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Sample records for effectively treats notalgia

  1. Serratus muscle stimulation effectively treats notalgia paresthetica caused by long thoracic nerve dysfunction: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Currently, notalgia paresthetica (NP) is a poorly-understood condition diagnosed on the basis of pruritus, pain, or both, in the area medial to the scapula and lateral to the thoracic spine. It has been proposed that NP is caused by degenerative changes to the T2-T6 vertebrae, genetic disposition, or nerve entrapment of the posterior rami of spinal nerves arising at T2-T6. Despite considerable research, the etiology of NP remains unclear, and a multitude of different treatment modalities have correspondingly met with varying degrees of success. Here we demonstrate that NP can be caused by long thoracic nerve injury leading to serratus anterior dysfunction, and that electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) of the serratus anterior can successfully and conservatively treat NP. In four cases of NP with known injury to the long thoracic nerve we performed transcutaneous EMS to the serratus anterior in an area far lateral to the site of pain and pruritus, resulting in significant and rapid pain relief. These findings are the first to identify long thoracic nerve injury as a cause for notalgia paresthetica and electrical muscle stimulation of the serratus anterior as a possible treatment, and we discuss the implications of these findings on better diagnosing and treating notalgia paresthetica. PMID:19772656

  2. Serratus muscle stimulation effectively treats notalgia paresthetica caused by long thoracic nerve dysfunction: a case series.

    PubMed

    Wang, Charlie K; Gowda, Alpana; Barad, Meredith; Mackey, Sean C; Carroll, Ian R

    2009-09-22

    Currently, notalgia paresthetica (NP) is a poorly-understood condition diagnosed on the basis of pruritus, pain, or both, in the area medial to the scapula and lateral to the thoracic spine. It has been proposed that NP is caused by degenerative changes to the T2-T6 vertebrae, genetic disposition, or nerve entrapment of the posterior rami of spinal nerves arising at T2-T6. Despite considerable research, the etiology of NP remains unclear, and a multitude of different treatment modalities have correspondingly met with varying degrees of success. Here we demonstrate that NP can be caused by long thoracic nerve injury leading to serratus anterior dysfunction, and that electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) of the serratus anterior can successfully and conservatively treat NP. In four cases of NP with known injury to the long thoracic nerve we performed transcutaneous EMS to the serratus anterior in an area far lateral to the site of pain and pruritus, resulting in significant and rapid pain relief. These findings are the first to identify long thoracic nerve injury as a cause for notalgia paresthetica and electrical muscle stimulation of the serratus anterior as a possible treatment, and we discuss the implications of these findings on better diagnosing and treating notalgia paresthetica.

  3. Treatment of notalgia paresthetica with capsaicin.

    PubMed

    Leibsohn, E

    1992-05-01

    Twenty-four patients with notalgia paresthetica were treated with topical capsaicin (Zostrix) in a concentration of 0.025 percent for four months. In approximately 70 percent of the patients who remained in the study, relief of pruritus was achieved up to the 90 percent level. In the majority of these patients pruritus returned when use of the medication was stopped. The history, causes, and prevalence of the condition are reviewed. This treatment is the first described that is relatively effective.

  4. Notalgia paresthetica.

    PubMed

    Pleet, A B; Massey, E W

    1978-12-01

    Notalgia paresthetica was described by Astwazaturow in 1934. We have seen six cases in the past year, suggesting that it is not rare. This sensory neuritis affects the posterior rami of several spinal nerves (arising from thoracic segments T2 to T6), causing pruritus, burning, and dysesthesias. Examination reveals hypesthesia. Although the cause is not known, the course seems benign. The posterior rami of these five dorsal roots traverse a 90-degree course through the multifidus spinae muscle, making them unique among the posterior rami.

  5. Localized pruritus-notalgia paresthetica.

    PubMed

    Massey, E W; Pleet, A B

    1979-08-01

    Notalgia paresthetica, possibly an isolated sensory neuropathy involving the posterior primary rami of thoracic nerves T2 through T6, and appearing as pruritus of the back, is apt to be encountered by both dermatologists and neurologists. Two cases illustrate this disorder.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of an 8% Capsaicin Patch in the Treatment of Brachioradial Pruritus and Notalgia Paraesthetica, Two Forms of Neuropathic Pruritus.

    PubMed

    Steinke, Sabine; Gutknecht, Mandy; Zeidler, Claudia; Dieckhöfer, Anette Maria; Herrlein, Olga; Lüling, Hannah; Ständer, Sonja; Augustin, Matthias

    2017-01-04

    In brachioradial pruritus and notalgia paraesthetica, the 8% capsaicin patch is a novel and effective, but cost-intense, therapy. Routine data for 44 patients were collected 6 months retrospectively and prospectively to first patch application. The cost to health insurance and the patient, and patient-reported outcomes were analysed (visual analogue scale, numerical rating scale, verbal rating scale for pruritus symptoms, Dermatological Life Quality Index, and Patient Benefit Index). Mean inpatient treatment costs were reduced by €212.31, and mean outpatient treatment and medication costs by €100.74 per patient (p.p.). However, these reductions did not offset the high cost of the patch itself (€767.02 p.p.); thus the total cost to health insurance increased by €453.97 p.p. (p ≤ 0.01). The additional costs of therapy to the patient decreased by €441.06, thus the overall cost p.p. remained approximately the same (€3,306.03 vs. €3,318.94). Capsaicin patch therapy resulted in reduced pruritus, improved quality of life and greater patient benefit, thus long-term cost-efficiency analyses are necessary.

  7. General features and treatment of notalgia paresthetica.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pérez, Lidia Comba

    2011-01-01

    Notalgia paresthetica is a neurocutaneous disorder that most commonly manifests as pruritus and a brownish macula in the patient's upper back. Pain, burning, and paresthesias to a variable degree have also been reported. Although the physiopathology of notalgia paresthetica is still obscure, it is currently considered a sensory neuropathy caused by damage to the spinal nerves. To date, no definitive treatment has been described for this disorder. Alternatives, including physical therapies and topical, systemic, and intralesional drugs, have been tested with diverse results. A review of the current knowledge on notalgia paresthetica and its treatment is provided.

  8. Notalgia paresthetica: the unreachable itch

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Background: Notalgia paresthetica (NP) is a very common, under-recognized condition characterized by pruritus in a unilateral, dermatomal distribution in the mid-back. Chronic pruritus is sometimes accompanied by pain, paresthesias, or altered sensation to touch. Objectives: To review the current literature with regards to the cause of NP and its most appropriate treatment. Methods: Comprehensive literature review using PubMed to inspect the available data on NP. Results: The most likely cause of NP is cutaneous nerve damage. Many therapies have been tried in the treatment of NP, mostly in small case studies. Conclusions: The published cases and studies suggest symptoms of NP are due to a cutaneous sensory neuropathy. Treatments addressing the condition as such are more successful than traditional itch therapies. In many cases, a simple explanation for the persistent pruritus is satisfactory for patients. For very distressing cases, therapy should address the condition as a benign sensory neuropathy. Further studies are needed to evaluate which treatments have the greatest potential for providing symptom relief. PMID:23785628

  9. Notalgia paresthetica. Case reports and histologic appraisal.

    PubMed

    Weber, P J; Poulos, E G

    1988-01-01

    Notalgia paresthetica, literally an abnormal sensation of the back, is not a well-known entity in the medical community. However, we have recently studied 14 cases that have demonstrated relatively uniform clinical and histopathologic features. To our knowledge the latter of these have not been described previously. We believe it is important to familiarize the clinician with this relatively common entity.

  10. Neuropathic Itch of the Back: A Case of Notalgia Paresthetica

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jaeyoung

    2014-01-01

    Notalgia paresthetica refers to an isolated mononeuropathy involving chronic localized itch or paresthesia most often at the skin of the scapula or surrounding regions. There are no specific skin manifestations except those arising from chronic scratching and rubbing. The specific etiology remains unknown; however, it has been theorized that the neuropathic itch is caused by sensory nerve entrapment involving the posterior rami of the T2 to T6 nerve root. The entrapment is due to degenerative changes in the vertebrae. We report here a particular case of notalgia paresthetica in a 55-year-old woman. The patient visited our hospital for tingling pain around the left inferior angle of the scapula. Pruritus was first reported seven years ago with tingling pain developing only four months ago. There were no specific skin lesions observed except for excoriation and vague hyperpigmentation. A skin biopsy revealed only epidermal thinning with pigmentary incontinence. The patient was treated with 600 mg of gabapentin daily as well as capsaicin cream. The response was deemed unsatisfactory. PMID:24966642

  11. Neuropathic itch of the back: a case of notalgia paresthetica.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jaeyoung; Kim, You Chan

    2014-06-01

    Notalgia paresthetica refers to an isolated mononeuropathy involving chronic localized itch or paresthesia most often at the skin of the scapula or surrounding regions. There are no specific skin manifestations except those arising from chronic scratching and rubbing. The specific etiology remains unknown; however, it has been theorized that the neuropathic itch is caused by sensory nerve entrapment involving the posterior rami of the T2 to T6 nerve root. The entrapment is due to degenerative changes in the vertebrae. We report here a particular case of notalgia paresthetica in a 55-year-old woman. The patient visited our hospital for tingling pain around the left inferior angle of the scapula. Pruritus was first reported seven years ago with tingling pain developing only four months ago. There were no specific skin lesions observed except for excoriation and vague hyperpigmentation. A skin biopsy revealed only epidermal thinning with pigmentary incontinence. The patient was treated with 600 mg of gabapentin daily as well as capsaicin cream. The response was deemed unsatisfactory.

  12. Efficacy of gabapentin in the improvement of pruritus and quality of life of patients with notalgia paresthetica*

    PubMed Central

    Maciel, Ana Alice Wolf; Cunha, Paulo Rowilson; Laraia, Isabela Ortiz; Trevisan, Flávia

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND notalgia paresthetica is a subdiagnosed sensory neuropathy presenting as a condition of intense itching and hyperchromic macule on the back that interferes with daily habits. OBJECTIVES To determine the efficacy of treatment of notalgia paresthetica using oral gabapentin, assessing the degree of improvement in itching and influence on quality of life. Moreover, to evaluate the signs and symptoms associated with notalgia paresthetica. METHODS We conducted an experimental, non-randomized, parallel, non-blinded study including 20 patients with clinical and histopathological diagnosis of notalgia paresthetica. After application of the visual analogue scale of pain adapted for pruritus and of the questionnaire of dermatology life quality index (DLQI), ten patients with visual analogue scale > 5 were given treatment with gabapentin at the dose of 300 mg/day for four weeks. The other ten were treated with topical capsaicin 0.025% daily for four weeks. After the treatment period, patients answered again the scale of itching. RESULTS The use of gabapentin was responsible for a significant improvement in pruritus (p=0.0020). Besides itching and hyperchromic stain on the back, patients reported paresthesia and back pain. It was observed that the main factor in the worsening of the rash is heat. CONCLUSION Gabapentin is a good option for the treatment of severe itching caused by nostalgia paresthetica. PMID:25054742

  13. Open pilot study on oxcarbazepine for the treatment of notalgia paresthetica.

    PubMed

    Savk, E; Bolukbasi, O; Akyol, A; Karaman, G

    2001-10-01

    Notalgia paresthetica is a sensory neuropathy typically presenting with pruritus on the back. There is currently no effective treatment for this disorder. We describe a single patient who responded to oxcarbazepine, and a subsequent trial in another 4 who also responded. Although the number of patients in our study is small, we believe further trials are warranted to determine the efficacy of oxcarbazepine in this disorder.

  14. Investigation of spinal pathology in notalgia paresthetica.

    PubMed

    Savk, Oner; Savk, Ekin

    2005-06-01

    A possible association of spinal pathology with notalgia paresthetica (NP) was investigated through clinical and radiographic evaluation. Forty-three NP patients underwent dermatologic and orthopedic examination accompanied by radiography of the spine. Sixty-one lesions in 43 patients were evaluated. In 34 patients, various vertebral pathologies were observed radiographically by a blinded investigator, and in 28 of these cases these changes were most prominent in the vertebrae which corresponded to a lesional dermatome. Thirty-seven lesions were accompanied by spinal changes decided to be relevant (60.7%). The striking correlation of NP localization with spinal pathology suggests that spinal nerve impingement may contribute to the pathogenesis of this entity.

  15. Surgical decompression for notalgia paresthetica: a case report.

    PubMed

    Williams, Eric H; Rosson, Gedge D; Elsamanoudi, Ibrahim; Dellon, A Lee

    2010-01-01

    Notalgia paresthetica is a rare nerve compression. From the Greek word noton, meaning "back," and algia, meaning "pain," "notalgia paresthetica" implies that symptoms of burning pain, itching, and/or numbness in the localized region between the spinous processes of T2 through T6 and the medial border of the scapula constitute a nerve compression syndrome. The compressed nerve is the dorsal branch of the spinal nerve. It is compressed by the paraspinous muscles and fascia against the transverse process of these spinal segments. This is the first report of symptomatic relief by decompression of this nerve.

  16. Notalgia paresthetica with a significant increase in the number of intradermal nerves.

    PubMed

    Inaloz, H Serhat; Kirtak, Necmettin; Erguven, H Gulcin; Karakok, Metin; Inaloz, Serap S

    2002-11-01

    Notalgia paresthetica is an isolated mononeuropathy involving the skin over or near the scapula. The cause remains unknown. We histologically observed a significant increase in the number of dermal nerves in a case of notalgia paresthetica. Immunohistochemical examination using a neural marker, S-100, positively stained the nerves. Interestingly, a biopsy from perilesional skin also showed an abnormal nerve proliferation.

  17. Notalgia paresthetica following neuralgic amyotrophy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tacconi, P; Manca, D; Tamburini, G; Cannas, A; Giagheddu, M

    2004-04-01

    We report the case of a patient who developed notalgia paresthetica during the recovery from a neuralgic amyotrophy. A 23-year-old woman had a typical neuralgic amyotrophy (severe shoulder pain, followed by a long thoracic nerve palsy); five months after the onset of pain, when scapular winging was improving, she began to feel a burning sensation in a restricted interscapular area, on the same side. Electromyography was consistent with a long thoracic nerve neuropathy, with minor neurogenic changes in deltoid and biceps brachii. Radiography of the spine was unremarkable. The notalgia paresthetica disappeared shortly before the complete recovery of scapular winging. The abnormal activation of shoulder girdle and spine extensor muscles during the time of long thoracic nerve palsy may explain the association between the two disorders.

  18. Osteopathic manipulative treatment in the management of notalgia paresthetica.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Blakely S; Way, Bill V; Speece, Arthur J

    2009-11-01

    Notalgia paresthetica is a chronic sensory neuropathy characterized by pruritus of the upper to middle back, typically below the left shoulder blade. Symptoms may include pain, hyperesthesia, paresthesia, and hyperpigmentation of the affected area. Although the etiologic process of this condition is poorly understood, recent correlations with degenerative spinal changes suggest that spinal nerve impingement may play a role. The authors report the case of a 59-year-old woman with notalgia paresthetica who received one 20-minute session of osteopathic manipulative treatment that focused primarily on thoracic spine and rib somatic dysfunctions. After treatment, the patient reported immediate improvement of symptoms. A discussion of this condition based on previously published literature is also provided.

  19. Considerable Variability in the Efficacy of 8% Capsaicin Topical Patches in the Treatment of Chronic Pruritus in 3 Patients with Notalgia Paresthetica

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Hjalte H.; Sand, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Notalgia paresthetica (NP) is a focal neuropathic itch condition manifesting in intense chronic or recurrent episodic itch in a hyperpigmented, macular, uni- or bilateral skin area located below and/or medially to the scapulae. Achieving satisfactory relieve in NP patients is challenging. In this case-series three female NP patients were treated with 8% capsaicin patches following a spatial quantification of their alloknetic area with a von Frey filament. The use of a von Frey filament in order to delimit the precise area of itch sensitization and thus patch application, proved clinically feasible. Although 8% topical capsaicin relieved itch in all three patients, the duration of the effectiveness varied greatly from only 3 days to >2 months. The treatment was well tolerated in the patients and there appear to be no significant hindrances to applying this treatment with NP as an indication, although it may only exhibit satisfactory effectiveness in certain patients. Placebo-controlled double-blinded trials are needed to confirm the effectiveness of the treatment and assess predictive parameters of the treatment outcome. PMID:26848223

  20. Considerable Variability in the Efficacy of 8% Capsaicin Topical Patches in the Treatment of Chronic Pruritus in 3 Patients with Notalgia Paresthetica.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Hjalte H; Sand, Carsten; Elberling, Jesper

    2016-02-01

    Notalgia paresthetica (NP) is a focal neuropathic itch condition manifesting in intense chronic or recurrent episodic itch in a hyperpigmented, macular, uni- or bilateral skin area located below and/or medially to the scapulae. Achieving satisfactory relieve in NP patients is challenging. In this case-series three female NP patients were treated with 8% capsaicin patches following a spatial quantification of their alloknetic area with a von Frey filament. The use of a von Frey filament in order to delimit the precise area of itch sensitization and thus patch application, proved clinically feasible. Although 8% topical capsaicin relieved itch in all three patients, the duration of the effectiveness varied greatly from only 3 days to >2 months. The treatment was well tolerated in the patients and there appear to be no significant hindrances to applying this treatment with NP as an indication, although it may only exhibit satisfactory effectiveness in certain patients. Placebo-controlled double-blinded trials are needed to confirm the effectiveness of the treatment and assess predictive parameters of the treatment outcome.

  1. Notalgia Paresthetica and Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndrome 2A: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Alcántara, Francisco; Feito, Marta; Albizuri, Fátima; Beato, María; De Lucas, Raúl

    2016-09-01

    Notalgia paresthetica is characterized by a hyperpigmented macular pruritic skin lesion most commonly localized unilaterally in the middle and upper back region. This condition has been reported in association with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 2A (MEN 2A) in several families; it rarely affects children and it may serve as an early marker of MEN 2A. We report a 9-year-old girl diagnosed with MEN 2A and notalgia paresthetica.

  2. [Notalgia paresthetica, "posterior pigmented pruritic patch" and macular amyloidosis. Three stages of a disease].

    PubMed

    Cerroni, L; Kopera, D; Soyer, H P; Kerl, H

    1993-12-01

    We report on nine cases of notalgia paresthetica, a cutaneous condition that has rarely been described in the dermatological literature and is characterized by localized pruritus, burning and hyperesthesia and/or paresthesia on the back. Histological and immunohistochemical studies have not clarified the pathogenesis of this disease. Several factors might be involved in various cases, including increased cutaneous innervation and neuropathy. The so-called posterior pigmented pruritic patch and macular amyloidosis may be considered as progressive evolutional stages of notalgia paresthetica.

  3. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation offers partial relief in notalgia paresthetica patients with a relevant spinal pathology.

    PubMed

    Savk, Ekin; Savk, Oner; Sendur, Faruk

    2007-05-01

    There is yet no established mode of curative treatment for notalgia paresthetica (NP). We had previously shown a correlation of NP localization with relevant spinal changes which led us to speculate on the possible role of spinal nerve impingement in the pathogenesis of this entity. Based on these findings we aimed to investigate the possible effect of physical therapy in selected cases of NP. Fifteen NP patients with a relevant spinal pathology (four men and 11 women) were included in the study. The mean age was 52.80 +/- 8.83 years (+/- SD; range, 39-73). NP duration was 8.9 +/- 8.13 years (range, 1.5-30). All patients received 10 conventional transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) sessions in the symptomatic area of 20 min duration and high frequency (50-100 Hz). From an initial pruritus score of 10, the mean score by the end of first week was 7.67 +/- 2.02 (range, 5-10) and by the end of second week it was 6.80 +/- 2.73 (range, 4-11). The differences between the pretreatment and post-treatment scores were statistically significant. There was no correlation of therapeutic benefit with age or disease duration. We believe that the partial therapeutic benefit of TENS in NP patients is of importance and further research on the effects of various physical therapeutic modalities would be worthwhile.

  4. Notalgia paraesthetica: a descriptive two-cohort study of 65 patients from Brazil and Germany.

    PubMed

    Huesmann, Timo; Cunha, Paulo R; Osada, Nani; Huesmann, Mario; Zanelato, Tiago P; Phan, Ngoc Quan; Gontijo, Gabriela M Abreu; Marziniak, Martin; Ständer, Sonja

    2012-09-01

    Notalgia paraesthetica is a neuropathic pruritus on the back. The aim of this retrospective study was to examine patient characteristics in a consecutive cohort from Brazil and Germany. A total of 65 patients (49 women, 16 men; age range 25-80 years, mean 56.2 ± 12.7 years; median 57.0 years) were investigated in order to determine the spinal or peripheral origin of notalgia paraesthetica. Protein gene product 9.5-positive intraepidermal nerve fibers were significantly reduced in the pruritic compared with the non-lesional area (p < 0.05). In 32.3% of patients, radiological examinations showed a stenosis and in 47.7% a degeneration. A correlation between the radiological findings and the exact dermatomal localization of notalgia paraesthetica was found in 15.7% of the involved areas. The significant reduction in intraepidermal nerve fiber density suggests that damage to the peripheral nerves is a more important aetiological factor than spinal changes in notalgia paraesthetica.

  5. Macular posterior pigmentary incontinence: its relation to macular amyloidosis and notalgia paresthetica.

    PubMed

    Westermark, P; Ridderström, E; Vahlquist, A

    1996-07-01

    Patients with clinical features of dorsal macular amyloidosis but without subepidermal amyloid deposits were followed for 2-11 years. The clinical appearance was fairly stable during this period of time, with little tendency of healing. Only 2 of the patients developed typical macular amyloidosis during the follow-up. It is concluded that a condition strongly resembling macular amyloidosis but without amyloid is an entity, and the designation "macular posterior pigmentary incontinence" is proposed. The relationship between macular posterior pigmentary incontinence and the two conditions macular amyloidosis and notalgia paresthetica is discussed.

  6. Symptoms of notalgia paresthetica may be explained by increased dermal innervation.

    PubMed

    Springall, D R; Karanth, S S; Kirkham, N; Darley, C R; Polak, J M

    1991-09-01

    Notalgia paresthetica is a sensory neuropathy characterized by infrascapular pruritus, burning pain, hyperalgesia, or tenderness. To assess whether the symptoms may be caused by alterations in the cutaneous innervation, skin from the affected area of patients (n = 5) was compared with controls (n = 10) comprising the contralateral unaffected area from the same patients and site-matched biopsies of normals, using immunohistochemistry. Frozen sections were immunostained with antisera to the neuropeptides substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, and neuropeptide with tyrosine, and to the general neural marker PGP 9.5 and the glial marker S-100 to show the overall innervation and glial cells, respectively. No discernible change in the distribution of neuropeptide-immunoreactive axons was found, but all of the specimens from the affected areas had a significant increase in the number of intradermal PGP 9.5-immunoreactive nerve fibers compared with unaffected areas from the same patients and normal controls. Epidermal dendritic cells immunoreactive for S-100, possibly Langerhans cells, were substantially increased. It is concluded that there is an increase in the sensory epidermal innervation in the affected skin areas in notalgia paresthetica, which could contribute to the symptoms, and that neural immunohistochemistry of skin biopsies could be helpful in the diagnosis of the disease.

  7. Notalgia paresthetica associated with cervical spinal stenosis and cervicothoracic disk disease at C4 through C7.

    PubMed

    Alai, Nili N; Skinner, Harry B; Nabili, Siamak T; Jeffes, Edward; Shahrokni, Seyed; Saemi, Arash M

    2010-02-01

    Notalgia paresthetica (NP) is a common refractory, sensory, neuropathic syndrome with the hallmark symptom of localized pruritus of the unilateral infrascapular back. It generally is a chronic noncurable condition with periodic remissions and exacerbations. While the dermatologic syndrome may be multifactorial in etiology, a possible association with underlying cervical spine disease should be evaluated for proper treatment. Collaborative multispecialty evaluation by dermatology, radiology, orthopedic surgery, and neurology may be indicated for primary management of this condition. First-line therapy for NP with associated cervical disease may include nondermatologic noninvasive treatments such as spinal manipulation, physical therapy, massage, cervical traction, cervical muscle strengthening, and oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and muscle relaxants. Notalgia paresthetica may in fact be a cutaneous sign of an underlying degenerative cervical spine disease. We report a case of a patient with cervical spinal stenosis that corresponded directly with the clinical findings of NP.

  8. Cutaneous lesion associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A: lichen amyloidosis or notalgia paresthetica?

    PubMed

    Chabre, O; Labat, F; Pinel, N; Berthod, F; Tarel, V; Bachelot, I

    1992-01-01

    Three patients of a French family demonstrated an association of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) with a pruritic scapular skin lesion. The lesions are similar to those described as familial cutaneous lichen amyloidosis in unrelated MEN 2A and medullary thyroid carcinoma families, but histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural analysis of skin biopsies from each patient in the French family did not show amyloid deposition. The topography of the lesion follows dermatomes C8-D3. The patients report not only pruritus but also paresthesia and hyperalgesia, and one showed touch hypoesthesia and pain hyperesthesia in the area of the lesion. Such an association of cutaneous and neurological features suggests notalgia paresthetica (NP), a neuropathy of the posterior dorsal rami nerves. We thus suggest that the cutaneous lesions associated with MEN 2A might be secondary to pathology in the neural crest-derived dorsal sensory nerves. The amyloid, when present, would be secondary to scratching. We propose that patients presenting with familial NP be suspect for MEN 2A.

  9. Notalgia paresthetica: clinical, physiopathological and therapeutic aspects. A study of 12 cases.

    PubMed

    Raison-Peyron, N; Meunier, L; Acevedo, M; Meynadier, J

    1999-05-01

    Notalgia paresthetica (NP) is a common but often unrecognized neurocutaneous condition, with very few cases reported to date. It is characterized by pruritus localized in an area between D2 and D6 dermatomes, sometimes accompanied by sensory neuropathies and/or electrical conductivity disorders. Cutaneous pigmented patches and friction amyloidosis can arise with irritation. Some hereditary cases have been noted mainly in young patients, associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A. However, NP mainly occurs in older patients and most are sporadic pathologies linked with musculoskeletal compression of spinal nerves. Only capsaicin has shown some (but unfortunately only transient) efficacy in relieving NP symptoms. We present observations on 12 sporadic cases of NP. Spinal X-rays revealed dorsal arthrosis or spinal static disequilibrium in nine of these patients. Six patients underwent spinal and paraspinal ultrasound or radiation (better) physiotherapy, and the symptoms subsided in four of these cases. These results highlighted that spinal disorders could be a determining factor in NP, indicating that patients could benefit from physiotherapy.

  10. Why to treat subjects as fixed effects.

    PubMed

    Adelman, James S; Estes, Zachary

    2015-09-01

    Adelman, Marquis, Sabatos-DeVito, and Estes (2013) collected word naming latencies from 4 participants who read 2,820 words 50 times each. Their recommendation and practice was that R² targets set for models should take into account subject idiosyncrasies as replicable patterns, equivalent to a subjects-as-fixed-effects assumption. In light of an interaction involving subjects, they broke down the interaction into individual subject data. Courrieu and Rey's (2015) commentary argues that (a) single-subject data need not be more reliable than subject-average data, and (b) anyway, treating groups of subjects as random samples leads to valid conclusions about general mechanisms of reading. Point (a) was not part of Adelman et al.'s claim. In this reply, we examine the consequences of using the fixed-effect assumption. It (a) produces the correct target to check if by-items regression models contain all necessary variables, (b) more accurately constrains cognitive models, (c) more accurately reveals general mechanisms, and (d) can offer more powerful tests of effects. Even when individual differences are not the primary focus of a study, the fixed-effect analysis is often preferable to the random-effects analysis.

  11. [Brachioradial pruritus effectively treated with gabapentin].

    PubMed

    Uldall Pallesen, Kristine Appel; Bygum, Anette

    2012-06-25

    Brachioradial pruritus is a characteristic clinical condition with a deep intense itching, tingling or burning sensation localized to the dorsolateral part of the upper extremities. The symptoms occur primarily in the late summer in fair skin type people who are extensively sun-exposed. The condition is difficult to treat and does not respond to topical steroids and antihistamines. We describe a 57-year-old woman with longstanding brachioradial itching due to cervical radiculopathy and sun exposure, which was successfully treated with gabapentin.

  12. Why to Treat Subjects as Fixed Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, James S.; Estes, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    Adelman, Marquis, Sabatos-DeVito, and Estes (2013) collected word naming latencies from 4 participants who read 2,820 words 50 times each. Their recommendation and practice was that R2 targets set for models should take into account subject idiosyncrasies as replicable patterns, equivalent to a subjects-as-fixed-effects assumption. In light of an…

  13. Elements for Effective Management of Operating Pump and Treat Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet summarizes key aspects of effective management for operating pump and treat (P&T) systems based on lessons learned from conducting optimization evaluations at 20 Superfund-financed P&T systems.

  14. Diverse biological effects of electromagnetic-treated water.

    PubMed

    Yamabhai, Montarop; Chumseng, Suchintana; Yoohat, Kirana; Srila, Witsanu

    2014-07-01

    The effects of water treated with an electromagnetic field (EMF) were investigated on two biological systems, humans and plants. Purified de-ionised water was treated by (1) boiling, (2) exposure to microwave radiation, and (3) low frequency electromagnetic oscillation molecular resonance effect technology (MRET), before being used to prepare media for culturing human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from three healthy females. Our results indicated that PBMC culture in MRET-activated medium showed significantly less oxidative metabolism when compared to media prepared from other types of water. As for the effects on soybean, our results indicated that both MRET- and microwave-treated water greatly enhanced the length of the root. These results suggested that electromagnetic-treated water can have diverse biological effects on both animal and plant cells. Since these effects are related to the 'Memory of Water', hypothesis which has been suggested as an explanation of the action of high homeopathic dilutions, our finding warrant a further investigation on the mechanisms of various types of physically conditioned water on specific cellular activities.

  15. The effectiveness of glucocorticoids in treating croup: meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ausejo, Monica; Saenz, Antonio; Pham, Ba'; Moher, David; Chalmers, Thomas C.; Kellner, James D.; Johnson, David W.; Klassen, Terry P.

    1999-01-01

    •Objective To determine the effectiveness of glucocorticoid treatment in children with croup. •Design Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials that examine the effectiveness of glucocorticoid treatment in children with croup. •Main outcome measures Score on scale measuring severity of croup,use of co-interventions (epinephrine, antibiotics, or supplemental glucocorticoids), length of stay in the emergency department or the hospital, and rate of hospitalization. •Results Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Glucocorticoid treatment was associated with an improvement in the croup severity score at 6 hours with an effect size of -1.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] -1.5 to -0.6) and at 12 hours -1.0 (-1.6 to -0.4); at 24 hours, this improvement was no longer significant (-1.0, -2.0 to -0.1). There was a decrease in the number of epinephrine treatments needed in children treated with glucocorticoids: a decrease of 9% (95% CI 2% to 16%) among those treated with budesonide and of 12% (4% to 20%) among those treated with dexamethasone. There was also a decrease in the length of time spent in the emergency department (-11 hours, 95% CI -18 to 4 hours) and, for inpatients, hospital stay was reduced by 16 hours (-31 to 1 hour). Publication bias seems to play a part in these results. •Conclusions Dexamethasone and budesonide are effective in relieving the symptoms of croup as early as 6 hours after treatment. Fewer co-interventions are used, and the length of time spent in the hospital is decreased in patients treated withglucocorticoids. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:18751187

  16. The effectiveness of glucocorticoids in treating croup: meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ausejo, Monica; Saenz, Antonio; Pham, Ba’; Kellner, James D; Johnson, David W; Moher, David; Klassen, Terry P

    1999-01-01

    Objective To determine the effectiveness of glucocorticoid treatment in children with croup. Design Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials that examine the effectiveness of glucocorticoid treatment in children with croup. Main outcome measures Score on scale measuring severity of croup, use of cointerventions (adrenaline (epinephrine), antibiotics, or supplemental glucocorticoids), length of stay in accident and emergency or in hospital, and rate of hospitalisation. Results Twenty four studies met the inclusion criteria. Glucocorticoid treatment was associated with an improvement in the croup severity score at 6 hours with an effect size of −1.0 (95% confidence interval −1.5 to −0.6) and at 12 hours −1.0 (−1.6 to −0.4); at 24 hours this improvement was no longer significant (−1.0, −2.0 to 0.1). There was a decrease in the number of adrenaline treatments needed in children treated with glucocorticoids: a decrease of 9% (95% confidence interval 2% to 16%) among those treated with budesonide and of 12% (4% to 20%) among those treated with dexamethasone. There was also a decrease in the length of time spent in accident and emergency (−11 hours, 95% confidence interval −18 to 4 hours), and for inpatients hospital stay was reduced by 16 hours (−31 to 1 hour). Publication bias seems to play a part in these results. Conclusions Dexamethasone and budesonide are effective in relieving the symptoms of croup as early as 6 hours after treatment. Fewer cointerventions are used and the length of time spent in hospital is decreased in patients treated with glucocorticoids. Key messagesMost trials evaluating the treatment of croup are of high methodological quality and hence have a low risk of biasPublication bias, however, seems to be a problem, making the results of this meta-analysis somewhat less certainGlucocorticoids seem to bring about clinical improvement in children with croup within 6 hoursNebulised budesonide or dexamethasone, given either

  17. Could virtual reality be effective in treating children with phobias?

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Stéphane

    2011-02-01

    The use of virtual reality to treat anxiety disorders in adults is gaining popularity and its efficacy is supported by numerous outcome studies. Similar research for children is lagging behind. The outcome studies on the use of virtual reality to treat anxiety disorders in children currently address only specific phobias, and all of the available trials are reviewed in this article. Despite the limited number of studies, results are very encouraging for the treatment of school and spider phobias. A study with adolescents suggests that, at least for social anxiety, exposure stimuli would be more effective if they were developed specifically for younger populations. Virtual reality may not increase children's motivation towards therapy unless their fearful apprehension is addressed before initiating the treatment.

  18. JV Task 119 - Effects of Aging on Treated Activated Carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin Olson; Lucinda Hamre; John Pavlish; Blaise Mibeck

    2009-03-25

    For both the United States and Canada, testing has been under way for electric utilities to find viable and economical mercury control strategies to meet pending future mercury emission limits. The technology that holds the most promise for mercury control in low-chlorine lignite to meet the needs of the Clean Air Act in the United States and the Canada-Wide Standards in Canada is injection of treated activated carbon (AC) into the flue gas stream. Most of the treated carbons are reported to be halogenated, often with bromine. Under a previous multiyear project headed by the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), testing was performed on a slipstream unit using actual lignite-derived flue gas to evaluate various sorbent technologies for their effectiveness, performance, and cost. Testing under this project showed that halogenated ACs performed very well, with mercury capture rates often {ge} 90%. However, differences were noted between treated ACs with respect to reactivity and capacity, possibly as a result of storage conditions. Under certain conditions (primarily storage in ambient air), notable performance degradation had occurred in mercury capture efficiency. Therefore, a small exploratory task within this project evaluated possible differences resulting from storage conditions and subsequent effects of aging that might somehow alter their chemical or physical properties. In order to further investigate this potential degradation of treated (halogenated) ACs, the EERC, together with DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory, the North Dakota Industrial Commission (NDIC), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), SaskPower, and Otter Tail Power Company, assessed the aging effects of brominated ACs for the effect that different storage durations, temperatures, and humidity conditions have on the mercury sorption capacity of treated ACs. No aging effects on initial capture activity were observed for any carbons or conditions in the investigation

  19. Use of treated wastewater in agriculture: effects on soil environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Guy J.; Lado, Marcos

    2014-05-01

    Disposal of treated sewage, both from industrial and domestic origin (herein referred to as treated wastewater [TWW]), is often considered as an environmental hazard. However, in areas afflicted by water scarcity, especially in semi-arid and arid regions, where the future of irrigated agriculture (which produces approximately one third of crop yield and half the return from global crop production) is threatened by existing or expected shortage of fresh water, the use of TWW offers a highly effective and sustainable strategy to exploit a water resource. However, application of TWW to the soil is not free of risks both to organisms (e.g., crops, microbiota) and to the soil. Potential risks may include reduction in biological activity (including crop yield) due to elevated salinity and specific ion toxicity, migration of pollutants towards surface- and ground-water, and deterioration of soil structure. In recent years, new evidence about the possible negative impact of long-term irrigation with TWW on soil structure and physical and chemo-physical properties has emerged, thus putting the sustainability of irrigation with TWW in question. In this presentation, some aspects of the effects of long-term irrigation with TWW on soil properties are shown.

  20. Behavioral effects of amphetamine in streptozotocin-treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Sevak, Rajkumar J.; Koek, Wouter; Daws, Lynette C.; Owens, William Anthony; Galli, Aurelio; France, Charles P.

    2009-01-01

    Experimentally-induced diabetes can modify the behavioral and neurochemical effects of drugs acting on dopamine systems, possibly through insulin-related regulation of dopamine transporter activity. In this study, several behavioral procedures were used to examine possible changes in sensitivity to amphetamine and other drugs in rats rendered diabetic by a single injection of streptozotocin. Conditioned place preference developed to food (Froot Loops®) in both control and diabetic rats, demonstrating that conditioned place preference with tactile stimuli can occur in streptozotocin-treated rats. Baseline locomotion was lower in streptozotocin-treated as compared to control rats, although amphetamine significantly increased locomotion in all rats. Conditioned place preference developed to amphetamine regardless of whether rats had received streptozotocin or saline. A second study compared the potency of drugs to decrease lever pressing maintained by food, before and after streptozotocin treatment. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate and amphetamine were less potent after streptozotocin while the potency of raclopride, quinpirole, ketamine, haloperidol and cocaine was not significantly changed by streptozotocin. While markedly affecting locomotion, body weight and blood glucose, streptozotocin only modestly affected sensitivity to the behavioral effects of amphetamine and other drugs; these results fail to confirm previous reports of decreased behavioral actions of stimulants in diabetic rats. PMID:18155695

  1. Behavioral effects of amphetamine in streptozotocin-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Sevak, Rajkumar J; Koek, Wouter; Daws, Lynette C; Owens, William Anthony; Galli, Aurelio; France, Charles P

    2008-02-26

    Experimentally-induced diabetes can modify the behavioral and neurochemical effects of drugs acting on dopamine systems, possibly through insulin-related regulation of dopamine transporter activity. In this study, several behavioral procedures were used to examine possible changes in sensitivity to amphetamine and other drugs in rats rendered diabetic by a single injection of streptozotocin. Conditioned place preference developed to food (Froot Loops) in both control and diabetic rats, demonstrating that conditioned place preference with tactile stimuli can occur in streptozotocin-treated rats. Baseline locomotion was lower in streptozotocin-treated as compared to control rats, although amphetamine significantly increased locomotion in all rats. Conditioned place preference developed to amphetamine regardless of whether rats had received streptozotocin or saline. A second study compared the potency of drugs to decrease lever pressing maintained by food, before and after streptozotocin treatment. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate and amphetamine were less potent after streptozotocin while the potency of raclopride, quinpirole, ketamine, haloperidol and cocaine was not significantly changed by streptozotocin. While markedly affecting locomotion, body weight and blood glucose, streptozotocin only modestly affected sensitivity to the behavioral effects of amphetamine and other drugs; these results fail to confirm previous reports of decreased behavioral actions of stimulants in diabetic rats.

  2. Effect of caffeine on rat offspring from treated dams.

    PubMed

    Aeschbacher, H U; Milon, H; Poot, A; Würzner, H P

    1980-11-01

    Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given caffeine at 1.0, 0.5 and 0.25 g/kg diet during gestation and lactation. At birth, half of the pups from control and treated rats at each dose level were exchanged and cross fostered. Two litters were produced by each animal from each of the experimental groups. Caffeine at dietary concentrations of 0.5 and 0.25 g/kg throughout gestation and lactation had no significant effect on birth weight, litter size or development. There was also no effect at these doses following treatment during either gestation alone, or lactation alone. At 1.0 g/kg there was a slight reduction of birth weight, as well as a trend towards lower weight gain in litters from dams fed the test diet throughout gestation and lactation.

  3. Effectively treating stimulant-abusing schizophrenics: mission impossible?

    PubMed

    Roberts, L J; Shaner, A; Eckman, T A; Tucker, D E; Vaccaro, J V

    1992-01-01

    The development of effective treatment programs for dual diagnosis patients is in its initial stages, hampered by a variety of clinical, theoretical, administrative, and even sociopolitical obstacles. These patients are difficult to engage and treat effectively using standard systems of care. The Dual Diagnosis Treatment Program at the Brentwood VA Hospital integrates treatment for both stimulant abuse and chronic psychosis within one comprehensive program, emphasizing continuous treatment teams, optimal pharmacological management, behavior-shaping strategies, skills-training techniques, and assertive case management. The combination of these treatment approaches within one program appears to have helped some patients in our preliminary, one-year experience. Future publications will describe results from controlled outcome comparisons of DDTP with customary VA care.

  4. Hypolipidemic effect of β-caryophyllene to treat hyperlipidemic rats.

    PubMed

    Baldissera, Matheus D; Souza, Carine F; Grando, Thirssa H; Doleski, Pedro H; Boligon, Aline A; Stefani, Lenita M; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of β-caryophyllene on hypercholesterolemia using a model of hyperlipidemia induced by Triton WR-1339 in rats, as well as its possible effect on hepatic antioxidant enzymes. Thus, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were measured in serum, while reactive oxygen species (ROS), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutayl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities were measured in the hepatic tissue. In addition, seric concentrations of β-caryophyllene were measured to perform correlation studies. Serum samples from hypercholesterolemic rats show higher (p < 0.05) levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol, and lower (p < 0.05) levels of HDL cholesterol compared to non-hypercholesterolemic rats. β-Caryophyllene treatment reduced (p < 0.05) the levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol, similar to the reference drug simvastatin. However, HDL cholesterol levels did not increase with the treatment. β-Caryophyllene treatment was able to inhibit the HMG-CoA reductase activity, as well as to prevent the increase on ROS and TBARS levels, and ameliorate the antioxidant system. In summary, our findings demonstrated that β-caryophyllene has hypolipidemic effect via inhibition of the hepatic HMG-CoA reductase, like the standard drug simvastatin, and this inhibition suggests a possible mechanism of hypolipidemic action. Thus, our results indicate that β-caryophyllene can be used to treat dyslipidemic diseases because it exerts a similar effect as the reference drug, protecting the liver against lipid damage and improving the hepatic antioxidant defense system.

  5. Effectiveness of Ivabradine in Treating Stable Angina Pectoris.

    PubMed

    Ye, Liwen; Ke, Dazhi; Chen, Qingwei; Li, Guiqiong; Deng, Wei; Wu, Zhiqin

    2016-04-01

    Many studies show that ivabradine is effective for stable angina.This meta-analysis was performed to determine the effect of treatment duration and control group type on ivabradine efficacy in stable angina pectoris.Relevant articles in the English language in the PUBMED and EMBASE databases and related websites were identified by using the search terms "ivabradine," "angina," "randomized controlled trials," and "Iva." The final search date was November 2, 2015.Articles were included if they were published randomized controlled trials that related to ivabradine treatment of stable angina pectoris.Patients with stable angina pectoris were included.The patients were classified according to treatment duration (<3 vs ≥3 months) or type of control group (placebo vs beta-receptor blocker). Angina outcomes were heart rate at rest or peak, exercise duration, and time to angina onset.Seven articles were selected. There were 3747 patients: 2100 and 1647 were in the ivabradine and control groups, respectively. The ivabradine group had significantly longer exercise duration when they had been treated for at least 3 months, but not when treatment time was less than 3 months. Ivabradine significantly improved time to angina onset regardless of treatment duration. Control group type did not influence the effect of exercise duration (significant) or time to angina onset (significant).Compared with beta-blocker and placebo, ivabradine improved exercise duration and time to onset of angina in patients with stable angina. However, its ability to improve exercise duration only became significant after at least 3 months of treatment.

  6. Potential protective effects of autophagy activated in MPP+ treated astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Cunzhou; Xian, Wenbiao; Zhou, Hongyan; Chen, Ling; Pei, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Astrocytes, which have various important functions, have previously been associated with Parkinsons disease (PD), particularly in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) models of PD. MPP+ is the toxic metabolite of MPTP and is generated by the enzymatic activity of monoamine oxidase B, which is predominantly located in astrocytes. MPP+ acts as a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved self-digestion pathway in eukaryotic cells, which occurs in response to various types of stress, including starvation and oxidative stress. Lithium treatment has previously been shown to induce autophagy in astrocytes by inhibiting the enzyme inositol monophosphatase, which may aid in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington's disease, in which the toxic protein is an autophagy substrate. Therefore, using western blotting and MTT assay, the present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of lithium-induced autophagy against astrocyte injury caused by MPP+ treatment, as well as the potential underlying mechanisms. The results of the present study suggested that lithium was able to induce autophagy in astrocytes treated with MPP+, and this likely occurred via activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT pathway. PMID:27882077

  7. Antihyperglycemic Effect of Quercetin in Ovariectomized Rats Treated with Tamoxifen.

    PubMed

    Silva, Fernanda Coleraus; Bramatti, Isabella Calvo; Toledo, Adrieli Gorlin; Salles, Fernando Marques; Itinose, Ana Maria; Marek, Carla Brugin

    2017-03-01

    Tamoxifen is effective in breast cancer therapy in postmenopausal women; however, it causes adverse effects that alter the glycolytic pathway and induce hyperglycemia. Quercetin, a flavonoid with antioxidant potential, inhibits butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), which is positively associated with hyperglycemia. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of quercetin on tamoxifen-induced hyperglycemia, using BuChE activity as a bioindicator in adult ovariectomized Wistar rats. The ovariectomized rats were treated orally for 14 days with different concentrations of quercetin (2.5, 7.5, 22.5, and 67.5 mg.kg(-1) b.w.) and tamoxifen (5 mg.kg(-1) b.w.). Subsequently, they were euthanized; blood and tissue samples were collected. The following biochemical parameters were analyzed: plasma glucose levels and BuChE activity in the plasma, liver, intestine, and adipose tissue. The most effective dose of quercetin in reducing hyperglycemia was 22.5 mg.kg(-1) b.w. (Que/TAM 4.5/1, P < .00000), although the doses of 2.5 (Que/TAM 0.5/1, P < .05) and 7.5 mg.kg(-1) b.w. (Que/TAM 1.5/1, P < .05) were also effective. The BuChE activity decreased in the intestine at all tested doses of quercetin coadministered with tamoxifen (P < .01); however, in adipose tissue, there was a biphasic activity with a decrease (P < .05) and increase (P < .05) in activity at doses of 7.5 and 22.5 mg.kg(-1) b.w. of quercetin, respectively. However, the correlation between BuChE and glucose levels was not significant (P > .05). In summary, the findings of the present study suggest that quercetin when associated with tamoxifen decreases in plasma glucose levels. Furthermore, in these cases, BuChE should not be used as an indicator of hyperglycemia.

  8. Unarmed, tumor-specific monoclonal antibody effectively treats brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, John H.; Crotty, Laura E.; Lee, Samson; Archer, Gary E.; Ashley, David M.; Wikstrand, Carol J.; Hale, Laura P.; Small, Clayton; Dranoff, Glenn; Friedman, Allan H.; Friedman, Henry S.; Bigner, Darell D.

    2000-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is often amplified and rearranged structurally in tumors of the brain, breast, lung, and ovary. The most common mutation, EGFRvIII, is characterized by an in-frame deletion of 801 base pairs, resulting in the generation of a novel tumor-specific epitope at the fusion junction. A murine homologue of the human EGFRvIII mutation was created, and an IgG2a murine mAb, Y10, was generated that recognizes the human and murine equivalents of this tumor-specific antigen. In vitro, Y10 was found to inhibit DNA synthesis and cellular proliferation and to induce autonomous, complement-mediated, and antibodydependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Systemic treatment with i.p. Y10 of s.c. B16 melanomas transfected to express stably the murine EGFRvIII led to long-term survival in all mice treated (n = 20; P < 0.001). Similar therapy with i.p. Y10 failed to increase median survival of mice with EGFRvIII-expressing B16 melanomas in the brain; however, treatment with a single intratumoral injection of Y10 increased median survival by an average 286%, with 26% long-term survivors (n = 117; P < 0.001). The mechanism of action of Y10 in vivo was shown to be independent of complement, granulocytes, natural killer cells, and T lymphocytes through in vivo complement and cell subset depletions. Treatment with Y10 in Fc receptor knockout mice demonstrated the mechanism of Y10 to be Fc receptor-dependent. These data indicate that an unarmed, tumor-specific mAb may be an effective immunotherapy against human tumors and potentially other pathologic processes in the “immunologically privileged” central nervous system. PMID:10852962

  9. Cardiovascular Effects in Childhood Cancer Survivors Treated with Anthracyclines

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Vivian I.; Henkel, Jacqueline M.; Miller, Tracie L.; Lipshultz, Steven E.

    2011-01-01

    Anthracyclines are commonly used to treat childhood leukemias and lymphomas, as well as other malignancies, leading to a growing population of long-term childhood cancer survivors. However, their use is limited by cardiotoxicity, increasing survivors' vulnerability to treatment-related complications that can markedly affect their quality of life. Survivors are more likely to suffer from heart failure, coronary artery disease, and cerebrovascular accidents compared to the general population. The specific mechanisms of anthracycline cardiotoxicity are complex and remain unclear. Hence, determining the factors that may increase susceptibility to cardiotoxicity is of great importance, as is monitoring patients during and after treatment. Additionally, treatment and prevention options, such as limiting cumulative dosage, liposomal anthracyclines, and dexrazoxane, continue to be explored. Here, we review the cardiovascular complications associated with the use of anthracyclines in treating malignancies in children and discuss methods for preventing, screening, and treating such complications in childhood cancer survivors. PMID:21331374

  10. Effects of pterostilbene on treating hyperprolactinemia and related mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haoru; Wang, Changhua; Li, Xiaokun; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Hyperprolactinemia (HPRL) frequently causes primary menopause and reproductive disorders. Pterostilbene is known to have anti-inflammation and modulation on cell apoptosis. However, its role in treating HPRL and potential mechanisms remain unclear yet. Healthy female virgin SD rats were randomly assigned into control, HPRL model group, bromocriptine treatment group, and low (20 mg/kg) and high (40 mg/kg) pterostilbene treatment groups. All groups except control ones received metoclopramide hydrochloride injection for generating HPRL model. Uterus and ovarian index in all animals were monitored. Prolactin (PRL), estradiol (E2), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were quantified by ELISA. Caspase 3 activity was assayed, with real time PCR measuring Bcl-2 and Bax mRNA levels. HPRL rats had lower uterus and ovarian index, accompanied with elevated PRL, caspase 3 activity, Bax expression, and decreased FSH, LH, E2 and Bcl-2 expression as compared to control group (p<0.05). Pterostilbene treatment significantly increased uterus and ovarian index, FSH, LH, E2 and Bcl-2 expression, and decreased PRL, caspase 3 activity and Bax expression as compared to control group (p<0.05). 40 mg/kg pterostilbene had similar efficacy as those of bromocriptine. Pterostilbene exerts its function in the treatment of HPRL via modulating apoptosis-anti-apoptosis homeostasis, inhibiting serum PRL level, and regulating secretion of gonadotropin hormones. PMID:27508025

  11. Effectiveness of two different splints to treat temporomandibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Aksakalli, Sertac; Temucin, Fatih; Pamukcu, Ayca; Ezirganlı, Seref; Kazancioglu, Hakki Oguz; Malkoc, Meral Arslan

    2015-07-01

    Nearly 5% of the the world's population has temporomandibular disorder (TMD) severe enough to make them seek treatment. A third of the total population has at least one TMD symptom. There are different types of splints to treat TMD. In our study, we compared the success of two different appliances [stabilization splint (ss), nociceptive trigeminal inhibition splint (NTI)] by using Fonseca's questionnaire, the OHQoL-UK and visual analog scale (VAS). A total of 40 patients suffering from TMD were included in this study and answered questionnaires twice, at the beginning of the treatment and 3 months later. Regarding TMD alone, 39 patients (97.5%) had some degree of the disorder, 7 of of these cases being mild (17.5%), 15 moderate (37.5%), and 17 severe (42.5%). We analyzed posttreatment changes compared to baseline. Pain complaints decreased in both groups, and the OHQoL-UK revealed better quality of life after treatment. Based on the posttreatment Fonseca's questionnaires, significant changes in the patients' complaints in the group SS (p < 0.01) were observed. The group NTI also displayed changes but these were not statistically significant after treatment (p > 0.05). Patients in both groups had fewer TMD complaints after TMJ treatment. According to the Fonseca's questionnaire, the patients' major TMD complaint was clenching-grinding, followed by pain in the craniomandibular joint, or earache.

  12. Treating child and adolescent anxiety effectively: Overview of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Kathryn; Manassis, Katharina; Duda, Stephanie; Bagnell, Alexa; Bernstein, Gail A; Garland, E Jane; Miller, Lynn D; Newton, Amanda; Thabane, Lehana; Wilansky, Pamela

    2016-12-01

    We conducted an overview of systematic reviews about child and adolescent anxiety treatment options (psychosocial; medication; combination; web/computer-based treatment) to support evidence informed decision-making. Three questions were addressed: (i) Is the treatment more effective than passive controls? (ii) Is there evidence that the treatment is superior to or non-inferior to (i.e., as good as) active controls? (iii) What is the quality of evidence for the treatment? Pre-specified inclusion criteria identified high quality systematic reviews (2000-2015) reporting treatment effects on anxiety diagnosis and symptom severity. Evidence quality (EQ) was rated using Oxford evidence levels [EQ1 (highest); EQ5 (lowest)]. Twenty-two of 39 eligible reviews were high quality (AMSTAR score≥3/5). CBT (individual or group, with or without parents) was more effective than passive controls (EQ1). CBT effects compared to active controls were mixed (EQ1). SSRI/SNRI were more effective than placebo (EQ1) but comparative effectiveness remains uncertain. EQ for combination therapy could not be determined. RCTs of web/computer-based interventions showed mixed results (EQ1). CBM/ABM was not more efficacious than active controls (EQ1). No other interventions could be rated. High quality RCTs support treatment with CBT and medication. Findings for combination and web/computer-based treatment are encouraging but further RCTs are required. Head-to-head comparisons of active treatment options are needed.

  13. Effect of Rhizoma coptidis (Huang Lian) on Treating Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Bing; Yu, Xiao-Tong; Zhou, Qiang; Zhao, Tian-Yu; Wang, Han; Gu, Cheng-Juan; Tong, Xiao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly increasing diabetes mellitus (DM) is becoming a major public health issue globally; considerable progress has been made in the field of western hypoglycemic drug and insulin, but some shortages still exist. As one of the most important parts in complementary and alternative therapies, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) performs a good clinical practice and is showing a bright future in the treatment of DM. TCM therapy has certain advantages of less toxicity and/or side effects, and Chinese herbal medicine which usually contains various active ingredients could provide multiple therapeutic effects. Huang Lian (Rhizoma coptidis, RC) is a herb frequently used in many traditional formulas for properties of “clearing damp-heat, quenching fire, and counteracting poison” in Asia for centuries. In this review, we summarize the application of RC in the treatment of DM from two aspects of contents. Firstly, theoretical principles are explained, including the properties and related records about RC in ancient references and modern pharmacological researches and pharmacokinetics on RC and its active components. Secondly, the clinical application of RC is mainly reviewed, such as applicable stage and syndrome, the reasonable dose range, the preparation formulations, and the toxicity and/or side effects and solutions to its adverse actions. This review provides scientific evidence about the effective components, pharmacological researches, and toxicity of RC, as well as introducing traditional Chinese medical theory and clinical experience, in order to guide clinician to use RC more suitably and reasonably in the clinical practice. PMID:26508987

  14. Resource Effective Strategies to Prevent and Treat Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Schwalm, Jon-David; McKee, Martin; Huffman, Mark D.; Yusuf, Salim

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of global deaths, with the majority occurring in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The primary and secondary prevention of CVD is suboptimal throughout the world, but the evidence-practice gaps are much more pronounced in LMIC. Barriers at the patient, health-care provider, and health system level prevent the implementation of optimal primary and secondary prevention. Identification of the particular barriers that exist in resource-constrained settings is necessary to inform effective strategies to reduce the identified evidence-practice gaps. Furthermore, targeting modifiable factors that contribute most significantly to the global burden of CVD, including tobacco use, hypertension, and secondary prevention for CVD will lead to the biggest gains in mortality reduction. We review a select number of novel, resource-efficient strategies to reduce premature mortality from CVD, including: (1) effective measures for tobacco control; (2) implementation of simplified screening and management algorithms for those with or at risk of CVD, (3) increasing the availability and affordability of simplified and cost-effective treatment regimens including combination CVD preventive drug therapy, and (4) simplified delivery of health care through task-sharing (non-physician health workers) and optimizing self-management (treatment supporters). Developing and deploying systems of care that address barriers related to the above, will lead to substantial reductions in CVD and related mortality. PMID:26903017

  15. The beneficial effect on family life in treating borderline personality.

    PubMed

    Gerull, Friederike; Meares, Russell; Stevenson, Janine; Korner, Anthony; Newman, Louise

    2008-01-01

    The harmful effect of borderline patients on their families is an important but relatively neglected aspect of outcome studies. This study concerns changes in perceived quality of relationships with partners and children of 24 patients suffering Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) after 12 months of treatment with the Conversational Model (CM). They were compared to 21 parents with BPD receiving "Treatment as Usual" (TAU) from their referring clinicians for the same period. Both groups developed naturalistically giving the study a quasi-experimental design. The Social Adjustment Scale (SAS-SR) was administered on intake and again after 12 months. The subscales dealing with relationships with children, with partners and with the family unit were scored and compared between groups. It was found that the perceived relationships with children and partners improved significantly for the CM group but not for the TAU group.

  16. Effects of a laser acupuncture therapy on treating pain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Wai-on; Xiao, Shaojun; Ip, Wing-Yuk; Guo, Xia

    2001-10-01

    Laser acupuncture (LA) has been utilized as a combined approach of Chinese traditional acupuncture and low-level laser therapy since its emergence in 1973. Its mechanisms are not well understood and the standardization of clinical protocols has not been established. In this study, we used a diode laser to irradiate on four acupuncture points for normal subjects to investigate the effect of LA. For each point, the irradiation lasted for three minutes. The median nerve conduction velocity was measured within a 30 minutes interval at day 1, day 5, and day 10 respectively. Patients with chronic carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) were given LA therapy for three stages at most with a one-week interval between two stages. Treatment outcome measurements included patients' subjective feedback (McGill pain questionnaire, VAS) and objective measurements (physical examination, kinesiological properties and NCSs). It was a randomized single-blind controlled trial. For normal subjects, motor nerve fiber was sensitive to LA and the motor conduction velocity was decreased very significantly (p < 0.001). Besides, it was found that LA resulted that sensory nerve conduction velocity was decreased significantly when it was measured 30 minutes after the subject had received LA application. For CTS patients, the outcomes except pinch test indicated that LA could improve patient's conduction. These results suggested that LA could cause the change of nerve conduction.

  17. Antiamnesic effect of stevioside in scopolamine-treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepika; Puri, Munish; Tiwary, Ashok K.; Singh, Nirmal; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the potential of stevioside in memory dysfunction of rats. Memory impairment was produced by scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) in animals. Morris water maze (MWM) test was employed to assess learning and memory. Brain acetylcholinestrase enzyme (AChE) activity was measured to assess the central cholinergic activity. The levels of brain thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were estimated to assess the degree of oxidative stress. Scopolamine administration induced significant impairment of learning and memory in rats, as indicated by a marked decrease in MWM performance. Scopolamine administration also produced a significant enhancement of brain AChE activity and brain oxidative stress (increase in TBARS and decrease in GSH) levels. Pretreatment of stevioside (250 mg/kg dose orally) significantly reversed scopolamine-induced learning and memory deficits along with attenuation of scopolamine-induced rise in brain AChE activity and brain oxidative stress levels. It may be concluded that stevioside exerts a memory-preservative effect in cognitive deficits of rats possibly through its multiple actions. PMID:20871768

  18. Potential therapeutic effects of meditation for treating affective dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Leung, Natalie T Y; Lo, Mandy M; Lee, Tatia M C

    2014-01-01

    Affective dysregulation is at the root of many psychopathologies, including stress induced disorders, anxiety disorders, and depression. The root of these disorders appears to be an attenuated, top-down cognitive control from the prefrontal cortices over the maladaptive subcortical emotional processing. A form of mental training, long-term meditation practice can trigger meditation-specific neuroplastic changes in the brain regions underlying cognitive control and affective regulation, suggesting that meditation can act as a kind of mental exercise to foster affective regulation and possibly a cost-effective intervention in mood disorders. Increasing research has suggested that the cultivation of awareness and acceptance along with a nonjudgmental attitude via meditation promotes adaptive affective regulation. This review examined the concepts of affective regulation and meditation and discussed behavioral and neural evidence of the potential clinical application of meditation. Lately, there has been a growing trend toward incorporating the "mindfulness" component into existing psychotherapeutic treatment. Promising results have been observed thus far. Future studies may consider exploring the possibility of integrating the element of "compassion" into current psychotherapeutic approaches.

  19. Effect of heat-treated titanium surfaces on protein adsorption and osteoblast precursor cell initial attachment.

    PubMed

    Kern, Travis; Yang, Yunzhi; Glover, Renee; Ong, Joo L

    2005-03-01

    The clinical success of dental implants is governed in part by surface properties of implants and their interactions with the surrounding tissues. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of heat-treated titanium surfaces on protein adsorption and osteoblast precursor cell attachment in vitro. Passivated titanium samples used in this study were either non heat treated or heat treated at 750 degrees C for 90 minutes. It was observed that the contact angle on heat-treated titanium surfaces was statistically lower compared with the non-heat-treated titanium surfaces. The non-heat-treated titanium surface was also observed to be amorphous oxide, whereas heat treatment of titanium resulted in the conversion of amorphous oxide to crystalline anatase oxide. No significant difference in albumin and fibronectin adsorption was observed between the heat-treated and non-heat-treated titanium surfaces. In addition, no significant difference in initial cell attachment was observed between the two groups. It was concluded that heat treatment of titanium resulted in significantly more hydrophilic surfaces compared to non-heat-treated titanium surfaces. However, differences in oxide crystallinity and wettability were not observed to affect protein adsorption and initial osteoblast precursor cell attachment.

  20. The Effect of Eurycoma Longifolia Jack on Spermatogenesis in Estrogen-Treated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wahab, Norhazlina Abdul; Mokhtar, Norfilza M.; Halim, Wan Nurul Heriza A; Das, Srijit

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is little data concerning the ability of Eurycoma longifolia Jack (EL) to reverse the inhibitory effects of estrogen on testosterone production and spermatogenesis. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of EL on testicular histology and sperm count in estrogen-treated male rats. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200–250 g were divided into four groups of six rats each. Group A (control) was given solvent in the same manner as the treated groups were given EL. Group B was treated with EL (8 mg/kg body weight) orally. Group C was treated with estradiol (E2) (intramuscular dose of 500 μg/kg body weight), and group D received a combined treatment of oral EL and intramuscular E2. After fourteen consecutive days of treatment, rats from all groups were sacrificed and subjected to spermatogenic and epididymal sperm cell counts. RESULTS: The spermatogenic cell count in the E2-treated group was significantly decreased as compared to the control (p < 0.05) and EL+E2-treated groups (p < 0.05). A similar finding was found for the epididymal sperm count; the E2-treated group had a significant decrease in the count compared to the control (p < 0.05) and EL+E2-treated groups (p < 0.05). Rats that were treated with EL alone exhibited significantly higher sperm counts and sperm motility when compared to the control group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: EL extract acts as a potential agent for reversing the effects of estrogen by increasing spermatogenesis and sperm counts in rats after fourteen consecutive days of treatment. PMID:20126351

  1. Effects of vasopressin on electrolyte transport across isolated colon from normal and dexamethasone-treated rats.

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, R J; Rummel, W; Wollenberg, P

    1984-01-01

    Vasopressin enhanced the absorption of Na+ and Cl- across the short-circuited colon descendens from normal rats. This effect of vasopressin results from an increase in the mucosal to serosal movement of Na+ and Cl- and a decrease in the serosal to mucosal movement of Cl- and was accompanied with a decrease in the short-circuit current (ISC). Neither the base-line absorption of Na+ and Cl-, the vasopressin-induced increase in Na+ and Cl- absorption nor the decrease in ISC were inhibited by amiloride in the colon from normal rats. Colon descendens from rats treated for 3 days with dexamethasone had remarkably higher transmural potential difference (p.d.), tissue conductance (Gt) and ISC. The absorption of Na+ across the short-circuited colon descendens from dexamethasone-treated rats was increased 3-fold when compared to colon from normal rats. The absorption of Cl- in normal rats was reversed to Cl- secretion in treated rats. Amiloride rapidly and reversibly decreased the p.d., Gt and ISC in colon from dexamethasone-treated rats. The transport of Na+ was nearly completely inhibited by amiloride in treated rats. In contrast to its enhancing effects on Na+ absorption in colon from normal rats vasopressin did not enhance Na+ absorption in colon from dexamethasone-treated rats. This enhancement of Cl- absorption by vasopressin was retained in colon from treated rats. This enhancement of Cl- transport was due solely to a decrease in the serosal to mucosal movement of Cl- and was accompanied with a decrease in ISC and Gt. The results support the hypothesis that vasopressin causes inhibition of the electrogenic secretion of Cl- in colon from dexamethasone-treated rats. Furthermore, the results suggest that the increase in the mucosal to serosal movement of Na+ and Cl- and the decrease in the serosal to mucosal movement of Cl- in colon from normal rats are caused by independent effects of vasopressin. PMID:6491990

  2. NEUROMODULATORY EFFECTS OF THYMOQUINONE IN EXTENUATING OXIDATIVE STRESS IN CHLORPROMAZINE TREATED RATS.

    PubMed

    Safhi, Mohammed Mohsin

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible protective effect of thymoquinone on chlorpromazine induced catalepsy, locomotor activity and cerebral oxidative stress in rats. The rats were divided into four groups, each group containing eight animals. The animals were evaluated after repeated administration of chlorpromazine (CPZ) 30 min before the administration of thymoquinone (TQ) for 21 days. Catalepsy was assessed using block method whereas the locomotor activity was assessed using acceleratory rotarod and actophotometer. Markers of oxidative stress parameters (LPO, GSH, GPx, GR, GST and CAT) were evaluated in the brain of rats. The cataleptic scores were significantly increased in CPZ treated rats when compared with normal control rats. Oral administration of TQ (5 and 10 mg/kg) significantly decreased cataleptic scores when compared with chlorpromazine (CPZ) treated rats. The muscle coordination and spontaneous locomotor activity was significantly decreased in CPZ treated rats when compared with normal control rats. Treatment with TQ significantly improved the muscle coordination and spontaneous locomotor activity when compared with CPZ treated rats. TQ treated rats significantly reduced the elevated levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO), increased levels of antioxidant enzymes i.e., reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) when compared with CPZ treated rats. The results clearly suggest that supplementation with TQ can be used to preclude CPZ induced extrapyramidal side effects and may find a role in reducing the oxidative stress.

  3. Analytical Approach Treating Three-Dimensional Geometrical Effects of Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Binotti, M.; Zhu, G.; Gray, A.; Manzollini, G.

    2012-04-01

    An analytical approach, as an extension of one newly developed method -- First-principle OPTical Intercept Calculation (FirstOPTIC) -- is proposed to treat the geometrical impact of three-dimensional (3-D) effects on parabolic trough optical performance. The mathematical steps of this analytical approach are presented and implemented numerically as part of the suite of FirstOPTIC code. In addition, the new code has been carefully validated against ray-tracing simulation results and available numerical solutions. This new analytical approach to treating 3-D effects will facilitate further understanding and analysis of the optical performance of trough collectors as a function of incidence angle.

  4. The antioxidant effect of free bilirubin on cumene-hydroperoxide treated human leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Yesilkaya, A; Altinayak, R; Korgun, D K

    2000-07-01

    To examine the antioxidant effect of bilirubin (BR) on leukocyte, we treated leukocytes obtained from healthy subjects with an oxidant and various concentrations of BR. High concentrations of BR decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and catalase activities, increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but had no effect on glutathione (GSH) concentration. Our results showed that under physiological conditions, BR has an antioxidant effect only in high concentrations.

  5. Protective effects of HGF gene-expressing human mesenchymal stem cells in acetaminophen-treated hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yun Ho; You, Dong Hun; Nam, Myeong Jin

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) secrete a great variety of cytokines that have beneficial paracrine actions. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) promotes proliferation in several cell types. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of HGF gene-transfected MSC (HGF-MSC) in acetaminophen (AAP)-treated hepatocytes. We transfected the HGF gene into MSCs and confirmed HGF expression by RT-PCR and western blot. The concentration of HGF in HGF-MSC conditioned media (HGFCM) was upregulated compared with that in control MSCCM samples. Cell viability was increased in HGFCM-treated hepatocytes. Expression of Mcl-1, an anti-apoptosis protein, was increased and expression of pro-apoptosis proteins (Bad, Bik and Bid) was decreased in HGFCM-treated hepatocytes. HGF-MSC had protective effects on AAP-induced hepatocyte damage by enhancing proliferation. These results suggest that HGF-expressing MSCs may provide regenerative potential for liver cell damage.

  6. Repellent effect of alphacypermethrin-treated netting against Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Martin, T; Kamal, A; Gogo, E; Saidi, M; Delétré, E; Bonafos, R; Simon, S; Ngouajio, M

    2014-04-01

    For > 20 yr, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius persists as a begomovirus vector and is a serious problem in tomato production in many parts of the world. In tropical countries, the use of netting to protect horticultural crops has proven to be an effective and sustainable tool against Lepidoptera but not against small insects. This study evaluated the repellent effect of AgroNet 0.9T, a 0.9-mm pore diameter and 40-mesh size netting treated with alphacypermethrin insecticide against B. tabaci. This pyrethroid insecticide is known to have toxic and repellent effects against mosquitoes and has been used for treatment of mosquito nets. Two nontreated netting materials were used as control: AgroNet 0.9NT with 0.9-mm pore diameter and 40-mesh size and AgroNet 0.4NT with 0.4-mm pore diameter and 80-mesh size. The behavior of B. tabaci and its parasitoid Encarsia formosa Gahan as they progressed through the treated netting was studied in the laboratory in choice and no-choice tests. The development of wild B. tabaci population on tomato plants protected by the same nets was followed in two field trials implemented in Njoro, Kenya. Results obtained with the no-choice tests showed a significant reduction of movement on the treated net with 40-mesh (19%) compared with nontreated netting (35 and 46% with 80- and 40-mesh, respectively). The mortality of B. tabaci was significantly higher (two-fold) in the test tube containing only the treated netting compared with the nontreated one. The repellent effect of the treated netting was also demonstrated against E. formosa, but it did not have this toxic effect. Unlike for B. tabaci, the treated and nontreated nets appeared to have a similar repellent effect on E. formosa in the choice test, which suggests a learning behavior of the parasitoid. In both field tests, B. tabaci population was significantly lower on tomato protected by the treated net compared with the same nontreated net. However there was no significant difference in B. tabaci

  7. Effects of bradykinin on venous capacitance in health and treated chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Gunaruwan, Prasad; Maher, Abdul; Williams, Lynne; Sharman, James; Schmitt, Matthias; Campbell, Ross; Frenneaux, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of basal and intra-arterial infusion of bradykinin on unstressed forearm vascular volume (a measure of venous tone) and blood flow in healthy volunteers (n=20) and in chronic heart failure patients treated with ACEIs [ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitors] (n=16) and ARBs (angiotensin receptor blockers) (n=14). We used radionuclide plethysmography to examine the effects of bradykinin and of the bradykinin antagonists B9340 [B1 (type 1)/B2 (type 2) receptor antagonist] and HOE140 (B2 antagonist). Bradykinin infusion increased unstressed forearm vascular volume in a similar dose-dependent manner in healthy volunteers and ARB-treated CHF patients (healthy volunteers maximum 12.3±2.1%, P<0.001 compared with baseline; ARB-treated CHF patients maximum 9.3±3.3%, P<0.05 compared with baseline; P=not significant for difference between groups), but the increase in unstressed volume in ACEI-treated CHF patients was higher (maximum 28.8±7.8%, P<0.001 compared with baseline; P<0.05 for the difference between groups). In contrast, while the increase in blood flow in healthy volunteers (maximum 362±9%, P<0.001) and in ACEI-treated CHF patients (maximum 376±12%, P<0.001) was similar (P=not significant for the difference between groups), the increase in ARB-treated CHF patients was less (maximum 335±7%, P<0.001; P<0.05 for the difference between groups). Infusion of each receptor antagonist alone similarly reduced basal unstressed volume and blood flow in ACEI-treated CHF patients, but not in healthy volunteers or ARB-treated CHF patients. In conclusion, bradykinin does not contribute to basal venous tone in health, but in ACEI-treated chronic heart failure it does. In ARB-treated heart failure, venous responses to bradykinin are preserved but arterial responses are reduced compared with healthy controls. Bradykinin-mediated vascular responses in both health and heart failure are mediated by the B2, rather than the B1

  8. Effect of Ultrasound-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation in Incompletely Treated Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Nam Kyu; Kim, Jin Woong; Kim, Hyung Jun; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Heo, Suk Hee; Kim, Jae Kyu; Kang, Heoung Keun

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasound-guided radiofrequency (RF) ablation in patients with incompletely treated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and to evaluate possible prognostic factors for this therapy. Subjects and Methods Thirty nine patients with incompletely treated single HCC (≤ 5 cm) after TACE were treated with RF ablation. All patients were evaluated for complete tumor ablation rate, local recurrence-free rate, overall survival rate, and complications. Local recurrence-free rate and overall survival rate were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The possible prognostic factors of local recurrence-free rate and survival rate were analyzed using Cox proportional-hazards regression model. Results The complete tumor ablation rate was 92.3%. Local recurrence-free rates for 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-years were 81.7%, 63.1%, 53.6%, and 35.7%, respectively. One-, 2-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates were 96.9%, 82.9%, 67.8%, and 48.4%, respectively. Among prognostic factors included in the analysis, only tumor diameter (≤ 2 cm versus > 2 cm) was statistically significant in terms of predicting local recurrence. Complications were observed in two patients, one with liver abscess and the other with portal venous thrombosis. Conclusion Ultrasound-guided RF ablation could be effective and safe in treating incompletely treated HCC after TACE. The diameter of HCC was a significant prognostic factor for local recurrence. PMID:22563280

  9. The antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of pycnogenol(®) on rats treated with cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Birsen; Unsal, Meftun; Sekeroglu, Zulal A; Gülbahar, Yavuz

    2011-09-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are implicated in the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced toxicity. Pycnogenol® is known for its strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, the possible protective effects of pycnogenol on kidney, bone marrow, and red blood cells in rats treated with cisplatin were investigated. The rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 was the control and groups 2, 3, and 4 were orally treated with pycnogenol (200 mg/kg bw, o.p) for 5 days, treated with cisplatin (7 mg/kg bw, i.p.) on the fifth day and treated with cisplatin plus pycnogenol, respectively. Antioxidative parameters in kidney and red blood cells were measured. Chromosome anomalies in bone marrow and renal histopathology were also investigated. Activities of pro-oxidant enzymes (myeloperoxidase and xanthine oxidase), malondialdehyde, and nitric oxide levels significantly increased but antioxidant enzymes activities decreased in the kidneys and red blood cells after cisplatin treatment. Pycnogenol treatment prior to the administration of cisplatin significantly decreased cisplatin-induced injury, as evidenced by its normalizing these parameters. Chromosomal aberrations decreased and mitotic index frequencies increased in bone marrow treated with cisplatin plus pycnogenol. These findings suggest that pycnogenol may be a useful protective agent against the toxicity associated with cisplatin therapy.

  10. EFFECT OF STATINS ON ESTROGEN AND ANDROGEN LEVELS IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN TREATED WITH ESTRADIOL

    PubMed Central

    Peck, Alison; Chaikittisilpa, Sukanya; Mirzaei, Roshanak; Wang, Jun; Mack, Wendy J.; Hodis, Howard N.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.

    2011-01-01

    Objective A considerable number of postmenopausal women who receive estrogen therapy (ET) are also treated for hypercholesterolemia with cholesterol-lowering statins. Statins and steroid hormones can compete for the same steroid-metabolizing enzymes. We investigated whether long-term administration of statins had an effect on serum estrogen and androgen levels in postmenopausal women receiving and not receiving oral ET. Methods A subgroup analysis from the Estrogen in the Prevention of Atherosclerosis Trial, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, was performed. A total of 222 women were randomized to receive either placebo or 1 mg of oral micronized E2 daily for 2 years. In both the placebo and treatment groups, participants with LDL-cholesterol levels >160 mg/dL were treated with statins. Blood samples were obtained at baseline and every 6 months during the trial. Serum levels of DHEA, androstenedione, testosterone, estrone and E2 were measured by RIA. Results Among 86 placebo- and 90 estradiol-treated subjects with baseline and on-trial hormone measurements, no significant differences were observed between the statin-free and statin-treated groups in mean changes from baseline to on-trial levels in any of the androgens or estrogens, whether or not the postmenopausal women were treated with estrogen. Conclusion The results suggest that ET and statins can be used simultaneously with no deleterious effects on circulating hormone levels. PMID:20450412

  11. Personal Protection against Biting Flies: The Relative Effectiveness of Overjackets Treated with Various Insect Repellents.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-01

    treatments included N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet), two mixtures containing deet and vanillin , two morpholine derivatives and an oxazolidine derivative...The overjackets treated with deet and deet- vanillin mixtures provided the most protection against biting flies. In protecting the facial area, these overjackets were as effective as applying deet liquid directly to the skin. (Author)

  12. Effects of Workflow Optimization in Endovascularly Treated Stroke Patients – A Pre-Post Effectiveness Study

    PubMed Central

    Behme, Daniel; Tsogkas, Ioannis; Knauth, Michael; Maier, Ilko; Karch, André; Mikolajczyk, Rafael; Hinz, José; Liman, Jan; Psychogios, Marios-Nikos

    2016-01-01

    Endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke has become standard of care for patients with large artery occlusion. Early restoration of blood flow is crucial for a good clinical outcome. We introduced an interdisciplinary standard operating procedure (SOP) between neuroradiologists, neurologists and anesthesiologists in order to streamline patient management. This study analyzes the effect of optimized workflow on periprocedural timings and its potential influence on clinical outcome. Data were extracted from a prospectively maintained university hospital stroke database. The standard operating procedure was established in February 2014. Of the 368 acute stroke patients undergoing endovascular treatment between 2008 and 2015, 278 patients were treated prior to and 90 after process optimization. Outcome measures were periprocedural time intervals and residual functional impairment. After implementation of the SOP, time from symptom onset to reperfusion was significantly reduced (median 264 min prior and 211 min after SOP-introduction (IQR 228–32 min and 161–278 min, respectively); P<0.001). Especially faster supply of imaging and prompt transfer of patients to the angiography suite contributed to this effect. Time between hospital admission and groin puncture was reduced by half after process optimization (median 64 min after versus 121 min prior to SOP-introduction (IQR 54–77 min and 96–161 min, respectively); P<0.001). Clinical outcome was significantly better after workflow optimization as measured with the modified Rankin Scale (common odds ratio (OR) 0.56; 95% CI 0.32–0.98; P = 0.038). Optimization of workflow and interdisciplinary teamwork significantly improved the outcome of patients with acute ischemic stroke due to a significant reduction of in-hospital examination, transportation, imaging and treatment times. PMID:28036401

  13. Effective doses to family members of patients treated with radioiodine-131

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdraveska Kocovska, M.; Vaskova, O.; Majstorov, V.; Kuzmanovska, S.; Pop Gjorceva, D.; Spasic Jokic, V.

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effective dose to family members of thyroid cancer and hyperthyroid patients treated with radioiodine-131, and also to compare the results with dose constraints proposed by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the Basic Safety Standards (BSS) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). For the estimation of the effective doses, sixty family members of sixty patients, treated with radioiodine-131, and thermoluminiscent dosimeters (Model TLD 100) were used. Thyroid cancer patients were hospitalized for three days, while hyperthyroid patients were treated on out-patient basis. The family members wore TLD in front of the torso for seven days. The radiation doses to family members of thyroid cancer patients were well below the recommended dose constraint of 1 mSv. The mean value of effective dose was 0.21 mSv (min 0.02 - max 0.51 mSv). Effective doses, higher than 1 mSv, were detected for 11 family members of hyperthyroid patients. The mean value of effective dose of family members of hyperthyroid patients was 0.87 mSv (min 0.12 - max 6.79). The estimated effective doses to family members of hyperthyroid patients were higher than the effective doses to family members of thyroid carcinoma patients. These findings may be considered when establishing new national guidelines concerning radiation protection and release of patients after a treatment with radioiodine therapy.

  14. Animal Models for Medication Development and Application to Treat Fetal Alcohol Effects.

    PubMed

    Barron, S; Hawkey, A; Fields, L; Littleton, J M

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol consumption during pregnancy can have lifelong consequences for the offspring, their family and society. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) include a range of physical and behavioral effects with the most significant impact occurring as a result of the effects of ethanol on the developing central nervous system (CNS). To date, there are no FDA approved drugs that have been tested that prevent/reduce or specifically treat the symptoms of FASD. There are several promising lines of research from rodent models aimed at reducing the neurotoxic effects of ethanol on the developing CNS or in treating the resulting behavioral impairments but these have not yet moved to clinical testing. The current review discusses some of the most promising targets for intervention and provides a review of the past and ongoing efforts to develop and screen pharmacological treatments for reducing the effects of prenatal ethanol exposure.

  15. Effect of UV exposure on the surface chemistry of wood veneers treated with ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patachia, Silvia; Croitoru, Catalin; Friedrich, Christian

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, the influence of four types of imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) on the chemical alteration of the surface of wood veneers exposed to 254 nm UV irradiation have been studied by using image analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and surface energy calculation. The wood treated with ionic liquids showed better stability to UV light, as demonstrated by the low lignin, carbonyl index and cellulose crystallinity index variation, as well as very small color modification of the surface with the increase of the UV exposure period, by comparing to non-treated wood. The results show that the tested ionic liquids could be effective as UV stabilizers.

  16. Antigenotoxic and anticytotoxic effect of camel milk in mice treated with cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Salwa, M. Quita; Lina, A.F. Kurdi

    2010-01-01

    Camel milk (CM) has good nutritive value, in addition to its antigenotoxic and anticytotoxic effects. Therefore the aim of this investigation was to evaluate the capacity of CM to inhibit the micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs) in the bone marrow and improve the mitotic activity produced by cisplatin. Cisplatin is one of the most widely used antineoplastic drugs in the treatment of cancer. The 70 adult male Swiss albino mice were divided into seven groups:Gr. I: treated with distilled water and considered as a control group.Gr. II: treated with camel milk (33 ml/kg, b.w).Gr. III: treated previously with cisplatin (0.5 mg/kg, b.w).Gr. IV: treated with camel milk and followed after 2 h. with cisplatin (33 ml/kg → 0.5 mg/kg, b.w).Gr. V: treated with camel milk and cisplatin at the same time (33 ml/kg + 0.5 mg/kg, b.w).Gr. VI: treated with an acute single dose of cisplatin (2.5 mg/kg, b.w).Gr. VII: treated with camel milk prior and followed with an acute single dose of cisplatin (33 ml/kg → 2.5 mg /kg, b.w). The animals were sacrificed 24 h after cisplatin injection. The pretreatment with CM dose caused a significant decrease (P < 0.001) in the frequency of MnPCEs and increase (P < 0.001) in the mitotic index (MI) induced by cisplatin when compared with the groups treated with cisplatin alone. The possible explanation for the antigenotoxic and anticytotoxic effects observed in the pretreatment with CM is ascribed to its contents. In conclusion, from the findings we suggest that this milk has some antioxidant effect, and the antigenotoxic mechanism of this milk needs to be explored further before their use during cisplatin chemotherapy. PMID:23961073

  17. Effects of a single glucocorticoid injection on propylene glycol-treated cows with clinical ketosis.

    PubMed

    van der Drift, Saskia G A; Houweling, Martin; Bouman, Marina; Koets, Ad P; Tielens, Aloysius G M; Nielen, Mirjam; Jorritsma, Ruurd

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the metabolic effects of glucocorticoids when administered to propylene glycol-treated cows with clinical ketosis. Clinical ketosis was defined by depressed feed intake and milk production, and a maximal score for acetoacetate in urine. All cows received 250 mL oral propylene glycol twice daily for 3 days and were randomly assigned to a single intramuscular injection with sterile isotonic saline solution (n = 14) or dexamethasone-21-isonicotinate (n = 17). Metabolic blood variables were monitored for 6 days and adipose tissue variables for 3 days. β-Hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations in blood decreased in all cows during treatment, but were lower in glucocorticoid-treated cows. Cows treated with glucocorticoids had higher plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, whereas concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids, 3-methylhistidine and growth hormone were unaffected. mRNA expression of hormone-sensitive lipase, BHBA receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor type γ in adipose tissue was not affected. This shows that lipolytic effects do not appear to be important in ketotic cows when glucocorticoids are combined with PG. Plasma 3-methyl histidine concentrations were similar in both groups, suggesting that glucocorticoids did not increase muscle breakdown and that the greater rise in plasma glucose in glucocorticoid-treated cows may not be due to increased supply of glucogenic amino acids from muscle.

  18. Effect of prostaglandin E/sub 2/ on the small intestine of indomethacin-treated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Romain, N.; Dandrifosse, G.; Forget, P.; Lepoint, A.

    1987-09-07

    In the present study, the protective effect of PGE/sub 2/ on intestinal damage in indomethacin-treated adult rats was investigated. Ileal integrity was evaluated making use of different biochemical and histological parameters : activities of sucrase, maltase and diamine oxidase; concentrations of DNA, putrescine, spermidine and spermine; incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine into DNA; mitotic index and mucosal thickness. Results expressed per g of mucosal weight, showed that : - maltase and diamine oxidase activities as well as DNA, spermidine and spermine concentrations decreased markedly in indomethacin-treated rats when compared to control rats; - the decrease of maltase activity as well as DNA, spermidine and spermine concentration was less pronounced in PGE/sub 2/-treated rats when compared to indomethacin-treated rats; - /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation into DNA and mitotic index values showed no significant variation in the course of different treatments; - mucosal thickness increased strongly, the PGE/sub 2/-protected rats. The authors suggest that PGE/sub 2/ could protect the rat's intestinal mucosa against the effects of indomethacin through a trophic action on intestinal villi. 15 references, 3 tables.

  19. Restorative effects of GDNF on striatal dopamine release in rats treated with neurotoxic doses of methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Cass, W A; Manning, M W; Bailey, S L

    2000-09-01

    Repeated methamphetamine (METH) administration to animals can result in long-lasting decreases in striatal dopamine (DA) release and content. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has pronounced effects on dopaminergic systems in vivo, including neuroprotective effects against METH. The present experiments were designed to examine the ability of GDNF to reverse, or accelerate recovery from, METH-induced alterations in striatal DA release. Male Fischer-344 rats were administered METH (5 mg/kg, s.c.) or saline 4 times in one day at 2-hour intervals. Seven days later the animals were anesthetized and given a single injection of 10 microg GDNF, or vehicle, into the right striatum. Three weeks later microdialysis experiments were carried out in both the right and left striata to examine basal and evoked levels of DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA). In animals treated with METH followed by vehicle 7 days later, there were significant reductions in potassium- and amphetamine-evoked overflow of DA, and in basal levels of DOPAC and HVA, compared to control animals. In rats treated with METH followed 7 days later with GDNF, there were significant increases in potassium- and amphetamine-evoked overflow of DA on the right, GDNF-treated, side of the brain compared to the left side. Basal levels of DOPAC and HVA were also elevated on the GDNF-treated side of the brain. These results suggest that GDNF can accelerate recovery of dopaminergic release processes in the striatum of rats treated with neurotoxic doses of METH.

  20. Effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese medicine in treating acquired immune deficiency syndrome: 2004-2014.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Bin; Yang, Ji-Ping; Xu, Li-Ran

    2015-12-23

    Substantial progress has been made in China in using traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Our objective was to review the latest developments in TCM treatment of AIDS in China between 2004 and 2014. We reviewed the content of original articles investigating the efficacy and safety of TCM for treating AIDS published in Chinese and English language journals. Relevant references from 2004 to 2014 were found using PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database. We found that TCM has been widely used for treating AIDS and its complications in China. The number of TCM studies has increased, which indicates efficacy and safety. Measures of efficacy in the reviewed articles included the alleviation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related signs and symptoms, improvements in quality of life, improvements in long-term survival, counteraction of the adverse side effects of antiviral drugs, promotion of immune reconstitution, and improvement of laboratory results. In sum, the literature indicates that TCM is safe. TCM plays an important role in the treatment of AIDS. Some studies have attempted to measure the efficacy and safety of TCM for treating AIDS, but more evidence is needed. Therefore, more research on this topic is required in the future.

  1. Effects of Melatonin on Colchicine-Treated PLBs of Dendrobium sonia-28 Orchid.

    PubMed

    Lim, M S; Antony, J J J; Islam, S M Shahinul; Suhana, Z; Sreeramanan, S

    2017-01-01

    Dendrobium hybrid orchid is popular in orchid commercial industry due to its short life cycle and ability to produce various types of flower colours. This study was conducted to identify the morphological, biochemical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis in the Dendrobium sonia-28 orchid plants. In this study, 0.05 and 0.075 % of colchicine-treated Dendrobium sonia-28 (4-week-old culture) protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) were treated in different concentrations of melatonin (MEL) posttreatments (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 μM). Morphological parameters such as number of shoots, growth index and number of PLBs were determined. In the 0.05 and 0.075 % of colchicine-treated PLBs which were posttreated with 0.05 μM MEL resulted in the highest value of the morphological parameters tested based on the number of shoots (84.5 and 96.67), growth index (16.94 and 12.15) and number of PLBs (126.5 and 162.33), respectively. SEM analysis of the 0.05 μM MEL posttreatment on both the colchicine-treated regenerated PLBs showed irregular cell lineages, and some damages occurred on the stomata. This condition might be due to the effect of plasmolyzing occurred in the cell causing irregular cell lineages.

  2. Preventive effects of cedrol against alopecia in cyclophosphamide-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Yan; Lu, Qiu-Li; Lin, Zhe; Zhao, Yuqing

    2016-09-01

    Although numerous hypotheses have been proposed to prevent chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA), effective pharmaceuticals have yet to be developed. In our study, the back hairs of C57BL/6 mice were factitiously removed. These mice were then treated with cedrol or minoxidil daily. Mice with early-stage anagen VI hair follicles were treated with cyclophosphamide (CYP, 125mg/kg) to induce alopecia. The CYP-damaged hair follicles were observed and quantified by using a digital photomicrograph. The results demonstrated that the minoxidil-treated mice suffered from complete alopecia similar to the model 6days after CYP administration. Simultaneously, the cedrol-treated (200mg/kg) mice manifested mild alopecia with 40% suppression. Histological observation revealed that anagen hair follicles of the cedrol-pretreated mice (82.5%) likely provided from damage compared with the sparse and dystrophic hair follicles of the model mice (37.0%). Therefore, the use of topical cedrol can prevent hair follicle dystrophy and provide local protection against CIA.

  3. Effect of simulated rainfall and weathering on release of preservative elements from CCA treated wood.

    PubMed

    Lebow, Stan; Williams, R Sam; Lebow, Patricia

    2003-09-15

    The release of arsenic from wood pressure-treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) can be decreased by application of wood finishes, but little is known about the types of finishes that are best suited for this purpose. This study evaluated the effects of finish water repellent content and ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the release of arsenic, copper, and chromium from CCA-treated wood exposed to simulated rainfall. Deck boards treated with CCA were either left unfinished or dipped in a finish prepared with 1%, 3%, or 5% water repellent. All specimens were exposed to leaching from simulated rainfall, and a subset of specimens was also exposed to UV radiation. The rainfall was collected and analyzed for total elemental arsenic, copper, and chromium. The water repellent significantly decreased the amounts of these elements in the runoff, but for the short duration of this study there was no difference among the three water repellent concentrations. It is possible that water repellent content would have a greater effect over a longer exposure period. Exposure to UV radiation caused a significant increase in leaching from both finished and unfinished specimens. This effect may be a result of increased surface area during weathering as well as loss of fibers caused by UV-induced surface erosion.

  4. Effects on Organic Photovoltaics Using Femtosecond-Laser-Treated Indium Tin Oxides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Hsin; Tseng, Ya-Hsin; Chao, Yi-Ping; Tseng, Sheng-Yang; Lin, Zong-Rong; Chu, Hui-Hsin; Chang, Jan-Kai; Luo, Chih-Wei

    2016-09-28

    The effects of femtosecond-laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on an indium tin oxide (ITO) surface applied to an organic photovoltaic (OPV) system were investigated. The modifications of ITO induced by LIPPS in OPV devices result in more than 14% increase in power conversion efficiency (PCE) and short-circuit current density relative to those of the standard device. The basic mechanisms for the enhanced short-circuit current density are attributed to better light harvesting, increased scattering effects, and more efficient charge collection between the ITO and photoactive layers. Results show that higher PCEs would be achieved by laser-pulse-treated electrodes.

  5. Effectiveness of Glycyrrhizinic Acid (Glizigen) and an Immunostimulant (Viusid) to Treat Anogenital Warts

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez Gómez, José; Simón, Ramón Daniel; Abreu Daniel, Alfredo; Zelenkova, Hana

    2012-01-01

    Genital warts are benign proliferations of skin and mucosa caused by the human papillomavirus infection (hereinafter referred to as HPV). It is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in the world, whose incidence rate has increased in the last three decades. Current treatment involves the physical destruction of the infected cells. The fact that there are many different types of treatment goes to show that none of them are uniformly effective or directly antiviral. Objective. Demonstrate the efficacy of Glizigen in the III-phase clinical trial combined with a food supplement (VIUSID) formulated to boost the immune system when treating external anogenital warts. Design. 100 patients clinically diagnosed with anogenital lesions were included in the trial and assigned to two groups of 50 individuals. Those from one group where treated with Glizigen and Viusid and those from the other group with 25% podophyllin in alcohol, the results from each were then compared. Results. The combined Glizigen-Viusid treatment was seen to have an 87.5% efficacy rate, which was slightly more than that of the treatment with podophyllin, and there were hardly any adverse reactions reported during the treatment. Conclusions. the combined Glizigen-Viusid treatment was effective in treating genital warts. PMID:22957266

  6. Effectiveness of glycyrrhizinic Acid (glizigen) and an immunostimulant (viusid) to treat anogenital warts.

    PubMed

    Domínguez Gómez, José; Simón, Ramón Daniel; Abreu Daniel, Alfredo; Zelenkova, Hana

    2012-01-01

    Genital warts are benign proliferations of skin and mucosa caused by the human papillomavirus infection (hereinafter referred to as HPV). It is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in the world, whose incidence rate has increased in the last three decades. Current treatment involves the physical destruction of the infected cells. The fact that there are many different types of treatment goes to show that none of them are uniformly effective or directly antiviral. Objective. Demonstrate the efficacy of Glizigen in the III-phase clinical trial combined with a food supplement (VIUSID) formulated to boost the immune system when treating external anogenital warts. Design. 100 patients clinically diagnosed with anogenital lesions were included in the trial and assigned to two groups of 50 individuals. Those from one group where treated with Glizigen and Viusid and those from the other group with 25% podophyllin in alcohol, the results from each were then compared. Results. The combined Glizigen-Viusid treatment was seen to have an 87.5% efficacy rate, which was slightly more than that of the treatment with podophyllin, and there were hardly any adverse reactions reported during the treatment. Conclusions. the combined Glizigen-Viusid treatment was effective in treating genital warts.

  7. Registered Nurses' Knowledge about Adverse Effects of Analgesics when Treating Postoperative Pain in Patients with Dementia.

    PubMed

    Rantala, Maija; Hartikainen, Sirpa; Kvist, Tarja; Kankkunen, Päivi

    2015-08-01

    Registered nurses (RNs) play a pivotal role in treating pain and preventing and recognizing the adverse effects (AEs) of analgesics in patients with dementia. The purpose of this study was to determine RNs' knowledge of potentially clinically relevant AEs of analgesics. A descriptive, cross-sectional study design was used. In all, 267 RNs treating orthopedic patients, including patients with dementia, in 7 university hospitals and 10 central hospitals in Finland, completed a questionnaire. Analgesics were defined according to the Anatomic Therapeutic Classification as strong opioids, weak opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory analgesics (NSAIDs), and paracetamol. Definitions of AEs were based on the literature. Logistic regression analysis was applied to analyze which variables predicted nurses' knowledge. The RNs had a clear understanding of the AEs of paracetamol and strong opioids. However, the AEs of NSAIDs, especially renal and cardiovascular AEs, were less well known. The median percentage of correct answers was 87% when asked about strong opioids, 73% for weak opioids, and 60% for NSAIDs. Younger RNs had better knowledge of opioid-related AEs (odds ratio [OR] per 1-year increase, 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94-1.00) and weak opioids (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-0.99). This study provides evidence of a deficiency in RNs' knowledge, especially regarding the adverse renal and cardiovascular effects of NSAIDs. Such lack of knowledge indicates that hospitals may need to update the knowledge of older RNs, especially those who treat vulnerable patients with dementia.

  8. Irrigation with treated wastewater: effects on soil, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) crop and dynamics of microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Mañas, Pilar; Castro, Elena; de Las Heras, Jorge

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of treated wastewater for horticultural crops, assess the effects of continuous use of treated water on soil and crops, and analyse the physical, chemical and biological effects of irrigation with recycled water. Two lettuce plots watered with drinking water and treated wastewater were monitored over a three year period. Nutrients, heavy metal and the dynamics of pathogen and indicator microorganism content in soil and foliar tissues were analysed. Wastewater irrigation had a high influence on soil parameters: organic matter, N, P, Ca, Al, Fe, Pb and Zn. Indicator and pathogenic microorganisms were detected in soil and plants grown in the wastewater-irrigated plot, and persisted in the soil for 27 days during the study under humid conditions. N, P, Pb and Al content were significantly higher in plant tissues of wastewater-irrigated plots than in the control after 3 years of irrigation. Harvest was significantly higher in the wastewater-irrigated plot. Wastewater can be a resource for agricultural irrigation. In any case, the possible heavy metal accumulation in soils and presence of pathogenic organisms require careful management of this alternative resource: use of a drip irrigation system, previous wastewater disinfection and a limited irrigation period are recommended.

  9. Effect of phosvitin on lipid and protein oxidation in ground beef treated with high hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Jung, Samooel; Nam, Ki Chang; Ahn, Dong Uk; Kim, Hyun Joo; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of phosvitin on lipid and protein oxidation of raw and cooked ground beef treated with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP). Ground beef patty with 0, 500, or 1000 mg phosvitin/kg meat was treated with HHP at 0.1, 300, or 600 MPa. Half of the patties were used in a raw meat analysis, and the other half were used in a cooked meat analysis. Phosvitin and HHP treatment at 300 MPa synergistically reduced microbial growth, and HHP treatment at 600 MPa reduced microbial counts to undetectable levels (<1 log CFU/g) throughout the length of the study in all samples. Phosvitin delayed lipid and protein oxidation in HHP-treated cooked and raw ground beef, respectively. However, phosvitin had no effect on the color changes of raw ground beef attributable to HHP. The results indicated that phosvitin could enhance the stability of lipids and proteins but not color changes of raw ground beef caused by HHP.

  10. [Effect of berberine in treating type 2 diabetes mellitus and complications and its relevant mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Li, Yan; Chen, Lei

    2015-05-01

    Berberine (BBR) is a type of alkaloids isolated from Coptidis Rhizoma and Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex and has been used to treat bacterial gastroenteritis, diarrhea and other digestive diseases for more than 1 000 years. According to recent studies, berberine has been found to have multiple pharmacological activities, including lowering blood glucose and lipid, anti-inflammation, antioxidation, relieving type 2 diabetic nephropathy (DN), diabetic cardiovascular disease, diabetic peripheral neuropathy ( DPN) and other complications. In this article, the authors summarized the literature reports about the effects of BBR in lowering blood glucose and preventing and treating the above type 2 diabetes and its complications, in order to provide reference to further studies and promotion of BBR's application.

  11. Effect and mechanism of coking residual ammonia water treating by flue gas.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Z J; Yin, G J; Yang, L Q; Wang, W; Cheng, D D

    2001-04-01

    The treatment of coking residual ammonia water has been a big difficult problem at home and abroad, and there is no breakthrough research achievement in the past. The invention patent "The method of treating all coking wastewater or treating coking residual ammonia water by flue gas" has been successfully used in Huaian Steel Works for high concentration and organic industry wastewater treatment. Not only can it realize the wastewater zero discharge, but also the wastewater treatment has an effect of de-sulfur and de-nitrogen for flue gas. So that the flue gas exhaust can meet the requirement of emission standard. The mass transfer and heat transfer, fly ash absorption and coagulation, acid and alkali neutralization reaction, catalysis oxidation and reduction reaction in flue gas would be the major factors.

  12. Effect of nitric oxide signaling in bacterial-treated soybean plant under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Vaishnav, Anukool; Jain, Shekhar; Kasotia, Amrita; Kumari, Sarita; Gaur, Rajarshi Kumar; Choudhary, Devendra Kumar

    2013-08-01

    To understand protective roles of nitric oxide against salt stress, the effects of exogenous sodium nitroprusside on activities of lipoxygenase, peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonialyase, catalase, superoxide dismutase enzymes, proline accumulation, and distribution of sodium in soybean plants under salt were determined. Application of sodium nitroprusside + bacterium enhanced plant growth-promotion characteristics, activities of different enzymes, and proline accumulation in the presence of sodium nitroprusside under salt stress. Treatment with NaCl at 200 mM and sodium nitroprusside (0.1 mM) reduced Na⁺ levels but increased K⁺ levels in leaves in comparison with the NaCl-treated plants. Correspondingly, the plants treated with exogenous sodium nitroprusside and NaCl maintained a lower ratio of [Na⁺]/[K⁺] in NaCl-stressed plants.

  13. Inhibition of nitrification in municipal wastewater-treating photobioreactors: Effect on algal growth and nutrient uptake.

    PubMed

    Krustok, I; Odlare, M; Truu, J; Nehrenheim, E

    2016-02-01

    The effect of inhibiting nitrification on algal growth and nutrient uptake was studied in photobioreactors treating municipal wastewater. As previous studies have indicated that algae prefer certain nitrogen species to others, and because nitrifying bacteria are inhibited by microalgae, it is important to shed more light on these interactions. In this study allylthiourea (ATU) was used to inhibit nitrification in wastewater-treating photobioreactors. The nitrification-inhibited reactors were compared to control reactors with no ATU added. Microalgae had higher growth in the inhibited reactors, resulting in a higher chlorophyll a concentration. The species mix also differed, with Chlorella and Scenedesmus being the dominant genera in the control reactors and Cryptomonas and Chlorella dominating in the inhibited reactors. The nitrogen speciation in the reactors after 8 days incubation was also different in the two setups, with N existing mostly as NH4-N in the inhibited reactors and as NO3-N in the control reactors.

  14. Effects of Irrigating with Treated Oil and Gas Product Water on Crop Biomass and Soil Permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Terry Brown; Jeffrey Morris; Patrick Richards; Joel Mason

    2010-09-30

    Demonstrating effective treatment technologies and beneficial uses for oil and gas produced water is essential for producers who must meet environmental standards and deal with high costs associated with produced water management. Proven, effective produced-water treatment technologies coupled with comprehensive data regarding blending ratios for productive long-term irrigation will improve the state-of-knowledge surrounding produced-water management. Effective produced-water management scenarios such as cost-effective treatment and irrigation will discourage discharge practices that result in legal battles between stakeholder entities. The goal of this work is to determine the optimal blending ratio required for irrigating crops with CBNG and conventional oil and gas produced water treated by ion exchange (IX), reverse osmosis (RO), or electro-dialysis reversal (EDR) in order to maintain the long term physical integrity of soils and to achieve normal crop production. The soils treated with CBNG produced water were characterized with significantly lower SAR values compared to those impacted with conventional oil and gas produced water. The CBNG produced water treated with RO at the 100% treatment level was significantly different from the untreated produced water, while the 25%, 50% and 75% water treatment levels were not significantly different from the untreated water. Conventional oil and gas produced water treated with EDR and RO showed comparable SAR results for the water treatment technologies. There was no significant difference between the 100% treated produced water and the control (river water). The EDR water treatment resulted with differences at each level of treatment, which were similar to RO treated conventional oil and gas water. The 100% treated water had SAR values significantly lower than the 75% and 50% treatments, which were similar (not significantly different). The results of the greenhouse irrigation study found the differences in biomass

  15. Effects of visible light irradiation on eugenol-treated oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Seiichiro; Muraoka, Eitoku; Nakazato, Yoshihiro; Okada, Norihisa

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the histopathological effects of eugenol (EUG) and iso-eugenol (IsoEUG)--with or without visible light (VL) irradiation--on oral mucous membranes. Oral mucous membranes of mice were applied with three agents, EUG, IsoEUG, and aceton (as the control) in the absence or presence of VL irradiation. VL irradiation resulted in more tissue damage for EUG- or IsoEUG-treated mucosa compared to corresponding compounds without VL irradiation, and that damage under IsoEUG treatment was greater than that under EUG treatment. Necrosis, but not apoptosis, was preferentially expressed in EUG- or IsoEUG-treated mucous membranes in the presence of VL irradiation.

  16. Effect of boiling on the antidiabetic property of enzyme treated sheep milk casein

    PubMed Central

    Jan, Farhath; Kumar, Santosh; Jha, Richa

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Sheep milk-born bioactive peptides have been found to exhibit various physiological activities. The present work was designed with the aim to evaluate the effect of boiling on antidiabetic property of peptides derived from sheep milk caseinate on hydrolysis with three different proteases. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, casein prepared from raw and boiled sheep milk was hydrolyzed by three commercially available proteases (trypsin, pepsin, and chymotrypsin). These hydrolysates collected at different hydrolysis times (60, 120, 160, and 240 min) were assayed for their antidiabetic activity. Results: Among the three different enzyme hydrolysates, casein treated with chymotrypsin shows the highest antidiabetic activity among other enzymes. While the antidiabetic effect of raw milk-derived casein hydrolysates always exceeds than effect shown by boiled milk casein hydrolysates. Conclusion: The result obtained hence shows that the effect of boiling on the properties of bioactive peptides released during different enzyme digestion depends largely on the enzymatic formulation used and treatment conditions. Chymotrypsin treatment of raw casein yields peptides with maximum antidiabetic activity as compared to pepsin and trypsin. Moreover, the peptides produced after enzymatic treatment of boiled casein show reduced antidiabetic properties. Therefore, enzymatically treated raw milk casein hydrolysates may be used as effective nutritional supplements for diabetic patients, as it causes a significant inhibition of α-amylase activity. PMID:27847428

  17. Effects of incorporating differently-treated rice straw on phytoavailability of methylmercury in soil.

    PubMed

    Shu, Rui; Dang, Fei; Zhong, Huan

    2016-02-01

    Differently-treated crops straw is being widely used to fertilize soil, while the potential impacts of straw amendment on the biogeochemistry and phytoavailability of mercury in contaminated soils are largely unknown. In the present study, differently-treated rice straw (dry straw, composted straw, straw biochar, and straw ash) was incorporated into mercury-contaminated soil at an environment relevant level (1/100, w/w), and mercury speciation, methylmercury (MeHg) phytoavailability (using ammonium thiosulfate extraction method, validated elsewhere) and bioaccumulation (in Indian mustard Brassica junceas) were quantified. Our results indicated that incorporating straw biochar or composted straw into soil would decrease phytoavailable MeHg levels, possibly due to the strong binding of MeHg with particulate organic matter in amended straw ('MeHg immobilization effect'). Consequently, MeHg accumulation in aboveground tissue of Indian mustard harvested from straw biochar-amended soil decreased by 20% compared to the control. Differently, incorporation of dry straw resulted in elevated MeHg levels in soil ('Mercury methylation effect'). Decomposition of amended dry straw in soil would evidently increase DOC levels (averagely 40%-195% higher than the control), which may subsequently mobilize MeHg in the soil ('MeHg mobilization effect'). Accordingly, incorporation of dry straw led to increased phytoavailable MeHg levels in the soil and doubled MeHg accumulation in Indian mustard. Our results provided the first evidence that incorporating differently-treated rice straw into soil could have diverse effects on mercury biogeochemistry and phytoavailability, which should be taken into account in risk assessment or soil remediation.

  18. Anti-inflammatory Effect of Isaria sinclairii Glycosaminoglycan in an Adjuvant-treated Arthritis Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Jee, Sang Duck; Hwang, Jae Sam; Yun, Eun Young; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2013-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory effects of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) derived from Isaria sinclairii (IS) and of IS extracts were investigated in a complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)-treated chronic arthritis rat model. Groups of rats were treated orally with 30 mg/kg one of the following: [1] saline control, extracts of [2] water-IS, [3] methanol-IS, [4] butanol-IS, [5] ethyl acetate-IS, or [6] Indomethacin® as the positive control for a period of two weeks. The anti-paw edema effects of the individual extracts were in the following order: water-IS ex. > methanol ex. > butanol ex. > ethyl acetate ex. The water/methanol extract from I. sinclairii remarkably inhibited UV-mediated upregulation of NF-κB activity in transfected HaCaT cells. GAG as a water-soluble alcohol precipitated fraction also produced a noticeable anti-edema effect. This GAG also inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokine levels of prostaglandin E2-stimulated lipopolysaccharide in LAW 264.7 cells, cytokine TNF-α production in splenocytes, and atherogenesis cytokine levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production in HUVEC cells in a dose-dependent manner. In the histological analysis, the LV dorsal root ganglion, including the articular cartilage, and linked to the paw-treated IS GAG, was repaired against CFA-induced cartilage destruction. Combined treatment with Indomethacin® (5 mg/kg) and IS GAG (10 mg/kg) also more effectively inhibited CFA-induced paw edema at 3 hr, 24 hr, and 48 hr to levels comparable to the anti-inflammatory drug, indomethacin. Thus, the IS GAG described here holds great promise as an anti-inflammatory drug in the future. PMID:24386520

  19. Effects of tyramine administration in Parkinson's disease patients treated with selective MAO-B inhibitor rasagiline.

    PubMed

    deMarcaida, J Antonelle; Schwid, Steven R; White, William B; Blindauer, Karen; Fahn, Stanley; Kieburtz, Karl; Stern, Matthew; Shoulson, Ira

    2006-10-01

    Rasagiline is a novel, potent, and selective MAO-B inhibitor shown to be effective for Parkinson's disease. Traditional nonselective MAO inhibitors have been associated with dietary tyramine interactions that can induce hypertensive reactions. To test safety, tyramine challenges (50-75 mg) were performed in 72 rasagiline-treated and 38 placebo-treated Parkinson's disease (PD) patients at the end of two double-blind placebo-controlled trials of rasagiline. An abnormal pressor response was prespecified as three consecutive measurements of systolic blood pressure (BP) increases of >or= 30 mm Hg and/or bradycardia of < 40 beats/min. In the first study involving 55 patients with early PD on rasagiline monotherapy, no patients randomized to rasagiline (1 mg/2 mg; n = 38) or placebo (n = 17) developed systolic BP (SBP) or heart rate changes indicative of a tyramine reaction. In the second trial involving 55 levodopa-treated patients, 3 of 22 subjects on rasagiline 0.5 mg/day and 1 of 21 subjects on placebo developed asymptomatic, self-limiting SBP elevations >or= 30 mm Hg on three measurements. No subject on 1 mg/day rasagiline (0/12) experienced significant BP or heart rate changes following tyramine ingestion. These data demonstrate that rasagiline 0.5 to 2 mg daily is not associated with clinically significant tyramine reactions and can be used as monotherapy or adjunct to levodopa in PD patients without specific dietary tyramine restriction.

  20. Raman spectroscopic analysis of cytotoxic effect of cisplatin-treated leukemic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Juqiang; Li, Yongzeng; Feng, Shangyuan; Chen, Rong; Chen, Guannan; Chen, Qisong; Pan, Jianji; Lin, Shaojun; Yu, Yun

    2009-08-01

    An antitumor drug cisplatin was employed to treat the leukemic cells and induce apoptosis of the cancer cells. Confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy has been applied to investigate the effectiveness of the treatment using near-infrared laser (785nm) excitation, scanning range from 500 to 2000 cm-1. The Raman spectra of leukemic cell treated with cisplatin for 4, 6, 8, 12 and 14 h were measured separately. The major difference of the apoptotic cells from the cancer cells are the reduction in intensities of vibration bands generated by cellular lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. In particular, large intensity reduction in nucleic vibrations at 782, 1092, 1320, 1340, and 1578 cm-1 was observed upon apoptosis of the leukemic cells. Up to 45% reduction in the magnitude of the 782 cm-1 peak in Raman spectra of the apoptotic cells was observed, which suggests the breakdown of phosphodiester bonds and DNA bases. We showed that the principal components analysis (PCA), a multivariate statistical tool, can be used to distinguish single apoptotic cells and leukemic cells based on their Raman spectra. Our results indicate that the Raman spectroscopy with PCA is a novel, nondestructive mean for studying the cisplatin -treated leukemic cells, which could also provide useful data for clinical dosage optimization for cisplatin.

  1. The effect of temporary restorative materials on fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth.

    PubMed

    Milani, Amin Salem; Froughreyhani, Mohammad; Mohammadi, Hosein; Tabegh, Fatemeh Ghasemi; Pournaghiazar, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the fracture strength of endodontically treated teeth temporarily restored with some commonly used interim materials. Of 90 extracted maxillary premolars used in this study, 15 were left intact as the positive control. Endodontic treatment was performed on the remaining 75 teeth. The endodontically treated teeth were then randomly assigned to 5 groups (n = 15). One group was not restored and served as the negative control. In the remaining 4 experimental groups, the teeth were restored with a temporary cement: Zonalin, IRM, Coltosol, or Fuji II LC resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI). The fracture strengths of all teeth were measured with a universal testing machine. The fracture strength of teeth restored with RMGI was significantly greater than that of other groups (P < 0.001), including intact teeth (P = 0.025). The fracture strength of teeth restored with other temporary materials was significantly lower than that of intact teeth (P < 0.05) but not significantly different from that of the negative control. From a structural resistance standpoint, RMGI may be the best choice for short-term temporary restoration of endodontically treated teeth. Other types of temporary restorative material had no reinforcing effect on tooth structure.

  2. Neuroprotective effects of quercetin, rutin and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.) in dexamethasone-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Tongjaroenbuangam, Walaiporn; Ruksee, Nootchanart; Chantiratikul, Piyanete; Pakdeenarong, Noppakun; Kongbuntad, Watee; Govitrapong, Piyarat

    2011-10-01

    The administration of dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid receptor agonist, causes neuronal death in the CA3 layer of the hippocampus, which has been associated with learning and memory impairments. This study aimed to examine the ability of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.) extract and its derivatives (quercetin and rutin) to protect neuronal function and improve learning and memory deficits in mice subjected to dexamethasone treatment. Learning and memory functions in mice were examined using the Morris water maze test. The results showed that the mice treated with dexamethasone had prolonged water maze performance latencies and shorter time spent in the target quadrant while mice pretreated with quercetin, rutin or okra extract prior to dexamethasone treatment showed shorter latencies and longer time spent in target quadrant. Morphological changes in pyramidal neurons were observed in the dexamethasone treated group. The number of CA3 hippocampal neurons was significantly lower while pretreated with quercetin, rutin or okra attenuated this change. Prolonged treatment with dexamethasone altered NMDA receptor expression in the hippocampus. Pretreatment with quercetin, rutin or okra extract prevented the reduction in NMDA receptor expression. Dentate gyrus (DG) cell proliferation was examined using the 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry technique. The number of BrdU-immunopositive cells was significantly reduced in dexamethasone-treated mice compared to control mice. Pretreatment with okra extract, either quercetin or rutin was found to restore BrdU-immunoreactivity in the dentate gyrus. These findings suggest that quercetin, rutin and okra extract treatments reversed cognitive deficits, including impaired dentate gyrus (DG) cell proliferation, and protected against morphological changes in the CA3 region in dexamethasone-treated mice. The precise mechanism of the neuroprotective effect of these plant extracts should be further investigated.

  3. Some effects of aldrin-treated rice on Gulf Coast wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flickinger, Edward L.; King, K.A.

    1972-01-01

    Wildlife casualties from aldrin-dieldrin poisoning are associated with the planting of aldrin-treated rice seed along the Texas Gulf Coast. The fulvous tree duck (Dendrocygna bicolor), which depends on the rice field habitats and is highly susceptible to aldrin-dieldrin poisoning, is suffering a serious population decline in that area. Dead waterfowl, shorebirds, and passerines were collected on study areas in Wharton, Brazoria, and Chambers counties, Texas, from 1967 through 1971. Residues of aldrin or dieldrin were found in all samples of bird casualties and in all eggs, scavengers, predators, fish, frogs, invertebrates, and soils. Fulvous tree ducks appeared to be less resistant to aldrin than other ducks. Dieldrin residues in brains of dead fulvous tree ducks were low, but whole-body residues were as high as 16 ppm. Brains of other dead ducks and geese averaged 10 ppm dieldrin. Some dead birds were exposed by eating treated rice seed, but many dead birds with high dieldrin residues were species that feed largely on invertebrates. Although soil residues were low, snails and crayfish contained enough aldrin and dieldrin (average 9.5 ppm) to account for deaths in birds that fed heavily on these invertebrates over a period of time. When fulvous tree ducks were penned for 3 days in fields aerially planted with treated seed, 3 of 10 birds died with brain residues of 2.5, 2.9, and 6.8 ppm dieldrin, and others were intoxicated. None of eight died, and some gained weight, when penned in fields planted with untreated seed. This study adds further evidence for the suspected lethal effects of aldrin-treated rice seed on wild birds and other wildlife in rice field habitats.

  4. Adjunctive effects of aripiprazole on metabolic profiles: comparison of patients treated with olanzapine to patients treated with other atypical antipsychotic drugs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang-Jen; Ree, Shao-Chun; Huang, Yu-Shu; Hsiao, Cheng-Cheng; Chen, Chih-Ken

    2013-01-10

    Metabolic abnormalities are serious adverse effects of atypical antipsychotic treatment. This study aims to determine the effects of adjunctive aripiprazole on metabolic profiles among patients receiving treatment with atypical antipsychotics, and to examine whether these effects are different from that of pre-existing atypical antipsychotics. In the 8-week open-label trial, aripiprazole was added to patients who were receiving treatment with atypical antipsychotics and had experienced weight gain or dyslipidemia. The dosage of pre-existing atypical antipsychotics was fixed, while the dosage of aripiprazole ranged from 5 to 20 mg/day during the study period. Metabolic profiles, including body weight, body mass index (BMI), plasma levels of fasting glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and adiponectin, were measured at baseline and week 8. As a result, 43 subjects (16 males and 27 females, mean age: 37.8±10.8 years) completed the study. The pre-existing antipsychotics were olanzapine (n=12), risperidone (n=19), quetiapine (n=6) and amisulpiride (n=6). The mean dosage of adjunctive aripiprazole was 9.9±3.2 mg/day. After the aripiprazole-augmented regimen for 8 weeks, patients treated with olanzapine had significant decreases in body weight, BMI and triglyceride levels, and had significant increases in adiponectin levels. For patients treated with other atypical antipsychotics, none of the metabolic parameters significantly changed after administering aripiprazole. In conclusion, aripiprazole-augmented treatment might be beneficial for the metabolic regulation of patients being treated with a stable dose of olanzapine, but not for those treated with other atypical antipsychotics. A long-term, randomized, double-blind controlled design is suggested to confirm these findings.

  5. Effects of tylosin on serum cytokine levels in healthy and lipopolysaccharide-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Er, Ayse; Yazar, Enver; Uney, Kamil; Elmas, Muammer; Altan, Feray; Cetin, Gul

    2010-03-01

    The effects of different doses of tylosin on serum cytokine concentrations were investigated in healthy and lipopolysaccharide-treated mice. The mice were divided into seven groups. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was injected into the positive control group. The other six groups received three different tylosin doses concurrently without or with LPS: 10 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg + LPS, 100 mg/kg + LPS and 500 mg/kg + LPS. After treatment, serum samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours. Serum tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin 1beta (IL1beta) and IL10 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Tylosin doses of 10 and 100 mg/kg induced no cytokine production in the healthy mice. Tylosin at 500 mg/kg had no effect on TNFalpha or IL1beta production, but it induced IL10 production in healthy mice. All doses of tylosin reduced the elevated TNFalpha and IL1beta in LPS-treated mice but increased their IL10 levels. In conclusion, these data suggest that tylosin has an immunomodulatory effect at the dose recommended for use against infection.

  6. Spatial effects of the social marketing of insecticide-treated nets on malaria morbidity.

    PubMed

    Abdulla, S; Gemperli, A; Mukasa, O; Armstrong Schellenberg, J R M; Lengeler, C; Vounatsou, P; Smith, T

    2005-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials have shown that insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) have an impact on both malaria morbidity and mortality. Uniformly high coverage of ITNs characterized these trials and this resulted in some protection of nearby non-users of ITNs. We have now assessed the coverage, distribution pattern and resultant spatial effects in one village in Tanzania where ITNs were distributed in a social marketing programme. The prevalence of parasitaemia, mild anaemia (Hb <11 g/dl) and moderate/severe anaemia (Hb <8 g/dl) in children under five was assessed cross-sectionally. Data on ownership of ITNs were collected and inhabitants' houses were mapped. One year after the start of the social marketing programme, 52% of the children were using a net which had been treated at least once. The ITNs were rather homogeneously distributed throughout the village at an average density of about 118 ITNs per thousand population. There was no evidence of a pattern in the distribution of parasitaemia and anaemia cases, but children living in areas of moderately high ITN coverage were about half as likely to have moderate/severe anaemia (OR 0.5, 95% CI: 0.2, 0.9) and had lower prevalence of splenomegaly, irrespective of their net use. No protective effects of coverage were found for prevalence of mild anaemia nor for parasitaemia. The use of untreated nets had neither coverage nor short distance effects. More efforts should be made to ensure high coverage in ITNs programmes to achieve maximum benefit.

  7. Effect of medium treated with neutral oxygen radicals on growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Jun; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Ohta, Takayuki; Hori, Masaru; Ito, Masafumi

    2015-09-01

    Recently, nonequilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasmas are expected to be applied in medical and agricultural fields. We have studied the growth effect of budding yeast cells in phosphate buffered saline (PBS(-)) using an atmospheric-pressure oxygen-radical source. From a practical application perspective, we have investigated the effect of medium treated with oxygen radicals on the growth of budding yeast in the study. The cells were suspended with yeast extract peptone dextrose (YPD) medium or PBS. The suspensions were treated with neutral oxygen radicals. Oxygen radicals were generated at an O2/(O2 + Ar) gas flow ratio of 0.6%, a total flow rate of 5 slm, and an exposure distance of 10 mm. To estimate the inactivation and the growth of yeast cells, cells were counted with the colony count method using a counting chamber and a microscope. In the case of budding yeast suspended in PBS, the growth changed from promotion to inactivation with increasing the oxygen radical treatment time. But in the case of budding yeast suspended in YPD, it didn't exhibit promotion and inactivation of the growth with oxygen radical treatment. The results indicated that some substances of YPD scavenged the growth effect of oxygen radicals. This work was partly supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 26286072 and project for promoting Research Center in Meijo University.

  8. Anti-inflammatory effects of zinc in PMA-treated human gingival fibroblast cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangwoo; Jeon, Sangmi; Hui, Zheng; Kim, Young; Im, Yeonggwan; Lim, Wonbong; Kim, Changsu; Choi, Hongran; Kim, Okjoon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Abnormal cellular immune response has been considered to be responsible for oral lesions in recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Zinc has been known to be an essential nutrient metal that is necessary for a broad range of biological activities including antioxidant, immune mediator, and anti-inflammatory drugs in oral mucosal disease. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of zinc in a phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-treated inflammatory model on human gingival fibroblast cells (hGFs). Study Design: Cells were pre-treated with zinc chloride, followed by PMA in hGFs. The effects were assessed on cell viability, cyclooxygenease-1,2(COX-1/2) protein expression, PGE2 release, ROS production and cytokine release, Results: The effects were assessed on cell viability, COX1/2 protein expression, PGE2 release, ROS production, cytokine release. The results showed that, in the presence of PMA, zinc treatment leads to reduce the production of ROS, which results in decrease of COX-2 expression and PGE2 release. Conclusions: Thus, we suggest that zinc treatment leads to the mitigation of oral inflammation and may prove to be an alternative treatment for recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Key words:Zinc, inflammatory response, cytokines, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate, gingival fibroblasts cells. PMID:25662537

  9. Effects of herbicide-treated host plants on the development of Mamestra brassicae L. caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Melanie; Geisthardt, Martin; Brühl, Carsten A

    2014-11-01

    Herbicides are widely used pesticides that affect plants by changing their chemistry. In doing so, herbicides might also influence the quality of plants as food for herbivores. To study the effects of herbicides on host plant quality, 3 plant species (Plantago lanceolata L., P. major L., and Ranunculus acris L.) were treated with sublethal rates of either a sulfonylurea (Atlantis WG, Bayer CropScience) or a glyphosate (Roundup LB Plus, Monsanto) herbicide, and the development of caterpillars of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae L. that fed on these plants was observed. Of the 6 tested plant-herbicide combinations, 1 combination (R. acris + sulfonylurea herbicide) resulted in significantly lower caterpillar weight, increased time to pupation, and increased overall development time compared with larvae that were fed unsprayed plants. These results might be caused by a lower nutritional value of these host plants or increased concentrations of secondary metabolites that are involved in plant defense. The results of the present and other studies suggest potential risks to herbivores that feed on host plants treated with sublethal rates of herbicides. However, as the effects of herbicides on host plant quality appear to be species-specific and as there are numerous plant-herbicide-herbivore relationships in agricultural landscapes, a general reduction in herbicide contamination of nontarget habitats (e.g., field margins) might mitigate the negative effects of herbicides on host plant quality.

  10. An approximate method for treating spin-orbit effects in platinum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinemann, Christoph; Koch, Wolfram; Schwarz, Helmut

    1995-11-01

    Spin-orbit coupling in platinum-containing species can be treated via a one-electron spin-orbit operator and a single scaling parameter Z eff(Pt) in conjunction with an effective core potential for the description of scalar relativistic effects. Our calibration calculations cover the five low-lying electronic states of platinum hydride PtH and the lowest fourteen levels in the atomic spectrum of the platinum atom Pt. Here, qualitative and semi-quantitative agreement between the presented semi-empirical approach and four-component Dirac-Fock calculations is found if Z eff(Pt) is chosen between 950 and 1200. Further applications concern the low-lying levels of the platinum cation Pt +, the theoretical determination of ground states for the diatomic oxides PtO and PtO + as well as spin-orbit effects in the cationic carbene complex PtCH 2+.

  11. Is rTMS an effective therapeutic strategy that can be used to treat Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed

    Arias-Carrion, Oscar; Machado, Sergio; Paes, Flavia; Velasques, Bruna; Teixeira, Silmar; Cardenas-Morales, Lizbeth; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro; Nardi, Antonio E

    2011-09-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive procedure whereby a pulsed magnetic field stimulates electrical activity in the brain. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative process characterized by numerous motor and nonmotor clinical manifestations for which effective, mechanism-based treatments remain elusive. Consequently, more advanced non-invasive therapeutic methods are required. A possible method of rehabilitation that may be effective and potentially viable for use in clinical practice is rTMS. Here, we focus on the basic foundation of rTMS, the main findings of rTMS from animal models, the effects of rTMS on sensorimotor integration in patients with PD, and the experimental advances of rTMS that may become a viable clinical application to treat the disease.

  12. Cardiovascular effects of methamphetamine in dogs treated chronically with the amine.

    PubMed

    Vidrio, H

    1982-01-01

    Methamphetamine is one of a group of sympathomimetic amines that lower blood pressure upon chronic administration to hypertensive dogs. To determine whether tolerance to the cardiovascular effects of these drugs could play a role in their antihypertensive action, acute blood pressure responses to oral d-methamphetamine were determined in trained conscious renal hypertensive dogs at weekly intervals during treatment with the drug for 2 months. Responses were also obtained in similarly treated normotensive dogs and in normotensive and hypertensive animals receiving l-methamphetamine. Pressor responses to d-methamphetamine in hypertensive dogs remained unchanged throughout treatment, while in all other cases they diminished gradually. Only the dextro isomer reduced blood pressure chronically in the hypertensive group. It was concluded that tolerance is not involved in the antihypertensive effect of methamphetamine and that, considering the stereo specificity of this effect, residual lowering of blood pressure might involve formation of a false mediator metabolite of the amine.

  13. Costs and effects of the Tanzanian national voucher scheme for insecticide-treated nets

    PubMed Central

    Mulligan, Jo-Ann; Yukich, Joshua; Hanson, Kara

    2008-01-01

    Background The cost-effectiveness of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in reducing morbidity and mortality is well established. International focus has now moved on to how best to scale up coverage and what financing mechanisms might be used to achieve this. The approach in Tanzania has been to deliver a targeted subsidy for those most vulnerable to the effects of malaria while at the same time providing support to the development of the commercial ITN distribution system. In October 2004, with funds from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS Tuberculosis and Malaria, the government launched the Tanzania National Voucher Scheme (TNVS), a nationwide discounted voucher scheme for ITNs for pregnant women and their infants. This paper analyses the costs and effects of the scheme and compares it with other approaches to distribution. Methods Economic costs were estimated using the ingredients approach whereby all resources required in the delivery of the intervention (including the user contribution) are quantified and valued. Effects were measured in terms of number of vouchers used (and therefore nets delivered) and treated nets years. Estimates were also made for the cost per malaria case and death averted. Results and Conclusion The total financial cost of the programme represents around 5% of the Ministry of Health's total budget. The average economic cost of delivering an ITN using the voucher scheme, including the user contribution, was $7.57. The cost-effectiveness results are within the benchmarks set by other malaria prevention studies. The Government of Tanzania's approach to scaling up ITNs uses both the public and private sectors in order to achieve and sustain the level of coverage required to meet the Abuja targets. The results presented here suggest that the TNVS is a cost-effective strategy for delivering subsidized ITNs to targeted vulnerable groups. PMID:18279509

  14. Effects of polysaccharides from Morchella conica on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-treated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mian; Zhang, Song; Zhang, Minglong; Ou, Shangkang; Pan, Zhifu

    2012-05-01

    Morchella conica is a species of rare edible mushroom whose multiple medicinal functions have been proven. However, reports barely mention the mechanisms of these functions. In this study, the effects of two polysaccharides from M. conica (PMCs) on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated macrophages were investigated. The results showed that 50-200 μg/ml of the extracellular polysaccharide (EPMC) and 25-200 μg/ml of the intracellular polysaccharide (IPMC) significantly inhibited NO production. Accordingly, the signal mechanisms were also explored. It was found that 100 μg/ml of EPMC and 25 μg/ml of IPMC could efficiently down-regulate the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) DNA-binding activity and up-regulate heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression. Moreover, by using a HO-1 inhibitor NaPP to treat the cells, the PMC-inhibited NO production and iNOS expression, rather than NF-κB activation, were released partially, indicating that HO-1 probably medicates the inhibition of PMCs on iNOS and NO. Besides, EPMC also significantly suppressed the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), c-jun N-terminal kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4, and expression of NF-κB inducing kinase, while IPMC seemed to show no regular effect on p38. In conclusion, PMCs inhibited NO production in LPS-induced macrophages through regulating a series of signal pathways, suggesting that PMCs play a potential role on immunomodulation and treating related diseases.

  15. Cost-Effectiveness of Treating Hepatitis C with Sofosbuvir/Ledipasvir in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Stahmeyer, Jona T.; Rossol, Siegbert; Liersch, Sebastian; Guerra, Ines; Krauth, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Background Infections with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) are a global public health problem. Long-term consequences are the development of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Newly introduced direct acting antivirals, especially interferon-free regimens, have improved rates of sustained viral response above 90% in most patient groups and allow treating patients who were ineligible for treatment in the past. These new regimens have replaced former treatment and are recommended by current guidelines. However, there is an ongoing discussion on high pharmaceutical prices. Our aim was to assess the long-term cost-effectiveness of treating hepatitis C genotype 1 patients with sofosbuvir/ledipasvir (SOF/LDV) treatment in Germany. Material and Methods We used a Markov cohort model to simulate disease progression and assess cost-effectiveness. The model calculates lifetime costs and outcomes (quality-adjusted life years, QALYs) of SOF/LDV and other strategies. Patients were stratified by treatment status (treatment-naive and treatment-experienced) and absence/presence of cirrhosis. Different treatment strategies were compared to prior standard of care. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate model robustness. Results Base-case analyses results show that in treatment-naive non-cirrhotic patients treatment with SOF/LDV dominates the prior standard of care (is more effective and less costly). In cirrhotic patients an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of 3,383 €/QALY was estimated. In treatment-experienced patients ICERs were 26,426 €/QALY and 1,397 €/QALY for treatment-naive and treatment-experienced patients, respectively. Robustness of results was confirmed in sensitivity analyses. Conclusions Our analysis shows that treatment with SOF/LDV is cost-effective compared to prior standard of care in all patient groups considering international costs per QALY thresholds. PMID:28046099

  16. Antimutagenic Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Aqueous Extract on Rats Treated with Monosodium Glutamate

    PubMed Central

    Kerkhoff, Jacqueline; Vieira Júnior, Gerardo Magela; de Campos, Kleber Eduardo; Sugui, Marina Mariko

    2017-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a plant of the Malvaceae family, commonly known as roselle. H. sabdariffa is known to contain antioxidant, cholesterol-lowering, antiobesity, insulin resistance reduction, antihypertensive, and skin cancer chemopreventive properties. This study evaluated the effects of H. sabdariffa aqueous extract against cyclophosphamide (CPA, 25 mg/Kg) induced damage to DNA in male Wistar rats by micronucleus test. Samples of H. sabdariffa calyx were obtained in the municipality of Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The aqueous extract was prepared by infusion and each animal received a daily dose of 400 mg/Kg by gavage for 15 consecutive days of treatment. The presence of anthocyanins was confirmed by ferric chloride test and phenolic compounds using high-performance liquid chromatography, with emphasis on the identification of rutin. The animals were sacrificed by deepening of anaesthesia to obtain bone marrow and determination of the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. The group treated with the aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa revealed a 91% reduction in micronucleus frequency when compared with the positive control group. Under the conditions tested, H. sabdariffa L. presented a protective effect to CPA-induced damage to DNA of the treated animals, and it is a potential candidate as a chemopreventive agent against carcinogenesis. PMID:28197528

  17. Protective Effect of Royal Jelly on In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) in Male Mice Treated with Oxymetholone

    PubMed Central

    Zahmatkesh, Ensieh; Najafi, Gholamreza; Nejati, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the effects of royal jelly (RJ) on catalase, total antioxidant capacity and embryo development in adult mice treated with oxymetholone (OXM). Materials and Methods In this exprimental study, 32 male and 96 female adult Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice (7-9 weeks of age) with a ratio of 1:3 for fertili- zation purposes were randomly divided into 4 groups as follows: i. Control group (n=8) receiving 0.1 ml/mice saline daily by gavage for 30 day, ii. RJ group (n=8) treated with RJ at a dose of 100 mg/kg daily by gavage for 30 days, iii. OXM group (n=8) receiving OXM at the dose of 5 mg/kg daily by gavage for 30 days and iv. RJ+OXM group (n=8) receiving RJ at the dose of 100 mg/kg daily by gavage concomitant with 100 mg/kg OXM adminis- tration for 30 days. Results Analysis revealed a significant reduction in catalase, total antioxidant, as well as embryo development in OXM group (P<0.05). However, RJ group showed a salient recovery in the all of the above mentioned parameters and embryo toxicity. Conclusion The results of this study indicated a partially protective effect of RJ against OXM-induced embryo toxicity. PMID:26464831

  18. The Effects and Possible Mechanisms of Puerarin to Treat Endometriosis Model Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Li; Zhang, Danying; Zhai, Dongxia; Shen, Wei; Bai, Lingling; Liu, Yiqun; Cai, Zailong; Li, Ji; Yu, Chaoqin

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To explore the effects of puerarin to treat endometriosis (EMT) model rats and the possible regulatory mechanisms. Methods. EMT model rats were surgically induced by autotransplantion of endometrial tissues. The appropriate dosage of puerarin to treat EMT model rats was determined by observing the pathologic morphology of ectopic endometrial tissues and by detecting the levels of estradiol (E2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) of both serum and ectopic endometrial tissues. The related genes and proteins of ectopic endometrial tissues were analyzed by Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) to explore the possible mechanisms. Results. Puerarin could reduce the levels of E2 and PGE2 and prevent the growth of ectopic endometrium tissues by inhibiting the expression of aromatase cytochrome P450 (p450arom) and cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2); puerarin could adjust the anabolism of E2 by upregulating the expression of 17β-hydroxysteroid-2 (17β-hsd-2) and downregulating the expression of 17β-hydroxysteroid-1 (17β-hsd-1) of the ectopic endometrium tissues; puerarin could increase the expression of ERβ and improve the inflammatory microenvironment of EMT model rats. Conclusions. Our data suggest that puerarin has a therapeutic effect on EMT model rats and could be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of EMT in clinic. PMID:25815028

  19. Beyond intent to treat (ITT): A complier average causal effect (CACE) estimation primer.

    PubMed

    Peugh, James L; Strotman, Daniel; McGrady, Meghan; Rausch, Joseph; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita

    2017-02-01

    Randomized control trials (RCTs) have long been the gold standard for allowing causal inferences to be made regarding the efficacy of a treatment under investigation, but traditional RCT data analysis perspectives do not take into account a common reality: imperfect participant compliance to treatment. Recent advances in both maximum likelihood parameter estimation and mixture modeling methodology have enabled treatment effects to be estimated, in the presence of less than ideal levels of participant compliance, via a Complier Average Causal Effect (CACE) structural equation mixture model. CACE is described in contrast to "intent to treat" (ITT), "per protocol", and "as treated" RCT data analysis perspectives. CACE model assumptions, specification, estimation, and interpretation will all be demonstrated with simulated data generated from a randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for Juvenile Fibromyalgia. CACE analysis model figures, linear model equations, and Mplus estimation syntax examples are all provided. Data needed to reproduce analyses in this article are available as supplemental materials (online only) in the Appendix of this article.

  20. Metabolic effects of adjunctive aripiprazole in clozapine-treated patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiaoduo; Borba, Christina P.C.; Copeland, Paul; Hayden, Doug; Freudenreich, Oliver; Goff, Donald C.; Henderson, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined the effects of adjunctive aripiprazole therapy on metabolism in clozapine-treated patients with schizophrenia. Method In an 8-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, subjects received either aripiprazole (15mg/day) or placebo. At baseline and week 8, metabolic parameters were assessed by the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Results Thirty subjects completed the study (16 in the aripiprazole group and 14 in the placebo group). Glucose effectiveness measured by the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test improved significantly in the aripiprazole group (0.003 ± 0.006 versus −0.005 ± 0.007/min, P = 0.010). The aripiprazole group showed significant reductions in both plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels (−15.1 ± 19.8 vs. 4.4 ± 22.5 mg/dl, P = 0.019) and LDL particle numbers (−376 ± 632 vs. −36 ± 301 nM, P= 0.035). Further, there was a significant reduction in lean mass (−1125 ± 1620 vs. 607 ± 1578 g, P= 0.011) measured by whole-body DXA scan in the aripiprazole group. All values were expressed as mean ± standard deviation, aripiprazole vs. placebo. Conclusion Adjunctive therapy with aripiprazole may have some metabolic benefits in clozapine-treated patients with schizophrenia. PMID:22943577

  1. Antimutagenic Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Aqueous Extract on Rats Treated with Monosodium Glutamate.

    PubMed

    Gheller, Ana Carla Guidini Valentini; Kerkhoff, Jacqueline; Vieira Júnior, Gerardo Magela; de Campos, Kleber Eduardo; Sugui, Marina Mariko

    2017-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a plant of the Malvaceae family, commonly known as roselle. H. sabdariffa is known to contain antioxidant, cholesterol-lowering, antiobesity, insulin resistance reduction, antihypertensive, and skin cancer chemopreventive properties. This study evaluated the effects of H. sabdariffa aqueous extract against cyclophosphamide (CPA, 25 mg/Kg) induced damage to DNA in male Wistar rats by micronucleus test. Samples of H. sabdariffa calyx were obtained in the municipality of Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The aqueous extract was prepared by infusion and each animal received a daily dose of 400 mg/Kg by gavage for 15 consecutive days of treatment. The presence of anthocyanins was confirmed by ferric chloride test and phenolic compounds using high-performance liquid chromatography, with emphasis on the identification of rutin. The animals were sacrificed by deepening of anaesthesia to obtain bone marrow and determination of the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. The group treated with the aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa revealed a 91% reduction in micronucleus frequency when compared with the positive control group. Under the conditions tested, H. sabdariffa L. presented a protective effect to CPA-induced damage to DNA of the treated animals, and it is a potential candidate as a chemopreventive agent against carcinogenesis.

  2. Effect of NAD on PARP-mediated insulin sensitivity in oleic acid treated hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jing; Cui, Ju; Gong, Huan; Xi, Chao; Zhang, Tie-Mei

    2015-07-01

    High serum free fatty acids levels are associated with the development of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes; however, the precise mechanisms underlying this lipid toxicity are unclear. To investigate whether PARP1 activation and NAD depletion are involved in the impairment of insulin sensitivity associated with lipotoxicity, HepG2 cells were cultured with 500 μM oleic acid for 48 h. Oleic acid-treated cells exhibited increased ROS generation, lipid accumulation and PARP1 activation. Treatment with the PARP1 inhibitor PJ34 and transfection with PARP1 small interfering RNA both prevented the oleic acid-induced impairment of the insulin signaling pathway. Furthermore, treatment with PJ34 reversed the oleic acid-induced decrease in intracellular NAD concentration, while exogenous NAD protected cells against oleic acid-induced insulin insensitivity. Combined NAD and PJ34 administration did not enhance the effects obtained by treatment with either NAD or PJ34 alone. Interestingly, when cells were treated with the SIRT1 inhibitor EX527, the protective effects of PJ34 and NAD treatment were diminished. Taken together, these data suggest that NAD depletion by PARP1 activation is essential for the modulation of insulin sensitivity in oleic acid-induced lipotoxicity.

  3. Effect of the application of acid treated biosolids on marigold (Tagetes erecta) development.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Avelar, J; Barrios, J A; Jiménez, B

    2004-01-01

    The use of biosolids for land restoration and crop production is a potential solution to improve food production worldwide. However, the microbial content usually restricts its application in crops that are consumed uncooked. An alternative practice is their use in floriculture. In this study, the effects of acid treated sludge on the development of marigold (Tagetes erecta) plants were evaluated under green house conditions. Biosolids were applied at the agronomic rate (AR) based on nitrogen requirements of the marigold. In addition, higher rates (10 and 20xAR) were applied to study their effect on the plants. Biosolids were mixed with tepetate (hard volcanic indurate layers). Due to its origin, tepetate lacks nutrients and organic matter to adequately support plant development. The best treatment for marigold development was 10xAR, as plants reached an average height of 107 cm, with a growing speed of 1.01 cm/d, which is 20 times more than the control. Plants that received no biosolids produced 0.25 buds and 0.5 flowers per plant. In contrast, AR and 10xAR showed a production that ranged from 2 to 29 buds/plant and 4 to 15 flowers/plant, respectively. These results indicate the viability of reusing acid treated biosolids to improve marigold development.

  4. Honey Attenuates the Detrimental Effects of Nicotine on Testicular Functions in Nicotine Treated Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Kolawole, T A; Oyeyemi, W A; Adigwe, C; Leko, B; Udeh, C; Dapper, D V

    2015-12-20

    Effect of honey on reproductive functions of male rats exposed to nicotine was examined in this study. Thirty-two adult male wistar rats (n=8/Group) were grouped as Control (distilled water), Nicotine (1.0mg/kg bwt), Honey (100mg/kg bwt) and Nicotine with Honey. The animals were orally treated for 35 days consecutively. Epididymis sperm motility, viability, morphology and counts were estimated, serum Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Leutinizing Hormone (LH) and Testosterone were assayed using ELISA method and testicular histology were also assessed. Significant reduction in percentage sperm motility, viability, morphology and counts were observed in nicotine group compared to control. Serum FSH, LH and testosterone levels were significantly reduced in nicotine group when compared with the control. There was significant improvement in sperm motility, viability, morphology, counts, FSH, LH and Testosterone in group co-treated with nicotine and honey  relative to nicotine group. Also, the degenerative seminiferous tubule architecture due to nicotine was improved by honey. In conclusion, honey may suppress nicotine toxic effect on reproductive functions in male Wistar rats.

  5. 26 CFR 1.871-10 - Election to treat real property income as effectively connected with U.S. business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election to treat real property income as... Corporations § 1.871-10 Election to treat real property income as effectively connected with U.S. business. (a... taxable year derives any income from real property which is located in the United States and, in the...

  6. 26 CFR 1.871-10 - Election to treat real property income as effectively connected with U.S. business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Election to treat real property income as... Foreign Corporations § 1.871-10 Election to treat real property income as effectively connected with U.S. business. (a) When election may be made. A nonresident alien individual or foreign corporation which...

  7. 26 CFR 1.871-10 - Election to treat real property income as effectively connected with U.S. business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Election to treat real property income as... Foreign Corporations § 1.871-10 Election to treat real property income as effectively connected with U.S. business. (a) When election may be made. A nonresident alien individual or foreign corporation which...

  8. Treating late-life generalized anxiety disorder in primary care: an effectiveness pilot study.

    PubMed

    Calleo, Jessica S; Bush, Amber L; Cully, Jeffrey A; Wilson, Nancy L; Kraus-Schuman, Cynthia; Rhoades, Howard M; Novy, Diane M; Masozera, Nicholas; Williams, Susan; Horsfield, Matthew; Kunik, Mark E; Stanley, Melinda A

    2013-05-01

    To increase the sustainability of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in primary care for late-life anxiety, we incorporated nonexpert counselors, options for telephone meetings, and integration with primary care clinicians. This open trial examines the feasibility, satisfaction, and clinical outcomes of CBT delivered by experienced and nonexperienced counselors for older adults with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Clinical outcomes assessed worry (Penn State Worry Questionnaire), GAD (Generalized Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale), and anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory and Structured Interview Guide for Hamilton Anxiety Scale). After 3 months of treatment, Cohen's d effect sizes for worry and anxiety ranged from 0.48 to 0.78. Patients treated by experienced and nonexperienced counselors had similar reductions in worry and anxiety, although treatment outcomes were more improved on the Beck Anxiety Inventory for experienced therapists. Preliminary results suggest that adapted CBT can effectively reduce worry. The piloted modifications can provide acceptable and feasible evidence-based care.

  9. The effect of bilirubin on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in cumene hydroperoxide-treated erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Yeşilkaya, A; Yeğin, A; Ozdem, S; Aksu, T A

    1998-01-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that bilirubin may act as a potent biological chain-breaking antioxidant. To observe the effects of free bilirubin on antioxidant reactions in cumene hydroperoxide-treated erythrocytes (15 g hemoglobin/dl), we added bilirubin at four different concentrations (0.5, 1, 5, and 10 mg/dl). We measured the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance and reduced glutathione levels, and some antioxidant enzyme activities, namely superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance and chemiluminescent signals decreased during the incubation. Superoxide dismutase activities also decreased but not as much as in the control group. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities and reduced glutathione levels increased, but catalase activities remained the same as the control group. Our results suggest that bilirubin--in the concentrations we have used--partially prevented the oxidant effects of cumene hydroperoxide.

  10. [Effectiveness and characteristics of treating algae-laden raw water by stocking silver carp].

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhen-Qiang; Cui, Fu-Yi; Ma, Hua; He, Wen-Jie; Yin, Pei-Jun

    2008-03-01

    To reduce the negative effect of algae on conventional water treatment, a full-scale research of removing algae from algae-laden raw water by stocking filter-feeding silver carp was processed. After the pretreatment in a presedimentation tank with silver carp, the concentration of phytoplankton, the biomass of cyanobacteria and Microsystis flos-aquae in algae-laden raw water with Microsystis flos-aquae its dominant species decreased 61.8%, 76.1% and 78.2% respectively. This effective decrease of algae load on conventional process created favorable conditions for water treatment. Analysis indicates that food habit of silver carp and algae size are two causes of different removal efficiency between cyanobacteria and green algae. The results show that biomanipulation of silver carp is applicable for treating algae-laden raw water in which colonial cyanobacteria is dominant.

  11. Effect of continuous ozone injection on performance and biomass accumulation of biofilters treating gaseous toluene.

    PubMed

    Xi, Jinying; Saingam, Prakit; Gu, Feng; Hu, Hong-Ying; Zhao, Xuefei

    2014-11-01

    Biofilters treating high-concentration gaseous volatile organic compounds (VOC) can be subject to bed clogging induced by excess biomass accumulation. In this study, O3 was continuously injected into biofilters to control biomass. Its effects on the performance of the biofilters and on biomass accumulation were investigated. Four identical biofilters designed to treat gaseous toluene were operated for 70 days, and three of them were continuously injected with O3 at different concentrations (from 80 to 320 mg/m(3)). The results showed that continuous O3 injection could effectively keep the bed pressure drop stable and had no adverse effect on toluene removal when O3 concentrations were 180-220 mg/m(3). The maximum toluene elimination capacity of the four biofilters was 140 g-toluene/m(3)/h, and the bed pressure drop of the biofilter fed with 180-220 mg/m(3) O3 remained below 3 mmH2O/m throughout the operation period. The biomass accumulation rates of the three biofilters with O3 at 80-320 mg/m(3) were lowered by 0.15-0.25 g/L/day compared with the biofilter without O3. The decreases in biomass accumulation resulted in higher void fractions of the filter beds with O3 injection. Carbon balance analysis indicated that CO2 production had increased while biomass accumulation and leachate waste production decreased in response to O3 injection. Based on the experimental results, it was concluded here that continuous O3 injection can reduce increases in bed pressure effectively, preserve VOC removal capacity, and prevent production of extra leachate waste.

  12. Proton Radiotherapy: The Biological Effect of Treating Alternating Subsets of Fields for Different Treatment Fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Engelsman, Martijn; DeLaney, Thomas F.; Hong, Theodore S.

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: Common practice in proton radiotherapy is to deliver a subset of all fields in the treatment plan on any given treatment day. We investigate using biological modeling if the resulting variation in daily dose to normal tissues has a relevant detrimental biological effect. Methods and Materials: For four patient groups, the cumulative normalized total dose (NTD) was determined for normal tissues (OARs) of each patient using the clinically delivered fractionation schedule (FS{sub clin}), and for hypothetical fractionation schedules delivering all fields every day (FS{sub all}) or only a single field each day (FS{sub single}). Cumulative three-dimensional NTD distributions were summarized using the generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) model. Results: For the skull base/cervical spine chordoma group, the largest effect is a 4-Gy increase in gEUD of the chiasm when treating only a subset of fields on any day. For lung cancer and pancreatic cancer patients, the variation in the gEUD of normal tissues is <0.2 Gy. For the prostate group, FS{sub clin} increases the gEUD of the femoral heads by 9 Gy compared with FS{sub all}. Use of FS{sub single} resulted in the highest NTD to normal tissues for any patient. FS{sub all} resulted in an integral NTD to the patient that is on average 5% lower than FS{sub clin} and 10% lower than FS{sub single}. Conclusion: The effects of field set of the day treatment delivery depend on the tumor site and number of fields treated each day. Modeling these effects may be important for accurate risk assessment.

  13. BCX4430, a novel nucleoside analog, effectively treats yellow fever in a Hamster model.

    PubMed

    Julander, Justin G; Bantia, Shanta; Taubenheim, Brian R; Minning, Dena M; Kotian, Pravin; Morrey, John D; Smee, Donald F; Sheridan, William P; Babu, Yarlagadda S

    2014-11-01

    No effective antiviral therapies are currently available to treat disease after infection with yellow fever virus (YFV). A Syrian golden hamster model of yellow fever (YF) was used to characterize the effect of treatment with BCX4430, a novel adenosine nucleoside analog. Significant improvement in survival was observed after treatment with BCX4430 at 4 mg/kg of body weight per day dosed intraperitoneally (i.p.) twice daily (BID). Treatment with BCX4430 at 12.5 mg/kg/day administered i.p. BID for 7 days offered complete protection from mortality and also resulted in significant improvement of other YF disease parameters, including weight loss, serum alanine aminotransferase levels (6 days postinfection [dpi]), and viremia (4 dpi). In uninfected hamsters, BCX4430 at 200 mg/kg/day administered i.p. BID for 7 days was well tolerated and did not result in mortality or weight loss, suggesting a potentially wide therapeutic index. Treatment with BCX4430 at 12 mg/kg/day i.p. remained effective when administered once daily and for only 4 days. Moreover, BCX4430 dosed at 200 mg/kg/day i.p. BID for 7 days effectively treated YF, even when treatment was delayed up to 4 days after virus challenge, corresponding with peak viral titers in the liver and serum. BCX4430 treatment did not preclude a protective antibody response, as higher neutralizing antibody (nAb) concentrations corresponded with increasing delays of treatment initiation, and greater nAb responses resulted in the protection of animals from a secondary challenge with YFV. In summary, BCX4430 is highly active in a hamster model of YF, even when treatment is initiated at the peak of viral replication.

  14. Effect of continuous ozone injection on performance and biomass accumulation of biofilters treating gaseous toluene.

    PubMed

    Xi, Jinying; Saingam, Prakit; Gu, Feng; Hu, Hong-Ying; Zhao, Xuefei

    2015-01-01

    Biofilters treating high-concentration gaseous volatile organic compounds (VOC) can be subject to bed clogging induced by excess biomass accumulation. In this study, O3 was continuously injected into biofilters to control biomass. Its effects on the performance of the biofilters and on biomass accumulation were investigated. Four identical biofilters designed to treat gaseous toluene were operated for 70 days, and three of them were continuously injected with O3 at different concentrations (from 80 to 320 mg/m(3)). The results showed that continuous O3 injection could effectively keep the bed pressure drop stable and had no adverse effect on toluene removal when O3 concentrations were 180-220 mg/m(3). The maximum toluene elimination capacity of the four biofilters was 140 g-toluene/m(3)/h, and the bed pressure drop of the biofilter fed with 180-220 mg/m(3) O3 remained below 3 mmH2O/m throughout the operation period. The biomass accumulation rates of the three biofilters with O3 at 80-320 mg/m(3) were lowered by 0.15-0.25 g/L/day compared with the biofilter without O3. The decreases in biomass accumulation resulted in higher void fractions of the filter beds with O3 injection. Carbon balance analysis indicated that CO2 production had increased while biomass accumulation and leachate waste production decreased in response to O3 injection. Based on the experimental results, it was concluded here that continuous O3 injection can reduce increases in bed pressure effectively, preserve VOC removal capacity, and prevent production of extra leachate waste.

  15. Effects of compost and phosphate on plant arsenic accumulation from soils near pressure-treated wood.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xinde; Ma, Lena Q

    2004-12-01

    Leaching of arsenic (As) from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood may elevate soil arsenic levels. Thus, an environmental concern arises regarding accumulation of As in vegetables grown in these soils. In this study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate As accumulation by vegetables from the soils adjacent to the CCA-treated utility poles and fences and examine the effects of soil amendments on plant As accumulation. Carrot (Daucus carota L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were grown for ten weeks in the soil with or without compost and phosphate amendments. As expected, elevated As concentrations were observed in the pole soil (43 mg kg(-1)) and in the fence soil (27 mg kg(-1)), resulting in enhanced As accumulation of 44 mg kg(-1) in carrot and 32 mg kg(-1) in lettuce. Addition of phosphate to soils increased As accumulation by 4.56-9.3 times for carrot and 2.45-10.1 for lettuce due to increased soil water-soluble As via replacement of arsenate by phosphate in soil. However, biosolid compost application significantly reduced plant As uptake by 79-86%, relative to the untreated soils. This suppression is possibly because of As adsorbed by biosolid organic mater, which reduced As phytoavailability. Fractionation analysis showed that biosolid decreased As in soil water-soluble, exchangeable, and carbonate fraction by 45%, whereas phosphate increased it up to 2.61 times, compared to the untreated soils. Our results indicate that growing vegetables in soils near CCA-treated wood may pose a risk of As exposure for humans. Compost amendment can reduce such a risk by reducing As accumulation by vegetables and can be an important strategy for remediating CCA-contaminated soils. Caution should be taken for phosphate application since it enhances As accumulation.

  16. Current evidence for effectiveness of interventions to treat rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Huisstede, Bionka M A; Koes, Bart W; Gebremariam, Lukas; Keijsers, Ellen; Verhaar, Jan A N

    2011-06-01

    In this systematic review we assessed effectiveness of non-surgical and (post)surgical interventions for symptomatic rotator cuff tears (RotCuffTear). The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, Cinahl, and Pedro were searched for relevant systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Two reviewers independently selected relevant studies, extracted data and assessed the methodological quality. Three Cochrane reviews (7 RCTs) and 14 RCTs were included (3 non-surgery, 10 surgery, 8 post-surgery). For small or medium RotCufftears, moderate evidence was found in favour of surgery versus physiotherapy in mid- and long-term. In surgery, tendon-to-bone fixation with one metal suture anchor loaded with double sutures (TB) was more effective (moderate evidence) than a side-to-side repair with permanent sutures (SS) in the mid- and long-term; limited evidence for effectiveness was found in favour of debridement versus anchor replacement and suture repair of the type II SLAP tear in the long-term. Further, no evidence was found in favour of any non-surgical, surgical or post-surgical intervention. In conclusion, although surgery seems to give better results compared to non-surgery and TB is more effective than SS in rotator cuff repair (RCR), it remains hard to draw firm evidence-based conclusions for effectiveness of non-surgical or (post)surgical interventions to treat RotCuffTears. More research is clearly needed.

  17. Enzyme-treated asparagus extract promotes expression of heat shock protein and exerts antistress effects.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tomohiro; Maeda, Takahiro; Goto, Kazunori; Miura, Takehito; Wakame, Koji; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Sato, Atsuya

    2014-03-01

    A novel enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) has been developed as a functional material produced from asparagus stem. Studies were conducted to determine the effect of ETAS on heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression and alleviation of stress. HeLa cells were treated with ETAS, and HSP70 mRNA and protein levels were measured using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. ETAS showed significant increases in HSP70 mRNA at more than 0.125 mg/mL and the protein at more than 1.0 mg/mL. The antistress effect was evaluated in a murine sleep-deprivation model. A sleep-deprivation stress load resulted in elevation of blood corticosterone and lipid peroxide concentrations, while supplementation with ETAS at 200 and 1000 mg/kg body weight was associated with significantly reduced levels of both stress markers, which were in the normal range. The HSP70 protein expression level in mice subjected to sleep-deprivation stress and supplemented with ETAS was significantly enhanced in stomach, liver, and kidney, compared to ETAS-untreated mice. A preliminary and small-sized human study was conducted among healthy volunteers consuming up to 150 mg/d of ETAS daily for 7 d. The mRNA expression of HSP70 in peripheral leukocytes was significantly elevated at intakes of 100 or 150 mg/d, compared to their baseline levels. Since HSP70 is known to be a stress-related protein and its induction leads to cytoprotection, the present results suggest that ETAS might exert antistress effects under stressful conditions, resulting from enhancement of HSP70 expression.

  18. A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Manipulative Therapy in Treating Lateral Epicondylalgia

    PubMed Central

    Herd, Christopher R.; Meserve, Brent B.

    2008-01-01

    Lateral epicondylalgia is a commonly encountered musculoskeletal complaint. Currently, there is no agreement regarding the exact underlying pathoanatomical cause or the most effective management strategy. Various forms of joint manipulation have been recommended as treatment. The purpose of this study was to systematically review available literature regarding the effectiveness of manipulation in treating lateral epicondylalgia. A comprehensive search of Medline, CINAHL, Health Source, SPORTDiscus, and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database ending in November 2007 was conducted. Thirteen studies, both randomized and non-randomized clinical trials, met inclusion criteria. Articles were assessed for quality by one reviewer using the 10-point PEDro scale. Quality scores ranged from 1–8 with a mean score of 5.15 ± 1.85. This score represented fair quality overall; however, trends indicated the presence of consistent methodological flaws. Specifically, no study achieved successful blinding of the patient or treating therapist, and less than 50% used a blinded outcome assessor. Additionally, studies varied significantly in terms of outcome measures, follow-up, and comparison treatments, thus making comparing results across studies difficult. Results of this review support the use of Mulligan's mobilization with movement in providing immediate, short-, and long-term benefits. In addition, positive results were demonstrated with manipulative therapy directed at the cervical spine, although data regarding long-term effects were limited. Currently, limited evidence exists to support a synthesis of any particular technique whether directed at the elbow or cervical spine. Overall, this review identified the need for further high-quality studies using larger sample sizes, valid functional outcome measures, and longer follow-up periods. PMID:19771195

  19. Effect of aluminium on duodenal calcium transport in pregnant and lactating rats treated with bromocriptine.

    PubMed

    Orihuela, Daniel

    2007-09-01

    The aim of present work was to study the effect of oral aluminium (Al) overload on intestinal calcium (Ca) absorption in the critical stages of pregnancy and lactation of rats and to find out possible relationships with prolactin (PRL) and 17beta-estradiol (E2) circulating levels. Adult female Wistar rats were orally treated from day 1 of pregnancy with 0 (control), or 50 mg elemental Al (as chloride)/kg body weight per day. Ca transport was determined by everted duodenal sacs technique using 2 microCi of (45)CaCl(2) as flux marker (JCa(ms)). Al treatment reduced JCa(ms) either in late pregnancy (day 19) or in middle lactation (day 9 postpartum). Oral administration of bromocriptine (BrC), an inhibitor of PRL secretion, at dose of 10 mg/kg body weight given 18 h before JCa(ms) measurements were done, produced a significant decrease in the inhibitory effect of Al on JCa(ms), expressed as percent of control, at day 9 of nursing (vehicle: 51+/-7%, BrC: 28+/-4%, P <0.05). A positive correlation between Al effects on JCa(ms) and the physiological variations of E2 serum levels along pregnancy and lactation in BrC-treated rats was also found (r(2)=0.277, P =0.001). We conclude Al could reduce transcellular Ca absorption in the duodenum by interfering with physiological mechanisms of Ca transport partially mediated by serum level increments of E2 and PRL, observed in late pregnancy and mainly during middle lactation of rats.

  20. Sweet Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture May be Effective for Treating Sexual Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pavel; Yu, Junsang

    2014-09-01

    Sexual dysfunction (SD) is a health problem which occurs during any phase of the sexual response cycle that keeps the individual or couple from experiencing satisfaction from the sexual activity. SD covers a wide variety of symptoms like in men, erectile dysfunction and premature or delayed ejaculation, in women, spasms of the vagina and pain with sexual intercourse, in both sexes, sexual desire and response. And pharmacopuncture, i.e. injection of subclinical doses of drugs, mostly herb medicine, in acupoints, has been adopted with successful results. This case report showed the effect of bee venom on SD. A 51-year-old male patient with SD, who had a past history of taking Western medication to treat his SD and who had previously undergone surgery on his lower back due to a herniated disc, received treatments using pharmacopuncture of sweet bee venom (SBV) at Gwanwon (CV4), Hoeeum (CV1), Sinsu (BL23), and Gihaesu (BL24) for 20 days. Objectively, the patient showed improvement on most items on the International Index for Erectile Dysfunction (IIEF) like 28 to 29 out of perfect score 30 for erectile function, 10 to 10 out of perfect score 10 for orgasmic function, 6 to 8 out of perfect score 10 for sexual desire, 10 to 13 out of perfect score 15 for satisfaction with intercourse, and 6 to 8 out of perfect score 10 for overall satisfaction; subjectively, his words, the tone of his voice and the look of confidence in his eyes all indicated improvement. Among the variety of effects of SBV pharmacopuncture, urogenital problems such as SD may be health problems that pharmacopuncture can treat effectively.

  1. Effect of coenzyme q10 on myopathic symptoms in patients treated with statins.

    PubMed

    Caso, Giuseppe; Kelly, Patricia; McNurlan, Margaret A; Lawson, William E

    2007-05-15

    Treatment of hypercholesterolemia with statins (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors) is effective in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, statin use is often associated with a variety of muscle-related symptoms or myopathies. Myopathy may be related in part to statin inhibition of the endogenous synthesis of coenzyme Q10, an essential cofactor for mitochondrial energy production. The aim of this study is to determine whether coenzyme Q10 supplementation would reduce the degree of muscle pain associated with statin treatment. Patients with myopathic symptoms were randomly assigned in a double-blinded protocol to treatment with coenzyme Q10 (100 mg/day, n = 18) or vitamin E (400 IU/day, n = 14) for 30 days. Muscle pain and pain interference with daily activities were assessed before and after treatment. After a 30-day intervention, pain severity decreased by 40% (p <0.001) and pain interference with daily activities decreased by 38% (p <0.02) in the group treated with coenzyme Q10. In contrast, no changes in pain severity (+9%, p = NS) or pain interference with daily activities (-11%, p = NS) was observed in the group treated with vitamin E. In conclusion, results suggest that coenzyme Q10 supplementation may decrease muscle pain associated with statin treatment. Thus, coenzyme Q10 supplementation may offer an alternative to stopping treatment with these vital drugs.

  2. Effect of immobilized Lactobacillus casei on volatile compounds of heat treated probiotic dry-fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Sidira, Marianthi; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Kanellaki, Maria; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

    2015-07-01

    The effect of the amount of immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on wheat grains on the generation of volatile compounds during the production of heat treated probiotic dry-fermented sausages was investigated. For comparison reasons, sausages containing free L. casei cells or no starter culture as well as a similar commercial product were also included in the study. Samples ripened for 8 days and heat treated to 70-72°C for 8-10 min were subjected to Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. The starter culture affected significantly the production of volatile compounds. The highest content of esters and alcohols was observed in the sample containing 30 g of immobilized cells/kg of stuffing mixture, while the highest concentration of organic acids was observed in the sausages with no starter culture. In contrast, the commercial product contained the lowest concentration of volatiles. Principal component analysis of the semi-quantitative data revealed that the volatile composition was affected primarily by the nature and concentration of the starter culture.

  3. The MILLER banding procedure is an effective method for treating dialysis-associated steal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gregg A; Goel, Naveen; Friedman, Alexander; Khariton, Aleksandr; Jotwani, Manish C; Savransky, Yevgeny; Khariton, Konstantin; Arnold, William P; Preddie, Dean C

    2010-02-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of the Minimally Invasive Limited Ligation Endoluminal-Assisted Revision (MILLER) banding procedure in treating dialysis-associated steal syndrome or high-flow access problems. A retrospective analysis was conducted, evaluating banding of 183 patients of which 114 presented with hand ischemia (Steal) and 69 with clinical manifestations of pathologic high access flow such as congestive heart failure. Patients were assessed for technical success and symptomatic improvement, primary and secondary access patency, and primary band patency. Overall, 183 patients underwent a combined 229 bandings with technical success achieved in 225. Complete symptomatic relief (clinical success) was attained in 109 Steal patients and in all high-flow patients. The average follow-up time was 11 months with a 6-month primary band patency of 75 and 85% for Steal and high-flow patients, respectively. At 24 months the secondary access patency was 90% and the thrombotic event rates for upper-arm fistulas, forearm fistulas, and grafts were 0.21, 0.10, and 0.92 per access-year, respectively. Hence, the minimally invasive MILLER procedure appears to be an effective and durable option for treating dialysis access-related steal syndrome and high-flow-associated symptoms.

  4. Effects of clinorotation and microgravity on sweet clover columella cells treated with cytochalasin D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilaire, E.; Paulsen, A. Q.; Brown, C. S.; Guikema, J. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    The cytoskeleton of columella cells is believed to be involved in maintaining the developmental polarity of cells observed as a reproducible positioning of cellular organelles. It is also implicated in the transduction of gravitropic signals. Roots of sweet clover (Melilotus alba L.) seedlings were treated with a microfilament disrupter, cytochalasin D, on a slowly rotating horizontal clinostat (2 rpm). Electron micrographs of treated columella cells revealed several ultrastructural effects including repositioning of the nucleus and the amyloplasts and the formation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) whorls. However, experiments performed during fast clinorotation (55 rpm) showed an accumulation (but no whorling) of a disorganized ER network at the proximal and distal pole and a random distribution of the amyloplasts. Therefore, formation of whorls depends upon the speed of clinorotation, and the overall impact of cytochalasin D suggests the necessity of microfilaments in organelle positioning. Interestingly, a similar drug treatment performed in microgravity aboard the US Space Shuttle Endeavour (STS-54, January 1993) caused a displacement of ER membranes and amyloplasts away from the distal plasma membrane. In the present study, we discuss the role of microfilaments in maintaining columella cell polarity and the utility of clinostats to simulate microgravity.

  5. Effect of Surface Treated Silicon Dioxide Nanoparticles on Some Mechanical Properties of Maxillofacial Silicone Elastomer

    PubMed Central

    Zayed, Sara M.; Alshimy, Ahmad M.; Fahmy, Amal E.

    2014-01-01

    Current materials used for maxillofacial prostheses are far from ideal and there is a need for novel improved materials which mimic as close as possible the natural behavior of facial soft tissues. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of adding different concentrations of surface treated silicon dioxide nanoparticles (SiO2) on clinically important mechanical properties of a maxillofacial silicone elastomer. 147 specimens of the silicone elastomer were prepared and divided into seven groups (n = 21). One control group was prepared without nanoparticles and six study groups with different concentrations of nanoparticles, from 0.5% to 3% by weight. Specimens were tested for tear strength (ASTM D624), tensile strength (ASTM D412), percent elongation, and shore A hardness. SEM was used to assess the dispersion of nano-SiO2 within the elastomer matrix. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Scheffe test (α = 0.05). Results revealed significant improvement in all mechanical properties tested, as the concentration of the nanoparticles increased. This was supported by the results of the SEM. Hence, it can be concluded that the incorporation of surface treated SiO2 nanoparticles at concentration of 3% enhanced the overall mechanical properties of A-2186 silicone elastomer. PMID:25574170

  6. Fetal corticosteroid and T4 treatment effects on lung function of surfactant-treated preterm lambs.

    PubMed

    Chen, C M; Ikegami, M; Ueda, T; Polk, D H; Jobe, A H

    1995-01-01

    Three groups of sheep fetuses at 125 or 126 d gestational age randomly received a single ultrasound-guided intramuscular injection of saline, 0.5 mg/kg betamethasone, or 0.5 mg/kg betamethasone plus 50 micrograms/kg thyroxine (T4). Forty-eight hours later the fetuses were delivered, treated with a pulmonary surfactant preparation, and ventilated for 3 h. Corticosteroids alone and in combination with T4 increased FRC, compliance, and lung volumes, and decreased the protein leak into the airspace. Saturated phosphatidylcholine pool sizes recovered by alveolar washing were not changed after hormone treatment. To evaluate the function of surfactant recovered from the lambs in vivo, we treated preterm rabbits at 27 d gestational age with the large-aggregate surfactant from alveolar washes. Large-aggregate surfactants and the pulmonary surfactant preparation increased compliances and maximal lung volumes relative to those in untreated preterm rabbits. Large-aggregate surfactants improved compliance more than did the pulmonary surfactant preparation. We conclude that ultrasound-guided single fetal corticosteroid treatment followed by postnatal surfactant improved postnatal lung function in preterm lambs. Addition of T4 did not augment corticosteroid effects. The function of the exogenous surfactant was improved in premature lamb lungs independently of the fetal treatment modality.

  7. Atypical presentations of genital herpes simplex virus in HIV-1 and HIV-2 effectively treated by imiquimod.

    PubMed

    McKendry, Anna; Narayana, Srinivasulu; Browne, Rita

    2015-05-01

    Atypical presentations of genital herpes simplex virus have been described in HIV. We report two cases with hypertrophic presentations which were effectively treated with imiquimod, one of which is the first reported case occurring in a patient with HIV-2.

  8. Modelling cost effectiveness of horse antithymocyte globulin for treating severe aplastic anaemia in Germany.

    PubMed

    Heublein, Steffen; Wehner, Franziska; Höchsmann, Britta; Hochhaus, Andreas; Hartmann, Michael; La Rosée, Paul

    2013-06-01

    Acquired severe aplastic anaemia (AA) is a serious condition caused by immune-triggered bone marrow failure. For patients not eligible for bone marrow transplantation, treatment of choice is immunosuppression by a combined treatment with antithymocyte globulin (ATG) and cyclosporine. The debate on treatment optimization in AA is focused on conflicting data regarding ATG preparations from horse (h-ATG) versus rabbit (r-ATG), recently favouring h-ATG. H-ATG has been withdrawn from the European market in 2007. Reimbursement for imported preparations from outside Europe is frequently denied in negotiations with statutory health insurance companies. This raises the question of whether h-ATG is cost effective and a sensible investment with regard to healthcare budgets as well as patient health. We modelled the cost effectiveness of r-ATG versus h-ATG based on a recent randomized trial and cost data provided by the hospital pharmacy of Jena University Hospital. We calculated the amount of life years gained and the average incremental costs per life year gained when comparing h-ATG and r-ATG. Our calculations revealed average incremental costs per life year gained of 11,033.80 for the examined patient population treated with h-ATG when compared to r-ATG. Assuming a cost effectiveness threshold of 25,000-35,000 per life year gained, our calculations demonstrate cost effectiveness of h-ATG as compared to r-ATG.

  9. [Effect of metalloproteins on the photochemical activity of chloroplasts treated with polyene antibiotics].

    PubMed

    Mutuskin, A A; Makovkina, L E; Pshenova, K V; Vostroknutova, G N

    1977-04-01

    The effects of various metall-containing proteins (plastocyanin, plantacyanin, azurine and cytochromes of the f type) on the activity of photosystem I of chloroplasts, treated with polyene antibiotics, were studied. The inhibiting effect of the polyenes, surgumycin and philipin, was completely removed by an addition of copper-containing protein plastocyanin. No similar effect was exerted by other Cu-containing proteins--azurine and plantacyanin. The cytochromes of the f type isolated from the green algae chlorella, blue-green algae spiruline and aphanezomenone, having different electrophoretic properties, restored the activity of photosystem I of chloroplasts incubated with antibiotics in a different degree. Acid cytochrome f of chlorella restored the activity by 80--100%; less acid cytochrome f from spiruline-only by 50%. The least restoring effect was exerted by aphanezomenone cytochrome, which possesses some basic properties. The chloroplasts treatment with surgumycin did not affect the isolation of the terminal enzyme of the chloroplast electron-transporting chain of ferredoxin--NADP--reductase. Possible environment of plastocyanin in the chloroplast membrane and the mechanism of photosystem I restoration are discussed.

  10. Effects of fermented Cordyceps sinensis on oxidative stress in doxorubicin treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Rong; Gao, Jian-Ping; Wang, Hui-Lin; Gao, Yan; Wu, Qian; Cui, Xiao-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cordyceps sinensis (CS) is one of the rare traditional Chinese herbs, only a very limited amount of natural CS is produced. Fermented CS, as a substitute for natural CS, is widely used in the field of supplementary medical treatment and health products. Its antagonistic effect on oxidative stress (OS) in vivo has not been investigated. Objective: Our aim was to investigate the antagonistic effect of fermented CS on OS in doxorubicin (DOX) treated rats and to compare the anti-OS effects in heart and liver tissues. Materials and Methods: OS rats were induced by tail-intravenous injection of DOX (total of 7.5 mg/kg), and then administered intragastrically with fermented CS (1.5 g/kg) for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiment, heart, liver and serum samples were taken for and biochemical analyses. Results: Fermented CS significantly increased the activities of glutathione peroxidase and catalase and the scavenging activity of O2− in serum, and the total superoxide dismutase activity in cardiac tissue; reduced the malondialdehyde content in liver and cardiac tissues. Conclusion: Fermented CS can inhibit DOX-induced OS reactions, and the anti-OS effects have high selectivity to heart and liver, especially to heart. Thus, fermented CS may be a candidate used for the prevention against various cardiac diseases induced by OS. PMID:26600716

  11. Cofactor metals and antioxidant enzymes in cisplatin-treated rats: effect of antioxidant intervention.

    PubMed

    Sabuncuoglu, Suna; Eken, Ayse; Aydin, Ahmet; Ozgunes, Hilal; Orhan, Hilmi

    2015-10-01

    We explored the association between the activities of antioxidant enzymes and their metallic cofactors in rats treated with cisplatin. The antioxidant effects of aminoguanidine, and a combination of vitamins E and C were investigated. Plasma platin was significantly lower than liver and kidney. Cisplatin treatment caused significant increase in plasma Se-glutathione peroxidase activity. Activities of Se-glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, catalase and Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase have been found to be significantly decreased in liver and kidney compared to controls. Zn levels in these organs were diminished upon cisplatin treatment, while levels of Cu were unaffected. Interestingly, levels of iron, the cofactor of catalase, were found to be significantly increased in liver and kidney. Intervention with aminoguanidine or vitamins was generally prevented cisplatin-caused changes in the activity of enzymes and in the tissue levels of cofactor metals. These observations suggest that relation between activities of enzymes and levels of cofactor metals is multifactorial.

  12. Effect of nondopaminergic drugs on L-dopa-induced dyskinesias in MPTP-treated monkeys.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Mancilla, B; Bédard, P J

    1993-10-01

    A group of four monkeys was rendered parkinsonian with the toxin MPTP. They were then treated chronically with L-DOPA/benserazide 50/12.5 mg/kg given orally daily for 2 months. This dose produced a striking antiparkinsonian effect, but all animals manifested dyskinesia. A series of agents acting primarily on neurotransmitters other than dopamine were then tested in combination with L-DOPA to see if the dyskinetic movements would be modified. Several drugs, including clonidine, physostigmine, methysergide, 5-MDOT, propranolol, and MK-801, markedly reduced the dyskinetic movements but at the cost of a return of parkinsonian symptomatology. However, yohimbine and meperidine reduced predominantly the dyskinetic movements. Baclofen was also useful in one monkey against a more dystonic form of dyskinesia. Atropine converted the dystonic movements into chorea.

  13. How effective is temozolomide for treating pituitary tumours and when should it be used?

    PubMed

    Halevy, Carmel; Whitelaw, Benjamin C

    2017-04-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ) has been shown as an effective treatment option in aggressive pituitary adenomas and carcinomas. This review analyses the published case series and demonstrates 42 % of patents show a radiological response and 27 % experience stable disease following TMZ. Prolactinomas and corticotroph tumours respond best to TMZ, showing approximately a 50 % response rate, with non-functioning tumours responding only half as frequently. Other factors that may predict the tumour's TMZ response include MGMT and MSH status, but neither is sufficiently robust to determine treatment decisions. TMZ has an accepted role in treating pituitary carcinoma and adenomas if radiation and surgery have failed to control tumour growth. To use TMZ on the basis of anticipated future aggression, as a primary therapy, or in preference to radiotherapy remains controversial.

  14. [Effects on microstructure and mechanical property of pure titanium (TA1) treated by anodic oxidation].

    PubMed

    Pan, Liuguo; Sun, Liqun

    2008-12-01

    Effects on surface microstructure and mechanical property of pure titanium (TA1) for implant treated by anodic oxidation were investigated. We found that the oxide film with a certain uniform and compact color could be achieved by anodic oxidation method. However, with the increasing of oxidizing voltage and time, the oxide film will be dissolved at local area. The oxygen content of oxide film and the hydrogen content of matrix titanium will be raised, and will also be increased. In fact, hydrogen could be diffused into matrix titanium. With the increase of hydrogen content of matrix titanium and sigmas/sigmab, there appear the possible results of plastic deformation and the fracture of implant.

  15. Drug-induced EEG pattern predicts effectiveness of ketamine in treating refractory status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Basha, Maysaa M; Alqallaf, Abdulradha; Shah, Aashit K

    2015-04-01

    Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) can lack overt clinical manifestation and is usually treated with continuous infusion of intravenous anesthetic drugs (IVADs), where the use of continuous electroencephalography (cEEG) is imperative. Ketamine has recently been shown to be effective in the treatment of RSE. We retrospectively review a cohort of 11 patients receiving ketamine as part of their treatment regimen for RSE. We report on the presence of a characteristic EEG rhythm consisting of a generalized archiform theta to beta rhythms (7-20 Hz) appearing after ketamine administration. This pattern was seen in five patients, four of whom achieved successful resolution of RSE. Ketamine-induced EEG pattern may serve as a biomarker predictive of successful treatment outcome in RSE.

  16. Effect of MTHFR polymorphisms on hyperhomocysteinemia in levodopa-treated Parkinsonian patients.

    PubMed

    Caccamo, D; Gorgone, G; Currò, M; Parisi, G; Di Iorio, W; Menichetti, C; Belcastro, V; Parnetti, L; Rossi, A; Pisani, F; Ientile, R; Calabresi, P

    2007-01-01

    High plasma homocysteine levels have been observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients treated with levodopa. In this study, we investigated the effects of C677T and A1298C MTHFR polymorphisms, in association with L-DOPA daily dose and vitamin status, on hyperhomocysteinemia development in PD patients. Plasma homocysteine and folate/vitamin B12 levels were assayed in 49 L-DOPA-treated PD patients, and compared with those of 86 healthy subjects. Genotyping for MTHFR polymorphisms was carried out by DG-DGGE. Homocysteine levels were significantly higher in patients than in controls (16.3 +/- 5.7 vs. 11.7 +/- 2.7 micromol/l, P < 0.01). No significant differences were found between patients and controls with regard to folate/vitamin B12 levels, and MTHFR allele distribution. The TT+AA genotype was significantly more frequent in PD patients than in controls (32.5% vs. 17.4%, P < 0.05), but not associated with an increased risk for PD (OR = 2.3, CI = 1.0-5.2). Further, patients carrier of this genotype exhibited a mild hyperhomocysteinemia (22.1 +/- 4.9 micromol/l), while a protective effect was observed in patients having the CC+AA genotype (11.2 +/- 1.6 micromol/l; OR = 0.19, CI = 0.06-0.59). Interestingly, homocysteine levels were also moderately increased in patients with CT heterozygous genotype, in the context of either AA or AC (14.5 +/- 3.6 micromol/l), in comparison to subjects with the CC + AA genotype. Finally, we did not find any significant association of combined C677T and A1298C MTHFR polymorphisms with an increased risk for hyperhomocysteinemia in PD patients. A better understanding of the role of homocysteine and MTHFR genotypes in PD is needed to reveal novel approaches for disease management.

  17. Evaluation of antioxidant effects of crocin on sperm quality in cyclophosphamide treated adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiary, Zahra; Shahrooz, Rasoul; Ahmadi, Abbas; Zarei, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CP) is one of the anti-neoplastic drugs. Despite its numerous clinical applications, it has devastating effects on the testicles and declines the sperm quality in treated patients. This study was aimed to investigate the protective effect of crocin in improving the toxicity induced by CP in reproductive system. In this study, 24 male adult mice (6 to 8 weeks) were randomly divided into three groups, control group received normal saline (0.1 mL, IP, daily), the CP group received CP (15 mg kg-1, IP, weekly) and the CP + crocin group received CP along with crocin (200 mg kg-1, IP, daily). After 35 days of treatment, animals were sacrificed. The samples of epididymis in human tubal fluid medium incubated for 30 min in 5% CO2 for flotation of sperm. Sperm were obtained from caudal epididymis using dissecting method. Then, the parameters of sperm quality including sperm count, motility, viability, DNA damage, nuclear maturation, and sperm morphology were evaluated. In CP group, the sperm count, motility, viability, nuclear maturation and sperm morphology were significantly decreased compared to control group (p < 0.05) and in the CP + crocin group all of these parameters significantly increased compared to CP group (p < 0.05). The percentage of sperm with DNA damage in the CP group significantly increased compared to other groups (p < 0.05). The results of this study indicated that the crocin was able to suppress free radicals and enhance the quality of sperm in CP treated animals. PMID:25568721

  18. Effect of losartan on serum uric acid in hypertension treated with a diuretic: the COMFORT study.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Kiyoshi; Arima, Hisatomi; Tominaga, Mitsuhiro; Ohtsubo, Toshio; Sasaguri, Toshiyuki; Fujii, Koji; Fukuhara, Masayo; Uezono, Keiko; Morinaga, Yuki; Ohta, Yuko; Otonari, Takatoshi; Kawasaki, Junya; Kato, Isao; Tsuchihashi, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), reduces serum uric acid levels. However, the effects of losartan on serum uric acid levels in the patients treated with a thiazide diuretic have not been fully elucidated. We have investigated the effects of losartan compared with other ARBs on blood variables and blood pressure control in hypertensive patients treated with a thiazide diuretic using data from the COMFORT study. The present analysis included a total of 118 hypertensive subjects on combination treatment with ARBs except for losartan and a diuretic who were randomly assigned to a daily regimen of a combination pill (losartan 50 mg/hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg) or to continuation of two pills, an ARB except for losartan and a diuretic. Blood pressures were evaluated at 1, 3, and 6 months after randomization and changes in blood variables including serum uric acid were evaluated during 6 months treatment period. Mean follow-up blood pressure levels were not different between the combination pill (losartan treatment) group and the control (ARBs except for losartan) group. On the other hand, serum uric acid significantly decreased in the combination pill group compared with the control group (-0.44 versus + 0.10 mg/dl; p = 0.01), although hematocrit, serum creatinine, sodium and potassium were not different between the groups. These results suggest that the treatment regimen switched from a combination therapy of ARBs except for losartan and a diuretic to a combination pill (losartan/ hydrochlorothiazide) decreases serum uric acid without affecting blood pressure control.

  19. Effects of monascin on anti-inflammation mediated by Nrf2 activation in advanced glycation end product-treated THP-1 monocytes and methylglyoxal-treated wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bao-Hong; Hsu, Wei-Hsuan; Huang, Tao; Chang, Yu-Ying; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2013-02-13

    Hyperglycemia is associated with advanced glycation end products (AGEs). This study was designed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of monascin on receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE) signal and THP-1 monocyte inflammation after treatment with S100b, a specific ligand of RAGE. Monascin inhibited cytokine production by S100b-treated THP-1 monocytes via up-regulation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and alleviated p47phox translocation to the membrane. Methylglyoxal (MG, 600 mg/kg bw) was used to induce diabetes in Wistar rats. Inhibitions of RAGE and p47phox by monascin were confirmed by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of MG-induced rats. Silymarin (SM) was used as a positive control group. It was found that monascin promoted heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression mediated by Nrf2. Suppressions of AGEs, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-β) in serum of MG-induced rats were attenuated in the monascin administration group treated with retinoic acid (RA). RA treatment resulted in Nrf2 inactivation by increasing RA receptor-α (RARα) activity, suggesting that RA acts as an inhibitor of Nrf2. The results showed that monascin exerted anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects mediated by Nrf2 to prevent the development of diseases such as type 2 diabetes caused by inflammation.

  20. Cytogenetic analysis of pulmonary alveolar macrophages from treated mice: the effects of cyclophosphimide and benzene

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, M.J.; Harper, B.L.; Gad-El-Karim, M.; Ward, J.B. Jr.; Legator, M.S.

    1982-02-01

    The lung is a unique organ in environmental toxicology due to its role in chemical absorption, metabolism and clearance. The development of assays for genotoxic events in the lung would allow observation of effects at a site of chemical administration. We are evaluating the genotoxic effects of chemical on the lung by cytogenetic analysis of pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM's). Using male, Swiss (ICR) mice and a modified standard lavage technique, we can consistently recover 1.0-1.5 x 10/sup 6/ PAM cells per animal. Cells from the lavage material were prepared by standard cytogenetic procedures. In two experiments, cyclophosphamide was administered interperatoneally at 0, 5 or 20 mg/kg to 5-6 animals in each treatment group. This was to ascertain whether a clastogen, administered systemically, would manifest its effects in PAM cells, whether such effects were observable, and whether these effects were dose related. The results, analyzed as percent damaged cells, were respectively, 1.89%, 6.40% and 14.32%, (p-value < .001). Benzene was tested using the PAM cytogenetic technique. Doses of 440 and 880 mg/kg, administered via oral gavage, resulted in increased damage: 43.8% and 55.3% cells containing chromosome breaks, respectively. SKF had no apparent protective effect, suggesting the non-involvement of P-450 metabolism in the clastogenic process. In addition, in benzene treated animals a characteristic lesion involving destabilization of the short arms of acrocentric chromosomes resulted in linkage arrangements in over half of all metaphases. These results are consistent with the clastogenic activity of these agents in bone marrow.

  1. Salinity effect of irrigation with treated wastewater in basal soil respiration in SE of Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morugan, A.; Garcia-Orenes, F.; Mataix-Solera, J.

    2012-04-01

    saline content in soils irrigated with wastewater. The lower values of BSR were detected at T2 and T3 treatments and higher in TC, corresponding with an increase of electrical conductivity (EC) in soil especially in that irrigated with the secondary treatment. The increase of EC in any case was so high as to produce big problems with crop productivity or soil salinization. An increasing trend was observed in BSR after a period of leaching of salts and a decrease of EC. An exhaustive control of EC of treated wastewater is necessary to avoid undesirable effects on crop yield and to assess the feasibility of using these waters in this type of soil. Aknowledgements: This research was supported by the Water Reuse project (Reference STREP- FP6-2003-INCO-Russia+NIS-1. PL 516731). A. Morugán acknowledges the grants from "Caja Mediterraneo". The authors also acknowledge the "Biar waste water treatment station", "Entidad pública de saneamiento de aguas residuales de la Comunidad Valenciana" and "Proaguas Costablanca" for the collaboration.

  2. Biotransformation effect of Bombyx Mori L. may play an important role in treating diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, La; Li, Yin; Guo, Xin-Feng; Liu, Xu-Sheng

    2016-11-01

    Compared with herbal drugs, medicine processed from animals (animal medicine) was thought to have more bioactive substances and higher activities. Biotransformation effect often plays an important role in their effect. However, researches about effect of animal medicine on diabetic nephropathy and applying animal medicine as natural bio-transformer were seldom reported. The purpose of this paper was to reveal the use of Bombyx Mori L. on diabetic nephropathy from ancient to modern times. The classical literature indicated that Saosi Decoction (), which contains Bombyx Mori L. or silkworm cocoon, was applied to treat disorders congruent with modern disease diabetic nephropathy from the Ming to Qing Dynasty in ancient China. Modern studies showed that Bombyx Mori L. contains four main active constituents. Among these, 1-deoxynojirimycin (1-DNJ) and quercetin showed promising potential to be new agents in diabetic nephropathy treatment. The concentrations of 1-DNJ and the activities of quercetin in Bombyx Mori L. are higher than in mulberry leaves, because of the biotransformation in the Bombyx Mori L. body. However, these specifific components need further human and mechanistic studies to determine their therapeutic potential for this challenging condition.

  3. Genotoxic effects of cadmium chloride and azadirachtin treated singly and in combination in fish.

    PubMed

    Chandra, P; Khuda-Bukhsh, A R

    2004-06-01

    The genotoxic effects of cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)) and azadirachtin (Aza) were assessed singly and conjointly in a fish, Oreochromis mossambicus, with endpoints such as chromosome aberrations, abnormal red cell nuclei, abnormal sperm morphology, and protein content (both qualitative and quantitative) of selected tissues, namely, muscle, heart, eye, brain, gill, liver, spleen, and kidney. The primary objectives were, first, to examine if CdCl(2), a common pollutant, and Aza, a natural product of the neem plant used extensively as an 'ecofriendly' agent for many purposes, had any genotoxic effect of their own on nontarget aquatic organisms of economic importance; and second, if Aza could have any ameliorating effect on CdCl(2)-induced genotoxicity in O. mossambicus tissues. As compared with distilled water-treated controls, both CdCl(2) and Aza induced genotoxicity in O. mossambicus, the former in greater quantity than that produced by Aza. However, Cd-induced toxicity in O. mossambicus appeared to be ameliorated to some extent by Aza.

  4. Genotoxic effect of Physalis angulata L. (Solanaceae) extract on human lymphocytes treated in vitro.

    PubMed

    Alves dos Santos, Raquel; Cabral, Teresinha Rosa; Cabral, Isabel Rosa; Antunes, Lusânia Maria; Pontes Andrade, Cristiane; Cerqueira dos Santos Cardoso, Plínio; de Oliveira Bahia, Marcelo; Pessoa, Claudia; Martins do Nascimento, José Luis; Rodríguez Burbano, Rommel; Takahashi, Catarina Satie

    2008-08-01

    Physalis angulata L (Solanaceae) is a medicinal plant from North of Brazil, whose different extracts and infusions are commonly used in the popular medicine for the treatment of malaria, asthma, hepatitis, dermatitis and rheumatism. However, the genotoxic effects of P. angulata on human cells is not well known. The main purpose of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro genotoxic effects of aqueous extract of P. angulata using the comet assay and the micronucleus assay in human lymphocytes provided from 6 healthy donors. Treatments with P. angulata extracts were performed in vitro in order to access the extent of DNA damage. The comet assay has shown that treatments with P. angulata at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 6.0 microg/mL in culture medium were genotoxic. Lymphocytes treated with P. angulata at the concentrations of 3.0 and 6.0 microg/mL in culture medium showed a statistically significant increase in the frequency of micronucleus (p<0.05), however, the cytokinesis blocked proliferation index (CBPI) was not decreased after P. angulata treatment. In conclusion, the present work demonstrated the genotoxic effects of P. angulata extract on human lymphocytes in vitro.

  5. Fumigant effectiveness in creosote- and penta-treated southern pine poles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.J.K.; Terracina, F.C.; Zabel, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives were to evaluate the effectiveness of the fumigants, Vapam and chloropicrin, to arrest decay development in the groundline zone of southern pine poles, and to determine the types and prevalence of fungi reinvading the poles after fumigation. Fifty-one creosote- and penta-treated poles representing various service ages and decay conditions were fumigated with Vapam or chloropicrin. Cores were extracted from the groundline zone for fungus isolations and decay determinations, prior to fumigation and annually thereafter for 8 years. The reappearance of decay fungi was the major criterion used for judging fumigant effectiveness. Both Vapam and chloropicrin were effective disinfectants and killed all of the previously detected fungi in all poles. The protection periods of the fumigants from decay fungus reinvasions varied with pole age, prior decay condition, and preservative treatment. They ranged from less than 1 to 7 years and were least in older poles with prior decay. Soft-rot fungi were major decay agents which reinvaded the fumigated poles. The reinvading fungi were generally those tolerant to the preservatives or fumigants used in the study. Chloropicrin concentrations at 5, 6, and 7 years after fumigation were highly variable, and below toxic threshold levels in the outer core zones of most poles. 33 refs., 4 figs., 12 tabs.

  6. Effects of bulkheads made of pressure-treated wood on estuarine benthos

    SciTech Connect

    Weis, J.S.; Weis, P.

    1995-12-31

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood is in very common use for pilings and bulkheads. Studies of benthic effects of bulkheads include chemical analyses of sediments, chemical analysis of uptake by benthic organisms, and the benthic community structure at different distances from the bulkhead. The authors have measured these parameters at a number of CCA bulkheads, at two bulkheads constructed of other materials (untreated hardwood, aluminum) and at unbulkheaded sites. Sediments adjacent to CCA bulkheads had elevated Cu, Cr, and As in the fine particulate fraction, and the concentration of contaminants decreased with distance. However, the percentage of fine particles increased with distance (to 10 or 20 m) as the sandy sediments adjacent to the bulkheads became siltier with greater depth. Benthic organisms (polychaete worms) had the highest body burdens of the contaminants right at the bulkhead and generally decreased with distance, up to 20 m. The benthic community was evaluated by species richness, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, total number of individuals, and dry weight. These parameters were lowest immediately adjacent to CCA wood bulkheads, and recovered at distances where the amount of contamination of the fine particles was reduced. There was not a comparable reduction in the benthic community adjacent to bulkheads made of other materials. The effects of CCA wood were greatest by new wood, and in areas that were poorly flushed. Pilings in well-flushed areas produced no measurable effects.

  7. Near-infrared spectroscopy technique to evaluate the effects of drugs in treating traumatic brain edema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, J.; Qian, Z.; Yang, T.; Li, W.; Hu, G.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of several drugs in treating traumatic brain edema (TBE) following traumatic brain injury (TBI) using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRs) technology. Rats with TBE models were given hypertonic saline (HS), mannitol and mannitol+HS respectively for different groups. Light scattering properties of rat's local cortex was measured by NIRs within the wavelength range from 700 to 850 nm. TBE models were built in rats' left brains. The scattering properties of the right and left target corresponding to the position of normal and TBE tissue were measured and recorded in vivo and real-time by a bifurcated needle probe. The brain water contents (BWC) were measured by the wet and dry weight method after injury and treatment hours 1, 6, 24, 72 and 120. A marked linear relationship was observed between reduced scattering coefficient (μs') and BWC. By recording μs' of rats' brains, the entire progressions of effects of several drugs were observed. The result may suggest that the NIRs techniques have a potential for assessing effects in vivo and real-time on treatment of the brain injury.

  8. Effects of Chinese herbal formula Erxian decoction for treating osteoporosis: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin-Yu; Jia, Yu-Song; Chai, Li-Min; Mu, Xiao-Hong; Ma, Sheng; Xu, Lin; Wei, Xu

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim is to systematically assess the effectiveness and safety of Chinese herbal formula Erxian decoction (EXD) for treating osteoporosis. Materials and methods Six databases were searched from inception through September 17, 2016, without language restriction. All randomized controlled trials of EXD for osteoporosis were included. One or more outcome measures including fracture, change in bone mineral density (BMD), pain symptom improvement, bone biochemical markers, quality of life, adverse event or adverse drug reaction were evaluated. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to Cochrane standards. Results Eight trials including 644 patients investigated the effects of EXD in the treatment of osteoporosis. The methodological quality of the included trials was generally low. The meta-analysis from two trials showed favorable effects of EXD in improving BMD of lumbar spine (mean difference [MD]: 0.05 [0.03, 0.06]; I2=0%; P<0.00001) and BMD of femoral great trochanter (MD: 0.06 [0.02, 0.10]; I2=59%; P=0.005) compared with caltrate tablets. The other meta-analysis from two trials showed beneficial effects of EXD plus caltrate tablets and calcitriol in improving BMD of femoral neck (MD: 0.04 [0.00, 0.09]; I2=56%; P=0.04), the level of calcium (MD: 0.20 [0.15, 0.24]; I2=0%; P<0.00001), and phosphorus (MD: −0.28 [−0.39, −0.17]; I2=68%; P<0.00001) compared with caltrate tablets and calcitriol alone. The adverse drug reactions of EXD were mainly slight gastrointestinal symptoms. Conclusion The study provides suggestive evidence of the superiority of EXD monotherapy or combination therapy over basic supplements for treating osteoporosis. However, the evidence remains weak. More rigorously designed and measured, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with larger sample size are needed to verify the current conclusions. PMID:28115834

  9. The assessment of treated wastewater quality and the effects of mid-term irrigation on soil physical and chemical properties (case study: Bandargaz-treated wastewater)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaboosi, Kami

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of inflow and outflow wastewater of the Bandargaz wastewater treatment plant on the basis of the data collection of operation period and the samples taken during the study. Also the effects of mid-term use of the wastewater for irrigation (from 2005 to 2013) on soil physical and chemical characteristics were studied. For this purpose, 4 samples were taken from the inflow and outflow wastewater and 25 quality parameters were measured. Also, the four soil samples from a depth of 0-30 cm of two rice field irrigated with wastewater in the beginning and middle of the planting season and two samples from one adjacent rice field irrigated with fresh water were collected and their chemical and physical characteristics were determined. Average of electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, sodium adsorption ratio, chemical oxygen demand and 5 days biochemical oxygen demand in treated wastewater were 1.35 dS/m, 707 ppm, 0.93, 80 ppm and 40 ppm, respectively. Results showed that although some restrictions exist about chlorine and bicarbonate, the treated wastewater is suitable for irrigation based on national and international standards and criteria. In comparison with fresh water, the mid-term use of wastewater caused a little increase of soil salinity. However, it did not lead to increase of soil salinity beyond rice salinity threshold. Also, there were no restrictions on soil in the aspect of salinity and sodium hazard on the basis of many irrigated soil classifications. In comparison with fresh water, the mid-term use of wastewater caused the increase of total N, absorbable P and absorbable K in soil due to high concentration of those elements in treated wastewater.

  10. Detecting and treating occlusal caries lesions: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Schwendicke, F; Stolpe, M; Meyer-Lueckel, H; Paris, S

    2015-02-01

    The health gains and costs resulting from using different caries detection strategies might not only depend on the accuracy of the used method but also the treatment emanating from its use in different populations. We compared combinations of visual-tactile, radiographic, or laser-fluorescence-based detection methods with 1 of 3 treatments (non-, micro-, and invasive treatment) initiated at different cutoffs (treating all or only dentinal lesions) in populations with low or high caries prevalence. A Markov model was constructed to follow an occlusal surface in a permanent molar in an initially 12-y-old male German patient over his lifetime. Prevalence data and transition probabilities were extracted from the literature, while validity parameters of different methods were synthesized or obtained from systematic reviews. Microsimulations were performed to analyze the model, assuming a German health care setting and a mixed public-private payer perspective. Radiographic and fluorescence-based methods led to more overtreatments, especially in populations with low prevalence. For the latter, combining visual-tactile or radiographic detection with microinvasive treatment retained teeth longest (mean 66 y) at lowest costs (329 and 332 Euro, respectively), while combining radiographic or fluorescence-based detections with invasive treatment was the least cost-effective (<60 y, >700 Euro). In populations with high prevalence, combining radiographic detection with microinvasive treatment was most cost-effective (63 y, 528 Euro), while sensitive detection methods combined with invasive treatments were again the least cost-effective (<59 y, >690 Euro). The suitability of detection methods differed significantly between populations, and the cost-effectiveness was greatly influenced by the treatment initiated after lesion detection. The accuracy of a detection method relative to a "gold standard" did not automatically convey into better health or reduced costs. Detection methods

  11. Remote Effect of Insecticide-Treated Nets and the Personal Protection against Malaria Mosquito Bites.

    PubMed

    Moiroux, Nicolas; Chandre, Fabrice; Hougard, Jean-Marc; Corbel, Vincent; Pennetier, Cédric

    2017-01-01

    Experimental huts are part of the WHO process for testing and evaluation of Insecticide Treated Nets (ITN) in semi-field conditions. Experimental Hut Trials (EHTs) mostly focus on two main indicators (i.e., mortality and blood feeding reduction) that serve as efficacy criteria to obtain WHO interim recommendation. However, several other outputs that rely on counts of vectors collected in the huts are neglected although they can give useful information about vectors' behavior and personal protection provided by ITNs. In particular, EHTs allow to measure the deterrent effect and personal protection of ITNs. To provide a better assessment of ITNs efficacy, we performed a retrospective analysis of the deterrence and the personal protection against malaria transmission for 12 unwashed and 13 washed ITNs evaluated through EHTs conducted in West Africa. A significant deterrent effect was shown for six of the 12 unwashed ITNs tested. When washed 20 times, only three ITNs had significant deterrent effect (Rate Ratios (RR)<1; p<0.05) and three showed an apparent "attractiveness" (RR>1; p<0.01). When compared to the untreated net, all unwashed ITNs showed lower number of blood-fed Anopheles indicating a significant personal protection (RR<1, p<0.05). However, when washed 20 times, three ITNs that were found to be attractive did not significantly reduce human-vector contact (p>0.05). Current WHO efficacy criteria do not sufficiently take into account the deterrence effect of ITNs. Moreover, the deterrence variability is rarely discussed in EHT's reports. Our findings highlighted the long-range effect (deterrent or attractive) of ITNs that may have significant consequences for personal/community protection against malaria transmission. Indicators measuring the deterrence should be further considered for the evaluation of ITNs.

  12. Remote Effect of Insecticide-Treated Nets and the Personal Protection against Malaria Mosquito Bites

    PubMed Central

    Chandre, Fabrice; Hougard, Jean-Marc; Corbel, Vincent; Pennetier, Cédric

    2017-01-01

    Experimental huts are part of the WHO process for testing and evaluation of Insecticide Treated Nets (ITN) in semi-field conditions. Experimental Hut Trials (EHTs) mostly focus on two main indicators (i.e., mortality and blood feeding reduction) that serve as efficacy criteria to obtain WHO interim recommendation. However, several other outputs that rely on counts of vectors collected in the huts are neglected although they can give useful information about vectors’ behavior and personal protection provided by ITNs. In particular, EHTs allow to measure the deterrent effect and personal protection of ITNs. To provide a better assessment of ITNs efficacy, we performed a retrospective analysis of the deterrence and the personal protection against malaria transmission for 12 unwashed and 13 washed ITNs evaluated through EHTs conducted in West Africa. A significant deterrent effect was shown for six of the 12 unwashed ITNs tested. When washed 20 times, only three ITNs had significant deterrent effect (Rate Ratios (RR)<1; p<0.05) and three showed an apparent “attractiveness” (RR>1; p<0.01). When compared to the untreated net, all unwashed ITNs showed lower number of blood-fed Anopheles indicating a significant personal protection (RR<1, p<0.05). However, when washed 20 times, three ITNs that were found to be attractive did not significantly reduce human-vector contact (p>0.05). Current WHO efficacy criteria do not sufficiently take into account the deterrence effect of ITNs. Moreover, the deterrence variability is rarely discussed in EHT’s reports. Our findings highlighted the long-range effect (deterrent or attractive) of ITNs that may have significant consequences for personal/community protection against malaria transmission. Indicators measuring the deterrence should be further considered for the evaluation of ITNs. PMID:28129371

  13. Effect of reactor radiation on the thermal conductivity of TREAT fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Kun; Miao, Yinbin; Kontogeorgakos, Dimitrios C.; Connaway, Heather M.; Wright, Arthur E.; Yacout, Abdellatif M.

    2017-04-01

    The Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) at the Idaho National Laboratory is resuming operations after more than 20 years in latency in order to produce high-neutron-flux transients for investigating transient-induced behavior of reactor fuels and their interactions with other materials and structures. A parallel program is ongoing to develop a replacement core in which the fuel, historically containing highly-enriched uranium (HEU), is replaced by low-enriched uranium (LEU). Both the HEU and prospective LEU fuels are in the form of UO2 particles dispersed in a graphite matrix, but the LEU fuel will contain a much higher volume of UO2 particles, which may create a larger area of interphase boundaries between the particles and the graphite. This may lead to a higher volume fraction of graphite exposed to the fission fragments escaping from the UO2 particles, and thus may induce a higher volume of fission-fragment damage on the fuel graphite. In this work, we analyzed the reactor-radiation induced thermal conductivity degradation of graphite-based dispersion fuel. A semi-empirical method to model the relative thermal conductivity with reactor radiation was proposed and validated based on the available experimental data. Prediction of thermal conductivity degradation of LEU TREAT fuel during a long-term operation was performed, with a focus on the effect of UO2 particle size on fission-fragment damage. The proposed method can be further adjusted to evaluate the degradation of other properties of graphite-based dispersion fuel.

  14. Effect of temperature and water on gaseous emissions from soils treated with animal slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Maag, M.; Vinther, F.P.

    1999-08-01

    Microbial respiration and denitrification are greatly affected by abiotic factors, but they are difficult to assess in natural environments. Under controlled conditions the interactions between temperature and soil water content on microbial respiration, N{sub 2}O production, and denitrification in soil amended with animal slurries were studied. The effects of the abiotic factors on the biological processes were monitored for 8 wk in repacked soil cores amended with pig or cattle slurry. The soil cores were incubated at 43, 57, and 72% water-filled pore space (WFPS) and at 10, 15, and 20 C with or without addition of 10% acetylene. The amount of N{sub 2}O lost at 72% WFPS corresponded to 8 to 22% of the slurry's NH{sub 4}{sup +} content, but for only 0.01 to 1.2% at 43 to 57% WFPS. The amount of available C accounted for by denitrification was 8 to 16% of total respiration at 72% WFPS, but only 0.03 to 0.4% at 43 to 57% WFPS. Both N{sub 2}O production and denitrification peaked earlier in the cattle-slurry treated soil than in the pig-slurry treated soil, whereas the total N loss was greatest from the latter. Neither amendments nor soil water contents seemed to affect the Q{sub 10}-values for the CO{sub 2} production, resulting in values between 1.6 and 2.6. At 72% WFPS, N{sub 2}O production and denitrification had Q{sub 10}-values ranging between 3.3 and 5.4. High temperatures enhanced both aerobic respiration and denitrification, and aerobic respiration further enhanced denitrification by consuming oxygen, resulting in strong sensitivity of denitrification to temperature.

  15. Effects of Biologic Agents in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Amyloidosis Treated with Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Takeshi; Tanabe, Naohito; Nozawa, Yukiko; Sato, Hiroe; Nakatsue, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Wada, Yoko; Saeki, Takako; Nakano, Masaaki; Narita, Ichiei

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to examine the safety and effects of therapy with biologics on the prognosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with reactive amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis on hemodialysis (HD). Methods Twenty-eight patients with an established diagnosis of reactive AA amyloidosis participated in the study. The survival was calculated from the date of HD initiation until the time of death, or up to end of June 2015 for the patients who were still alive. HD initiation was according to the program of HD initiation for systemic amyloidosis patients associated with RA. Results Ten patients had been treated with biologics before HD initiation for a mean of 28.2 months (biologic group), while 18 had not (non-biologic group). HD was initiated in patients with similar characteristics except for the tender joint count, swollen joint count, and disease activity score (DAS)28-C-reactive protein (CRP). History of biologics showed that etanercept was frequently used for 8 patients as the first biologic. There was no significant difference in the mortality rate according to a Kaplan-Meier analysis (p=0.939) and or associated risk of death in an age-adjusted Cox proportional hazards model (p=0.758) between both groups. Infections were significantly more frequent causes of death in the biologic group than in the non-biologic group (p=0.021). However, treatment with biologics improved the DAS28-CRP score (p=0.004). Conclusion Under the limited conditions of AA amyloidosis treated with HD, the use of biologics might affect infection and thus may not improve the prognosis. Strict infection control is necessary for the use of biologics with HD to improve the prognosis. PMID:27725536

  16. Effects of TOOKAD-PDT on canine prostates pre-treated with ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qun; Huang, Zheng; Luck, David L.; Beckers, Jill; Trncic, Nadira; LaRue, Susan M.; Brun, Pierre-Herve; Wilson, Brian C.; Hetzel, Fred W.

    2003-06-01

    PDT in prostate cancer will likely be implemented clinically with patients who have failed prior ionizing radiation therapy (RT). The current study is to develop an in vivo model to evaluate the effects of PDT on prostatic tissue after RT. To produce a physiological and anatomical environment in prostate similar to that in patients who have failed RT, canine prostates (n=4) were subjected to a definitive course of ionizing radiation therapy (2.7 Gy x 20 fractions) 5 to 6 months prior to PDT. A laparotomy was performed to expose the prostate for PDT. Second generation photosensitizer Tookad (Palladium-Bacteriopheophorbide, Steba Biotech, The Netherlands) acts primarily on tissue vasculature and is very effective in destroying normal prostatic tissue, as shown by our prior studies. Due to the extremely fast clearance of the photosensitizer, interstitial light irradiation (760 nm, 50-200 J/cm, 150 mW/cm from a 1 cm diffuser fiber) was delivered 4 minutes after the onset of Tookad infusion (i.v. 2.5 mg/ml, 2 mg/kg, total infusion time 10 min). The prostates were harvested for histopathology one week after PDT. At one week, the lesions were characterized by acute hemorrhagic necrosis with patchy sub-capsular hyperemia and edema. The maximum lesion diameter for 50, 100 and 200 J/cm PDT was approximately 15, 20 and 28 mm, respectively. The lesion size is well correlated with light fluence and comparable to that in prostates treated with identical PDT doses but without prior-RT. Under light-microscopy, the PDT induced necrosis is clearly distinguishable from the radiation induced fibrosis. No urethral lesions were observed. Dyer"s Verhoeff stain showed the loss of stromal connective tissue and the acinar collagen in the PDT treated area. There was no noticeable damage on the bladder or underlying colon section. In conclusion, Tookad-PDT can effectively destroy prostate tissue with prior-RT induced fibrosis, thus, may provide an alternative modality for those prostate

  17. Effect of dissolved organic matter from treated effluents on sorption of atrazine and prometryn by soils

    SciTech Connect

    Seol, Y.; Lee, L.S.

    2000-01-02

    The apparent enhanced transport of soil-applied atrazine following irrigation of treated effluents has been hypothesized to be from complexation of atrazine with effluent-borne dissolved organic matter (DOM). Under long-term effluent irrigation, even small DOM-induced decreases in pesticide sorption can result in significant enhanced pesticide movement due to cumulative effects. The effect of atrazine and prometryn association with DOM extracted from municipal wastewater (MW), swine-derived lagoon wastewater (SW), and dissolved Aldrich humic acid (HA) on sorption by two soils was measured in batch equilibration studies. Individual association of pesticides to DOM, sorption of DOM to soil, and pesticide sorption by soil were also quantified. Pesticide association to DOM normalized to organic carbon (OC) ranged from 30 to 1000 L/kg OC. DOM sorption by soil ranged from 1.5 to 10 L/kg with a silt loam having a higher affinity for the DOM than the sandy loam. DOM up to 150 mg OC/L did not significantly suppress sorption by soils of either atrazine or prometryne in agreement with predictions using the independently measured binary distribution coefficients in a model that assumed linear equilibrium behavior among pesticide, soil, and DOM. A sensitivity analysis was performed using the same model to identify what combination of soil, pesticide, and DOC variables may suppress sorption, resulting in facilitated transport. Results from the sensitivity analysis are presented and the potential for effluent properties other than DOM to facilitate pesticide transport is discussed.

  18. Effects of Therapy in Patients Suffering from Chronic Back Pain Treated with Spinal Cord Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Mosiewicz, Anna; Rutkowska, Elżbieta; Matacz, Monika; Mosiewicz, Barbara; Kaczmarczyk, Robert; Trojanowski, Tomasz

    2015-10-01

    Pain in the lumbosacral part of the spine in the course of degenerative disease is the most common cause of physical activity limitation in adults. Treatment includes pharmacotherapy, physiotherapy, psychotherapy, health promotion, and sometimes surgery. Surgical treatment is not always successful, and the various clinical and psychosomatic symptoms that result from surgical treatment failure are known as failed back surgery syndrome. For some patients with this condition, spinal cord stimulation can provide relief. The aim of the work was to define subjective and objective spinal cord stimulation effects by assessing chosen disability and physical activity limitation ratios. Pain intensity, level of disability, and presence of neurological symptoms were assessed. The examination was performed twice: before the stimulator implantation and at least 6 months postimplantation. The study was conducted at the Department of Neurosurgery and Paediatric Neurosurgery in Lublin. Thirty-six patients suffering from failed back surgery syndrome were recruited for this study. The Visual Analog Scale, modified Laitinen's pain questionnaire, and Oswestry Disability Index were used in this work. The study showed that spinal cord stimulation was effective in treating spinal and lower limb pain in 64% of patients, similar to results obtained in other departments. Although back pain and neuropathic pain radiating to the lower limbs decreased, moderate physical activity impairment was still observed according to the Oswestry Disability Index scale. The decrease in neuropathic pain radiating to the lower limbs had the most significant influence on reducing physical activity impairment.

  19. The effects of prometryne on subchronically treated mice evaluated by SCGE assay.

    PubMed

    Dikić, D; Zidovec-Lepej, Snjezana; Remenar, Anica; Horvat-Knezević, Anica; Benković, Vesna; Lisicić, D; Sajli, Lana; Springer, O

    2009-03-01

    Prometryne is a methylthio-s-triazine herbicide used to control annual broadleaf and grass weeds in many cultivated plants. Significant traces are documented in environment, mainly water, soil and plants used for human and domestic animal nutrition. Data on the toxic effects of prometryne and other methylthio-s-triazine have scorcely been published. The goal of this study was to investigate if prometryne, applied orally, could induce DNA damage in mouse leukocytes, in subchronical in vivo experimental design. Three different doses of prometryne were applied per os repeatedly every 48 hours. After the 7th dose (day 14) and the 14th dose (day 28) blood leucocytes were analyzed by alkaline Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (Comet) assay. The results of three different comet parameters showed general increase in Olive tail moment, tail length and tail intensity values in treated groups of animals. The increase in measured values was almost proportional to the dose received and the time of exposure. We conclude that prometryne or its metabolic residues have the potential to induce processes that cause genotoxic effects on leukocytes on mice in in vivo repeated exposure.

  20. Metagenomic insights into ultraviolet disinfection effects on antibiotic resistome in biologically treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qing; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Jia, Shuyu; Huang, Kailong; Tang, Junying; Shi, Peng; Ye, Lin; Ren, Hongqiang

    2016-09-15

    High-throughput sequencing-based metagenomic approaches were used to comprehensively investigate ultraviolet effects on the microbial community structure, and diversity and abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in biologically treated wastewater. After ultraviolet radiation, some dominant genera, like Aeromonas and Halomonas, in the wastewater almost disappeared, while the relative abundance of some minor genera including Pseudomonas and Bacillus increased dozens of times. Metagenomic analysis showed that 159 ARGs within 14 types were detectable in the samples, and the radiation at 500 mJ/cm(2) obviously increased their total relative abundance from 31.68 ppm to 190.78 ppm, which was supported by quantitative real time PCR. As the dominant persistent ARGs, multidrug resistance genes carried by Pseudomonas and bacitracin resistance gene bacA carried by Bacillus mainly contributed to the ARGs abundance increase. Bacterial community shift and MGEs replication induced by the radiation might drive the resistome alteration. The findings may shed new light on the mechanism behind the ultraviolet radiation effects on antibiotic resistance in wastewater.

  1. Evaluating the effectiveness of the customized Unna boot when treating patients with venous ulcers*

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Bruna Suelen Raymundo; Araujo, Cristina Souza; Atzingen, Dênia Amélia Novato Castelli Von; Mendonça, Adriana Rodrigues dos Anjos; Mesquita Filho, Marcos; de Medeiros, Mauricéia Lins

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lower limb ulcers are a serious medical and socioeconomic problem throughout the world. One type of chronic wound of the lower extremities is the venous ulcer. Therapeutic methods for treating venous ulcer include the use of the Unna boot. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effectiveness of the customized Unna boot in the treatment of venous ulcers and to monitor the subsequent development and healing of the lesions. METHODS Prospective exploratory and quantitative longitudinal study, conducted at the "Outpatients Department (Wound Care) of the Grupo da Fraternidade Espírita Irmão Alexandre" in the city of Pouso Alegre (MG), Brazil, in 2008. The sample consisted of 32 patients with venous ulcers who underwent treatment with the Unna boot and 11 patients (control group), who used a simple bandage application. The patients'lesions were monitored over a three month period. RESULTS The average age of the predominently female (65.1%) patients was 61.88. From observing the differences in healing times at the three evaluation stages, it was clear that after the initial evaluation the wound area decreased in Groups 1 and 2 (p>0.05). CONCLUSION The use of the customized Unna boot contributes to quicker healing. However, over a period of three months the simple bandage applications were seen to be just as effective as the Unna boot method. PMID:23539002

  2. Lethal Effect of a Heterologous Murein Hydrolase on Penicillin-Treated Streptococcus sanguis

    PubMed Central

    Horne, Diane; Tomasz, Alexander

    1980-01-01

    Nine strains of Streptococcus sanguis exhibited tolerance to benzylpenicillin: the growth of each strain was susceptible to penicillin with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 0.1 μg/ml or lower, but the bacteriolytic and bactericidal effects were limited in each case. The tolerance of these bacteria was also reflected in the large discrepancies between the minimal inhibitory and minimal bactericidal concentrations for benzylpenicillin. The hypothesis that a natural deficiency of endogenous murein hydrolase (autolysin) in this species accounts for the penicillin tolerance was tested by using a heterologous murein hydrolase, the C-phage-associated lysin. In seven of the strains, addition of the lysin to the culture together with penicillin or other cell wall inhibitors resulted in lysis and rapid loss of viability. The enzyme alone did not appreciably affect normally growing cultures. The irreversible effects of penicillin plus lysin were drastically reduced in the presence of the bacteriostatic agents chloramphenicol and cerulenin. Speculations based on experiments are presented for the mechanisms by which penicillin treatment sensitizes these bacteria to an exogenous lytic enzyme. Similar phenomena requiring cooperation of host factors and penicillin may occur during infection, since somewhat similar although less pronounced results were obtained by addition of human lysozyme to penicillin-treated S. sanguis. PMID:6104471

  3. Treating late-life GAD in primary care: An effectiveness pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Calleo, Jessica S.; Bush, Amber L.; Cully, Jeffrey A.; Wilson, Nancy L.; Kraus-Schuman, Cynthia; Rhoades, Howard M.; Novy, Diane M.; Masozera, Nicholas; Williams, Susan; Horsfield, Matthew; Kunik, Mark E.; Stanley, Melinda A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To increase sustainability of Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) in primary care for late-life anxiety, we incorporated non-expert counselors, options for telephone meetings, and integration with primary care clinicians. Method This open trial examines the feasibility, satisfaction and clinical outcomes of CBT delivered by experienced and non-experienced counselors for older adults with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Clinical outcomes assessed worry (Penn State Worry Questionnaire), GAD (Generalized Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale), and anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory and Structured Interview Guide for Hamilton Anxiety Scale). Results Following 3 months of treatment, Cohen’s d effect sizes for worry and anxiety ranged from .48 to .78. Patients treated by experienced and non-experienced counselors had similar reductions in worry and anxiety, although treatment outcomes were more improved on the Beck Anxiety Inventory for experienced therapists. Conclusion Preliminary results suggest adapted CBT can effectively reduce worry. The piloted modifications can provide acceptable and feasible evidence-based care. PMID:23588228

  4. Handwriting movement kinematics for quantifying extrapyramidal side effects in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Caligiuri, Michael P; Teulings, Hans-Leo; Dean, Charles E; Niculescu, Alexander B; Lohr, James B

    2010-05-15

    Ongoing monitoring of neuroleptic-induced extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) is important to maximize treatment outcome, improve medication adherence and reduce re-hospitalization. Traditional approaches for assessing EPS such as Parkinsonism, tardive akathisia, or dyskinesia rely upon clinical ratings. However, these observer-based EPS severity ratings can be unreliable and are subject to examiner bias. In contrast, quantitative instrumental methods are less subject to bias. Most instrumental methods have only limited clinical utility because of their complexity and costs. This paper describes an easy-to-use instrumental approach based on handwriting movements for quantifying EPS. Here, we present findings from psychiatric patients treated with atypical (second generation) antipsychotics. The handwriting task consisted of a sentence written several times within a 2 cm vertical boundary at a comfortable speed using an inkless pen and digitizing tablet. Kinematic variables including movement duration, peak vertical velocity and the number of acceleration peaks, and average normalized jerk (a measure of smoothness) for each up or down stroke and their submovements were analyzed. Results from 59 psychosis patients and 46 healthy comparison subjects revealed significant slowing and dysfluency in patients compared to controls. We observed differences across medications and daily dose. These findings support the ecological validity of handwriting movement analysis as an objective behavioral biomarker for quantifying the effects of antipsychotic medication and dose on the motor system.

  5. Effect of dual-type oligosaccharides on constipation in loperamide-treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sung Hee; Hong, Ki Bae; Kim, Eun Young; Ahn, So Hyun

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Constipation is a condition that can result from intestinal deformation. Because humans have an upright posture, the effects of gravity can cause this shape deformation. Oligosaccharides are common prebiotics and their effects on bowel health are well known. However, studies of the physiological functionality of a product that contains both lactulose and galactooligosaccharides are insufficient. We investigated the constipation reduction effect of a dual-type oligosaccharide, Dual-Oligo, in loperamide-treated rats. MATERIALS/METHODS Dual-Oligo consists of galactooligosaccharides (15.80%) and lactulose (51.67%). Animals were randomly divided into four groups, the normal group (normal), control group (control), low concentration of Dual-Oligo (LDO) group, and high concentration of Dual-Oligo (HDO) group. After 7 days of oral administration, fecal pellet amount, fecal weight, water content of fecal were measured. Blood chemistry, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA), gastrointestinal transit ratio and length and intestinal mucosa were analyzed. RESULTS Dual-Oligo increased the fecal weight, and water content of feces in rats with loperamide-induced constipation. Gastrointestinal transit ratio and length and area of intestinal mucosa significantly increased after treatment with Dual-Oligo in loperamide-induced rats. A high concentration of Dual-Oligo tended to produce more acetic acid than that observed for the control group, and Dual-Oligo affected the production of total SCFA. Bifidobacteria concentration of cecal contents in the high-concentration oligosaccharide (HDO) and low-concentration oligosaccharide (LDO) groups was similar to the result of the normal group. CONCLUSIONS These results showed that Dual-Oligo is a functional material that is derived from a natural food product and is effective in ameliorating constipation. PMID:27909555

  6. Effects of treated wastewater irrigation on contents and dynamics of soil organic carbon and microbial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jüschke, E.; Marschner, B.; Chen, Y.; Tarchitzky, J.

    2009-04-01

    In many arid and semi-arid regions, the demand for freshwater as drinking water and other domestic uses is constantly growing due to demographic growth and increasing standard of living. Therefore, less freshwater is available for agricultural irrigation and new water sources are needed. Treated wastewater (TWW) already serves as an important water source in Jordan, the Palestinian Territories and Israel. Related to its high loads with nutrients, salts and organic materials within its use as irrigation water major effects on the soil physical and chemical properties can occur, in the worst case leading to soil degradation. In an ongoing study we are investigated in the effects of TWW irrigation on agricultural soils in the region. Here we present results from analyses of total soil carbon contents and qualities in soils irrigated with freshwater and TWW. Furthermore microbiological parameters were investigated as microbial biomass, microbial activities and enzyme activities. In several sites, subsoils (50-160 cm) from TWW irrigated plots were depleted in soil organic matter with the largest differences occurring in sites with the longest TWW irrigation history. Laboratory incubation experiments with additions of 14C-labelled compounds to the soils showed that microbial activity in freshwater irrigated soils was much more stimulated by sugars or amino acids than in TWW irrigated soils. The lack of such "priming effects" (Hamer & Marschner 2005) in the TWW irrigated soils indicates that here the microorganisms are already operating at their optimal metabolic activity due to the continuous substrate inputs with soluble organic compounds from the TWW. Apparently, this higher microbial activity is causing an increased depletion of soil organic matter, which may have negative long-term effects on soil quality.

  7. Surface analyses of micro-arc oxidized and hydrothermally treated titanium and effect on osteoblast behavior.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y M; Bataillon-Linez, P; Huang, P; Zhao, Y M; Han, Y; Traisnel, M; Xu, K W; Hildebrand, H F

    2004-02-01

    Osteoblast adhesion on the implant material surface is essential for the success of any implant in which osteointegration is required. Surface properties of implant material have a critical role in the cell adhesion progress. Titanium and its alloys are widespread and increasingly used as implant material in dentistry and orthopedics because of their excellent biocompatibility, which is attributed to a passive layer of TiO2 on the surface. In this study, the micro-arc oxidizing (MAO) and hydrothermally synthesizing (HS) methods were used to modify the TiO2 layer on the titanium surface. The surface microstructure was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The surface energy was assessed. The mouse osteoblastic cell line (MC3T3-E1) was seeded on the treated surfaces to evaluate their effect on cell behavior. This included cell adhesion kinetics, cell proliferation, cell morphology, and cytoskeletal organization. The surface structure of MAO samples exhibited micropores with a diameter of 1-3 microm, whereas the MAO-HS-treated samples showed additional multiple crystalline microparticles on the microporous surface. The surface energy of MAO and MAO-HS was higher than that of titanium. The cell adhesion rate was higher on the MAO-HS surface than on the MAO and titanium surface, but without any significant difference between them. After 3 days of culture, cells proliferated significantly more on the MAO and titanium surface than on the MAO-HS surface. The cytoskeletal organization was analyzed by actin and vinculin staining on all the samples. We conclude that the MAO and MAO-HS methods change the surface energy of TiO2 layer on the titanium surface. This may have an influence on the initial cell attachment. Other surface characteristics may be involved in the cell proliferation, which is different from cell attachment on the sample surface. A longer-duration cell experiment should be conducted to see the effect on cell differentiation. Future in vivo evaluation may

  8. Curative effect of neutral macroporous resin hemoperfusion on treating hemodialysis patients with refractory uremic pruritus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-Hong; Yin, Yu-Min; Chen, Hao; Wang, Xiao-Dan; Yun, He; Li, Hui; Luo, Jie; Wang, Jin-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study aims to investigate the efficacy and safety of neutral macroporous resin hemoperfusion in treating maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients with refractory uremic pruritus (RUP). Ninety patients were enrolled and were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group, experiment 1 group, and experiment 2 group. Clinical symptom scores of skin itching were recorded before and at 4 and 8 weeks after the treatment. In addition, serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium (Ca2+), phosphorus (P3+), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were detected; and the calcium–phosphorus product ([Ca] × [P]) was calculated to compare the curative effect. VSA score, modified Duo pruritus score, and CRP: these indices decreased to some extent at 4 and 8 weeks after treatment in the 2 experiment groups, compared with pretreatment (P < 0.05); and differences among these 3 groups were statistically significant (P < 0.05). PTH, P3+, and [Ca] × [P]: these indices decreased to some extent at 4 and 8 weeks after treatment in the 2 experiment groups, compared with pretreatment (P < 0.05); and differences between the control and experiment 1 groups, as well as between the control and experiment 2 groups, were statistically significant (P < 0.05). However, the difference between the experiment 1 and experiment 2 groups were not statistically significant (P < 0.05). The effects of HA330 and HA130 resin hemoperfusion apparatus on secondary hyperparathyroidism and the disorder of calcium and phosphorus metabolism are similar. The mechanism may be related to its strong adsorption effect, and its capacity to widely remove inflammatory mediators, immune mediators, and endotoxins. PMID:28328802

  9. Novel bromomelatonin derivatives as potentially effective drugs to treat bone diseases.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Nobuo; Somei, Masanori; Seki, Azusa; Reiter, Russel J; Hattori, Atsuhiko

    2008-10-01

    Several reports indicate that melatonin is involved in the regulation of bone metabolism. To examine the direct effect of melatonin on osteoclasts and osteoblasts, we developed an in vitro assay using fish scales that contain osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and bone matrix, all of which are similar to those found in mammalian membrane bone. Using the assay, we demonstrated that melatonin suppressed osteoclastic and osteoblastic activities. These findings are in agreement with the reports from in vivo studies in mice and rats. In an attempt to develop molecules that increase bone mass, novel bromomelatonin derivatives were synthesized, and the effects of these chemicals on osteoclasts and osteoblasts using the scale assay were examined. As a result, novel bromomelatonin derivatives with the ability to possibly increase bone formation were identified. In scale osteoclasts, particularly, 1-benzyl-2,4,6-tribromomelatonin had a more potent activity than melatonin. In reference to osteoblasts, this agent (10(-9)-10(-6)M) significantly activated osteoblasts. The effect of 1-benzyl-2,4,6-tribromomelatonin on bone formation was confirmed in ovariectomized rats. Thus, the oral administration of 1-benzyl-2,4,6-tribromomelatonin augmented the total bone mineral density of the femoral metaphysis of ovariectomized rats. The stress-strain index of the diaphysis in 1-benzyl-2,4,6-tribromomelatonin-treated rats significantly increased in comparison with that in ovariectomized rats. In rats fed a low-calcium diet, the total bone mineral density of the femoral metaphysis significantly increased following the oral administration of 1-benzyl-2,4,6-tribromomelatonin. These studies identified a melatonin derivative that may have potential use in the treatment of bone diseases, such as osteoporosis.

  10. Iodine-131: An Effective Method for Treating Lymph Node Metastases of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    He, Ying; Pan, Ming-zhi; Huang, Jian-min; Xie, Peng; Zhang, Fang; Wei, Ling-ge

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of radioactive iodine-131 (131I) therapy for lymph node metastasis of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and to identify influential factors using univariate and multivariate analyses to determine if identified factors influence the efficacy of treatment. Material/Methods This study included a retrospective review of 218 patients with histologically proven DTC in the post-operation stage. After thyroid tissue remnants were eliminated with 131I therapy, patients’ lymph node status was confirmed by ultrasound and by 131I whole body scan regarding lymph node metastasis, and then patients were treated with 131I as appropriate. The treatment efficacy was assessed and possible influencing factors were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results The total effective rate of 131I therapy was 88.07% (including a cure rate of 20.64% and an improvement rate of 67.43%). The non-effective rate was 11.93%. Of the total 406 lymph nodes of 218 patients, 319 lymph nodes (78.57%) were judged to be effectively cured, including 133 (32.75%) lymph nodes that were totally eliminated and 186 (45.82%) lymph nodes that shrank. Eighty-seven (21.43%) of the 406 lymph nodes had no obvious change. No lymph nodes were found to be in a continuously enlarging state. Distant metastasis, size of lymph node, human serum thyroglobulin (HTG) level, and condition of thyroid remnants ablation were identified as the independent factors influencing the efficacy of treatment using univariate and multivariate analyses. Conclusions The use of 131I is a promising treatment for lymph node metastasis of DCT. Distant metastasis, size of lymph nodes, HTG level, and condition of thyroid remnant ablation were independent factors influencing the treatment efficacy. PMID:27974741

  11. Curative effect of neutral macroporous resin hemoperfusion on treating hemodialysis patients with refractory uremic pruritus.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Hong; Yin, Yu-Min; Chen, Hao; Wang, Xiao-Dan; Yun, He; Li, Hui; Luo, Jie; Wang, Jin-Wen

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the efficacy and safety of neutral macroporous resin hemoperfusion in treating maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients with refractory uremic pruritus (RUP).Ninety patients were enrolled and were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group, experiment 1 group, and experiment 2 group. Clinical symptom scores of skin itching were recorded before and at 4 and 8 weeks after the treatment. In addition, serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were detected; and the calcium-phosphorus product ([Ca] × [P]) was calculated to compare the curative effect.VSA score, modified Duo pruritus score, and CRP: these indices decreased to some extent at 4 and 8 weeks after treatment in the 2 experiment groups, compared with pretreatment (P < 0.05); and differences among these 3 groups were statistically significant (P < 0.05). PTH, P, and [Ca] × [P]: these indices decreased to some extent at 4 and 8 weeks after treatment in the 2 experiment groups, compared with pretreatment (P < 0.05); and differences between the control and experiment 1 groups, as well as between the control and experiment 2 groups, were statistically significant (P < 0.05). However, the difference between the experiment 1 and experiment 2 groups were not statistically significant (P < 0.05).The effects of HA330 and HA130 resin hemoperfusion apparatus on secondary hyperparathyroidism and the disorder of calcium and phosphorus metabolism are similar. The mechanism may be related to its strong adsorption effect, and its capacity to widely remove inflammatory mediators, immune mediators, and endotoxins.

  12. Effects of feeding state on anticoagulation in adult goats treated with warfarin.

    PubMed

    Date, Kazuma; Kishimoto, Satoru; Fujii, Yutaka; Togo, Konomi; Kakuta, Yukihide; Mizuno, Toshihide; Tsukiya, Tomonori; Takewa, Yoshiaki; Nishimura, Takashi; Ono, Minoru; Tatsumi, Eisuke

    2016-09-01

    For the continued development of improved mechanical circulatory systems, longer term evaluation of new devices in animal model experiments may be critical. The effects of anticoagulants in adult goats have not been well studied. We assessed the effects of oral warfarin in three adult goats during fasting or after feeding. The goats [weighing 57.8 ± 8.1 kg (53.0-67.2 kg)] were administered warfarin orally beginning at a dose of 5 mg/day and then increasing to 10, 20, 40, and 60 mg every 2 weeks. One goat (receiving 10 mg/day warfarin) was killed on day 27 because of the inability to stand. After administration of 60 mg warfarin, the remaining goat received no warfarin for 4 days to return to coagulated state. The goats were then fasted and treated with 40 mg warfarin. During warfarin administration, both goats required a dose of 60 mg/day to achieve International Normalized Ratios (INRs) of approximately 2.5; however, when, the animals were in the fasted condition, precipitous extension of INR was observed in 5 days. After resuming feeding, the INR was reduced to the proper range. We showed the tendency that warfarin therapy in goats required higher doses than the doses administered to human patients and that the effects of therapy were related to the feeding state. The results of this study provide important information for development of anticoagulation protocols to assess mechanical circulatory support devices for long-term use in preclinical examination.

  13. Protective effects of ethyl pyruvate on sperm quality in cyclophosphamide treated mice

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiary, Zahra; Shahrooz, Rasoul; Ahmadi, Abbas; Zarei, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the affecting factors in disturbance process of spermatogenesis is chemotherapeutic-induced oxidative stress resulted from cyclophosphamide (CP) treatment which leads to diminished sperm quality via interference in spermatogenesis process. Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of ethyl pyruvate (EP) in reducing the CP-induced side effects on reproductive system. Materials and Methods: 24 mature male mice were randomly divided into 3 equal groups and were undergone therapy for 35 days. Control group received normal saline (0.1 ml/day, IP). CP group were injected CP (15 mg/kg/week, IP) and CP+EP group received EP (40 mg/kg/day, IP) as well as CP. In the end of the treatment period, the mice were euthanized by cervical dislocation. Then, the epididymis was incubated with CO2 in a human tubal fluid medium (1 ml) for half an hour in order to float sperm. Then, the number, motility, viability (eosin-nigrosin staining), DNA breakage (acridine orange staining), nucleus maturity, and sperm morphology (aniline blue staining) were analyzed. Results: The average (15.87±1.28), motility (35.77±2.75), viability (40±3.03), nucleus maturity (36±2.79) and sperm morphology (61.75±0.85) were decreased significantly in CP group in comparison with control and EP groups, whereas EP caused significant increase of these parameters. Also, the percentage of DNA damage was increased significantly in CP group (41.75±3.75) in comparison with control (2±0.71) and EP groups (22.5±4.13). Conclusion: The results of this study revealed ameliorating effects of EP on sperm quality of CP treated animals. PMID:26221128

  14. The therapeutic effect of negative pressure in treating femoral head necrosis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin-gang; Wang, Xuezhi; Yang, Zhi; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Miao; Qiu, Yushen; Guo, Xiong

    2013-01-01

    Because negative pressure can stimulate vascular proliferation, improve blood circulation and promote osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells, we investigated the therapeutic effect of negative pressure on femoral head necrosis (FHN) in a rabbit model. Animals were divided into four groups (n = 60/group): [1] model control, [2] core decompression, [3] negative pressure and [4] normal control groups. Histological investigation revealed that at 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively, improvements were observed in trabecular bone shape, empty lacunae and numbers of bone marrow hematopoietic cells and fat cells in the negative pressure group compared to the core decompression group. At week 8, there were no significant differences between the negative pressure and normal control groups. Immunohistochemistry staining revealed higher expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in the femoral heads in the negative pressure group compared with the core decompression group. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that cell organelles were further developed in the negative pressure group compared with the core decompression group. Microvascular ink staining revealed an increased number of bone marrow ink-stained blood vessels, a thicker vascular lumen and increased microvascular density in the negative pressure group relative to the core decompression group. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that expression levels of both VEGF and BMP-2 were higher in the negative pressure group compared with the core decompression group. In summary, negative pressure has a therapeutic effect on FHN. This effect is superior to core decompression, indicating that negative pressure is a potentially valuable method for treating early FHN.

  15. Reproductive performance of postpartum ewes treated with insulin or progesterone hormones in association with ram effect.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Silva, J C; Basto, Srl; Tenório Filho, F; Moura, M T; Silva Filho, M L; Oliveira, Mal

    2017-03-22

    The reproductive performance of postpartum Santa Inês (SI) and Morada Nova (MN) ewes treated with insulin or progesterone hormones in association with ram effect was evaluated. Ewes from SI (n = 69) and MN (n = 69) breeds were randomly allocated to three groups of each breed (T1-ram effect only; T2-ram effect + insulin; T3-ram effect + progesterone). Progesterone concentrations (ηg/ml; mean ± SD) before and after introduction of rams (n = 6) were 0.51 ± 0.22 and 3.78 ± 0.68 (T1), 0.65 ± 0.21 and 3.77 ± 0.78 (T2) and 0.52 ± 0.21 and 3.84 ± 0.84 (T3) in SI ewes and 0.74 ± 0.19 and 3.71 ± 0.56 (T1), 0.70 ± 0.21 and 3.79 ± 0.75 (T2) and 0.81 ± 0.14 and 3.87 ± 0.80 (T3) in MN ewes, respectively. Thus, lower progesterone concentrations were found before the introduction of rams (p < .05). After the introduction of rams, preovulatory peaks of LH (ηg/ml) occurred at 28 (T1), 44 (T2) and 48 (T3) hr in SI ewes and at 64 (T1), 40 (T2) and 44 (T3) hr in MN ewes. The mean number of ovulations was similar between groups (p > .05), was 1.3 ± 0.51 (T1), 1.5 ± 0.54 (T2) and 1.6 ± 0.51 (T3) in SI ewes and 1.3 ± 0.51 (T1), 1.6 ± 0.51 (T2) and 1.6 ± 0.51 (T3) in MN ewes. In conclusion, the ram effect alone is effective at inducing and synchronizing oestrus in sheep under postpartum anoestrus, irrespective of hormone treatments.

  16. Protective Effect of Sodium Ferulate on Acetaldehyde-Treated Precision-Cut Rat Liver Slices

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yu; Wu, Xiao-Qian; Zhang, Chun; Liao, Zhang-Xiu; Wu, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a key role in hepatic fibrogenesis, and inhibition of HSC activation may prevent liver fibrosis. Acetaldehyde, the most deleterious metabolite of alcohol, triggers HSC activation in alcoholic liver injury. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of sodium ferulate (SF), a sodium salt of ferulic acid that is rich in fruits and vegetables, on acetaldehyde-stimulated HSC activation using precision-cut liver slices (PCLSs). Rat PCLSs were co-incubated with 350 μM acetaldehyde and different concentrations of SF. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by measuring enzyme leakage and malondialdehyde content in tissue. α-Smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor-β1, and hydroxyproline were determined to assess the activation of HSCs. In addition, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1) were determined to evaluate collagen degradation. SF prominently prevented the enzyme leakage in acetaldehyde-treated slices and also inhibited HSC activation and collagen production stimulated by acetaldehyde. In addition, SF increased MMP-1 expression and decreased TIMP-1 expression. These results showed that SF protected PCLSs from acetaldehyde-stimulated HSC activation and liver injury, which may be associated with the attenuation of oxidative injury and acceleration of collagen degradation. PMID:22404575

  17. Effect of loading rate on performance of constructed wetlands treating an anaerobic supernatant.

    PubMed

    Chazarenc, F; Maltais-Landry, G; Troesch, S; Comeau, Y; Brisson, J

    2007-01-01

    The effect of organic loading, season and plant species on the treatment of fish farm effluent was tested using three-year old mesocosm wetland systems. During one year, nine 1 m2 mesocosms (horizontal subsurface flow), located in a controlled greenhouse environment, were fed with a reconstituted fish farm effluent containing a high fraction of soluble components (1,600 microS/cm and in mg/L: 230 +/- 80 COD, 179 +/- 60 sCOD, 100 +/- 40 TSS, 37 +/- 7 TKN, 14 +/- 2 TP). Combinations of three hydraulic loading rates (30, 60 and 90 L.m(-2) d(-1)) and two plant species (Phragmites australis, Typha angustifolia) and an unplanted control were tested for treatment performance and hydraulic behaviour. Loadings higher than 15 g COD m(-2) d(-1) resulted in a net decrease of hydraulic performances (generation of short circuiting) coupled with low TKN removal. Maximal TKN removal rates (summer: 1.2, winter: 0.6 g.m(-2) d(-1)) were reached in planted units. In all mesocosms, phosphorus was removed during summer (maximal removal rate: 0.3 g TP m(-2) d(-1)) and was released in winter (release rate = approximately half of summer removal rate). This study confirmed that constructed wetlands are susceptible to clogging when treating anaerobic storage tank supernatant rich in highly biodegradable compounds. Contributions of plants to hydraulic efficiency were mainly observed in summer, associated with high evapotranspiration rates. Both plant species gave a similar removal efficiency for all pollutants.

  18. Effects of treated municipal effluent irrigation on ground water beneath sprayfields, Tallahassee, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pruitt, J.B.; Elder, J.F.; Johnson, I.K.

    1988-01-01

    Groundwater quality data collection began in November 1979 at a spray-irrigation site near Tallahassee, Florida, before the initial application of secondary-treated municipal wastewater in November 1980. Effects of effluent irrigation on groundwater quality were evident about 1 year after spraying began and have continued to increase during the study period of 1983-85. Chloride and nitrate concentrations in groundwater have continued to increase since about 1 year after spraying began. Nitrate-nitrogen concentrations have increased from 0.03 mg/L to as much as 11 mg/L in water from one well in the surficial aquifer and from 0.07 to 15 mg/L in one well in the Floridan aquifer system. The greatest increases in concentrations have occurred in water from wells that top the surficial and Floridan aquifers. Increase in concentration occurred in water from some wells in the Floridan outside and downgradient of pivots, indicating lateral movement within the Floridan. The increase in sodium concentrations has been similar to the in chloride concentrations. Increases increases in the concentrations of other inorganic constituents have been minor compared to increases in chloride, sodium and nitrate concentrations. Nine volatile organic halocarbon compounds were detected in 18 effluent samples. Low concentrations of two of these halocarbons--chloroform and trichloroethene (TCE)--were detected intermittently in water sampled from six wells. None of the organic compounds detected in effluent or groundwater exceeded Florida drinking water standards. (USGS)

  19. Effect of electricity on microbial community of microbial fuel cell simultaneously treating sulfide and nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jing; Zheng, Ping; Xing, Yajuan; Qaisar, Mahmood

    2015-05-01

    The effect of electric current on microbial community is explored in Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) simultaneously treating sulfide and nitrate. The MFCs are operated under four different conditions which exhibited different characteristics of electricity generation. In batch mode, MFCs generate intermittently high current pulses in the beginning, and the current density is instable subsequently, while the current density of MFCs in continuous mode is relatively stable. All operational parameters show good capacity for substrate removal, and nitrogen and sulfate were the main reaction products. Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis is employed to obtain profiles of the bacterial communities present in inoculum and suspension of four MFCs. Based on the community diversity indices and Spearman correlation analyses, significant correlation exists between Richness of the community of anode chamber and the electricity generated, while no strong correlation is evident between other indexes (Shannon index, Simpson index and Equitability index) and the electricity. Additionally, the results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) suggest that MFCs suffering from current shock have similar suspension communities, while the others have diverse microbial communities.

  20. [Effect of magnesium supplementation on early-stage hypomagnesemia in patients treated with cetuximab].

    PubMed

    Demizu, Mutsuko; Ueda, Hiroshi; Osawa, Machiko; Chihara, Satomi; Igarashi, Tsutomu; Yano, Keiko; Kimura, Fumihiko; Tanaka, Nobuo; Hiratsuka, Masahiro

    2013-07-01

    Cetuximab is a monoclonal antibody that binds to the EGFR, and is used in patients with colorectal cancer. The most common toxicities associated with the use of cetuximab are rash and hypomagnesemia. Hypomagnesemia is a major adverse event, but it has often been ignored in past studies and its management has not been characterized. The aim of this study was to obtain a better understanding of the overall incidence of hypomagnesemia and to evaluate the usefulness of our original treatment guidelines for hypomagnesemia in patients receiving cetuximab-based therapy. We investigated 15 patients who were treated with cetuximab(with or without combined chemotherapy)between October 2008 and November 2010. Thirteen patients developed hypomagnesemia: 11 patients had Grade 1, one patient had Grade 2, and one patient had severe hypomagnesemia(Grade 3). Grade 1 hypomagnesemia was observed after an average of 7. 5±4. 8 weeks of treatment. None of the patients developed Grade 2 or higher hypomagnesemia after the implementation of our treatment guidelines. In conclusion, cetuximab treatment is associated with a significant risk of hypomagnesemia. The early monitoring and effective management of hypomagnesemia are important for patients receiving cetuximab-based therapy.

  1. Topiramate augmentation in clozapine-treated patients with schizophrenia: clinical and metabolic effects.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Margaret K; Remington, Gary; Bois, Daniel; Cohn, Tony

    2010-12-01

    Clozapine represents the treatment of choice for refractory psychosis, although a significant number of individuals demonstrate suboptimal response to it as well, leading to clozapine augmentation strategies. A variety of agents have been investigated in this regard, including mood stabilizers, such as anticonvulsants. Within this group of medications, topiramate is unique in that it is associated with weight loss, making it an attractive option because of clozapine's notable risk for associated metabolic disturbance. A 12-week naturalistic, open study was carried out to examine the potential benefits of topiramate in clozapine-treated individuals with schizophrenia demonstrating a suboptimal clinical response. We were specifically interested in clinical symptoms, changes in metabolic parameters, and tolerability. A total of 20 subjects were enrolled, and 16 completed the study, including 5 individuals with type 2 diabetes. Topiramate augmentation led to a 14% improvement in total Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale scores (P = 0.0003), a 2.5% decrease in body weight (P = 0.015), and was generally well tolerated, paraesthesia being the most common side effect. These findings support topiramate as a viable augmentation strategy in clozapine partial responders, with evidence of both clinical and metabolic benefits.

  2. Temperature effect on contractile activity of the Ambystoma dumerilii heart previously treated with isoproterenol.

    PubMed

    Cano-Martínez, A; Vargas-González, A; Guarner-Lans, V

    2007-07-01

    The spontaneous heart rate (HR) and ventricular (V) and atrium (A) tensions (T) were evaluated through isolated organ assays at different temperatures in hearts from Ambystoma dumerilii control and treated with isoproterenol (ISO) [(150 mg/kg i.p. each 24 h, for 3 days)] on days 1, 5, 30 and 90 after ISO. In control hearts, the HR increased and the T decreased when temperature was augmented. One day after ISO the HR (43-24%) and T (50-25%) decreased with respect to control, between 8 and 24 degrees C. Five, 30 and 90 days after ISO, HR showed a gradual recovery with similar effect when the temperature was changed; but the AT increased and VT decreased at temperatures between 8 and 12 degrees C and were only recovered at temperatures above 12 degrees C. Our results indicate that the HR recovers after ISO in A. dumerilii independently of temperature. The recovery of AT and VT is similar to HR at temperatures higher than 12 degrees C and the increases in VT could be compensating the decrease in VT caused by ISO, at temperatures lower than 12 degrees C. The changes in heart contractile activity of A. dumerilii after insult show the thermic plasticity that is observed in ectothermic vertebrates.

  3. An analysis of the effectiveness of a constructed wetland treating acid mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Huddleston, G.M. III; Grant, A.J.; Ramey, B.A.

    1994-12-31

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) from an abandoned coal mine in southcentral Kentucky had pH levels as low as 2.3 and iron concentrations as high as 641 mg/L. In the summer of 1992, the US Soil Conservation Service constructed a wetland system to treat the AMD that incorporated both physical and biological treatments. The AMD was initially fed into three anoxic limestone beds followed by an aeration pond and four cattail cells. A polishing pond served as the final stage of treatment. Flow of AMD was initiated in the fall of 1992, and treatment effectiveness was monitored for the next year. Chemical analysis and the cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) survival and reproduction test were performed on water samples collected along the flow path. Water chemistry analysis and determination of toxic levels indicated a substantial increase in pH and removal of metals prior to entering the cattail cells. Water quality in the cattail cells and polishing pond varied throughout the seasons, but had improved substantially by the end of the one-year monitoring period. The use of the wetland system by macroinvertebrates also was evaluated. Results indicated that a limited number of species were found in the cattail cells, while larger numbers were recovered from the polishing pond.

  4. Effect of retinyl acetate on transglutaminase 2 activity in carcinogen treated rat liver.

    PubMed

    Aydin, O; Akyuz, F; Tekin, N; Ustuner, Mc; Degirmenci, I; Burukoglu, D; Ozden, H

    2016-07-01

    Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) has been implicated in wound healing, cellular differentiation, apoptosis and cell survival. TG2 activity increases following acute and chronic liver injury; however, the role of TG2 in tumors, is controversial. TG2 is a retinoid-inducible enzyme. We investigated the effects of retinyl acetate (RA) on the activity and levels of TG2 during the initiation and promotion stages of liver cancer. p-Dimethylaminoazobenzene (p-DAB) was used as initiator and 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was used as promoter in our model of carcinogenesis. Rats were divided into four groups of 24: control, corn oil control, p-DAB + TCDD, and p-DAB + TCDD + RA. Six rats from each group were sacrificed at days 30, 60, 90 and 120. TG2 activity decreased in the p-DAB + TCDD treated group, but TG2 immunostaining scores did not change by days 90 and 120. Neither TG2 enzyme activity nor the immunostaining score of TG2 protein changed in the tissues of the p-DAB + TCDD + RA group by days 90 and 120. TG2 activity was not be ameliorated by RA during the initiation or promotion stages of carcinogen induced liver cancer.

  5. Effect of temperature on methane production from field-scale anaerobic digesters treating dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Osman A; Mulbry, Walter; Lansing, Stephanie

    2015-09-01

    Temperature is a critical factor affecting anaerobic digestion because it influences both system heating requirements and methane production. Temperatures of 35-37°C are typically suggested for manure digestion. In temperate climates, digesters require a considerable amount of additional heat energy to maintain temperatures at these levels. In this study, the effects of lower digestion temperatures (22 and 28°C), on the methane production from dairy digesters were evaluated and compared with 35°C using duplicate replicates of field-scale (FS) digesters with a 17-day hydraulic retention time. After acclimation, the FS digesters were operated for 12weeks using solids-separated manure at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.4kgVSm(-3)d(-1) and then for 8weeks using separated manure amended with manure solids at an OLR of 2.6kgVSm(-3)d(-1). Methane production values of the FS digesters at 22 and 28°C were about 70% and 87%, respectively, of the values from FS digesters at 35°C. The results suggest that anaerobic digesters treating dairy manure at 28°C were nearly as efficient as digesters operated at 35°C, with 70% of total methane achievable at 22°C. These results are relevant to small farms interested in anaerobic digestion for methane reduction without heat recovery from generators or for methane recovery from covered lagoon digesters.

  6. The effect of SRT on nitrate formation during autotrophic nitrogen removal of anaerobically treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lee, Po-Heng; Kwak, Wonji; Bae, Jeaho; McCarty, Perry L

    2013-01-01

    Autotrophic nitrogen removal, coupling nitritation (ammonium to nitrite) with anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), offers a promising nitrogen-removal alternative, especially for post-treatment of anaerobically-treated wastewater. However, previous reports suggest that less than 90% total nitrogen removal should be expected with this process alone because over 10% of the ammonium removed will be converted to nitrate. This is caused because nitrite conversion to nitrate is required for reduction of carbon dioxide to cell carbon. However, recent research results suggest that more limited nitrate formation of only a few per cent sometimes occurs. It was hypothesized such lower nitrate yields may result from use of long solids retention times (SRT) where net biological yields are low, and providing that the ratio of oxygen added to influent ammonium concentrations is maintained at or below 0.75 mol/mol. Overall reaction equations were developed for each process and combined to evaluate the potential effect of SRT on process stoichiometry. The results support the use of a long SRT to reduce net cell yield, which in turn results in a small percentage conversion to nitrate during ammonium removal and high total nitrogen removals in the range of 90 to 94%.

  7. Protective effect of sodium ferulate on acetaldehyde-treated precision-cut rat liver slices.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu; Wu, Xiao-Qian; Zhang, Chun; Liao, Zhang-Xiu; Wu, Yong; Wang, Hui

    2012-06-01

    Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a key role in hepatic fibrogenesis, and inhibition of HSC activation may prevent liver fibrosis. Acetaldehyde, the most deleterious metabolite of alcohol, triggers HSC activation in alcoholic liver injury. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of sodium ferulate (SF), a sodium salt of ferulic acid that is rich in fruits and vegetables, on acetaldehyde-stimulated HSC activation using precision-cut liver slices (PCLSs). Rat PCLSs were co-incubated with 350 μM acetaldehyde and different concentrations of SF. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by measuring enzyme leakage and malondialdehyde content in tissue. α-Smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor-β(1), and hydroxyproline were determined to assess the activation of HSCs. In addition, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1) were determined to evaluate collagen degradation. SF prominently prevented the enzyme leakage in acetaldehyde-treated slices and also inhibited HSC activation and collagen production stimulated by acetaldehyde. In addition, SF increased MMP-1 expression and decreased TIMP-1 expression. These results showed that SF protected PCLSs from acetaldehyde-stimulated HSC activation and liver injury, which may be associated with the attenuation of oxidative injury and acceleration of collagen degradation.

  8. Effectiveness of scraping and mitomycin C to treat haze after myopic photorefractive keratectomy.

    PubMed

    Spadea, Leopoldo; Verrecchia, Valerio

    2011-01-01

    To report the possibility of post myopic photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) haze treatment in a patient with expressed reluctance for any additional laser therapy. Seven months after bilateral PRK with subsequent development of corneal haze and refractive regression in both eyes, a 37-old-year male patient presented a best-spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) of 20/30 in the right eye and of 20/22 in the left eye. Both eyes were sequentially treated by scraping the stromal surface and application of mitomycin C (MMC) for 2 minutes. Both eyes had significant improvement in corneal transparency. Eighteen months after this treatment BSCVA had improved to 20/20 in each eye. No toxic effects were observed during either re-epithelialization or follow-up periods. In conclusion scraping and application of MMC could be considered a good tool in the treatment of selected cases of haze after myopic PRK, especially with patients that are reluctant to undergo a secondary laser procedure.

  9. The effect of locoregional therapies in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma treated with sorafenib

    PubMed Central

    Sarpel, Umut; Spivack, John H.; Berger, Yaniv; Heskel, Marina; Aycart, Samantha N.; Sweeney, Robert; Edwards, Martin P.; Labow, Daniel M.; Kim, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Background & aims It is unknown whether the addition of locoregional therapies (LRTx) to sorafenib improves prognosis over sorafenib alone in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of LRTx in this population. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed of patients with advanced HCC as defined by extrahepatic metastasis, lymphadenopathy >2 cm, or gross vascular invasion. Sorafenib therapy was required for inclusion. Survival of patients who received LRTx after progression to advanced stage was compared to those who did not receive LRTx. Results Using an intention to treat analysis of 312 eligible patients, a propensity weighted proportional hazards model demonstrated LRTx as a predictor of survival (HR = 0.505, 95% CI: 0.407–0.628; P < 0.001). The greatest benefit was seen in patients with the largest tumor burden (HR = 0.305, 95% CI: 0.236–0.393; P < 0.01). Median survival in the sorafenib arm was 143 days (95% CI: 118–161) vs. 247 days (95% CI: 220–289) in the sorafenib plus LRTx arm (P < 0.001). Conclusions These results demonstrate a survival benefit with the addition of LRTx to sorafenib for patients with advanced HCC. These findings should prompt a prospective clinical trial to further assess the role of LRTx in patients with advanced HCC. PMID:27154804

  10. Immunological effects of low-dose cyclophosphamide in cancer patients treated with oncolytic adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Cerullo, Vincenzo; Diaconu, Iulia; Kangasniemi, Lotta; Rajecki, Maria; Escutenaire, Sophie; Koski, Anniina; Romano, Valentina; Rouvinen, Noora; Tuuminen, Tamara; Laasonen, Leena; Partanen, Kaarina; Kauppinen, Satu; Joensuu, Timo; Oksanen, Minna; Holm, Sirkka-Liisa; Haavisto, Elina; Karioja-Kallio, Aila; Kanerva, Anna; Pesonen, Sari; Arstila, Petteri T; Hemminki, Akseli

    2011-09-01

    Patients with advanced solid tumors refractory to and progressing after conventional therapies were treated with three different regimens of low-dose cyclophosphamide (CP) in combination with oncolytic adenovirus. CP was given with oral metronomic dosing (50 mg/day, N = 21), intravenously (single 1,000 mg dose, N = 7) or both (N = 7). Virus was injected intratumorally. Controls (N = 8) received virus without CP. Treatments were well tolerated and safe regardless of schedule. Antibody formation and virus replication were not affected by CP. Metronomic CP (oral and oral + intravenous schedules) decreased regulatory T cells (T(regs)) without compromising induction of antitumor or antiviral T-cell responses. Oncolytic adenovirus given together with metronomic CP increased cytotoxic T cells and induced Th1 type immunity on a systemic level in most patients. All CP regimens resulted in higher rates of disease control than virus only (all P < 0.0001) and the best progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was seen in the oral + intravenous group. One year PFS and OS were 53 and 42% (P = 0.0016 and P < 0.02 versus virus only), respectively, both which are unusually high for chemotherapy refractory patients. We conclude that low-dose CP results in immunological effects appealing for oncolytic virotherapy. While these first-in-human data suggest good safety, intriguing efficacy and extended survival, the results should be confirmed in a randomized trial.

  11. Effect of enzyme induction on bioavailability of hetacillin in patients treated with anticonvulsants and chlorpromazine.

    PubMed

    Galanopoulou, P; Karageorgiou, C; Dimakopoulou, K

    1990-01-01

    The effect of liver enzyme induction on bioavailability of hetacillin was studied in patients chronically treated with anticonvulsants or chlorpromazine. 24 chronic psychiatric patients classified according to their medication in two groups (anticonvulsants, chlorpromazine) and one group of 11 healthy volunteers, received an i.m. administration of 500 mg hetacillin. Serum levels of ampicillin derived from hetacillin in blood samples taken 2, 4 and 6 hours after the injection were measured and the half-life of the antibiotic was determined for each group. Urinary D-glucaric acid was considered the induction index. Correlation coefficients between the induction index and pharmacokinetic parameters of hetacillin were also determined. Anticonvulsants and chlorpromazine induced the liver microsomal enzymes as demonstrated by the increased D-glucaric acid excretion (P less than 0.001 - P less than 0.05). No statistically significant differences were found in serum levels and half-life of the antibiotic. Correlation coefficients suggest that enzyme induction and hetacillin bioavailability are not significantly related.

  12. The effectiveness of transmeatal low-power laser stimulation in treating tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Ngao, C F; Tan, Teck Soon; Narayanan, Prepageran; Raman, R

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of transmeatal low-power laser stimulation (TLLS) in treating tinnitus. This is a prospective, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Patients with persistent subjective tinnitus as their main symptom were recruited into the study from the outpatient clinics. The recruited patients were randomized into the experimental group or TLLS+ group (patients in this group were prescribed to use TLLS at 5 mW at 650 nM wavelength for 20 min daily and oral betahistine 24 mg twice per day for a total of 10 weeks) and the control group or TLLS- group (patients in this group were prescribed with a placebo device to use and oral betahistine 24 mg twice per day for 10 weeks). All patients were required to answer two sets of questionnaires: the Tinnitus handicap inventory (THI) and visual analogue scales (VAS) symptoms rating scales, before starting the treatment and at the end of the 10-week treatment period. The total score of the THI questionnaire was further graded into five grades, grade 1 being mild and grade 5 being catastrophic. Wilcoxon-signed ranks test and Mann-Whitney test were used to compare and analyze the THI and VAS scores before and after treatment for each group. Changes with p value of <0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Chi square test was used to analyze the change of parameters in categorical forms (to compare between TLLS+ and TLLS-). Changes with p value of <0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Forty-three patients successfully and diligently completed their treatment. It was noted that using any condition of the device, TLLS+ or TLLS-, patient's tinnitus symptoms improved in terms of THI scores (TLLS+, p value = 0.038; TLLS-, p value = 0.001) or VAS scores with a change of at least one grade (TLLS+, p value = 0.007; TLLS-, p value = 0.002) at p value <0.05 significant level. In contrast when TLLS+ group was compared with TLLS- group, no

  13. Protective effect of heat-treated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) juice on alcohol detoxification in experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Vivek K; Kim, Na-Hyung; Kim, Ji-Eun; Kim, Kangmin; Kang, Sun Chul

    2016-05-01

    In this study, heat-treated cucumber juice was assessed for its protective effect on blood alcohol levels and hepatic alcohol metabolic enzyme system in experimental rats. Initially, during detoxification of alcohol, all groups were orally dosed to 22% alcohol (6ml/kg body weight) along with different concentrations of heat-treated cucumber juice (10, 100 and 500mg/kg) and commercial goods for hangover-removal on sale (2ml/kg). Cucumber juice was dosed before 30 min, and simultaneously after 30min of alcohol administration, and its hepatoprotective effect on blood alcohol levels and hepatic alcohol metabolic enzyme system in experimental rats was evaluated. As a result, after 7h, remarkable reduction was found in the blood alcohol levels for all concentrations of cucumber juice treatment. Treatment with cucumber juice resulted in increasing dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymatic activities in rat liver at 9h after alcohol administration thereby stimulated blood alcohol metabolism as compared with control group. The effect of heat-treated cucumber juice on alcohol detoxification was observed only in the rats treated before 30min from alcohol administration. These findings indicate that heat-treated cucumber juice has significant protective effect on alcohol detoxification in experimental rats, suggesting its usefulness in the treatment of liver injury caused by alcohol consumption.

  14. Assessing the Risk of Fipronil-Treated Seed Ingestion and Associated Adverse Effects in the Red-Legged Partridge.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Antia, Ana; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E; Camarero, Pablo R; Mougeot, François; Mateo, Rafael

    2015-11-17

    Fipronil is an insecticide commonly used in agriculture, but there are growing concerns over its environmental impacts (e.g., harmful effects on pollinators). Fipronil-treated seed ingestion might threaten granivorous farmland birds, in particular, Gallinaceous birds that are particularly sensitive to this insecticide. We report here on exposure risk and effects in a game bird of high socioeconomic importance, the red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa). We fed captive birds with untreated maize (controls) or with a mixture of untreated-treated maize (ratio 80:20; exposed birds) during 10 days at the beginning of the breeding period (n = 12 pairs in each group). We first show that exposed partridges did not reject treated seeds but reduced food intake and lost body condition. We further studied the effects of treated seed ingestion on adult survival, oxidative balance, plasma biochemistry, carotenoid-based coloration, cellular immune response, steroid hormone levels, and reproduction. Fipronil exposure altered blood biochemistry and sexual hormone levels and reduced cellular immune response, antioxidant levels, and carotenoid-based coloration. Exposed pairs also had reduced egg fecundation rate and produced eggs with fewer antioxidants and offspring that had reduced cellular immune response. These negative effects on adult partridges, their reproductive performance, and offspring quality highlight that fipronil-treated seed ingestion is a significant threat to wild birds.

  15. Effect of Enzyme-Treated Asparagus Extract (ETAS) on Psychological Stress in Healthy Individuals.

    PubMed

    Takanari, Jun; Nakahigashi, Jun; Sato, Atsuya; Waki, Hideaki; Miyazaki, Shogo; Uebaba, Kazuo; Hisajima, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Enzyme-Treated Asparagus Extract (ETAS) on improving stress response. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial was undertaken in healthy volunteers. ETAS (150 mg/d) or a placebo was consumed for 28 d, with a washout period. Psychological parameters were examined using a self-report scale questionnaire and psychological stress was applied using the Uchida-Kraepelin (U-K) test. During the stress load, autonomic nervous function was analyzed. After the stress load, a profile of mood states (POMS) psychological rating was performed, and serum cortisol, plasma catecholamine, salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), and salivary cortisol were analyzed. ETAS intake improved the self-reported rating for the items "Feel tired," "Hard to get up," and "Feel heavy" in the psychological questionnaire; ameliorated the self-reported rating for the items "Depression-Dejection" and "Fatigue" in the POMS questionnaire; and increased salivary sIgA levels after the U-K test. In contrast, serum and salivary cortisol levels, and plasma catecholamine did not change. During the U-K test, ETAS significantly upregulated the sympathetic nerve activity. Furthermore, ETAS intake significantly increased the number of answers and the number of correct answers in the U-K test, suggesting that it might improve office work performance with swiftness and accuracy under stressful conditions. In conclusion, ETAS supplementation reduced feelings of dysphoria and fatigue, ameliorated quality of sleep, and enhanced stress-load performance as well as promoted stress response by increasing salivary sIgA levels. These data suggest ETAS intake may exert beneficial effects, resulting from well-controlled stress management, in healthy individuals.

  16. Charge effect of a liposomal delivery system encapsulating simvastatin to treat experimental ischemic stroke in rats

    PubMed Central

    Campos-Martorell, Mireia; Cano-Sarabia, Mary; Simats, Alba; Hernández-Guillamon, Mar; Rosell, Anna; Maspoch, Daniel; Montaner, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Although the beneficial effects of statins on stroke have been widely demonstrated both in experimental studies and in clinical trials, the aim of this study is to prepare and characterize a new liposomal delivery system that encapsulates simvastatin to improve its delivery into the brain. Materials and methods In order to select the optimal liposome lipid composition with the highest capacity to reach the brain, male Wistar rats were submitted to sham or transitory middle cerebral arterial occlusion (MCAOt) surgery and treated (intravenous [IV]) with fluorescent-labeled liposomes with different net surface charges. Ninety minutes after the administration of liposomes, the brain, blood, liver, lungs, spleen, and kidneys were evaluated ex vivo using the Xenogen IVIS® Spectrum imaging system to detect the load of fluorescent liposomes. In a second substudy, simvastatin was assessed upon reaching the brain, comparing free and encapsulated simvastatin (IV) administration. For this purpose, simvastatin levels in brain homogenates from sham or MCAOt rats at 2 hours or 4 hours after receiving the treatment were detected through ultra-high-protein liquid chromatography. Results Whereas positively charged liposomes were not detected in brain or plasma 90 minutes after their administration, neutral and negatively charged liposomes were able to reach the brain and accumulate specifically in the infarcted area. Moreover, neutral liposomes exhibited higher bioavailability in plasma 4 hours after being administered. The detection of simvastatin by ultra-high-protein liquid chromatography confirmed its ability to cross the blood–brain barrier, when administered either as a free drug or encapsulated into liposomes. Conclusion This study confirms that liposome charge is critical to promote its accumulation in the brain infarct after MCAOt. Furthermore, simvastatin can be delivered after being encapsulated. Thus, simvastatin encapsulation might be a promising

  17. Late Effects May Not Warrant Using Radiation to Treat Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Cancer.gov

    Patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma who were treated with multidrug chemotherapy alone were more likely to be alive 12 years later than patients who received treatment that included radiation therapy, according to findings from a clinical trial.

  18. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Four Different Types of Needles in Irrigating Endodontically Treated Teeth.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-08

    perforations along 15,16 the shaft as suggested by Goldman et al. 3. A prototype endodontic needle made by cutting off the pointed tip of a standard 26-gauge...different types of irrigating needles in the removal of contamination in vitro from the root canals of forty endodontically treated single-rooted...TYPES OF NEEDLES IN IRRIGATING ENDODONTICALLY TREATED TEETH E. Drobotij, DDS, MS Resident, Endodontics Dept. of Dentistry - PO Box 59 Madigan Army

  19. Effect of evapotranspiration on the salinity of wastewater treated by aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Kirzhner, F; Zimmels, Y; Gafni, A

    2008-01-01

    The shortage of good quality water resources is becoming an important issue in arid and semi-arid zones. Irrigation systems must be developed that are capable of delivering low quality wastewater while taking into account environmental and health requirements. For this reason, the availability of water resources of marginal quality, such as desalinated wastewater, can be a significant contribution to the water supply. We investigated changes in salinity, in conjunction with evaporation kinetics of treated wastewater by aquatic plants. These plants enhance the removal of pollutants by consuming them in the form of plant nutrients and through the microbial activity on their roots. In particular, this treatment applies to urban and agricultural sewage, where treatment units of different sizes can be applied at the pollution source while acting as green environments. In these treatment units, increased salinity due to effect of evapotranspiration (ET) must be managed. The rates of evaporation (E) from the free water surface and transpiration (T) from the plants were determined under field and laboratory conditions. To this end, batch experiments were performed with floating and emergent aquatic plants. After 4 days in the presence of floating plants, the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) decreased from its 100-110 mg L(-1) initial value down to 30-40 mg L(-1) (65% to 70% removal), concurrent with a 2% to 5% increase in the chlorides level, and 5% to 8% in the electroconductivity. The ET rates were found to be a significant factor in the water balance governing the treatment process. The results of this work provide guidelines for recommended wastewater treatment times that safeguard against undesirable rises in salinity, yet with marginal change in parameters such as BOD. The change of salinity is shown to be relatively minor in the first days of treatment where the change in BOD is faster, whereas in the following days the picture is reversed. This result indicates the

  20. Stimulus-induced myoclonus treated effectively with clonazepam in genetically confirmed Coffin–Lowry syndrome☆

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Elif Acar; Ceylaner, Serdar; Turanlı, Güzide

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Coffin–Lowry syndrome (CLS) is a rare X-linked semidominant syndromic genetic disorder that is characterized by typical facial and radiologic findings, psychomotor and growth retardation, and various skeletal anomalies. A distinctive paroxysmal disorder called stimulus-bound myoclonus is clinically heterogeneous and is generally characterized by a sudden loss of muscle tone that is regained within a few seconds and is induced by sudden auditory or tactile stimulus. As the pathophysiology of stimulus-induced drop episodes (SIDEs) is not well understood, there is no definite therapy for those episodes. Methods We report a 15-year-old female with stimulus-induced drop episodes occurring many times a day that resulted in failure to perform her daily activities. Because her SIDEs were misdiagnosed as atonic seizures, she was treated with several antiepileptic drugs, including valproic acid, levetiracetam, lamotrigine, primidone, carbamazepine, and clobazam. Results We realized that her clinical and radiological findings, together with SIDEs, are compatible with Coffin–Lowry syndrome. All of her medications were discontinued following the diagnosis of SIDE, and she was started on clonazepam. After treatment, she became more independent and was able to perform her daily activities. Subsequently, her episodes decreased from 3 times a day to 1–2 times a month. Sodium oxybate and fluoxetine were added to the treatment protocol without remarkable improvement. Her genetic analysis revealed a heterozygous variation of CLS. Conclusion We conclude that SIDE should be included in a differential diagnosis of epileptic seizures in patients with CLS and that clonazepam is an effective choice in the treatment of SIDEs. PMID:25667906

  1. Effect of Different Instrumentation Techniques on Vertical Root Fracture Resistance of Endodontically Treated Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Tavanafar, Saeid; Karimpour, Azadeh; Karimpour, Hamideh; Mohammed Saleh, Abdulrahman; Hamed Saeed, Musab

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Vertical root fractures are catastrophic events that often result in tooth extraction. Many contributing factor are associated with increasing incidence of vertical root fracture. Root canal preparation is one of the predisposing factors which can increase the root susceptibility to vertical fracture. Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the effects of three different instrumentation techniques on vertical root fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth. Materials and Methods In this study, 120 freshly extracted mandibular premolar teeth of similar dimensions were decoronated and randomly divided into control (n=30), nickel-titanium hand K-file (HF, n=30), BioRaCe rotary file (BR, n=30), and WaveOne reciprocating single-file (WO, n=30) groups. After cleaning and shaping the root canals, AH26 was used as canal sealer, and obturation was completed using the continuous wave technique. The root canals were embedded vertically in standardised autopolymerising acrylic resin blocks, and subjected to a vertical load to cause vertical root fracture. The forces required to induce fractures were measured using a universal testing machine. ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc test were used to analyse the data. Results All experimental groups showed statistically significant reductions in fracture resistance as compared with the control group. There was a statistically significant difference between the HF and BR groups. The WO group did not differ significantly from the HF group or the BR group. Conclusion All three instrumentation techniques caused weakening of the structure of the roots, and rendered them susceptible to fracture under lesser load than unprepared roots. The fracture resistance of roots prepared with the single-file reciprocating technique was similar to that of those prepared with NiTi hand and rotary instrumentation techniques. PMID:26106635

  2. Effects of surface treating methods of high-strength carbon fibers on interfacial properties of epoxy resin matrix composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Quansheng; Gu, Yizhuo; Li, Min; Wang, Shaokai; Zhang, Zuoguang

    2016-08-01

    This paper aims to study the effects of surface treating methods, including electrolysis of anodic oxidation, sizing and heat treatment at 200 °C, on physical and chemical properties of T700 grade high-strength carbon fiber GQ4522. The fiber surface roughness, surface energy and chemical properties were analyzed for different treated carbon fibers, using atom force microscopy, contact angle, Fourier transformed infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The results show that the adopted surface treating methods significantly affect surface roughness, surface energy and active chemical groups of the studied carbon fibers. Electrolysis and sizing can increase the roughness, surface energy and chemical groups on surface, while heat treatment leads to decreases in surface energy and chemical groups due to chemical reaction of sizing. Then, unidirectional epoxy 5228 matrix composite laminates were prepared using different treated GQ4522 fibers, and interlaminar shear strength and flexural property were measured. It is revealed that the composite using electrolysis and sizing-fiber has the strongest interfacial bonding strength, indicating the important roles of the two treating processes on interfacial adhesion. Moreover, the composite using heat-treating fiber has lower mechanical properties, which is attributed to the decrease of chemical bonding between fiber surface and matrix after high temperature treatment of fiber.

  3. Effect of Larvae Treated with Mixed Biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis - Abamectin on Sex Pheromone Communication System in Cotton Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Li-Ze; Chen, Peng-Zhou; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Deng, Jian-Yu; Harris, Marvin-K; Wanna, Ruchuon; Wang, Fu-Min; Zhou, Guo-Xin; Yao, Zhang-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Third instar larvae of the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) were reared with artificial diet containing a Bacillus thuringiensis - abamectin (BtA) biopesticide mixture that resulted in 20% mortality (LD20). The adult male survivors from larvae treated with BtA exhibited a higher percentage of “orientation” than control males but lower percentages of “approaching” and “landing” in wind tunnel bioassays. Adult female survivors from larvae treated with BtA produced higher sex pheromone titers and displayed a lower calling percentage than control females. The ratio of Z-11-hexadecenal (Z11–16:Ald) and Z-9-hexadecenal (Z9–16:Ald) in BtA-treated females changed and coefficients of variation (CV) of Z11–16:Ald and Z9–16:Ald were expanded compared to control females. The peak circadian calling time of BtA-treated females occurred later than that of control females. In mating choice experiment, both control males and BtA-treated males preferred to mate with control females and a portion of the Bt-A treated males did not mate whereas all control males did. Our Data support that treatment of larvae with BtA had an effect on the sex pheromone communication system in surviving H.armigera moths that may contribute to assortative mating. PMID:23874751

  4. Effects of pramipexole on the duration of immobility during the forced swim test in normal and ACTH-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Kouhei; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Miyazaki, Toshiaki; Miyaoka, Junya; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Asanuma, Masato; Sendo, Toshiaki; Gomita, Yutaka

    2009-07-01

    The dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist pramipexole has clinically been proven to improve depression or treatment-resistant depression. However, the involvement of the dopamine receptor system on the effect of pramipexole on depression remains unclear. We examined the influence of pramipexole on the duration of immobility during the forced swim test in normal and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-treated rats and further analyzed the possible role of dopamine receptors in this effect. Additionally, the mechanism by which pramipexole acts in this model was explored specifically in relation to the site of action through the use of microinjections into the intramedial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. Pramipexole (0.3-1 mg/kg) significantly decreased the duration of immobility in normal and ACTH-treated rats. This effect was blocked by L-741,626, a D2 receptor antagonist, and nafadotride, a D3 receptor antagonist, in normal rats. Furthermore, infusions of pramipexole into the intranucleus accumbens, but not the medial prefrontal cortex, decreased the immobility of normal and ACTH-treated rats during the forced swim test. Taken together, the results of these experiments suggested that pramipexole, administered into the intranucleus accumbens rather than the medial prefrontal cortex, exerted an antidepressant-like effect on ACTH-treated rats via the dopaminergic system. The immobility-decreasing effect of pramipexole may be mediated by dopamine D2 and D3 receptors.

  5. Procognitive effect of AC-3933 in aged mice, and synergistic effect of combination with donepezil in scopolamine-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Takashi; Hatayama, Yuki; Nakamichi, Keiko; Yoshida, Naoyuki

    2014-12-15

    We have previously reported that AC-3933, a newly developed benzodiazepine receptor partial inverse agonist, facilitates acetylcholine release in the hippocampus and ameliorates scopolamine-induced memory deficits in rats. To further confirm the procognitive effect of AC-3933, we assessed in this study the beneficial effects of this compound in aged mice using the Y-maze and object recognition tests. In addition, we investigated the synergistic effect of AC-3933 and donepezil, a cholinesterase inhibitor, on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. In aged mice, oral administration of AC-3933 at doses of 0.05-0.1 mg/kg and 0.05 mg/kg significantly improved spatial working memory and episodic memory, respectively. In scopolamine-treated mice, both AC-3933 and donepezil significantly ameliorated memory deficits in the Y-maze test at doses of 0.3-3 mg/kg and 10-15 mg/kg, respectively. The beneficial effect of AC-3933, but not that of donepezil, on scopolamine-induced memory impairment was antagonized by flumazenil, a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, indicating that the procognitive action of AC-3933 arises via a mechanism different from that of donepezil. Co-administration of donepezil at the suboptimal dose of 3 mg/kg with AC-3933 at doses of 0.1-1 mg/kg significantly ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory impairment, suggesting that AC-3933 potentiates the effect of donepezil on memory impairment induced by cholinergic hypofunction. These findings indicate that AC-3933 not only has good potential as a cognitive enhancer by itself, but also is useful as a concomitant drug for the treatment of Alzheimer׳s disease.

  6. Comparison of metabolic effects of aripiprazole, quetiapine and ziprasidone after 12 weeks of treatment in first treated episode of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Iglesias, Rocio; Ortiz-Garcia de la Foz, Victor; Martínez García, Obdulia; Amado, Jose Antonio; Garcia-Unzueta, M Teresa; Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Suarez-Pinilla, Paula; Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto

    2014-10-01

    This randomized open-label study compared the incidence of metabolic side effects of aripiprazole, ziprasidone and quetiapine in a population of medication-naïve first-episode psychosis patients. A total of 202 subjects were enrolled. Body weight, body mass index, leptin, fasting lipids and fasting glycaemic parameters were measured at baseline and at 3 months follow-up. A hundred and sixty-six patients completed the follow-up and were included in the analyses. A high proportion of patients experienced a significant weight increase (>7% of their baseline weight): 23% ziprasidone (n=12), 32% with quetiapine (n=16) and 45% with aripiprazole (n=31). Patients treated with aripiprazole gained significantly more weight than the patients in the ziprasidone group (1.2 kg [SD=4.1] versus 4.3 kg [SD=4.8], respectively). The increase in leptin levels was greater in women treated with aripiprazole than in those treated with ziprasidone (p=0.030). Mean prolactin levels significantly increased in patients treated with quetiapine and ziprasidone but not in those treated with aripiprazole. Patients treated with quetiapine and aripiprazole showed a significant increase in total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol plasma levels. Quetiapine-treated patients resulted in a higher increase in LDL-cholesterol than patients treated with ziprasidone (p=0.021). No other significant differences between groups were found. No significant changes in glycaemic parameters were observed. Our results suggest that ziprasidone has a lower liability for inducing weight gain and lipid abnormalities than aripiprazole or quetiapine.

  7. THE EFFECT OF CONSERVATIVELY TREATED ACL INJURY ON KNEE JOINT POSITION Sense

    PubMed Central

    Herrington, Lee

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Proprioception is critical for effective movement patterns. However, methods of proprioceptive measurement in previous research have been inconsistent and lacking in reliability statistics making it applications to clinical practice difficult. Researchers have suggested that damage to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) can alter proprioceptive ability due to a loss of functioning mechanoreceptors. The majority of patients opt for reconstructive surgery following this injury. However, some patients chose conservative rehabilitation options rather than surgical intervention. Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ACL deficiency on knee joint position sense following conservative, non-operative treatment and return to physical activity. A secondary purpose was to report the reliability and measurement error of the technique used to measure joint position sense, (JPS) and comment on the clinical utility of this measurement. Study Design Observational study design using a cross-section of ACL deficient patients and matched uninjured controls. Methods Twenty active conservatively treated ACL deficient patients who had returned to physical activity and twenty active matched controls were included in the study. Knee joint position sense was measured using a seated passive-active reproductive angle technique. The average absolute angle of error score, between 10 °-30 ° of knee flexion was determined. This error score was derived from the difference between the target and repositioning angle. Results The ACL deficient patients had a greater error score (7.9 °±3.6) and hence poorer static proprioception ability that both the contra-lateral leg (2.0 °±1.6; p = 0.0001) and the control group (2.6 °±0.9; p = 0.0001). The standard error of the mean (SEM) of this JPS technique was 0.5 ° and 0.2 ° and the minimum detectable change (MDC) was 1.3 ° and 0.4 ° on asymptomatic and symptomatic subjects

  8. Effects of Treated versus Untreated Polystyrene on Caspofungin In Vitro Activity against Candida Species.

    PubMed

    Fothergill, Annette W; McCarthy, Dora I; Albataineh, Mohammad T; Sanders, Carmita; McElmeel, Maria; Wiederhold, Nathan P

    2016-03-01

    Significant interlaboratory variability is observed in testing the caspofungin susceptibility of Candida species by both the CLSI and EUCAST broth microdilution methodologies. We evaluated the influence of treated versus untreated polystyrene microtiter trays on caspofungin MICs using 209 isolates of four Candida species, including 16 C. albicans and 11 C. glabrata isolates with defined FKS mutations. Caspofungin MICs were also determined using the commercially available YeastOne and Etest assays and 102 isolates. All C. glabrata isolates had caspofungin MICs of ≥0.5 μg/ml, the clinical breakpoint for caspofungin resistance in this species, measured using trays made of treated polystyrene, regardless of the FKS status. In contrast, susceptible isolates could readily be distinguished from resistant/non-wild-type isolates when caspofungin MICs were measured using untreated polystyrene trays and both the YeastOne and Etest assays. Similar results were also observed for C. krusei isolates, as all isolates had caspofungin MICs above the threshold for resistance measured using treated polystyrene trays. In contrast, C. albicans isolates could be correctly identified as susceptible or resistant when caspofungin MICs were measured with treated or untreated trays and with the YeastOne and Etest assays. MICs falsely elevated above the resistance breakpoint were also not observed for C. tropicalis isolates. These results demonstrated that the use of treated polystyrene may be one factor that leads to falsely elevated caspofungin in vitro susceptibility results and that this may also be a greater issue for some Candida species than for others.

  9. Effect of Proteolytic Modification on Texture and Mastication of Heat‐Treated Egg White Gels

    PubMed Central

    Funaki, Junko; Minami, Michiko; Abe, Sachie; Ueda, Reiko; Eto, Wakako; Kugino, Kenji; Kugino, Mutsuko; Abe, Keiko; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Raw egg white undergoes sol–gel transition by heat treatment, which changes it to an elastic gel. Here, protease treatment to render a new texture to heated egg white gel was applied. Protease‐treated gels exhibited ductile flow without obvious rupture points. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that in protease‐treated gels, protein aggregates were distributed more homogeneously compared with that observed in the untreated control, probably because ovalbumin was digested into small peptides as revealed by SDS‐PAGE. The properties of the gel were evaluated by sensory tests and by measuring the movement of the masseter muscle, using surface electromyography. Results showed that maximum bite force and mastication duration were decreased for the protease‐treated gels, which were evaluated as being softer, smoother, less elastic and better textured. Overall, our results indicate that protease‐treated egg white gel has superior qualities and is easier to swallow than the untreated gel. Practical Applications In the food industry, the use of egg white is limited compared with that of egg yolk and whole eggs. In this study, we performed protease treatment to generate a new food material with smoother and softer texture compared with heat treated egg white. Our findings may expand the consumption of egg white, which can be consumed by people with mastication and swallowing disorders, and reduce the waste of egg white as a surplus product. PMID:28239213

  10. Dentofacial effects of bone-anchored maxillary protraction: A controlled study of consecutively treated Class III patients

    PubMed Central

    De Clerck, Hugo; Cevidanes, Lucia; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2011-01-01

    Introduction In this cephalometric investigation, we analyzed the treatment effects of bone-anchored maxillary protraction (BAMP) with miniplates in the maxilla and mandible connected by Class III elastics in patients with Class III malocclusion. Methods The treated sample consisted of 21 Class III patients consecutively treated with the BAMP protocol before the pubertal growth spurt (mean age, 11.10 ± 1.8 years) and reevaluated after BAMP therapy, about 1 year later. The treated group was compared with a matched control group of 18 untreated Class III subjects. Significant differences between the treated and control groups were assessed with independent-sample t tests (P<0.05). Results Sagittal measurements of the maxilla showed highly significant improvements during active treatment (about 4 mm more than the untreated controls), with significant protraction effects at orbitale and pterygomaxillare. Significant improvements of overjet and molar relationship were recorded, as well as in the mandibular skeletal measures at Point B and pogonion. Vertical skeletal changes and modifications in incisor inclination were negligible, except for a significant proclination of the mandibular incisors in the treated group. Significant soft-tissue changes reflected the underlying skeletal modifications. Conclusions Compared with growth of the untreated Class III subjects, the BAMP protocol induced an average increment on skeletal and soft-tissue advancement of maxillary structures of about 4 mm, and favorable mandibular changes exceeded 2 mm. PMID:21055597

  11. Effects of Short Exposures to Spinosad-Treated Wheat or Maize on Four Stored-Grain Insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of short exposures to spinosad-treated wheat and maize was evaluated against adults of four stored-product insects: the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.), the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), and the psocid Lepinotus reti...

  12. Preliminary Results on the Effect of Feeding Heat-Treated Colostrum on Health and Growth in Preweaned Dairy Calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Previous research showed that heat-treatment of colostrum at 60 ºC for 60 minutes results in a significant reduction in colostral bacteria counts without effecting colostral immunoglobulin concentrations. Moreover, calves fed heat-treated colostrum have improved serum IgG levels when ...

  13. Effects of replacing soybean meal with canola meal or treated canola meal on performance of lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canola meal (CM) has been shown to be a more effective crude protein (CP) source than soybean meal (SBM) for lactating dairy cows. Treating CM may increase its rumen undegradable protein (RUP) fraction and improve the amount of absorbable amino acids. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ...

  14. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COATINGS IN REDUCING DISLODGEABLE ARSENIC, CHROMIUM, AND COPPER FROM CCA TREATED WOOD; FINAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA conducted a study to evaluate the effect of coatings on dislodgeable arsenic, chromium, and copper residues on the surfaces of chromated copper arsenate (CAA) treated wood. Dislodgeable CCA, determined by wipe sampling the wood surfaces, was the primary evaluation criterion f...

  15. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COATINGS IN REDUCING DISLODGEABLE ARSENIC, CHROMIUM, AND COPPER FROM CCA-TREATED WOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a 2 year study designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a variety of deck sealants in reducing or eliminating potential exposure to arsenic, chromium, and copper from chromated copper arsenate-treated wood used in residential settings, like decks and playsets.

  16. Transient immunological and clinical effectiveness of treating mice bearing premalignant oral lesions with PD‐1 antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Levingston, Corinne A.

    2017-01-01

    A carcinogen‐induced premalignant oral lesion model that progresses to oral cancer was used to examine the impact of blocking PD‐1 on cytokine expression and on progression of lesions to cancer. The results of this study show increased production of IL‐2 and the inflammatory cytokines IL‐6, IL‐17 and TNF‐α by spleen cells of lesion‐bearing mice that were treated with PD‐1 antibody for 1 week compared to cytokine production by spleen cells of lesion‐bearing mice treated with control antibody. Production of IFN‐γ increased at 3 weeks of PD‐1 antibody treatment, although production of the other Th1 and inflammatory mediators declined. By 5 weeks, levels of these cytokines declined for both control and PD‐1 antibody‐treated mice. Flow cytometric analysis for IFN‐γ‐expressing cells showed shifts in CD4+ cells expressing IFN‐γ consistent with the changes in cytokine secretion. Whether or not treatment generated reactivity to lesions or HNSCC was determined. Spleen cells from PD‐1 antibody‐treated mice were stimulated by lysates of premalignant lesion and HNSCC tongue tissues to produce increased levels of Th1 and select inflammatory cytokines early in the course of PD‐1 antibody treatment. However, with continued treatment, reactivity to lesion and HNSCC lysates declined. Analysis of clinical response to treatment suggested an early delay in lesion progression but, with continued treatment, lesions in PD‐1 antibody‐treated mice progressed to the same degree as in control antibody‐treated mice. Overall, these results show an early beneficial response to PD‐1 antibody treatment, which then fails with continued treatment and lesion progression. PMID:27914100

  17. Transient immunological and clinical effectiveness of treating mice bearing premalignant oral lesions with PD-1 antibodies.

    PubMed

    Levingston, Corinne A; Young, M Rita I

    2017-04-01

    A carcinogen-induced premalignant oral lesion model that progresses to oral cancer was used to examine the impact of blocking PD-1 on cytokine expression and on progression of lesions to cancer. The results of this study show increased production of IL-2 and the inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-17 and TNF-α by spleen cells of lesion-bearing mice that were treated with PD-1 antibody for 1 week compared to cytokine production by spleen cells of lesion-bearing mice treated with control antibody. Production of IFN-γ increased at 3 weeks of PD-1 antibody treatment, although production of the other Th1 and inflammatory mediators declined. By 5 weeks, levels of these cytokines declined for both control and PD-1 antibody-treated mice. Flow cytometric analysis for IFN-γ-expressing cells showed shifts in CD4(+) cells expressing IFN-γ consistent with the changes in cytokine secretion. Whether or not treatment generated reactivity to lesions or HNSCC was determined. Spleen cells from PD-1 antibody-treated mice were stimulated by lysates of premalignant lesion and HNSCC tongue tissues to produce increased levels of Th1 and select inflammatory cytokines early in the course of PD-1 antibody treatment. However, with continued treatment, reactivity to lesion and HNSCC lysates declined. Analysis of clinical response to treatment suggested an early delay in lesion progression but, with continued treatment, lesions in PD-1 antibody-treated mice progressed to the same degree as in control antibody-treated mice. Overall, these results show an early beneficial response to PD-1 antibody treatment, which then fails with continued treatment and lesion progression.

  18. Repellent-Treated Clothing

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA regulates the pesticide permethrin to pre-treat clothing. We evaluate the safety and effectiveness of such insecticide uses, by exposure scenarios and risk assessment. Read and follow the label directions for use of permethrin-treated clothing.

  19. Effect of aspartame on oxidative stress and monoamine neurotransmitter levels in lipopolysaccharide-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Salem, Neveen A; Hussein, Jihan Seid

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of the sweetener aspartame on oxidative stress and brain monoamines in normal circumstances and after intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 μg/kg) in mice. Aspartame (0.625-45 mg/kg) was given via subcutaneous route at the time of endotoxin administration. Mice were euthanized 4 h later. Reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances; TBARS), and nitrite concentrations were measured in brain and liver. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and glucose were determined in brain. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured in liver. The administration of only aspartame (22.5 and 45 mg/kg) increased brain TBARS by 17.7-32.8%, decreased GSH by 25.6-31.6%, and increased TNF-α by 16.7-44%. Aspartame caused dose-dependent inhibition of brain serotonin, noradrenaline, and dopamine. Aspartame did not alter liver TBARS, nitrite, GSH, AST, ALT, or ALP. The administration of LPS increased nitrite in brain and liver by 26.8 and 37.1%, respectively; decreased GSH in brain and liver by 21.6 and 31.1%, respectively; increased brain TNF-α by 340.4%, and glucose by 39.9%, and caused marked increase in brain monoamines. LPS increased AST, ALT, and ALP in liver tissue by 84.4, 173.7, and 258.9%, respectively. Aspartame given to LPS-treated mice at 11.25 and 22.5 mg/kg increased brain TBARS by 15.5-16.9%, nitrite by 12.6-20.1%, and mitigated the increase in monoamines. Aspartame did not alter liver TBARS, nitrite, GSH, ALT, AST, or ALP. Thus, the administration of aspartame alone or in the presence of mild systemic inflammatory response increases oxidative stress and inflammation in the brain, but not in the liver.

  20. Effect of O-ethylrutoside on serum and hepatic lipids in acute ethanal-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Wójcicki, J

    1977-01-01

    The serum total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol and free fatty acid concentrations, as well as hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels, were increased in acutely ethanol-treated rats. Treatment of ethanol-given animals with o-ethylrutoside resulted in a significant reduction in all examined fractions of serum lipids and in the hepatic total cholesterol level.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of social marketing of insecticide-treated nets for malaria control in the United Republic of Tanzania.

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Kara; Kikumbih, Nassor; Armstrong Schellenberg, Joanna; Mponda, Haji; Nathan, Rose; Lake, Sally; Mills, Anne; Tanner, Marcel; Lengeler, Christian

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the costs and consequences of a social marketing approach to malaria control in children by means of insecticide-treated nets in two rural districts of the United Republic of Tanzania, compared with no net use. METHODS: Project cost data were collected prospectively from accounting records. Community effectiveness was estimated on the basis of a nested case-control study and a cross-sectional cluster sample survey. FINDINGS: The social marketing approach to the distribution of insecticide-treated nets was estimated to cost 1560 US dollars per death averted and 57 US dollars per disability-adjusted life year averted. These figures fell to 1018 US dollars and 37 US dollars, respectively, when the costs and consequences of untreated nets were taken into account. CONCLUSION: The social marketing of insecticide-treated nets is an attractive intervention for preventing childhood deaths from malaria. PMID:12764493

  2. Effect of treating sugarcane bagasse with urea and calcium hydroxide on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Gunun, Nirawan; Wanapat, Metha; Gunun, Pongsatorn; Cherdthong, Anusorn; Khejornsart, Pichad; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-08-01

    Four beef cattle with initial body weight of 283 ± 14 kg were randomly allocated according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to study on the effect of feeding sugarcane bagasse (SB) treated with urea and/or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. The treatments were as follows: rice straw (RS), untreated SB (SB), 4 % urea-treated SB (SBU), and 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2-treated SB (SBUC), respectively. The results revealed that cattle fed with SBU and SBUC had higher feed intake and apparent digestibility. Ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen were increased in cattle fed with SB as roughage source (P < 0.05). Feeding SBU and SBUC to cattle resulted in higher propionic acid and lower acetic acid, acetic to propionic ratio, and methane production (P < 0.05). Moreover, the number of fungi was increased in SBU- and SBUC-fed groups while protozoa population was unchanged. This study concluded that the nutritive value of SB was improved by urea and/or Ca(OH)2 treatment, and feeding treated SB could increase feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. This study suggested that SB treated with 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2 could be used as an alternative roughage source for ruminant feeding.

  3. Priming effects and enzymatic activity in Israeli soils under treated wastewater and freshwater irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anissimova, Marina; Heinze, Stefanie; Chen, Yona; Tarchitzky, Jorge; Marschner, Bernd

    2014-05-01

    Irrigation of soils with treated wastewater (TWW) directly influences microbial processes of soil. TWW contains easily decomposable organic material, which can stimulate the activity of soil microorganisms and, as a result, lead to the excessive consumption of soil organic carbon pool. We investigated the effects of irrigation with TWW relative to those of irrigation with freshwater (FW) on the microbial parameters in soils with low (7%) and medium (13%) clay content in a lysimeter experiment. The objectives of our study were to (i) determine the impact of water quality on soil respiration and enzymatic activity influenced by clay content and depth, and (ii) work out the changes in the turnover of soil organic matter (PE, priming effects). Samples were taken from three soil depths (0-10, 10-20, and 40-60 cm). Soil respiration and PE were determined in a 21-days incubation experiment after addition of uniformly 14C-labeled fructose. Activity of 10 extracellular enzymes (EEA, from C-, N-, P-, and S-cycle), phenol oxidase and peroxidase activity (PO+PE), and dehydrogenase activity (DHA) were assayed. Microbial Community-Level Physiological Profiles (CLPP) using four substrates, and microbial biomass were determined. The results showed that the clay content acted as the main determinative factor. In the soil with low clay content the water quality had a greater impact: the highest PE (56%) was observed in the upper layer (0-10cm) under FW irrigation; EEA of C-, P-, and S-cycles was significantly higher in the upper soil layer under TWW irrigation. Microbial biomass was higher in the soil under TWW irrigation and decreased with increasing of depth (50 μg/g soil in the upper layer, 15 μg/g soil in the lowest layer). This tendency was also observed for DHA. Contrary to the low clay content, in the soil with medium clay content both irrigation types caused the highest PE in the lowest layer (65% under FW irrigation, 48% under TWW irrigation); the higher substrate

  4. Evaluation of phytotoxicity effect on selected crops using treated and untreated wastewater from different configurative domestic wastewater plants.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, B; Kumari, S K Sheena; Stenstrom, T A; Bux, F

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the phytotoxicity effect of untreated and treated wastewater collected from two different configurations of domestic wastewater treatment plants in South Africa. The phytotoxicity effect on vegetable seed growth was studied in terms of germination index (GI), relative seed germination (RSG) and relative root elongation (RRE) using four commercial crop varieties, viz., tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), radish (Raphanus sativus), carrot (Daucus carota) and onion (Allium cepa). According to phyototoxicity limits, 80% germination and above is regarded as non-toxic and less than 50% GI is regarded as highly toxic and not suitable for agricultural purposes. In our study, seeds were irrigated with concentrations of 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% of treated effluent (TE) and untreated effluent (UTE). The TE results were best with the highest GI (%) recorded as tomato, 177; carrot, 158.5; onion, 132; and lettuce, 124. The results of this study indicate that TE showed no phytotoxicty effects and recorded above 80% GI. The UTE irrigated crops reached a GI of only 50% and above which is clear evidence of the beneficial effect of waste water treatment. The overall results confirmed that treated wastewater has a beneficial effect on agricultural crops and can be used as a liquid fertilizer.

  5. Antibiotic stewardship: the lower-extremity physician's prescription for effectively treating infection.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert G; Joseph, Warren S

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of antibiotic drugs was one of the most significant medical achievements of the 20th century. The improper use of antibiotic drugs to prevent and treat infections has resulted in the emergence of resistance. Antimicrobic stewardship programs are becoming a mainstay in the fight against multidrug-resistant organisms. Individual clinicians should be encouraged to adopt the principles of antibiotic stewardship when treating lower-extremity infections in their scope of practice. First, a review of the available literature outlining the concept and practice of antibiotic stewardship is offered. Second, a discussion describing how to adopt and apply these principles to the individual clinician's practice as it applies to lower-extremity infections is offered. Finally, specific antimicrobial pharmacologic spectra and antibiogram information are offered.

  6. Clinical Effects and Antivenom Use for Snake Bite Victims Treated at Three US Hospitals in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    viper, Echis carinatus) and the Oxus cobra (Naja oxiana).1–3 Although nearby countries such as Pakistan and India are reported by the World Health...purified, equine-derived F(ab)2 fragments and are able to treat a variety of the most commonly encountered vipers and elapids (including cobras ) in the...Durihim H, Al-Hussaini M, Bin Salih S, Hassan I, Harakati M, Al Hajjaj A. Snake bite envenomation: experience at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh

  7. Extrapyramidal side effects in a blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna) treated with haloperidol and clomipramine.

    PubMed

    Starkey, Simon R; Morrisey, James K; Hickam, Hillary D; Albright, Julia D; Lynch, Mary J

    2008-09-01

    A diagnosis of adverse extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) was reached in a 14-year-old female blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna) that presented with disseminated dystonia (manifesting as pacing, head bobbing, and circling), intermittent ataxia, and coarse-muscle tremors of 60 hours duration. The patient had been treated 23 days previously with haloperidol decanoate (1.7 mg/kg IM once), and for 3 days before hospitalization with clomipramine HCl at a prescribed dosage of 3.9 mg/kg PO q12h. The patient was treated with supportive care, a gradual reduction in the clomipramine dose, and intramuscular and oral diphenhydramine (2 mg/kg q12h). As commonly observed in human patients with drug-induced EPS, a dramatic resolution of clinical signs was observed within 2 hours after the first intramuscular administration of diphenhydramine. It is recommended that EPS be considered in macaws experiencing neurologic signs secondary to clomipramine administration and, in particular, in those treated concurrently or previously with haloperidol.

  8. EFFECT OF PREGNANE XENOBIOTIC RECEPTOR ACTIVATION ON INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE TREATED WITH RIFAXIMIN.

    PubMed

    Wan, Y C; Li, T; Han, Y-D; Zhang, H-Y; Lin, H; Zhang, B

    2015-01-01

    The causes and pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) are still not clearly understood. This study aims to prove the important role of rifaximin played in inflammatory reaction caused by abnormity of the intestinal mucosal immune system. Intestinal microflora can greatly promote and maintain the inflammatory reaction of IBD, therefore, antibiotics can be used to treat IBD. Rifaximin is a medicine usually used for local intestinal infection. Many clinical and basic studies have shown that both a single application of rifaximin and the joint application with other medicines could achieve a good efficacy. This paper studied the activation of Pregnane Xenobiotic Receptor (PXR) in treating IBD with rifaximin and analyzed its efficacy in IBD when PXR was involved in the transport of medicine and metabolism. The results prove that rifaximin can not only serve as an anti-microbial drug, but can activate PXR and actually weaken the reaction of IBD. Thus it is safe to say that rifaximin has great potential in treating IBD.

  9. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sewage sludge and treated biosolids: effect factors and mass balance.

    PubMed

    Kim, M; Guerra, P; Theocharides, M; Barclay, K; Smyth, S A; Alaee, M

    2013-11-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants have been consistently detected in sewage sludge and treated biosolids. Two hundred and eighty-eight samples including primary sludge (PS), waste biological sludge (WBS) and treated biosolids from fifteen wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Canada were analyzed to investigate the factors affecting accumulation of PBDEs in sludge and biosolids. Factors examined included environmental/sewershed conditions and operational parameters of the WWTPs. PBDE concentrations in PS, WBS and treated biosolids were 230-82,000 ng/g, 530-8800 ng/g and 420-6000 ng/g, respectively; BDE-209,-99, and -47 were the predominant congeners. Concentrations were influenced by industrial input, leachate, and temperature. Several examinations including the measurement of BDE-202 indicated minimal debromination during wastewater treatment. Estimated solids-liquid distribution coefficients were moderately correlated to hydraulic retention time, solids loading rate, mixed liquor suspended solids, solids retention time, and removal of organic solids, indicating that PBDE partitioning to solids can be optimized by WWTPs' operational conditions. Solids treatment type strongly affected PBDE levels in biosolids: 1.5 times increase after solids digestion, therefore, digestion efficiency could be a potential factor for variability of PBDEs concentration. In contrast, alkaline treatment reduced PBDE concentrations in biosolids. Overall, mass balance approaches confirmed that PBDEs were removed from the liquid stream through partitioning to solids. Variability of PBDE levels in biosolids could result in different PBDEs burdens to agricultural land, and different exposure levels to soil organisms.

  10. Antioxidant effect of Cytisus scoparius against carbon tetrachloride treated liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Raja, S; Ahamed, K F H Nazeer; Kumar, V; Mukherjee, Kakali; Bandyopadhyay, A; Mukherjee, Pulok K

    2007-01-03

    The study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity of Cytisus scoparius L. (Family: Leguminosae) on CCl(4) (carbon tetrachloride) treated oxidative stress in Wistar albino rats. CCl(4) injection induced oxidative stress by a significant rise in serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminases (SGPT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) along with reduction of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GRD). Pretreatment of rats with different doses of plant extract (250 and 500mg/kg) significantly lowered SGOT, SGPT, LDH and TBARS levels against CCl(4) treated rats. GSH and hepatic enzymes like SOD, CAT, GPx, GRD, and GST were significantly increased by treatment with the plant extract, against CCl(4) treated rats. The activity of extract at the dose of 500mg/kg was comparable to the standard drug, silymarin (25mg/kg). Based on these results, it was observed that Cytisus scoparius extract protects liver from oxidative stress induced by CCl(4) in rats and thus helps in evaluation of the traditional claim on this plant.

  11. Effect of irrigation with treated wastewater on soil chemical properties and infiltration rate.

    PubMed

    Bedbabis, Saida; Ben Rouina, Béchir; Boukhris, Makki; Ferrara, Giuseppe

    2014-01-15

    In Tunisia, water scarcity is one of the major constraints for agricultural activities. The reuse of treated wastewater (TWW) in agriculture can be a sustainable solution to face water scarcity. The research was conducted for a period of four years in an olive orchard planted on a sandy soil and subjected to irrigation treatments: a) rain-fed conditions (RF), as control b) well water (WW) and c) treated wastewater (TWW). In WW and TWW treatments, an annual amount of 5000 m(3) ha(-1) of water was supplied to the orchard. Soil samples were collected at the beginning of the study and after four years for each treatment. The main soil properties such as electrical conductivity (EC), pH, soluble cations, chloride (Cl(-)), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), organic matter (OM) as well as the infiltration rate were investigated. After four years, either a significant decrease of pH and infiltration rate or a significant increase of OM, SAR and EC were observed in the soil subjected to treated wastewater treatment.

  12. Absence of Close-Range Excitorepellent Effects in Malaria Mosquitoes Exposed to Deltamethrin-Treated Bed Nets

    PubMed Central

    Spitzen, Jeroen; Ponzio, Camille; Koenraadt, Constantianus J. M.; Pates Jamet, Helen V.; Takken, Willem

    2014-01-01

    Flight behavior of insecticide-resistant and susceptible malaria mosquitoes approaching deltamethrin-treated nets was examined using a wind tunnel. Behavior was linked to resulting health status (dead or alive) using comparisons between outcomes from free-flight assays and standard World Health Organization (WHO) bioassays. There was no difference in response time, latency time to reach the net, or spatial distribution in the wind tunnel between treatments. Unaffected resistant mosquitoes spent less time close to (< 30 cm) treated nets. Nettings that caused high knockdown or mortality in standard WHO assays evoked significantly less mortality in the wind tunnel; there was no excitorepellent effect in mosquitoes making contact with the nettings in free flight. This study shows a new approach to understanding mosquito behavior near insecticidal nets. The methodology links free-flight behavior to mosquito health status on exposure to nets. The results suggest that behavioral assays can provide important insights for evaluation of insecticidal effects on disease vectors. PMID:24752686

  13. Inhibition effect of phosphorus-based chemicals on corrosion of carbon steel in secondary-treated municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhanhui; Ren, Hongqiang; Xu, Ke; Geng, Jinju; Ding, Lili

    2013-01-01

    Secondary-treated municipal wastewater (MWW) could supply a viable alternative water resource for cooling water systems. Inorganic salts in the concentrated cooling water pose a great challenge to corrosion control chemicals. In this study, the inhibition effect of 1-hydroxy ethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP), trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP) and 2-phosphonobutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid (PBTCA) on corrosion of carbon steel in secondary-treated MWW was investigated by the means of potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The inhibition effect increased with increasing concentration of inhibitors. The corrosion rates of carbon steel were 1.5, 0.8, 0.2 and 0.5 mm a(-1) for blank, HEDP, ATMP and PBTCA samples at 50 mg L(-1), respectively. The phosphorus-based chemicals could adsorb onto the surface of the carbon steel electrode, form a coat of protective film and then protect the carbon steel from corrosion in the test solution.

  14. [Effects of treating with concentrated sulfuric acid on the seed germination of ten Hibiscus hamabo provenance families].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Xue; Sun, Hai-Jing; Liu, Yun; Chen, Yi-Tai; Feng, Da-Lan; Li, Sha

    2012-11-01

    The seeds from ten Hibiscus hamabo provenance families were treated with concentrated sulfuric acid for different durations (0, 10, 15, and 20 min) , and the seed germination rate, germination energy, and germination index, as well as the seed relative water adsorption rate, soluble sugar and starch contents, and alpha-amylase activity during the germination, were determined, aimed to study the effects of treating with concentrated sulfuric acid on the seed germination of H. hamabo and the differences of the seed germination among different H. hamabo provenance families. After treated with concentrated sulfuric acid, the seed germination rate, germination energy, and germination index increased significantly, and the germination time shortened remarkably. Treating with concentrated sulfuric acid for 15 minutes had the best effect, i. e., the germination rate, germination energy, and germination index were up to 95.7%, 91.3%, and 13.28, respectively, and the germination time was the shortest. The seed germination rate, germination energy, and germination index differed significantly with different provenance families, the highest germination index (15.13) being 2.12 times of the lowest germination index (7.15), and the highest germination energy (98.0%) being 1.77 times of the lowest one (55.5%). Treating with concentrated sulfuric acid accelerated the physiological and biochemical processes of seed germination, and the relative water absorption rate, soluble sugar content, and a-amylase activity were decreased after an initial increase, with the maximum at the early stage of germination. There was a significant negative relationship between the seed starch content and the seed germination index.

  15. Effects of heptachlor-treated cereal grains on Canada geese in the Columbia Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, C.J.; Lenhart, D.J.; Cromartie, E.; Jarvis, Robert L.; Bartonek, James C.

    1979-01-01

    In 1976 and 1977, die-offs of birds of several species occurred in Umatilla and Morrow counties, Oregon. Detection of high levels of heptachlor epoxide (HE) in tissues of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) prompted this study to determine the extent and impact of heptachlor contamination on geese on two study areas on the Columbia River--the Umatilla National Wildlife Refuge (Umatilla) in Oregon and Washington and on the McNary Recreation Area (McNary) about 65 km upstream in Washington. Nest success of Great Basin Canada geese (B. c. moffitti) at McNary was 90.2 percent compared to 5I.7 percent at Umatilla. HE in eggs was correlated with nest success--95 percent of the nests from which sample eggs contained 10 ug/g. Eggs from McNary were essentially clean of organochlorine pollutants, while eggs from Umatilla contained an average of 2.93 ?g/g of HE and a maximum of 24.29 ug/g. Lethal levels of HE were detected in brains of resident Great Basin Canada geese and over-wintering Taverner's geese (B. c. taverneri) that were found dead on or near Umatilla: The source of HE in geese appeared to be ingestion of seeds treated with heptachlor for wireworm control. The small population of moffitti is in danger of extirpation from heptachlor. Recommendations for minimizing the heptachlor problem include: (1) improved handling of treated grain to decrease its availability to wildlife, (2) use of treated seed only in areas requiring wireworm control, and cessation of prophylactic use, particularly on wheat planted in irrigated circles immediately following potatoes, and (3) replacement of heptachlor with a safer chemicaL

  16. Dietary effects on liver tumor burden in mice treated with the hepatocellular carcinogen diethylnitrosamine

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Marin E.; Chow, Jenny D.Y.; Byrne, Frances L.; Breen, David S.; Leitinger, Norbert; Li, Chien; Lackner, Carolin; Caldwell, Stephen H.; Hoehn, Kyle L.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Mice exposed to the hepatocellular carcinogen diethylnitrosamine at 2 weeks of age have a high risk of developing primary liver tumors later in life. Previous studies have demonstrated that diethylnitrosamine-treated mice have increased tumor burden when fed an obesigenic “Western” diet rich in lard fat and sugar. However, the role of dietary fats versus sugars in the promotion of liver cancer is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine how altering dietary fats versus sugars affects tumor burden in the diethylnitrosamine model. Methods C57BL/6N mice were treated with diethylnitrosamine at 2 weeks of age and, from 6 to 32 weeks of age, fed one of five diets that differed in fat and sugar content including normal chow, ketogenic, and Western diets. Results Mice fed sugar-rich diets had the greatest tumor burden irrespective of dietary fat content. In contrast, mice fed a high-fat low-sugar diet had the least tumor burden despite obesity and glucose intolerance. When evaluated as independent variables, tumor burden was positively correlated with hepatic fat accumulation, postprandial insulin, and liver IL-6, and inversely correlated with serum adiponectin. In contrast, tumor burden did not correlate with adiposity, fasting insulin, or glucose intolerance. Furthermore, mice fed high sugar diets had lower liver expression of p21 and cleaved caspase-3 compared to mice fed low sugar diets. Conclusions These data indicate that dietary sugar intake contributes to liver tumor burden independent of excess adiposity or insulin resistance in mice treated with diethylnitrosamine. PMID:25450719

  17. The Ripple Effect of Title IX on Women's Health Issues: Treating an Increasingly Active Population.

    PubMed

    Mees, Patricia D

    2003-04-01

    Perhaps no area in sports medicine has changed as dramatically in the last 30 years as women's health. Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 prohibited discrimination on the basis of sex in all curricular and extracurricular activities at educational institutions that receive federal funding. Before 1972, many assumed that women were not interested in sports and that there was no need to provide programs for girls and women, and most primary care physicians had little experience in treating female athletes and other active women.

  18. Endoscopic lung volume reduction effectively treats acute respiratory failure secondary to bullous emphysema.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Paul; Garrett, Jeffrey E; Rankin, Nigel; Anderson, Graeme

    2010-10-01

    Emphysema often affects the lungs in a heterogeneous fashion, and collapse or removal of severely hyperinflated portions of lung can improve overall lung function and symptoms. The role of lung volume reduction (LVR) surgery in selected patients is well established, but that of non-surgical LVR is still being defined. In particular, use of endobronchial LVR is still under development. This case report describes a 48-year-old non-smoker with severe bullous emphysema complicated by acute hypercapnic respiratory failure, who was successfully treated by endobronchial valve placement while intubated in an intensive care unit.

  19. Long-term effects of poultry litter, alum-treated litter, and ammonium nitrate on aluminum availability in soils.

    PubMed

    Moore, P A; Edwards, D R

    2005-01-01

    Research has shown that alum [Al(2)(SO(4))(3).14H(2)O] applications to poultry litter can greatly reduce phosphorus (P) runoff, as well as decrease ammonia (NH(3)) volatilization. However, the long-term effects of fertilizing with alum-treated litter are unknown. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the long-term effects of normal poultry litter, alum-treated litter, and ammonium nitrate (NH(4)NO(3)) on aluminum (Al) availability in soils, Al uptake by tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), and tall fescue yields. A long-term study was initiated in April of 1995. There were 13 treatments (unfertilized control, four rates of normal litter, four rates of alum-treated litter, and four rates of NH(4)NO(3)) in a randomized block design. All fertilizers were broadcast applied to 52 small plots (3.05 x 1.52 m) cropped to tall fescue annually in the spring. Litter application rates were 2.24, 4.49, 6.73, and 8.98 Mg ha(-1) (1, 2, 3, and 4 tons acre(-1)); NH(4)NO(3) rates were 65, 130, 195, and 260 kg N ha(-1) and were based on the amount of N applied with alum-treated litter. Soil pH, exchangeable Al (extracted with potassium chloride), Al uptake by fescue, and fescue yields were monitored periodically over time. Ammonium nitrate applications resulted in reductions in soil pH beginning in Year 3, causing exchangeable Al values to increase from less than 1 mg Al kg(-1) soil in Year 2 to over 100 mg Al kg(-1) soil in Year 7 for many of the NH(4)NO(3) plots. In contrast, normal and alum-treated litter resulted in an increase in soil pH, which decreased exchangeable Al when compared to unfertilized controls. Severe yield reductions were observed with NH(4)NO(3) beginning in Year 6, which were due to high levels of acidity and exchangeable Al. Aluminum uptake by forage and Al runoff from the plots were not affected by treatment. Fescue yields were highest with alum-treated litter (annual average = 7.36 Mg ha(-1)), followed by normal litter (6.93 Mg ha(-1)), NH(4)NO

  20. Effects of domestic wastewater treated by anaerobic stabilization on soil pollution, plant nutrition, and cotton crop yield.

    PubMed

    Uzen, Nese; Cetin, Oner; Unlu, Mustafa

    2016-12-01

    This study has aimed to determine the effects of treated wastewater on cotton yield and soil pollution in Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey during 2011 and 2012. The treated wastewater was provided from the reservoir operated as anaerobic stabilization. After treatment, suspended solids (28-60 mg/l), biological oxygen demand (29-30 mg/l), and chemical oxygen demand (71-112 mg/l) decreased significantly compared to those in the wastewater. There was no heavy metal pollution in the water used. There were no significant amounts of coliform bacteria, fecal coliform, and Escherichia coli compared to untreated wastewater. The cottonseed yield (31.8 g/plant) in the tanks where no commercial fertilizers were applied was considerably higher compared to the yield (17.2 g/plant) in the fertilized tanks where a common nitrogenous fertilizer was utilized. There were no significant differences between the values of soil pH. Soil electrical conductivity (EC) after the experiment increased from 0.8-1.0 to 0.9-1.8 dS/m. Heavy metal pollution did not occur in the soil and plants, because there were no heavy metals in the treated wastewater. It can be concluded that treated domestic wastewater could be used to grow in a controlled manner crops, such as cotton, that would not be used directly as human nutrients.

  1. A mini-review on the most important effective medicinal plants to treat hypertension in ethnobotanical evidence of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Baharvand-Ahmadi, Babak; Asadi-Samani, Majid

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, cardiovascular diseases are highly prevalent in human communities. Hypertension is a multifactorial disease which causes a mortality twice higher than general population. Given the fact that medicinal plants have long been used to treat hypertension and are currently being administered for this disease, we sought to report the mostly effective and important medicinal plants on hypertension therapy in ethno-botanical evidence of Iran. In this study, hypertension, Iran, ethno-botany, medicinal plants, and traditional medicine were used as key words to search in Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, EBSCO and EMBASE to select relevant articles. The findings of this study indicated that in Iran 40 plants in various provinces are used to treat hypertension. Because medicinal plants in this study contain effective compounds and have long been used to treat and reduce hypertension, they could provide suitable research arrangements for controlling hypertension, while effective natural drugs could be developed to control hypertension if their properties are confirmed in pharmacological studies. PMID:28197520

  2. Effects of the introduction of pre-treated wastewater in a shallow lake reed stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinka, Mária; Kiss, Anita; Magyar, Norbert; Ágoston-Szabó, Edit

    2016-01-01

    Reed stands may be employed in the amelioration of water quality or even in the treatment of wastewater. In this study, the nutrient concentrations of (i) the above- and below-ground Common Reed (Phragmites australis) biomass, and (ii) surface and interstitial water were analyzed in a natural stand used in wastewater treatment. The reed stand was located in Hungarian part of Lake Fertő/Neusiedler See, by the shore near Fertőrákos Bay. The nitrate, phosphate and dissolved organic nitrogen concentrations of surface water were found to be higher on the inlet side of the reed stand compared to the outlet. The N and P concentrations in the above-ground biomass and P concentrations in the below-ground biomass increased after the introduction of pre-treated wastewater. The inter-annual differences in the characteristics of sediment interstitial water and in the nutrient content of reed tissues were assessed using statistical methods. The samples taken before and after the introduction of the pre-treated wastewater in the parcel formed different clusters. The results of the study provide further evidence that the nutrient retention capacity of natural stands of P. australis may be employed in the treatment of wastewater while protecting and preserving the valuable natural assets of the lake.

  3. FLUX OF IONIC DYES ACROSS MICRONEEDLE-TREATED SKIN: EFFECT OF DYE MOLECULAR CHARACTERISTICS

    PubMed Central

    Gomaa, Yasmine A.; Garland, Martin J.; McInnes, Fiona; Donnelly, Ryan F.; El-Khordagui, Labiba K.; Wilson, Clive

    2014-01-01

    Drug flux across microneedle (MN)-treated skin is influenced by the characteristics of the MN array, microconduits and drug molecules in addition to the overall diffusional resistance of microconduits and viable tissue. Relative implication of these factors has not been fully explored. In the present study, the in vitro permeation of a series of six structurally related ionic xanthene dyes with different molecular weights (MW) and chemical substituents, across polymer MN-pretreated full thickness porcine skin was investigated in relation of their molecular characteristics. Phosphate buffer saline pH 7.4, the medium used in skin permeation experiments, was used to determine the equilibrium solubility of the dyes and their partition coefficient both in the isotropic n-octanol/ aqueous system and porcine skin/ aqueous system. Additionally, dissociation constants were determined potentiometrically. Results indicated that for rhodamine dyes, skin permeation of the zwitterionic form which predominates at physiological pH, was significantly reduced by an increase in MW, the presence of the chemically reactive isothiocyanate substituent reported to interact with stratum corneum proteins and the skin thickness. These factors were generally shown to override aqueous solubility, an important determinant of drug diffusion in an aqueous milieu. Findings provided more insight into the mechanism of drug permeation across MN-treated skin, of importance to both the design of MN-based transdermal drug delivery systems and in vitro skin permeation research. PMID:22960319

  4. Effect of Carbide Distribution on Corrosion Behavior of the Deep Cryogenically Treated 1.2080 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amini, Kamran; Akhbarizadeh, Amin; Javadpour, Sirus

    2016-02-01

    Deep cryogenic heat treatment is a supplementary process performed on steels specifically tool steels before tempering to improve the wear resistance and hardness of these materials. The carbide distribution changes via the electric current flow or the application of a magnetic field during the deep cryogenic heat treatment. Hence, the electric current and the magnetic field were applied to the samples to investigate the corrosion behavior of the deep cryogenically treated samples by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The results showed that increasing the carbide percentage and achieving a more homogenous carbide distribution during the deep cryogenic heat treatment will remarkably decrease the corrosion resistance due to a decrease in the solutionized chromium atoms in the structure as well as the increase in the martensite-carbide grain boundaries (the galvanic cell areas). Moreover, it was clarified that the electric current flow and magnetic fields reduce the carbide percentage, which leads to an increase in the corrosion resistance of these samples in comparison with the deep cryogenically treated samples.

  5. The effect of deltamethrin-treated net fencing around cattle enclosures on outdoor-biting mosquitoes in Kumasi, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Maia, Marta Ferreira; Abonuusum, Ayimbire; Lorenz, Lena Maria; Clausen, Peter-Henning; Bauer, Burkhard; Garms, Rolf; Kruppa, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Classic vector control strategies target mosquitoes indoors as the main transmitters of malaria are indoor-biting and -resting mosquitoes. However, the intensive use of insecticide-treated bed-nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying have put selective pressure on mosquitoes to adapt in order to obtain human blood meals. Thus, early-evening and outdoor vector activity is becoming an increasing concern. This study assessed the effect of a deltamethrin-treated net (100 mg/m(2)) attached to a one-meter high fence around outdoor cattle enclosures on the number of mosquitoes landing on humans. Mosquitoes were collected from four cattle enclosures: Pen A - with cattle and no net; B - with cattle and protected by an untreated net; C - with cattle and protected by a deltamethrin-treated net; D - no cattle and no net. A total of 3217 culicines and 1017 anophelines were collected, of which 388 were Anopheles gambiae and 629 An. ziemanni. In the absence of cattle nearly 3 times more An. gambiae (p<0.0001) landed on humans. The deltamethrin-treated net significantly reduced (nearly three-fold, p<0.0001) culicine landings inside enclosures. The sporozoite rate of the zoophilic An. ziemanni, known to be a secondary malaria vector, was as high as that of the most competent vector An. gambiae; raising the potential of zoophilic species as secondary malaria vectors. After deployment of the ITNs a deltamethrin persistence of 9 months was observed despite exposure to African weather conditions. The outdoor use of ITNs resulted in a significant reduction of host-seeking culicines inside enclosures. Further studies investigating the effectiveness and spatial repellence of ITNs around other outdoor sites, such as bars and cooking areas, as well as their direct effect on vector-borne disease transmission are needed to evaluate its potential as an appropriate outdoor vector control tool for rural Africa.

  6. Protective effect of silymarin on viability, motility and mitochondrial membrane potential of ram sperm treated with sodium arsenite

    PubMed Central

    Eskandari, Farzaneh; Momeni, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sodium arsenite can impair male reproductive function by inducing oxidative stress. Silymarin is known as a potent antioxidant. Objective: This study was performed to investigate if silymarin can prevent the adverse effect of sodium arsenite on ram sperm viability, motility and mitochondrial membrane potential. Materials and Methods: Epidydimal spermatozoa obtained from ram were divided into five groups: 1) Spermatozoa at 0 hr, 2) spermatozoa at 180 min (control), 3) spermatozoa treated with sodium arsenite (10 μM) for 180 min, 4) spermatozoa treated with silymarin (20 μM) + sodium arsenite (10 μM) for 180 min and 5) spermatozoa treated with silymarin (20 μM) for 180 min. MTT assay and Rhodamine 123 staining were used to assess sperm viability and mitochondrial membrane potential respectively. Sperm motility was performed according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Results: Viability (p<0.01), nonprogressive motility (p<0.001) and intact mitochondrial membrane potential (p<0.001) of the spermatozoa were significantly decreased in sodium arsenite treated group compared to control group. In silymarin + sodium arsenite group, silymarin could significantly reverse the adverse effect of sodium arsenite on these sperm parameters compared to sodium arsenite group (p<0.001). In addition, the application of silymarin alone for 180 minutes could significantly increase progressively motile sperm (p<0.001) and decrease non motile sperm (p<0.01) compared to the control. Conclusion: Silymarin could compensate the adverse effect of sodium arsenite on viability, nonprogressive motility and mitochondrial membrane potential of ram sperm. PMID:27525323

  7. Research on curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine treating low-grade fever of children caused by respiratory system infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangyun

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to explore the curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine treating low-grade fever of children caused by respiratory system infection. Sixty children who suffered low-grade fever caused by respiratory system infection were selected and divided into treatment group and control group randomly, each with 30 cases. Control group was treated with conventional methods including oxygen uptake, nebulization and anti-infection, etc, while treatment group was given boil-free granules of traditional Chinese medicine besides the treatment which control group received. Then clinical curative effect of two groups was compared. Results showed that 28 cases (93.3%) were cured in treatment group; while 21 cases (70.0%) were cured in control group. Compared with control group, the treatment group showed up better treatment efficiency and the difference between groups was of statistical significance (P<0.05). Comparison of results of two groups suggested that, traditional Chinese medicine granules has satisfactory curative effect in the treatment of low-grade fever of children caused by respiratory system infection; characterized by short treatment cycle and effective treatment effect, Chinese medicine granules in the combination with oxygen atomization inhalation is proved to be able to efficiently remit symptoms such as coughing, gasp and labored breathing, with outstanding curative effect in the treatment of low-grade fever of children caused by respiratory system infection, thus it is worthy of popularization and application clinically.

  8. Use of Insecticide-Treated School Uniforms for Prevention of Dengue in Schoolchildren: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tozan, Yesim; Ratanawong, Pitcha; Louis, Valérie R.; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue-related illness is a leading cause of hospitalization and death, particularly among children. Practical, acceptable and affordable measures are urgently needed to protect this age group. Schools where children spend most of their day is proposed as an ideal setting to implement preventive strategies against day-biting Aedes mosquitoes. The use of insecticide-treated school uniforms is a promising strategy currently under investigation. Methods Using a decision-analytic model, we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of the use of insecticide-treated school uniforms for prevention of dengue, compared with a “do-nothing” alternative, in schoolchildren from the societal perspective. We explored how the potential economic value of the intervention varied under various scenarios of intervention effectiveness and cost, as well as dengue infection risk in school-aged children, using data specific to Thailand. Results At an average dengue incidence rate of 5.8% per year in school-aged children, the intervention was cost-effective (ICER≤$16,440) in a variety of scenarios when the intervention cost per child was $5.3 or less and the intervention effectiveness was 50% or higher. In fact, the intervention was cost saving (ICER<0) in all scenarios in which the intervention cost per child was $2.9 or less per year and the intervention effectiveness was 50% or higher. The results suggested that this intervention would be of no interest to Thai policy makers when the intervention cost per child was $10.6 or higher per year regardless of intervention effectiveness (ICER>$16,440). Conclusions Our results present the potential economic value of the use of insecticide-treated uniforms for prevention of dengue in schoolchildren in a typical dengue endemic setting and highlight the urgent need for additional research on this intervention. PMID:25247556

  9. Behavioral Effects and Tunneling Responses of Eastern Subterranean Termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) Exposed to Chlorantraniliprole-Treated Soils.

    PubMed

    Saran, Raj K; Ziegler, Melissa; Kudlie, Sara; Harrison, Danielle; Leva, David M; Scherer, Clay; Coffelt, Mark A

    2014-10-01

    Intrinsic toxicities of chlorantraniliprole, fipronil, and imidacloprid were evaluated with topical applications on worker termites. Worker termites were exposed to substrates treated with formulated chlorantraniliprole to study contact toxicity, tunneling, and postexposure behaviors. The intrinsic toxicities (LD50, ng/termite) of chlorantraniliprole (1.25, 0.96, and 0.44) and fipronil (0.12, 0.11, and 0.13) at 11 d were similar for workers from three termite colonies. Imidacloprid toxicity (LD50) values were highly variable among the workers from three different colonies, values at 11 d ranging from 0.7 to 75 ng/termite. Termite workers exposed to sand and soils treated with chlorantraniliprole at 50 ppm exhibited delayed mortality and, for most of the exposure times, it took >5 d to observe 90-100% mortality in termite workers. Exposure to chlorantraniliprole-treated sand (50 ppm) for as little as 1 min stopped feeding and killed 90-100% of the workers. Tunneling (≈ 2 h) in different soil types treated with chlorantraniliprole at 50 ppm, even those with high organic matter (6.3%) and clay content (30%), caused immediate feeding cessation in worker termites and mortality in the next 7-14 d. Worker termites exposed for 1 and 60 min to sand treated with chlorantraniliprole (50 ppm) were able to walk normally for 4 h after exposure in most cases. Delayed toxicity, increased aggregation, and grooming were observed in exposed termites and discussed in the context of horizontal transfer effects within termite colonies.

  10. Insecticide-treated clothes for the control of vector-borne diseases: a review on effectiveness and safety.

    PubMed

    Banks, S D; Murray, N; Wilder-Smith, A; Logan, J G

    2014-08-01

    Insecticide-treated clothing has been used for many years by the military and in recreational activities as personal protection against bites from a variety of arthropods including ticks, chigger mites, sandflies and mosquitoes. Permethrin is the most commonly used active ingredient, but others, including bifenthrin, deltamethrin, cyfluthrin, DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenz-amide) and KBR3023, have also been trialled. Treatment is usually carried out by home or factory dipping. However, new microencapsulation technologies which may prolong the activity of insecticides on clothing are now available and may help to overcome the inevitable reduction in efficacy over time that occurs as a result of washing, ultraviolet light exposure, and the normal wear and tear of the fabric. The aim of this article is to review the evidence base for the use of insecticide-treated clothing for protection against bites from arthropods and its effect on arthropod-borne pathogen transmission. Although some studies do demonstrate protection against pathogen transmission, there are surprisingly few, and the level of protection provided varies according to the disease and the type of study conducted. For example, insecticide-treated clothing has been reported to give between 0% and 75% protection against malaria and between 0% and 79% protection against leishmaniasis. Studies vary in the type of treatment used, the age group of participants, the geographical location of the study, and the pathogen transmission potential. This makes it difficult to compare and assess intervention trials. Overall, there is substantial evidence that insecticide-treated clothing can provide protection against arthropod bites. Bite protection evidence suggests that insecticide-treated clothing may be useful in the prevention of pathogen transmission, but further investigations are required to accurately demonstrate transmission reduction.

  11. The clinical research for Ganoderan's effect on preventing and treating cerebral arteriosclerosis through inhibiting NADPH oxidizing enzyme expression.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhang Li; Fang, Teng Jun; Qian, Yuan Xue; Rong, Wang Huan

    2014-07-01

    A lot of researches have verified that produced excessive reactive oxygen is one of the hazard factors causing atherosclerosis. NADPH oxidase is the main protease of vascular cell's producing reactive oxygen, the expression of its relevant subunits is closely correlated with the occurring and development process of atherosclerosis. Oxidizing reaction could damage organism tissue cells, ganoderan has very significant effect on the anti-oxidizing function of cell. The pharmaceutical research of ganoderan has significant meaning in curing diabetes mellitus, preventing and controlling arteriosclerosis. This paper is mainly to discuss the effect of anoderan's inhibiting NADPH oxidizing enzyme expression on preventing and treating cerebral arteriosclerosis and its action mechanism.

  12. The effect of tiaprofenic acid on blood pressure control in treated hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Smith, M D; Kupa, A; Weatherall, M; Henstridge, J D; Brooks, P M

    1985-01-01

    Eleven patients with osteoarthritis and mild hypertension completed an 8-week, double-blind crossover study in which 200 mg tiaprofenic acid 3-times daily or placebo were substituted for their normal non-steroidal anti-inflammatory therapy. Systolic blood pressure was significantly higher on tiaprofenic acid therapy than on placebo and plasma renin activity was significantly lower on active treatment. No significant changes were seen in biochemical parameters, though the weight of the patient was also higher on tiaprofenic acid than on placebo. Duration of morning stiffness was also lower on tiaprofenic acid than on placebo. Blood pressure on tiaprofenic acid was not different from baseline readings on other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy. This study suggests that tiaprofenic acid, like other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, may interfere with blood pressure control in treated hypertensive patients.

  13. Modeling of secondary treated wastewater disinfection by UV irradiation: effects of suspended solids content.

    PubMed

    Brahmi, Mounaouer; Belhadi, Noureddine Hamed; Hamdi, Helmi; Hassen, Abdennaceur

    2010-01-01

    This work aimed to study UV-resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, to propose a formulation of the kinetics of secondary treated wastewater disinfection and to underline the influence of suspended solids on the inactivation kinetics of these strains. Some investigations were carried out for the validation of some simulation models, from the simplest, the kinetics model of Chick-Watson reduced to first order, to rather complex models such as multi-kinetic and Collins-Selleck models. Results revealed that the involved processes of UV irradiation were too complex to be approached by a simplified formulation, even in the case of specific strains of microorganisms and the use of nearly constant UV radiation intensity. In fact, the application of Chick-Watson model in its original form is not representative of the kinetics of UV disinfection. Modification, taking into account the speed change during the disinfection process, has not significantly improved results. On the other hand, the application of Collins-Selleck model demonstrates that it was necessary to exceed a least dose of critical radiation to start the process of inactivation. To better explain the process of inactivation, we have assumed that the action of disinfectant on the survival of lonely microorganisms is faster than its action on suspended solids protected or agglomerated to each others. We can assume in this case the existence of two inactivation kinetics during the processes (parallel and independent) of the first-order. For this reason, the application of a new kinetic model by introducing a third factor reflecting the influence of suspended solids in water on disinfection kinetics appeared to be determinant for modeling UV inactivation of P. aeruginosa in secondary treated wastewater.

  14. Effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor on treating tinnitus in patients stratified for presence of depression or anxiety.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Naoki; Kanzaki, Sho; Shinden, Seiichi; Saito, Hideyuki; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, paroxetine, on treating tinnitus.Tinnitus patients stratified for the presence of depression and anxiety were studied retrospectively. Fifty-six patients were observed for more than 6 months. They were initially treated with paroxetine only at a dose of 10 mg/day for 2-4 weeks; thereafter, the dose was increased to 20 mg/day. Tinnitus distress was evaluated with the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) and with visual analog scales (VASs) for tinnitus loudness and annoyance. Depression and anxiety were measured with the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and the trait section of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The patients were grouped according to their SDS and STAI scores, and each variable was compared at baseline and the 6-month follow-up. Changes among these variables were also examined to determine whether reduced tinnitus distress was related to the improvement of depression or anxiety. Patients with both depression and anxiety showed better results (decrease in THI, VASs, SDS and STAI scores) than patients with anxiety alone, or patients without depression and anxiety. In patients with depression and anxiety, changes in tinnitus variables and changes in depression and anxiety scores were strongly correlated. In other patients, however, changes in tinnitus variables and changes in depression and anxiety scores were not correlated. These results suggest that paroxetine is effective in treating distressed tinnitus patients with depression and anxiety by reducing their tinnitus severity as well as their depression and anxiety.

  15. Persistent Effectivity of Gas Plasma-Treated, Long Time-Stored Liquid on Epithelial Cell Adhesion Capacity and Membrane Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Hoentsch, Maxi; Bussiahn, René; Rebl, Henrike; Bergemann, Claudia; Eggert, Martin; Frank, Marcus; von Woedtke, Thomas; Nebe, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Research in plasma medicine includes a major interest in understanding gas plasma-cell interactions. The immediate application of gas plasma in vitro inhibits cell attachment, vitality and cell-cell contacts via the liquid. Interestingly, in our novel experiments described here we found that the liquid-mediated plasma effect is long-lasting after storage up to seven days; i. e. the liquid preserves the characteristics once induced by the argon plasma. Therefore, the complete Dulbecco's Modified Eagle cell culture medium was argon plasma-treated (atmospheric pressure, kINPen09) for 60 s, stored for several days (1, 4 and 7 d) at 37°C and added to a confluent mouse hepatocyte epithelial cell (mHepR1) monolayer. Impaired tight junction architecture as well as shortened microvilli on the cell membrane could be observed, which was accompanied by the loss of cell adhesion capacity. Online-monitoring of vital cells revealed a reduced cell respiration. Our first time-dependent analysis of plasma-treated medium revealed that temperature, hydrogen peroxide production, pH and oxygen content can be excluded as initiators of cell physiological and morphological changes. The here observed persisting biological effects in plasma-treated liquids could open new medical applications in dentistry and orthopaedics. PMID:25170906

  16. Effect of Spirulina maxima Supplementation on Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, and Zinc Status in Obese Patients with Treated Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Suliburska, J; Szulińska, M; Tinkov, A A; Bogdański, P

    2016-09-01

    The effects of Spirulina maxima supplementation on calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc status were studied in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial of 50 obese subjects with treated hypertension, each randomized to receive 2 g of spirulina or a placebo daily for 3 months. At baseline and after treatment, the calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc concentration in plasma was assessed. It was found that 3 months of S. maxima supplementation resulted in a significant decrease in the iron level in the plasma of obese patients. In conclusion, this is the first clinical study on the influence of spirulina supplementation on mineral status in obese patients with hypertension. Spirulina supplementation affects the iron status of obese Caucasians with well-treated hypertension.

  17. Effect of coenzyme Q10 on the survival time and lipid peroxidation of adriamycin (doxorubicin) treated mice.

    PubMed

    Shinozawa, S; Etowo, K; Araki, Y; Oda, T

    1984-02-01

    The effect of coenzyme Q10 (Co Q10) was examined on the survival time and lipid peroxidation of adriamycin (ADM)-treated ICR mice. Co Q10 showed a protective effect against a subacute toxicity in mice induced by two intraperitoneal administrations of ADM (15 mg/kg). The group treated orally with 10 mg/kg of Co Q10 showed the longest survival time of all the groups studied (16.81 +/- 10.29 days, mean +/- S.D.) and a significantly longer survival time (p less than 0.001) than the ADM-alone group (7.48 +/- 1.99 days). The inhibitory effect of Co Q10 on the plasma and tissue lipid peroxidation levels did not correlate with the effect of prolonging the survival time of mice. Co Q10 tended to inhibit rises in plasma and liver lipid peroxidation levels induced by ADM administration, but there was no statistically significant difference between treatments. There was a statistically significant different inhibitory effect in the kidney lipid peroxidation levels, but was not in those of the heart.

  18. Glucagon-like peptide-2 but not imipramine exhibits antidepressant-like effects in ACTH-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Takashi; Ohnuki, Tomoko; Sasaki-Hamada, Sachie; Saitoh, Akiyoshi; Sugiyama, Azusa; Oka, Jun-Ichiro

    2013-04-15

    We investigated the effectiveness of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) against refractory depression in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-treated mice as a model of tricyclic antidepressant (TCA)-resistant depression. Chronic ACTH treatment (0.45 mg/kg, s.c., 14 days) weakened the antidepressant-like effects of imipramine (20 mg/kg, i.p., 6 days) in the forced-swim test (FST). Conversely, GLP-2 (3 μg/mice, i.c.v., 6 days) induced antidepressant-like effects in the ACTH-treated mice in the FST. ACTH-treatment increased basal serum corticosterone levels, with an additional increase induced by the FST. Imipramine or GLP-2 had no effect on the basal corticosterone level, but GLP-2 attenuated the additional increase caused by the FST. Moreover, GLP-2 increased 5-HT levels, but not 5-HIAA. These results suggest that GLP-2 induced antidepressant-like effects under imipramine-resistant conditions through increase in 5-HT levels.

  19. Beneficial effects of nitric oxide on outcomes after cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation in hypothermia-treated mice

    PubMed Central

    Kida, Kotaro; Shirozu, Kazuhiro; Yu, Binglan; Mandeville, Joseph B.; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Ichinose, Fumito

    2015-01-01

    Background Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) improves neurological outcomes after cardiac arrest (CA) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Although nitric oxide prevents organ injury induced by ischemia and reperfusion, role of nitric oxide during TH after CPR remains unclear. Here, we examined the impact of endogenous nitric oxide synthesis on the beneficial effects of hypothermia after CA/CPR. We also examined whether or not inhaled nitric oxide during hypothermia further improves outcomes after CA/CPR in mice treated with TH. Methods Wild-type (WT) mice and mice deficient for nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3−/−) were subjected to CA at 37°C and then resuscitated with chest compression. Body temperature was maintained at 37°C (normothermia) or reduced to 33°C (TH) for 24 hours after resuscitation. Mice breathed air or air mixed with nitric oxide at 10, 20, 40, 60, or 80 ppm during hypothermia. To evaluate brain injury and cerebral blood flow, magnetic resonance imaging was performed in WT mice after CA/CPR. Results Hypothermia up-regulated the NOS3-dependent signaling in the brain (n=6–7). Deficiency of NOS3 abolished the beneficial effects of hypothermia after CA/CPR (n=5–6). Breathing nitric oxide at 40 ppm improved survival rate in hypothermia-treated NOS3−/− mice (n=6) after CA/CPR compared to NOS3−/− mice that were treated with hypothermia alone (n=6, P<0.05). Breathing nitric oxide at 40 (n=9) or 60 (n=9) ppm markedly improved survival rates in TH-treated WT mice (n=51) (both P<0.05 vs TH-treated WT mice). Inhaled nitric oxide during TH (n=7) prevented brain injury compared to TH alone (n=7) without affecting cerebral blood flow after CA/CPR (n=6). Conclusions NOS3 is required for the beneficial effects of TH. Inhaled nitric oxide during TH remains beneficial and further improves outcomes after CA/CPR. Nitric oxide breathing exerts protective effects after CA/CPR even when TH is ineffective due to impaired endogenous nitric oxide production

  20. Feeding heat-treated colostrum to neonatal dairy heifers: effects on growth characteristics and blood parameters.

    PubMed

    Elizondo-Salazar, J A; Heinrichs, A J

    2009-07-01

    Newborn Holstein heifer calves were studied to compare absorption of immunoglobulin G (IgG(1) and IgG(2)), total serum protein concentration, lymphocyte counts, health scores, growth, and starter intake after receiving unheated or heat-treated colostrum. First-milking colostrum was collected from Holstein cows and frozen at -20 degrees C to accumulate a large batch. After thawing and mixing, half of the colostrum was transferred into 1.89-L plastic containers and frozen at -20 degrees C until needed for feeding. The remaining half was heated at 60 degrees C for 30 min, transferred into 1.89-L plastic containers, and then frozen at -20 degrees C until needed for feeding. Forty heifer calves weighing > or =32 kg at birth were enrolled into 1 of 2 treatment groups before suckling occurred. For the first feeding, 3.8 L of colostrum was bottle fed by 1.5 to 2 h of age. For the second and third feedings, pasteurized whole milk at 5% of birth body weight (BW) was fed. Subsequently, calves received milk replacer containing 20% crude protein and 20% fat at 10% of birth BW/d until wk 5. Milk replacer was reduced to 1 feeding of 5% birth BW until weaning at 6 wk of age. Blood samples and growth data were collected through wk 8. Batch heat-treatment of colostrum at 60 degrees C for 30 min lowered colostrum bacteria concentration while maintaining colostral IgG concentration and viscosity. Calves fed heat-treated colostrum had significantly greater IgG concentrations at 24 h and greater apparent efficiency of IgG absorption (IgG = 23.4 g/L; apparent efficiency of absorption = 33.2%) compared with calves fed unheated colostrum (IgG = 19.6 g/L; apparent efficiency of absorption = 27.7%). There was no difference between treatment groups in growth measurements, calf starter intake, lymphocyte counts, or health scores.

  1. Selecting Effective Treatments: A Comprehensive, Systematic Guide to Treating Mental Disorders. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Linda

    This book presents an overview of the major types of mental disorders, accompanied by treatment models that are structured, comprehensive, grounded in research, and likely to be effective. Chapter topics are: (1) "Introduction to Effective Treatment Planning"; (2) "Mental Disorders in Infants, Children, and Adolescents"; (3) "Situationally…

  2. Alterations of phytoplankton assemblages treated with chlorinated hydrocarbons: effects of dominant species sensitivity and initial diversity.

    PubMed

    Bácsi, István; Gonda, Sándor; B-Béres, Viktória; Novák, Zoltán; Nagy, Sándor Alex; Vasas, Gábor

    2015-05-01

    Changes in composition of phytoplankton assemblages due to short-chained chlorinated hydrocarbons (tetrachloroethane, tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene) were studied in microcosm experiments with different initial diversities. Diversity decreased further during treatments in the less diverse 2011 summer assemblages, dominated by the euglenid Trachelomonas volvocinopsis (its relative abundance was nearly 70 %). Diversity did not change significantly during treatments in the more diverse 2012 summer assemblages, dominated by cryptomonads (their relative abundance was 40 %). The dominant Trachelomonas volvocinopsis in 2011, due to its insensitivity to the treatment and presumably high competition skills, filled released habitats occurring when sensitive species were not detectable any more. In contrast, cryptomonads were extremely sensitive to the treatments, their abundance decreased under detection limit in the treated assemblages, regardless of diversity conditions. Our results showed that population dynamics of dominant species determine the response to the contamination of the entire community, if these species display high resistance or resilience. If the dominant species was highly sensitive and recovered slowly, compensatory growth of rare species maintained high levels of ecosystem performance.

  3. Evolving strategies in mechanobiology to more effectively treat damaged musculoskeletal tissues.

    PubMed

    Butler, David L; Dyment, Nathaniel A; Shearn, Jason T; Kinneberg, Kirsten R C; Breidenbach, Andrew P; Lalley, Andrea L; Gilday, Steven D; Gooch, Cynthia; Rao, M B; Liu, Chia-feng; Wylie, Christopher

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we had four primary objectives. (1) We reviewed a brief history of the Lissner award and the individual for whom it is named, H.R. Lissner. We examined the type (musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and other) and scale (organism to molecular) of research performed by prior Lissner awardees using a hierarchical paradigm adopted at the 2007 Biomechanics Summit of the US National Committee on Biomechanics. (2) We compared the research conducted by the Lissner award winners working in the musculoskeletal (MS) field with the evolution of our MS research and showed similar trends in scale over the past 35 years. (3) We discussed our evolving mechanobiology strategies for treating musculoskeletal injuries by accounting for clinical, biomechanical, and biological considerations. These strategies included studies to determine the function of the anterior cruciate ligament and its graft replacements as well as novel methods to enhance soft tissue healing using tissue engineering, functional tissue engineering, and, more recently, fundamental tissue engineering approaches. (4) We concluded with thoughts about future directions, suggesting grand challenges still facing bioengineers as well as the immense opportunities for young investigators working in musculoskeletal research. Hopefully, these retrospective and prospective analyses will be useful as the ASME Bioengineering Division charts future research directions.

  4. A case of autoimmune pancreatitis effectively treated with an immunosuppressant (azathioprine).

    PubMed

    Yamabe, Akane; Irisawa, Atsushi; Notohara, Kenji; Shibukawa, Goro; Fujisawa, Mariko; Sato, Ai; Yoshida, Yoshitsugu; Arakawa, Noriyuki; Ikeda, Tsunehiko; Igarashi, Ryo; Maki, Takumi; Yamamoto, Shogo

    2016-10-01

    The patient was a 42-year-old man who presented at our hospital with obstructive jaundice. Although antinuclear antibody test results were negative, and immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) was not elevated, endoscopic ultrasound revealed a mixed internal hyperechoic and diffuse hypoechoic pattern, a finding consistent with autoimmune pancreatitis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography further revealed irregular narrowing of the main pancreatic duct and sclerosing cholangitis with distal biliary stricture. In addition, endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle aspiration cytology resulted in a diagnosis of type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis. Oral prednisolone treatment was initiated at 30 mg/day, and the dosage was gradually decreased. However, in accordance with the patient's wishes, maintenance treatment was discontinued once dosage reached 5 mg/day. Despite this, relapse of obstructive jaundice occurred 1 month post discontinuation, and was treated with methyl-prednisolone pulse therapy (500 mg/day) followed by oral prednisolone. However, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and endoscopic ultrasound did not reveal sufficient improvement after 6 months of treatment. Therefore, an immunosuppressant (azathioprine) was introduced. Subsequent imaging analyses and endoscopic ultrasound fine needle aspiration revealed clear improvements in pathology.

  5. Effects of returning NF concentrate on the MBR-NF process treating antibiotic production wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Cheng, Yutao; Wang, Jianxing; Zhang, Junya; Liu, Jibao; Yu, Dawei; Li, Mingyue; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-07-01

    The optimization of the nanofiltration (NF) concentrate backflow ratio (R cb) and the influence of the NF concentrate on the performance of membrane bioreactor-nanofiltration (MBR-NF) process treating antibiotic production wastewater were investigated on a laboratory scale. The R cb was optimized at 60 % based on the removal rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH4 (+)-N by MBR. Data analyses indicated that salinity brought by NF concentrate is the major driver leading to the decrease of sludge activity, especially at a high R cb. EPS analysis showed that electric conductivity (EC), proteins in soluble microbial products (SMP), and SMP brought by NF concentrate are the dominant factors causing the severe membrane fouling in MBR. Furthermore, undegradable substances including fulvic acid-like and humic acid-like compounds accumulated in NF concentrate showed significant influence on fouling of NF. MBR could well degrade small MW compounds in NF concentrate, which confirmed the enhancement of organic removal efficiency by recycling the NF concentrate to MBR. The MBR-NF process showed a relatively stable performance at the R cb of 60 % (volume reduction factor (VRF) = 5), and the NF permeate could satisfy the water quality standard for fermentation process with a water recovery rate of 90.9 %.

  6. Effects of Irrigation with Treated Wastewater on Root and Fruit Mineral Elements of Chemlali Olive Cultivar

    PubMed Central

    Bedbabis, Saida; Ben Rouina, Béchir; Boukhris, Makki

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-year-old “Chemlali” olive trees trained to vase and rainfed were investigated in either “on” (2004) or “off” (2003) year. A randomized block design with three blocks and three treatments was used and each experimental plot consisted of nine olive trees. Three treatments were applied: (1) rainfed conditions (RF, used as control treatment); (2) irrigation with well water (WW); and (3) irrigation with treated wastewater (TWW). Irrigation with TWW led to a significant increase of root N, P, Ca, Zn, Mn, Na, and Cl concentrations, in particular in the on-year. Data showed significant differences, between the two years, for the concentration of the mineral elements in the roots, with general lower values in the on-year, probably as a consequence of nutrients movement upward in the tree. Fruit N, P, K, Zn, Mn, and Cl contents were significantly higher in TWW irrigated trees with respect to both RF and WW trees, whereas similar values for Ca, Mg, Na, and Cl contents were measured for WW and TWW irrigated trees. The irrigation with TWW allowed to reuse problematic waters and to save nutrients inputs in the olive orchard thus moving towards a more sustainable management of olive orchards in countries where water is the major limiting factor for agriculture. PMID:25013873

  7. The effectiveness of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) seeds in treating urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Oyelami, O A; Agbakwuru, E A; Adeyemi, L A; Adedeji, G B

    2005-04-01

    Three middle-aged males and one female were diagnosed as having urinary tract infections (UTIs) between 2001 and 2003 in the Wesley Guild Hospital, Ilesa, a unit of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. Of the 4 patients, only the female was asymptomatic. The 3 males had Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella species, and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively, in their urine samples, while the female had Escherichia coli. All 4 patients were treated with grapefruit seeds (Citrus paradisi) orally for 2 weeks and they all responded satisfactorily to the treatment except the man with P. aeruginosa isolate. However, the initial profuse growth of Pseudomonas isolate in the patient that was resistant to gentamicin, tarivid, and augmentin later subsided to mild growth with reversal of the antibiotic resistance pattern after 2 weeks' treatment with grapefruit seeds. These preliminary data thus suggest an antibacterial characteristic of dried or fresh grapefruit seeds (C. paradisi) when taken at a dosage of 5 to 6 seeds every 8 hours, that is comparable to that of proven antibacterial drugs.

  8. Effects of temperature, salinity, and carbon: nitrogen ratio on sequencing batch reactor treating shrimp aquaculture wastewater.

    PubMed

    Fontenot, Q; Bonvillain, C; Kilgen, M; Boopathy, R

    2007-07-01

    In order to improve the water quality in the shrimp aquaculture, we tested a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for the treatment of shrimp wastewater. A SBR is a variation of the activated sludge biological treatment process. This process uses multiple steps in the same tank to take the place of multiple tanks in a conventional treatment system. The SBR accomplishes pH correction, aeration, and clarification in a timed sequence, in a single reactor basin. This is achieved in a simple tank, through sequencing stages, which includes fill, react, settle, decant, and idle. The wastewater from the Waddell Mariculture Center, South Carolina was successfully treated using a SBR. The wastewater contained high concentration of carbon and nitrogen. By operating the reactor sequentially, viz, aerobic, anaerobic, and aerobic modes, nitrification and denitrification were achieved as well as removal of carbon. We optimized various environmental parameters such as temperature, salinity, and carbon and nitrogen ratio (C:N ratio) for the best performance of SBR. The results indicated that the salinity of 28-40 parts per thousand (ppt), temperature range of 22-37 degrees C, and a C:N ratio of 10:1 produced best results in terms of maximum nitrogen and carbon removal from the wastewater. The SBR system showed promising results and could be used as a viable treatment alternative in the shrimp industry.

  9. Cystic fibrosis lung disease starts in the small airways: can we treat it more effectively?

    PubMed

    Tiddens, Harm A W M; Donaldson, Scott H; Rosenfeld, Margaret; Paré, Peter D

    2010-02-01

    The aims of this article are to summarize existing knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of small airways disease in cystic fibrosis (CF), to speculate about additional mechanisms that might play a role, and to consider the available or potential options to treat it. In the first section, we review the evidence provided by pathologic, physiologic, and imaging studies suggesting that obstruction of small airways begins early in life and is progressive. In the second section we discuss how the relationships between CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), ion transport, the volume of the periciliary liquid layer and airway mucus might lead to defective mucociliary clearance in small airways. In addition, we discuss how chronic endobronchial bacterial infection and a chronic neutrophilic inflammatory response increase the viscosity of CF secretions and exacerbate the clearance problem. Next, we discuss how the mechanical properties of small airways could be altered early in the disease process and how remodeling can contribute to small airways disease. In the final section, we discuss how established therapies impact small airways disease and new directions that may lead to improvement in the treatment of small airways disease. We conclude that there are many reasons to believe that small airways play an important role in the pathophysiology of (early) CF lung disease. Therapy should be aimed to target the small airways more efficiently, especially with drugs that can correct the basic defect at an early stage of disease.

  10. Late orthopedic effects in children with Wilms' tumor treated with abdominal irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Rate, W.R.; Butler, M.S.; Robertson, W.W. Jr.; D'Angio, G.J. )

    1991-01-01

    Between 1970 and 1984, 31 children with biopsy-proven Wilms' tumor received nephrectomy, chemotherapy, and abdominal irradiation and were followed beyond skeletal maturity. Three patients (10%) developed late orthopedic abnormalities requiring intervention. Ten children received orthovoltage irradiation, and all cases requiring orthopedic intervention or developing a scoliotic curve of greater than 20 degrees were confined to this group, for a complication frequency of 50%. Those children who developed a significant late orthopedic abnormality (SLOA) as defined were treated to a higher median dose (2,890 cGy) and a larger field size (150 cm2) than those who did not (2,580 cGy and 120 cm2). Age at irradiation, sex, and initial stage of disease did not appear to influence the risk of developing an SLOA. No child who received megavoltage irradiation developed an SLOA despite treatment up to 4,000 cGy or to field sizes of 400 cm2. We conclude that modern radiotherapy techniques rarely lead to significant late orthopedic abnormalities previously associated with abdominal irradiation in children with Wilms' tumor.

  11. Latent inhibition in rats neonatally treated chronically with MK-801: differential effects on conditioned taste aversion and conditioned emotional response.

    PubMed

    Niikura, Ryo; Nozawa, Takashi; Yamada, Kazuo; Kato, Katsunori; Ichitani, Yukio

    2015-04-15

    Chronic neonatal blockade of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors produces various abnormal behaviors in adulthood animals. This study investigated the effects of neonatal treatment chronically with MK-801 in rats on the preexposure-induced retardation of CS-US association, i.e. latent inhibition (LI), of two aversive classical conditioning tasks in adulthood. In conditioned taste aversion (CTA) using sucrose taste and LiCl, neonatal chronic MK-801 (0.4 mg/kg twice/day) treatment attenuated the inhibitory effect of sucrose preexposure on the aversive conditioning, although the treatment did not affect CTA conditioning itself. On the other hand, in conditioned emotional response (CER) using tone and electrical foot shock, rats neonatally treated with MK-801 showed the same degree of inhibitory effect of tone preexposure on the aversive conditioning compared with neonatally vehicle-treated rats, and also showed the same level of CER conditioning itself. Thus, the effect of chronic neonatal blockade of NMDA receptors on the LI of classical conditioning in adulthood was differentiated by the task employed. Results suggest that LI of CTA paradigm compared with that of CER is more sensitive to abnormal development after chronic neonatal blockade of NMDA receptors as an index of cognitive/attentional deficits caused by the treatment.

  12. Effects of denervation on the sensitizing effect to noradrenaline induced by morphine in the vas deferens of mice treated chronically with morphine.

    PubMed

    Contreras, E; Tamayo, L; Gaete, S; Juica, S

    1982-08-01

    The acute administration of morphine to the isolated vas deferens from mice chronically exposed to this analgesic, induced a facilitatory effect on the responses of the muscle to exogenous noradrenaline. It has been suggested that this sensitizing property of morphine might reflect a dependence-like state of the vas deferens. In the present paper, the capability of met- and leu-enkephalin to substitute for morphine was studied, as well as the influence of innervation on the apparent dependence state. The contractile responses to noradrenaline and to acetylcholine were increased after the administration of morphine to the bath containing a denervated vas deferences, prepared from chronically morphinized mice. Morphine administration facilitated noradrenaline- but not acetylcholine-induced contractile effects in vas deferens isolated from mice which had been chronically treated with either morphine or morphine plus guanethidine. The presence of met- or leu-enkephalin in the isolated vas deferens from chronically morphinized mice (either intact, denervated or treated with guanethidine) failed to sensitize contractile responses to noradrenaline or acetylcholine. It is concluded that (a) the sensitizing effect induced by morphine in the vas deferens from mice chronically treated with morphine is specific for the adrenergic neurotransmitter; (b) the effect of morphine is not mimicked by opiate peptides; and (c) denervation of the vas deferens of mice treated chronically with morphine does not suppress the noradrenaline-sensitizing property of morphine.

  13. Evaluation of the inhibition of egg laying, larvicidal effects, and bloodfeeding success of Aedes aegypti exposed to permethrin- and bifenthrin-treated military tent fabric.

    PubMed

    Frances, S P; Huggins, R L; Cooper, R D

    2008-12-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of treating military canvas tent fabric with bifenthrin and permethrin on the survival of the eggs and larvae of Aedes aegypti. Gravid female Ae. aegypti were able to oviposit on tent canvas treated with either bifenthrin or permethrin. However, none of the eggs laid on treated canvas hatched, and no larvae added to water in treated trays survived. Low residual concentrations of bifenthrin and permethrin on treated canvas prevented the development of eggs and larvae of Ae. aegypti. Inhibition of bloodfeeding was shown when Ae. aegypti adults were exposed to lower concentrations (10-50% of operational concentrations) of bifenthrin- and permethrin-treated canvas tent fabric. These experiments have shown that military tent canvas treated with either bifenthrin or permethrin can reduce the development of Ae. aegypti eggs and larvae and reduce bloodfeeding success of adults.

  14. Evaluation of phytotoxicity effect of olive mill wastewater treated by different technologies on seed germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Rusan, Munir J M; Albalasmeh, Ammar A; Zuraiqi, Said; Bashabsheh, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    Olive-mill wastewater (OMW) is a by-product effluent of olive oil extraction process that is produced in large amount in the Mediterranean region. OMW is believed to induce phytotoxic effect on organisms including seed germination and plant growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of untreated and treated OMW with different techniques on seed germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The following treatments were investigated: (1) tap water (control); (2) OMW treated by aerobic biological technology in a Jacto Reactor (JR); (3) OMW treated by solar fenton oxidation (SFO); (4) OMW treated by microfiltration followed by nanofiltration (MF+NF); (5) OMW treated by microfiltration followed by reverse osmosis (MF+RO) process; (6) diluted OMW with tap water (25 % OMW); (7) diluted OMW with tap water (50 % OMW); (8) diluted OMW with tap water (75 % OMW); and (9) untreated OMW (100 % OMW). A germination test was conducted in an incubator at temperature of 23 (∘)C. In each petri dish, a filter paper was mounted and ten seeds of barley were placed on the filter paper. Five milliliter of water were added to each petri dish. The seed germination was determined by counting the number of germinated seeds to calculate the percentage of germination (G %). Germination rate index (GRI), seed vigor index (SVI), and phytotoxicity index (PI) were also calculated. Then, the dry weights and lengths of the shoots and the roots of the germinated seeds were measured. The results show that 100, 75, and 50 %OMW were very phytotoxic and completely prohibited seed germination. However, phytotoxicity decreased significantly following treatments of OMW with all techniques investigated and by the 25 % OMW dilution, as results of removing the phenols and other phytotoxic organic compounds from the OMW or by diluting it. This was evidenced by relative enhancement of the dry weights and lengths of shoot and root as well as the G %, GRI, SVG, and PI. It was concluded that if

  15. Estimation of effective half life of clearance of radioactive Iodine (131I) in patients treated for hyperthyroidism and carcinoma thyroid

    PubMed Central

    Ravichandran, R; Binukumar, JP; Saadi, Amal Al

    2010-01-01

    Background In medical applications of radioisotopes, for calculations of whole body doses and radiation safety applications, there is a need to estimate radioactive body burden. Local recommendations in Oman stipulate the need for hospitalization of patients treated for radioactive-iodine (131 I) with activities above 400 MBq. Materials & Methods: A study of body burden estimation from sequentially measured exposure rates from patients treated for carcinoma thyroid and hyperthyroidism was undertaken. A digital auto-ranging beta gamma survey instrument calibrated for measurement of exposure rates is used in this study. Results: The mean measured exposure rates at 1 m in μSv/h immediately after administration and at 24 h intervals are used for estimation of effective half time of clearance of administered activity. For patients with post-operative thyroid carcinoma, the variation of body burden with time post-administration indicated tri-exponential clearance pattern, with T½eff values 14.4 h, 22 h, and 41.3 h. For patients treated for thyrotoxicosis, the body burden showed slow delayed clearance with a T½eff – 111.4 h, and exposure rates did not show appreciable fall off after 48 h. PMID:21188063

  16. The effect of different fermentation intervals on the quality characteristics of heat-treated and traditional sucuks.

    PubMed

    Ercoşkun, Hüdayi; Taği, Seref; Ertaş, Ahmet Hamdi

    2010-05-01

    Fermentation time has an influence on the quality characteristics of fermented meat products. The effect of heat treatment on physicochemical, sensory and microbiological properties of sucuk was determined during fermentation and after heat application, and the properties of heat-treated sucuk samples were compared with those of traditional sucuk. Optimum fermentation period was determined for sucuk samples with desirable characteristics. Heat-treated sucuks were fermented at different fermentation intervals (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 days). Nine days of fermentation was included for traditional sucuks. All process parameters were applied under industrial conditions. Heat treatment increased the pH values, dry matter contents (protein, fat and salt), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances of sucuks while decreasing the moisture content, free fatty acidity, and all bacterial counts (total viable and lactic acid bacteria, Staphylococcus/Micrococcus and Enterobacteriaceae) (P<0.05). Significant differences in the instrumental color properties of heat-treated and traditional sucuk were found (P<0.05). In terms of physicochemical, sensory and microbial properties, fermentation for three or more days before heat treatment resulted in sucuk samples with better acceptability, and produced sucuk samples with quality characteristics similar to those of traditional sucuks.

  17. Effect of Retained Austenite on the Fracture Toughness of Quenching and Partitioning (Q&P)-Treated Sheet Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Riming; Li, Wei; Zhou, Shu; Zhong, Yong; Wang, Li; Jin, Xuejun

    2014-04-01

    Fracture toughness K IC was measured by double edge-notched tension (DENT) specimens with fatigue precracks on quenching and partitioning (Q&P)-treated high-strength (ultimate tensile strength [UTS] superior to 1200 MPa) sheet steels consisting of 4 to 10 vol pct of retained austenite. Crack extension force, G IC, evaluated from the measured K IC, is used to analyze the role of retained austenite in different fracture behavior. Meanwhile, G IC is deduced by a constructed model based on energy absorption by martensite transformation (MT) behavior of retained austenite in Q&P-treated steels. The tendency of the change of two results is in good agreement. The Q&P-treated steel, quenched at 573 K (300 °C), then partitioned at 573 K (300 °C), holding for 60 seconds, has a fracture toughness of 74.1 MPa·m1/2, which is 32 pct higher than quenching and tempering steel (55.9 MPa·m1/2), and 16 pct higher than quenching and austempering (QAT) steel (63.8 MPa·m1/2). MT is found to occur preferentially at the tips of extension cracks on less stable retained austenite, which further improves the toughness of Q&P steels; on the contrary, the MT that occurs at more stable retained austenite has a detrimental effect on toughness.

  18. Effectiveness of permethrin-treated clothing to prevent tick exposure in foresters in the central Appalachian region of the USA.

    PubMed

    L Richards, Stephanie; G Balanay, Jo Anne; W Harris, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor workers are at risk from mosquito and tick bites and the extent to which exposures are linked to vector-borne disease is not understood. This pilot study characterizes for ester exposure to mosquitoes and ticks, and assesses effectiveness of permethrin-treated clothing for prevention of tick bites. Foresters (N = 34) from Kentucky, North Carolina, Ohio, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia were placed into treatment (permethrin-treated clothing) or control (untreated clothing) groups. Foresters completed questionnaires about work-related tick/mosquito exposure and 454 ticks were collected/identified from May to June 2013. A time-weighted analysis based on information submitted by foresters about time working outdoors showed that control participants received a lower rate of tick exposure (0.15 tick bites/hour; 13 bites/person) compared to treatment participants (0.27 bites/hour; 21 bites/person). However, more control participants (85 %) received at least one tick bite compared to treatment participants (52 %). Outdoor workers should be aware of available protective measures, such as permethrin-treated clothing, that may mitigate occupational risks.

  19. Effect of ascorbic acid on bond strength between the hydrogen peroxide-treated fiber posts and composite resin cores

    PubMed Central

    Talebian, Reza; Khamverdi, Zahra; Nouri, Maryam; Kasraei, Shahin

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study evaluated the effect of 10% ascorbic acid on the bond strength between fiber post and composite resin core after applying 24% hydrogen peroxide. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four hydrogen peroxide-treated fiber posts were divided into 4 groups (n = 6). Group 1 was the control group with no treatment. In groups 2-4, post surfaces were treated with 10% v ascorbic acid solution for 10, 30 and 60 minutes, respectively. Cores were built up using flowable composite resin. Two sticks were prepared from each specimen. Microtensile bond strength test was performed for each stick. Failure modes of sticks were evaluated under a stereomicroscope (×20). Surface morphologies of two fractured sticks from each group were assessed by SEM. Statistical analysis: Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests (α = 0.05). Results: The highest microtensile bond strength was observed in Group 4 (20.55 ± 2.09) and the lowest in Group 1 (10.10 ± 0.55). There were significant differences in microtensile bond strength between all the groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: It is concluded that ascorbic acid application increased the microtensile bond strength between the hydrogen peroxide treated fiber post and composite resin core. The increase is dependent on the duration of exposure to the antioxidant. PMID:24944443

  20. Effectiveness of platinum wire microcoils for venous occlusion: a study on patients treated for venogenic impotence.

    PubMed

    Schild, H H; Mildenberger, P; Kersjes, W

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of venous occlusions achieved by embolization with platinum microwire coils. Follow-up venographies in 19 patients, 1-20 months (average 8 months) after coil embolizations, were evaluated. Twenty-eight of 126 (22.2%) coil embolizations were found to be patent. Coils which had not formed or partially formed upon embolization had a patency/recanalization rate of 37.5% (12/32). Among coils which had formed nearly completely or completely only 16 of 95 (17%) showed venous patency. As coil embolization had been augmented by sclerotherapy in all patients, the effectiveness of long-term venous occlusion by platinum wire coils alone is probably lower than our figures indicate. We conclude that attention to complete or near-complete coil formation upon embolization appears to be critical to maximize long-term occlusive effects of platinum microcoils. Their effectiveness in general, however, is lower than anticipated.

  1. Effect of antidepressant drugs on 6-OHDA-treated mice in the FST.

    PubMed

    Chenu, F; Dailly, E; Bourin, M

    2007-02-01

    There is growing evidence suggesting that dopamine could be indirectly involved in the appearance of behavioural effects of antidepressants. In this study, we induced a partial (over 70%) and non-reversible depletion of dopamine-containing neurons in mice by i.c.v. infusion of 6-OHDA. Then, we compared the antidepressant-like effect of drugs (citalopram, paroxetine, desipramine and imipramine) with or without dopamine depletion in the mice forced swimming test. Our results clearly show that lesion with 6-OHDA does not modify the response of mice to desipramine and imipramine, whereas dopamine depletion abolished the antidepressant-like effect of citalopram and paroxetine. It could then be suggested that antidepressant-like effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (paroxetine and citalopram) in the mice FST requires the activation of dopaminergic pathways to occur.

  2. Absence of oxysterol-like side effects in human monocytic cells treated with phytosterols and oxyphytosterols.

    PubMed

    Vejux, Anne; Montange, Thomas; Martine, Lucy; Zarrouk, Amira; Riedinger, Jean-Marc; Lizard, Gérard

    2012-04-25

    Oxysterols, found in some commonly consumed foods, can induce a wide range of cytotoxic effects, which have been extensively studied. On the other hand, the side effects of phytosterols and oxyphytosterols are less well-known. Over the past few years, different types of foods have been enriched with phytosterols on the basis of the properties of these compounds that reduce circulating cholesterol levels in certain experimental conditions. It is therefore important to gain better knowledge of the risks and benefits of this type of diet. In this study, conducted in human monocytic U937 cells, the ability of phytosterols (sitosterol, campesterol) and oxyphytosterols (7β-hydroxysitosterol, 7-ketositosterol) to induce cell death, polar lipid accumulation, and pro-inflammatory cytokine (MCP-1; IL-8) secretion was determined and compared to that of oxysterols (7-ketocholesterol, 7β-hydroxycholesterol). Phytosterols and oxyphytosterols had no significant effects on the parameters studied; only 7β-hydroxysitosterol slightly increased cell death, whereas at the concentration used (20 μg/mL), strong cytotoxic effects were observed with the oxysterols. With sitosterol, campesterol, and 7-ketositosterol, IL-8 secretion was decreased, and with campesterol the intracellular polar lipid level was reduced. The data show that phytosterols and oxyphytosterols have no oxysterol-like side effects, and they rather argue in favor of phytosterols' beneficial effects.

  3. Hyperuricemia in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder Treated with Risperidone: The Risk Factors for Metabolic Adverse Effects

    PubMed Central

    Vanwong, Natchaya; Srisawasdi, Pornpen; Ngamsamut, Nattawat; Nuntamool, Nopphadol; Puangpetch, Apichaya; Chamkrachangpada, Bhunnada; Hongkaew, Yaowaluck; Limsila, Penkhae; Kittitharaphan, Wiranpat; Sukasem, Chonlaphat

    2017-01-01

    Background: Atypical antipsychotics have been found to be associated with hyperuricemia. Risperidone, one of the atypical antipsychotics, might be related to the hyperuricemia among autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of hyperuricemia in ASD patients treated with risperidone and to determine associations between serum uric acid levels and risperidone dosage, treatment duration, and metabolic parameters. Methods: 127 children and adolescents with ASD treated with risperidone and 76 age-matched risperidone-naïve patients with ASD were recruited. The clinical data and laboratory data were analyzed. Hyperuricemia was defined as serum uric acid >5.5 mg/dl. Results: Hyperuricemia was present in 44.70% of risperidone-naïve patients with ASD and 57.50% of ASD patients treated with risperidone. The fasting uric acid levels were significantly higher in the risperidone group than in the risperidone-naïve group (5.70 vs. 5.35 mg/dl, P = 0.01). The increased uric acid concentrations were significantly associated with adolescent patients treated with risperidone. The higher dose of risperidone and/or the longer treatment time were associated with the increased uric acid levels. Uric acid levels significantly rose with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), triglyceride (TG) levels, triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-C), insulin levels, homeostatic model assessment index (HOMA-IR), high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) levels, and leptin levels. Conversely, the levels of HDL-C and adiponectin were negatively correlated with uric acid levels. In multiple regression analysis, there were age, BMI, TG/HDL-C ratio, and adiponectin levels remained significantly associated with uric acid levels. Conclusion: Hyperuricemia may play a role in metabolic adverse effect in children and adolescents with ASDs receiving the high dose and/or the long-term treatment with risperidone. PMID:28105014

  4. A field study examining the effects of exposure to neonicotinoid seed-treated corn on commercial bumble bee colonies.

    PubMed

    Christopher Cutler, G; Scott-Dupree, Cynthia D

    2014-11-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides have been studied as possible contributors to bumble bee declines in North America and Europe. This has potential significance in corn agro-ecosystems since this crop is frequently treated with neonicotinoids and dominates much of the agricultural landscape in North America and Europe where bumble bees and other pollinators are commonplace. We conducted an experiment where commercial bumble bee (Bombus impatiens) hives were placed during pollen shed next to corn (Zea mays) fields that were grown from "conventional" seed that was treated with neonicotinoids, or "organic" seed that was not treated with pesticides. Samples of pollen were collected from corn plants for neonicotinoid residue analysis, pollen types carried by worker bees returning to hives were determined, and in autumn hives were dissected to measure various endpoints that serve as markers of colony vigor. Clothianidin was detected (0.1-0.8 ng/g) in pollen collected from all conventional fields, but was not detected in pollen from organic fields. Corn pollen was only rarely collected from bumble bee foragers and the vast majority of pollen was from wild plants around the corn fields. All hives appeared healthy and neonicotinoid seed treatments had no effect on any hive endpoints measured, except the number of workers, where significantly fewer workers were recovered from hives placed next to conventional fields (96 ± 15 workers per hive) compared to organic fields (127 ± 17 workers per hive). The results suggest that exposure during pollen shed to corn grown from neonicotinoid-treated shed poses low risk to B. impatiens.

  5. Fluvastatin attenuated the effect of expression of β1 integrin in PAN-treated podocytes by inhibiting reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Zhang, Bo; Chai, Yuping; Xu, Yaguang; Xing, Changying; Wang, Xiaoyun

    2015-01-01

    It is well accepted that β1 integrin plays a key role in maintaining normal podocytes form and functions; however, its mechanism of the potential protective effect remains unclear. Furthermore, the investigation and understanding of the non-lipid-dependent renal protection of Statins in addition to well-known lipid-lowering effect may provide the therapeutic utility and ultimately improve clinical outcome for patients with renal diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of fluvastatin (FLV) on the expression of β1 integrin in puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN)-treated podocytes in vitro. Cultured human podocytes were treated with PAN, and/or different concentrations of FLV (1 × 10(-8)-1 × 10(-5 )mol/l), superoxide dismutase (SOD), or H2O2, respectively. The expression of β1 integrin and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human podocytes under each experimental condition was evaluated by western blot, RT-PCR, and 2'7'-dichlorofluorescein 3'6'-diacetate, respectively. The viability of podocytes was also assessed by MTT colorimetry in the present study. The expression of β1 integrin was significantly decreased, and the synthesis of ROS was significantly increased in podocytes following either PAN or H2O2 treatment (p < 0.05). The up-regulation of β1 integrin and down-regulation of ROS were also observed in PAN-treated podocytes following lower concentrations of FLV or SOD treatment (p < 0.05, respectively). The cytotoxicity data derived from MTT assay revealed that lower podocyte viability was found in the presence of higher concentrations of FLV, PAN, or H2O2. Lower concentration of FLV or SOD can protect podocytes from being impaired by PAN treatment. FLV attenuated the podocyte injury induced by PAN and increased the production of β1 integrin in human podocytes in vitro. This underlying mechanism of FLV may be through inhibiting the activity of ROS in human podocytes.

  6. Effect of X-radiation on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant systems in rats treated with saponin-containing compounds.

    PubMed

    Yalinkilic, Omer; Enginar, Huseyin

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three saponin-containing plant species extracts (Aesculuc hippocastanum L. seed extract [AHE], Medicago sativa L. extract [MSE] and Spinacia oleracea L. extract [SOE]) on lipid peroxidation and on antioxidant systems in rats exposed to X-rays (XR). The rats were divided into three categories. The first category served as controls and received only a standard diet. The second category served as the radiation group and received 5 and 10 Gy XR dose. The third category (XR+extract-treated) received plant extracts (25.0 or 50.0 mg kg(-1) live weight) and 5 or 10 Gy XR dose. Blood samples were analyzed for their content of malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), plasma vitamin C, beta-carotene and retinol. In animals receiving XR, the plasma MDA (P < 0.001) value significantly increased but the level of GSH (P < 0.01), vitamin C (P < 0.001), retinol and beta-carotene (P < 0.001) decreased significantly with increasing XR doses. In the XR+extract-treated groups, the concentrations of MDA increased significantly with increasing radiation but their concentrations decreased significantly with increasing extract concentrations. Plasma concentrations of GSH, beta-carotene, retinol and vitamin C in XR+extract-treated groups decreased significantly with increasing XR dose but their concentrations increased with increasing extract doses. Further, comparison of blood samples of XR+extract-treated groups with those from the control group showed that GSH, beta-carotene, retinol and vitamin C values increased significantly but that MDA values decreased significantly. The results showed that all extracts have enhanced the antioxidant status and decreased the incidence of free radical-induced lipid peroxidation in blood samples of rats exposed to XR. However, the antioxidant effect of AHE-administered animals was more effective than that of MSE- and SOE-administered whole-body XR rats. We conclude that the supplementation

  7. Biochemical effects in normal and stone forming rats treated with the ripe kernel juice of plantain (musa paradisiaca).

    PubMed

    Devi, V K; Baskar, R; Varalakshmi, P

    1993-01-01

    The effect of Musa paradisiaca stem kernel juice was investigated in experimental urolithiatic rats. Stone forming rats exhibited a significant elevation in the activities of two oxalate synthesizing enzymes - Glycollic acid oxidase and Lactate dehydrogenase. Deposition and excretion of stone forming constituents in kidney and urine were also increased in these rats. The enzyme activities and the level of crystalline components were lowered with the extract treatment. The extract also reduced the activities of urinary alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, r-glutamyl transferase, inorganic pyrophosphatase and β-glucuronidase in calculogenic rats. No appreciable changes were noticed with leucine amino peptidase activity in treated rats.

  8. Evaluation of the effects of treating dairy cows with meloxicam at calving on retained fetal membranes risk

    PubMed Central

    Newby, Nathalie C.; Renaud, David; Tremblay, Robert; Duffield, Todd F.

    2014-01-01

    Some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increase the risk of retained fetal membranes. This is the first study to investigate the effects of meloxicam on the risk of retained fetal membranes. Administration of meloxicam to dairy cattle immediately following calving revealed no differences in the incidence of retained fetal membranes between meloxicam-treated and untreated animals. There was no difference between the 2 groups in the incidence of periparturient diseases following calving. Meloxicam can be used on the day of calving in lactating cows without increasing the risk of retained fetal membranes. PMID:25477550

  9. Biostimulatory effects of low-level laser therapy on epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts treated with zoledronic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, F. G.; Pansani, T. N.; Turrioni, A. P. S.; Kurachi, C.; Bagnato, V. S.; Hebling, J.; de Souza Costa, C. A.

    2013-05-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been considered as an adjuvant treatment for bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis, presenting positive clinical outcomes. However, there are no data regarding the effect of LLLT on oral tissue cells exposed to bisphosphonates. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of LLLT on epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts exposed to a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate—zoledronic acid (ZA). Cells were seeded in wells of 24-well plates, incubated for 48 h and then exposed to ZA at 5 μM for an additional 48 h. LLLT was performed with a diode laser prototype—LaserTABLE (InGaAsP—780 nm ± 3 nm, 25 mW), at selected energy doses of 0.5, 1.5, 3, 5, and 7 J cm-2 in three irradiation sessions, every 24 h. Cell metabolism, total protein production, gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and collagen type I (Col-I), and cell morphology were evaluated 24 h after the last irradiation. Data were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests at 5% significance. Selected LLLT parameters increased the functions of epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts treated with ZA. Gene expression of VEGF and Col-I was also increased. Specific parameters of LLLT biostimulated fibroblasts and epithelial cells treated with ZA. Analysis of these in vitro data may explain the positive in vivo effects of LLLT applied to osteonecrosis lesions.

  10. Effects of puffer (Sphoeroides rubripes) supplementation on disruption of antioxidant defense systems in ethanol-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Joo, Jong-Chan; Park, Jae-Hee; Kim, Rae-Young; Jeon, Kyoung-Im; Lee, Hyun-Jung; Seo, Bo-Young; Park, Eunju

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effects of puffer (Sphoeroides rubripes) supplementation on antioxidant metabolism in ethanol-treated rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups of 7 rats each and fed (1) an AIN-93G diet (NC), (2) 25% ethanol (E), (3) 25% ethanol and an AIN-93G diet containing 1% puffer flesh (E+F), or (4) 25% ethanol and an AIN-93G diet containing 1% puffer skin (E+S) for 5 wk. At the end of the experimental period, the rats were sacrificed and their blood and organs were collected. To evaluate the effect of puffer supplementation, lipid-soluble antioxidant vitamin and conjugated diene (CD) levels, DNA damage, and mRNA expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were assessed. Animals that were fed ethanol showed reduced plasma levels of lipid-soluble antioxidant vitamin and significantly increased levels of lipid peroxides, DNA damage, and HO-1 expression. Dietary supplementation with puffer conferred an antioxidant effect by significantly increasing the levels of γ-tocopherol, a lipid-soluble antioxidant vitamin, and by significantly decreasing the plasma levels of CD, DNA damage, and HO-1 expression. These results suggest that consumption of puffer improves the antioxidant status of ethanol-treated rats.

  11. Effectiveness of omega-3 polysaturated fatty acids (fish oil) supplementation for treating hypertriglyceridemia in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chahal, Nita; Manlhiot, Cedric; Wong, Helen; McCrindle, Brian W

    2014-06-01

    Limited pharmacological options are available for management pediatric hypertriglyceridemia. We examined the effectiveness of dietary fish oil supplementation as a means to reduce triglyceride levels in pediatric patients. We reviewed 111 children aged 8 to 18 years with hypertriglyceridemia (≥1.5 mmol/L) undergoing treatment in a specialized dyslipidemia clinic. At the treating cardiologist's discretion, 60 subjects received nonprescription fish oil supplementation (500-1000 mg/d), while the remaining patients did not. Initially there were no baseline differences between groups, including the use of concomitant lipid-lowering medication. Treatment with fish oil was associated with a potential clinically relevant but non-statistically significant decrease in triglycerides and triglyceride-to-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio. Fish oil had no effect on HDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol, or total cholesterol. All associations remained unchanged when adjusted for body mass index z score, nutrition, physical activity, and screen time. Fish oil supplementation was not significantly effective in treating hypertriglyceridemia in pediatric patients.

  12. Antidepressant Effects of Aripiprazole Augmentation for Cilostazol-Treated Mice Exposed to Chronic Mild Stress after Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu Ri; Kim, Ha Neui; Hong, Ki Whan; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Choi, Byung Tae

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects and underlying mechanism of aripiprazole (APZ) augmentation for cilostazol (CLS)-treated post-ischemic stroke mice that were exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS). Compared to treatment with either APZ or CLS alone, the combined treatment resulted in a greater reduction in depressive behaviors, including anhedonia, despair-like behaviors, and memory impairments. This treatment also significantly reduced atrophic changes in the striatum, cortex, and midbrain of CMS-treated ischemic mice, and inhibited neuronal cell apoptosis, particularly in the striatum and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Greater proliferation of neuronal progenitor cells was also observed in the ipsilateral striatum of the mice receiving combined treatment compared to mice receiving either drug alone. Phosphorylation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB) was increased in the striatum, hippocampus, and midbrain of mice receiving combined treatment compared to treatment with either drug alone, particularly in the neurons of the striatum and hippocampus, and dopaminergic neurons of the midbrain. Our results suggest that APZ may augment the antidepressant effects of CLS via co-regulation of the CREB signaling pathway, resulting in the synergistic enhancement of their neuroprotective effects. PMID:28208711

  13. Estradiol uptake, toxicity, metabolism, and adverse effects on cadmium-treated amphibian embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Fridman, Osvaldo; Corró, Lucrecia; Herkovits, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    The exposure of Bufo arenarum embryos to 25 micromol/L 17beta-estradiol (E2) resulted in 100% lethality within 48 hr, whereas 10 micromol//L E2 was the no observed effect concentration value for short-term chronic (7 days) exposure. The toxicity profile curves show that lethal effects were proportional to the E2 concentration and the time of exposure. The E2 uptake resulted in 20.1 ng E2/mg embryo at 8 hr posttreatment, but 67.3% of this value was achieved during the first 30 min of incubation with this estrogen. Regarding metabolism, the embryos synthesize estrone (E1) from E2 by means of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Simultaneous treatments of Bufo arenarum embryos with 1 mg/L Cd2+ and 0.1, 1, or 10 micromol/L E2 enhanced the lethality exerted by cadmium in 76.7, 80, and 83.3% of embryos, respectively. The results indicate that estrogenic endocrine disruptors could have an adverse effect on amphibian embryos and enhance the toxic effect of Cd on amphibian embryos. This study points to the possibility of using the AMPHITOX test as a screening method for potential endocrine disruption as well as the combined effects of chemical mixtures. PMID:15175173

  14. Cost-effectiveness of screening and treating Helicobacter pylori for gastric cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Sharp, Linda

    2013-12-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. A meta-analysis of seven randomized controlled trials concluded that Helicobacter pylori eradication reduces gastric cancer incidence by 35%. Current consensus is that H. pylori screening and treatment is cost-effective only in high-risk populations. This paper provides an up-to-date overview of the evidence for cost-effectiveness of H. pylori screening and treatment in different population settings and risk levels for H. pylori infection. Ten unique cost-effectiveness or cost-utility analyses were identified. All found that screening for H. pylori to prevent gastric cancer in the general population costs less than $50,000 per LYG. This finding was robust for differences in H. pylori prevalence, gender and ethnicity. Based on limited evidence, re-treatment (for treatment failure), repeated screening, limiting screening and treatment to those with the CagA phenotype, or universal treatment, does not appear to be cost-effective. However, most included studies failed to consider both the broader benefits as well as the adverse effects of widespread use of antibiotics for H. pylori.

  15. Nephrotoxic effects on offspring of rats chronically treated with mercuric chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Rusk, T.L.

    1983-08-01

    Repeated subcutaneous injections of HgCl/sub 2/ at a dose of either 4.0 or 2.0 mg/kg produced toxic effects in rats when administered during the last 9 days of gestation. Females exhibited diarrhea, anorexia and weight loss of varying severity. Maternal renal function was monitored by urinalysis and was shown to be impaired during the early days of treatment but returned to normal later. Histological evaluation of adult kidneys after 2 days of treatment demonstrated the nephrotoxic effects of HgCl/sub 2/. Evidence of the regenerative process was found in tubules lined with densely packed, flattened cuboidal epithelial cells. Pup birth weight among HgCl/sub 2/-exposed litters was significantly lower than that of control litters. Nephrotoxic effects were not identifiable in pups though the presence of mercury was confirmed in fetal kidneys. 93 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Effectiveness of Iyengar yoga in treating spinal (back and neck) pain: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Crow, Edith Meszaros; Jeannot, Emilien; Trewhela, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Considerable amount of money spent in health care is used for treatments of lifestyle related, chronic health conditions, which come from behaviors that contribute to morbidity and mortality of the population. Back and neck pain are two of the most common musculoskeletal problems in modern society that have significant cost in health care. Yoga, as a branch of complementary alternative medicine, has emerged and is showing to be an effective treatment against nonspecific spinal pain. Recent studies have shown positive outcome of yoga in general on reducing pain and functional disability of the spine. The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the existing research within Iyengar yoga method and its effectiveness on relieving back and neck pain (defined as spinal pain). Database research form the following sources (Cochrane library, NCBI PubMed, the Clinical Trial Registry of the Indian Council of Medical Research, Google Scholar, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsychINFO) demonstrated inclusion and exclusion criteria that selected only Iyengar yoga interventions, which in turn, identified six randomized control trials dedicated to compare the effectiveness of yoga for back and neck pain versus other care. The difference between the groups on the postintervention pain or functional disability intensity assessment was, in all six studies, favoring the yoga group, which projected a decrease in back and neck pain. Overall six studies with 570 patients showed, that Iyengar yoga is an effective means for both back and neck pain in comparison to control groups. This systematic review found strong evidence for short-term effectiveness, but little evidence for long-term effectiveness of yoga for chronic spine pain in the patient-centered outcomes.

  17. Effectiveness of Iyengar yoga in treating spinal (back and neck) pain: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Crow, Edith Meszaros; Jeannot, Emilien; Trewhela, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Considerable amount of money spent in health care is used for treatments of lifestyle related, chronic health conditions, which come from behaviors that contribute to morbidity and mortality of the population. Back and neck pain are two of the most common musculoskeletal problems in modern society that have significant cost in health care. Yoga, as a branch of complementary alternative medicine, has emerged and is showing to be an effective treatment against nonspecific spinal pain. Recent studies have shown positive outcome of yoga in general on reducing pain and functional disability of the spine. The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the existing research within Iyengar yoga method and its effectiveness on relieving back and neck pain (defined as spinal pain). Database research form the following sources (Cochrane library, NCBI PubMed, the Clinical Trial Registry of the Indian Council of Medical Research, Google Scholar, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsychINFO) demonstrated inclusion and exclusion criteria that selected only Iyengar yoga interventions, which in turn, identified six randomized control trials dedicated to compare the effectiveness of yoga for back and neck pain versus other care. The difference between the groups on the postintervention pain or functional disability intensity assessment was, in all six studies, favoring the yoga group, which projected a decrease in back and neck pain. Overall six studies with 570 patients showed, that Iyengar yoga is an effective means for both back and neck pain in comparison to control groups. This systematic review found strong evidence for short-term effectiveness, but little evidence for long-term effectiveness of yoga for chronic spine pain in the patient-centered outcomes. PMID:25558128

  18. Comparing Effects of Biologic Agents in Treating Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Multiple Treatment Comparison Regression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tvete, Ingunn Fride; Natvig, Bent; Gåsemyr, Jørund; Meland, Nils; Røine, Marianne; Klemp, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis patients have been treated with disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and the newer biologic drugs. We sought to compare and rank the biologics with respect to efficacy. We performed a literature search identifying 54 publications encompassing 9 biologics. We conducted a multiple treatment comparison regression analysis letting the number experiencing a 50% improvement on the ACR score be dependent upon dose level and disease duration for assessing the comparable relative effect between biologics and placebo or DMARD. The analysis embraced all treatment and comparator arms over all publications. Hence, all measured effects of any biologic agent contributed to the comparison of all biologic agents relative to each other either given alone or combined with DMARD. We found the drug effect to be dependent on dose level, but not on disease duration, and the impact of a high versus low dose level was the same for all drugs (higher doses indicated a higher frequency of ACR50 scores). The ranking of the drugs when given without DMARD was certolizumab (ranked highest), etanercept, tocilizumab/ abatacept and adalimumab. The ranking of the drugs when given with DMARD was certolizumab (ranked highest), tocilizumab, anakinra, rituximab, golimumab/ infliximab/ abatacept, adalimumab/ etanercept. Still, all drugs were effective. All biologic agents were effective compared to placebo, with certolizumab the most effective and adalimumab (without DMARD treatment) and adalimumab/ etanercept (combined with DMARD treatment) the least effective. The drugs were in general more effective, except for etanercept, when given together with DMARDs. PMID:26356639

  19. Healthy body, healthy mind?: the effectiveness of physical activity to treat ADHD in children.

    PubMed

    Halperin, Jeffrey M; Berwid, Olga G; O'Neill, Sarah

    2014-10-01

    Data from animal studies provide convincing evidence that physical exercise enhances brain development and neurobehavioral functioning in areas believed to be impaired in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To a lesser but still compelling extent, results from studies in typically developing children and adults indicate beneficial effects of exercise on many of the neurocognitive functions that have been shown to be impaired in children with ADHD. Together, these data provide a strong rationale for why a program of structured physical exercise might serve as an effective intervention for children with ADHD.

  20. MODAFINIL EFFECTS ON COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN HIV+ PATIENTS TREATED FOR FATIGUE: A PLACEBO CONTROLLED STUDY

    PubMed Central

    McElhiney, Martin; Rabkin, Judith; Van Gorp, Wilfred; Rabkin, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Both mild cognitive impairment and fatigue are common among people with HIV/AIDS. This study examined the efficacy of modafinil for HIV+ patients who sought treatment for fatigue in a placebo-controlled double blind 4-week trial. A battery of standard neuropsychological tests was administered at study entry and Week 4, and change in performance was compared for 59 patients receiving modafinil vs. 44 patients receiving placebo. A significant effect on fatigue was observed. In addition, cognitive performance, as measured by a global change score, improved more in the modafinil than placebo group although the effect was not specific to any cognitive domain. PMID:19937504

  1. Cause and effect relationship between foam formation and treated wastewater effluents in a transboundary river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzicka, Katerina; Gabriel, Oliver; Bletterie, Ulrike; Winkler, Stefan; Zessner, Matthias

    The occurrence of foam at weirs in a lowland river in Austria and shortly after the Austrian border with Hungary, as well as, the associated protests from Hungarian locals led to investigations concerning the reasons for foam formation. Three aspects were the main subject of investigation, namely, (i) to assess the dimension of the appearing foam, (ii) to evaluate the reasons for the formation of foam, and (iii) to set abatement-measures. A 1 year monitoring programme included a close network of surface water sampling sites, as well as, the sampling of thirteen municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants along the river stretch. In addition to classical parameters (physical and chemical) the surface tension and tensides were analysed. Constant observation of foam formation in Hungary was achieved by the installation of an online webcam with combined data recording, which resulted in the development of a seven-stage foam index (0-6) for semi quantitative assessment of foam formation on the river. Also, the effluents of the wastewater treatment plants that were considered were the subject of standardised foaming tests. The basis of the tests was to detect, (i) foam on the sample and, (ii) the dilution of a sample at which no more foam could be observed. The dilution factor was used to calculate the foam potential of an effluent, which is an size for the potential volume of river water that may be foamed by waste water treatment plants’ effluents. The spatial distribution of foam along the river stretch, as well as, the results of the foam tests allowed the identification of three tanneries as the main contributors to foam, although wastewater from these tanneries is treated at wastewater treatment plants by the best available technology (biological treatment with nitrification and denitrification, sludge retention time >20 days, temperature in the activated sludge tank >20 °C). The implementation of an accepted degree of foam formation was desirable to

  2. Effective embryo production from Holstein cows treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone during early lactation.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Yasuhiro; Yu, Guang-Min; Hidaka, Takemasa; Matzushige, Tadami; Maeda, Teruo

    2016-10-01

    The low efficiency of embryo production in Holstein cows during early lactation presents many challenges for animal production. To improve its efficiency, the outcomes of single GnRH injections 48 hours before each of three cycles of ovum pick up (OPU; weeks 2, 4, and 6) were compared with three cycles of unstimulated OPU (controls; weeks 1, 3, and 5) in 35 Holstein cows during 6 weeks of early lactation (40-80 days postpartum). More total follicle numbers (19.5 vs. 16.0; P < 0.05) but fewer dominant follicles (0.5 vs. 1.4; P < 0.01) were observed by ultrasound, and more cumulus-oocyte complexes were collected in a single OPU in the treatment cycles compared with controls (15.3 vs. 11.5; P < 0.05). The numbers of morphologically "good" cumulus-oocyte complexes graded A and B in the stimulated OPUs were significantly greater than in controls (2.8 vs. 1.7 and 5.8 vs. 4.2, respectively; P < 0.05). Significantly, more oocytes stained positively with brilliant cresyl blue after GnRH treatment compared with the control cycles (13.7 vs. 9.6; P < 0.05). After in vitro fertilization, embryos in the treatment cycles had improved development (P < 0.01) during each developmental stage compared with the controls (9.0 vs. 6.2 two-cell embryos; 4.7 vs. 3.0 four-cell embryos; 3.3 vs. 2.0 morulae; and 3.0 vs. 1.7 blastocysts, respectively). Moreover, there was no significant difference in pregnancy rate of the recipient cows after embryo transfer (57.1% vs. 42.1%; P > 0.05) no matter if the embryos came from the GnRH-treated cycles or not. Thus, GnRH-stimulated OPUs improved the efficiency of embryo production in Holstein cows during early lactation. This novel method for in vitro embryo production should benefit the dairy industry.

  3. Effect of change in body weight on incident diabetes mellitus in patients with stable coronary artery disease treated with atorvastatin (from the treating to new targets study).

    PubMed

    Ong, Kwok-Leung; Waters, David D; Messig, Michael; DeMicco, David A; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Barter, Philip J

    2014-05-15

    Features of the metabolic syndrome are independent risk factors for new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) related to statin therapy. Obesity is the predominant underlying risk factor for the metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus. This study investigated whether change in body weight may predict NODM in statin-treated patients. A total of 7,595 patients without prevalent diabetes mellitus at baseline from the Treating to New Targets (TNT) study were included in this analysis. They were randomized to atorvastatin 10 or 80 mg/day and monitored for a median of 4.9 years. NODM developed in 659 patients (8.1% in the 10-mg group and 9.2% in the 80-mg group). There was a significant increase in body weight (0.9 kg, p <0.01 in both men and women) over 1 year after randomization. The increase in body weight was greater in patients with NODM than those without NODM (1.6 vs 0.9 kg, p <0.001). The association of change in body weight with NODM risk remained significant after adjusting for confounding factors (hazard ratios 1.33, 1.42, and 1.88 for quartiles 2, 3, and 4 compared with quartile 1, respectively). Similar results were obtained in patients with normal fasting glucose level. In conclusion, 1-year change in body weight is predictive of NODM in patients who underwent statin therapy from the TNT trial. Our study highlights the importance of weight control as a lifestyle measure to prevent statin-related NODM.

  4. Treating ADHD in Children and Teens: Choosing the Safest and Most Effective Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Safest and Most Effective Drugs What is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? ADHD is one of the most common ... problems in school-aged children. It stands for “attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.” ADHD is The symptoms of ADHD vary. Children ...

  5. Structural effect of phosphoramidate derivatives on the thermal and flame retardant behaviors of treated cotton cellulose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present research is aimed at studying the structural effect of two phosphoramidate derivatives EHP Diethyl 3-hydroxypropylphosphoramidate and MHP Dimethyl 3-hydroxypropylphosphoramidate as flame retardants (FRs) for cotton cellulose. EHP and MHP were obtained in very high yield and purity by on...

  6. Structural effect of phosphorous-nitrogen containing flame retardant derivatives on thermal behaviors of treated cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present research is aimed at studying the structural effect of two phosphoramidate derivatives such as Diethyl 3-hydroxypropylphosphoramidate and Dimethyl 3-hydroxypropylphosphoramidate as flame retardants (FRs) for cotton. These FRs were obtained in very high yield and purity by one step proced...

  7. New frontiers in cardiovascular behavioral medicine: comparative effectiveness of exercise and medication in treating depression.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, James A

    2011-08-01

    Exercise, considered a mainstay of cardiac rehabilitation, has been shown to reduce cardiac risk factors such as hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Growing evidence also suggests that exercise has beneficial effects on mental health, which is relevant for cardiac patients because of the prognostic significance of depression in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Depression has been associated with increased mortality and nonfatal cardiac events in patients with CHD; it is also associated with worse outcomes in patients who undergo coronary artery bypass graft surgery and those who have heart failure. The standard therapy for depression is pharmacologic treatment, often with second-generation antidepressants such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Despite their widespread use, antidepressants have only modest effects on depression for many patients compared with placebo controls. Exercise therapy, already an established component of cardiac rehabilitation, has potential efficacy as a treatment for depression in cardiac disease patients. Randomized controlled trials are needed to determine the clinical effects of exercise in this population and to compare the effects of exercise with those of antidepressants.

  8. Understanding the Effect Size of Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate for Treating ADHD in Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraone, Stephen V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: An earlier meta-analysis of pediatric clinical trials indicated that lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) had a greater effect size than other stimulant medications. This work tested the hypothesis that the apparent increased efficacy was artifactual. Method: The authors assessed two potential artifacts: an unusually high precision of…

  9. Anti-tumor effects of cimetidine on hepatocellular carcinomas in diethylnitrosamine-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Furuta, Koichiro; Sato, Shuichi; Miyake, Tatsuya; Okamoto, Eisuke; Ishine, Junichi; Ishihara, Shunji; Amano, Yuji; Adachi, Kyoichi; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2008-02-01

    Cimetidine is known to have an anti-tumor effect on certain types of malignancies, though on hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), its effect remains unclear. We studied the anti-tumor effects of cimetidine on chemically-induced HCCs in rats. Four-week-old male Wistar rats (n=105) were divided into 4 groups. Those in groups A and B were administered diethylnitrosamine (DEN) intraperitoneally at 100 mg/kg body weight every week for 6 weeks, during which rats in group A were given tap water and those in group B received cimetidine (100 mg/kg/day) in their drinking water. Rats in groups C and D were administered saline instead of DEN and given tap water with 100 mg/kg/day of cimetidine, respectively. The animals were sacrificed at 7, 12, 22 and 32 weeks after the first administration of drugs and examined. Liver nodules were observed only in groups A and B, with the number of nodules, maximum diameter of the largest nodule, and liver weight significantly lower in group B. Immunohistochemistry findings showed that glutathione S-transferase placental-positive preneoplastic foci were significantly decreased in group B. Cimetidine treatment decreased the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive hepatocytes and tended to enhance natural killer (NK) cell activity in splenic lymphocytes. In addition, flow cytometry revealed that the proportion of NK cells among total splenic lymphocytes was not affected by cimetidine treatment. Our results showed that cimetidine has an inhibiting effect on hepatocarcinogenesis.

  10. Cytoprotective effects of fucoidan, an algae-derived polysaccharide on 5-fluorouracil-treated dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Bo-Eun; Ko, Eun-Ju; Joo, Hong-Gu

    2012-05-01

    Although chemotherapeutic anticancer agents are effective, they also attack normal immune cells due to a lack of selectivity. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a representative anticancer agent that induces immunosuppression in cancer patients as a side effect. Fucoidan is an algae-derived sulfated polysaccharide that has recently been recognized as a hematopoietic mobilizer and immunomodulator. In this study, we investigated the cytoprotective effect of fucoidan on dendritic cells (DCs) against 5-FU-induced cellular damage. Several kinds of assays including flow cytometric analysis demonstrated the cytoprotective efficacy of fucoidan. In addition, fucoidan increased the expression of immune-related surface markers on and the alloproliferative capacity of DCs exposed to 5-FU. For investigating action mechanism, the expression levels of apoptosis-related molecules were measured. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that fucoidan, a marine-derived polysaccharide, has cytoprotective effects on DCs, the most potent antigen-presenting cell type, against 5-FU-induced cellular damage. These results provide valuable information to use fucoidan as an immunostimulatory agent for the chemotherapy of cancer patients.

  11. Nitrofurantoin safety and effectiveness in treating acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) in hospitalized adults with renal insufficiency: antibiotic stewardship implications.

    PubMed

    Cunha, B A; Cunha, C B; Lam, B; Giuga, J; Chin, J; Zafonte, V F; Gerson, S

    2017-02-02

    Nitrofurantoin remains a key oral antibiotic stewardship program (ASP) option in the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) due to multi-drug resistant (MDR) Gram negative bacilli (GNB). However, there have been concerns regarding decreased nitrofurantoin efficacy with renal insufficiency. In our experience over the past three decades, nitrofurantoin has been safe and effective in treating AUC in hospitalized adults with renal insufficiency. Accordingly, we retrospectively reviewed our recent experience treating AUC in hospitalized adults with decreased renal function (CrCl < 60 ml/min) with nitrofurantoin. Excluded were complicated urinary tract infections. Urinary isolated susceptibility testing was done by micro broth dilution (MBD). Treatment duration was 5-7 days. Cure was defined as eradication of the uropathogen and failure was defined as minimal/no decrease in urine colony counts. Of 26 evaluable patients with renal insufficiency (CrCl < 60 ml/min), nitrofurantoin eradicated the uropathogen in 18/26 (69%) of patients, and failed in 8/26 (31%). Of the eight failures, five were due to intrinsically resistant uropathogens, e.g., Proteus sp., and one failure was related to an alkaline urine. Of the treatment failures, only two were due to renal insufficiency, i.e., CrCl < 30 ml/min. Since there are few oral antibiotics available to treat AUC due to MDR GNB uropathogens, these results have important ASP implications. Currently, nitfurantoin is not recommended if CrCl < 60 ml/min. In our experience, used appropriately against susceptible uropathogens, nitrofurantoin was highly effective in nearly all patients with CrCl = 30-60 ml/min., and only failed in two patients due to renal insufficiency (CrCl < 30 ml/ml).

  12. Hepato- and nephroprotective effects of bradykinin potentiating factor from scorpion (Buthus occitanus) venom on mercuric chloride-treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Salman, Muhammad M. A.; Kotb, Ahmed M.; Haridy, Mohie A. M.; Hammad, Seddik

    2016-01-01

    Bioactive peptides such as bradykinin potentiating factor (BPF), have, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and ameliorative effects in chronic diseases and play a potential role in cancer prevention. It is known that the liver and kidney accumulate inorganic mercury upon exposure, which often leads to mercury intoxication in these organs. In this study, we investigated the effect of bradykinin potentiating factor (BPF), a scorpion venom peptide, on mercuric chloride-induced hepatic and renal toxicity in rats. We used 20 adult male Albino rats divided into four equal groups: the first group was injected with saline (control); the second group was administered daily with mercuric chloride (HgCl2) for 2 weeks; the third group was administered with BPF twice weekly for 2 successive weeks, while the fourth group was exposed to BPF followed by HgCl2. We observed that HgCl2 treated rats had a significant increase in serum ALT, AST, ALP, creatinine and urea levels compared to control. Furthermore, HgCl2 treated rats showed a marked decrease in total proteins, albumin and uric acids compared to control. The previously studied parameters were not significantly changed in BPF pretreated rats compared to control. Moreover, a significant decrease in the activities of glutathione perioxidase (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), in addition to a significant increase in the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) were observed in hepatic and renal tissues of rats after HgCl2 treatment. In contrast, the HgCl2/BPF treated rats showed a significant elevation in the activity of GSH, SOD, and CAT accompanied with a significant regression in the level of MDA compared to the HgCl2 exposed rats. We conclude that treatment with BPF is a promising prophylactic approach for the management of mercuric chloride-induced hepato- and nephro-toxicities. PMID:28337111

  13. Altered bioenergetics and developmental effects in striped marsh frog (Limnodynastes peronii) tadpoles exposed to UV treated sewage.

    PubMed

    Melvin, Steven D; Lanctôt, Chantal M; van de Merwe, Jason P; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2016-06-01

    Effectively treating domestic wastewater so that it can be safely discharged or reused is critical for maintaining the integrity of freshwater resources, and for protecting the health of animals that rely on these systems. Amphibians are currently facing widespread population declines, so there is a particularly urgent need to investigate exposure scenarios that might result in weakened amphibian populations. Domestic sewage has received little attention as a possible factor that could influence the survival, growth and development, or general health of amphibians. However, wastewater reuse for crop irrigation and other purposes is increasing and holding ponds and constructed wetlands exist at many wastewater treatment facilities, introducing conceivable pathways that could result in the exposure of amphibians to treated wastewater. We exposed developing striped marsh frog (Limnodynastes peronii) tadpoles, to control water and 12.5, 25, 50 and 100% UV treated domestic sewage, and quantified effects on growth and development, hepatic energy reserves, and enzymatic pathways associated with detoxification and oxidative stress. Growth and development were accelerated and relative liver size was increased in exposed animals. The exposure resulted in an apparently hormetic increase in hepatic triglycerides and dose-dependent reduction in glycogen stores, as well as increased lipase and NADPH activity, indicating a general disruption to energy metabolism and/or mobilization. Contrary to expectations based on published studies with fish, we found no evidence of lipid peroxidation or induction of the detoxification enzyme Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), however, this may reflect the use of UV treatment as opposed to chlorination for disinfection. Chemical analysis and risk-based prioritization consistently identified fluoxetine, triclosan and diazinon as high-risk contaminants in the wastewater, with nonylphenol and mestranol flagged as risks during one early collection

  14. Effect of citalopram in treating hypersexuality in an Alzheimer's disease case.

    PubMed

    Tosto, Giuseppe; Talarico, Giuseppina; Lenzi, Gian Luigi; Bruno, Giuseppe

    2008-09-01

    Hypersexuality in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been rarely investigated. Hypersexual behaviours should be classified as a sexual obsession and included in the "obsessive-compulsive disorder-like" spectrum. Hypersexuality has no proven treatment, although reports have described reductions of this behaviour using antiandrogen treatment, H2-receptor antagonists and antipsychotic drugs. Serotonin reuptake blockers seem to be effective in the treatment of sexual obsessions or compulsions and less on paraphilic disturbances. We present the case of a 54-year-old male patient with Alzheimer's disease with compulsive sexual behaviour as reported by his wife. A 18-FDG PET scan evidenced prevalent hypometabolism of the right hemisphere, congruent with neuropsychological evaluation. Donepezil, 10 mg per day, produced cognitive improvement but no effects on sexual behaviour. Therapy with SSRI was subsequently started (citalopram): after 60 days, the patient showed improvement in both the compulsive pursuit of sex acts and the level of frustration when refused.

  15. Effectiveness of A-CRA/ACC in treating adolescents with cannabis-use disorders.

    PubMed

    McGarvey, Elizabeth L; Leon-Verdin, MaGuadalupe; Bloomfield, Karen; Wood, Sharon; Winters, Esther; Smith, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    An evidence-based treatment for adolescent cannabis users, Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach with Assertive Continuing Care, was implemented in a rural county and small city in the USA. A total of 147 adolescents, ages 12-18, were enrolled and assessed at baseline and three time points: 3, 6, and 12 months using the Global Appraisal of Individual Needs and related measures. Program effectiveness was confirmed. The treatment was equally effective for youth from the city versus the county. More than two-thirds (68.7%) of the adolescents reported quitting use of cannabis by 12 months. The days of cannabis use in the last 90 days decreased significantly from the first follow-up, controlling for age (p value < .01), and shows consistent decline until the end of the treatment. In addition to reduction in substance use, the average number of days missing school and expelled from school decreased significantly from baseline to the end of the treatment.

  16. Planarian activity differences when maintained in water pre-treated with magnetic fields: a nonlinear effect.

    PubMed

    Gang, Noa; Persinger, Michael A

    2011-12-01

    There have been multiple claims that exposing water to a static magnetic field affects its properties which influence living systems. To test this hypothesis, planarian subsequent to dissection were maintained in spring water that had been previously exposed for only one day to one of three (16, 160, or 1,600 G) intensity static magnetic fields or to a reference condition. Although there was no significant difference in regeneration rates over the subsequent seven-day period, there was a statistically significant nonlinear effect for planarian mobility and diffusion rates. Both mobility rates and diffusion velocity of a liquid within the water that had been exposed to the 16 G field was about twice that for water exposed to the other intensities. These results imply that nonlinear biophysical effects may emerge under specific conditions of intensity ranges for particular volumes of water.

  17. Effect of safeners on damage of human erythrocytes treated with chloroacetamide herbicides.

    PubMed

    Bernasinska, Joanna; Duchnowicz, Piotr; Koter-Michalak, Maria; Koceva-Chyla, Aneta

    2013-09-01

    Chloroacetamides are used as pre-emergent substances for growth control of annual grasses and weeds. Since they can be harmful for crop plants, protective compounds (safeners) are used along with herbicides. So far, their effects on human blood cells have not been evaluated, and this study is the very first one devoted to this subject. We examined the harmful effects of chloroacetamides, their metabolites and safeners, used alone or in combination with herbicides, on human erythrocytes measuring the extent of hemolysis, lipid peroxidation and catalase activity. Higher impact of herbicides than their metabolites on all of the investigated parameters was found. Safeners alone did not produce any damage to erythrocytes and did not elicit any changes in oxidative stress parameters. Combination of safener with herbicide did not attenuate hemolysis of erythrocytes compared to the herbicide alone. Safeners reduced lipid peroxidation induced by herbicides, which suggest the role of safeners as antioxidants.

  18. Effects of Forged Stock and Pure Aluminum Coating on Cryogenic Performance of Heat Treated Aluminum Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toland, Ronald W.; Ohl, Raymond G.; Barthelmy, Michael P.; Zewari, S. Wahid; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; MacKenty, John W.

    2003-01-01

    We present the results of an on-going test program designed to empirically determine the effects of different stress relief procedures for aluminum mirrors. Earlier test results identified a preferred heat treatment for flat and spherical mirrors diamond turned from blanks cut out of Al 6061-T651 plate stock. Further tests have been performed on mirrors from forged stock and one set from plate stock coated with Alumiplate(trademark) aluminum coating to measure the effect of these variables on cryogenic performance. The mirrors are tested for figure error and radius of curvature at room temperature and at 80 K for three thermal cycles. We correlate the results of our optical testing with heat treatment and metallographic data.

  19. [How should we treat intestinal ischemia?--II: Effects of pentoxifylline, glucagon and prostaglandin E1].

    PubMed

    Sakio, H; Tanaka, Y; Ueno, K; Oishi, S; Ohtsu, S; Okuda, C

    1995-02-01

    It is important to repair or ameliorate the intestinal ischemia in critically ill patients. Recent study of our suggests the superiority of dobutamine, but not dopamine, in improving the intestinal oxygenation. In this study we examined the effects of pentoxifylline (PF), glucagon (GL) and prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) during reduced blood flow of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) in 20 anesthetized dogs. As an index of the intestinal oxygenation, tonometrically measured intestinal intramural pH (pHi) was used. A tonometer was inserted into the midjejunum through enterotomy. The SMA blood flow was measured by a transit-time flow meter. A vascular screw clamp for blood flow reduction was placed around the origin of the SMA, proximal to the flow probe. The SMA blood flow was adjusted to 70% of baseline for three hours. After two hours of decreased blood flow, pHi dropped significantly from baseline. Then, either PF (20 mg.kg-1.min-1 over 10 min, followed by 0.1 mg.kg-1.min-1), GL (1 microgram.kg-1.min-1) or PGE1 (0.05 and 0.5 microgram.kg-1.min-1) was infused intravenously for one hour. With infusions of GL and large dose of PGE1, pHi tended to decrease further, although GL increased the cardiac output. Small dose of PGE1 had no significant effect on pHi. PF treatment showed beneficial effects not only on the cardiac output and the SMA blood flow, but also on pHi. We conclude that PF therapy may restore the intestinal microvascular blood flow. Further study of the effects of PF on tissue oxygenation and blood rheology is warranted.

  20. The effect of flavonoids on transduction mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide-treated human gingival fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Venegas, Gloria; Jiménez-Estrada, Manuel; Maldonado, Silvia

    2007-09-01

    Periodontal disease comprises a group of infections that lead to inflammation of the gingival and destruction of periodontal tissues and is accompanied by the loss of the alveolar bone with eventual exfoliation of the teeth. Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative bacteria obtained from the periodontal pocket of patients with aggressive and chronic periodontitis. This bacteria presents in the external membrane lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Flavonoids are molecules obtained from plants and possess anti-inflammatory properties. Herein we characterize the effect of the flavonoids quercetin, genistein, luteolin, and quercetagetin on LPS-activated transduction mechanism regulation in human gingival fibroblasts (HGF). In this study, we investigated the role of the previously mentioned flavonoids on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation induced by LPS obtained from P. gingivalis. Our results showed that LPS treatment induces activation of extracellular signal related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38, and c-jun-NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK). All flavonoids demonstrated an inhibitory effect on MAPK activation, interleukin, 1beta, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, IL-1beta and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis. The most active flavonoid was quercetagetin. Finally we found that the treatment with quercetagetin had no effect on cellular viability or in genetic material integrity.

  1. Effective Small Interfering RNA Therapy to Treat CLCN7-dependent Autosomal Dominant Osteopetrosis Type 2

    PubMed Central

    Capulli, Mattia; Maurizi, Antonio; Ventura, Luca; Rucci, Nadia; Teti, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In about 70% of patients affected by autosomal dominant osteopetrosis type 2 (ADO2), osteoclast activity is reduced by heterozygous mutations of the CLCN7 gene, encoding the ClC-7 chloride/hydrogen antiporter. CLCN7G215R-, CLCN7R767W-, and CLCN7R286W-specific siRNAs silenced transfected mutant mRNA/EGFP in HEK293 cells, in RAW264.7 cells and in human osteoclasts, with no change of CLCN7WT mRNA and no effect of scrambled siRNA on the mutant transcripts. Osteoclasts from Clcn7G213R ADO2 mice showed reduced bone resorption, a condition rescued by Clcn7G213R-specific siRNA. Treatment of ADO2 mice with Clcn7G213R-specific siRNA induced increase of bone resorption variables and decrease of trabecular bone mass, leading to an overall improvement of the osteopetrotic bone phenotype. Treatment did not induce overt adverse effects and was effective also with siRNAs specific for other mutants. These results demonstrate that a siRNA-based experimental treatment of ADO2 is feasible, and underscore a translational impact for future strategy to cure this therapeutically neglected form of osteopetrosis. PMID:26325626

  2. Neuroprotective Effects of 7, 8-dihydroxyflavone on Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons in MPP+-treated Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    He, Jingjing; Xiang, Zheng; Zhu, Xiaoqing; Ai, Zongyong; Shen, Jingsong; Huang, Tianzhuang; Liu, Liegang; Ji, Weizhi; Li, Tianqing

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one common neurodegenerative disease caused by a significant loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Previous reports showed that 7, 8- dihydroxyflavone (7, 8-DHF) as a potent TrkB agonist can mimic BDNF and play neuroprotective roles for mouse dopaminergic neurons. Nonetheless, the safety and neuroprotective effects are unclear in monkey models of PD. Here, we find that 7, 8-DHF could be absorbed and metabolized into 7-hydroxy-8-methoxyflavone through oral administration in monkeys. The half-life time of 7, 8-DHF in monkey plasma is about 4–8 hrs. Furthermore, these monkeys maintain health state throughout the course of seven-month treatments of 7, 8-DHF (30 mg/kg/day). Importantly, 7, 8-DHF treatments can prevent the progressive degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic neurons by attenuating neurotoxic effects of MPP+ and display strong neuroprotective effects in monkeys. Our study demonstrates that this promising small molecule may be transited into a clinical useful pharmacological agent. PMID:27731318

  3. Effects of enzyme-treated asparagus extract on heat shock protein 70, stress indices, and sleep in healthy adult men.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tomohiro; Goto, Kazunori; Takanari, Jun; Miura, Takehito; Wakame, Koji; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Aiko; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) has been developed as a novel anti-stress functional food ingredient that is produced from asparagus. Two human intervention trials with ETAS were conducted in healthy adult male volunteers. Study 1 was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the effects of ETAS on expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA in blood and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The ETAS group showed a tendency to enhance HSP70 mRNA expression level compared to the placebo group. Several ANS condition parameters were significantly improved in the ETAS group when compared to the placebo group. In Study 2, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial investigated the influence on stress-related hormones and sleep. Serum and salivary cortisol levels were significantly elevated compared to baseline during the placebo period, but remained unchanged during the ETAS period. The salivary chromogranin A level was significantly decreased in the ETAS-treated subjects compared to their baseline levels. The actual sleep time was not significantly different between ETAS and placebo. However, when the subjects were divided into two categories based on sleep efficiency or the average of night sleeping time, ETAS intake was effective to modulate the sleep state among those with low sleep efficiency or excess sleep time.

  4. Effect of Treating Anxiety Disorders on Cognitive Deficits and Behaviors Associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Denis, Isabelle; Guay, Marie-Claude; Foldes-Busque, Guillaume; BenAmor, Leila

    2016-06-01

    Twenty-five percent of children with ADHD also have an anxiety disorder (AD). As per Quay and in light of Barkley's model, anxiety may have a protective effect on cognitive deficits and behaviors associated with ADHD. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of treating AD on cognitive deficits and behaviors associated with ADHD in children with both disorders. Twenty-four children with ADHD and AD were divided into two groups: treatment for AD, and wait list. Participants were assessed at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 6-month follow-up with the ADIS-C, the CBCL, and neuropsychological measures. The results revealed a significant improvement in automatic response inhibition and flexibility, and a decrease in inattention/hyperactivity behaviors following the treatment for AD. No significant differences were observed in motor response inhibition, working memory, or attention deficits. The results do not seem to support Quay's hypothesis: treating AD did not exacerbate cognitive deficits and behaviors associated with ADHD in our sample.

  5. A qualitative study to explore health professionals' experience of treating gout: understanding perceived barriers to effective gout management.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Chloe; Hulme, Richard; Dalbeth, Nicola; Gow, Peter; Arroll, Bruce; Lindsay, Karen

    2016-06-01

    INTRODUCTION The management of gout is challenging and mainly occurs in primary care. This study aims to explore the experience of treating gout among primary care clinicians and understand the perceived barriers to effective therapy. METHODS Fourteen health professionals from primary care practices in South Auckland were recruited. Each participated in a semi-structured interview exploring their experience of treating and managing gout patients were analysed thematically. FINDINGS Participants described the large burden of gout in their communities and the importance of the clinician-patient relationship in gout management. Four themes summarise the perceived barriers to effective urate lowering therapy (ULT); unique gout factors, eg its intermittent nature and potential for stigmatisation; systemic barriers to optimal treatment, or barriers that emerge from working within a certain organisation; uncertainty about ownership, or who should carry responsibility for overcoming barriers to optimal treatment; and cultural barriers to optimal treatment. CONCLUSION Clinicians in primary practice perceive gout management to be mainly acute rather than preventive care. Patients may be stigmatised and management difficult particularly when diet is emphasised over ULT. Practice nurses are a group potentially available and willing to assist in educating patients. These findings may be helpful in planning for and improving healthcare in gout. KEYWORDS Gout; general practice; uric acid; primary health care; allopurinol; primary prevention.

  6. Effects of worts treated with proteases on the assimilation of free amino acids and fermentation performance of lager yeast.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hongjie; Zheng, Liye; Wang, Chenxia; Zhao, Haifeng; Zhao, Mouming

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the changes in free amino acids (FAA) composition by supplementing three commercial proteases (Neutrase, Flavorzyme and Protamex) at the beginning of wort mashing, and monitoring the effects on the assimilation pattern of FAA and fermentation performance of lager yeast (Saccharomyces pastorianus) during normal and high gravity fermentations. Proteases supplementation significantly improved the extract yield and FAA level of mashed worts. Normal gravity worts treated with Flavorzyme and Neutrase exhibited higher fermentability, ethanol production and flavor volatiles concentration compared to the control worts, while these beneficial effects were observed in high gravity worts treated with Protamex and Neutrase. The reason for the above results is proposed to be the change in the assimilation pattern of FAA in lager yeast with increased wort gravity, especially for the improved assimilation ratios of Leu, Arg, Phe, His, Asp and Val. In normal gravity fermentations, there were strong correlations between the assimilation amounts of Lys, Leu, Arg and His and fermentability, while in high gravity fermentations, these good correlations were found with only Lys and His. The present study suggested that optimizing the composition of FAA by supplementing proteases during wort mashing was beneficial to beer brewing for improving fermentation performance of lager yeast and flavor volatiles formation.

  7. Effect of abdominal irradiation on growth in boys treated for a Wilms' tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W.H.; Shalet, S.M.; Morris-Jones, P.H.; Swindell, R.; Gattamaneni, H.R. )

    1990-01-01

    To study the effect of abdominal irradiation on spinal growth in childhood we have measured final height, sitting height, and leg length in 30 male survivors of a Wilms' tumor. Twenty-one patients received whole abdominal irradiation by either megavoltage therapy (MV: n = 11) or orthovoltage therapy (OV: n = 10); the remainder received flank irradiation. To examine the effect of the adolescent growth spurt on the irradiated spine we have followed prospectively seven patients who received whole abdominal irradiation and nine patients who received flank irradiation through puberty. Compared to a normal population there is a modest reduction in median final standing height SDS (H.SDS: -1.15) accompanied by a marked reduction in median final sitting height SDS (S.HT SDS: -2.41) with no apparent effect on median subischial leg length SDS (SILL.SDS: 0.04). This reduction in spinal growth is reflected by a strongly positive disproportion score (DPS; (SILL SDS-S.HT SDS) + 2.81). The incidence of scoliosis after abdominal irradiation has been low (10%). During puberty there is a significant fall in median sitting height SDS after both whole abdominal (median fall: -0.9, P = 0.02) and flank irradiation (median fall: -1.85, P = 0.01), and this is reflected in a significant increase in disproportion (DPS: whole abdominal; median rise +1.4, P = 0.02: flank, median rise +1.34, P = 0.01). After MV irradiation there is a significant correlation between the degree of disproportion and the age at treatment (P less than 0.0005). The younger the patient is at treatment the more severe is the restriction on spinal growth and the shorter and more disproportionate they become as an adult. The estimated eventual loss in potential height from abdominal irradiation at the age of one is 10 cm and at five years is 7 cm.

  8. Beneficial effects of L-arginine–nitric oxide-producing pathway in rats treated with alloxan

    PubMed Central

    Vasilijević, Ana; Buzadžić, Biljana; Korać, Aleksandra; Petrović, Vesna; Janković, Aleksandra; Korać, Bato

    2007-01-01

    In an attempt to elucidate molecular mechanisms and factors involved in β cell regeneration, we evaluated a possible role of the l-arginine–nitric oxide (NO)-producing pathway in alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus. Diabetes was induced in male Mill Hill rats with a single alloxan dose (120 mg kg−1). Both non-diabetic and diabetic groups were additionally separated into three subgroups: (i) receiving l-arginine · HCl (2.25%), (ii) receiving l-NAME · HCl (0.01%) for 12 days as drinking liquids, and (iii) control. Treatment of diabetic animals started after diabetes induction (glucose level ≥ 12 mmol l−1). We found that disturbed glucose homeostasis, i.e. blood insulin and glucose levels in diabetic rats was restored after l-arginine treatment. Immunohistochemical findings revealed that l-arginine had a favourable effect on β cell neogenesis, i.e. it increased the area of insulin-immunopositive cells. Moreover, confocal microscopy showed colocalization of insulin and pancreas duodenum homeobox-1 (PDX-1) in both endocrine and exocrine pancreas. This increase in insulin-expressing cells was accompanied by increased cell proliferation (observed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen-PCNA immunopositivity) which occurred in a regulated manner since it was associated with increased apoptosis (detected by the TUNEL method). Furthermore, l-arginine enhanced both nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) immunopositivities. The effect of l-arginine on antioxidative defence was observed especially in restoring to control level the diabetes-induced increase in glutathione peroxidase activity. In contrast to l-arginine, diabetic pancreas was not affected by l-NAME supplementation. In conclusion, the results suggest beneficial l-arginine effects on alloxan-induced diabetes resulting from the stimulation of β cell neogenesis, including complex mechanisms of transcriptional and redox regulation. PMID:17717015

  9. The melatonin receptor agonist ramelteon effectively treats insomnia and behavioral symptoms in autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Kentaro; Horiuchi, Fumie; Oka, Yasunori; Ueno, Shu-Ichi

    2014-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), including autistic disorder, frequently suffer from comorbid sleep problems. An altered melatonin rhythm is considered to underlie the impairment in sleep onset and maintenance in ASD. We report three cases with autistic disorder in whom nocturnal symptoms improved with ramelteon, a selective melatonin receptor agonist. Insomnia and behavior, assessed using the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale, improved in two cases with 2 mg ramelteon and in the third case with 8 mg ramelteon. Our findings demonstrate that ramelteon is effective not only for insomnia, but for behavioral problems as well, in patients with autistic disorder.

  10. Endothelin-1 receptor antagonist: effects on endothelin- and cyclosporine-treated mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Takeda, M; Breyer, M D; Noland, T D; Homma, T; Hoover, R L; Inagami, T; Kon, V

    1992-06-01

    Endothelin-1 (Et) has profound effects on glomerular microcirculation and mesangial cell contraction. A parameter of mesangial cell contraction was examined by measuring myosin light chain phosphorylation (MLCP) in glomerular mesangial cells in the presence and absence of a newly developed endothelin-1 receptor antagonist (EtA). Addition of Et alone (10 nM) caused a marked increase in MLCP, which, on average, rose by 53 +/- 6% above the level in cells exposed to vehicle (P less than 0.0005). This effect was shown to continue for at least one hour; MLCP at 60 minutes was 64 +/- 12% higher than controls, (P less than 0.025), constituting a unique observation of an in vitro parameter which parallels the characteristic in vivo effect of Et. Treatment of cells with EtA virtually abolished this Et-induced increase in MLCP, which rose by only 2 +/- 3% and -1 +/- 4% for doses of EtA of 44 nM and 66 nM, respectively. Examination of the intracellular calcium concentration, [Ca2+]i, revealed that EtA almost completely abolished the transient increase in [Ca2+]i evoked by Et and also suppressed the early portions of the sustained increase in [Ca2+]i. EtA was ineffective in abolishing [Ca2+]i increase in response to arginine vasopressin. Finally, to evaluate EtA's efficacy in a pathophysiologic setting, we also studied mesangial cells exposed to cyclosporine (Cs). Exposure of mesangial cells to Cs (10(-5) M) for 60 minutes caused a significant increase in MLCP, on average, by 38 +/- 6% above control (P less than 0.0005), while cells exposed to Cs in the presence of EtA increased MLCP significantly less, by only 15 +/- 9%. These data provide further evidence for Et's long-lasting cellular actions, and demonstrate inhibitory effects of an Et receptor antagonist after direct cellular exposure to Et and also after Cs exposure, a pathophysiologic setting which likely involves Et.

  11. Effectiveness of standard short-course chemotherapy for treating tuberculosis and the impact of drug resistance on its outcome.

    PubMed

    Han, Thuzar

    2006-06-01

    Background  Treating tuberculosis (TB) with short-course chemotherapy is recommended by the World Health Organization tuberculosis program and is one of the five packages of directly observed treatment short-course (DOTS) strategy. Objectives  To investigate the effectiveness of short-course chemotherapy for treating new and retreatment TB patients and to assess the impact of drug resistance on its outcomes. Search strategy and selection criteria  Published studies from the electronic databases such as Cochrane Library, DARE, Medline, Embase, Current Contents, CINAHL, Expanded Academic Index, PsycInfo, AustHealth and unpublished studies from Dissertation Abstract International, Index to These, Cochrane Reviewer Handbook were searched between 1993-2002. Studies addressing the treatment of patients with short-course regimen and the association between drug resistance and treatment outcomes were included. Two reviewers independently assessed study quality and extracted data. Results and discussion  Eleven cohort studies met the inclusion criteria. Treatment with 6-month daily regimens was effective for new TB patients with success rate (percentage of cure cases and treatment completed cases) of over 80%. Implementation of 100% directly observed treatment was necessary to achieve over 80% treatment success in new cases treated with the intermittent regimen. The intermittent regimens did not work effectively for retreatment cases since success rate was only 68.5% even in the setting using 100% directly observed treatment in Peru. Short-course regimens were effective against drug-sensitive TB with the success rate of 87%; ineffective for patients with multi-drug resistance (rate of treatment failure in new cases ranged 22.3%-35.5% and rate of treatment failure in retreatment cases ranged 16.3-37.1%). Drug resistance had a negative impact on the outcome of short-course therapy and multi-drug resistance had a huge negative impact on the effectiveness of

  12. The Effect of Contouring Variability on Dosimetric Parameters for Brain Metastases Treated With Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, Julia; Dunscombe, Peter; Lau, Harold; Burns, Paul; Lim, Gerald; Liu, Hong-Wei; Nordal, Robert; Starreveld, Yves; Valev, Boris; Voroney, Jon-Paul; Spencer, David P.

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To quantify the effect of contouring variation on stereotactic radiosurgery plan quality metrics for brain metastases. Methods and Materials: Fourteen metastases, each contoured by 8 physicians, formed the basis of this study. A template-based dynamic conformal 5-arc dose distribution was developed for each of the 112 contours, and each dose distribution was applied to the 7 other contours in each patient set. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) plan quality metrics and the Paddick conformity index were calculated for each of the 896 combinations of dose distributions and contours. Results: The ratio of largest to smallest contour volume for each metastasis varied from 1.25 to 4.47, with a median value of 1.68 (n=8). The median absolute difference in RTOG conformity index between the value for the reference contour and the values for the alternative contours was 0.35. The variation of the range of conformity index for all contours for a given tumor varied with the tumor size. Conclusions: The high degree of interobserver contouring variation strongly suggests that peer review or consultation should be adopted to standardize tumor volume prescription. Observer confidence was not reflected in contouring consistency. The impact of contouring variability on plan quality metrics, used as criteria for clinical trial protocol compliance, was such that the category of compliance was robust to interobserver effects only 70% of the time.

  13. Malignant ascites in patients with terminal cancer is effectively treated with permanent peritoneal catheter

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Frank V.; Madsen, Hans Henrik Torp

    2015-01-01

    Background Malignant ascites is a pathological condition caused by intra- or extra-abdominal disseminated cancer. The object of treatment is palliation. In search of an effective and minimally invasive palliative treatment of malignant ascites placement of a permanent intra peritoneal catheter has been suggested. Purpose To evaluate our experiences with treatment of malignant ascites by implantation of a permanent PleurX catheter. Material and Methods A retrospective study was conducted, comprising 20 consecutive patients with terminal cancer, who had a permanent PleurX catheter implanted because of malignant ascites in the period from February to November 2014. Using the patients’ medical records, we retrieved data on patients and procedures. Results The technical success rate was 100%. Catheter patency was 95.2%, one catheter was removed due to dislocation. Ten patients (50.0%) experienced minor adverse events. No procedural difficulties were reported and there was no need for additional treatment of malignant ascites after catheter implantation. Median residual survival after catheter implantation was 27 days. Conclusion Implantation of a permanent PleurX catheter is a minimally invasive and effective procedure with only minor adverse events and a high rate of catheter patency in patients with malignant ascites caused by terminal cancer disease. PMID:26346641

  14. Effect of lixiviated sediments affected with treated water on Selenastrum capricornutum, Printz and Origanum vulgare L.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Guadalupe E; Lopez, Martin H; Flores, Antonio M; Figueroa, Guadalupe T; De Leon, Fernando G

    2010-01-01

    Xochimilco is an area of Mexico City fulfilling important ecological functions. However, the water of the canal network in the lacustrine zone of Xochimilco is supplied by the water treatment plants of the city, implying a risk of accumulated contaminants in the sediments. This study reports the effect of lixiviates obtained from sediments collected in the canals of Xochimilco on the growth of the alga Selenastrum capricornutum and the angiosperm Origanum vulgare. Three factors were tested: (a) water source in terms of the effluent from the two water treatment plants (urban waste-water, located at Cerro de la Estrella (CE) and urban-rural waters at San Luis Tlaxialtemalco (SLT); (b) sampling season (January, dry season; May and September, rainy season; and (c) distances from the water discharge point in the Xochimilco's main canal (5200 and 1000 m for CE, and 0, 200 m for SLT). The chemical water properties analyzed were: pH, electrical conductivity, N-NO(3), N-NH(3), N(Total), P-PO(4) and P(Total). The alga was more sensitive to the contaminants than O. vulgare, showing growth inhibition of 93-100%. The effect of sampling season on the inhibition of algal growth was ordered as follows: September > May > January. Lixiviates obtained from sediment samples 200 and 1000 m from the main point of water discharge caused a higher algal growth inhibition than the samples obtained at the source point. Lixiviate promoted the growth of seedlings of O. vulgare.

  15. Enzyme replacement therapy for treating mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (Morquio A syndrome): effect and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Tomatsu, Shunji; Sawamoto, Kazuki; Shimada, Tsutomu; Bober, Michael B.; Kubaski, Francyne; Yasuda, Eriko; Mason, Robert W.; Khan, Shaukat; Alméciga-Díaz, Carlos J.; Barrera, Luis A.; Mackenzie, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Following a Phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo (PBO)-controlled, multinational study in subjects with mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA), enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) of elosulfase alfa has been approved in several countries. The study was designed to evaluate safety and efficacy of elosulfase alfa in patients with MPS IVA aged 5 years and older. Areas covered Outcomes of clinical trials for MPS IVA have been described. Subjects received either 2.0 mg/kg/week, 2.0 mg/kg/every other week, or PBO, for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline 6-min walk test (6MWT) distance compared to PBO. The 6MWT results improved in patients receiving 2 mg/kg weekly compared to PBO. The every other week regimen resulted in walk distances comparable to PBO. There was no change from baseline in the 3 Min Stair Climb Test in both treatment groups. Following completion of the initial study, patients, who continued to receive elosulfase alfa 2 mg/kg weekly (QW) for another 48 weeks (for a total of up to 72-week exposure), did not show additional improvement on 6MWT. Expert opinion We suggest that ERT is a therapeutic option for MPS IVA, providing a modest effect and the majority of the effects are seen in the soft tissues. PMID:26973801

  16. Effect of Strength Enhancement of Soil Treated with Environment-Friendly Calcium Carbonate Powder

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyungho; Jun, Sangju; Kim, Daehyeon

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of the strength improvement of soft ground (sand) by producing calcium carbonate powder through microbial reactions. To analyze the cementation effect of calcium carbonate produced through microbial reaction for different weight ratios, four different types of specimens (untreated, calcium carbonate, cement, and calcium carbonate + cement) with different weight ratios (2%, 4%, 6%, and 8%) were produced and cured for a period of 3 days, 7 days, 14 days, 21 days, and 28 days to test them. The uniaxial compression strength of specimens was measured, and the components in the specimen depending on the curing period were analyzed by means of XRD analysis. The result revealed that higher weight ratios and longer curing period contributed to increased strength of calcium carbonate, cement, and calcium carbonate + cement specimens. The calcium carbonate and the calcium carbonate + cement specimens in the same condition showed the tendency of decreased strength approximately 3 times and two times in comparison with the 8% cement specimens cured for 28 days, but the tendency of increased strength was approximately 4 times and 6 times in comparison with the untreated specimen. PMID:24688401

  17. Hypothyroidism Side Effect in Patients Treated with Sunitinib or Sorafenib: Clinical and Structural Analyses.

    PubMed

    Shu, Mao; Zai, Xiaoli; Zhang, Beina; Wang, Rui; Lin, Zhihua

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) provide more effective targeted treatments for cancer, but are subject to a variety of adverse effects, such as hypothyroidism. TKI-induced hypothyroidism is a highly complicated issue, because of not only the unrealized toxicological mechanisms, but also different incidences of individual TKI drugs. While sunitinib is suspected for causing thyroid dysfunction more often than other TKIs, sorafenib is believed to be less risky. Here we integrated clinical data and in silico drug-protein interactions to examine the pharmacological distinction between sunitinib and sorafenib. Statistical analysis on the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) confirmed that sunitinib is more concurrent with hypothyroidism than sorafenib, which was observed in both female and male patients. Then, we used docking method and identified 3 proteins specifically binding to sunitinib but not sorafenib, i.e., retinoid X receptor alpha, retinoic acid receptors beta and gamma. As potential off-targets of sunitinib, these proteins are well known to assemble with thyroid hormone receptors, which can explain the profound impact of sunitinib on thyroid function. Taken together, we established a strategy of integrated analysis on clinical records and drug off-targets, which can be applied to explore the molecular basis of various adverse drug reactions.

  18. Effect of seabuckthorn extract on delayed chlorophyll fluorescence on Cd and Co ions treated wheat seedlings.

    PubMed

    Ganiyeva, R A; Novruzov, E M; Bayramova, S A; Kurbanova, I M; Hasanov, R A

    2009-11-01

    The protecting effect of "Hypporamine PL" compound isolated from dry leaves of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamneides L.) on photosystem 2 (PS2) activity suppression induced by CdCl2 and CoCl2 treatment in the 7-day-old wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L.) under different pH of growth medium was investigated by measurement of millisecond delayed fluorescence (ms-DF) of chlorophyll intact leaves. The value o-i/p-s of ms-DF ratio was reduced under the Cd2+ and Co2+ treatments on 60 and 65% respectively at pH 6.7. Acidification of medium (pH 5.0) results in decreasing of ratio o-i/p-s only approximately on 30% in average. In the alkaline medium the lowering of o-i/p-s on 41% is observed in both ions treatments. This decreasing of o-i/p-s ratio occurred due to decreasing of fast phase o-i amplitude. At the same time the widening and increasing of slow phase p-s amplitude was observed. The compound "Hypporamine PL" limited the decrease of ms-DF components induced by heavy metals. It is suggested that the protective effect of "Hypporamine PL" on the photochemical reactions in the PS2 is due to catechins, epicatechins, quercetin and other polyphenols, containing in this compound, preventing the free radicals formation in the PS2 under treatment by heavy metal ions.

  19. Oxygen Effects on Thermophilic Microbial Populations in Biofilters Treating Nitric Oxide Containing Off-Gas Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Brady Douglas; Apel, William Arnold; Smith, William Aaron

    2004-04-01

    Electricity generation from coal has increased by an average of 51 billion kWh per year over the past 3 years. For this reason cost-effective strategies to control nitrogen oxides (NOx) from coal-fired power plant combustion gases must be developed. Compost biofilters operated at 55°C at an empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 13 seconds were shown to be feasible for removal of nitric oxide (NO) from synthetic flue gas. Denitrifying microbial populations in these biofilters were shown to reduce influent NO feeds by 90 to 95% at inlet NO concentrations of 500 ppmv. Oxygen was shown to have a significant effect on the NO removal efficiency demonstrated by these biofilters. Two biofilters were set up under identical conditions for the purpose of monitoring NO removal as well as changes in the microbial population in the bed medium under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Changes in the microbial population were monitored to determine the maximum oxygen tolerance of a denitrifying biofilter as well as methods of optimizing microbial populations capable of denitrification in the presence of low oxygen concentrations. Nitric oxide removal dropped to between 10 and 20% when oxygen was present in the influent stream. The inactive compost used to pack the biofilters may have also caused the decreased NO removal efficiency compared to previous biofiltration experiments. Analysis of the bed medium microbial population using environmental scanning electron microscopy indicated significant increases in biomass populating the surface of the compost when compared to unacclimated compost.

  20. Effect of strength enhancement of soil treated with environment-friendly calcium carbonate powder.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyungho; Jun, Sangju; Kim, Daehyeon

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of the strength improvement of soft ground (sand) by producing calcium carbonate powder through microbial reactions. To analyze the cementation effect of calcium carbonate produced through microbial reaction for different weight ratios, four different types of specimens (untreated, calcium carbonate, cement, and calcium carbonate + cement) with different weight ratios (2%, 4%, 6%, and 8%) were produced and cured for a period of 3 days, 7 days, 14 days, 21 days, and 28 days to test them. The uniaxial compression strength of specimens was measured, and the components in the specimen depending on the curing period were analyzed by means of XRD analysis. The result revealed that higher weight ratios and longer curing period contributed to increased strength of calcium carbonate, cement, and calcium carbonate + cement specimens. The calcium carbonate and the calcium carbonate + cement specimens in the same condition showed the tendency of decreased strength approximately 3 times and two times in comparison with the 8% cement specimens cured for 28 days, but the tendency of increased strength was approximately 4 times and 6 times in comparison with the untreated specimen.

  1. Effect of increasing bromide concentration on toxicity in treated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Sawade, Emma; Fabris, Rolando; Humpage, Andrew; Drikas, Mary

    2016-04-01

    Research is increasingly indicating the potential chronic health effects of brominated disinfection by-products (DBPs). This is likely to increase with elevated bromide concentrations resulting from the impacts of climate change, projected to include extended periods of drought and the sudden onset of water quality changes. This will demand more rigorous monitoring throughout distribution systems and improved water quality management at water treatment plants (WTPs). In this work the impact of increased bromide concentration on formation of DBPs following conventional treatment and chlorination was assessed for two water sources. Bioanalytical tests were utilised to determine cytotoxicity of the water post disinfection. Coagulation was shown to significantly reduce the cytotoxicity of the water, indicating that removal of natural organic matter DBP precursors continues to be an important factor in drinking water treatment. Most toxic species appear to form within the first half hour following disinfectant addition. Increasing bromide concentration across the two waters was shown to increase the formation of trihalomethanes and shifted the haloacetic acid species distribution from chlorinated to those with greater bromine substitution. This correlated with increasing cytotoxicity. This work demonstrates the challenges faced by WTPs and the possible effects increasing levels of bromide in source waters could have on public health.

  2. Ameliorating Effects of Iron and Zinc on Vigna mungo L. Treated with Tannery Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Shefali; Mishra, Kumkum; Tandon, Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Different dilutions, that is, 25, 50, 75, and 100%, of tannery effluent (TE) were chosen for the present study to assess the phytotoxic effects on Vigna mungo L. For amelioration purposes, different levels and combinations of iron and zinc were supplied to the plants along with 50% TE that is chosen on the basis of prior test under Petri dish culture. Cytotoxic and biochemical analysis and plant tolerance index (PTI) of plant were observed. Mitotic index deceased with increase in effluent concentration whereas abnormality % was increased. The pigments (chlorophyll a, total, and carotenoids) were decreased with increasing treatment levels of TE at both growth stages. However, carotenoid content increased significantly at all dilution levels of TE after first growth stage. Chlorophyll b was increased significantly after 35 days of growth but decreased after 70 days. The protein contents were also significantly decreased with increase in all TE treatments and increased significantly in zinc recovery treatments. Activities of catalase and peroxidase enzymes were significantly affected and increased significantly with effluent treatments. PTI showed an enhanced tolerance capacity of plant with treatment of iron and zinc. A negative correlation was found (r = −0.97) between plant height and different dilutions of effluent whereas it was positively correlated (r = 0.95) with iron and zinc treatments. The study represents the ameliorative effect of iron and zinc for phytotoxic damage in V. mungo caused by tannery effluent. PMID:25505908

  3. Effects of Forged Stock and Pure Aluminum Coating on Cryogenic Performance of Heat Treated Aluminum Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toland, Ronald; Ohl, Raymond G.; Barthelmy, Michael P.; Zewari, S. Wahid; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; MacKenty, John W.

    2003-01-01

    In spite of its baseline mechanical stress relief, aluminum 6061-T651 harbors some residual stress that may relieve and distort mirror figure to unacceptable levels at cryogenic operating temperatures unless relieved during fabrication. Cryogenic instruments using aluminum mirrors for both ground-based and space IR astronomy have employed a variety of heat treatment formulae, with mixed results. We present the results of an on-going test program designed to empirically determine the effects of different stress relief procedures for aluminum mirrors. Earlier test results identified a preferred heat treatment for flat and spherical mirrors diamond turned from blanks cut out of Al6061-T651 plate stock. Further tests have been performed on mirrors from forged stock and one set from plate stock coated with Alumiplate(TM) aluminum coating to measure the effect of these variables on cryogenic performance. The mirrors are tested for figure error and radius of curvature at room temperature and at 80 K for three thermal cycles. We correlate the results of our optical testing with heat treatment and metallographic data.

  4. Ameliorating Effects of Iron and Zinc on Vigna mungo L. Treated with Tannery Effluent.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shefali; Mishra, Kumkum; Tandon, Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Different dilutions, that is, 25, 50, 75, and 100%, of tannery effluent (TE) were chosen for the present study to assess the phytotoxic effects on Vigna mungo L. For amelioration purposes, different levels and combinations of iron and zinc were supplied to the plants along with 50% TE that is chosen on the basis of prior test under Petri dish culture. Cytotoxic and biochemical analysis and plant tolerance index (PTI) of plant were observed. Mitotic index deceased with increase in effluent concentration whereas abnormality % was increased. The pigments (chlorophyll a, total, and carotenoids) were decreased with increasing treatment levels of TE at both growth stages. However, carotenoid content increased significantly at all dilution levels of TE after first growth stage. Chlorophyll b was increased significantly after 35 days of growth but decreased after 70 days. The protein contents were also significantly decreased with increase in all TE treatments and increased significantly in zinc recovery treatments. Activities of catalase and peroxidase enzymes were significantly affected and increased significantly with effluent treatments. PTI showed an enhanced tolerance capacity of plant with treatment of iron and zinc. A negative correlation was found (r = -0.97) between plant height and different dilutions of effluent whereas it was positively correlated (r = 0.95) with iron and zinc treatments. The study represents the ameliorative effect of iron and zinc for phytotoxic damage in V. mungo caused by tannery effluent.

  5. [THE EFFECT OF PERINATAL HYPOXIA ON THE STRUCTURE OF BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER IN RATS TREATED WITH SALIFEN].

    PubMed

    Otellin, V A; Khozhai, L I; Tyurenkov, I N

    2015-01-01

    The work was performed on Wistar rats, which were dividedinto 3 groups: 1st group--experimental rats subjected to hypoxia and treated with salifen (15 mg/kg for 14 days), 2nd group--control rats exposed to hypoxia only without treatment, and 3rdgroup--intact animals (8-10 animals in each group). Using themethods of light and electron microscopy, the effect of salifen onthe structural characteristics of the elements of the blood-brainbarrier (BBB) in the neocortex was studied in rats after exposureto hypoxia in the early postnatal period--on postnatal Day 2(model of human preterm pregnancy). The results showed thatsalifen had a positive effect on the state of the microvasculatureafter perinatal hypoxia, in particular, on the state of endothelialcells. Its active participation in the compensatory-adaptive reactions of the BBB in response to hypoxia exposure was detected,and the prospects of further studies of the protective properties ofsalifen are emphasized.

  6. Effects of the use of fly ash as a binder on the mechanical behaviour of treated dredged sediments.

    PubMed

    Silitonga, E; Levacher, D; Mezazigh, S

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the suitability of dredged sediments treated with pozzolanic binders as a pavement base material, and to assess the usefulness of fly ash as a soil mixture/binder with the aim of improving the engineering properties of the stabilized dredged sediments in order to make them capable of taking more load from the foundation structures. Comparing the results with other binders currently used in road construction, the addition of fly ash shows significant positive advantages. The present study covers the characterization of the dredged sediments and fly ash, compaction behaviour, pH measurement, effect on unconfined compressive strength, and the effect of cyclic wet-dry and freeze-thaw tests.

  7. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Mononuclear Cells From Cord Blood: Cotransplantation Provides a Better Effect in Treating Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gecai; Yue, Aihuan; Yu, Hong; Ruan, Zhongbao; Yin, Yigang; Wang, Ruzhu; Ren, Yin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cotransplanting mononuclear cells from cord blood (CB-MNCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as treatment for myocardial infarction (MI). Transplanting CD34+ cells or MSCs separately has been shown effective in treating MI, but the effect of cotransplanting CB-MNCs and MSCs is not clear. In this study, MSCs were separated by their adherence to the tissue culture. The morphology, immunophenotype, and multilineage potential of MSCs were analyzed. CB-MNCs were separated in lymphocyte separation medium 1.077. CD34+ cell count and viability were analyzed by flow cytometry. Infarcted male Sprague-Dawley rats in a specific-pathogen-free grade were divided into four treatment groups randomly: group I, saline; group II, CB-MNCs; group III, MSCs; and group IV, CB-MNCs plus MSCs. The saline, and CB-MNCs and/or MSCs were injected intramyocardially in infarcted rats. Their cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography. The myocardial capillary density was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Both cell types induced an improvement in the left ventricular cardiac function and increased tissue cell proliferation in myocardial tissue and neoangiogenesis. However, CB-MNCs plus MSCs were more effective in reducing the infarct size and preventing ventricular remodeling. Scar tissue was reduced significantly in the CB-MNCs plus MSCs group. MSCs facilitate engraftment of CD34+ cells and immunomodulation after allogeneic CD34+ cell transplantation. Cotransplanting MSCs and CB-MNCs might be more effective than transplanting MSCs or CB-MNCs separately for treating MI. This study contributes knowledge toward effective treatment strategies for MI. Significance This study assessed cotransplantation of hematopoietic stem cells (CD34+ cells) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for treatment of myocardial infarction (MI) in a rat model. The results demonstrate that MSCs and mononuclear cells from cord blood may have synergistic effects and

  8. Effects of cognitive-communication stimulation for Alzheimer's disease patients treated with donepezil.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Sandra Bond; Weiner, Myron F; Rackley, Audette; Hynan, Linda S; Zientz, Jennifer

    2004-10-01

    This randomized study evaluated the combined effect of a cognitive-communication program plus an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (donepezil; donepezil-plus-stimulation group; n = 26), as compared with donepezil alone (donepezil-only group; n = 28) in 54 patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD; Mini-Mental Status Examination score of 12- 28) ranging in age from 54 to 91 years. It was hypothesized that cognitive-communication stimulation in combination with donepezil would positively affect the following: (a) relevance of discourse, (b) performance of functional abilities, (c) emotional symptoms, (d) quality of life, and (e) overall global function, as measured by caregiver and participant report and standardized measures. Cognitive-communication, neuropsychiatric, functional performance, and quality of life evaluations were conducted at baseline and Month 4, the month after the 2-month active stimulation period. Follow-up evaluations were performed at Months 8 and 12. The stimulation program consisted of 12 hr of intervention over an 8-week period and involved participant-led discussions requiring homework, interactive sessions about AD, and discussions using salient life stories. Additive effects of active stimulation with donepezil were examined in 2 ways: (1) comparing mean group performance over time and (2) evaluating change scores from baseline. A Group x Time interaction was found for the donepezil-plus-stimulation group in the emotional symptoms of apathy and irritability as compared with the donepezil-only group. Evaluation of change scores from baseline to 12 months revealed a positive effect for the donepezil-plus-stimulation group on discourse and functional abilities with a trend on apathy, irritability, and patient-reported quality of life. In sum, the research revealed benefits to the donepezil-plus-stimulation group in the areas of discourse abilities, functional abilities, emotional symptoms, and overall global performance. This study

  9. The effect of arbutin on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity in the serum of cyclosporine-treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Khadir, Fatemeh; Pouramir, Mahdi; Joorsaraee, Seyyed Gholamali; Feizi, Farideh; Sorkhi, Hadi; Yousefi, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cyclosporine A (CsA) is a potent immunosuppressant drug with therapeutic and toxic actions. The use of CsA is limited by its toxicity. Several researchers had proposed that oxidative stress could play an important role in CsA-induced toxicity. Arbutin has recently been shown to possess antioxidative and free radical scavenging abilities. The present study was designed to investigate the in vivo effects of arbutin on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity in the serum of cyclosporine treated rats. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were divided into six groups (n=8/group): (I) control (no CsA and arbutin administration), (II and III) were treated subcutaneously (Sc) with arbutin (50,100 mg/kg/bw), respectively, (IV) administered CsA (25 mg/kg/bw) intraperitoneally (IP), (V and VI) received the combination of CsA (25 mg/kg/bw) i.p and arbutin (50,100 mg/kg/bw) Sc daily, respectively. At the end of the treatment (after3 weeks), serum lipid peroxidation was measured by thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) and serum total antioxidant capacity (ferric reducing ability of plasma [FRAP]) was assayed based on spectrophotometric method. Results: TBARS had been significantly increased by CsA administration compared with control rats. Arbutin (50mg/kg/bw) completely prevented this effect, but arbutin (100 mg/kg/bw) alone or in combination with CsA significantly increased lipid peroxidation compared with controls. Conclusion: Our data indicate that arbutin (50mg/kg/bw) had protective effect in the CsA-induced toxicity but high concentration of arbutin (100mg/kg/bw) showed meaningful oxidative and lipoperoxidative effects. PMID:26644892

  10. Effects of treating gender dysphoria and anorexia nervosa in a transgender adolescent: Lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Strandjord, Sarah E; Ng, Henry; Rome, Ellen S

    2015-11-01

    Patients with gender dysphoria and patients with eating disorders often experience discontent with their bodies. Several reports have recognized the co-occurrence of these two conditions, typically in adults who identify as transgender females and desire a more feminine physique. This case report, in contrast, describes a 16-year-old patient with a female sex assigned at birth who first presented with features consistent with anorexia nervosa and later revealed underlying gender dysphoria with a drive for a less feminine body shape. We discuss both the path to recognizing gender dysphoria in this patient as well as the impact of treatment on his eating disorder and overall well-being. This case is one of only a few reports describing a female-to-male transgender patient with an eating disorder and is the first to explore the effects of hormone and surgical intervention in an adolescent patient.

  11. How I treat late effects in adults after allogeneic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Michelle L.; Jagasia, Shubhada; Lee, Stephanie J.

    2011-01-01

    More than 25 000 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantations (allo-HCTs) are expected to be performed worldwide in 2010, a number that has been increasing yearly. With broadening indications, more options for allo-HCT, and improvement in survival, by 2020 there may be up to half a million long-term survivors after allo-HCT worldwide. These patients have increased risks for various late complications, which can cause morbidity and mortality. Most long-term survivors return to the care of their local hematologists/oncologists or primary care physicians, who may not be familiar with specialized monitoring recommendations for this patient population. The purpose of this article is to describe practical approaches to screening for and managing these late effects, with the goal of reducing preventable morbidity and mortality associated with allo-HCT. PMID:21193694

  12. Effects of heat treating PM Rene' 95 slightly below the gamma' solvus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreshfield, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation was performed on as-hot-isostatically-pressed (As-HIP) Rene' 95 to obtain additional information on the variation of the amount of gamma prime with solutioning temperatures near the gamma prime solvus temperature and the resulting effects on tensile and stress rupture strength of As-HIP Rene' 95. The amount of gamma prime phase was found to increase at a rate of about 0.5% per degree Celsius as the temperature decreased from the solvus temperature to about 50 C below the gamma prime solvus temperature. The change in the amount of gamma prime phase with decreasing solutioning temperature was observed to be primarily associated with decreasing solubilities of Al+Ti+Nb and increasing solubility of Cr in the gamma phase.

  13. Effectiveness of electrolyzed water as a sanitizer for treating different surfaces.

    PubMed

    Park, Hoon; Hung, Yen-Con; Kim, Chyer

    2002-08-01

    The effectiveness of electrolyzed (EO) water at killing Enterobacter aerogenes and Staphylococcus aureus in pure culture was evaluated. One milliliter (approximately 10(9) CFU/ml) of each bacterium was subjected to 9 ml of EO water or control water (EO water containing 10% neutralizing buffer) at room temperature for 30 s. Inactivation (reduction of > 9 log10 CFU/ ml) of both pathogens occurred within 30 s after exposure to EO water containing approximately 25 or 50 mg of residual chlorine per liter. The effectiveness of EO water in reducing E. aerogenes and S. aureus on different surfaces (glass, stainless steel, glazed ceramic tile, unglazed ceramic tile, and vitreous china) was also evaluated. After immersion of the tested surfaces in EO water for 5 min without agitation, populations of E. aerogenes and S. aureus were reduced by 2.2 to 2.4 log10 CFU/ cm2 and by 1.7 to 1.9 log10 CFU/cm2, respectively, whereas washing with control water resulted in a reduction of only 0.1 to 0.3 log10 CFU/cm2. The washing of tested surfaces in EO water with agitation (50 rpm) reduced populations of viable cells on the tested surfaces to < 1 CFU/cm2. For the control water treatment with agitation, the surviving numbers of both strains on the tested surfaces were approximately 3 log10 CFU/cm2. No viable cells of either strain were observed in the EO water after treatment, regardless of agitation. However, large populations of both pathogens were recovered from control wash solution after treatment.

  14. Effect of Genistein on reproductive parameter and serum nitric oxide levels in morphine-treated mice

    PubMed Central

    Jalili, Cyrus; Ahmadi, Sharareh; Roshankhah, Shiva; Salahshoor, MohammadReza

    2016-01-01

    Background: The predominant phytoestrogen in soy and derived products is the isoflavone Genistein. Genistein has antioxidant properties. Morphine is a main psychoactive chemical in opium that can increase the generation of free radicals and therefore it could adversely affects the spermatogenesis. Objective: The main goal was to investigate whether the Genistein could protect morphine adverse effects on sperm cells viability, count, motility, and testis histology and testosterone hormone and nitric oxide in blood serum. Materials and Methods: In this study, various doses of Genistein (0, 1, 2, and 3 mg/kg) and Genistein plus morphine (0, 1, 2, and 3 mg/kg) were administered interaperitoneally to 48 male mice for 30 consequent days. These mice were randomly assigned to 8 groups (n=6) and sperm parameters (sperm cells viability, count, motility and morphology), testis weight and histology, testosterone hormone (ELISA method), FSH and LH hormones (immunoradiometry) and serum nitric oxide (griess assay) were analyzed and compared. Results: The results indicated that morphine administration significantly decreased testosterone (0.03 ng/mg) LH and FSH level, histological parameters, count, viability (55.3%), morphology and motility of sperm cells (1%), testis weight (0.08 gr) and increase nitric oxide compared to saline group (p=0.00). However, administration of Genistein and Genistein plus morphine significantly boosted motility, morphology, count, viability of sperm cells, seminiferous tubules diameter, germinal thickness, testosterone, LH and FSH while decrease nitric oxide level in all groups compared to morphine group (p<0.025). Conclusion: It seems that Genistein administration could increase the quality of spermatozoa and prevent morphine- induced adverse effects on sperm parameters. PMID:27200423

  15. Investigation of the biochemical effects of renin inhibition in normal volunteers treated by an ACE inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Chauveau, D; Guyenne, T T; Cumin, F; Chatellier, G; Corvol, P; Ménard, J

    1992-01-01

    1. In order to investigate accurately the biochemical effects of renin inhibition in man, we have developed a sensitive assay to measure angiotensin I (1-10) decapeptide. 2. Angiotensins were extracted from plasma by adsorption to phenylsilylsilica, and angiotensin I (Ang I) was quantified by radioimmunoassay. The detection limit was 0.77 fmol ml-1, and the extraction recovery of [125I]-Ang I added to albumin buffer was 83% at the inflection point (10 fmol ml-1) of the standard curve. The overall recovery was 98.5 +/- 3.5%. The intra- and inter-assay reproducibility was 10.4% and 9.7% respectively. Cross-reactivity of the antiserum used was low (less than 0.3%) with all angiotensin peptides tested except Ang (2-10) nonapeptide. 3. A human pharmacological model was subsequently used to assess in vivo the biochemical effects of the renin inhibitor CGP 38560A. Six healthy volunteers received 20 mg lisinopril, a long-acting ACE-inhibitor. During the following 24 h, the renin-angiotensin system was reset with typically elevated active plasma renin and Ang I, at respectively 275 and 429% of basal values. 4. In a randomized three-way cross-over protocol, the six volunteers received a 30 min infusion of the renin inhibitor CGP 38560A (125 or 250 micrograms kg-1) or 5% glucose. The fall in plasma Ang I was 92% and 97.5% after the lowest and highest dose of the renin inhibitor, respectively. A concomitant increase in active plasma renin was observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1315560

  16. Chemotherapy effectiveness and mortality prediction in surgically treated osteosarcoma dogs: A validation study.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, A F; Nielen, M; Withrow, S J; Selmic, L E; Burton, J H; Klungel, O H; Groenwold, R H H; Kirpensteijn, J

    2016-03-01

    Canine osteosarcoma is the most common bone cancer, and an important cause of mortality and morbidity, in large purebred dogs. Previously we constructed two multivariable models to predict a dog's 5-month or 1-year mortality risk after surgical treatment for osteosarcoma. According to the 5-month model, dogs with a relatively low risk of 5-month mortality benefited most from additional chemotherapy treatment. In the present study, we externally validated these results using an independent cohort study of 794 dogs. External performance of our prediction models showed some disagreement between observed and predicted risk, mean difference: -0.11 (95% confidence interval [95% CI]-0.29; 0.08) for 5-month risk and 0.25 (95%CI 0.10; 0.40) for 1-year mortality risk. After updating the intercept, agreement improved: -0.0004 (95%CI-0.16; 0.16) and -0.002 (95%CI-0.15; 0.15). The chemotherapy by predicted mortality risk interaction (P-value=0.01) showed that the chemotherapy compared to no chemotherapy effectiveness was modified by 5-month mortality risk: dogs with a relatively lower risk of mortality benefited most from additional chemotherapy. Chemotherapy effectiveness on 1-year mortality was not significantly modified by predicted risk (P-value=0.28). In conclusion, this external validation study confirmed that our multivariable risk prediction models can predict a patient's mortality risk and that dogs with a relatively lower risk of 5-month mortality seem to benefit most from chemotherapy.

  17. Effects of emodin on treating murine nonalcoholic fatty liver induced by high caloric laboratory chaw

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Hui; Lu, Fu-Er; Gao, Zhi-Qiang; Xu, Li-Jun; Wang, Kai-Fu; Zou, Xin

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of emodin on the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver in rats induced by high caloric laboratory chaw. METHODS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver model was successfully established by feeding with high caloric laboratory chaw for 12 wk. Then the model rats were randomly divided into 3 groups, namely model control group, emodin group and dietary treatment group. The rats in emodin group were given emodin at dose of 40 mg/(kg·d) while animals in other groups were given distilled water of the same volume. The rats in model control group were fed with high caloric laboratory chaw while animals in other groups were fed with normal diet. Four weeks later, liver index (liver/body weight ratio), serum activities of liver-associated enzymes, blood lipid, fasting blood glucose, fasting plasma insulin, HOMA insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), hepatic triglyceride content and histology features of all groups were assayed. The expression of hepatic peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) gamma was determined by RT-PCR. RESULTS: The body weight, liver index, serum activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), blood lipid, hepatic triglyceride content of model control group were significantly elevated, with moderate to severe hepatocyte steatosis. The expression of hepatic PPAR gamma mRNA was obviously reduced in model control group. Compared with model control group, the body weight, liver index, serum activities of ALT, blood lipids and hepatic triglyceride of emodin group significantly decreased and hepatic histology display was also greatly improved. Meanwhile, the expression of hepatic PPAR gamma mRNA was elevated. However, high serum activities of ALT and hyperlipidemia were persisted in dietary treatment group although liver index was decreased and liver histology was somewhat improved. CONCLUSION: It is suggested that emodin might be effective in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver in rats. Its therapeutic mechanism could be

  18. Effects of liquefaction time and temperature on heavy metal removal and distribution in liquefied CCA-treated wood sludge.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hui

    2010-06-01

    Wood liquefaction was studied as a recycling method for chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood waste. The effects of liquefaction temperature and time on the removal of the heavy metals and their distribution in liquefied CCA-treated wood sludge were investigated. The residue content decreased as the temperature increased from 120 to 180 degrees C regardless of the reaction time. It decreased gradually with the increase of reaction time under liquefaction temperatures 120 and 150 degrees C. But it decreased as the reaction time increased from 30 to 60min then increased when the reaction time increased to 90min under liquefaction temperature 180 degrees C due to the re-condensation of decomposed wood components. The total concentrations of arsenic, chromium, and copper in the sludge samples increased, while the percentage of the removed metals decreased, with increasing liquefaction temperature, which could be related to the changes of wood residue content and the fate of the heavy metals under different liquefaction conditions. The exchangeable/acid extractable fraction of all three heavy metals decreased as the liquefaction temperature increased. At the same time, Cr and As increased in both oxidizable and reducible fractions. The amount of Cr in the oxidizable fraction increased 40% as the liquefaction temperature increased from 120 to 180 degrees C. The major change of Cu distribution was the increase in reducible fraction with the increase of liquefaction time. The results of this study suggested that high liquefaction temperature tends to inhibit the heavy metal recovery when liquefaction is used as a recycling method for CCA-treated wood waste.

  19. Effectiveness of cold water immersion for treating exertional heat stress when immediate response is not possible.

    PubMed

    Flouris, A D; Friesen, B J; Carlson, M J; Casa, D J; Kenny, G P

    2015-06-01

    Immediate treatment with cold water immersion (CWI) is the gold standard for exertional heatstroke. In the field, however, treatment is often delayed due to delayed paramedic response and/or inaccurate diagnosis. We examined the effect of treatment (reduction of rectal temperature to 37.5 °C) delays of 5, 20, and 40 min on core cooling rates in eight exertionally heat-stressed (40.0 °C rectal temperature) individuals. We found that rectal temperature was elevated above baseline (P < 0.05) at the end of all delay periods (5 min: 40.08 ± 0.32; 20 min: 39.92 ± 0.40; 40 min: 39.57 ± 0.29 °C). Mean arterial pressure was reduced (P < 0.05) below baseline (92 ± 1.8 mm Hg) after all delay periods (5 min: 75 ± 2.6; 20 min: 74 ± 1.7; 40 min: 70 ± 2.1 mm Hg; P > 0.05). Rectal core cooling rates were similar among conditions (5 min: 0.20 ± 0.01; 20 min: 0.17 ± 0.02; 40 min: 0.17 ± 0.01 °C/min; P > 0.05). The rectal temperature afterdrop following CWI was similar across conditions (5 min: 35.95; 20 min: 35.61; 40 min: 35.87 °C; P > 0.05). We conclude that the effectiveness of 2 °C CWI as a treatment for exertional heat stress remains high even when applied with a delay of 40 min. Therefore, our results support that CWI is the most appropriate treatment for exertional heatstroke as it is capable of quickly reversing hyperthermia even when treatment is commenced with a significant delay.

  20. Cost-Effectiveness of “Golden Mustard” for Treating Vitamin A Deficiency in India

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Jeffrey; Klein, Eili Y.; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2010-01-01

    Background Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is an important nutritional problem in India, resulting in an increased risk of severe morbidity and mortality. Periodic, high-dose vitamin A supplementation is the WHO-recommended method to prevent VAD, since a single dose can compensate for reduced dietary intake or increased need over a period of several months. However, in India only 34 percent of targeted children currently receive the two doses per year, and new strategies are urgently needed. Methodology Recent advancements in biotechnology permit alternative strategies for increasing the vitamin A content of common foods. Mustard (Brassica juncea), which is consumed widely in the form of oil by VAD populations, can be genetically modified to express high levels of beta-carotene, a precursor to vitamin A. Using estimates for consumption, we compare predicted costs and benefits of genetically modified (GM) fortification of mustard seed with high-dose vitamin A supplementation and industrial fortification of mustard oil during processing to alleviate VAD by calculating the avertable health burden in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALY). Principal Findings We found that all three interventions potentially avert significant numbers of DALYs and deaths. Expanding vitamin A supplementation to all areas was the least costly intervention, at $23–$50 per DALY averted and $1,000–$6,100 per death averted, though cost-effectiveness varied with prevailing health subcenter coverage. GM fortification could avert 5 million–6 million more DALYs and 8,000–46,000 more deaths, mainly because it would benefit the entire population and not just children. However, the costs associated with GM fortification were nearly five times those of supplementation. Industrial fortification was dominated by both GM fortification and supplementation. The cost-effectiveness ratio of each intervention decreased with the prevalence of VAD and was sensitive to the efficacy rate of averted

  1. Raw and thermally treated cement asbestos exerts different cytotoxicity effects on A549 cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pugnaloni, Armanda; Lucarini, Guendalina; Rubini, Corrado; Smorlesi, Arianna; Tomasetti, Marco; Strafella, Elisabetta; Armeni, Tatiana; Gualtieri, Alessandro F

    2015-01-01

    Raw cement asbestos (RCA) undergoes a complete solid state transformation when heated at high temperatures. The secondary raw material produced, high temperatures-cement asbestos (HT-CA) is composed of newly-formed crystals in place of the asbestos fibers present in RCA. Our previous study showed that HT-CA exerts lower cytotoxic cell damage compared to RCA. Nevertheless further investigations are needed to deepen our understanding of pathogenic pathways involving oxidative and nitrative damage. Our aim is to deepen the understanding of the biological effects on A549 cells of these materials regarding DNA damage related proteins (p53, its isoform p73 and TRAIL) and nitric oxide (NO) production during inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-mediated inflammation. Increments of p53/p73 expression, iNOS positive cells and NO concentrations were found with RCA, compared to HT-CA and controls mainly at 48 h. Interestingly, ferrous iron causing reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated DNA damage was found in RCA as a contaminant. HT-CA thermal treatment induces a global recrystallization with iron in a crystal form poorly released in media. HT-CA slightly interferes with genome expression and exerts lower inflammatory potential compared to RCA on biological systems. It could represent a safe approach for storing or recycling asbestos and an environmentally friendly alternative to asbestos waste.

  2. Effect of Endomorphins on HUVECs Treated by ox-LDL and Its Related Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Juan; Zhang, Qi; Tian, Liming; Huang, Wenhui; Quan, Jinxing; Wang, Jinyang; Xu, Yanjia; Wang, Yunfang; Niu, Ruilan

    2016-01-01

    We found in the present study that treatment with ox-LDL decreased the cell viability and the content of nitric oxide (NO) and the activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) as well as eNOS mRNA expression, while increasing the mRNA expression and content of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). However, endomorphins EM1/EM2 increased the cell viability and the content of NO and the activity of NOS as well as eNOS mRNA expression, while decreasing the mRNA expression and content of ET-1 compared with ox-LDL alone. Meanwhile, the expressions of JNK and p-JNK were enhanced by ox-LDL while being suppressed by EM1/EM2. The results suggested that EM1 and EM2 can correct the endothelial cell dysfunction induced by ox-LDL and the protective effect may be achieved by affecting the JNK pathway. PMID:27579327

  3. The Effectiveness of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Treating Patients with Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Jun; Liao, Chung-Chih; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Li, Tsai-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Leukemia is the most common malignancy among all childhood cancers and is associated with a low survival rate in adult patients. Since 1995, the National Health Insurance (NHI) program in Taiwan has been offering insurance coverage for Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), along with conventional Western medicine (WM). This study analyzes the status of TCM utilization in Taiwan, in both pediatric and adult patients with leukemia. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using population-based National Health Insurance Research Database of Registry of Catastrophic Illness, involving patient data from 2001 to 2010 and follow-up data through 2011. The effectiveness of TCM use was evaluated. Relevant sociodemographic data showed that both pediatric and adult patients who were TCM users one year prior to leukemia diagnosis were more likely to utilize TCM services for cancer therapy. A greater part of medical expenditure of TCM users was lower than that of TCM nonusers, except little discrepancy in drug fee of adult patients. The survival rate is also higher in TCM users. Altogether, these data show that TCM has the potential to serve as an adjuvant therapy when combined with conventional WM in the treatment of patients with leukemia.

  4. Long-term psychological effects in children treated for intracranial tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Jannoun, L.; Bloom, H.J. )

    1990-04-01

    The results are reported of the psychological assessment of 62 children who presented with primary intracranial tumors and who received radiotherapy at the Royal Marsden Hospital between 1963 and 1973. Evaluations were carried out 3-20 years after treatment. All patients were free from progressive tumor at testing. The average IQ of the total series was within the normal range (Full-Scale IQ 92) but 23% of the patients were functioning at an educationally subnormal level of intelligence (IQ less than 80). Sex, tumor type, tumor location and the radiotherapy volume and site of maximum dose were not found to have a significant effect on intellectual outcome. A significant correlation was found between intelligence and age at the time of treatment. Children who received treatment under the age of 5 years were more adversely affected (average IQ 72) than those who were aged 6-10 (average IQ 93) and those aged 11-15 years (average IQ 107). The incidence of neurological abnormalities and physical disability was significantly greater among patients with supratentorial tumors (72% of cases), compared with patients with infratentorial lesions (44% of cases). The results were discussed in terms of the management of young patients with intracranial tumors.

  5. Modulatory effects of Aloe vera leaf gel extract on oxidative stress in rats treated with streptozotocin.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, S; Sivagnanam, K; Subramanian, S

    2005-02-01

    Oxidative stress is currently suggested as a mechanism underlying diabetes and diabetic-related complications. Oxidative stress results from an imbalance between radical-generating and radical-scavenging systems. Many secondary plant metabolites have been reported to possess antioxidant activity. This study was designed to evaluate the potential antioxidative activity of the ethanolic extract from Aloe vera leaf gel in the plasma and pancreas of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Glibenclamide was used as a standard reference drug. Oral administration of ethanolic extract at a concentration of 300 mg kg(-1) body weight for 21 days resulted in a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxides and alpha-tocopherol and significant improvement in ascorbic acid, reduced glutathione and insulin in the plasma of diabetic rats. Similarly, the treatment also resulted in a significant reduction in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxides, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and significant improvement in reduced glutathione in the pancreas of STZ-induced diabetic rats when compared with untreated diabetic rats. The ethanolic extract appeared to be more effective than glibenclamide in controlling oxidative stress. Thus, this study confirms the ethnopharmacological use of Aloe vera in ameliorating the oxidative stress found in diabetes.

  6. [A Case of Rectal Stenosis For Gastric Cancer Recurrence Effectively Treated with a Colonic Stent].

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yutaka; Ebihara, Ken; Kato, Fumitaka; Makari, Yoichi; Mikami, Johta; Kawase, Tomono; Hamakawa, Takuya; Tsukamoto, Yuki; Fujimori, Masaki; Gobaru, Aya; Mitsudo, Daichi; Yabuta, Takamasa; Nakata, Ken; Tsujie, Masaki; Kitamura, Shinji; Ohzato, Hiroki

    2015-11-01

    A man in his 70s underwent distal gastrectomy and D1 dissection with Roux-en-Y reconstruction in March 2009 for advanced gastric cancer with peritoneal metastasis. He was diagnosed with signet-ring cell carcinoma, Stage Ⅳ(T4a, N3a, H0, P1, CY1, M1) and R2. Seventeen cycles of S-1 plus CDDP were administered from April 2009 to December 2010 and 19 cycles of S-1 monotherapy were administered from January 2011 to March 2014. He developed peritoneal recurrence with serum tumor marker elevation in May 2014. Stenosis of the common bile duct, hydronephrosis, and rectal stenosis in Ra-Rs was observed in June 2014. A bile duct stent and a double J catheter was inserted. A colonic stent (NitiTM, 22 mm×6 cm) was also inserted. He could eat after the surgery and was discharged from the hospital. We suggest that a colonic stent is an effective treatment for colon stenosis due to peritoneal metastasis from gastric cancer.

  7. Effect of chemical heterogeneity on photoluminescence of graphite oxide treated with S-/N-containing modifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahim, Amani M.; Rodríguez-Castellón, Enrique; Montenegro, José María; Bandosz, Teresa J.

    2015-03-01

    Graphite oxide (GO) obtained using Hummers method was modified by hydrothermal treatment either with sulfanilic acid or polystyrene (3-ammonium) sulfonate at 100 °C or 85 °C, respectively. Both modifiers contain sulfur in the oxidized forms and nitrogen in the reduced forms. The materials were characterized using FTIR, XPS, thermal analysis, potentiometric titration and SEM. Their photoluminescent properties and their alteration with an addition of Ag+ were also measured. As a result of these modifications nitrogen was introduced to the graphene layers as amines, imides, amides, and sulfur as sulfones and sulfonic acids. Moreover, the presence of polyaniline was detected. This significantly affected the polarity, acid-base character, and conductivity of the materials. Apparently carboxylic groups of GO were involved in the surface reactions. The modified GOs lost their layered structure and the modifications resulted in the high degree of structural and chemical heterogeneity. Photoluminescence in visible light was recorded and linked to the presence of heteroatoms. For the polystyrene (3-ammonium) sulfonate modified sample addition of Ag+ quenched the photoluminescence at low wavelength showing sensitivity as a possible optical detector. No apparent effect was found for the sulfanilic acid modified sample.

  8. How effective is continuous glucose monitoring in intensively treated type 1 diabetes mellitus?

    PubMed

    Wolfsdorf, Joseph I

    2009-03-01

    This Practice Point commentary discusses the findings of a multicenter clinical trial conducted by the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation Continuous Glucose Monitoring Study Group. In the study, 322 individuals aged >/=8 years who were already receiving intensive insulin therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus were randomly assigned to either a group that performed continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), or to a control group that performed conventional self-monitoring with a blood-glucose meter. At week 26, the between-group difference in the change in HbA(1c) level from baseline varied according to the patient's age. A significantly greater reduction in HbA(1c) level in the CGM group compared with the control group was found in patients aged >or=25 years, but not in those aged 8-14 years or 15-24 years. In patients aged >or=25 years, CGM improved glycemic control without increasing the frequency of hypoglycemia. Motivation, willingness to change diabetes self-care behaviors, and the ability to use CGM effectively are important determinants of whether this technology will improve glycemic control.

  9. Biologically Effective Dose-Response Relationship for Breast Cancer Treated by Conservative Surgery and Postoperative Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Plataniotis, George A. Dale, Roger G.

    2009-10-01

    Purpose: To find a biologically effective dose (BED) response for adjuvant breast radiotherapy (RT) for initial-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Results of randomized trials of RT vs. non-RT were reviewed and the tumor control probability (TCP) after RT was calculated for each of them. Using the linear-quadratic formula and Poisson statistics of cell-kill, the average initial number of clonogens per tumor before RT and the average tumor cell radiosensitivity (alpha-value) were calculated. An {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 4 Gy was assumed for these calculations. Results: A linear regression equation linking BED to TCP was derived: -ln[-ln(TCP)] = -ln(No) + {alpha}{sup *} BED = -4.08 + 0.07 * BED, suggesting a rather low radiosensitivity of breast cancer cells (alpha = 0.07 Gy{sup -1}), which probably reflects population heterogeneity. From the linear relationship a sigmoid BED-response curve was constructed. Conclusion: For BED values higher than about 90 Gy{sub 4} the radiation-induced TCP is essentially maximizing at 90-100%. The relationship presented here could be an approximate guide in the design and reporting of clinical trials of adjuvant breast RT.

  10. The Effectiveness of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Treating Patients with Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Jun; Liao, Chung-Chih; Chen, Hsuan-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Leukemia is the most common malignancy among all childhood cancers and is associated with a low survival rate in adult patients. Since 1995, the National Health Insurance (NHI) program in Taiwan has been offering insurance coverage for Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), along with conventional Western medicine (WM). This study analyzes the status of TCM utilization in Taiwan, in both pediatric and adult patients with leukemia. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using population-based National Health Insurance Research Database of Registry of Catastrophic Illness, involving patient data from 2001 to 2010 and follow-up data through 2011. The effectiveness of TCM use was evaluated. Relevant sociodemographic data showed that both pediatric and adult patients who were TCM users one year prior to leukemia diagnosis were more likely to utilize TCM services for cancer therapy. A greater part of medical expenditure of TCM users was lower than that of TCM nonusers, except little discrepancy in drug fee of adult patients. The survival rate is also higher in TCM users. Altogether, these data show that TCM has the potential to serve as an adjuvant therapy when combined with conventional WM in the treatment of patients with leukemia. PMID:27847528

  11. Effect of Endomorphins on HUVECs Treated by ox-LDL and Its Related Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Juan; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Jing; Tian, Liming; Huang, Wenhui; Quan, Jinxing; Wang, Jinyang; Xu, Yanjia; Wang, Yunfang; Niu, Ruilan

    2016-01-01

    We found in the present study that treatment with ox-LDL decreased the cell viability and the content of nitric oxide (NO) and the activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) as well as eNOS mRNA expression, while increasing the mRNA expression and content of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). However, endomorphins EM1/EM2 increased the cell viability and the content of NO and the activity of NOS as well as eNOS mRNA expression, while decreasing the mRNA expression and content of ET-1 compared with ox-LDL alone. Meanwhile, the expressions of JNK and p-JNK were enhanced by ox-LDL while being suppressed by EM1/EM2. The results suggested that EM1 and EM2 can correct the endothelial cell dysfunction induced by ox-LDL and the protective effect may be achieved by affecting the JNK pathway.

  12. Innovative Opioid Peptides and Biased Agonism: Novel Avenues for More Effective and Safer Analgesics to Treat Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Bedini, Andrea; Spampinato, Santi Mario

    2017-02-15

    Chronic pain is a clinically relevant and yet unsolved conditions that is poorly treated with the currently available drugs, thus highlighting the urgent need of innovative analgesics. Although opiates are not very effective in the treatment of inflammatory and neuropathic pain, developing novel opioid receptor peptide agonists, as well as modulating the opioid receptor-mediated responses in a ligand-specific fashion, may represent an innovative and promising strategy to identify more efficacious and safer antalgic drugs. In this review, novel analogues of endomorphin 1 (a mu opioid receptor selective agonist able to induce analgesia in different animal models of pain - including neuropathic pain) and dermorphin (one of the most potent opioid peptide existing in nature) will be discussed as they are emerging as a promising starting point to develop novel opioid agonists: endomorphin 1 analogues, in fact, may determine antinociception in different models of neuropathic pain with reduced side effects as compared to classic opiates as morphine; dermorphin analogues may elicit analgesia in animal models of both inflammatory and neuropathic pain and with less severe adverse effects. Furthermore, such opioid peptides may allow to explore unprecedented modalities of ligand-receptor interactions, helping to characterize biased agonism at opioid receptors: exploiting functional selectivity at opioid receptor may lead to identify innovative analgesic with improved pharmacological responses and optimized side effects. Thus, innovative opioid peptides, as those outlined in this review, are promising candidates to develop more effective opioid analgesics to be employed as medications for chronic pain states, as inflammatory or neuropathic pain.

  13. Green Infrastructure: Why Can't We Effectively Treat Nitrogen, and What Are the Microbes Doing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, M. T.; Morse, N.; McPhillips, L. E.

    2015-12-01

    Green infrastructure (GI) is growing in popularity, but we are failing to remove nutrients and are missing the target to protect water quality. GI has shown mixed abilities to reduce N, and alarmingly export N in some conditions. The goal of this project was to investigate the microbial processes controlling N cycling (mainly denitrification) within stormwater basins and how these processes influence water quality. We examined two stormwater basins in Ithaca, NY; one slow draining 'wet' site and one quick draining 'dry' site. Multiple lines of evidence were used to investigate N cycling within these systems: (1) metagenomics investigation of functional genes, (2) water quality field monitoring, and (3) denitrification lab-scale assays. Water quality monitoring was paired with microbial functional genes; differences in N reductions within the basins were related to N cycling genes. To determine if influent stormwater pollutants affect denitrification, a controlled field manipulation experiment was also conducted. Soil from each site, and a control site without stormwater influence, were exchanged. Potential denitrification was measured weekly via denitrification enzyme assay (DEA). Soil DNA was sent for sequencing on July 27, 2015; results are expected in September 2015. The stormwater effects on denitrification using the exchanged soils is ongoing until September 8, 2015. Preliminary results show the wet site has considerably higher denitrification potential compared to the dry site, 2.00 and 0.27 mg N kg-1 hr-1, respectively. Initial water quality monitoring indicate nitrate mass loads are reduced following treatment within the basin. However, nitrate concentrations remain almost constant, indicating that volume reduction, and not microbial treatment, is "removing" nitrate.

  14. Citric Acid Effects on Brain and Liver Oxidative Stress in Lipopolysaccharide-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Youness, Eman R.; Mohammed, Nadia A.; Morsy, Safaa M. Youssef; Omara, Enayat A.; Sleem, Amany A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Citric acid is a weak organic acid found in the greatest amounts in citrus fruits. This study examined the effect of citric acid on endotoxin-induced oxidative stress of the brain and liver. Mice were challenged with a single intraperitoneal dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 200 μg/kg). Citric acid was given orally at 1, 2, or 4 g/kg at time of endotoxin injection and mice were euthanized 4 h later. LPS induced oxidative stress in the brain and liver tissue, resulting in marked increase in lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde [MDA]) and nitrite, while significantly decreasing reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) showed a pronounced increase in brain tissue after endotoxin injection. The administration of citric acid (1–2 g/kg) attenuated LPS-induced elevations in brain MDA, nitrite, TNF-α, GPx, and PON1 activity. In the liver, nitrite was decreased by 1 g/kg citric acid. GPx activity was increased, while PON1 activity was decreased by citric acid. The LPS-induced liver injury, DNA fragmentation, serum transaminase elevations, caspase-3, and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression were attenuated by 1–2 g/kg citric acid. DNA fragmentation, however, increased after 4 g/kg citric acid. Thus in this model of systemic inflammation, citric acid (1–2 g/kg) decreased brain lipid peroxidation and inflammation, liver damage, and DNA fragmentation. PMID:24433072

  15. Molecular and Cellular Effects Induced in Mytilus galloprovincialis Treated with Oxytetracycline at Different Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Banni, Mohamed; Sforzini, Susanna; Franzellitti, Silvia; Oliveri, Caterina; Viarengo, Aldo; Fabbri, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluatedthe interactive effects of temperature (16°C and 24°C) and a 4-day treatment with the antibiotic oxytetracycline (OTC) at 1 and 100μg/L on cellular and molecular parameters in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Lysosomal membrane stability (LMS), a sensitive biomarker of impaired health status in this organism, was assessed in the digestive glands. In addition, oxidative stress markers and the expression of mRNAs encoding proteins involved in antioxidant defense (catalase (cat) and glutathione-S-transferase (gst)) and the heat shock response (hsp90, hsp70, and hsp27) were evaluated in the gills, the target tissue of soluble chemicals. Finally, cAMP levels, which represent an important cell signaling pathway related to oxidative stress and the response to temperature challenges, were also determined in the gills. Exposure to heat stress as well as to OTC rendered a decrease in LMS and an increase in malonedialdehyde accumulation (MDA). CAT activity was not significantly modified, whereas GST activity decreased at 24°C. Cat and gst expression levels were reduced in animals kept at 24°C compared to 16°C in the presence or absence of OTC. At 16°C, treatment with OTC caused a significant increase in cat and gst transcript levels. Hsp27 mRNA was significantly up-regulated at all conditions compared to controls at 16°C. cAMP levels were increased at 24°C independent of the presence of OTC. PCA analysis showed that 37.21% and 25.89% of the total variance was explained by temperature and OTC treatment, respectively. Interestingly, a clear interaction was observed in animals exposed to both stressors increasing LMS and MDA accumulation and reducing hsp27 gene expression regulation. These interactions may suggest a risk for the organisms due to temperature increases in contaminated seawaters. PMID:26067465

  16. Effects of juglone and lawsone on oxidative stress in maize coleoptile cells treated with IAA

    PubMed Central

    Kurtyka, Renata; Pokora, Wojciech; Tukaj, Zbigniew; Karcz, Waldemar

    2016-01-01

    Naphthoquinones are secondary metabolites widely distributed in nature and produced by bacteria, fungi and higher plants. Their biological activity may result from induction of oxidative stress, caused by redox cycling or direct interaction with cellular macromolecules, in which quinones act as electrophiles. The redox homeostasis is known as one of factors involved in auxin-mediated plant growth regulation. To date, however, little is known about the crosstalk between reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by quinones and the plant growth hormone auxin (IAA). In this study, redox cycling properties of two naphthoquinones, juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) and lawsone (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone), were compared in experiments performed on maize coleoptile segments incubated with or without the addition of IAA. It was found that lawsone was much more effective than juglone in increasing both H2O2 production and the activity of antioxidative enzymes (SOD, POX and CAT) in coleoptile cells, regardless of the presence of IAA. An increase in the activity of Cu/Zn-SOD isoenzymes induced by both naphthoquinones suggests that juglone- and lawsone-generated H2O2 was primarily produced in the cytosolic and cell wall spaces. The cell potential to neutralize hydrogen peroxide, determined by POX and CAT activity, pointed to activity of catalase as the main enzymatic mechanism responsible for degradation of H2O2. Therefore, we assumed that generation of H2O2, induced more efficiently by LW than JG, was the major factor accounting for differences in the toxicity of naphthoquinones in maize coleoptiles. The role of auxin in the process appeared negligible. Moreover, the results suggested that oxidative stress imposed by JG and LW was one of mechanisms of allelopathic action of the studied quinones in plants. PMID:27760740

  17. Mimicking Hypoxia to Treat Anemia: HIF-Stabilizer BAY 85-3934 (Molidustat) Stimulates Erythropoietin Production without Hypertensive Effects

    PubMed Central

    Flamme, Ingo; Oehme, Felix; Ellinghaus, Peter; Jeske, Mario; Keldenich, Jörg; Thuss, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen sensing by hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylases (HIF-PHs) is the dominant regulatory mechanism of erythropoietin (EPO) expression. In chronic kidney disease (CKD), impaired EPO expression causes anemia, which can be treated by supplementation with recombinant human EPO (rhEPO). However, treatment can result in rhEPO levels greatly exceeding the normal physiological range for endogenous EPO, and there is evidence that this contributes to hypertension in patients with CKD. Mimicking hypoxia by inhibiting HIF-PHs, thereby stabilizing HIF, is a novel treatment concept for restoring endogenous EPO production. HIF stabilization by oral administration of the HIF-PH inhibitor BAY 85-3934 (molidustat) resulted in dose-dependent production of EPO in healthy Wistar rats and cynomolgus monkeys. In repeat oral dosing of BAY 85-3934, hemoglobin levels were increased compared with animals that received vehicle, while endogenous EPO remained within the normal physiological range. BAY 85-3934 therapy was also effective in the treatment of renal anemia in rats with impaired kidney function and, unlike treatment with rhEPO, resulted in normalization of hypertensive blood pressure in a rat model of CKD. Notably, unlike treatment with the antihypertensive enalapril, the blood pressure normalization was achieved without a compensatory activation of the renin–angiotensin system. Thus, BAY 85-3934 may provide an approach to the treatment of anemia in patients with CKD, without the increased risk of adverse cardiovascular effects seen for patients treated with rhEPO. Clinical studies are ongoing to investigate the effects of BAY 85-3934 therapy in patients with renal anemia. PMID:25392999

  18. Comparison of Therapeutic Effects of Omega-3 and Methylphenidate (Ritalin®) in Treating Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Dashti, Naser; Hekmat, Hoda; Soltani, Hamid Reza; Rahimdel, Abolghasem; Javaherchian, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a fixed pattern of disregard and hyperactivity that is much more severe than what is normal in children of the same age. Multiple drugs are used for the treatment of children with ADHD; however, their side effects and efficacy are not clearly known. This study was designed to evaluate and compare the therapeutic effects of two drugs, that is, omega-3 and methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin®), used to treat patients with ADHD. Methods: In a randomized, placebo control clinical trial in Yazd, Iran, 85 ADHD children were divided into two experimental and one control groups. Thus, 29 subjects were treated with Ritalin®, 28 subjects received omega-3, and the remaining 28 received placebo. The data collection tools used in this study consisted of the Conners' Parent Rating Scale and Teacher Rating Scale. The scores obtained from these questionnaires were analyzed using chi-square test and paired t-test in PASW Statistics. Results: The average age of the population was 8.22 (± 1.65) years. Significant associations were observed between Ritalin® therapy and the changes before and after the treatment, and the omega-3 treatment and the changes before and after treatment (p < 0.001). There was no significant association between the placebo group and the changes before and after the treatment (p > 0.050). Omega-3 had considerable efficacy as well as Ritalin® (P = 0.001). Conclusions: More attention should be given to screening, prevention, and treatment with omega-3 and its effective role in the development of the brain and mental health, and increasing children's attention span and thinking ability. PMID:25798168

  19. Contrasting effects EDTA applications on the fluxes of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from straw-treated rice paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Prabhat; Kim, Pil Joo

    2016-03-24

    Submerged rice paddy soils are the major anthropogenic source of methane (CH4 ) emission to the atmosphere. Straw incorporation for sustaining soil organic C pool increases CH4 emission flux from rice paddy soils. Though the rate of nitrous oxide (N2 O) emission is much less than CH4 , the former has 298 times higher global warming potential (GWP) than equivalent quantity of carbon dioxide. Effect of chelating agent like EDTA on N2O emission and on GWP due to CH4 and N2 O emissions was not evaluated before. The emission of CH4 gas from submerged soil may be mitigated by EDTA application; however, it also increases concentration of nitrate-N in soil, the precursor of N2 O gas formation under anaerobic condition. In this experiment, irrespective of straw application, EDTA treated soils emitted less CH4 to the atmosphere than corresponding control. Though N2 O emission was increased from soil due to EDTA applications, total GWP was at least 15% reduced in EDTA treated soils during rice cultivation. The plant growth and rice grain yield was not affected by EDTA application. Therefore, EDTA application at 5.0 ppm might be used to reduce total global warming potential during rice cultivation.

  20. Quantitative proteomic analysis reveals the neuroprotective effects of huperzine A for amyloid beta treated neuroblastoma N2a cells.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yimin; Fang, Li; Yang, Yiming; Jiang, Hualiang; Yang, Huaiyu; Zhang, Haiyan; Zhou, Hu

    2013-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a worldwide metabolic disease and an economically costly disease to society, so more medicines need to be developed to treat this disease. Huperzine A, a novel lycopodium alkaloid isolated from traditional Chinese medicine Huperzia serrata (Qian Ceng Ta), has been shown to possess multiple neuroprotective effects for Alzheimer's disease, but the precise pharmacological mechanism of huperzine A is unclear and needs to be further investigated. In this study, proteins from untreated N2a cells (Con group), cells preincubated with huperzine A followed by Aβ (1-42) oligomers treatment (HupA group) and cells treated with Aβ (1-42) oligomers (Aβ group) with five biological replicates in each cohort, were processed in a centrifugal proteomic reactor and quantified by label-free quantitation. A total of 2860 proteins were quantified with high confidence, and 198 proteins were significantly changed (with p-value < 0.05) between HupA and Aβ cohorts. The pathway and direct protein-protein interaction network analysis showed that huperzine A protects N2a cells against Aβ oligomer-induced cell death by downregulation of cellular tumor antigen p53 (Trp53) expression.

  1. Effect of fluoride-treated enamel on indirect cytotoxicity of a 16% carbamide peroxide bleaching gel to pulp cells.

    PubMed

    Soares, Diana Gabriela; Ribeiro, Ana Paula Dias; Lima, Adriano Fonseca; Sacono, Nancy Tomoko; Hebling, Josimeri; de Souza Costa, Carlos Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of fluoride solutions applied to enamel to protect pulp cells against the trans-enamel and transdentinal cytotoxicity of a 16% carbamide peroxide (CP) bleaching gel. The CP gel was applied to enamel/dentin discs adapted to aicial pulp chambers (8 h/day) during 1, 7 or 14 days, followed by fluoride (0.05% or 0.2%) application for 1 min. The extracts (culture medium in contact with dentin) were applied to MDPC-23 cells for 1 h, and cell metabolism (MTT assay), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and cell membrane damage (flow cytometry) were analyzed. Knoop microhardness of enamel was also evaluated. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests (α=0.05). For the MTT assay and ALP activity, significant reductions between the control and the bleached groups were observed (p<0.05). No statistically significant difference occurred among bleached groups (p>0.05), regardless of fluoride application or treatment days. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated 30% of cell membrane damage in all bleached groups. After 14 days of treatment, the fluoride-treated enamel presented significantly higher microhardness values than the bleached-only group (p<0.05). It was concluded that, regardless of the increase in enamel hardness due to the application of fluoride solutions, the treated enamel surface did not prevent the toxic effects caused by the 16% CP gel to odontoblast-like cells.

  2. Do unto others or treat yourself? The effects of prosocial and self-focused behavior on psychological flourishing.

    PubMed

    Nelson, S Katherine; Layous, Kristin; Cole, Steven W; Lyubomirsky, Sonja

    2016-09-01

    When it comes to the pursuit of happiness, popular culture encourages a focus on oneself. By contrast, substantial evidence suggests that what consistently makes people happy is focusing prosocially on others. In the current study, we contrasted the mood- and well-being-boosting effects of prosocial behavior (i.e., doing acts of kindness for others or for the world) and self-oriented behavior (i.e., doing acts of kindness for oneself) in a 6-week longitudinal experiment. Across a diverse sample of participants (N = 473), we found that the 2 types of prosocial behavior led to greater increases in psychological flourishing than did self-focused and neutral behavior. In addition, we provide evidence for mechanisms explaining the relative improvements in flourishing among those prompted to do acts of kindness-namely, increases in positive emotions and decreases in negative emotions. Those assigned to engage in self-focused behavior did not report improved psychological flourishing, positive emotions, or negative emotions relative to controls. The results of this study contribute to a growing literature supporting the benefits of prosocial behavior and challenge the popular perception that focusing on oneself is an optimal strategy to boost one's mood. People striving for happiness may be tempted to treat themselves. Our results, however, suggest that they may be more successful if they opt to treat someone else instead. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Effect of novel restoration techniques on the fracture resistance of teeth treated endodontically: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Kemaloglu, Hande; Emin Kaval, Mehmet; Turkun, Murat; Micoogullari Kurt, Seniha

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effects of fiber-reinforced composite restorations and a bulk-fill resin composite on the fracture strength of mandibular premolars treated endodontically. Standard mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) cavities were prepared in 48 mandibular premolars. Following root canal treatment, teeth were assigned to four groups: Group 1, nano-hybrid resin composite; Group 2, polyethylene woven fiber plus nano-hybrid resin composite; Group 3, short fiber-reinforced resin composite plus nano-hybrid resin composite; and Group 4, bulk-fill resin composite plus nano-hybrid resin composite. Then, the teeth were subjected to the fracture toughness test. The data were analyzed statistically using one-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey's post-hoc test. The fiber-reinforced groups had better results than the nano-hybrid and bulk-fill composites (p<0.05), while the bulk-fill and nano-hybrid composite restorations gave similar results (p>0.05). Fiber-reinforcement improved the fracture strength of teeth with large MOD cavities treated endodontically. Bulk-fill composites can be used reliably as well as nano-hybrid composites.

  4. The Effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy to Treat Symptoms Following Trauma in Timor Leste.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Sarah J; Lee, Christopher W; de Araujo, Guilhermina; Butler, Susan R; Taylor, Graham; Drummond, Peter D

    2016-04-01

    The effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy for treating trauma symptoms was examined in a postwar/conflict, developing nation, Timor Leste. Participants were 21 Timorese adults with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), assessed as those who scored ≥2 on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Participants were treated with EMDR therapy. Depression and anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. Symptom changes post-EMDR treatment were compared to a stabilization control intervention period in which participants served as their own waitlist control. Sessions were 60-90 mins. The average number of sessions was 4.15 (SD = 2.06). Despite difficulties providing treatment cross-culturally (i.e., language barriers), EMDR therapy was followed by significant and large reductions in trauma symptoms (Cohen's d = 2.48), depression (d = 2.09), and anxiety (d = 1.77). At posttreatment, 20 (95.2%) participants scored below the HTQ PTSD cutoff of 2. Reliable reductions in trauma symptoms were reported by 18 participants (85.7%) posttreatment and 16 (76.2%) at 3-month follow-up. Symptoms did not improve during the control period. Findings support the use of EMDR therapy for treatment of adults with PTSD in a cross-cultural, postwar/conflict setting, and suggest that structured trauma treatments can be applied in Timor Leste.

  5. Effect of α-Amylase Degradation on Physicochemical Properties of Pre-High Hydrostatic Pressure-Treated Potato Starch

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Tai-Hua; Zhang, Miao; Raad, Leyla; Sun, Hong-Nan; Wang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on the susceptibility of potato starch (25%, w/v) suspended in water to degradation by exposure to bacterial α-amylase (0.02%, 0.04% and 0.06%, w/v) for 40 min at 25°C was investigated. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in the structure, morphology and physicochemical properties were observed. HHP-treated potato starch (PS) exposed to α-amylase (0.06%, w/v) showed a significantly greater degree of hydrolysis and amount of reducing sugar released compared to α-amylase at a concentration of 0.04% (w/v) or 0.02% (w/v). Native PS (NPS) granules have a spherical and elliptical form with a smooth surface, whereas the hydrolyzed NPS (hNPS) and hydrolyzed HHP-treated PS granules showed irregular and ruptured forms with several cracks and holes on the surface. Hydrolysis of HHP-treated PS by α-amylase could decrease the average granule size significantly (p <0.05) from 29.43 to 20.03 μm. Swelling power decreased and solubility increased with increasing enzyme concentration and increasing pressure from 200–600 MPa, with the exception of the solubility of HHP-treated PS at 600 MPa (HHP600 PS). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed extensive degradation of the starch in both the ordered and the amorphous structure, especially in hydrolyzed HHP600 PS. The B-type of hydrolyzed HHP600 PS with α-amylase at a concentration 0.06% (w/v) changed to a B+V type with an additional peak at 2θ = 19.36°. The HHP600 starch with 0.06% (w/v) α-amylase displayed the lowest value of To (onset temperature), Tc (conclusion temperature) and ΔHgel (enthalpies of gelatinization). These results indicate the pre-HHP treatment of NPS leads to increased susceptibility of the granules to enzymatic degradation and eventually changes of both the amorphous and the crystalline structures. PMID:26642044

  6. Effect of α-Amylase Degradation on Physicochemical Properties of Pre-High Hydrostatic Pressure-Treated Potato Starch.

    PubMed

    Mu, Tai-Hua; Zhang, Miao; Raad, Leyla; Sun, Hong-Nan; Wang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on the susceptibility of potato starch (25%, w/v) suspended in water to degradation by exposure to bacterial α-amylase (0.02%, 0.04% and 0.06%, w/v) for 40 min at 25°C was investigated. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in the structure, morphology and physicochemical properties were observed. HHP-treated potato starch (PS) exposed to α-amylase (0.06%, w/v) showed a significantly greater degree of hydrolysis and amount of reducing sugar released compared to α-amylase at a concentration of 0.04% (w/v) or 0.02% (w/v). Native PS (NPS) granules have a spherical and elliptical form with a smooth surface, whereas the hydrolyzed NPS (hNPS) and hydrolyzed HHP-treated PS granules showed irregular and ruptured forms with several cracks and holes on the surface. Hydrolysis of HHP-treated PS by α-amylase could decrease the average granule size significantly (p <0.05) from 29.43 to 20.03 μm. Swelling power decreased and solubility increased with increasing enzyme concentration and increasing pressure from 200-600 MPa, with the exception of the solubility of HHP-treated PS at 600 MPa (HHP600 PS). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed extensive degradation of the starch in both the ordered and the amorphous structure, especially in hydrolyzed HHP600 PS. The B-type of hydrolyzed HHP600 PS with α-amylase at a concentration 0.06% (w/v) changed to a B+V type with an additional peak at 2θ = 19.36°. The HHP600 starch with 0.06% (w/v) α-amylase displayed the lowest value of To (onset temperature), Tc (conclusion temperature) and ΔHgel (enthalpies of gelatinization). These results indicate the pre-HHP treatment of NPS leads to increased susceptibility of the granules to enzymatic degradation and eventually changes of both the amorphous and the crystalline structures.

  7. Report: Improving Nationwide Effectiveness of Pump-and-Treat Remedies Requires Sustained and Focused Action to Realize Benefits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #2003-P-000006, March 27, 2003. We found that, generally, the pump-and-treat optimization project has produced valuable information and recommendations for improvement regarding the cost and performance of Superfund-financed pump-and-treat systems.

  8. Modulatory effects of thymol and carvacrol on inflammatory transcription factors in lipopolysaccharide-treated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Gholijani, Nasser; Gharagozloo, Marjan; Farjadian, Shirin; Amirghofran, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is a crucial factor in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases. This study sought to evaluate the effects of thymol and carvacrol, the main components of Thymus vulgaris (thyme) essential oil, on transcription factors regulating inflammation. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated J774.1 mouse macrophages were examined by real time-PCR for interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α gene expression in the presence of these compounds. Levels of inducible phospho-nuclear factor-κB (pNF-κB) p65, activator protein-1 [AP-1(c-Fos/c-Jun)], and nuclear factors of activated T-cells (NFATs) were also measured using Western blots. Levels of phosphorylation of stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK), signal transducer, and activator of transcription (STAT-3), p38, IκBα, and NF-κB p65, as well as total levels of IL-1β and TNFα were determined. The results indicated carvacrol significantly reduced both IL-1β and TNFα at the protein and mRNA levels; thymol also significantly reduced IL-1β expression. Western blot analyses of nuclear cell extracts revealed both agents caused significantly decreased expression of c-Fos, NFAT-1, and NFAT-2; decreased expression of c-Jun was only caused by carvacrol. Neither agent inhibited p-NF-κB p65 expression. At the protein level, carvacrol and thymol each caused decreases in inducible phospho-SAPK/JNK and phospho-STAT3 levels, whereas only carvacrol resulted in increased p-p38 levels in the total cell extract. Despite the reduction of phospho-IκBα caused by both agents, p-NF-κB p65 still increased in the presence of carvacrol. Based on these findings, it is concluded that carvacrol and thymol could contribute to reduction of inflammatory responses through modulation of the expression of JNK, STAT-3, AP-1, and NFATs.

  9. Targeting renal glucose reabsorption to treat hyperglycaemia: the pleiotropic effects of SGLT2 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Vallon, Volker; Thomson, Scott C

    2017-02-01

    also uricosuric. These pleiotropic effects of SGLT2 inhibitors are likely to have contributed to the results of the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial in which the SGLT2 inhibitor, empagliflozin, slowed the progression of chronic kidney disease and reduced major adverse cardiovascular events in high-risk individuals with type 2 diabetes. This review discusses the role of SGLT2 in the physiology and pathophysiology of renal glucose reabsorption and outlines the unexpected logic of inhibiting SGLT2 in the diabetic kidney.

  10. EFFECT OF UV IRRADIATION ON ORGANIC MATTER EXTRACTED FROM TREATED OHIO RIVER WATER STUDIED THROUGH THE USE OF ELECTROSPRAY MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ohio River water was treated by settling, sand filtration, and granular activated carbon filtration. It was then irradiated by low pressure (monochromatic) and medium pressure (polychromatic) UV lamps to investigate the effects of UV irradiation of natural organic matter (NOM). ...

  11. Treating Depressive Symptoms in Psychosis: A Network Meta-Analysis on the Effects of Non-Verbal Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Steenhuis, Laura A.; Nauta, Maaike H.; Bocking, Claudi L. H.; Pijnenborg, Gerdina H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to examine whether non-verbal therapies are effective in treating depressive symptoms in psychotic disorders. Material and Methods A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Psychinfo, Picarta, Embase and ISI Web of Science, up to January 2015. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing a non-verbal intervention to a control condition in patients with psychotic disorders, whilst measuring depressive symptoms as a primary or secondary outcome, were included. The quality of studies was assessed using the ‘Clinical Trials Assessment Measure for psychological treatments’ (CTAM) scale. Cohen’s d was calculated as a measure of effect size. Using a Network Meta-analysis, both direct and indirect evidence was investigated. Results 10 RCTs were included, of which three were of high quality according to the CTAM. The direct evidence demonstrated a significant effect on the reduction in depressive symptoms relative to treatment as usual (TAU), in favor of overall non-verbal therapy (ES: -0.66, 95% C.I. = -0.88, -0.44) and music therapy (ES: -0.59, 95% C.I. = -0.85, -0.33). Combining both direct and indirect evidence, yoga therapy (ES: -0.79, 95% C.I. = -1.24, -0.35) had a significant effect on depressive symptoms, and occupational therapy (ES: 1.81, 95% C.I. = 0.81, 2.81) was less effective, relative to TAU. Exercise therapy did not show a significant effect on depressive symptoms in comparison to TAU (ES: -0.02 95% C.I. = -0.67, 0.62). Due to inconsistency of study evidence, the indirect effects should be interpreted cautiously. Conclusions Non-verbal therapies appear to be effective in reducing depressive symptomatology in psychotic disorders, in particular music therapy and yoga therapy. PMID:26485401

  12. Effects of plasma treated PET and PTFE on expression of adhesion molecules by human endothelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pu, F R; Williams, R L; Markkula, T K; Hunt, J A

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of adhesion molecules on the surface of human endothelial cells in response to the systematic variation in materials properties by the ammonia plasma modification of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE). These adhesion molecules act as mediators of cell adhesion, play a role in the modulation of cell adhesion on biomaterials and therefore condition the response of tissues to implants. First and second passage human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured on plasma treated and untreated PET and PTFE. HUVECs grown on polystyrene tissue culture coverslips and HUVECs stimulated with tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) were used as controls. After 1 day and 7 days, the expression of adhesion molecules platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), Integrin alphavbeta3, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin, P-selectin and L-selectin were evaluated using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. There was a slight increase in positive cell numbers expressing the adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 on plasma treated PET and PTFE. A significant increase in E-selectin positive cells on untreated PTFE was demonstrated after 7 days. Stimulation with TNF-alpha demonstrated a significant increase in the proportion of ICAM-1. VCAM-1 and E-selectin positive cells. Almost all cells expressed PECAM-1 and integrin alphavbeta3, on both materials and controls but did not express P- and L-selectin on any surface. When second passage cells were used, the expression of the adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 was markedly increased on all surfaces but not with TNF-alpha. These significant differences were not observed in other adhesion molecules. These results were supported by immunohistochemical studies. The effects of plasma treated PET and PTFE on cell adhesion and proliferation was also studied. There was a 1.3-fold

  13. Effect-enhancing and toxicity-reducing activity of usnic acid in ascitic tumor-bearing mice treated with bleomycin.

    PubMed

    Su, Zu-Qing; Liu, Yu-Hong; Guo, Hui-Zhen; Sun, Chao-Yue; Xie, Jian-Hui; Li, Yu-Cui; Chen, Jian-Nan; Lai, Xiao-Ping; Su, Zi-Ren; Chen, Hai-Ming

    2017-03-08

    Usnic acid (UA) can be found in certain lichen species. Growing evidence suggests that UA possesses antitumoral, antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. Bleomycin (BLM) is widely used in the treatment of malignant ascites, however, it unexpectedly causes pulmonary fibrosis (PF). Researches show that excessive inflammatory response and oxidative stress in lung tissue is conspicuous causes of BLM-induced PF. Here we investigated mechanism underlying the effect-enhancing and toxicity-reducing activity of UA on H22-bearing mice treated with BLM. UA combined with BLM was significantly more effective than BLM alone in inhibiting the tumor growth, arresting the cell cycle at G0/G1 phase, and promoting the cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-8 activities to induce cancer cellular apoptosis. The mechanism may be associated with the transcriptional regulation of p53/p21/Cyclin pathway. Furthermore, UA effectively moderated the histopathological changes, reduced the content of MDA, HYP, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and TGF-β1, and increased the level of SOD when combined with BLM in lung tissues of H22-bearing mice, which was believed to be related to the inhibition on the protein level of p-Smad2/3 and enhancement of Smad7 expression. These findings suggested that UA might be a potential effect-enhancing and toxicity-reducing candidate for BLM in the treatment of malignant ascites.

  14. Comparison of cost-effectiveness of regorafenib and trifluridine/tipiracil combination tablet for treating advanced and recurrent colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Michio; Usami, Eiseki; Iwai, Mina; Go, Makiko; Teramachi, Hitomi; Yoshimura, Tomoaki

    2016-01-01

    Regorafenib and trifluridine/tipiracil combination tablet regimens are standard third-line or later treatments for advanced and recurrent colorectal cancer with no significant difference in efficacy. The present study aimed to compare the cost-effectiveness of using regorafenib vs. the trifluridine/tipiracil combination tablet. The expected cost was calculated based on data from patients with advanced and recurrent colorectal cancer who were treated with regorafenib or trifluridine/tipiracil combination tablet. The median survival time (MST) from the CORRECT and the RECOURSE study was used to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of the regimens. The cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated from the expected cost and MST for the two regimens. The expected cost per patient for the regorafenib and the trifluridine/tipiracil combination tablet regimen was ¥705,330.3 and ¥371,198.7, respectively, and the cost-effectiveness ratio was ¥110,207.9/MST and ¥52,281.5/MST, respectively. In conclusion, the findings of the present study demonstrated that the trifluridine/tipiracil combination tablet regimen is more cost-effective compared with the regorafenib regimen. PMID:27900102

  15. Effect of oxandrolone therapy on adult height in Turner syndrome patients treated with growth hormone: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sheanon, Nicole M; Backeljauw, Philippe F

    2015-01-01

    Turner syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality in which there is complete or partial absence of the X chromosome. Turner syndrome effects 1 in every 2000 live births. Short stature is a cardinal feature of Turner Syndrome and the standard treatment is recombinant human growth hormone. When growth hormone is started at an early age a normal adult height can be achieved. With delayed diagnosis young women with Turner Syndrome may not reach a normal height. Adjuvant therapy with oxandrolone is used but there is no consensus on the optimal timing of treatment, the duration of treatment and the long term adverse effects of treatment. The objective of this review and meta-analysis is to examine the effect of oxandrolone on adult height in growth hormone treated Turner syndrome patients. Eligible trials were identified by a literature search using the terms: Turner syndrome, oxandrolone. The search was limited to English language randomized-controlled trials after 1980. Twenty-six articles were reviewed and four were included in the meta-analysis. A random effects model was used to calculate an effect size and confidence interval. The pooled effect size of 2.0759 (95 % CI 0.0988 to 4.0529) indicates that oxandrolone has a positive effect on adult height in Turner syndrome when combined with growth hormone therapy. In conclusion, the addition of oxandrolone to growth hormone therapy for treatment of short stature in Turner syndrome improves adult height. Further studies are warranted to investigate if there is a subset of Turner syndrome patients that would benefit most from growth hormone plus oxandrolone therapy, and to determine the optimal timing and duration of such therapy.

  16. Radiogenic Side Effects After Hypofractionated Stereotactic Photon Radiotherapy of Choroidal Melanoma in 212 Patients Treated Between 1997 and 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Dunavoelgyi, Roman; Dieckmann, Karin; Gleiss, Andreas; Sacu, Stefan; Kircher, Karl; Georgopoulos, Michael; Georg, Dietmar; Zehetmayer, Martin; Poetter, Richard

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate side effects of hypofractionated stereotactic photon radiotherapy for patients with choroidal melanoma. Patients and Methods: Two hundred and twelve patients with choroidal melanoma unsuitable for ruthenium-106 brachytherapy or local resection were treated stereotactically at the Medical University of Vienna between 1997 and 2007 with a Linac with 6-MV photon beams in five fractions with 10, 12, or 14 Gy per fraction. Examinations for radiogenic side effects were performed at baseline and every 3 months in the first 2 years, then every 6 months until 5 years and then once a year thereafter until 10 years after radiotherapy. Adverse side effects were assessed using slit-lamp examination, funduscopy, gonioscopy, tonometry, and, if necessary, fundus photography and fluorescein angiography. Evaluations of incidence of side effects are based on an actuarial analysis. Results: One hundred and eighty-nine (89.2%) and 168 (79.2%) of the tumors were within 3 mm of the macula and the optic disc, respectively. The five most common radiotherapy side effects were retinopathy and optic neuropathy (114 cases and 107 cases, respectively), cataract development (87 cases), neovascular glaucoma (46 cases), and corneal epithelium defects (41 cases). In total, 33.6%, 38.5%, 51.2%, 75.5%, and 77.6% of the patients were free of any radiation retinopathy, optic neuropathy, cataract, neovascular glaucoma, or corneal epithelium defects 5 years after radiotherapy, respectively. Conclusion: In centrally located choroidal melanoma hypofractionated stereotactic photon radiotherapy shows a low to moderate rate of adverse long-term side effects comparable with those after proton beam radiotherapy. Future fractionation schemes should seek to further reduce adverse side effects rate while maintaining excellent local tumor control.

  17. The Effects of Jieduquyuzishen Prescription-Treated Rat Serum on the BAFF/BAFF-R Signal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Cheng-ping; Xie, Guan-qun; Ji, Jin-jun; Pan, Jie-li; Jiao, Yi-feng; Fan, Yong-sheng

    2015-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory disease mainly characterized by B cell hyperactivity. Glucocorticoid (GC) is widely used in SLE for its potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Despite its important clinical efficacy, high-dose or long-term use of GC can cause severe side effects, such as osteoporosis, osteonecrosis, cataracts, hyperglycemia, coronary heart disease and cognitive impairment. Our early clinical studies have shown that Jieduquyuzishen prescription (JP) can effectively reduce the adverse effects and improve the curative effect of GC in the treatment of SLE. The BAFF/BAFF-R signaling pathway plays an important role in the development of SLE and has been regarded as a potential target for the therapy of SLE. In this study, we attempt to investigate the effect of JP on the BAFF/BAFF-R signaling pathway to explore the mechanism of JP in reducing the toxicity and enhancing the efficacy of GC. YAC-1 cells, isolated rat peripheral blood lymphocytes, polymorphonuclear neutrophils and spleen lymphocytes were treated with drug-containing serum. The results of RT-PCR, Western blot and dual-luciferase reporter gene assays indicate that either JP or GC can inhibit the mBAFF-induced up-regulation of BAFF, BAFF-R, Bcl-2, IL-10 and NF-κB in YAC-1 cells and WEHI-231 cells. Furthermore, MTS, flow cytometry and CFSE results reveal that the proliferation and survival of lymphocytes activated by mBAFF are suppressed by JP, GC and their combination. Contrary to GC, JP can reduce the apoptosis and raise the survival of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and can’t increase the apoptosis of the peripheral blood lymphocytes and spleen lymphocytes. Therefore, it is possible that JP can down-regulate the BAFF/BAFF-R signaling pathway as effectively as GC, which may result in the dosage reduction of GC, thus decreasing the toxicity and improving the efficacy of GC-based treatment of SLE. PMID:25689512

  18. Microstructure and its effect on toughness and wear resistance of laser surface melted and post heat treated high speed steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åhman, Leif

    1984-10-01

    High speed steel hacksaw blade blanks were laser surface melted and rapidly solidified along one edge. The laser melting resulted in complete carbide dissolution. By subsequent machining and heat treatments saw teeth were manufactured with a refined internal structure of the edges and corners. The structure was fully martensitic with a uniform and dense dispersion of small primary carbides. Sawing tests in quenched and tempered steel showed that blade life was somewhat improved, as compared to conventionally heat treated blades. The increased wear resistance is believed to be due to improved toughness along with high hardness caused by the refined carbide structure. Sawing tests in austenitic stainless steel did not give any significant improvement in performance. The effect of the altered microstructure on performance is likely to be more or less pronounced depending on application, tool and work material.

  19. High performance unipolar inverters by utilizing organic field-effect transistors with ultraviolet/ozone treated polystyrene dielectric

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Wei; Yu, Xinge; Fan, Huidong; Yu, Junsheng

    2014-09-01

    High performance unipolar inverters based on a significant variation of threshold voltage (V{sub th}) of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), which was realized by introducing UV/ozone (UVO) treatment to polystyrene (PS) dielectric, were fabricated. A controllable V{sub th} shift of more than 10 V was obtained in the OFETs by adjusting the UVO treating time, and the unipolar inverters exhibited inverting voltage near 1/2 driving voltage and a noise margin of more than 70% of ideal value. From the analysis of scanning electron microscopy, atom force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the dramatic controllable V{sub th} of OFETs, which played a key role in high performance unipolar inverters, was attributed to the newly generated oxygen functional groups in the PS dielectric induced by UVO treatment.

  20. Microbial community distribution and extracellular enzyme activities in leach bed reactor treating food waste: effect of different leachate recirculation practices.

    PubMed

    Xu, Su Yun; Karthikeyan, Obuli P; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed at understanding the relationship between microbial community and extracellular enzyme activities of leach bed reactor (LBR) treating food waste under different leachate recirculation practices (once per day and continuous) and liquid to solid (L/S) ratios (1:1 and 0.5:1). Microbial community analysis using PCR-DGGE revealed that Lactobacillus sp., Bifidobacter sp., and Proteobacteria were the most abundant species. Number of phylotypes was higher in LBRs with intermittent recirculation; whereas, lower number of phylotypes dominated by the key players of degradation was observed with continuous recirculation. The L/S ratio of 1:1 significantly enhanced the volatile solids removal compared with 0.5:1; however, this effect was insignificant under once a day leachate recirculation. Continuous leachate recirculation with 1:1 L/S ratio significantly improved the organic leaching (240 g COD/kgvolatile solid) and showed distinct extracellular enzyme activities suitable for food waste acidogenesis.

  1. The effect of cell-cluster size on intracellular nanoparticle-mediated hyperthermia: is it possible to treat microscopic tumors?

    PubMed Central

    Hedayati, Mohammad; Thomas, Owen; Abubaker-Sharif, Budri; Zhou, Haoming; Cornejo, Christine; Zhang, Yonggang; Wabler, Michele; Mihalic, Jana; Gruettner, Cordula; Westphal, Fritz; Geyh, Alison; Deweese, Theodore l; Ivkov, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Aim To compare the measured surface temperature of variable size ensembles of cells heated by intracellular magnetic fluid hyperthermia with heat diffusion model predictions. Materials & methods Starch-coated Bionized NanoFerrite (Micromod Partikeltechnologie GmbH, Rostock, Germany) iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles were loaded into cultured DU145 prostate cancer cells. Cell pellets of variable size were treated with alternating magnetic fields. The surface temperature of the pellets was measured in situ and the associated cytotoxicity was determined by clonogenic survival assay. Results & conclusion For a given intracellular nanoparticle concentration, a critical minimum number of cells was required for cytotoxic hyperthermia. Above this threshold, cytotoxicity increased with increasing cell number. The measured surface temperatures were consistent with those predicted by a heat diffusion model that ignores intercellular thermal barriers. These results suggest a minimum tumor volume threshold of approximately 1 mm3, below which nanoparticle-mediated heating is unlikely to be effective as the sole cytotoxic agent. PMID:23173694

  2. Treating Sludges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josephson, Julian

    1978-01-01

    Discussed are some of the ways to handle municipal and industrial wastewater treatment sludge presented at the 1978 American Chemical Society meeting. Suggestions include removing toxic materials, recovering metals, and disposing treated sewage sludge onto farm land. Arguments for and against land use are also given. (MA)

  3. Treating Syphilis

    PubMed Central

    Colby, W. David

    1992-01-01

    Background information on treating syphilis indicates that some currently recommended approaches to therapy are not optimal. There is no perfect drug schedule available, but penicillin remains the drug of choice. The author's recommendations for treatment and follow up are presented. PMID:21221354

  4. Clinical effects and safety of treating diabetic macular edema with intravitreal injection of ranibizumab combined with retinal photocoagulation

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Panshi; Qian, Cheng; Wang, Wenzhan; Dong, Yi; Wan, Guangming; Chen, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Background This study was designed to examine the clinical effects of treating diabetic macular edema with an intravitreal injection of ranibizumab in combination with retinal photocoagulation. Methods Sixty-two cases (75 eyes) with confirmed severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy or proliferative diabetic retinopathy in combination with macular edema were randomly divided into the observation group (37 eyes were given an intravitreal injection of ranibizumab combined with retinal photocoagulation) and the control group (38 eyes received retinal photocoagulation only). Vision, fundus condition, central macular thickness, and the macular leakage area were recorded before and after treatment. Results The best-corrected visual acuity and macular leakage area were similar between the observation and control groups (P>0.05). The best-corrected visual acuity in the observation group was higher than that in the control group 3 and 6 months after treatment (P<0.05) and showed a rising tendency. The macular leakage area in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group 1 and 3 months after treatment (P<0.05). However, the macular leakage area was similar 6 months after treatment (P>0.05). The central macular thickness of the observation group was lower than that in the control group 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment (P<0.05). The laser energy used in the observation group was also smaller than that in the control group (P<0.05). The intraocular pressure was not significantly different between the groups (P<0.05). No patients in the two groups developed eye or systemic complications, such as glaucoma, cataract, or vitreous hemorrhage during treatment. Conclusion Intravitreal injection of ranibizumab combined with retinal photocoagulation was proven to be effective in treating diabetic macular edema as it improved vision and resulted in fewer complications. PMID:27103811

  5. Consequences of Aberrant Insulin Regulation in the Brain: Can Treating Diabetes be Effective for Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Arab, L; Sadeghi, R; Walker, D.G; Lue, L-F; Sabbagh, M.N

    2011-01-01

    There is an urgent need for new ways to treat Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. Current therapies are modestly effective at treating the symptoms, and do not significantly alter the course of the disease. Over the years, a range of epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated interactions between diabetes mellitus and AD. As both diseases are leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the elderly and are frequent co-morbid conditions, it has raised the possibility that treating diabetes might be effective in slowing AD. This is currently being attempted with drugs such as the insulin sensitizer rosiglitazone. These two diseases share many clinical and biochemical features, such as elevated oxidative stress, vascular dysfunction, amyloidogenesis and impaired glucose metabolism suggesting common pathogenic mechanisms. The main thrust of this review will be to explore the evidence from a pathological point of view to determine whether diabetes can cause or exacerbate AD. This was supported by a number of animal models of AD that have been shown to have enhanced pathology when diabetic conditions were induced. The one drawback in linking diabetes and insulin to AD has been the postmortem studies of diabetic brains demonstrating that AD pathology was not increased; in fact decreased pathology has often been reported. In addition, diabetes induces its own distinct features of neuropathology different from AD. There are common pathological features to be considered including vascular abnormalities, a major feature arising from diabetes; there is increasing evidence that vascular abnormalities can contribute to AD. The most important common mechanism between insulin-resistant (type II) diabetes and AD could be impaired insulin signaling; a form of toxic amyloid can damage neuronal insulin receptors and affect insulin signaling and cell survival. It has even been suggested that AD could be considered as “type 3

  6. Antibiotics that target mitochondria effectively eradicate cancer stem cells, across multiple tumor types: treating cancer like an infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Rebecca; Ozsvari, Bela; Lisanti, Camilla L; Tanowitz, Herbert B; Howell, Anthony; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P

    2015-03-10

    Here, we propose a new strategy for the treatment of early cancerous lesions and advanced metastatic disease, via the selective targeting of cancer stem cells (CSCs), a.k.a., tumor-initiating cells (TICs). We searched for a global phenotypic characteristic that was highly conserved among cancer stem cells, across multiple tumor types, to provide a mutation-independent approach to cancer therapy. This would allow us to target cancer stem cells, effectively treating cancer as a single disease of "stemness", independently of the tumor tissue type. Using this approach, we identified a conserved phenotypic weak point - a strict dependence on mitochondrial biogenesis for the clonal expansion and survival of cancer stem cells. Interestingly, several classes of FDA-approved antibiotics inhibit mitochondrial biogenesis as a known "side-effect", which could be harnessed instead as a "therapeutic effect". Based on this analysis, we now show that 4-to-5 different classes of FDA-approved drugs can be used to eradicate cancer stem cells, in 12 different cancer cell lines, across 8 different tumor types (breast, DCIS, ovarian, prostate, lung, pancreatic, melanoma, and glioblastoma (brain)). These five classes of mitochondrially-targeted antibiotics include: the erythromycins, the tetracyclines, the glycylcyclines, an anti-parasitic drug, and chloramphenicol. Functional data are presented for one antibiotic in each drug class: azithromycin, doxycycline, tigecycline, pyrvinium pamoate, as well as chloramphenicol, as proof-of-concept. Importantly, many of these drugs are non-toxic for normal cells, likely reducing the side effects of anti-cancer therapy. Thus, we now propose to treat cancer like an infectious disease, by repurposing FDA-approved antibiotics for anti-cancer therapy, across multiple tumor types. These drug classes should also be considered for prevention studies, specifically focused on the prevention of tumor recurrence and distant metastasis. Finally, recent

  7. Enzyme-treated Asparagus officinalis extract shows neuroprotective effects and attenuates cognitive impairment in senescence-accelerated mice.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Takuya; Ito, Tomohiro; Wakame, Koji; Kitadate, Kentaro; Arai, Takashi; Ogasawara, Junetsu; Kizaki, Takako; Sato, Shogo; Ishibashi, Yoshinaga; Fujiwara, Tomonori; Akagawa, Kimio; Ishida, Hitoshi; Ohno, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Increases in the number of patients with dementia involving Alzheimer's disease (AD) are seen as a grave public health problem. In neurodegenerative disorders involving AD, biological stresses, such as oxidative and inflammatory stress, induce neural cell damage. Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is a popular vegetable, and an extract prepared from this reportedly possesses various beneficial biological activities. In the present study, we investigated the effects of enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) on neuronal cells and early cognitive impairment of senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice. The expression of mRNAs for factors that exert cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic functions, such as heat-shock protein 70 and heme oxygenase-1, was upregulated in NG108-15 neuronal cells by treatment with ETAS. Moreover, when release of lactate dehydrogenase from damaged NG108-15 cells was increased for cells cultured in medium containing either the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside or the hypoxia mimic reagent cobalt chloride, ETAS significantly attenuated this cell damage. Also, when contextual fear memory, which is considered to be a hippocampus-dependent memory, was significantly impaired in SAMP8 mice, ETAS attenuated the cognitive impairment. These results suggest that ETAS produces cytoprotective effects in neuronal cells and attenuates the effects on the cognitive impairment of SAMP8 mice.

  8. Effects of pioglitazone and metformin on vascular endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with sulfonylureas.

    PubMed

    Naka, Katerina K; Papathanassiou, Katerina; Bechlioulis, Aris; Pappas, Konstantinos; Kazakos, Nikolaos; Kanioglou, Chryssanthi; Kostoula, Aggeliki; Vezyraki, Patra; Makriyiannis, Demetrios; Tsatsoulis, Agathocles; Michalis, Lampros K

    2012-01-01

    Pioglitazone and metformin are insulin sensitisers used for the treatment of T2DM. The effects of pioglitazone and metformin on endothelial function, assessed by FMD, in T2DM patients treated with sulfonylureas were compared. Patients were randomised to receive pioglitazone (n = 15) 30 mg once daily or metformin (n = 16) 850 mg twice daily for six months. Pioglitazone significantly decreased fasting insulin, HbA(1C) and HOMA-IR (p < 0.05 for all) and increased FMD (p = 0.002). Metformin induced a significant decrease in HbA(1C) (p = 0.02) and only a trend for increase in FMD (p = 0.08). The greater improvement in FMD with pioglitazone, compared with metformin, did not reach significance (p = 0.11). Treatment-induced changes in FMD were not associated with the effects of the two insulin sensitisers on glycaemic control or insulin resistance. The beneficial effects of pioglitazone and metformin on endothelial function in T2DM patients did not differ greatly. Larger studies are needed to explore whether a potentially greater benefit with pioglitazone may exist.

  9. No effects of psychosocial stress on memory retrieval in non-treated young students with Generalized Social Phobia.

    PubMed

    Espín, Laura; Marquina, Mónica; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Salvador, Alicia; Gómez-Amor, Jesús

    2016-11-01

    Generalized Social Phobia (GSP) is a common anxiety disorder that produces clear social life disruptions. There is no consensus on the specific processes involved in its development, but the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been suggested. This study analyzed the effects of the cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) on the memory retrieval of pictures with different emotional valences in 45 non-treated young students with GSP and 50 non-anxious (NA) subjects (mean=19.35years, SD=0.18). No differences were found in the cortisol response of GSP and NA subjects to the TSST and control sessions. In addition, psychosocial stress impaired memory retrieval in both the GSP and NA groups, with no differences between them. Regarding the sex factor, no effects were found in the cortisol response to the TSST. However, during the encoding session, GSP men had higher cortisol levels than GSP women and NA subjects. There was also a significant interaction between sex and stress exposure on memory retrieval. Women recognized more unpleasant and neutral pictures than men; however, under stress, the women's advantage disappeared, and the men's performance improved. Sex also interacted with social phobia on positive mood, with GSP women exposed to the TSST showing the lowest positive mood. These results suggest that GSP subjects do not present an HPA axis sensitization to psychosocial stress, and they emphasize the importance of Sex in understanding stress effects on memory.

  10. Bactericidal and antimicrobial effects of pure titanium and titanium alloy treated with short-term, low-energy UV irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Narita, K.; Ono, A.; Wada, K.; Tanaka, T.; Kumagai, G.; Yamauchi, R.; Nakane, A.; Ishibashi, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The surface of pure titanium (Ti) shows decreased histocompatibility over time; this phenomenon is known as biological ageing. UV irradiation enables the reversal of biological ageing through photofunctionalisation, a physicochemical alteration of the titanium surface. Ti implants are sterilised by UV irradiation in dental surgery. However, orthopaedic biomaterials are usually composed of the alloy Ti6Al4V, for which the antibacterial effects of UV irradiation are unconfirmed. Here we evaluated the bactericidal and antimicrobial effects of treating Ti and Ti6Al4V with UV irradiation of a lower and briefer dose than previously reported, for applications in implant surgery. Materials and Methods Ti and Ti6Al4V disks were prepared. To evaluate the bactericidal effect of UV irradiation, Staphylococcus aureus 834 suspension was seeded onto the disks, which were then exposed to UV light for 15 minutes at a dose of 9 J/cm2. To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of UV irradiation, bacterial suspensions were seeded onto the disks 0, 0.5, one, six, 24 and 48 hours, and three and seven days after UV irradiation as described above. In both experiments, the bacteria were then harvested, cultured, and the number of colonies were counted. Results No colonies were observed when UV irradiation was performed after the bacteria were added to the disks. When the bacteria were seeded after UV irradiation, the amount of surviving bacteria on the Ti and Ti6Al4V disks decreased at 0 hours and then gradually increased. However, the antimicrobial activity was maintained for seven days after UV irradiation. Conclusion Antimicrobial activity was induced for seven days after UV irradiation on both types of disk. Irradiated Ti6Al4V and Ti had similar antimicrobial properties. Cite this article: T. Itabashi, K. Narita, A. Ono, K. Wada, T. Tanaka, G. Kumagai, R. Yamauchi, A. Nakane, Y. Ishibashi. Bactericidal and antimicrobial effects of pure titanium and titanium alloy treated with

  11. Decynium-22 Enhances SSRI-Induced Antidepressant-Like Effects in Mice: Uncovering Novel Targets to Treat Depression

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Rebecca E.; Apple, Deana M.; Owens, W. Anthony; Baganz, Nicole L.; Cano, Sonia; Mitchell, Nathan C.; Vitela, Melissa; Gould, Georgianna G.; Koek, Wouter

    2013-01-01

    Mood disorders cause much suffering and lost productivity worldwide, compounded by the fact that many patients are not effectively treated by currently available medications. The most commonly prescribed antidepressant drugs are the selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which act by blocking the high-affinity 5-HT transporter (SERT). The increase in extracellular 5-HT produced by SSRIs is thought to be critical to initiate downstream events needed for therapeutic effects. A potential explanation for their limited therapeutic efficacy is the recently characterized presence of low-affinity, high-capacity transporters for 5-HT in brain [i.e., organic cation transporters (OCTs) and plasma membrane monoamine transporter], which may limit the ability of SSRIs to increase extracellular 5-HT. Decynium-22 (D-22) is a blocker of these transporters, and using this compound we uncovered a significant role for OCTs in 5-HT uptake in mice genetically modified to have reduced or no SERT expression (Baganz et al., 2008). This raised the possibility that pharmacological inactivation of D-22-sensitive transporters might enhance the neurochemical and behavioral effects of SSRIs. Here we show that in wild-type mice D-22 enhances the effects of the SSRI fluvoxamine to inhibit 5-HT clearance and to produce antidepressant-like activity. This antidepressant-like activity of D-22 was attenuated in OCT3 KO mice, whereas the effect of D-22 to inhibit 5-HT clearance in the CA3 region of hippocampus persisted. Our findings point to OCT3, as well as other D-22-sensitive transporters, as novel targets for new antidepressant drugs with improved therapeutic potential. PMID:23785165

  12. Nontarget effects of ivermectin residues on earthworms and springtails dwelling beneath dung of treated cattle in four countries.

    PubMed

    Scheffczyk, Adam; Floate, Kevin D; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Düring, Rolf-Alexander; Klockner, Andrea; Lahr, Joost; Lumaret, Jean-Pierre; Salamon, Jörg-Alfred; Tixier, Thomas; Wohde, Manuel; Römbke, Jörg

    2016-08-01

    The authorization of veterinary medicinal products requires that they be assessed for nontarget effects in the environment. Numerous field studies have assessed these effects on dung organisms. However, few studies have examined effects on soil-dwelling organisms, which might be exposed to veterinary medicinal product residues released during dung degradation. The authors compared the abundance of earthworms and springtails in soil beneath dung from untreated cattle and from cattle treated 0 d, 3 d, 7 d, 14 d, and 28 d previously with ivermectin. Study sites were located in different ecoregions in Switzerland (Continental), The Netherlands (Atlantic), France (Mediterranean), and Canada (Northern Mixed Grassland). Samples were collected using standard methods from 1 mo to 12 mo after pat deposition. Ivermectin concentrations in soil beneath dung pats ranged from 0.02 mg/kg dry weight (3 mo) to typically <0.006 mg/kg dry weight (5-7 mo). Earthworms were abundant and species-rich at the Swiss and Dutch sites, less common with fewer species at the French site, and essentially absent at the Canadian site. Diverse but highly variable communities of springtails were present at all sites. Overall, results showed little effect of residues on either earthworms or springtails. The authors recommend that inclusion of soil organisms in field studies to assess the nontarget effects of veterinary medicinal products be required only if earthworms or springtails exhibit sensitivity to the product in laboratory tests. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1959-1969. © 2015 SETAC.

  13. Effect of increased calcium intake on cardiac and vascular Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in oral contraceptive-treated female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Olatunji, L A; Soladoye, A O

    2006-11-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the influence of increased dietary calcium on Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in heart and aorta of female Sprague-Dawley rats treated with oral contraceptive (OC) steroids. Rats were grouped as control (CR), OC-treated and OC+calcium-treated. OC-treated and OC+calcium-treated received a combination of OC steriods (ethinyloestradiol and norgestrel; ig). OC+calcium-treated rats were fed with 2.5% calcium diet, while OC-treated and CR groups were fed on 0.9% calcium diet. The activity of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in heart and aorta was significantly lower in OC-treated rats than those in the other groups. OC treatment caused significant increase in plasma glucose and significant decrease in plasma K+ as compared to control group. Decrease in Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and plasma K+ was abrogated by increased calcium intake, while increase in plasma glucose was not normalized by calcium supplementation. Plasma levels of Na+, lipid peroxidation index and ascorbic acid were comparable among the three groups. These results showed that OC treatment could lead to impaired activity of cardiac and vascular Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, possibly due to reduced plasma K+ level and these effects could be abolished by high calcium diet.

  14. Mg ion implantation on SLA-treated titanium surface and its effects on the behavior of mesenchymal stem cell.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beom-Su; Kim, Jin Seong; Park, Young Min; Choi, Bo-Young; Lee, Jun

    2013-04-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is one of the most important ions associated with bone osseointegration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cellular effects of Mg implantation in titanium (Ti) surfaces treated with sand blast using large grit and acid etching (SLA). Mg ions were implanted into the surface via vacuum arc source ion implantation. The surface morphology, chemical properties, and the amount of Mg ion release were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were used to evaluate cellular parameters such as proliferation, cytotoxicity, and adhesion morphology by MTS assay, live/dead assay, and SEM. Furthermore, osteoblast differentiation was determined on the basis of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the degree of calcium accumulation. In the Mg ion-implanted disk, 2.3×10(16) ions/cm(2) was retained. However, after Mg ion implantation, the surface morphology did not change. Implanted Mg ions were rapidly released during the first 7 days in vitro. The MTS assay, live/dead assay, and SEM demonstrated increased cell attachment and growth on the Mg ion-implanted surface. In particular, Mg ion implantation increased the initial cell adhesion, and in an osteoblast differentiation assay, ALP activity and calcium accumulation. These findings suggest that Mg ion implantation using the plasma source ion implantation (PSII) technique may be useful for SLA-treated Ti dental implants to improve their osseointegration capacity.

  15. Effect of long-term application of treated sewage water on heavy metal accumulation in vegetables grown in northern India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Amlan Kr; Bhatt, M A; Agrawal, H P

    2012-01-01

    Use of industrial and wastewater for irrigation is on the rise in India and other developing countries because of scarcity of good-quality irrigation water. Wastewaters contain plant nutrients that favour crop growth but leave a burden of heavy metals which can enter the food chain and is a cause of great concern. The present study was undertaken on the long-term impact of irrigation with treated sewage water for growing vegetables and the potential health risk associated with consumption of such vegetable. Treated sewage water (TSW), groundwater (GW), soil and plant samples were collected from peri urban vegetable growing areas of Northern India (Varanasi) and analysed to assess the long-term effect of irrigation with TSW on Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb build-up in soils and its subsequent transfer into commonly grown vegetable crops. Results indicate that TSW was richer in essential plant nutrients but contained Cd, Cr and Ni in amounts well above the permissible limits for its use as irrigation water. Long-term application of TSW resulted in significant build-up of total and DTPA extractable Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb over GW irrigated sites. TSW also resulted in slight lowering in pH, increase in organic carbon (1.6 g kg(-1)) and cation exchange capacity (5.2 cmol kg(-1)). The tissue metal concentration and relative efficiency of transfer of heavy metals from soil to plant (transfer factor) for various groups of vegetables were worked out. Radish, turnip and spinach were grouped as hyper accumulator of heavy metals whereas brinjal and cauliflower accumulated less heavy metals. Health risk assessment by consumption of vegetables grown with TSW indicated that all the vegetables were safe for human consumption. However, significant accumulation of these heavy metals in soil and plant needs to be monitored.

  16. Effectiveness of the Ponseti method for treating clubfoot associated with myelomeningocele: 3-9 years follow-up.

    PubMed

    Matar, Hosam E; Beirne, Peter; Garg, Neeraj K

    2017-03-01

    Clubfoot in myelomeningocele patients is characterized by its stiffness, severe rigidity and has traditionally been treated with extensive soft-tissue release surgery with poor outcomes. We present our experience using the Ponseti method to treat clubfoot associated with myelomeningocele. This was a retrospective, consecutive review over a 10-year period in our tertiary centre. On initial presentation, patients were assessed using the Pirani scoring system and the standard Ponseti method was initiated. Our outcome measures were successful functional correction of deformity defined as achieving a plantigrade pain-free foot. Secondary outcome measures included relapse and the need for surgical procedures. A total of 11 children with 18 myelomeningocele-associated clubfeet were included, with an average follow-up duration of 4.5 years (range 3-9 years). The average age at presentation was 4.7 weeks, with an average Pirani score of 5.5. Initial correction was achieved in all children with an average of 7 (range 4-9) Ponseti casts and tendo-achilles tenotomy was performed in 17 of 18 feet (94.4%). Nine children with 15 of 18 (83.3%) myelomeningocele-associated clubfeet achieved a satisfactory outcome at the final follow-up, with functional, pain-free feet. Recurrence occurred in five of 15 (33.3%) feet, which was managed successfully with a second tendo-achilles tenotomy and further Ponseti casting. Two children three of 18 (16.7%) failed Ponseti treatment. Ponseti method is an effective first-line treatment for myelomeningocele-associated clubfoot to achieve functional painless feet; children will often require more casts and have a higher risk of relapse.

  17. Effect of Family History on Outcomes in Patients Treated With Definitive Brachytherapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Christopher A. Stock, Richard G.; Blacksburg, Seth R.; Stone, Nelson N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the impact familial prostate cancer has on prognosis in men treated with brachytherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 1,738 consecutive patients with prostate cancer (cT1-3, N0/X, M0) received low-dose-rate brachytherapy alone or in combination with external beam radiation therapy or hormone ablation from 1992 to 2005. The primary end-point was freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF) using the Phoenix definition. Minimum follow-up was 2 years and the median follow-up was 60 months (range, 24-197 months). Results: A total of 187 of 1,738 men (11%) had a family history of prostate cancer in a first-degree relative. For the low-risk patients, both groups had similar actuarial 5-year FFBF (97.2% vs. 95.5%, p = 0.516). For intermediate-risk patients, there was a trend toward improved biochemical control in men positive for family history (5-yr FFBF 100% vs. 93.6%, p = 0.076). For the high-risk patients, men with a positive family history had similar 5-year FFBF (92.8% vs. 85.2%, p = 0.124). On multivariate analysis, family history was not significant; use of hormones, high biologic effective dose, initial prostate-specific antigen value, and Gleason score were the significant variables predicting biochemical control. Conclusions: This is the first study to examine the relationship of familial prostate cancer and outcomed in men treated with brachytherapy alone or in combination therapy. Men with a positive family history have clinicopathologic characteristics and biochemical outcomes similar to those with sporadic disease.

  18. Antibiotics that target mitochondria effectively eradicate cancer stem cells, across multiple tumor types: Treating cancer like an infectious disease

    PubMed Central

    Lisanti, Camilla L.; Tanowitz, Herbert B.; Howell, Anthony; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E.; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we propose a new strategy for the treatment of early cancerous lesions and advanced metastatic disease, via the selective targeting of cancer stem cells (CSCs), a.k.a., tumor-initiating cells (TICs). We searched for a global phenotypic characteristic that was highly conserved among cancer stem cells, across multiple tumor types, to provide a mutation-independent approach to cancer therapy. This would allow us to target cancer stem cells, effectively treating cancer as a single disease of “stemness”, independently of the tumor tissue type. Using this approach, we identified a conserved phenotypic weak point – a strict dependence on mitochondrial biogenesis for the clonal expansion and survival of cancer stem cells. Interestingly, several classes of FDA-approved antibiotics inhibit mitochondrial biogenesis as a known “side-effect”, which could be harnessed instead as a “therapeutic effect”. Based on this analysis, we now show that 4-to-5 different classes of FDA-approved drugs can be used to eradicate cancer stem cells, in 12 different cancer cell lines, across 8 different tumor types (breast, DCIS, ovarian, prostate, lung, pancreatic, melanoma, and glioblastoma (brain)). These five classes of mitochondrially-targeted antibiotics include: the erythromycins, the tetracyclines, the glycylcyclines, an anti-parasitic drug, and chloramphenicol. Functional data are presented for one antibiotic in each drug class: azithromycin, doxycycline, tigecycline, pyrvinium pamoate, as well as chloramphenicol, as proof-of-concept. Importantly, many of these drugs are non-toxic for normal cells, likely reducing the side effects of anti-cancer therapy. Thus, we now propose to treat cancer like an infectious disease, by repurposing FDA-approved antibiotics for anti-cancer therapy, across multiple tumor types. These drug classes should also be considered for prevention studies, specifically focused on the prevention of tumor recurrence and distant metastasis. Finally

  19. Imunomodulative effect of liposomized muramyltripeptide phosphatidylethanolamine (L-MTP-PE) on mice with alveolar echinococcosis and treated with albendazole.

    PubMed

    Dvoroznáková, Emília; Porubcová, Jarmila; Snábel, Viliam; Fedorocko, Peter

    2008-09-01

    The effect of liposomized muramyltripeptide phosphatidylethanolamine (L-MTP-PE) administered separately or with anthelmintic albendazole (ABZ) on cellular immunity of mice with alveolar echinococcosis was studied. The proliferative activity of splenic T and B lymphocytes was the most stimulated after combined L-MTP-PE + ABZ therapy [from weeks 8 to 14 post-infection (p.i.)] that also induced a long-term development of protective Th1 response (the highest serum concentration of IFN-gamma from weeks 8 to 18 p.i.). On the contrary, Th2 response (cytokine IL-5) in infected mice treated with L-MTP-PE was inhibited since week 8 p.i., but a significant long-term decrease in IL-5 concentration was found after combined L-MTP-PE+ABZ therapy until the end of the experiment (until week 26 p.i.). L-MTP-PE stimulated the production of superoxide anion (O2-) by peritoneal macrophages from weeks 8 to 12 p.i., but the highest O2- production was accordingly recorded after therapy L-MTP-PE+ABZ from weeks 8 to 18 p.i. Stimulation of cellular immunity of mice with alveolar echinococcis with L-MTP-PE and an interaction with ABZ's anti-parasitic effect resulted in the greatest and long-term reduction of growth of Echinococcus multilocularis cysts in the host from week 10 p.i. until the end of the experiment.

  20. Manganese-containing cellulose nanocomposites: the restrain effect of cellulose treated with NaOH/urea aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ming-Guo; Deng, Fu; Yao, Ke

    2014-10-13

    In this article, the manganese-containing cellulose nanocomposites were obtained using microcrystalline cellulose and Mn(CH3COO)2 · 4H2O in the NaOH/urea aqueous solutions by a efficient microwave-assisted method. The effects of the heating time and Mn(CH3COO)2 · 4H2O concentration on the cellulose nanocomposites were investigated. It was found that the microcrystalline cellulose pretreated with NaOH/urea aqueous solutions played an important role in the phase, shape, and thermal stability of manganese-containing cellulose nanocomposites. Well-crystalline phases of manganese oxides were not observed in the manganese-containing cellulose nanocomposites. Furthermore, well-crystalline phases of manganese oxides were not also observed by thermal treatment of the manganese-containing cellulose nanocomposites at 600 °C for 3h. These results could be attributed to the restrain effect of cellulose treated with NaOH/urea aqueous solutions. It was supposed the possible mechanism during the phase transformation of cellulose nanocomposites.

  1. Effect of geometric and process variables on the performance of inclined plate settlers in treating aquacultural waste.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sudipto; Kamilya, Dibyendu; Mal, B C

    2007-03-01

    Inclined plate settlers are used in treating wastewater due to their low space requirement and high removal rates. The prediction of sedimentation efficiency of these settlers is essential for their performance evaluation. In the present study, the technique of dimensional analysis was applied to predict the sedimentation efficiency of these inclined plate settlers. The effect of various geometric parameters namely, distance between plates (w(p)), plate angle (alpha), length of plate (l(p)), plate roughness (epsilon(p)), number of plates (n(p)) and particle diameter (d(s)) on the dynamic conditions, influencing the sedimentation process was studied. From the study it was established that neither the Reynolds criterion nor the Froude criterion was singularly valid to simulate the sedimentation efficiency (E) for different values of w(p) and flow velocity (v(f)). Considering the prevalent scale effect, simulation equations were developed to predict E at different dynamic conditions. The optimum dynamic condition producing the maximum E is also discussed.

  2. Disposal of metal treated Salvinia biomass in soil and its effect on growth and photosynthetic efficiency of wheat.

    PubMed

    Dhir, Bhupinder; Srivastava, Sheela

    2012-01-01

    Phytoremediation technologies generate huge quantities of biomass, the disposal of which is a serious concern. Wastewater samples collected from electroplating industries were treated with Salvinia biomass. The effect of application of metal loaded Salvinia plant biomass in soil on growth and physiological indices of 10-day-old seedlings of Triticum aestivum was evaluated. Controls (A) consisted of soil supplemented with untreated plant biomass. Seed germination, seedling height, total chlorophyll, glucose and protein levels, photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm), photochemical quenching (qP), non-photochemical quenching (qn), quantum yield (Y), and electron transport rate (ETR) were not significantly affected in seedlings raised in soils supplemented with metal loaded biomass from most of the samples (B-F) in comparison to control. However, significant decline was noted in total chlorophyll, glucose, and quantum yield in plants grown in soil supplemented with biomass from sample E. Among elemental levels, C(%) remained largely unaffected, N(%) showed slight enhancement but a decrease in H(%) was noted in plants grown in soil supplemented with biomass from sample E. Our results, therefore, suggest that metal accumulated Salvinia biomass obtained after phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated wastewater can be supplemented in soil. Further studies are required to assess long-term effects of disposal of metal loaded Salvinia plant biomass in soil.

  3. Evaluating landfill disposal of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood and potential effects on groundwater: evidence from Florida.

    PubMed

    Saxe, Jennifer K; Wannamaker, Eric J; Conklin, Scott W; Shupe, Todd F; Beck, Barbara D

    2007-01-01

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood has been used for more than 50 years. Recent attention has been focused on appropriate disposal of CCA-treated wood when its service life ends. Groups in the US and Europe concerned with the possibility of arsenic migration to groundwater from disposed CCA-treated wood have proposed that consumers be required to dispose of the wood as a hazardous waste, in the most protective of landfills. We examined available data for evidence of arsenic migration from unlined construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills in Florida, where CCA-treated wood is disposed. Florida was chosen because soil, groundwater, landfill design, weather, and levels of CCA-treated wood use make the state a uniquely sensitive indicator for observing arsenic migration from CCA-treated wood disposal sites, should it occur. We developed and quality-checked a CCA-treated wood disposal model to estimate the amount of wood and associated arsenic disposed. By 2000, an estimated 13 million kg of arsenic in CCA-treated wood was disposed in Florida; however, groundwater monitoring data do not indicate that arsenic is migrating from unlined C&D landfills. Our results provide evidence that highly stringent regulation of CCA-treated wood disposal, such as treatment as a hazardous waste, is unnecessary.

  4. Coupled effects of treated effluent irrigation and wetting-drying cycles on transport of triazines through unsaturated soil columns.

    PubMed

    Seol, Y; Lee, L S

    2001-01-01

    The physical and chemical parameters controlling the movement of atrazine (6-chloro-N2-ethyl-N4-isopropyl-l,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine; 98.8%) and prometryn [N,N'-bis(1-methylethyl)-6-(methylthio)-l,3,5triazine-2,4-diamine; 99.5%] were investigated in columns infiltrated with treated effluent under unsaturated transient conditions and subjected to drying events at 22 or 60 degrees C followed by rewetting. Three soils varying in soil pH and texture and three solutions were used. The infiltrating solutions consisted of either a CaCl2 matrix (CC), a swine waste-derived lagoon effluent (SW), or a simulated buffer solution (SB) representative of the element composition and pH of the SW but with no dissolved organic matter. Several parameters were monitored including leachate triazine concentrations, pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), inorganic carbon, and flow rates. Compared with CC, application of SW and SB increased column leachate pH, enhanced dissolution of organic carbon and particle dispersion, and decreased average flow rates, which allowed for increased desorption time. The coupled effect of these processes enhanced movement of triazines in some cases, with SW generally having the greatest effect. The individual effect of increased pH was more pronounced for prometryn (pKa=4.05) versus atrazine (pKa=1.66), and most dramatic for the soil with the lowest initial pH. High-temperature drying, which simulated intensive evaporation, further enhanced the dissolution of soil organic matter and the reduction in leachate flow rates with SW and SB applications; however, the net effect under the experimental conditions employed varied with soil type. Relative to low-temperature drying, high-temperature drying in the silty clay loam-packed columns reduced pesticide migration.

  5. Pro-Resolving Effects of Resolvin D2 in LTD4 and TNF-α Pre-Treated Human Bronchi

    PubMed Central

    Khaddaj-Mallat, Rayan; Sirois, Chantal; Sirois, Marco; Rizcallah, Edmond; Marouan, Sofia; Morin, Caroline; Rousseau, Éric

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is a major burden in respiratory diseases, resulting in airway hyperresponsiveness. Our hypothesis is that resolution of inflammation may represent a long-term solution in preventing human bronchial dysfunctions. The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-inflammatory effects of RvD2, a member of the D-series resolving family, with concomitant effects on ASM mechanical reactivity. The role and mode of action of RvD2 were assessed in an in vitro model of human bronchi under pro-inflammatory conditions, induced either by 1 μM LTD4 or 10 ng/ml TNF-α pre-treatment for 48h. TNF-α and LTD4 both induced hyperreactivity in response to pharmacological stimuli. Enhanced 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 (CysLTR1) detection was documented in LTD4 or TNF-α pre-treated human bronchi when compared to control (untreated) human bronchi. In contrast, RvD2 treatments reversed 5-LOX/β-actin and CysLTR1/β-actin ratios and decreased the phosphorylation levels of AP-1 subunits (c-Fos, c-Jun) and p38-MAP kinase, while increasing the detection of the ALX/FPR2 receptor. Moreover, various pharmacological agents revealed the blunting effects of RvD2 on LTD4 or TNF-α induced hyper-responsiveness. Combined treatment with 300 nM RvD2 and 1 μM WRW4 (an ALX/FPR2 receptor inhibitor) blunted the pro-resolving and broncho-modulatory effects of RvD2. The present data provide new evidence regarding the role of RvD2 in a human model of airway inflammation and hyperrresponsiveness. PMID:27935998

  6. Protective effects of Glomus iranicum var. tenuihypharum on soil and Viburnum tinus plants irrigated with treated wastewater under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Bellot, María José; Ortuño, María Fernanda; Nortes, Pedro Antonio; Vicente-Sánchez, Javier; Martín, Félix Fernández; Bañón, Sebastián; Sánchez-Blanco, María Jesús

    2015-07-01

    Currently, irrigation using recycled water is increasing, especially in semiarid environments, but a potential problem of using reclaimed wastewater is its elevated salt levels. The application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could be a suitable option to mitigate the negative effects produced by the salinity. In this work, the combined effect of Glomus iranicum var. tenuihypharum and two types of water: Control, C, with EC <0.9 dS m(-1) and reclaimed water (wastewater previously treated in a sewage treatment plant) with EC 4 dS m(-1) during a first saline period (11 weeks) and with EC 6 dS m(-1) during a second saline period (25 weeks), was evaluated for laurustinus (Viburnum tinus) plants under field conditions. This plant is a popular shrub very used for gardening. Chemical properties of soil as well as physiological behavior, leaf nutrition, and esthetic value of plants were evaluated. Due to the high salinity from wastewater at 6 dS m(-1), laurustinus plants decreased their stem water potential values and, to a lesser extent, the stomatal conductance. Also, the visual quality of the plants was diminished. The inoculated AMF satisfactorily colonized the laurustinus roots and enhanced the structure of the soil by increasing the glomalin and carbon contents. Furthermore, G. iranicum var. tenuihypharum inoculation decreased Na and Cl content, stimulated flowering and improved the stem water potential of the plants irrigated with both types of reclaimed water. The AMF also had a positive effect as a consequence of stimulation of plant physiological parameters, such as the stem water potential and stomatal conductance. Effective AMF associations that avoid excessive salinity could provide wastewater reuse options, especially when the plants grow in soils.

  7. The effect of disgust-related side-effects on symptoms of depression and anxiety in people treated for cancer: a moderated mediation model.

    PubMed

    Powell, Philip A; Azlan, Haffiezhah A; Simpson, Jane; Overton, Paul G

    2016-08-01

    As maladaptive disgust responses are linked to mental health problems, and cancer patients may experience heightened disgust as a result of treatments they receive, we explored the associations between disgust-related side-effects and symptoms of depression and anxiety in people treated for cancer. One hundred and thirty two (83 women, M age = 57.48 years) participants answered questions about their treatments, side-effects, disgust responding, and mental health. Experiencing bowel and/or bladder problems, sickness and/or nausea (referred to here as "core" disgust-related side-effects) was significantly related to greater symptoms of depression and borderline increased anxiety. Further, these links were explained by a moderated mediation model, whereby the effects of core disgust side-effects on depression and anxiety were mediated by (physical and behavioural) self-directed disgust, and disgust propensity moderated the effect of core disgust side-effects on self-disgust. These findings stress the importance of emotional responses, like disgust, in psychological adaptation to the side-effects of cancer treatments.

  8. The effect of dietary calcium and phosphorus supplementation in zeolite a treated dry cows on periparturient calcium and phosphorus homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thilsing, T; Larsen, T; Jørgensen, R J; Houe, H

    2007-03-01

    Previous studies have proved the possibility of preventing parturient hypocalcaemia by zeolite A supplementation during the dry period, and a recent in vitro study has indicated a marked calcium (Ca) as well as phosphorus (P) binding effect of zeolite A in rumen fluid solutions. Because of the connection between the Ca and P homeostatic systems, the preventive effect against parturient hypocalcaemia may arise from zeolite induced decreased availability of dietary Ca as well as P. In the present study, the expected Ca and P binding capacity was challenged by feeding high and low levels of dietary Ca and/or P to zeolite A treated dry cows. Twenty-one pregnant dry cows were assigned to four experimental groups receiving a dry cow ration unsupplemented or supplemented with extra Ca and/or P. During the last 2 weeks of the dry period all cows additionally received 600 g of zeolite A per day. A high level of dietary P prepartum significantly decreased the plasma Ca concentration before as well as immediately after calving (day 0-3). Conversely, the plasma inorganic phosphate concentration was higher among these cows than among cows receiving no supplemental P. The prepartum dietary Ca level significantly affected the serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentration during zeolite supplementation, whereas the periparturient plasma Ca concentration was apparently not affected by the dietary Ca level. During zeolite A supplementation plasma parathyroid hormone was significantly higher among cows receiving additional P. The urinary deoxypyridinoline/creatinine ratio was not affected by the prepartal dietary Ca or P level. Serum aluminium (Al) was significantly higher during zeolite A supplementation than during the preceding period, indicating partial destruction of the zeolite in the intestinal tract with subsequent release and absorption of Al. It is suggested that the effect of prepartum zeolite supplementation on the periparturient Ca homeostasis depends on the level of Ca as

  9. Effect of Dietary Fibers on Cecal Microbiota and Intestinal Tumorigenesis in Azoxymethane Treated A/J Min/+ Mice

    PubMed Central

    Måge, Ingrid; Knutsen, Svein Halvor; Rud, Ida; Hetland, Ragna Bogen; Paulsen, Jan Erik

    2016-01-01

    Foods naturally high in dietary fiber are generally considered to protect against development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the intrinsic effect of dietary fiber on intestinal carcinogenesis is unclear. We used azoxymethane (AOM) treated A/J Min/+ mice, which developed a significantly higher tumor load in the colon than in the small intestine, to compare the effects of dietary inulin (IN), cellulose (CE) or brewers spent grain (BSG) on intestinal tumorigenesis and cecal microbiota. Each fiber was tested at two dose levels, 5% and 15% (w/w) content of the AIN-93M diet. The microbiota was investigated by next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene (V4). We found that mice fed IN had approximately 50% lower colonic tumor load than mice fed CE or BSG (p<0.001). Surprisingly, all three types of fiber caused a dose dependent increase of colonic tumor load (p<0.001). The small intestinal tumor load was not affected by the dietary fiber interventions. Mice fed IN had a lower bacterial diversity than mice fed CE or BSG. The Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio was significantly (p = 0.003) different between the three fiber diets with a higher mean value in IN fed mice compared with BSG and CE. We also found a relation between microbiota and the colonic tumor load, where many of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) related to low tumor load were significantly enriched in mice fed IN. Among the OTUs related to low tumor load were bacteria affiliated with the Bacteroides genus. These results suggest that type of dietary fiber may play a role in the development of CRC, and that the suppressive effect of IN on colonic tumorigenesis is associated with profound changes in the cecal microbiota profile. PMID:27196124

  10. Cost-effectiveness of nitrendipine and hydrochlorothiazide or metoprolol to treat hypertension in rural community health centers in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zengwu; Chen, Zuo; Wang, Xin; Hao, Guang; Ma, Liyuan; Zhao, Xin; Li, Yang; Zhang, Linfeng; Zhu, Manlu

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this article is to compare blood pressure (BP)-lowing effects of nitrendipine and hydrochlorothiazide and nitrendipine and metoprolol, and estimate the economic effect of these therapies on hypertension. Methods: Outpatients (N = 793) 18–70 years of age with stage 2 or severe hypertension (SBP ≥ 160 mmHg and/or DBP ≥ 100 mmHg) were recruited from four randomly selected rural community health centers in Beijing and Jilin. After drug wash out, they were randomly divided into nitrendipine and hydrochlorothiazide group or nitrendipine and metoprolol group. The costs of drug treatment for hypertension were calculated and general estimation, whereas effectiveness was measured as a reduction in SBP and DBP at the end of a 24-week study period. Results: Overall, 623 patients were eligible for the study and after a 24-week follow-up, SBP and DBP were 131.2/82.2 mmHg for the nitrendipine and hydrochlorothiazide group and 131.4/82.9 mmHg for the nitrendipine and metoprolol group and these were not significantly different (P = 0.7974 SBP and P = 0.1166 DBP). Comparing with nitrendipine and metoprolol, the cost of nitrendipine and hydrochlorothiazide was less, and its effectiveness was similar. The cost/effect ratio (US$/mmHg) was 1.4 for SBP and 2.8 for DBP for the nitrendipine and hydrochlorothiazide group, and 1.9 and 3.8 for the nitrendipine and metoprolol group's SBP and DBP values, respectively. The incremental cost per patient for achieving target BP was 5.1. Adverse events were mild or moderate and there were no differences between treatment groups. Conclusion: Treating hypertension with nitrendipine and hydrochlorothiazide was cost-effective than nitrendipine and metoprolol, and these data will allow more reasonable and efficient allocation of limited resources in low-income countries. PMID:27977472

  11. Effect of storage temperatures on injured escherichia coli cell populations in whey and corn meal snacks treated with a twin screw extruder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of extrusion treatment parameters on injured populations of corn meal and whey protein isolate inoculated with surrogate E. coli populations has been reported. However, information on the effect of treatment parameters on injured bacterial populations of treated corn and whey protein prod...

  12. Electrolyte Concentrates Treat Dehydration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Wellness Brands Inc. of Boulder, Colorado, exclusively licensed a unique electrolyte concentrate formula developed by Ames Research Center to treat and prevent dehydration in astronauts returning to Earth. Marketed as The Right Stuff, the company's NASA-derived formula is an ideal measure for athletes looking to combat dehydration and boost performance. Wellness Brands also plans to expand with products that make use of the formula's effective hydration properties to help treat conditions including heat stroke, altitude sickness, jet lag, and disease.

  13. Hepatoprotective, antioxidant, and ameliorative effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and vitamin E in acetaminophen treated rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Azeem, Amal S; Hegazy, Amany M; Ibrahim, Khadiga S; Farrag, Abdel-Razik H; El-Sayed, Eman M

    2013-09-01

    Ginger is a remedy known to possess a number of pharmacological properties. This study investigated efficacy of ginger pretreatment in alleviating acetaminophen-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats. Rats were divided into six groups; negative control, acetaminophen (APAP) (600 mg/kg single intraperitoneal injection); vitamin E (75 mg/kg), ginger (100 mg/kg), vitamin E + APAP, and ginger + APAP. Administration of APAP elicited significant liver injury that was manifested by remarkable increase in plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), arginase activities, and total bilirubin concentration. Meanwhile, APAP significantly decreased plasma total proteins and albumin levels. APAP administration resulted in substantial increase in each of plasma triacylglycerols (TAGs), malondialdhyde (MDA) levels, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). However, ginger or vitamin E treatment prior to APAP showed significant hepatoprotective effect by lowering the hepatic marker enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP, and arginase) and total bilirubin in plasma. In addition, they remarkably ameliorated the APAP-induced oxidative stress by inhibiting lipid peroxidation (MDA). Pretreatment by ginger or vitamin E significantly restored TAGs, and total protein levels. Histopathological examination of APAP treated rats showed alterations in normal hepatic histoarchitecture, with necrosis and vacuolization of cells. These alterations were substantially decreased by ginger or vitamin E. Our results demonstrated that ginger can prevent hepatic injuries, alleviating oxidative stress in a manner comparable to that of vitamin E. Combination therapy of ginger and APAP is recommended especially in cases with hepatic disorders or when high doses of APAP are required.

  14. Effect of a solar Fered-Fenton system using a recirculation reactor on biologically treated landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhihong; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Lin; Wu, Luxue; Qian, Yue; Geng, Jinyao; Chen, Mengmeng

    2016-12-05

    The effects of electrochemical oxidation (EO), Fered-Fenton and solar Fered-Fenton processes using a recirculation flow system containing an electrochemical cell and a solar photo-reactor on biochemically treated landfill leachate were investigated. The most successful method was solar Fered-Fenton which achieved 66.5% COD removal after 120min treatment utilizing the optimum operating conditions of 47mM H2O2, 0.29mM Fe(2+), pH0 of 3.0 and a current density of 60mA/cm(2). The generation of hydroxyl radicals (OH) are mainly from Fered-Fenton process, which is enhanced by the introduction of renewable solar energy. Moreover, Fe(2+)/chlorine and UV/chlorine processes taking place in this system also result in additional production of OH due to the relatively high concentration of chloride ions contained in the leachate. The energy consumption was 74.5kWh/kg COD and the current efficiency was 36.4% for 2h treatment. In addition, the molecular weight (MW) distribution analysis and PARAFAC analysis of excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy for different leachate samples indicated that the organics in the leachate were significantly degraded into either small molecular weight species or inorganics.

  15. The effect of HIV on early wound healing in open fractures treated with internal and external fixation.

    PubMed

    Aird, J; Noor, S; Lavy, C; Rollinson, P

    2011-05-01

    There are 33 million people worldwide currently infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This complex disease affects many of the processes involved in wound and fracture healing, and there is little evidence available to guide the management of open fractures in these patients. Fears of acute and delayed infection often inhibit the use of fixation, which may be the most effective way of achieving union. This study compared fixation of open fractures in HIV-positive and -negative patients in South Africa, a country with very high rates of both HIV and high-energy trauma. A total of 133 patients (33 HIV-positive) with 135 open fractures fulfilled the inclusion criteria. This cohort is three times larger than in any similar previously published study. The results suggest that HIV is not a contraindication to internal or external fixation of open fractures in this population, as HIV is not a significant risk factor for acute wound/implant infection. However, subgroup analysis of grade I open fractures in patients with advanced HIV and a low CD4 count (< 350) showed an increased risk of infection; we suggest that grade I open fractures in patients with advanced HIV should be treated by early debridement followed by fixation at an appropriate time.

  16. Effect of florfenicol on performance and microbial community of a sequencing batch biofilm reactor treating mariculture wastewater.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Li, Zhiwei; Chang, Qingbo; Gao, Mengchun; She, Zonglian; Wu, Juan; Jin, Chunji; Zheng, Dong; Guo, Liang; Zhao, Yangguo; Wang, Sen

    2017-03-16

    The effects of florfenicol (FF) on the performance, microbial activity and microbial community of a sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) were evaluated in treating mariculture wastewater. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen removal were inhibited at high FF concentrations. The specific oxygen utilization rate (SOUR), specific ammonium oxidation rate (SAOR), specific nitrite oxidation rate (SNOR) and specific nitrate reduction rate (SNRR) were decreased with an increase in the FF concentration from 0 to 35 mg/L. The chemical compositions of loosely bound extracellular polymeric substances (LB-EPS) and tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS) could be affected with an increase in the FF concentration. The high-throughput sequencing indicated some obvious variations in the microbial community at different FF concentrations. The relative abundance of Nitrosomonas and Nitrospira showed a decreasing tendency with an increase in the FF concentration, suggesting that FF could affect the nitrification process of SBBR. Some genera capable of reducing nitrate to nitrogen gas could be inhibited by the addition of FF in the influent, such as Azospirillum and Hyphomicrobium.

  17. Protective effect of conditioning agents on Afro-ethnic hair chemically treated with thioglycolate-based straightening emulsion.

    PubMed

    Dias, Tania Cristina de Sá; Baby, André Rolim; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles

    2008-06-01

    Straightening is a chemical process by which excessively curly hair is straightened in an irreversible way. Generally, products are formulated as emulsions with high pH value (9.0-12.0), which, after applied on hair, cause considerable damage, making it dry and fragile. This research work evaluated the protective effect of lauryl PEG/PPG-18/18 methicone, cyclopentasiloxane (and) PEG-12 dimethicone cross-polymer, jojoba oil, and aqua (and) cystine bis-PG propyl silanetriol, as conditioning agents, on Afro-ethnic hair locks treated with thioglycolate-based straightening emulsions by protein loss, combability, and traction to rupture. Standard Afro-ethnic hair locks were prepared following a protocol for straightening emulsion application. Considering the assays performed, the addition of conditioning agents to the straightening emulsion with ammonium thioglycolate benefited the hair fiber, thus diminishing protein loss, protecting the hair thread, and improving resistance to breakage. Jojoba oil and lauryl PEG/PPG-18/18 methicone were the conditioning agents that presented the best results. Straightening emulsions with ammonium thioglycolate containing aqua (and) cystine bis-PG propyl silanetriol and cyclopentasiloxane (and) PEG-12 dimethicone cross-polymer were the ones that provided higher breakage resistance of the thread.

  18. Effect of intermittent aeration strategies on treatment performance and microbial community of an IFAS reactor treating municipal waste water.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nitin Kumar; Bhatia, Akansha; Kazmi, Absar Ahmad

    2017-01-31

    This study investigated the effect of various intermittent aeration (IA) cycles on organics and nutrient removal, and microbial communities in an integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) reactor treating municipal waste water. Average effluent biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) values were noted as 20, 50, 30, 12 and 1.5 mgL(-1), respectively, in continuous aeration mode. A total of four operational conditions (run 1, continuous aeration; run 2, 150/30 min aeration on/off time; run 3, 120/60 min aeration on/off time and run 4, 90/60 min aeration on/off time) were investigated in IFAS reactor assessment. Among the all examined IA cycles, IA phase 2 gave the maximum COD and BOD removals with values recorded as 97% and 93.8%, respectively. With respect to nutrient removal (TN and TP), IA phase 1 was found to be optimum. Pathogen removal efficiency of present system was recorded as 90-95% during the three phases. With regard to settling characteristics, pilot showed poor settling during IA schedules, which was also evidenced by high sludge volume index values. Overall, IA could be used as a feasible way to improve the overall performance of IFAS system.

  19. Effects of salvianolate on bone metabolism in glucocorticoid-treated lupus-prone B6.MRL-Faslpr/J mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanzhi; Cui, Yang; Zhang, Xiao; Gao, Xiang; Su, Yanjie; Xu, Bilian; Wu, Tie; Chen, Wenshuang; Cui, Liao

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate the bone-protective effects of salvianolate (Sal), a total polyphenol from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae, on bone tissue in the spontaneous lupus-prone mouse model, B6.MRL-Faslpr/J, undergoing glucocorticoid (GC) treatment. Methods Fifteen-week-old female B6.MRL-Faslpr/J mice were administered either a daily dose of saline (lupus group), prednisone 6 mg/kg (GC group), Sal 60 mg/kg (Sal group); or GC plus Sal (GC + Sal group) for a duration of 12 weeks. Age-matched female C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice were used for control. Micro-computed tomography assessments, bone histomorphometry analysis, bone biomechanical test, immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting analysis for bone markers, and renal histology analysis were performed to support our research endeavor. Results Lupus mice developed a marked bone loss and deterioration of mechanical properties of bone due to an increase in bone resorption rather than suppression of bone formation. GC treatment strongly inhibited bone formation in lupus mice. Sal treatment significantly attenuated osteogenic inhibition, and also suppressed hyperactive bone resorption, which recovered the bone mass and mechanical properties of bone in both the untreated and GC-treated lupus mice. Conclusion The data support further preclinical investigation of Sal as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus-related bone loss. PMID:27563234

  20. Getting to More Effective Weight Management in Antipsychotic-Treated Youth: A Survey of Barriers and Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Worsham, Elizabeth; Haire-Joshu, Debra; Duncan, Alexis; Schweiger, Julia; Yingling, Michael; Lenze, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Mentally ill youth are at risk for developing obesity, especially when they require antipsychotic treatment; moreover, they may face unique challenges in adhering to behavioral weight loss interventions. The aims of this project were to characterize the challenges families of youth with psychiatric disorders face when engaging in weight loss treatment and to gather information on attitudes and preferences for weight management interventions in this population. Methods: We devised a telephone survey to evaluate caregiver-perceived barriers/challenges to and preferences for behavioral weight loss treatment in overweight or obese mentally ill youth ages 6–18 treated with an antipsychotic agent in an outpatient setting. Results: A total of 26 parents or primary caregivers completed the survey. The most commonly cited barriers to participation in physical activity (PA) and maintaining a healthy diet were child's dislike of PA and child's preference for energy-dense foods, respectively, which were impacted by psychiatric symptoms. Preferences for weight loss treatment included individualized, prescribed meal plans and shopping lists, and exercise support/demonstration, with a preference for Internet or cell phone applications to help with monitoring food intake and exercise. Conclusions: These results suggest that targets for obesity treatment in this population include individualized, specific support that takes into account the child's motivation, which is effected by psychiatric symptoms. Tools for providing support may include the use of telehealth visits and mobile device applications for self-monitoring. PMID:26788619

  1. A preliminary study of the effects of glucosamine sulphate and chondroitin sulphate on surgically treated and untreated focal cartilage damage.

    PubMed

    Kamarul, T; Ab-Rahim, S; Tumin, M; Selvaratnam, L; Ahmad, T S

    2011-03-15

    The effects of Glucosamine Sulphate (GS) and Chondroitin Sulphate (CS) on the healing of damaged and repaired articular cartilage were investigated. This study was conducted using 18 New Zealand white rabbits as experimental models. Focal cartilage defects, surgically created in the medial femoral condyle, were either treated by means of autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) or left untreated as controls. Rabbits were then divided into groups which received either GS+/-CS or no pharmacotherapy. Three rabbits from each group were sacrificed at 12 and 24 weeks post-surgery. Knees dissected from rabbits were then evaluated using gross quantification of repair tissue, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) assays, immunoassays and histological assessments. It was observed that, in contrast to untreated sites, surfaces of the ACI-repaired sites appeared smooth and continuous with the surrounding native cartilage. Histological examination demonstrated a typical hyaline cartilage structure; with proteoglycans, type II collagen and GAGs being highly expressed in repair areas. The improved regeneration of these repair sites was also noted to be significant over time (6 months vs. 3 months) and in GS and GS+CS groups compared to the untreated (without pharmacotherapy) group. Combination of ACI and pharmacotherapy (with glucosamine sulphate alone/ or with chondroitin sulphate) may prove beneficial for healing of damaged cartilage, particularly in relation to focal cartilage defects.

  2. Compositional effects on leaching of stain-guarded (perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substance-treated) carpet in landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minhee; Li, Loretta Y; Grace, John R; Benskin, Jonathan P; Ikonomou, Michael G

    2015-06-02

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from stain-guard treated carpets in landfills continue to be released into the environment. To understand the leaching of PFASs from carpets to landfill leachate as a function of environmental factors, leaching concentrations of ten perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids and four perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids were quantified for different pHs, contact times, mixing speeds, and temperatures. Partitioning from carpet to leachate and distilled water at different pHs showed negligible differences. The total concentration of leaching PFASs in distilled water was approximately 1 ng L(-1) higher than in landfill leachate, indicating that the presence of multivalent cations in leachate could have a negative effect on leaching of PFASs. For all PFASs monitored, leaching increased with increasing contact time and temperature. Perfluorohexanoic and perfluoroheptanoic acids experienced the largest increases with contact time and temperature. Gibbs free energy (ΔG > 0), enthalpy (ΔH > 0), and entropy energy (ΔS < 0) indicated that PFAS leaching from carpet was dominantly controlled by entropy-driven processes and did not differ significantly among individual PFASs. PFAS concentrations in leachate with rotation of an end-over-end contactor were higher than under static conditions, but otherwise, varying the rotation speed had negligible influence. The results provide useful information for management of discarded stain-guard carpets in landfills.

  3. Effect of artificial aeration on the performance of vertical-flow constructed wetland treating heavily polluted river water.

    PubMed

    Dong, Huiyu; Qiang, Zhimin; Li, Tinggang; Jin, Hui; Chen, Weidong

    2012-01-01

    Three lab-scale vertical-flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs), including the non-aerated (NA), intermittently aerated (IA) and continuously aerated (CA) ones, were operated at different hydraulic loading rates (HLRs) to evaluate the effect of artificial aeration on the treatment efficiency of heavily polluted river water. Results indicated that artificial aeration increased the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in IA and CA, which significantly favored the removal of organic matter and NH(4+)-N. The DO grads caused by intermittent aeration formed aerobic and anoxic regions in IA and thus promoted the removal of total nitrogen (TN). Although the removal efficiencies of COD(Cr), NH(4+)-N and TN in the three VFCWs all decreased with an increase in HLR, artificial aeration enhanced the reactor resistance to the fluctuation of pollutant loadings. The maximal removal efficiencies of COD(Cr), NH(4+)-N and total phosphorus (TP) (i.e., 81%, 87% and 37%, respectively) were observed in CA at 19 cm/day HLR, while the maximal TN removal (i.e., 57%) was achieved in IA. Although the improvement of artificial aeration on TP removal was limited, this study has demonstrated the feasibility of applying artificial aeration to VFCWs treating polluted river water, particularly at a high HLR.

  4. Effects of Brown Rice Extract Treated with Lactobacillus sakei Wikim001 on Osteoblast Differentiation and Osteoclast Formation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Miran; Song, Jung-Hee; Park, Sung-Hee; Lee, Jong-Hee; Park, Hae Woong; Kim, Tae-Woon

    2014-12-01

    Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate) or phytate is considered an anti-nutrient due to the formation of precipitated complexes that strongly reduces the absorption of essential dietary minerals. In this study, brown rice with reduced phytate was made by inoculation with Lactobacillus sakei Wikim001 having high phytase activity. The effects of brown rice extract treated with L. sakei Wikim001 (BR-WK) on osteoblast differentiation and osteoclast formation were investigated. The proliferation of SaOS-2 cells was measured by the MTT assay. Treatment with BR-WK increased cell proliferation by 136% at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. The Alkaline phosphate activity in SaOS-2 cells was 129% higher when BR-WK was processed at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. The proliferation of bone marrow macrophages decreased by nearly 60% in response to treatment with BR-WK. In addition, BR-WK reduced the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP(+)) multinucleated cells from bone marrow macrophages. These results indicate that BR-WK stimulates bone formation through its positive action on osteoblast differentiation and function and furthermore, decreases osteoclast differentiation.

  5. Effects of Brown Rice Extract Treated with Lactobacillus sakei Wikim001 on Osteoblast Differentiation and Osteoclast Formation

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Miran; Song, Jung-Hee; Park, Sung-Hee; Lee, Jong-Hee; Park, Hae Woong; Kim, Tae-Woon

    2014-01-01

    Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate) or phytate is considered an anti-nutrient due to the formation of precipitated complexes that strongly reduces the absorption of essential dietary minerals. In this study, brown rice with reduced phytate was made by inoculation with Lactobacillus sakei Wikim001 having high phytase activity. The effects of brown rice extract treated with L. sakei Wikim001 (BR-WK) on osteoblast differentiation and osteoclast formation were investigated. The proliferation of SaOS-2 cells was measured by the MTT assay. Treatment with BR-WK increased cell proliferation by 136% at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. The Alkaline phosphate activity in SaOS-2 cells was 129% higher when BR-WK was processed at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. The proliferation of bone marrow macrophages decreased by nearly 60% in response to treatment with BR-WK. In addition, BR-WK reduced the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP+) multinucleated cells from bone marrow macrophages. These results indicate that BR-WK stimulates bone formation through its positive action on osteoblast differentiation and function and furthermore, decreases osteoclast differentiation. PMID:25580402

  6. Human Resources for Treating HIV/AIDS: Are the Preventive Effects of Antiretroviral Treatment a Game Changer?

    PubMed

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E; Humair, Salal

    2016-01-01

    Shortages of human resources for treating HIV/AIDS (HRHA) are a fundamental barrier to reaching universal antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage in developing countries. Previous studies suggest that recruiting HRHA to attain universal ART coverage poses an insurmountable challenge as ART significantly increases survival among HIV-infected individuals. While new evidence about ART's prevention benefits suggests fewer infections may mitigate the challenge, new policies such as treatment-as-prevention (TasP) will exacerbate it. We develop a mathematical model to analytically study the net effects of these countervailing factors. Using South Africa as a case study, we find that contrary to previous results, universal ART coverage is achievable even with current HRHA numbers. However, larger health gains are possible through a surge-capacity policy that aggressively recruits HRHA to reach universal ART coverage quickly. Without such a policy, TasP roll-out can increase health losses by crowding out sicker patients from treatment, unless a surge capacity exclusively for TasP is also created.

  7. Human Resources for Treating HIV/AIDS: Are the Preventive Effects of Antiretroviral Treatment a Game Changer?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Shortages of human resources for treating HIV/AIDS (HRHA) are a fundamental barrier to reaching universal antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage in developing countries. Previous studies suggest that recruiting HRHA to attain universal ART coverage poses an insurmountable challenge as ART significantly increases survival among HIV-infected individuals. While new evidence about ART’s prevention benefits suggests fewer infections may mitigate the challenge, new policies such as treatment-as-prevention (TasP) will exacerbate it. We develop a mathematical model to analytically study the net effects of these countervailing factors. Using South Africa as a case study, we find that contrary to previous results, universal ART coverage is achievable even with current HRHA numbers. However, larger health gains are possible through a surge-capacity policy that aggressively recruits HRHA to reach universal ART coverage quickly. Without such a policy, TasP roll-out can increase health losses by crowding out sicker patients from treatment, unless a surge capacity exclusively for TasP is also created. PMID:27716813

  8. Quantifying the effect of settlement and gas on solute flow and transport through treated municipal solid waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodman, N. D.; Siddiqui, A. A.; Powrie, W.; Stringfellow, A.; Beaven, R. P.; Richards, D. J.

    2013-10-01

    The effect of degradation and settlement on transport properties of mechanically and biologically treated (MBT) waste was examined by applying three different tracers to two waste columns (~ 0.5 m diameter) in a series of closed-loop experiments. One column was allowed to biodegrade and the other was bio-suppressed. Permeability and drainable porosity were reduced by settlement, in line with previous results. A dual-porosity model performed well against the data and suggested that more preferential flow occurred early on in the un-degraded column. Diffusion timescales were found to be between 0.8 and 6 days. Volumetric water contents of the mobile region were found to be small in the bio-suppressed cell (~ 0.01) and even smaller values were found in the degrading waste, possibly due to displacement by gas. Once either settlement or gas production had disrupted this pattern into a more even flow, subsequent compression made little difference to the diffusion time-scale. This may indicate that transport was thereafter dominated by other aspects of the waste structure such as the distribution of low-permeability objects. The presence of gas in the degrading waste reduced the volumetric water content through displacement. The model indicated that the gas was primarily located in the more mobile porosity fraction. Primary compression of the degrading waste tended to squeeze this gas out of the waste in preference to water.

  9. Ozone pollution effects on gas exchange, growth and biomass yield of salinity-treated winter wheat cultivars.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yanhai; Cheng, Da; Simmons, Matthew

    2014-11-15

    A sand-culture experiment was conducted in four Open-Top-Chambers to assess the effects of O3 on salinity-treated winter wheat. Two winter wheat cultivars, salt-tolerant Dekang961 and salt-sensitive Lumai15, were grown under saline (100 mM NaCl) and/or O3 (80±5 nmol mol(-1)) conditions for 35 days. Significant (P<0.05) O3-induced decreases were noted for both cultivars in terms of gas exchange, relative water content, growth and biomass yield in the no-salinity treatment. Significant (P<0.01) corresponding decreases were measured in Dekang961 but not in Lumai15 in the salinity treatment. Soluble sugar and proline contents significantly increased in both cultivars in combined salinity and O3 exposure. O3-induced down-regulation in the gradients of A-C(i) and A-PPFD response curves were much larger in Dekang961 than in Lumai15 under saline conditions. Significant (P<0.05) interactions were noted in both salinity×cultivars and salinity×O3 stresses. The results clearly demonstrated that O3 injuries were closely correlated with plant stomatal conductance (g(s)); the salt-tolerant wheat cultivar might be damaged more severely than the salt-sensitive cultivar by O3 due to its higher g(s) in saline conditions.

  10. Reconstitution baking tests with defatted wheat flour are suitable for determining the functional effects of lipase-treated wheat lipids.

    PubMed

    Schaffarczyk, Monika; Østdal, Henrik; Matheis, Olivia; Jekle, Mario; Koehler, Peter

    2016-06-01

    A microscale reconstitution baking test, using wheat flour defatted with 2-propanol at 20 °C, was established to determine the functional effects of lipids isolated from lipase-treated wheat dough. Proper selection of solvent and extraction temperature was of major importance to maintain the functionality of defatted flour. Dough and gluten from flour defatted with water-saturated 1-butanol (WSB; extracted at 20 °C) and 2-propanol (extracted at 75 °C) had inferior extensibility and loaf volume compared to control flour extracted with 2-propanol at 20 °C. Quantitation of gluten proteins showed that defatting with WSB (20 °C) or 2-propanol (75 °C) decreased the gliadin and increased the glutenin content. Possible reasons were thiol-disulfide interchange reactions, caused either by heat (2-propanol, 75 °C) or by the solvent WSB, which affected gluten proteins. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that regular, interconnected gluten structures were only present in dough from flour defatted with 2-propanol at 20 °C.

  11. Cost-Effectiveness of Zoledronic Acid to Prevent and Treat Postmenopausal Osteoporosis in Comparison with Routine Medical Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Golmohamdi, Fateme Rostami; Abbasi, Mahnaz; Karyani, Ali Kazemi; Sari, Ali Akbari

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Fractures caused by osteoporosis are prevalent among elderly females, which reduce quality of life significantly. This study aimed at comparing cost-effectiveness of Zoledronic acid in preventing and treating post-menopause osteoporosis as compared with routine medical treatment. Methods This cost-effectiveness study was carried out retrospectively from the Ministry of Health and insurance organizations perspective. Costs were evaluated based on the cost estimation of a sample of patients. Outcomes were obtained from a systematic review. The Cost-Effectiveness Ratio (CER) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for outcome of femoral neck Bone Mineral Density (BMD), hip trochanter BMD, total hip BMD and lumbar spine BMD and cost-benefit of consuming Zoledronic Acid were calculated for fracture outcome obtained from reviewing hospital records. Results The results and the ICER calculated for study outcomes indicated that one percent increase of BMD on femoral neck BMD requires further cost of $386. One percent increase of BMD on hip trochanter BMD requires further cost of $264. One percent increase of BMD on total hip BMD requires further cost of $388, one percent increase of BMD on lumbar spine BMD requires further cost of $347. The Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) calculated for vertebral and hip fracture, non-vertebral fracture, any clinical fracture, and morphometric fracture for a 36-month period were about 0.82, 0.57, and 1.06, respectively. Vertebral and hip fractures, and non-vertebral fractures or any clinical fracture for a 12-month period were calculated as 1.14 and 0.64, respectively. In other words, Zoledronic acid consumption approach is a cheaper and better approach based on an economic assessment, and it can be considered as a dominant approach. Conclusion According to the cost-effectiveness of zoledronic acid in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in women, despite the costs, it is recommended that insurance coverage for the

  12. Antioxidant effects of the chestnut (Castanea crenata) inner shell extract in t-BHP-treated HepG2 cells, and CCl4- and high-fat diet-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Noh, Jung-Ran; Gang, Gil-Tae; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Yang, Keum-Jin; Hwang, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Oh, Won-Keun; Song, Kyung-Sik; Lee, Chul-Ho

    2010-11-01

    The antioxidant effects of chestnut inner shell extract (CISE) were investigated in a tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP)-treated HepG2 cells, and in mice that were administered carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) and fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Pre-incubation with CISE significantly blocked the oxidative stress induced by t-BHP treatment in HepG2 cells (P<0.05) and preserved the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase compared to group treated with t-BHP only. Similarly, the CCl(4)- and HFD-induced reduction of antioxidant enzymes activities in liver was prevented by CISE treatment compared to control groups. Furthermore, hepatic lipid peroxidation were remarkably lower (P<0.05) in the CISE-treated groups with t-BHP or HFD. To determine the active compound of CISE, the fractionation of CISE has been conducted and scoparone and scopoletin were identified as main compounds. These compounds were also shown to inhibit the t-BHP-induced ROS generation and reduction in antioxidant enzyme activity in an in vitro model system. From these results, it was demonstrated that CISE has the ability to protect against damage from oxidative stressors such as t-BHP, CCl(4) and HFD in in vitro and in vivo models. The CISE might be useful for the prevention of oxidative damage in liver cells and tissues.

  13. The effects of progesterone priming on reproductive performance of GnRH-PGF2alpha-treated anestrous goats.

    PubMed

    Husein, Mustafa Q; Ababneh, Mohammed M; Haddad, Serhan G

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of a 5-day progesterone priming prior to a GnRH-PGF2alpha treatment on reproductive performance of anestrous goats. Thirty-six Mountain Black goats were randomly assigned in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement and were administered intravaginally on day -12, either with 300 mg progesterone inserts (CGPE and CGP) or with 0 mg progesterone (GPE and GP) for 5 days. On day -6, the goats were injected with 100 microg GnRH, followed 6 days later by 15 mg PGF2alpha (day 0), the time at which the goats in the CGPE and GPE groups were administered 300 IU eCG injections and those in CGP and GP groups were administered the control solution. The goats were exposed to four fertile bucks at 0 h and were checked for breeding marks at 6-h intervals for 72 h. Blood samples were collected from all goats for progesterone analysis. Progesterone concentrations increased only in CGPE and CGP during the period of device insertion but remained low in GPE and GP groups (P < 0.001). Progesterone levels at the time of GnRH injection on day -6 were basal (0.2 +/- 0.04 ng.mL-1) among the groups and began to increase starting on day -2. Day 0 progesterone concentrations differed (P < 0.05) among groups and were significantly influenced by CIDR-G (P < 0.001). A similar proportion of goats expressed estrus and intervals to detected estrus were shorter (P < 0.05) in the CGPE and GPE groups than in GP with no difference between the CGPE, CGP and GPE or between CGP and GP groups. The number of goats ovulating based upon elevated progesterone levels on day 0 was significantly greater (P = 0.002) in CGPE (9/9) and CGP (9/9) than GPE (6/9) and GP (5/9) groups and was significantly influenced by CIDR-G (P = 0.03). All pregnant goats had elevated progesterone concentration on day 0 and none of the goats with basal progesterone levels became pregnant. Pregnancy and kidding rates, twinning percentage and the number of kids born per goat exposed were

  14. Effect of liming on sulfate transformation and sulfur gas emissions in degraded vegetable soil treated by reductive soil disinfestation.

    PubMed

    Meng, Tianzhu; Zhu, Tongbin; Zhang, Jinbo; Cai, Zucong

    2015-10-01

    Reductive soil disinfestation (RSD), namely amending organic materials and mulching or flooding to create strong reductive status, has been widely applied to improve degraded soils. However, there is little information available about sulfate (SO4(2-)) transformation and sulfur (S) gas emissions during RSD treatment to degraded vegetable soils, in which S is generally accumulated. To investigate the effects of liming on SO4(2-) transformation and S gas emissions, two SO4(2-)-accumulated vegetable soils (denoted as S1 and S2) were treated by RSD, and RSD plus lime, denoted as RSD0 and RSD1, respectively. The results showed that RSD0 treatment reduced soil SO4(2-) by 51% and 61% in S1 and S2, respectively. The disappeared SO4(2-) was mainly transformed into the undissolved form. During RSD treatment, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) were detected, but the total S gas emission accounted for <0.006% of total S in both soils. Compared to RSD0, lime addition stimulated the conversion of SO4(2-) into undissolved form, reduced soil SO4(2-) by 81% in S1 and 84% in S2 and reduced total S gas emissions by 32% in S1 and 57% in S2, respectively. In addition to H2S, COS and DMS, the emissions of carbon disulfide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl disulfide were also detected in RSD1 treatment. The results indicated that RSD was an effective method to remove SO4(2-), liming stimulates the conversion of dissolved SO4(2-) into undissolved form, probably due to the precipitation with calcium.

  15. Inflammation, oxidative stress and platelet activation in aspirin-treated critical limb ischaemia: beneficial effects of iloprost.

    PubMed

    Lessiani, Gianfranco; Vazzana, Natale; Cuccurullo, Chiara; Di Michele, Dario; Laurora, Giuseppe; Sgrò, Giuseppe; Di Ruscio, Paolo; Simeone, Emilio; Di Iorio, Pierangelo; Lattanzio, Stefano; Liani, Rossella; Ferrante, Elisabetta; Davì, Giovanni

    2011-02-01

    Platelets critically contribute to atherothrombosis and worsening ischaemia in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD), eventually leading to critical limb ischaemia (CLI). Furthermore, persistent platelet activation despite antiplatelet therapy has been reported in this setting. The prostacyclin analogue iloprost is currently recommended in CLI patients for its effects in relieving symptoms by promoting local perfusion. In this study, we investigated the effects of iloprost infusion on urinary 11-dehydro-TXB₂ and 8-iso-PGF(₂α) excretion rate, as in vivo indexes of thromboxane-dependent platelet activation and lipid peroxidation, respectively, and on platelet-derived proinflammatory sCD40L and nitric oxide bioavailability in 44 patients with CLI while on chronic treatment with low-dose aspirin. Daily iloprost infusion for one-week significantly decreased urinary 11-dehydro-TXB₂ [499 (277-807) vs. 380 (189-560) pg/mg creatinine, p < 0.0001] and 8-iso-PGF(₂α) [533 (316-842) vs. 334 (196-540) pg/mg creatinine, p < 0.0001] as well as plasma sCD40L [1540 (1005-3015) vs. 948 (845-2030) pg/ml, p < 0.0001]. Furthermore, a significant increase in plasma nitrate plus nitrite levels has been observed [26.8 (18.8-35.9) vs. 43.7 (33.0-75.5) μM, p < 0.0001]. A significant direct correlation was also found between urinary 8-iso-PGF(₂α) and 11-dehydro-TXB2 before and after iloprost treatment (Rho = 0.695, p < 0.0001). In conclusion, we report that a short-term course of iloprost is able to significantly reduce residual thromboxane biosynthesis, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and platelet-derived inflammation in low-dose aspirin treated patients with CLI.

  16. Effectiveness of combined (131)I-chTNT and radiofrequency ablation therapy in treating advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tu, Jianfei; Ji, Jiansong; Wu, Fazong; Wang, Yonghui; Zhang, Dengke; Zhao, Zhongwei; Ying, Xihui

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of monoclonal antibody ((131)I-chTNT) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) combination therapy in treating middle-advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Thirty-four patients diagnosed with HCC patients, divided into two groups comprised of 22 and 12 cases were included in this retrospective study. The two groups received RFA with or without ((131)I-chTNT) therapy, respectively. The patients in these groups were followed up for a median of 31 and 35 months, respectively. Patient survival was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier method and safety profiles were determined by analyzing liver, thyroid, and bone marrow toxicities. This retrospective study showed that survival time of the patients who received combination therapy was significantly longer than that of the RFA group (P = 0.052). The median progress-free survival of patients in the two groups was 23 and 7 months, respectively, and the difference was significant (P = 0.04). Tumor recurred in 3.5-8.7 months in four of the combination group patients, among which three had newly developed lesions. The red blood cells and platelets counts were not altered on day 7 and 1 month of the treatment, however, number of white blood cells was significantly increased on day 7 which was reversed back to the normal range in 2 weeks. The ALT and AST were also not significantly altered on day 7 and 1 month of therapy. In middle-advanced stage HCC patients, the combination of (131)I-chTNT and RFA therapy was found to be significantly more effective than the RFA treatment alone as assessed in short-term follow-up. However, the dose we used was insufficient to completely block the local recurrence of the lesions with a diameter of 5 cm or larger.

  17. Enhanced bioremediation process: A case study of effectiveness on PAH contamination in soils at a former wood-treating site

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, W.F.; Matens, B.L.; Buchalter, D.S.; Montgomery, D.N.

    1997-12-31

    The Enhanced Bioremediation Process (EBP) technology is an exsitu biodegradation process that utilizes bacterial and fungal inoculants to effectively oxidize and bioremediate persistent hard to degrade organics in contaminated soils. The EBP fungal inoculants produce highly reactive extracellular peroxidase enzymes that can oxidize and degrade lignin, a complex, natural polymer composed of phenylpropane units that is resistant to decay. The lignin peroxidase enzymes are highly nonspecific because of their ability to oxidize the heterogenic lignin molecule, and are capable of degrading a wide variety of complex organic compounds. Because the chemical sub-structure of lignin (1,2-aryl diethers, alkyl sidechains and connected aryl systems) resembles that of many persistent organic compounds, the EBP inoculants are very effective in biodegrading similar hazardous organic pollutants in contaminated soils. As an inadvertent by-product of these biochemical processes, the EBP organisms reduce the organic constituents to a soluble form. In a soluble form, the indigenous organisms can further degrade the contaminants. The technology is applied in such a manner as to maximize the activity of the indigenous organisms by establishing optimum growth conditions. The efficacy of the EBP technology in degrading persistent environmental pollutants has been documented at both the bench scale and pilot demonstration levels. A recently completed field pilot demonstration was conducted at a creosote contaminated site. The demonstration entailed the treatment of approximately 700 tons of soil contaminated with PAH constituents. Laboratory analyses of pre and post-treated soils indicate that total average PAH concentrations in many samples were reduced by greater than 91 percent over a two month treatment period.

  18. Investigations on the inflammatory and genotoxic lung effects of two types of titanium dioxide: untreated and surface treated.

    PubMed

    Rehn, B; Seiler, F; Rehn, S; Bruch, J; Maier, M

    2003-06-01

    TiO(2) is considered to be toxicologically inert, at least under nonoverload conditions. To study if there are differences in lung effects of surface treated or untreated TiO(2) we investigated the inflammatory and genotoxic lung effects of two types of commercially available TiO(2) at low doses relevant to the working environment. Rats were exposed by instillation to a single dose of 0.15, 0.3, 0.6, and 1.2 mg of TiO(2) P25 (untreated, hydrophilic surface) or TiO(2) T805 (silanized, hydrophobic surface) particles, suspended in 0.2 ml of physiological saline supplemented with 0.25% lecithin. As control, animals were instilled with the vehicle medium only or with a single dose of 0.6 mg quartz DQ12. At days 3, 21, and 90 after instillation bronchoalveolar lavage was performed and inflammatory signs such as cells, protein, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, fibronectin, and surfactant phospholipids were determined. Additionally, 8 microm frozen sections of the left lobe of the lung were cut and stored at -80 degrees C. The sections were used for immunohistochemical detection of 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoGua) by a polyclonal antibody in the DNA of individual lung cells. In the quartz-exposed animals a strong progression in the lung inflammatory response was observed. Ninety days after exposure a significant increase in the amount of 8-oxoGua in DNA of lung cells was detected. In contrast, animals exposed to TiO(2) P25 or TiO(2) T805 showed no signs of inflammation. The amount of 8-oxoGua as a marker of DNA damage was at the level of control. The results indicate that both types of TiO(2) are inert at applicated doses.

  19. The effects of tumor treating fields and temozolomide in MGMT expressing and non-expressing patient-derived glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Clark, Paul A; Gaal, Jordan T; Strebe, Joslyn K; Pasch, Cheri A; Deming, Dustin A; Kuo, John S; Robins, H Ian

    2017-02-01

    A recent Phase 3 study of newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM) demonstrated the addition of tumor treating fields (TTFields) to temozolomide (TMZ) after combined radiation/TMZ significantly increased survival and progression free survival. Preliminary data suggested benefit with both methylated and unmethylated O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyl-transferase (MGMT) promoter status. To date, however, there have been no studies to address the potential interactions of TTFields and TMZ. Thus, the effects of TTFields and TMZ were studied in vitro using patient-derived GBM stem-like cells (GSCs) including MGMT expressing (TMZ resistant: 12.1 and 22GSC) and non-MGMT expressing (TMZ sensitive: 33 and 114GSC) lines. Dose-response curves were constructed using cell proliferation and sphere-forming assays. Results demonstrated a ⩾10-fold increase in TMZ resistance of MGMT-expressing (12.1GSCs: IC50=160μM; 22GSCs: IC50=44μM) compared to MGMT non-expressing (33GSCs: IC50=1.5μM; 114GSCs: IC50=5.2μM) lines. TTFields inhibited 12.1 GSC proliferation at all tested doses (50-500kHz) with an optimal frequency of 200kHz. At 200kHz, TTFields inhibited proliferation and tumor sphere formation of both MGMT GSC subtypes at comparable levels (12.1GSC: 74±2.9% and 38±3.2%, respectively; 22GSC: 61±11% and 38±2.6%, respectively; 33GSC: 56±9.5% and 60±7.1%, respectively; 114 GSC: 79±3.5% and 41±4.3%, respectively). In combination, TTFields (200kHz) and TMZ showed an additive anti-neoplastic effect with equal efficacy for TTFields in both cell types (i.e., ± MGMT expression) with no effect on TMZ resistance. This is the first demonstration of the effects of TTFields on cancer stem cells. The expansion of such studies may have clinical implications.

  20. Administration Of Anti-CD20 mAb Is Highly Effective In Preventing But Ineffective In Treating Chronic GVHD While Preserving Strong GVL Effects

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Heather F.; Xu, Yajing; Racine, Jeremy J.; Cassady, Kaniel; Ni, Xiong; Wu, Tao; Chan, Andrew; Forman, Stephen; Zeng, Defu

    2014-01-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is an autoimmune-like syndrome, and donor B cells play important roles in augmenting its pathogenesis. B cell-depleting anti-CD20 mAb has been administered before or after cGVHD onset for preventing or treating cGVHD in clinic. Although administration before onset appeared to be more effective, the effect is variable and sometimes minimal. Here, we used two mouse cGVHD models to evaluate the preventive and therapeutic effect of anti-CD20 mAb. With the model of DBA/2 donor to MHC-matched BALB/c recipient, one intravenous injection of anti-CD20 mAb (40 mg/kg) the following day or on day 7 after HCT when serum autoantibodies were undetectable effectively prevented induction of cGVHD and preserved strong graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect. The separation of GVL effect from GVHD was associated with a significant reduction of donor CD4+ T cell proliferation and expansion, and protection of host thymic medullary epithelial cells. Anti-CD20 mAb administration also prevented expansion of donor T cells and induction of cGVHD in another mouse model of C57BL/6 donor to MHC-mismatched BALB/c recipients. In contrast, administration of anti-CD20 mAb after GVHD onset was not able to effectively deplete donor B cells or ameliorate cGVHD in either model. These results indicate that administration of anti-CD20 mAb prior to signs of cGVHD can prevent induction of autoimmune-like cGVHD while preserving GVL effect; there is little effect if administered after cGVHD onset. This provides new insights into clinical prevention and therapy of cGVHD with B cell-depleting reagents. PMID:24796279

  1. Effects of (+)-8-OH-DPAT on the duration of immobility during the forced swim test and hippocampal cell proliferation in ACTH-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Ayaka; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Miyazaki, Ikuko; Asanuma, Masato; Sendo, Toshiaki

    2014-07-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of ACTH on the immobilization of rats in the forced swim test and hippocampal cell proliferation after administration of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist, R-(+)-8-hydroxy-2-di-n-propylamino tetralin ((+)-8-OH-DPAT). Chronic treatment with (+)-8-OH-DPAT (0.01-0.1 mg/kg, s.c.) significantly decreased the duration of immobility in saline- and ACTH-treated rats. Chronic administration of ACTH caused a significant decrease in hippocampal cell proliferation. However, (+)-8-OH-DPAT significantly normalized cell proliferation in ACTH-treated rats. We then investigated the effects of (+)-8-OH-DPAT on the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cyclin D1 (elements of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB)-BDNF and Wnt signaling pathways, respectively) in the hippocampus of saline- and ACTH-treated rats. ACTH treatment significantly decreased the expression of cyclin D1, while treatment with (+)-8-OH-DPAT normalized the expression of cyclin D1 in ACTH-treated rats. However, the expression of BDNF did not change in either saline- or ACTH-treated rats. These findings suggest that the antidepressant effects of (+)-8-OH-DPAT in treatment-resistant animals may be attributed to an enhancement of hippocampal cell proliferation, at least in part due to an enhancement of cyclin D1 expression.

  2. A Randomized Trial Comparing the Cost-Effectiveness of 2 Approaches for Treating Unilateral Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Katherine A.; Chandler, Danielle L.; Repka, Michael X.; Beck, Roy W.; Foster, Nicole C.; Frick, Kevin D.; Golden, Richard P.; Lambert, Scott R.; Melia, Michele; Tien, D. Robbins; Weakley, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the cost-effectiveness of two approaches for treating unilateral nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO) Methods 163 infants 6 to <10 months old with unilateral NLDO