: "If shocking images were used on cigarette boxes, would they have greater effect than simple warning text currently used?"; "If your favourite cigarettes brand decide to change the look of its cigarette boxes with shocking images on smoking health damages, would you be driven to change it?" thanks to the health warnings, 95% of the 270 participants were informed on smoking damages, 14% (34 smokers

  16. The impact and acceptability of Canadian-style cigarette warning labels among U.S. smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ellen; Romer, Daniel; Slovic, Paul; Jamieson, Kathleen Hall; Wharfield, Leisha; Mertz, C K; Carpenter, Stephanie M

    2007-04-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major source of mortality and medical costs in the United States. More graphic and salient warning labels on cigarette packs as used in Canada may help to reduce smoking initiation and increase quit attempts. However, the labels also may lead to defensive reactions among smokers. In an experimental setting, smokers and nonsmokers were exposed to Canadian or U.S. warning labels. Compared with current U.S. labels, Canadian labels produced more negative affective reactions to smoking cues and to the smoker image among both smokers and nonsmokers without signs of defensive reactions from smokers. A majority of both smokers and nonsmokers endorsed the use of Canadian labels in the United States. Canadian-style warnings should be adopted in the United States as part of the country's overall tobacco control strategy.

  17. Educating smokers about the risk of blindness - insights to improve tobacco product health warning labels.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Hammond, David; Spafford, Marlee M; Douglas, Ornell; Brûlé, Julie; Fong, Geoffrey T; Schultz, Annette S H

    2016-01-01

    Health warning labels (HWL) on tobacco products help educate smokers about the health effects from smoking; however, there is a need to improve HWL content including images and text to increase effectiveness. In Canada, a HWL was created that communicates smoking's causal association with "blindness" from age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This study surveyed Canadian optometrists about their opinions regarding the image and text used in the "blindness" HWL. An online survey was sent to all 4528 registered Canadian optometrists. Respondents were asked if the HWL conveyed important and believable information, and if the picture was appropriate. Optometrists were invited to make open-ended comments about the label which were analyzed using a qualitative analysis framework suitable for health policy evaluation. Frequency distributions were calculated for closed-ended questions. The survey was completed by 850 respondents (19 %). Most respondents (90 %) reported the message was believable/somewhat believable; while 35 % felt the picture was "too graphic". Some respondents reported in their open-ended comments that they were concerned the HWL was internally inconsistent because it reports there is "no effective treatment in most cases" for AMD but the image depicts someone undergoing surgery. There was concern that this may discourage patients from seeking needed treatment. The majority of Canadian optometrist respondents were in agreement that the new, "RISK OF BLINDNESS" pictorial HWL includes important, believable information. Some optometrists had concerns that the HWL included a confusing message or a message that may discourage some patients from pursuing treatment for AMD. Future development of blindness-related HWL should seek practitioner input.

  18. High-visibility warning labels on paracetamol-containing products do not prevent supratherapeutic ingestion in a simulated scenario.

    PubMed

    Rotella, Joe-Anthony; Wong, Anselm; Howell, Jocelyn; Robotham, Amy; Greene, Shaun

    2015-01-01

    In Australia, legislation requires medication containing paracetamol display warning of co-administration with other paracetamol products, and safe maximum daily dosing (4 g). Labelling style, size and visibility differ, potentially leading possible supratherapeutic misadventure. We studied the likelihood of participants exceeding the recommended dose of paracetamol using products with standard packaging versus products labelled with one of two additional warning labels. This was a pilot prospective, observational study, conducted from May 2013 to July 2014. Participants undertook a structured interview to create a simulated 24-h scenario in which they chose from a range of labelled lone paracetamol- and compound paracetamol-containing medications to treat dental pain on six occasions. Participants were randomized to choose from one of three groups of analgesic medications with different package labelling: (1) standard packaging alone, (2) standard packaging + a pre-existing warning label and (3) standard packaging + large customized warning label. The primary outcome was to determine if participants would administer >4 g in 24 h, exceeding the recommended daily dose. One hundred eighteen surveys were completed (response rate 100%, 56% females). Forty-one (35% of total) participants took >4 g within the 24-h scenario period. About 24% (10/42) of the standard packaging group, 37% (13/35) of the standard packaging + pre-existing warning label group and 48% (19/40) of the SP + large customized warning label group ingested >4 g of paracetamol. There were no significant differences between the three groups (p > 0.05). In this small, simulated dental pain scenario, use of customized warning labels did not reduce the likelihood of supratherapeutic misadventure.

  19. The Impact of Cigarette Pack Design, Descriptors, and Warning Labels on Risk Perception in the U.S

    PubMed Central

    Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Hammond, David; Smith, Philip; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background In the U.S., limited evidence exists on the impact of colors and brand imagery used in cigarette pack design. Purpose This study examined the impact of pack design, product descriptors, and health warnings on risk perception and brand appeal. Methods A cross-sectional mall-intercept study was conducted with 197 adult smokers and 200 nonsmokers in Buffalo, NY from June to July 2009 (data analysis from July 2009 to December 2010). Participants were shown 12 sets of packs randomly; each set varied by a particular design feature (color, descriptor) or warning label style (text vs graphic, size, attribution, message framing). Packs were rated on criteria including risk perceptions, quit motivation, and purchase interest. Results Participants selected larger, pictorial, and loss-framed warning labels as more likely to attract attention, encourage thoughts about health risks, motivate quitting, and most effective. Participants were more likely to select packs with lighter color shading and descriptors such as light, silver, and smooth as delivering less tar, smoother taste, and lower health risk, compared to darker-shaded or full flavor packs. Additionally, participants were more likely to select the branded compared to plain white pack when asked which delivered the most tar, smoothest taste, was more attractive, appealed to youth aged <18 years, and contained cigarettes of better quality. Conclusions The findings support larger, graphic health warnings that convey loss-framed messages as most effective in communicating health risks to U.S. adults. The results also indicate that color and product descriptors are associated with false beliefs about risks. Plain packaging may reduce many of the erroneous misperceptions of risk communicated through pack design features. PMID:21565661

  20. The impact of cigarette pack design, descriptors, and warning labels on risk perception in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Hammond, David; Smith, Philip; Cummings, K Michael

    2011-06-01

    In the U.S., limited evidence exists on the impact of colors and brand imagery used in cigarette pack design. This study examined the impact of pack design, product descriptors, and health warnings on risk perception and brand appeal. A cross-sectional mall-intercept study was conducted with 197 adult smokers and 200 nonsmokers in Buffalo NY from June to July 2009 (data analysis from July 2009 to December 2010). Participants were shown 12 sets of packs randomly; each set varied by a particular design feature (color, descriptor) or warning label style (text versus graphic, size, attribution, message framing). Packs were rated on criteria including risk perceptions, quit motivation, and purchase interest. Participants selected larger, pictorial, and loss-framed warning labels as more likely to attract attention, encourage thoughts about health risks, motivate quitting, and be most effective. Participants were more likely to select packs with lighter color shading and descriptors such as light, silver, and smooth as delivering less tar, smoother taste, and lower health risk, compared to darker-shaded or full-flavor packs. Additionally, participants were more likely to select the branded compared to plain white pack when asked which delivered the most tar, smoothest taste, was more attractive, appealed to youth aged <18 years, and contained cigarettes of better quality. The findings support larger, graphic health warnings that convey loss-framed messages as most effective in communicating health risks to U.S. adults. The results also indicate that color and product descriptors are associated with false beliefs about risks. Plain packaging may reduce many of the erroneous misperceptions of risk communicated through pack design features. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pharmacists and patients feedback on empirically designed prescription warning labels: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Shiyanbola, Olayinka O; Smith, Paul D; Huang, Yen-Ming; Mansukhani, Sonal Ghura

    2017-02-01

    Background Recommendations call for the inclusion of both patient and provider input in the redesign of prescription labels. Pharmacist opinions on prescription warning labels are important because they are the health providers who would eventually distribute and explain the revised labels during medication counseling. They may be the first health provider to notice a patient's misunderstanding on how to safely use their prescription medications. Objectives To explore the perspectives of patients and pharmacists on five newly designed PWLs, and examine if there were similarities and differences between patients' and pharmacists' perspectives. Setting Private room in Wisconsin. Methods A descriptive study using semi-structured 60-min face-to-face individual interviews with patients and pharmacists explored patients and pharmacists' feedback on five newly designed PWLs. Patients who were 18 years and older, spoke English, and took a prescription medication and pharmacists who filled prescriptions in an ambulatory setting participated in the study. The patient and pharmacist perspectives on the words (content), picture and color (cosmetic appearance), and placement of warning instructions on the pill bottle (convenience) was based on a label redesign framework. Qualitative content analysis was done. Main outcome measure Patient and pharmacist perspectives on the newly designed PWLs. Results Twenty-one patients and eight pharmacists practicing in an academic medical center outpatient setting (n = 5) or retail pharmacy (n = 3) participated. All patients and pharmacists wanted the PWLs positioned on the front of the pill bottle but not the side of the bottle or warning instructions embedded into the main prescription label. Other similarities included participants preferring: (1) pictures closely depicting the instructions and (2) the use of yellow highlighting on the PWL to draw attention to it. There were differences in patient and pharmacist perspectives

  2. Emotional graphic cigarette warning labels reduce the electrophysiological brain response to smoking cues.

    PubMed

    Wang, An-Li; Romer, Dan; Elman, Igor; Turetsky, Bruce I; Gur, Ruben C; Langleben, Daniel D

    2015-03-01

    There is an ongoing public debate about the new graphic warning labels (GWLs) that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposes to place on cigarette packs. Tobacco companies argued that the strongly emotional images FDA proposed to include in the GWLs encroached on their constitutional rights. The court ruled that FDA did not provide sufficient scientific evidence of compelling public interest in such encroachment. This study's objectives were to examine the effects of the GWLs on the electrophysiological and behavioral correlates of smoking addiction and to determine whether labels rated higher on the emotional reaction (ER) scale are associated with greater effects. We studied 25 non-treatment-seeking smokers. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants viewed a random sequence of paired images, in which visual smoking (Cues) or non-smoking (non-Cues) images were preceded by GWLs or neutral images. Participants reported their cigarette craving after viewing each pair. Dependent variables were magnitude of P300 ERPs and self-reported cigarette craving in response to Cues. We found that subjective craving response to Cues was significantly reduced by preceding GWLs, whereas the P300 amplitude response to Cues was reduced only by preceding GWLs rated high on the ER scale. In conclusion, our study provides experimental neuroscience evidence that weighs in on the ongoing public and legal debate about how to balance the constitutional and public health aspects of the FDA-proposed GWLs. The high toll of smoking-related illness and death adds urgency to the debate and prompts consideration of our findings while longitudinal studies of GWLs are underway. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Emotional graphic cigarette warning labels reduce the electrophysiological brain response to smoking cues

    PubMed Central

    Wang, An-Li; Romer, Dan; Elman, Igor; Turetsky, Bruce I.; Gur, Ruben C.; Langleben, Daniel D.

    2015-01-01

    There is an ongoing public debate about the new graphic warning labels (GWLs) that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposes to place on cigarette packs. Tobacco companies argued that the strongly emotional images FDA proposed to include in the GWLs encroached on their constitutional rights. The court ruled that FDA did not provide sufficient scientific evidence of compelling public interest in such encroachment. This study’s objectives were to examine the effects of the GWLs on the electrophysiological and behavioral correlates of smoking addiction and to determine whether labels rated higher on the emotional reaction (ER) scale are associated with greater effects. We studied 25 non-treatment-seeking smokers. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants viewed a random sequence of paired images, in which visual smoking (Cues) or non-smoking (non-Cues) images were preceded by GWLs or neutral images. Participants reported their cigarette craving after viewing each pair. Dependent variables were magnitude of P300 ERPs and self-reported cigarette craving in response to Cues. We found that subjective craving response to Cues was significantly reduced by preceding GWLs, whereas the P300 amplitude response to Cues was reduced only by preceding GWLs rated high on the ER scale. In conclusion, our study provides experimental neuroscience evidence that weighs in on the ongoing public and legal debate about how to balance the constitutional and public health aspects of the FDA-proposed GWLs. The high toll of smoking-related illness and death adds urgency to the debate and prompts consideration of our findings while longitudinal studies of GWLs are underway. PMID:24330194

  4. Neural response to pictorial health warning labels can predict smoking behavioral change.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Philip J; Newman-Norlund, Roger D; Baer, Jessica; Thrasher, James F

    2016-11-01

    In order to improve our understanding of how pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) influence smoking behavior, we examined whether brain activity helps to explain smoking behavior above and beyond self-reported effectiveness of HWLs. We measured the neural response in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and the amygdala while adult smokers viewed HWLs. Two weeks later, participants' self-reported smoking behavior and biomarkers of smoking behavior were reassessed. We compared multiple models predicting change in self-reported smoking behavior (cigarettes per day [CPD]) and change in a biomarkers of smoke exposure (expired carbon monoxide [CO]). Brain activity in the vmPFC and amygdala not only predicted changes in CO, but also accounted for outcome variance above and beyond self-report data. Neural data were most useful in predicting behavioral change as quantified by the objective biomarker (CO). This pattern of activity was significantly modulated by individuals' intention to quit. The finding that both cognitive (vmPFC) and affective (amygdala) brain areas contributed to these models supports the idea that smokers respond to HWLs in a cognitive-affective manner. Based on our findings, researchers may wish to consider using neural data from both cognitive and affective networks when attempting to predict behavioral change in certain populations (e.g. cigarette smokers). © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Neural response to pictorial health warning labels can predict smoking behavioral change

    PubMed Central

    Riddle, Philip J.; Newman-Norlund, Roger D.; Baer, Jessica; Thrasher, James F.

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve our understanding of how pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) influence smoking behavior, we examined whether brain activity helps to explain smoking behavior above and beyond self-reported effectiveness of HWLs. We measured the neural response in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and the amygdala while adult smokers viewed HWLs. Two weeks later, participants’ self-reported smoking behavior and biomarkers of smoking behavior were reassessed. We compared multiple models predicting change in self-reported smoking behavior (cigarettes per day [CPD]) and change in a biomarkers of smoke exposure (expired carbon monoxide [CO]). Brain activity in the vmPFC and amygdala not only predicted changes in CO, but also accounted for outcome variance above and beyond self-report data. Neural data were most useful in predicting behavioral change as quantified by the objective biomarker (CO). This pattern of activity was significantly modulated by individuals’ intention to quit. The finding that both cognitive (vmPFC) and affective (amygdala) brain areas contributed to these models supports the idea that smokers respond to HWLs in a cognitive-affective manner. Based on our findings, researchers may wish to consider using neural data from both cognitive and affective networks when attempting to predict behavioral change in certain populations (e.g. cigarette smokers). PMID:27405615

  6. Compelled commercial speech: the Food and Drug Administration's effort to smoke out the tobacco industry through graphic warning labels.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Bryan M; Andrews, Anne Hampton; Jacob, C Reade

    2013-01-01

    FDA's proposed graphic warning labels for cigarette packages have been scrutinized for potentially violating the First Amendment's free speech clause. This article addresses the distinction between the commercial speech and compelled speech doctrines and their applicability in analyzing the constitutionality of the labels. The government's position is that the labels evoke an emotional response and educate consumers, while tobacco companies argue that the labels forcibly promote the government's message. Two federal appellate courts, applying different legal standards, have arrived at different conclusions. This article advocates that the Supreme Court, if faced with review of the labels, should apply strict scrutiny and declare the labels unconstitutional.

  7. Distribution of new graphic warning labels: Are tobacco companies following regulations?

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Nick; Peace, Jo; Li, Judy; Edwards, Richard; Hoek, Janet; Stanley, James; Thomson, George

    2009-01-01

    warnings, particularly given that these are an effective tobacco control intervention that cost tax payers nothing. PMID:19706188

  8. The impact of false warnings on partial and full lane departure warnings effectiveness and acceptance in car driving.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Jordan; Yousfi, Elsa; Deniel, Jonathan; Jallais, Christophe; Bueno, Mercedes; Fort, Alexandra

    2016-12-01

    In the past, lane departure warnings (LDWs) were demonstrated to improve driving behaviours during lane departures but little is known about the effects of unreliable warnings. This experiment focused on the influence of false warnings alone or in combination with missed warnings and warning onset on assistance effectiveness and acceptance. Two assistance unreliability levels (33 and 17%) and two warning onsets (partial and full lane departure) were manipulated in order to investigate interaction. Results showed that assistance, regardless unreliability levels and warning onsets, improved driving behaviours during lane departure episodes and outside of these episodes by favouring better lane-keeping performances. Full lane departure and highly unreliable warnings, however, reduced assistance efficiency. Drivers' assistance acceptance was better for the most reliable warnings and for the subsequent warnings. The data indicate that imperfect LDWs (false warnings or false and missed warnings) further improve driving behaviours compared to no assistance. Practitioner Summary: This study revealed that imperfect lane departure warnings are able to significantly improve driving performances and that warning onset is a key element for assistance effectiveness and acceptance. The conclusion may be of particular interest for lane departure warning designers.

  9. Recall of anti-tobacco advertising and information, warning labels and news stories in a national sample of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Anna K; Borland, Ron; Sarin, Jasmine; Wallace, Sharon; van der Sterren, Anke E; Stevens, Matthew; Thomas, David P

    2015-06-01

    To describe recall of anti-tobacco advertising (mainstream and targeted), pack warning labels, and news stories among a national sample of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers, and to assess the association of these messages with attitudes that support quitting, including wanting to quit. A quota sampling design was used to recruit participants from communities served by 34 Aboriginal community-controlled health services and one community in the Torres Strait. We surveyed 1643 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers from April 2012 to October 2013. Frequency of recall of advertising and information, warning labels and news stories; recall of targeted and local advertising; attitudes about smoking and wanting to quit. More smokers recalled often noticing warning labels in the past month (65%) than recalled advertising and information (45%) or news stories (24%) in the past 6 months. When prompted, most (82%) recalled seeing a television advertisement. Just under half (48%) recalled advertising that featured an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person or artwork (targeted advertising), and 16% recalled targeted advertising from their community (local advertising). Frequent recall of warning labels, news stories and advertising was associated with worry about health and wanting to quit, but only frequent advertising recall was associated with believing that society disapproves of smoking. The magnitude of association with relevant attitudes and wanting to quit increased for targeted and local advertising. Strategies to tackle Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smoking should sustain high levels of exposure to anti-tobacco advertising, news stories and warning labels. More targeted and local information may be particularly effective to influence relevant beliefs and subsequently increase quitting.

  10. Disclaimer labels on fashion magazine advertisements: effects on social comparison and body dissatisfaction.

    PubMed

    Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy; Bury, Belinda; Hawkins, Kimberley; Firth, Bonny

    2013-01-01

    Recent proposals across a number of Western countries have suggested that idealised media images should carry some sort of disclaimer informing readers when these images have been digitally enhanced. The present studies aimed to experimentally investigate the impact on women's body dissatisfaction of the addition of such warning labels to fashion magazine advertisements. Participants were 120 and 114 female undergraduate students in Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 respectively. In both experiments, participants viewed fashion magazine advertisements with either no warning label, a generic warning label, or a specific more detailed warning label. In neither experiment was there a significant effect of type of label. However, state appearance comparison was found to predict change in body dissatisfaction irrespective of condition. Unexpectedly, trait appearance comparison moderated the effect of label on body dissatisfaction, such that for women high on trait appearance comparison, exposure to specific warning labels actually resulted in increased body dissatisfaction. In sum, the present results showed no benefit of warning labels in ameliorating the known negative effect of viewing thin-ideal media images, and even suggested that one form of warning (specific) might be harmful for some individuals. Accordingly, it was concluded that more extensive research is required to guide the most effective use of disclaimer labels.

  11. Graphic Warning Labels and the Cost Savings from Reduced Smoking among Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Tauras, John A; Peck, Richard M; Cheng, Kai-Wen; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2017-02-08

    Introduction: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has estimated the economic impact of Graphic Warning Labels (GWLs). By omitting the impact on tobacco consumption by pregnant women, the FDA analysis underestimates the economic benefits that would occur from the proposed regulations. There is a strong link between the occurrence of low birth weight babies and smoking while pregnant. Low birth weight babies in turn generate much higher hospital costs than normal birth weight babies. This study aims to fill the gap by quantifying the national hospital cost savings from the reductions in prenatal smoking that will arise if GWLs are implemented in the U.S. Data and Methods: This study uses several data sources. It uses Natality Data from the National Vital Statistics System of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) in 2013 to estimate the impact of prenatal smoking on the likelihood of having a low-birth-weight baby, controlling for socio-economic and demographic characteristics as well as medical and non-medical risk factors. Using these estimates, along with the estimates of Huang et al. (2014) regarding the effect of GWLs on smoking, we calculate the change in the number of LBW (low birth weight) babies resulting from decreased prenatal smoking due to GWLs. Using this estimated change and the estimates from Russell et al. (2007) and AHRQ (2013) on the excess hospital costs of LBW babies, we calculate cost saving that arises from reduced prenatal smoking in response of GWLs. Results and Conclusions: Our results indicated that GWLs for this population could lead to hospital cost savings of 1.2 billion to 2.0 billion dollars over a 30 year horizon.

  12. Graphic Warning Labels and the Cost Savings from Reduced Smoking among Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Tauras, John A.; Peck, Richard M.; Cheng, Kai-Wen; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has estimated the economic impact of Graphic Warning Labels (GWLs). By omitting the impact on tobacco consumption by pregnant women, the FDA analysis underestimates the economic benefits that would occur from the proposed regulations. There is a strong link between the occurrence of low birth weight babies and smoking while pregnant. Low birth weight babies in turn generate much higher hospital costs than normal birth weight babies. This study aims to fill the gap by quantifying the national hospital cost savings from the reductions in prenatal smoking that will arise if GWLs are implemented in the U.S. Data and Methods: This study uses several data sources. It uses Natality Data from the National Vital Statistics System of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) in 2013 to estimate the impact of prenatal smoking on the likelihood of having a low-birth-weight baby, controlling for socio-economic and demographic characteristics as well as medical and non-medical risk factors. Using these estimates, along with the estimates of Huang et al. (2014) regarding the effect of GWLs on smoking, we calculate the change in the number of LBW (low birth weight) babies resulting from decreased prenatal smoking due to GWLs. Using this estimated change and the estimates from Russell et al. (2007) and AHRQ (2013) on the excess hospital costs of LBW babies, we calculate cost saving that arises from reduced prenatal smoking in response of GWLs. Results and Conclusions: Our results indicated that GWLs for this population could lead to hospital cost savings of 1.2 billion to 2.0 billion dollars over a 30 year horizon. PMID:28208749

  13. Neural correlates of graphic cigarette warning labels predict smoking cessation relapse.

    PubMed

    Owens, Max M; MacKillop, James; Gray, Joshua C; Hawkshead, Brittany E; Murphy, Cara M; Sweet, Lawrence H

    2017-04-30

    Exposure to graphic warning labels (GWLs) on cigarette packaging has been found to produce heightened activity in brain regions central to emotional processing and higher-order cognitive processes. The current study extends this literature by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate neural activation in response to GWLs and use it to predict relapse in an evidence-based smoking cessation treatment program. Participants were 48 treatment-seeking nicotine-dependent smokers who completed an fMRI paradigm in which they were exposed to GWLs, text-only warning labels (TOLs), and matched control stimuli. Subsequently, they enrolled in smoking cessation treatment and their smoking behavior was monitored. Activation in bilateral amygdala, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right inferior frontal gyrus, left medial temporal gyrus, bilateral occipital lobe, and bilateral fusiform gyrus was greater during GWLs than TOLs. Neural response in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) during exposure to GWLs (relative to a visual control image) predicted relapse during treatment beyond baseline demographic and dependence severity, but response in the amygdala to GWLs did not. These findings suggest that neurocognitive processes in the vmPFC may be critical to understanding how GWL's induce behavior change and may be useful as a predictor of smoking cessation treatment prognosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Systematic Review of Fatalities Related to Acute Ingestion of Salt. A Need for Warning Labels?

    PubMed

    Campbell, Norm R C; Train, Emma J

    2017-06-23

    There are sporadic cases of fatalities from acutely eating salt. Yet, on social media, there are "challenges to" and examples of children and some adults acutely eating salt, and recently a charity advocated eating small amounts of salt to empathize with Syrian refugees. We performed a systematic review of fatalities from ingesting salt to assess if relatively moderate doses of salt could be fatal. In 27 reports, there were 35 fatalities documented (19 in adults and 16 in children). The lethal dose was estimated to be less than 10 g of sodium (<5 teaspoons of salt) in two children, and less than 25 g sodium in four adults (<4 tablespoons of salt). The frequency of fatal ingestion of salt is not able to be discerned from our review. If investigation of the causes of hypernatremia in hospital records indicates salt overdose is relatively common, consideration could be given to placing warning labels on salt containers and shakers. Such warning labels can have the added advantage of reducing dietary salt consumption.

  15. A Systematic Review of Fatalities Related to Acute Ingestion of Salt. A Need for Warning Labels?

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Norm R. C.; Train, Emma J.

    2017-01-01

    There are sporadic cases of fatalities from acutely eating salt. Yet, on social media, there are “challenges to” and examples of children and some adults acutely eating salt, and recently a charity advocated eating small amounts of salt to empathize with Syrian refugees. We performed a systematic review of fatalities from ingesting salt to assess if relatively moderate doses of salt could be fatal. In 27 reports, there were 35 fatalities documented (19 in adults and 16 in children). The lethal dose was estimated to be less than 10 g of sodium (<5 teaspoons of salt) in two children, and less than 25 g sodium in four adults (<4 tablespoons of salt). The frequency of fatal ingestion of salt is not able to be discerned from our review. If investigation of the causes of hypernatremia in hospital records indicates salt overdose is relatively common, consideration could be given to placing warning labels on salt containers and shakers. Such warning labels can have the added advantage of reducing dietary salt consumption. PMID:28644412

  16. A qualitative content analysis of cigarette health warning labels in Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

    PubMed

    Haines-Saah, Rebecca J; Bell, Kirsten; Dennis, Simone

    2015-02-01

    The legislation of health warning labels on cigarette packaging is a major focus for tobacco control internationally and is a key component of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. This population-level intervention is broadly supported as a vital measure for warning people about the health consequences of smoking. However, some components of this approach warrant close critical inspection. Through a qualitative content analysis of the imagery used on health warning labels from 4 countries, we consider how this imagery depicts people that smoke. By critically analyzing this aspect of the visual culture of tobacco control, we argue that this imagery has the potential for unintended consequences, and obscures the social and embodied contexts in which smoking is experienced.

  17. A Qualitative Content Analysis of Cigarette Health Warning Labels in Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Kirsten; Dennis, Simone

    2015-01-01

    The legislation of health warning labels on cigarette packaging is a major focus for tobacco control internationally and is a key component of the World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. This population-level intervention is broadly supported as a vital measure for warning people about the health consequences of smoking. However, some components of this approach warrant close critical inspection. Through a qualitative content analysis of the imagery used on health warning labels from 4 countries, we consider how this imagery depicts people that smoke. By critically analyzing this aspect of the visual culture of tobacco control, we argue that this imagery has the potential for unintended consequences, and obscures the social and embodied contexts in which smoking is experienced. PMID:25521883

  18. The Impact of Health Warning Labels for Swedish Snus Advertisements on Young Adults' Snus Perceptions and Behavioral Intentions.

    PubMed

    Mays, Darren; Moran, Meghan B; Levy, David T; Niaura, Raymond S

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the impact of warning labels conveying the potential harms and addictiveness of Swedish snus and the potential-reduced harms of Swedish snus among young adult nonsmokers and smokers. A convenience sample of young adults aged 18-30 residing in the United States (n = 517, 56% male, 33% smokers) participated in an online experiment. Participants completed baseline measures and were randomized to 1 of 5 experimental conditions where they viewed a Swedish snus ad with warning labels that varied by condition: (1) Control-no warning; (2) Addiction-warning conveying the addictiveness of snus; (3) Harm-warning communicating the potential harms of snus; (4) Harm Reduction-warning conveying the potential-reduced harms of snus compared with cigarettes; (5) Harm Reduction Switch-warning communicating the potential-reduced harms of snus when switching completely from cigarettes to snus. Outcomes measured included perceived harms and addictiveness of snus, thoughts about not using snus, and intentions to use snus. Participants in the Harm Reduction and Harm Reduction Switch conditions perceived snus to be less harmful than cigarettes compared with the Control, Addiction, and Harm conditions. Nonsmokers in the Harm Reduction condition reported fewer thoughts about not using snus than nonsmokers in the Harm condition. Warnings conveying the potential-reduced harms of Swedish snus compared with cigarettes generate perceptions that snus is less harmful than cigarettes and produce fewer thoughts about not using snus among nonsmokers. Such perceptions have been associated with snus use in prior studies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Pictorial Health Warning Label Content and Smokers' Understanding of Smoking-Related Risks--A Cross-Country Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swayampakala, Kamala; Thrasher, James F.; Hammond, David; Yong, Hua-Hie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Krugman, Dean; Brown, Abraham; Borland, Ron; Hardin, James

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess smokers' level of agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents relative to inclusion of these topics on health warning labels (HWLs). 1000 adult smokers were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 from online consumer panels of adult smokers from each of the three countries: Australia…

  20. Pictorial Health Warning Label Content and Smokers' Understanding of Smoking-Related Risks--A Cross-Country Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swayampakala, Kamala; Thrasher, James F.; Hammond, David; Yong, Hua-Hie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Krugman, Dean; Brown, Abraham; Borland, Ron; Hardin, James

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess smokers' level of agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents relative to inclusion of these topics on health warning labels (HWLs). 1000 adult smokers were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 from online consumer panels of adult smokers from each of the three countries: Australia…

  1. 16 CFR 316.4 - Requirement to place warning labels on commercial electronic mail that contains sexually oriented...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirement to place warning labels on commercial electronic mail that contains sexually oriented material. 316.4 Section 316.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CAN-SPAM RULE § 316.4 Requirement...

  2. 16 CFR 316.4 - Requirement to place warning labels on commercial electronic mail that contains sexually oriented...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirement to place warning labels on commercial electronic mail that contains sexually oriented material. 316.4 Section 316.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CAN-SPAM RULE § 316.4 Requirement...

  3. 16 CFR 316.4 - Requirement to place warning labels on commercial electronic mail that contains sexually oriented...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirement to place warning labels on commercial electronic mail that contains sexually oriented material. 316.4 Section 316.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CAN-SPAM RULE § 316.4 Requirement...

  4. 16 CFR 316.4 - Requirement to place warning labels on commercial electronic mail that contains sexually oriented...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirement to place warning labels on commercial electronic mail that contains sexually oriented material. 316.4 Section 316.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CAN-SPAM RULE § 316.4 Requirement...

  5. Associations of Proposed Relative-Risk Warning Labels for Snus With Perceptions and Behavioral Intentions Among Tobacco Users and Nonusers.

    PubMed

    Rodu, Brad; Plurphanswat, Nantaporn; Hughes, John R; Fagerström, Karl

    2016-05-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration can require changes in warning statements for modified risk tobacco products. We report an independent analysis of a consumer perception survey sponsored by Swedish Match as part of a Modified Risk Tobacco Product application to change warning labels for Swedish snus products. The survey exposed each of 4324 daily exclusive cigarette smokers, 1033 daily smokeless tobacco users, 1205 daily other tobacco users, 726 former users, and 5915 triers/never users to one of four current warnings and two proposed relative-risk labels (No tobacco product is safe, but this product presents lower risks to health than cigarettes, or No tobacco product is safe, but this product presents substantially lower risks to health than cigarettes) for snus. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses examined four outcomes: believability, harmfulness, motivation to use, and intention to buy snus. Compared with the current not-safe-alternative warning, adult tobacco users who viewed the proposed labels perceived them as less believable, perceived snus as less harmful and were more likely to use and buy snus. The proposed labels had no impact on former smokers' likelihood to use and buy snus; triers/never users viewing the substantially lower risk label were more likely to buy snus. Tobacco users viewing the proposed labels perceived snus as less harmful than cigarettes and may be more likely to use and buy snus. If labeling changes lead to increased snus use and cigarette reduction or abstinence, public health may benefit. If the opposite occurs, public health could suffer. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The impact of graphic cigarette warning labels and smoke-free law on health awareness and thoughts of quitting in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fong-ching; Chung, Chi-hui; Yu, Po-tswen; Chao, Kun-yu

    2011-04-01

    The present study evaluated the impact of Taiwan's graphic cigarette warning labels and smoke-free law on awareness of the health hazards of smoking and thoughts of quitting smoking. National representative samples of 1074 and 1094 people, respectively, were conducted successfully by telephone in July 2008 (pre-law) and March 2009 (post-law). Results reveal that the prevalence of thinking about the health hazards of smoking among smokers increased from 50.6% pre-law to 79.6% post-law, while the prevalence among non-smokers increased from 68.8 to 94.1% during the same period. The prevalence rates of smokers who reported thinking of quitting rose from 30.2% pre-law to 51.7% post-law. Multivariate analyses results indicated that the implementation of graphic warning labels and the smoke-free law significantly increased the odds of awareness about the health hazards of smoking [odds ratio (OR) = 6.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.84-8.44] and thoughts of quitting smoking (OR = 2.39, 95% CI = 1.48-3.87). In conclusion, the implementation of a smoke-free law in combination with graphic cigarette warning labels has been effective in increasing thoughts about the health hazards of smoking and quitting smoking.

  7. Awareness of smoking risks and attitudes towards graphic health warning labels on cigarette packs: a cross-cultural study of two populations in Singapore and Scotland.

    PubMed

    Ng, D H L; Roxburgh, S T D; Sanjay, S; Au Eong, K G

    2010-05-01

    Little is known about the level of awareness of blindness as a smoking-related condition, although the relationship has been well established. To compare the awareness of smoking risks and the impact of graphic health warning labels on cigarette packs in discouraging smoking among adults in Singapore and Scotland. A cross-sectional survey using a structured interview of adults in ophthalmic, general medical, and general surgical outpatient clinics in Singapore and Scotland. One hundred and fifteen out of 163 (70.6%) outpatients in Singapore and 105 out of 112 (93.8%) outpatients in Scotland responded to the study. In both samples, awareness levels for smoking-related diseases such as lung cancer, mouth and throat cancer, heart disease, and stroke were all greater than 85%. These were found to be significantly higher than the level of awareness of blindness as a smoking-related condition (chi (2)-test, P<0.001). Although the awareness of blindness as a smoking-related condition was greater in Singapore (36.5%) than in Scotland (30.5%), this difference was not statistically significant. More than half of the respondents indicated that graphic health warning labels would be effective in discouraging them from smoking. Graphic health warning labels reading 'Smoking causes blindness' printed on cigarette packs may be useful in raising public awareness of blindness as a smoking-related condition and discouraging the habit of smoking in Singapore and Scotland.

  8. The influence of graphic warning labels on efficacy beliefs and risk perceptions: a qualitative study with low-income, urban smokers.

    PubMed

    Mead, Erin L; Cohen, Joanna E; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Gallo, Joseph; Latkin, Carl A

    2016-01-01

    Health communication theories indicate that messages depicting efficacy and threat might promote behavior change by enhancing individuals' efficacy beliefs and risk perceptions, but this has received little attention in graphic warning label research. We explored low socioeconomic status (SES) smokers' perceptions of theory-based graphic warning labels to inform the development of labels to promote smoking cessation. Twelve graphic warning labels were developed with self-efficacy and response efficacy messages paired with messages portraying high, low, or no threat from smoking. Self-efficacy messages were designed to promote confidence in ability to quit, while response efficacy messages were designed to promote confidence in the ability of the Quitline to aid cessation. From January - February 2014, we conducted in-depth interviews with 25 low SES adult men and women smokers in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S. Participants discussed the labels' role in their self-efficacy beliefs, response efficacy beliefs about the Quitline, and risk perceptions (including perceived severity of and susceptibility to disease). Data were analyzed through framework analysis, a type of thematic analysis. Efficacy messages in which participants vicariously experienced the characters' quit successes were reported as most influential to self-efficacy beliefs. Labels portraying a high threat were reported as most influential to participants' perceived severity of and susceptibility to smoking risks. Self-efficacy messages alone and paired with high threat were seen as most influential on self-efficacy beliefs. Labels portraying the threat from smoking were most motivational for calling the Quitline, followed by labels showing healthy role models who had successfully quit using the Quitline. Role model-based efficacy messages might enhance the effectiveness of labels by making smokers' self-efficacy beliefs about quitting most salient and enhancing the perceived efficacy of the Quitline

  9. An experimental study of the effects of electronic cigarette warnings on young adult nonsmokers' perceptions and behavioral intentions.

    PubMed

    Mays, Darren; Smith, Clayton; Johnson, Andrea C; Tercyak, Kenneth P; Niaura, Raymond S

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarette ("e-cigarette") manufacturers use warning labels on their advertising that vary widely in content and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has issued a warning label requirement for e-cigarettes. There is limited data on the effects of these warnings on e-cigarette perceptions and other potential predictors of future tobacco use behavior in populations of interest to inform future regulatory requirements. This study examined the effects of e-cigarette warnings on perceptions of e-cigarettes and cigarettes and other cognitive precursors to tobacco use among young adult non-smokers. Non-smoking young adults ages 18 to 30 years (n = 436) were recruited through an internet-based crowdsourcing platform for an online experiment. Participants completed pre-exposure measures of demographics, tobacco use, and other relevant constructs and were randomized to view 1 of 9 e-cigarette stimuli in a 3 (Ad/Warning condition: Ad Only, Ad with Warning, Warning Only) x 3 (E-cigarette brand: Blu, MarkTen, Vuse) design. After viewing e-cigarette stimuli, participants reported perceptions of e-cigarettes and behavioral intentions to use e-cigarettes. Participants in the Ad Only and Ad with Warning conditions also completed a heat-mapping task assessing aspects of the ads that captured their attention. Then, participants were randomized to view cigarette ads from 1 of 3 major cigarette brands and reported perceptions of cigarettes and intentions to smoke cigarettes. Participants in the Warning Only condition reported significantly greater perceived harm and addictiveness of e-cigarettes and thoughts about not using e-cigarettes than the Ad Only and Ad with Warning conditions (p's < .05). The Ad Only and Ad with Warning conditions did not differ on these outcomes. Participants in the Warning Only condition also reported the harms of e-cigarettes were closer to those of cigarettes than the Ad Only condition (p < .05), but neither differed from the Ad with

  10. Augmented reality warnings in vehicles: Effects of modality and specificity on effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Felix; Fastenmeier, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    In the future, vehicles will be able to warn drivers of hidden dangers before they are visible. Specific warning information about these hazards could improve drivers' reactions and the warning effectiveness, but could also impair them, for example, by additional cognitive-processing costs. In a driving simulator study with 88 participants, we investigated the effects of modality (auditory vs. visual) and specificity (low vs. high) on warning effectiveness. For the specific warnings, we used augmented reality as an advanced technology to display the additional auditory or visual warning information. Part one of the study concentrates on the effectiveness of necessary warnings and part two on the drivers' compliance despite false alarms. For the first warning scenario, we found several positive main effects of specificity. However, subsequent effects of specificity were moderated by the modality of the warnings. The specific visual warnings were observed to have advantages over the three other warning designs concerning gaze and braking reaction times, passing speeds and collision rates. Besides the true alarms, braking reaction times as well as subjective evaluation after these warnings were still improved despite false alarms. The specific auditory warnings were revealed to have only a few advantages, but also several disadvantages. The results further indicate that the exact coding of additional information, beyond its mere amount and modality, plays an important role. Moreover, the observed advantages of the specific visual warnings highlight the potential benefit of augmented reality coding to improve future collision warnings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of a rockfall warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bründl, Michael; Sättele, Martina; Krautblatter, Michael; Straub, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Rockslides and rockfalls can pose high risk to human settlements and traffic infrastructure. In addition to structural mitigation measures like rockfall nets, warning systems are increasingly installed to reduce rockfall risks. Whereas for structural mitigation measures with reducing effects on the spatial extent a structured evaluation method is existing, no or only few approaches to assess the effectiveness for warning systems are known. Especially for higher magnitude rockfalls structural mitigation measures are not effective, and reliable early warning systems will be essential in future. In response to that, we developed a classification and a framework to assess the reliability and effectiveness of early warning systems (Sättele et al, 2015a; 2016). Here, we demonstrate an application for the rockfall warning system installed in Preonzo prior to a major rockfall in May 2012 (Sättele et al., 2015b). We show that it is necessary to design such a warning system as fail-safe construction, which has to incorporate components with low failure probabilities, high redundancy, low warning thresholds, and additional control systems. With a hypothetical probabilistic analysis, we investigate the effect of the risk attitude of decision makers and of the number of sensors on the probability of detecting an event and on initiating a timely evacuation, as well as on related intervention cost. We conclude that it is possible to quantitatively assess the effectiveness of warning systems, which helps to optimize mitigation strategies against rockfall events. References Sättele, M., Bründl, M., and Straub, D.: Reliability and effectiveness of warning systems for natural hazards: concept and application to debris flow warning, Rel. Eng. Syst. Safety, 142, 192-202, 2015a. Sättele, M., Krautblatter, M., Bründl, M., and Straub, D.: Forecasting rock slope failure: How reliable and effective are warning systems?, Landslides, 605, 1-14, 2015b. Sättele, M., Bründl, M., and

  12. Cigarette graphic health warning labels and information avoidance among individuals from low socioeconomic position in the U.S.

    PubMed

    McCloud, Rachel Faulkenberry; Okechukwu, Cassandra; Sorensen, Glorian; Viswanath, K

    2017-04-01

    Although graphic health warning labels (GHWs) on cigarette packs have influenced cessation behaviors in other countries, no U.S. studies have explored the impact of avoidance of GHW content among individuals from low socioeconomic position (SEP). The purpose of this study was to determine the predictors of intention to avoid GHWs, and how avoidance impacts cessation intention, in a low SEP sample in the U.S. Data come from low SEP smokers (n = 541) involved in a field experiment. The participants responded to questions pre- and post viewing of GHWs assessing SEP, intention to avoid them, emotional reactions, and intention to seek health information or quit smoking. Backwards stepwise logistic regression determined the predictors for intention to avoid GHWs. Simple and adjusted logistic regression analyzed the association between avoidance and its main predictors and outcomes of intentions to seek information or quit smoking. Predictors for avoidance included being somewhat addicted to cigarettes (OR 2.3, p = 0.002), younger than 25 (OR 2.6, p = 0.008), and having medium (OR 3.4, p < 0.001) or high (OR 4.7, p < 0.001) levels of negative emotional reaction to the labels. Intention to avoid GHWs was positively associated with the intent to look for health information about smoking (OR 2.2, p = 0.002). Higher levels of negative emotional reaction were positively associated with cessation behaviors, with high negative emotional reaction associated with nine times the odds of quitting (p < 0.001). Results indicate avoidance of GHWs does not detract from the labels' benefit and that GHWs are an effective means of communicating smoking risk information among low SEP groups.

  13. The Association between Warning Label Requirements and Cigarette Smoking Prevalence by Education-Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

    PubMed

    Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Cheng, Kai-Wen; He, Yanyun; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2017-01-21

    The Guidelines for the implementation of Article 11 of the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) require that cigarette health warning labels should include pictures and take up 50% or more of the principal display area. This study examined how the association between large pictorial warnings, those covering ≥50% of the front and back of the package, and the prevalence of cigarette smoking varies by educational attainment. We pooled individual-level tobacco use data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) in 18 countries between 2008 and 2013 and linked them with warning label requirements during the same period from the MPOWER database and reports regarding warnings. The respondents' self-reported exposure to warnings was examined according to education. Logistic regressions were further employed to analyze education-specific associations between large pictorial warnings and smoking prevalence, and whether such association differed by education was examined using an interaction test. At the time of the survey, eight out of 18 countries had imposed graphic warning labels that covered ≥50% of the package. These warnings were associated with a 10.0% (OR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.97; p ≤ 0.01) lower cigarette smoking prevalence among adults with less than a secondary education or no formal education, but not among respondents with at least a secondary education. Less educated respondents were also less likely to be exposed to warnings in all 18 countries. The association between strong warnings and lower smoking prevalence among less educated respondents could be greater if their exposure to warnings increases. Prominent pictorial warning labels can potentially reduce health disparities resulting from smoking across different education levels.

  14. The Association between Warning Label Requirements and Cigarette Smoking Prevalence by Education-Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Cheng, Kai-Wen; He, Yanyun; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The Guidelines for the implementation of Article 11 of the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) require that cigarette health warning labels should include pictures and take up 50% or more of the principal display area. This study examined how the association between large pictorial warnings, those covering ≥50% of the front and back of the package, and the prevalence of cigarette smoking varies by educational attainment. Methods: We pooled individual-level tobacco use data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) in 18 countries between 2008 and 2013 and linked them with warning label requirements during the same period from the MPOWER database and reports regarding warnings. The respondents’ self-reported exposure to warnings was examined according to education. Logistic regressions were further employed to analyze education-specific associations between large pictorial warnings and smoking prevalence, and whether such association differed by education was examined using an interaction test. Results: At the time of the survey, eight out of 18 countries had imposed graphic warning labels that covered ≥50% of the package. These warnings were associated with a 10.0% (OR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.97; p ≤ 0.01) lower cigarette smoking prevalence among adults with less than a secondary education or no formal education, but not among respondents with at least a secondary education. Less educated respondents were also less likely to be exposed to warnings in all 18 countries. The association between strong warnings and lower smoking prevalence among less educated respondents could be greater if their exposure to warnings increases. Conclusions: Prominent pictorial warning labels can potentially reduce health disparities resulting from smoking across different education levels. PMID:28117729

  15. Effects of Strengthening Cigarette Pack Warnings on Attention and Message Processing: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Noar, Seth M.; Francis, Diane B.; Bridges, Christy; Sontag, Jennah M.; Brewer, Noel T.; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2016-01-01

    The current study sought to examine the impact of strengthening cigarette pack warnings on attention, message processing, and perceived effectiveness, through a systematic review of longitudinal observational studies. The review included 22 studies (N = 81,824 participants). Strengthened warnings increased attention to warnings, recall of warnings, and thinking about the health risks of smoking. Strengthened warnings also increased several perceived effectiveness outcomes, including perceptions that warnings reduce smoking and motivate quitting. Strengthened cigarette pack warnings achieve their goal of attracting attention and enhancing motivation to act. Strengthening warning policies should be a priority for tobacco control globally.

  16. Is the Effectiveness of Tobacco Image-Based Warning Labels Likely to Vary by Socio-Demographic Variable? Findings from an Online Survey of 19,000 Members of the UK Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styles, Maggie; Williams, Brian; Humphris, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Smoking continues to be a major global cause of mortality and morbidity. Countries have increasingly adopted the use of images as warnings on cigarette packs. We aimed to investigate the likely differential impact of varied images and messages on sub-groups of the United Kingdom (UK) smoking population. Methods: Forty two images…

  17. Is the Effectiveness of Tobacco Image-Based Warning Labels Likely to Vary by Socio-Demographic Variable? Findings from an Online Survey of 19,000 Members of the UK Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styles, Maggie; Williams, Brian; Humphris, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Smoking continues to be a major global cause of mortality and morbidity. Countries have increasingly adopted the use of images as warnings on cigarette packs. We aimed to investigate the likely differential impact of varied images and messages on sub-groups of the United Kingdom (UK) smoking population. Methods: Forty two images…

  18. Vested interests in addiction research and policy. Is the alcohol industry delaying government action on alcohol health warning labels in Australia?

    PubMed

    Mathews, Rebecca; Thorn, Michael; Giorgi, Caterina

    2013-11-01

    This paper examines the strategies and arguments used by segments of the alcohol industry to delay the introduction of mandatory health warning labels on alcohol containers in Australia. These strategies are compared with those used by the tobacco industry to delay the introduction of warning labels for cigarettes. Submissions made by members of the alcohol industry to the Australian Government's review of labelling and Parliamentary Inquiry into Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders were analysed. Segments of the alcohol industry have delayed the introduction of mandatory alcohol health warning labels in Australia by questioning the rationale and evidence base for labels; arguing that they will cause damage to public health and the economy; lobbying and seeking to influence government and political representatives including through monetary donations; and introducing its own voluntary labelling scheme. The arguments made by these organizations against the introduction of mandatory health warning labels for alcohol are flawed and their empirical basis is limited. The Australian Government has delayed the introduction of mandatory alcohol health warning labels in Australia by 2 years, until at least December 2013. The campaigning of some parts of the alcohol industry appears to have been instrumental in this decision. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. The Case for Requiring Graphic Warning Labels on Smokeless Tobacco Product Packages.

    PubMed

    Pakhale, Smita; Samet, Jonathan; Folan, Patricia; Leone, Frank; White, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    On November 10, 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved, for the first time, the sale of smokeless tobacco products authorized under the new premarket tobacco application pathway. This Food and Drug Administration regulatory decision draws attention to the growing worldwide use of smokeless tobacco products in general. Use of these tobacco products is particularly popular in low- and middle-income countries of Asia. Due to aggressive and strategic marketing to children, young adults, and current smokers, rates of smokeless tobacco use in men of all ages are on the rise in United States and elsewhere. The tobacco industry also continues to market these products to current cigarette smokers for use in the growing number of "smoke-free environments." Smokeless tobacco products are associated with cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, particularly the oral cavity, esophagus, and pancreas; cardiovascular diseases; small-for-gestational-age infants; premature births; increased risk of apnea; and stillbirth. There is no convincing evidence regarding the efficacy of smokeless tobacco, including snus, to promote smoking cessation. Rather, studies from Europe and the United States demonstrate that smokeless tobacco use may facilitate regular cigarette smoking by acting as a gateway drug, especially for children. Caution is warranted before proposing smokeless tobacco as a harm-reduction strategy, in part because of the potential for further promoting smokeless tobacco in low- and middle-income countries where use is already widespread. Continued vigilance through comprehensive surveillance is warranted. We strongly recommend the use of graphic warning labels as a "no regrets" strategy for all smokeless tobacco products marketed globally.

  20. Impact of front-of-pack nutrition information and label design on children's choice of two snack foods: Comparison of warnings and the traffic-light system.

    PubMed

    Arrúa, Alejandra; Curutchet, María Rosa; Rey, Natalia; Barreto, Patricia; Golovchenko, Nadya; Sellanes, Andrea; Velazco, Guillermo; Winokur, Medy; Giménez, Ana; Ares, Gastón

    2017-09-01

    Research on the relative influence of package features on children's perception of food products is still necessary to aid policy design and development. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the relative influence of two front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labelling schemes, the traffic light system and Chilean warning system, and label design on children's choice of two popular snack foods in Uruguay, wafer cookies and orange juice. A total of 442 children in grades 4 to 6 from 12 primary schools in Montevideo (Uruguay) participated in the study. They were asked to complete a choice-conjoint task with wafer cookies and orange juice labels, varying in label design and the inclusion of FOP nutrition information. Half of the children completed the task with labels featuring the traffic-light system (n = 217) and the other half with labels featuring the Chilean warning system (n = 225). Children's choices of wafer cookies and juice labels was significantly influenced by both label design and FOP nutritional labels. The relative impact of FOP nutritional labelling on children's choices was higher for the warning system compared to the traffic-light system. Results from the present work stress the need to regulate the design of packages and the inclusion of nutrient claims, and provide preliminary evidence of the potential of warnings to discourage children's choice of unhealthful products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Patterns of combustible tobacco use in U.S. young adults and potential response to graphic cigarette health warning labels.

    PubMed

    Villanti, Andrea C; Pearson, Jennifer L; Cantrell, Jennifer; Vallone, Donna M; Rath, Jessica M

    2015-03-01

    In the evolving landscape of tobacco use, it remains unclear how tobacco control efforts should be designed and promoted for maximum impact. The current study links the identification of latent classes of young adult combustible tobacco users with anticipated responses to graphic health warning labels (HWLs). Data were collected in January 2012 using an online address-based panel as part of the Legacy Young Adult Cohort Study, and analyses were conducted in 2013. Latent class analyses identified five groups of tobacco users in a national sample of 4,236 young adults aged 18-34years: (1) little cigar/cigarillo/bidi (LCC) and hookah users (4%); (2) nonusers, open to smoking (3%); (3) daily smokers who self-identify as "smokers" (11%); (4) nondaily, light smokers who self-identify as "social or occasional smokers" (9%); and (5) nonusers closed to smoking (73%). Of the nonusers closed to smoking, 23% may be better characterized as at risk for tobacco initiation. Results indicate differences in the potential effectiveness of HWLs across classes. Compared to the daily "smokers," LCC and hookah users (RRR=2.35) and nonusers closed to smoking (RRR=2.33) were more than twice as likely to report that new graphic HWLs would make them think about not smoking. This study supports the potential of graphic HWLs to prevent young nonusers from using tobacco products. It suggests that the extension of prominent HWLs to other tobacco products, including LCCs and hookah tobacco, may also serve a prevention function.

  2. Implementation of graphic health warning labels on tobacco products in India: the interplay between the cigarette and the bidi industries

    PubMed Central

    Sankaran, Sujatha; Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To understand the competition between and among tobacco companies and health groups that led to graphical health warning labels (GHWL) on all tobacco products in India. Methods Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents in the Legacy Tobacco Document Library, documents obtained through Indias Right to Information ‘ Act, and news reports. Results Implementation of GHWLs in India reflects a complex interplay between the government and the cigarette and bidi industries, who have shared as well as conflicting interests. Joint lobbying by national-level tobacco companies (that are foreign subsidiaries of multinationals) and local producers of other forms of tobacco blocked GHWLs for decades and delayed the implementation of effective GHWLs after they were mandated in 2007. Tobacco control activists used public interest lawsuits and the Right to Information Act to win government implementation of GHWLs on cigarette, bidi and smokeless tobacco packs in May 2009 and rotating GHWLs in December 2011. Conclusions GHWLs in India illustrate how the presence of bidis and cigarettes in the same market creates a complex regulatory environment. The government imposing tobacco control on multinational cigarette companies led to the enforcement of regulation on local forms of tobacco. As other developing countries with high rates of alternate forms of tobacco use establish and enforce GHWL laws, the tobacco control advocacy community can use pressure on the multinational cigarette industry as an indirect tool to force implementation of regulations on other forms of tobacco. PMID:24950697

  3. Smokers’ reactions to the new larger health warning labels on plain cigarette packs in Australia: Findings from the ITC Australia project

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Hua-Hie; Borland, Ron; Hammond, David; Thrasher, James F.; Cummings, K. Michael; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study examined whether larger sized Australian cigarette health warning labels (HWLs) with plain packaging (PP) were associated with increased desirable reactions towards the HWLs post-implementation. Methods Data were from the ITC longitudinal cohort survey assessing Australian smokers one wave prior to the policy change in 2011 (n=1104) and another wave after the policy change in 2013 (n=1093). We assessed initial attentional orientation (AO) to or away from warnings, plus other reactions, including cognitive reactions towards the HWLs and quit intentions. Results As expected, AO towards the HWLs and reported frequency of noticing warnings increased significantly after the policy change, but not more reading. Smokers also thought more about the harms of smoking and avoided the HWLs more after the policy change, but frequency of forgoing cigarettes did not change. The subgroup who switched from initially focusing away to focusing on the HWLs following the policy change noticed and read the HWLs more, and also thought more about smoking harmful effects, whereas the subgroup (5.4%) who changed to focusing away from the HWLs showed opposite effects. We tested the mediational model of Yong et al (2014) and confirmed it for predicting quit intentions, with larger effects post-policy. Conclusions Increasing the size of HWLs and introducing them on PP in Australia appears to have led to an overall increase in desired levels and strength of some reactions, but evidence of reactance was among a small minority. PMID:25700365

  4. Paradoxical Effects of Warning in the Production of Children's False Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Prete, Francesco; Mirandola, Chiara; Konishi, Mahiko; Cornoldi, Cesare; Ghetti, Simona

    2014-01-01

    The effects of warning on false recognition and associated subjective experience of false recollection and familiarity were investigated in 7-to 13-year-old children and young adults (N = 259) using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Two warning conditions (warning with an example of a critical lure and warning without an example of a…

  5. Paradoxical Effects of Warning in the Production of Children's False Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Prete, Francesco; Mirandola, Chiara; Konishi, Mahiko; Cornoldi, Cesare; Ghetti, Simona

    2014-01-01

    The effects of warning on false recognition and associated subjective experience of false recollection and familiarity were investigated in 7-to 13-year-old children and young adults (N = 259) using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Two warning conditions (warning with an example of a critical lure and warning without an example of a…

  6. Educational differences in the impact of pictorial cigarette warning labels on smokers: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe surveys.

    PubMed

    Nagelhout, Gera E; Willemsen, Marc C; de Vries, Hein; Mons, Ute; Hitchman, Sara C; Kunst, Anton E; Guignard, Romain; Siahpush, Mohammad; Yong, Hua-Hie; van den Putte, Bas; Fong, Geoffrey T; Thrasher, James F

    2016-05-01

    To examine (1) the impact of pictorial cigarette warning labels on changes in self-reported warning label responses: warning salience, cognitive responses, forgoing cigarettes and avoiding warnings, and (2) whether these changes differed by smokers' educational level. Longitudinal data of smokers from two survey waves of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys were used. In France and the UK, pictorial warning labels were implemented on the back of cigarette packages between the two survey waves. In Germany and the Netherlands, the text warning labels did not change. Warning salience decreased between the surveys in France (OR=0.81, p=0.046) and showed a non-significant increase in the UK (OR=1.30, p=0.058), cognitive responses increased in the UK (OR=1.34, p<0.001) and decreased in France (OR=0.70, p=0.002), forgoing cigarettes increased in the UK (OR=1.65, p<0.001) and decreased in France (OR=0.83, p=0.047), and avoiding warnings increased in France (OR=2.93, p<0.001) and the UK (OR=2.19, p<0.001). Warning salience and cognitive responses decreased in Germany and the Netherlands, forgoing did not change in these countries and avoidance increased in Germany. In general, these changes in warning label responses did not differ by education. However, in the UK, avoidance increased especially among low (OR=2.25, p=0.001) and moderate educated smokers (OR=3.21, p<0.001). The warning labels implemented in France in 2010 and in the UK in 2008 with pictures on one side of the cigarette package did not succeed in increasing warning salience, but did increase avoidance. The labels did not increase educational inequalities among continuing smokers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Effects of road surface appearance and low friction warning systems on driver behaviour and confidence in the warning system.

    PubMed

    Kircher, Katja; Thorslund, Birgitta

    2009-02-01

    Warning systems for slippery road conditions are a potential newcomer among driver support systems. A total of 75 participants drove in a high-fidelity driving simulator on roads with both visible and invisible ice, to investigate to which extent drivers rely on a low friction warning system. Three experimental groups with different versions of a low friction warning system and a control group without warning system were compared. All drivers ranked the systems according to trust. A system displaying recommended speed received the best ratings. Driving speed was analysed for three particular segments of the route. Generally, lowest speeds were achieved with the recommended speed system. The participants drove more slowly on a slippery segment that looked icy than on the segments that looked dry when they did not receive a low friction warning. When they received a warning for low friction they also lowered their speed for the segment looking like asphalt. The results provide guidelines for how to present low friction warnings to drivers. The design has substantial effects on the resulting behaviour and therefore it can have a high impact on traffic safety. So far, not much research on low friction warning systems has been reported.

  8. 16 CFR 1205.6 - Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... label for reel-type and rotary power mowers. (a) General. Walk-behind power lawn mowers shall be labeled on the blade housing or, in the absence of a blade housing, on other blade shielding or on an...-behind rotary mowers shall have one label as shown in Fig. 7, on the blade housing. The label shall...

  9. 16 CFR 1205.6 - Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... label for reel-type and rotary power mowers. (a) General. Walk-behind power lawn mowers shall be labeled on the blade housing or, in the absence of a blade housing, on other blade shielding or on an...-behind rotary mowers shall have one label as shown in Fig. 7, on the blade housing. The label shall...

  10. 16 CFR 1205.6 - Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... label for reel-type and rotary power mowers. (a) General. Walk-behind power lawn mowers shall be labeled on the blade housing or, in the absence of a blade housing, on other blade shielding or on an...-behind rotary mowers shall have one label as shown in Fig. 7, on the blade housing. The label shall...

  11. Do more graphic and aversive cigarette health warning labels affect Brazilian smokers' likelihood of quitting?

    PubMed

    Szklo, André Salem; Volchan, Eliane; Thrasher, James F; Perez, Cristina; Szklo, Moysés; de Almeida, Liz Maria

    2016-09-01

    Between 2008 and 2013, Brazil experienced a large decline in smoking prevalence, with an innovative round of aversive pictorial health warnings implemented on cigarette packs and at points of sale in 2009. The objective of this study was to examine changes over time in the distribution of quitting attempts and self-reported thoughts about quitting due to health warnings among current smokers. We conducted a pre-post study to evaluate data from two nationally-representative surveys conducted in 2008 and 2013. Responses to questions on smokers' quitting attempts in the last year (yes vs. no) and whether health warnings led them to think about quitting in the last month (yes vs. no) were combined into four categories, for which the distribution of the Brazilian smoking population by year was estimated. A multinomial model was used to obtain proportions for each category, adjusted by socio-demographic variables and nicotine dependence. The proportion of smokers who reported making a quitting attempt in the last year and stated that health warnings led them think about quitting smoking statistically increased over time (from 30.0% to 33.1%; p-value=0.010). The percentage of those who answered "no" to these two questions also increased over time (from 23.5% to 32.9%; p-value≤0.001). These findings suggest that innovative warnings introduced in Brazil likely served as a "reminder" for continuing to think about cessation among those who attempted to quit in the last year. These warnings may have also triggered more avoidance of thinking about their contents than the previous warnings, which some studies have found to promote subsequent quitting activity.

  12. Adolescents' attention to traditional and graphic tobacco warning labels: an eye-tracking approach.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Emily Bylund; Thomsen, Steven; Lindsay, Gordon; John, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was determine if the inclusion of Canadian-style graphic images would improve the degree to which adolescents attend to, and subsequently are able to recall, novel warning messages in tobacco magazine advertising. Specifically, our goal was to determine if the inclusion of graphic images would (1) increase visual attention, as measured by eye movement patterns and fixation density, and (2) improve memory for tobacco advertisements among a group of 12 to 14 year olds in the western United States. Data were collected from 32 middle school students using a head-mounted eye-tracking device that recorded viewing time, scan path patterns, fixation locations, and dwell time. Participants viewed a series of 20 magazine advertisements that included five U.S. tobacco ads with traditional Surgeon General warning messages and five U.S. tobacco ads that had been modified to include non-traditional messages and Canadian-style graphic images. Following eye tracking, participants completed unaided- and aided-recall exercises. Overall, the participants spent equal amounts of time viewing the advertisements regardless of the type of warning message. However, the warning messages that included the graphic images generated higher levels of visual attention directed specifically toward the message, based on average dwell time and fixation frequency, and were more likely to be accurately recalled than the traditional warning messages.

  13. Women’s Perspectives on Smoking and Pregnancy and Graphic Warning Labels

    PubMed Central

    Levis, Denise M.; Stone-Wiggins, Brenda; O’Hegarty, Michelle; Tong, Van T.; Polen, Kara N. D.; Cassell, Cynthia H.; Council, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore women’s knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about adverse outcomes associated with smoking during pregnancy and which outcomes might motivate cessation; to explore reactions to graphic warnings depicting 2 adverse outcomes. Methods Twelve focus groups were conducted with women of childbearing age who were current smokers. Results Participants had low to moderate awareness of many outcomes and believed it was acceptable to smoke in the first trimester before knowledge of pregnancy. Perceived susceptibility to outcomes was low. Motivators included risk-focused information, especially serious risks to the baby (eg, stillbirth, SIDS). Graphic warnings produced strong reactions, especially the warning with a real photo. Conclusions Despite barriers to reducing rates of smoking during pregnancy, educational information and photos depicting babies’ risks could motivate women to quit. PMID:24933145

  14. Cigarette Graphic Warning Labels and Smoking Prevalence in Canada: A Critical Examination and Reformulation of the FDA Regulatory Impact Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jidong; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Background The estimated effect of cigarette graphic warning labels (GWLs) on smoking rates is a key input to FDA's regulatory impact analysis (RIA), required by law as part of its rulemaking process. However, evidence on the impact of GWLs on smoking prevalence is scarce. Objective The goal of this paper is to critically analyze FDA's approach to estimating the impact of GWLs on smoking rates in its RIA, and to suggest a path forward to estimating the impact of the adoption of GWLs in Canada on Canadian national adult smoking prevalence. Methods A quasi-experimental methodology was employed to examine the impact of adoption of GWLs in Canada in 2000, using the U.S. as a control. Findings We found a statistically significant reduction in smoking rates after the adoption of GWLs in Canada in comparison to the U.S. Our analyses show that implementation of GWLs in Canada reduced smoking rates by 2.87 to 4.68 percentage points, a relative reduction of 12.1 to 19.6% — 33 to 53 times larger than FDA's estimates of a 0.088 percentage point reduction. We also demonstrated that FDA's estimate of the impact was flawed because it is highly sensitive to the changes in variable selection, model specification, and the time period analyzed. Conclusions Adopting GWLs on cigarette packages reduces smoking prevalence. Applying our analysis of the Canadian GWLs, we estimate that if the U.S. had adopted GWLs in 2012, the number of adult smokers in the U.S. would have decreased by 5.3 to 8.6 million in 2013. Our analysis demonstrates that FDA's approach to estimating the impact of GWLs on smoking rates is flawed. Rectifying these problems before this approach becomes the norm is critical for FDA's effective regulation of tobacco products. PMID:24218057

  15. Cigarette graphic warning labels and smoking prevalence in Canada: a critical examination and reformulation of the FDA regulatory impact analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jidong; Chaloupka, Frank J; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2014-03-01

    The estimated effect of cigarette graphic warning labels (GWL) on smoking rates is a key input to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) regulatory impact analysis (RIA), required by law as part of its rule-making process. However, evidence on the impact of GWLs on smoking prevalence is scarce. The goal of this paper is to critically analyse FDA's approach to estimating the impact of GWLs on smoking rates in its RIA, and to suggest a path forward to estimating the impact of the adoption of GWLs in Canada on Canadian national adult smoking prevalence. A quasi-experimental methodology was employed to examine the impact of adoption of GWLs in Canada in 2000, using the USA as a control. We found a statistically significant reduction in smoking rates after the adoption of GWLs in Canada in comparison with the USA. Our analyses show that implementation of GWLs in Canada reduced smoking rates by 2.87-4.68 percentage points, a relative reduction of 12.1-19.6%; 33-53 times larger than FDA's estimates of a 0.088 percentage point reduction. We also demonstrated that FDA's estimate of the impact was flawed because it is highly sensitive to the changes in variable selection, model specification, and the time period analysed. Adopting GWLs on cigarette packages reduces smoking prevalence. Applying our analysis of the Canadian GWLs, we estimate that if the USA had adopted GWLs in 2012, the number of adult smokers in the USA would have decreased by 5.3-8.6 million in 2013. Our analysis demonstrates that FDA's approach to estimating the impact of GWLs on smoking rates is flawed. Rectifying these problems before this approach becomes the norm is critical for FDA's effective regulation of tobacco products.

  16. Earthquake Early Warning: User Education and Designing Effective Messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkett, E. R.; Sellnow, D. D.; Jones, L.; Sellnow, T. L.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and partners are transitioning from test-user trials of a demonstration earthquake early warning system (ShakeAlert) to deciding and preparing how to implement the release of earthquake early warning information, alert messages, and products to the public and other stakeholders. An earthquake early warning system uses seismic station networks to rapidly gather information about an occurring earthquake and send notifications to user devices ahead of the arrival of potentially damaging ground shaking at their locations. Earthquake early warning alerts can thereby allow time for actions to protect lives and property before arrival of damaging shaking, if users are properly educated on how to use and react to such notifications. A collaboration team of risk communications researchers and earth scientists is researching the effectiveness of a chosen subset of potential earthquake early warning interface designs and messages, which could be displayed on a device such as a smartphone. Preliminary results indicate, for instance, that users prefer alerts that include 1) a map to relate their location to the earthquake and 2) instructions for what to do in response to the expected level of shaking. A number of important factors must be considered to design a message that will promote appropriate self-protective behavior. While users prefer to see a map, how much information can be processed in limited time? Are graphical representations of wavefronts helpful or confusing? The most important factor to promote a helpful response is the predicted earthquake intensity, or how strong the expected shaking will be at the user's location. Unlike Japanese users of early warning, few Californians are familiar with the earthquake intensity scale, so we are exploring how differentiating instructions between intensity levels (e.g., "Be aware" for lower shaking levels and "Drop, cover, hold on" at high levels) can be paired with self-directed supplemental

  17. Variation in health warning effectiveness on cigarette packs: a need for regulation?

    PubMed Central

    Misak, Monika; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    The Tobacco Products Directive allows the possibility of strategic placement of health warnings on cigarette packs by manufacturers to reduce overall warning effectiveness. Information regarding health warning effectiveness was assessed in an online survey, and the prevalence of warnings on cigarette packs was assessed in a shop survey. Although we find no evidence of a strong correlation between health warning effectiveness ratings and their frequency on cigarette packs (r = −0.17, P = 0.56), there may be other ways this possibility is exploited. We suggest that this potential loophole is addressed and monitoring of the placement of health warnings on cigarette packs is continued. PMID:27385516

  18. Warnings as a directive front-of-pack nutrition labelling scheme: comparison with the Guideline Daily Amount and traffic-light systems.

    PubMed

    Arrúa, Alejandra; Machín, Leandro; Curutchet, María Rosa; Martínez, Joseline; Antúnez, Lucía; Alcaire, Florencia; Giménez, Ana; Ares, Gastón

    2017-09-01

    Warnings have recently been proposed as a new type of directive front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labelling scheme to flag products with high content of key nutrients. In the present work, this system was compared with the two most common FOP nutrition labelling schemes (Guideline Daily Amounts (GDA) and traffic-light system) in terms of goal-directed attention, influence on perceived healthfulness and ability to differentiate between products. Design/Setting/Subjects Goal-directed attention to FOP labels was evaluated using a visual search task in which participants were presented with labels on a computer screen and were asked to indicate whether labels with high sodium content were present or absent. A survey with 387 participants was also carried out, in which the influence of FOP labels on perceived healthfulness and ability to identify the healthful alternative were evaluated. Warnings improved consumers' ability to correctly identify a product with high content of a key nutrient within a set of labels compared with GDA and received the highest goal-directed attention. In addition, products with high energy, saturated fat, sugar and/or sodium content that featured warnings on the label were perceived as less healthful than those featuring the GDA or traffic-light system. Warnings and the traffic-light system performed equally well in the identification of the most healthful product. Results from the present work suggest that warnings have potential as directive FOP nutrition labels to improve consumer ability to identify unhealthful products and highlight advantages compared with the traffic-light system.

  19. Implementation of graphic health warning labels on tobacco products in India: the interplay between the cigarette and the bidi industries.

    PubMed

    Sankaran, Sujatha; Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-11-01

    To understand the competition between and among tobacco companies and health groups that led to graphical health warning labels (GHWL) on all tobacco products in India. Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents in the Legacy Tobacco Document Library, documents obtained through India's Right to Information Act, and news reports. Implementation of GHWLs in India reflects a complex interplay between the government and the cigarette and bidi industries, who have shared as well as conflicting interests. Joint lobbying by national-level tobacco companies (that are foreign subsidiaries of multinationals) and local producers of other forms of tobacco blocked GHWLs for decades and delayed the implementation of effective GHWLs after they were mandated in 2007. Tobacco control activists used public interest lawsuits and the Right to Information Act to win government implementation of GHWLs on cigarette, bidi and smokeless tobacco packs in May 2009 and rotating GHWLs in December 2011. GHWLs in India illustrate how the presence of bidis and cigarettes in the same market creates a complex regulatory environment. The government imposing tobacco control on multinational cigarette companies led to the enforcement of regulation on local forms of tobacco. As other developing countries with high rates of alternate forms of tobacco use establish and enforce GHWL laws, the tobacco control advocacy community can use pressure on the multinational cigarette industry as an indirect tool to force implementation of regulations on other forms of tobacco. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Perceptions and perceived impact of graphic cigarette health warning labels on smoking behavior among U.S. young adults.

    PubMed

    Villanti, Andrea C; Cantrell, Jennifer; Pearson, Jennifer L; Vallone, Donna M; Rath, Jessica M

    2014-04-01

    In 2011, the Food and Drug Administration published a final rule requiring cigarette packages and advertisements to include graphic health warning labels (HWLs) with new warning statements. Implementation of this rule has been stalled by legal challenge. This study assessed correlates of smoking-related intentions related to graphic HWLs among current cigarette smokers and nonsmokers in a national sample of U.S. young adults aged 18-34. Data were collected from 4,236 participants aged 18-34 using an online panel in January 2012 for the Legacy Young Adult Cohort Study. Analyses were weighted to provide nationally representative estimates. Our main outcome was assessed with a single item: "Do you think that new warning labels with graphic pictures would make you think about not smoking?" Twenty-two percent of the young adults were current cigarette smokers. Fifty-three percent endorsed that new graphic HWLs would make them think about not smoking (40% among current smokers compared with 56% among nonsmokers). Among nonsmokers, those aged 18-24, females, Hispanics, and those who were aware of graphic cigarette HWLs were more likely to report intention to not smoke related to graphic HWLs. Among current smokers, intending to quit within the next 6 months was correlated with intention resulting from graphic HWLs. Hispanic ethnicity and intention to quit within 30 days were strong correlates of intention in light, nondaily, and self-identified social/occasional smokers. This study supports previous findings that graphic HWLs play an important role in preventing smoking, in addition to encouraging cessation in young adults.

  1. Perceptions and Perceived Impact of Graphic Cigarette Health Warning Labels on Smoking Behavior Among U.S. Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In 2011, the Food and Drug Administration published a final rule requiring cigarette packages and advertisements to include graphic health warning labels (HWLs) with new warning statements. Implementation of this rule has been stalled by legal challenge. This study assessed correlates of smoking-related intentions related to graphic HWLs among current cigarette smokers and nonsmokers in a national sample of U.S. young adults aged 18–34. Methods: Data were collected from 4,236 participants aged 18–34 using an online panel in January 2012 for the Legacy Young Adult Cohort Study. Analyses were weighted to provide nationally representative estimates. Our main outcome was assessed with a single item: “Do you think that new warning labels with graphic pictures would make you think about not smoking?” Results: Twenty-two percent of the young adults were current cigarette smokers. Fifty-three percent endorsed that new graphic HWLs would make them think about not smoking (40% among current smokers compared with 56% among nonsmokers). Among nonsmokers, those aged 18–24, females, Hispanics, and those who were aware of graphic cigarette HWLs were more likely to report intention to not smoke related to graphic HWLs. Among current smokers, intending to quit within the next 6 months was correlated with intention resulting from graphic HWLs. Hispanic ethnicity and intention to quit within 30 days were strong correlates of intention in light, nondaily, and self-identified social/occasional smokers. Conclusions: This study supports previous findings that graphic HWLs play an important role in preventing smoking, in addition to encouraging cessation in young adults. PMID:24212476

  2. 40 CFR 82.110 - Form of label bearing warning statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) is 3/32 inches for the signal word and 1/16 of an inch for the statement. (3) Promotional printed material. The minimum type size for the warning statement on promotional printed material is 3/32 inches... statement shall appear in conspicuous and legible type by typography, layout, and color with other printed...

  3. Adolescents' Attention to Traditional and Graphic Tobacco Warning Labels: An Eye-Tracking Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Emily Bylund; Thomsen, Steven; Lindsay, Gordon; John, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was determine if the inclusion of Canadian-style graphic images would improve the degree to which adolescents attend to, and subsequently are able to recall, novel warning messages in tobacco magazine advertising. Specifically, our goal was to determine if the inclusion of graphic images would 1) increase visual…

  4. Adolescents' Attention to Traditional and Graphic Tobacco Warning Labels: An Eye-Tracking Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Emily Bylund; Thomsen, Steven; Lindsay, Gordon; John, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was determine if the inclusion of Canadian-style graphic images would improve the degree to which adolescents attend to, and subsequently are able to recall, novel warning messages in tobacco magazine advertising. Specifically, our goal was to determine if the inclusion of graphic images would 1) increase visual…

  5. Smokers' reactions to the new larger health warning labels on plain cigarette packs in Australia: findings from the ITC Australia project.

    PubMed

    Yong, Hua-Hie; Borland, Ron; Hammond, David; Thrasher, James F; Cummings, K Michael; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2016-03-01

    This study examined whether larger sized Australian cigarette health warning labels (HWLs) with plain packaging (PP) were associated with increased desirable reactions towards the HWLs postimplementation. Data were from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) longitudinal cohort survey assessing Australian smokers one wave prior to the policy change in 2011 (n=1104) and another wave after the policy change in 2013 (n=1093). We assessed initial attentional orientation (AO) to or away from warnings, plus other reactions, including cognitive reactions towards the HWLs and quit intentions. As expected, AO towards the HWLs and reported frequency of noticing warnings increased significantly after the policy change, but not more reading. Smokers also thought more about the harms of smoking and avoided the HWLs more after the policy change, but frequency of forgoing cigarettes did not change. The subgroup that switched from initially focusing away to focusing on the HWLs following the policy change noticed and read the HWLs more, and also thought more about the harmful effects of smoking, whereas the subgroup (5.4%) that changed to focusing away from the HWLs showed opposite effects. We tested the mediational model of Yong et al and confirmed it for predicting quit intentions, with larger effects post-policy. Increasing the size of HWLs and introducing them on PP in Australia appears to have led to an overall increase in desired levels and strength of some reactions, but evidence of reactance was among a small minority. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. The communication triangle: elements of an effective warning message

    SciTech Connect

    Vaught, C.; Brnich, M.J. Jr.; Mallett, L.

    2007-01-15

    The lack of good communication is a very real problem in mine emergencies. To counter communication breakdowns, researchers at the NIOSH Pittsburgh Research Laboratory developed the Emergency Communication Triangle. It is a training intervention designed to help those giving a warning to provide the right sort of information and those receiving a warning to ask the right questions. The Triangle has six ordered components with the first three considered most important. The Emergency Communication is packaged as a short safety talk to be given by supervisors at the start of a shift. It was first tested in 1998 with a group of 236 workers at an underground mine in Colorado, and proved effective. It was followed up in 2003 and again in 2004. Now, more than half the miners would report who was affected by an event, 60% would report in its severity, and 70% would say what had been done so far. 3 figs.

  7. A Test of the Effectiveness of a List of Suicide Warning Signs for the Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.; Hollar, Daniel; Rudd, M. David; Mandrusiak, Michael; Silverman, Morton M.

    2006-01-01

    In this study we examined the effect that reading a list of warning signs for suicide has on beliefs about suicide, including the belief that one can recognize a suicidal crisis. All participants read two sets of warning signs (with only the experimental group reading the suicide warning signs) and then answered questions concerning beliefs…

  8. When health policy and empirical evidence collide: the case of cigarette package warning labels and economic consumer surplus.

    PubMed

    Song, Anna V; Brown, Paul; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-02-01

    In its graphic warning label regulations on cigarette packages, the Food and Drug Administration severely discounts the benefits of reduced smoking because of the lost "pleasure" smokers experience when they stop smoking; this is quantified as lost "consumer surplus." Consumer surplus is grounded in rational choice theory. However, empirical evidence from psychological cognitive science and behavioral economics demonstrates that the assumptions of rational choice are inconsistent with complex multidimensional decisions, particularly smoking. Rational choice does not account for the roles of emotions, misperceptions, optimistic bias, regret, and cognitive inefficiency that are germane to smoking, particularly because most smokers begin smoking in their youth. Continued application of a consumer surplus discount will undermine sensible policies to reduce tobacco use and other policies to promote public health.

  9. When Health Policy and Empirical Evidence Collide: The Case of Cigarette Package Warning Labels and Economic Consumer Surplus

    PubMed Central

    Song, Anna V.; Brown, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In its graphic warning label regulations on cigarette packages, the Food and Drug Administration severely discounts the benefits of reduced smoking because of the lost “pleasure” smokers experience when they stop smoking; this is quantified as lost “consumer surplus.” Consumer surplus is grounded in rational choice theory. However, empirical evidence from psychological cognitive science and behavioral economics demonstrates that the assumptions of rational choice are inconsistent with complex multidimensional decisions, particularly smoking. Rational choice does not account for the roles of emotions, misperceptions, optimistic bias, regret, and cognitive inefficiency that are germane to smoking, particularly because most smokers begin smoking in their youth. Continued application of a consumer surplus discount will undermine sensible policies to reduce tobacco use and other policies to promote public health. PMID:24328661

  10. Effectiveness of Flood Warning and Preparedness Alternatives.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    ordinarily disperse energen y (’(lli i [)reiit, iii’o i cli’ effective traffic control or modit’y ltt. normal opra- tion of ut ilitv systems. however . iId...Processed information on precipitation and reservoir releases may be input into a watershed model operated on a Hewlett, A-21 CLC (Flj F- N- C:)C A-22...With the time available, police were able to set tip traffic control arrangements and aid motorists. The fire department was able to disperse its

  11. The neural substrates of the warning effect: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yumiko; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Hayashi, Masamichi J; Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Kochiyama, Takanori; Sadato, Norihiro

    2013-08-01

    To test the hypothesis the warning effect is mediated by the top-down attentional modulation of the motor system, we conducted functional MRI using a Go/No-Go task with visual and auditory warning stimuli. For aurally-warned, visually-prompted trials, the auditory warning stimulus was presented for 1500ms, during which visual cues were presented that prompted either Go or No-Go responses. The same format was used for visually-warned, aurally-prompted trials. Both auditory and visual warning cues shortened the reaction time for the Go trials. The warning cues activated the right-lateralized parieto-frontal top-down attentional network, and motor cortical areas including the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), the bilateral dorsal premotor cortex, and the left primary motor cortex (M1). The warning-related activation of the pre-SMA matched the difference between its activation by Go-with-warning and by Go-without-warning. Thus, the pre-SMA was primed by the warning cue. The same pre-SMA priming effect was observed for the No-Go cue-related activation, consistent with its role in movement preparation and selection. Similar but less prominent Go cue-related priming was observed in the M1. Thus, the warning effect represents the pre-potentiation of the motor control pathway by the top-down attentional system, from the selection and preparation of the movement to its execution.

  12. The Impact of Graphic Cigarette Warning Labels and Smoke-Free Law on Health Awareness and Thoughts of Quitting in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Fong-Ching; Chung, Chi-Hui; Yu, Po-Tswen; Chao, Kun-yu

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluated the impact of Taiwan's graphic cigarette warning labels and smoke-free law on awareness of the health hazards of smoking and thoughts of quitting smoking. National representative samples of 1074 and 1094 people, respectively, were conducted successfully by telephone in July 2008 (pre-law) and March 2009 (post-law).…

  13. The Impact of Graphic Cigarette Warning Labels and Smoke-Free Law on Health Awareness and Thoughts of Quitting in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Fong-Ching; Chung, Chi-Hui; Yu, Po-Tswen; Chao, Kun-yu

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluated the impact of Taiwan's graphic cigarette warning labels and smoke-free law on awareness of the health hazards of smoking and thoughts of quitting smoking. National representative samples of 1074 and 1094 people, respectively, were conducted successfully by telephone in July 2008 (pre-law) and March 2009 (post-law).…

  14. Off-Label Prescribing, Polypharmacy, and Black-Box Warnings: A Primer for School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahidullah, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    Psychotropic medications are increasingly used to treat children and adolescents with mental health conditions. Between the years 1994 and 2001, there was a 191.7% increase in number of office visits resulting in a psychotropic medication prescription among children and adolescents. Many drugs are prescribed to children "off-label", whereby they…

  15. Art and the Craft of Avoidance: Toxic Art Supplies Lack Warnings Despite Federal Labeling Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikes, Lucinda

    Despite federal law requiring that art and craft materials be labeled, many products continue to be sold without adequate identification of their contents. This report summarizes the findings of the U.S. Public Interest Research Group (PIRG) which conducted an investigation in June and July 1991 to determine how art and craft manufacturers comply…

  16. Off-Label Prescribing, Polypharmacy, and Black-Box Warnings: A Primer for School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahidullah, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    Psychotropic medications are increasingly used to treat children and adolescents with mental health conditions. Between the years 1994 and 2001, there was a 191.7% increase in number of office visits resulting in a psychotropic medication prescription among children and adolescents. Many drugs are prescribed to children "off-label", whereby they…

  17. The Effect of Sonic Booms on Earthquake Warning Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurman, Gilead; Haering, Edward A, Jr.; Price, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Several aerospace companies are designing quiet supersonic business jets for service over the United States. These aircraft have the potential to increase the occurrence of mild sonic booms across the country. This leads to interest among earthquake warning (EQW) developers and the general seismological community in characterizing the effect of sonic booms on seismic sensors in the field, their potential impact on EQW systems, and means of discriminating their signatures from those of earthquakes. The SonicBREWS project (Sonic Boom Resistant Earthquake Warning Systems) is a collaborative effort between Seismic Warning Systems, Inc. (SWS) and NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. This project aims to evaluate the effects of sonic booms on EQW sensors. The study consists of exposing high-sample-rate (1000 sps) triaxial accelerometers to sonic booms with overpressures ranging from 10 to 600 Pa in the free field and the built environment. The accelerometers record the coupling of the sonic boom to the ground and surrounding structures, while microphones record the acoustic wave above ground near the sensor. Sonic booms are broadband signals with more high-frequency content than earthquakes. Even a 1000 sps accelerometer will produce a significantly aliased record. Thus the observed peak ground velocity is strongly dependent on the sampling rate, and increases as the sampling rate is reduced. At 1000 sps we observe ground velocities that exceed those of P-waves from ML 3 earthquakes at local distances, suggesting that sonic booms are not negligible for EQW applications. We present the results of several experiments conducted under SonicBREWS showing the effects of typical-case low amplitude sonic booms and worst-case high amplitude booms. We show the effects of various sensor placements and sensor array geometries. Finally, we suggest possible avenues for discriminating sonic booms from earthquakes for the purposes of EQW.

  18. Effects on smokers of exposure to graphic warning images.

    PubMed

    Malouff, John M; Schutte, Nicola S; Rooke, Sally E; MacDonell, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Several countries have introduced graphic warning images aimed at discouraging smoking. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact on smokers of graphic warnings showing cosmetically important harm caused by smoking. Fifty-six adult smokers were randomly assigned to view either written smoking warnings or the same written warnings with related graphic images. The smokers viewed the warnings at a rate of one per week for 4 weeks. The smokers were assessed before and after the warnings with regard to stage of change toward smoking cessation and level of smoking. The randomized control trial showed that the warnings with graphic images led to significantly more progress in stage of change toward smoking cessation than written warnings alone. However, the images did not lead to decreases in smoking rates. The results indicate that written smoking warnings accompanied by images of cosmetically important harm caused by smoking have more potential than warnings alone in prompting changes in the direction of quitting. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  19. Effect of graphic cigarette warnings on smoking intentions in young adults.

    PubMed

    Blanton, Hart; Snyder, Leslie B; Strauts, Erin; Larson, Joy G

    2014-01-01

    Graphic warnings (GWs) on cigarette packs are widely used internationally and perhaps will be in the US but their impact is not well understood. This study tested support for competing hypotheses in different subgroups of young adults defined by their history of cigarette smoking and individual difference variables (e.g., psychological reactance). One hypothesis predicted adaptive responding (GWs would lower smoking-related intentions) and another predicted defensive responding (GWs would raise smoking-related intentions). Participants were an online sample of 1,169 Americans ages 18-24, who were randomly assigned either to view nine GWs designed by the FDA or to a no-label control. Both the intention to smoke in the future and the intention to quit smoking (among smokers) were assessed before and after message exposure. GWs lowered intention to smoke in the future among those with a moderate lifetime smoking history (between 1 and 100 cigarettes), and they increased intention to quit smoking among those with a heavy lifetime smoking history (more than 100 cigarettes). Both effects were limited to individuals who had smoked in some but not all of the prior 30 days (i.e., occasional smokers). No evidence of defensive "boomerang effects" on intention was observed in any subgroup. Graphic warnings can reduce interest in smoking among occasional smokers, a finding that supports the adaptive-change hypothesis. GWs that target occasional smokers might be more effective at reducing cigarette smoking in young adults.

  20. Promoting cessation resources through cigarette package warning labels: a longitudinal survey with adult smokers in Canada, Australia and Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F; Osman, Amira; Moodie, Crawford; Hammond, David; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Cummings, K Michael; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Hardin, James

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Health warning labels (HWLs) on tobacco packaging can be used to provide smoking cessation information, but the impact of this information is not well understood. Methods Online consumer panels of adult smokers from Canada, Australia and Mexico were surveyed in September 2012, January 2013 and May 2013; replenishment was used to maintain sample sizes of 1000 participants in each country at each wave. Country-stratified logistic Generalised Estimating Equation (GEE) models were estimated to assess correlates of citing HWLs as a source of information on quitlines and cessation websites. GEE models also regressed having called the quitline, and having visited a cessation website, on awareness of these resources because of HWLs. Results At baseline, citing HWLs as a source of information about quitlines was highest in Canada, followed by Australia and Mexico (33%, 19% and 16%, respectively). Significant increases over time were only evident in Australia and Mexico. In all countries, citing HWLs as a source of quitline information was significantly associated with self-report of having called a quitline. At baseline, citing HWLs as a source of information about cessation websites was higher in Canada than in Australia (14% and 6%, respectively; Mexico was excluded because HWLs do not include website information), but no significant changes over time were found for either country. Citing HWLs as a source of information about cessation websites was significantly associated with having visited a website in both Canada and Australia. Conclusions HWLs are an important source of cessation information. PMID:25052860

  1. Pictorial health warning label content and smokers' understanding of smoking-related risks-a cross-country comparison.

    PubMed

    Swayampakala, Kamala; Thrasher, James F; Hammond, David; Yong, Hua-Hie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Krugman, Dean; Brown, Abraham; Borland, Ron; Hardin, James

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess smokers' level of agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents relative to inclusion of these topics on health warning labels (HWLs). 1000 adult smokers were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 from online consumer panels of adult smokers from each of the three countries: Australia (AU), Canada (CA) and Mexico (MX). Generalized estimating equation models were estimated to compare agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents. For disease outcomes described on HWLs across all three countries, there were few statistical differences in agreement with health outcomes (e.g. emphysema and heart attack). By contrast, increases in agreement where the HWLs were revised or introduced on HWLs for the first time (e.g. blindness in AU and CA, bladder cancer in CA). Similarly, samples from countries that have specific health content or toxic constituents on HWLs showed higher agreement for that particular disease or toxin than countries without (e.g. higher agreement for gangrene and blindness in AU, higher agreement for bladder cancer and all toxic constituents except nitrosamines and radioactive polonium in CA). Pictorial HWL content is associated with greater awareness of smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents.

  2. Assessing the impact of cigarette package health warning labels: a cross-country comparison in Brazil, Uruguay, and Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F; Villalobos, Victor; Szklo, André; Fong, Geoffrey T; Pérez, Cristina; Sebrié, Ernesto; Sansone, Natalie; Figueiredo, Valeska; Boado, Marcelo; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Bianco, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of different health warning labels (HWL). Material and Methods Data from the International Tobacco Control Survey (ITC Survey) were analyzed from adult smokers in Brazil, Uruguay and Mexico, each of which used a different HWL strategy (pictures of human suffering and diseased organs; abstract pictorial representations of risk; and text-only messages, respectively). Main outcomes were HWL salience and cognitive impact. Results HWLs in Uruguay (which was the only country with a HWL on the front of the package) had higher salience than either Brazilian or Mexican packs. People at higher levels of educational attainment in Mexico were more likely to read the text-only HWLs whereas education was unassociated with salience in Brazil or Uruguay. Brazilian HWLs had greater cognitive impacts than HWLs in either Uruguay or Mexico. HWLs in Uruguay generated lower cognitive impacts than the text-only HWLs in Mexico. In Brazil, cognitive impacts were strongest among smokers with low educational attainment. Conclusions This study suggests that HWLs have the most impact when they are prominent (i.e., front and back of the package) and include emotionally engaging imagery that illustrates negative bodily impacts or human suffering due to smoking. PMID:21243191

  3. An evaluation of the FDA's analysis of the costs and benefits of the graphic warning label regulation

    PubMed Central

    Chaloupka, Frank J; Warner, Kenneth E; Acemoğlu, Daron; Gruber, Jonathan; Laux, Fritz; Max, Wendy; Newhouse, Joseph; Schelling, Thomas; Sindelar, Jody

    2015-01-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 gave the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory authority over cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products and authorised it to assert jurisdiction over other tobacco products. As with other Federal agencies, FDA is required to assess the costs and benefits of its significant regulatory actions. To date, FDA has issued economic impact analyses of one proposed and one final rule requiring graphic warning labels (GWLs) on cigarette packaging and, most recently, of a proposed rule that would assert FDA’s authority over tobacco products other than cigarettes and smokeless tobacco. Given the controversy over the FDA's approach to assessing net economic benefits in its proposed and final rules on GWLs and the importance of having economic impact analyses prepared in accordance with sound economic analysis, a group of prominent economists met in early 2014 to review that approach and, where indicated, to offer suggestions for an improved analysis. We concluded that the analysis of the impact of GWLs on smoking substantially underestimated the benefits and overestimated the costs, leading the FDA to substantially underestimate the net benefits of the GWLs. We hope that the FDA will find our evaluation useful in subsequent analyses, not only of GWLs but also of other regulations regarding tobacco products. Most of what we discuss applies to all instances of evaluating the costs and benefits of tobacco product regulation and, we believe, should be considered in FDA's future analyses of proposed rules. PMID:25550419

  4. Pictorial health warning label content and smokers’ understanding of smoking-related risks—a cross-country comparison

    PubMed Central

    Swayampakala, Kamala; Thrasher, James F.; Hammond, David; Yong, Hua-Hie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Krugman, Dean; Brown, Abraham; Borland, Ron; Hardin, James

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess smokers’ level of agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents relative to inclusion of these topics on health warning labels (HWLs). 1000 adult smokers were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 from online consumer panels of adult smokers from each of the three countries: Australia (AU), Canada (CA) and Mexico (MX). Generalized estimating equation models were estimated to compare agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents. For disease outcomes described on HWLs across all three countries, there were few statistical differences in agreement with health outcomes (e.g. emphysema and heart attack). By contrast, increases in agreement where the HWLs were revised or introduced on HWLs for the first time (e.g. blindness in AU and CA, bladder cancer in CA). Similarly, samples from countries that have specific health content or toxic constituents on HWLs showed higher agreement for that particular disease or toxin than countries without (e.g. higher agreement for gangrene and blindness in AU, higher agreement for bladder cancer and all toxic constituents except nitrosamines and radioactive polonium in CA). Pictorial HWL content is associated with greater awareness of smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents. PMID:24848554

  5. Effect of Graphic Cigarette Warnings on Smoking Intentions in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Blanton, Hart; Snyder, Leslie B.; Strauts, Erin; Larson, Joy G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Graphic warnings (GWs) on cigarette packs are widely used internationally and perhaps will be in the US but their impact is not well understood. This study tested support for competing hypotheses in different subgroups of young adults defined by their history of cigarette smoking and individual difference variables (e.g., psychological reactance). One hypothesis predicted adaptive responding (GWs would lower smoking-related intentions) and another predicted defensive responding (GWs would raise smoking-related intentions). Methods Participants were an online sample of 1,169 Americans ages 18–24, who were randomly assigned either to view nine GWs designed by the FDA or to a no-label control. Both the intention to smoke in the future and the intention to quit smoking (among smokers) were assessed before and after message exposure. Results GWs lowered intention to smoke in the future among those with a moderate lifetime smoking history (between 1 and 100 cigarettes), and they increased intention to quit smoking among those with a heavy lifetime smoking history (more than 100 cigarettes). Both effects were limited to individuals who had smoked in some but not all of the prior 30 days (i.e., occasional smokers). No evidence of defensive “boomerang effects” on intention was observed in any subgroup. Conclusion Graphic warnings can reduce interest in smoking among occasional smokers, a finding that supports the adaptive-change hypothesis. GWs that target occasional smokers might be more effective at reducing cigarette smoking in young adults. PMID:24806481

  6. Effectiveness of pictorial health warnings on cigarette packs among Lebanese school and university students.

    PubMed

    Alaouie, Hala; Afifi, Rema A; Haddad, Pascale; Mahfoud, Ziyad; Nakkash, Rima

    2015-03-01

    Pictorial health warnings are more effective than text warnings in enhancing motivation to quit and not to start smoking among youth. In Lebanon, packs still have only a very small text warning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perceived effectiveness of pictorial health warnings on cigarette packs among Lebanese youth. This was a cross-sectional study including school students (n=1412) aged 13-18 years recruited from 28 schools and university students (n=1217) aged 18-25 years recruited from 7 universities. A variety of warnings were adapted from other countries. In all, 4 warnings were tested among school students and 18 among university students. All pictorial warnings were considered more effective than the current text warning on message-related and impact-related variables, including intentions to quit or not to start smoking among school and university students. Selected examples related to the top-ranked pictorial warnings are: among male non-smoking school students, 81% agreed that the 'lung' warning had more impact on their intentions not to start smoking as compared to 57% for the current text warning (p<0.001) with a significant difference compared to the current text warning; among female non-smoking university students, 75% agreed that the 'economic impact' pictorial had more impact on their intentions not to start smoking with significant difference as compared to 43% for the current text warning (p value=0.001); finally, the 'heart attack' pictorial resulted in 52% of male university students smokers stating they intended to quit as opposed to 20% for the current text warning (p value=0.019). The results of the present study add to the general international literature on the impact of pictorial warnings on youth and young adults. This study is also the first to test a non-health pictorial warning about the negative economic consequences of smoking, and to find that such a warning was effective among specific sociodemographic groups

  7. Quantifying the effectiveness of early warning systems for natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sättele, M.; Bründl, M.; Straub, D.

    2016-01-01

    Early warning systems (EWSs) are increasingly applied as preventive measures within an integrated risk management approach for natural hazards. At present, common standards and detailed guidelines for the evaluation of their effectiveness are lacking. To support decision-makers in the identification of optimal risk mitigation measures, a three-step framework approach for the evaluation of EWSs is presented. The effectiveness is calculated in function of the technical and the inherent reliability of the EWS. The framework is applicable to automated and non-automated EWSs and combinations thereof. To address the specifics and needs of a wide variety of EWS designs, a classification of EWSs is provided, which focuses on the degree of automations encountered in varying EWSs. The framework and its implementation are illustrated through a series of example applications of EWS in an alpine environment.

  8. Quantifying the effectiveness of early warning systems for natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sättele, M.; Bründl, M.; Straub, D.

    2015-07-01

    Early warning systems (EWS) are increasingly applied as preventive measures within an integrated risk management approach for natural hazards. At present, common standards and detailed guidelines for the evaluation of their effectiveness are lacking. To support decision-makers in the identification of optimal risk mitigation measures, a three-step framework approach for the evaluation of EWS is presented. The effectiveness is calculated in function of the technical and the inherent reliability of the EWS. The framework is applicable to automated and non-automated EWS and combinations thereof. To address the specifics and needs of a wide variety of EWS designs, a classification of EWS is provided, which focuses on the degree of automations encountered in varying EWS. The framework and its implementation are illustrated through a series of example applications of EWS in an alpine environment.

  9. Over-Time Impacts of Pictorial Health Warning Labels and their Differences across Smoker Subgroups: Results from Adult Smokers in Canada and Australia.

    PubMed

    Swayampakala, Kamala; Thrasher, James F; Yong, Hua-Hie; Nagelhout, Gera E; Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Hammond, David; O'Connor, Richard J; Hardin, James W

    2017-06-16

    This study examines patterns of change in different smoker subgroups' responses to new pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) over the initial, two year post-implementation period in Canada, where HWLs include package inserts with cessation messages, and Australia, where "plain" packaging (i.e., prohibition of brand imagery) was also implemented. Data were collected from online consumer panels in Canada (nsmokers=3,153; nobservations=5,826) and Australia (nsmokers=2,699; nobservations=5,818) from September 2012 to September 2014, with approximately 1,000 adult smokers surveyed in each country every four months, using replenishment to maintain sample size. Data were analyzed using generalized estimating equation models where main effects and interactions among time, country, and socio-demographic factors on HWL responses (i.e., attention to HWLs; cognitive and behavioral responses to HWLs) were examined. Over time, attention to HWLs declined but cognitive and forgoing responses to HWLs increased, in both Canada and Australia. In both countries, compared to smokers with low income and/or education, smokers with high income and/or education showed an increase over time in attention and cognitive responses to HWLs (p<0.05). In Australia only, compared to older smokers, younger smokers showed less decline over time in attention and greater increase in cognitive and forgoing responses to HWLs (p<0.001). Novel HWL policies in Canada and Australia appear effective in staving off "wear out" over the first two years after implementation, particularly amongst smokers who are from higher SES groups and, in Australia, who are younger. Previous research shows that the effects of health warning label (HWL) on smokers decline over time, but no studies to date have evaluated whether trends differ across socio-demographic groups. This study suggests that innovative policy configurations that combine prominent pictorial HWLs with inserts (Canada) and with "plain" packaging (Australia

  10. Effect of warning on feigned malingering on the WAIS-R in college samples.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J L; Bellah, C G; Dodge, T; Kelley, W; Livingston, M M

    1998-08-01

    Research indicates claimant malingering of cognitive deficits to be common in personal injury litigation. Efforts have been made to either detect such tendencies or deter efforts at malingering. The present study examined whether warning people that feigned malingering efforts would be detected results in more valid profiles on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised. Undergraduates (N = 48) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: feigned malingerers without warning, feigned malingerers with warning, and controls. Analysis indicated both feigned malingerer groups performed significantly worse than the control group; however, feigned malingerers with warning did not perform significantly better than those without warning. Unlike previous research using the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, results did not support effectiveness of warning in reducing feigned malingering scores.

  11. Effect of Pictorial Cigarette Pack Warnings on Changes in Smoking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, Noel T.; Hall, Marissa G.; Noar, Seth M.; Parada, Humberto; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Bach, Laura E.; Hanley, Sean; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Pictorial warnings on cigarette packs draw attention and increase quit intentions, but their effect on smoking behavior remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of adding pictorial warnings to the front and back of cigarette packs. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This 4-week between-participant randomized clinical trial was carried out in California and North Carolina. We recruited a convenience sample of adult cigarette smokers from the general population beginning September 2014 through August 2015. Of 2149 smokers who enrolled, 88% completed the trial. No participants withdrew owing to adverse events. INTERVENTIONS We randomly assigned participants to receive on their cigarette packs for 4 weeks either text-only warnings (one of the Surgeon General’s warnings currently in use in the United States on the side of the cigarette packs) or pictorial warnings (one of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act’s required text warnings and pictures that showed harms of smoking on the top half of the front and back of the cigarette packs). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary trial outcome was attempting to quit smoking during the study. We hypothesized that smokers randomized to receive pictorial warnings would be more likely to report a quit attempt during the study than smokers randomized to receive a text-only Surgeon General’s warning. RESULTS Of the 2149 participants who began the trial (1039 men, 1060 women, and 34 transgender people; mean [SD] age, 39.7 [13.4] years for text-only warning, 39.8 [13.7] for pictorial warnings), 1901 completed it. In intent-to-treat analyses (n = 2149), smokers whose packs had pictorial warnings were more likely than those whose packs had text-only warnings to attempt to quit smoking during the 4-week trial (40% vs 34%; odds ratio [OR], 1.29; 95% CI, 1.09–1.54). The findings did not differ across any demographic groups. Having quit smoking for at least the 7 days prior to the end of the

  12. Interpretation of pharmaceutical warnings among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Goldsworthy, Richard C; Schwartz, Nancy C; Mayhorn, Christopher B

    2008-06-01

    Warnings are an important component of pharmaceutical risk mitigation efforts, yet very little research attention has been directed toward adolescent interpretation of such warnings. This study examined adolescents' interpretations of and preferences for warning symbols and statements related to pharmaceuticals with teratogenic properties. A total of 200 adolescents interpreted one of four warning symbols and four warning statements. Responses were coded using an established three-tier coding system. Symbol preferences were elicited. Interpretation accuracy and symbol preferences were analyzed by symbol and statement. The symbol in use on medication labels at the time of the study elicited nearly goal levels of interpretation accuracy; however it exceeded allowable levels of critical confusion. An alternative symbol elicited more fully correct responses than the existing symbol and was preferred to the existing symbol by a margin of 2 to 1. Yet another symbol was most preferred despite eliciting fewer correct interpretations. The impact of warning statements on overall warning interpretation varied by statement and statement-symbol combinations. At least one statement appeared to lessen the overall message of caution, and few adolescents expressed an awareness of risk if one "may become pregnant" until explicitly informed of this risk. Comprehension of medical warning symbols and statements among adolescents is an important public health issue. Those involved in adolescent health education and research have considerable theoretical and practical tools for approaching the development and evaluation of such warning messages. Understanding how warnings are interpreted can lead to more effective communication efforts and reduce risk.

  13. Non-Smoking Male Adolescents' Reactions to Cigarette Warnings

    PubMed Central

    Pepper, Jessica K.; Cameron, Linda D.; Reiter, Paul L.; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Brewer, Noel T.

    2013-01-01

    Background The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is working to introduce new graphic warning labels for cigarette packages, the first change in cigarette warnings in more than 25 years. We sought to examine whether warnings discouraged participants from wanting to smoke and altered perceived likelihood of harms among adolescent males and whether these warning effects varied by age. Methods A national sample of 386 non-smoking American males ages 11–17 participated in an online experiment during fall 2010. We randomly assigned participants to view warnings using a 2×2 between-subjects design. The warnings described a harm of smoking (addiction or lung cancer) using text only or text plus an image used on European cigarette package warnings. Analyses tested whether age moderated the warnings' impact on risk perceptions and smoking motivations. Results The warnings discouraged most adolescents from wanting to smoke, but lung cancer warnings discouraged them more than addiction warnings did (60% vs. 34% were “very much” discouraged, p<.001). Including an image had no effect on discouragement. The warnings affected several beliefs about the harms from smoking, and age moderated these effects. Adolescents said addiction was easier to imagine and more likely to happen to them than lung cancer. They also believed that their true likelihood of experiencing any harm was lower than what an expert would say. Conclusions Our findings suggest that warnings focusing on lung cancer, rather than addiction, are more likely to discourage wanting to smoke among adolescent males and enhance their ability to imagine the harmful consequences of smoking. Including images on warnings had little effect on non-smoking male adolescents' discouragement or beliefs, though additional research on the effects of pictorial warnings for this at-risk population is needed as the FDA moves forward with developing new graphic labels. PMID:23950861

  14. Effects of emphasis terminology in warning instructions on compliance intent and understandability.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soyun; Wogalter, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether differing terminology in warning directives can influence compliance intentions and understandability. Despite its important role for warning effectiveness, warning instructions has not received much attention in warning research. Emphasis terms that can be used in warning directives were investigated. Three experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, participants rated a set of 12 warning directive statements consisted of one basic warning directive, which served as the control and the other 11 one- or two-word emphasis phrases that added to a basic directive. In Experiment 2, participants rated 37 emphasizers on compliance intent. In Experiment 3, participants rated the same emphasizers on understandability. The first 2 experiments showed substantial differences in compliance intentions depending on the emphasizer used. For example, some terms and phrases (e.g., "urgent") produced high compliance intent whereas others showed lower compliance intent (e.g., "recommended"). In Experiment 3, some terms were rated as understandable (e.g., "important"), whereas others were rated as somewhat understandable (e.g., "compulsory"). The addition of emphasis terms to the warning directives influenced people's compliance intent and understandability. In addition, significant correlations were found among compliance intent, understandability, and measures of variability. . The findings from this research could aid warning designers in selecting understandable wording that gives rise to different levels of compliance intentions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  15. Promoting cessation resources through cigarette package warning labels: a longitudinal survey with adult smokers in Canada, Australia and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Thrasher, James F; Osman, Amira; Moodie, Crawford; Hammond, David; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Cummings, K Michael; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Hardin, James

    2015-03-01

    Health warning labels (HWLs) on tobacco packaging can be used to provide smoking cessation information, but the impact of this information is not well understood. Online consumer panels of adult smokers from Canada, Australia and Mexico were surveyed in September 2012, January 2013 and May 2013; replenishment was used to maintain sample sizes of 1000 participants in each country at each wave. Country-stratified logistic Generalised Estimating Equation (GEE) models were estimated to assess correlates of citing HWLs as a source of information on quitlines and cessation websites. GEE models also regressed having called the quitline, and having visited a cessation website, on awareness of these resources because of HWLs. At baseline, citing HWLs as a source of information about quitlines was highest in Canada, followed by Australia and Mexico (33%, 19% and 16%, respectively). Significant increases over time were only evident in Australia and Mexico. In all countries, citing HWLs as a source of quitline information was significantly associated with self-report of having called a quitline. At baseline, citing HWLs as a source of information about cessation websites was higher in Canada than in Australia (14% and 6%, respectively; Mexico was excluded because HWLs do not include website information), but no significant changes over time were found for either country. Citing HWLs as a source of information about cessation websites was significantly associated with having visited a website in both Canada and Australia. HWLs are an important source of cessation information. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Effect of the Written and Combined Warnings on the Cigarette Pockets on University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gercek, Cem; Dogan, Nuri

    2012-01-01

    The general aim of this study is to analyze the effects of the written and combined (written and pictures) warning statements on the cigarette pockets on university students. The sample of the study includes a total of 231 undergraduate students. The participants were divided into two groups: the first group was presented only written warnings,…

  17. Caution: Alcohol Advertising and the Surgeon General's Alcohol Warnings May Have Adverse Effects on Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blood, Deborah J.; Snyder, Leslie B.

    A study investigated the effects of the newly introduced Surgeon General's alcohol warnings and advertisements on college students. One hundred fifty-nine undergraduates in communication sciences at the University of Connecticut viewed slides of alcohol products, with or without advertisements and warnings. Following the viewings, subjects filled…

  18. Self-affirmation reduces smokers' defensiveness to graphic on-pack cigarette warning labels.

    PubMed

    Harris, Peter R; Mayle, Kathryn; Mabbott, Lucy; Napper, Lucy

    2007-07-01

    Little is known about how smokers respond to graphic images depicting the health consequences of smoking. The authors tested whether smokers respond defensively to such images and whether allowing them to self-affirm reduces their defensiveness. Young smokers (N = 87) were randomly allocated to self-affirm or perform a control task prior to viewing 4 images intended for future use on cigarette packs in the European Union. Measures were taken immediately postexposure and after 1 week. Participants rated each image for threat and personal relevance. Once all 4 images had been viewed, they completed measures of intentions, self-efficacy, and perceived behavioral control for reducing cigarette consumption, negative thoughts and feelings about smoking, personal vulnerability to 6 smoking-related diseases, desire to quit, and plans to quit. At the 1-week follow-up, measures of self-reported smoking and desire to reduce consumption were taken. Relative to controls, self-affirmed participants rated the images as more threatening and personally relevant, and they reported more negative thoughts and feelings and higher levels of control, self-efficacy, and intentions. Risk level moderated the effect of self-affirmation on relevance and intentions: Self-affirmation increased ratings on both measures among those who smoked more. In addition, self-affirmation moderated the threat-intention relationship, which was weaker in the self-affirmed group. At follow-up, motivation to reduce consumption remained higher in self-affirmed participants, but there were no differences in reported consumption. Self-affirmation can promote less defensive responding even to visual material about well-established health risks such as smoking. Copyright 2007 APA.

  19. The modality shift effect and the effectiveness of warning signals in different modalities.

    PubMed

    Rodway, Paul

    2005-10-01

    Which is better, a visual or an auditory warning signal? Initial findings suggested that an auditory signal was more effective, speeding reaction to a target more than a visual warning signal, particularly at brief foreperiods [Bertelson, P., & Tisseyre, F. (1969). The time-course of preparation: confirmatory results with visual and auditory warning signals. Acta Psychologica, 30. In W.G. Koster (Ed.), Attention and Performance II (pp. 145-154); Davis, R., & Green, F. A. (1969). Intersensory differences in the effect of warning signals on reaction time. Acta Psychologica, 30. In W.G. Koster (Ed.), Attention and Performance II (pp. 155-167)]. This led to the hypothesis that an auditory signal is more alerting than a visual warning signal [Sanders, A. F. (1975). The foreperiod effect revisited. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 27, 591-598; Posner, M. I., Nissen, M. J., & Klein, R. M. (1976). Visual dominance: an information-processing account of its origins and significance. Psychological Review, 83, 157-171]. Recently [Turatto, M., Benso, F., Galfano, G., & Umilta, C. (2002). Nonspatial attentional shifts between audition and vision. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 28, 628-639] found no evidence for an auditory warning signal advantage and showed that at brief foreperiods a signal in the same modality as the target facilitated responding more than a signal in a different modality. They accounted for this result in terms of the modality shift effect, with the signal exogenously recruiting attention to its modality, and thereby facilitating responding to targets arriving in the modality to which attention had been recruited. The present study conducted six experiments to understand the cause of these conflicting findings. The results suggest that an auditory warning signal is not more effective than a visual warning signal. Previous reports of an auditory superiority appear to have been caused by using different

  20. Examining the conspicuousness and prominence of two required warnings on OTC pain relievers

    PubMed Central

    Bix, Laura; Bello, Nora M.; Auras, Rafael; Ranger, Jon; Lapinski, Maria K.

    2009-01-01

    The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs is critical to their safe and effective use, and certain warnings are meant to be read at the point of purchase (POP). Examples include (i) warnings that alert consumers to the fact that the package is not child-resistant and (ii) warnings that alert consumers to potential product tampering. U.S. law mandates these warnings be “conspicuous” and “prominent” so that it is likely that consumers will read them before leaving the store. Our objective was to quantify the relative prominence and conspicuousness of these warnings. Sixty-one participants reviewed the packages of 5 commercially available analgesics to evaluate the prominence and conspicuousness of these warnings. Evaluated data included (i) the time spent examining the warnings compared with other areas of the label (using a bright pupil eye tracker), (ii) the ability to recall information from the OTCs viewed, and (iii) the legibility of the warnings relative to other elements of the labels (as measured by ASTM D7298-06). Eye-tracking data indicated that warnings were viewed by fewer participants and for less time than other elements of the packages. Recall and legibility data also indicated that the warning statements compared unfavorably with other elements of the labels tested. Evidence presented in this study suggests that 2 required warnings on 5 different OTCs are not prominent or conspicuous when compared with other elements of tested labels. PMID:19332798

  1. Response time effects of alerting tone and semantic context for synthesized voice cockpit warnings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, C. A.; Williams, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    Some handbooks and human factors design guides have recommended that a voice warning should be preceded by a tone to attract attention to the warning. As far as can be determined from a search of the literature, no experimental evidence supporting this exists. A fixed-base simulator flown by airline pilots was used to test the hypothesis that the total 'system-time' to respond to a synthesized voice cockpit warning would be longer when the message was preceded by a tone because the voice itself was expected to perform both the alerting and the information transfer functions. The simulation included realistic ATC radio voice communications, synthesized engine noise, cockpit conversation, and realistic flight routes. The effect of a tone before a voice warning was to lengthen response time; that is, responses were slower with an alerting tone. Lengthening the voice warning with another work, however, did not increase response time.

  2. Effects of lead time of verbal collision warning messages on driving behavior in connected vehicle settings.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jingyan; Wu, Changxu; Zhang, Yiqi

    2016-09-01

    Under the connected vehicle environment, vehicles will be able to exchange traffic information with roadway infrastructure and other vehicles. With such information, collision warning systems (CWSs) will be able to warn drivers with potentially hazardous situations within or out of sight and reduce collision accidents. The lead time of warning messages is a crucial factor in determining the effectiveness of CWSs in the prevention of traffic accidents. Accordingly, it is necessary to understand the effects of lead time on driving behaviors and explore the optimal lead time in various collision scenarios. The present driving simulator experiment studied the effects of controlled lead time at 16 levels (predetermined time headway from the subject vehicle to the collision location when the warning message broadcasted to a driver) on driving behaviors in various collision scenarios. Maximum effectiveness of warning messages was achieved when the controlled lead time was within the range of 5s to 8s. Specifically, the controlled lead time ranging from 4s to 8s led to the optimal safety benefit; and the controlled lead time ranging from 5s to 8s led to more gradual braking and shorter reaction time. Furthermore, a trapezoidal distribution of warning effectiveness was found by building a statistic model using curve estimation considering lead time, lifetime driving experience, and driving speed. The results indicated that the controlled lead time significantly affected driver performance. The findings have implications for the design of collision warning systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  3. Implicit motivational impact of pictorial health warning on cigarette packs.

    PubMed

    Volchan, Eliane; David, Isabel A; Tavares, Gisella; Nascimento, Billy M; Oliveira, Jose M; Gleiser, Sonia; Szklo, Andre; Perez, Cristina; Cavalcante, Tania; Pereira, Mirtes G; Oliveira, Leticia

    2013-01-01

    The use of pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages is one of the provisions included in the first ever global health treaty by the World Health Organization against the tobacco epidemic. There is substantial evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of graphic health warning labels on intention to quit, thoughts about health risks and engaging in cessation behaviors. However, studies that address the implicit emotional drives evoked by such warnings are still underexplored. Here, we provide experimental data for the use of pictorial health warnings as a reliable strategy for tobacco control. Experiment 1 pre-tested nineteen prototypes of pictorial warnings to screen for their emotional impact. Participants (n = 338) were young adults balanced in gender, smoking status and education. Experiment 2 (n = 63) tested pictorial warnings (ten) that were stamped on packs. We employed an innovative set-up to investigate the impact of the warnings on the ordinary attitude of packs' manipulation, and quantified judgments of warnings' emotional strength and efficacy against smoking. Experiment 1 revealed that women judged the warning prototypes as more aversive than men, and smokers judged them more aversive than non-smokers. Participants with lower education judged the prototypes more aversive than participants with higher education. Experiment 2 showed that stamped warnings antagonized the appeal of the brands by imposing a cost to manipulate the cigarette packs, especially for smokers. Additionally, participants' judgments revealed that the more aversive a warning, the more it is perceived as effective against smoking. Health warning labels are one of the key components of the integrated approach to control the global tobacco epidemic. The evidence presented in this study adds to the understanding of how implicit responses to pictorial warnings may contribute to behavioral change.

  4. The impact of the 2009/2010 enhancement of cigarette health warning labels in Uruguay: longitudinal findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Uruguay Survey.

    PubMed

    Gravely, Shannon; Fong, Geoffrey T; Driezen, Pete; McNally, Mary; Thrasher, James F; Thompson, Mary E; Boado, Marcelo; Bianco, Eduardo; Borland, Ron; Hammond, David

    2016-01-01

    Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 11 Guidelines recommend that health warning labels (HWLs) should occupy at least 50% of the package, but the tobacco industry claims that increasing the size would not lead to further benefits. This article reports the first population study to examine the impact of increasing HWL size above 50%. We tested the hypothesis that the 2009/2010 enhancement of the HWLs in Uruguay would be associated with higher levels of effectiveness. Data were drawn from a cohort of adult smokers (≥18 years) participating in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Uruguay Survey. The probability sample cohort was representative of adult smokers in five cities. The surveys included key indicators of HWL effectiveness. Data were collected in 2008/09 (prepolicy: wave 2) and 2010/11 (postpolicy: wave 3). Overall, 1746 smokers participated in the study at wave 2 (n=1379) and wave 3 (n=1411). Following the 2009/2010 HWL changes in Uruguay (from 50% to 80% in size), all indicators of HWL effectiveness increased significantly (noticing HWLs: OR=1.44, p=0.015; reading HWLs: OR=1.42, p=0.002; impact of HWLs on thinking about risks of smoking: OR=1.66, p<0.001; HWLs increasing thinking about quitting: OR=1.76, p<0.001; avoiding looking at the HWLs: OR=2.35, p<0.001; and reports that HWLs stopped smokers from having a cigarette 'many times': OR=3.42, p<0.001). The 2009/2010 changes to HWLs in Uruguay, including a substantial increment in size, led to increases of key HWL indicators, thus supporting the conclusion that enhancing HWLs beyond minimum guideline recommendations can lead to even higher levels of effectiveness. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. The impact of the 2009/2010 enhancement of cigarette health warning labels in Uruguay: longitudinal findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Uruguay Survey

    PubMed Central

    Gravely, Shannon; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Driezen, Pete; McNally, Mary; Thrasher, James F.; Thompson, Mary E.; Boado, Marcelo; Bianco, Eduardo; Borland, Ron; Hammond, David

    2015-01-01

    Background FCTC Article 11 Guidelines recommend that health warning labels (HWLs) should occupy at least 50% of the package, but the tobacco industry claims that increasing the size would not lead to further benefits. This article reports the first population study to examine the impact of increasing HWL size above 50%. We tested the hypothesis that the 2009/2010 enhancement of the HWLs in Uruguay would be associated with higher levels of effectiveness. Methods Data were drawn from a cohort of adult smokers (≥18 years) participating in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Uruguay Survey. The probability sample cohort was representative of adult smokers in 5 cities. The surveys included key indicators of HWL effectiveness. Data were collected in 2008/09 (pre-policy: Wave 2) and 2010/11 (post-policy: Wave 3). Results Overall, 1746 smokers participated in the study at Wave 2 (n=1,379) and Wave 3 (n=1,411). Following the 2009/2010 HWL changes in Uruguay (from 50% to 80% in size), all indicators of HWL effectiveness increased significantly [noticing HWLs: odds ratio (OR)=1.44, p=0.015; reading HWLs: OR=1.42, p=0.002; impact of HWLs on thinking about risks of smoking: OR=1.66, p<0.001; HWLs increasing thinking about quitting: OR=1.76, p<0.001; avoiding looking at the HWLs: OR=2.35, p<.001; and reports that HWLs stopped smokers from having a cigarette “many times”: OR=3.42, p<0.001]. Conclusions The 2009/2010 changes to HWLs in Uruguay, including a substantial increment in size, led to increases of key HWL indicators, thus supporting the conclusion that enhancing HWLs beyond minimum guideline recommendations can lead to even higher levels of effectiveness. PMID:25512431

  6. Psychological effectiveness of carbon labelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beattie, Geoffrey

    2012-04-01

    Despite the decision by supermarket-giant Tesco to delay its plan to add carbon-footprint information onto all of its 70,000 products, carbon labelling, if carefully designed, could yet change consumer behaviour. However, it requires a new type of thinking about consumers and much additional work.

  7. [Establishment of malaria early warning system in Jiangsu Province III effect of automatic early warning information system on the response of malaria elimination].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Ming; Zhou, Hua-Yun; Liu, Yao-Bao; Cao, Yuan-Yuan; Cao, Jun; Gao, Qi

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of automatic early warning information system on the response of malaria elimination in Jiangsu Province through the operation of the national automatic early warning system of infectious diseases. The malaria early warning information was collected from the automatic early warning information subsystem in the national information system for diseases control and prevention. Malaria early warning signals were analyzed from September 1 to December 31, 2012. The statistical analysis was conducted for the completion rates of case investigation within 3 days before and after the application of malaria early warning information system. Jiangsu Province received 85 mobile phone short messages (SMS) of malaria case from early warning system from September 1 to December 31, 2012. After judgments, 23 cases were deleted including 8 repeated cases and 15 cases that were excluded through the microscopy examination and epidemiological investigation by the confirmation of county CDC. From July to December in 2012, the monthly completion rates of case investigation within 3 days were 55.56%, 78.57%, 90.00%, 100%, 100% and 100%, respectively. The completion rates of case investigation within 3 days in July, August, September and October were significantly different by chi2 test ( chi2 = 10.66, P < 0.05). The completion rates of foci investigation and action within 7 days in Jiangsu Province were all 100% from July to December in 2012. The completion rates of case investigation within 3 days are associated with SMS from the early warning system. The malaria warning system from the national infectious diseases can effectively improve the response to malaria cases for primary CDC. It also plays an important role for the timely confirmation and diagnosis of malaria cases.

  8. Exposure to Prescription Drugs Labeled for Risk of Adverse Effects of Suicidal Behavior or Ideation among 100 Air Force Personnel Who Died by Suicide, 2006-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavigne, Jill E.; McCarthy, Michael; Chapman, Richard; Petrilla, Allison; Knox, Kerry L.

    2012-01-01

    Prescription drugs for many indications are labeled with warnings for potential risk of suicidal ideation or behavior. Exposures to prescription drugs labeled for adverse effects of suicidal behavior or ideation among 100 Air Force personnel who died by suicide between 2006 and 2009 are described. Air Force registry data were linked to…

  9. Exposure to Prescription Drugs Labeled for Risk of Adverse Effects of Suicidal Behavior or Ideation among 100 Air Force Personnel Who Died by Suicide, 2006-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavigne, Jill E.; McCarthy, Michael; Chapman, Richard; Petrilla, Allison; Knox, Kerry L.

    2012-01-01

    Prescription drugs for many indications are labeled with warnings for potential risk of suicidal ideation or behavior. Exposures to prescription drugs labeled for adverse effects of suicidal behavior or ideation among 100 Air Force personnel who died by suicide between 2006 and 2009 are described. Air Force registry data were linked to…

  10. Does the effect go up in smoke? A randomized controlled trial of pictorial warnings on cigarette packaging.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Sven; Gadinger, Michael; Fischer, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Placing a combination of a written warning and a graphic image on cigarette packaging (so called "pictorial warnings") is one of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control's most controversial recommendations. Our randomized controlled trial investigated if pictorial warnings lead to significantly higher motivation to quit, as compared to written warnings alone. Four pictorial warnings were selected from the EU Commission's official image catalogue. Study arm 1 (44 adult smokers) viewed only the written warnings while study arm 2 (44 adult smokers) viewed the corresponding pictorial warnings. Self-affirmation was a second randomly manipulated factor, and nicotine dependence a quasi-experimental third factor. The main outcome measured was the motivation to quit, with fear intensity as one of the secondary outcomes. Pictorial warnings were associated with a significantly higher motivation to quit. A pictorial warning was also associated with higher fear intensity. The effect of warnings appears to be independent of nicotine dependence and self-affirmation. Nationwide implementation of pictorial warnings may be effective in increasing heavy smokers' motivation to quit. Due to the fact that perceived vulnerability, response and self-efficacy are not more strongly affected by pictorial warnings this effect may turn out to be short-term. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Unveiling the truth: warnings reduce the repetition-based truth effect.

    PubMed

    Nadarevic, Lena; Aßfalg, André

    2017-07-01

    Typically, people are more likely to consider a previously seen or heard statement as true compared to a novel statement. This repetition-based "truth effect" is thought to rely on fluency-truth attributions as the underlying cognitive mechanism. In two experiments, we tested the nature of the fluency-attribution mechanism by means of warning instructions, which informed participants about the truth effect and asked them to prevent it. In Experiment 1, we instructed warned participants to consider whether a statement had already been presented in the experiment to avoid the truth effect. However, warnings did not significantly reduce the truth effect. In Experiment 2, we introduced control questions and reminders to ensure that participants understood the warning instruction. This time, warning reduced, but did not eliminate the truth effect. Assuming that the truth effect relies on fluency-truth attributions, this finding suggests that warned participants could control their attributions but did not disregard fluency altogether when making truth judgments. Further, we found no evidence that participants overdiscount the influence of fluency on their truth judgments.

  12. Quantifying the effect of early warning systems for mitigating risks from alpine hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Daniel; Sättele, Martina; Bründl, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Early warning systems (EWS) are increasingly applied as flexible and non-intrusive measures for mitigating risks from alpine hazards. They are typically planed and installed in an ad-hoc manner and their effectiveness is not quantified, which is in contrast to structural risk mitigation measures. The effect of an EWS on the risk depends on human decision makers: experts interpret the signals from EWS, authorities decide on intervention measures and the public responds to the warnings. This interaction of the EWS with humans makes the quantification of their effectiveness challenging. Nevertheless, such a quantification is an important step in understanding, improving and justifying the use of EWS. We systematically discuss and demonstrate the factors that influence EWS effectiveness for alpine hazards, and present approaches and tools for analysing them. These include Bayesian network models, which are a powerful tool for an integral probabilistic assessment. The theory is illustrated through applications of warning systems for debris flow and rockfall hazards. References: Sättele M., Bründl M., Straub D. (in print). Quantifying the effectiveness of early warning systems for natural hazards. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences. Sättele M., Bründl M., Straub D. (2015). Reliability and Effectiveness of Warning Systems for Natural Hazards: Concepts and Application to Debris Flow Warning. Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 142: 192-202

  13. Implicit Motivational Impact of Pictorial Health Warning on Cigarette Packs

    PubMed Central

    Volchan, Eliane; David, Isabel A.; Tavares, Gisella; Nascimento, Billy M.; Oliveira, Jose M.; Gleiser, Sonia; Szklo, Andre; Perez, Cristina; Cavalcante, Tania; Pereira, Mirtes G.; Oliveira, Leticia

    2013-01-01

    Objective The use of pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages is one of the provisions included in the first ever global health treaty by the World Health Organization against the tobacco epidemic. There is substantial evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of graphic health warning labels on intention to quit, thoughts about health risks and engaging in cessation behaviors. However, studies that address the implicit emotional drives evoked by such warnings are still underexplored. Here, we provide experimental data for the use of pictorial health warnings as a reliable strategy for tobacco control. Methods Experiment 1 pre-tested nineteen prototypes of pictorial warnings to screen for their emotional impact. Participants (n = 338) were young adults balanced in gender, smoking status and education. Experiment 2 (n = 63) tested pictorial warnings (ten) that were stamped on packs. We employed an innovative set-up to investigate the impact of the warnings on the ordinary attitude of packs’ manipulation, and quantified judgments of warnings’ emotional strength and efficacy against smoking. Findings Experiment 1 revealed that women judged the warning prototypes as more aversive than men, and smokers judged them more aversive than non-smokers. Participants with lower education judged the prototypes more aversive than participants with higher education. Experiment 2 showed that stamped warnings antagonized the appeal of the brands by imposing a cost to manipulate the cigarette packs, especially for smokers. Additionally, participants’ judgments revealed that the more aversive a warning, the more it is perceived as effective against smoking. Conclusions Health warning labels are one of the key components of the integrated approach to control the global tobacco epidemic. The evidence presented in this study adds to the understanding of how implicit responses to pictorial warnings may contribute to behavioral change. PMID:23977223

  14. Effects of an integrated collision warning system on teenage driver behavior.

    PubMed

    Jermakian, Jessica S; Bao, Shan; Buonarosa, Mary Lynn; Sayer, James R; Farmer, Charles M

    2017-06-01

    Crash warning systems have been shown to provide safety benefits, but no studies have examined how teenagers respond. This study sought to find out whether young, inexperienced drivers change behavior in response to warnings. Forty 16-17 year-olds drove an instrumented vehicle equipped with a system that warned for lane departures and potential rear-end and lane change/merge crashes. Participants were randomly assigned to experimental or control groups, and their driving was monitored for 14weeks during 2011-12. For the experimental group, this included a treatment period, when crash alerts were received by drivers, and baseline and post-treatment periods, when warnings were recorded but not received. The control group never received warnings. Data were analyzed to determine whether warnings were associated with changes in driving behavior. A total of 15,039 trips were analyzed. Lane drifts accounted for 73% of warnings. Forward collision warning rates doubled for all drivers during the treatment period and continued at an increased rate post-treatment. This was likely a result of the fact that, as time went on, all drivers spent more time following vehicles at close distances. Receiving alerts was associated with effects on following and lane-changing behavior, including more time spent following at close distances (17%), fewer lateral drifts (37%) and fewer unsignaled lane changes (80%). Receiving warnings wasn't associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in secondary tasks. Warning systems may result in improved lane-keeping and turn-signal behaviors by novice drivers, but there is some indication they may result in more close-following behaviors. There is some evidence that lane departure warning may improve turn-signal use for young drivers. While there is no evidence of safety benefits from the other types of warnings, there is some evidence of an increase in close-following behavior but no increase in secondary tasks due to the presence of those

  15. The effectiveness and limitations of regulatory warnings for the safe prescribing of citalopram

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Kevin J; Bugden, Shawn C

    2015-01-01

    Background Citalopram is the most commonly prescribed antidepressant in Canada. Concerns have been raised about its cardiac safety, and a dose-dependent prolongation of the QT interval has been documented. Drug interactions involving concomitant use of other medications that prolong the QT interval or increase citalopram levels by interfering with its metabolism increase the cardiac risk. Regulatory bodies (Health Canada and the US Food and Drug Administration) issued warnings and required labeling changes in 2011/2012, suggesting maximum citalopram doses (<40 mg for those <65 years; <20 mg for those ≥65 years) and avoiding drug interactions that increase cardiac risk. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of these warnings on citalopram prescribing practices. Methods A quasi-experimental interrupted time series analysis was conducted using all citalopram prescribing data from the population of Manitoba, Canada from 1999 to 2014. This allowed for the examination of high-dose prescribing (above regulatory warning levels) and the number of interacting medications per citalopram prescription. Results There was a dramatic decline in the prescribing of high doses in both age groups, with a 64.8% decline in those <65 years and 33.6% in those ≥65 years. Segmented regression models indicated significant breakpoints in the third quarter of 2011 for both age groups (P<0.0001), corresponding to the time the regulatory warnings were issued. There appeared to be no impact of the warnings on the prescribing of interacting medications. The number of interacting medications actually increased in the postwarning period (<65, 0.78–0.81 interactions per citalopram prescription; ≥65, 0.93–0.94, P<0.001). Conclusion Regulatory changes appear to have produced an important reduction in the high-dose prescribing of citalopram. In contrast to this relatively simple dosage change, there was no indication that the more complex issue of resolving drug–drug interactions

  16. Abandoning a label doesn’t make it disappear: The perseverance of labeling effects

    PubMed Central

    Foroni, Francesco; Rothbart, Myron

    2012-01-01

    Labels exert strong influence on perception and judgment. The present experiment examines the possibility that such effects may persist even when labels are abandoned. Participants judged the similarity of pairs of silhouette drawings of female body types, ordered on a continuum from very thin to very heavy, under conditions where category labels were, and were not, superimposed on the ordered stimuli. Consistent with earlier research, labels had strong effects on perceived similarity, with silhouettes sharing the same label judged as more similar than those having different labels. Moreover, when the labels were removed and no longer present, the effect of the labels, although diminished, persisted. It did not make any difference whether the labels were simply abandoned or, in addition, had their validity challenged. The results are important for our understanding of categorization and labeling processes. The potential theoretical and practical implications of these results for social processes are discussed. PMID:23105148

  17. Effects of Shared Electronic Health Record Systems on Drug-Drug Interaction and Duplication Warning Detection

    PubMed Central

    Rinner, Christoph; Grossmann, Wilfried; Sauter, Simone Katja; Wolzt, Michael; Gall, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Shared electronic health records (EHRs) systems can offer a complete medication overview of the prescriptions of different health care providers. We use health claims data of more than 1 million Austrians in 2006 and 2007 with 27 million prescriptions to estimate the effect of shared EHR systems on drug-drug interaction (DDI) and duplication warnings detection and prevention. The Austria Codex and the ATC/DDD information were used as a knowledge base to detect possible DDIs. DDIs are categorized as severe, moderate, and minor interactions. In comparison to the current situation where only DDIs between drugs issued by a single health care provider can be checked, the number of warnings increases significantly if all drugs of a patient are checked: severe DDI warnings would be detected for 20% more persons, and the number of severe DDI warnings and duplication warnings would increase by 17%. We show that not only do shared EHR systems help to detect more patients with warnings but DDIs are also detected more frequently. Patient safety can be increased using shared EHR systems. PMID:26682218

  18. Effects of Shared Electronic Health Record Systems on Drug-Drug Interaction and Duplication Warning Detection.

    PubMed

    Rinner, Christoph; Grossmann, Wilfried; Sauter, Simone Katja; Wolzt, Michael; Gall, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Shared electronic health records (EHRs) systems can offer a complete medication overview of the prescriptions of different health care providers. We use health claims data of more than 1 million Austrians in 2006 and 2007 with 27 million prescriptions to estimate the effect of shared EHR systems on drug-drug interaction (DDI) and duplication warnings detection and prevention. The Austria Codex and the ATC/DDD information were used as a knowledge base to detect possible DDIs. DDIs are categorized as severe, moderate, and minor interactions. In comparison to the current situation where only DDIs between drugs issued by a single health care provider can be checked, the number of warnings increases significantly if all drugs of a patient are checked: severe DDI warnings would be detected for 20% more persons, and the number of severe DDI warnings and duplication warnings would increase by 17%. We show that not only do shared EHR systems help to detect more patients with warnings but DDIs are also detected more frequently. Patient safety can be increased using shared EHR systems.

  19. Effects of auditory and tactile warning on response to visual hazards under a noisy environment.

    PubMed

    Murata, Atsuo; Kuroda, Takashi; Karwowski, Waldemar

    2017-04-01

    A warning signal presented via a visual or an auditory cue might interfere with auditory or visual information inside and outside a vehicle. On the other hand, such interference would be certainly reduced if a tactile cue is used. Therefore, it is expected that tactile cues would be promising as warning signals, especially in a noisy environment. In order to determine the most suitable modality of cue (warning) to a visual hazard in noisy environments, auditory and tactile cues were examined in this study. The condition of stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was set to 0ms, 500ms, and 1000ms. Two types of noises were used: white noise and noise outside a vehicle recorded in a real-world driving environment. The noise level LAeq (equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level) inside the experimental chamber of each type of noise was adjusted to approximately 60 dB (A), 70 dB (A), and 80 dB (A). As a result, it was verified that tactile warning was more effective than auditory warning. When the noise outside a vehicle from a real-driving environment was used as the noise inside the experimental chamber, the reaction time to the auditory warning was not affected by the noise level.

  20. Estimating the effects of novel on-pack warnings on young adult smokers and susceptible non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Gendall, Philip; Eckert, Christine; Hoek, Janet; Louviere, Jordan

    2017-08-19

    On-pack tobacco warnings can deter smoking initiation and provide powerful cessation cues. However, these warnings typically feature graphic health images, which many young adults dismiss as irrelevant. We estimated responses to more diverse warnings and examined how these performed relative to each other. We conducted a behavioural likelihood experiment and a choice modelling experiment in which 474 smokers and 476 susceptible non-smokers aged between 16 and 30 years evaluated 12 warnings featuring health, social, financial and cosmetic themes. The choice data were analysed by estimating Sequential-Best-Worst Choice and Scale-Adjusted Latent Class Models. Smokers found all test warnings aversive, particularly warnings featuring the effect of smoking on vulnerable third parties, including babies and animals, and showing a dying smoker. Susceptible non-smokers found graphic health warnings and a warning that combined graphic health with loss of physical attractiveness, significantly more aversive than other images tested. Illustrating the harms smoking causes to vulnerable groups may reduce the temporal distance and perceived control over smoking that young adults use to rationalise health warnings. Introducing more diverse warnings could recognise heterogeneity within smoker and susceptible non-smoker populations, and complement warnings featuring long-term health harms. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Effect of directional speech warnings on road hazard detection.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Jesús; Di Stasi, Leandro L; Megías, Alberto; Catena, Andrés

    2011-12-01

    In the last 2 decades, cognitive science and the transportation psychology field have dedicated a lot of effort to designing advanced driver support systems. Verbal warning systems are increasingly being implemented in modern automobiles in an effort to increase road safety. The study presented here investigated the impact of directional speech alert messages on the participants' speed to judge whether or not naturalistic road scenes depicted a situation of impending danger. Thirty-eight volunteers performed a computer-based key-press reaction time task. Findings indicated that semantic content of verbal warning signals can be used for increasing driving safety and improving hazard detection. Furthermore, the classical result regarding signal accuracy is confirmed: directional informative speech messages lead to faster hazard detection compared to drivers who received a high rate of false alarms. Notwithstanding some study limitations (lack of driver experience and low ecological validity), this evidence could provide important information for the specification of future Human-Machine-interaction (HMI) design guidelines.

  2. Exploratory evaluation of several teratogen warning symbols.

    PubMed

    Goldsworthy, Richard; Kaplan, Brian

    2006-06-01

    Previous research has noted potential inadequacies in the warning labels and symbols used with some teratogenic medications. A clear teratogen warning symbol represents an important component of risk mitigation for accidental teratogen exposure. Several teratogen warning symbols were developed through rapid prototyping and focus groups. A nationally distributed field trial (n = 300) examined the relative effectiveness of 6 candidate symbols, including the symbol in use at the time of the study. Measures included open-ended interpretation, closed-ended preference, and demographic surveys. Each participant was shown a single symbol and asked what it meant, to whom it applied, and what that person should do. Text statements were added to the symbol and participants were asked to reinterpret the warning. Participants were told the intended message of the warning, shown all 6 symbols, and asked to choose the most effective symbol. Four of 6 symbols achieved levels of correct interpretation close to or exceeding the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) benchmark of 85% and none exceeded the ANSI limit of 5% critical confusion. Symbols elicited varying conceptual responses. Respondents considered 1 symbol to be the most effective, by a 4 to 1 margin. Several outcomes varied by age and by ethnicity. Several symbols emerged as viable alternatives to the current symbol; however, no 1 symbol was clearly found to be the most effective. Instead, the symbol considered "best" depends on the messages that are considered most essential to the warning. Additionally, it appears a symbol without the addition of text can convey most, but possibly not all, of the meaning required of the warning label. Next steps should include further symbol refinement, closer examination of text additions to symbols, and validation of the candidate symbols and warnings through a large-scale field trial. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Developing effective warning systems: Ongoing research at Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Graham S.; Johnston, David M.; Paton, Douglas; Christianson, Amy; Becker, Julia; Keys, Harry

    2008-05-01

    PurposeThis paper examines the unique challenges to volcanic risk management associated with having a ski area on an active volcano. Using a series of simulated eruption/lahar events at Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand, as a context, a model of risk management that integrates warning system design and technology, risk perceptions and the human response is explored. Principal resultsDespite increases in the observed audibility and comprehension of the warning message, recall of public education content, and people's awareness of volcanic risk, a persistent minority of the public continued to demonstrate only moderate awareness of the correct actions to take during a warning and failed to respond effectively. A relationship between level of staff competence and correct public response allowed the level of public response to be used to identify residual risk and additional staff training needs. The quality of staff awareness, action and decision-making has emerged as a critical factor, from detailed staff and public interviews and from exercise observations. Staff actions are especially important for mobilising correct public response at Ruapehu ski areas due to the transient nature of the visitor population. Introduction of education material and staff training strategies that included the development of emergency decision-making competencies improved knowledge of correct actions, and increased the proportion of people moving out of harm's way during blind tests. Major conclusionsWarning effectiveness is a function of more than good hazard knowledge and the generation and notification of an early warning message. For warning systems to be effective, these factors must be complemented by accurate knowledge of risk and risk management actions. By combining the Ruapehu findings with those of other warning system studies in New Zealand, and internationally, a practical five-step model for effective early warning systems is discussed. These steps must be based upon sound and

  4. From directive to practice: are pictorial warnings and plain packaging effective to reduce the tobacco addiction?

    PubMed

    Mannocci, Alice; Colamesta, Vittoria; Mipatrini, Daniele; Messina, Gabriele; Gualano, Maria Rosaria; Gianfagna, Francesco; Boccia, G; Langiano, Elisa; Nicolotti, Nicola; Veronesi, Giovanni; Siliquini, Roberta; De Vito, Elisabetta; La Torre, Giuseppe

    2015-12-01

    Tobacco packaging represents an important form of promotion of tobacco products and for this reason plain packaging (PP) can be considered an additional tobacco control measure. In Italy the current tobacco packaging is branded with textual warnings. The study investigated the perception of PP with textual warnings (PPTWs) and pictorial warnings (PPPWs) in Italy. Cross-sectional. The study was conducted on adults who were current, never and former smokers. The participants watched out three types of packages (current packaging, PPTWs and PPPWs) and eight pictorial warnings, and indicated which they considered the most effective ones to motivate smoking cessation or reduction and to prevent the onset. 1065 subjects were recruited. The PPPWs were considered the most effective in motivating to quit, reduce and prevent the smoking habits (ranged 83.4%-96.1%) in all tobacco users and age groups (≤40/>40 years) (P < 0.005). In general PP does not seem to be very effective in quitting for three-quarters of the smokers and 60% declared that they would have still started smoking with PP. The younger group believed less than the older one that PP gives a motivation to quit (29.4% vs 39.1%, P = 0.002). The pictures perceived as most effective in communicating the smoking effects were lung cancer and gangrene (about one-third of the sample). The textual warnings on tobacco products are a measure of control now outdated. Countries still using them should consider the idea of replace them with pictorial warnings that seem to be more effective. It is also desirable in the near future that these countries introduce the PPPWs. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effects of the suicide awareness program in enhancing community volunteers' awareness of suicide warning signs.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Pei; Lin, Long-Yau; Chang, Wen-Li; Chang, Hui-Chin; Chou, Ming-Chih

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the suicide awareness program (SAP) in enhancing community volunteers' awareness of suicide warning signs (SWSs). Seventy-six participants were recruited in this study to complete the Awareness of Suicide Warning Signs Questionnaire before and after they received a 90-minute SAP. After the educational intervention, the mean score of the participants on awareness of SWSs was elevated from 3.97 to 4.53. The percentage of SWSs perceived increased from 46.88% to 84.38%. This shows that the SAP for community volunteers is effective in promoting suicide awareness. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessing effectiveness of various auditory warning signals in maintaining drivers' attention in virtual reality-based driving environments.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Teng; Chiu, Tien-Ting; Huang, Teng-Yi; Chao, Chih-Feng; Liang, Wen-Chieh; Hsu, Shang-Hwa; Ko, Li-Wei

    2009-06-01

    Drivers' fatigue contributes to traffic accidents, so drivers must maintain adequate alertness. The effectiveness of audio alarms in maintaining driving performance and characteristics of alarms was studied in a virtural reality-based driving environment. Response time to the car's drifting was measured under seven conditions: with no warnings and with continuous warning tones (500 Hz, 1750 Hz, and 3000 Hz), and with tone bursts at 500 Hz, 1750 Hz, and 3000 Hz. Analyses showed the audio warning signals significantly improved driving. Further, the tones' spectral characteristics significantly influenced the effectiveness of the warning.

  7. Effects of culture (China vs. US) and task on perceived hazard: Evidence from product ratings, label ratings, and product to label matching.

    PubMed

    Lesch, Mary F; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick; Choi, YoonSun

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, 44 Chinese and 40 US college students rated their perceived hazard in response to warning labels and products and attempted to match products with warning labels communicating the same level of hazard. Chinese participants tended to provide lower ratings of hazard in response to labels, but hazard perceived in response to products did not significantly differ as a function of culture. When asked to match a product with a warning label, Chinese participants' hazard perceptions appeared to be better calibrated, than did US participants', across products and labels. The results are interpreted in terms of constructivist theory which suggests that risk perceptions vary depending on the "frame of mind" evoked by the environment/context. Designers of warnings must be sensitive to the fact that product users' cognitive representations develop within a culture and that risk perceptions will vary based on the context in which they are derived.

  8. Synthesized speech rate and pitch effects on intelligibility of warning messages for pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, C. A.; Marchionda-Frost, K.

    1984-01-01

    In civilian and military operations, a future threat-warning system with a voice display could warn pilots of other traffic, obstacles in the flight path, and/or terrain during low-altitude helicopter flights. The present study was conducted to learn whether speech rate and voice pitch of phoneme-synthesized speech affects pilot accuracy and response time to typical threat-warning messages. Helicopter pilots engaged in an attention-demanding flying task and listened for voice threat warnings presented in a background of simulated helicopter cockpit noise. Performance was measured by flying-task performance, threat-warning intelligibility, and response time. Pilot ratings were elicited for the different voice pitches and speech rates. Significant effects were obtained only for response time and for pilot ratings, both as a function of speech rate. For the few cases when pilots forgot to respond to a voice message, they remembered 90 percent of the messages accurately when queried for their response 8 to 10 sec later.

  9. Effect of government and commercial warnings on reducing prescription misuse: the case of propoxyphene.

    PubMed Central

    Soumerai, S B; Avorn, J; Gortmaker, S; Hawley, S

    1987-01-01

    We analyzed trends in prescribing and overdose deaths related to propoxyphene (e.g., Darvon) before and after a 1978-80 informational campaign carried out by the US Food and Drug Administration and the drug's manufacturer through mailed warnings, face-to-face education of prescribers, press releases, and labeling changes. The goals included a reduction in propoxyphene use with alcohol or other CNS depressants, reduced prescribing of refills, and cessation of prescribing for patients at risk of abuse and misuse (suicide). We conducted time-series analyses of nationwide propoxyphene use data 1974-83 and analyzed data on drug overdose death rates covering a combined population of about 83 million. Segmented regression methods were used to determine if the informational program was associated with changes in trends of prescribing or overdose deaths. Comparison drug series were analyzed to control for other secular trends in prescribing. Nationwide propoxyphene use during the warnings continued a pre-existing decline of about 8 per cent per year, but this decline halted after the warnings. The no-refill recommendation had no impact on refill rates. The risk of overdose death per propoxyphene prescription filled has remained about constant since 1979. Sharper declines in misuse of such drugs will require stronger, more sustained regulatory or educational measures. PMID:3674250

  10. Immediate skin responses to laser and light treatments: Warning endpoints: How to avoid side effects.

    PubMed

    Wanner, Molly; Sakamoto, Fernanda H; Avram, Mathew M; Anderson, R Rox

    2016-05-01

    Lasers are versatile, commonly used treatment tools in dermatology. While it is tempting to follow manufacturer's guidelines or other "recipes" for laser treatment, this approach alone can be a recipe for disaster. Specific and immediate skin responses or endpoints exist and are clinically useful because they correlate with underlying mechanisms that are either desirable (ie, therapeutic), undesirable (ie, warning signs of injury or side effects), or incidental. The observation of clinical endpoints is a safe and reliable guide for appropriate treatment. This article presents the warning endpoints during specific dermatologic laser treatments, and the accompanying article presents the therapeutic endpoints, their underlying mechanisms, and the utility of these endpoints.

  11. Effect of Health Warnings on Cigarette Pockets on Behaviour: Educational Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gercek, Cem; Dogan, Nuri; Gundeger, Ceylan; Yakar, Levent

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Health warnings printed on cigarette packets are an important vehicle in that they demonstrate and inform people of the threats and health risks related to smoking. Increasing the effectiveness of this vehicle is one of the purposes of this study. Research Methods: Since this research aims to describe the associations between dependent…

  12. 21 CFR 1302.05 - Effective dates of labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effective dates of labeling requirements. 1302.05 Section 1302.05 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE LABELING AND... labels on commercial containers of, and all labeling of, a controlled substance which either...

  13. 21 CFR 1302.05 - Effective dates of labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates of labeling requirements. 1302.05 Section 1302.05 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE LABELING AND... labels on commercial containers of, and all labeling of, a controlled substance which either...

  14. Supersize the label: The effect of prominent calorie labeling on sales.

    PubMed

    Nikolaou, Charoula K; McPartland, Michael; Demkova, Livia; Lean, Michael E J

    2017-03-01

    Calorie labeling has been suggested as an antiobesity measure; however, evidence on its effects is scarce and formatting guidance not well defined. The aim of this study was to test the effects of prominent calorie labeling on sales of the labeled items. Prominent calorie labels were posted in front of two popular items for a period of 1 mo. Sales were recorded for 2 mo consecutively, before and during labeling. Muffins sales (the higher-calorie item) fell by 30%, whereas sales of scones rose by 4%, a significant difference (χ(2) = 10.258; P = 0.0014). Calorie labeling is effective when noticed. Wider adoption of calorie labeling for all food businesses and strengthening legislation with formatting guidelines should be the next step in public health policy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Perceived effectiveness of pictorial health warnings among Mexican youth and adults: a population-level intervention with potential to reduce tobacco-related inequities.

    PubMed

    Hammond, David; Thrasher, James; Reid, Jessica L; Driezen, Pete; Boudreau, Christian; Santillán, Edna Arillo

    2012-03-01

    Pictorial health warnings on cigarette packages are a prominent and effective means of communicating the risks of smoking; however, there is little research on effective types of message content and socio-demographic effects. This study tested message themes and content of pictorial warnings in Mexico. Face-to-face surveys were conducted with 544 adult smokers and 528 youth in Mexico City. Participants were randomized to view 5-7 warnings for two of 15 different health effects. Warnings for each health effect included a text-only warning and pictorial warnings with various themes: "graphic" health effects, "lived experience", symbolic images, and testimonials. Pictorial health warnings were rated as more effective than text-only warnings. Pictorial warnings featuring "graphic" depictions of disease were significantly more effective than symbolic images or experiences of human suffering. Adding testimonial information to warnings increased perceived effectiveness. Adults who were female, older, had lower education, and intended to quit smoking rated warnings as more effective, although the magnitude of these differences was modest. Few interactions were observed between socio-demographics and message theme. Graphic depictions of disease were perceived by youth and adults as the most effective warning theme. Perceptions of warnings were generally similar across socio-demographic groups.

  16. Perceived effectiveness of pictorial health warnings among Mexican youth and adults: a population-level intervention to reduce tobacco related inequities

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, David; Thrasher, James; Reid, Jessica L.; Driezen, Pete; Boudreau, Christian; Santillan, Edna Arillo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Pictorial health warnings on cigarette packages are a prominent and effective means of communicating the risks of smoking; however, there is little research on effective types of message content and socio-demographic effects. This study tested message themes and content of pictorial warnings in Mexico. Methods Face-to-face surveys were conducted with 544 adult smokers and 528 youth in Mexico City. Participants were randomized to view 5–7 warnings for two of 15 different health effects. Warnings for each health effect included a text-only warning and pictorial warnings with various themes: “graphic” health effects, “lived experience”, symbolic images, and testimonials. Results Pictorial health warnings were rated as more effective than text-only warnings. Pictorial warnings featuring “graphic” depictions of disease were significantly more effective than symbolic images or experiences of human suffering. Adding testimonial information to warnings increased perceived effectiveness. Adults who were female, older, had lower education, and intended to quit smoking rated warnings as more effective, although the magnitude of these differences was modest. Few interactions were observed between socio-demographics and message theme. Conclusions Graphic depictions of disease were perceived by youth and adults as the most effective warning theme. Perceptions of warnings were generally similar across socio-demographic groups. PMID:22362058

  17. Neural biomarkers for assessing different types of imagery in pictorial health warning labels for cigarette packaging: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Newman-Norlund, Roger D; Thrasher, James F; Fridriksson, Johann; Brixius, William; Froeliger, Brett; Hammond, David; Cummings, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    Objective Countries around the world have increasingly adopted pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) for tobacco packages to warn consumers about smoking-related risks. Research on how pictorial HWLs work has primarily analysed self-reported responses to HWLs; studies at the neural level comparing the brain's response to different types of HWLs may provide an important complement to prior studies, especially if self-reported responses are systematically biased. In this study we characterise the brain's response to three types of pictorial HWLs for which prior self-report studies indicated different levels of efficacy. Methods Current smokers rated pictorial HWLs and then observed the same HWLs during functional MRI (fMRI) scanning. Fifty 18–50-year-old current adult smokers who were free from neurological disorders were recruited from the general population and participated in the study. Demographics, smoking-related behaviours and self-reported ratings of pictorial HWL stimuli were obtained prior to scanning. Brain responses to HWLs were assessed using fMRI, focusing on a priori regions of interest. Results Pictorial HWL stimuli elicited activation in a broad network of brain areas associated with visual processing and emotion. Participants who rated the stimuli as more emotionally arousing also showed greater neural responses at these sites. Conclusions Self-reported ratings of pictorial HWLs are correlated with neural responses in brain areas associated with visual and emotional processing. Study results cross-validate self-reported ratings of pictorial HWLs and provide insights into how pictorial HWLs are processed. PMID:25552613

  18. The Effects of Tobacco-Related Health-Warning Images on Intention to Quit Smoking among Urban Chinese Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Dan; Yang, Tingzhong; Cottrell, Randall R.; Zhou, Huan; Yang, Xiaozhao Y.; Zhang, Yanqin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of different tobacco health-warning images on intention to quit smoking among urban Chinese smokers. The different tobacco health-warning images utilised in this study addressed the five variables of age, gender, cultural-appropriateness, abstractness and explicitness. Design:…

  19. The Effects of Tobacco-Related Health-Warning Images on Intention to Quit Smoking among Urban Chinese Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Dan; Yang, Tingzhong; Cottrell, Randall R.; Zhou, Huan; Yang, Xiaozhao Y.; Zhang, Yanqin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of different tobacco health-warning images on intention to quit smoking among urban Chinese smokers. The different tobacco health-warning images utilised in this study addressed the five variables of age, gender, cultural-appropriateness, abstractness and explicitness. Design:…

  20. Comprehension of Warning Symbols by Younger and Older Adults: Effects of Visual Degradation.

    PubMed

    Shorr, Daniel J; Ezer, Neta; Fisk, Arthur D; Rogers, Wendy A

    2009-10-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of visual degradation on warning symbol comprehension across warning symbol types and age groups. Twenty-seven black and white ANSI symbols of four different types (prohibition, course of action, information, and hazard symbols) were presented to older (N = 21, M = 73.1) and younger adults (N = 20, M = 21.4) via computer at three degradation levels (0%, 30%, 40% of pixels inverted); accuracy and response time in answering yes-no questions about the symbols were recorded. Younger adults were more accurate and faster overall than older adults (p < .01). Regarding degradation, 0% and 30% inverted symbols did not significantly differ in comprehension (p ≥ .25), but both were comprehended better than 40% inverted symbols (p < .01); no interactions were observed. For degraded warning symbols, results suggest symbols must be substantially degraded to affect base comprehensibility, and age differences exist. These data have practical implications for warnings in environments susceptible to degradation.

  1. Public attitudes toward larger cigarette pack warnings: Results from a nationally representative U.S. sample

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    A large body of evidence supports the effectiveness of larger health warnings on cigarette packages. However, there is limited research examining attitudes toward such warning labels, which has potential implications for implementation of larger warning labels. The purpose of the current study was to examine attitudes toward larger warning sizes on cigarette packages and examine variables associated with more favorable attitudes. In a nationally representative survey of U.S. adults (N = 5,014), participants were randomized to different warning size conditions, assessing attitude toward “a health warning that covered (25, 50, 75) % of a cigarette pack.” SAS logistic regression survey procedures were used to account for the complex survey design and sampling weights. Across experimental groups, nearly three-quarters (72%) of adults had attitudes supportive of larger warning labels on cigarette packs. Among the full sample and smokers only (N = 1,511), most adults had favorable attitudes toward labels that covered 25% (78.2% and 75.2%, respectively), 50% (70% and 58.4%, respectively), and 75% (67.9% and 61%, respectively) of a cigarette pack. Young adults, females, racial/ethnic minorities, and non-smokers were more likely to have favorable attitudes toward larger warning sizes. Among smokers only, females and those with higher quit intentions held more favorable attitudes toward larger warning sizes. Widespread support exists for larger warning labels on cigarette packages among U.S. adults, including among smokers. Our findings support the implementation of larger health warnings on cigarette packs in the U.S. as required by the 2009 Tobacco Control Act. PMID:28253257

  2. The Moderating Effects of Self-Esteem and Self-Efficacy on Responses to Graphic Health Warnings on Cigarette Packages: A Comparison of Smokers and Nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Chun, Seungwoo; Park, Joon Woo; Heflick, Nathan; Lee, Seon Min; Kim, Daejin; Kwon, Kyenghee

    2017-06-16

    Do graphic pictorial health warnings (GPHWs) on cigarette packaging work better for some people than others? According to the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM), fear appeals should heighten positive change only if a person believes he or she is capable of change (i.e., self-efficacy). We exposed 242 smokers and 241 nonsmokers (aged 18-29) in the Republic of Korea to either a GPHW or a text-only warning in a between-subjects experiment. Results indicated that the GPHW increased intentions and motivations to quit smoking (for smokers) and intentions and motivations to not start smoking (for nonsmokers). However, these effects were moderated by self-efficacy related to quitting or not starting smoking. For smokers, a GPHW was especially effective in increasing desires and intentions to quit for people high in self-efficacy and high in self-esteem. However, for nonsmokers, a GPHW was effective only when self-efficacy was high, regardless of self-esteem level. For smokers and nonsmokers, results were mediated by heightened perceived health estimation. Implications for understanding the effectiveness of warning labels on cigarettes, for the introduction of GPHWs in the Republic of Korea, and for the Extended Parallel Process Model, are discussed.

  3. Awareness of health warnings and factors predicting awareness and perceived effectiveness of pictorial health warnings on tobacco products among adults in rural Puducherry, India.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Anindo; Kumar, S Ganesh; Selvaraj, Ramya

    2017-01-01

    Limited information exists in India about the awareness and perception of the people regarding pictorial health warnings (PHWs) and text warnings on tobacco products, more so from rural areas. Objectives were to report the awareness of these warnings, factors predicting awareness and perceived effectiveness of PHWs, and understanding of their content in a rural population. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in two villages (chosen randomly out of total four) in the rural field practice area of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Puducherry. Households were selected by systematic random sampling. All persons ≥18 years and residing in the area for at least 6 months were included. Data regarding awareness and perception of participants was collected through a semi-structured interview schedule. A total of 428 participants were recruited; 197 (46%) were male, and 231 (54%) were female. The mean age of the participants was 38.9 (standard deviation 15.0) years. Awareness of PHWs and text warnings was 39.5% (169/428) and 21% (90/428), respectively. Only 11.2% participants perceived PHWs as effective. Most (45%) of the participants had a vague understanding of the content of PHWs. On multivariate logistic regression, male gender, current tobacco use, and better education emerged as predictors of greater awareness of PHWs. Extended family predicted greater perceived effectiveness of PHWs, whereas, high socioeconomic class and middle school completion predicted lower perceived effectiveness of PHWs. Awareness and perceived effectiveness of adults in rural Puducherry regarding PHWs were low. There is a need to create awareness through education and using meaningful, larger pictures.

  4. Awareness of health warnings and factors predicting awareness and perceived effectiveness of pictorial health warnings on tobacco products among adults in rural Puducherry, India

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Anindo; Kumar, S. Ganesh; Selvaraj, Ramya

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited information exists in India about the awareness and perception of the people regarding pictorial health warnings (PHWs) and text warnings on tobacco products, more so from rural areas. Objectives were to report the awareness of these warnings, factors predicting awareness and perceived effectiveness of PHWs, and understanding of their content in a rural population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in two villages (chosen randomly out of total four) in the rural field practice area of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Puducherry. Households were selected by systematic random sampling. All persons ≥18 years and residing in the area for at least 6 months were included. Data regarding awareness and perception of participants was collected through a semi-structured interview schedule. RESULTS: A total of 428 participants were recruited; 197 (46%) were male, and 231 (54%) were female. The mean age of the participants was 38.9 (standard deviation 15.0) years. Awareness of PHWs and text warnings was 39.5% (169/428) and 21% (90/428), respectively. Only 11.2% participants perceived PHWs as effective. Most (45%) of the participants had a vague understanding of the content of PHWs. On multivariate logistic regression, male gender, current tobacco use, and better education emerged as predictors of greater awareness of PHWs. Extended family predicted greater perceived effectiveness of PHWs, whereas, high socioeconomic class and middle school completion predicted lower perceived effectiveness of PHWs. CONCLUSION: Awareness and perceived effectiveness of adults in rural Puducherry regarding PHWs were low. There is a need to create awareness through education and using meaningful, larger pictures. PMID:28584823

  5. Tobacco industry argues domestic trademark laws and international treaties preclude cigarette health warning labels, despite consistent legal advice that the argument is invalid

    PubMed Central

    Crosbie, Eric; Glantz, Stanton A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To analyse the tobacco industry’s use of international trade agreements to oppose policies to strengthen health warning labels (HWLs). Design A review of tobacco industry documents, tobacco control legislation and international treaties. Results During the early 1990s, the tobacco industry became increasingly alarmed about the advancement of HWLs on cigarettes packages. In response, it requested legal opinions from British American Tobacco’s law firms in Australia and England, Britain’s Department of Trade and Industry and the World Intellectual Property Organisation on the legality of restricting and prohibiting the use of their trademarks, as embodied in cigarette packages. The consistent legal advice, privately submitted to the companies, was that international treaties do not shield trademark owners from government limitations (including prohibition) on the use of their trademarks. Despite receiving this legal advice, the companies publicly argued that requiring large HWLs compromised their trademark rights under international treaties. The companies successfully used these arguments as part of their successful effort to deter Canadian and Australian governments from enacting laws requiring the plan packaging of cigarettes, which helped delay large graphic HWLs, including ‘plain’ packaging, for over a decade. Conclusions Governments should not be intimidated by tobacco company threats and unsubstantiated claims, and carefully craft HWL laws to withstand the inevitable tobacco industry lawsuits with the knowledge that the companies’ own lawyers as well as authoritative bodies have told the companies that the rights they claim do not exist. PMID:23179728

  6. Exposure to prescription drugs labeled for risk of adverse effects of suicidal behavior or ideation among 100 Air Force personnel who died by suicide, 2006-2009.

    PubMed

    Lavigne, Jill E; McCarthy, Michael; Chapman, Richard; Petrilla, Allison; Knox, Kerry L

    2012-10-01

    Prescription drugs for many indications are labeled with warnings for potential risk of suicidal ideation or behavior. Exposures to prescription drugs labeled for adverse effects of suicidal behavior or ideation among 100 Air Force personnel who died by suicide between 2006 and 2009 are described. Air Force registry data were linked to administrative prescription data. Descriptive statistics illustrate utilization: 89 personnel had a prescription history, 35 filled at least one prescription labeled with a warning, 26 had antidepressants on hand at death, and 2 died by drug overdose. Most airmen were not exposed to any prescriptions labeled for risk of suicidal ideation or behavior prior to death by suicide. © 2012 The American Association of Suicidology.

  7. Effect of wearing hearing protectors on the audibility of railway warning signals - an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Arz, Jean-Pierre; Gettliffe, Jean-Pierre; Delattre, Philippe

    2017-09-04

    The effect of wearing hearing protectors on the audibility of warning signals has been evaluated for three specific railway-related jobs: track workers, train drivers and platform agents. Masked thresholds were measured in the laboratory, on railway agents having normal hearing, by using warning signals and background noises typical of each job. Out of the 36 situations tested in total, statistical analyses showed that wearing the earplugs improves the perception in 11 situations; deteriorates the perception in 10 situations and has no significant effect in 15 situations (as compared to no hearing protector). The deteriorations essentially concern the signals which have no (or not enough) energy in the low-frequency range (f<1500 Hz) when they have to be heard in background noises which dominate in the low frequency range. To prevent the deteriorations, these signals could be modified by adding some energy in the low-frequency range (f<1500 Hz).

  8. Affect labeling enhances exposure effectiveness for public speaking anxiety.

    PubMed

    Niles, Andrea N; Craske, Michelle G; Lieberman, Matthew D; Hur, Christopher

    2015-05-01

    Exposure is an effective treatment for anxiety but many patients do not respond fully. Affect labeling (labeling emotional experience) attenuates emotional responding. The current project examined whether affect labeling enhances exposure effectiveness in participants with public speaking anxiety. Participants were randomized to exposure with or without affect labeling. Physiological arousal and self-reported fear were assessed before and after exposure and compared between groups. Consistent with hypotheses, participants assigned to Affect Labeling, especially those who used more labels during exposure, showed greater reduction in physiological activation than Control participants. No effect was found for self-report measures. Also, greater emotion regulation deficits at baseline predicted more benefit in physiological arousal from exposure combined with affect labeling than exposure alone. The current research provides evidence that behavioral strategies that target prefrontal-amygdala circuitry can improve treatment effectiveness for anxiety and these effects are particularly pronounced for patients with the greatest deficits in emotion regulation.

  9. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Public Awareness Campaign, 1979: Progress Report Concerning the Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Warning Labels on Containers of Alcoholic Beverages and Addendum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC.

    This report provides expert opinion on the problems of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and ways to inform the public of teratogenic risk of alcohol consumption during pregnancy. In the absence of firm evidence that moderate drinking of alcoholic beverages leads to FAS and uncertainty concerning the effectiveness of labeling of alcoholic beverages, a…

  10. Memory Saves Lives: Inter-generational Warnings Effectiveness - 13556

    SciTech Connect

    Van Luik, Abraham; Patterson, Russell; Shafer, David; Klein, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    The 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami was a world-class natural disaster. It has been described as the most powerful earthquake ever in Japan, and as one of the most powerful earthquakes ever noted in the world. The toll in terms of human lives lost and property destruction was unimaginable. Even the word 'horrible' is inadequate to describe the suffering and misery that resulted. Nations with nuclear power programs are engaged in, or at least planning to become engaged in, arranging to eventually dispose of their higher-level radioactive waste materials in deep geologic repositories. Geologic repositories are passive safety systems, and if undisturbed isolate these dangerous materials form the biosphere for extremely long times. The key words, however, are 'if undisturbed'. To assure that future generations do not inadvertently drill into repositories, national programs, and the international community (the Records, Knowledge and Memory (RK and M) preservation project of the Nuclear Energy Agency, for example), are proposing to place markers and/or monuments on closed repository sites that say 'do not drill here, and this is why' in various sophisticated ways. Such markers or monuments are attempts at providing passive institutional controls. The effectiveness of messages from past generations to a present generation may give an indication of how effective such passive institutional controls may be. (authors)

  11. Smokers' and E-Cigarette Users' Perceptions about E-Cigarette Warning Statements.

    PubMed

    Wackowski, Olivia A; Hammond, David; O'Connor, Richard J; Strasser, Andrew A; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-06-30

    Cigarette warning labels are important sources of risk information, but warning research for other tobacco products is limited. This study aimed to gauge perceptions about warnings that may be used for e-cigarettes. We conducted six small focus groups in late 2014/early 2015 with adult current e-cigarette users and cigarette-only smokers. Participants rated and discussed their perceptions of six e-cigarette warning statements, and warnings in two existing Vuse and MarkTen e-cigarette ads. Participants were open to e-cigarette warnings and provided the strongest reactions to statements warning that e-liquid/e-vapor or e-cigarettes can be poisonous, contain toxins, or are "not a safe alternative to smoking". However, many also noted that these statements were exaggerated, potentially misleading, and could scare smokers away from reducing their harm by switching to e-cigarettes. Opinions on the Food and Drug Administration's proposed nicotine addiction warning and warnings that e-cigarettes had not been approved for smoking cessation or had unknown health effects were mixed. Participants perceived MarkTen's advertisement warning to be stronger and more noticeable than Vuse's. Care should be taken in developing e-cigarette warnings given their relative recentness and potential for harm reduction compared to other tobacco products. Additional research, including with varied audiences, would be instructive.

  12. Smokers’ and E-Cigarette Users’ Perceptions about E-Cigarette Warning Statements

    PubMed Central

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Hammond, David; O’Connor, Richard J.; Strasser, Andrew A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette warning labels are important sources of risk information, but warning research for other tobacco products is limited. This study aimed to gauge perceptions about warnings that may be used for e-cigarettes. We conducted six small focus groups in late 2014/early 2015 with adult current e-cigarette users and cigarette-only smokers. Participants rated and discussed their perceptions of six e-cigarette warning statements, and warnings in two existing Vuse and MarkTen e-cigarette ads. Participants were open to e-cigarette warnings and provided the strongest reactions to statements warning that e-liquid/e-vapor or e-cigarettes can be poisonous, contain toxins, or are “not a safe alternative to smoking”. However, many also noted that these statements were exaggerated, potentially misleading, and could scare smokers away from reducing their harm by switching to e-cigarettes. Opinions on the Food and Drug Administration’s proposed nicotine addiction warning and warnings that e-cigarettes had not been approved for smoking cessation or had unknown health effects were mixed. Participants perceived MarkTen’s advertisement warning to be stronger and more noticeable than Vuse’s. Care should be taken in developing e-cigarette warnings given their relative recentness and potential for harm reduction compared to other tobacco products. Additional research, including with varied audiences, would be instructive. PMID:27376310

  13. An archival analysis of stall warning system effectiveness during airborne icing encounters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maris, John Michael

    An archival study was conducted to determine the influence of stall warning system performance on aircrew decision-making outcomes during airborne icing encounters. A Conservative Icing Response Bias (CIRB) model was developed to explain the historical variability in aircrew performance in the face of airframe icing. The model combined Bayes' Theorem with Signal Detection Theory (SDT) concepts to yield testable predictions that were evaluated using a Binary Logistic Regression (BLR) multivariate technique applied to two archives: the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident database, and the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident databases, both covering the period January 1, 1988 to October 2, 2015. The CIRB model predicted that aircrew would experience more incorrect response outcomes in the face of missed stall warnings than with stall warning False Alarms. These predicted outcomes were observed at high significance levels in the final sample of 132 NASA/NTSB cases. The CIRB model had high sensitivity and specificity, and explained 71.5% (Nagelkerke R2) of the variance of aircrew decision-making outcomes during the icing encounters. The reliability and validity metrics derived from this study suggest indicate that the findings are generalizable to the population of U.S. registered turbine-powered aircraft. These findings suggest that icing-related stall events could be reduced if the incidence of stall warning Misses could be minimized. Observed stall warning Misses stemmed from three principal causes: aerodynamic icing effects, which reduced the stall angle-of-attack (AoA) to below the stall warning calibration threshold; tail stalls, which are not monitored by contemporary protection systems; and icing-induced system issues (such as frozen pitot tubes), which compromised stall warning system effectiveness and airframe envelope protections. Each of these sources of missed stall warnings could be addressed by Aerodynamic Performance

  14. Effectiveness of pictorial health warning on cigarette packages: A cross-sectional study in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Arif, M T; Abd, Razak Mf; Suhaili, M R; Tambi, Z; Akoi, C; Gabriel Bain, M; Hussain, H

    2015-01-01

    Specific health warning placed on the tobacco product packages is considered as an effective and low-cost method for increasing the knowledge and awareness among the community. Thus, a study was conducted to assess the perception of pictorial health warnings (PHWs) against smoking among the adult rural population of Sarawak. Cross-sectional data were collected from 10 villages in Kota Samarahan and Kuching Division by face to face interview using modified Global Adult Tobacco Survey questionnaire. Nonprobability sampling method was adopted to select the villages. All the households of the selected villages were visited and an adult member was selected randomly from each house irrespective of the sex. After missing value imputation, 1000 data were analysed using statistical software IBM SPSS 20.0 version. Analysis showed that 28.8% of the respondents were current smokers, 7.8% were past smokers and the rest were non-smokers. Six items of pictorial health warnings were evaluated with five point Likert's scales for attractiveness, fearfulness and adequacy of the information. Analysis revealed that the majority of the respondents had perceived awareness on PHWs, but the smokers believed that this was not adequate to make them quit smoking. Only one-fifth (19.7%) of them reported that current pictorial health warnings were sufficient to motivate people to quit smoking. Though the PHWs on cigarette packages are appealing, it is not sufficient as a reason to stop smoking. Thus, an approach using an integrated anti-tobacco public health programme should be focused into the specific targeted community.

  15. The effects of noise on speech and warning signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suter, Alice H.

    1989-06-01

    To assess the effects of noise on speech communication it is necessary to examine certain characteristics of the speech signal. Speech level can be measured by a variety of methods, none of which has yet been standardized, and it should be kept in mind that vocal effort increases with background noise level and with different types of activity. Noise and filtering commonly degrade the speech signal, especially as it is transmitted through communications systems. Intelligibility is also adversely affected by distance, reverberation, and monaural listening. Communication systems currently in use may cause strain and delays on the part of the listener, but there are many possibilities for improvement. Individuals who need to communicate in noise may be subject to voice disorders. Shouted speech becomes progressively less intelligible at high voice levels, but improvements can be realized when talkers use clear speech. Tolerable listening levels are lower for negative than for positive S/Ns, and comfortable listening levels should be at a S/N of at least 5 dB, and preferably above 10 dB. Popular methods to predict speech intelligibility in noise include the Articulation Index, Speech Interference Level, Speech Transmission Index, and the sound level meter's A-weighting network. This report describes these methods, discussing certain advantages and disadvantages of each, and shows their interrelations.

  16. Effectiveness of a Forward Collision Warning System in simple and in dual task from an electrophysiological perspective.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Mercedes; Fort, Alexandra; Francois, Mathilde; Ndiaye, Daniel; Deleurence, Philippe; Fabrigoule, Colette

    2013-04-29

    Forward Collision Warning Systems (FCWS) are expected to assist drivers; however, it is not completely clear whether these systems are of benefit to distracted drivers as much as they are to undistracted drivers. This study aims at investigating further the analysis of the effectiveness of a surrogate FCWS according to the attentional state of participants. In this experiment electrophysiological and behavioural data were recording while participants were required to drive in a simple car simulator and to react to the braking of the lead vehicle which could be announced by a warning system. The effectiveness of this warning system was evaluated when drivers were distracted or not by a secondary cognitive task. In a previous study, the warning signal was not completely effective likely due to the presence of another predictor of the forthcoming braking which competes with the warning. By eliminating this secondary predictor in the present study, the results confirmed the negative effect of the secondary task and revealed the expected effectiveness of the warning system at behavioural and electrophysiological levels.

  17. 76 FR 63303 - Guidance for Industry on Warnings and Precautions, Contraindications, and Boxed Warning Sections...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Warnings and Precautions, Contraindications, and Boxed Warning Sections of Labeling for Human Prescription Drug and Biological Products--Content and Format.'' This guidance is intended to assist applicants and reviewers in drafting the ``Warnings and Precautions, Contraindications, and......

  18. The metoclopramide black box warning for tardive dyskinesia: effect on clinical practice, adverse event reporting, and prescription drug lawsuits.

    PubMed

    Ehrenpreis, Eli D; Deepak, Parakkal; Sifuentes, Humberto; Devi, Radha; Du, Hongyan; Leikin, Jerrold B

    2013-06-01

    We examined the effects of the black box warning about the risk of tardive dyskinesia (TD) with chronic use of metoclopramide on management of gastroparesis within a single clinical practice, and on reporting of adverse events. Medical records of gastroparesis patients were evaluated for physician management choices. The FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) was analyzed for event reports, and for lawyer-initiated reports, with metoclopramide from 2004 to 2010. Google Scholar was searched for court opinions against metoclopramide manufacturers. Before the black box warning, 69.8% of patients received metoclopramide for gastroparesis, compared with 23.7% after the warning. Gastroenterologists prescribed domperidone more often after than before the warning. Metoclopramide prescriptions decreased after 2008. Adverse event reporting increased after the warning. Only 3.6% of all FAERS reports but 70% of TD reports were filed by lawyers, suggesting a distortion in signal. Forty-seven legal opinions were identified, 33 from 2009-2010. The black box warning for metoclopramide has decreased its usage and increased its rate of adverse event reporting. Lawyer-initiated reports of TD hinder pharmacovigilance.

  19. 21 CFR 740.2 - Conspicuousness of warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.2 Conspicuousness of warning... exemption pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section is established. (b) If the label of any cosmetic package...

  20. 21 CFR 740.2 - Conspicuousness of warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.2 Conspicuousness of warning... exemption pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section is established. (b) If the label of any cosmetic package...

  1. 21 CFR 740.2 - Conspicuousness of warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.2 Conspicuousness of warning... exemption pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section is established. (b) If the label of any cosmetic package...

  2. 21 CFR 740.2 - Conspicuousness of warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.2 Conspicuousness of warning... exemption pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section is established. (b) If the label of any cosmetic package...

  3. FDA Issues Anesthesia Warning for Pregnant Women, Kids Under 3

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162543.html FDA Issues Anesthesia Warning for Pregnant Women, Kids Under 3 A long ... latest published studies, the agency announced that these warnings need to be added to the labels of ...

  4. 21 CFR 740.2 - Conspicuousness of warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.2 Conspicuousness of warning... exemption pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section is established. (b) If the label of any cosmetic package...

  5. Evaluation of a sudden brake warning system: effect on the response time of the following driver.

    PubMed

    Isler, Robert B; Starkey, Nicola J

    2010-07-01

    This study used a video-based braking simulation dual task to carry out a preliminary evaluation of the effect of a sudden brake warning system (SBWS) in a leading passenger vehicle on the response time of the following driver. The primary task required the participants (N=25, 16 females, full NZ license holders) to respond to sudden braking manoeuvres of a lead vehicle during day and night driving, wet and dry conditions and in rural and urban traffic, while concurrently performing a secondary tracking task using a computer mouse. The SBWS in the lead vehicle consisted of g-force controlled activation of the rear hazard lights (the rear indicators flashed), in addition to the standard brake lights. Overall, the results revealed that responses to the braking manoeuvres of the leading vehicles when the hazard lights were activated by the warning system were 0.34 s (19%) faster compared to the standard brake lights. The SBWS was particularly effective when the simulated braking scenario of the leading vehicle did not require an immediate and abrupt braking response. Given this, the SBWS may also be beneficial for allowing smoother deceleration, thus reducing fuel consumption. These preliminary findings justify a larger, more ecologically valid laboratory evaluation which may lead to a naturalistic study in order to test this new technology in 'real world' braking situations.

  6. The effect of adult Early Warning Systems education on nurses' knowledge, confidence and clinical performance: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Saab, Mohamad M; McCarthy, Bridie; Andrews, Tom; Savage, Eileen; Drummond, Frances J; Walshe, Nuala; Forde, Mary; Breen, Dorothy; Henn, Patrick; Drennan, Jonathan; Hegarty, Josephine

    2017-11-01

    This review aims to determine the effect of adult Early Warning Systems education on nurses' knowledge, confidence and clinical performance. Early Warning Systems support timely identification of clinical deterioration and prevention of avoidable deaths. Several educational programmes have been designed to help nurses recognize and manage deteriorating patients. Little is known as to the effectiveness of these programmes. Systematic review. Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, Psychology and Behavioral Science Collection, SocINDEX and the UK & Ireland Reference Centre, EMBASE, the Turning Research Into Practice database, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and Grey Literature sources were searched between October and November 2015. This is a quantitative systematic review using Cochrane methods. Studies published between January 2011 - November 2015 in English were sought. The risk of bias, level of evidence and the quality of evidence per outcome were assessed. Eleven articles with 10 studies were included. Nine studies addressed clinical performance, four addressed knowledge and two addressed confidence. Knowledge, vital signs recording and Early Warning Score calculation were improved in the short term. Two interventions had no effect on nurses' response to clinical deterioration and use of communication tools. This review highlights the importance of measuring outcomes using standardized tools and valid and reliable instruments. Using longitudinal designs, researchers are encouraged to investigate the effect of Early Warning Systems educational programmes. These can include interactive e-learning, on-site interdisciplinary Early Warning Scoring systems training sessions and simulated scenarios. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Smokers' recall of Australian graphic cigarette packet warnings & awareness of associated health effects, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Miller, Caroline L; Quester, Pascale G; Hill, David J; Hiller, Janet E

    2011-04-17

    In 2006, Australia introduced graphic cigarette packet warnings. The new warnings include one of 14 pictures, many depicting tobacco-related pathology. The warnings were introduced in two sets; Set A in March and Set B from November. This study explores their impact on smokers' beliefs about smoking related illnesses. This study also examines the varying impact of different warnings, to see whether warnings with visceral images have greater impact on smokers' beliefs than other images. Representative samples of South Australian smokers were interviewed in four independent cross-sectional omnibus surveys; in 2005 (n=504), 2006 (n=525), 2007 (n=414) and 2008 (n=464). Unprompted recall of new graphic cigarette warnings was high in the months following their introduction, demonstrating that smokers' had been exposed to them. Smokers also demonstrated an increase in awareness about smoking-related diseases specific to the warning messages. Warnings that conveyed new information and had emotive images demonstrated greater impact on recall and smokers' beliefs than more familiar information and less emotive images. Overall graphic pack warnings have had the intended impact on smokers. Some have greater impact than others. The implications for policy makers in countries introducing similar warnings are that fresh messaging and visceral images have the greatest impact.

  8. Smokers' recall of Australian graphic cigarette packet warnings & awareness of associated health effects, 2005-2008

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2006, Australia introduced graphic cigarette packet warnings. The new warnings include one of 14 pictures, many depicting tobacco-related pathology. The warnings were introduced in two sets; Set A in March and Set B from November. This study explores their impact on smokers' beliefs about smoking related illnesses. This study also examines the varying impact of different warnings, to see whether warnings with visceral images have greater impact on smokers' beliefs than other images. Methods Representative samples of South Australian smokers were interviewed in four independent cross-sectional omnibus surveys; in 2005 (n = 504), 2006 (n = 525), 2007 (n = 414) and 2008 (n = 464). Results Unprompted recall of new graphic cigarette warnings was high in the months following their introduction, demonstrating that smokers' had been exposed to them. Smokers also demonstrated an increase in awareness about smoking-related diseases specific to the warning messages. Warnings that conveyed new information and had emotive images demonstrated greater impact on recall and smokers' beliefs than more familiar information and less emotive images. Conclusions Overall graphic pack warnings have had the intended impact on smokers. Some have greater impact than others. The implications for policy makers in countries introducing similar warnings are that fresh messaging and visceral images have the greatest impact. PMID:21496314

  9. Health Canada Warning on Citalopram and Escitalopram--Its Effects on Prescribing in Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Do, André; Noohi, Saeid; Elie, Dominique; Mahdanian, Artin A; Yu, Ching; Segal, Marilyn; Looper, Karl J; Rej, Soham

    2016-01-01

    Reports have suggested that citalopram and escitalopram may prolong the QTc interval, leading Health Canada to issue a warning to limit their dosages in 2012. Little is known about the effects of this warning and similar ones (e.g., by the Food and Drug Administration) on antidepressant prescribing in inpatients with acute medical illness, who are theoretically at high risk of QTc prolongation. The main objective of our study is to examine the effect of the Health Canada warning on citalopram/escitalopram prescribing patterns in the consultation-liaison (C-L) psychiatry setting. We performed a retrospective cohort study including 275 randomly selected inpatients with medical illness assessed by the psychiatric C-L team of a large Canadian academic hospital between 2008 and 2014. We grouped patients based on whether they were assessed by the C-L team before or after the citalopram Health Canada warning. Our primary outcome was change in citalopram/escitalopram prescribing patterns. We found that of patients seen before the Health Canada warning, a significantly higher number were prescribed citalopram/escitalopram (44.1% vs. 22.3%, χ(2) = 14.835, p < 0.001), even after controlling for confounders. However, the percentage of patients using a citalopram/escitalopram dose exceeding those recommended by the Health Canada warning was similar in both groups (8.9% vs. 12.1%, χ(2) = 0.233, p = 0.63). Overall, C-L psychiatrists were less likely to prescribe citalopram/escitalopram following the Health Canada warning, which did not translate into safer dosing. Clinicians should not avoid prescribing citalopram/escitalopram appropriately in medically vulnerable inpatients when benefits outweigh disadvantages. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Effect of Cigarette Plain Packaging on Individuals' Health Warning Recall

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hamdani, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the extent to which increasingly plainer packaging might increase recall of health warnings. Design: A 4 (pack ID levels) x 2 (smoking status: smokers and non-smokers) between-subjects design in which participants were randomly assigned to view one package. Sample: Two hundred and twenty students from three universities in Nova Scotia, Canada, participated in the survey. Measures: Participants were asked to recall the health warning on their package. Analysis: A sequential binary logistic regression test to examine whether plain packaging and/or smoking status affects health warning recall. Results: The odds of recalling the correct health warnings were significantly higher for the two plainest packages relative to the original package. The odds of recalling the correct health warning were also higher for non-smokers relative to smokers. Conclusions: The results provide compelling evidence that health warnings on plain packages can be more easily recalled. PMID:23968628

  11. The effect of cigarette plain packaging on individuals' health warning recall.

    PubMed

    Al-Hamdani, Mohammed

    2013-02-01

    To examine the extent to which increasingly plainer packaging might increase recall of health warnings. A 4 (pack ID levels) x 2 (smoking status: smokers and non-smokers) between-subjects design in which participants were randomly assigned to view one package. Two hundred and twenty students from three universities in Nova Scotia, Canada, participated in the survey. Participants were asked to recall the health warning on their package. A sequential binary logistic regression test to examine whether plain packaging and/or smoking status affects health warning recall. The odds of recalling the correct health warnings were significantly higher for the two plainest packages relative to the original package. The odds of recalling the correct health warning were also higher for non-smokers relative to smokers. The results provide compelling evidence that health warnings on plain packages can be more easily recalled. Copyright © 2013 Longwoods Publishing.

  12. Effect of warning statements in e-cigarette advertisements: an experiment with young adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sanders-Jackson, Ashley; Schleicher, Nina C; Fortmann, Stephen P; Henriksen, Lisa

    2015-12-01

    This on-line experiment examined whether the addition of ingredient- or industry-themed warning statements in television advertisements for e-cigarettes would affect young adults' craving for and risk perceptions of e-cigarettes and combustible cigarettes, as well as intent to purchase e-cigarettes. Advertisements for two leading e-cigarette brands were edited to contain a warning statement about product ingredients or about the tobacco industry. Participants were assigned randomly to one of eight treatments or one of two brand-specific control conditions without any warning statement. Young adults (n=900, aged 18-34 years) in a web panel were recruited from three groups: recent e-cigarette users, current smokers who used combustible cigarettes exclusively and non-users of either product. Craving and risk perceptions (addictiveness, harmful to health in general, harmful to others) were measured separately for e-cigarettes and combustible cigarettes. The Juster scale measured intention to purchase e-cigarettes. Exposure to both types of warnings was associated with lower craving for e-cigarettes among e-cigarette users and smokers who experienced any craving (P<0.01) and lower intention to purchase among all participants (P<0.001). Only exposure to ingredient-themed warnings was associated with lower craving for combustible cigarettes (P<0.05). Participants who saw industry-themed warnings reported greater perceptions of general harm (P<0.001), but also rated e-cigarettes as less addictive than the control conditions (P<0.05). The addition of ingredient- or industry-themed warning statements to e-cigarette television advertising similarly reduces craving and purchase intent for e-cigarettes, but has inconsistent effects on perceived risks. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. Effect of warning statements in e-cigarette advertisements: an experiment with young adults in the US

    PubMed Central

    Sanders-Jackson, Ashley; Schleicher, Nina C.; Fortmann, Stephen P.; Henriksen, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims This on-line experiment examined whether the addition of ingredient- or industry-themed warning statements in television advertisements for e-cigarettes would affect young adults’ craving for and risk perceptions of e-cigarettes and combustible cigarettes, as well as intent to purchase e-cigarettes. Design Advertisements for two leading e-cigarette brands were edited to contain a warning statement about product ingredients or about the tobacco industry. Participants were assigned randomly to one of eight treatments or one of two brand-specific control conditions without any warning statement. Participants Young adults (n=900, ages 18–34 years) in a web panel were recruited from three groups: recent e-cigarette users, current smokers who used combustible cigarettes exclusively and non-users of either product. Measurements Craving and risk perceptions (addictiveness, harmful to health in general, harmful to others) were measured separately for e-cigarettes and combustible cigarettes. The Juster scale measured intention to purchase e-cigarettes. Findings Exposure to both types of warnings was associated with lower craving for e-cigarettes among e-cigarette users and smokers who experienced any craving (P <0.01) and lower intention to purchase among all participants (P <0.001). Only exposure to ingredient-themed warnings was associated with lower craving for combustible cigarettes (P<0.05). Participants who saw industry-themed warnings reported greater perceptions of general harm (P<0.001), but also rated e-cigarettes as less addictive than the control conditions (P<0.05). Conclusion The addition of ingredient- or industry-themed warning statements to e-cigarette television advertising similarly reduces craving and purchase intent for e-cigarettes, but has inconsistent effects on perceived risks. PMID:25557128

  14. A qualitative exploration of young adult smokers' responses to novel tobacco warnings.

    PubMed

    Hoek, Janet; Hoek-Sims, Anna; Gendall, Philip

    2013-06-25

    Despite reduced smoking among adolescents, smoking prevalence peaks among young adults aged 18-30, many of whom believe themselves exempt from the health risks of smoking shown in warning labels. We explored how young adult smokers perceived warnings featuring proximal risks, and whether these encouraged cessation more effectively than traditional health messages. We conducted in-depth interviews with 17 young adult smokers and explored their perceptions of current warnings as well as novel warnings representing short-term health consequences; immediate social risks, and tobacco's toxicity (denormalizing tobacco as an everyday product). We used a thematic analysis approach to explore how participants rationalized existing warnings and interpreted the novel messages. Participants considered the immediate social and physiological benefits they gained from smoking outweighed the distal risks shown in health warnings, which they regarded as improbable and irrelevant. Of the novel warnings, those presenting immediate social risks altered the balance of gains and losses young adults associated with smoking; however, those presenting short-term health risks or depicting tobacco as a toxin were less effective. Participants regarded warnings featuring proximal social risks as more salient and they were less likely to rationalise these as irrelevant. Social risk messages merit further investigation to examine their potential as a complement to traditional health warnings.

  15. A qualitative exploration of young adult smokers’ responses to novel tobacco warnings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite reduced smoking among adolescents, smoking prevalence peaks among young adults aged 18–30, many of whom believe themselves exempt from the health risks of smoking shown in warning labels. We explored how young adult smokers perceived warnings featuring proximal risks, and whether these encouraged cessation more effectively than traditional health messages. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with 17 young adult smokers and explored their perceptions of current warnings as well as novel warnings representing short-term health consequences; immediate social risks, and tobacco’s toxicity (denormalizing tobacco as an everyday product). We used a thematic analysis approach to explore how participants rationalized existing warnings and interpreted the novel messages. Results Participants considered the immediate social and physiological benefits they gained from smoking outweighed the distal risks shown in health warnings, which they regarded as improbable and irrelevant. Of the novel warnings, those presenting immediate social risks altered the balance of gains and losses young adults associated with smoking; however, those presenting short-term health risks or depicting tobacco as a toxin were less effective. Conclusions Participants regarded warnings featuring proximal social risks as more salient and they were less likely to rationalise these as irrelevant. Social risk messages merit further investigation to examine their potential as a complement to traditional health warnings. PMID:23800292

  16. A Model for the Effectiveness of Aircraft Alerting and Warning Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, R. E.; Neu, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    The effectiveness of an alerting system with a single alert was analyzed. The pilot's decision behavior is modeled by the theory of signal detection and therefore accounts for different strengths of cross check information and different pilot criteria. The model includes the effects of the alerting and warning system (CAWS) error rate; the pilot's past experience with the CAWS accuracy; his reliance on the CAWS rather than independent monitoring; missed alerts; and adoption of a minimum error or Neyman-Pearson objective rather than minimum cost objective. It is showwn that for rare events: (1) the expected cost is greatly increased if the pilot ignores the a posteriori information in the existence of an alert; (2) the expected cost is insensitive to CAWS Type 1 errors; and (3) the expected cost is sensitive to CAWS type 2 errors only when the cross check information is ambiguous.

  17. Effects of a verbal warning and overcorrection on stereotyped and appropriate behaviors.

    PubMed

    Wells, K C; Forehand, R; Hickey, K

    1977-12-01

    In Experiment I, the effects of a verbal warning, such as is used in Overcorrection, delivered contingently on the stereotyped mouthing behavior of two autistic/retarded children were examined. A multiple baseline design across subjects was used. The results indicated that the mouthing of one child was reduced to a near-zero level and mouthing of the second child was moderately reduced. Appropriate toy play and inappropriate object manipulation failed to show systematic changes in occurrence when mouthing was decelerated. In Experiment II, the same subjects and experimental design were used to assess the effects of a positive practice Overcorrection procedure delivered contingent on mouthing behavior. Overcorrection reduced the mouthing of both subjects. There were no systematic changes in inappropriate object manipulation but one subject did demonstrate an increased occurrence of appropriate toy play. In addition, this subject often engaged in aggressive/escape behaviors during Overcorrection, suggesting that the procedure was aversive to him.

  18. Hospital outpatients' responses to taking medications with driving warnings.

    PubMed

    Smyth, T; Sheehan, M; Siskind, V

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the knowledge, intentions, and driving behavior of persons prescribed medications that display a warning about driving. It also examines their confidence that they can self-assess possible impairment, as is required by the Australian labeling system. We surveyed 358 outpatients in an Australian public hospital pharmacy, representing a well-advised group taking a range of medications including those displaying a warning label about driving. A brief telephone follow-up survey was conducted with a subgroup of the participants. The sample had a median age of 53.2 years and was 53 percent male. Nearly three quarters (73.2%) had taken a potentially impairing class of medication and more than half (56.1%) had taken more than one such medication in the past 12 months. Knowledge of the potentially impairing effects of medication was relatively high for most items; however, participants underestimated the possibility of increased impairment from exceeding the prescribed dose and at commencing treatment. Participants' responses to the safety implications of taking drugs with the highest level of warning varied. Around two thirds (62.8%) indicated that they would consult a health practitioner for advice and around half would modify their driving in some way. However, one fifth (20.9%) would drive when the traffic was thought to be less heavy and over a third (37.7%) would modify their medication regime so that they could drive. The findings from the follow-up survey of a subsample taking target drugs at the time of the first interview were also of concern. Only just over half (51%) recalled seeing the warning label on their medications and, of this group, three quarters (78%) reported following the warning label advice. These findings indicated that there remains a large proportion of people who either did not notice or did not consider the warning when deciding whether to drive. There was a very high level of confidence in this group that they could

  19. Selection of a voice for a speech signal for personalized warnings: the effect of speaker's gender and voice pitch.

    PubMed

    Machado, Sheron; Duarte, Emília; Teles, Júlia; Reis, Lara; Rebelo, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in multimodal technology-based warnings, namely those conveying speech-warning statements. This type of warning may be tailored to the situation as well as to the target user's characteristics. However, more information is needed on how to design these warnings in a way that ensures intelligibility, promotes compliance and reduces the potential for annoyance. In this context, this paper reports an exploratory study whose main purpose was to assist the selection of a synthesized voice for a subsequent compliance study with personalized (i.e., using the person's name) technology-based warnings using Virtual Reality. Participants were requested to listen to speech signals, gathered from a speech synthesizer and post-processed in order to change the pitch perception, and then these were evaluated by fulfilling the MOS-X questionnaire. After that, the participants ranked the voices according to their preference. The effects of the speaker's gender and voice pitch, on both ratings and ranking were assessed. The preference of the male and female listeners for a talker's voice gender was also investigated. The results show that participants mostly prefer as first choice the high-pitched female voice, which also gathered the highest overall score in the MOS-X questionnaire. No significant influence of the participants' gender was found on the assessed measures.

  20. The Effect Terrorist Labels Have on Military Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited The Effect Terrorist Labels Have On Military Operations A Monograph by MAJ Leighton W...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This research conducts an analysis of U.S. laws surrounding terrorism in order to assess the effects they have on military...STUDIES MONOGRAPH APPROVAL Major Leighton W. Anglin Title of Monograph: The Effect Terrorist Labels Have On Military Operations Approved by

  1. Effectiveness of Modified Early Warning Score in predicting outcomes in oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Cooksley, Tim; Kitlowski, Emma; Haji-Michael, Philip

    2012-11-01

    Patients at risk of rapid deterioration and critical illness often have preceding changes in physiological parameters. Track and trigger systems, such as the Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) used in the UK, have been demonstrated to have some utility in identifying these patients particularly among general medical and surgical patients. Assess the effectiveness of MEWS and the proposed (NHS Early Warning Score) in oncology patients. Identify the key physiological parameters that predict outcome in this cohort. We performed a retrospective analysis at a specialist oncology hospital in the North West of England. The data for 840 patients reviewed by the Outreach Team between April 2009 and January 2011 was analysed. The effectiveness of the MEWS in predicting Critical Care admission and 30 day mortality was assessed. Statistical analysis to identify the key physiological parameters in predicting these two outcomes was also performed. The MEWS score was statistically significant in predicting both outcome measures (CCU admission P = 0.037 and 30 day mortality P = 0.004). Respiratory rate (P = 0.0003/P = 0.0001) and temperature (P = 0.033/P ≤ 0.0001) were the key physiological variables in predicting clinical deterioration. Blood pressure (P = 0.999/P = 0.619) and pulse rate (P = 0.446/P = 0.051) did not have statistical significance in predicting either outcome. However, analysis of receiver operator curves showed that MEWS had poor value in predicting both outcomes (0.55 and 0.6, respectively). The currently used track and trigger systems have poor discriminatory value in identifying Oncological patients at risk of deterioration. An adapted score more focused upon the key predictive physiological parameters in this population needs to be developed to produce a more effective tool.

  2. Evaluating the effect of health warnings in influencing Australian smokers' psychosocial and quitting behaviours using fuzzy causal network.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J Y; Borland, R; Coghill, K; Petrovic-Lazarevic, S; Young, D; Yeh, C H; Bedingfield, S

    2011-06-01

    This paper explores the application of fuzzy causal networks (FCNs) to evaluating effect of health warnings in influencing Australian smokers' psychosocial and quitting behaviour. The sample data used in this study are selected from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey project. Our research findings have demonstrated that new health warnings implemented in Australia have obvious impacts on smokers' psychosocial and quitting behaviours. FCN is a useful framework to investigate such impacts that overcome the limitation of using traditional statistical techniques, such as linear regression and logistics regression, to analyse non-linear data.

  3. Evaluating the effect of health warnings in influencing Australian smokers’ psychosocial and quitting behaviours using fuzzy causal network

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, J.Y.; Borland, R.; Coghill, K.; Petrovic-Lazarevic, S.; Young, D.; Yeh, C.H.; Bedingfield, S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the application of fuzzy causal networks (FCNs) to evaluating effect of health warnings in influencing Australian smokers’ psychosocial and quitting behaviour. The sample data used in this study are selected from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey project. Our research findings have demonstrated that new health warnings implemented in Australia have obvious impacts on smokers’ psychosocial and quitting behaviours. FCN is a useful framework to investigate such impacts that overcome the limitation of using traditional statistical techniques, such as linear regression and logistics regression, to analyse non-linear data. PMID:26560158

  4. The Effects of Truncated Dome Detectable Warnings on Travelers Negotiating Curb Ramps in Wheelchairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Truncated domes on curb ramps benefit travelers with visual impairments. However, concerns associated with the safety and negotiability of such detectable warnings for other travelers have resulted in much controversy. The findings of the study presented here indicate that detectable warnings did not adversely affect the negotiability of ramps by…

  5. The Effects of Truncated Dome Detectable Warnings on Travelers Negotiating Curb Ramps in Wheelchairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Truncated domes on curb ramps benefit travelers with visual impairments. However, concerns associated with the safety and negotiability of such detectable warnings for other travelers have resulted in much controversy. The findings of the study presented here indicate that detectable warnings did not adversely affect the negotiability of ramps by…

  6. Impact of Waterpipe Tobacco Pack Health Warnings on Waterpipe Smoking Attitudes: A Qualitative Analysis among Regular Users in London

    PubMed Central

    Bakir, Ali; Ali, Mohammed; Grant, Aimee

    2015-01-01

    Background. Despite the rise in prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking, it has received little legislative enforcement from governing bodies, especially in the area of health warning labels. Methods. Twenty regular waterpipe tobacco smokers from London took part in five focus groups discussing the impact of waterpipe tobacco pack health warnings on their attitudes towards waterpipe smoking. We presented them with existing and mock waterpipe tobacco products, designed to be compliant with current and future UK/EU legislation. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results. Participants felt packs were less attractive and health warnings were more impactful as health warnings increased in size and packaging became less branded. However, participants highlighted their lack of exposure to waterpipe tobacco pack health warnings due to the inherent nature of waterpipe smoking, that is, smoking in a café with the apparatus already prepacked by staff. Health warnings at the point of consumption had more reported impact than health warnings at the point of sale. Conclusions. Waterpipe tobacco pack health warnings are likely to be effective if compliant with existing laws and exposed to end-users. Legislations should be reviewed to extend health warning labels to waterpipe accessories, particularly the apparatus, and to waterpipe-serving premises. PMID:26273642

  7. Impact of Waterpipe Tobacco Pack Health Warnings on Waterpipe Smoking Attitudes: A Qualitative Analysis among Regular Users in London.

    PubMed

    Jawad, Mohammed; Bakir, Ali; Ali, Mohammed; Grant, Aimee

    2015-01-01

    Despite the rise in prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking, it has received little legislative enforcement from governing bodies, especially in the area of health warning labels. Twenty regular waterpipe tobacco smokers from London took part in five focus groups discussing the impact of waterpipe tobacco pack health warnings on their attitudes towards waterpipe smoking. We presented them with existing and mock waterpipe tobacco products, designed to be compliant with current and future UK/EU legislation. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Participants felt packs were less attractive and health warnings were more impactful as health warnings increased in size and packaging became less branded. However, participants highlighted their lack of exposure to waterpipe tobacco pack health warnings due to the inherent nature of waterpipe smoking, that is, smoking in a café with the apparatus already prepacked by staff. Health warnings at the point of consumption had more reported impact than health warnings at the point of sale. Waterpipe tobacco pack health warnings are likely to be effective if compliant with existing laws and exposed to end-users. Legislations should be reviewed to extend health warning labels to waterpipe accessories, particularly the apparatus, and to waterpipe-serving premises.

  8. Effect of additional warning sounds on pedestrians' detection of electric vehicles: An ecological approach.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Sylvain; Jamet, Éric; Roussarie, Vincent; Bosc, Laure; Chamard, Jean-Christophe

    2016-12-01

    Virtually silent electric vehicles (EVs) may pose a risk for pedestrians. This paper describes two studies that were conducted to assess the influence of different types of external sounds on EV detectability. In the first study, blindfolded participants had to detect an approaching EV with either no warning sounds at all or one of three types of sound we tested. In the second study, designed to replicate the results of the first one in an ecological setting, the EV was driven along a road and the experimenters counted the number of people who turned their heads in its direction. Results of the first study showed that adding external sounds improve EV detection, and modulating the frequency and increasing the pitch of these sounds makes them more effective. This improvement was confirmed in the ecological context. Consequently, pitch variation and frequency modulation should both be taken into account in future AVAS design. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Systematic Review of the Effect of Pictorial Warnings on Cigarette Packages in Smoking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bojing; Greiner, Felix; Bremberg, Sven; Galanti, Rosaria

    2014-01-01

    We used a structured approach to assess whether active smokers presented with pictorial warnings on cigarette packages (PWCP) had a higher probability of quitting, reducing, and attempting to quit smoking than did unexposed smokers. We identified 21 articles from among nearly 2500 published between 1993 and 2013, prioritizing coverage over relevance or quality because we expected to find only a few studies with behavioral outcomes. We found very large heterogeneity across studies, poor or very poor methodological quality, and generally null or conflicting findings for any explored outcome. The evidence for or against the use of PWCP is insufficient, suggesting that any effect of PWCP on behavior would be modest. Determining the single impact of PWCP on behavior requires studies with strong methodological designs and longer follow-up periods. PMID:25122019

  10. Age-related differences in warning symbol comprehension and training effectiveness: effects of familiarity, complexity, and comprehensibility.

    PubMed

    Lesch, M F; Horrey, W J; Wogalter, M S; Powell, W R

    2011-10-01

    Age-related changes in selective attention, inhibitory efficiency, and the ability to form new associations suggest that older adults may have greater difficulty with more complex and less comprehensible symbols. We examined comprehension of symbols varying in terms of ratings of familiarity, complexity, and comprehensibility, by younger (aged 18-35) and older (aged 55-70) adults. It was found that older adults have greater difficulty than younger adults in comprehending warning symbols and that accident scenario training improves comprehension. Regression analyses indicated that familiarity and comprehensibility were important in determining performance on the pre-training comprehension test by both younger and older adults. However, training eliminated the effects of stimulus characteristics for younger adults, while older adults' comprehension continued to be significantly influenced by comprehensibility. We suggest that symbol design incorporates cues to knowledge to facilitate the linkage between new knowledge (i.e. the warning symbol) and relevant knowledge in long-term memory. Statement of Relevance: Symbol characteristics play an important role in age-related differences in warning symbol comprehension. To optimise comprehension by older adults, symbols should have a clear relationship with areal-world referent. Alternatively, symbol design could incorporate cues to knowledge to facilitate the linkage between new knowledge and relevant knowledge in long-term memory.

  11. The Most Effective Methods for Delivering Severe Weather Early Warnings to Fishermen on Lake Victoria.

    PubMed

    Tushemereirwe, Richard; Tuhebwe, Doreen; Cooper, Mary Ann; D'ujanga, Florence Mutonyi

    2017-02-22

    Introduction: It is estimated that five thousand people die on Lake Victoria every year by drowning which is triggered by severe weather hazards like lightning. Objectives:  In order to improve predictability of severe weather conditions on Lake Victoria, there is need to deliver timely and effective Severe Weather Early Warning Systems (SWEWS) to those at risk. On Lake Victoria, previous SWEW service trials ceased with the end of the funding grants. This study therefore assessed the possibility of sustaining the SWEW service by assessing willingness to pay.   Methods: An assessment was conducted between March and May 2015 to determine the SWEW service improvements desired by the population. A convenience sample of respondents was gathered and interviewed during impromptu visits to landing sites on Lake Victoria. The respondents were also among community members that had earlier participated in a pilot assessing the feasibility of mobile phones is delivering SWEW alerts.  Semi-structured questionnaires were administered to fishermen and fisher folks at the landing site to gather suggestions/strategies for (i) better design and implementation of SWEW service, (ii) use of smart phones, and (iii) their ability and willingness to pay for a SWEW service. Results were presented as frequencies. Results: Two hundred fifteen respondents from fourteen landing sites (communities) were interviewed. Over 50% of the respondents (113/215) were aware about at least one community member who had been injured due to lightening on the lake in the past year. Ninety two percent (198/215) of the respondents reported using mobile phones as their main tool of communication but only 4% had smart phones that could receive early warning weather alerts through internet connectivity. Seventy five percent of respondents said they would welcome a system that could deliver commercial weather alerts and 65% were willing to pay for such a service.   Conclusions: A SWEW service is feasible in

  12. The effectiveness of auxiliary prescription labels: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wiederholt, J B; Kotzan, J A; Cooper, J W

    1983-03-01

    Affixed auxiliary prescription labels are widely used in the practice of pharmacy because they supposedly provide the patient with pertinent information that is not contained within the prescription signature. Yet, whether the labels are effective is not known, nor is it known whether the label's elements, such as color, form, and logo, affect perception of the written text. Sound scientific analyses of these questions are limited. Therefore, a pilot study involving a series of experiments was designed to determine whether individual perception of pertinent information is affected by the use of affixed auxiliary prescription labels. The second objective of this study was to evaluate how color and logo differences affected perception of the label's written text. Participants were selected for the experiments after being screened for color blindness, corrected vision, and, in some cases, previous pharmacy employment. Subjects viewed labels affixed to prescription vials via a two-channel tachistoscope. The tachistoscopic methodology measured perception, and its accuracy was verified through a forced-choice instrument. Results from the pilot study were threefold: (1) a sound scientific analysis found affixed auxiliary labels to be effective, (2) significant variance could be attributed to both individual and subject differences, and (3) the unique effects of color and logo could not be determined.

  13. Effect of different children's menu labeling designs on family purchases.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Ashley S; Serrano, Elena L; Machin, Jane E; Duetsch, Thomas; Davis, George C

    2013-03-01

    The majority of labeling studies at restaurants have focused on adults, not children, and utilized cross-sectional data with one menu labeling design, typically calorie information. The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine the effect of three different menu labeling designs for children's meals on total calories and fat selected by families. Each menu was implemented for 2months. Patrons' purchases were tracked from a control menu (with no nutrition information) through all three theoretically-based designs: calorie and fat information; followed by symbols denoting healthier choices; then nutrition bargain price. All menus were created specifically for the study. They featured six combination meals (pre-determined entrees and side items) and a la carte items (entrees and side items that could be ordered separately). Only combination meals contained labeling. Fixed effects models were estimated to detect changes in sales for each menu labeling design compared to the control. Overall, menu labeling did not result in a positive net effect on total calories or fat purchased by families, but resulted in significant shifts in purchases of combination and a la carte meals and healthy and unhealthy options. The most significant impact was seen for nutrition bargain price labeling, the last design.

  14. Influence of Health Warnings on Beliefs about the Health Effects of Cigarette Smoking, in the Context of an Experimental Study in Four Asian Countries

    PubMed Central

    Mutti-Packer, Seema; Gupta, Prakash C.; Li, Qiang; Yuan, Jiang; Nargis, Nigar; Hussain, A. K. M. Ghulam; Hammond, David

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette package health warnings can be an important and low-cost means of communicating the health risks of smoking. We examined whether viewing health warnings in an experimental study influenced beliefs about the health effects of smoking, by conducting surveys with ~500 adult male smokers and ~500 male and female youth (age 16–18) in Beijing, China (n = 1070), Mumbai area, India (n = 1012), Dhaka, Bangladesh (n = 1018), and Republic of Korea (n = 1362). Each respondent was randomly assigned to view and rate pictorial health warnings for 2 of 15 different health effects, after which they reported beliefs about whether smoking caused 12 health effects. Respondents who viewed relevant health warnings (vs. other warnings) were significantly more likely to believe that smoking caused that particular health effect, for several health effects in each sample. Approximately three-quarters of respondents in China (Beijing), Bangladesh (Dhaka), and Korea (which had general, text-only warnings) thought that cigarette packages should display more health information, compared to approximately half of respondents in the Mumbai area, India (which had detailed pictorial warnings). Pictorial health warnings that convey the risk of specific health effects from smoking can increase beliefs and knowledge about the health consequences of smoking, particularly for health effects that are lesser-known. PMID:28767068

  15. The Effects of Specifying Job Requirements and Using Explicit Warnings to Decrease Sex Discrimination in Employment Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegfried, William D.

    1982-01-01

    To determine effectiveness of instructions designed to reduce sex discrimination in employment interviews, students were asked to rate resumes for a male and a female applicant under different instructional conditions. Results suggested that: legal warnings may bias ratings in favor of male applicants; and specifying job requirements reduces…

  16. 21 CFR 1141.10 - Required warnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PRODUCTS CIGARETTE PACKAGE AND ADVERTISING WARNINGS; (Eff. 9-22-12) Cigarette Package and Advertising... cigarettes the package of which fails to bear, in accordance with section 4 of the Federal Cigarette Labeling... “Cigarette Required Warnings,” which is incorporated by reference at § 1141.12, and accurately reproduced...

  17. EPA Region 2 Pesticides Use Warning

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 2 is warning applicators and consumers to use pesticides only in accordance with their label. Products claiming to prevent, destroy, or repel pests, including bacteria and viruses.

  18. The Effects of the FDA Warning on the Use of Droperidol by U.S. Emergency Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Richards, John R.; Weiss, Steven J.; Bretz, Stephen W.; Schneir, Aaron B.; Rinetti, Dauna; Derlet, Robert W.

    2003-01-01

    %). Two (0.4%) EPs reported arrhythmias in patients who received droperidol. Only 37 (8%) EPs reported they were unconcerned with potential loss of droperidol from the market. Conclusion: Based on this survey, EP use of droperidol has decreased dramatically as a result of the FDA warning. However, EPs believe that there are few or no alternative antiemetic drugs that have an improved adverse effect profile. PMID:20852711

  19. Framing unauthorized immigrants: the effects of labels on evaluations.

    PubMed

    Ommundsen, Reidar; Van der Veer, Kees; Larsen, Knud S; Eilertsen, Dag-Erik

    2014-04-01

    In the U.S. media, unauthorized immigrants are often interchangeably referred to as "illegal aliens," "illegal immigrants," and undocumented immigrants." In spite of formal equivalence, these terms carry different connotations, but the effects of these labels on people's attitudes toward immigrants are not well documented. In this replication study, 274 undergraduate students in psychology responded to one of three randomly distributed versions of a 20-item scale measuring attitudes toward unauthorized immigration. The items in the three scale versions varyingly referred to immigrants using the three terms. Results showed differences in attitudes toward unauthorized immigration between all experimental conditions. The label "illegal immigrants" yielded significantly less positive attitudes compared to the label "undocumented immigrants," and respondents exposed to the label "illegal aliens" showed the most positive attitudes. Furthermore, the effects of the experimental conditions were not moderated by the respondents' patriotism, sex, or own immigrant background.

  20. Effect of audio in-vehicle red light-running warning message on driving behavior based on a driving simulator experiment.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xuedong; Liu, Yang; Xu, Yongcun

    2015-01-01

    Drivers' incorrect decisions of crossing signalized intersections at the onset of the yellow change may lead to red light running (RLR), and RLR crashes result in substantial numbers of severe injuries and property damage. In recent years, some Intelligent Transport System (ITS) concepts have focused on reducing RLR by alerting drivers that they are about to violate the signal. The objective of this study is to conduct an experimental investigation on the effectiveness of the red light violation warning system using a voice message. In this study, the prototype concept of the RLR audio warning system was modeled and tested in a high-fidelity driving simulator. According to the concept, when a vehicle is approaching an intersection at the onset of yellow and the time to the intersection is longer than the yellow interval, the in-vehicle warning system can activate the following audio message "The red light is impending. Please decelerate!" The intent of the warning design is to encourage drivers who cannot clear an intersection during the yellow change interval to stop at the intersection. The experimental results showed that the warning message could decrease red light running violations by 84.3 percent. Based on the logistic regression analyses, drivers without a warning were about 86 times more likely to make go decisions at the onset of yellow and about 15 times more likely to run red lights than those with a warning. Additionally, it was found that the audio warning message could significantly reduce RLR severity because the RLR drivers' red-entry times without a warning were longer than those with a warning. This driving simulator study showed a promising effect of the audio in-vehicle warning message on reducing RLR violations and crashes. It is worthwhile to further develop the proposed technology in field applications.

  1. Health warnings on tobacco products - worldwide, 2007.

    PubMed

    2009-05-22

    Many countries require that tobacco product packaging includes health warnings about the risks associated with tobacco use. Health warnings on tobacco product packages are effective in highlighting the perception of health risk, supporting the intention to quit tobacco use, discouraging the intention to begin tobacco use, and increasing cessation rates. Prominent displays of health warnings increase their effectiveness; larger warnings, with pictures, are more likely to be noticed, better communicate health risks, provoke greater emotional response, and further motivate tobacco users to quit. This report assesses the current status of tobacco packaging health warning requirements worldwide. Governments could further discourage tobacco use by requiring prominent health warnings on tobacco packaging.

  2. 21 CFR 740.1 - Establishment of warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.1 Establishment of warning statements. (a) The label of a cosmetic product shall bear a warning statement whenever necessary or appropriate to prevent... for a cosmetic. Any such petition shall include an adequate factual basis to support the petition...

  3. 21 CFR 740.1 - Establishment of warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.1 Establishment of warning statements. (a) The label of a cosmetic product shall bear a warning statement whenever necessary or appropriate to prevent... for a cosmetic. Any such petition shall include an adequate factual basis to support the petition...

  4. 21 CFR 740.1 - Establishment of warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.1 Establishment of warning statements. (a) The label of a cosmetic product shall bear a warning statement whenever necessary or appropriate to prevent... for a cosmetic. Any such petition shall include an adequate factual basis to support the petition...

  5. 21 CFR 740.1 - Establishment of warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.1 Establishment of warning statements. (a) The label of a cosmetic product shall bear a warning statement whenever necessary or appropriate to prevent... for a cosmetic. Any such petition shall include an adequate factual basis to support the petition...

  6. 21 CFR 740.1 - Establishment of warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.1 Establishment of warning statements. (a) The label of a cosmetic product shall bear a warning statement whenever necessary or appropriate to prevent... for a cosmetic. Any such petition shall include an adequate factual basis to support the petition...

  7. A cross-sectional survey investigating the desensitisation of graphic health warning labels and their impact on smokers, non-smokers and patients with COPD in a London cohort

    PubMed Central

    Ratneswaran, Culadeeban; Chisnall, Ben; Drakatos, Panagis; Sivakumar, Sukhanthan; Sivakumar, Bairavie; Barrecheguren, Miriam; Douiri, Abdel; Steier, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    Objectives There is a lack of evidence regarding the effectiveness of graphic health warning labels (GHWL) in different individuals, including patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Investigating knowledge and attitudes may allow better implementation of future public health policies. We hypothesised that differences in the impact of GHWL exist between non-smokers, smokers and patients with COPD, with decreased efficacy in those groups who are longer and more frequently exposed to them. Participants and setting 163 participants (54% male, aged 21–80) including 60 non-smokers, 53 smokers and 50 patients with COPD (Gold stage II–IV), attending London respiratory outpatient clinics, participated in case-controlled surveys (50 items). Outcome measures Ten different GHWL were shown and demographics, smoking history, plans to quit, smoking-risk awareness, emotional response, processing and impact of GHWL on behaviour were recorded. Patients were further asked to prioritise the hypothetical treatment or prevention of five specific smoking-related diseases. Results Smokers, in particular those with COPD, were less susceptible to GHWL than non-smokers; 53.4% of all participants expressed fear when looking at GHWL, non-smokers (71.9%) more so than smokers (39.8%, p<0.001). COPD participants were less aware of the consequences than non-COPD participants (p<0.001), including an awareness of lung cancer (p=0.001). Lung cancer (95%), oral cancer (90.2%), heart disease (84.7%) and stroke (71.2%) were correctly associated with smoking, whereas blindness was least associated (23.9%). However, blindness was prioritised over oral cancer, stroke and in patients with COPD also over heart disease when participants were asked about hypothetical treatment or prevention. Conclusions GHWL are most effective in non-smokers and a desensitisation effect was observed in smokers and patients with COPD. As a consequence, a tailored and concerted public health approach to

  8. Are Food Labels Effective as a Means of Health Prevention?

    PubMed

    Viola, Gaia Claudia Viviana; Bianchi, Francesca; Croce, Elia; Ceretti, Elisabetta

    2016-12-09

    Chronic diseases related to unbalanced and unhealthy eating habits have definitely become one of the major issues of modern age, not only in western countries but also in those ones where rapid economic growth has increased global prosperity levels. In order to avoid medical systems to collapse under excessive costs, International and Public Organizations strongly support health policies that aim to make people shift towards wholesome dietary patterns, also encouraging the use of food-labels to choose healthier products. To evaluate the consumers' knowledge and perception about food-labels a brief questionnaire was developed and shared on Facebook between January-March 2016. Most of the participants were young adults with higher education. They declared to do their shopping at least once a week, reading the food-labels quite often. Despite owing limited knowledge in basic nutrition principles and food-labelling they were generally able to recognize healthier products looking over their nutritional fact tables. Anyway, on average, what they care the most about the products they purchase is the global quality level rather than the nutritional values. In order to induce the whole population to use food label as an effective self-protection tool, more efforts should be done to improve their knowledge on nutrition fundamentals and basics about food labelling, because that would make them able to take safer and more conscious choices as regards their own health.

  9. Emergency warning systems. Part 2. Warning systems - evaluation guidelines. Final report 1982-1983

    SciTech Connect

    Tanczos, R.C.; Kanen, A.C.

    1983-07-01

    This report is the result of research performed to establish guidelines for warning systems as they are used for natural disasters, nuclear power plant accidents, or nuclear attacks. The warning systems include both fixed and mobile sirens, tone alert radios, telephone systems, power line devices. Communications systems that control these warning systems are discussed. Test results of several warning systems are included along with a discussion of sound propagation, hearing, and other items that concern the effectiveness of warning systems.

  10. "Pictures don't lie, seeing is believing": exploring attitudes to the introduction of pictorial warnings on cigarette packs in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Singh, Arti; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Britton, John; Munafò, Marcus R; Jones, Laura L

    2014-12-01

    To compare perceptions of text and pictorial warning labels on cigarette packs among Ghanaian smokers and nonsmokers and to explore their views on the introduction of pictorial warnings in Ghana. Qualitative study involving 12 focus group discussions with 50 smokers and 35 nonsmokers aged 15 years and older in Kumasi, Ghana. Semistructured discussion guides along with visual discussant aids were used to explore the perception, acceptance, and potential use of pictorial warning labels in Ghana. Health warnings combining text and a picture were perceived by both smokers and nonsmokers to communicate health messages more effectively than text-only or picture-only warnings. The effect of text-only warnings was considered limited by low levels of literacy and by the common practice of single stick sales rather than sales of packs. Of the 6 health warnings tested, lung cancer, blindness, stroke, and throat/mouth cancer messages were perceived to have the most impact on smoking behavior, including uptake and quit attempts. Warning labels combining pictures and text have the potential to reduce smoking uptake, increase quit attempts, and reduce smoking appeal among smokers and nonsmokers in Ghana. Measures to prevent single stick sales, or to promote health messages to purchasers of single sticks, are required. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. [Pictorial health warnings on tobacco products packages as a part of tobacco epidemic control].

    PubMed

    Kaleta, Dorota; Kozieł, Anna; Miśkiewicz, Paulina

    2009-01-01

    The use of tobacco products has been described by the World Health Organization as the risk factor responsible for six out of eight causes of death in the world. Informing about the harm of smoking may be presented in many ways like media campaigns, text warnings, or graphic warnings placed on tobacco products. The aim of this article is to describe the role of graphic warnings placed on tobacco products in light of tobacco control. In this work, the available current data, including researches and reports of WHO, have been used. Graphic warnings may be a very valuable source of knowledge about health consequences of smoking. They are also much more visible, draw attention much better compared with text warnings and more clearly communicate the threats of tobacco use. They also have a stronger impact, are better memorized and better motivate to quit smoking. Pictorial warnings are also approved by the society. Smokers themselves perceive them as more effective than text warnings. Moreover, this kind of labeling makes tobacco products less attractive. The introduction of legal regulations enforcing these types of warnings does not cost anybody but the tobacco companies. This kind of solution helps to gain public acceptance for other methods of tobacco control like totally free tobacco smoke places.

  12. 21 CFR 895.25 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... statement, notice, or warning. Such statement, notice, or warning shall be in the manner and form prescribed... labeled. Such statement, notice, or warning shall be used in the labeling and advertising of the device...

  13. 21 CFR 895.25 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... statement, notice, or warning. Such statement, notice, or warning shall be in the manner and form prescribed... labeled. Such statement, notice, or warning shall be used in the labeling and advertising of the device...

  14. 21 CFR 895.25 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... statement, notice, or warning. Such statement, notice, or warning shall be in the manner and form prescribed... labeled. Such statement, notice, or warning shall be used in the labeling and advertising of the device...

  15. Perceived effectiveness of graphic health warnings as a deterrent for smoking initiation among adolescents in selected schools in southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adebiyi, A O; Uchendu, O C; Bamgboye, E; Ibitoye, O; Omotola, B

    2016-01-01

    There has been a sustained increment in young people initiating smoking in low middle income countries like Nigeria. Health warnings on cigarette packages are a prominent source of health information and an effective means of communicating specific disease risks to adolescents and young adults alike. This study evaluated the perceived effectiveness of selected graphic warnings on smoking initiation amongst in-school adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study conducted amongst secondary school students aged 13-17years in Igbo-Ora, Nigeria. A two-stage sampling technique with the school classes as the final sampling unit was used to select the students. An interviewer assisted questionnaire was used to obtain information on students demographic characteristics and their perception of graphic warnings using four images from the pictorial health warning galleries of the World Health Organization showing: 'cigarette smoking causes cancer of the airways, harms children, causes stroke and causes impotence respectively'. A total of 544 senior secondary students were included in this study with a male female ratio of 0.8:1. Of those interviewed, 40 (7.4 %) indicated that they had ever considered smoking, nine (1.7 %) responded that they had ever smoked and two students indicated that they were current smokers. With all the images, fear was the dominant emotion expressed by the respondents. This was expressed by 307 (56.4), 215 (39.5), 203 (37.3) and 228 (41.9 %) respondents to images 1, 2, 3, and 4 respectively. Furthermore, 76.7, 44.7, 58.5 and 62.1 % of respondents felt Images 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively will to a large extent prevent people from initiating smoking. There was no association between perceived effectiveness and gender. However, those younger than 15 years rated images on cancer of the airway and impotence as probably effective to a larger extent than did those who were 15 years and older (p = 0.032). Introduction of graphic health warnings

  16. Young Adult Smokers' and Prior-Smokers' Evaluations of Novel Tobacco Warning Images.

    PubMed

    Healey, Benjamin; Hoek, Janet

    2016-01-01

    On-pack warning labels represent a very cost-effective means of communicating with smokers, who potentially see warnings each time they retrieve a cigarette. Warning labels have traditionally depicted graphic health consequences of smoking but emerging evidence suggests the distal consequences shown may prove less effective in prompting cessation among young adults. We used a novel micro-survey approach to compare novel and traditional warnings, and provide an empirical foundation for a larger study. We recruited 4649 male and 2993 female participants aged 18-34 from Google Consumer Survey's Australian panel of Android mobile phone users. A screening question resulted in a sample comprising 3183 daily, non-daily, and former smokers. Twenty images corresponding to social and health risks, tobacco industry denormalization, and secondhand smoke (SHS) were tested in paired comparisons where respondents selected the image they thought most likely to prompt cessation. Irrespective of smoking status, respondents rated messages featuring harm to children as most effective and industry denormalization messages and adult SHS warnings as least effective. Within smoker groups, daily smokers rated social concerns more highly; non-daily smokers were more responsive to SHS messages, and former smokers saw intimacy and cosmetic effects warnings as more effective than other groups. While preliminary, the findings support emerging evidence that more diverse warning images may be required to promote cessation among all smoker sub-groups. Warnings depicting harm to vulnerable others appear to hold high potential and merit further investigation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Warnings from the Trenches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    The author, as a retired high school teacher, has some bad news for college professors. In case, they do not already see what is happening. The author wants to warn them of what to expect from the students who will be arriving in one's classroom even if they teach in a highly selective institution. No Child Left Behind went into effect for the…

  18. Representation, Exemplification, and Risk: Resonance of Tobacco Graphic Health Warnings Across Diverse Populations.

    PubMed

    Bigman, Cabral A; Nagler, Rebekah H; Viswanath, K

    2016-08-01

    As countries implement Article 11 of the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, graphic warning labels that use images of people and their body parts to illustrate the consequences of smoking are being added to cigarette packs. According to exemplification theory, these case examples-exemplars-can shape perceptions about risk and may resonate differently among demographic subpopulations. Drawing on data from eight focus groups (N = 63) with smokers and nonsmokers from vulnerable populations, this qualitative study explores whether people considered exemplars in their reactions to and evaluations of U.S. graphic health warning labels initially proposed by the Food and Drug Administration. Participants made reference to prior and concurrent mass media messages and exemplars during the focus groups and used demographic cues in making sense of the images on the warning labels. Participants were particularly sensitive to age of the exemplars and how it might affect label effectiveness and beliefs about smoking. Race and socioeconomic status also were salient for some participants. We recommend that exemplars and exemplification be considered when selecting and evaluating graphic health warnings for tobacco labels and associated media campaigns.

  19. Suicide warning signs in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Rudd, M David

    2008-02-01

    This review discusses suicide warning signs in clinical practice and has three simple goals: 1) to help practitioners differentiate in a clinically meaningful fashion between warning signs and risk factors for suicide; 2) to articulate the link among warning signs for suicide, hopelessness, and intent to die; and 3) to assist practitioners in applying warning signs in day-to-day clinical practice, doing so in a concrete and effective manner.

  20. Designing informative warning signals: Effects of indicator type, modality, and task demand on recognition speed and accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Catherine J.; Brennan, David; Petocz, Agnes; Howell, Clare

    2009-01-01

    An experiment investigated the assumption that natural indicators which exploit existing learned associations between a signal and an event make more effective warnings than previously unlearned symbolic indicators. Signal modality (visual, auditory) and task demand (low, high) were also manipulated. Warning effectiveness was indexed by accuracy and reaction time (RT) recorded during training and dual task test phases. Thirty-six participants were trained to recognize 4 natural and 4 symbolic indicators, either visual or auditory, paired with critical incidents from an aviation context. As hypothesized, accuracy was greater and RT was faster in response to natural indicators during the training phase. This pattern of responding was upheld in test phase conditions with respect to accuracy but observed in RT only in test phase conditions involving high demand and the auditory modality. Using the experiment as a specific example, we argue for the importance of considering the cognitive contribution of the user (viz., prior learned associations) in the warning design process. Drawing on semiotics and cognitive psychology, we highlight the indexical nature of so-called auditory icons or natural indicators and argue that the cogniser is an indispensable element in the tripartite nature of signification. PMID:20523852

  1. Effects of Warning Stimuli for Reinforcer Withdrawal and Task Onset on Self-Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mace, Amy Boyajian; Shapiro, Edward S.; Mace, F. Charles

    1998-01-01

    Results of a functional analysis of self-injurious behavior (SIB) in a 7-year-old child with autism showed that her SIB was maintained by access to preferred object and escape or avoidance of task demands. Warning stimuli in combination with extinction and noncontingent reinforcement reduced SIB to acceptable levels. (Author/CR)

  2. Effects of Warning Stimuli for Reinforcer Withdrawal and Task Onset on Self-Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mace, Amy Boyajian; Shapiro, Edward S.; Mace, F. Charles

    1998-01-01

    Results of a functional analysis of self-injurious behavior (SIB) in a 7-year-old child with autism showed that her SIB was maintained by access to preferred object and escape or avoidance of task demands. Warning stimuli in combination with extinction and noncontingent reinforcement reduced SIB to acceptable levels. (Author/CR)

  3. The Effectiveness of Reverse Telephon Emergency Warning Systems in the October 2007 San Diego Wildfires

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, John H; Sorensen, Barbara Vogt

    2009-01-01

    Late in October, 2007, fast-moving wildfires fueled by extreme Santa Ana winds threatened residents and their properties in San Diego County, California. The impacted area also included the City of San Diego within the County s boundaries. It turns out the San Diego firestorms would be the biggest in the County's history, surpassing the devastating 2003 firestorms in intensity, duration, and impacted populations. Both San Diego County and the City of San Diego have installed telephone reverse call-down emergency warning systems. A telephone survey of 1200 households located in areas identified by emergency officials as the evacuation zones for the 2007 fires was conducted in late March and early April 2008 using a random telephone dialing process to determine if people responded to the reverse telephone warning systems calls. Findings indicate that those who received a reverse emergency warning call were much more likely to evacuate than those who did not receive a call. The telephone calls were also the most likely source of first warning.

  4. Sounding the Alert: Designing an Effective Voice for Earthquake Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkett, E. R.; Given, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    The USGS is working with partners to develop the ShakeAlert Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) system (http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2014/3083/) to protect life and property along the U.S. West Coast, where the highest national seismic hazard is concentrated. EEW sends an alert that shaking from an earthquake is on its way (in seconds to tens of seconds) to allow recipients or automated systems to take appropriate actions at their location to protect themselves and/or sensitive equipment. ShakeAlert is transitioning toward a production prototype phase in which test users might begin testing applications of the technology. While a subset of uses will be automated (e.g., opening fire house doors), other applications will alert individuals by radio or cellphone notifications and require behavioral decisions to protect themselves (e.g., "Drop, Cover, Hold On"). The project needs to select and move forward with a consistent alert sound to be widely and quickly recognized as an earthquake alert. In this study we combine EEW science and capabilities with an understanding of human behavior from the social and psychological sciences to provide insight toward the design of effective sounds to help best motivate proper action by alert recipients. We present a review of existing research and literature, compiled as considerations and recommendations for alert sound characteristics optimized for EEW. We do not yet address wording of an audible message about the earthquake (e.g., intensity and timing until arrival of shaking or possible actions), although it will be a future component to accompany the sound. We consider pitch(es), loudness, rhythm, tempo, duration, and harmony. Important behavioral responses to sound to take into account include that people respond to discordant sounds with anxiety, can be calmed by harmony and softness, and are innately alerted by loud and abrupt sounds, although levels high enough to be auditory stressors can negatively impact human judgment.

  5. Hazard levels of warning signal words modulate the inhibition of return effect: evidence from the event-related potential P300.

    PubMed

    Shang, Qian; Huang, Yujing; Ma, Qingguo

    2015-09-01

    Warning signal words are often used to convey valuable information about potential dangers in everyday life. In this study, we explored whether and how the hazard level of warning signal words modulated participants' attention to subsequent targets. Event-related potentials with high temporal resolution were employed in a cue-target paradigm. In this task, warning signal words with different hazard levels were used as cues. Participants were required to judge whether targets were presented on the screen horizontally or vertically. We found an inhibition of return (IOR) effect, i.e., participants had longer reaction times to validly cued targets than to invalidly cued targets. Accordingly, the IOR effect was reflected by a smaller P300 amplitude for invalidly cued targets compared to validly cued targets. Furthermore, the IOR effect was eliminated when the cues were high-hazard words. The dampening effect on the P300 was eliminated when the cues were high-hazard warning signal words. The lack of an IOR was attributed to participants' attentional bias to high-hazard stimuli, which are difficult for participants to disengage their attention from. The current study suggests that warning signal words are a particular type of stimulus that can override the IOR effect. Warning signal words with a high hazard level are more effective in successfully alerting people to risk in a hazardous environment.

  6. A survey of public perception and response to heat warnings across four North American cities: an evaluation of municipal effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Scott C

    2007-10-01

    To examine the efficacy of municipal heat watch warning systems, a thorough evaluation of the heat mitigation plans of four North American cities--Dayton (Ohio, USA), Philadelphia (Pennsylvania, USA), Phoenix (Arizona, USA), and Toronto (Ontario, Canada)--was undertaken. In concert with this evaluation was a survey of residents in the metropolitan areas of these cities that gauged their perception of their own vulnerability to the heat, as well as their knowledge of heat warnings and the activities recommended to be undertaken to help mitigate the effects of the heat. In total, 908 respondents participated in the telephone survey. Some of the key results indicate that knowledge of the heat warning was nearly universal (90%), and likely due to pervasive media coverage more than any other means. Though knowledge of the event was widespread, knowledge of what to do was less common. Only around half of all respondents mentioned that they changed their behavior, and despite the diversity of information available on mitigating heat vulnerability, most respondents stated that they merely "avoided the outdoors" at all costs. Though air conditioning was nearly ubiquitous among respondents, over a third mentioned that economic factors of energy costs were considered in terms of how long or whether the air conditioner was turned on.

  7. Warning Signs After Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Postpartum care > Warning signs after birth Warning signs after birth E-mail to a friend ... breast infection Postpartum bleeding Postpartum depression (PPD) What warning signs should you look for? Call your provider ...

  8. The Influence of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Warnings

    PubMed Central

    VanEpps, Eric M.; Roberto, Christina A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction California, New York, and the cities of San Francisco and Baltimore have introduced bills requiring health-related warning labels for sugar-sweetened beverages. This study measures the extent to which these warning labels influence adolescents’ beliefs and hypothetical choices. Design Participants completed an online survey in which they chose a beverage in a hypothetical vending machine task, rated perceptions of different beverages, and indicated interest in coupons for beverages. Data were collected and analyzed in 2015. Setting/participants A total of 2,202 demographically diverse adolescents aged 12–18 years completed the online survey. Intervention Participants were randomly assigned to one of six conditions: (1) no warning label; (2) calorie label; (3–6) one of four text versions of a warning label (e.g., SAFETY WARNING: Drinking beverages with added sugar(s) contributes to obesity, diabetes, and tooth decay). Main outcome measures Hypothetical choices, perceptions of beverages, interest in coupons, and endorsement of warning label policies were assessed. Results Controlling for frequency of beverage purchases, significantly fewer adolescents chose a sugar-sweetened beverage in three of the four warning label conditions (65%, 63%, and 61%) than in the no label (77%) condition. Adolescents in the four warning label conditions chose fewer sugar-sweetened beverage coupons and believed that sugar-sweetened beverages were less likely to help them lead a healthy life and had more added sugar compared with the no label condition. Conclusions Health-related warning labels on sugar-sweetened beverages improved adolescents’ recognition of the sugar content of such beverages and reduced hypothetical choices to buy sugar-sweetened beverages. PMID:27617366

  9. Standardised (plain) cigarette packaging increases attention to both text-based and graphical health warnings: experimental evidence

    PubMed Central

    Shankleman, M.; Sykes, C.; Mandeville, K.L.; Di Costa, S.; Yarrow, K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether standardised cigarette packaging increases the time spent looking at health warnings, regardless of the format of those warnings. Study design A factorial (two pack styles x three warning types) within-subject experiment, with participants randomised to different orders of conditions, completed at a university in London, UK. Methods Mock-ups of cigarette packets were presented to participants with their branded portion in either standardised (plain) or manufacturer-designed (branded) format. Health warnings were present on all packets, representing all three types currently in use in the UK: black & white text, colour text, or colour images with accompanying text. Gaze position was recorded using a specialised eye tracker, providing the main outcome measure, which was the mean proportion of a five-second viewing period spent gazing at the warning-label region of the packet. Results An opportunity sample of 30 (six male, mean age = 23) young adults met the following inclusion criteria: 1) not currently a smoker; 2) <100 lifetime cigarettes smoked; 3) gaze position successfully tracked for > 50% viewing time. These participants spent a greater proportion of the available time gazing at the warning-label region when the branded section of the pack was standardised (following current Australian guidelines) rather than containing the manufacturer's preferred design (mean difference in proportions = 0.078, 95% confidence interval 0.049 to 0.106, p < 0.001). There was no evidence that this effect varied based on the type of warning label (black & white text vs. colour text vs. colour image & text; interaction p = 0.295). Conclusions During incidental viewing of cigarette packets, young adult never-smokers are likely to spend more time looking at health warnings if manufacturers are compelled to use standardised packaging, regardless of the warning design. PMID:25542740

  10. Standardised (plain) cigarette packaging increases attention to both text-based and graphical health warnings: experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Shankleman, M; Sykes, C; Mandeville, K L; Di Costa, S; Yarrow, K

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether standardised cigarette packaging increases the time spent looking at health warnings, regardless of the format of those warnings. A factorial (two pack styles x three warning types) within-subject experiment, with participants randomised to different orders of conditions, completed at a university in London, UK. Mock-ups of cigarette packets were presented to participants with their branded portion in either standardised (plain) or manufacturer-designed (branded) format. Health warnings were present on all packets, representing all three types currently in use in the UK: black & white text, colour text, or colour images with accompanying text. Gaze position was recorded using a specialised eye tracker, providing the main outcome measure, which was the mean proportion of a five-second viewing period spent gazing at the warning-label region of the packet. An opportunity sample of 30 (six male, mean age = 23) young adults met the following inclusion criteria: 1) not currently a smoker; 2) <100 lifetime cigarettes smoked; 3) gaze position successfully tracked for > 50% viewing time. These participants spent a greater proportion of the available time gazing at the warning-label region when the branded section of the pack was standardised (following current Australian guidelines) rather than containing the manufacturer's preferred design (mean difference in proportions = 0.078, 95% confidence interval 0.049 to 0.106, p < 0.001). There was no evidence that this effect varied based on the type of warning label (black & white text vs. colour text vs. colour image & text; interaction p = 0.295). During incidental viewing of cigarette packets, young adult never-smokers are likely to spend more time looking at health warnings if manufacturers are compelled to use standardised packaging, regardless of the warning design. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Driving-simulator-based test on the effectiveness of auditory red-light running vehicle warning system based on time-to-collision sensor.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xuedong; Xue, Qingwan; Ma, Lu; Xu, Yongcun

    2014-02-21

    The collision avoidance warning system is an emerging technology designed to assist drivers in avoiding red-light running (RLR) collisions at intersections. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effect of auditory warning information on collision avoidance behaviors in the RLR pre-crash scenarios and further to examine the casual relationships among the relevant factors. A driving-simulator-based experiment was designed and conducted with 50 participants. The data from the experiments were analyzed by approaches of ANOVA and structural equation modeling (SEM). The collisions avoidance related variables were measured in terms of brake reaction time (BRT), maximum deceleration and lane deviation in this study. It was found that the collision avoidance warning system can result in smaller collision rates compared to the without-warning condition and lead to shorter reaction times, larger maximum deceleration and less lane deviation. Furthermore, the SEM analysis illustrate that the audio warning information in fact has both direct and indirect effect on occurrence of collisions, and the indirect effect plays a more important role on collision avoidance than the direct effect. Essentially, the auditory warning information can assist drivers in detecting the RLR vehicles in a timely manner, thus providing drivers more adequate time and space to decelerate to avoid collisions with the conflicting vehicles.

  12. Driving-Simulator-Based Test on the Effectiveness of Auditory Red-Light Running Vehicle Warning System Based on Time-To-Collision Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xuedong; Xue, Qingwan; Ma, Lu; Xu, Yongcun

    2014-01-01

    The collision avoidance warning system is an emerging technology designed to assist drivers in avoiding red-light running (RLR) collisions at intersections. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effect of auditory warning information on collision avoidance behaviors in the RLR pre-crash scenarios and further to examine the casual relationships among the relevant factors. A driving-simulator-based experiment was designed and conducted with 50 participants. The data from the experiments were analyzed by approaches of ANOVA and structural equation modeling (SEM). The collisions avoidance related variables were measured in terms of brake reaction time (BRT), maximum deceleration and lane deviation in this study. It was found that the collision avoidance warning system can result in smaller collision rates compared to the without-warning condition and lead to shorter reaction times, larger maximum deceleration and less lane deviation. Furthermore, the SEM analysis illustrate that the audio warning information in fact has both direct and indirect effect on occurrence of collisions, and the indirect effect plays a more important role on collision avoidance than the direct effect. Essentially, the auditory warning information can assist drivers in detecting the RLR vehicles in a timely manner, thus providing drivers more adequate time and space to decelerate to avoid collisions with the conflicting vehicles. PMID:24566631

  13. The Effects of Band Labels on Evaluators' Judgments of Musical Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvey, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of band labels on evaluators' judgments of musical performance. High school concert band members (n = 72), wind ensemble members ( n = 77), and band directors (n = 8) were randomly assigned to a band label or no label group. Only the band label group was given evaluation forms that specified the group playing…

  14. The Effects of Band Labels on Evaluators' Judgments of Musical Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvey, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of band labels on evaluators' judgments of musical performance. High school concert band members (n = 72), wind ensemble members ( n = 77), and band directors (n = 8) were randomly assigned to a band label or no label group. Only the band label group was given evaluation forms that specified the group playing…

  15. Effects of safety warnings and risk management plan for Thiazolidinediones in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jason C; Cheng, Ching-Lan; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Wagner, Anita K; Zhang, Fang; Kao Yang, Yea-Huei; Liu, Li-Ling; Tai, Hsueh-Yung; Chen, Ke-Hsin; Yang, Po-Wen; Lu, Christine Y

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate changes in thiazolidinedione use and quality of prescription following safety warnings for thiazolidinediones and cardiac risk in 2007, Risk Management Plan (RMP) policy for rosiglitazone in 2010, and warning for pioglitazone and bladder cancer risk in 2010 in Taiwan. We obtained 2003-2011 claims data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Using an interrupted time series design and segmented regression, we estimated changes in monthly prescribing rates for thiazolidinediones among all and prevalent diabetes patients with and without cardiovascular disease history (CV history). We also compared time to prescription of thiazolidinediones among new diabetes patients with CV history before and after each regulatory action using survival analysis. Among prevalent patients with and without CV history, the prescribing rates of rosiglitazone decreased 36.88% and 28.92% after safety warnings in 2007 respectively. Pioglitazone prescriptions increased 13% among patients with CV history, but no changes were detected among patients without CV history. After rosiglitazone's RMP policy in 2010, large reductions in prescriptions were observed in patients with CV history (-101.67%) and those without CV history (-88.04%). Among new diabetes patients with CV history, cardiac safety warnings in 2007 significantly delayed the prescription of rosiglitazone, but no significant change was found for pioglitazone. The Taiwan FDA regulatory actions for thiazolidinediones communicated possible risks of cardiac events and bladder cancer. Different safety regulatory actions had differential impacts on the use of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone and the quality use of these drugs among the high-risk patients. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Evaluation of the effects of implementing an electronic early warning score system: protocol for a stepped wedge study.

    PubMed

    Bonnici, Timothy; Gerry, Stephen; Wong, David; Knight, Julia; Watkinson, Peter

    2016-02-09

    An Early Warning Score is a clinical risk score based upon vital signs intended to aid recognition of patients in need of urgent medical attention. The use of an escalation of care policy based upon an Early Warning Score is mandated as the standard of practice in British hospitals. Electronic systems for recording vital sign observations and Early Warning Score calculation offer theoretical benefits over paper-based systems. However, the evidence for their clinical benefit is limited. Previous studies have shown inconsistent results. The majority have employed a "before and after" study design, which may be strongly confounded by simultaneously occurring events. This study aims to examine how the implementation of an electronic early warning score system, System for Notification and Documentation (SEND), affects the recognition of clinical deterioration occurring in hospitalised adult patients. This study is a non-randomised stepped wedge evaluation carried out across the four hospitals of the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, comparing charting on paper and charting using SEND. We assume that more frequent monitoring of acutely ill patients is associated with better recognition of patient deterioration. The primary outcome measure is the time between a patient's first observations set with an Early Warning Score above the alerting threshold and their subsequent set of observations. Secondary outcome measures are in-hospital mortality, cardiac arrest and Intensive Care admission rates, hospital length of stay and system usability measured using the System Usability Scale. We will also measure Intensive Care length of stay, Intensive Care mortality, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II acute physiology score on admission, to examine whether the introduction of SEND has any effect on Intensive Care-related outcomes. The development of this protocol has been informed by guidance from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ

  17. Breast cancer in Iran: need for greater women awareness of warning signs and effective screening methods

    PubMed Central

    Montazeri, Ali; Vahdaninia, Mariam; Harirchi, Iraj; Harirchi, Amir Mahmood; Sajadian, Akram; Khaleghi, Fatemeh; Ebrahimi, Mandana; Haghighat, Shahpar; Jarvandi, Soghra

    2008-01-01

    indicated that the women awareness of breast cancer warning signs (painless lump, retraction of nipple, and bloody discharge) and effective screening methods i.e. clinical examination, and mammography were very inadequate. Thus, health education programmes to rectify the lack of women awareness is urgently needed. Indeed the focus of primary health care providers should be to raise awareness about breast care among women and to encourage them to report any unusual changes in their breasts to their family or care physicians. PMID:19099595

  18. Breast cancer in Iran: need for greater women awareness of warning signs and effective screening methods.

    PubMed

    Montazeri, Ali; Vahdaninia, Mariam; Harirchi, Iraj; Harirchi, Amir Mahmood; Sajadian, Akram; Khaleghi, Fatemeh; Ebrahimi, Mandana; Haghighat, Shahpar; Jarvandi, Soghra

    2008-12-20

    breast cancer warning signs (painless lump, retraction of nipple, and bloody discharge) and effective screening methods i.e. clinical examination, and mammography were very inadequate. Thus, health education programmes to rectify the lack of women awareness is urgently needed. Indeed the focus of primary health care providers should be to raise awareness about breast care among women and to encourage them to report any unusual changes in their breasts to their family or care physicians.

  19. Improving the Effectiveness of Penicillin Allergy De-labeling.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Jack; Pavlos, Rebecca; James, Ian; Phillips, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 10-20% of hospitalized patients are labeled as penicillin allergic, and this is associated with significant health and economic costs. We looked at the effectiveness of penicillin allergy de-labeling in clinical practice with the aim of deriving risk stratification models to guide testing strategies. Consecutive patients aged 15 years or more, referred to a Western Australian public hospital drug allergy service between 2008 and 2013 for beta-lactam allergy, were included. Follow-up surveys were conducted. Results of skin prick testing and intradermal testing (SPT/IDT) and oral challenge (OC), and follow-up of post testing antibiotic usage were the main outcomes. SPT/IDT was performed in 401 consecutive patients with immediate (IMM) (≤ 1 hour) (n = 151) and nonimmediate (NIM) (>1 hour) (n = 250) reactions. Of 341 patients, 42 (12.3%) were SPT/IDT+ to ≥ 1 penicillin reagents, including 35/114 (30.4%) in the IMM group and 7/227 (3.1%) in the NIM group (P < .0001). Of 355 SPT/IDT patients, 3 (0.8%), all in the IMM group, had nonserious positive OC reactions to single dose penicillin VK (SPT/IDT negative predictive value [NPV] 99.2%). Selective or unrestricted beta-lactam was recommended in almost 90% overall, including 238/250 (95.2%) in the NIM group and 126/151 (83.4%) in the IMM group (P = .0001). Of 182 patients, 137 (75.3%) were following the allergy label modifications (ALM) at the time of follow-up. Penicillin SPT/IDT/OC safely de-labels penicillin-allergic patients and identifies selective beta-lactam allergies; however, incomplete adherence to ALM recommendations impairs effectiveness. Infrequent SPT/IDT+ and absent OC reactions in patients with NIM reactions suggest OC alone to be a safe and cost-effective de-labeling strategy that could improve the coverage of penicillin allergy de-labeling in lower risk populations. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Are Food Labels Effective as a Means of Health Prevention?

    PubMed Central

    Viola, Gaia Claudia Viviana; Bianchi, Francesca; Croce, Elia; Ceretti, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Chronic diseases related to unbalanced and unhealthy eating habits have definitely become one of the major issues of modern age, not only in western countries but also in those ones where rapid economic growth has increased global prosperity levels. In order to avoid medical systems to collapse under excessive costs, International and Public Organizations strongly support health policies that aim to make people shift towards wholesome dietary patterns, also encouraging the use of food-labels to choose healthier products. To evaluate the consumers’ knowledge and perception about food-labels a brief questionnaire was developed and shared on Facebook between January-March 2016. Most of the participants were young adults with higher education. They declared to do their shopping at least once a week, reading the food-labels quite often. Despite owing limited knowledge in basic nutrition principles and food-labelling they were generally able to recognize healthier products looking over their nutritional fact tables. Anyway, on average, what they care the most about the products they purchase is the global quality level rather than the nutritional values. In order to induce the whole population to use food label as an effective self-protection tool, more efforts should be done to improve their knowledge on nutrition fundamentals and basics about food labelling, because that would make them able to take safer and more conscious choices as regards their own health. Significance for public health Food label represents the identity card of food products: it reports composition, ingredients and their relative amounts, it informs about quality, origin, processing and preservation. This information gives the consumer the opportunity to consciously choose what to purchase. The label could concretely help us in protecting and improving our health, if our choices are supported by some basic knowledge of wholesome nutrition, based on a balanced and varied diet. In a wider

  1. Effect of misoprostol and cimetidine on gastric cell labeling index

    SciTech Connect

    Fich, A.; Arber, N.; Sestieri, M.; Zajicek, G.; Rachmilewitz, D.

    1985-07-01

    The effect of misoprostol and cimetidine on gastric cell turnover was studied. Endoscopic biopsy specimens of fundic and antral mucosa were obtained from duodenal ulcer patients before and after 4 wk of therapy with cimetidine 1.2 g/day or misoprostol 800 micrograms/day. Biopsy specimens were incubated with (/sup 3/H)thymidine. Glandular column length and number of labeled cells were determined after autoradiography. There was no significant difference in column length of antral or fundic glands before or after therapy with cimetidine and misoprostol. The number of antral and fundic labeled cells was significantly decreased after misoprostol treatment (3.6 +/- 0.3 and 4.6 +/- 0.4, mean +/- SE), as opposed to their respective number before therapy (6.9 +/- 0.5 and 8.3 +/- 0.8) (p less than 0.01). On the other hand, after treatment with cimetidine, the number of antral and fundic labeled cells was significantly higher (11.8 +/- 0.9 and 7.5 +/- 1.0, respectively) as compared with their number before therapy (5.7 +/- 0.5 and 5.6 +/- 0.6, respectively). The decreased gastric cell turnover induced by misoprostol indicates that the trophic effect of prostanoids on gastric mucosa is not due to an increase in cellular kinetics. The increased gastric cell turnover induced by cimetidine may contribute to its therapeutic effect in peptic ulcer disease.

  2. The effects of traffic light labelling versus cartoon labelling on food and beverage purchases in a children's hospital setting.

    PubMed

    Whitt, O R; Jilcott Pitts, S B; Rafferty, A P; Payne, C R; Ng, S W

    2017-07-28

    This study's purpose was to examine changes in healthy and unhealthy items purchased following the implementation of traffic light and cartoon labelling in a small retail food venue (Café Bay) in a children's hospital in eastern North Carolina. Between October 2015 and March 2016, daily food and beverage sales from Café Bay were obtained during baseline, traffic light labelling, a washout period, cartoon labelling (on healthy foods only) and a final washout period. Pearson chi-squared tests and multiple linear regressions were used to examine effects of labelling strategies, controlling for the holidays. In unadjusted analyses, traffic light labelling was associated with significant decreases in purchases of unhealthy items purchased, while cartoon labelling was associated with increases in unhealthy items purchased. In adjusted linear regression analysis, traffic light labelling was associated with fewer unhealthy purchases and thus may have potential to decrease the amount of unhealthy items purchased in a children's hospital food retail venue. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  3. Airburst warning and response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boslough, Mark

    2014-10-01

    It is virtually certain (probability>99%) that the next destructive NEO event will be an airburst. Planetary defense is usually assumed to have the primary goal of maximizing the number of lives saved, but it can be argued that more emphasis should be placed on maximizing the probability of saving lives. For the latter goal, it is far more effective to create an early warning and civil defense plan than a mitigation plan that involves deflecting a large NEO. Because early warning and civil defense will almost certainly be needed long before the first deflection is ever required, the credibility of the planetary defense community and its recommendations will be put to its first serious test by an airburst. Successful response to an airburst event will make it much more likely that recommendations for mitigation by deflection will be accepted by decision makers and the public. Focusing more attention on the second goal will, as a side effect, benefit the primary goal.

  4. Which Images and Features in Graphic Cigarette Warnings Predict Their Perceived Effectiveness? Findings from an Online Survey of Residents in the UK.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Linda D; Williams, Brian

    2015-10-01

    Many countries are implementing graphic warnings for cigarettes. Which graphic features influence their effectiveness remains unclear. To identify features of graphic warnings predicting their perceived effectiveness in discouraging smoking. Guided by the Common-Sense Model of responses to health threats, we content-analyzed 42 graphic warnings for attributes of illness risk representations and media features (e.g., photographs, metaphors). Using data from 15,536 survey participants, we conducted stratified logistic regressions testing which attributes predict participant selections of warnings as effective. Images of diseased body parts predicted greater perceived effectiveness; OR = 6.53-12.45 across smoking status (smoker, ex-smoker, young non-smoker) groups. Features increasing perceived effectiveness included images of dead or sick persons, children, and medical technology; focus on cancer; and photographs. Attributes decreasing perceived effectiveness included infertility/impotence, addictiveness, cigarette chemicals, cosmetic appearance, quitting self-efficacy, and metaphors. These findings on representational and media attributes predicting perceived effectiveness can inform strategies for generating graphic warnings.

  5. Effects of warning stimuli for reinforcer withdrawal and task onset on self-injury.

    PubMed

    Mace, A B; Shapiro, E S; Mace, F C

    1998-01-01

    Results of a functional analysis of self-injurious behavior (SIB) in a child with autism showed that her SIB was maintained by access to preferred objects and escape or avoidance of task demands. Extinction and noncontingent reinforcement treatments were supplemented by presenting a statement combined with a picture cue at 30-s intervals indicating that a preferred object would be removed or a task would be presented. Warning stimuli in combination with extinction and noncontingent reinforcement reduced SIB to acceptable levels. SIB rates remained comparatively high in a control condition consisting of a 2-min delay to onset of reinforcer removal or task demands.

  6. Category label effects on Chinese children's inductive inferences: modulation by perceptual detail and category specificity.

    PubMed

    Long, Changquan; Lu, Xiaoying; Zhang, Li; Li, Hong; Deák, Gedeon O

    2012-02-01

    Inductive generalization of novel properties to same-category or similar-looking objects was studied in Chinese preschool children. The effects of category labels on generalizations were investigated by comparing basic-level labels, superordinate-level labels, and a control phrase applied to three kinds of stimulus materials: colored photographs (Experiment 1), realistic line drawings (Experiment 2), and cartoon-like line drawings (Experiment 3). No significant labeling effects were found for photos and realistic drawings, but there were significant effects for cartoon-like drawings. Children made mostly (>70%) category-based inferences about photographs whether or not labels were provided (Experiment 1). Children showed a bias toward category-based inferences about realistic drawings (Experiment 2) but did so only when labels were provided. Finally, children made mostly appearance-based generalizations for cartoon-like drawings (Experiment 3). However, labels (basic or superordinate level) reduced appearance-based responses. Labeling effects did not depend on having identical labels; however, identical superordinate labels were more effective than different basic-level labels for the least informative stimuli (i.e., cartoons). Thus, labels sometimes confirm the identity of ambiguous items. This evidence of labeling effects in Mandarin-speaking Chinese children extends previous findings beyond English-speaking children and shows that the effects are not narrowly culture and language specific. 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Adolescents' Responses to Pictorial Warnings on Their Parents' Cigarette Packs.

    PubMed

    Peebles, Kathryn; Hall, Marissa G; Pepper, Jessica K; Byron, M Justin; Noar, Seth M; Brewer, Noel T

    2016-12-01

    Pictorial cigarette pack warnings are a promising policy solution to increase smoking cessation among adults. However, little is known regarding adolescents' responses to pictorial warnings, particularly in real-world settings. Participants were 112 adolescent children, ages 13-17, whose parents received either text-only warnings on the side of their cigarette packs or pictorial warnings on the top half of the front and back of their cigarette packs for 4 weeks as part of a trial. We measured adolescents' recall and recognition of these warnings, negative emotional reactions to the warnings, perceived effectiveness of the warnings, social interactions about the warnings, and smoking risk beliefs. Adolescents accurately recalled pictorial warnings more often than text-only warnings (82% vs. 19%, p < .001). Recognition of warnings was also higher for pictorial than text-only warnings (82% vs. 34%, p < .001). Pictorial warnings drew greater attention (p < .001), elicited greater negative emotional reactions (p < .05), and sparked more social interactions (p < .01) than text-only warnings. Pictorial warnings on cigarette packs may have important effects on adolescent children of smokers. Future research should further investigate the impact of such messages on adolescents' susceptibility to smoking initiation and interest in quitting smoking, particularly as the United States and other countries work to implement pictorial warning regulations. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Warning Drivers about Impending Collisions using Vibrotactile Flow.

    PubMed

    Ahtamad, Mujthaba; Spence, Charles; Ho, Cristy; Gray, Rob

    2015-11-24

    Vibrotactile collision warning signals that create a sensation of motion across a driver's body result in faster brake reaction times (BRTs) to potential collision events. To date, however, such warnings have only simulated linear motion. We extended this research by exploring the effectiveness of collision warnings that incorporate vibrotactile patterns or "vibrotactile flow". In Experiment 1, expanding and contracting vibrotactile flow warnings were compared with a static warning (all tactors activated simultaneously) and a no warning condition in a car following scenario. Both vibrotactile flow warnings produced significantly faster BRTs than the static and no warning conditions. However, there was no directional effect. That is, there was no significant difference between contracting and expanding signals. Warnings that utilise vibrotactile flow therefore appear to provide an effective means of informing drivers about potential collision events. However, unlike comparable warnings utilizing linear motion, their effectiveness does not seem to depend on the precise relationship between the warning and collision events. Experiment 2 demonstrated that a tactile warning incorporating linear motion produced significantly faster BRTs than an expanding vibrotactile flow warning. Taken together, these results suggest that vibrotactile warnings that simulate linear motion may be more effective than vibrotactile flow warnings.

  9. Effect of off-label use of oncology drugs on pharmaceutical costs: the rituximab experience.

    PubMed

    Kocs, Darren; Fendrick, A Mark

    2003-05-01

    While the off-label use of oncology interventions is widespread, the factors influencing off-label use and the resultant influence on oncology drug expenditures are not well understood. To assess the indications for rituximab use, a retrospective review was undertaken at a single academic center between September 1998 and June 2001. Patient diagnoses were linked to pharmacy records, and each administration of rituximab was classified as either on-label or off-label as defined by FDA-approved indications. The resultant utilization patterns were the foundation for a conceptual model designed to identify factors that influence off-label use of oncology-related therapeutics and forecast the effect of off-label use on aggregate oncology drug expenditures. One hundred one patients received a total of 428 rituximab administrations during the study period. Most (320, 75%) of the administrations were for off-label indications. Although the extent of off-label and on-label use grew at a similar rate initially, off-label utilization increased nearly exponentially over time as on-label uses lessened. A conceptual model that describes factors that promote, inhibit, or have a mixed influence on off-label use may help predict future patterns of off-label utilization and allow better forecasting of oncology drug expenditures. The off-label use of rituximab is substantial. Projections of oncology-related patterns of care and drug expenditures must account for the potential for off-label use.

  10. Impact of brand or generic labeling on medication effectiveness and side effects.

    PubMed

    Faasse, Kate; Martin, Leslie R; Grey, Andrew; Gamble, Greg; Petrie, Keith J

    2016-02-01

    Branding medication with a known pharmaceutical company name or product name bestows on the drug an added assurance of authenticity and effectiveness compared to a generic preparation. This study examined the impact of brand name and generic labeling on medication effectiveness and side effects. 87 undergraduate students with frequent headaches took part in the study. Using a within-subjects counterbalanced design, each participant took tablets labeled either as brand name "Nurofen" or "Generic Ibuprofen" to treat each of 4 headaches. In reality, half of the tablets were placebos, and half were active ibuprofen (400 mg). Participants recorded their headache pain on a verbal descriptor and visual analogue scale prior to taking the tablets, and again 1 hour afterward. Medication side effects were also reported. Pain reduction following the use of brand name labeled tablets was similar in active ibuprofen or a placebo. However, if the tablets had a generic label, placebo tablets were significantly less effective compared to active ibuprofen. Fewer side effects were attributed to placebo tablets with brand name labeling compared to the same placebo tablets with a generic label. Branding of a tablet appears to have conferred a treatment benefit in the absence of an active ingredient, while generic labeled tablets were substantially less effective if they contained no active ingredient. Branding is also associated with reduced attribution of side effects to placebo tablets. Future interventions to improve perceptions of generics may have utility in improving treatment outcomes from generic drugs. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Warning about the harms of tobacco use in 22 countries: findings from a cross-sectional household survey.

    PubMed

    Chiosi, John J; Andes, Linda; Asma, Samira; Palipudi, Krishna; McAfee, Tim

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge about the harms of tobacco use deters initiation and is associated with cessation. Most studies on this knowledge in the general population have been in high-income countries, but the tobacco use burden is increasing in low-income and middle-income countries. We sought to estimate levels of knowledge about tobacco-related diseases in 22 countries and determine the factors associated with differences in knowledge. We used data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), a nationally representative survey of persons aged ≥15 years. GATSs were conducted from 2008 to 2013 in 22 low-income and middle-income countries. Information was gathered on tobacco-related knowledge and noticing of antismoking mass media messages and health warning labels on cigarette packages. We constructed a four-point knowledge scale and performed multivariate regression analyses. Median country values for the proportion of adults who believed smoking causes a specific illness were 95.9% for lung cancer, 82.5% for heart attack and 74.0% for stroke. Knowledge scores ranged from 2.1 to 3.8. In multivariate regressions, adults scored significantly higher on the knowledge scale if they noticed antismoking media messages (22 countries) or health warning labels (17 countries). Significantly higher knowledge scores occurred in all 9 countries with pictorial health warning labels compared with only 8 out of 13 countries with text-only warning labels. Antismoking media messages appear effective for warning the public about the harms from tobacco use in all 22 countries, while warning labels are effective in the majority of these countries. Our findings suggest opportunities to motivate smoking cessation globally. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Warning systems and public warning response

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, J.H.

    1993-09-01

    This background paper reviews current knowledge on warning systems and human response to warnings. It expands on an earlier paper prepared for a workshop on the Second Assessment on Natural Hazards, held in Estes Park, Colorado in July 1992. Although it has a North American perspective, many of the lessons learned are universally applicable. The paper addresses warning systems in terms of dissemination and does not cover physical science issues associated with prediction and forecast. Finally, it covers hazards with relatively short lead times -- 48 hours or less. It does not address topics such as long-term forecasts of earthquakes or volcanic eruptions or early famine warning systems.

  13. Desire versus Efficacy in Smokers’ Paradoxical Reactions to Pictorial Health Warnings for Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Romer, Daniel; Peters, Ellen; Strasser, Andrew A.; Langleben, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Pictorial health warnings on cigarette packs create aversive emotional reactions to smoking and induce thoughts about quitting; however, contrary to models of health behavior change, they do not appear to alter intentions to quit smoking. We propose and test a novel model of intention to quit an addictive habit such as smoking (the efficacy-desire model) that can explain this paradoxical effect. At the core of the model is the prediction that self-efficacy and desire to quit an addictive habit are inversely related. We tested the model in an online experiment that randomly exposed smokers (N = 3297) to a cigarette pack with one of three increasing levels of warning intensity. The results supported the model’s prediction that despite the effects of warnings on aversion to smoking, intention to quit smoking is an inverted U-shape function of the smoker’s self-efficacy for quitting. In addition, smokers with greater (lesser) quit efficacy relative to smoking efficacy increase (decrease) intentions to quit. The findings show that previous failures to observe effects of pictorial warning labels on quit intentions can be explained by the contradictory individual differences that warnings produce. Thus, the model explains the paradoxical finding that quit intentions do not change at the population level, even though smokers recognize the implications of warnings. The model suggests that pictorial warnings are effective for smokers with stronger quit-efficacy beliefs and provides guidance for how cigarette warnings and tobacco control strategies can be designed to help smokers quit. PMID:23383006

  14. Assessing the effectiveness of "intuitive" vibrotactile warning signals in preventing front-to-rear-end collisions in a driving simulator.

    PubMed

    Ho, Cristy; Reed, Nick; Spence, Charles

    2006-09-01

    This study was designed to investigate the possibility that driver responses to potential front-to-rear-end collision situations could be facilitated by implementing vibrotactile warning signals that indicate the likely direction of the potential collision. In a car following scenario in a driving simulator, participants drove along a rural road while trying to maintain a safe headway distance to the lead car using a visual distance display. Participants had to respond as quickly as possible to the sudden deceleration of the lead car which had its brake lights disabled, either with or without vibrotactile cues (presented in different experimental blocks). The results demonstrated significantly faster braking responses and larger safety margins when the vibrotactile warning signal was presented than when it was not. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of vibrotactile cues in helping drivers to orient their spatial attention in the appropriate direction. Our results add to a growing body of empirical evidence highlighting the potential benefits of using "intuitive" vibrotactile in-car displays, in this case, to alert drivers to potential collisions and to provide time-critical directional information.

  15. Effects of in-vehicle warning information displays with or without spatial compatibility on driving behaviors and response performance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yung-Ching; Jhuang, Jing-Wun

    2012-07-01

    A driving simulator study was conducted to evaluate the effects of five in-vehicle warning information displays upon drivers' emergent response and decision performance. These displays include visual display, auditory displays with and without spatial compatibility, hybrid displays in both visual and auditory format with and without spatial compatibility. Thirty volunteer drivers were recruited to perform various tasks that involved driving, stimulus-response, divided attention and stress rating. Results show that for displays of single-modality, drivers benefited more when coping with visual display of warning information than auditory display with or without spatial compatibility. However, auditory display with spatial compatibility significantly improved drivers' performance in reacting to the divided attention task and making accurate S-R task decision. Drivers' best performance results were obtained for hybrid display with spatial compatibility. Hybrid displays enabled drivers to respond the fastest and achieve the best accuracy in both S-R and divided attention tasks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  16. A Study on Estimation on Flood Warning Trigger Rainfall in medium and small Stream Affected by Urban Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youngseok, Song; Moojong, Park; JungHo, Lee; HeeSup, Lee

    2013-04-01

    As extreme floods occur frequently in recent years due to global climate changes, an in sudden local flooding of great volume and short duration is becoming the significant danger and loss of life and property in the Korean Peninsula as well as most parts of the world. The desire for living without hazardous damages grows these days, the city strategy to make the safer community has become an issue. Previously most of flood prevention efforts have been made for relatively large watersheds near to channel flow. However, as economical development and the expansion of city near medium and small stream, human casualty and property by flood occurs frequently. Therefore, to reduce the damage of human lives and property by flood, we develop an assessment method for flood warning trigger rainfall considering urban effect. Considering complex land use, HEC-HMS is used for rural area and SWMM is adopted for sewer networks runoff. And relationship between runoff and stream water level, HEC-RAS is accompanied with runoff results. Proposed flood warning trigger rainfall assessment method shows good agreement with gauged data and could be used for another case to mitigate damage. Acknowledgement: "This research was supported by a grant [NEMA-NH-2011-45] from the Natural Hazard Mitigation Research Group, National Emergency Management Agency of Korea." Keyword: HEC-HMS, HEC-RAS, critical precipitation, medium and small stream

  17. Effects of plain package branding and graphic health warnings on adolescent smokers in the USA, Spain and France.

    PubMed

    Andrews, J Craig; Netemeyer, Richard G; Burton, Scot; Kees, Jeremy

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide an experimental test of the effects of plain pack branding and graphic health warnings (GHWs) in three different countries for an important and vulnerable population, that is, adolescents who are experimenting with smoking. The effects of plain pack branding (logo present, logo absent), and graphic visual warning level (absent, low, medium, high) are studied experimentally for their impact on adolescent cigarette craving, evoked fear, pack feelings and thoughts of quitting in the USA, Spain and France. A total of 1066 adolescents who were experimenting with smoking served as participants in the study. A quota sample produced 375 respondents in the USA, 337 in Spain and 354 in France. Overall findings indicate that the GHWs were effective in impacting adolescent cigarette craving, evoked fear, pack feelings and thoughts of quitting. The plain pack effects were not as strong, yet reduced craving, increased fear, and decreased pack feelings for all three samples combined, and for US adolescent smokers individually, irrespective of the GHWs. For French adolescent smokers, plain pack effects for craving were limited to low/moderate GHW levels. For Spanish adolescent smokers, plain pack feeling effects were limited to the absence of the GHWs. The results show that plain packs can independently strengthen the more instantaneous, direct effects (short of quitting thoughts) found with the GHWs. Yet, the plain pack results were attenuated for Spanish and French adolescent smokers, who are currently exposed to GHWs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Temporal framing and consideration of future consequences: effects on smokers' and at-risk nonsmokers' responses to cigarette health warnings.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoquan; Nan, Xiaoli; Iles, Irina Alexandra; Yang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the influence of temporal framing (long-term vs. short-term) and individual difference in consideration of future consequences (CFC) on the effectiveness of cigarette health warnings among smokers and at-risk nonsmokers in a college population. An online experiment (N = 395) revealed a three-way interaction among temporal framing, CFC, and smoking status. The results among at-risk nonsmokers supported the temporal fit hypothesis--those high in CFC responded more favorably to long-term framing, whereas those low in CFC responded more positively to short-term framing. The findings among smokers revealed a different pattern in which short-term framing was more effective among high-CFC smokers, whereas among low-CFC smokers the framing effect was not distinct. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  19. Ratings checklist for warnings: a prototype tool to aid experts in the adequacy evaluation of proposed or existing warnings.

    PubMed

    Lenorovitz, David R; Leonard, S David; Karnes, Edward W

    2012-01-01

    In the field of forensic human factors, experts are often called upon to assess and evaluate the adequacy of new or existing products' warnings or warnings systems. The usual goal of this evaluation is to arrive at a simple binary decision regarding the warning in question (i.e., does it "pass/fail", or is it "adequate/inadequate"). However, such a warning assessment process may in fact be quite complex and multidimensional in its execution. The existing warnings research literature has identified a fairly large number of warnings features or factors likely to have an impact on a given warning's effectiveness or adequacy. The tool addressed in this article is intended for use by a warnings expert (as opposed to one less knowledgeable and informed about complex warnings issues), and can serve as a reminder checklist to help ensure that the expert has taken into consideration the most relevant features or factors during such a warnings adequacy assessment.

  20. Embedded Alcohol Messages in Television Series: The Interactive Effect of Warnings and Audience Connectedness on Viewers' Alcohol Beliefs*

    PubMed Central

    RUSSELL, DALE W.; RUSSELL, CRISTEL ANTONIA

    2014-01-01

    Objective This research investigates whether warning viewers about the presence of embedded messages in the content of a television episode affects viewers' drinking beliefs and whether audi ence connectedness moderates the warning's impact. Method Two hun dred fifty college students participated in a laboratory experiment approximating a real-life television viewing experience. They viewed an actual television series episode containing embedded alcohol messages, and their subsequent beliefs about alcohol consequences were measured. Experimental conditions differed based on a 2 (Connectedness Level: low vs high) × 2 (Timing of the Warning: before or after the episode) × 2 (Emphasis of Warning: advertising vs health message) design. Connectedness was measured, and the timing and emphasis of the warnings were manipulated. The design also included a control condition where there was no warning. Results The findings indicate that warning view ers about embedded messages in the content of a program can yield sig nificant differences in viewers' beliefs about alcohol. However, the warning's impact differs depending on the viewers' level of connectedness to the program. In particular, in comparison with the no-warning control condition, the advertising prewarning produced lower positive beliefs about alcohol and its consequences but only for the low-connected viewers. Highly connected viewers were not affected by a warning emphasizing advertising messages embedded in the program, but a warning emphasizing health produced significantly higher negative be liefs about drinking than in the control condition. Conclusions The presence of many positive portrayals of drinking and alcohol product placements in television series has led many to suggest ways to counter their influence. However, advocates of warnings should be conscious of their differential impact on high- and low-connected viewers. PMID:18432390

  1. 30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Display appropriate hazard warnings; (c) Use a chemical identity that permits cross-referencing between the list of hazardous chemicals, a chemical's label, and its MSDS; and (d) Include on labels for... information about the hazardous chemical....

  2. 30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Display appropriate hazard warnings; (c) Use a chemical identity that permits cross-referencing between the list of hazardous chemicals, a chemical's label, and its MSDS; and (d) Include on labels for... information about the hazardous chemical....

  3. 30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Display appropriate hazard warnings; (c) Use a chemical identity that permits cross-referencing between the list of hazardous chemicals, a chemical's label, and its MSDS; and (d) Include on labels for... information about the hazardous chemical....

  4. 30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Display appropriate hazard warnings; (c) Use a chemical identity that permits cross-referencing between the list of hazardous chemicals, a chemical's label, and its MSDS; and (d) Include on labels for... information about the hazardous chemical....

  5. 30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Display appropriate hazard warnings; (c) Use a chemical identity that permits cross-referencing between the list of hazardous chemicals, a chemical's label, and its MSDS; and (d) Include on labels for... information about the hazardous chemical....

  6. Effect of information education and communication (IEC) programme on knowledge of pregnant mothers regarding prevention and management of warning signs during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Takoo, Sarla; Chhugani, Manju; Sharma, Veena

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of an Information, Education and Communication (IEC) programme on knowledge of pregnant mothers regarding prevention and management of warning signs during pregnancy in a selected health care setting at New Delhi. An evaluative research approach with one group pre-test and post-test design was adopted for the present study. A structured interview schedule was prepared. Purposive non-probability sampling technique was employed to interview 30 pregnant mothers who attended antenatal clinic. Data gathered was analysed and interpreted using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The study revealed that there was maximum knowledge deficit regarding warning signs of pregnancy. IEC programme was effective in enhancing the knowledge of pregnant mothers on prevention and management of warning signs during pregnancy.

  7. Looking at the label and beyond: the effects of calorie labels, health consciousness, and demographics on caloric intake in restaurants.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Brenna; Lusk, Jayson L; Davis, David

    2013-02-08

    Recent legislation has required calorie labels on restaurant menus as a means of improving Americans' health. Despite the growing research in this area, no consensus has been reached on the effectiveness of menu labels. This suggests the possibility of heterogeneity in responses to caloric labels across people with different attitudes and demographics. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential relationships between caloric intake and diners' socio-economic characteristics and attitudes in a restaurant field experiment that systematically varied the caloric information printed on the menus. We conducted a field experiment in a full service restaurant where patrons were randomly assigned to one of three menu treatments which varied the amount of caloric information printed on the menus (none, numeric, or symbolic calorie label). At the conclusion of their meals, diners were asked to complete a brief survey regarding their socio-economic characteristics, attitudes, and meal selections. Using regression analysis, we estimated the number of entrée and extra calories ordered by diners as a function of demographic and attitudinal variables. Additionally, irrespective of the menu treatment to which a subject was assigned, our study identified which types of people are likely to be low-, medium-, and high-calorie diners. Results showed that calorie labels have the greatest impact on those who are least health conscious. Additionally, using a symbolic calorie label can further reduce the caloric intake of even the most health conscious patrons. Finally, calorie labels were more likely to influence the selection of the main entrée as opposed to supplemental items such as drinks and desserts. If numeric calorie labels are implemented (as currently proposed), they are most likely to influence consumers who are less health conscious - probably one of the key targets of this legislation. Unfortunately, numeric labels did little for those consumers who were already

  8. Looking at the label and beyond: the effects of calorie labels, health consciousness, and demographics on caloric intake in restaurants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent legislation has required calorie labels on restaurant menus as a means of improving Americans’ health. Despite the growing research in this area, no consensus has been reached on the effectiveness of menu labels. This suggests the possibility of heterogeneity in responses to caloric labels across people with different attitudes and demographics. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential relationships between caloric intake and diners’ socio-economic characteristics and attitudes in a restaurant field experiment that systematically varied the caloric information printed on the menus. Methods We conducted a field experiment in a full service restaurant where patrons were randomly assigned to one of three menu treatments which varied the amount of caloric information printed on the menus (none, numeric, or symbolic calorie label). At the conclusion of their meals, diners were asked to complete a brief survey regarding their socio-economic characteristics, attitudes, and meal selections. Using regression analysis, we estimated the number of entrée and extra calories ordered by diners as a function of demographic and attitudinal variables. Additionally, irrespective of the menu treatment to which a subject was assigned, our study identified which types of people are likely to be low-, medium-, and high-calorie diners. Results Results showed that calorie labels have the greatest impact on those who are least health conscious. Additionally, using a symbolic calorie label can further reduce the caloric intake of even the most health conscious patrons. Finally, calorie labels were more likely to influence the selection of the main entrée as opposed to supplemental items such as drinks and desserts. Conclusions If numeric calorie labels are implemented (as currently proposed), they are most likely to influence consumers who are less health conscious – probably one of the key targets of this legislation. Unfortunately, numeric labels did

  9. Automaticity of basic-level categorization accounts for labeling effects in visual recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Richler, Jennifer J; Gauthier, Isabel; Palmeri, Thomas J

    2011-11-01

    Are there consequences of calling objects by their names? Lupyan (2008) suggested that overtly labeling objects impairs subsequent recognition memory because labeling shifts stored memory representations of objects toward the category prototype (representational shift hypothesis). In Experiment 1, we show that processing objects at the basic category level versus exemplar level in the absence of any overt labeling produces the same qualitative pattern of results. Experiment 2 demonstrates that labeling does not always disrupt memory as predicted by the representational shift hypothesis: Differences in memory following labeling versus preference are more likely an effect of judging preference, not an effect of overt labeling. Labeling does not influence memory by shifting memory representations toward the category prototype. Rather, labeling objects at the basic level produces memory representations that are simply less robust than those produced by other kinds of study tasks.

  10. The Effect of Labeling on Preschool Children's Performance in the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Ulrich; Zelazo, Philip D.; Lurye, Leah E.; Liebermann, Dana P.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research suggests that experimenter-induced labeling of test cards improves preschoolers' performance on the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task (DCCS), a measure of flexible rule use. Three experiments attempted to further clarify how labeling aids performance on the DCCS. Experiment 1 examined the nature of the labeling effect but failed…

  11. Category Label Effects on Chinese Children's Inductive Inferences: Modulation by Perceptual Detail and Category Specificity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Changquan; Lu, Xiaoying; Zhang, Li; Li, Hong; Deak, Gedeon O.

    2012-01-01

    Inductive generalization of novel properties to same-category or similar-looking objects was studied in Chinese preschool children. The effects of category labels on generalizations were investigated by comparing basic-level labels, superordinate-level labels, and a control phrase applied to three kinds of stimulus materials: colored photographs…

  12. Category Label Effects on Chinese Children's Inductive Inferences: Modulation by Perceptual Detail and Category Specificity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Changquan; Lu, Xiaoying; Zhang, Li; Li, Hong; Deak, Gedeon O.

    2012-01-01

    Inductive generalization of novel properties to same-category or similar-looking objects was studied in Chinese preschool children. The effects of category labels on generalizations were investigated by comparing basic-level labels, superordinate-level labels, and a control phrase applied to three kinds of stimulus materials: colored photographs…

  13. The Effect of Labeling on Preschool Children's Performance in the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Ulrich; Zelazo, Philip D.; Lurye, Leah E.; Liebermann, Dana P.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research suggests that experimenter-induced labeling of test cards improves preschoolers' performance on the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task (DCCS), a measure of flexible rule use. Three experiments attempted to further clarify how labeling aids performance on the DCCS. Experiment 1 examined the nature of the labeling effect but failed…

  14. 21 CFR 201.63 - Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., MD 20852. (e) The labeling of orally or rectally administered OTC aspirin and aspirin-containing drug... this section. The warning shall be as follows: “It is especially important not to use” (select...

  15. 21 CFR 201.63 - Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., MD 20852. (e) The labeling of orally or rectally administered OTC aspirin and aspirin-containing drug... this section. The warning shall be as follows: “It is especially important not to use” (select...

  16. 21 CFR 201.63 - Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., MD 20852. (e) The labeling of orally or rectally administered OTC aspirin and aspirin-containing drug... this section. The warning shall be as follows: “It is especially important not to use” (select...

  17. 21 CFR 201.63 - Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., MD 20852. (e) The labeling of orally or rectally administered OTC aspirin and aspirin-containing drug... this section. The warning shall be as follows: “It is especially important not to use” (select...

  18. 21 CFR 201.63 - Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., MD 20852. (e) The labeling of orally or rectally administered OTC aspirin and aspirin-containing drug... this section. The warning shall be as follows: “It is especially important not to use” (select...

  19. Factors associated with medication warning acceptance for hospitalized adults.

    PubMed

    Knight, Amy M; Falade, Olufunmilayo; Maygers, Joyce; Sevransky, Jonathan E

    2015-01-01

    Computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems can warn clinicians ordering medications about potential allergic or adverse reactions, duplicate therapy, and interactions with other medications. Clinicians frequently override these warnings. Understanding the factors associated with warning acceptance should guide revisions to these systems. Increase understanding of the factors associated with medication warning acceptance. Retrospective study of all single-medication warnings generated in a CPOE system from October 2009 through April 2010. Academic medical center. All adult non-intensive care unit patients hospitalized during the study period. A total of 40,391 medication orders generated a single-medication warning during the 7-month study period. Of these warnings, 47% were duplicate warnings, 47% interaction warnings, 6% allergy warnings, 0.1% adverse reaction warnings, and 9.8% were repeated for the same patient, medication, and provider. Only 4% of warnings were accepted. In multivariate analysis, warning acceptance was positively associated with male patient gender, admission to a service other than internal medicine, caregiver status other than resident, parenteral medications, lower numbers of warnings, and allergy or adverse reaction warning types. Older patient age, longer length of stay, inclusion on the Institute for Safe Medication Practice's List of High Alert Medications, and interaction warning type were all negatively associated with warning acceptance. Medication warnings are rarely accepted. Acceptance is more likely when the warning is infrequently encountered, and least likely when it is potentially most important. Warning systems should be redesigned to increase their effectiveness for the sickest patients, the least experienced physicians, and the medications with the greatest potential to cause harm. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  20. Analysis of US Food and Drug Administration Warning Letters: False Promotional Claims Relating to Prescription and Over-the-Counter Medications.

    PubMed

    Salas, Maribel; Martin, Michelle; Pisu, Maria; McCall, Erin; Zuluaga, Alvaro; Glasser, Stephen P

    2008-03-01

    Recent studies have suggested that there has been an increase in the number of 'warning letters' issued by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) despite the publication of the FDA advertising guidelines. However, limited information is available on the description of warning letters. The objective of this study was to analyse the frequency and content of FDA warning letters in relation to promotional claims and discuss the influence of regulatory and industry constraints on promotion. All warning letters published by the FDA between 5 May 1995 and 11 June 2007 were reviewed. Warning letters related to promotional issues were included and analysed. Information related to the identification number, date of the warning letter, FDA division that issued the letter, drug name, manufacturer, specific warning problem, type of promotional material and requested action was extracted. Two independent investigators reviewed and classified each PDF file, any differences were discussed until a consensus was reached. Between May 1995 and June 2007 a total of 8692 warning letters were issued, of which 25% were related to drugs. Of these, 206 warning letters focused on drug promotion and were included in this study: 23% were issued in 2005, 15% in 2004 and 14% in 1998. In total, 47% of the warning letters were issued because of false or misleading unapproved doses and uses, 27% failed to disclose risks, 15% cited misleading promotion, 8% related to misleading labelling and 3% promoted false effectiveness claims. There is an important variation in the number of warning letters issued in the last decade, probably because of the increasing number of drugs approved by the FDA, drug withdrawal scandals, and the publication of the FDA and the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA) guidelines. We found that benefit-related claims, such as unapproved uses or doses of drugs, and failure to disclose risks, are the main causes of FDA issued warning letters for

  1. The effects of radioiodination and fluorescent labelling on albumin.

    PubMed

    Crandall, R E; Janatova, J; Andrade, J D

    1981-01-01

    The preparation and characterization of fluorescamine -, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) -, and radioiodine-labelled bovine serum albumin is critically evaluated. Electrophoretic mobility and ion-exchange chromatography, together with measures of degree of conjugation and sulfhydryl content, are used to assess the changes due to conjugation. Fluorescamine labelling results in drastic changes in chromatographic behavior and electrophoretic mobility. FITC labelling also results in significant changes in chromatographic and electrophoretic properties. Radioiodination leads to minor changes in chromatographic properties and oxydation of sulfhydryl groups, with little or no change in electrophoretic properties. All three labels have some degree of lability and show increased levels of free label with time, even after extensive initial purification. It is concluded that the two fluorescent labels and possibly the radioiodine labelling method used here are unsuitable for certain studies of BSA, such as its adsorption at solid-liquid interfaces.

  2. Wind gust warning verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primo, Cristina

    2016-07-01

    Operational meteorological centres around the world increasingly include warnings as one of their regular forecast products. Warnings are issued to warn the public about extreme weather situations that might occur leading to damages and losses. In forecasting these extreme events, meteorological centres help their potential users in preventing the damage or losses they might suffer. However, verifying these warnings requires specific methods. This is due not only to the fact that they happen rarely, but also because a new temporal dimension is added when defining a warning, namely the time window of the forecasted event. This paper analyses the issues that might appear when dealing with warning verification. It also proposes some new verification approaches that can be applied to wind warnings. These new techniques are later applied to a real life example, the verification of wind gust warnings at the German Meteorological Centre ("Deutscher Wetterdienst"). Finally, the results obtained from the latter are discussed.

  3. Warning Signs of Bullying

    MedlinePlus

    ... to talk to kids about bullying. Respond to Bullying Learn how to respond to bullying . From stopping ... Text Size: A A A Warning Signs for Bullying There are many warning signs that may indicate ...

  4. Mass media campaigns designed to support new pictorial health warnings on cigarette packets: evidence of a complementary relationship.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Emily; Durkin, Sarah J; Cotter, Trish; Harper, Todd; Wakefield, Melanie A

    2011-11-01

    In Australia, introduction of pictorial health warnings on cigarette packets was supported by a televised media campaign highlighting illnesses featured in two of the warning labels--gangrene and mouth cancer. Two studies examined whether the warnings and the television advertisements complemented one another. Population telephone surveys of two cross-sections of adult smokers measured changes in top-of-mind awareness of smoking-related health effects from before (2005; n=587) to after the pack warnings were introduced (2006; n=583). A second study assessed cognitive and emotional responses and intentions to quit after smokers watched one of the campaign advertisements, comparing outcomes of those with and without prior pack warning exposure. Between 2005 and 2006, the proportion of smokers aware that gangrene is caused by smoking increased by 11.2 percentage points (OR=23.47, p=0.000), and awareness of the link between smoking and mouth cancer increased by 6.6 percentage points (OR=2.00, p=0.006). In contrast, awareness of throat cancer decreased by 4.3 percentage points, and this illness was mentioned in the pack warnings but not the advertisements. In multivariate analyses, smokers who had prior exposure to the warnings were significantly more likely to report positive responses to the advertisements and stronger post-exposure quitting intentions. Television advertisements and pictorial health warnings on cigarette packets may operate in a complementary manner to positively influence awareness of the health consequences of smoking and motivation to quit. Jurisdictions implementing pictorial warnings should consider the benefits of supportive mass media campaigns to increase the depth, meaning and personal relevance of the warnings.

  5. Emolabeling effectively reduces the influence of ambiguous labeling on food packages among grocery store shoppers.

    PubMed

    Privitera, Gregory J; Brown, Caitlin J; Gillespie, James J

    2014-12-16

    Despite increased regulations and policy enforcement for nutrition labeling, ambiguous labels on food items can still have deleterious effects on consumer perceptions of health. The present study used a counterbalanced within-subjects design to test if emolabeling - the use of emoticons to convey health information (happy = healthy; sad = not healthy) - will reduce the effects of ambiguous labels on consumer perceptions of the healthfulness of a food item. 85 grocery store shoppers were shown nutrition labels for a low calorie (LC) and a high calorie (HC) food with/without emolabels, and with an ambiguous label that either implied the food was healthy or unhealthy. Results showed that emolabels reduced the effectiveness of ambiguous labels: consumers rated the LC food as healthier and the HC food as less healthy when emolabels were added. The results suggest that, if implemented, this image-based emolabeling system could possibly be an effective buffer against the use of ambiguous labeling by food manufacturers.

  6. Metamnemonic Control Over the Discriminability of Memory Evidence: A Signal Detection Analysis of Warning Effects in the Associative List Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starns, Jeffrey J.; Lane, Sean M.; Alonzo, Jill D.; Roussel, Cristine C.

    2007-01-01

    According to signal detection theory (SDT), retrieval warnings may decrease false memory in the associative list paradigm either by inducing a conservative criterion shift or by decreasing the amount of evidence that critical theme words were studied. Fitting a SDT model to 12 existing datasets revealed suggestive evidence that warnings impact…

  7. Impact of graphic pack warnings on adult smokers’ quitting activities: Findings from the ITC Southeast Asia Survey (2005–2014)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Fathelrahman, Ahmed I.; Borland, Ron; Omar, Maizurah; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Quah, Anne C.K.; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Yong, Hua-Hie

    2016-01-01

    Malaysia introduced graphic health warning labels (GHWLs) on all tobacco packages in 2009. We aimed to examine if implementing GHWLs led to stronger warning reactions (e.g., thinking about the health risks of smoking) and an increase in subsequent quitting activities; and to examine how reactions changed over time since the implementation of the GHWLs in Malaysia and Thailand where GHWL size increased from 50–55% in 2010. Data came from six waves (2005–2014) of the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey. Between 3,706 and 4,422 smokers were interviewed across these two countries at each survey wave. Measures included salience of warnings, cognitive responses (i.e., thinking about the health risks and being more likely to quit smoking), forgoing cigarettes, and avoiding warnings. The main outcome was subsequent quit attempts. Following the implementation of GHWLs in Malaysia, reactions increased, in some cases to levels similar to the larger Thai warnings, but declined over time. In Thailand, reactions increased following implementation, with no decline for several years, and no clear effect of the small increase in warning size. Reactions, mainly cognitive responses, were consistently predictive of quit attempts in Thailand, but this was only consistently so in Malaysia after the change to GHWLs. In conclusion, GHWLs are responded to more frequently, and generate more quit attempts, but warning wear-out is not consistent in these two countries, perhaps due to differences in other tobacco control efforts. PMID:27525045

  8. Impact of graphic pack warnings on adult smokers' quitting activities: Findings from the ITC Southeast Asia Survey (2005-2014).

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Fathelrahman, Ahmed I; Borland, Ron; Omar, Maizurah; Fong, Geoffrey T; Quah, Anne C K; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Yong, Hua-Hie

    2016-06-01

    Malaysia introduced graphic health warning labels (GHWLs) on all tobacco packages in 2009. We aimed to examine if implementing GHWLs led to stronger warning reactions (e.g., thinking about the health risks of smoking) and an increase in subsequent quitting activities; and to examine how reactions changed over time since the implementation of the GHWLs in Malaysia and Thailand where GHWL size increased from 50-55% in 2010. Data came from six waves (2005-2014) of the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey. Between 3,706 and 4,422 smokers were interviewed across these two countries at each survey wave. Measures included salience of warnings, cognitive responses (i.e., thinking about the health risks and being more likely to quit smoking), forgoing cigarettes, and avoiding warnings. The main outcome was subsequent quit attempts. Following the implementation of GHWLs in Malaysia, reactions increased, in some cases to levels similar to the larger Thai warnings, but declined over time. In Thailand, reactions increased following implementation, with no decline for several years, and no clear effect of the small increase in warning size. Reactions, mainly cognitive responses, were consistently predictive of quit attempts in Thailand, but this was only consistently so in Malaysia after the change to GHWLs. In conclusion, GHWLs are responded to more frequently, and generate more quit attempts, but warning wear-out is not consistent in these two countries, perhaps due to differences in other tobacco control efforts.

  9. 78 FR 78321 - Early Warning Reporting, Foreign Defect Reporting, and Motor Vehicle and Equipment Recall...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 573, 577, and 579 RIN 2127-AK72 Early Warning...'s VIN may be found in the August 20, 2013 final rule. Id. Manufacturers with early warning reporting... logging in to the EWR system, the document labeled ``NEW-- Technical Specifications for VIN Lookup...

  10. Simple and cost-effective fluorescent labeling of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahal, Tamar; Green, Ori; Hananel, Uri; Michaeli, Yael; Shabat, Doron; Ebenstein, Yuval

    2016-12-01

    The nucleobase 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), a modified form of cytosine, is an important epigenetic mark related to regulation of gene expression. 5-hmC levels are highly dynamic during early development and are modulated during the progression of neurodegenerative disease and cancer. We describe a spectroscopic method for the global quantification of 5-hmC in genomic DNA. This method relies on the enzymatic glucosylation of 5-hmC, followed by a glucose oxidation step that results in the formation of aldehyde moieties that are covalently linked to a fluorescent reporter by oxime ligation. The fluorescence intensity of the labeled sample is directly proportional to its 5-hmC content. We show that this simple and cost-effective technique is suitable for quantification of 5-hmC content in different mouse tissues.

  11. Effects of labeling on preschoolers' explicit false belief performance: outcomes of cognitive flexibility or inhibitory control?

    PubMed

    Low, Jason; Simpson, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    Executive function mechanisms underpinning language-related effects on theory of mind understanding were examined in a sample of 165 preschoolers. Verbal labels were manipulated to identify relevant perspectives on an explicit false belief task. In Experiment 1 with 4-year-olds (N = 74), false belief reasoning was superior in the fully and protagonist-perspective labeled