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Sample records for effectively treats notalgia

  1. Serratus muscle stimulation effectively treats notalgia paresthetica caused by long thoracic nerve dysfunction: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Currently, notalgia paresthetica (NP) is a poorly-understood condition diagnosed on the basis of pruritus, pain, or both, in the area medial to the scapula and lateral to the thoracic spine. It has been proposed that NP is caused by degenerative changes to the T2-T6 vertebrae, genetic disposition, or nerve entrapment of the posterior rami of spinal nerves arising at T2-T6. Despite considerable research, the etiology of NP remains unclear, and a multitude of different treatment modalities have correspondingly met with varying degrees of success. Here we demonstrate that NP can be caused by long thoracic nerve injury leading to serratus anterior dysfunction, and that electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) of the serratus anterior can successfully and conservatively treat NP. In four cases of NP with known injury to the long thoracic nerve we performed transcutaneous EMS to the serratus anterior in an area far lateral to the site of pain and pruritus, resulting in significant and rapid pain relief. These findings are the first to identify long thoracic nerve injury as a cause for notalgia paresthetica and electrical muscle stimulation of the serratus anterior as a possible treatment, and we discuss the implications of these findings on better diagnosing and treating notalgia paresthetica. PMID:19772656

  2. Serratus muscle stimulation effectively treats notalgia paresthetica caused by long thoracic nerve dysfunction: a case series.

    PubMed

    Wang, Charlie K; Gowda, Alpana; Barad, Meredith; Mackey, Sean C; Carroll, Ian R

    2009-09-22

    Currently, notalgia paresthetica (NP) is a poorly-understood condition diagnosed on the basis of pruritus, pain, or both, in the area medial to the scapula and lateral to the thoracic spine. It has been proposed that NP is caused by degenerative changes to the T2-T6 vertebrae, genetic disposition, or nerve entrapment of the posterior rami of spinal nerves arising at T2-T6. Despite considerable research, the etiology of NP remains unclear, and a multitude of different treatment modalities have correspondingly met with varying degrees of success. Here we demonstrate that NP can be caused by long thoracic nerve injury leading to serratus anterior dysfunction, and that electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) of the serratus anterior can successfully and conservatively treat NP. In four cases of NP with known injury to the long thoracic nerve we performed transcutaneous EMS to the serratus anterior in an area far lateral to the site of pain and pruritus, resulting in significant and rapid pain relief. These findings are the first to identify long thoracic nerve injury as a cause for notalgia paresthetica and electrical muscle stimulation of the serratus anterior as a possible treatment, and we discuss the implications of these findings on better diagnosing and treating notalgia paresthetica.

  3. Notalgia paresthetica: treatment using intradermal botulinum toxin A.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pérez, L; García-Gavín, J; Allegue, F; Caeiro, J L; Fabeiro, J M; Zulaica, A

    2014-01-01

    Notalgia paresthetica is a sensory mononeuropathy that affects dorsal segments T2 to T6. It can have a significant effect on quality of life. Numerous treatments have been used with variable results. Five patients diagnosed with notalgia paresthetica were treated with intradermal botulinum toxin A. None had achieved relief of the pruritus with previous treatments. Variable results were observed after the administration of intradermal botulinum toxin. Complete resolution of the pruritus was not achieved in any of the patients. Botulinum toxin A appears to be a safe therapeutic option for patients with notalgia paresthetica. However, data currently available come from small patient series, making it difficult to draw definitive conclusions regarding the true efficacy and long-term effects of this treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  4. Treatment of notalgia paresthetica with capsaicin.

    PubMed

    Leibsohn, E

    1992-05-01

    Twenty-four patients with notalgia paresthetica were treated with topical capsaicin (Zostrix) in a concentration of 0.025 percent for four months. In approximately 70 percent of the patients who remained in the study, relief of pruritus was achieved up to the 90 percent level. In the majority of these patients pruritus returned when use of the medication was stopped. The history, causes, and prevalence of the condition are reviewed. This treatment is the first described that is relatively effective.

  5. Notalgia paresthetica.

    PubMed

    Pleet, A B; Massey, E W

    1978-12-01

    Notalgia paresthetica was described by Astwazaturow in 1934. We have seen six cases in the past year, suggesting that it is not rare. This sensory neuritis affects the posterior rami of several spinal nerves (arising from thoracic segments T2 to T6), causing pruritus, burning, and dysesthesias. Examination reveals hypesthesia. Although the cause is not known, the course seems benign. The posterior rami of these five dorsal roots traverse a 90-degree course through the multifidus spinae muscle, making them unique among the posterior rami.

  6. Localized pruritus-notalgia paresthetica.

    PubMed

    Massey, E W; Pleet, A B

    1979-08-01

    Notalgia paresthetica, possibly an isolated sensory neuropathy involving the posterior primary rami of thoracic nerves T2 through T6, and appearing as pruritus of the back, is apt to be encountered by both dermatologists and neurologists. Two cases illustrate this disorder.

  7. General features and treatment of notalgia paresthetica.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pérez, Lidia Comba

    2011-01-01

    Notalgia paresthetica is a neurocutaneous disorder that most commonly manifests as pruritus and a brownish macula in the patient's upper back. Pain, burning, and paresthesias to a variable degree have also been reported. Although the physiopathology of notalgia paresthetica is still obscure, it is currently considered a sensory neuropathy caused by damage to the spinal nerves. To date, no definitive treatment has been described for this disorder. Alternatives, including physical therapies and topical, systemic, and intralesional drugs, have been tested with diverse results. A review of the current knowledge on notalgia paresthetica and its treatment is provided.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of an 8% Capsaicin Patch in the Treatment of Brachioradial Pruritus and Notalgia Paraesthetica, Two Forms of Neuropathic Pruritus.

    PubMed

    Steinke, Sabine; Gutknecht, Mandy; Zeidler, Claudia; Dieckhöfer, Anette Maria; Herrlein, Olga; Lüling, Hannah; Ständer, Sonja; Augustin, Matthias

    2017-01-04

    In brachioradial pruritus and notalgia paraesthetica, the 8% capsaicin patch is a novel and effective, but cost-intense, therapy. Routine data for 44 patients were collected 6 months retrospectively and prospectively to first patch application. The cost to health insurance and the patient, and patient-reported outcomes were analysed (visual analogue scale, numerical rating scale, verbal rating scale for pruritus symptoms, Dermatological Life Quality Index, and Patient Benefit Index). Mean inpatient treatment costs were reduced by €212.31, and mean outpatient treatment and medication costs by €100.74 per patient (p.p.). However, these reductions did not offset the high cost of the patch itself (€767.02 p.p.); thus the total cost to health insurance increased by €453.97 p.p. (p ≤ 0.01). The additional costs of therapy to the patient decreased by €441.06, thus the overall cost p.p. remained approximately the same (€3,306.03 vs. €3,318.94). Capsaicin patch therapy resulted in reduced pruritus, improved quality of life and greater patient benefit, thus long-term cost-efficiency analyses are necessary.

  9. Notalgia paresthetica: the unreachable itch

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Background: Notalgia paresthetica (NP) is a very common, under-recognized condition characterized by pruritus in a unilateral, dermatomal distribution in the mid-back. Chronic pruritus is sometimes accompanied by pain, paresthesias, or altered sensation to touch. Objectives: To review the current literature with regards to the cause of NP and its most appropriate treatment. Methods: Comprehensive literature review using PubMed to inspect the available data on NP. Results: The most likely cause of NP is cutaneous nerve damage. Many therapies have been tried in the treatment of NP, mostly in small case studies. Conclusions: The published cases and studies suggest symptoms of NP are due to a cutaneous sensory neuropathy. Treatments addressing the condition as such are more successful than traditional itch therapies. In many cases, a simple explanation for the persistent pruritus is satisfactory for patients. For very distressing cases, therapy should address the condition as a benign sensory neuropathy. Further studies are needed to evaluate which treatments have the greatest potential for providing symptom relief. PMID:23785628

  10. Notalgia paresthetica. Case reports and histologic appraisal.

    PubMed

    Weber, P J; Poulos, E G

    1988-01-01

    Notalgia paresthetica, literally an abnormal sensation of the back, is not a well-known entity in the medical community. However, we have recently studied 14 cases that have demonstrated relatively uniform clinical and histopathologic features. To our knowledge the latter of these have not been described previously. We believe it is important to familiarize the clinician with this relatively common entity.

  11. Neuropathic itch of the back: a case of notalgia paresthetica.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jaeyoung; Kim, You Chan

    2014-06-01

    Notalgia paresthetica refers to an isolated mononeuropathy involving chronic localized itch or paresthesia most often at the skin of the scapula or surrounding regions. There are no specific skin manifestations except those arising from chronic scratching and rubbing. The specific etiology remains unknown; however, it has been theorized that the neuropathic itch is caused by sensory nerve entrapment involving the posterior rami of the T2 to T6 nerve root. The entrapment is due to degenerative changes in the vertebrae. We report here a particular case of notalgia paresthetica in a 55-year-old woman. The patient visited our hospital for tingling pain around the left inferior angle of the scapula. Pruritus was first reported seven years ago with tingling pain developing only four months ago. There were no specific skin lesions observed except for excoriation and vague hyperpigmentation. A skin biopsy revealed only epidermal thinning with pigmentary incontinence. The patient was treated with 600 mg of gabapentin daily as well as capsaicin cream. The response was deemed unsatisfactory.

  12. Neuropathic Itch of the Back: A Case of Notalgia Paresthetica

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jaeyoung

    2014-01-01

    Notalgia paresthetica refers to an isolated mononeuropathy involving chronic localized itch or paresthesia most often at the skin of the scapula or surrounding regions. There are no specific skin manifestations except those arising from chronic scratching and rubbing. The specific etiology remains unknown; however, it has been theorized that the neuropathic itch is caused by sensory nerve entrapment involving the posterior rami of the T2 to T6 nerve root. The entrapment is due to degenerative changes in the vertebrae. We report here a particular case of notalgia paresthetica in a 55-year-old woman. The patient visited our hospital for tingling pain around the left inferior angle of the scapula. Pruritus was first reported seven years ago with tingling pain developing only four months ago. There were no specific skin lesions observed except for excoriation and vague hyperpigmentation. A skin biopsy revealed only epidermal thinning with pigmentary incontinence. The patient was treated with 600 mg of gabapentin daily as well as capsaicin cream. The response was deemed unsatisfactory. PMID:24966642

  13. Efficacy of gabapentin in the improvement of pruritus and quality of life of patients with notalgia paresthetica*

    PubMed Central

    Maciel, Ana Alice Wolf; Cunha, Paulo Rowilson; Laraia, Isabela Ortiz; Trevisan, Flávia

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND notalgia paresthetica is a subdiagnosed sensory neuropathy presenting as a condition of intense itching and hyperchromic macule on the back that interferes with daily habits. OBJECTIVES To determine the efficacy of treatment of notalgia paresthetica using oral gabapentin, assessing the degree of improvement in itching and influence on quality of life. Moreover, to evaluate the signs and symptoms associated with notalgia paresthetica. METHODS We conducted an experimental, non-randomized, parallel, non-blinded study including 20 patients with clinical and histopathological diagnosis of notalgia paresthetica. After application of the visual analogue scale of pain adapted for pruritus and of the questionnaire of dermatology life quality index (DLQI), ten patients with visual analogue scale > 5 were given treatment with gabapentin at the dose of 300 mg/day for four weeks. The other ten were treated with topical capsaicin 0.025% daily for four weeks. After the treatment period, patients answered again the scale of itching. RESULTS The use of gabapentin was responsible for a significant improvement in pruritus (p=0.0020). Besides itching and hyperchromic stain on the back, patients reported paresthesia and back pain. It was observed that the main factor in the worsening of the rash is heat. CONCLUSION Gabapentin is a good option for the treatment of severe itching caused by nostalgia paresthetica. PMID:25054742

  14. Efficacy of gabapentin in the improvement of pruritus and quality of life of patients with notalgia paresthetica.

    PubMed

    Maciel, Ana Alice Wolf; Cunha, Paulo Rowilson; Laraia, Isabela Ortiz; Trevisan, Flávia

    2014-01-01

    notalgia paresthetica is a subdiagnosed sensory neuropathy presenting as a condition of intense itching and hyperchromic macule on the back that interferes with daily habits. To determine the efficacy of treatment of notalgia paresthetica using oral gabapentin, assessing the degree of improvement in itching and influence on quality of life. Moreover, to evaluate the signs and symptoms associated with notalgia paresthetica. We conducted an experimental, non-randomized, parallel, non-blinded study including 20 patients with clinical and histopathological diagnosis of notalgia paresthetica. After application of the visual analogue scale of pain adapted for pruritus and of the questionnaire of dermatology life quality index (DLQI), ten patients with visual analogue scale > 5 were given treatment with gabapentin at the dose of 300 mg/day for four weeks. The other ten were treated with topical capsaicin 0.025% daily for four weeks. After the treatment period, patients answered again the scale of itching. The use of gabapentin was responsible for a significant improvement in pruritus (p=0.0020). Besides itching and hyperchromic stain on the back, patients reported paresthesia and back pain. It was observed that the main factor in the worsening of the rash is heat. Gabapentin is a good option for the treatment of severe itching caused by nostalgia paresthetica.

  15. Open pilot study on oxcarbazepine for the treatment of notalgia paresthetica.

    PubMed

    Savk, E; Bolukbasi, O; Akyol, A; Karaman, G

    2001-10-01

    Notalgia paresthetica is a sensory neuropathy typically presenting with pruritus on the back. There is currently no effective treatment for this disorder. We describe a single patient who responded to oxcarbazepine, and a subsequent trial in another 4 who also responded. Although the number of patients in our study is small, we believe further trials are warranted to determine the efficacy of oxcarbazepine in this disorder.

  16. Investigation of spinal pathology in notalgia paresthetica.

    PubMed

    Savk, Oner; Savk, Ekin

    2005-06-01

    A possible association of spinal pathology with notalgia paresthetica (NP) was investigated through clinical and radiographic evaluation. Forty-three NP patients underwent dermatologic and orthopedic examination accompanied by radiography of the spine. Sixty-one lesions in 43 patients were evaluated. In 34 patients, various vertebral pathologies were observed radiographically by a blinded investigator, and in 28 of these cases these changes were most prominent in the vertebrae which corresponded to a lesional dermatome. Thirty-seven lesions were accompanied by spinal changes decided to be relevant (60.7%). The striking correlation of NP localization with spinal pathology suggests that spinal nerve impingement may contribute to the pathogenesis of this entity.

  17. Surgical decompression for notalgia paresthetica: a case report.

    PubMed

    Williams, Eric H; Rosson, Gedge D; Elsamanoudi, Ibrahim; Dellon, A Lee

    2010-01-01

    Notalgia paresthetica is a rare nerve compression. From the Greek word noton, meaning "back," and algia, meaning "pain," "notalgia paresthetica" implies that symptoms of burning pain, itching, and/or numbness in the localized region between the spinous processes of T2 through T6 and the medial border of the scapula constitute a nerve compression syndrome. The compressed nerve is the dorsal branch of the spinal nerve. It is compressed by the paraspinous muscles and fascia against the transverse process of these spinal segments. This is the first report of symptomatic relief by decompression of this nerve.

  18. Notalgia paresthetica with a significant increase in the number of intradermal nerves.

    PubMed

    Inaloz, H Serhat; Kirtak, Necmettin; Erguven, H Gulcin; Karakok, Metin; Inaloz, Serap S

    2002-11-01

    Notalgia paresthetica is an isolated mononeuropathy involving the skin over or near the scapula. The cause remains unknown. We histologically observed a significant increase in the number of dermal nerves in a case of notalgia paresthetica. Immunohistochemical examination using a neural marker, S-100, positively stained the nerves. Interestingly, a biopsy from perilesional skin also showed an abnormal nerve proliferation.

  19. Notalgia paresthetica following neuralgic amyotrophy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tacconi, P; Manca, D; Tamburini, G; Cannas, A; Giagheddu, M

    2004-04-01

    We report the case of a patient who developed notalgia paresthetica during the recovery from a neuralgic amyotrophy. A 23-year-old woman had a typical neuralgic amyotrophy (severe shoulder pain, followed by a long thoracic nerve palsy); five months after the onset of pain, when scapular winging was improving, she began to feel a burning sensation in a restricted interscapular area, on the same side. Electromyography was consistent with a long thoracic nerve neuropathy, with minor neurogenic changes in deltoid and biceps brachii. Radiography of the spine was unremarkable. The notalgia paresthetica disappeared shortly before the complete recovery of scapular winging. The abnormal activation of shoulder girdle and spine extensor muscles during the time of long thoracic nerve palsy may explain the association between the two disorders.

  20. Osteopathic manipulative treatment in the management of notalgia paresthetica.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Blakely S; Way, Bill V; Speece, Arthur J

    2009-11-01

    Notalgia paresthetica is a chronic sensory neuropathy characterized by pruritus of the upper to middle back, typically below the left shoulder blade. Symptoms may include pain, hyperesthesia, paresthesia, and hyperpigmentation of the affected area. Although the etiologic process of this condition is poorly understood, recent correlations with degenerative spinal changes suggest that spinal nerve impingement may play a role. The authors report the case of a 59-year-old woman with notalgia paresthetica who received one 20-minute session of osteopathic manipulative treatment that focused primarily on thoracic spine and rib somatic dysfunctions. After treatment, the patient reported immediate improvement of symptoms. A discussion of this condition based on previously published literature is also provided.

  1. Notalgia Paresthetica and Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndrome 2A: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Alcántara, Francisco; Feito, Marta; Albizuri, Fátima; Beato, María; De Lucas, Raúl

    2016-09-01

    Notalgia paresthetica is characterized by a hyperpigmented macular pruritic skin lesion most commonly localized unilaterally in the middle and upper back region. This condition has been reported in association with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 2A (MEN 2A) in several families; it rarely affects children and it may serve as an early marker of MEN 2A. We report a 9-year-old girl diagnosed with MEN 2A and notalgia paresthetica.

  2. [Notalgia paresthetica, "posterior pigmented pruritic patch" and macular amyloidosis. Three stages of a disease].

    PubMed

    Cerroni, L; Kopera, D; Soyer, H P; Kerl, H

    1993-12-01

    We report on nine cases of notalgia paresthetica, a cutaneous condition that has rarely been described in the dermatological literature and is characterized by localized pruritus, burning and hyperesthesia and/or paresthesia on the back. Histological and immunohistochemical studies have not clarified the pathogenesis of this disease. Several factors might be involved in various cases, including increased cutaneous innervation and neuropathy. The so-called posterior pigmented pruritic patch and macular amyloidosis may be considered as progressive evolutional stages of notalgia paresthetica.

  3. Considerable Variability in the Efficacy of 8% Capsaicin Topical Patches in the Treatment of Chronic Pruritus in 3 Patients with Notalgia Paresthetica

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Hjalte H.; Sand, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Notalgia paresthetica (NP) is a focal neuropathic itch condition manifesting in intense chronic or recurrent episodic itch in a hyperpigmented, macular, uni- or bilateral skin area located below and/or medially to the scapulae. Achieving satisfactory relieve in NP patients is challenging. In this case-series three female NP patients were treated with 8% capsaicin patches following a spatial quantification of their alloknetic area with a von Frey filament. The use of a von Frey filament in order to delimit the precise area of itch sensitization and thus patch application, proved clinically feasible. Although 8% topical capsaicin relieved itch in all three patients, the duration of the effectiveness varied greatly from only 3 days to >2 months. The treatment was well tolerated in the patients and there appear to be no significant hindrances to applying this treatment with NP as an indication, although it may only exhibit satisfactory effectiveness in certain patients. Placebo-controlled double-blinded trials are needed to confirm the effectiveness of the treatment and assess predictive parameters of the treatment outcome. PMID:26848223

  4. Considerable Variability in the Efficacy of 8% Capsaicin Topical Patches in the Treatment of Chronic Pruritus in 3 Patients with Notalgia Paresthetica.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Hjalte H; Sand, Carsten; Elberling, Jesper

    2016-02-01

    Notalgia paresthetica (NP) is a focal neuropathic itch condition manifesting in intense chronic or recurrent episodic itch in a hyperpigmented, macular, uni- or bilateral skin area located below and/or medially to the scapulae. Achieving satisfactory relieve in NP patients is challenging. In this case-series three female NP patients were treated with 8% capsaicin patches following a spatial quantification of their alloknetic area with a von Frey filament. The use of a von Frey filament in order to delimit the precise area of itch sensitization and thus patch application, proved clinically feasible. Although 8% topical capsaicin relieved itch in all three patients, the duration of the effectiveness varied greatly from only 3 days to >2 months. The treatment was well tolerated in the patients and there appear to be no significant hindrances to applying this treatment with NP as an indication, although it may only exhibit satisfactory effectiveness in certain patients. Placebo-controlled double-blinded trials are needed to confirm the effectiveness of the treatment and assess predictive parameters of the treatment outcome.

  5. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation offers partial relief in notalgia paresthetica patients with a relevant spinal pathology.

    PubMed

    Savk, Ekin; Savk, Oner; Sendur, Faruk

    2007-05-01

    There is yet no established mode of curative treatment for notalgia paresthetica (NP). We had previously shown a correlation of NP localization with relevant spinal changes which led us to speculate on the possible role of spinal nerve impingement in the pathogenesis of this entity. Based on these findings we aimed to investigate the possible effect of physical therapy in selected cases of NP. Fifteen NP patients with a relevant spinal pathology (four men and 11 women) were included in the study. The mean age was 52.80 +/- 8.83 years (+/- SD; range, 39-73). NP duration was 8.9 +/- 8.13 years (range, 1.5-30). All patients received 10 conventional transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) sessions in the symptomatic area of 20 min duration and high frequency (50-100 Hz). From an initial pruritus score of 10, the mean score by the end of first week was 7.67 +/- 2.02 (range, 5-10) and by the end of second week it was 6.80 +/- 2.73 (range, 4-11). The differences between the pretreatment and post-treatment scores were statistically significant. There was no correlation of therapeutic benefit with age or disease duration. We believe that the partial therapeutic benefit of TENS in NP patients is of importance and further research on the effects of various physical therapeutic modalities would be worthwhile.

  6. Notalgia paraesthetica: a descriptive two-cohort study of 65 patients from Brazil and Germany.

    PubMed

    Huesmann, Timo; Cunha, Paulo R; Osada, Nani; Huesmann, Mario; Zanelato, Tiago P; Phan, Ngoc Quan; Gontijo, Gabriela M Abreu; Marziniak, Martin; Ständer, Sonja

    2012-09-01

    Notalgia paraesthetica is a neuropathic pruritus on the back. The aim of this retrospective study was to examine patient characteristics in a consecutive cohort from Brazil and Germany. A total of 65 patients (49 women, 16 men; age range 25-80 years, mean 56.2 ± 12.7 years; median 57.0 years) were investigated in order to determine the spinal or peripheral origin of notalgia paraesthetica. Protein gene product 9.5-positive intraepidermal nerve fibers were significantly reduced in the pruritic compared with the non-lesional area (p < 0.05). In 32.3% of patients, radiological examinations showed a stenosis and in 47.7% a degeneration. A correlation between the radiological findings and the exact dermatomal localization of notalgia paraesthetica was found in 15.7% of the involved areas. The significant reduction in intraepidermal nerve fiber density suggests that damage to the peripheral nerves is a more important aetiological factor than spinal changes in notalgia paraesthetica.

  7. Macular posterior pigmentary incontinence: its relation to macular amyloidosis and notalgia paresthetica.

    PubMed

    Westermark, P; Ridderström, E; Vahlquist, A

    1996-07-01

    Patients with clinical features of dorsal macular amyloidosis but without subepidermal amyloid deposits were followed for 2-11 years. The clinical appearance was fairly stable during this period of time, with little tendency of healing. Only 2 of the patients developed typical macular amyloidosis during the follow-up. It is concluded that a condition strongly resembling macular amyloidosis but without amyloid is an entity, and the designation "macular posterior pigmentary incontinence" is proposed. The relationship between macular posterior pigmentary incontinence and the two conditions macular amyloidosis and notalgia paresthetica is discussed.

  8. Symptoms of notalgia paresthetica may be explained by increased dermal innervation.

    PubMed

    Springall, D R; Karanth, S S; Kirkham, N; Darley, C R; Polak, J M

    1991-09-01

    Notalgia paresthetica is a sensory neuropathy characterized by infrascapular pruritus, burning pain, hyperalgesia, or tenderness. To assess whether the symptoms may be caused by alterations in the cutaneous innervation, skin from the affected area of patients (n = 5) was compared with controls (n = 10) comprising the contralateral unaffected area from the same patients and site-matched biopsies of normals, using immunohistochemistry. Frozen sections were immunostained with antisera to the neuropeptides substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, and neuropeptide with tyrosine, and to the general neural marker PGP 9.5 and the glial marker S-100 to show the overall innervation and glial cells, respectively. No discernible change in the distribution of neuropeptide-immunoreactive axons was found, but all of the specimens from the affected areas had a significant increase in the number of intradermal PGP 9.5-immunoreactive nerve fibers compared with unaffected areas from the same patients and normal controls. Epidermal dendritic cells immunoreactive for S-100, possibly Langerhans cells, were substantially increased. It is concluded that there is an increase in the sensory epidermal innervation in the affected skin areas in notalgia paresthetica, which could contribute to the symptoms, and that neural immunohistochemistry of skin biopsies could be helpful in the diagnosis of the disease.

  9. Notalgia paresthetica associated with cervical spinal stenosis and cervicothoracic disk disease at C4 through C7.

    PubMed

    Alai, Nili N; Skinner, Harry B; Nabili, Siamak T; Jeffes, Edward; Shahrokni, Seyed; Saemi, Arash M

    2010-02-01

    Notalgia paresthetica (NP) is a common refractory, sensory, neuropathic syndrome with the hallmark symptom of localized pruritus of the unilateral infrascapular back. It generally is a chronic noncurable condition with periodic remissions and exacerbations. While the dermatologic syndrome may be multifactorial in etiology, a possible association with underlying cervical spine disease should be evaluated for proper treatment. Collaborative multispecialty evaluation by dermatology, radiology, orthopedic surgery, and neurology may be indicated for primary management of this condition. First-line therapy for NP with associated cervical disease may include nondermatologic noninvasive treatments such as spinal manipulation, physical therapy, massage, cervical traction, cervical muscle strengthening, and oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and muscle relaxants. Notalgia paresthetica may in fact be a cutaneous sign of an underlying degenerative cervical spine disease. We report a case of a patient with cervical spinal stenosis that corresponded directly with the clinical findings of NP.

  10. Cutaneous lesion associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A: lichen amyloidosis or notalgia paresthetica?

    PubMed

    Chabre, O; Labat, F; Pinel, N; Berthod, F; Tarel, V; Bachelot, I

    1992-01-01

    Three patients of a French family demonstrated an association of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) with a pruritic scapular skin lesion. The lesions are similar to those described as familial cutaneous lichen amyloidosis in unrelated MEN 2A and medullary thyroid carcinoma families, but histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural analysis of skin biopsies from each patient in the French family did not show amyloid deposition. The topography of the lesion follows dermatomes C8-D3. The patients report not only pruritus but also paresthesia and hyperalgesia, and one showed touch hypoesthesia and pain hyperesthesia in the area of the lesion. Such an association of cutaneous and neurological features suggests notalgia paresthetica (NP), a neuropathy of the posterior dorsal rami nerves. We thus suggest that the cutaneous lesions associated with MEN 2A might be secondary to pathology in the neural crest-derived dorsal sensory nerves. The amyloid, when present, would be secondary to scratching. We propose that patients presenting with familial NP be suspect for MEN 2A.

  11. Notalgia paresthetica: clinical, physiopathological and therapeutic aspects. A study of 12 cases.

    PubMed

    Raison-Peyron, N; Meunier, L; Acevedo, M; Meynadier, J

    1999-05-01

    Notalgia paresthetica (NP) is a common but often unrecognized neurocutaneous condition, with very few cases reported to date. It is characterized by pruritus localized in an area between D2 and D6 dermatomes, sometimes accompanied by sensory neuropathies and/or electrical conductivity disorders. Cutaneous pigmented patches and friction amyloidosis can arise with irritation. Some hereditary cases have been noted mainly in young patients, associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A. However, NP mainly occurs in older patients and most are sporadic pathologies linked with musculoskeletal compression of spinal nerves. Only capsaicin has shown some (but unfortunately only transient) efficacy in relieving NP symptoms. We present observations on 12 sporadic cases of NP. Spinal X-rays revealed dorsal arthrosis or spinal static disequilibrium in nine of these patients. Six patients underwent spinal and paraspinal ultrasound or radiation (better) physiotherapy, and the symptoms subsided in four of these cases. These results highlighted that spinal disorders could be a determining factor in NP, indicating that patients could benefit from physiotherapy.

  12. Why to treat subjects as fixed effects.

    PubMed

    Adelman, James S; Estes, Zachary

    2015-09-01

    Adelman, Marquis, Sabatos-DeVito, and Estes (2013) collected word naming latencies from 4 participants who read 2,820 words 50 times each. Their recommendation and practice was that R² targets set for models should take into account subject idiosyncrasies as replicable patterns, equivalent to a subjects-as-fixed-effects assumption. In light of an interaction involving subjects, they broke down the interaction into individual subject data. Courrieu and Rey's (2015) commentary argues that (a) single-subject data need not be more reliable than subject-average data, and (b) anyway, treating groups of subjects as random samples leads to valid conclusions about general mechanisms of reading. Point (a) was not part of Adelman et al.'s claim. In this reply, we examine the consequences of using the fixed-effect assumption. It (a) produces the correct target to check if by-items regression models contain all necessary variables, (b) more accurately constrains cognitive models, (c) more accurately reveals general mechanisms, and (d) can offer more powerful tests of effects. Even when individual differences are not the primary focus of a study, the fixed-effect analysis is often preferable to the random-effects analysis.

  13. [Brachioradial pruritus effectively treated with gabapentin].

    PubMed

    Uldall Pallesen, Kristine Appel; Bygum, Anette

    2012-06-25

    Brachioradial pruritus is a characteristic clinical condition with a deep intense itching, tingling or burning sensation localized to the dorsolateral part of the upper extremities. The symptoms occur primarily in the late summer in fair skin type people who are extensively sun-exposed. The condition is difficult to treat and does not respond to topical steroids and antihistamines. We describe a 57-year-old woman with longstanding brachioradial itching due to cervical radiculopathy and sun exposure, which was successfully treated with gabapentin.

  14. Why to Treat Subjects as Fixed Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, James S.; Estes, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    Adelman, Marquis, Sabatos-DeVito, and Estes (2013) collected word naming latencies from 4 participants who read 2,820 words 50 times each. Their recommendation and practice was that R2 targets set for models should take into account subject idiosyncrasies as replicable patterns, equivalent to a subjects-as-fixed-effects assumption. In light of an…

  15. Why to Treat Subjects as Fixed Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, James S.; Estes, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    Adelman, Marquis, Sabatos-DeVito, and Estes (2013) collected word naming latencies from 4 participants who read 2,820 words 50 times each. Their recommendation and practice was that R2 targets set for models should take into account subject idiosyncrasies as replicable patterns, equivalent to a subjects-as-fixed-effects assumption. In light of an…

  16. Elements for Effective Management of Operating Pump and Treat Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet summarizes key aspects of effective management for operating pump and treat (P&T) systems based on lessons learned from conducting optimization evaluations at 20 Superfund-financed P&T systems.

  17. Diverse biological effects of electromagnetic-treated water.

    PubMed

    Yamabhai, Montarop; Chumseng, Suchintana; Yoohat, Kirana; Srila, Witsanu

    2014-07-01

    The effects of water treated with an electromagnetic field (EMF) were investigated on two biological systems, humans and plants. Purified de-ionised water was treated by (1) boiling, (2) exposure to microwave radiation, and (3) low frequency electromagnetic oscillation molecular resonance effect technology (MRET), before being used to prepare media for culturing human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from three healthy females. Our results indicated that PBMC culture in MRET-activated medium showed significantly less oxidative metabolism when compared to media prepared from other types of water. As for the effects on soybean, our results indicated that both MRET- and microwave-treated water greatly enhanced the length of the root. These results suggested that electromagnetic-treated water can have diverse biological effects on both animal and plant cells. Since these effects are related to the 'Memory of Water', hypothesis which has been suggested as an explanation of the action of high homeopathic dilutions, our finding warrant a further investigation on the mechanisms of various types of physically conditioned water on specific cellular activities.

  18. Survey on the Effectiveness of Dietary Supplements to Treat Tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Claudia; Tyler, Richard; Ji, Haihong; Rojas-Roncancio, Eveling; Witt, Shelley; Tao, Pan; Jun, Hyung-Jin; Wang, Tang Chuan; Hansen, Marlan R; Gantz, Bruce J

    2016-09-01

    We surveyed the benefit of dietary supplements to treat tinnitus and reported adverse effects. A website was created for people with tinnitus to complete a variety of questions. The 1,788 subjects who responded to questionnaires came from 53 different countries; 413 (23.1%) reported taking supplements. No effect on tinnitus was reported in 70.7%, improvement in 19.0%, and worsening in 10.3%. Adverse effects were reported in 6% (n = 36), including bleeding, diarrhea, headache, and others. Supplements were reported to be helpful for sleep: melatonin (effect size, d = 1.228) and lipoflavonoid (d = 0.5244); emotional reactions: melatonin (d = 0.6138) and lipoflavonoid (d = 0.457); hearing: Ginkgo biloba (d = 0.3758); and concentration Ginkgo biloba (d = 0.3611). The positive, subjective reports should be interpreted cautiously; many might have reported a positive effect because they were committed to treatment and expected a benefit. Users of supplements were more likely to have loudness hyperacusis and to have a louder tinnitus. The use of dietary supplements to treat tinnitus is common, particularly with Ginkgo biloba, lipoflavonoids, magnesium, melatonin, vitamin B12, and zinc. It is likely that some supplements will help with sleep for some patients. However, they are generally not effective, and many produced adverse effects. We concluded that dietary supplements should not be recommended to treat tinnitus but could have a positive outcome on tinnitus reactions in some people.

  19. The effectiveness of glucocorticoids in treating croup: meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ausejo, Monica; Saenz, Antonio; Pham, Ba'; Moher, David; Chalmers, Thomas C.; Kellner, James D.; Johnson, David W.; Klassen, Terry P.

    1999-01-01

    •Objective To determine the effectiveness of glucocorticoid treatment in children with croup. •Design Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials that examine the effectiveness of glucocorticoid treatment in children with croup. •Main outcome measures Score on scale measuring severity of croup,use of co-interventions (epinephrine, antibiotics, or supplemental glucocorticoids), length of stay in the emergency department or the hospital, and rate of hospitalization. •Results Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Glucocorticoid treatment was associated with an improvement in the croup severity score at 6 hours with an effect size of -1.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] -1.5 to -0.6) and at 12 hours -1.0 (-1.6 to -0.4); at 24 hours, this improvement was no longer significant (-1.0, -2.0 to -0.1). There was a decrease in the number of epinephrine treatments needed in children treated with glucocorticoids: a decrease of 9% (95% CI 2% to 16%) among those treated with budesonide and of 12% (4% to 20%) among those treated with dexamethasone. There was also a decrease in the length of time spent in the emergency department (-11 hours, 95% CI -18 to 4 hours) and, for inpatients, hospital stay was reduced by 16 hours (-31 to 1 hour). Publication bias seems to play a part in these results. •Conclusions Dexamethasone and budesonide are effective in relieving the symptoms of croup as early as 6 hours after treatment. Fewer co-interventions are used, and the length of time spent in the hospital is decreased in patients treated withglucocorticoids. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:18751187

  20. The effectiveness of glucocorticoids in treating croup: meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ausejo, Monica; Saenz, Antonio; Pham, Ba’; Kellner, James D; Johnson, David W; Moher, David; Klassen, Terry P

    1999-01-01

    Objective To determine the effectiveness of glucocorticoid treatment in children with croup. Design Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials that examine the effectiveness of glucocorticoid treatment in children with croup. Main outcome measures Score on scale measuring severity of croup, use of cointerventions (adrenaline (epinephrine), antibiotics, or supplemental glucocorticoids), length of stay in accident and emergency or in hospital, and rate of hospitalisation. Results Twenty four studies met the inclusion criteria. Glucocorticoid treatment was associated with an improvement in the croup severity score at 6 hours with an effect size of −1.0 (95% confidence interval −1.5 to −0.6) and at 12 hours −1.0 (−1.6 to −0.4); at 24 hours this improvement was no longer significant (−1.0, −2.0 to 0.1). There was a decrease in the number of adrenaline treatments needed in children treated with glucocorticoids: a decrease of 9% (95% confidence interval 2% to 16%) among those treated with budesonide and of 12% (4% to 20%) among those treated with dexamethasone. There was also a decrease in the length of time spent in accident and emergency (−11 hours, 95% confidence interval −18 to 4 hours), and for inpatients hospital stay was reduced by 16 hours (−31 to 1 hour). Publication bias seems to play a part in these results. Conclusions Dexamethasone and budesonide are effective in relieving the symptoms of croup as early as 6 hours after treatment. Fewer cointerventions are used and the length of time spent in hospital is decreased in patients treated with glucocorticoids. Key messagesMost trials evaluating the treatment of croup are of high methodological quality and hence have a low risk of biasPublication bias, however, seems to be a problem, making the results of this meta-analysis somewhat less certainGlucocorticoids seem to bring about clinical improvement in children with croup within 6 hoursNebulised budesonide or dexamethasone, given either

  1. Could virtual reality be effective in treating children with phobias?

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Stéphane

    2011-02-01

    The use of virtual reality to treat anxiety disorders in adults is gaining popularity and its efficacy is supported by numerous outcome studies. Similar research for children is lagging behind. The outcome studies on the use of virtual reality to treat anxiety disorders in children currently address only specific phobias, and all of the available trials are reviewed in this article. Despite the limited number of studies, results are very encouraging for the treatment of school and spider phobias. A study with adolescents suggests that, at least for social anxiety, exposure stimuli would be more effective if they were developed specifically for younger populations. Virtual reality may not increase children's motivation towards therapy unless their fearful apprehension is addressed before initiating the treatment.

  2. JV Task 119 - Effects of Aging on Treated Activated Carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin Olson; Lucinda Hamre; John Pavlish; Blaise Mibeck

    2009-03-25

    For both the United States and Canada, testing has been under way for electric utilities to find viable and economical mercury control strategies to meet pending future mercury emission limits. The technology that holds the most promise for mercury control in low-chlorine lignite to meet the needs of the Clean Air Act in the United States and the Canada-Wide Standards in Canada is injection of treated activated carbon (AC) into the flue gas stream. Most of the treated carbons are reported to be halogenated, often with bromine. Under a previous multiyear project headed by the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), testing was performed on a slipstream unit using actual lignite-derived flue gas to evaluate various sorbent technologies for their effectiveness, performance, and cost. Testing under this project showed that halogenated ACs performed very well, with mercury capture rates often {ge} 90%. However, differences were noted between treated ACs with respect to reactivity and capacity, possibly as a result of storage conditions. Under certain conditions (primarily storage in ambient air), notable performance degradation had occurred in mercury capture efficiency. Therefore, a small exploratory task within this project evaluated possible differences resulting from storage conditions and subsequent effects of aging that might somehow alter their chemical or physical properties. In order to further investigate this potential degradation of treated (halogenated) ACs, the EERC, together with DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory, the North Dakota Industrial Commission (NDIC), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), SaskPower, and Otter Tail Power Company, assessed the aging effects of brominated ACs for the effect that different storage durations, temperatures, and humidity conditions have on the mercury sorption capacity of treated ACs. No aging effects on initial capture activity were observed for any carbons or conditions in the investigation

  3. Behavioral effects of amphetamine in streptozotocin-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Sevak, Rajkumar J; Koek, Wouter; Daws, Lynette C; Owens, William Anthony; Galli, Aurelio; France, Charles P

    2008-02-26

    Experimentally-induced diabetes can modify the behavioral and neurochemical effects of drugs acting on dopamine systems, possibly through insulin-related regulation of dopamine transporter activity. In this study, several behavioral procedures were used to examine possible changes in sensitivity to amphetamine and other drugs in rats rendered diabetic by a single injection of streptozotocin. Conditioned place preference developed to food (Froot Loops) in both control and diabetic rats, demonstrating that conditioned place preference with tactile stimuli can occur in streptozotocin-treated rats. Baseline locomotion was lower in streptozotocin-treated as compared to control rats, although amphetamine significantly increased locomotion in all rats. Conditioned place preference developed to amphetamine regardless of whether rats had received streptozotocin or saline. A second study compared the potency of drugs to decrease lever pressing maintained by food, before and after streptozotocin treatment. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate and amphetamine were less potent after streptozotocin while the potency of raclopride, quinpirole, ketamine, haloperidol and cocaine was not significantly changed by streptozotocin. While markedly affecting locomotion, body weight and blood glucose, streptozotocin only modestly affected sensitivity to the behavioral effects of amphetamine and other drugs; these results fail to confirm previous reports of decreased behavioral actions of stimulants in diabetic rats.

  4. Use of treated wastewater in agriculture: effects on soil environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Guy J.; Lado, Marcos

    2014-05-01

    Disposal of treated sewage, both from industrial and domestic origin (herein referred to as treated wastewater [TWW]), is often considered as an environmental hazard. However, in areas afflicted by water scarcity, especially in semi-arid and arid regions, where the future of irrigated agriculture (which produces approximately one third of crop yield and half the return from global crop production) is threatened by existing or expected shortage of fresh water, the use of TWW offers a highly effective and sustainable strategy to exploit a water resource. However, application of TWW to the soil is not free of risks both to organisms (e.g., crops, microbiota) and to the soil. Potential risks may include reduction in biological activity (including crop yield) due to elevated salinity and specific ion toxicity, migration of pollutants towards surface- and ground-water, and deterioration of soil structure. In recent years, new evidence about the possible negative impact of long-term irrigation with TWW on soil structure and physical and chemo-physical properties has emerged, thus putting the sustainability of irrigation with TWW in question. In this presentation, some aspects of the effects of long-term irrigation with TWW on soil properties are shown.

  5. Effectively treating stimulant-abusing schizophrenics: mission impossible?

    PubMed

    Roberts, L J; Shaner, A; Eckman, T A; Tucker, D E; Vaccaro, J V

    1992-01-01

    The development of effective treatment programs for dual diagnosis patients is in its initial stages, hampered by a variety of clinical, theoretical, administrative, and even sociopolitical obstacles. These patients are difficult to engage and treat effectively using standard systems of care. The Dual Diagnosis Treatment Program at the Brentwood VA Hospital integrates treatment for both stimulant abuse and chronic psychosis within one comprehensive program, emphasizing continuous treatment teams, optimal pharmacological management, behavior-shaping strategies, skills-training techniques, and assertive case management. The combination of these treatment approaches within one program appears to have helped some patients in our preliminary, one-year experience. Future publications will describe results from controlled outcome comparisons of DDTP with customary VA care.

  6. Hypolipidemic effect of β-caryophyllene to treat hyperlipidemic rats.

    PubMed

    Baldissera, Matheus D; Souza, Carine F; Grando, Thirssa H; Doleski, Pedro H; Boligon, Aline A; Stefani, Lenita M; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of β-caryophyllene on hypercholesterolemia using a model of hyperlipidemia induced by Triton WR-1339 in rats, as well as its possible effect on hepatic antioxidant enzymes. Thus, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were measured in serum, while reactive oxygen species (ROS), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutayl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities were measured in the hepatic tissue. In addition, seric concentrations of β-caryophyllene were measured to perform correlation studies. Serum samples from hypercholesterolemic rats show higher (p < 0.05) levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol, and lower (p < 0.05) levels of HDL cholesterol compared to non-hypercholesterolemic rats. β-Caryophyllene treatment reduced (p < 0.05) the levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol, similar to the reference drug simvastatin. However, HDL cholesterol levels did not increase with the treatment. β-Caryophyllene treatment was able to inhibit the HMG-CoA reductase activity, as well as to prevent the increase on ROS and TBARS levels, and ameliorate the antioxidant system. In summary, our findings demonstrated that β-caryophyllene has hypolipidemic effect via inhibition of the hepatic HMG-CoA reductase, like the standard drug simvastatin, and this inhibition suggests a possible mechanism of hypolipidemic action. Thus, our results indicate that β-caryophyllene can be used to treat dyslipidemic diseases because it exerts a similar effect as the reference drug, protecting the liver against lipid damage and improving the hepatic antioxidant defense system.

  7. Effectiveness of Ivabradine in Treating Stable Angina Pectoris

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Liwen; Ke, Dazhi; Chen, Qingwei; Li, Guiqiong; Deng, Wei; Wu, Zhiqin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Many studies show that ivabradine is effective for stable angina. This meta-analysis was performed to determine the effect of treatment duration and control group type on ivabradine efficacy in stable angina pectoris. Relevant articles in the English language in the PUBMED and EMBASE databases and related websites were identified by using the search terms “ivabradine,” “angina,” “randomized controlled trials,” and “Iva.” The final search date was November 2, 2015. Articles were included if they were published randomized controlled trials that related to ivabradine treatment of stable angina pectoris. Patients with stable angina pectoris were included. The patients were classified according to treatment duration (<3 vs ≥3 months) or type of control group (placebo vs beta-receptor blocker). Angina outcomes were heart rate at rest or peak, exercise duration, and time to angina onset. Seven articles were selected. There were 3747 patients: 2100 and 1647 were in the ivabradine and control groups, respectively. The ivabradine group had significantly longer exercise duration when they had been treated for at least 3 months, but not when treatment time was less than 3 months. Ivabradine significantly improved time to angina onset regardless of treatment duration. Control group type did not influence the effect of exercise duration (significant) or time to angina onset (significant). Compared with beta-blocker and placebo, ivabradine improved exercise duration and time to onset of angina in patients with stable angina. However, its ability to improve exercise duration only became significant after at least 3 months of treatment. PMID:27057864

  8. Effectiveness of Ivabradine in Treating Stable Angina Pectoris.

    PubMed

    Ye, Liwen; Ke, Dazhi; Chen, Qingwei; Li, Guiqiong; Deng, Wei; Wu, Zhiqin

    2016-04-01

    Many studies show that ivabradine is effective for stable angina.This meta-analysis was performed to determine the effect of treatment duration and control group type on ivabradine efficacy in stable angina pectoris.Relevant articles in the English language in the PUBMED and EMBASE databases and related websites were identified by using the search terms "ivabradine," "angina," "randomized controlled trials," and "Iva." The final search date was November 2, 2015.Articles were included if they were published randomized controlled trials that related to ivabradine treatment of stable angina pectoris.Patients with stable angina pectoris were included.The patients were classified according to treatment duration (<3 vs ≥3 months) or type of control group (placebo vs beta-receptor blocker). Angina outcomes were heart rate at rest or peak, exercise duration, and time to angina onset.Seven articles were selected. There were 3747 patients: 2100 and 1647 were in the ivabradine and control groups, respectively. The ivabradine group had significantly longer exercise duration when they had been treated for at least 3 months, but not when treatment time was less than 3 months. Ivabradine significantly improved time to angina onset regardless of treatment duration. Control group type did not influence the effect of exercise duration (significant) or time to angina onset (significant).Compared with beta-blocker and placebo, ivabradine improved exercise duration and time to onset of angina in patients with stable angina. However, its ability to improve exercise duration only became significant after at least 3 months of treatment.

  9. Effectiveness and safety of tisuacryl in treating dentin hypersensitivity (DH).

    PubMed

    Pérez, Mayra de la Caridad; Mayelin Guerra, Rosa; Fernández, Máxima; Márquez, Daisy; Velazco, Gladys; Rodríguez, Jorge; Alemán, Elizardo; Garcia, Lubenia; Suárez, Osmil; Rodríguez, María del Carmen; Sañudo, Juana

    2010-01-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity (DH) is a painful tooth condition affecting a large proportion of the world population. While DH is not a direct cause of tooth loss, it does cause discomfort and stress. DH treatment methods include desensitizers, such as fluoride compounds; polycyanoacrylate coating; low intensity laser therapy; and surgery as a last resort. In Cuba, a fluoride varnish, Profilac, is widely used with acceptable results. Tisuacryl, an N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate-based tissue adhesive is licensed in Cuba as a medical device used for closing wounds and as a protective covering or dressing for oral tissues. Experimental use of Tisuacryl in DH treatment has begun recently with good results. Evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Tisuacryl in treating dentin hypersensitivity. An experimental, prospective, longitudinal, multicenter, non-controlled clinical investigation was conducted using the licensed medical device Tisuacryl. The study universe consisted of patients with DH symptoms who sought treatment at three dental clinics in Havana Province between May 2007 and February 2009. The sample consisted of 152 patients who met inclusion and diagnostic criteria for the study. DH was classified as severe, moderate, or mild. Remission of dentinal pain was the principal variable for evaluating effectiveness. Safety variables were mucosal irritation and burning sensation at the treatment site. Treatment was considered successful if DH was cured, defined as remission of pain and relief of discomfort (irritation or burning sensation) with no other adverse events by the final evaluation on day 6 after treatment initiation. Tisuacryl treatment was successful in 96.7% of patients (81.5% with severe DH and 100% with mild to moderate DH). Mucosal irritation was observed in only 1 patient at first evaluation on day 2 but disappeared by the second evaluation. No other adverse events were reported. Tisuacryl was shown to be an effective, safe treatment of dentin hypersensitivity

  10. Potential protective effects of autophagy activated in MPP+ treated astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Cunzhou; Xian, Wenbiao; Zhou, Hongyan; Chen, Ling; Pei, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Astrocytes, which have various important functions, have previously been associated with Parkinsons disease (PD), particularly in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) models of PD. MPP+ is the toxic metabolite of MPTP and is generated by the enzymatic activity of monoamine oxidase B, which is predominantly located in astrocytes. MPP+ acts as a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved self-digestion pathway in eukaryotic cells, which occurs in response to various types of stress, including starvation and oxidative stress. Lithium treatment has previously been shown to induce autophagy in astrocytes by inhibiting the enzyme inositol monophosphatase, which may aid in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington's disease, in which the toxic protein is an autophagy substrate. Therefore, using western blotting and MTT assay, the present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of lithium-induced autophagy against astrocyte injury caused by MPP+ treatment, as well as the potential underlying mechanisms. The results of the present study suggested that lithium was able to induce autophagy in astrocytes treated with MPP+, and this likely occurred via activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT pathway. PMID:27882077

  11. Antihyperglycemic Effect of Quercetin in Ovariectomized Rats Treated with Tamoxifen.

    PubMed

    Silva, Fernanda Coleraus; Bramatti, Isabella Calvo; Toledo, Adrieli Gorlin; Salles, Fernando Marques; Itinose, Ana Maria; Marek, Carla Brugin

    2017-03-01

    Tamoxifen is effective in breast cancer therapy in postmenopausal women; however, it causes adverse effects that alter the glycolytic pathway and induce hyperglycemia. Quercetin, a flavonoid with antioxidant potential, inhibits butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), which is positively associated with hyperglycemia. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of quercetin on tamoxifen-induced hyperglycemia, using BuChE activity as a bioindicator in adult ovariectomized Wistar rats. The ovariectomized rats were treated orally for 14 days with different concentrations of quercetin (2.5, 7.5, 22.5, and 67.5 mg.kg(-1) b.w.) and tamoxifen (5 mg.kg(-1) b.w.). Subsequently, they were euthanized; blood and tissue samples were collected. The following biochemical parameters were analyzed: plasma glucose levels and BuChE activity in the plasma, liver, intestine, and adipose tissue. The most effective dose of quercetin in reducing hyperglycemia was 22.5 mg.kg(-1) b.w. (Que/TAM 4.5/1, P < .00000), although the doses of 2.5 (Que/TAM 0.5/1, P < .05) and 7.5 mg.kg(-1) b.w. (Que/TAM 1.5/1, P < .05) were also effective. The BuChE activity decreased in the intestine at all tested doses of quercetin coadministered with tamoxifen (P < .01); however, in adipose tissue, there was a biphasic activity with a decrease (P < .05) and increase (P < .05) in activity at doses of 7.5 and 22.5 mg.kg(-1) b.w. of quercetin, respectively. However, the correlation between BuChE and glucose levels was not significant (P > .05). In summary, the findings of the present study suggest that quercetin when associated with tamoxifen decreases in plasma glucose levels. Furthermore, in these cases, BuChE should not be used as an indicator of hyperglycemia.

  12. Unarmed, tumor-specific monoclonal antibody effectively treats brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, John H.; Crotty, Laura E.; Lee, Samson; Archer, Gary E.; Ashley, David M.; Wikstrand, Carol J.; Hale, Laura P.; Small, Clayton; Dranoff, Glenn; Friedman, Allan H.; Friedman, Henry S.; Bigner, Darell D.

    2000-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is often amplified and rearranged structurally in tumors of the brain, breast, lung, and ovary. The most common mutation, EGFRvIII, is characterized by an in-frame deletion of 801 base pairs, resulting in the generation of a novel tumor-specific epitope at the fusion junction. A murine homologue of the human EGFRvIII mutation was created, and an IgG2a murine mAb, Y10, was generated that recognizes the human and murine equivalents of this tumor-specific antigen. In vitro, Y10 was found to inhibit DNA synthesis and cellular proliferation and to induce autonomous, complement-mediated, and antibodydependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Systemic treatment with i.p. Y10 of s.c. B16 melanomas transfected to express stably the murine EGFRvIII led to long-term survival in all mice treated (n = 20; P < 0.001). Similar therapy with i.p. Y10 failed to increase median survival of mice with EGFRvIII-expressing B16 melanomas in the brain; however, treatment with a single intratumoral injection of Y10 increased median survival by an average 286%, with 26% long-term survivors (n = 117; P < 0.001). The mechanism of action of Y10 in vivo was shown to be independent of complement, granulocytes, natural killer cells, and T lymphocytes through in vivo complement and cell subset depletions. Treatment with Y10 in Fc receptor knockout mice demonstrated the mechanism of Y10 to be Fc receptor-dependent. These data indicate that an unarmed, tumor-specific mAb may be an effective immunotherapy against human tumors and potentially other pathologic processes in the “immunologically privileged” central nervous system. PMID:10852962

  13. Cardiovascular Effects in Childhood Cancer Survivors Treated with Anthracyclines

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Vivian I.; Henkel, Jacqueline M.; Miller, Tracie L.; Lipshultz, Steven E.

    2011-01-01

    Anthracyclines are commonly used to treat childhood leukemias and lymphomas, as well as other malignancies, leading to a growing population of long-term childhood cancer survivors. However, their use is limited by cardiotoxicity, increasing survivors' vulnerability to treatment-related complications that can markedly affect their quality of life. Survivors are more likely to suffer from heart failure, coronary artery disease, and cerebrovascular accidents compared to the general population. The specific mechanisms of anthracycline cardiotoxicity are complex and remain unclear. Hence, determining the factors that may increase susceptibility to cardiotoxicity is of great importance, as is monitoring patients during and after treatment. Additionally, treatment and prevention options, such as limiting cumulative dosage, liposomal anthracyclines, and dexrazoxane, continue to be explored. Here, we review the cardiovascular complications associated with the use of anthracyclines in treating malignancies in children and discuss methods for preventing, screening, and treating such complications in childhood cancer survivors. PMID:21331374

  14. Effects on crops of irrigation with treated municipal wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Fasciolo, G E; Meca, M I; Gabriel, E; Morábito, J

    2002-01-01

    The fertilizing potential of treated municipal wastewater (oxidation ditch) and crop sanitary acceptability for direct human consumption were evaluated in Mendoza, Argentina. Two experiments were performed on a pilot plot planted with garlic (1998) and onions (1999) using furrow irrigation with three types of water in 10 random blocks: treated effluent (2.5 x 10(3) MPN Escherichia coli/100 ml, 3 helminth eggs/l, and Salmonella (positive); and well water (free of microorganisms), with and without fertilizer. Two responses were evaluated: (1) crop yield, and (2) crop microbiological quality for human consumption at different times after harvest. Crop yields were compared using Variance analysis. Crops' sanitary acceptability was assessed using a two-class sampling program for Salmonella (n=10; c=0), and a three-class program for E. coli (n=5, c=2, M=10(3) and m=10 MPN/g) as proposed by the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) for fresh vegetables. Wastewater irrigation acted as well water with fertilizer, increasing garlic and onion yields by 10% and 15%, respectively, compared to irrigation with well water with no fertilizer. Wastewater-irrigated garlic reached sanitary acceptability 90 days after harvest, once attached roots and soil were removed. Onions, which were cleaned immediately after harvest, met this qualification earlier than garlic (55 days). Neither the wastewater-irrigated crops nor the control crops were microbiologically acceptable for consumption raw at harvest.

  15. Effects of pterostilbene on treating hyperprolactinemia and related mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haoru; Wang, Changhua; Li, Xiaokun; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Hyperprolactinemia (HPRL) frequently causes primary menopause and reproductive disorders. Pterostilbene is known to have anti-inflammation and modulation on cell apoptosis. However, its role in treating HPRL and potential mechanisms remain unclear yet. Healthy female virgin SD rats were randomly assigned into control, HPRL model group, bromocriptine treatment group, and low (20 mg/kg) and high (40 mg/kg) pterostilbene treatment groups. All groups except control ones received metoclopramide hydrochloride injection for generating HPRL model. Uterus and ovarian index in all animals were monitored. Prolactin (PRL), estradiol (E2), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were quantified by ELISA. Caspase 3 activity was assayed, with real time PCR measuring Bcl-2 and Bax mRNA levels. HPRL rats had lower uterus and ovarian index, accompanied with elevated PRL, caspase 3 activity, Bax expression, and decreased FSH, LH, E2 and Bcl-2 expression as compared to control group (p<0.05). Pterostilbene treatment significantly increased uterus and ovarian index, FSH, LH, E2 and Bcl-2 expression, and decreased PRL, caspase 3 activity and Bax expression as compared to control group (p<0.05). 40 mg/kg pterostilbene had similar efficacy as those of bromocriptine. Pterostilbene exerts its function in the treatment of HPRL via modulating apoptosis-anti-apoptosis homeostasis, inhibiting serum PRL level, and regulating secretion of gonadotropin hormones. PMID:27508025

  16. Effectiveness of two different splints to treat temporomandibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Aksakalli, Sertac; Temucin, Fatih; Pamukcu, Ayca; Ezirganlı, Seref; Kazancioglu, Hakki Oguz; Malkoc, Meral Arslan

    2015-07-01

    Nearly 5% of the the world's population has temporomandibular disorder (TMD) severe enough to make them seek treatment. A third of the total population has at least one TMD symptom. There are different types of splints to treat TMD. In our study, we compared the success of two different appliances [stabilization splint (ss), nociceptive trigeminal inhibition splint (NTI)] by using Fonseca's questionnaire, the OHQoL-UK and visual analog scale (VAS). A total of 40 patients suffering from TMD were included in this study and answered questionnaires twice, at the beginning of the treatment and 3 months later. Regarding TMD alone, 39 patients (97.5%) had some degree of the disorder, 7 of of these cases being mild (17.5%), 15 moderate (37.5%), and 17 severe (42.5%). We analyzed posttreatment changes compared to baseline. Pain complaints decreased in both groups, and the OHQoL-UK revealed better quality of life after treatment. Based on the posttreatment Fonseca's questionnaires, significant changes in the patients' complaints in the group SS (p < 0.01) were observed. The group NTI also displayed changes but these were not statistically significant after treatment (p > 0.05). Patients in both groups had fewer TMD complaints after TMJ treatment. According to the Fonseca's questionnaire, the patients' major TMD complaint was clenching-grinding, followed by pain in the craniomandibular joint, or earache.

  17. Treating child and adolescent anxiety effectively: Overview of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Kathryn; Manassis, Katharina; Duda, Stephanie; Bagnell, Alexa; Bernstein, Gail A; Garland, E Jane; Miller, Lynn D; Newton, Amanda; Thabane, Lehana; Wilansky, Pamela

    2016-12-01

    We conducted an overview of systematic reviews about child and adolescent anxiety treatment options (psychosocial; medication; combination; web/computer-based treatment) to support evidence informed decision-making. Three questions were addressed: (i) Is the treatment more effective than passive controls? (ii) Is there evidence that the treatment is superior to or non-inferior to (i.e., as good as) active controls? (iii) What is the quality of evidence for the treatment? Pre-specified inclusion criteria identified high quality systematic reviews (2000-2015) reporting treatment effects on anxiety diagnosis and symptom severity. Evidence quality (EQ) was rated using Oxford evidence levels [EQ1 (highest); EQ5 (lowest)]. Twenty-two of 39 eligible reviews were high quality (AMSTAR score≥3/5). CBT (individual or group, with or without parents) was more effective than passive controls (EQ1). CBT effects compared to active controls were mixed (EQ1). SSRI/SNRI were more effective than placebo (EQ1) but comparative effectiveness remains uncertain. EQ for combination therapy could not be determined. RCTs of web/computer-based interventions showed mixed results (EQ1). CBM/ABM was not more efficacious than active controls (EQ1). No other interventions could be rated. High quality RCTs support treatment with CBT and medication. Findings for combination and web/computer-based treatment are encouraging but further RCTs are required. Head-to-head comparisons of active treatment options are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Reviewing the Effectiveness of Music Interventions in Treating Depression

    PubMed Central

    Leubner, Daniel; Hinterberger, Thilo

    2017-01-01

    Depression is a very common mood disorder, resulting in a loss of social function, reduced quality of life and increased mortality. Music interventions have been shown to be a potential alternative for depression therapy but the number of up-to-date research literature is quite limited. We present a review of original research trials which utilize music or music therapy as intervention to treat participants with depressive symptoms. Our goal was to differentiate the impact of certain therapeutic uses of music used in the various experiments. Randomized controlled study designs were preferred but also longitudinal studies were chosen to be included. 28 studies with a total number of 1,810 participants met our inclusion criteria and were finally selected. We distinguished between passive listening to music (record from a CD or live music) (79%), and active singing, playing, or improvising with instruments (46%). Within certain boundaries of variance an analysis of similar studies was attempted. Critical parameters were for example length of trial, number of sessions, participants' age, kind of music, active or passive participation and single- or group setting. In 26 studies, a statistically significant reduction in depression levels was found over time in the experimental (music intervention) group compared to a control (n = 25) or comparison group (n = 2). In particular, elderly participants showed impressive improvements when they listened to music or participated in music therapy projects. Researchers used group settings more often than individual sessions and our results indicated a slightly better outcome for those cases. Additional questionnaires about participants confidence, self-esteem or motivation, confirmed further improvements after music treatment. Consequently, the present review offers an extensive set of comparable data, observations about the range of treatment options these papers addressed, and thus might represent a valuable aid for future

  19. Reviewing the Effectiveness of Music Interventions in Treating Depression.

    PubMed

    Leubner, Daniel; Hinterberger, Thilo

    2017-01-01

    Depression is a very common mood disorder, resulting in a loss of social function, reduced quality of life and increased mortality. Music interventions have been shown to be a potential alternative for depression therapy but the number of up-to-date research literature is quite limited. We present a review of original research trials which utilize music or music therapy as intervention to treat participants with depressive symptoms. Our goal was to differentiate the impact of certain therapeutic uses of music used in the various experiments. Randomized controlled study designs were preferred but also longitudinal studies were chosen to be included. 28 studies with a total number of 1,810 participants met our inclusion criteria and were finally selected. We distinguished between passive listening to music (record from a CD or live music) (79%), and active singing, playing, or improvising with instruments (46%). Within certain boundaries of variance an analysis of similar studies was attempted. Critical parameters were for example length of trial, number of sessions, participants' age, kind of music, active or passive participation and single- or group setting. In 26 studies, a statistically significant reduction in depression levels was found over time in the experimental (music intervention) group compared to a control (n = 25) or comparison group (n = 2). In particular, elderly participants showed impressive improvements when they listened to music or participated in music therapy projects. Researchers used group settings more often than individual sessions and our results indicated a slightly better outcome for those cases. Additional questionnaires about participants confidence, self-esteem or motivation, confirmed further improvements after music treatment. Consequently, the present review offers an extensive set of comparable data, observations about the range of treatment options these papers addressed, and thus might represent a valuable aid for future

  20. Effects of compositional changes of AFEX-treated and H-AFEX-treated corn stover on enzymatic digestibility.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chao; Ding, Weimin; Chen, Feng; Cheng, Cheng; Shao, Qianjun

    2014-03-01

    Corn stover is one of the main agricultural residues being considered as a cellulosic ethanol feedstock. This work evaluated the effectiveness of AFEX™(1) pretreatment for converting corn stover to fermentable sugars, both with and without pre-soaking in hydrogen peroxide. The compositional changes and enzymatic digestibility of AFEX-treated and H-AFEX-treated biomass were investigated. Results showed that most of the polysaccharides remained intact following each of these two methods. Compared with AFEX pretreatment, the H-AFEX process enhanced delignification and enzymatic hydrolysis yields of both glucose and xylose. The maximum glucan and xylan digestibility of H-AFEX process were 87.78% and 90.64%, respectively, and were obtained using 0.7 (w/w) water loading, 1.0 (w/w) ammonia loading, 0.5 (w/w) 30wt.% hydrogen peroxide loading, and 130°C for 10min. The results of the present work show that H-AFEX is a feasible pretreatment to improve the enzymatic saccharification of corn stover for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Rhizoma coptidis (Huang Lian) on Treating Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Bing; Yu, Xiao-Tong; Zhou, Qiang; Zhao, Tian-Yu; Wang, Han; Gu, Cheng-Juan; Tong, Xiao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly increasing diabetes mellitus (DM) is becoming a major public health issue globally; considerable progress has been made in the field of western hypoglycemic drug and insulin, but some shortages still exist. As one of the most important parts in complementary and alternative therapies, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) performs a good clinical practice and is showing a bright future in the treatment of DM. TCM therapy has certain advantages of less toxicity and/or side effects, and Chinese herbal medicine which usually contains various active ingredients could provide multiple therapeutic effects. Huang Lian (Rhizoma coptidis, RC) is a herb frequently used in many traditional formulas for properties of “clearing damp-heat, quenching fire, and counteracting poison” in Asia for centuries. In this review, we summarize the application of RC in the treatment of DM from two aspects of contents. Firstly, theoretical principles are explained, including the properties and related records about RC in ancient references and modern pharmacological researches and pharmacokinetics on RC and its active components. Secondly, the clinical application of RC is mainly reviewed, such as applicable stage and syndrome, the reasonable dose range, the preparation formulations, and the toxicity and/or side effects and solutions to its adverse actions. This review provides scientific evidence about the effective components, pharmacological researches, and toxicity of RC, as well as introducing traditional Chinese medical theory and clinical experience, in order to guide clinician to use RC more suitably and reasonably in the clinical practice. PMID:26508987

  2. Resource Effective Strategies to Prevent and Treat Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Schwalm, Jon-David; McKee, Martin; Huffman, Mark D.; Yusuf, Salim

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of global deaths, with the majority occurring in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The primary and secondary prevention of CVD is suboptimal throughout the world, but the evidence-practice gaps are much more pronounced in LMIC. Barriers at the patient, health-care provider, and health system level prevent the implementation of optimal primary and secondary prevention. Identification of the particular barriers that exist in resource-constrained settings is necessary to inform effective strategies to reduce the identified evidence-practice gaps. Furthermore, targeting modifiable factors that contribute most significantly to the global burden of CVD, including tobacco use, hypertension, and secondary prevention for CVD will lead to the biggest gains in mortality reduction. We review a select number of novel, resource-efficient strategies to reduce premature mortality from CVD, including: (1) effective measures for tobacco control; (2) implementation of simplified screening and management algorithms for those with or at risk of CVD, (3) increasing the availability and affordability of simplified and cost-effective treatment regimens including combination CVD preventive drug therapy, and (4) simplified delivery of health care through task-sharing (non-physician health workers) and optimizing self-management (treatment supporters). Developing and deploying systems of care that address barriers related to the above, will lead to substantial reductions in CVD and related mortality. PMID:26903017

  3. [Synergic effect of alprostadil injection and ginaton in treating sudden deafness].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiping; Wang, Shuyun; Tong, Kang

    2011-07-01

    To explore synergic effect of Alprostadil injection and ginaton in treating sudden deafness. ninety one patients with sudden deafness were divided into group A, group B and group C at random; 33 ears of group A were treated with 70 mg ginaton by vein, 30 ears of group B were treated with 10 microg Alprostadil injection by vein, 31 ears of group C were treated with 10 microg Alprostadil injection and ginaton by vein,once a day, the time of treatment is 14 days. the effective rate of group A is 60.61%, the effective rate of group B is 60.00%, the effective rate of group C is 87.09% the treating effect was significantly different in the group A and C (P < 0.05), it was significantly different in the group B and C (P < 0.05)). It is effective for Alprostadil injection and ginaton to treat sudden deafness, and it has significantly Synergic effect in treating sudden deafness with Alprostadil injection and ginaton.

  4. The beneficial effect on family life in treating borderline personality.

    PubMed

    Gerull, Friederike; Meares, Russell; Stevenson, Janine; Korner, Anthony; Newman, Louise

    2008-01-01

    The harmful effect of borderline patients on their families is an important but relatively neglected aspect of outcome studies. This study concerns changes in perceived quality of relationships with partners and children of 24 patients suffering Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) after 12 months of treatment with the Conversational Model (CM). They were compared to 21 parents with BPD receiving "Treatment as Usual" (TAU) from their referring clinicians for the same period. Both groups developed naturalistically giving the study a quasi-experimental design. The Social Adjustment Scale (SAS-SR) was administered on intake and again after 12 months. The subscales dealing with relationships with children, with partners and with the family unit were scored and compared between groups. It was found that the perceived relationships with children and partners improved significantly for the CM group but not for the TAU group.

  5. Effects of post placement on endodontically treated teeth.

    PubMed

    Hunter, A J; Feiglin, B; Williams, J F

    1989-08-01

    The effect of endodontic therapy, post-hole preparation, and post placement on tooth models of maxillary central incisors was investigated. Two-dimensional photoelastic analysis of birefringent models, under load in a polariscope, indicated the relative stress magnitudes and concentrations at the cervical and apical regions. Within the limits of the method, the results suggest that enlargement of the canal increases cervical stresses and that post placement will decrease stresses in this region. Nevertheless, conservative enlargement of the root canal may render post placement unnecessary for largely intact teeth. Post length appeared more important than post diameter in determining relative stresses at the cervical region. However, short wide posts led to elevated stress concentrations in this region. Post placement beyond two thirds of the root depth did not further decrease cervical stresses but usually increased stresses in the apical region.

  6. Effects of a laser acupuncture therapy on treating pain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Wai-on; Xiao, Shaojun; Ip, Wing-Yuk; Guo, Xia

    2001-10-01

    Laser acupuncture (LA) has been utilized as a combined approach of Chinese traditional acupuncture and low-level laser therapy since its emergence in 1973. Its mechanisms are not well understood and the standardization of clinical protocols has not been established. In this study, we used a diode laser to irradiate on four acupuncture points for normal subjects to investigate the effect of LA. For each point, the irradiation lasted for three minutes. The median nerve conduction velocity was measured within a 30 minutes interval at day 1, day 5, and day 10 respectively. Patients with chronic carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) were given LA therapy for three stages at most with a one-week interval between two stages. Treatment outcome measurements included patients' subjective feedback (McGill pain questionnaire, VAS) and objective measurements (physical examination, kinesiological properties and NCSs). It was a randomized single-blind controlled trial. For normal subjects, motor nerve fiber was sensitive to LA and the motor conduction velocity was decreased very significantly (p < 0.001). Besides, it was found that LA resulted that sensory nerve conduction velocity was decreased significantly when it was measured 30 minutes after the subject had received LA application. For CTS patients, the outcomes except pinch test indicated that LA could improve patient's conduction. These results suggested that LA could cause the change of nerve conduction.

  7. Antiamnesic effect of stevioside in scopolamine-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepika; Puri, Munish; Tiwary, Ashok K; Singh, Nirmal; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2010-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the potential of stevioside in memory dysfunction of rats. Memory impairment was produced by scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) in animals. Morris water maze (MWM) test was employed to assess learning and memory. Brain acetylcholinestrase enzyme (AChE) activity was measured to assess the central cholinergic activity. The levels of brain thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were estimated to assess the degree of oxidative stress. Scopolamine administration induced significant impairment of learning and memory in rats, as indicated by a marked decrease in MWM performance. Scopolamine administration also produced a significant enhancement of brain AChE activity and brain oxidative stress (increase in TBARS and decrease in GSH) levels. Pretreatment of stevioside (250 mg/kg dose orally) significantly reversed scopolamine-induced learning and memory deficits along with attenuation of scopolamine-induced rise in brain AChE activity and brain oxidative stress levels. It may be concluded that stevioside exerts a memory-preservative effect in cognitive deficits of rats possibly through its multiple actions.

  8. Antiamnesic effect of stevioside in scopolamine-treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepika; Puri, Munish; Tiwary, Ashok K.; Singh, Nirmal; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the potential of stevioside in memory dysfunction of rats. Memory impairment was produced by scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) in animals. Morris water maze (MWM) test was employed to assess learning and memory. Brain acetylcholinestrase enzyme (AChE) activity was measured to assess the central cholinergic activity. The levels of brain thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were estimated to assess the degree of oxidative stress. Scopolamine administration induced significant impairment of learning and memory in rats, as indicated by a marked decrease in MWM performance. Scopolamine administration also produced a significant enhancement of brain AChE activity and brain oxidative stress (increase in TBARS and decrease in GSH) levels. Pretreatment of stevioside (250 mg/kg dose orally) significantly reversed scopolamine-induced learning and memory deficits along with attenuation of scopolamine-induced rise in brain AChE activity and brain oxidative stress levels. It may be concluded that stevioside exerts a memory-preservative effect in cognitive deficits of rats possibly through its multiple actions. PMID:20871768

  9. Antioxidant Effects of Cranberry Powder in Lipopolysaccharide Treated Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Joung; Kim, Jung Hee; Kwak, Ho-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of cranberry power on antioxidant defense system in rats fed an atherogenic diet and injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following 5 groups: normal diet+saline (NS), atherogenic diet+saline (AS), atherogenic diet+LPS (AL), atherogenic diet with 5% cranberry powder+LPS (AL-C5), and atherogenic diet with 10% cranberry powder+LPS (AL-C10). Total antioxidant status measured by ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) was significantly reduced by LPS injection (24%) and was restored by the cranberry powder treatment (P<0.05). In addition, the mean level of plasma total phenolics was significantly decreased by LPS injection (P<0.05) and tended to be increased when cranberry powder was incorporated in to the diet. Activity of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) tended to be lowered by LPS injection and declined further in cranberry powder fortified groups. Overall results indicate that dietary cranberry powder may provide appropriate antioxidants to counter the diminished antioxidant status induced by exposing hypercholesterolemic rats to LPS. PMID:25054105

  10. Potential therapeutic effects of meditation for treating affective dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Leung, Natalie T Y; Lo, Mandy M; Lee, Tatia M C

    2014-01-01

    Affective dysregulation is at the root of many psychopathologies, including stress induced disorders, anxiety disorders, and depression. The root of these disorders appears to be an attenuated, top-down cognitive control from the prefrontal cortices over the maladaptive subcortical emotional processing. A form of mental training, long-term meditation practice can trigger meditation-specific neuroplastic changes in the brain regions underlying cognitive control and affective regulation, suggesting that meditation can act as a kind of mental exercise to foster affective regulation and possibly a cost-effective intervention in mood disorders. Increasing research has suggested that the cultivation of awareness and acceptance along with a nonjudgmental attitude via meditation promotes adaptive affective regulation. This review examined the concepts of affective regulation and meditation and discussed behavioral and neural evidence of the potential clinical application of meditation. Lately, there has been a growing trend toward incorporating the "mindfulness" component into existing psychotherapeutic treatment. Promising results have been observed thus far. Future studies may consider exploring the possibility of integrating the element of "compassion" into current psychotherapeutic approaches.

  11. [Ventricular fibrillation effectively treated by wearable automatic defibrillator - a case report].

    PubMed

    Budzikowski, Adam S; Mitre, Cristina A; Bustros, Thomas; Esan, Opesanmi; Kassotis, John T

    2011-01-01

    We present a patient at risk of sudden cardiac death in whom ventricular fibrillation was effectively treated by wearable automatic defibrillator. We discuss the technical aspects of the device, current indications for this therapy and outcomes.

  12. Effect of heat-treated titanium surfaces on protein adsorption and osteoblast precursor cell initial attachment.

    PubMed

    Kern, Travis; Yang, Yunzhi; Glover, Renee; Ong, Joo L

    2005-03-01

    The clinical success of dental implants is governed in part by surface properties of implants and their interactions with the surrounding tissues. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of heat-treated titanium surfaces on protein adsorption and osteoblast precursor cell attachment in vitro. Passivated titanium samples used in this study were either non heat treated or heat treated at 750 degrees C for 90 minutes. It was observed that the contact angle on heat-treated titanium surfaces was statistically lower compared with the non-heat-treated titanium surfaces. The non-heat-treated titanium surface was also observed to be amorphous oxide, whereas heat treatment of titanium resulted in the conversion of amorphous oxide to crystalline anatase oxide. No significant difference in albumin and fibronectin adsorption was observed between the heat-treated and non-heat-treated titanium surfaces. In addition, no significant difference in initial cell attachment was observed between the two groups. It was concluded that heat treatment of titanium resulted in significantly more hydrophilic surfaces compared to non-heat-treated titanium surfaces. However, differences in oxide crystallinity and wettability were not observed to affect protein adsorption and initial osteoblast precursor cell attachment.

  13. The Effect of Eurycoma Longifolia Jack on Spermatogenesis in Estrogen-Treated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wahab, Norhazlina Abdul; Mokhtar, Norfilza M.; Halim, Wan Nurul Heriza A; Das, Srijit

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is little data concerning the ability of Eurycoma longifolia Jack (EL) to reverse the inhibitory effects of estrogen on testosterone production and spermatogenesis. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of EL on testicular histology and sperm count in estrogen-treated male rats. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200–250 g were divided into four groups of six rats each. Group A (control) was given solvent in the same manner as the treated groups were given EL. Group B was treated with EL (8 mg/kg body weight) orally. Group C was treated with estradiol (E2) (intramuscular dose of 500 μg/kg body weight), and group D received a combined treatment of oral EL and intramuscular E2. After fourteen consecutive days of treatment, rats from all groups were sacrificed and subjected to spermatogenic and epididymal sperm cell counts. RESULTS: The spermatogenic cell count in the E2-treated group was significantly decreased as compared to the control (p < 0.05) and EL+E2-treated groups (p < 0.05). A similar finding was found for the epididymal sperm count; the E2-treated group had a significant decrease in the count compared to the control (p < 0.05) and EL+E2-treated groups (p < 0.05). Rats that were treated with EL alone exhibited significantly higher sperm counts and sperm motility when compared to the control group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: EL extract acts as a potential agent for reversing the effects of estrogen by increasing spermatogenesis and sperm counts in rats after fourteen consecutive days of treatment. PMID:20126351

  14. Effects of vasopressin on electrolyte transport across isolated colon from normal and dexamethasone-treated rats.

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, R J; Rummel, W; Wollenberg, P

    1984-01-01

    Vasopressin enhanced the absorption of Na+ and Cl- across the short-circuited colon descendens from normal rats. This effect of vasopressin results from an increase in the mucosal to serosal movement of Na+ and Cl- and a decrease in the serosal to mucosal movement of Cl- and was accompanied with a decrease in the short-circuit current (ISC). Neither the base-line absorption of Na+ and Cl-, the vasopressin-induced increase in Na+ and Cl- absorption nor the decrease in ISC were inhibited by amiloride in the colon from normal rats. Colon descendens from rats treated for 3 days with dexamethasone had remarkably higher transmural potential difference (p.d.), tissue conductance (Gt) and ISC. The absorption of Na+ across the short-circuited colon descendens from dexamethasone-treated rats was increased 3-fold when compared to colon from normal rats. The absorption of Cl- in normal rats was reversed to Cl- secretion in treated rats. Amiloride rapidly and reversibly decreased the p.d., Gt and ISC in colon from dexamethasone-treated rats. The transport of Na+ was nearly completely inhibited by amiloride in treated rats. In contrast to its enhancing effects on Na+ absorption in colon from normal rats vasopressin did not enhance Na+ absorption in colon from dexamethasone-treated rats. This enhancement of Cl- absorption by vasopressin was retained in colon from treated rats. This enhancement of Cl- transport was due solely to a decrease in the serosal to mucosal movement of Cl- and was accompanied with a decrease in ISC and Gt. The results support the hypothesis that vasopressin causes inhibition of the electrogenic secretion of Cl- in colon from dexamethasone-treated rats. Furthermore, the results suggest that the increase in the mucosal to serosal movement of Na+ and Cl- and the decrease in the serosal to mucosal movement of Cl- in colon from normal rats are caused by independent effects of vasopressin. PMID:6491990

  15. Effectiveness of insecticide-treated and untreated nets to prevent malaria in India.

    PubMed

    Van Remoortel, Hans; De Buck, Emmy; Singhal, Maneesh; Vandekerckhove, Philippe; Agarwal, Satya P

    2015-08-01

    India is the most malaria-endemic country in South-East Asia, resulting in a high socio-economic burden. Insecticide-treated or untreated nets are effective interventions to prevent malaria. As part of an Indian first-aid guideline project, we aimed to investigate the magnitude of this effect in India. We searched MEDLINE, Embase and Central to systematically review Indian studies on the effectiveness of treated or untreated vs. no nets. Parasite prevalence and annual parasite incidence served as malaria outcomes. The overall effect was investigated by performing meta-analyses and calculating the pooled risk ratios (RR) and incidence rate ratios. Of 479 articles, we finally retained 16 Indian studies. Untreated nets decreased the risk of parasite prevalence compared to no nets [RR 0.69 (95% CI; 0.55, 0.87) in high-endemic areas, RR 0.49 (95% CI; 0.28, 0.84) in low-endemic areas], as was the case but more pronounced for treated nets [RR 0.35 (95% CI; 0.26, 0.47) in high-endemic areas, risk ratio 0.16 (95% CI; 0.06, 0.44) in low-endemic areas]. Incidence rate ratios showed a similar observation: a significantly reduced rate of parasites in the blood for untreated nets vs. no nets, which was more pronounced in low-endemic areas and for those who used treated nets. The average effect of treated nets (vs. no nets) on parasite prevalence was higher in Indian studies (RR 0.16-0.35) than in non-Indian studies (data derived from a Cochrane systematic review; RR 0.58-0.87). Both treated and untreated nets have a clear protective effect against malaria in the Indian context. This effect is more pronounced there than in other countries. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. NEUROMODULATORY EFFECTS OF THYMOQUINONE IN EXTENUATING OXIDATIVE STRESS IN CHLORPROMAZINE TREATED RATS.

    PubMed

    Safhi, Mohammed Mohsin

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible protective effect of thymoquinone on chlorpromazine induced catalepsy, locomotor activity and cerebral oxidative stress in rats. The rats were divided into four groups, each group containing eight animals. The animals were evaluated after repeated administration of chlorpromazine (CPZ) 30 min before the administration of thymoquinone (TQ) for 21 days. Catalepsy was assessed using block method whereas the locomotor activity was assessed using acceleratory rotarod and actophotometer. Markers of oxidative stress parameters (LPO, GSH, GPx, GR, GST and CAT) were evaluated in the brain of rats. The cataleptic scores were significantly increased in CPZ treated rats when compared with normal control rats. Oral administration of TQ (5 and 10 mg/kg) significantly decreased cataleptic scores when compared with chlorpromazine (CPZ) treated rats. The muscle coordination and spontaneous locomotor activity was significantly decreased in CPZ treated rats when compared with normal control rats. Treatment with TQ significantly improved the muscle coordination and spontaneous locomotor activity when compared with CPZ treated rats. TQ treated rats significantly reduced the elevated levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO), increased levels of antioxidant enzymes i.e., reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) when compared with CPZ treated rats. The results clearly suggest that supplementation with TQ can be used to preclude CPZ induced extrapyramidal side effects and may find a role in reducing the oxidative stress.

  17. The protective effect of Canova homeopathic medicine in cyclophosphamide-treated non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi; Lamarão, Maria Fernanda Vita; da Silva, Carla Elvira Araújo; da Silva, Ismael Dale Cotrim Guerreiro; Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; Andrade, Edilson Ferreira; Rezende, Alexandre Pingarilho; Imbeloni, Aline Amaral; Muniz, José Augusto Pereira Carneiro; Pinto, Giovanny Rebouças; Smith, Marília de Arruda Cardoso; Burbano, Rommel Rodríguez

    2012-12-01

    Canova activates macrophages and indirectly induces lymphocyte proliferation. Here we evaluated the effects of Canova in cyclophosphamide-treated non-human primates. Twelve Cebus apella were evaluated. Four animals were treated with Canova only. Eight animals were treated with two doses of cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg) and four of these animals received Canova. Body weight, biochemistry and hematologic analyses were performed for 40 days. Micronucleus and comet assays were performed for the evaluation of DNA damage. We observed that cyclophosphamide induced abnormal WBC count in all animals. However, the group treated with cyclophosphamide plus Canova presented a higher leukocyte count than that which received only cyclophosphamide. Cyclophosphamide induced micronucleus and DNA damage in all animals. The frequency of these alterations was significantly lower in the Canova group than in the group without this medicine. Our results demonstrated that Canova treatment minimizes cyclophosphamide myelotoxicity in C. apella. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of conditioned medium from LL-37 treated adipose stem cells on human fibroblast migration

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eun-Jung; Bang, Sa-Ik

    2017-01-01

    Adipose stem cell-conditioned medium may promote human dermal fibroblast (HDF) proliferation and migration by activating paracrine peptides during the re-epithelization phase of wound healing. Human antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is upregulated in the skin epithelium as part of the normal response to injury. The effects of conditioned medium (CM) from LL-37 treated adipose stem cells (ASCs) on cutaneous wound healing, including the mediation of fibroblast migration, remain to be elucidated, therefore the aim of the present study was to determine how ASCs would react to an LL-37-rich microenvironment and if CM from LL-37 treated ASCs may influence the migration of HDFs. The present study conducted migration assays with HDFs treated with CM from LL-37 treated ASCs. Expression of CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), which controls the recruitment of HDFs, was analyzed at the mRNA and protein levels. To further characterize the stimulatory effects of LL-37 on ASCs, the expression of stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α), a CXC chemokine, was investigated. CM from LL-37-treated ASCs induced migration of HDFs in a time- and dose-dependent manner, with a maximum difference in migration observed 24 h following stimulation with LL-37 at a concentration of 10 µg/ml. The HDF migration and the expression of CXCR4 in fibroblasts was markedly increased upon treatment with CM from LL-37-treated ASCs compared with CM from untreated ASCs. SDF-1α expression was markedly increased in CM from LL-37 treated ASCs. It was additionally observed that SDF-1α blockade significantly reduced HDF migration. These findings suggest the feasibility of CM from LL-37-treated ASCs as a potential therapeutic for human dermal fibroblast migration. PMID:28672990

  19. Effects of conditioned medium from LL-37 treated adipose stem cells on human fibroblast migration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eun-Jung; Bang, Sa-Ik

    2017-07-01

    Adipose stem cell-conditioned medium may promote human dermal fibroblast (HDF) proliferation and migration by activating paracrine peptides during the re-epithelization phase of wound healing. Human antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is upregulated in the skin epithelium as part of the normal response to injury. The effects of conditioned medium (CM) from LL-37 treated adipose stem cells (ASCs) on cutaneous wound healing, including the mediation of fibroblast migration, remain to be elucidated, therefore the aim of the present study was to determine how ASCs would react to an LL-37-rich microenvironment and if CM from LL-37 treated ASCs may influence the migration of HDFs. The present study conducted migration assays with HDFs treated with CM from LL-37 treated ASCs. Expression of CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), which controls the recruitment of HDFs, was analyzed at the mRNA and protein levels. To further characterize the stimulatory effects of LL-37 on ASCs, the expression of stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α), a CXC chemokine, was investigated. CM from LL-37-treated ASCs induced migration of HDFs in a time- and dose-dependent manner, with a maximum difference in migration observed 24 h following stimulation with LL-37 at a concentration of 10 µg/ml. The HDF migration and the expression of CXCR4 in fibroblasts was markedly increased upon treatment with CM from LL-37-treated ASCs compared with CM from untreated ASCs. SDF-1α expression was markedly increased in CM from LL-37 treated ASCs. It was additionally observed that SDF-1α blockade significantly reduced HDF migration. These findings suggest the feasibility of CM from LL-37-treated ASCs as a potential therapeutic for human dermal fibroblast migration.

  20. Analytical Approach Treating Three-Dimensional Geometrical Effects of Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Binotti, M.; Zhu, G.; Gray, A.; Manzollini, G.

    2012-04-01

    An analytical approach, as an extension of one newly developed method -- First-principle OPTical Intercept Calculation (FirstOPTIC) -- is proposed to treat the geometrical impact of three-dimensional (3-D) effects on parabolic trough optical performance. The mathematical steps of this analytical approach are presented and implemented numerically as part of the suite of FirstOPTIC code. In addition, the new code has been carefully validated against ray-tracing simulation results and available numerical solutions. This new analytical approach to treating 3-D effects will facilitate further understanding and analysis of the optical performance of trough collectors as a function of incidence angle.

  1. The antioxidant effect of free bilirubin on cumene-hydroperoxide treated human leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Yesilkaya, A; Altinayak, R; Korgun, D K

    2000-07-01

    To examine the antioxidant effect of bilirubin (BR) on leukocyte, we treated leukocytes obtained from healthy subjects with an oxidant and various concentrations of BR. High concentrations of BR decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and catalase activities, increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but had no effect on glutathione (GSH) concentration. Our results showed that under physiological conditions, BR has an antioxidant effect only in high concentrations.

  2. Protective effects of HGF gene-expressing human mesenchymal stem cells in acetaminophen-treated hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yun Ho; You, Dong Hun; Nam, Myeong Jin

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) secrete a great variety of cytokines that have beneficial paracrine actions. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) promotes proliferation in several cell types. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of HGF gene-transfected MSC (HGF-MSC) in acetaminophen (AAP)-treated hepatocytes. We transfected the HGF gene into MSCs and confirmed HGF expression by RT-PCR and western blot. The concentration of HGF in HGF-MSC conditioned media (HGFCM) was upregulated compared with that in control MSCCM samples. Cell viability was increased in HGFCM-treated hepatocytes. Expression of Mcl-1, an anti-apoptosis protein, was increased and expression of pro-apoptosis proteins (Bad, Bik and Bid) was decreased in HGFCM-treated hepatocytes. HGF-MSC had protective effects on AAP-induced hepatocyte damage by enhancing proliferation. These results suggest that HGF-expressing MSCs may provide regenerative potential for liver cell damage.

  3. Repellent effect of alphacypermethrin-treated netting against Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Martin, T; Kamal, A; Gogo, E; Saidi, M; Delétré, E; Bonafos, R; Simon, S; Ngouajio, M

    2014-04-01

    For > 20 yr, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius persists as a begomovirus vector and is a serious problem in tomato production in many parts of the world. In tropical countries, the use of netting to protect horticultural crops has proven to be an effective and sustainable tool against Lepidoptera but not against small insects. This study evaluated the repellent effect of AgroNet 0.9T, a 0.9-mm pore diameter and 40-mesh size netting treated with alphacypermethrin insecticide against B. tabaci. This pyrethroid insecticide is known to have toxic and repellent effects against mosquitoes and has been used for treatment of mosquito nets. Two nontreated netting materials were used as control: AgroNet 0.9NT with 0.9-mm pore diameter and 40-mesh size and AgroNet 0.4NT with 0.4-mm pore diameter and 80-mesh size. The behavior of B. tabaci and its parasitoid Encarsia formosa Gahan as they progressed through the treated netting was studied in the laboratory in choice and no-choice tests. The development of wild B. tabaci population on tomato plants protected by the same nets was followed in two field trials implemented in Njoro, Kenya. Results obtained with the no-choice tests showed a significant reduction of movement on the treated net with 40-mesh (19%) compared with nontreated netting (35 and 46% with 80- and 40-mesh, respectively). The mortality of B. tabaci was significantly higher (two-fold) in the test tube containing only the treated netting compared with the nontreated one. The repellent effect of the treated netting was also demonstrated against E. formosa, but it did not have this toxic effect. Unlike for B. tabaci, the treated and nontreated nets appeared to have a similar repellent effect on E. formosa in the choice test, which suggests a learning behavior of the parasitoid. In both field tests, B. tabaci population was significantly lower on tomato protected by the treated net compared with the same nontreated net. However there was no significant difference in B. tabaci

  4. Effects of bradykinin on venous capacitance in health and treated chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Gunaruwan, Prasad; Maher, Abdul; Williams, Lynne; Sharman, James; Schmitt, Matthias; Campbell, Ross; Frenneaux, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of basal and intra-arterial infusion of bradykinin on unstressed forearm vascular volume (a measure of venous tone) and blood flow in healthy volunteers (n=20) and in chronic heart failure patients treated with ACEIs [ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitors] (n=16) and ARBs (angiotensin receptor blockers) (n=14). We used radionuclide plethysmography to examine the effects of bradykinin and of the bradykinin antagonists B9340 [B1 (type 1)/B2 (type 2) receptor antagonist] and HOE140 (B2 antagonist). Bradykinin infusion increased unstressed forearm vascular volume in a similar dose-dependent manner in healthy volunteers and ARB-treated CHF patients (healthy volunteers maximum 12.3±2.1%, P<0.001 compared with baseline; ARB-treated CHF patients maximum 9.3±3.3%, P<0.05 compared with baseline; P=not significant for difference between groups), but the increase in unstressed volume in ACEI-treated CHF patients was higher (maximum 28.8±7.8%, P<0.001 compared with baseline; P<0.05 for the difference between groups). In contrast, while the increase in blood flow in healthy volunteers (maximum 362±9%, P<0.001) and in ACEI-treated CHF patients (maximum 376±12%, P<0.001) was similar (P=not significant for the difference between groups), the increase in ARB-treated CHF patients was less (maximum 335±7%, P<0.001; P<0.05 for the difference between groups). Infusion of each receptor antagonist alone similarly reduced basal unstressed volume and blood flow in ACEI-treated CHF patients, but not in healthy volunteers or ARB-treated CHF patients. In conclusion, bradykinin does not contribute to basal venous tone in health, but in ACEI-treated chronic heart failure it does. In ARB-treated heart failure, venous responses to bradykinin are preserved but arterial responses are reduced compared with healthy controls. Bradykinin-mediated vascular responses in both health and heart failure are mediated by the B2, rather than the B1

  5. Overtreatment and Cost-Effectiveness of the See-and-Treat Strategy for Managing Cervical Precancer.

    PubMed

    Nghiem, Van T; Davies, Kalatu R; Beck, J Robert; Follen, Michele; Cantor, Scott B

    2016-05-01

    See-and-treat using loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) has been recommended as an alternative in managing high-grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions, but existing literature lacks evidence of the strategy's cost-effectiveness. We evaluated the overtreatment and cost-effectiveness of the see-and-treat strategy compared with usual care. We modeled a hypothetical cohort of 40-year-old females who had not been screened for cervical cancer and followed them through their lifetimes using a Markov model. From a U.S. health-system perspective, the analysis was conducted in 2012 dollars and measured effectiveness in quality-adjusted life-years (QALY). We estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) using a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000/QALY. The robustness of the see-and-treat strategy's cost-effectiveness and its overtreatment rates were further examined in various sensitivity analyses. In the base-case, the see-and-treat strategy yielded an ICER of $70,774/QALY compared with usual care. For most scenarios in the deterministic sensitivity analysis, this strategy had ICERs larger than $50,000/QALY, and its cost-effectiveness was sensitive to the disutility of LEEP treatment and biopsy-directed treatment adherence under usual care. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that the see-and-treat strategy had a 50.1% chance to be cost-effective. It had an average overtreatment rate of 7.1% and a 78.8% chance to have its overtreatment rate lower than the 10% threshold. The see-and-treat strategy induced an acceptable overtreatment rate. Its cost-effectiveness, compared with usual care, was indiscriminating at the chosen willingness-to-pay threshold but much improved when the threshold increased. The see-and-treat strategy was reasonable for particular settings, that is, those with low treatment adherence. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(5); 807-14. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Beneficial Effects of American Ginseng on Epididymal Sperm Analyses in Cyclophosphamide Treated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Akram, Hosseini; Ghaderi Pakdel, Firouz; Ahmadi, Abbas; Zare, Samad

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to evaluate the protective effects of American ginseng administered by gastric intubation on sperm vital quality in adult male rats treated with cyclophosphamide (CP). Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 28 Adult male Wistar rats were assigned to four groups, seven rats in each. The animals allocated to control, CP treated, Ginseng treated and CP-Ginseng treated groups. Rats were treated with CP (6.1 mg/kg/day, i.p) for 6 weeks. American ginseng was used at a dose of 500 mg/kg/day during treatment. Sperm analysis (motion, count, morphology and viability) were evaluated at the end of the experiments. Sperm motion was assessed by Computer-Assisted Sperm Analysis (CASA). The data were analyzed using GB stat software. Probability values of p<0.05 and p<0.01 were considered significant. Results: The epididymal sperm counts in the groups that received CP showed significant decreases compared to the control group. Also dead and abnormal sperms significantly increased following CP treatment compared with control. The motility of caudal sperm was reduced significantly with CP treatment. Therefore, according to the results of this study, co-administration of CP and American ginseng can improve these parameters. Conclusion: American ginseng can prevent the cytotoxic effects of CP on sperm quality factors. PMID:23508327

  7. EFFECT OF STATINS ON ESTROGEN AND ANDROGEN LEVELS IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN TREATED WITH ESTRADIOL

    PubMed Central

    Peck, Alison; Chaikittisilpa, Sukanya; Mirzaei, Roshanak; Wang, Jun; Mack, Wendy J.; Hodis, Howard N.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.

    2011-01-01

    Objective A considerable number of postmenopausal women who receive estrogen therapy (ET) are also treated for hypercholesterolemia with cholesterol-lowering statins. Statins and steroid hormones can compete for the same steroid-metabolizing enzymes. We investigated whether long-term administration of statins had an effect on serum estrogen and androgen levels in postmenopausal women receiving and not receiving oral ET. Methods A subgroup analysis from the Estrogen in the Prevention of Atherosclerosis Trial, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, was performed. A total of 222 women were randomized to receive either placebo or 1 mg of oral micronized E2 daily for 2 years. In both the placebo and treatment groups, participants with LDL-cholesterol levels >160 mg/dL were treated with statins. Blood samples were obtained at baseline and every 6 months during the trial. Serum levels of DHEA, androstenedione, testosterone, estrone and E2 were measured by RIA. Results Among 86 placebo- and 90 estradiol-treated subjects with baseline and on-trial hormone measurements, no significant differences were observed between the statin-free and statin-treated groups in mean changes from baseline to on-trial levels in any of the androgens or estrogens, whether or not the postmenopausal women were treated with estrogen. Conclusion The results suggest that ET and statins can be used simultaneously with no deleterious effects on circulating hormone levels. PMID:20450412

  8. Effect of Ultrasound-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation in Incompletely Treated Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Nam Kyu; Kim, Jin Woong; Kim, Hyung Jun; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Heo, Suk Hee; Kim, Jae Kyu; Kang, Heoung Keun

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasound-guided radiofrequency (RF) ablation in patients with incompletely treated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and to evaluate possible prognostic factors for this therapy. Subjects and Methods Thirty nine patients with incompletely treated single HCC (≤ 5 cm) after TACE were treated with RF ablation. All patients were evaluated for complete tumor ablation rate, local recurrence-free rate, overall survival rate, and complications. Local recurrence-free rate and overall survival rate were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The possible prognostic factors of local recurrence-free rate and survival rate were analyzed using Cox proportional-hazards regression model. Results The complete tumor ablation rate was 92.3%. Local recurrence-free rates for 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-years were 81.7%, 63.1%, 53.6%, and 35.7%, respectively. One-, 2-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates were 96.9%, 82.9%, 67.8%, and 48.4%, respectively. Among prognostic factors included in the analysis, only tumor diameter (≤ 2 cm versus > 2 cm) was statistically significant in terms of predicting local recurrence. Complications were observed in two patients, one with liver abscess and the other with portal venous thrombosis. Conclusion Ultrasound-guided RF ablation could be effective and safe in treating incompletely treated HCC after TACE. The diameter of HCC was a significant prognostic factor for local recurrence. PMID:22563280

  9. The antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of pycnogenol(®) on rats treated with cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Birsen; Unsal, Meftun; Sekeroglu, Zulal A; Gülbahar, Yavuz

    2011-09-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are implicated in the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced toxicity. Pycnogenol® is known for its strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, the possible protective effects of pycnogenol on kidney, bone marrow, and red blood cells in rats treated with cisplatin were investigated. The rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 was the control and groups 2, 3, and 4 were orally treated with pycnogenol (200 mg/kg bw, o.p) for 5 days, treated with cisplatin (7 mg/kg bw, i.p.) on the fifth day and treated with cisplatin plus pycnogenol, respectively. Antioxidative parameters in kidney and red blood cells were measured. Chromosome anomalies in bone marrow and renal histopathology were also investigated. Activities of pro-oxidant enzymes (myeloperoxidase and xanthine oxidase), malondialdehyde, and nitric oxide levels significantly increased but antioxidant enzymes activities decreased in the kidneys and red blood cells after cisplatin treatment. Pycnogenol treatment prior to the administration of cisplatin significantly decreased cisplatin-induced injury, as evidenced by its normalizing these parameters. Chromosomal aberrations decreased and mitotic index frequencies increased in bone marrow treated with cisplatin plus pycnogenol. These findings suggest that pycnogenol may be a useful protective agent against the toxicity associated with cisplatin therapy.

  10. Effects of Workflow Optimization in Endovascularly Treated Stroke Patients – A Pre-Post Effectiveness Study

    PubMed Central

    Behme, Daniel; Tsogkas, Ioannis; Knauth, Michael; Maier, Ilko; Karch, André; Mikolajczyk, Rafael; Hinz, José; Liman, Jan; Psychogios, Marios-Nikos

    2016-01-01

    Endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke has become standard of care for patients with large artery occlusion. Early restoration of blood flow is crucial for a good clinical outcome. We introduced an interdisciplinary standard operating procedure (SOP) between neuroradiologists, neurologists and anesthesiologists in order to streamline patient management. This study analyzes the effect of optimized workflow on periprocedural timings and its potential influence on clinical outcome. Data were extracted from a prospectively maintained university hospital stroke database. The standard operating procedure was established in February 2014. Of the 368 acute stroke patients undergoing endovascular treatment between 2008 and 2015, 278 patients were treated prior to and 90 after process optimization. Outcome measures were periprocedural time intervals and residual functional impairment. After implementation of the SOP, time from symptom onset to reperfusion was significantly reduced (median 264 min prior and 211 min after SOP-introduction (IQR 228–32 min and 161–278 min, respectively); P<0.001). Especially faster supply of imaging and prompt transfer of patients to the angiography suite contributed to this effect. Time between hospital admission and groin puncture was reduced by half after process optimization (median 64 min after versus 121 min prior to SOP-introduction (IQR 54–77 min and 96–161 min, respectively); P<0.001). Clinical outcome was significantly better after workflow optimization as measured with the modified Rankin Scale (common odds ratio (OR) 0.56; 95% CI 0.32–0.98; P = 0.038). Optimization of workflow and interdisciplinary teamwork significantly improved the outcome of patients with acute ischemic stroke due to a significant reduction of in-hospital examination, transportation, imaging and treatment times. PMID:28036401

  11. Effect of precipitation pattern on leaching of preservative from treated wood and implications for accelerated testing

    Treesearch

    Stan Lebow

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to develop improved accelerated test methods for evaluating the leaching of wood preservatives from treated wood exposed to precipitation. In this study the effects of rate of rainfall and length of intervals between rainfall events on leaching was evaluated by exposing specimens to varying patterns of simulated rainfall under controlled laboratory...

  12. [Research update of effectiveness and mechanism of essential fatty acids in treating dry eye].

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Liang, Q F

    2017-03-11

    Topical anti-inflammatory therapy has become the significant way of treating dry eye so far. However, as the long-term use of routine anti-inflammatory medications are restricted from their side effects, it is inevitable to explore safer and more effective alternatives. Essential fatty acids have proven to be anti-inflammatory systemically, which makes it possible to treat dry eye. Clinical trials have demonstrated that supplementation with either ω-3 or ω-6 essential fatty acids or both has multifactorial efficacies including improvement of subjective symptoms, alleviation of inflammation of ocular surface and eyelid margin, prolongation of tear break-up time and increase of tear flow secretion. Besides anti-inflammation effects, several basic researches have revealed that other mechanisms of essential fatty acids treating dry eye might lie in the corneal epithelial healing and tear secretion promotion. This review puts emphasis on the effectiveness, feasibility and mechanism of treating dry eye with essential fatty acids. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2017, 53: 225-229).

  13. Personal Protection against Biting Flies: The Relative Effectiveness of Overjackets Treated with Various Insect Repellents.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-01

    treatments included N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet), two mixtures containing deet and vanillin , two morpholine derivatives and an oxazolidine derivative...The overjackets treated with deet and deet- vanillin mixtures provided the most protection against biting flies. In protecting the facial area, these overjackets were as effective as applying deet liquid directly to the skin. (Author)

  14. Effect of simulated rainfall and weathering on release of preservative elements from CCA treated wood

    Treesearch

    Stan Lebow; R. Sam Williams; Patricia Lebow

    2003-01-01

    The release of arsenic from wood pressure-treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) can be decreased by application of wood finishes, but little is known about the types of finishes that are best suited for this purpose. This study evaluated the effects of finish water repellent content and ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the release of arsenic, copper, and chromium...

  15. Effective doses to family members of patients treated with radioiodine-131

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdraveska Kocovska, M.; Vaskova, O.; Majstorov, V.; Kuzmanovska, S.; Pop Gjorceva, D.; Spasic Jokic, V.

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effective dose to family members of thyroid cancer and hyperthyroid patients treated with radioiodine-131, and also to compare the results with dose constraints proposed by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the Basic Safety Standards (BSS) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). For the estimation of the effective doses, sixty family members of sixty patients, treated with radioiodine-131, and thermoluminiscent dosimeters (Model TLD 100) were used. Thyroid cancer patients were hospitalized for three days, while hyperthyroid patients were treated on out-patient basis. The family members wore TLD in front of the torso for seven days. The radiation doses to family members of thyroid cancer patients were well below the recommended dose constraint of 1 mSv. The mean value of effective dose was 0.21 mSv (min 0.02 - max 0.51 mSv). Effective doses, higher than 1 mSv, were detected for 11 family members of hyperthyroid patients. The mean value of effective dose of family members of hyperthyroid patients was 0.87 mSv (min 0.12 - max 6.79). The estimated effective doses to family members of hyperthyroid patients were higher than the effective doses to family members of thyroid carcinoma patients. These findings may be considered when establishing new national guidelines concerning radiation protection and release of patients after a treatment with radioiodine therapy.

  16. Animal Models for Medication Development and Application to Treat Fetal Alcohol Effects.

    PubMed

    Barron, S; Hawkey, A; Fields, L; Littleton, J M

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol consumption during pregnancy can have lifelong consequences for the offspring, their family and society. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) include a range of physical and behavioral effects with the most significant impact occurring as a result of the effects of ethanol on the developing central nervous system (CNS). To date, there are no FDA approved drugs that have been tested that prevent/reduce or specifically treat the symptoms of FASD. There are several promising lines of research from rodent models aimed at reducing the neurotoxic effects of ethanol on the developing CNS or in treating the resulting behavioral impairments but these have not yet moved to clinical testing. The current review discusses some of the most promising targets for intervention and provides a review of the past and ongoing efforts to develop and screen pharmacological treatments for reducing the effects of prenatal ethanol exposure.

  17. Effect of UV exposure on the surface chemistry of wood veneers treated with ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patachia, Silvia; Croitoru, Catalin; Friedrich, Christian

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, the influence of four types of imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) on the chemical alteration of the surface of wood veneers exposed to 254 nm UV irradiation have been studied by using image analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and surface energy calculation. The wood treated with ionic liquids showed better stability to UV light, as demonstrated by the low lignin, carbonyl index and cellulose crystallinity index variation, as well as very small color modification of the surface with the increase of the UV exposure period, by comparing to non-treated wood. The results show that the tested ionic liquids could be effective as UV stabilizers.

  18. Clinical Effects and Antivenom Use for Snake Bite Victims Treated at Three US Hospitals in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    WILDERNESS & ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE, 24, 412–416 (2013) BRIEF REPORT Clinical Effects and Antivenom Use for Snake Bite Victims Treated at Three US... bite details and complications, laboratory results, antivenom use and adverse effects, procedures performed, and hospital course. Results.—Of 17 cases...median patient age was 20 years (interquartile range [IQR], 12–30), 16 were male, and 82% were Afghans. All bites were to an extremity, and median

  19. The Early Effects of MRgFUS in Treating Uterine Fibroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funaki, Kaoru; Fukunishi, Hidenobu

    2006-05-01

    MRgFUS (Magnetic Resonance-guided Focused Ultrasound Surgery, ExAblate2000™, InSightec) system creates thermal coagulation regions inside the fibroids in treating symptomatic uterine fibroids. The authors have treated 89 fibroids on 58 patients for 16 months starting from June 2004. We classified the fibroids into 3 types in accordance with T2-weighted MR images for evaluating the effect of treatment to the modality of fibroids. They are: type 1: very low intensity as skeletal muscle; type 2: low intensity compared with uterine muscle but high with skeletal muscle; type 3: high or equal intensity compared with uterine muscle. The volumes of fibroid and the treated region were evaluated from MR images. The treated volume was calculated from the non-perfusion area of meglumine gadoterate immediately after the treatments. The results show that type 1 and type 2 fibroids are suitable application of MRgFUS. On the other hand, type 3 fibroid is difficult application of MRgFUS treatment, for the treated ratio was smaller than the other types.

  20. Antigenotoxic and anticytotoxic effect of camel milk in mice treated with cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Salwa, M. Quita; Lina, A.F. Kurdi

    2010-01-01

    Camel milk (CM) has good nutritive value, in addition to its antigenotoxic and anticytotoxic effects. Therefore the aim of this investigation was to evaluate the capacity of CM to inhibit the micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs) in the bone marrow and improve the mitotic activity produced by cisplatin. Cisplatin is one of the most widely used antineoplastic drugs in the treatment of cancer. The 70 adult male Swiss albino mice were divided into seven groups:Gr. I: treated with distilled water and considered as a control group.Gr. II: treated with camel milk (33 ml/kg, b.w).Gr. III: treated previously with cisplatin (0.5 mg/kg, b.w).Gr. IV: treated with camel milk and followed after 2 h. with cisplatin (33 ml/kg → 0.5 mg/kg, b.w).Gr. V: treated with camel milk and cisplatin at the same time (33 ml/kg + 0.5 mg/kg, b.w).Gr. VI: treated with an acute single dose of cisplatin (2.5 mg/kg, b.w).Gr. VII: treated with camel milk prior and followed with an acute single dose of cisplatin (33 ml/kg → 2.5 mg /kg, b.w). The animals were sacrificed 24 h after cisplatin injection. The pretreatment with CM dose caused a significant decrease (P < 0.001) in the frequency of MnPCEs and increase (P < 0.001) in the mitotic index (MI) induced by cisplatin when compared with the groups treated with cisplatin alone. The possible explanation for the antigenotoxic and anticytotoxic effects observed in the pretreatment with CM is ascribed to its contents. In conclusion, from the findings we suggest that this milk has some antioxidant effect, and the antigenotoxic mechanism of this milk needs to be explored further before their use during cisplatin chemotherapy. PMID:23961073

  1. Effect of Cleome arabica leaf extract treated by naringinase on human neutrophil chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Bouriche, Hamama; Arnhold, Juegen

    2010-03-01

    The leaves of Cleome arabica L. (Capparaceae), which contain a number of glucosylated and rhamnosylated flavonols, possess anti-inflammatory activity and are used for the treatment of abdominal and rheumatic pains. In this study, we examine the effects of C. arabica leaf extracts (CALE) treatment with naringinase on selected properties of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). Chemotaxis of these cells was investigated in the presence of either CALE or CALE treated with naringinase. Results showed that CALE reduced the directed movement of PMNs induced by fMet-Leu-Phe in a dose-dependent manner. A previous treatment of CALE with naringinase enhanced this effect. We conclude that deglycosylation of flavonoids in CALE by naringinase improves the beneficial effect of this plant extract on PMNs. The ability of C. arabica leaf extract treated with naringinase to reduce chemotaxis in human neutrophils may be an important therapeutic factor in the treatment of chronic diseases.

  2. Managing the oral side-effects of medications used to treat multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Cockburn, N; Pateman, K; Taing, M W; Pradhan, A; Ford, P J

    2017-09-01

    Many medications used to manage multiple sclerosis (MS) affect oral health. This review aimed to identify the oral side-effects of the current drugs recommended in Australia to treat MS and make dental practitioners aware of the range of symptoms. The Australian Therapeutic Guidelines and the Australian Medicines Handbook were searched for medications used to treat MS. For each medication, the generic name, class, route of administration, dosage and drug company reported side-effects were extracted from the online Monthly Index of Medical Specialties (MIMs) database. Meyler's Side-effect of Drugs Encyclopaedia was used to identify any additional oral adverse reactions to medications used to treat MS. Fourteen drugs were identified for the treatment of MS progression and 13 drugs for the treatment of MS symptoms. For these medications, 18 oral side-effects were documented: xerostomia was the most common, followed by dysgeusia, dysphagia, mouth ulceration and sinusitis. Anticholinergic drugs caused xerostomia while immunosuppressants resulted in more infection-related side-effects. Dental practitioners should be aware of the range of symptoms likely to be reported by this population. Clinicians are encouraged to continue providing dental care for their patients who develop MS and refer complex cases to specialists. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  3. Effect of alkali-treated lipopolysaccharide on the intracellular cations of human erythrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Warren, J R; Kowalski, M M; Wallas, C H

    1977-01-01

    The adsorption to human erythrocytes of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide treated by mild alkaline hydrolysis (h-LPS) stimulated an increase in the intracellular Na+ concentration and a decrease in the intracellular K+ concentration of the erythrocytes. Erythrocytes treated by h-LPS remained responsive to the membrane adenosine triphosphatase inhibitors ouabain and ethacrynic acid, indicating that hLPS did not alter erythrocyte cations be depleting energy intermediates or uncoupling energy metabolism from active cation transport. The h-LPS-treated erythrocytes became non-agglutinable by the lectin concanavalin A prior to the development of changes in intracellular cations. In addition, h-LPS-treated erythrocytes demonstrated a three-fold greater cation response to ethacrynic acid than the untreated erythrocytes; this greater response was probably due to local membrane effects by h-LPS on the ethacrynic acid-sensitive adenosine triphosphatase. It is suggested that the h-LPS-induced alteration of erythrocyte cation content was secondary to an increase in ion permeability localized to the concanavalin A receptor regions of the erythrocyte membrane, possibly combined with indirect effects of membrane-bound h-LPS on ethacrynic acid-sensitive adenosine triphosphatase. Images PMID:330408

  4. Effect of alkali-treated lipopolysaccharide on the intracellular cations of human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Warren, J R; Kowalski, M M; Wallas, C H

    1977-08-01

    The adsorption to human erythrocytes of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide treated by mild alkaline hydrolysis (h-LPS) stimulated an increase in the intracellular Na+ concentration and a decrease in the intracellular K+ concentration of the erythrocytes. Erythrocytes treated by h-LPS remained responsive to the membrane adenosine triphosphatase inhibitors ouabain and ethacrynic acid, indicating that hLPS did not alter erythrocyte cations be depleting energy intermediates or uncoupling energy metabolism from active cation transport. The h-LPS-treated erythrocytes became non-agglutinable by the lectin concanavalin A prior to the development of changes in intracellular cations. In addition, h-LPS-treated erythrocytes demonstrated a three-fold greater cation response to ethacrynic acid than the untreated erythrocytes; this greater response was probably due to local membrane effects by h-LPS on the ethacrynic acid-sensitive adenosine triphosphatase. It is suggested that the h-LPS-induced alteration of erythrocyte cation content was secondary to an increase in ion permeability localized to the concanavalin A receptor regions of the erythrocyte membrane, possibly combined with indirect effects of membrane-bound h-LPS on ethacrynic acid-sensitive adenosine triphosphatase.

  5. Effect of prostaglandin E/sub 2/ on the small intestine of indomethacin-treated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Romain, N.; Dandrifosse, G.; Forget, P.; Lepoint, A.

    1987-09-07

    In the present study, the protective effect of PGE/sub 2/ on intestinal damage in indomethacin-treated adult rats was investigated. Ileal integrity was evaluated making use of different biochemical and histological parameters : activities of sucrase, maltase and diamine oxidase; concentrations of DNA, putrescine, spermidine and spermine; incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine into DNA; mitotic index and mucosal thickness. Results expressed per g of mucosal weight, showed that : - maltase and diamine oxidase activities as well as DNA, spermidine and spermine concentrations decreased markedly in indomethacin-treated rats when compared to control rats; - the decrease of maltase activity as well as DNA, spermidine and spermine concentration was less pronounced in PGE/sub 2/-treated rats when compared to indomethacin-treated rats; - /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation into DNA and mitotic index values showed no significant variation in the course of different treatments; - mucosal thickness increased strongly, the PGE/sub 2/-protected rats. The authors suggest that PGE/sub 2/ could protect the rat's intestinal mucosa against the effects of indomethacin through a trophic action on intestinal villi. 15 references, 3 tables.

  6. Effects of a single glucocorticoid injection on propylene glycol-treated cows with clinical ketosis.

    PubMed

    van der Drift, Saskia G A; Houweling, Martin; Bouman, Marina; Koets, Ad P; Tielens, Aloysius G M; Nielen, Mirjam; Jorritsma, Ruurd

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the metabolic effects of glucocorticoids when administered to propylene glycol-treated cows with clinical ketosis. Clinical ketosis was defined by depressed feed intake and milk production, and a maximal score for acetoacetate in urine. All cows received 250 mL oral propylene glycol twice daily for 3 days and were randomly assigned to a single intramuscular injection with sterile isotonic saline solution (n = 14) or dexamethasone-21-isonicotinate (n = 17). Metabolic blood variables were monitored for 6 days and adipose tissue variables for 3 days. β-Hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations in blood decreased in all cows during treatment, but were lower in glucocorticoid-treated cows. Cows treated with glucocorticoids had higher plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, whereas concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids, 3-methylhistidine and growth hormone were unaffected. mRNA expression of hormone-sensitive lipase, BHBA receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor type γ in adipose tissue was not affected. This shows that lipolytic effects do not appear to be important in ketotic cows when glucocorticoids are combined with PG. Plasma 3-methyl histidine concentrations were similar in both groups, suggesting that glucocorticoids did not increase muscle breakdown and that the greater rise in plasma glucose in glucocorticoid-treated cows may not be due to increased supply of glucogenic amino acids from muscle.

  7. Effects of progestagens on follicular growth and oocyte developmental competence in FSH-treated ewes.

    PubMed

    Berlinguer, F; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A; Succu, S; Leoni, G; Mossa, F; Bebbere, D; Ariznavarreta, C; Tresguerres, J A F; Veiga-Lopez, A; Naitana, S

    2007-05-01

    Previous research has reported evidence for negative effects of progestagens on follicular growth and oocyte competence. In the present study, negative effects of progestagens on follicular growth and oocyte developmental competence were assessed. During the breeding season, 20 Sarda ewes were treated with two doses of cloprostenol, 10 days apart, to assure the presence of a corpus luteum (CL). On day 5 after the second cloprostenol dose, 10 ewes were treated with a progestagen sponge while 10 females remained untreated. Starting on day 7 after the second cloprostenol dose, all the ewes were treated with 6 equal doses of 24 I.U. of FSH (Ovagen, ICP, NZ), every 12h. The number of follicles > or =2mm in diameter increased (P<0.0005) in all the ewes from 24 h before to 60 h after the first FSH dose (from 12.8+/-1.1 to 23.4+/-1.3 in treated and from 12+/-0.6 to 22+/-1.2 in untreated ewes, n.s.). There were no significant differences in follicle dynamics between groups, but concentrations of estradiol in control ewes were higher than in the progestagen group (P<0.05). Twelve hours after the last FSH dose, oocytes were collected by ovum pick-up. Recovery rates were lower for progestagen-treated ewes (71.1 versus 83%; P<0.001). After IVP procedure, cleavage rate was also lower in the progestagen group (39.1 versus 82.6%; P<0.001). Furthermore, blastocysts output revealed that oocyte developmental competence was lower in progestagen group (17.3 versus 30.4%; P=0.245), although differences were not significant. These results suggest deleterious effects from progestagen on oocyte developmental competence and set the basis for new protocols for in vitro embryo production.

  8. Effect of electro-acupuncture in treating patients with lingual hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing-hong; Xin, Yu-ling; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Jiang-tao; Quan, Kuan-hong

    2006-06-01

    To explore the clinical effect of electro-acupuncture (EA) in treating patients with lingual hemangioma (LHG). EA therapy was applied on 36 patients by directly inserting the platinum needles into LHG through a trocar with plastic insulating cannula to protect the normal tissues and connecting the needles with the electro-chemical therapeutic apparatus of model ZAY-B. Then electricity was given until the tumor body got contracted and rigid. The result was assessed 6 months after EA was started. All patients were treated effectively, namely, the effective rate was 100%, with the therapeutic effect reaching grade I in 29 patients (80.6%), grade II in 7 (19.4%), and all having the function of tongue recovered to normal. EA shows special superiorities in treating LHG, proved to bring about less injury and quick recovery and being simple in operation. Especially when applied on huge LHG, it could not only remove the tumor, but also preserve the function of the tongue, so it is a brand-new approach that is likely to be accepted by patients.

  9. Effectiveness of pelvic floor muscle training in treating urinary incontinence in women: A current review.

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, E; Rubio-Arias, J A; Ávila-Gandía, V; Ramos-Campo, D J; López-Román, J

    2016-06-01

    To analyse the content of various published studies related to physical exercise and its effects on urinary incontinence and to determine the effectiveness of pelvic floor training programmes. We conducted a search in the databases of PubMed, CINAHL, the Cochrane Plus Library, The Cochrane Library, WOS and SPORTDiscus and a manual search in the Google Scholar metasearcher using the search descriptors for documents published in the last 10 years in Spanish or English. The documents needed to have an abstract or complete text on the treatment of urinary incontinence in female athletes and in women in general. We selected 3 full-text articles on treating urinary incontinence in female athletes and 6 full-text articles and 1 abstract on treating urinary incontinence in women in general. The 9 studies included in the review achieved positive results, i.e., there was improvement in the disease in all of the studies. Physical exercise, specifically pelvic floor muscle training programmes, has positive effects on urinary incontinence. This type of training has been shown to be an effective programme for treating urinary incontinence, especially stress urinary incontinence. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Skin moisturization and frictional effects of an emollient-treated menstrual pad with a foam core.

    PubMed

    Farage, Miranda A; Berardesca, Enzo; Maibach, Howard

    2009-01-01

    The emollient-transfer and frictional effects of a new, emollient-treated menstrual pad were studied to examine potential skin moisturization. When pads were applied for 6 hours to the popliteal fossa (behind-the knee [BTK] test), 79 microg of emollient per cm(2) was transferred from the pad surface. When swiped across forearm skin in a controlled fashion, the emollient-treated pads, but not the conventional pads, caused a rise in the coefficient of skin friction, indirect evidence of skin moisturization. When irritant and sensory effects were assessed in the BTK protocol, the test pad was comparable with the commercial product currently considered to be "best-in-class" for softness.

  11. Restorative effects of GDNF on striatal dopamine release in rats treated with neurotoxic doses of methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Cass, W A; Manning, M W; Bailey, S L

    2000-09-01

    Repeated methamphetamine (METH) administration to animals can result in long-lasting decreases in striatal dopamine (DA) release and content. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has pronounced effects on dopaminergic systems in vivo, including neuroprotective effects against METH. The present experiments were designed to examine the ability of GDNF to reverse, or accelerate recovery from, METH-induced alterations in striatal DA release. Male Fischer-344 rats were administered METH (5 mg/kg, s.c.) or saline 4 times in one day at 2-hour intervals. Seven days later the animals were anesthetized and given a single injection of 10 microg GDNF, or vehicle, into the right striatum. Three weeks later microdialysis experiments were carried out in both the right and left striata to examine basal and evoked levels of DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA). In animals treated with METH followed by vehicle 7 days later, there were significant reductions in potassium- and amphetamine-evoked overflow of DA, and in basal levels of DOPAC and HVA, compared to control animals. In rats treated with METH followed 7 days later with GDNF, there were significant increases in potassium- and amphetamine-evoked overflow of DA on the right, GDNF-treated, side of the brain compared to the left side. Basal levels of DOPAC and HVA were also elevated on the GDNF-treated side of the brain. These results suggest that GDNF can accelerate recovery of dopaminergic release processes in the striatum of rats treated with neurotoxic doses of METH.

  12. Does continuing education improve physical therapists' effectiveness in treating neck pain? A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Cleland, Joshua A; Fritz, Julie M; Brennan, Gerard P; Magel, Jake

    2009-01-01

    Physical therapists often attend continuing education (CE) courses to improve their overall clinical performance and patient outcomes. However, evidence suggests that CE courses may not improve the outcomes for patients receiving physical therapy for the management of neck pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an ongoing educational intervention for improving the outcomes for patients with neck pain. The study participants were 19 physical therapists who attended a 2-day CE course focusing on the management of neck pain. All patients treated by the therapists in this study completed the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and a pain rating scale at the initial examination and at their final visit. Therapists from 11 clinics were invited to attend a 2-day CE course on the management of neck pain. After the CE course, the therapists were randomly assigned to receive either ongoing education consisting of small group sessions and an educational outreach session or no further education. Clinical outcomes achieved by therapists who received ongoing education and therapists who did not were compared for both pretraining and posttraining periods. The effects of receiving ongoing education were examined by use of linear mixed-model analyses with time period and group as fixed factors; improvements in disability and pain as dependent variables; and age, sex, and the patient's initial NDI and pain rating scores as covariates. Patients treated by therapists who received ongoing education experienced significantly greater reductions in disability during the study period (pretraining to posttraining) than those treated by therapists who did not receive ongoing training (mean difference=4.2 points; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.69, 7.7). Changes in pain did not differ for patients treated by the 2 groups of therapists during the study period (mean difference=0.47 point; 95% CI=-0.11, 1.0). Therapists in the ongoing education group also used fewer

  13. Effectiveness of 308-nm Excimer Laser Therapy in Treating Alopecia Areata, Determined by Examining the Treated Sides of Selected Alopecic Patches.

    PubMed

    Byun, Ji Won; Moon, Jong Hyuk; Bang, Chan Yl; Shin, Jeonghyun; Choi, Gwang Seong

    2015-01-01

    Some studies have reported the use of 308-nm excimer laser therapy for treating alopecia areata (AA); however, the effectiveness of this therapy on a theoretical basis has not yet been comparatively analyzed. To determine the therapeutic effect of excimer laser therapy on AA. One alopecic patch was divided into control and treated sides in 10 patients with AA. Then, 308-nm excimer laser therapy was administered twice a week for 12 weeks. Photograph and phototrichogram analyses were performed. Photographic assessments by both dermatologists and individuals of the general population showed objective improvements after excimer laser therapy. On the treated side, the hair count and hair diameter had statistically increased after treatment. However, only the hair diameter was found to be significantly high in the treated half when it was compared with the control side. The 308-nm excimer laser has a therapeutic effect on AA, which is proven by photograph and phototrichogram analysis by a side-by-side comparison. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Effects of Melatonin on Colchicine-Treated PLBs of Dendrobium sonia-28 Orchid.

    PubMed

    Lim, M S; Antony, J J J; Islam, S M Shahinul; Suhana, Z; Sreeramanan, S

    2017-01-01

    Dendrobium hybrid orchid is popular in orchid commercial industry due to its short life cycle and ability to produce various types of flower colours. This study was conducted to identify the morphological, biochemical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis in the Dendrobium sonia-28 orchid plants. In this study, 0.05 and 0.075 % of colchicine-treated Dendrobium sonia-28 (4-week-old culture) protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) were treated in different concentrations of melatonin (MEL) posttreatments (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 μM). Morphological parameters such as number of shoots, growth index and number of PLBs were determined. In the 0.05 and 0.075 % of colchicine-treated PLBs which were posttreated with 0.05 μM MEL resulted in the highest value of the morphological parameters tested based on the number of shoots (84.5 and 96.67), growth index (16.94 and 12.15) and number of PLBs (126.5 and 162.33), respectively. SEM analysis of the 0.05 μM MEL posttreatment on both the colchicine-treated regenerated PLBs showed irregular cell lineages, and some damages occurred on the stomata. This condition might be due to the effect of plasmolyzing occurred in the cell causing irregular cell lineages.

  15. Effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese medicine in treating acquired immune deficiency syndrome: 2004-2014.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Bin; Yang, Ji-Ping; Xu, Li-Ran

    2015-12-23

    Substantial progress has been made in China in using traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Our objective was to review the latest developments in TCM treatment of AIDS in China between 2004 and 2014. We reviewed the content of original articles investigating the efficacy and safety of TCM for treating AIDS published in Chinese and English language journals. Relevant references from 2004 to 2014 were found using PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database. We found that TCM has been widely used for treating AIDS and its complications in China. The number of TCM studies has increased, which indicates efficacy and safety. Measures of efficacy in the reviewed articles included the alleviation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related signs and symptoms, improvements in quality of life, improvements in long-term survival, counteraction of the adverse side effects of antiviral drugs, promotion of immune reconstitution, and improvement of laboratory results. In sum, the literature indicates that TCM is safe. TCM plays an important role in the treatment of AIDS. Some studies have attempted to measure the efficacy and safety of TCM for treating AIDS, but more evidence is needed. Therefore, more research on this topic is required in the future.

  16. Preventive effects of cedrol against alopecia in cyclophosphamide-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Yan; Lu, Qiu-Li; Lin, Zhe; Zhao, Yuqing

    2016-09-01

    Although numerous hypotheses have been proposed to prevent chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA), effective pharmaceuticals have yet to be developed. In our study, the back hairs of C57BL/6 mice were factitiously removed. These mice were then treated with cedrol or minoxidil daily. Mice with early-stage anagen VI hair follicles were treated with cyclophosphamide (CYP, 125mg/kg) to induce alopecia. The CYP-damaged hair follicles were observed and quantified by using a digital photomicrograph. The results demonstrated that the minoxidil-treated mice suffered from complete alopecia similar to the model 6days after CYP administration. Simultaneously, the cedrol-treated (200mg/kg) mice manifested mild alopecia with 40% suppression. Histological observation revealed that anagen hair follicles of the cedrol-pretreated mice (82.5%) likely provided from damage compared with the sparse and dystrophic hair follicles of the model mice (37.0%). Therefore, the use of topical cedrol can prevent hair follicle dystrophy and provide local protection against CIA.

  17. Effect of simulated rainfall and weathering on release of preservative elements from CCA treated wood.

    PubMed

    Lebow, Stan; Williams, R Sam; Lebow, Patricia

    2003-09-15

    The release of arsenic from wood pressure-treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) can be decreased by application of wood finishes, but little is known about the types of finishes that are best suited for this purpose. This study evaluated the effects of finish water repellent content and ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the release of arsenic, copper, and chromium from CCA-treated wood exposed to simulated rainfall. Deck boards treated with CCA were either left unfinished or dipped in a finish prepared with 1%, 3%, or 5% water repellent. All specimens were exposed to leaching from simulated rainfall, and a subset of specimens was also exposed to UV radiation. The rainfall was collected and analyzed for total elemental arsenic, copper, and chromium. The water repellent significantly decreased the amounts of these elements in the runoff, but for the short duration of this study there was no difference among the three water repellent concentrations. It is possible that water repellent content would have a greater effect over a longer exposure period. Exposure to UV radiation caused a significant increase in leaching from both finished and unfinished specimens. This effect may be a result of increased surface area during weathering as well as loss of fibers caused by UV-induced surface erosion.

  18. The curative effects of LPN combined LCA in treating with middle and advanced renal cancer.

    PubMed

    Qiu, M-J; Tian, H; Pang, C; Yang, Z-J; Li, C-Q; Xu, L

    2016-01-01

    To discuss the curative effects of laparoscopy partial nephrectomy (LPN) combined with laparoscopy cryoablation (LCA) in treating renal cancer. A total of 58 patients that were diagnosed with phase III-IV renal cancer in the Hospital from February 2013 to October 2014 were enrolled in this study. After obtaining the approval of Ethics Committee of the Hospital as well as the informed consent of the patients and their relatives, the patients were randomly divide into two groups: control group consisted of 24 patients, who were treated with LPN + chemo radiotherapy and the observation group consisted of 34 patients, who were treated with LPN in combination of LCA + chemo radiotherapy. The rate of successful operation was significantly higher in the observation group than in control group and the prevalence of per procedural complications in observation group was significantly lower than that of control group, and these differences had statistical significance (p < 0.05). Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) after operation and 6-month follow-up in observation group was significantly higher than that in control group, and the level of serum creatinine (sCr) was significantly lower compared to the control group and the differences had statistical significance (p < 0.05). Follow-up survival rate of patients in the observation group was significantly higher than that of control group, recurrence rate and recurrence time of patients in the observation group was significantly lower than those of control group and the difference had statistical significance (p < 0.05). LPN combined LCA therapy was quite effective in treating with middle and advanced renal cancer. Compared with pure LPN therapy, LPN combined LCA therapy could significantly improve the surgical effects, retain the functions of the renal unit and improve the patients' prognosis.

  19. Effects on Organic Photovoltaics Using Femtosecond-Laser-Treated Indium Tin Oxides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Hsin; Tseng, Ya-Hsin; Chao, Yi-Ping; Tseng, Sheng-Yang; Lin, Zong-Rong; Chu, Hui-Hsin; Chang, Jan-Kai; Luo, Chih-Wei

    2016-09-28

    The effects of femtosecond-laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on an indium tin oxide (ITO) surface applied to an organic photovoltaic (OPV) system were investigated. The modifications of ITO induced by LIPPS in OPV devices result in more than 14% increase in power conversion efficiency (PCE) and short-circuit current density relative to those of the standard device. The basic mechanisms for the enhanced short-circuit current density are attributed to better light harvesting, increased scattering effects, and more efficient charge collection between the ITO and photoactive layers. Results show that higher PCEs would be achieved by laser-pulse-treated electrodes.

  20. Irrigation with treated wastewater: effects on soil, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) crop and dynamics of microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Mañas, Pilar; Castro, Elena; de Las Heras, Jorge

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of treated wastewater for horticultural crops, assess the effects of continuous use of treated water on soil and crops, and analyse the physical, chemical and biological effects of irrigation with recycled water. Two lettuce plots watered with drinking water and treated wastewater were monitored over a three year period. Nutrients, heavy metal and the dynamics of pathogen and indicator microorganism content in soil and foliar tissues were analysed. Wastewater irrigation had a high influence on soil parameters: organic matter, N, P, Ca, Al, Fe, Pb and Zn. Indicator and pathogenic microorganisms were detected in soil and plants grown in the wastewater-irrigated plot, and persisted in the soil for 27 days during the study under humid conditions. N, P, Pb and Al content were significantly higher in plant tissues of wastewater-irrigated plots than in the control after 3 years of irrigation. Harvest was significantly higher in the wastewater-irrigated plot. Wastewater can be a resource for agricultural irrigation. In any case, the possible heavy metal accumulation in soils and presence of pathogenic organisms require careful management of this alternative resource: use of a drip irrigation system, previous wastewater disinfection and a limited irrigation period are recommended.

  1. Registered Nurses' Knowledge about Adverse Effects of Analgesics when Treating Postoperative Pain in Patients with Dementia.

    PubMed

    Rantala, Maija; Hartikainen, Sirpa; Kvist, Tarja; Kankkunen, Päivi

    2015-08-01

    Registered nurses (RNs) play a pivotal role in treating pain and preventing and recognizing the adverse effects (AEs) of analgesics in patients with dementia. The purpose of this study was to determine RNs' knowledge of potentially clinically relevant AEs of analgesics. A descriptive, cross-sectional study design was used. In all, 267 RNs treating orthopedic patients, including patients with dementia, in 7 university hospitals and 10 central hospitals in Finland, completed a questionnaire. Analgesics were defined according to the Anatomic Therapeutic Classification as strong opioids, weak opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory analgesics (NSAIDs), and paracetamol. Definitions of AEs were based on the literature. Logistic regression analysis was applied to analyze which variables predicted nurses' knowledge. The RNs had a clear understanding of the AEs of paracetamol and strong opioids. However, the AEs of NSAIDs, especially renal and cardiovascular AEs, were less well known. The median percentage of correct answers was 87% when asked about strong opioids, 73% for weak opioids, and 60% for NSAIDs. Younger RNs had better knowledge of opioid-related AEs (odds ratio [OR] per 1-year increase, 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94-1.00) and weak opioids (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-0.99). This study provides evidence of a deficiency in RNs' knowledge, especially regarding the adverse renal and cardiovascular effects of NSAIDs. Such lack of knowledge indicates that hospitals may need to update the knowledge of older RNs, especially those who treat vulnerable patients with dementia.

  2. Effect of nicotine-treated epithelial cells on the proliferation and collagen production of gingival fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulou, C; Roehrich, N; Mombelli, A

    2001-08-01

    Several in vitro and in vivo studies have indicated that tobacco smoking may be an important risk factor for the development and severity of inflammatory periodontal disease. In the present study, we developed an in vitro model to study the interactions between nicotine-treated epithelial cells (EC) and gingival fibroblasts (GF) derived from the same patient. EC were treated with nicotine concentrations varying from 1 microg/ml to 500 microg/ml and their effect on different functions of GF was studied. The proliferation of GF was evaluated by the incorporation of 3H-thymidine. A dose-dependent inhibition was observed with nicotine concentrations > or =100 microg/ml. Similar results were observed when studying the total protein synthesis of GF by incorporation of 3H-proline into non-dialyzable material. When collagen production was evaluated by 3H-proline incorporation into collagenase-sensitive protein, a dose-dependent reduction was observed: the degree of inhibition varied from 25% with 50 microg/ml nicotine, to almost 60% with 500 microg/ml. Interestingly, the production of non-collagenous proteins decreased by almost 50% only when EC were treated with the highest concentration of nicotine. The results suggest that epithelial cells, acting as mechanical barrier, can reduce but not completely eliminate the deleterious effect of nicotine on gingival fibroblasts.

  3. Effectiveness of Glycyrrhizinic Acid (Glizigen) and an Immunostimulant (Viusid) to Treat Anogenital Warts

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez Gómez, José; Simón, Ramón Daniel; Abreu Daniel, Alfredo; Zelenkova, Hana

    2012-01-01

    Genital warts are benign proliferations of skin and mucosa caused by the human papillomavirus infection (hereinafter referred to as HPV). It is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in the world, whose incidence rate has increased in the last three decades. Current treatment involves the physical destruction of the infected cells. The fact that there are many different types of treatment goes to show that none of them are uniformly effective or directly antiviral. Objective. Demonstrate the efficacy of Glizigen in the III-phase clinical trial combined with a food supplement (VIUSID) formulated to boost the immune system when treating external anogenital warts. Design. 100 patients clinically diagnosed with anogenital lesions were included in the trial and assigned to two groups of 50 individuals. Those from one group where treated with Glizigen and Viusid and those from the other group with 25% podophyllin in alcohol, the results from each were then compared. Results. The combined Glizigen-Viusid treatment was seen to have an 87.5% efficacy rate, which was slightly more than that of the treatment with podophyllin, and there were hardly any adverse reactions reported during the treatment. Conclusions. the combined Glizigen-Viusid treatment was effective in treating genital warts. PMID:22957266

  4. Effectiveness of glycyrrhizinic Acid (glizigen) and an immunostimulant (viusid) to treat anogenital warts.

    PubMed

    Domínguez Gómez, José; Simón, Ramón Daniel; Abreu Daniel, Alfredo; Zelenkova, Hana

    2012-01-01

    Genital warts are benign proliferations of skin and mucosa caused by the human papillomavirus infection (hereinafter referred to as HPV). It is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in the world, whose incidence rate has increased in the last three decades. Current treatment involves the physical destruction of the infected cells. The fact that there are many different types of treatment goes to show that none of them are uniformly effective or directly antiviral. Objective. Demonstrate the efficacy of Glizigen in the III-phase clinical trial combined with a food supplement (VIUSID) formulated to boost the immune system when treating external anogenital warts. Design. 100 patients clinically diagnosed with anogenital lesions were included in the trial and assigned to two groups of 50 individuals. Those from one group where treated with Glizigen and Viusid and those from the other group with 25% podophyllin in alcohol, the results from each were then compared. Results. The combined Glizigen-Viusid treatment was seen to have an 87.5% efficacy rate, which was slightly more than that of the treatment with podophyllin, and there were hardly any adverse reactions reported during the treatment. Conclusions. the combined Glizigen-Viusid treatment was effective in treating genital warts.

  5. Effect of phosvitin on lipid and protein oxidation in ground beef treated with high hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Jung, Samooel; Nam, Ki Chang; Ahn, Dong Uk; Kim, Hyun Joo; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of phosvitin on lipid and protein oxidation of raw and cooked ground beef treated with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP). Ground beef patty with 0, 500, or 1000 mg phosvitin/kg meat was treated with HHP at 0.1, 300, or 600 MPa. Half of the patties were used in a raw meat analysis, and the other half were used in a cooked meat analysis. Phosvitin and HHP treatment at 300 MPa synergistically reduced microbial growth, and HHP treatment at 600 MPa reduced microbial counts to undetectable levels (<1 log CFU/g) throughout the length of the study in all samples. Phosvitin delayed lipid and protein oxidation in HHP-treated cooked and raw ground beef, respectively. However, phosvitin had no effect on the color changes of raw ground beef attributable to HHP. The results indicated that phosvitin could enhance the stability of lipids and proteins but not color changes of raw ground beef caused by HHP.

  6. Effect of boiling on the antidiabetic property of enzyme treated sheep milk casein

    PubMed Central

    Jan, Farhath; Kumar, Santosh; Jha, Richa

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Sheep milk-born bioactive peptides have been found to exhibit various physiological activities. The present work was designed with the aim to evaluate the effect of boiling on antidiabetic property of peptides derived from sheep milk caseinate on hydrolysis with three different proteases. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, casein prepared from raw and boiled sheep milk was hydrolyzed by three commercially available proteases (trypsin, pepsin, and chymotrypsin). These hydrolysates collected at different hydrolysis times (60, 120, 160, and 240 min) were assayed for their antidiabetic activity. Results: Among the three different enzyme hydrolysates, casein treated with chymotrypsin shows the highest antidiabetic activity among other enzymes. While the antidiabetic effect of raw milk-derived casein hydrolysates always exceeds than effect shown by boiled milk casein hydrolysates. Conclusion: The result obtained hence shows that the effect of boiling on the properties of bioactive peptides released during different enzyme digestion depends largely on the enzymatic formulation used and treatment conditions. Chymotrypsin treatment of raw casein yields peptides with maximum antidiabetic activity as compared to pepsin and trypsin. Moreover, the peptides produced after enzymatic treatment of boiled casein show reduced antidiabetic properties. Therefore, enzymatically treated raw milk casein hydrolysates may be used as effective nutritional supplements for diabetic patients, as it causes a significant inhibition of α-amylase activity. PMID:27847428

  7. Highly potent and moderately potent topical steroids are effective in treating phimosis: a prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Stephen Shei Dei; Tsai, Yao Chou; Wu, Chia Chang; Liu, Shih Ping; Wang, Chung Cheng

    2005-04-01

    We report a prospective randomized study comparing the effects of highly potent and moderately potent topical steroids in treating pediatric phimosis. A total of 70 boys 1 to 12 years old with phimosis were randomly assigned to receive topical application of either betamethasone valerate 0.06% (a highly potent steroid) or clobetasone butyrate 0.05% (a moderately potent steroid). Parents of the boys were instructed to retract the foreskin gently without causing pain, and to apply the topical steroids over the stenotic opening of the prepuce twice daily for 4 weeks, then for another 4 weeks if no improvement was achieved. Retractibility of the prepuce was graded from 0 to 5. Response to treatment was arbitrarily defined as improvement in the retractibility score of more than 2 points. Mean treatment and followup periods were 4.3 and 19.1 weeks, respectively. The response rates in boys treated with betamethasone valerate and clobetasone butyrate were 81.3% and 77.4%, respectively (p = 0.63). Mean retractibility score decreased from 3.9 +/- 1.0 to 1.7 +/- 1.1, and 4.2 +/- 1.0 to 1.9 +/- 1.0 in the betamethasone and clobetasone groups, respectively. Both steroids were effective in all age groups. Pretreatment retractibility score did not affect treatment outcomes. No adverse effect was encountered. Highly potent and moderately potent topical steroids are of comparable effectiveness in treating phimosis. A less potent steroid may be considered first to decrease the risk of the potential adverse effects.

  8. Effect of Nalidixic Acid on DNA Replication by Toluene-Treated Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Richard M.; Glaser, Donald A.

    1973-01-01

    Nalidixic acid inhibits DNA synthesis in toluene-treated E. coli, strain B/r, as it is well known to do in vivo. Both semiconservative and repair syntheses are affected, though to different degrees. Density-transfer experiments indicate that chromosomal replication is reinitiated when nalidixic acid is removed from toluene-treated cells after exposure to the acid for one generation in vivo. For cells in vivo or after toluene-treatment, reinitiation is not seen in asynchronous cultures exposed briefly to nalidixic acid or in cells prevented from synthesizing proteins during their exposure to the acid. Reinitiation occurs at the chromosomal origin but, unlike the effect seen in vivo, replication at the old site persists. PMID:4579007

  9. Effects of Irrigating with Treated Oil and Gas Product Water on Crop Biomass and Soil Permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Terry Brown; Jeffrey Morris; Patrick Richards; Joel Mason

    2010-09-30

    Demonstrating effective treatment technologies and beneficial uses for oil and gas produced water is essential for producers who must meet environmental standards and deal with high costs associated with produced water management. Proven, effective produced-water treatment technologies coupled with comprehensive data regarding blending ratios for productive long-term irrigation will improve the state-of-knowledge surrounding produced-water management. Effective produced-water management scenarios such as cost-effective treatment and irrigation will discourage discharge practices that result in legal battles between stakeholder entities. The goal of this work is to determine the optimal blending ratio required for irrigating crops with CBNG and conventional oil and gas produced water treated by ion exchange (IX), reverse osmosis (RO), or electro-dialysis reversal (EDR) in order to maintain the long term physical integrity of soils and to achieve normal crop production. The soils treated with CBNG produced water were characterized with significantly lower SAR values compared to those impacted with conventional oil and gas produced water. The CBNG produced water treated with RO at the 100% treatment level was significantly different from the untreated produced water, while the 25%, 50% and 75% water treatment levels were not significantly different from the untreated water. Conventional oil and gas produced water treated with EDR and RO showed comparable SAR results for the water treatment technologies. There was no significant difference between the 100% treated produced water and the control (river water). The EDR water treatment resulted with differences at each level of treatment, which were similar to RO treated conventional oil and gas water. The 100% treated water had SAR values significantly lower than the 75% and 50% treatments, which were similar (not significantly different). The results of the greenhouse irrigation study found the differences in biomass

  10. In vivo testing of silver treated fibers for the evaluation of skin irritation effect and hypoallergenicity.

    PubMed

    Paladini, F; Sannino, A; Pollini, M

    2014-07-01

    Textiles are a fertile breeding ground for a multitude of micro-organisms under appropriate conditions of moisture and temperature. The broad-spectrum biocide properties of silver are well known and many technologies have been developed so far to treat textiles with silver. The efficacy of the silver deposition technology presented in this article has been already demonstrated in previous works, where the strong adhesion of silver nanoparticles to the substrate and their antibacterial capability have been assessed. This work focuses on the evaluation of any possible interaction of silver treated cotton with human skin, in terms of skin irritation and hypoallergenicity. Moreover, the presence of silver and the antibacterial capability against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, were verified even after several washing cycles in order to develop a product with long-term antibacterial capability and no adverse effects in terms of skin irritation and hypoallergenicity. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Effect and mechanism of coking residual ammonia water treating by flue gas.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Z J; Yin, G J; Yang, L Q; Wang, W; Cheng, D D

    2001-04-01

    The treatment of coking residual ammonia water has been a big difficult problem at home and abroad, and there is no breakthrough research achievement in the past. The invention patent "The method of treating all coking wastewater or treating coking residual ammonia water by flue gas" has been successfully used in Huaian Steel Works for high concentration and organic industry wastewater treatment. Not only can it realize the wastewater zero discharge, but also the wastewater treatment has an effect of de-sulfur and de-nitrogen for flue gas. So that the flue gas exhaust can meet the requirement of emission standard. The mass transfer and heat transfer, fly ash absorption and coagulation, acid and alkali neutralization reaction, catalysis oxidation and reduction reaction in flue gas would be the major factors.

  12. Effect of nitric oxide signaling in bacterial-treated soybean plant under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Vaishnav, Anukool; Jain, Shekhar; Kasotia, Amrita; Kumari, Sarita; Gaur, Rajarshi Kumar; Choudhary, Devendra Kumar

    2013-08-01

    To understand protective roles of nitric oxide against salt stress, the effects of exogenous sodium nitroprusside on activities of lipoxygenase, peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonialyase, catalase, superoxide dismutase enzymes, proline accumulation, and distribution of sodium in soybean plants under salt were determined. Application of sodium nitroprusside + bacterium enhanced plant growth-promotion characteristics, activities of different enzymes, and proline accumulation in the presence of sodium nitroprusside under salt stress. Treatment with NaCl at 200 mM and sodium nitroprusside (0.1 mM) reduced Na⁺ levels but increased K⁺ levels in leaves in comparison with the NaCl-treated plants. Correspondingly, the plants treated with exogenous sodium nitroprusside and NaCl maintained a lower ratio of [Na⁺]/[K⁺] in NaCl-stressed plants.

  13. [Effect of berberine in treating type 2 diabetes mellitus and complications and its relevant mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Li, Yan; Chen, Lei

    2015-05-01

    Berberine (BBR) is a type of alkaloids isolated from Coptidis Rhizoma and Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex and has been used to treat bacterial gastroenteritis, diarrhea and other digestive diseases for more than 1 000 years. According to recent studies, berberine has been found to have multiple pharmacological activities, including lowering blood glucose and lipid, anti-inflammation, antioxidation, relieving type 2 diabetic nephropathy (DN), diabetic cardiovascular disease, diabetic peripheral neuropathy ( DPN) and other complications. In this article, the authors summarized the literature reports about the effects of BBR in lowering blood glucose and preventing and treating the above type 2 diabetes and its complications, in order to provide reference to further studies and promotion of BBR's application.

  14. Effect of some Indian herbs on macrophage functions in ochratoxin A treated mice.

    PubMed

    Dhuley, J N

    1997-09-01

    The effect of Indian herbs namely, Asparagus racemosus, Tinospora cordifolia, Withania somnifera and Picrorhiza kurrooa on the functions of macrophages obtained from mice treated with the carcinogen ochratoxin A (OTA) was investigated. The chemotactic activity of murine macrophages was significantly decreased by 17 weeks of treatment with OTA compared with controls. Production of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was also markedly reduced. Treatment with Asparagus racemosus, Tinospora cordifolia, Withania somnifera and Picrorhiza kurrooa significantly inhibited OTA-induced suppression of chemotactic activity and production of IL-1 and TNF-alpha by macropahges. Moreover, we found that Withania somnifera treated macrophage chemotaxis and that Asparagus racemosus induced excess production of TNF-alpha when compared with controls.

  15. Effects of visible light irradiation on eugenol-treated oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Seiichiro; Muraoka, Eitoku; Nakazato, Yoshihiro; Okada, Norihisa

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the histopathological effects of eugenol (EUG) and iso-eugenol (IsoEUG)--with or without visible light (VL) irradiation--on oral mucous membranes. Oral mucous membranes of mice were applied with three agents, EUG, IsoEUG, and aceton (as the control) in the absence or presence of VL irradiation. VL irradiation resulted in more tissue damage for EUG- or IsoEUG-treated mucosa compared to corresponding compounds without VL irradiation, and that damage under IsoEUG treatment was greater than that under EUG treatment. Necrosis, but not apoptosis, was preferentially expressed in EUG- or IsoEUG-treated mucous membranes in the presence of VL irradiation.

  16. Treatment of Recurrent Dupuytren Contracture in Joints Previously Effectively Treated With Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum.

    PubMed

    Bear, Brian J; Peimer, Clayton A; Kaplan, F Thomas D; Kaufman, Gregory J; Tursi, James P; Smith, Ted

    2017-05-01

    Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH) is approved for the treatment of adults with Dupuytren contracture with a palpable cord. This open-label, phase 4 study evaluated the safety and efficacy of CCH for the retreatment of recurrent contractures in joints that were previously effectively treated with CCH. Patients participating in a long-term follow-up study who had contracture recurrence (increased ≥ 20° with a palpable cord) after successful treatment in the previous study were eligible. Recurrent joint contractures were treated with up to 3 CCH injections (∼ 1 month apart). Patients were followed for 1 year to evaluate safety. Assessments included change in joint contracture, range of motion, and the percentage of joints that achieved contracture of 5° or less at day 30 after the last injection. The efficacy analysis included 51 patients with 1 treated joint per patient (31 metacarpophalangeal, 20 proximal interphalangeal). A total of 35 joints (69%) received 1 injection, 12 (24%) received 2 injections, and 4 (8%) received 3 injections. Fifty-seven percent of joints achieved contracture of 5° or less (29 of 51). Overall, 86% (43 of 50) patients had a 20° or greater increase in range of motion. The adverse event profile was consistent with previous studies. One ligament injury was reported. At a short-term follow-up of 1 year, recurrent contracture in joints previously successfully treated with CCH may be effectively retreated with up to 3 injections of CCH. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of incorporating differently-treated rice straw on phytoavailability of methylmercury in soil.

    PubMed

    Shu, Rui; Dang, Fei; Zhong, Huan

    2016-02-01

    Differently-treated crops straw is being widely used to fertilize soil, while the potential impacts of straw amendment on the biogeochemistry and phytoavailability of mercury in contaminated soils are largely unknown. In the present study, differently-treated rice straw (dry straw, composted straw, straw biochar, and straw ash) was incorporated into mercury-contaminated soil at an environment relevant level (1/100, w/w), and mercury speciation, methylmercury (MeHg) phytoavailability (using ammonium thiosulfate extraction method, validated elsewhere) and bioaccumulation (in Indian mustard Brassica junceas) were quantified. Our results indicated that incorporating straw biochar or composted straw into soil would decrease phytoavailable MeHg levels, possibly due to the strong binding of MeHg with particulate organic matter in amended straw ('MeHg immobilization effect'). Consequently, MeHg accumulation in aboveground tissue of Indian mustard harvested from straw biochar-amended soil decreased by 20% compared to the control. Differently, incorporation of dry straw resulted in elevated MeHg levels in soil ('Mercury methylation effect'). Decomposition of amended dry straw in soil would evidently increase DOC levels (averagely 40%-195% higher than the control), which may subsequently mobilize MeHg in the soil ('MeHg mobilization effect'). Accordingly, incorporation of dry straw led to increased phytoavailable MeHg levels in the soil and doubled MeHg accumulation in Indian mustard. Our results provided the first evidence that incorporating differently-treated rice straw into soil could have diverse effects on mercury biogeochemistry and phytoavailability, which should be taken into account in risk assessment or soil remediation.

  18. Calcium absorption in diphosphonate-treated rats: effect of parathyroid function, dietary calcium and phosphorus.

    PubMed Central

    Bonjour, J P; Fleisch, H; Trechsel, U

    1977-01-01

    1. The role of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1, 25-dihydroxy-cholecalciferol (1,25-(OH)2D3) in modulation of intestinal Ca absorption was studied in rats, using disodium ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate (EHDP), which is known to reduce 1,25-(OH)2D3 formation. 2. EHDP decreased intestinal Ca absorption. This effect could be abolished by small amounts of 1,25-(OH)2D3, whereas even large doses of PTH were ineffective. EHDP also decreased Ca absorption in thyroparathyroidectomized (TPTX) rats. Therefore the effect of EHDP on 1,25-(OH)2D3 production is unlikely to be mediated through PTH. 3. The correction by PTH of the decreased Ca absorption in TPTX rats was inhibited by EHDP. Since EHDP inhibits formation of 1,25-(OH)2D3 the effect of PTH on Ca absorption is likely to be mediated through this vitamin D3 metabolite. 4. In normal rats both a low Ca and a low P diet stimulated Ca absorption. In EHDP-treated intact rats low Ca still stimulated Ca absorption, whereas the effect of low P abolished. This indicates that low Ca and low P diets affect Ca absorption through different mechanisms. 5. Intestinal adaptation to a low Ca diet was still observed in EHDP-treated TPTX rats. Thus, in the rat, intestinal adaptation to low Ca diet can occur without PTH. PMID:402471

  19. Effect of kefir on the quality of life of patients being treated for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Can, Gulbeyaz; Topuz, Erkan; Derin, Duygu; Durna, Zehra; Aydiner, Adnan

    2009-11-01

    To determine kefir's effect on the prevention of gastrointestinal complaints and quality of life (QOL) in patients being treated for colorectal cancer. Randomized, controlled, prospective, interventional study. Istanbul University Oncology Institute in Turkey. 40 patients, 20 of whom were randomized to the experimental (kefir) arm and 20 who were randomized to the control arm. Informed consent to participate in the study was obtained. Before treatment began, demographics, illness-related characteristics, complaints, and QOL of participants were evaluated. During treatment, side effects were evaluated one week after every cycle of therapy. QOL was evaluated after the third and sixth cycles of treatment. The effect of kefir on the prevention of gastrointestinal complaints and QOL in patients being treated for colorectal cancer. Following chemotherapy, the experimental (kefir) group had more treatment-related gastrointestinal complaints but a decrease in sleep disturbance. No difference was found between the two groups for QOL. Kefir does not prevent or decrease gastrointestinal complaints in patients undergoing chemotherapy for colorectal cancer. Kefir did decrease sleep disturbances in the experimental group. Many patients use complementary and alternative medicine during cancer therapy. This study may provide information about the effectiveness of kefir in patients with cancer.

  20. The cost-effectiveness of identifying and treating malnutrition in hospitals: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, H; Porter, J

    2016-04-01

    Disease-related malnutrition is known to have significant clinical and economic consequences. This systematic review of recent evidence aimed to establish the cost-effectiveness of identifying and treating malnutrition in the hospital setting. A search of four electronic databases and the Internet was conducted for relevant publications from 2003 to 2013. The search strategy considered both nutritional care and healthcare costs. Hospitalised adults with, or at risk of malnutrition, were the focus of the review. Eligibility criteria included publications of original research to identify or treat malnutrition through usual care. Studies with a focus on enteral and parenteral nutrition interventions were beyond the scope of the review. Methodological quality was assessed using the Consensus on Health Economic Criteria checklist. Of the 1174 records identified through database searching, 19 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility. Three studies were included in the final review, highlighting the absence of recent high quality cost-effectiveness studies in this field. One economic modelling study and two prospective clinical trials were included of moderate to high methodological quality. Definite conclusions could not be drawn regarding the cost-effectiveness of individual interventions because of the heterogeneity of treatments, controls and populations. The present review highlights an evidence gap in the care of malnourished hospitalised adults, limiting the ability of clinicians and healthcare managers to make informed, cost-effective treatment decisions. Further economic evaluations are needed and should be considered as a routine component of future research. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  1. The effectiveness of glucose, sucrose, and fructose in treating hypoglycemia in children with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Husband, Allison C; Crawford, Susan; McCoy, Lesley A; Pacaud, Danièle

    2010-05-01

    There is a lack of evidence regarding the most effective treatment option for managing naturally occurring hypoglycemia in children with type 1 diabetes. The objectives of this study were (i) to determine if sucrose and fructose are equally effective as glucose in the treatment of spontaneous hypoglycemia in children with type 1 diabetes; and (ii) to determine prestudy and poststudy hypoglycemia treatment preferences. Thirty-three subjects [aged 5.4-15.5 yr and average duration of type 1 diabetes of 3.1 yr (SD = 2.3)] participated in a randomized, crossover design. The main outcome was the effectiveness of treatment as defined by a blood glucose meter reading that was > or = 4.0 mmol/L 15 min after treatment. Each subject treated five hypoglycemic events with each treatment type: glucose (BD Glucose Tablets), sucrose (Skittles), and fructose (Fruit to Go). There was a significant difference between the effectiveness of the three treatments [Wilk's Lambda F(2,28) = 8.64, p = 0.001]. No significant difference between treatment with glucose and treatment with sucrose was noted, but the treatment effectiveness for fructose was significantly lower than sucrose [F (1,29) = 16.09, p < 0.001] and glucose [F (1,29) = 15.64, p < 0.001]. The preferred treatment choices before the study were as follows: 36% glucose, 18% sucrose, and 33% fructose sources. Poststudy, 52% of children preferred the same treatment, which was effective (glucose or sucrose), followed by 35% who changed their preference to an effective treatment. Skittles are as effective in treating hypoglycemia as more expensive BD Glucose Tablets in children with type 1 diabetes.

  2. Raman spectroscopic analysis of cytotoxic effect of cisplatin-treated leukemic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Juqiang; Li, Yongzeng; Feng, Shangyuan; Chen, Rong; Chen, Guannan; Chen, Qisong; Pan, Jianji; Lin, Shaojun; Yu, Yun

    2009-08-01

    An antitumor drug cisplatin was employed to treat the leukemic cells and induce apoptosis of the cancer cells. Confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy has been applied to investigate the effectiveness of the treatment using near-infrared laser (785nm) excitation, scanning range from 500 to 2000 cm-1. The Raman spectra of leukemic cell treated with cisplatin for 4, 6, 8, 12 and 14 h were measured separately. The major difference of the apoptotic cells from the cancer cells are the reduction in intensities of vibration bands generated by cellular lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. In particular, large intensity reduction in nucleic vibrations at 782, 1092, 1320, 1340, and 1578 cm-1 was observed upon apoptosis of the leukemic cells. Up to 45% reduction in the magnitude of the 782 cm-1 peak in Raman spectra of the apoptotic cells was observed, which suggests the breakdown of phosphodiester bonds and DNA bases. We showed that the principal components analysis (PCA), a multivariate statistical tool, can be used to distinguish single apoptotic cells and leukemic cells based on their Raman spectra. Our results indicate that the Raman spectroscopy with PCA is a novel, nondestructive mean for studying the cisplatin -treated leukemic cells, which could also provide useful data for clinical dosage optimization for cisplatin.

  3. Propranolol was effective in treating cutaneous infantile haemangiomas in Thai children.

    PubMed

    Techasatian, Leelawadee; Komwilaisak, Patcharee; Panombualert, Sunee; Uppala, Rattapon; Jetsrisuparb, Charoon

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the efficacy and safety of propranolol in treating infantile haemangiomas, the most common benign vascular tumours in children. We carried out a retrospective chart review of infantile haemangioma patients admitted to the Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Thailand, from January 2009 to January 2015. There were 53 infantile haemangioma cases treated with oral propranolol. Treatment responses occurred as early as two weeks after propranolol administration in 91.5% of the follow-up patients, with all 53 cases achieving the desired treatment responses two months after propranolol was initiated. No significant differences in treatment responses were found between propranolol as a mono-therapy or as a combination therapy with prednisolone at the two-week (p value 0.13) and one-month follow-ups (p value 0.98). Complications were documented in three cases (5.6%) when the propranolol dose was increased, and these were asymptomatic hypoglycaemia in two cases and one case of hypotension. Propranolol was effective in treating infantile haemangiomas, and combining it with prednisolone achieved no significant differences in treatment outcome. Cases should be monitored for hypoglycaemia and hypotension. More data on using propranolol for infantile haemangiomas are needed, including long-term follow-up studies. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The effect of temporary restorative materials on fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth.

    PubMed

    Milani, Amin Salem; Froughreyhani, Mohammad; Mohammadi, Hosein; Tabegh, Fatemeh Ghasemi; Pournaghiazar, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the fracture strength of endodontically treated teeth temporarily restored with some commonly used interim materials. Of 90 extracted maxillary premolars used in this study, 15 were left intact as the positive control. Endodontic treatment was performed on the remaining 75 teeth. The endodontically treated teeth were then randomly assigned to 5 groups (n = 15). One group was not restored and served as the negative control. In the remaining 4 experimental groups, the teeth were restored with a temporary cement: Zonalin, IRM, Coltosol, or Fuji II LC resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI). The fracture strengths of all teeth were measured with a universal testing machine. The fracture strength of teeth restored with RMGI was significantly greater than that of other groups (P < 0.001), including intact teeth (P = 0.025). The fracture strength of teeth restored with other temporary materials was significantly lower than that of intact teeth (P < 0.05) but not significantly different from that of the negative control. From a structural resistance standpoint, RMGI may be the best choice for short-term temporary restoration of endodontically treated teeth. Other types of temporary restorative material had no reinforcing effect on tooth structure.

  5. Effects of tyramine administration in Parkinson's disease patients treated with selective MAO-B inhibitor rasagiline.

    PubMed

    deMarcaida, J Antonelle; Schwid, Steven R; White, William B; Blindauer, Karen; Fahn, Stanley; Kieburtz, Karl; Stern, Matthew; Shoulson, Ira

    2006-10-01

    Rasagiline is a novel, potent, and selective MAO-B inhibitor shown to be effective for Parkinson's disease. Traditional nonselective MAO inhibitors have been associated with dietary tyramine interactions that can induce hypertensive reactions. To test safety, tyramine challenges (50-75 mg) were performed in 72 rasagiline-treated and 38 placebo-treated Parkinson's disease (PD) patients at the end of two double-blind placebo-controlled trials of rasagiline. An abnormal pressor response was prespecified as three consecutive measurements of systolic blood pressure (BP) increases of >or= 30 mm Hg and/or bradycardia of < 40 beats/min. In the first study involving 55 patients with early PD on rasagiline monotherapy, no patients randomized to rasagiline (1 mg/2 mg; n = 38) or placebo (n = 17) developed systolic BP (SBP) or heart rate changes indicative of a tyramine reaction. In the second trial involving 55 levodopa-treated patients, 3 of 22 subjects on rasagiline 0.5 mg/day and 1 of 21 subjects on placebo developed asymptomatic, self-limiting SBP elevations >or= 30 mm Hg on three measurements. No subject on 1 mg/day rasagiline (0/12) experienced significant BP or heart rate changes following tyramine ingestion. These data demonstrate that rasagiline 0.5 to 2 mg daily is not associated with clinically significant tyramine reactions and can be used as monotherapy or adjunct to levodopa in PD patients without specific dietary tyramine restriction.

  6. Effect of 27-MHz radiofrequency on hair follicles: histological evaluation of skin treated ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Lavoie, Amélie; Ratté, Gilles; Beaumont, Clément; Germain, Lucie; Larouche, Danielle

    2015-04-01

    A multitude of methods and treatments exist for cosmetic hair removal. Electroepilation is a commonly performed method of hair removal that is so-called "permanent"; however, there is a paucity of histological studies of the effects of radiofrequency (RF) on hair follicles. This study aimed to observe the destruction of human hair follicles and surrounding tissue after the treatment with 27.12-MHz RF, with more attention paid to the thermal destruction of bulge and bulb/dermal papilla. Human scalp specimens obtained during face-lift surgery were treated with 27.12-MHz RF. The probe tip was inserted into hair follicle, RF current was applied, and treated specimens were processed for histological analysis. Significant damages were observed on treated hair follicles. Thermal damage was lance-shaped and extended over several hundred micrometers (100-400 μm). The location of destruction areas varied, likely depending on the point of insertion of the probe. The epidermis remained intact. This study shows that the general mechanism of thermolysis is to generate damage to cells and tissues surrounding the insertion point of the filament. The results suggest that if the insertion point is close to the bulge region, there is a risk to destroy hair follicle epithelial stem cells.

  7. Effects of Lipoic Acid on Antiapoptotic Genes in Control and Ethanol-Treated Fetal Rhombencephalic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Antonio, Angeline M.; Gillespie, Roberta A.; Druse, Mary J.

    2011-01-01

    This laboratory showed that ethanol augments apoptosis in fetal rhombencephalic neurons and co-treatment with alpha-lipoic acid (LA) or one of several other antioxidants prevents ethanol-associated apoptosis. Because ethanol increases oxidative stress, which causes apoptosis, it is likely that some of the neuroprotective effects of LA and other antioxidants involve classical antioxidant actions. Considering the reported link of LA with pro-survival cell signaling, it is also possible that LA’s neuroprotective effects involve additional mechanisms. The present study investigated the effects of LA on ethanol-treated fetal rhombencephalic neurons with regard to oxidative stress and up-regulation of the pro-survival genes Xiap and Bcl-2. We included parallel gene expression studies with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) to determine whether LA’s effects on Xiap and Bcl-2 were shared by other antioxidants. We also used enzyme inhibitors to determine which signaling pathway(s) might be involved with the effects of LA. The results of this investigation showed that LA treatment of ethanol-treated neurons exerted several pro-survival effects. LA blocked two pro-apoptotic changes, i.e., the ethanol-associated rise in ROS and caspase-3. LA also up-regulated the expression genes that encode the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Xiap by a mechanism that involves NF-κB. NAC also up-regulated Bcl-2 and Xiap. Thus, the neuroprotective effects of LA and NAC could involve up-regulation of pro-survival genes as well as their classical antioxidant actions. PMID:21303669

  8. Effectiveness of a heparinoid-containing moisturiser to treat senile xerosis.

    PubMed

    Hayama, Koremasa; Takano, Yusaku; Tamura, Jin; Tagami, Hachiro; Terui, Tadashi

    2015-02-01

    With the increasing elderly population in Japan, skin problems have become a greater concern. A heparinoid-containing moisturiser is frequently used in Japan, but there is a lack of evidence for its efficacy in treating senile xerosis. To determine whether there is a correlation between age and the hydration state of the stratum corneum (SC) assessed by skin capacitance, and to evaluate the efficiency of a heparinoid-containing moisturiser and a bed bath to treat senile xerosis. We recruited 73 individuals to assess the hydration state of the SC on their flexor forearm by measuring their skin capacitance. To evaluate the efficacy of a heparinoid-containing moisturiser on senile xerosis, we recruited seven inpatients with an inactive daily life (IDL) who had senile xerosis. They were treated with the moisturiser in addition to a bed bath in two different protocols, and we measured the skin capacitance on their flexor forearms on days 0, 7 and 14. There was a weak negative correlation (-0.3854, P < 0.01) between skin capacitance and age. Following the moisturiser treatments, the seven inpatients had increased hydration of both arms on days 7 and 14. The skin capacitance of the right forearm slightly decreased on day 14, even though it was significantly different from day 0 (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that treatment with a heparinoid-containing moisturiser together with a bed bath is an effective method for treating patients who have senile xerosis and IDL. © 2014 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  9. Some effects of aldrin-treated rice on Gulf Coast wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flickinger, Edward L.; King, K.A.

    1972-01-01

    Wildlife casualties from aldrin-dieldrin poisoning are associated with the planting of aldrin-treated rice seed along the Texas Gulf Coast. The fulvous tree duck (Dendrocygna bicolor), which depends on the rice field habitats and is highly susceptible to aldrin-dieldrin poisoning, is suffering a serious population decline in that area. Dead waterfowl, shorebirds, and passerines were collected on study areas in Wharton, Brazoria, and Chambers counties, Texas, from 1967 through 1971. Residues of aldrin or dieldrin were found in all samples of bird casualties and in all eggs, scavengers, predators, fish, frogs, invertebrates, and soils. Fulvous tree ducks appeared to be less resistant to aldrin than other ducks. Dieldrin residues in brains of dead fulvous tree ducks were low, but whole-body residues were as high as 16 ppm. Brains of other dead ducks and geese averaged 10 ppm dieldrin. Some dead birds were exposed by eating treated rice seed, but many dead birds with high dieldrin residues were species that feed largely on invertebrates. Although soil residues were low, snails and crayfish contained enough aldrin and dieldrin (average 9.5 ppm) to account for deaths in birds that fed heavily on these invertebrates over a period of time. When fulvous tree ducks were penned for 3 days in fields aerially planted with treated seed, 3 of 10 birds died with brain residues of 2.5, 2.9, and 6.8 ppm dieldrin, and others were intoxicated. None of eight died, and some gained weight, when penned in fields planted with untreated seed. This study adds further evidence for the suspected lethal effects of aldrin-treated rice seed on wild birds and other wildlife in rice field habitats.

  10. Neuroprotective effects of quercetin, rutin and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.) in dexamethasone-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Tongjaroenbuangam, Walaiporn; Ruksee, Nootchanart; Chantiratikul, Piyanete; Pakdeenarong, Noppakun; Kongbuntad, Watee; Govitrapong, Piyarat

    2011-10-01

    The administration of dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid receptor agonist, causes neuronal death in the CA3 layer of the hippocampus, which has been associated with learning and memory impairments. This study aimed to examine the ability of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.) extract and its derivatives (quercetin and rutin) to protect neuronal function and improve learning and memory deficits in mice subjected to dexamethasone treatment. Learning and memory functions in mice were examined using the Morris water maze test. The results showed that the mice treated with dexamethasone had prolonged water maze performance latencies and shorter time spent in the target quadrant while mice pretreated with quercetin, rutin or okra extract prior to dexamethasone treatment showed shorter latencies and longer time spent in target quadrant. Morphological changes in pyramidal neurons were observed in the dexamethasone treated group. The number of CA3 hippocampal neurons was significantly lower while pretreated with quercetin, rutin or okra attenuated this change. Prolonged treatment with dexamethasone altered NMDA receptor expression in the hippocampus. Pretreatment with quercetin, rutin or okra extract prevented the reduction in NMDA receptor expression. Dentate gyrus (DG) cell proliferation was examined using the 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry technique. The number of BrdU-immunopositive cells was significantly reduced in dexamethasone-treated mice compared to control mice. Pretreatment with okra extract, either quercetin or rutin was found to restore BrdU-immunoreactivity in the dentate gyrus. These findings suggest that quercetin, rutin and okra extract treatments reversed cognitive deficits, including impaired dentate gyrus (DG) cell proliferation, and protected against morphological changes in the CA3 region in dexamethasone-treated mice. The precise mechanism of the neuroprotective effect of these plant extracts should be further investigated.

  11. Can a four-session biofeedback regimen be used effectively for treating children with dysfunctional voiding?

    PubMed

    Sener, Nevzat Can; Altunkol, Adem; Unal, Umut; Ercil, Hakan; Bas, Okan; Gumus, Kemal; Ciftci, Halil; Yeni, Ercan

    2015-01-01

    To compare the outcomes of the open-ended six to ten sessions of biofeedback against a novel regime of four sessions of biofeedback to treat children with dysfunctional voiding. Patients from two centers using different methods were retrospectively analyzed. Group 1 comprised 20 patients treated with four sessions of biofeedback. Group 2 comprised 20 patients treated with six to ten sessions of biofeedback. Each group was evaluated with subjective and objective parameters pre-treatment, immediately post-treatment and 6 months post-treatment. All patients in Group 1 were treated with four sessions of biofeedback and in Group 2 the mean number of sessions was 7.35±1.30 (range 6-10). Normalized voiding flow curves after treatment were determined in 18 patients in Group 1 (90%) and 19 patients in Group 2 (95%) (p=0.553). There were seven patients (35%) in Group 1 and eight patients (40%) in Group 2 with reflux. When units were compared, there were 11 units (4 bilateral) in Group 1 and 13 units (5 bilateral) in Group 2 with reflux (p=0.747). At 6 months post-treatment, in Group 1, seven had resolved (63.6%), three had improved (27.2%) and one persisted (9.01%). In Group 2, ten had resolved (76.9%) and three had improved (23.1%) (p=0.553). Biofeedback therapy is one of the most widely used techniques in dysfunctional voiding in children. The regime of use has not been well defined, and the results of this study showed that a regime of four sessions of biofeedback therapy may be as safe and effective as the previously defined open-ended six to ten sessions.

  12. Effectiveness of the ketogenic diet used to treat resistant childhood epilepsy in Scandinavia.

    PubMed

    Hallböök, Tove; Sjölander, Arvid; Åmark, Per; Miranda, Maria; Bjurulf, Björn; Dahlin, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This Scandinavian collaborative retrospective study of children treated with ketogenic diet (KD) highlights indications and effectiveness over two years follow-up. Five centres specialised in KD collected data retrospectively on 315 patients started on KD from 1999 to 2009. Twenty-five patients who stopped the diet within four weeks because of compliance-problems and minor side-effects were excluded. Seizure-type(s), seizure-frequency, anti-epileptic drugs and other treatments, mental retardation, autism-spectrum disorder and motor-dysfunction were identified and treatment-response was evaluated. An intention-to-treat analysis was used. Responders (>50% seizure-frequency reduction) at 6, 12 and 24 months were 50%, 46% and 28% respectively, seizure-free were 16%, 13% and 10%. Still on the diet were 80%, 64% and 41% after 6, 12 and 24 months. No child had an increased seizure-frequency. The best seizure outcome was seen in the group with not-daily seizures at baseline (n = 22), where 45%, 41% and 32% became seizure-free at 6, 12 and 24 months A significant improvement in seizure-frequency was seen in atonic seizures at three months and secondary generalised seizures at three and six months. Side-effects were noted in 29 subjects; most could be treated and only two stopped due to hyperlipidaemia and two due to kidney-stones. In 167 patients treated with potassium-citrate, one developed kidney-stones, compared with six of 123 without potassium-citrate treatment (relative risk = 8.1). As the first study of implementing KD in children in the Scandinavian countries, our survey of 290 children showed that KD is effective and well tolerated, even in such severe patients with therapy-resistant epilepsy, more than daily seizures and intellectual disability in the majority of patients. Long-term efficacy of KD was comparable or even better than reported in newer AEDs. Addition of potassium citrate reduced risk of kidney-stones. Our data indicate that the response might be

  13. Anti-inflammatory effects of zinc in PMA-treated human gingival fibroblast cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangwoo; Jeon, Sangmi; Hui, Zheng; Kim, Young; Im, Yeonggwan; Lim, Wonbong; Kim, Changsu; Choi, Hongran; Kim, Okjoon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Abnormal cellular immune response has been considered to be responsible for oral lesions in recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Zinc has been known to be an essential nutrient metal that is necessary for a broad range of biological activities including antioxidant, immune mediator, and anti-inflammatory drugs in oral mucosal disease. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of zinc in a phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-treated inflammatory model on human gingival fibroblast cells (hGFs). Study Design: Cells were pre-treated with zinc chloride, followed by PMA in hGFs. The effects were assessed on cell viability, cyclooxygenease-1,2(COX-1/2) protein expression, PGE2 release, ROS production and cytokine release, Results: The effects were assessed on cell viability, COX1/2 protein expression, PGE2 release, ROS production, cytokine release. The results showed that, in the presence of PMA, zinc treatment leads to reduce the production of ROS, which results in decrease of COX-2 expression and PGE2 release. Conclusions: Thus, we suggest that zinc treatment leads to the mitigation of oral inflammation and may prove to be an alternative treatment for recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Key words:Zinc, inflammatory response, cytokines, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate, gingival fibroblasts cells. PMID:25662537

  14. Effects of tylosin on serum cytokine levels in healthy and lipopolysaccharide-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Er, Ayse; Yazar, Enver; Uney, Kamil; Elmas, Muammer; Altan, Feray; Cetin, Gul

    2010-03-01

    The effects of different doses of tylosin on serum cytokine concentrations were investigated in healthy and lipopolysaccharide-treated mice. The mice were divided into seven groups. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was injected into the positive control group. The other six groups received three different tylosin doses concurrently without or with LPS: 10 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg + LPS, 100 mg/kg + LPS and 500 mg/kg + LPS. After treatment, serum samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours. Serum tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin 1beta (IL1beta) and IL10 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Tylosin doses of 10 and 100 mg/kg induced no cytokine production in the healthy mice. Tylosin at 500 mg/kg had no effect on TNFalpha or IL1beta production, but it induced IL10 production in healthy mice. All doses of tylosin reduced the elevated TNFalpha and IL1beta in LPS-treated mice but increased their IL10 levels. In conclusion, these data suggest that tylosin has an immunomodulatory effect at the dose recommended for use against infection.

  15. Spatial effects of the social marketing of insecticide-treated nets on malaria morbidity.

    PubMed

    Abdulla, S; Gemperli, A; Mukasa, O; Armstrong Schellenberg, J R M; Lengeler, C; Vounatsou, P; Smith, T

    2005-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials have shown that insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) have an impact on both malaria morbidity and mortality. Uniformly high coverage of ITNs characterized these trials and this resulted in some protection of nearby non-users of ITNs. We have now assessed the coverage, distribution pattern and resultant spatial effects in one village in Tanzania where ITNs were distributed in a social marketing programme. The prevalence of parasitaemia, mild anaemia (Hb <11 g/dl) and moderate/severe anaemia (Hb <8 g/dl) in children under five was assessed cross-sectionally. Data on ownership of ITNs were collected and inhabitants' houses were mapped. One year after the start of the social marketing programme, 52% of the children were using a net which had been treated at least once. The ITNs were rather homogeneously distributed throughout the village at an average density of about 118 ITNs per thousand population. There was no evidence of a pattern in the distribution of parasitaemia and anaemia cases, but children living in areas of moderately high ITN coverage were about half as likely to have moderate/severe anaemia (OR 0.5, 95% CI: 0.2, 0.9) and had lower prevalence of splenomegaly, irrespective of their net use. No protective effects of coverage were found for prevalence of mild anaemia nor for parasitaemia. The use of untreated nets had neither coverage nor short distance effects. More efforts should be made to ensure high coverage in ITNs programmes to achieve maximum benefit.

  16. Effect of medium treated with neutral oxygen radicals on growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Jun; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Ohta, Takayuki; Hori, Masaru; Ito, Masafumi

    2015-09-01

    Recently, nonequilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasmas are expected to be applied in medical and agricultural fields. We have studied the growth effect of budding yeast cells in phosphate buffered saline (PBS(-)) using an atmospheric-pressure oxygen-radical source. From a practical application perspective, we have investigated the effect of medium treated with oxygen radicals on the growth of budding yeast in the study. The cells were suspended with yeast extract peptone dextrose (YPD) medium or PBS. The suspensions were treated with neutral oxygen radicals. Oxygen radicals were generated at an O2/(O2 + Ar) gas flow ratio of 0.6%, a total flow rate of 5 slm, and an exposure distance of 10 mm. To estimate the inactivation and the growth of yeast cells, cells were counted with the colony count method using a counting chamber and a microscope. In the case of budding yeast suspended in PBS, the growth changed from promotion to inactivation with increasing the oxygen radical treatment time. But in the case of budding yeast suspended in YPD, it didn't exhibit promotion and inactivation of the growth with oxygen radical treatment. The results indicated that some substances of YPD scavenged the growth effect of oxygen radicals. This work was partly supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 26286072 and project for promoting Research Center in Meijo University.

  17. Effects of herbicide-treated host plants on the development of Mamestra brassicae L. caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Melanie; Geisthardt, Martin; Brühl, Carsten A

    2014-11-01

    Herbicides are widely used pesticides that affect plants by changing their chemistry. In doing so, herbicides might also influence the quality of plants as food for herbivores. To study the effects of herbicides on host plant quality, 3 plant species (Plantago lanceolata L., P. major L., and Ranunculus acris L.) were treated with sublethal rates of either a sulfonylurea (Atlantis WG, Bayer CropScience) or a glyphosate (Roundup LB Plus, Monsanto) herbicide, and the development of caterpillars of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae L. that fed on these plants was observed. Of the 6 tested plant-herbicide combinations, 1 combination (R. acris + sulfonylurea herbicide) resulted in significantly lower caterpillar weight, increased time to pupation, and increased overall development time compared with larvae that were fed unsprayed plants. These results might be caused by a lower nutritional value of these host plants or increased concentrations of secondary metabolites that are involved in plant defense. The results of the present and other studies suggest potential risks to herbivores that feed on host plants treated with sublethal rates of herbicides. However, as the effects of herbicides on host plant quality appear to be species-specific and as there are numerous plant-herbicide-herbivore relationships in agricultural landscapes, a general reduction in herbicide contamination of nontarget habitats (e.g., field margins) might mitigate the negative effects of herbicides on host plant quality.

  18. Adjunctive effects of aripiprazole on metabolic profiles: comparison of patients treated with olanzapine to patients treated with other atypical antipsychotic drugs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang-Jen; Ree, Shao-Chun; Huang, Yu-Shu; Hsiao, Cheng-Cheng; Chen, Chih-Ken

    2013-01-10

    Metabolic abnormalities are serious adverse effects of atypical antipsychotic treatment. This study aims to determine the effects of adjunctive aripiprazole on metabolic profiles among patients receiving treatment with atypical antipsychotics, and to examine whether these effects are different from that of pre-existing atypical antipsychotics. In the 8-week open-label trial, aripiprazole was added to patients who were receiving treatment with atypical antipsychotics and had experienced weight gain or dyslipidemia. The dosage of pre-existing atypical antipsychotics was fixed, while the dosage of aripiprazole ranged from 5 to 20 mg/day during the study period. Metabolic profiles, including body weight, body mass index (BMI), plasma levels of fasting glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and adiponectin, were measured at baseline and week 8. As a result, 43 subjects (16 males and 27 females, mean age: 37.8±10.8 years) completed the study. The pre-existing antipsychotics were olanzapine (n=12), risperidone (n=19), quetiapine (n=6) and amisulpiride (n=6). The mean dosage of adjunctive aripiprazole was 9.9±3.2 mg/day. After the aripiprazole-augmented regimen for 8 weeks, patients treated with olanzapine had significant decreases in body weight, BMI and triglyceride levels, and had significant increases in adiponectin levels. For patients treated with other atypical antipsychotics, none of the metabolic parameters significantly changed after administering aripiprazole. In conclusion, aripiprazole-augmented treatment might be beneficial for the metabolic regulation of patients being treated with a stable dose of olanzapine, but not for those treated with other atypical antipsychotics. A long-term, randomized, double-blind controlled design is suggested to confirm these findings.

  19. An approximate method for treating spin-orbit effects in platinum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinemann, Christoph; Koch, Wolfram; Schwarz, Helmut

    1995-11-01

    Spin-orbit coupling in platinum-containing species can be treated via a one-electron spin-orbit operator and a single scaling parameter Z eff(Pt) in conjunction with an effective core potential for the description of scalar relativistic effects. Our calibration calculations cover the five low-lying electronic states of platinum hydride PtH and the lowest fourteen levels in the atomic spectrum of the platinum atom Pt. Here, qualitative and semi-quantitative agreement between the presented semi-empirical approach and four-component Dirac-Fock calculations is found if Z eff(Pt) is chosen between 950 and 1200. Further applications concern the low-lying levels of the platinum cation Pt +, the theoretical determination of ground states for the diatomic oxides PtO and PtO + as well as spin-orbit effects in the cationic carbene complex PtCH 2+.

  20. Is rTMS an effective therapeutic strategy that can be used to treat Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed

    Arias-Carrion, Oscar; Machado, Sergio; Paes, Flavia; Velasques, Bruna; Teixeira, Silmar; Cardenas-Morales, Lizbeth; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro; Nardi, Antonio E

    2011-09-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive procedure whereby a pulsed magnetic field stimulates electrical activity in the brain. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative process characterized by numerous motor and nonmotor clinical manifestations for which effective, mechanism-based treatments remain elusive. Consequently, more advanced non-invasive therapeutic methods are required. A possible method of rehabilitation that may be effective and potentially viable for use in clinical practice is rTMS. Here, we focus on the basic foundation of rTMS, the main findings of rTMS from animal models, the effects of rTMS on sensorimotor integration in patients with PD, and the experimental advances of rTMS that may become a viable clinical application to treat the disease.

  1. Turbidity removal effect and surface charge shift for electrochemically treated retentate without coagulant addition.

    PubMed

    Uchibori, Toshiya; Fujino, Takeshi; Asaeda, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    An electrolytic treatment method promoting dense aggregates was developed in order to thicken retentate quickly without coagulant addition. A kaolin suspension with a turbidity of 200 NTU with a large fraction of colloidal particles was used as the retentate. Comparative testing showed that the electrolytic treatment increased aggregate size and enhanced the turbidity removal effect up to 75% on average with increasing retention time. Even though the Al ion concentration in the treated retentate was much lower than 0.1 mg/L, along with the large upward shift of surface charge, the turbidity removal effect was enhanced considerably with independently stabilized pH compared with alum as the coagulant. Comparison between the charging behaviors indicated that the electrochemical treatment generates polymeric Al hydroxide species that form adsorption layers with fewer defects, thereby inducing a stronger removal effect.

  2. Cardiovascular effects of methamphetamine in dogs treated chronically with the amine.

    PubMed

    Vidrio, H

    1982-01-01

    Methamphetamine is one of a group of sympathomimetic amines that lower blood pressure upon chronic administration to hypertensive dogs. To determine whether tolerance to the cardiovascular effects of these drugs could play a role in their antihypertensive action, acute blood pressure responses to oral d-methamphetamine were determined in trained conscious renal hypertensive dogs at weekly intervals during treatment with the drug for 2 months. Responses were also obtained in similarly treated normotensive dogs and in normotensive and hypertensive animals receiving l-methamphetamine. Pressor responses to d-methamphetamine in hypertensive dogs remained unchanged throughout treatment, while in all other cases they diminished gradually. Only the dextro isomer reduced blood pressure chronically in the hypertensive group. It was concluded that tolerance is not involved in the antihypertensive effect of methamphetamine and that, considering the stereo specificity of this effect, residual lowering of blood pressure might involve formation of a false mediator metabolite of the amine.

  3. The Cost-Effectiveness of Ranibizumab Treat and Extend Regimen Versus Aflibercept in the UK.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Wrik; Wickstead, Rose; Claxton, Lindsay; Kusel, Jeanette; Taylor, Matthew; Fleetwood, Kelly; Pulikottil-Jacob, Ruth

    2016-09-01

    Wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a chronic eye condition that causes severe deterioration of vision and even blindness. Current wet AMD treatment in the UK involves the vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors ranibizumab and aflibercept. Patients with wet AMD require frequent and long-term monitoring for treatment to be effective, contributing to a substantial resource burden at wet AMD centers. The European license for ranibizumab was recently updated with an individualized 'treat and extend' (T&E) regimen, comprising a structured monitoring and treatment protocol. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of ranibizumab T&E versus aflibercept within a UK setting. An individual patient-level simulation model was developed utilizing treatment effects from a network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. The model was conducted from a UK National Health Service (NHS) perspective over a lifetime horizon and the base case utilized probabilistic sensitivity analysis to assess uncertainty in the model. Additional scenario analyses were conducted to assess the impact of changes to the model inputs. Ranibizumab T&E was found to be more effective and less costly than aflibercept, providing, on average, an additional 1.058 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and a cost-saving of £19,604 over a lifetime horizon. At list price, ranibizumab T&E was found to be cost-effective versus aflibercept in 100% of simulations at a willingness-to-pay threshold of £20,000 per QALY. The robustness of the results was tested in several scenario analyses; ranibizumab T&E was found to be more effective, and less costly, than aflibercept in the vast majority of cases. This evaluation suggests that treating patients with ranibizumab according to the T&E regimen could be a better use of NHS resources than aflibercept, and could, therefore, be considered as a first-line regimen for patients with wet AMD in the UK. Novartis Pharmaceuticals UK Limited.

  4. Costs and effects of the Tanzanian national voucher scheme for insecticide-treated nets

    PubMed Central

    Mulligan, Jo-Ann; Yukich, Joshua; Hanson, Kara

    2008-01-01

    Background The cost-effectiveness of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in reducing morbidity and mortality is well established. International focus has now moved on to how best to scale up coverage and what financing mechanisms might be used to achieve this. The approach in Tanzania has been to deliver a targeted subsidy for those most vulnerable to the effects of malaria while at the same time providing support to the development of the commercial ITN distribution system. In October 2004, with funds from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS Tuberculosis and Malaria, the government launched the Tanzania National Voucher Scheme (TNVS), a nationwide discounted voucher scheme for ITNs for pregnant women and their infants. This paper analyses the costs and effects of the scheme and compares it with other approaches to distribution. Methods Economic costs were estimated using the ingredients approach whereby all resources required in the delivery of the intervention (including the user contribution) are quantified and valued. Effects were measured in terms of number of vouchers used (and therefore nets delivered) and treated nets years. Estimates were also made for the cost per malaria case and death averted. Results and Conclusion The total financial cost of the programme represents around 5% of the Ministry of Health's total budget. The average economic cost of delivering an ITN using the voucher scheme, including the user contribution, was $7.57. The cost-effectiveness results are within the benchmarks set by other malaria prevention studies. The Government of Tanzania's approach to scaling up ITNs uses both the public and private sectors in order to achieve and sustain the level of coverage required to meet the Abuja targets. The results presented here suggest that the TNVS is a cost-effective strategy for delivering subsidized ITNs to targeted vulnerable groups. PMID:18279509

  5. Effects of polysaccharides from Morchella conica on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-treated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mian; Zhang, Song; Zhang, Minglong; Ou, Shangkang; Pan, Zhifu

    2012-05-01

    Morchella conica is a species of rare edible mushroom whose multiple medicinal functions have been proven. However, reports barely mention the mechanisms of these functions. In this study, the effects of two polysaccharides from M. conica (PMCs) on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated macrophages were investigated. The results showed that 50-200 μg/ml of the extracellular polysaccharide (EPMC) and 25-200 μg/ml of the intracellular polysaccharide (IPMC) significantly inhibited NO production. Accordingly, the signal mechanisms were also explored. It was found that 100 μg/ml of EPMC and 25 μg/ml of IPMC could efficiently down-regulate the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) DNA-binding activity and up-regulate heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression. Moreover, by using a HO-1 inhibitor NaPP to treat the cells, the PMC-inhibited NO production and iNOS expression, rather than NF-κB activation, were released partially, indicating that HO-1 probably medicates the inhibition of PMCs on iNOS and NO. Besides, EPMC also significantly suppressed the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), c-jun N-terminal kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4, and expression of NF-κB inducing kinase, while IPMC seemed to show no regular effect on p38. In conclusion, PMCs inhibited NO production in LPS-induced macrophages through regulating a series of signal pathways, suggesting that PMCs play a potential role on immunomodulation and treating related diseases.

  6. Cost-Effectiveness of Treating Hepatitis C with Sofosbuvir/Ledipasvir in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Stahmeyer, Jona T.; Rossol, Siegbert; Liersch, Sebastian; Guerra, Ines; Krauth, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Background Infections with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) are a global public health problem. Long-term consequences are the development of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Newly introduced direct acting antivirals, especially interferon-free regimens, have improved rates of sustained viral response above 90% in most patient groups and allow treating patients who were ineligible for treatment in the past. These new regimens have replaced former treatment and are recommended by current guidelines. However, there is an ongoing discussion on high pharmaceutical prices. Our aim was to assess the long-term cost-effectiveness of treating hepatitis C genotype 1 patients with sofosbuvir/ledipasvir (SOF/LDV) treatment in Germany. Material and Methods We used a Markov cohort model to simulate disease progression and assess cost-effectiveness. The model calculates lifetime costs and outcomes (quality-adjusted life years, QALYs) of SOF/LDV and other strategies. Patients were stratified by treatment status (treatment-naive and treatment-experienced) and absence/presence of cirrhosis. Different treatment strategies were compared to prior standard of care. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate model robustness. Results Base-case analyses results show that in treatment-naive non-cirrhotic patients treatment with SOF/LDV dominates the prior standard of care (is more effective and less costly). In cirrhotic patients an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of 3,383 €/QALY was estimated. In treatment-experienced patients ICERs were 26,426 €/QALY and 1,397 €/QALY for treatment-naive and treatment-experienced patients, respectively. Robustness of results was confirmed in sensitivity analyses. Conclusions Our analysis shows that treatment with SOF/LDV is cost-effective compared to prior standard of care in all patient groups considering international costs per QALY thresholds. PMID:28046099

  7. Field issues related to effectiveness of insecticide-treated nets in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Erlanger, T E; Enayati, A A; Hemingway, J; Mshinda, H; Tami, A; Lengeler, C

    2004-06-01

    Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) impregnated with pyrethroid insecticides have become one of the most promising interventions to prevent malaria in highly endemic areas. Despite the large body of experience documenting their health impact and the best way to distribute them, some key practical issues remain unresolved. For example, the duration of effective life of a net under field conditions is unknown. The most important factor affecting net effectiveness is the issue of regular re-treatment with insecticide. Washing is also an important determinant of insecticide longevity in the field. Trials were undertaken to provide some essential field information on ITNs within the site of an extended ITN programme in the Morogoro region of Tanzania. It was found that 45% of all nets were in bad condition (defined as more than seven large holes). It is concluded that an effective 'life' for polyester nets is 2-3 years. Further, two-thirds of the 20% of nets that were reported as having been re-treated within the last 12 months had less than 5 mg/m(2) of insecticide. According to the World Health Organization this is insufficient to be effective. People reported that they washed their nets four to seven times per year, usually with soap. Observations showed that such washing does not harm the nets and that the wash-water was unlikely to have an impact on the environment. Finally, bioassays were carried out with Anopheles gambiae on polyester netting with 0.5, 2, 5, 10 and 30 mg/m(2) of deltamethrin, alphacypermethrin and lambdacyhalothrin to assess the effectiveness of pyrethroids. The results confirmed that even with low insecticide concentrations, nets can still provide partial protection.

  8. Cost-effectiveness comparison of ureteral calculi treated with ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy versus shockwave lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Cone, Eugene B; Pareek, Gyan; Ursiny, Michal; Eisner, Brian

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) versus ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URS) for patients with ureteral stones less than 1.5 cm in diameter. Patient age, stone diameter, stone location, and stone-free status were recorded for patients treated with SWL or URS for ureteral stones under 1.5 cm over a 1 year period. Institutional charges were obtained from in-house billing. A decision analysis model was constructed to compare the cost-effectiveness of SWL and URS using our results and success rates for modeling. Three separate models were created to reflect differing practice patterns. A total of 113 patients were included-51 underwent SWL and 62 underwent URS as primary treatment. Single procedure stone-free rates for SWL and URS were 47.1 and 88.7 %, respectively (p < 0.002). Decision analysis modeling demonstrated cost-effectiveness of SWL when SWL single procedure stone-free rates (SFR) were greater than or equal to 60-64 % or when URS single procedure SFRs were less than or equal to 57-76 %, depending on practice patterns. This retrospective study revealed superior SFR for ureteral stones less than 1.5 cm treated with URS compared to SWL. Our decision analysis model demonstrated that when SFR for SWL is less than 60-64 % or is greater than 57-76 % for URS, SWL is not a cost-effective treatment option. Based on these findings, careful stratification and selection of stone patients may enable surgeons to increase the cost-effectiveness of SWL.

  9. Cost-Effectiveness of Treating Hepatitis C with Sofosbuvir/Ledipasvir in Germany.

    PubMed

    Stahmeyer, Jona T; Rossol, Siegbert; Liersch, Sebastian; Guerra, Ines; Krauth, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Infections with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) are a global public health problem. Long-term consequences are the development of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Newly introduced direct acting antivirals, especially interferon-free regimens, have improved rates of sustained viral response above 90% in most patient groups and allow treating patients who were ineligible for treatment in the past. These new regimens have replaced former treatment and are recommended by current guidelines. However, there is an ongoing discussion on high pharmaceutical prices. Our aim was to assess the long-term cost-effectiveness of treating hepatitis C genotype 1 patients with sofosbuvir/ledipasvir (SOF/LDV) treatment in Germany. We used a Markov cohort model to simulate disease progression and assess cost-effectiveness. The model calculates lifetime costs and outcomes (quality-adjusted life years, QALYs) of SOF/LDV and other strategies. Patients were stratified by treatment status (treatment-naive and treatment-experienced) and absence/presence of cirrhosis. Different treatment strategies were compared to prior standard of care. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate model robustness. Base-case analyses results show that in treatment-naive non-cirrhotic patients treatment with SOF/LDV dominates the prior standard of care (is more effective and less costly). In cirrhotic patients an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of 3,383 €/QALY was estimated. In treatment-experienced patients ICERs were 26,426 €/QALY and 1,397 €/QALY for treatment-naive and treatment-experienced patients, respectively. Robustness of results was confirmed in sensitivity analyses. Our analysis shows that treatment with SOF/LDV is cost-effective compared to prior standard of care in all patient groups considering international costs per QALY thresholds.

  10. Antimutagenic Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Aqueous Extract on Rats Treated with Monosodium Glutamate.

    PubMed

    Gheller, Ana Carla Guidini Valentini; Kerkhoff, Jacqueline; Vieira Júnior, Gerardo Magela; de Campos, Kleber Eduardo; Sugui, Marina Mariko

    2017-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a plant of the Malvaceae family, commonly known as roselle. H. sabdariffa is known to contain antioxidant, cholesterol-lowering, antiobesity, insulin resistance reduction, antihypertensive, and skin cancer chemopreventive properties. This study evaluated the effects of H. sabdariffa aqueous extract against cyclophosphamide (CPA, 25 mg/Kg) induced damage to DNA in male Wistar rats by micronucleus test. Samples of H. sabdariffa calyx were obtained in the municipality of Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The aqueous extract was prepared by infusion and each animal received a daily dose of 400 mg/Kg by gavage for 15 consecutive days of treatment. The presence of anthocyanins was confirmed by ferric chloride test and phenolic compounds using high-performance liquid chromatography, with emphasis on the identification of rutin. The animals were sacrificed by deepening of anaesthesia to obtain bone marrow and determination of the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. The group treated with the aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa revealed a 91% reduction in micronucleus frequency when compared with the positive control group. Under the conditions tested, H. sabdariffa L. presented a protective effect to CPA-induced damage to DNA of the treated animals, and it is a potential candidate as a chemopreventive agent against carcinogenesis.

  11. Beyond intent to treat (ITT): A complier average causal effect (CACE) estimation primer.

    PubMed

    Peugh, James L; Strotman, Daniel; McGrady, Meghan; Rausch, Joseph; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita

    2017-02-01

    Randomized control trials (RCTs) have long been the gold standard for allowing causal inferences to be made regarding the efficacy of a treatment under investigation, but traditional RCT data analysis perspectives do not take into account a common reality: imperfect participant compliance to treatment. Recent advances in both maximum likelihood parameter estimation and mixture modeling methodology have enabled treatment effects to be estimated, in the presence of less than ideal levels of participant compliance, via a Complier Average Causal Effect (CACE) structural equation mixture model. CACE is described in contrast to "intent to treat" (ITT), "per protocol", and "as treated" RCT data analysis perspectives. CACE model assumptions, specification, estimation, and interpretation will all be demonstrated with simulated data generated from a randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for Juvenile Fibromyalgia. CACE analysis model figures, linear model equations, and Mplus estimation syntax examples are all provided. Data needed to reproduce analyses in this article are available as supplemental materials (online only) in the Appendix of this article.

  12. Comparison of Effect of Lavandula officinalis and Venlafaxine in Treating Depression: A Double Blind Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nikfarjam, Masoud; Rakhshan, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Major depressive disorder is a chronic disease which may be associated with other mental illnesses. Lavandula officinalis and venlafaxine, herbal and chemical drugs respectively, are used to treat depression. Despite pharmacotherapy, major depressive disorder has a complicated pattern of resistance and recurrence. Aim The aim of this study was to determine the effect of L. officinalis and venlafaxine in treating depression. Materials and Methods For this study, 120 patients referred to the psychiatry clinic of the Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran, were randomly selected. The participants were randomly assigned to three groups: venlafaxine (Control Group), venlafaxine + L. officinalis (L. officinalis Group), and venlafaxine + placebo (Placebo Group). All the patients underwent treatment for six weeks. Depression test was administered to the three groups at different time intervals before the treatment, four weeks after the treatment and at completion of the treatment. The data were analysed by SPSS version17.0. Results Depression scores of all the groups decreased over time (p=0.001). The depression scores were significantly different between the control and L. officinalis groups (p=0.004), and the control and placebo groups (p=0.002), but were not significantly different between the L. officinalis and placebo groups (p=0.95). Conclusion Adding L. officinalis or a placebo is equally effective in decreasing mean depression score and venlafaxine obviously decreased this score. PMID:28892932

  13. The Effects and Possible Mechanisms of Puerarin to Treat Endometriosis Model Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Li; Zhang, Danying; Zhai, Dongxia; Shen, Wei; Bai, Lingling; Liu, Yiqun; Cai, Zailong; Li, Ji; Yu, Chaoqin

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To explore the effects of puerarin to treat endometriosis (EMT) model rats and the possible regulatory mechanisms. Methods. EMT model rats were surgically induced by autotransplantion of endometrial tissues. The appropriate dosage of puerarin to treat EMT model rats was determined by observing the pathologic morphology of ectopic endometrial tissues and by detecting the levels of estradiol (E2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) of both serum and ectopic endometrial tissues. The related genes and proteins of ectopic endometrial tissues were analyzed by Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) to explore the possible mechanisms. Results. Puerarin could reduce the levels of E2 and PGE2 and prevent the growth of ectopic endometrium tissues by inhibiting the expression of aromatase cytochrome P450 (p450arom) and cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2); puerarin could adjust the anabolism of E2 by upregulating the expression of 17β-hydroxysteroid-2 (17β-hsd-2) and downregulating the expression of 17β-hydroxysteroid-1 (17β-hsd-1) of the ectopic endometrium tissues; puerarin could increase the expression of ERβ and improve the inflammatory microenvironment of EMT model rats. Conclusions. Our data suggest that puerarin has a therapeutic effect on EMT model rats and could be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of EMT in clinic. PMID:25815028

  14. Protective Effect of Royal Jelly on In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) in Male Mice Treated with Oxymetholone

    PubMed Central

    Zahmatkesh, Ensieh; Najafi, Gholamreza; Nejati, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the effects of royal jelly (RJ) on catalase, total antioxidant capacity and embryo development in adult mice treated with oxymetholone (OXM). Materials and Methods In this exprimental study, 32 male and 96 female adult Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice (7-9 weeks of age) with a ratio of 1:3 for fertili- zation purposes were randomly divided into 4 groups as follows: i. Control group (n=8) receiving 0.1 ml/mice saline daily by gavage for 30 day, ii. RJ group (n=8) treated with RJ at a dose of 100 mg/kg daily by gavage for 30 days, iii. OXM group (n=8) receiving OXM at the dose of 5 mg/kg daily by gavage for 30 days and iv. RJ+OXM group (n=8) receiving RJ at the dose of 100 mg/kg daily by gavage concomitant with 100 mg/kg OXM adminis- tration for 30 days. Results Analysis revealed a significant reduction in catalase, total antioxidant, as well as embryo development in OXM group (P<0.05). However, RJ group showed a salient recovery in the all of the above mentioned parameters and embryo toxicity. Conclusion The results of this study indicated a partially protective effect of RJ against OXM-induced embryo toxicity. PMID:26464831

  15. Effect of NAD on PARP-mediated insulin sensitivity in oleic acid treated hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jing; Cui, Ju; Gong, Huan; Xi, Chao; Zhang, Tie-Mei

    2015-07-01

    High serum free fatty acids levels are associated with the development of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes; however, the precise mechanisms underlying this lipid toxicity are unclear. To investigate whether PARP1 activation and NAD depletion are involved in the impairment of insulin sensitivity associated with lipotoxicity, HepG2 cells were cultured with 500 μM oleic acid for 48 h. Oleic acid-treated cells exhibited increased ROS generation, lipid accumulation and PARP1 activation. Treatment with the PARP1 inhibitor PJ34 and transfection with PARP1 small interfering RNA both prevented the oleic acid-induced impairment of the insulin signaling pathway. Furthermore, treatment with PJ34 reversed the oleic acid-induced decrease in intracellular NAD concentration, while exogenous NAD protected cells against oleic acid-induced insulin insensitivity. Combined NAD and PJ34 administration did not enhance the effects obtained by treatment with either NAD or PJ34 alone. Interestingly, when cells were treated with the SIRT1 inhibitor EX527, the protective effects of PJ34 and NAD treatment were diminished. Taken together, these data suggest that NAD depletion by PARP1 activation is essential for the modulation of insulin sensitivity in oleic acid-induced lipotoxicity.

  16. Antimutagenic Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Aqueous Extract on Rats Treated with Monosodium Glutamate

    PubMed Central

    Kerkhoff, Jacqueline; Vieira Júnior, Gerardo Magela; de Campos, Kleber Eduardo; Sugui, Marina Mariko

    2017-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a plant of the Malvaceae family, commonly known as roselle. H. sabdariffa is known to contain antioxidant, cholesterol-lowering, antiobesity, insulin resistance reduction, antihypertensive, and skin cancer chemopreventive properties. This study evaluated the effects of H. sabdariffa aqueous extract against cyclophosphamide (CPA, 25 mg/Kg) induced damage to DNA in male Wistar rats by micronucleus test. Samples of H. sabdariffa calyx were obtained in the municipality of Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The aqueous extract was prepared by infusion and each animal received a daily dose of 400 mg/Kg by gavage for 15 consecutive days of treatment. The presence of anthocyanins was confirmed by ferric chloride test and phenolic compounds using high-performance liquid chromatography, with emphasis on the identification of rutin. The animals were sacrificed by deepening of anaesthesia to obtain bone marrow and determination of the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. The group treated with the aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa revealed a 91% reduction in micronucleus frequency when compared with the positive control group. Under the conditions tested, H. sabdariffa L. presented a protective effect to CPA-induced damage to DNA of the treated animals, and it is a potential candidate as a chemopreventive agent against carcinogenesis. PMID:28197528

  17. Clinical effects of intensive insulin therapy treating traumatic shock combined with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Du, Jundong; Liu, Hongming; Liu, Rong; Yao, Yongming; Jiao, Huabo; Zhao, Xiaodong; Yin, Huinan; Li, Zhanliang

    2011-04-01

    The therapeutic effects of intensive insulin therapy in treatment of traumatic shock combined with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) were investigated. A total of 114 patients with traumatic shock combined with MODS were randomly divided into two groups: control group (n=56) treated with conventional therapy, and intensive insulin therapy group (n=58) treated with conventional therapy plus continuous insulin pumping to control the blood glucose level at range of 4.4-6.1 mmol/L. White blood cells (WBC) counts, prothrombin time (PT), serum creatinine (SCr), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum albumin and PaO(2) were measured before and at the day 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 after treatment. The incidence of gastrointestinal dysfunction, the incidence of MODS, hospital stay and the mortality were also observed and compared. After intensive insulin therapy, the WBC counts, SCr, ALT and PT were significantly reduced (P<0.05), but the level of serum albumin was significantly increased (P<0.05) at the day 3, 5, 7 and 14. In the meantime, the PaO2 was significantly elevated at the day 3, 5 and 7 (P<0.01) after intensive insulin therapy. The incidence of gastrointestinal dysfunction, the incidence of MODS, the length of hospital stay and the mortality were markedly decreased (P<0.01). The results suggest early treatment with intensive insulin therapy is effective for traumatic shock combined with MODS and can decrease the length of hospital stay and the mortality.

  18. Effect of the application of acid treated biosolids on marigold (Tagetes erecta) development.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Avelar, J; Barrios, J A; Jiménez, B

    2004-01-01

    The use of biosolids for land restoration and crop production is a potential solution to improve food production worldwide. However, the microbial content usually restricts its application in crops that are consumed uncooked. An alternative practice is their use in floriculture. In this study, the effects of acid treated sludge on the development of marigold (Tagetes erecta) plants were evaluated under green house conditions. Biosolids were applied at the agronomic rate (AR) based on nitrogen requirements of the marigold. In addition, higher rates (10 and 20xAR) were applied to study their effect on the plants. Biosolids were mixed with tepetate (hard volcanic indurate layers). Due to its origin, tepetate lacks nutrients and organic matter to adequately support plant development. The best treatment for marigold development was 10xAR, as plants reached an average height of 107 cm, with a growing speed of 1.01 cm/d, which is 20 times more than the control. Plants that received no biosolids produced 0.25 buds and 0.5 flowers per plant. In contrast, AR and 10xAR showed a production that ranged from 2 to 29 buds/plant and 4 to 15 flowers/plant, respectively. These results indicate the viability of reusing acid treated biosolids to improve marigold development.

  19. Honey Attenuates the Detrimental Effects of Nicotine on Testicular Functions in Nicotine Treated Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Kolawole, T A; Oyeyemi, W A; Adigwe, C; Leko, B; Udeh, C; Dapper, D V

    2015-12-20

    Effect of honey on reproductive functions of male rats exposed to nicotine was examined in this study. Thirty-two adult male wistar rats (n=8/Group) were grouped as Control (distilled water), Nicotine (1.0mg/kg bwt), Honey (100mg/kg bwt) and Nicotine with Honey. The animals were orally treated for 35 days consecutively. Epididymis sperm motility, viability, morphology and counts were estimated, serum Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Leutinizing Hormone (LH) and Testosterone were assayed using ELISA method and testicular histology were also assessed. Significant reduction in percentage sperm motility, viability, morphology and counts were observed in nicotine group compared to control. Serum FSH, LH and testosterone levels were significantly reduced in nicotine group when compared with the control. There was significant improvement in sperm motility, viability, morphology, counts, FSH, LH and Testosterone in group co-treated with nicotine and honey  relative to nicotine group. Also, the degenerative seminiferous tubule architecture due to nicotine was improved by honey. In conclusion, honey may suppress nicotine toxic effect on reproductive functions in male Wistar rats.

  20. Metabolic effects of adjunctive aripiprazole in clozapine-treated patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiaoduo; Borba, Christina P.C.; Copeland, Paul; Hayden, Doug; Freudenreich, Oliver; Goff, Donald C.; Henderson, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined the effects of adjunctive aripiprazole therapy on metabolism in clozapine-treated patients with schizophrenia. Method In an 8-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, subjects received either aripiprazole (15mg/day) or placebo. At baseline and week 8, metabolic parameters were assessed by the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Results Thirty subjects completed the study (16 in the aripiprazole group and 14 in the placebo group). Glucose effectiveness measured by the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test improved significantly in the aripiprazole group (0.003 ± 0.006 versus −0.005 ± 0.007/min, P = 0.010). The aripiprazole group showed significant reductions in both plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels (−15.1 ± 19.8 vs. 4.4 ± 22.5 mg/dl, P = 0.019) and LDL particle numbers (−376 ± 632 vs. −36 ± 301 nM, P= 0.035). Further, there was a significant reduction in lean mass (−1125 ± 1620 vs. 607 ± 1578 g, P= 0.011) measured by whole-body DXA scan in the aripiprazole group. All values were expressed as mean ± standard deviation, aripiprazole vs. placebo. Conclusion Adjunctive therapy with aripiprazole may have some metabolic benefits in clozapine-treated patients with schizophrenia. PMID:22943577

  1. [Effectiveness and characteristics of treating algae-laden raw water by stocking silver carp].

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhen-Qiang; Cui, Fu-Yi; Ma, Hua; He, Wen-Jie; Yin, Pei-Jun

    2008-03-01

    To reduce the negative effect of algae on conventional water treatment, a full-scale research of removing algae from algae-laden raw water by stocking filter-feeding silver carp was processed. After the pretreatment in a presedimentation tank with silver carp, the concentration of phytoplankton, the biomass of cyanobacteria and Microsystis flos-aquae in algae-laden raw water with Microsystis flos-aquae its dominant species decreased 61.8%, 76.1% and 78.2% respectively. This effective decrease of algae load on conventional process created favorable conditions for water treatment. Analysis indicates that food habit of silver carp and algae size are two causes of different removal efficiency between cyanobacteria and green algae. The results show that biomanipulation of silver carp is applicable for treating algae-laden raw water in which colonial cyanobacteria is dominant.

  2. Analysis on the effect of urethra caruncle treated by Ho:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mei-Jue; Zhu, Jing; Shi, Hong-Min

    2005-07-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of Ho:YAG laser in treatment of urethra cauncle. Methods: The patients suffering from urethra cauncle were treated by Ho:YAG laser, the energy of per pulse is 0.5J. The frequency of pulse is 5~15Hz, and the average power of the laser is 2.5~7.5W. Results: Among the patients 188 cases of urethra cauncle were only cured for one time, twice for12 cases. No stricture on the peristome of urethra or urethrovaginal fistula was observed. Conclusions: The technique of treatment of urethra cauncle with Ho:YAG laser is an effect and safe therapeutics with the merit of excellent homeostasis, improved visualization, minimal thermal damage to surrounding tissue, shorter period of recovery and easy to operate. It is better than CO2 laser and Nd:YAG laser.

  3. Treating late-life generalized anxiety disorder in primary care: an effectiveness pilot study.

    PubMed

    Calleo, Jessica S; Bush, Amber L; Cully, Jeffrey A; Wilson, Nancy L; Kraus-Schuman, Cynthia; Rhoades, Howard M; Novy, Diane M; Masozera, Nicholas; Williams, Susan; Horsfield, Matthew; Kunik, Mark E; Stanley, Melinda A

    2013-05-01

    To increase the sustainability of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in primary care for late-life anxiety, we incorporated nonexpert counselors, options for telephone meetings, and integration with primary care clinicians. This open trial examines the feasibility, satisfaction, and clinical outcomes of CBT delivered by experienced and nonexperienced counselors for older adults with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Clinical outcomes assessed worry (Penn State Worry Questionnaire), GAD (Generalized Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale), and anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory and Structured Interview Guide for Hamilton Anxiety Scale). After 3 months of treatment, Cohen's d effect sizes for worry and anxiety ranged from 0.48 to 0.78. Patients treated by experienced and nonexperienced counselors had similar reductions in worry and anxiety, although treatment outcomes were more improved on the Beck Anxiety Inventory for experienced therapists. Preliminary results suggest that adapted CBT can effectively reduce worry. The piloted modifications can provide acceptable and feasible evidence-based care.

  4. [The long-term rehabilitation effects for treating tinnitus by tinnitus masking combined with counseling].

    PubMed

    Meng, Zhaoli; Xu, Ke; Tao, Yong; Li, Maoni; Zheng, Yun; Wang, Kai

    2012-10-01

    To study the long-term rehabilitation effects for treating tinnitus by tinnitus masking combined with counseling. Complete the tinnitus handicap inventory(THI) for participants before treatment and after six months, 1 year, 2 years, 3 years. Eighty-six tinnitus patients participated. Nine participants and sixteen, twenty-six, sixteen participants drop-up during the follow up after half-year, 1 year, 2 years, 3 years separately. The percentage of participants whose THI score decreased more than or equal to 20 are 66%, 56%, 40%, 48% after half year, 1 year, 2 years, 3 years respectively. The tinnitus related handicap improved by tinnitus masking combined with counseling after 1 year. The drop-out rate was increase after follow-up 1 year. The long-term rehabilitation effects for tinnitus treatment is still needed.

  5. The effect of bilirubin on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in cumene hydroperoxide-treated erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Yeşilkaya, A; Yeğin, A; Ozdem, S; Aksu, T A

    1998-01-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that bilirubin may act as a potent biological chain-breaking antioxidant. To observe the effects of free bilirubin on antioxidant reactions in cumene hydroperoxide-treated erythrocytes (15 g hemoglobin/dl), we added bilirubin at four different concentrations (0.5, 1, 5, and 10 mg/dl). We measured the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance and reduced glutathione levels, and some antioxidant enzyme activities, namely superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance and chemiluminescent signals decreased during the incubation. Superoxide dismutase activities also decreased but not as much as in the control group. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities and reduced glutathione levels increased, but catalase activities remained the same as the control group. Our results suggest that bilirubin--in the concentrations we have used--partially prevented the oxidant effects of cumene hydroperoxide.

  6. The effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy in treating a case of obsessive compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Vakili, Yaghoob; Gharraee, Banafshe

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) in treating obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). In a single-subject experiment trial, the treatment process was carried out on a 39-year old male subject. The patient satisfied the DSM-IV-TR criteria for OCD and was assessed for pre-duration and post treatment. The scales used in this study included: The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale(Y-BOCS), Beck Depression Inventory-II-second edition (BDI-II), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). In addition, all scales were again completed by the subject at 1-month, 3-months, and 6-months follow-ups. The treatment led to reductions in symptoms of OCD, depression and anxiety. Gains were maintained at follow-ups. The treatment approach appears to be effective in the treatment of OCD.

  7. Preventing and Treating Peri-Implantitis: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    PubMed

    Schwendicke, Falk; Tu, Yu-Kang; Stolpe, Michael

    2015-09-01

    A large number of treatments for peri-implantitis are available, but their cost-effectiveness remains uncertain. This study evaluates the cost-effectiveness of preventing and treating peri-implantitis. A Markov model was constructed that followed each implant over 20 years. Supportive implant therapy (SIT) for managing peri-implant mucositis and preventing development of peri-implantitis was either provided or not. Risk of peri-implantitis was assumed to be affected by SIT and the patient's risk profile. If peri-implantitis occurred, 11 treatment strategies (non-surgical or surgical debridement alone or combined with adjunct therapies) were compared. Treatments and risk profiles determined disease progression. Modeling was performed based on systematically collected data. Primary outcomes were costs and proportion of lost implants, as assessed via Monte Carlo microsimulations. Not providing SIT and performing only non-surgical debridement was both least costly and least effective. The next best (more costly and effective) option was to provide SIT and perform surgical debridement (additional 0.89 euros per 1% fewer implants lost). The most effective option included bone grafts, membranes, and laser treatment (56 euros per 1%). For patients at high risk, the cost-effectiveness of SIT increased, whereas in low-risk groups, a cost-optimized strategy was cost-effective. Although clinical decision-making will be guided mainly by clinical condition, cost-effectiveness analyses might add another perspective. Based on these findings, an unambiguous comparative effectiveness ranking was not established. However, cost-effectiveness was predominantly determined by provision of SIT and initial treatment costs. Transferability of these findings to other healthcare systems needs further confirmation.

  8. Effect of continuous ozone injection on performance and biomass accumulation of biofilters treating gaseous toluene.

    PubMed

    Xi, Jinying; Saingam, Prakit; Gu, Feng; Hu, Hong-Ying; Zhao, Xuefei

    2014-11-01

    Biofilters treating high-concentration gaseous volatile organic compounds (VOC) can be subject to bed clogging induced by excess biomass accumulation. In this study, O3 was continuously injected into biofilters to control biomass. Its effects on the performance of the biofilters and on biomass accumulation were investigated. Four identical biofilters designed to treat gaseous toluene were operated for 70 days, and three of them were continuously injected with O3 at different concentrations (from 80 to 320 mg/m(3)). The results showed that continuous O3 injection could effectively keep the bed pressure drop stable and had no adverse effect on toluene removal when O3 concentrations were 180-220 mg/m(3). The maximum toluene elimination capacity of the four biofilters was 140 g-toluene/m(3)/h, and the bed pressure drop of the biofilter fed with 180-220 mg/m(3) O3 remained below 3 mmH2O/m throughout the operation period. The biomass accumulation rates of the three biofilters with O3 at 80-320 mg/m(3) were lowered by 0.15-0.25 g/L/day compared with the biofilter without O3. The decreases in biomass accumulation resulted in higher void fractions of the filter beds with O3 injection. Carbon balance analysis indicated that CO2 production had increased while biomass accumulation and leachate waste production decreased in response to O3 injection. Based on the experimental results, it was concluded here that continuous O3 injection can reduce increases in bed pressure effectively, preserve VOC removal capacity, and prevent production of extra leachate waste.

  9. BCX4430, a novel nucleoside analog, effectively treats yellow fever in a Hamster model.

    PubMed

    Julander, Justin G; Bantia, Shanta; Taubenheim, Brian R; Minning, Dena M; Kotian, Pravin; Morrey, John D; Smee, Donald F; Sheridan, William P; Babu, Yarlagadda S

    2014-11-01

    No effective antiviral therapies are currently available to treat disease after infection with yellow fever virus (YFV). A Syrian golden hamster model of yellow fever (YF) was used to characterize the effect of treatment with BCX4430, a novel adenosine nucleoside analog. Significant improvement in survival was observed after treatment with BCX4430 at 4 mg/kg of body weight per day dosed intraperitoneally (i.p.) twice daily (BID). Treatment with BCX4430 at 12.5 mg/kg/day administered i.p. BID for 7 days offered complete protection from mortality and also resulted in significant improvement of other YF disease parameters, including weight loss, serum alanine aminotransferase levels (6 days postinfection [dpi]), and viremia (4 dpi). In uninfected hamsters, BCX4430 at 200 mg/kg/day administered i.p. BID for 7 days was well tolerated and did not result in mortality or weight loss, suggesting a potentially wide therapeutic index. Treatment with BCX4430 at 12 mg/kg/day i.p. remained effective when administered once daily and for only 4 days. Moreover, BCX4430 dosed at 200 mg/kg/day i.p. BID for 7 days effectively treated YF, even when treatment was delayed up to 4 days after virus challenge, corresponding with peak viral titers in the liver and serum. BCX4430 treatment did not preclude a protective antibody response, as higher neutralizing antibody (nAb) concentrations corresponded with increasing delays of treatment initiation, and greater nAb responses resulted in the protection of animals from a secondary challenge with YFV. In summary, BCX4430 is highly active in a hamster model of YF, even when treatment is initiated at the peak of viral replication.

  10. Gastrointestinal side effects in children with Wilson's disease treated with zinc sulphate.

    PubMed

    Wiernicka, Anna; Jańczyk, Wojciech; Dądalski, Maciej; Avsar, Yesim; Schmidt, Hartmut; Socha, Piotr

    2013-07-21

    To investigate the side effects of a zinc sulphate therapy in a cohort of Polish pediatric patients with Wilson's disease. We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of 53 pediatric patients with Wilson's disease treated at the Children's Memorial Health Institute in Warsaw, Poland between the years 1996 and 2011 with zinc sulphate. Patients were diagnosed with Wilson's disease according to the scoring system of Ferenci, with 49 cases confirmed by mutation analysis. Data about the dosage scheme of zinc sulphate, side effects and efficacy and toxicity of the treatment were collected and recorded in the patient's medical chart at each visit to the hospital. Mean age of diagnosis for the entire cohort was 10 years (range, 2.5-17 years). Duration of treatment with zinc sulfate was 83.3 wk (range, 8-344 wk). Side effects, all of gastrointestinal origin, were observed in 21 patients (40%--9 males and 12 females), irrespective of the duration of therapy. Thirteen out of 21 patients were over the age of 10 years. The most common ATP7B mutation was p.H1069Q. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, performed in 7 patients (33.3%) suffering from persistent and severe abdominal pain, revealed gastrointestinal ulcerations or erosions with negative Helicobacter pylori tests in all subjects investigated. The above mentioned 7 patients were treated with proton pump inhibitors. Three of those experienced resolution of symptoms, whereas proton-pump inhibitors failed to alleviate symptoms of the remaining four children and conversion of therapy to D-penicillamine was needed. Zinc sulphate appears to cause significant gastrointestinal side effects, which children on therapy for Wilson's disease should be closely monitored for.

  11. Proton Radiotherapy: The Biological Effect of Treating Alternating Subsets of Fields for Different Treatment Fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Engelsman, Martijn; DeLaney, Thomas F.; Hong, Theodore S.

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: Common practice in proton radiotherapy is to deliver a subset of all fields in the treatment plan on any given treatment day. We investigate using biological modeling if the resulting variation in daily dose to normal tissues has a relevant detrimental biological effect. Methods and Materials: For four patient groups, the cumulative normalized total dose (NTD) was determined for normal tissues (OARs) of each patient using the clinically delivered fractionation schedule (FS{sub clin}), and for hypothetical fractionation schedules delivering all fields every day (FS{sub all}) or only a single field each day (FS{sub single}). Cumulative three-dimensional NTD distributions were summarized using the generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) model. Results: For the skull base/cervical spine chordoma group, the largest effect is a 4-Gy increase in gEUD of the chiasm when treating only a subset of fields on any day. For lung cancer and pancreatic cancer patients, the variation in the gEUD of normal tissues is <0.2 Gy. For the prostate group, FS{sub clin} increases the gEUD of the femoral heads by 9 Gy compared with FS{sub all}. Use of FS{sub single} resulted in the highest NTD to normal tissues for any patient. FS{sub all} resulted in an integral NTD to the patient that is on average 5% lower than FS{sub clin} and 10% lower than FS{sub single}. Conclusion: The effects of field set of the day treatment delivery depend on the tumor site and number of fields treated each day. Modeling these effects may be important for accurate risk assessment.

  12. Effect of continuous ozone injection on performance and biomass accumulation of biofilters treating gaseous toluene.

    PubMed

    Xi, Jinying; Saingam, Prakit; Gu, Feng; Hu, Hong-Ying; Zhao, Xuefei

    2015-01-01

    Biofilters treating high-concentration gaseous volatile organic compounds (VOC) can be subject to bed clogging induced by excess biomass accumulation. In this study, O3 was continuously injected into biofilters to control biomass. Its effects on the performance of the biofilters and on biomass accumulation were investigated. Four identical biofilters designed to treat gaseous toluene were operated for 70 days, and three of them were continuously injected with O3 at different concentrations (from 80 to 320 mg/m(3)). The results showed that continuous O3 injection could effectively keep the bed pressure drop stable and had no adverse effect on toluene removal when O3 concentrations were 180-220 mg/m(3). The maximum toluene elimination capacity of the four biofilters was 140 g-toluene/m(3)/h, and the bed pressure drop of the biofilter fed with 180-220 mg/m(3) O3 remained below 3 mmH2O/m throughout the operation period. The biomass accumulation rates of the three biofilters with O3 at 80-320 mg/m(3) were lowered by 0.15-0.25 g/L/day compared with the biofilter without O3. The decreases in biomass accumulation resulted in higher void fractions of the filter beds with O3 injection. Carbon balance analysis indicated that CO2 production had increased while biomass accumulation and leachate waste production decreased in response to O3 injection. Based on the experimental results, it was concluded here that continuous O3 injection can reduce increases in bed pressure effectively, preserve VOC removal capacity, and prevent production of extra leachate waste.

  13. Effects of compost and phosphate on plant arsenic accumulation from soils near pressure-treated wood.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xinde; Ma, Lena Q

    2004-12-01

    Leaching of arsenic (As) from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood may elevate soil arsenic levels. Thus, an environmental concern arises regarding accumulation of As in vegetables grown in these soils. In this study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate As accumulation by vegetables from the soils adjacent to the CCA-treated utility poles and fences and examine the effects of soil amendments on plant As accumulation. Carrot (Daucus carota L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were grown for ten weeks in the soil with or without compost and phosphate amendments. As expected, elevated As concentrations were observed in the pole soil (43 mg kg(-1)) and in the fence soil (27 mg kg(-1)), resulting in enhanced As accumulation of 44 mg kg(-1) in carrot and 32 mg kg(-1) in lettuce. Addition of phosphate to soils increased As accumulation by 4.56-9.3 times for carrot and 2.45-10.1 for lettuce due to increased soil water-soluble As via replacement of arsenate by phosphate in soil. However, biosolid compost application significantly reduced plant As uptake by 79-86%, relative to the untreated soils. This suppression is possibly because of As adsorbed by biosolid organic mater, which reduced As phytoavailability. Fractionation analysis showed that biosolid decreased As in soil water-soluble, exchangeable, and carbonate fraction by 45%, whereas phosphate increased it up to 2.61 times, compared to the untreated soils. Our results indicate that growing vegetables in soils near CCA-treated wood may pose a risk of As exposure for humans. Compost amendment can reduce such a risk by reducing As accumulation by vegetables and can be an important strategy for remediating CCA-contaminated soils. Caution should be taken for phosphate application since it enhances As accumulation.

  14. Effects of heptachlor- and lindane-treated seed on Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, C.J.; Lenhart, D.J.; Kaiser, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    A study of Canada geese (B. canadensis) was conducted in the Pacific Northwest from 1978 through 1981. Lowered reproductive success, mortality of adults, and a population decline of resident western Canada geese (B. c. moffitti) at the Umatilla National Wildlife Refuge (Umatilla NWR) Oregon and Washington [USA] were associated with the use of heptachlor-treated wheat. Analyses of eggs and tissues from dead geese provided strong evidence that heptachlor was responsible for the mortality and decreased production. Residues of heptachlor epoxide (HE) in brains of B. c. moffitti found dead in 1978 and 1979 equalled or exceeded the lethal hazard zone of 8-9 .mu.g/g in experimental passerine birds; HE residues of > 10 .mu.g/g in sample eggs were associated with low nest success. The breeding population of Canada geese at Umatilla decreased from 129 pairs in 1974 to about 100 pairs in 1979. The heptachlor problem was restricted to the Umatilla area; HE residues were low in tissues and eggs collected at other sites in Oregon, Washington and Idaho. In Sept., 1979, the use of heptachlor-treated seed was banned in a 1700-km2 area that encompassed both sides of the Columbia River near Umatilla. Lindane was substituted for heptachlor in the restricted area in 1979, and its use was extended to much of the Columbia Basin in 1981. Concurrently, reproductive success of geese increased, mortality decreased, and the nesting population increased to 170 pairs by 1983. There was no evidence for either biomagnification of lindance residues from treated seed to goose tissues or eggs or for induction of adverse effects by this compound.

  15. [Effectiveness of dorsal metacarpal island flap for treating scar contracture of finger web].

    PubMed

    Qian, Jun; Rui, Yongjun; Zhang, Quanrong; Xue, Mingyu; Zhang, Zhihai

    2011-11-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of dorsal metacarpal island flap for treating scar contracture of the finger web. Between June 2009 and December 2010, 10 patients with scar contracture of the finger web were treated. There were 6 males and 4 females with an average age of 30 years (range, 14-57 years). Scar contracture was caused by injury in 8 cases, by burn in 1 case, and by operation in 1 case. The locations were the 1st web space in 1 case, the 2nd web space in 3 cases, the 3rd web space in 5 cases, and the 4th web space in 1 case. The disease duration was 3 to 9 months with an average of 5 months. The maximum abduction was 10-20 degrees. After web space scar release, the dorsal metacarpal island flap (3.5 cm x 1.2 cm-4.0 cm x 2.0 cm in size) was used to reconstruct web space (2.0 cm x 1.0 cm-3.0 cm x 1.8 cm in size). The donor site was directly sutured or repaired with local flaps. At 2 days after operation, necrosis occurred in 1 flap, which healed by extractive treatment. The other flaps survived and wound healed by first intention; all the flaps at donor sites survived and incision healed by first intention. Ten patients were followed up 6 to 15 months (mean, 9 months). The reconstructed web space had good appearance, the maximum abduction was 80 degrees in 1 case of the 1st web space scars contracture, and the maximum abduction was 35-45 degrees (mean, 40 degrees) in the other 9 cases. In 8 scar patients causing by injury, no scar contracture recurred during follow-up. It can achieve good results in appearance and function to use dorsal metacarpal island flap for treating scar contracture of the finger web.

  16. [Effectiveness of lifestyle intervention program in persons with obesity treated in a day hospital].

    PubMed

    Carral San Laureano, F; Cabo Navarro, D; Ayala Ortega, C; Gómez Rodríguez, F; Piñero Zaldivar, A; Prieto Ferrón, M; Jiménez Millán, A I; Sanz Sanz, A; García Calzado, C

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease that affects approximately 25% of the Spanish population, causing high morbidity and associated healthcare costs. To evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention program on lifestyles in obese patients treated in a day hospital scheme. A prospective non- controlled intervention study was conducted on obese patients treated in the Endocrinology and Nutrition day hospital, Puerto Real University Hospital, and included in program of lifestyle modification to achieve a weight loss of ≥ 5% minimum. We studied 262 patients with a mean age of 44.6±16.0 years (71% women) with an initial weight, body mass index and waist circumference of 110.4±21.1kg, 41.6±6.6Kg/m(2) and 120.5±13.2cm, respectively. Patients who continued in the study lost an average of 4.8±4.8kg (n=165) and 7.0±6.2kg (n=48) at three and six months, respectively, with 51.5% (n=135) patients reaching the weight loss goal of ≥ 5%. There were no statistically differences in weight loss between any clinical or follow-up variables analysed. 43.5% of patients voluntarily left the study without reaching the weight loss goal. The intervention on lifestyles in obese patients treated in a day hospital achieves moderate weight loss in the medium term, with half of patients achieving a weight loss ≥5%. Copyright © 2013 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Current evidence for effectiveness of interventions to treat rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Huisstede, Bionka M A; Koes, Bart W; Gebremariam, Lukas; Keijsers, Ellen; Verhaar, Jan A N

    2011-06-01

    In this systematic review we assessed effectiveness of non-surgical and (post)surgical interventions for symptomatic rotator cuff tears (RotCuffTear). The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, Cinahl, and Pedro were searched for relevant systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Two reviewers independently selected relevant studies, extracted data and assessed the methodological quality. Three Cochrane reviews (7 RCTs) and 14 RCTs were included (3 non-surgery, 10 surgery, 8 post-surgery). For small or medium RotCufftears, moderate evidence was found in favour of surgery versus physiotherapy in mid- and long-term. In surgery, tendon-to-bone fixation with one metal suture anchor loaded with double sutures (TB) was more effective (moderate evidence) than a side-to-side repair with permanent sutures (SS) in the mid- and long-term; limited evidence for effectiveness was found in favour of debridement versus anchor replacement and suture repair of the type II SLAP tear in the long-term. Further, no evidence was found in favour of any non-surgical, surgical or post-surgical intervention. In conclusion, although surgery seems to give better results compared to non-surgery and TB is more effective than SS in rotator cuff repair (RCR), it remains hard to draw firm evidence-based conclusions for effectiveness of non-surgical or (post)surgical interventions to treat RotCuffTears. More research is clearly needed.

  18. Effect of aluminium on duodenal calcium transport in pregnant and lactating rats treated with bromocriptine.

    PubMed

    Orihuela, Daniel

    2007-09-01

    The aim of present work was to study the effect of oral aluminium (Al) overload on intestinal calcium (Ca) absorption in the critical stages of pregnancy and lactation of rats and to find out possible relationships with prolactin (PRL) and 17beta-estradiol (E2) circulating levels. Adult female Wistar rats were orally treated from day 1 of pregnancy with 0 (control), or 50 mg elemental Al (as chloride)/kg body weight per day. Ca transport was determined by everted duodenal sacs technique using 2 microCi of (45)CaCl(2) as flux marker (JCa(ms)). Al treatment reduced JCa(ms) either in late pregnancy (day 19) or in middle lactation (day 9 postpartum). Oral administration of bromocriptine (BrC), an inhibitor of PRL secretion, at dose of 10 mg/kg body weight given 18 h before JCa(ms) measurements were done, produced a significant decrease in the inhibitory effect of Al on JCa(ms), expressed as percent of control, at day 9 of nursing (vehicle: 51+/-7%, BrC: 28+/-4%, P <0.05). A positive correlation between Al effects on JCa(ms) and the physiological variations of E2 serum levels along pregnancy and lactation in BrC-treated rats was also found (r(2)=0.277, P =0.001). We conclude Al could reduce transcellular Ca absorption in the duodenum by interfering with physiological mechanisms of Ca transport partially mediated by serum level increments of E2 and PRL, observed in late pregnancy and mainly during middle lactation of rats.

  19. Sweet Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture May be Effective for Treating Sexual Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pavel; Yu, Junsang

    2014-09-01

    Sexual dysfunction (SD) is a health problem which occurs during any phase of the sexual response cycle that keeps the individual or couple from experiencing satisfaction from the sexual activity. SD covers a wide variety of symptoms like in men, erectile dysfunction and premature or delayed ejaculation, in women, spasms of the vagina and pain with sexual intercourse, in both sexes, sexual desire and response. And pharmacopuncture, i.e. injection of subclinical doses of drugs, mostly herb medicine, in acupoints, has been adopted with successful results. This case report showed the effect of bee venom on SD. A 51-year-old male patient with SD, who had a past history of taking Western medication to treat his SD and who had previously undergone surgery on his lower back due to a herniated disc, received treatments using pharmacopuncture of sweet bee venom (SBV) at Gwanwon (CV4), Hoeeum (CV1), Sinsu (BL23), and Gihaesu (BL24) for 20 days. Objectively, the patient showed improvement on most items on the International Index for Erectile Dysfunction (IIEF) like 28 to 29 out of perfect score 30 for erectile function, 10 to 10 out of perfect score 10 for orgasmic function, 6 to 8 out of perfect score 10 for sexual desire, 10 to 13 out of perfect score 15 for satisfaction with intercourse, and 6 to 8 out of perfect score 10 for overall satisfaction; subjectively, his words, the tone of his voice and the look of confidence in his eyes all indicated improvement. Among the variety of effects of SBV pharmacopuncture, urogenital problems such as SD may be health problems that pharmacopuncture can treat effectively.

  20. A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Manipulative Therapy in Treating Lateral Epicondylalgia

    PubMed Central

    Herd, Christopher R.; Meserve, Brent B.

    2008-01-01

    Lateral epicondylalgia is a commonly encountered musculoskeletal complaint. Currently, there is no agreement regarding the exact underlying pathoanatomical cause or the most effective management strategy. Various forms of joint manipulation have been recommended as treatment. The purpose of this study was to systematically review available literature regarding the effectiveness of manipulation in treating lateral epicondylalgia. A comprehensive search of Medline, CINAHL, Health Source, SPORTDiscus, and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database ending in November 2007 was conducted. Thirteen studies, both randomized and non-randomized clinical trials, met inclusion criteria. Articles were assessed for quality by one reviewer using the 10-point PEDro scale. Quality scores ranged from 1–8 with a mean score of 5.15 ± 1.85. This score represented fair quality overall; however, trends indicated the presence of consistent methodological flaws. Specifically, no study achieved successful blinding of the patient or treating therapist, and less than 50% used a blinded outcome assessor. Additionally, studies varied significantly in terms of outcome measures, follow-up, and comparison treatments, thus making comparing results across studies difficult. Results of this review support the use of Mulligan's mobilization with movement in providing immediate, short-, and long-term benefits. In addition, positive results were demonstrated with manipulative therapy directed at the cervical spine, although data regarding long-term effects were limited. Currently, limited evidence exists to support a synthesis of any particular technique whether directed at the elbow or cervical spine. Overall, this review identified the need for further high-quality studies using larger sample sizes, valid functional outcome measures, and longer follow-up periods. PMID:19771195

  1. Enzyme-treated asparagus extract promotes expression of heat shock protein and exerts antistress effects.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tomohiro; Maeda, Takahiro; Goto, Kazunori; Miura, Takehito; Wakame, Koji; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Sato, Atsuya

    2014-03-01

    A novel enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) has been developed as a functional material produced from asparagus stem. Studies were conducted to determine the effect of ETAS on heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression and alleviation of stress. HeLa cells were treated with ETAS, and HSP70 mRNA and protein levels were measured using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. ETAS showed significant increases in HSP70 mRNA at more than 0.125 mg/mL and the protein at more than 1.0 mg/mL. The antistress effect was evaluated in a murine sleep-deprivation model. A sleep-deprivation stress load resulted in elevation of blood corticosterone and lipid peroxide concentrations, while supplementation with ETAS at 200 and 1000 mg/kg body weight was associated with significantly reduced levels of both stress markers, which were in the normal range. The HSP70 protein expression level in mice subjected to sleep-deprivation stress and supplemented with ETAS was significantly enhanced in stomach, liver, and kidney, compared to ETAS-untreated mice. A preliminary and small-sized human study was conducted among healthy volunteers consuming up to 150 mg/d of ETAS daily for 7 d. The mRNA expression of HSP70 in peripheral leukocytes was significantly elevated at intakes of 100 or 150 mg/d, compared to their baseline levels. Since HSP70 is known to be a stress-related protein and its induction leads to cytoprotection, the present results suggest that ETAS might exert antistress effects under stressful conditions, resulting from enhancement of HSP70 expression. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Effect of metronidazole use on tacrolimus concentrations in transplant patients treated for Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Early, C R; Park, J M; Dorsch, M P; Pogue, K T; Hanigan, S M

    2016-10-01

    Two case reports suggest that metronidazole treatment for Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) increases tacrolimus (TAC) trough levels. The primary objective of this study was to determine the clinical significance of this potential interaction in transplant patients receiving CDI treatment. Currently, no robust literature exists to estimate a magnitude of pharmacokinetic interaction between metronidazole and TAC. In this retrospective study, the effects of CDI and metronidazole treatment on TAC levels in 52 adult solid organ transplant patients were investigated. The primary outcome was to determine the difference in dose-normalized TAC levels between baseline and symptom resolution in patients treated with metronidazole or vancomycin. The secondary outcome was to determine the difference in dose-normalized TAC levels at baseline and CDI diagnosis. The average change in log-transformed dose-normalized TAC levels from baseline to symptom resolution was 0.99 for metronidazole (n = 35) and 1.04 for vancomycin (n = 17) treatment. The mean difference between the groups was 0.96 (95% confidence interval: 0.74-1.24). No significant difference was found between dose-normalized TAC levels at CDI diagnosis and baseline (P = 0.37). CDI treatment with metronidazole was not associated with a >30% increase in TAC levels compared with vancomycin. Both treatment groups required TAC dose adjustments to maintain goal TAC levels and those treated with metronidazole did not require a significantly greater dose adjustment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Fetal corticosteroid and T4 treatment effects on lung function of surfactant-treated preterm lambs.

    PubMed

    Chen, C M; Ikegami, M; Ueda, T; Polk, D H; Jobe, A H

    1995-01-01

    Three groups of sheep fetuses at 125 or 126 d gestational age randomly received a single ultrasound-guided intramuscular injection of saline, 0.5 mg/kg betamethasone, or 0.5 mg/kg betamethasone plus 50 micrograms/kg thyroxine (T4). Forty-eight hours later the fetuses were delivered, treated with a pulmonary surfactant preparation, and ventilated for 3 h. Corticosteroids alone and in combination with T4 increased FRC, compliance, and lung volumes, and decreased the protein leak into the airspace. Saturated phosphatidylcholine pool sizes recovered by alveolar washing were not changed after hormone treatment. To evaluate the function of surfactant recovered from the lambs in vivo, we treated preterm rabbits at 27 d gestational age with the large-aggregate surfactant from alveolar washes. Large-aggregate surfactants and the pulmonary surfactant preparation increased compliances and maximal lung volumes relative to those in untreated preterm rabbits. Large-aggregate surfactants improved compliance more than did the pulmonary surfactant preparation. We conclude that ultrasound-guided single fetal corticosteroid treatment followed by postnatal surfactant improved postnatal lung function in preterm lambs. Addition of T4 did not augment corticosteroid effects. The function of the exogenous surfactant was improved in premature lamb lungs independently of the fetal treatment modality.

  4. The MILLER banding procedure is an effective method for treating dialysis-associated steal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gregg A; Goel, Naveen; Friedman, Alexander; Khariton, Aleksandr; Jotwani, Manish C; Savransky, Yevgeny; Khariton, Konstantin; Arnold, William P; Preddie, Dean C

    2010-02-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of the Minimally Invasive Limited Ligation Endoluminal-Assisted Revision (MILLER) banding procedure in treating dialysis-associated steal syndrome or high-flow access problems. A retrospective analysis was conducted, evaluating banding of 183 patients of which 114 presented with hand ischemia (Steal) and 69 with clinical manifestations of pathologic high access flow such as congestive heart failure. Patients were assessed for technical success and symptomatic improvement, primary and secondary access patency, and primary band patency. Overall, 183 patients underwent a combined 229 bandings with technical success achieved in 225. Complete symptomatic relief (clinical success) was attained in 109 Steal patients and in all high-flow patients. The average follow-up time was 11 months with a 6-month primary band patency of 75 and 85% for Steal and high-flow patients, respectively. At 24 months the secondary access patency was 90% and the thrombotic event rates for upper-arm fistulas, forearm fistulas, and grafts were 0.21, 0.10, and 0.92 per access-year, respectively. Hence, the minimally invasive MILLER procedure appears to be an effective and durable option for treating dialysis access-related steal syndrome and high-flow-associated symptoms.

  5. Effects of clinorotation and microgravity on sweet clover columella cells treated with cytochalasin D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilaire, E.; Paulsen, A. Q.; Brown, C. S.; Guikema, J. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    The cytoskeleton of columella cells is believed to be involved in maintaining the developmental polarity of cells observed as a reproducible positioning of cellular organelles. It is also implicated in the transduction of gravitropic signals. Roots of sweet clover (Melilotus alba L.) seedlings were treated with a microfilament disrupter, cytochalasin D, on a slowly rotating horizontal clinostat (2 rpm). Electron micrographs of treated columella cells revealed several ultrastructural effects including repositioning of the nucleus and the amyloplasts and the formation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) whorls. However, experiments performed during fast clinorotation (55 rpm) showed an accumulation (but no whorling) of a disorganized ER network at the proximal and distal pole and a random distribution of the amyloplasts. Therefore, formation of whorls depends upon the speed of clinorotation, and the overall impact of cytochalasin D suggests the necessity of microfilaments in organelle positioning. Interestingly, a similar drug treatment performed in microgravity aboard the US Space Shuttle Endeavour (STS-54, January 1993) caused a displacement of ER membranes and amyloplasts away from the distal plasma membrane. In the present study, we discuss the role of microfilaments in maintaining columella cell polarity and the utility of clinostats to simulate microgravity.

  6. Inhibition of nitrification in municipal wastewater-treating photobioreactors: Effect on algal growth and nutrient uptake.

    PubMed

    Krustok, I; Odlare, M; Truu, J; Nehrenheim, E

    2016-02-01

    The effect of inhibiting nitrification on algal growth and nutrient uptake was studied in photobioreactors treating municipal wastewater. As previous studies have indicated that algae prefer certain nitrogen species to others, and because nitrifying bacteria are inhibited by microalgae, it is important to shed more light on these interactions. In this study allylthiourea (ATU) was used to inhibit nitrification in wastewater-treating photobioreactors. The nitrification-inhibited reactors were compared to control reactors with no ATU added. Microalgae had higher growth in the inhibited reactors, resulting in a higher chlorophyll a concentration. The species mix also differed, with Chlorella and Scenedesmus being the dominant genera in the control reactors and Cryptomonas and Chlorella dominating in the inhibited reactors. The nitrogen speciation in the reactors after 8 days incubation was also different in the two setups, with N existing mostly as NH4-N in the inhibited reactors and as NO3-N in the control reactors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of clinorotation and microgravity on sweet clover columella cells treated with cytochalasin D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilaire, E.; Paulsen, A. Q.; Brown, C. S.; Guikema, J. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    The cytoskeleton of columella cells is believed to be involved in maintaining the developmental polarity of cells observed as a reproducible positioning of cellular organelles. It is also implicated in the transduction of gravitropic signals. Roots of sweet clover (Melilotus alba L.) seedlings were treated with a microfilament disrupter, cytochalasin D, on a slowly rotating horizontal clinostat (2 rpm). Electron micrographs of treated columella cells revealed several ultrastructural effects including repositioning of the nucleus and the amyloplasts and the formation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) whorls. However, experiments performed during fast clinorotation (55 rpm) showed an accumulation (but no whorling) of a disorganized ER network at the proximal and distal pole and a random distribution of the amyloplasts. Therefore, formation of whorls depends upon the speed of clinorotation, and the overall impact of cytochalasin D suggests the necessity of microfilaments in organelle positioning. Interestingly, a similar drug treatment performed in microgravity aboard the US Space Shuttle Endeavour (STS-54, January 1993) caused a displacement of ER membranes and amyloplasts away from the distal plasma membrane. In the present study, we discuss the role of microfilaments in maintaining columella cell polarity and the utility of clinostats to simulate microgravity.

  8. Effect of immobilized Lactobacillus casei on volatile compounds of heat treated probiotic dry-fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Sidira, Marianthi; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Kanellaki, Maria; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

    2015-07-01

    The effect of the amount of immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on wheat grains on the generation of volatile compounds during the production of heat treated probiotic dry-fermented sausages was investigated. For comparison reasons, sausages containing free L. casei cells or no starter culture as well as a similar commercial product were also included in the study. Samples ripened for 8 days and heat treated to 70-72°C for 8-10 min were subjected to Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. The starter culture affected significantly the production of volatile compounds. The highest content of esters and alcohols was observed in the sample containing 30 g of immobilized cells/kg of stuffing mixture, while the highest concentration of organic acids was observed in the sausages with no starter culture. In contrast, the commercial product contained the lowest concentration of volatiles. Principal component analysis of the semi-quantitative data revealed that the volatile composition was affected primarily by the nature and concentration of the starter culture.

  9. Effect of coenzyme q10 on myopathic symptoms in patients treated with statins.

    PubMed

    Caso, Giuseppe; Kelly, Patricia; McNurlan, Margaret A; Lawson, William E

    2007-05-15

    Treatment of hypercholesterolemia with statins (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors) is effective in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, statin use is often associated with a variety of muscle-related symptoms or myopathies. Myopathy may be related in part to statin inhibition of the endogenous synthesis of coenzyme Q10, an essential cofactor for mitochondrial energy production. The aim of this study is to determine whether coenzyme Q10 supplementation would reduce the degree of muscle pain associated with statin treatment. Patients with myopathic symptoms were randomly assigned in a double-blinded protocol to treatment with coenzyme Q10 (100 mg/day, n = 18) or vitamin E (400 IU/day, n = 14) for 30 days. Muscle pain and pain interference with daily activities were assessed before and after treatment. After a 30-day intervention, pain severity decreased by 40% (p <0.001) and pain interference with daily activities decreased by 38% (p <0.02) in the group treated with coenzyme Q10. In contrast, no changes in pain severity (+9%, p = NS) or pain interference with daily activities (-11%, p = NS) was observed in the group treated with vitamin E. In conclusion, results suggest that coenzyme Q10 supplementation may decrease muscle pain associated with statin treatment. Thus, coenzyme Q10 supplementation may offer an alternative to stopping treatment with these vital drugs.

  10. Controlled, randomized study evaluating the effects of treating cellulite with AWT/EPAT.

    PubMed

    Adatto, Maurice; Adatto-Neilson, Robin; Servant, Jean-Jacques; Vester, J; Novak, Pavel; Krotz, Alexander

    2010-08-01

    Cellulite affects 95% of women and can lead to negative consequences. To demonstrate the efficacy and safety of acoustic wave therapy (AWT) using extracorporeal pulse activation technology (EPAT) to manage cellulite. Twenty-five women were included in the study and treated with AWT. Six AWT treatment sessions were performed over the course of 4 weeks. Three thousand pulses were applied to an area measuring approximately 10 x 15 cm on the thigh. The treatment was performed using the D-ACTOR 200 by STORZ MEDICAL AG (Tägerwilen, Switzerland). Follow-up visits were performed 1 week and 12 weeks after treatment. Changes in the skin structure were evaluated using the DermaTOP System (Eotech, Paris, France). Skin elasticity measurements were performed using the DermaLab Device (Cortex Technology, Hadsund, Denmark). The difference between treated and untreated legs was statistically significant with regard to depressions, elevations, roughness and elasticity after the first follow-up visit. The study showed that the AWT/EPAT treatment using the D-ACTOR 200 appears to be a safe and effective treatment alternative for the temporary improvement in the appearance of cellulite.

  11. Effect of Surface Treated Silicon Dioxide Nanoparticles on Some Mechanical Properties of Maxillofacial Silicone Elastomer

    PubMed Central

    Zayed, Sara M.; Alshimy, Ahmad M.; Fahmy, Amal E.

    2014-01-01

    Current materials used for maxillofacial prostheses are far from ideal and there is a need for novel improved materials which mimic as close as possible the natural behavior of facial soft tissues. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of adding different concentrations of surface treated silicon dioxide nanoparticles (SiO2) on clinically important mechanical properties of a maxillofacial silicone elastomer. 147 specimens of the silicone elastomer were prepared and divided into seven groups (n = 21). One control group was prepared without nanoparticles and six study groups with different concentrations of nanoparticles, from 0.5% to 3% by weight. Specimens were tested for tear strength (ASTM D624), tensile strength (ASTM D412), percent elongation, and shore A hardness. SEM was used to assess the dispersion of nano-SiO2 within the elastomer matrix. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Scheffe test (α = 0.05). Results revealed significant improvement in all mechanical properties tested, as the concentration of the nanoparticles increased. This was supported by the results of the SEM. Hence, it can be concluded that the incorporation of surface treated SiO2 nanoparticles at concentration of 3% enhanced the overall mechanical properties of A-2186 silicone elastomer. PMID:25574170

  12. Effect of skim milk treated with high hydrostatic pressure on permeate flux and fouling during ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Leu, Mathilde; Marciniak, Alice; Chamberland, Julien; Pouliot, Yves; Bazinet, Laurent; Doyen, Alain

    2017-09-01

    Ultrafiltration (UF) is largely used in the dairy industry to generate milk and whey protein concentrate for standardization of milk or production of dairy ingredients. Recently, it was demonstrated that high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) extended the shelf life of milk and improved rennet coagulation and cheese yield. Pressurization also modified casein micelle size distribution and promoted aggregation of whey proteins. These changes are likely to affect UF performance. Consequently, this study determined the effect of skim milk pressurization (300 and 600 MPa, 5 min) on UF performance in terms of permeate flux decline and fouling. The effect of HHP on milk proteins was first studied and UF was performed in total recycle mode at different transmembrane pressures to determine optimal UF operational parameters and to evaluate the effect of pressurization on critical and limiting fluxes. Ultrafiltration was also performed in concentration mode at a transmembrane pressure of 345 kPa for 130 or 140 min to evaluate the decline of permeate flux and to determine fouling resistances. It was observed that average casein micelle size decreased by 32 and 38%, whereas β-lactoglobulin denaturation reached 30 and 70% at 300 and 600 MPa, respectively. These results were directly related to UF performance because initial permeate fluxes in total recycle mode decreased by 25% at 300 and 600 MPa compared with nonpressurized milk, critical flux, and limiting flux, which were lower during UF of milk treated with HHP. During UF in concentration mode, initial permeate fluxes were 30% lower at 300 and 600 MPa compared with the control, but the total flux decline was higher for nonpressurized milk (62%) compared with pressure-treated milk (30%). Fouling resistances were similar, whatever the treatment, except at 600 MPa where irreversible fouling was higher. Characterization of the fouling layer showed that caseins and β-lactoglobulin were mainly involved in membrane fouling after UF of

  13. Atypical presentations of genital herpes simplex virus in HIV-1 and HIV-2 effectively treated by imiquimod.

    PubMed

    McKendry, Anna; Narayana, Srinivasulu; Browne, Rita

    2015-05-01

    Atypical presentations of genital herpes simplex virus have been described in HIV. We report two cases with hypertrophic presentations which were effectively treated with imiquimod, one of which is the first reported case occurring in a patient with HIV-2.

  14. Effect of large-scale social marketing of insecticide-treated nets on child survival in rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, J R; Abdulla, S; Nathan, R; Mukasa, O; Marchant, T J; Kikumbih, N; Mushi, A K; Mponda, H; Minja, H; Mshinda, H; Tanner, M; Lengeler, C

    2001-04-21

    Insecticide-treated nets have proven efficacy as a malaria-control tool in Africa. However, the transition from efficacy to effectiveness cannot be taken for granted. We assessed coverage and the effect on child survival of a large-scale social marketing programme for insecticide-treated nets in two rural districts of southern Tanzania with high perennial malaria transmission. Socially marketed insecticide-treated nets were introduced step-wise over a 2-year period from May, 1997, in a population of 480000 people. Cross-sectional coverage surveys were done at baseline and after 1, 2, and 3 years. A demographic surveillance system (DSS) was set up in an area of 60000 people to record population, births, and deaths. Within the DSS area, the effect of insecticide-treated nets on child survival was assessed by a case-control approach. Cases were deaths in children aged between 1 month and 4 years. Four controls for each case were chosen from the DSS database. Use of insecticide-treated nets and potential confounding factors were assessed by questionnaire. Individual effectiveness estimates from the case-control study were combined with coverage to estimate community effectiveness. Insecticide-treated net coverage of infants in the DSS area rose from less than 10% at baseline to more than 50% 3 years later. Insecticide-treated nets were associated with a 27% increase in survival in children aged 1 month to 4 years (95% CI 3-45). Coverage in such children was higher in areas with longer access to the programme. The modest average coverage achieved by 1999 in the two districts (18% in children younger than 5 years) suggests that insecticide-treated nets prevented 1 in 20 child deaths at that time. Social marketing of insecticide-treated nets has great potential for effective malaria control in rural African settings.

  15. Effect of low-level laser-treated mesenchymal stem cells on myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    El Gammal, Zaynab H; Zaher, Amr M; El-Badri, Nagwa

    2017-07-06

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Although cardiac transplantation is considered the most effective therapy for end-stage cardiac diseases, it is limited by the availability of matching donors and the complications of the immune suppressive regimen used to prevent graft rejection. Application of stem cell therapy in experimental animal models was shown to reverse cardiac remodeling, attenuate cardiac fibrosis, improve heart functions, and stimulate angiogenesis. The efficacy of stem cell therapy can be amplified by low-level laser radiation. It is well established that the bio-stimulatory effect of low-level laser is influenced by the following parameters: wavelength, power density, duration, energy density, delivery time, and the type of irradiated target. In this review, we evaluate the available experimental data on treatment of myocardial infarction using low-level laser. Eligible papers were characterized as in vivo experimental studies that evaluated the use of low-level laser therapy on stem cells in order to attenuate myocardial infarction. The following descriptors were used separately and in combination: laser therapy, low-level laser, low-power laser, stem cell, and myocardial infarction. The assessed low-level laser parameters were wavelength (635-804 nm), power density (6-50 mW/cm(2)), duration (20-150 s), energy density (0.96-1 J/cm(2)), delivery time (20 min-3 weeks after myocardial infarction), and the type of irradiated target (bone marrow or in vitro-cultured bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells). The analysis focused on the cardioprotective effect of this form of therapy, the attenuation of scar tissue, and the enhancement of angiogenesis as primary targets. Other effects such as cell survival, cell differentiation, and homing are also included. Among the evaluated protocols using different parameters, the best outcome for treating myocardial infarction was achieved by treating the bone marrow by one dose of low

  16. [Effect of metalloproteins on the photochemical activity of chloroplasts treated with polyene antibiotics].

    PubMed

    Mutuskin, A A; Makovkina, L E; Pshenova, K V; Vostroknutova, G N

    1977-04-01

    The effects of various metall-containing proteins (plastocyanin, plantacyanin, azurine and cytochromes of the f type) on the activity of photosystem I of chloroplasts, treated with polyene antibiotics, were studied. The inhibiting effect of the polyenes, surgumycin and philipin, was completely removed by an addition of copper-containing protein plastocyanin. No similar effect was exerted by other Cu-containing proteins--azurine and plantacyanin. The cytochromes of the f type isolated from the green algae chlorella, blue-green algae spiruline and aphanezomenone, having different electrophoretic properties, restored the activity of photosystem I of chloroplasts incubated with antibiotics in a different degree. Acid cytochrome f of chlorella restored the activity by 80--100%; less acid cytochrome f from spiruline-only by 50%. The least restoring effect was exerted by aphanezomenone cytochrome, which possesses some basic properties. The chloroplasts treatment with surgumycin did not affect the isolation of the terminal enzyme of the chloroplast electron-transporting chain of ferredoxin--NADP--reductase. Possible environment of plastocyanin in the chloroplast membrane and the mechanism of photosystem I restoration are discussed.

  17. Gene expression profiling of rewarding effect in methamphetamine treated Bax-deficient mouse.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Na Kyung; Yang, Moon Hee; Jung, Min Seok; Jeon, Jeong Ok; Kim, Kee Won; Park, Jong Hoon

    2007-07-31

    Methamphetamine is an illicit drug that is often abused and can cause neuropsychiatric and neurotoxic damage. Repeated administration of psychostimulants such as methamphetamine induces a behavioral sensitization. According to a previous study, Bax was involved in neurotoxicity by methamphetamine, but the function of Bax in rewarding effect has not yet been elucidated. Therefore, we have studied the function of Bax in a rewarding effect model. In the present study, we treated chronic methamphetamine exposure in a Bax-deficient mouse model and examined behavioral change using a conditioned place preference (CPP) test. The CPP score in Bax knockout mice was decreased compared to that of wild-type mice. Therefore, we screened for Bax-related genes that are involved in rewarding effect using microarray technology. In order to confirm microarray data, we applied the RT-PCR method to observe relative changes of Bcl2, a pro-apoptotic family gene. As a result, using our experiment microarray, we selected genes that were associated with Bax in microarray data, and eventually selected the Tgfbr2 gene. Expression of the Tgfbr2 gene was decreased by methamphetamine in Bax knockout mice, and the gene was overexpressed in Bax wild-type mice. Additionally, we confirmed that Creb, FosB, and c-Fos were related to rewarding effect and Bax using immunohistochemistry.

  18. Modelling cost effectiveness of horse antithymocyte globulin for treating severe aplastic anaemia in Germany.

    PubMed

    Heublein, Steffen; Wehner, Franziska; Höchsmann, Britta; Hochhaus, Andreas; Hartmann, Michael; La Rosée, Paul

    2013-06-01

    Acquired severe aplastic anaemia (AA) is a serious condition caused by immune-triggered bone marrow failure. For patients not eligible for bone marrow transplantation, treatment of choice is immunosuppression by a combined treatment with antithymocyte globulin (ATG) and cyclosporine. The debate on treatment optimization in AA is focused on conflicting data regarding ATG preparations from horse (h-ATG) versus rabbit (r-ATG), recently favouring h-ATG. H-ATG has been withdrawn from the European market in 2007. Reimbursement for imported preparations from outside Europe is frequently denied in negotiations with statutory health insurance companies. This raises the question of whether h-ATG is cost effective and a sensible investment with regard to healthcare budgets as well as patient health. We modelled the cost effectiveness of r-ATG versus h-ATG based on a recent randomized trial and cost data provided by the hospital pharmacy of Jena University Hospital. We calculated the amount of life years gained and the average incremental costs per life year gained when comparing h-ATG and r-ATG. Our calculations revealed average incremental costs per life year gained of 11,033.80 for the examined patient population treated with h-ATG when compared to r-ATG. Assuming a cost effectiveness threshold of 25,000-35,000 per life year gained, our calculations demonstrate cost effectiveness of h-ATG as compared to r-ATG.

  19. Effects of fermented Cordyceps sinensis on oxidative stress in doxorubicin treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Rong; Gao, Jian-Ping; Wang, Hui-Lin; Gao, Yan; Wu, Qian; Cui, Xiao-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cordyceps sinensis (CS) is one of the rare traditional Chinese herbs, only a very limited amount of natural CS is produced. Fermented CS, as a substitute for natural CS, is widely used in the field of supplementary medical treatment and health products. Its antagonistic effect on oxidative stress (OS) in vivo has not been investigated. Objective: Our aim was to investigate the antagonistic effect of fermented CS on OS in doxorubicin (DOX) treated rats and to compare the anti-OS effects in heart and liver tissues. Materials and Methods: OS rats were induced by tail-intravenous injection of DOX (total of 7.5 mg/kg), and then administered intragastrically with fermented CS (1.5 g/kg) for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiment, heart, liver and serum samples were taken for and biochemical analyses. Results: Fermented CS significantly increased the activities of glutathione peroxidase and catalase and the scavenging activity of O2− in serum, and the total superoxide dismutase activity in cardiac tissue; reduced the malondialdehyde content in liver and cardiac tissues. Conclusion: Fermented CS can inhibit DOX-induced OS reactions, and the anti-OS effects have high selectivity to heart and liver, especially to heart. Thus, fermented CS may be a candidate used for the prevention against various cardiac diseases induced by OS. PMID:26600716

  20. Effect of deuterium-depleted water on selected cardiometabolic parameters in fructose-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Rehakova, R; Klimentova, J; Cebova, M; Barta, A; Matuskova, Z; Labas, P; Pechanova, O

    2016-10-24

    Deuterium-depleted water (DDW) has a lower concentration of deuterium than occurs naturally (less than 145 ppm). While effects of DDW on cancer started to be intensively studied, the effects on cardiovascular system are completely unknown. Thus, we aimed to analyze the effects of DDW (55+/-5 ppm) administration to 12-week-old normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) treated with 15 % fructose for 6 weeks. Blood pressure (BP) and selected biochemical parameters were measured together with determination of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and iNOS and eNOS protein expressions in the left ventricle (LV) and aorta. Neither DDW nor fructose had any significant effect on BP in both strains. DDW treatment decreased total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in WKY, but it was not able to prevent increase in the same parameters elevated due to fructose treatment in SHR. Both fructose and DDW increased insulin level in WKY. Fructose did not affect NOS activity either in WKY or SHR. DDW increased NOS activity in LV of both WKY and SHR, while it decreased NOS activity and iNOS expression in the aorta of SHR with or without fructose treatment. In conclusion, DDW treatment significantly modified biochemical parameters in WKY together with NOS activity elevation in the heart. On the other hand, it did not affect biochemical parameters in SHR, but decreased NOS activity elevated due to iNOS upregulation in the aorta.

  1. Effect of nondopaminergic drugs on L-dopa-induced dyskinesias in MPTP-treated monkeys.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Mancilla, B; Bédard, P J

    1993-10-01

    A group of four monkeys was rendered parkinsonian with the toxin MPTP. They were then treated chronically with L-DOPA/benserazide 50/12.5 mg/kg given orally daily for 2 months. This dose produced a striking antiparkinsonian effect, but all animals manifested dyskinesia. A series of agents acting primarily on neurotransmitters other than dopamine were then tested in combination with L-DOPA to see if the dyskinetic movements would be modified. Several drugs, including clonidine, physostigmine, methysergide, 5-MDOT, propranolol, and MK-801, markedly reduced the dyskinetic movements but at the cost of a return of parkinsonian symptomatology. However, yohimbine and meperidine reduced predominantly the dyskinetic movements. Baclofen was also useful in one monkey against a more dystonic form of dyskinesia. Atropine converted the dystonic movements into chorea.

  2. Effect of dried oregano leaves versus neomycin in treating newborn calves with colibacillosis.

    PubMed

    Bampidis, V A; Christodoulou, V; Florou-Paneri, P; Christaki, E

    2006-04-01

    Treatment with neomycin (as a positive control) and dried oregano leaves on mortality, number of days scouring and severity of scours due to Escherichia coli were examined in 30 Holstein calves. Calves were assigned to one of the treatments following clinical signs of diarrhoea (i.e. faecal score >2), and treated either with an oral solution of neomycin sulphate, to provide 10 mg neomycin sulphate per kg calf body weight per 24 h, or dried oregano leaves, to provide 10 mg oregano essential oil per kg calf body weight per 24 h. The number of scouring days, severity of scouring and mortality rates were similar between the treatments. This study indicates that dried oregano leaves administered as an oral solution to calves with diarrhoea may be as effective in the treatment of colibacillosis as neomycin.

  3. Cofactor metals and antioxidant enzymes in cisplatin-treated rats: effect of antioxidant intervention.

    PubMed

    Sabuncuoglu, Suna; Eken, Ayse; Aydin, Ahmet; Ozgunes, Hilal; Orhan, Hilmi

    2015-10-01

    We explored the association between the activities of antioxidant enzymes and their metallic cofactors in rats treated with cisplatin. The antioxidant effects of aminoguanidine, and a combination of vitamins E and C were investigated. Plasma platin was significantly lower than liver and kidney. Cisplatin treatment caused significant increase in plasma Se-glutathione peroxidase activity. Activities of Se-glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, catalase and Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase have been found to be significantly decreased in liver and kidney compared to controls. Zn levels in these organs were diminished upon cisplatin treatment, while levels of Cu were unaffected. Interestingly, levels of iron, the cofactor of catalase, were found to be significantly increased in liver and kidney. Intervention with aminoguanidine or vitamins was generally prevented cisplatin-caused changes in the activity of enzymes and in the tissue levels of cofactor metals. These observations suggest that relation between activities of enzymes and levels of cofactor metals is multifactorial.

  4. Is intra-articular hyaluronic acid effective in treating osteoarthritis of the hip joint?

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Jay R; Engstrom, Stephen M; Solovyova, Olga; Au, Carol; Grady, James J

    2015-03-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) injections are used to treat osteoarthritis of the hip but their efficacy has not been clearly established. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of HA injections on hip pain. There were twenty-three studies that met our criteria and the mean decrease in visual analog scores (VAS) was -1.97 (95% CL, 2.83 to -1.12, P<0.0001). However, the clinical relevance of this change is difficult to determine since the decrease in VAS was only -0.27 in the six randomized trials in the study and the duration of follow-up in most studies was less than six months. Multicenter randomized trials are needed to determine the true efficacy of HA injections in decreasing pain associated with hip osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Drug-induced EEG pattern predicts effectiveness of ketamine in treating refractory status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Basha, Maysaa M; Alqallaf, Abdulradha; Shah, Aashit K

    2015-04-01

    Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) can lack overt clinical manifestation and is usually treated with continuous infusion of intravenous anesthetic drugs (IVADs), where the use of continuous electroencephalography (cEEG) is imperative. Ketamine has recently been shown to be effective in the treatment of RSE. We retrospectively review a cohort of 11 patients receiving ketamine as part of their treatment regimen for RSE. We report on the presence of a characteristic EEG rhythm consisting of a generalized archiform theta to beta rhythms (7-20 Hz) appearing after ketamine administration. This pattern was seen in five patients, four of whom achieved successful resolution of RSE. Ketamine-induced EEG pattern may serve as a biomarker predictive of successful treatment outcome in RSE. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  6. [Effects on microstructure and mechanical property of pure titanium (TA1) treated by anodic oxidation].

    PubMed

    Pan, Liuguo; Sun, Liqun

    2008-12-01

    Effects on surface microstructure and mechanical property of pure titanium (TA1) for implant treated by anodic oxidation were investigated. We found that the oxide film with a certain uniform and compact color could be achieved by anodic oxidation method. However, with the increasing of oxidizing voltage and time, the oxide film will be dissolved at local area. The oxygen content of oxide film and the hydrogen content of matrix titanium will be raised, and will also be increased. In fact, hydrogen could be diffused into matrix titanium. With the increase of hydrogen content of matrix titanium and sigmas/sigmab, there appear the possible results of plastic deformation and the fracture of implant.

  7. Effect of chest physiotherapy on blood gases of neonates treated by intermittent positive pressure respiration

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, R.; Adams, E. B.; Desai, S. D.; Thambiran, A. K.

    1969-01-01

    The effect of standardized chest physiotherapy and hyperinflation on the blood gases of neonates being treated for tetanus by intermittent positive pressure respiration was investigated. It was found that physiotherapy and suction to remove secretions did not improve oxygen pressures but produced a small drop in both Paco2 and Pao2. This was associated with a widening of the alveolar to arterial gradient for oxygen. During the hour that followed, blood oxygen pressure slowly returned to pre-physiotherapy levels. This could be hastened by hyperinflation (increasing the pressure delivered to the baby) after physiotherapy. Although hyperinflation restored blood oxygen pressures, it did so by a mechanism which left alveolar to arterial oxygen gradients unchanged. Moderate hyperinflation without physiotherapy produced small increases in blood oxygen tension, but also failed to restore completely arterial oxygen pressures of neonates on I.P.P.R. The results are discussed. PMID:4894052

  8. How effective is temozolomide for treating pituitary tumours and when should it be used?

    PubMed

    Halevy, Carmel; Whitelaw, Benjamin C

    2017-04-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ) has been shown as an effective treatment option in aggressive pituitary adenomas and carcinomas. This review analyses the published case series and demonstrates 42 % of patents show a radiological response and 27 % experience stable disease following TMZ. Prolactinomas and corticotroph tumours respond best to TMZ, showing approximately a 50 % response rate, with non-functioning tumours responding only half as frequently. Other factors that may predict the tumour's TMZ response include MGMT and MSH status, but neither is sufficiently robust to determine treatment decisions. TMZ has an accepted role in treating pituitary carcinoma and adenomas if radiation and surgery have failed to control tumour growth. To use TMZ on the basis of anticipated future aggression, as a primary therapy, or in preference to radiotherapy remains controversial.

  9. Effect of maxillary anteroposterior position on profile esthetics in headgear-treated patients.

    PubMed

    Mann, Kyle R; Marshall, Steven D; Qian, Fang; Southard, Karin A; Southard, Thomas E

    2011-02-01

    Headgears have been used to treat Class II malocclusions for over a century. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the profile esthetic changes resulting from headgear use in growing Class II patients with protrusive, normal, and retrusive maxillae. Profile silhouettes were created from pretreatment and posttreatment lateral cephalometric tracings of growing Class II patients treated with headgear followed by conventional fixed appliances. Ten patients had an initially protrusive maxilla (FH:NA, >92°), 10 had an initially normally positioned maxilla (FH:NA, 88°-92°), and 10 had an initially retrusive maxilla (FH:NA, <88°). A panel of 20 laypersons judged the profile esthetics of the randomly sorted silhouettes. Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and anlaysis of variance (ANOVA) with post-hoc Tukey-Kramer tests were used to ascertain differences between groups and the effects of treatment. A significant moderate correlation was found between initial ANB magnitude and the improvement in profile esthetic score with treatment (r = 0.49, P <0.01). No significant correlations were found between the initial anteroposterior position of the maxilla (FH:NA) and the initial, final, or change in profile esthetic scores. There were average improvements with headgear treatment in profile esthetics for all groups. In Class II growing patients with protrusive, normally positioned, or retrusive maxillae, headgear treatment used with fixed orthodontic appliances is effective in improving facial profile esthetics: the greater the initial ANB angle, the greater the profile esthetic improvement with treatment. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The effectiveness of propranolol in treating infantile haemangiomas: a meta-analysis including 35 studies

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Yin; Peng, Wen-jia; Cao, Yi; Cao, Dong-sheng; Xie, Juan; Li, Hong-hong

    2014-01-01

    Aims Propranolol may have shown excellent results as a first line therapy in infantile haemangiomas (IHs) at all sites in the body, but this conclusion remains controversial. In an attempt to resolve this issue, we performed a meta-analysis. Methods A search of the literature using PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library databases and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) was performed to identify studies which estimated the efficacy of propranolol therapy in infants with haemangiomas all sites of the body. The pooled odds ratio (OR) along with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were assessed using a fixed effects model. Results Thirty-five studies involving 324 infantile haemangioma(IH) patients and 248 controls were retrieved and analyzed. The efficacy of propranolol was greater than other therapies in treating IHs (OR = 9.67, 95% CI 6.62, 14.12, P < 0.001). In a stratified analysis by sites of tumour, propranolol was a more effective therapy when compared with steroids (OR = 9.67, 95% CI 6.61, 14.15, P < 0.001), vincristine (OR = 9.00, 95% CI 2.15, 37.66, P = 0.003) and laser treatment (OR = 9.00, 95% CI 1.42, 57.12, P = 0.020) in treating cutaneous IHs (OR = 24.95, 95% CI 9.48, 65.64, P < 0.001), peri-ocular IHs (OR = 9.39, 95% CI 3.88, 22.71, P < 0.001), infantile airway haemangiomas (OR = 20.91, 95% CI 7.81, 55.96, P < 0.001) and infantile hepatic haemangiomas (OR = 9.89, 95% CI 1.20, 81.54, P = 0.033). Conclusion The current meta-analysis provided strong evidence for propranolol as a first line therapy for IHs. PMID:24033819

  11. Effect of MTHFR polymorphisms on hyperhomocysteinemia in levodopa-treated Parkinsonian patients.

    PubMed

    Caccamo, D; Gorgone, G; Currò, M; Parisi, G; Di Iorio, W; Menichetti, C; Belcastro, V; Parnetti, L; Rossi, A; Pisani, F; Ientile, R; Calabresi, P

    2007-01-01

    High plasma homocysteine levels have been observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients treated with levodopa. In this study, we investigated the effects of C677T and A1298C MTHFR polymorphisms, in association with L-DOPA daily dose and vitamin status, on hyperhomocysteinemia development in PD patients. Plasma homocysteine and folate/vitamin B12 levels were assayed in 49 L-DOPA-treated PD patients, and compared with those of 86 healthy subjects. Genotyping for MTHFR polymorphisms was carried out by DG-DGGE. Homocysteine levels were significantly higher in patients than in controls (16.3 +/- 5.7 vs. 11.7 +/- 2.7 micromol/l, P < 0.01). No significant differences were found between patients and controls with regard to folate/vitamin B12 levels, and MTHFR allele distribution. The TT+AA genotype was significantly more frequent in PD patients than in controls (32.5% vs. 17.4%, P < 0.05), but not associated with an increased risk for PD (OR = 2.3, CI = 1.0-5.2). Further, patients carrier of this genotype exhibited a mild hyperhomocysteinemia (22.1 +/- 4.9 micromol/l), while a protective effect was observed in patients having the CC+AA genotype (11.2 +/- 1.6 micromol/l; OR = 0.19, CI = 0.06-0.59). Interestingly, homocysteine levels were also moderately increased in patients with CT heterozygous genotype, in the context of either AA or AC (14.5 +/- 3.6 micromol/l), in comparison to subjects with the CC + AA genotype. Finally, we did not find any significant association of combined C677T and A1298C MTHFR polymorphisms with an increased risk for hyperhomocysteinemia in PD patients. A better understanding of the role of homocysteine and MTHFR genotypes in PD is needed to reveal novel approaches for disease management.

  12. Evaluation of antioxidant effects of crocin on sperm quality in cyclophosphamide treated adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiary, Zahra; Shahrooz, Rasoul; Ahmadi, Abbas; Zarei, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CP) is one of the anti-neoplastic drugs. Despite its numerous clinical applications, it has devastating effects on the testicles and declines the sperm quality in treated patients. This study was aimed to investigate the protective effect of crocin in improving the toxicity induced by CP in reproductive system. In this study, 24 male adult mice (6 to 8 weeks) were randomly divided into three groups, control group received normal saline (0.1 mL, IP, daily), the CP group received CP (15 mg kg-1, IP, weekly) and the CP + crocin group received CP along with crocin (200 mg kg-1, IP, daily). After 35 days of treatment, animals were sacrificed. The samples of epididymis in human tubal fluid medium incubated for 30 min in 5% CO2 for flotation of sperm. Sperm were obtained from caudal epididymis using dissecting method. Then, the parameters of sperm quality including sperm count, motility, viability, DNA damage, nuclear maturation, and sperm morphology were evaluated. In CP group, the sperm count, motility, viability, nuclear maturation and sperm morphology were significantly decreased compared to control group (p < 0.05) and in the CP + crocin group all of these parameters significantly increased compared to CP group (p < 0.05). The percentage of sperm with DNA damage in the CP group significantly increased compared to other groups (p < 0.05). The results of this study indicated that the crocin was able to suppress free radicals and enhance the quality of sperm in CP treated animals. PMID:25568721

  13. Effect of losartan on serum uric acid in hypertension treated with a diuretic: the COMFORT study.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Kiyoshi; Arima, Hisatomi; Tominaga, Mitsuhiro; Ohtsubo, Toshio; Sasaguri, Toshiyuki; Fujii, Koji; Fukuhara, Masayo; Uezono, Keiko; Morinaga, Yuki; Ohta, Yuko; Otonari, Takatoshi; Kawasaki, Junya; Kato, Isao; Tsuchihashi, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), reduces serum uric acid levels. However, the effects of losartan on serum uric acid levels in the patients treated with a thiazide diuretic have not been fully elucidated. We have investigated the effects of losartan compared with other ARBs on blood variables and blood pressure control in hypertensive patients treated with a thiazide diuretic using data from the COMFORT study. The present analysis included a total of 118 hypertensive subjects on combination treatment with ARBs except for losartan and a diuretic who were randomly assigned to a daily regimen of a combination pill (losartan 50 mg/hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg) or to continuation of two pills, an ARB except for losartan and a diuretic. Blood pressures were evaluated at 1, 3, and 6 months after randomization and changes in blood variables including serum uric acid were evaluated during 6 months treatment period. Mean follow-up blood pressure levels were not different between the combination pill (losartan treatment) group and the control (ARBs except for losartan) group. On the other hand, serum uric acid significantly decreased in the combination pill group compared with the control group (-0.44 versus + 0.10 mg/dl; p = 0.01), although hematocrit, serum creatinine, sodium and potassium were not different between the groups. These results suggest that the treatment regimen switched from a combination therapy of ARBs except for losartan and a diuretic to a combination pill (losartan/ hydrochlorothiazide) decreases serum uric acid without affecting blood pressure control.

  14. Trismus in head and neck cancer patients treated by telecobalt and effect of early rehabilitation measures.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, Sindhu; Kadam, S Amrut; Selvaraj, Karthikeyan; Ahmed, Iqbal; Javarappa, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Trismus is one of the common late side effects of radiotherapy (RT) of head and neck cancers. It occurs in about 30% of patients treated by telecobalt. It, in turn, leads to significant morbidity, including malnutrition, difficulty in speaking, and compromised oral hygiene with severe psychosocial, and economic impacts. To determine the prevalence of trismus and its progression in patients who have received radical concurrent chemoradiation for head and neck cancer by telecobalt at our institution. To note the effect of early rehabilitative measures on the severity of trismus and to assess its impact on the quality of life (QOL). A total of 47 evaluable patients of head and neck cancer patients treated by telecobalt with radical intent between January 2012 and December 2013 were analyzed and baseline maximal inter-incisal opening (MIO) and MIO at the completion of RT, after 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year, after completion of RT were noted. Grading of trismus was done using Modified Common Toxicity Criteria (CTCAE Version 3.0). QOL assessment was done using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-HN35. The time when the rehabilitative measures were started were also noted. Chi-square test with Fisher exact probability test and Students t-test. Radiation-induced trismus (RIT) was seen in 31.9%, 34.04%, and 38.39% of cases at 3, 6, and 12 months after completion of RT. Grade II and III trismus accounted for 17.02% and 6.38% at the end of 1 year. Patients who started regular rehabilitative exercises soon, after completion of RT had a better mean MIO as compared to those who were not compliant (32 mm vs. 24 mm at 1 year), and there was a trend toward delayed progression in them. Trismus was also seen to adversely affect QOL of the patients. RIT is a major cause for late morbidity in patients treated with conventional RT leading to poor QOL. Early rehabilitative measures are useful in preventing progression of trismus.

  15. Effects of monascin on anti-inflammation mediated by Nrf2 activation in advanced glycation end product-treated THP-1 monocytes and methylglyoxal-treated wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bao-Hong; Hsu, Wei-Hsuan; Huang, Tao; Chang, Yu-Ying; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2013-02-13

    Hyperglycemia is associated with advanced glycation end products (AGEs). This study was designed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of monascin on receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE) signal and THP-1 monocyte inflammation after treatment with S100b, a specific ligand of RAGE. Monascin inhibited cytokine production by S100b-treated THP-1 monocytes via up-regulation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and alleviated p47phox translocation to the membrane. Methylglyoxal (MG, 600 mg/kg bw) was used to induce diabetes in Wistar rats. Inhibitions of RAGE and p47phox by monascin were confirmed by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of MG-induced rats. Silymarin (SM) was used as a positive control group. It was found that monascin promoted heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression mediated by Nrf2. Suppressions of AGEs, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-β) in serum of MG-induced rats were attenuated in the monascin administration group treated with retinoic acid (RA). RA treatment resulted in Nrf2 inactivation by increasing RA receptor-α (RARα) activity, suggesting that RA acts as an inhibitor of Nrf2. The results showed that monascin exerted anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects mediated by Nrf2 to prevent the development of diseases such as type 2 diabetes caused by inflammation.

  16. Cytogenetic analysis of pulmonary alveolar macrophages from treated mice: the effects of cyclophosphimide and benzene

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, M.J.; Harper, B.L.; Gad-El-Karim, M.; Ward, J.B. Jr.; Legator, M.S.

    1982-02-01

    The lung is a unique organ in environmental toxicology due to its role in chemical absorption, metabolism and clearance. The development of assays for genotoxic events in the lung would allow observation of effects at a site of chemical administration. We are evaluating the genotoxic effects of chemical on the lung by cytogenetic analysis of pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM's). Using male, Swiss (ICR) mice and a modified standard lavage technique, we can consistently recover 1.0-1.5 x 10/sup 6/ PAM cells per animal. Cells from the lavage material were prepared by standard cytogenetic procedures. In two experiments, cyclophosphamide was administered interperatoneally at 0, 5 or 20 mg/kg to 5-6 animals in each treatment group. This was to ascertain whether a clastogen, administered systemically, would manifest its effects in PAM cells, whether such effects were observable, and whether these effects were dose related. The results, analyzed as percent damaged cells, were respectively, 1.89%, 6.40% and 14.32%, (p-value < .001). Benzene was tested using the PAM cytogenetic technique. Doses of 440 and 880 mg/kg, administered via oral gavage, resulted in increased damage: 43.8% and 55.3% cells containing chromosome breaks, respectively. SKF had no apparent protective effect, suggesting the non-involvement of P-450 metabolism in the clastogenic process. In addition, in benzene treated animals a characteristic lesion involving destabilization of the short arms of acrocentric chromosomes resulted in linkage arrangements in over half of all metaphases. These results are consistent with the clastogenic activity of these agents in bone marrow.

  17. Effect of insecticide-treated potato plants on aphid behavior and potato virus Y acquisition.

    PubMed

    Boquel, Sébastien; Zhang, Jianhua; Goyer, Claudia; Giguère, Marie-Andrée; Clark, Catherine; Pelletier, Yvan

    2015-08-01

    The objective was to assess the effect of two contact insecticides, lambda-cyhalothrin and flonicamid, and three systemic insecticides, pymetrozine, dimethoate and imidacloprid, on the behavior and potato virus Y (PVY) acquisition of three aphid species, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), Rhopalosiphum padi L. and Aphis fabae (Scopoli). At 1-4 days after application, contact insecticides strongly modified aphid behavior and intoxicated them. Dimethoate sprayed on potato plants did not change the behavior of the three tested aphid species, while imidacloprid slightly reduced the probing behavior of M. euphorbiae and intoxicated several R. padi. The residual effect of the insecticides (10-21 days after application) was almost non-existent. No intoxication was found, and only slight changes in the behavior of R. padi and A. fabae were observed. The acquisition of PVY by R. padi was reduced on lambda-cyhalothrin- and dimethoate-treated plants that were sprayed a few days before the test. One systemic and two contact insecticides were effective at intoxicating aphids and reducing probing behavior soon after application. Some insecticides might sporadically reduce the spread of PVY either by modifying the behavior or reducing PVY acquisition, but their action is likely limited to a short period of time after application. © 2014 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada Pest Management Science © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Genotoxic effects of cadmium chloride and azadirachtin treated singly and in combination in fish.

    PubMed

    Chandra, P; Khuda-Bukhsh, A R

    2004-06-01

    The genotoxic effects of cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)) and azadirachtin (Aza) were assessed singly and conjointly in a fish, Oreochromis mossambicus, with endpoints such as chromosome aberrations, abnormal red cell nuclei, abnormal sperm morphology, and protein content (both qualitative and quantitative) of selected tissues, namely, muscle, heart, eye, brain, gill, liver, spleen, and kidney. The primary objectives were, first, to examine if CdCl(2), a common pollutant, and Aza, a natural product of the neem plant used extensively as an 'ecofriendly' agent for many purposes, had any genotoxic effect of their own on nontarget aquatic organisms of economic importance; and second, if Aza could have any ameliorating effect on CdCl(2)-induced genotoxicity in O. mossambicus tissues. As compared with distilled water-treated controls, both CdCl(2) and Aza induced genotoxicity in O. mossambicus, the former in greater quantity than that produced by Aza. However, Cd-induced toxicity in O. mossambicus appeared to be ameliorated to some extent by Aza.

  19. Near-infrared spectroscopy technique to evaluate the effects of drugs in treating traumatic brain edema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, J.; Qian, Z.; Yang, T.; Li, W.; Hu, G.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of several drugs in treating traumatic brain edema (TBE) following traumatic brain injury (TBI) using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRs) technology. Rats with TBE models were given hypertonic saline (HS), mannitol and mannitol+HS respectively for different groups. Light scattering properties of rat's local cortex was measured by NIRs within the wavelength range from 700 to 850 nm. TBE models were built in rats' left brains. The scattering properties of the right and left target corresponding to the position of normal and TBE tissue were measured and recorded in vivo and real-time by a bifurcated needle probe. The brain water contents (BWC) were measured by the wet and dry weight method after injury and treatment hours 1, 6, 24, 72 and 120. A marked linear relationship was observed between reduced scattering coefficient (μs') and BWC. By recording μs' of rats' brains, the entire progressions of effects of several drugs were observed. The result may suggest that the NIRs techniques have a potential for assessing effects in vivo and real-time on treatment of the brain injury.

  20. Effects of bulkheads made of pressure-treated wood on estuarine benthos

    SciTech Connect

    Weis, J.S.; Weis, P.

    1995-12-31

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood is in very common use for pilings and bulkheads. Studies of benthic effects of bulkheads include chemical analyses of sediments, chemical analysis of uptake by benthic organisms, and the benthic community structure at different distances from the bulkhead. The authors have measured these parameters at a number of CCA bulkheads, at two bulkheads constructed of other materials (untreated hardwood, aluminum) and at unbulkheaded sites. Sediments adjacent to CCA bulkheads had elevated Cu, Cr, and As in the fine particulate fraction, and the concentration of contaminants decreased with distance. However, the percentage of fine particles increased with distance (to 10 or 20 m) as the sandy sediments adjacent to the bulkheads became siltier with greater depth. Benthic organisms (polychaete worms) had the highest body burdens of the contaminants right at the bulkhead and generally decreased with distance, up to 20 m. The benthic community was evaluated by species richness, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, total number of individuals, and dry weight. These parameters were lowest immediately adjacent to CCA wood bulkheads, and recovered at distances where the amount of contamination of the fine particles was reduced. There was not a comparable reduction in the benthic community adjacent to bulkheads made of other materials. The effects of CCA wood were greatest by new wood, and in areas that were poorly flushed. Pilings in well-flushed areas produced no measurable effects.

  1. Fumigant effectiveness in creosote- and penta-treated southern pine poles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.J.K.; Terracina, F.C.; Zabel, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives were to evaluate the effectiveness of the fumigants, Vapam and chloropicrin, to arrest decay development in the groundline zone of southern pine poles, and to determine the types and prevalence of fungi reinvading the poles after fumigation. Fifty-one creosote- and penta-treated poles representing various service ages and decay conditions were fumigated with Vapam or chloropicrin. Cores were extracted from the groundline zone for fungus isolations and decay determinations, prior to fumigation and annually thereafter for 8 years. The reappearance of decay fungi was the major criterion used for judging fumigant effectiveness. Both Vapam and chloropicrin were effective disinfectants and killed all of the previously detected fungi in all poles. The protection periods of the fumigants from decay fungus reinvasions varied with pole age, prior decay condition, and preservative treatment. They ranged from less than 1 to 7 years and were least in older poles with prior decay. Soft-rot fungi were major decay agents which reinvaded the fumigated poles. The reinvading fungi were generally those tolerant to the preservatives or fumigants used in the study. Chloropicrin concentrations at 5, 6, and 7 years after fumigation were highly variable, and below toxic threshold levels in the outer core zones of most poles. 33 refs., 4 figs., 12 tabs.

  2. Biotransformation effect of Bombyx Mori L. may play an important role in treating diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, La; Li, Yin; Guo, Xin-Feng; Liu, Xu-Sheng

    2016-11-01

    Compared with herbal drugs, medicine processed from animals (animal medicine) was thought to have more bioactive substances and higher activities. Biotransformation effect often plays an important role in their effect. However, researches about effect of animal medicine on diabetic nephropathy and applying animal medicine as natural bio-transformer were seldom reported. The purpose of this paper was to reveal the use of Bombyx Mori L. on diabetic nephropathy from ancient to modern times. The classical literature indicated that Saosi Decoction (), which contains Bombyx Mori L. or silkworm cocoon, was applied to treat disorders congruent with modern disease diabetic nephropathy from the Ming to Qing Dynasty in ancient China. Modern studies showed that Bombyx Mori L. contains four main active constituents. Among these, 1-deoxynojirimycin (1-DNJ) and quercetin showed promising potential to be new agents in diabetic nephropathy treatment. The concentrations of 1-DNJ and the activities of quercetin in Bombyx Mori L. are higher than in mulberry leaves, because of the biotransformation in the Bombyx Mori L. body. However, these specifific components need further human and mechanistic studies to determine their therapeutic potential for this challenging condition.

  3. Effect of acute millimeter wave exposure on dopamine metabolism of NGF-treated PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Alexis J.; Le Page, Yann; Zhadobov, Maxim; Sauleau, Ronan; Saligaut, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Several forthcoming wireless telecommunication systems will use electromagnetic frequencies at millimeter waves (MMWs), and technologies developed around the 60-GHz band will soon know a widespread distribution. Free nerve endings within the skin have been suggested to be the targets of MMW therapy which has been used in the former Soviet Union. So far, no studies have assessed the impact of MMW exposure on neuronal metabolism. Here, we investigated the effects of a 24-h MMW exposure at 60.4 GHz, with an incident power density (IPD) of 5 mW/cm², on the dopaminergic turnover of NGF-treated PC12 cells. After MMW exposure, both intracellular and extracellular contents of dopamine (DA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) were studied using high performance liquid chromatography. Impact of exposure on the dopamine transporter (DAT) expression was also assessed by immunocytochemistry. We analyzed the dopamine turnover by assessing the ratio of DOPAC to DA, and measuring DOPAC accumulation in the medium. Neither dopamine turnover nor DAT protein expression level were impacted by MMW exposure. However, extracellular accumulation of DOPAC was found to be slightly increased, but not significantly. This result was related to the thermal effect, and overall, no evidence of non-thermal effects of MMW exposure were observed on dopamine metabolism. PMID:28339776

  4. Genotoxic effect of Physalis angulata L. (Solanaceae) extract on human lymphocytes treated in vitro.

    PubMed

    Alves dos Santos, Raquel; Cabral, Teresinha Rosa; Cabral, Isabel Rosa; Antunes, Lusânia Maria; Pontes Andrade, Cristiane; Cerqueira dos Santos Cardoso, Plínio; de Oliveira Bahia, Marcelo; Pessoa, Claudia; Martins do Nascimento, José Luis; Rodríguez Burbano, Rommel; Takahashi, Catarina Satie

    2008-08-01

    Physalis angulata L (Solanaceae) is a medicinal plant from North of Brazil, whose different extracts and infusions are commonly used in the popular medicine for the treatment of malaria, asthma, hepatitis, dermatitis and rheumatism. However, the genotoxic effects of P. angulata on human cells is not well known. The main purpose of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro genotoxic effects of aqueous extract of P. angulata using the comet assay and the micronucleus assay in human lymphocytes provided from 6 healthy donors. Treatments with P. angulata extracts were performed in vitro in order to access the extent of DNA damage. The comet assay has shown that treatments with P. angulata at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 6.0 microg/mL in culture medium were genotoxic. Lymphocytes treated with P. angulata at the concentrations of 3.0 and 6.0 microg/mL in culture medium showed a statistically significant increase in the frequency of micronucleus (p<0.05), however, the cytokinesis blocked proliferation index (CBPI) was not decreased after P. angulata treatment. In conclusion, the present work demonstrated the genotoxic effects of P. angulata extract on human lymphocytes in vitro.

  5. Effects of spill-treating agents on growth kinetics of marine microalgae.

    PubMed

    Rial, Diego; Murado, Miguel A; Menduiña, Araceli; Fuciños, Pablo; González, Pilar; Mirón, Jesús; Vázquez, José A

    2013-12-15

    The effects of four spill-treating agents (STAs) (CytoSol, Finasol(®) OSR 51, Agma OSD 569 and OD4000) on the growth kinetics of three marine microalgae (Isochrysis galbana, Chaetoceros gracilis, Phaeodactylum tricornutum) were studied. Chlorophyll a concentration and optical density at 700 nm were assessed to describe the logistic growth of algae in batch cultures. The optical density data were initially analyzed as described for standard algal growth inhibition tests and subsequently modelled by a bivariate model, as a function of time and dose, to assess the toxic effects on growth parameters. Increasing trends in EC50 and EC10 values with time were found with the standard approach. In 8 of the 11 tests, the lag phase (λ) or the time required to achieve half the maximum biomass (τ) was significantly dependent on the STA concentration. A global parameter (EC50,τ) was calculated to summarize the effects of STAs on growth parameters in the bivariate model. The ranking of sensitivity as EC50,τ values was I. galbana>C. gracilis>P. tricornutum. For all species tested, the least toxic agent was Agma OSD 569, followed by CytoSol. The mathematical model allowed successful ecotoxicological evaluation of chemicals on microalgal growth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of treating severe nasal obstruction on the severity of obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    McLean, H A; Urton, A M; Driver, H S; Tan, A K W; Day, A G; Munt, P W; Fitzpatrick, M F

    2005-03-01

    An association between mouth breathing during sleep and increased propensity for upper airway collapse is well documented, but the effect of treatment for nasal obstruction on mouth breathing during sleep and simultaneous obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) severity has not been described previously. A randomised single blind placebo- and sham-controlled crossover study of treatment (topical decongestant and external dilator strip) for nasal obstruction was carried out in 10 patients (nine males; mean+/-SEM 46+/-5 yrs) with nasal obstruction and OSA. All patients had normal acoustic pharyngometry. The effect of treatment on nasal resistance, mouth breathing during sleep and OSA severity was quantified. Treatment of nasal obstruction was associated with a dramatic and sustained reduction in nasal resistance and the oral fraction of ventilation during sleep (mean (95% confidence interval) absolute reduction in oral fraction 30% (12-49)). Improvements in sleep architecture were observed during active treatment, and there was a modest reduction in OSA severity (change in apnoea-hypopnoea index 12 (3-22)). In conclusion, treating nasal obstruction reduced mouth breathing during sleep and obstructive sleep apnoea severity, but did not effectively alleviate obstructive sleep apnoea.

  7. Salinity effect of irrigation with treated wastewater in basal soil respiration in SE of Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morugan, A.; Garcia-Orenes, F.; Mataix-Solera, J.

    2012-04-01

    saline content in soils irrigated with wastewater. The lower values of BSR were detected at T2 and T3 treatments and higher in TC, corresponding with an increase of electrical conductivity (EC) in soil especially in that irrigated with the secondary treatment. The increase of EC in any case was so high as to produce big problems with crop productivity or soil salinization. An increasing trend was observed in BSR after a period of leaching of salts and a decrease of EC. An exhaustive control of EC of treated wastewater is necessary to avoid undesirable effects on crop yield and to assess the feasibility of using these waters in this type of soil. Aknowledgements: This research was supported by the Water Reuse project (Reference STREP- FP6-2003-INCO-Russia+NIS-1. PL 516731). A. Morugán acknowledges the grants from "Caja Mediterraneo". The authors also acknowledge the "Biar waste water treatment station", "Entidad pública de saneamiento de aguas residuales de la Comunidad Valenciana" and "Proaguas Costablanca" for the collaboration.

  8. The preventive effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on diabetic bone loss in streptozotocin-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Jing, D; Cai, J; Shen, G; Huang, J; Li, F; Li, J; Lu, L; Luo, E; Xu, Q

    2011-06-01

    The present study was the first report demonstrating that pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) could partially prevent bone strength and architecture deterioration and improve the impaired bone formation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The findings indicated that PEMF might become a potential additive method for inhibiting diabetic osteopenia or osteoporosis. Diabetes mellitus (DM) can cause various musculoskeletal abnormalities. Optimal therapeutic methods for diabetic bone complication are still lacking. It is essential to develop more effective and safe therapeutic methods for diabetic bone disorders. Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) as an alternative noninvasive method has proven to be effective for treating fracture healing and osteoporosis in non-diabetic conditions. However, the issue about the therapeutic effects of PEMF on diabetic bone complication has not been previously investigated. We herein systematically evaluated the preventive effects of PEMF on diabetic bone loss in streptozotocin-treated rats. Two similar experiments were conducted. In each experiment, 16 diabetic and eight non-diabetic rats were equally assigned to the control, DM, and DM + PEMF group. DM + PEMF group was subjected to daily 8-h PEMF exposure for 8 weeks. In experiment 1, three-point bending test suggested that PEMF improved the biomechanical quality of diabetic bone tissues, evidenced by increased maximum load, stiffness, and energy absorption. Microcomputed tomography analysis demonstrated that DM-induced bone architecture deterioration was partially reversed by PEMF, evidenced by increased Tb.N, Tb.Th, BV/TV, and Conn.D and reduced Tb.Sp and SMI. Serum OC analysis indicated that PEMF partially prevented DM-induced decrease in bone formation. In experiment 2, no significant difference in the bone resorption marker TRACP5b was observed. These biochemical findings were further supported by the dynamic bone histomorphometric parameters BFR/BS and Oc.N/BS. The results

  9. Effects of Chinese herbal formula Erxian decoction for treating osteoporosis: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin-Yu; Jia, Yu-Song; Chai, Li-Min; Mu, Xiao-Hong; Ma, Sheng; Xu, Lin; Wei, Xu

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim is to systematically assess the effectiveness and safety of Chinese herbal formula Erxian decoction (EXD) for treating osteoporosis. Materials and methods Six databases were searched from inception through September 17, 2016, without language restriction. All randomized controlled trials of EXD for osteoporosis were included. One or more outcome measures including fracture, change in bone mineral density (BMD), pain symptom improvement, bone biochemical markers, quality of life, adverse event or adverse drug reaction were evaluated. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to Cochrane standards. Results Eight trials including 644 patients investigated the effects of EXD in the treatment of osteoporosis. The methodological quality of the included trials was generally low. The meta-analysis from two trials showed favorable effects of EXD in improving BMD of lumbar spine (mean difference [MD]: 0.05 [0.03, 0.06]; I2=0%; P<0.00001) and BMD of femoral great trochanter (MD: 0.06 [0.02, 0.10]; I2=59%; P=0.005) compared with caltrate tablets. The other meta-analysis from two trials showed beneficial effects of EXD plus caltrate tablets and calcitriol in improving BMD of femoral neck (MD: 0.04 [0.00, 0.09]; I2=56%; P=0.04), the level of calcium (MD: 0.20 [0.15, 0.24]; I2=0%; P<0.00001), and phosphorus (MD: −0.28 [−0.39, −0.17]; I2=68%; P<0.00001) compared with caltrate tablets and calcitriol alone. The adverse drug reactions of EXD were mainly slight gastrointestinal symptoms. Conclusion The study provides suggestive evidence of the superiority of EXD monotherapy or combination therapy over basic supplements for treating osteoporosis. However, the evidence remains weak. More rigorously designed and measured, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with larger sample size are needed to verify the current conclusions. PMID:28115834

  10. Remote Effect of Insecticide-Treated Nets and the Personal Protection against Malaria Mosquito Bites.

    PubMed

    Moiroux, Nicolas; Chandre, Fabrice; Hougard, Jean-Marc; Corbel, Vincent; Pennetier, Cédric

    2017-01-01

    Experimental huts are part of the WHO process for testing and evaluation of Insecticide Treated Nets (ITN) in semi-field conditions. Experimental Hut Trials (EHTs) mostly focus on two main indicators (i.e., mortality and blood feeding reduction) that serve as efficacy criteria to obtain WHO interim recommendation. However, several other outputs that rely on counts of vectors collected in the huts are neglected although they can give useful information about vectors' behavior and personal protection provided by ITNs. In particular, EHTs allow to measure the deterrent effect and personal protection of ITNs. To provide a better assessment of ITNs efficacy, we performed a retrospective analysis of the deterrence and the personal protection against malaria transmission for 12 unwashed and 13 washed ITNs evaluated through EHTs conducted in West Africa. A significant deterrent effect was shown for six of the 12 unwashed ITNs tested. When washed 20 times, only three ITNs had significant deterrent effect (Rate Ratios (RR)<1; p<0.05) and three showed an apparent "attractiveness" (RR>1; p<0.01). When compared to the untreated net, all unwashed ITNs showed lower number of blood-fed Anopheles indicating a significant personal protection (RR<1, p<0.05). However, when washed 20 times, three ITNs that were found to be attractive did not significantly reduce human-vector contact (p>0.05). Current WHO efficacy criteria do not sufficiently take into account the deterrence effect of ITNs. Moreover, the deterrence variability is rarely discussed in EHT's reports. Our findings highlighted the long-range effect (deterrent or attractive) of ITNs that may have significant consequences for personal/community protection against malaria transmission. Indicators measuring the deterrence should be further considered for the evaluation of ITNs.

  11. Detecting and treating occlusal caries lesions: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Schwendicke, F; Stolpe, M; Meyer-Lueckel, H; Paris, S

    2015-02-01

    The health gains and costs resulting from using different caries detection strategies might not only depend on the accuracy of the used method but also the treatment emanating from its use in different populations. We compared combinations of visual-tactile, radiographic, or laser-fluorescence-based detection methods with 1 of 3 treatments (non-, micro-, and invasive treatment) initiated at different cutoffs (treating all or only dentinal lesions) in populations with low or high caries prevalence. A Markov model was constructed to follow an occlusal surface in a permanent molar in an initially 12-y-old male German patient over his lifetime. Prevalence data and transition probabilities were extracted from the literature, while validity parameters of different methods were synthesized or obtained from systematic reviews. Microsimulations were performed to analyze the model, assuming a German health care setting and a mixed public-private payer perspective. Radiographic and fluorescence-based methods led to more overtreatments, especially in populations with low prevalence. For the latter, combining visual-tactile or radiographic detection with microinvasive treatment retained teeth longest (mean 66 y) at lowest costs (329 and 332 Euro, respectively), while combining radiographic or fluorescence-based detections with invasive treatment was the least cost-effective (<60 y, >700 Euro). In populations with high prevalence, combining radiographic detection with microinvasive treatment was most cost-effective (63 y, 528 Euro), while sensitive detection methods combined with invasive treatments were again the least cost-effective (<59 y, >690 Euro). The suitability of detection methods differed significantly between populations, and the cost-effectiveness was greatly influenced by the treatment initiated after lesion detection. The accuracy of a detection method relative to a "gold standard" did not automatically convey into better health or reduced costs. Detection methods

  12. Remote Effect of Insecticide-Treated Nets and the Personal Protection against Malaria Mosquito Bites

    PubMed Central

    Chandre, Fabrice; Hougard, Jean-Marc; Corbel, Vincent; Pennetier, Cédric

    2017-01-01

    Experimental huts are part of the WHO process for testing and evaluation of Insecticide Treated Nets (ITN) in semi-field conditions. Experimental Hut Trials (EHTs) mostly focus on two main indicators (i.e., mortality and blood feeding reduction) that serve as efficacy criteria to obtain WHO interim recommendation. However, several other outputs that rely on counts of vectors collected in the huts are neglected although they can give useful information about vectors’ behavior and personal protection provided by ITNs. In particular, EHTs allow to measure the deterrent effect and personal protection of ITNs. To provide a better assessment of ITNs efficacy, we performed a retrospective analysis of the deterrence and the personal protection against malaria transmission for 12 unwashed and 13 washed ITNs evaluated through EHTs conducted in West Africa. A significant deterrent effect was shown for six of the 12 unwashed ITNs tested. When washed 20 times, only three ITNs had significant deterrent effect (Rate Ratios (RR)<1; p<0.05) and three showed an apparent “attractiveness” (RR>1; p<0.01). When compared to the untreated net, all unwashed ITNs showed lower number of blood-fed Anopheles indicating a significant personal protection (RR<1, p<0.05). However, when washed 20 times, three ITNs that were found to be attractive did not significantly reduce human-vector contact (p>0.05). Current WHO efficacy criteria do not sufficiently take into account the deterrence effect of ITNs. Moreover, the deterrence variability is rarely discussed in EHT’s reports. Our findings highlighted the long-range effect (deterrent or attractive) of ITNs that may have significant consequences for personal/community protection against malaria transmission. Indicators measuring the deterrence should be further considered for the evaluation of ITNs. PMID:28129371

  13. The assessment of treated wastewater quality and the effects of mid-term irrigation on soil physical and chemical properties (case study: Bandargaz-treated wastewater)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaboosi, Kami

    2017-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of inflow and outflow wastewater of the Bandargaz wastewater treatment plant on the basis of the data collection of operation period and the samples taken during the study. Also the effects of mid-term use of the wastewater for irrigation (from 2005 to 2013) on soil physical and chemical characteristics were studied. For this purpose, 4 samples were taken from the inflow and outflow wastewater and 25 quality parameters were measured. Also, the four soil samples from a depth of 0-30 cm of two rice field irrigated with wastewater in the beginning and middle of the planting season and two samples from one adjacent rice field irrigated with fresh water were collected and their chemical and physical characteristics were determined. Average of electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, sodium adsorption ratio, chemical oxygen demand and 5 days biochemical oxygen demand in treated wastewater were 1.35 dS/m, 707 ppm, 0.93, 80 ppm and 40 ppm, respectively. Results showed that although some restrictions exist about chlorine and bicarbonate, the treated wastewater is suitable for irrigation based on national and international standards and criteria. In comparison with fresh water, the mid-term use of wastewater caused a little increase of soil salinity. However, it did not lead to increase of soil salinity beyond rice salinity threshold. Also, there were no restrictions on soil in the aspect of salinity and sodium hazard on the basis of many irrigated soil classifications. In comparison with fresh water, the mid-term use of wastewater caused the increase of total N, absorbable P and absorbable K in soil due to high concentration of those elements in treated wastewater.

  14. The assessment of treated wastewater quality and the effects of mid-term irrigation on soil physical and chemical properties (case study: Bandargaz-treated wastewater)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaboosi, Kami

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of inflow and outflow wastewater of the Bandargaz wastewater treatment plant on the basis of the data collection of operation period and the samples taken during the study. Also the effects of mid-term use of the wastewater for irrigation (from 2005 to 2013) on soil physical and chemical characteristics were studied. For this purpose, 4 samples were taken from the inflow and outflow wastewater and 25 quality parameters were measured. Also, the four soil samples from a depth of 0-30 cm of two rice field irrigated with wastewater in the beginning and middle of the planting season and two samples from one adjacent rice field irrigated with fresh water were collected and their chemical and physical characteristics were determined. Average of electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, sodium adsorption ratio, chemical oxygen demand and 5 days biochemical oxygen demand in treated wastewater were 1.35 dS/m, 707 ppm, 0.93, 80 ppm and 40 ppm, respectively. Results showed that although some restrictions exist about chlorine and bicarbonate, the treated wastewater is suitable for irrigation based on national and international standards and criteria. In comparison with fresh water, the mid-term use of wastewater caused a little increase of soil salinity. However, it did not lead to increase of soil salinity beyond rice salinity threshold. Also, there were no restrictions on soil in the aspect of salinity and sodium hazard on the basis of many irrigated soil classifications. In comparison with fresh water, the mid-term use of wastewater caused the increase of total N, absorbable P and absorbable K in soil due to high concentration of those elements in treated wastewater.

  15. Effects of Biologic Agents in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Amyloidosis Treated with Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Takeshi; Tanabe, Naohito; Nozawa, Yukiko; Sato, Hiroe; Nakatsue, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Wada, Yoko; Saeki, Takako; Nakano, Masaaki; Narita, Ichiei

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to examine the safety and effects of therapy with biologics on the prognosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with reactive amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis on hemodialysis (HD). Methods Twenty-eight patients with an established diagnosis of reactive AA amyloidosis participated in the study. The survival was calculated from the date of HD initiation until the time of death, or up to end of June 2015 for the patients who were still alive. HD initiation was according to the program of HD initiation for systemic amyloidosis patients associated with RA. Results Ten patients had been treated with biologics before HD initiation for a mean of 28.2 months (biologic group), while 18 had not (non-biologic group). HD was initiated in patients with similar characteristics except for the tender joint count, swollen joint count, and disease activity score (DAS)28-C-reactive protein (CRP). History of biologics showed that etanercept was frequently used for 8 patients as the first biologic. There was no significant difference in the mortality rate according to a Kaplan-Meier analysis (p=0.939) and or associated risk of death in an age-adjusted Cox proportional hazards model (p=0.758) between both groups. Infections were significantly more frequent causes of death in the biologic group than in the non-biologic group (p=0.021). However, treatment with biologics improved the DAS28-CRP score (p=0.004). Conclusion Under the limited conditions of AA amyloidosis treated with HD, the use of biologics might affect infection and thus may not improve the prognosis. Strict infection control is necessary for the use of biologics with HD to improve the prognosis. PMID:27725536

  16. Effect of reactor radiation on the thermal conductivity of TREAT fuel

    DOE PAGES

    Mo, Kun; Miao, Yinbin; Kontogeorgakos, Dimitrios C.; ...

    2017-02-04

    The Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) at the Idaho National Laboratory is resuming operations after more than 20 years in latency in order to produce high-neutron-flux transients for investigating transient-induced behavior of reactor fuels and their interactions with other materials and structures. A parallel program is ongoing to develop a replacement core in which the fuel, historically containing highly-enriched uranium (HEU), is replaced by low-enriched uranium (LEU). Both the HEU and prospective LEU fuels are in the form of UO2 particles dispersed in a graphite matrix, but the LEU fuel will contain a much higher volume of UO2 particles, whichmore » may create a larger area of interphase boundaries between the particles and the graphite. This may lead to a higher volume fraction of graphite exposed to the fission fragments escaping from the UO2 particles, and thus may induce a higher volume of fission-fragment damage on the fuel graphite. In this work, we analyzed the reactor-radiation induced thermal conductivity degradation of graphite-based dispersion fuel. A semi-empirical method to model the relative thermal conductivity with reactor radiation was proposed and validated based on the available experimental data. Prediction of thermal conductivity degradation of LEU TREAT fuel during a long-term operation was performed, with a focus on the effect of UO2 particle size on fission-fragment damage. Lastly, the proposed method can be further adjusted to evaluate the degradation of other properties of graphite-based dispersion fuel.« less

  17. Effect of temperature and water on gaseous emissions from soils treated with animal slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Maag, M.; Vinther, F.P.

    1999-08-01

    Microbial respiration and denitrification are greatly affected by abiotic factors, but they are difficult to assess in natural environments. Under controlled conditions the interactions between temperature and soil water content on microbial respiration, N{sub 2}O production, and denitrification in soil amended with animal slurries were studied. The effects of the abiotic factors on the biological processes were monitored for 8 wk in repacked soil cores amended with pig or cattle slurry. The soil cores were incubated at 43, 57, and 72% water-filled pore space (WFPS) and at 10, 15, and 20 C with or without addition of 10% acetylene. The amount of N{sub 2}O lost at 72% WFPS corresponded to 8 to 22% of the slurry's NH{sub 4}{sup +} content, but for only 0.01 to 1.2% at 43 to 57% WFPS. The amount of available C accounted for by denitrification was 8 to 16% of total respiration at 72% WFPS, but only 0.03 to 0.4% at 43 to 57% WFPS. Both N{sub 2}O production and denitrification peaked earlier in the cattle-slurry treated soil than in the pig-slurry treated soil, whereas the total N loss was greatest from the latter. Neither amendments nor soil water contents seemed to affect the Q{sub 10}-values for the CO{sub 2} production, resulting in values between 1.6 and 2.6. At 72% WFPS, N{sub 2}O production and denitrification had Q{sub 10}-values ranging between 3.3 and 5.4. High temperatures enhanced both aerobic respiration and denitrification, and aerobic respiration further enhanced denitrification by consuming oxygen, resulting in strong sensitivity of denitrification to temperature.

  18. Remote therapeutic effectiveness of acupuncture in treating myofascial trigger point of the upper trapezius muscle.

    PubMed

    Chou, Li-Wei; Hsieh, Yueh-Ling; Chen, Hsin-Shui; Hong, Chang-Zern; Kao, Mu-Jung; Han, Ting-I

    2011-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the remote effect of acupuncture (AcP) on the pain intensity and the irritability of the myofascial trigger point in the upper trapezius muscle. Forty-five patients were equally divided into three groups: patients in the placebo control group received sham AcP, those in the simple needling group were treated using simple needling, and those in the modified AcP received AcP with the rapid "screwed in and out" into multiple sites to elicit local twitch responses. The acupoints of Wai-guan and Qu-chi were treated. The outcome assessments included changes in subjective pain intensity, pressure pain threshold, range of motion, and mean amplitude of endplate noise in the myofascial trigger point region. Immediately after acupuncture, all measured parameters improved significantly in the simple needling and modified AcP groups, but not in the placebo control group. There were significantly larger changes in all parameters in the modified AcP group than that in the simple needling group. The myofascial trigger point irritability could be suppressed after a remote acupuncture treatment. It appears that needling to the remote AcP points with multiple needle insertions of modified AcP technique is a better technique than simple needling insertion of simple needling technique in terms of the decrease in pain intensity and prevalence of endplate noise and the increase in pressure pain threshold in the needling sites (represented either AcP points and or myofascial trigger points). We have further confirmed that the reduction in endplate noise showed good correlation with a decreased in pain.

  19. Effect of reactor radiation on the thermal conductivity of TREAT fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Kun; Miao, Yinbin; Kontogeorgakos, Dimitrios C.; Connaway, Heather M.; Wright, Arthur E.; Yacout, Abdellatif M.

    2017-04-01

    The Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) at the Idaho National Laboratory is resuming operations after more than 20 years in latency in order to produce high-neutron-flux transients for investigating transient-induced behavior of reactor fuels and their interactions with other materials and structures. A parallel program is ongoing to develop a replacement core in which the fuel, historically containing highly-enriched uranium (HEU), is replaced by low-enriched uranium (LEU). Both the HEU and prospective LEU fuels are in the form of UO2 particles dispersed in a graphite matrix, but the LEU fuel will contain a much higher volume of UO2 particles, which may create a larger area of interphase boundaries between the particles and the graphite. This may lead to a higher volume fraction of graphite exposed to the fission fragments escaping from the UO2 particles, and thus may induce a higher volume of fission-fragment damage on the fuel graphite. In this work, we analyzed the reactor-radiation induced thermal conductivity degradation of graphite-based dispersion fuel. A semi-empirical method to model the relative thermal conductivity with reactor radiation was proposed and validated based on the available experimental data. Prediction of thermal conductivity degradation of LEU TREAT fuel during a long-term operation was performed, with a focus on the effect of UO2 particle size on fission-fragment damage. The proposed method can be further adjusted to evaluate the degradation of other properties of graphite-based dispersion fuel.

  20. Effect of add-on therapy of tiotropium in COPD treated with theophylline

    PubMed Central

    Kawayama, Tomotaka; Hoshino, Tomoaki; Ichiki, Masao; Tsuda, Toru; Kinoshita, Masaharu; Takata, Shohei; Koga, Takeharu; Iwanaga, Tomoaki; Aizawa, Hisamichi

    2008-01-01

    Background Although combination therapy with bronchodilators is recommended for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), there is insufficient evidence for the efficacy of some combinations of long-acting bronchodilators. Objective We investigated the effects of a combination therapy with tiotropium and theophylline in COPD patients. Methods In a 12-week, open-labeled, parallel-group randomized study, pulmonary functions and dyspnea scores were compared between the combination and theophylline alone therapy at baseline, and 4 and 8 weeks after randomization in COPD. Results Sixty-one COPD patients completed the trial (31 combination therapy, 30 theophylline alone; mean age 70 years; 58 males; mean dyspnea score 2.0 and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 1.5 L [62.5% predicted]). FEV1 in the combination group, but not in the theophylline alone, was significantly increased at 4 (1.56 ± 0.13 L, p < 0.001) and 8 weeks (1.60 ± 0.13 L, p < 0.001) from the baseline (1.40 ± 0.12 L). In the combination group, but not the theophylline alone group, the dyspnea score was significantly improved after 4 (p < 0.01) and 8 weeks (p < 0.05) compared with baseline. In 17 patients who did not receive theophylline at screening, treatment with 4 or 8 weeks of theophylline alone did not improve dyspnea score or FEV1. Conclusion Addition of tiotropium therapy to theophylline treatment can improve dyspnea and pulmonary function in COPD. Although this study did not assess whether there was any benefit of adding theophylline to patients treated with tiotropium, tiotropium can be a useful addition in COPD already treated with theophylline. PMID:18488437

  1. Effects of auxiliary fiber posts on endodontically treated teeth with flared canals.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Xu, B; Wang, Y; Cai, Y

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the fracture resistance and retention of endodontically treated roots with over-flared canals restored with different post systems, including one cast metal post and four fiber posts with/without auxiliary fiber posts. One hundred endodontically treated incisor roots were experimentally flared using a tapered diamond bur. The roots were restored using one of the five post systems: Ni-Cr cast metal post (CM), D.T. Light glass fiber post (DT), Macro-Lock glass fiber post (ML), ML+2 Fibercone auxiliary fiber posts (2FC), and ML+5 Fibercone auxiliary fiber posts (5FC). After fabrication of the crowns, half of the specimens (n=50) were subjected to a fracture failure test--loading with an incremental static force at an angle of 45 degrees to the long axis of the root. The other 50 samples underwent a pull-out test. Fracture failure strength and pull-out strength were measured and analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's post hoc test (α=0.05). After the tests were completed, all specimens displayed oblique root fractures or cracks, initiating from the palatal cervical margin and propagating in a labial-apical direction. The order of the fracture failure strength was as follows: 5FC=CM=2FC>ML>DT. Cast metal posts demonstrated the highest pull-out strength (p<0.05). No significant differences in pull-out strength were found in the ML, 2FC, and 5FC groups. Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that the application of an auxiliary fiber post could significantly increase the fracture resistance of over-flared roots; however, no beneficial effects in enhancing retention were observed.

  2. Wound healing effect of acupuncture for treating phonotraumatic vocal pathologies: Cytokine study

    PubMed Central

    Yiu, Edwin ML; Chan, Karen MK; Li, Nicole YK; Tsang, Raymond; Abbott, Katherine Verdolini; Kwong, Elaine; Ma, Estella PM; Tse, Fred W; Lin, ZX

    2015-01-01

    Objective Acupuncture is a less invasive procedure when compared with surgical treatment for benign vocal pathologies caused by vocal overuse. This study aimed to determine the wound healing effect of acupuncture in treating phonotraumatic vocal fold lesions. Study Design and Methods The study used a two-way mixed-model between- and within-subjects, prospective randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded, group design. Seventeen dysphonic individuals with vocal nodules were recruited from a university clinic in Hong Kong. Each participant was randomly assigned to receive one session of either genuine or sham acupuncture. The genuine acupuncture group (N=9) received needles puncturing nine voice-related acupoints for 30 minutes; while the sham acupuncture group (N=8) received blunted needles stimulating the skin surface of the nine acupoints for the same frequency and duration. Laryngeal secretions were suctioned from the surface of the vocal folds immediately before, immediately after, and 24 hours after the acupuncture. The protein concentration levels of wound-healing related cytokines (interlukin IL-1 and IL-10) in these secretion samples were measured. Results Following acupuncture, a significant increased in the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was found in the genuine acupuncture group (N=9) but not in the sham acupuncture group (N=8). Conclusions The findings showed that acupuncture of voice-related acupoints facilitated an anti-inflammatory process in phonotraumatic vocal pathologies. This could be considered as supporting evidence to consider acupuncture as a less invasive alternative option, when compared to surgery, for treating phonotraumatic vocal pathologies. PMID:26227080

  3. Treating Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Treating Infertility Home For Patients Search FAQs Treating Infertility Page ... Treating Infertility FAQ137, March 2015 PDF Format Treating Infertility Gynecologic Problems What is infertility? What treatment options ...

  4. [Clinical observation on therapeutic effect of myopia in children treated with abdominal acupuncture].

    PubMed

    Lv, Hui; Wang, Liping; Shen, Fengren; Feng, Jianru; Hu, Hai; Cao, Lijuan

    2015-06-01

    To observe the clinical effects of myopia in children treated with abdominal acupuncture. Ninety children with myopia were randomly divided into an abdominal acupuncture group (45 cases with 90 ill eyes) and an auricular point group(45 cases with 90 ill eyes). In the abdominal acupuncture group, Zhongwan (CV 12), Shangqu(KI 17), Xiawan(CV 10), Tianshu(ST 25), Qihai(CV 6), Guanyuan(CV 4) were treated with tapping method. The needles were not retained and down to the lower in accordance with the order from Zhongwan (CV 12) to Guanyuan(CV 4) for 5 min,and the erubescence skin without blood was proper. In the auricular point group, vaccaria seeds were pasted at gan(CO12), shen(CO10),pi(CO13), wei(CO4), yan(LO5), pingjianqian(TG2i), pingjianhou(ATli) and zhen(AT3); one ear was chosen every time and the other ear the second time with pressing of patient's own for 5 min every day. The treatment was given twice a week and 10 treatments were considered as one course in the two groups. The changes of the visual levels in visual chart before treatment, 20 min after the first treatment, after 5 weeks' and 3 months' treatment were compared between the two groups,and the clinicall efficacy was compared between the two groups as well. (1) The visual levels in visual chart were improved in the abdominal acupuncture group and auricular point group, and the effects 20 min after the first treatment, after 5 weeks' and 3 months' treatment in the abdominal acupuncture group were superior to those in the auricular point group(4. 78±0. 16 vs 4. 69±0. 22, P<0. 01; 4. 85±0. 16 vs 4. 79±0. 21, P<0. 05; 4. 89±0. 13 vs 4. 71±0. 25, P<0. 01). (2)The effective rates 20 min after the first treatment, after 5 weeks' and 3 months' treatment in the abdominal acupuncture group were better than those in the auricular point group[31. 4% (27/86) vs 0% (0/82). 81.4%(70/86) vs 60. 0%(49/82); 88. 4%(76/86) vs 51. 2%(42/82), all P<0. 01]. Abdominal acupuncture for improving the visual levels of

  5. Effects of TOOKAD-PDT on canine prostates pre-treated with ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qun; Huang, Zheng; Luck, David L.; Beckers, Jill; Trncic, Nadira; LaRue, Susan M.; Brun, Pierre-Herve; Wilson, Brian C.; Hetzel, Fred W.

    2003-06-01

    PDT in prostate cancer will likely be implemented clinically with patients who have failed prior ionizing radiation therapy (RT). The current study is to develop an in vivo model to evaluate the effects of PDT on prostatic tissue after RT. To produce a physiological and anatomical environment in prostate similar to that in patients who have failed RT, canine prostates (n=4) were subjected to a definitive course of ionizing radiation therapy (2.7 Gy x 20 fractions) 5 to 6 months prior to PDT. A laparotomy was performed to expose the prostate for PDT. Second generation photosensitizer Tookad (Palladium-Bacteriopheophorbide, Steba Biotech, The Netherlands) acts primarily on tissue vasculature and is very effective in destroying normal prostatic tissue, as shown by our prior studies. Due to the extremely fast clearance of the photosensitizer, interstitial light irradiation (760 nm, 50-200 J/cm, 150 mW/cm from a 1 cm diffuser fiber) was delivered 4 minutes after the onset of Tookad infusion (i.v. 2.5 mg/ml, 2 mg/kg, total infusion time 10 min). The prostates were harvested for histopathology one week after PDT. At one week, the lesions were characterized by acute hemorrhagic necrosis with patchy sub-capsular hyperemia and edema. The maximum lesion diameter for 50, 100 and 200 J/cm PDT was approximately 15, 20 and 28 mm, respectively. The lesion size is well correlated with light fluence and comparable to that in prostates treated with identical PDT doses but without prior-RT. Under light-microscopy, the PDT induced necrosis is clearly distinguishable from the radiation induced fibrosis. No urethral lesions were observed. Dyer"s Verhoeff stain showed the loss of stromal connective tissue and the acinar collagen in the PDT treated area. There was no noticeable damage on the bladder or underlying colon section. In conclusion, Tookad-PDT can effectively destroy prostate tissue with prior-RT induced fibrosis, thus, may provide an alternative modality for those prostate

  6. Effects of acute nicotine administration on cognitive event-related potentials in tacrine-treated and non-treated patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Knott, V; Mohr, E; Mahoney, C; Engeland, C; Ilivitsky, V

    2002-01-01

    Earlier studies of cognitive event-related brain potentials (ERPs) reporting diminished amplitudes and delayed latencies of the P300 potential in dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT), together with independent findings of the P300- and performance-enhancing properties of nicotine in normal adults, stimulated this study to explore the single-dose effects of nicotine on auditory and visual P300s in DAT. Thirteen patients, 6 currently receiving treatment with the cholinesterase inhibitor tacrine (tetrahydroaminoacridine; THA) and the remaining being medication free, were administered 2 mg of nicotine polacrilex under double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled conditions. Prior to nicotine administration, THA-treated patients exhibited shorter auditory P300 latencies than non-treated patients. Acutely administered nicotine failed to alter auditory P300, but increased the amplitudes of visual P300s in both DAT patient groups. Neither THA treatment nor single-dose nicotine altered behavioural performance in the visual and auditory task paradigms. The results are discussed in relation to nicotinic cholinergic, attentional and cognitive processes in DAT. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. Metagenomic insights into ultraviolet disinfection effects on antibiotic resistome in biologically treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qing; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Jia, Shuyu; Huang, Kailong; Tang, Junying; Shi, Peng; Ye, Lin; Ren, Hongqiang

    2016-09-15

    High-throughput sequencing-based metagenomic approaches were used to comprehensively investigate ultraviolet effects on the microbial community structure, and diversity and abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in biologically treated wastewater. After ultraviolet radiation, some dominant genera, like Aeromonas and Halomonas, in the wastewater almost disappeared, while the relative abundance of some minor genera including Pseudomonas and Bacillus increased dozens of times. Metagenomic analysis showed that 159 ARGs within 14 types were detectable in the samples, and the radiation at 500 mJ/cm(2) obviously increased their total relative abundance from 31.68 ppm to 190.78 ppm, which was supported by quantitative real time PCR. As the dominant persistent ARGs, multidrug resistance genes carried by Pseudomonas and bacitracin resistance gene bacA carried by Bacillus mainly contributed to the ARGs abundance increase. Bacterial community shift and MGEs replication induced by the radiation might drive the resistome alteration. The findings may shed new light on the mechanism behind the ultraviolet radiation effects on antibiotic resistance in wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Therapy in Patients Suffering from Chronic Back Pain Treated with Spinal Cord Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Mosiewicz, Anna; Rutkowska, Elżbieta; Matacz, Monika; Mosiewicz, Barbara; Kaczmarczyk, Robert; Trojanowski, Tomasz

    2015-10-01

    Pain in the lumbosacral part of the spine in the course of degenerative disease is the most common cause of physical activity limitation in adults. Treatment includes pharmacotherapy, physiotherapy, psychotherapy, health promotion, and sometimes surgery. Surgical treatment is not always successful, and the various clinical and psychosomatic symptoms that result from surgical treatment failure are known as failed back surgery syndrome. For some patients with this condition, spinal cord stimulation can provide relief. The aim of the work was to define subjective and objective spinal cord stimulation effects by assessing chosen disability and physical activity limitation ratios. Pain intensity, level of disability, and presence of neurological symptoms were assessed. The examination was performed twice: before the stimulator implantation and at least 6 months postimplantation. The study was conducted at the Department of Neurosurgery and Paediatric Neurosurgery in Lublin. Thirty-six patients suffering from failed back surgery syndrome were recruited for this study. The Visual Analog Scale, modified Laitinen's pain questionnaire, and Oswestry Disability Index were used in this work. The study showed that spinal cord stimulation was effective in treating spinal and lower limb pain in 64% of patients, similar to results obtained in other departments. Although back pain and neuropathic pain radiating to the lower limbs decreased, moderate physical activity impairment was still observed according to the Oswestry Disability Index scale. The decrease in neuropathic pain radiating to the lower limbs had the most significant influence on reducing physical activity impairment.

  9. Effect of dissolved organic matter from treated effluents on sorption of atrazine and prometryn by soils

    SciTech Connect

    Seol, Y.; Lee, L.S.

    2000-01-02

    The apparent enhanced transport of soil-applied atrazine following irrigation of treated effluents has been hypothesized to be from complexation of atrazine with effluent-borne dissolved organic matter (DOM). Under long-term effluent irrigation, even small DOM-induced decreases in pesticide sorption can result in significant enhanced pesticide movement due to cumulative effects. The effect of atrazine and prometryn association with DOM extracted from municipal wastewater (MW), swine-derived lagoon wastewater (SW), and dissolved Aldrich humic acid (HA) on sorption by two soils was measured in batch equilibration studies. Individual association of pesticides to DOM, sorption of DOM to soil, and pesticide sorption by soil were also quantified. Pesticide association to DOM normalized to organic carbon (OC) ranged from 30 to 1000 L/kg OC. DOM sorption by soil ranged from 1.5 to 10 L/kg with a silt loam having a higher affinity for the DOM than the sandy loam. DOM up to 150 mg OC/L did not significantly suppress sorption by soils of either atrazine or prometryne in agreement with predictions using the independently measured binary distribution coefficients in a model that assumed linear equilibrium behavior among pesticide, soil, and DOM. A sensitivity analysis was performed using the same model to identify what combination of soil, pesticide, and DOC variables may suppress sorption, resulting in facilitated transport. Results from the sensitivity analysis are presented and the potential for effluent properties other than DOM to facilitate pesticide transport is discussed.

  10. Lethal Effect of a Heterologous Murein Hydrolase on Penicillin-Treated Streptococcus sanguis

    PubMed Central

    Horne, Diane; Tomasz, Alexander

    1980-01-01

    Nine strains of Streptococcus sanguis exhibited tolerance to benzylpenicillin: the growth of each strain was susceptible to penicillin with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 0.1 μg/ml or lower, but the bacteriolytic and bactericidal effects were limited in each case. The tolerance of these bacteria was also reflected in the large discrepancies between the minimal inhibitory and minimal bactericidal concentrations for benzylpenicillin. The hypothesis that a natural deficiency of endogenous murein hydrolase (autolysin) in this species accounts for the penicillin tolerance was tested by using a heterologous murein hydrolase, the C-phage-associated lysin. In seven of the strains, addition of the lysin to the culture together with penicillin or other cell wall inhibitors resulted in lysis and rapid loss of viability. The enzyme alone did not appreciably affect normally growing cultures. The irreversible effects of penicillin plus lysin were drastically reduced in the presence of the bacteriostatic agents chloramphenicol and cerulenin. Speculations based on experiments are presented for the mechanisms by which penicillin treatment sensitizes these bacteria to an exogenous lytic enzyme. Similar phenomena requiring cooperation of host factors and penicillin may occur during infection, since somewhat similar although less pronounced results were obtained by addition of human lysozyme to penicillin-treated S. sanguis. PMID:6104471

  11. Coverage-Dependent Effect of Insecticide-Treated Curtains for Dengue Control in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Vanlerberghe, Veerle; Trongtokit, Yuwadee; Jirarojwatana, Somchai; Jirarojwatana, Ravisara; Lenhart, Audrey; Apiwathnasorn, Chamnarn; McCall, Philip J.; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Evidence on the effectiveness of insecticide-treated curtains (ITCs) for reducing densities of Aedes mosquitoes, the principal vectors of dengue, is scarce. In Laem Chabang southeast of Bangkok, Thailand, the Breteau Index (BI) (number of positive containers/100 houses) was 45 in October 2006. In March 2007, we distributed long-lasting ITCs in 22 clusters (2,032 houses) and selected 66 control clusters (661 houses). Routine control activities continued in all clusters. Six months after distribution, the BI was 25.8 and 77.6 in intervention and control areas, respectively (P < 0.001). Eighteen months after distribution, the BI was 21.8 and 23.8, respectively (P = 0.28). The average number of ITCs/house at cluster level was associated with the BI (P < 0.01) after six months, when 70.5% of households still used ITCs, but not at 18 months, when ITC coverage had decreased to 33.2%. Deployment of ITCs can result in considerable reductions in Aedes infestation levels, but the effect is coverage dependent. PMID:23669233

  12. The effects of prometryne on subchronically treated mice evaluated by SCGE assay.

    PubMed

    Dikić, D; Zidovec-Lepej, Snjezana; Remenar, Anica; Horvat-Knezević, Anica; Benković, Vesna; Lisicić, D; Sajli, Lana; Springer, O

    2009-03-01

    Prometryne is a methylthio-s-triazine herbicide used to control annual broadleaf and grass weeds in many cultivated plants. Significant traces are documented in environment, mainly water, soil and plants used for human and domestic animal nutrition. Data on the toxic effects of prometryne and other methylthio-s-triazine have scorcely been published. The goal of this study was to investigate if prometryne, applied orally, could induce DNA damage in mouse leukocytes, in subchronical in vivo experimental design. Three different doses of prometryne were applied per os repeatedly every 48 hours. After the 7th dose (day 14) and the 14th dose (day 28) blood leucocytes were analyzed by alkaline Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (Comet) assay. The results of three different comet parameters showed general increase in Olive tail moment, tail length and tail intensity values in treated groups of animals. The increase in measured values was almost proportional to the dose received and the time of exposure. We conclude that prometryne or its metabolic residues have the potential to induce processes that cause genotoxic effects on leukocytes on mice in in vivo repeated exposure.

  13. Treating late-life GAD in primary care: An effectiveness pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Calleo, Jessica S.; Bush, Amber L.; Cully, Jeffrey A.; Wilson, Nancy L.; Kraus-Schuman, Cynthia; Rhoades, Howard M.; Novy, Diane M.; Masozera, Nicholas; Williams, Susan; Horsfield, Matthew; Kunik, Mark E.; Stanley, Melinda A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To increase sustainability of Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) in primary care for late-life anxiety, we incorporated non-expert counselors, options for telephone meetings, and integration with primary care clinicians. Method This open trial examines the feasibility, satisfaction and clinical outcomes of CBT delivered by experienced and non-experienced counselors for older adults with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Clinical outcomes assessed worry (Penn State Worry Questionnaire), GAD (Generalized Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale), and anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory and Structured Interview Guide for Hamilton Anxiety Scale). Results Following 3 months of treatment, Cohen’s d effect sizes for worry and anxiety ranged from .48 to .78. Patients treated by experienced and non-experienced counselors had similar reductions in worry and anxiety, although treatment outcomes were more improved on the Beck Anxiety Inventory for experienced therapists. Conclusion Preliminary results suggest adapted CBT can effectively reduce worry. The piloted modifications can provide acceptable and feasible evidence-based care. PMID:23588228

  14. Effects of an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention to Treat Overweight/Obese Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ranucci, Claudia; Aiello, Cristina; Gianfredi, Vincenza; Tirimagni, Alberto; Chiodini, Emanuele; Sbroma Tomaro, Emilia; Gili, Alessio; Fanelli, Carmine

    2017-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the present study is to examine the effects of a multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention to treat overweight/obese children and adolescents. The main outcome was cardiometabolic risk based on the waist-to-height ratio (WHTR) measurement. Secondary outcomes were (1) changes in body composition; (2) adherence to a Mediterranean diet; and (3) physical performance. Method The study involved 74 overweight/obese children or adolescents. The intervention was multidisciplinary including nutrition, exercise, and psychological aspects based on a family-based approach; it was delivered for six months for children and three months for adolescents. Before and after the intervention, several anthropometric measures (height, body weight, body mass index or BMI, waist circumference, and body composition), cardiometabolic risk index (waist-to-height ratio or WHTR), and nutrition habits of the participants and their families were evaluated. In addition, a set of functional motor fitness tests was performed to evaluate physical performance measures. Results After the intervention both children and adolescents showed a significant reduction in body weight, BMI, waist circumference, fat mass, and WHTR index and an improvement of fat-free mass, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, and physical fitness performance. Conclusion A family-based multidisciplinary approach is effective in the short term in ameliorating the health status, the nutrition habits, and physical performance in children and adolescents. PMID:28656151

  15. Evaluating the effectiveness of the customized Unna boot when treating patients with venous ulcers*

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Bruna Suelen Raymundo; Araujo, Cristina Souza; Atzingen, Dênia Amélia Novato Castelli Von; Mendonça, Adriana Rodrigues dos Anjos; Mesquita Filho, Marcos; de Medeiros, Mauricéia Lins

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lower limb ulcers are a serious medical and socioeconomic problem throughout the world. One type of chronic wound of the lower extremities is the venous ulcer. Therapeutic methods for treating venous ulcer include the use of the Unna boot. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effectiveness of the customized Unna boot in the treatment of venous ulcers and to monitor the subsequent development and healing of the lesions. METHODS Prospective exploratory and quantitative longitudinal study, conducted at the "Outpatients Department (Wound Care) of the Grupo da Fraternidade Espírita Irmão Alexandre" in the city of Pouso Alegre (MG), Brazil, in 2008. The sample consisted of 32 patients with venous ulcers who underwent treatment with the Unna boot and 11 patients (control group), who used a simple bandage application. The patients'lesions were monitored over a three month period. RESULTS The average age of the predominently female (65.1%) patients was 61.88. From observing the differences in healing times at the three evaluation stages, it was clear that after the initial evaluation the wound area decreased in Groups 1 and 2 (p>0.05). CONCLUSION The use of the customized Unna boot contributes to quicker healing. However, over a period of three months the simple bandage applications were seen to be just as effective as the Unna boot method. PMID:23539002

  16. Handwriting movement kinematics for quantifying extrapyramidal side effects in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Caligiuri, Michael P; Teulings, Hans-Leo; Dean, Charles E; Niculescu, Alexander B; Lohr, James B

    2010-05-15

    Ongoing monitoring of neuroleptic-induced extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) is important to maximize treatment outcome, improve medication adherence and reduce re-hospitalization. Traditional approaches for assessing EPS such as Parkinsonism, tardive akathisia, or dyskinesia rely upon clinical ratings. However, these observer-based EPS severity ratings can be unreliable and are subject to examiner bias. In contrast, quantitative instrumental methods are less subject to bias. Most instrumental methods have only limited clinical utility because of their complexity and costs. This paper describes an easy-to-use instrumental approach based on handwriting movements for quantifying EPS. Here, we present findings from psychiatric patients treated with atypical (second generation) antipsychotics. The handwriting task consisted of a sentence written several times within a 2 cm vertical boundary at a comfortable speed using an inkless pen and digitizing tablet. Kinematic variables including movement duration, peak vertical velocity and the number of acceleration peaks, and average normalized jerk (a measure of smoothness) for each up or down stroke and their submovements were analyzed. Results from 59 psychosis patients and 46 healthy comparison subjects revealed significant slowing and dysfluency in patients compared to controls. We observed differences across medications and daily dose. These findings support the ecological validity of handwriting movement analysis as an objective behavioral biomarker for quantifying the effects of antipsychotic medication and dose on the motor system.

  17. Effects of phenolic constituents of daylily flowers on corticosterone- and glutamate-treated PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Huan; Yang, Fei-Fei; Liu, Chun-Yu; Liu, Xin-Min; Pan, Rui-Le; Chang, Qi; Zhang, Ze-Sheng; Liao, Yong-Hong

    2017-01-21

    Daylily flowers, the flower and bud parts of Hemerocallis citrina or H. fulva, are well known as Wang-You-Cao in Chinese, meaning forget-one's sadness plant. However, the major types of active constituents responsible for the neurological effects remain unclear. This study was to examine the protective effects of hydroalcoholic extract and fractions and to identify the active fractions. The extract of daylily flowers was separated with AB-8 resin into different fractions containing non-phenolic compounds, phenolic acid derivatives and flavonoids as determined using UPLC-DAD chromatograms. The neuroprotective activity was measured by evaluating the cell viability and lactate dehydrogenase release using PC12 cell damage models induced by corticosterone and glutamate. The neurological mechanisms were explored by determining their effect on the levels of dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), noradrenaline (NE) and acetylcholine (ACh) in the cell culture medium measured using an LC-MS/MS method. Pretreatment of PC12 cells with the extract and phenolic fractions of daylily flowers at concentrations ranging from 0.63 to 5 mg raw material/mL significantly reversed corticosterone- and glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner. The fractions containing phenolic acid derivatives (0.59% w/w in the flowers) and/or flavonoids (0.60% w/w) exerted similar dose-dependent neuroprotective effect whereas the fractions with non-phenolic compounds exhibited no activity. The presence of phenolic acid derivatives in the corticosterone- and glutamate-treated PC12 cells elevated the DA level in the cell culture medium whereas flavonoids resulted in increased ACH and 5-HT levels. Phenolic acid derivatives and flavonoids were likely the active constituents of daylily flowers and they conferred a similar extent of neuroprotection, but affected the release of neurotransmitters in a different manner.

  18. [Relationship between neuro-psychological factors and effect of acupuncture in treating Bell's palsy].

    PubMed

    Mei, Jun-Hua; Gao, Shan; Chen, Guo-Hua

    2010-10-01

    To study the influence of neuro-psychological factors on the effect of acupuncture in the treatment of Bell's palsy and the overall prognosis in patients. Fifty patients with Bell's palsy were randomized into the treatment group and the control group, and they were treated with manipulated and non-manipulated acupuncture, respectively. Scorings by subjective perceptive scale of acupuncture, Cartel personality test, and Hamilton Anxiety Scale were performed and the curative effect was assessed according House-Brackmann grading standards. The total effective rate of acupuncture was 78.0% (39/50), and that of manipulated acupuncture was better than that of non-manipulated acupuncture [89.2% (25/28) vs. 63.6% (14/22), P < 0.01]. Visual analogue scoring for perception of "Deqi", evaluated either by patients or by doctors, showed that the scores was higher in the treatment group than in the control group (P < 0.01). Cartel personality test (16PF) found that patients with personality factors of sociability, intellectuality, excitability, braveness, and independence were capable of getting "Deqi" more easily, there existed a significant correlation between personality factors and curative effect. By Hamilton Anxiety Scale scoring, 92.0% (46/50) of the patients were found being in an anxiety state, and the efficacy of treatment was negatively correlated with the degree of anxiety (r = -0.9491, P < 0.05). Neuro-psychological factors put great influence on the efficacy of treatment for Bell's palsy, multiple measures, such as drug-therapy, acupuncture, psychological intervention, rehabilitation therapy, etc., should be taken in combination for improving patients' prognosis.

  19. Are topical fluorides effective for treating incipient carious lesions?: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Tathiane Larissa; Montagner, Anelise Fernandes; Soares, Fabio Zovico Maxnuck; de Oliveira Rocha, Rachel

    2016-02-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the effectiveness of professional topical fluoride application (gels or varnishes) on the reversal treatment of incipient enamel carious lesions in primary or permanent dentition. Literature searching was carried out by the authors in PubMed (MEDLINE), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Turning Research Into Practice, and ClinicalTrials.gov to verify the clinical trials available about the outcome. From 754 potentially eligible studies, 21 were selected for full-text analysis, 5 were included for review, and 3 for meta-analysis. The statistical analysis was performed only for studies assessing fluoride varnish; there were insufficient data to perform it for fluoride gel studies. Two reviewers independently selected the studies, extracted the data, and assessed the risk of bias. Pooled-effect estimates were expressed as the weighted mean difference between groups. The therapeutic methods ranged considerably regarding the fluoride application protocols. There was a significant trend of effectiveness of fluoride varnish on the reversal of incipient enamel carious lesions (P < .05). High heterogeneity was found in the meta-analysis. Fluoride varnish seems to be an effective treatment for the reversal of incipient carious lesions in primary and permanent dentition; however, further clinical trials concerning efficacy of topical fluorides for treating those lesions are still required, mainly regarding the fluoride gel. Considering the scientific evidence on topical fluorides, pediatric dentists can use fluoride varnishes as an adjuvant for the treatment of active white-spot lesions in primary or permanent dentition. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of treated wastewater irrigation on contents and dynamics of soil organic carbon and microbial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jüschke, E.; Marschner, B.; Chen, Y.; Tarchitzky, J.

    2009-04-01

    In many arid and semi-arid regions, the demand for freshwater as drinking water and other domestic uses is constantly growing due to demographic growth and increasing standard of living. Therefore, less freshwater is available for agricultural irrigation and new water sources are needed. Treated wastewater (TWW) already serves as an important water source in Jordan, the Palestinian Territories and Israel. Related to its high loads with nutrients, salts and organic materials within its use as irrigation water major effects on the soil physical and chemical properties can occur, in the worst case leading to soil degradation. In an ongoing study we are investigated in the effects of TWW irrigation on agricultural soils in the region. Here we present results from analyses of total soil carbon contents and qualities in soils irrigated with freshwater and TWW. Furthermore microbiological parameters were investigated as microbial biomass, microbial activities and enzyme activities. In several sites, subsoils (50-160 cm) from TWW irrigated plots were depleted in soil organic matter with the largest differences occurring in sites with the longest TWW irrigation history. Laboratory incubation experiments with additions of 14C-labelled compounds to the soils showed that microbial activity in freshwater irrigated soils was much more stimulated by sugars or amino acids than in TWW irrigated soils. The lack of such "priming effects" (Hamer & Marschner 2005) in the TWW irrigated soils indicates that here the microorganisms are already operating at their optimal metabolic activity due to the continuous substrate inputs with soluble organic compounds from the TWW. Apparently, this higher microbial activity is causing an increased depletion of soil organic matter, which may have negative long-term effects on soil quality.

  1. Effect of dual-type oligosaccharides on constipation in loperamide-treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sung Hee; Hong, Ki Bae; Kim, Eun Young; Ahn, So Hyun

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Constipation is a condition that can result from intestinal deformation. Because humans have an upright posture, the effects of gravity can cause this shape deformation. Oligosaccharides are common prebiotics and their effects on bowel health are well known. However, studies of the physiological functionality of a product that contains both lactulose and galactooligosaccharides are insufficient. We investigated the constipation reduction effect of a dual-type oligosaccharide, Dual-Oligo, in loperamide-treated rats. MATERIALS/METHODS Dual-Oligo consists of galactooligosaccharides (15.80%) and lactulose (51.67%). Animals were randomly divided into four groups, the normal group (normal), control group (control), low concentration of Dual-Oligo (LDO) group, and high concentration of Dual-Oligo (HDO) group. After 7 days of oral administration, fecal pellet amount, fecal weight, water content of fecal were measured. Blood chemistry, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA), gastrointestinal transit ratio and length and intestinal mucosa were analyzed. RESULTS Dual-Oligo increased the fecal weight, and water content of feces in rats with loperamide-induced constipation. Gastrointestinal transit ratio and length and area of intestinal mucosa significantly increased after treatment with Dual-Oligo in loperamide-induced rats. A high concentration of Dual-Oligo tended to produce more acetic acid than that observed for the control group, and Dual-Oligo affected the production of total SCFA. Bifidobacteria concentration of cecal contents in the high-concentration oligosaccharide (HDO) and low-concentration oligosaccharide (LDO) groups was similar to the result of the normal group. CONCLUSIONS These results showed that Dual-Oligo is a functional material that is derived from a natural food product and is effective in ameliorating constipation. PMID:27909555

  2. Surface analyses of micro-arc oxidized and hydrothermally treated titanium and effect on osteoblast behavior.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y M; Bataillon-Linez, P; Huang, P; Zhao, Y M; Han, Y; Traisnel, M; Xu, K W; Hildebrand, H F

    2004-02-01

    Osteoblast adhesion on the implant material surface is essential for the success of any implant in which osteointegration is required. Surface properties of implant material have a critical role in the cell adhesion progress. Titanium and its alloys are widespread and increasingly used as implant material in dentistry and orthopedics because of their excellent biocompatibility, which is attributed to a passive layer of TiO2 on the surface. In this study, the micro-arc oxidizing (MAO) and hydrothermally synthesizing (HS) methods were used to modify the TiO2 layer on the titanium surface. The surface microstructure was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The surface energy was assessed. The mouse osteoblastic cell line (MC3T3-E1) was seeded on the treated surfaces to evaluate their effect on cell behavior. This included cell adhesion kinetics, cell proliferation, cell morphology, and cytoskeletal organization. The surface structure of MAO samples exhibited micropores with a diameter of 1-3 microm, whereas the MAO-HS-treated samples showed additional multiple crystalline microparticles on the microporous surface. The surface energy of MAO and MAO-HS was higher than that of titanium. The cell adhesion rate was higher on the MAO-HS surface than on the MAO and titanium surface, but without any significant difference between them. After 3 days of culture, cells proliferated significantly more on the MAO and titanium surface than on the MAO-HS surface. The cytoskeletal organization was analyzed by actin and vinculin staining on all the samples. We conclude that the MAO and MAO-HS methods change the surface energy of TiO2 layer on the titanium surface. This may have an influence on the initial cell attachment. Other surface characteristics may be involved in the cell proliferation, which is different from cell attachment on the sample surface. A longer-duration cell experiment should be conducted to see the effect on cell differentiation. Future in vivo evaluation may

  3. Fixation effects on the release of copper, chromium and arsenic from CCA-C treated marine piles

    Treesearch

    Stan Lebow

    1999-01-01

    This study sought to determine the effect of fixation time and temperature on the release of copper, chromium and arsenic from treated marine piles immersed in seawater under "worst case" conditions. Sections of piles were CCA-C treated to a target retention of 2.5 lbs/ft3) (40 kg/m3) and then allowed to Condition at 36°F (2°C) for either 3, 7 or 20 days. As...

  4. Suppressive effects of thermal-treated oyster shells on cadmium and copper translocation in maize plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunyan; Alidoust, Darioush; Isoda, Akihiro; Li, Maosong

    2017-07-02

    The effect of varied concentrations of thermal-treated oyster shells (TOS) on the suppression of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) uptake and translocation into the shoots of maize plants was examined. Maize plants were grown in Cd- and Cu-contaminated Andosol for 70 days. The concentration of mobile Cd (extracted with 1 M NH4NO3) decreased with increasing TOS applications, whereas an increase in the concentration of mobile Cu in soil resulted from cumulative TOS additions. The addition of 2% TOS had no prohibitive effects on Cd uptake in maize shoots, but the 4 and 8% TOS treatments decreased Cd accumulation in shoots by 41 and 59%, respectively. The possible mechanisms underlying Cd suppression in maize shoots were the enhanced Cd adsorption caused by pH-induced increases in the negative charge of the soil and the antagonistic effects of Ca resulting from competition for exchange sites at the root surface. Cu accumulation in maize shoots increased by 34, 51, and 53% with the addition of 2, 4, and 8% TOS, respectively, but this increase was not observed for Cd accumulation. These results suggested that, in multi-metal-contaminated soils, attention should be paid to the potential mobility of target metals and the pH of the contaminated soil. From a plant physiological perspective, contaminated soils slightly reduced photosynthetic performance. However, the addition of TOS to the soil at levels higher than 4% substantially decreased photosynthetic performance, indicating that CaO-based suppressants at critical loads might damage the net photosynthetic rates of sensitive maize plants.

  5. Curative effect of neutral macroporous resin hemoperfusion on treating hemodialysis patients with refractory uremic pruritus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-Hong; Yin, Yu-Min; Chen, Hao; Wang, Xiao-Dan; Yun, He; Li, Hui; Luo, Jie; Wang, Jin-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study aims to investigate the efficacy and safety of neutral macroporous resin hemoperfusion in treating maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients with refractory uremic pruritus (RUP). Ninety patients were enrolled and were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group, experiment 1 group, and experiment 2 group. Clinical symptom scores of skin itching were recorded before and at 4 and 8 weeks after the treatment. In addition, serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium (Ca2+), phosphorus (P3+), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were detected; and the calcium–phosphorus product ([Ca] × [P]) was calculated to compare the curative effect. VSA score, modified Duo pruritus score, and CRP: these indices decreased to some extent at 4 and 8 weeks after treatment in the 2 experiment groups, compared with pretreatment (P < 0.05); and differences among these 3 groups were statistically significant (P < 0.05). PTH, P3+, and [Ca] × [P]: these indices decreased to some extent at 4 and 8 weeks after treatment in the 2 experiment groups, compared with pretreatment (P < 0.05); and differences between the control and experiment 1 groups, as well as between the control and experiment 2 groups, were statistically significant (P < 0.05). However, the difference between the experiment 1 and experiment 2 groups were not statistically significant (P < 0.05). The effects of HA330 and HA130 resin hemoperfusion apparatus on secondary hyperparathyroidism and the disorder of calcium and phosphorus metabolism are similar. The mechanism may be related to its strong adsorption effect, and its capacity to widely remove inflammatory mediators, immune mediators, and endotoxins. PMID:28328802

  6. Protective effects of ethyl pyruvate on sperm quality in cyclophosphamide treated mice

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiary, Zahra; Shahrooz, Rasoul; Ahmadi, Abbas; Zarei, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the affecting factors in disturbance process of spermatogenesis is chemotherapeutic-induced oxidative stress resulted from cyclophosphamide (CP) treatment which leads to diminished sperm quality via interference in spermatogenesis process. Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of ethyl pyruvate (EP) in reducing the CP-induced side effects on reproductive system. Materials and Methods: 24 mature male mice were randomly divided into 3 equal groups and were undergone therapy for 35 days. Control group received normal saline (0.1 ml/day, IP). CP group were injected CP (15 mg/kg/week, IP) and CP+EP group received EP (40 mg/kg/day, IP) as well as CP. In the end of the treatment period, the mice were euthanized by cervical dislocation. Then, the epididymis was incubated with CO2 in a human tubal fluid medium (1 ml) for half an hour in order to float sperm. Then, the number, motility, viability (eosin-nigrosin staining), DNA breakage (acridine orange staining), nucleus maturity, and sperm morphology (aniline blue staining) were analyzed. Results: The average (15.87±1.28), motility (35.77±2.75), viability (40±3.03), nucleus maturity (36±2.79) and sperm morphology (61.75±0.85) were decreased significantly in CP group in comparison with control and EP groups, whereas EP caused significant increase of these parameters. Also, the percentage of DNA damage was increased significantly in CP group (41.75±3.75) in comparison with control (2±0.71) and EP groups (22.5±4.13). Conclusion: The results of this study revealed ameliorating effects of EP on sperm quality of CP treated animals. PMID:26221128

  7. The Therapeutic Effect of Negative Pressure in Treating Femoral Head Necrosis in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yin-gang; Wang, Xuezhi; Yang, Zhi; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Miao; Qiu, Yushen; Guo, Xiong

    2013-01-01

    Because negative pressure can stimulate vascular proliferation, improve blood circulation and promote osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells, we investigated the therapeutic effect of negative pressure on femoral head necrosis (FHN) in a rabbit model. Animals were divided into four groups (n = 60/group): [1] model control, [2] core decompression, [3] negative pressure and [4] normal control groups. Histological investigation revealed that at 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively, improvements were observed in trabecular bone shape, empty lacunae and numbers of bone marrow hematopoietic cells and fat cells in the negative pressure group compared to the core decompression group. At week 8, there were no significant differences between the negative pressure and normal control groups. Immunohistochemistry staining revealed higher expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in the femoral heads in the negative pressure group compared with the core decompression group. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that cell organelles were further developed in the negative pressure group compared with the core decompression group. Microvascular ink staining revealed an increased number of bone marrow ink-stained blood vessels, a thicker vascular lumen and increased microvascular density in the negative pressure group relative to the core decompression group. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that expression levels of both VEGF and BMP-2 were higher in the negative pressure group compared with the core decompression group. In summary, negative pressure has a therapeutic effect on FHN. This effect is superior to core decompression, indicating that negative pressure is a potentially valuable method for treating early FHN. PMID:23383276

  8. Novel bromomelatonin derivatives as potentially effective drugs to treat bone diseases.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Nobuo; Somei, Masanori; Seki, Azusa; Reiter, Russel J; Hattori, Atsuhiko

    2008-10-01

    Several reports indicate that melatonin is involved in the regulation of bone metabolism. To examine the direct effect of melatonin on osteoclasts and osteoblasts, we developed an in vitro assay using fish scales that contain osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and bone matrix, all of which are similar to those found in mammalian membrane bone. Using the assay, we demonstrated that melatonin suppressed osteoclastic and osteoblastic activities. These findings are in agreement with the reports from in vivo studies in mice and rats. In an attempt to develop molecules that increase bone mass, novel bromomelatonin derivatives were synthesized, and the effects of these chemicals on osteoclasts and osteoblasts using the scale assay were examined. As a result, novel bromomelatonin derivatives with the ability to possibly increase bone formation were identified. In scale osteoclasts, particularly, 1-benzyl-2,4,6-tribromomelatonin had a more potent activity than melatonin. In reference to osteoblasts, this agent (10(-9)-10(-6)M) significantly activated osteoblasts. The effect of 1-benzyl-2,4,6-tribromomelatonin on bone formation was confirmed in ovariectomized rats. Thus, the oral administration of 1-benzyl-2,4,6-tribromomelatonin augmented the total bone mineral density of the femoral metaphysis of ovariectomized rats. The stress-strain index of the diaphysis in 1-benzyl-2,4,6-tribromomelatonin-treated rats significantly increased in comparison with that in ovariectomized rats. In rats fed a low-calcium diet, the total bone mineral density of the femoral metaphysis significantly increased following the oral administration of 1-benzyl-2,4,6-tribromomelatonin. These studies identified a melatonin derivative that may have potential use in the treatment of bone diseases, such as osteoporosis.

  9. Curative effect of neutral macroporous resin hemoperfusion on treating hemodialysis patients with refractory uremic pruritus.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Hong; Yin, Yu-Min; Chen, Hao; Wang, Xiao-Dan; Yun, He; Li, Hui; Luo, Jie; Wang, Jin-Wen

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the efficacy and safety of neutral macroporous resin hemoperfusion in treating maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients with refractory uremic pruritus (RUP).Ninety patients were enrolled and were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group, experiment 1 group, and experiment 2 group. Clinical symptom scores of skin itching were recorded before and at 4 and 8 weeks after the treatment. In addition, serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were detected; and the calcium-phosphorus product ([Ca] × [P]) was calculated to compare the curative effect.VSA score, modified Duo pruritus score, and CRP: these indices decreased to some extent at 4 and 8 weeks after treatment in the 2 experiment groups, compared with pretreatment (P < 0.05); and differences among these 3 groups were statistically significant (P < 0.05). PTH, P, and [Ca] × [P]: these indices decreased to some extent at 4 and 8 weeks after treatment in the 2 experiment groups, compared with pretreatment (P < 0.05); and differences between the control and experiment 1 groups, as well as between the control and experiment 2 groups, were statistically significant (P < 0.05). However, the difference between the experiment 1 and experiment 2 groups were not statistically significant (P < 0.05).The effects of HA330 and HA130 resin hemoperfusion apparatus on secondary hyperparathyroidism and the disorder of calcium and phosphorus metabolism are similar. The mechanism may be related to its strong adsorption effect, and its capacity to widely remove inflammatory mediators, immune mediators, and endotoxins.

  10. Iodine-131: An Effective Method for Treating Lymph Node Metastases of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    He, Ying; Pan, Ming-zhi; Huang, Jian-min; Xie, Peng; Zhang, Fang; Wei, Ling-ge

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of radioactive iodine-131 (131I) therapy for lymph node metastasis of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and to identify influential factors using univariate and multivariate analyses to determine if identified factors influence the efficacy of treatment. Material/Methods This study included a retrospective review of 218 patients with histologically proven DTC in the post-operation stage. After thyroid tissue remnants were eliminated with 131I therapy, patients’ lymph node status was confirmed by ultrasound and by 131I whole body scan regarding lymph node metastasis, and then patients were treated with 131I as appropriate. The treatment efficacy was assessed and possible influencing factors were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results The total effective rate of 131I therapy was 88.07% (including a cure rate of 20.64% and an improvement rate of 67.43%). The non-effective rate was 11.93%. Of the total 406 lymph nodes of 218 patients, 319 lymph nodes (78.57%) were judged to be effectively cured, including 133 (32.75%) lymph nodes that were totally eliminated and 186 (45.82%) lymph nodes that shrank. Eighty-seven (21.43%) of the 406 lymph nodes had no obvious change. No lymph nodes were found to be in a continuously enlarging state. Distant metastasis, size of lymph node, human serum thyroglobulin (HTG) level, and condition of thyroid remnants ablation were identified as the independent factors influencing the efficacy of treatment using univariate and multivariate analyses. Conclusions The use of 131I is a promising treatment for lymph node metastasis of DCT. Distant metastasis, size of lymph nodes, HTG level, and condition of thyroid remnant ablation were independent factors influencing the treatment efficacy. PMID:27974741

  11. Effects of feeding state on anticoagulation in adult goats treated with warfarin.

    PubMed

    Date, Kazuma; Kishimoto, Satoru; Fujii, Yutaka; Togo, Konomi; Kakuta, Yukihide; Mizuno, Toshihide; Tsukiya, Tomonori; Takewa, Yoshiaki; Nishimura, Takashi; Ono, Minoru; Tatsumi, Eisuke

    2016-09-01

    For the continued development of improved mechanical circulatory systems, longer term evaluation of new devices in animal model experiments may be critical. The effects of anticoagulants in adult goats have not been well studied. We assessed the effects of oral warfarin in three adult goats during fasting or after feeding. The goats [weighing 57.8 ± 8.1 kg (53.0-67.2 kg)] were administered warfarin orally beginning at a dose of 5 mg/day and then increasing to 10, 20, 40, and 60 mg every 2 weeks. One goat (receiving 10 mg/day warfarin) was killed on day 27 because of the inability to stand. After administration of 60 mg warfarin, the remaining goat received no warfarin for 4 days to return to coagulated state. The goats were then fasted and treated with 40 mg warfarin. During warfarin administration, both goats required a dose of 60 mg/day to achieve International Normalized Ratios (INRs) of approximately 2.5; however, when, the animals were in the fasted condition, precipitous extension of INR was observed in 5 days. After resuming feeding, the INR was reduced to the proper range. We showed the tendency that warfarin therapy in goats required higher doses than the doses administered to human patients and that the effects of therapy were related to the feeding state. The results of this study provide important information for development of anticoagulation protocols to assess mechanical circulatory support devices for long-term use in preclinical examination.

  12. The therapeutic effect of negative pressure in treating femoral head necrosis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin-gang; Wang, Xuezhi; Yang, Zhi; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Miao; Qiu, Yushen; Guo, Xiong

    2013-01-01

    Because negative pressure can stimulate vascular proliferation, improve blood circulation and promote osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells, we investigated the therapeutic effect of negative pressure on femoral head necrosis (FHN) in a rabbit model. Animals were divided into four groups (n = 60/group): [1] model control, [2] core decompression, [3] negative pressure and [4] normal control groups. Histological investigation revealed that at 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively, improvements were observed in trabecular bone shape, empty lacunae and numbers of bone marrow hematopoietic cells and fat cells in the negative pressure group compared to the core decompression group. At week 8, there were no significant differences between the negative pressure and normal control groups. Immunohistochemistry staining revealed higher expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in the femoral heads in the negative pressure group compared with the core decompression group. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that cell organelles were further developed in the negative pressure group compared with the core decompression group. Microvascular ink staining revealed an increased number of bone marrow ink-stained blood vessels, a thicker vascular lumen and increased microvascular density in the negative pressure group relative to the core decompression group. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that expression levels of both VEGF and BMP-2 were higher in the negative pressure group compared with the core decompression group. In summary, negative pressure has a therapeutic effect on FHN. This effect is superior to core decompression, indicating that negative pressure is a potentially valuable method for treating early FHN.

  13. Reproductive performance of postpartum ewes treated with insulin or progesterone hormones in association with ram effect.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Silva, J C; Basto, Srl; Tenório Filho, F; Moura, M T; Silva Filho, M L; Oliveira, Mal

    2017-03-22

    The reproductive performance of postpartum Santa Inês (SI) and Morada Nova (MN) ewes treated with insulin or progesterone hormones in association with ram effect was evaluated. Ewes from SI (n = 69) and MN (n = 69) breeds were randomly allocated to three groups of each breed (T1-ram effect only; T2-ram effect + insulin; T3-ram effect + progesterone). Progesterone concentrations (ηg/ml; mean ± SD) before and after introduction of rams (n = 6) were 0.51 ± 0.22 and 3.78 ± 0.68 (T1), 0.65 ± 0.21 and 3.77 ± 0.78 (T2) and 0.52 ± 0.21 and 3.84 ± 0.84 (T3) in SI ewes and 0.74 ± 0.19 and 3.71 ± 0.56 (T1), 0.70 ± 0.21 and 3.79 ± 0.75 (T2) and 0.81 ± 0.14 and 3.87 ± 0.80 (T3) in MN ewes, respectively. Thus, lower progesterone concentrations were found before the introduction of rams (p < .05). After the introduction of rams, preovulatory peaks of LH (ηg/ml) occurred at 28 (T1), 44 (T2) and 48 (T3) hr in SI ewes and at 64 (T1), 40 (T2) and 44 (T3) hr in MN ewes. The mean number of ovulations was similar between groups (p > .05), was 1.3 ± 0.51 (T1), 1.5 ± 0.54 (T2) and 1.6 ± 0.51 (T3) in SI ewes and 1.3 ± 0.51 (T1), 1.6 ± 0.51 (T2) and 1.6 ± 0.51 (T3) in MN ewes. In conclusion, the ram effect alone is effective at inducing and synchronizing oestrus in sheep under postpartum anoestrus, irrespective of hormone treatments.

  14. CCA retention and its effects on the bonding performance of decommissioned treated wood: a preliminary study

    Treesearch

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; Mark Gibson; Chung Y. Hse

    2009-01-01

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) continues to be widely used as a wood preservative for industrial uses in the U.S. Disposal of treated wood is a potential long-term environmental liability. Current practices for disposing of decommissioned preservative-treated wood include landfilling and incineration, which are increasingly impractical due to environmental...

  15. Effect of coating systems on the vaporization of pentachlorophenol from treated wood

    Treesearch

    L. L. Ingram; G. D. McGinnis; P. M. Pope; W. C. Feist

    1983-01-01

    Specimens of southern pine treated with pentachlorophenol (penta) in mineral spirits (dip treatment), penta in P9 type A oil and penta in methylene chloride (pressure treatments) were used to evaluate the efficacy of different types of coatings in suppressing the vaporization of penta from treated wood. The clear film-forming coatings, such as polyurethane and alkyds,...

  16. Chemoprotective effect of monoisoamyl 2, 3-dimercaptosuccinate (MiADMS) on cytokines expression in cadmium chloride treated human lung cells.

    PubMed

    Odewumi, Caroline O; Fils-Aime, Shiela; Badisa, Veera L D; Latinwo, Lekan M; Ruden, Michael L; Ikediobi, Christopher; Badisa, Ramesh B

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium is commercially profitable element, but it causes toxicity in humans and animals leading to diseases in various organs. The main route of cadmium exposure to humans is through inhalation. Lungs respond to insult through secretion of cytokines. In this study, the chemoprotective effect of monoisoamyl 2, 3-dimercaptosuccinate (MiADMS) was evaluated on viability and cytokines expression in CdCl2 treated human lung A549 cells by cytokine array. Cells were treated with 0, 50, 75, and 100 µM CdCl2 alone, 300 µM MiADMS alone, and co-treated with 300 µM MiADMS and 75 µM CdCl2 for 24 h. The viability was measured by crystal violet dye. The level of cytokines in the cells' lysate and cell culture medium was measured using Ray Biotech's Human Cytokine Array 6 in control cells, 75 µM CdCl2 alone and MiADMS co-treated cells. Array results were validated by ELISA kit. The CdCl2 caused a dose dependent decrease in cell viability, while MiADMS co-treatment resulted in a significant increase in viability of CdCl2 treated cells. Morphology of the cells treated with CdCl2 was destroyed, while MiADMS restored the lost shape in CdCl2 treated cells. In addition, the cells co-treated with MiADMS and CdCl2 showed modulation of cytokines expression in comparison to the CdCl2 alone treated cells. The ELISA results showed the similar pattern of cytokine expression as Human Cytokine Array and validated the array results. These results clearly show the chemoprotective effect of MiADMS and suggest that MiADMS can be used as antidote at moderate dose against CdCl2 toxicity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. [Clinical observations on effects on prognostic factor treating hepatitis B-related cirrhosis with purification purgation dispersion tonicity].

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongzhi; Li, Chuntao; Wang, Yongze; Guan, Weibin; Yang, Yuewu

    2003-11-01

    With prognostic factors as assessment standards, the effects of combination of TCM(purification purgation dispersion tonicity) and western medicine treating hepatitis B-related cirrhosis and its complications were assessed. In this study, study group and control group were divided, the number of each group was 30. In order to keep balance between the two groups, matching control design was adopted with Wang's 8 prognostic factors as matching conditions. In study group, except Hb, TBIL, ALB and PT had statistic difference, and the complications of cirrhosis such as ascites, HEP and UGH were treated with significant effects. Between study group and control group, in all of prognostic factors only TBIL had statistical diffirence. It suggested the effects were significant treating hepatitis B-related cirrhosis and its complications with combination of TCM(purification purgation dispersion tonicity) and western medicine. It also suggested that TCM therapy combining purification, purgation, dispersion and tonicity had significant effects on reducing jaundice.

  18. The collagen, fibrinogen and thrombin biological adhesive is effective in treating experimental liver injuries.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Frederico Michelino de; Carvalho, Marcus Vinícius H de; Marchi, Evaldo; Pinto, Clóvis Antônio Lopes

    2016-01-01

    to evaluate the effectiveness of an collagen-based adhesive associated with fibrinogen and thrombin in experimental liver injuries in rats. we randomly divided 30 Wistar rats into three groups: A, B and C. All underwent a standard liver traumatic injury. In group A, the lesion was treated with the adhesive; in group B, with conventional, absorbable suture; group C received no treatment. We analyzed the time of hemostasis, mortality, occurrence of adhesions and any histological changes. there was no statistical difference in relation to mortality (p=0.5820). The adhesive treated group showed the lowest hemostasis times (p=0.0573, odds ratio 13.5) and lower incidence of adhesions (p=0.0119). The histological alterations of the Groups A and B were similar, with foreign body granuloma formation separating the adhesive material and the hepatic stroma suture. the collagen adhesive associated with fibrinogen and thrombin was effective in treating experimental hepatic injury, providing a lower incidence of adhesions between the liver and surrounding structures. avaliar a eficácia de um adesivo a base de colágeno associado ao fibrinogênio e trombina, no trauma hepático experimental em ratos. toram incluídos no estudo 30 ratos Wistar, igualmente divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos: A, B e C. Todos foram submetidos à lesão traumática hepática padronizada. No grupo A, a lesão foi tratada com o adesivo, no grupo B, com sutura convencional com fio absorvível, e no grupo C, não houve tratamento da lesão. Foram analisados o tempo de hemostasia, mortalidade, ocorrência de aderências e eventuais alterações histológicas. os resultados mostraram que não houve diferença estatística em relação à mortalidade (p=0,5820). O grupo tratado com adesivo apresentou os menores tempos de hemostasia (p=0,0573 e odds ratio 13,5) e menor ocorrência de aderências (p=0,0119). Microscopicamente as alterações histológicas dos grupos A e B foram semelhantes, com a forma

  19. Update on Nonsurgical, Ultraconservative Approaches to Treat Effectively Non-Cavitated Caries Lesions in Permanent Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Boniek Castillo Dutra; de Souza Borges, Juliane; de Araujo, Larissa Sgarbosa Napoleao; Machado, Claudia Tavares; dos Santos, Alex Jose Souza; de Assunçao Pinheiro, Isauremi Vieira

    2011-01-01

    Dental caries on tooth surfaces is still a problem in many industrialized countries. For many years, dentistry was influenced by a mechanical approach characterized by the use of high-speed rotary cutting instruments, and dentists predominantly used surgical methods to address caries. This included radical removal of diseased portions of the tooth, along with material-driven geometric extensions to areas that were assumed to be caries-resistant. This concept of extension for prevention was introduced by G. V. Black and influenced dentists for more than 120 years. Recently, a new paradigm of operative conservatism, sometimes referred to as “minimally invasive dentistry,” has gained popularity. This paradigm is designed to promote maximum preservation of healthy dental structures over a lifetime. The aim of this review is to discuss the efficacy of current nonsurgical treatments for non-cavitated caries lesions in permanent teeth. Based on results obtained from clinical trials, this review evaluates treatments such as consumption of CPP-ACP added gums, resin infiltration and fissure sealing. Although in a few cases an invasive approach is needed to arrest caries progression, the non-surgical approach generally provides potential benefits that include conserving structure by delaying intervention or minimizing the operative procedure. All current non-invasive methods are effective in treating non-cavitated caries lesions. The adoption of non-invasive approaches in the management of these lesions can preserve dental tissues, thus increasing tooth longevity. PMID:21494394

  20. Effect of "Deqi" during the Study of Needling "Wang's Jiaji" Acupoints Treating Spasticity after Stroke.

    PubMed

    Li, Huanqin; Liu, Huilin; Liu, Cunzhi; Shi, Guangxia; Zhou, Wei; Zhao, Chengmei; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Xuefei; Wang, Guiling; Zhao, Yin; Sun, Jingqing; Wang, Jing; Wang, Linpeng

    2014-01-01

    Background. Acupuncture has been shown to reduce spasticity and prevent the onset of spasticity after stroke. The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of "Deqi" during needling "Wang's Jiaji" acupoints treating spasticity in the early stage of stroke. Methods. This study is a multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled trial. 238 patients with stroke (<21 days) participated and were randomly allocated to the verum-acupuncture (n = 121) group or sham-acupuncture group (n = 117). The verum-acupuncture group received verum acupuncture required to produce the sense of "Deqi" while the sham-acupuncture group received sham acupuncture without "Deqi." Patients in both groups followed the same 30 min acupuncture regimen 5 times per week for a period of 4 weeks. Scales of MAS, FMA, ADL, MBI, NIHSS, SS-QOL, and MRS were measured at baseline and at 2, 4, and 12 weeks after intervention. Results. Significant differences were observed between two groups. The MRS rating composition has the statistical difference after 4 weeks (P = 0.017). The score of MAS, FMA, Barthel, and SSQOL in verum-acupuncture group has increased significantly compared with the sham-acupuncture group after 12 weeks. There was 14% reduction of higher muscle tension in the verum-acupuncture group. Conclusion. Acupuncture "Wang's Jiaji" points with sensation of "Deqi" in the early stage may reduce the occurrence and decrease the severity of spasticity after stroke.

  1. Effect of retinyl acetate on transglutaminase 2 activity in carcinogen treated rat liver.

    PubMed

    Aydin, O; Akyuz, F; Tekin, N; Ustuner, Mc; Degirmenci, I; Burukoglu, D; Ozden, H

    2016-07-01

    Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) has been implicated in wound healing, cellular differentiation, apoptosis and cell survival. TG2 activity increases following acute and chronic liver injury; however, the role of TG2 in tumors, is controversial. TG2 is a retinoid-inducible enzyme. We investigated the effects of retinyl acetate (RA) on the activity and levels of TG2 during the initiation and promotion stages of liver cancer. p-Dimethylaminoazobenzene (p-DAB) was used as initiator and 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was used as promoter in our model of carcinogenesis. Rats were divided into four groups of 24: control, corn oil control, p-DAB + TCDD, and p-DAB + TCDD + RA. Six rats from each group were sacrificed at days 30, 60, 90 and 120. TG2 activity decreased in the p-DAB + TCDD treated group, but TG2 immunostaining scores did not change by days 90 and 120. Neither TG2 enzyme activity nor the immunostaining score of TG2 protein changed in the tissues of the p-DAB + TCDD + RA group by days 90 and 120. TG2 activity was not be ameliorated by RA during the initiation or promotion stages of carcinogen induced liver cancer.

  2. Effectiveness of scraping and mitomycin C to treat haze after myopic photorefractive keratectomy.

    PubMed

    Spadea, Leopoldo; Verrecchia, Valerio

    2011-01-01

    To report the possibility of post myopic photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) haze treatment in a patient with expressed reluctance for any additional laser therapy. Seven months after bilateral PRK with subsequent development of corneal haze and refractive regression in both eyes, a 37-old-year male patient presented a best-spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) of 20/30 in the right eye and of 20/22 in the left eye. Both eyes were sequentially treated by scraping the stromal surface and application of mitomycin C (MMC) for 2 minutes. Both eyes had significant improvement in corneal transparency. Eighteen months after this treatment BSCVA had improved to 20/20 in each eye. No toxic effects were observed during either re-epithelialization or follow-up periods. In conclusion scraping and application of MMC could be considered a good tool in the treatment of selected cases of haze after myopic PRK, especially with patients that are reluctant to undergo a secondary laser procedure.

  3. The effect of laser-treated titanium surface on human gingival fibroblast behavior.

    PubMed

    Baltriukienė, D; Sabaliauskas, V; Balčiūnas, E; Melninkaitis, A; Liutkevičius, E; Bukelskienė, V; Rutkūnas, V

    2014-03-01

    Surface modification, as a means of enhancing soft tissue integration in titanium would have significant advantages including less marginal bone resorption, predictable esthetic outcome, improved soft tissue stability, and seal against bacterial leakage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of laser-roughened titanium surfaces on human gingival fibroblast (HGF) viability, proliferation, and adhesion. Titanium discs were ablated with impulse laser in four different patterns. Polished and sand-blasted titanium discs were used as control groups. Specimen surface properties were determined using optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy. HGF behavior on modified surfaces was analyzed using cell adhesion, viability, proliferation, and ELISA assays. Results suggested that modified Ti surfaces did not affect the viability of HGFs and improved adhesion was measured in laser treatment groups after 24 h. However, proliferation study showed that the adsorbance of fibroblast cells after 72 h cultured on polished titanium was higher and comparable with that of control cells. As for focal adhesion kinase (FAK), cells grown on laser modified surfaces had higher expression of FAK as compared with polished titanium. In conclusion, tested laser-treated surfaces seem to favor HGF adhesion. There were no significant differences between different laser treatment groups. Copyright © 2013 Society of Plastics Engineers.

  4. Protective effect of sodium ferulate on acetaldehyde-treated precision-cut rat liver slices.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu; Wu, Xiao-Qian; Zhang, Chun; Liao, Zhang-Xiu; Wu, Yong; Wang, Hui

    2012-06-01

    Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a key role in hepatic fibrogenesis, and inhibition of HSC activation may prevent liver fibrosis. Acetaldehyde, the most deleterious metabolite of alcohol, triggers HSC activation in alcoholic liver injury. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of sodium ferulate (SF), a sodium salt of ferulic acid that is rich in fruits and vegetables, on acetaldehyde-stimulated HSC activation using precision-cut liver slices (PCLSs). Rat PCLSs were co-incubated with 350 μM acetaldehyde and different concentrations of SF. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by measuring enzyme leakage and malondialdehyde content in tissue. α-Smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor-β(1), and hydroxyproline were determined to assess the activation of HSCs. In addition, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1) were determined to evaluate collagen degradation. SF prominently prevented the enzyme leakage in acetaldehyde-treated slices and also inhibited HSC activation and collagen production stimulated by acetaldehyde. In addition, SF increased MMP-1 expression and decreased TIMP-1 expression. These results showed that SF protected PCLSs from acetaldehyde-stimulated HSC activation and liver injury, which may be associated with the attenuation of oxidative injury and acceleration of collagen degradation.

  5. Topiramate augmentation in clozapine-treated patients with schizophrenia: clinical and metabolic effects.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Margaret K; Remington, Gary; Bois, Daniel; Cohn, Tony

    2010-12-01

    Clozapine represents the treatment of choice for refractory psychosis, although a significant number of individuals demonstrate suboptimal response to it as well, leading to clozapine augmentation strategies. A variety of agents have been investigated in this regard, including mood stabilizers, such as anticonvulsants. Within this group of medications, topiramate is unique in that it is associated with weight loss, making it an attractive option because of clozapine's notable risk for associated metabolic disturbance. A 12-week naturalistic, open study was carried out to examine the potential benefits of topiramate in clozapine-treated individuals with schizophrenia demonstrating a suboptimal clinical response. We were specifically interested in clinical symptoms, changes in metabolic parameters, and tolerability. A total of 20 subjects were enrolled, and 16 completed the study, including 5 individuals with type 2 diabetes. Topiramate augmentation led to a 14% improvement in total Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale scores (P = 0.0003), a 2.5% decrease in body weight (P = 0.015), and was generally well tolerated, paraesthesia being the most common side effect. These findings support topiramate as a viable augmentation strategy in clozapine partial responders, with evidence of both clinical and metabolic benefits.

  6. Effects of Chlorogenic Acid on Intracellular Calcium Regulation in Lysophosphatidylcholine-Treated Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hye-Jin; Im, Seung-Soon; Song, Dae-Kyu; Bae, Jae-Hoon

    2017-01-16

    Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is a major phospholipid component of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and is implicated in its atherogenic activity. This study investigated the effects of LPC on cell viability, intracellular calcium homeostasis, and the protective mechanisms of chlorogenic acid (CGA) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). LPC increased intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) by releasing Ca2+ from intracellular stores and via Ca2+ influx through store-operated channels (SOCs). LPC also increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased cell viability. The mRNA expression of Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channel 1 was increased significantly by LPC treatment and suppressed by CGA. CGA inhibited LPC-induced Ca2+ influx and ROS generation, and restored cell viability. These results suggested that CGA inhibits SOC-mediated Ca2+ influx and ROS generation by attenuating TRPC1 expression in LPC-treated HUVECs. Therefore, CGA might protect endothelial cells against LPC injury, thereby inhibiting atherosclerosis.

  7. An analysis of the effectiveness of a constructed wetland treating acid mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Huddleston, G.M. III; Grant, A.J.; Ramey, B.A.

    1994-12-31

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) from an abandoned coal mine in southcentral Kentucky had pH levels as low as 2.3 and iron concentrations as high as 641 mg/L. In the summer of 1992, the US Soil Conservation Service constructed a wetland system to treat the AMD that incorporated both physical and biological treatments. The AMD was initially fed into three anoxic limestone beds followed by an aeration pond and four cattail cells. A polishing pond served as the final stage of treatment. Flow of AMD was initiated in the fall of 1992, and treatment effectiveness was monitored for the next year. Chemical analysis and the cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) survival and reproduction test were performed on water samples collected along the flow path. Water chemistry analysis and determination of toxic levels indicated a substantial increase in pH and removal of metals prior to entering the cattail cells. Water quality in the cattail cells and polishing pond varied throughout the seasons, but had improved substantially by the end of the one-year monitoring period. The use of the wetland system by macroinvertebrates also was evaluated. Results indicated that a limited number of species were found in the cattail cells, while larger numbers were recovered from the polishing pond.

  8. Effect of electricity on microbial community of microbial fuel cell simultaneously treating sulfide and nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jing; Zheng, Ping; Xing, Yajuan; Qaisar, Mahmood

    2015-05-01

    The effect of electric current on microbial community is explored in Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) simultaneously treating sulfide and nitrate. The MFCs are operated under four different conditions which exhibited different characteristics of electricity generation. In batch mode, MFCs generate intermittently high current pulses in the beginning, and the current density is instable subsequently, while the current density of MFCs in continuous mode is relatively stable. All operational parameters show good capacity for substrate removal, and nitrogen and sulfate were the main reaction products. Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis is employed to obtain profiles of the bacterial communities present in inoculum and suspension of four MFCs. Based on the community diversity indices and Spearman correlation analyses, significant correlation exists between Richness of the community of anode chamber and the electricity generated, while no strong correlation is evident between other indexes (Shannon index, Simpson index and Equitability index) and the electricity. Additionally, the results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) suggest that MFCs suffering from current shock have similar suspension communities, while the others have diverse microbial communities.

  9. Temperature effect on contractile activity of the Ambystoma dumerilii heart previously treated with isoproterenol.

    PubMed

    Cano-Martínez, A; Vargas-González, A; Guarner-Lans, V

    2007-07-01

    The spontaneous heart rate (HR) and ventricular (V) and atrium (A) tensions (T) were evaluated through isolated organ assays at different temperatures in hearts from Ambystoma dumerilii control and treated with isoproterenol (ISO) [(150 mg/kg i.p. each 24 h, for 3 days)] on days 1, 5, 30 and 90 after ISO. In control hearts, the HR increased and the T decreased when temperature was augmented. One day after ISO the HR (43-24%) and T (50-25%) decreased with respect to control, between 8 and 24 degrees C. Five, 30 and 90 days after ISO, HR showed a gradual recovery with similar effect when the temperature was changed; but the AT increased and VT decreased at temperatures between 8 and 12 degrees C and were only recovered at temperatures above 12 degrees C. Our results indicate that the HR recovers after ISO in A. dumerilii independently of temperature. The recovery of AT and VT is similar to HR at temperatures higher than 12 degrees C and the increases in VT could be compensating the decrease in VT caused by ISO, at temperatures lower than 12 degrees C. The changes in heart contractile activity of A. dumerilii after insult show the thermic plasticity that is observed in ectothermic vertebrates.

  10. Effect of temperature on methane production from field-scale anaerobic digesters treating dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Osman A; Mulbry, Walter; Lansing, Stephanie

    2015-09-01

    Temperature is a critical factor affecting anaerobic digestion because it influences both system heating requirements and methane production. Temperatures of 35-37°C are typically suggested for manure digestion. In temperate climates, digesters require a considerable amount of additional heat energy to maintain temperatures at these levels. In this study, the effects of lower digestion temperatures (22 and 28°C), on the methane production from dairy digesters were evaluated and compared with 35°C using duplicate replicates of field-scale (FS) digesters with a 17-day hydraulic retention time. After acclimation, the FS digesters were operated for 12weeks using solids-separated manure at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.4kgVSm(-3)d(-1) and then for 8weeks using separated manure amended with manure solids at an OLR of 2.6kgVSm(-3)d(-1). Methane production values of the FS digesters at 22 and 28°C were about 70% and 87%, respectively, of the values from FS digesters at 35°C. The results suggest that anaerobic digesters treating dairy manure at 28°C were nearly as efficient as digesters operated at 35°C, with 70% of total methane achievable at 22°C. These results are relevant to small farms interested in anaerobic digestion for methane reduction without heat recovery from generators or for methane recovery from covered lagoon digesters.

  11. Protective Effect of Sodium Ferulate on Acetaldehyde-Treated Precision-Cut Rat Liver Slices

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yu; Wu, Xiao-Qian; Zhang, Chun; Liao, Zhang-Xiu; Wu, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a key role in hepatic fibrogenesis, and inhibition of HSC activation may prevent liver fibrosis. Acetaldehyde, the most deleterious metabolite of alcohol, triggers HSC activation in alcoholic liver injury. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of sodium ferulate (SF), a sodium salt of ferulic acid that is rich in fruits and vegetables, on acetaldehyde-stimulated HSC activation using precision-cut liver slices (PCLSs). Rat PCLSs were co-incubated with 350 μM acetaldehyde and different concentrations of SF. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by measuring enzyme leakage and malondialdehyde content in tissue. α-Smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor-β1, and hydroxyproline were determined to assess the activation of HSCs. In addition, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1) were determined to evaluate collagen degradation. SF prominently prevented the enzyme leakage in acetaldehyde-treated slices and also inhibited HSC activation and collagen production stimulated by acetaldehyde. In addition, SF increased MMP-1 expression and decreased TIMP-1 expression. These results showed that SF protected PCLSs from acetaldehyde-stimulated HSC activation and liver injury, which may be associated with the attenuation of oxidative injury and acceleration of collagen degradation. PMID:22404575

  12. Is steroids therapy effective in treating phimosis? A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiaming; Yang, Jin; Chen, Yuntian; Cheng, Sihang; Xia, Chao; Deng, Tuo

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated a systematic review on the therapeutic efficacy of topical steroids in children with phimosis to provide data for the clinical options of pediatric phimosis. We searched the related original studies on topical steroid therapy in pediatric phimosis before August 2014. Two reviewers independently performed the study selection, data extraction, risk of bias and reporting quality assessment with confirmation by cross-checking. The quality of eligible studies was appraised with the 'Cochrane handbook.' The meta-analysis was performed by REVMAN 5.2 software. Eleven studies were included with 1669 patients among which 1093 received topical steroids and 576 cases treated with placebo or only manual reduction. Significant difference of the treatment efficacy was detected among the three methods [OR 7.46, 95 % CI (4.42, 12.58), p < 0.00001]. In subgroup analysis, significant difference of the treatment efficacy was also detected whether with placebo or manual reduction only [respectively, OR 5.04, 95 % CI (3.19, 7.95), p < 0.00001; OR 16.28, 95 % CI (6.06, 43.69), p < 0.00001]. Compared to the placebo or manual reduction method, the topical steroid therapy is more effective in the treatment of phimosis in children. Although there is still controversy in the different type and dosage of steroid, this could be used against phimosis before circumcision.

  13. The effect of SRT on nitrate formation during autotrophic nitrogen removal of anaerobically treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lee, Po-Heng; Kwak, Wonji; Bae, Jeaho; McCarty, Perry L

    2013-01-01

    Autotrophic nitrogen removal, coupling nitritation (ammonium to nitrite) with anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), offers a promising nitrogen-removal alternative, especially for post-treatment of anaerobically-treated wastewater. However, previous reports suggest that less than 90% total nitrogen removal should be expected with this process alone because over 10% of the ammonium removed will be converted to nitrate. This is caused because nitrite conversion to nitrate is required for reduction of carbon dioxide to cell carbon. However, recent research results suggest that more limited nitrate formation of only a few per cent sometimes occurs. It was hypothesized such lower nitrate yields may result from use of long solids retention times (SRT) where net biological yields are low, and providing that the ratio of oxygen added to influent ammonium concentrations is maintained at or below 0.75 mol/mol. Overall reaction equations were developed for each process and combined to evaluate the potential effect of SRT on process stoichiometry. The results support the use of a long SRT to reduce net cell yield, which in turn results in a small percentage conversion to nitrate during ammonium removal and high total nitrogen removals in the range of 90 to 94%.

  14. Effects of treated municipal effluent irrigation on ground water beneath sprayfields, Tallahassee, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pruitt, J.B.; Elder, J.F.; Johnson, I.K.

    1988-01-01

    Groundwater quality data collection began in November 1979 at a spray-irrigation site near Tallahassee, Florida, before the initial application of secondary-treated municipal wastewater in November 1980. Effects of effluent irrigation on groundwater quality were evident about 1 year after spraying began and have continued to increase during the study period of 1983-85. Chloride and nitrate concentrations in groundwater have continued to increase since about 1 year after spraying began. Nitrate-nitrogen concentrations have increased from 0.03 mg/L to as much as 11 mg/L in water from one well in the surficial aquifer and from 0.07 to 15 mg/L in one well in the Floridan aquifer system. The greatest increases in concentrations have occurred in water from wells that top the surficial and Floridan aquifers. Increase in concentration occurred in water from some wells in the Floridan outside and downgradient of pivots, indicating lateral movement within the Floridan. The increase in sodium concentrations has been similar to the in chloride concentrations. Increases increases in the concentrations of other inorganic constituents have been minor compared to increases in chloride, sodium and nitrate concentrations. Nine volatile organic halocarbon compounds were detected in 18 effluent samples. Low concentrations of two of these halocarbons--chloroform and trichloroethene (TCE)--were detected intermittently in water sampled from six wells. None of the organic compounds detected in effluent or groundwater exceeded Florida drinking water standards. (USGS)

  15. Effect of loading rate on performance of constructed wetlands treating an anaerobic supernatant.

    PubMed

    Chazarenc, F; Maltais-Landry, G; Troesch, S; Comeau, Y; Brisson, J

    2007-01-01

    The effect of organic loading, season and plant species on the treatment of fish farm effluent was tested using three-year old mesocosm wetland systems. During one year, nine 1 m2 mesocosms (horizontal subsurface flow), located in a controlled greenhouse environment, were fed with a reconstituted fish farm effluent containing a high fraction of soluble components (1,600 microS/cm and in mg/L: 230 +/- 80 COD, 179 +/- 60 sCOD, 100 +/- 40 TSS, 37 +/- 7 TKN, 14 +/- 2 TP). Combinations of three hydraulic loading rates (30, 60 and 90 L.m(-2) d(-1)) and two plant species (Phragmites australis, Typha angustifolia) and an unplanted control were tested for treatment performance and hydraulic behaviour. Loadings higher than 15 g COD m(-2) d(-1) resulted in a net decrease of hydraulic performances (generation of short circuiting) coupled with low TKN removal. Maximal TKN removal rates (summer: 1.2, winter: 0.6 g.m(-2) d(-1)) were reached in planted units. In all mesocosms, phosphorus was removed during summer (maximal removal rate: 0.3 g TP m(-2) d(-1)) and was released in winter (release rate = approximately half of summer removal rate). This study confirmed that constructed wetlands are susceptible to clogging when treating anaerobic storage tank supernatant rich in highly biodegradable compounds. Contributions of plants to hydraulic efficiency were mainly observed in summer, associated with high evapotranspiration rates. Both plant species gave a similar removal efficiency for all pollutants.

  16. [Effect of the frequency of maintenance therapy on patients treated for gingivitis and incipient marginal periodontitis].

    PubMed

    Rojas, I F; Zepeda, M S; Zúñiga, H P

    1990-11-01

    The effectiveness of maintenance care program applied at different period of time was evaluate in patients treated for gingivitis and incipiente marginal periodontitis. Fifty six patients were divided in three groups, each one controlled three times (each 2, 4 and 6 months respectively), to evaluate periodontal health. At each control, gingival index and plaque index was registered and patients had profilaxis and reinforcement of dental care instructions. All patients knew and practiced a control plaque control during active treatment. Results demonstrated that maintenance care program applied each 2 months, could get better clinical healthy periodontal conditions, without influence of patient's control plaque. Those patients with good hygiene could provide for an acceptable level of periodontal health even in patients controlled each 4 and 6 months. Positive correlations between controls in each index are indicative for that. Age seemingly do not have influence like etiological factor of recurrence inflammation. High correlation between plaque index and gingival index was found in every control mainly in the groups controlled each 4 and 6 months.

  17. [Effect of magnesium supplementation on early-stage hypomagnesemia in patients treated with cetuximab].

    PubMed

    Demizu, Mutsuko; Ueda, Hiroshi; Osawa, Machiko; Chihara, Satomi; Igarashi, Tsutomu; Yano, Keiko; Kimura, Fumihiko; Tanaka, Nobuo; Hiratsuka, Masahiro

    2013-07-01

    Cetuximab is a monoclonal antibody that binds to the EGFR, and is used in patients with colorectal cancer. The most common toxicities associated with the use of cetuximab are rash and hypomagnesemia. Hypomagnesemia is a major adverse event, but it has often been ignored in past studies and its management has not been characterized. The aim of this study was to obtain a better understanding of the overall incidence of hypomagnesemia and to evaluate the usefulness of our original treatment guidelines for hypomagnesemia in patients receiving cetuximab-based therapy. We investigated 15 patients who were treated with cetuximab(with or without combined chemotherapy)between October 2008 and November 2010. Thirteen patients developed hypomagnesemia: 11 patients had Grade 1, one patient had Grade 2, and one patient had severe hypomagnesemia(Grade 3). Grade 1 hypomagnesemia was observed after an average of 7. 5±4. 8 weeks of treatment. None of the patients developed Grade 2 or higher hypomagnesemia after the implementation of our treatment guidelines. In conclusion, cetuximab treatment is associated with a significant risk of hypomagnesemia. The early monitoring and effective management of hypomagnesemia are important for patients receiving cetuximab-based therapy.

  18. The effect of locoregional therapies in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma treated with sorafenib

    PubMed Central

    Sarpel, Umut; Spivack, John H.; Berger, Yaniv; Heskel, Marina; Aycart, Samantha N.; Sweeney, Robert; Edwards, Martin P.; Labow, Daniel M.; Kim, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Background & aims It is unknown whether the addition of locoregional therapies (LRTx) to sorafenib improves prognosis over sorafenib alone in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of LRTx in this population. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed of patients with advanced HCC as defined by extrahepatic metastasis, lymphadenopathy >2 cm, or gross vascular invasion. Sorafenib therapy was required for inclusion. Survival of patients who received LRTx after progression to advanced stage was compared to those who did not receive LRTx. Results Using an intention to treat analysis of 312 eligible patients, a propensity weighted proportional hazards model demonstrated LRTx as a predictor of survival (HR = 0.505, 95% CI: 0.407–0.628; P < 0.001). The greatest benefit was seen in patients with the largest tumor burden (HR = 0.305, 95% CI: 0.236–0.393; P < 0.01). Median survival in the sorafenib arm was 143 days (95% CI: 118–161) vs. 247 days (95% CI: 220–289) in the sorafenib plus LRTx arm (P < 0.001). Conclusions These results demonstrate a survival benefit with the addition of LRTx to sorafenib for patients with advanced HCC. These findings should prompt a prospective clinical trial to further assess the role of LRTx in patients with advanced HCC. PMID:27154804

  19. Effect of enzyme induction on bioavailability of hetacillin in patients treated with anticonvulsants and chlorpromazine.

    PubMed

    Galanopoulou, P; Karageorgiou, C; Dimakopoulou, K

    1990-01-01

    The effect of liver enzyme induction on bioavailability of hetacillin was studied in patients chronically treated with anticonvulsants or chlorpromazine. 24 chronic psychiatric patients classified according to their medication in two groups (anticonvulsants, chlorpromazine) and one group of 11 healthy volunteers, received an i.m. administration of 500 mg hetacillin. Serum levels of ampicillin derived from hetacillin in blood samples taken 2, 4 and 6 hours after the injection were measured and the half-life of the antibiotic was determined for each group. Urinary D-glucaric acid was considered the induction index. Correlation coefficients between the induction index and pharmacokinetic parameters of hetacillin were also determined. Anticonvulsants and chlorpromazine induced the liver microsomal enzymes as demonstrated by the increased D-glucaric acid excretion (P less than 0.001 - P less than 0.05). No statistically significant differences were found in serum levels and half-life of the antibiotic. Correlation coefficients suggest that enzyme induction and hetacillin bioavailability are not significantly related.

  20. Immunological effects of low-dose cyclophosphamide in cancer patients treated with oncolytic adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Cerullo, Vincenzo; Diaconu, Iulia; Kangasniemi, Lotta; Rajecki, Maria; Escutenaire, Sophie; Koski, Anniina; Romano, Valentina; Rouvinen, Noora; Tuuminen, Tamara; Laasonen, Leena; Partanen, Kaarina; Kauppinen, Satu; Joensuu, Timo; Oksanen, Minna; Holm, Sirkka-Liisa; Haavisto, Elina; Karioja-Kallio, Aila; Kanerva, Anna; Pesonen, Sari; Arstila, Petteri T; Hemminki, Akseli

    2011-09-01

    Patients with advanced solid tumors refractory to and progressing after conventional therapies were treated with three different regimens of low-dose cyclophosphamide (CP) in combination with oncolytic adenovirus. CP was given with oral metronomic dosing (50 mg/day, N = 21), intravenously (single 1,000 mg dose, N = 7) or both (N = 7). Virus was injected intratumorally. Controls (N = 8) received virus without CP. Treatments were well tolerated and safe regardless of schedule. Antibody formation and virus replication were not affected by CP. Metronomic CP (oral and oral + intravenous schedules) decreased regulatory T cells (T(regs)) without compromising induction of antitumor or antiviral T-cell responses. Oncolytic adenovirus given together with metronomic CP increased cytotoxic T cells and induced Th1 type immunity on a systemic level in most patients. All CP regimens resulted in higher rates of disease control than virus only (all P < 0.0001) and the best progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was seen in the oral + intravenous group. One year PFS and OS were 53 and 42% (P = 0.0016 and P < 0.02 versus virus only), respectively, both which are unusually high for chemotherapy refractory patients. We conclude that low-dose CP results in immunological effects appealing for oncolytic virotherapy. While these first-in-human data suggest good safety, intriguing efficacy and extended survival, the results should be confirmed in a randomized trial.

  1. Antigenotoxic and antimutagenic effects of glutamine supplementation on mice treated with cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Pesarini, J R; Victorelli, S G; Vicentini, A P; Ferreira, L K; Mauro, M O; Matuo, R; Oliveira, J R; Antoniolli, A C M B; Mantovani, M S; Oliveira, R J

    2014-07-02

    We evaluated the effects of glutamine on clastogenic and genotoxic damage prevention caused by the administration of cisplatin. Forty Swiss mice were divided into 8 experimental groups: G1 and G2, which were control groups; G3, G4, and G5, which were administered [2 doses of glutamine (orally)] separated by a 24-h period (150, 300, and 600 mg/kg, respectively), and a dose of phosphate-buffered saline by intraperitoneal injection; G6, G7, and G8, which were treated in the same manner as the previous groups, but received cisplatin rather than phosphate-buffered saline. The antimutagenicity groups showed damage reduction percentages of 79.05, 80.00, and 94.27% at the time point T1, 53.18, 67.05, and 64.74 at time point T2 for the 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg doses of glutamine, respectively. Antigenotoxic activity was evident for all 3 doses with damage reduction percentages of 115.05, 119.06, and 114.38 for the doses of glutamine of 150, 300, and 600 mg/ kg, respectively. These results suggest that further studies are needed to confirm the clastogenic activity of glutamine. However, our results may lead to rational strategies for supplementation of this antioxidant as an adjuvant in cancer treatment or for preventing genomic lesions.

  2. [Comparative study on curative effects of stroke treated with acupuncture by NIRS].

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Hou, Zhong-wei; Bai, Yu-lan; Gu, Shi-zhe

    2011-11-01

    To compare the intracephalic imaging differences of stroke treated with combined therapy of scalp and body acupuncture and body acupuncture only, in order to apply the image basis for the differences of clinical curative effects. Twenty cases of stroke were randomized into a body acupuncture group (group A) and a scalp and body acupuncture group (group B), ten cases in each group respectively. In group A, body acupuncture was applied simply, and different acupoints were selected according to the symptoms: Shousanli (LI 10), Jianliao (TE 14), Huantiao (GB 30) and Jiaji (EX-B 2) etc. were selected for hemiplegia, Fengchi (GB 20), Xiaguan (ST 7) and Quanliao (SI 18) etc. were for facial paralysis, Fengfu (GV 16) and Lianquan (CV 23) etc. were for aphasia. In group B, combined therapy were applied, the body acupoints selection was same as above; for scalp acupoints, corresponding motor area, sensory area and foot motor sensory area were selected. Instant changes of local cerebral blood flow before and after treatment were examined and evaluated by NIRS and the curative effects of both groups were evaluated. The total therapeutic effective rate was 90.0% (9/10) and the basically cured rate was 30.0% (3/10) in group A; and 100.0% (10/10) and 50.0% (5/10) respectively in group B, indicating that the clinical curative effect in group B was superior to that in group A at 20, 30 min of acupuncture treatment (P < 0.05). Both imaging results showed that blood flows of prefrontal cortex in both groups were increased with varying degrees after treatment (P < 0.05, P < 0.01); the cerebral blood flow in group B was much more improved than that in group A at 20, 30 min of acupuncture treatment (all P < 0.05). Acupuncture can significantly increase blood flow and oxygen saturation in brain cortex, and the effect with combined therapy of scalp and body acupuncture is superior to that with body acupuncture.

  3. The effectiveness of transmeatal low-power laser stimulation in treating tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Ngao, C F; Tan, Teck Soon; Narayanan, Prepageran; Raman, R

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of transmeatal low-power laser stimulation (TLLS) in treating tinnitus. This is a prospective, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Patients with persistent subjective tinnitus as their main symptom were recruited into the study from the outpatient clinics. The recruited patients were randomized into the experimental group or TLLS+ group (patients in this group were prescribed to use TLLS at 5 mW at 650 nM wavelength for 20 min daily and oral betahistine 24 mg twice per day for a total of 10 weeks) and the control group or TLLS- group (patients in this group were prescribed with a placebo device to use and oral betahistine 24 mg twice per day for 10 weeks). All patients were required to answer two sets of questionnaires: the Tinnitus handicap inventory (THI) and visual analogue scales (VAS) symptoms rating scales, before starting the treatment and at the end of the 10-week treatment period. The total score of the THI questionnaire was further graded into five grades, grade 1 being mild and grade 5 being catastrophic. Wilcoxon-signed ranks test and Mann-Whitney test were used to compare and analyze the THI and VAS scores before and after treatment for each group. Changes with p value of <0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Chi square test was used to analyze the change of parameters in categorical forms (to compare between TLLS+ and TLLS-). Changes with p value of <0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Forty-three patients successfully and diligently completed their treatment. It was noted that using any condition of the device, TLLS+ or TLLS-, patient's tinnitus symptoms improved in terms of THI scores (TLLS+, p value = 0.038; TLLS-, p value = 0.001) or VAS scores with a change of at least one grade (TLLS+, p value = 0.007; TLLS-, p value = 0.002) at p value <0.05 significant level. In contrast when TLLS+ group was compared with TLLS- group, no

  4. Suitability of public records for evaluating health effects of treated sewage sludge in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Keil, Alexander; Wing, Steven; Lowman, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to potentially harmful agents because of waste disposal practices is receiving increased attention. Treated sewage sludge (TSS), or biosolid material, is the solid waste generated during domestic sewage treatment after it has undergone processes to reduce the number of pathogens and vector attractants. Application of TSS to land, which is the most common method for disposal, is promoted as a soil amendment and fertilizer. Few studies have examined the effects of land application on the health and quality of life of neighboring populations. We describe and summarize publicly available records that could be used to study the public health impact of practices associated with land application in North Carolina. We abstracted public records from the North Carolina Department of Natural Resources Division of Water Quality, to determine the following activities associated with land application of TSS in 8 counties in central North Carolina: the process for obtaining permits, reported applications, violations, documented concerns of residents, and penalties assessed. The Division of Water Quality routinely collects records of permits and approvals for land application of TSS, amounts applied, and reported pollutant levels. Documentation was useful in summarizing land application practices, but lack of standardization in reporting was a concern. Research into the public health impacts of the land application program is hindered by inconsistency in documenting inspections and resident concerns. We were not able to validate state records with direct observation of land application of TSS. Records from the Division of Water Quality would be of limited use in epidemiologic studies of the health effects of land application of biosolids. Information about locations, amounts, and dates of application are relevant to exposure potential, but additional information is needed for health investigations.

  5. Effect of roscovitine-treated donor cells on development of porcine cloned embryos.

    PubMed

    Park, H J; Koo, O J; Kwon, D K; Kang, J T; Jang, G; Lee, B C

    2010-12-01

    Synchronization of the donor cell cycle is an important factor for successful animal cloning by nuclear transfer. To improve the efficiency of porcine cloning, in the present report, we evaluated effects of contact inhibition, serum starvation and roscovitine treatment of donor cells on in vitro and in vivo developmental potency of cloned porcine embryos. Fibroblasts derived from a porcine foetus at day 30 of gestation were isolated and cultured to 70% confluency. Then, cells were either cultured to 100% confluency for contact inhibition, or cultured in 0.5% serum for 72 h for serum starvation or with 15 μM roscovitine for 24 h. Cells were most effectively synchronized at G0/G1 in the serum starvation group (87.5%) compared with the contact inhibition and roscovitine treatment groups (76.3% and 79.9% respectively p < 0.05). However, after somatic cell nuclear transfer followed by in vitro culture, the serum starvation group showed a significantly lower blastocyst formation rate (5.6%) compared with the contact inhibition and roscovitine treatment groups (11.6% and 20.0% respectively). Differential expression of apoptosis-related genes and the level of apoptosis in each treatment group explain the variation in developmental competence among the groups. Significantly higher level of apoptosis was observed in the serum starvation group. On the other hand, the roscovitine treatment group shows the lowest level of apoptosis and the best in vitro development among the groups. Cloned embryos derived from roscovitine-treated donor cells were transferred to surrogate pigs. Three healthy live piglets were produced. In conclusion, we suggest that roscovitine treatment of donor cells improves development of cloned porcine embryos and can raise the efficiency of cloned piglet production. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Effects of glucosamine and chondroitin on treating knee osteoarthritis: an analysis with marginal structural models

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shibing; Eaton, Charles B.; McAlindon, Timothy E.; Lapane, Kate L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to estimate the effectiveness of glucosamine and chondroitin in relieving knee symptoms and slowing disease progression among patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods The 4-year follow-up data from Osteoarthritis Initiative were analyzed. We used a “new-user” design, for which only participants who were not using glucosamine/chondroitin at baseline were included in analyses (n=1,625). Cumulative exposure was calculated as the number of visits when participants reported use of glucosamine/chondroitin. Knee symptoms were measured with WOMAC scale and structural progression was measured with joint space width (JSW). To control for the time-varying confounders that might be influenced by prior treatments, we used marginal structural models to estimate the effects of using glucosamine/chondroitin for three years, two years and one year on treating OA. Results During the study period, 18% of the participants initiated treatment with glucosamine/chondroitin. After adjustment for potential confounders with marginal structural models, we found no clinically significant differences between users at all assessments and never-users of glucosamine/chondroitin in WOMAC Pain: 0.68 (95% CI: -0.16 to 1.53); WOMAC Stiffness: 0.41 (95% CI: 0 to 0.82); WOMAC Function: 1.28 (95% CI: -1.23 to 3.79); or JSW: 0.11 (95% CI: -0.21 to 0.44). Conclusions Use of glucosamine/chondroitin did not appear to relieve symptoms or modify disease progression among patients with radiographically confirmed OA. Our findings, which are consistent with meta-analyses of clinical trials, extend the results to a more general population with knee OA. PMID:25369761

  7. Effects of diallyl sulfide and zinc on testicular steroidogenesis in cadmium-treated male rats.

    PubMed

    Sadik, Nermin A H

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the environmental pollutants that affect various tissues and organs including testis. Harmful effect of cadmium on testis is known to be germ cell degeneration and impairment of testicular steroidogenesis. In the present study, the effect of diallyl sulfide (DAS), a sulfur-containing volatile compound present in garlic, and zinc (Zn) was investigated on cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Male adult Wistar rats treated with cadmium (2.5 mg/kg body wt, five times a week for 4 weeks) showed decreased body weight, paired testicular weight, relative testicular weight, serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and testicular total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and protein levels. Testicular steroidogenic enzymes, such as 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD), and marker enzymes, such as sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), showed a significant decrease in activities whereas that of gamma-glutamyl transferase was significantly increased after cadmium exposure. The results have revealed that concurrent treatment with DAS or zinc restored key steroidogenic enzymes, SDH, LDH, and G6PD and increased testicular weight significantly. DAS restored the TAC level and increased testosterone level and relative testicular weight significantly. Zinc restored testicular protein level and body weight. It can be concluded that cadmium causes testicular toxicity and inhibits androgen production in adult male rats probably by affecting pituitary gonadotrophins and that concurrent administration of DAS or zinc provides protection against cadmium-induced testicular toxicity.

  8. Effects of bisphosphonates to treat osteoporosis in children with cerebral palsy: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jeong; Kim, Soo-Nyung; Lee, In-Sik; Chung, Sochung; Lee, Joonchul; Yang, YouNa; Lee, Inho; Koh, Seong-Eun

    2015-11-01

    In childhood and adolescence, some patients with cerebral palsy (CP) have long-term limited mobility, which can lead to secondary osteoporosis, Prevention and treatment strategies have been evaluated for the management of low bone mineral density (BMD) and fragility fractures. Currently, however, there are no established guidelines for the stratification and individualization of therapeutic interventions. Recently, an increasing number of studies have reported on the use of bisphosphonates to increase BMD in various pediatric conditions, and bisphosphonates have been suggested as a method to treat osteoporosis and prevent fractures. We performed the current meta-analysis to assess the effects of bisphosphonates on increasing BMD in children who have CP with secondary osteoporosis. A search of PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase from inception to April 2014 was performed with the following keywords: (bone disease, metabolic OR osteoporosis OR osteopenia) AND (child OR pediatric OR adolescent) AND (cerebral palsy) AND (bisphosphonate). Four studies were ultimately included in the meta-analysis: one randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study and three case-controlled studies. The Z-score of lumbar spine was significantly improved after bisphosphonates treatment compared with pre-treatment values (standardized mean difference [SMD], 0.799; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.499-1.100; p<0.001). The Z-score of femur was also improved significantly compared with that of the baseline value (SMD, 0.748; 95% CI, 0.382-1.114; p<0.001). Bisphosphonates have a significant effect on improving BMD in children with CP. Further standardization of treatment protocols including treatment dosage and duration needs to be established, and long-term follow up studies are needed.

  9. Charge effect of a liposomal delivery system encapsulating simvastatin to treat experimental ischemic stroke in rats

    PubMed Central

    Campos-Martorell, Mireia; Cano-Sarabia, Mary; Simats, Alba; Hernández-Guillamon, Mar; Rosell, Anna; Maspoch, Daniel; Montaner, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Although the beneficial effects of statins on stroke have been widely demonstrated both in experimental studies and in clinical trials, the aim of this study is to prepare and characterize a new liposomal delivery system that encapsulates simvastatin to improve its delivery into the brain. Materials and methods In order to select the optimal liposome lipid composition with the highest capacity to reach the brain, male Wistar rats were submitted to sham or transitory middle cerebral arterial occlusion (MCAOt) surgery and treated (intravenous [IV]) with fluorescent-labeled liposomes with different net surface charges. Ninety minutes after the administration of liposomes, the brain, blood, liver, lungs, spleen, and kidneys were evaluated ex vivo using the Xenogen IVIS® Spectrum imaging system to detect the load of fluorescent liposomes. In a second substudy, simvastatin was assessed upon reaching the brain, comparing free and encapsulated simvastatin (IV) administration. For this purpose, simvastatin levels in brain homogenates from sham or MCAOt rats at 2 hours or 4 hours after receiving the treatment were detected through ultra-high-protein liquid chromatography. Results Whereas positively charged liposomes were not detected in brain or plasma 90 minutes after their administration, neutral and negatively charged liposomes were able to reach the brain and accumulate specifically in the infarcted area. Moreover, neutral liposomes exhibited higher bioavailability in plasma 4 hours after being administered. The detection of simvastatin by ultra-high-protein liquid chromatography confirmed its ability to cross the blood–brain barrier, when administered either as a free drug or encapsulated into liposomes. Conclusion This study confirms that liposome charge is critical to promote its accumulation in the brain infarct after MCAOt. Furthermore, simvastatin can be delivered after being encapsulated. Thus, simvastatin encapsulation might be a promising

  10. Effect of Enzyme-Treated Asparagus Extract (ETAS) on Psychological Stress in Healthy Individuals.

    PubMed

    Takanari, Jun; Nakahigashi, Jun; Sato, Atsuya; Waki, Hideaki; Miyazaki, Shogo; Uebaba, Kazuo; Hisajima, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Enzyme-Treated Asparagus Extract (ETAS) on improving stress response. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial was undertaken in healthy volunteers. ETAS (150 mg/d) or a placebo was consumed for 28 d, with a washout period. Psychological parameters were examined using a self-report scale questionnaire and psychological stress was applied using the Uchida-Kraepelin (U-K) test. During the stress load, autonomic nervous function was analyzed. After the stress load, a profile of mood states (POMS) psychological rating was performed, and serum cortisol, plasma catecholamine, salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), and salivary cortisol were analyzed. ETAS intake improved the self-reported rating for the items "Feel tired," "Hard to get up," and "Feel heavy" in the psychological questionnaire; ameliorated the self-reported rating for the items "Depression-Dejection" and "Fatigue" in the POMS questionnaire; and increased salivary sIgA levels after the U-K test. In contrast, serum and salivary cortisol levels, and plasma catecholamine did not change. During the U-K test, ETAS significantly upregulated the sympathetic nerve activity. Furthermore, ETAS intake significantly increased the number of answers and the number of correct answers in the U-K test, suggesting that it might improve office work performance with swiftness and accuracy under stressful conditions. In conclusion, ETAS supplementation reduced feelings of dysphoria and fatigue, ameliorated quality of sleep, and enhanced stress-load performance as well as promoted stress response by increasing salivary sIgA levels. These data suggest ETAS intake may exert beneficial effects, resulting from well-controlled stress management, in healthy individuals.

  11. Effect of interferon-alpha on chromosome abnormalities in treated chronic myelogenous leukemia patients.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hideo; Tanaka, Kimio; Oguma, Nobuo; Ito, Kinro; Ito, Takuo; Kyo, Taiichi; Dohy, Hiroo; Kimura, Akiro

    2004-09-01

    To investigate the relationship of chromosomal aberrations at blastic crisis (BC) in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), with previous therapies and with atomic bomb (AB) exposure, we studied 114 CML patients who developed BC, including 23 AB survivors in Hiroshima. In total, only 45.6% showed major-route abnormalities, which figure was far lower than those previously reported, implying possibility of geographical difference. Occurrence of major-route abnormality was not associated with either duration of chronic phase or survival time after BC. Patients treated with interferon-alpha (IFNalpha) showed lower frequency of major-route abnormalities and lower number of abnormal chromosomes than did patients treated with busulfan (Bu). The frequency of trisomy 8 was lower and monosomy 7 was higher in IFNalpha-treated than in Bu-treated patients. The frequency of unusual abnormalities at BC in IFNalpha-treated patients was indistinguishable from those in Bu-treated patients and, notably, a more common (40%) feature in IFNalpha-treated patients was no change in the cytogenetic picture. Thus, we conclude that IFNalpha action on chromosome aberration is basically quite neutral and that IFNalpha does not induce any specific aberrations, including unusual ones at BC, with an exception of deletion of chromosome 7. Atomic bomb exposure status did not make any difference in secondary abnormalities at BC.

  12. Assessing the Risk of Fipronil-Treated Seed Ingestion and Associated Adverse Effects in the Red-Legged Partridge.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Antia, Ana; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E; Camarero, Pablo R; Mougeot, François; Mateo, Rafael

    2015-11-17

    Fipronil is an insecticide commonly used in agriculture, but there are growing concerns over its environmental impacts (e.g., harmful effects on pollinators). Fipronil-treated seed ingestion might threaten granivorous farmland birds, in particular, Gallinaceous birds that are particularly sensitive to this insecticide. We report here on exposure risk and effects in a game bird of high socioeconomic importance, the red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa). We fed captive birds with untreated maize (controls) or with a mixture of untreated-treated maize (ratio 80:20; exposed birds) during 10 days at the beginning of the breeding period (n = 12 pairs in each group). We first show that exposed partridges did not reject treated seeds but reduced food intake and lost body condition. We further studied the effects of treated seed ingestion on adult survival, oxidative balance, plasma biochemistry, carotenoid-based coloration, cellular immune response, steroid hormone levels, and reproduction. Fipronil exposure altered blood biochemistry and sexual hormone levels and reduced cellular immune response, antioxidant levels, and carotenoid-based coloration. Exposed pairs also had reduced egg fecundation rate and produced eggs with fewer antioxidants and offspring that had reduced cellular immune response. These negative effects on adult partridges, their reproductive performance, and offspring quality highlight that fipronil-treated seed ingestion is a significant threat to wild birds.

  13. Protective effect of heat-treated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) juice on alcohol detoxification in experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Vivek K; Kim, Na-Hyung; Kim, Ji-Eun; Kim, Kangmin; Kang, Sun Chul

    2016-05-01

    In this study, heat-treated cucumber juice was assessed for its protective effect on blood alcohol levels and hepatic alcohol metabolic enzyme system in experimental rats. Initially, during detoxification of alcohol, all groups were orally dosed to 22% alcohol (6ml/kg body weight) along with different concentrations of heat-treated cucumber juice (10, 100 and 500mg/kg) and commercial goods for hangover-removal on sale (2ml/kg). Cucumber juice was dosed before 30 min, and simultaneously after 30min of alcohol administration, and its hepatoprotective effect on blood alcohol levels and hepatic alcohol metabolic enzyme system in experimental rats was evaluated. As a result, after 7h, remarkable reduction was found in the blood alcohol levels for all concentrations of cucumber juice treatment. Treatment with cucumber juice resulted in increasing dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymatic activities in rat liver at 9h after alcohol administration thereby stimulated blood alcohol metabolism as compared with control group. The effect of heat-treated cucumber juice on alcohol detoxification was observed only in the rats treated before 30min from alcohol administration. These findings indicate that heat-treated cucumber juice has significant protective effect on alcohol detoxification in experimental rats, suggesting its usefulness in the treatment of liver injury caused by alcohol consumption.

  14. Late Effects May Not Warrant Using Radiation to Treat Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Cancer.gov

    Patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma who were treated with multidrug chemotherapy alone were more likely to be alive 12 years later than patients who received treatment that included radiation therapy, according to findings from a clinical trial.

  15. Late Effects May Not Warrant Using Radiation to Treat Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Cancer.gov

    Patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma who were treated with multidrug chemotherapy alone were more likely to be alive 12 years later than patients who received treatment that included radiation therapy, according to findings from a clinical trial.

  16. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Four Different Types of Needles in Irrigating Endodontically Treated Teeth.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-08

    perforations along 15,16 the shaft as suggested by Goldman et al. 3. A prototype endodontic needle made by cutting off the pointed tip of a standard 26-gauge...different types of irrigating needles in the removal of contamination in vitro from the root canals of forty endodontically treated single-rooted...TYPES OF NEEDLES IN IRRIGATING ENDODONTICALLY TREATED TEETH E. Drobotij, DDS, MS Resident, Endodontics Dept. of Dentistry - PO Box 59 Madigan Army

  17. Collagen, fibrinogen and thrombin biological addesive is effective in treating experimental liver injuries.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Frederico Michelino DE; Carvalho, Marcus Vinícius H DE; Marchi, Evaldo; Pinto, Clóvis Antônio Lopes

    2016-01-01

    : to evaluate the effectiveness of a collagen-based adhesive associated with fibrinogen and thrombin in experimental liver injury in rats. : the study included 30 Wistar rats randomly divided into three groups: A, B and C. All underwent standard liver traumatic injury. In group A the lesion was treated with the adhesive; in group B, with conventional absorbable suture; and in group C, there was no treatment. We analyzed the time of hemostasis, mortality, occurrence of adhesions and any histological changes. : there was no statistical difference in relation to mortality (p = 0.5820). The group treated with the adhesive showed the lowest hemostasis times (p = 0.0573, odds ratio 13.5) and lower incidence of adhesions (p = 0.0119). Microscopic histological alterations of Groups A and B were similar, with foreign body granuloma formation separating the adhesive material or the suture from the hepatic stroma. : the adhesive of collagen associated with fibrinogen and thrombin was effective in the treatment of experimental hepatic injury, providing a lower incidence of adhesions between the liver and surrounding structures. avaliar a eficácia de um adesivo à base de colágeno associado a fibrinogênio e trombina, no trauma hepático experimental em ratos. foram incluídos no estudo 30 ratos Wistar, igualmente divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos: A, B e C. Todos foram submetidos à lesão traumática hepática padronizada. No grupo A a lesão foi tratada com o adesivo, no grupo B com sutura convencional com fio absorvível e no grupo C não houve tratamento da lesão. Foram analisados o tempo de hemostasia, mortalidade, ocorrência de aderências e eventuais alterações histológicas. os resultados mostraram que não houve diferença estatística em relação à mortalidade (p=0,5820). O grupo tratado com adesivo apresentou os menores tempos de hemostasia (p=0,0573 e odds ratio 13,5) e menor ocorrência de aderências (p=0,0119). Microscopicamente, as altera

  18. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of IKK Inhibitor XII, Thymulin, and Fat-Soluble Antioxidants in LPS-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Novoselova, E. G.; Khrenov, M. O.; Glushkova, O. V.; Lunin, S. M.; Parfenyuk, S. B.; Novoselova, T. V.; Fesenko, E. E.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to compare the anti-inflammatory effects of several agents applied in vivo, namely, a synthetic inhibitor of the NF-κB cascade, fat-soluble antioxidants, and the thymic peptide thymulin. Cytokine response in LPS-treated mice was analysed in tandem with the following parameters: the synthesis of inducible forms of the heat shock proteins HSP72 and HSP90α; activity of the NF-κB and SAPK/JNK signalling pathways; and TLR4 expression. Inflammation-bearing Balb/c male mice were pretreated with an inhibitor of IKK-α/β kinases (IKK Inhibitor XII); with thymulin; with dietary coenzyme Q9, α-tocopherol, and β-carotene; or with combinations of the inhibitor and peptide or antioxidants. Comparable anti-inflammatory effects were observed in inflammation-bearing mice treated separately with thymulin or with dietary antioxidants administered daily for two weeks before LPS treatment. When LPS-injected mice were treated with the inhibitor and antioxidants together, neither plasma cytokines, signal proteins, nor heat shock proteins recovered more efficiently than when mice were treated with these agents separately. In contrast to antioxidant diet, the thymulin was shown to increase the effect of IKK Inhibitor XII in preventing IKK activation in LPS-treated mice. PMID:25045213

  19. Effect of pH, Dosage and Concentration on the Adsorption of Congo Red onto Untreated and Treated Aluminium Dross

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria Mohamad Zulfika, Hazielim B.; Baini, Rubiyah; Zauzi, Nur Syuhada Ahmad

    2017-06-01

    The adsorption of congo red onto aluminium dross was studied in batch process. The objective of this study is to adsorption capacity between untreated and treated aluminium dross in the removal of congo red. Aluminium dross was leached with 250 ml of 1% of NaOH and and precipitated with 30% H2O2. The treated aluminium dross being calcined at 600°C for 3 hours. The surface area for untreated and treated aluminium dross was 10.06 m2/g and 79.80 m2/g respectively. Then the adsorption process was carried out on an orbital shaker at 200 rpm for 4 hours. In the effect of pH, it was found that untreated removes more congo red compared to the treated while in the effect of concentration solution and dosage of adsorbent, treated aluminium dross removes more congo red. In conclusion, this adsorbent was found to be effective and economically viable in the removal of congo red in waste water treatment.

  20. The Effect of Surface Treated Nanoparticles on Single and Multi-Phase Flow in Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiCarlo, D. A.; Aminzadeh, B.; Chung, D.; Zhang, X.; Wung, R.; Huh, C.; Bryant, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    Surface treated nanoparticles have been suggested to be an additive to CO2 storage scenarios. This is because 1) the nanoparticles have been shown to freely transport through permeable media, and 2) the nanoparticles can stabilize a CO2 in water foam by adhering to the surface of CO2 bubbles/droplets preventing their coalescence. In terms of storage, The formation of CO2 foam will limit the CO2 mobility which can potentially help limit the CO2 leakage. Here, we will show how nanoparticles in porous media can have many interesting properties in single and multi-phase flow. For multi-phase CO2, we have performed experiments where high pressure liquid CO2 displaces brine and vice versa with and without nanoparticles in the brine. We measure the displacement pattern and in-situ CO2 saturation using CT scanning and measure the pressure drop using pressure transducers. We find that the flow is less preferential and the pressure drop is greater than when nanoparticles are present. This suggest the formation of in-situ foam/emulsion. We also show that on a brine chase, the residual saturation of CO2 is greater in the presence of nanoparticles. In terms of nanoparticle transport, it is observed that nanoparticles accumulate at the front of a brine/octane displacement. We hypothesize that this occurs due to the nanoparticles being size excluded from portions of the pore-space. To determine if this occurs in single phase flow, we have also performed experiments single-phase flow with the nanoparticles and tracer. We find that the nanoparticles arrive roughly 5% faster than the tracer. This also has implications for the positioning of nanoparticles in the pore space and how this can change the effective viscosity of the nanoparticle suspension.

  1. Fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth: effect of tooth coloured post material and surface conditioning.

    PubMed

    Toman, Muhittin; Toksavul, Suna; Sarikanat, Mehmet; Nergiz, Ibrahim; Schmage, Petra

    2010-03-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effects of the different endodontic posts and surface conditioning on the fracture resistance and fracture modes of endodontically treated teeth. The experimental groups consisted of zirconia ceramic post with a glasss-ceramic core [A], zirconia ceramic post with a composite core [B], glass fiber composite post (FRC) with a composite core [C], and titanium post with a composite core [D]. All posts in these groups were cemented with self-adhesive resin cement (Rely X Unicem Aplicap) combination with tribochemical silica coating (TSC). Groups E, F, G and H comprised the same post-and-core materials as the first 4 groups but cemented with the same resin cement without TSC. Specimens were subjected to thermal cycling between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C for a total of 5000 cycles with 30s per cycle. Static load was applied to the palatal surface of each specimen until they were fractured. Statistical analysis was conducted using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by post-hoc comparisons (Tukey). The fracture resistance was significantly affected by the post material (P < 0.001) and surface conditioning (P < 0.001; two-way ANOVA). The application of TSC to post surface decreased the fracture resistance of zirconia ceramic post with composite core (p=0.002; Tukey) and glass FRC post with composite core (p=0.029; Tukey). No catastrophic failure was observed for groups B, C, D, E, F and G. Under the testing conditions used, the titanium post/composite core that had been silicoated exhibited the highest fracture resistance.

  2. Effect of solvent/detergent-treated pooled plasma on fibrinolysis in reconstituted whole blood.

    PubMed

    Saadah, Nicholas H; van der Meer, Pieter F; Brinkman, Herm Jan M; de Korte, Dirk; Bontekoe, Ido J; Korsten, Herbert H; Middelburg, Rutger A; van der Bom, Johanna G; Schipperus, Martin R

    2017-10-01

    Hyperfibrinolysis has been observed in patients heavily transfused with solvent/detergent-treated pooled plasma (S/D plasma). We compared coagulation and fibrinolytic variables in blood containing S/D plasma with blood containing fresh-frozen plasma (FFP), with and without α2-antiplasmin or tranexamic acid (TXA) supplementation. Whole blood samples were reconstituted from red blood cells, platelet (PLT) concentrates, and varying mixtures of FFP and S/D plasma. Hematocrit and PLT count of reconstituted whole blood samples were varied. For a subset of runs, α2-antiplasmin or TXA was added to S/D plasma whole blood samples. Thromboelastography (TEG) analysis was performed to assess 50% clot lysis time (CLT50% ), maximum amplitude (MA), and initial clotting time (R-time). The change in CLT50% of whole blood as the plasma compartment transitions from FFP to S/D plasma was -52% (95% confidence interval [CI], -60% to -45%; p < 0.001). PLT count strengthened the effect, leading to an additional change in CLT50% of -8% (95% CI, -14% to -2%; p = 0.012) as PLT count increased from 10 × 10(9) to 150 × 10(9) /L. MA and R-time were not associated with fraction of S/D plasma in whole blood. α2-Antiplasmin and TXA restored clot lysis time in S/D plasma whole blood. Whole blood with S/D plasma has shorter clot lysis times in vitro compared to whole blood with FFP. α2-Antiplasmin and TXA restore clot lysis time of S/D plasma whole blood to that of FFP whole blood. Clinicians should be aware of the decreased clot lysis time associated with S/D plasma transfusion. © 2017 AABB.

  3. EFFECTIVENESS OF ANTACIDS IN REDUCING DIGESTIVE DISTURBANCES IN PATIENTS TREATED WITH PREDNISONE AND PREDNISOLONE

    PubMed Central

    Boland, Edward W.; Headley, Nathan E.

    1958-01-01

    To appraise the efficiency of complemental antacid administration in preventing and reducing digestive disturbances during prolonged treatment with prednisone and prednisolone, 100 patients with active rheumatoid arthritis who were maintained on combined antacid and prednisone or prednisolone therapy for periods of one year or longer, were studied clinically and roentgenographically. Antacid therapy consisted of 300 mg. of dried aluminum hydroxide gel and 50 mg. of magnesium trisilicate taken with each 2.5 mg. dose of the steroids. Digestive symptoms, such as indigestion, heartburn, sour eructations, gnawing epigastric distress and the like, were experienced by 18 per cent of patients during treatment with prednisone or prednisolone combined with antacids. Among patients who had been maintained on the steroids without antacids beforehand, the incidence of digestive complaints was reduced from 38 per cent to 17 per cent by the addition of alkali therapy, and the severity of the distress decreased in others. Active peptic ulcers were detected roentgenographically in three of the 100 patients. In two instances the ulcers were asymptomatic and in two instances they were considered as reactivations of previously healed lesions. The incidence of active ulcers in this series was substantially lower than that reported by several investigators among patients treated with prednisone and prednisolone without the concomitant administration of alkalis. The size of dosage and individual susceptibility appeared to be important factors in the development of digestive disturbances from steroids. Results of the study indicated that the complemental use of antacids with each divided dose of steroid is highly effective in reducing the frequency and severity of digestive symptoms during prednisone and prednisolone administration. The low incidence (3 per cent) for roentgenographically demonstrable active lesions in the series suggests that the addition of acid-neutralizing agents

  4. Effect of evapotranspiration on the salinity of wastewater treated by aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Kirzhner, F; Zimmels, Y; Gafni, A

    2008-01-01

    The shortage of good quality water resources is becoming an important issue in arid and semi-arid zones. Irrigation systems must be developed that are capable of delivering low quality wastewater while taking into account environmental and health requirements. For this reason, the availability of water resources of marginal quality, such as desalinated wastewater, can be a significant contribution to the water supply. We investigated changes in salinity, in conjunction with evaporation kinetics of treated wastewater by aquatic plants. These plants enhance the removal of pollutants by consuming them in the form of plant nutrients and through the microbial activity on their roots. In particular, this treatment applies to urban and agricultural sewage, where treatment units of different sizes can be applied at the pollution source while acting as green environments. In these treatment units, increased salinity due to effect of evapotranspiration (ET) must be managed. The rates of evaporation (E) from the free water surface and transpiration (T) from the plants were determined under field and laboratory conditions. To this end, batch experiments were performed with floating and emergent aquatic plants. After 4 days in the presence of floating plants, the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) decreased from its 100-110 mg L(-1) initial value down to 30-40 mg L(-1) (65% to 70% removal), concurrent with a 2% to 5% increase in the chlorides level, and 5% to 8% in the electroconductivity. The ET rates were found to be a significant factor in the water balance governing the treatment process. The results of this work provide guidelines for recommended wastewater treatment times that safeguard against undesirable rises in salinity, yet with marginal change in parameters such as BOD. The change of salinity is shown to be relatively minor in the first days of treatment where the change in BOD is faster, whereas in the following days the picture is reversed. This result indicates the

  5. Treated wastewater effects on water repellency and soil hydraulic properties of soil aquifer treatment infiltration basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arye, Gilboa; Tarchitzky, Jorge; Chen, Yona

    2011-01-01

    SummaryIrrigation with treated wastewater (TWW) has been reported to induce low to moderate hydrophobicity in soils of different texture with or without vegetation cover. Additional potential sites for adverse effects of TWW are infiltration basins, where TWW undergoes tertiary treatment, known as soil aquifer treatment (SAT). The annual organic matter (OM) loads in SAT are a hundred fold higher than those applied in irrigation with TWW. Therefore, we initially presumed that in the sandy soils of SAT infiltration basins, hydrophobicity would be expressed to a higher extent and would further affect the hydraulic properties of these soils. This hypothesis was tested in the Dan Region Wastewater Reclamation Project, Tel-Aviv, Israel. In terms of water drop penetration time (WDPT) test, the results obtained exhibited similar hydrophobicity levels (0 ⩽ WDPT ⩽ 238 s) to those obtained in the TWW irrigated fields and in a similar manner, soil hydrophobicity was only exhibited in the surface soil layer. It is suggested that the low to moderate hydrophobicity obtained under TWW irrigation and recharge into the SAT basins, may primarily stem from the drying and wetting cycle regimes employed. Under these conditions, hydrophobic compounds, which may impart hydrophobicity to the soil particles, are likely to detach and dissolve into the soil solution at the subsequent irrigation or recharge event. Furthermore, the frequent displacement of the resident TWW derived OM by repeatedly flooding events, prevents maturation and humification of the resident OM. Further investigations on the hydraulic properties of the basin soils were conducted in conjunction with the solid-liquid contact angle ( ω) and the surface tension ( γL) of the soil solution. The results obtained imply that the dependence of the hydraulic properties on ω and/or γL, can be attributed to the hydrophobic nature of both the solid and dissolved OM originating from the recharged TWW.

  6. Effect of Different Instrumentation Techniques on Vertical Root Fracture Resistance of Endodontically Treated Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Tavanafar, Saeid; Karimpour, Azadeh; Karimpour, Hamideh; Mohammed Saleh, Abdulrahman; Hamed Saeed, Musab

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Vertical root fractures are catastrophic events that often result in tooth extraction. Many contributing factor are associated with increasing incidence of vertical root fracture. Root canal preparation is one of the predisposing factors which can increase the root susceptibility to vertical fracture. Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the effects of three different instrumentation techniques on vertical root fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth. Materials and Methods In this study, 120 freshly extracted mandibular premolar teeth of similar dimensions were decoronated and randomly divided into control (n=30), nickel-titanium hand K-file (HF, n=30), BioRaCe rotary file (BR, n=30), and WaveOne reciprocating single-file (WO, n=30) groups. After cleaning and shaping the root canals, AH26 was used as canal sealer, and obturation was completed using the continuous wave technique. The root canals were embedded vertically in standardised autopolymerising acrylic resin blocks, and subjected to a vertical load to cause vertical root fracture. The forces required to induce fractures were measured using a universal testing machine. ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc test were used to analyse the data. Results All experimental groups showed statistically significant reductions in fracture resistance as compared with the control group. There was a statistically significant difference between the HF and BR groups. The WO group did not differ significantly from the HF group or the BR group. Conclusion All three instrumentation techniques caused weakening of the structure of the roots, and rendered them susceptible to fracture under lesser load than unprepared roots. The fracture resistance of roots prepared with the single-file reciprocating technique was similar to that of those prepared with NiTi hand and rotary instrumentation techniques. PMID:26106635

  7. Stimulus-induced myoclonus treated effectively with clonazepam in genetically confirmed Coffin–Lowry syndrome☆

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Elif Acar; Ceylaner, Serdar; Turanlı, Güzide

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Coffin–Lowry syndrome (CLS) is a rare X-linked semidominant syndromic genetic disorder that is characterized by typical facial and radiologic findings, psychomotor and growth retardation, and various skeletal anomalies. A distinctive paroxysmal disorder called stimulus-bound myoclonus is clinically heterogeneous and is generally characterized by a sudden loss of muscle tone that is regained within a few seconds and is induced by sudden auditory or tactile stimulus. As the pathophysiology of stimulus-induced drop episodes (SIDEs) is not well understood, there is no definite therapy for those episodes. Methods We report a 15-year-old female with stimulus-induced drop episodes occurring many times a day that resulted in failure to perform her daily activities. Because her SIDEs were misdiagnosed as atonic seizures, she was treated with several antiepileptic drugs, including valproic acid, levetiracetam, lamotrigine, primidone, carbamazepine, and clobazam. Results We realized that her clinical and radiological findings, together with SIDEs, are compatible with Coffin–Lowry syndrome. All of her medications were discontinued following the diagnosis of SIDE, and she was started on clonazepam. After treatment, she became more independent and was able to perform her daily activities. Subsequently, her episodes decreased from 3 times a day to 1–2 times a month. Sodium oxybate and fluoxetine were added to the treatment protocol without remarkable improvement. Her genetic analysis revealed a heterozygous variation of CLS. Conclusion We conclude that SIDE should be included in a differential diagnosis of epileptic seizures in patients with CLS and that clonazepam is an effective choice in the treatment of SIDEs. PMID:25667906

  8. Procognitive effect of AC-3933 in aged mice, and synergistic effect of combination with donepezil in scopolamine-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Takashi; Hatayama, Yuki; Nakamichi, Keiko; Yoshida, Naoyuki

    2014-12-15

    We have previously reported that AC-3933, a newly developed benzodiazepine receptor partial inverse agonist, facilitates acetylcholine release in the hippocampus and ameliorates scopolamine-induced memory deficits in rats. To further confirm the procognitive effect of AC-3933, we assessed in this study the beneficial effects of this compound in aged mice using the Y-maze and object recognition tests. In addition, we investigated the synergistic effect of AC-3933 and donepezil, a cholinesterase inhibitor, on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. In aged mice, oral administration of AC-3933 at doses of 0.05-0.1 mg/kg and 0.05 mg/kg significantly improved spatial working memory and episodic memory, respectively. In scopolamine-treated mice, both AC-3933 and donepezil significantly ameliorated memory deficits in the Y-maze test at doses of 0.3-3 mg/kg and 10-15 mg/kg, respectively. The beneficial effect of AC-3933, but not that of donepezil, on scopolamine-induced memory impairment was antagonized by flumazenil, a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, indicating that the procognitive action of AC-3933 arises via a mechanism different from that of donepezil. Co-administration of donepezil at the suboptimal dose of 3 mg/kg with AC-3933 at doses of 0.1-1 mg/kg significantly ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory impairment, suggesting that AC-3933 potentiates the effect of donepezil on memory impairment induced by cholinergic hypofunction. These findings indicate that AC-3933 not only has good potential as a cognitive enhancer by itself, but also is useful as a concomitant drug for the treatment of Alzheimer׳s disease.

  9. Effects of surface treating methods of high-strength carbon fibers on interfacial properties of epoxy resin matrix composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Quansheng; Gu, Yizhuo; Li, Min; Wang, Shaokai; Zhang, Zuoguang

    2016-08-01

    This paper aims to study the effects of surface treating methods, including electrolysis of anodic oxidation, sizing and heat treatment at 200 °C, on physical and chemical properties of T700 grade high-strength carbon fiber GQ4522. The fiber surface roughness, surface energy and chemical properties were analyzed for different treated carbon fibers, using atom force microscopy, contact angle, Fourier transformed infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The results show that the adopted surface treating methods significantly affect surface roughness, surface energy and active chemical groups of the studied carbon fibers. Electrolysis and sizing can increase the roughness, surface energy and chemical groups on surface, while heat treatment leads to decreases in surface energy and chemical groups due to chemical reaction of sizing. Then, unidirectional epoxy 5228 matrix composite laminates were prepared using different treated GQ4522 fibers, and interlaminar shear strength and flexural property were measured. It is revealed that the composite using electrolysis and sizing-fiber has the strongest interfacial bonding strength, indicating the important roles of the two treating processes on interfacial adhesion. Moreover, the composite using heat-treating fiber has lower mechanical properties, which is attributed to the decrease of chemical bonding between fiber surface and matrix after high temperature treatment of fiber.

  10. Effect of effluent-treated water on mosquito development in simulated ponds at the Prado Wetlands of southern California.

    PubMed

    Mian, Lal S; Lovett, Joseph; Dhillon, Major S

    2009-09-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the effect of water quality on mosquito development at the Prado Wetlands in southern California during 2003-04. In field experimental ponds, mosquito abundance was significantly higher in the sewage effluent-treated water than in untreated control. As compared to untreated control, treated water had higher dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen, phosphorus, and turbidity, and it showed lower electrical conductivity, sulfate, carbonates, and bicarbonates. Diverse vegetation and invertebrate fauna as influenced by water quality may have contributed to higher mosquito breeding in the treated ponds. In laboratory studies, the treated water did not significantly affect the developmental rate, adult emergence, sex ratio, and overall mortality of Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tarsalis, known vectors of encephalitides in southern California. However, the ovipositional response, especially of the former species, was numerically higher to the treated than to untreated control water. Besides smaller body size of 3rd/4th instars of both species, 4th-stage larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus reared in the treated pond water weighed lighter than the control larvae.

  11. Effect of Larvae Treated with Mixed Biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis - Abamectin on Sex Pheromone Communication System in Cotton Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Li-Ze; Chen, Peng-Zhou; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Deng, Jian-Yu; Harris, Marvin-K; Wanna, Ruchuon; Wang, Fu-Min; Zhou, Guo-Xin; Yao, Zhang-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Third instar larvae of the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) were reared with artificial diet containing a Bacillus thuringiensis - abamectin (BtA) biopesticide mixture that resulted in 20% mortality (LD20). The adult male survivors from larvae treated with BtA exhibited a higher percentage of “orientation” than control males but lower percentages of “approaching” and “landing” in wind tunnel bioassays. Adult female survivors from larvae treated with BtA produced higher sex pheromone titers and displayed a lower calling percentage than control females. The ratio of Z-11-hexadecenal (Z11–16:Ald) and Z-9-hexadecenal (Z9–16:Ald) in BtA-treated females changed and coefficients of variation (CV) of Z11–16:Ald and Z9–16:Ald were expanded compared to control females. The peak circadian calling time of BtA-treated females occurred later than that of control females. In mating choice experiment, both control males and BtA-treated males preferred to mate with control females and a portion of the Bt-A treated males did not mate whereas all control males did. Our Data support that treatment of larvae with BtA had an effect on the sex pheromone communication system in surviving H.armigera moths that may contribute to assortative mating. PMID:23874751

  12. Effects of pramipexole on the duration of immobility during the forced swim test in normal and ACTH-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Kouhei; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Miyazaki, Toshiaki; Miyaoka, Junya; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Asanuma, Masato; Sendo, Toshiaki; Gomita, Yutaka

    2009-07-01

    The dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist pramipexole has clinically been proven to improve depression or treatment-resistant depression. However, the involvement of the dopamine receptor system on the effect of pramipexole on depression remains unclear. We examined the influence of pramipexole on the duration of immobility during the forced swim test in normal and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-treated rats and further analyzed the possible role of dopamine receptors in this effect. Additionally, the mechanism by which pramipexole acts in this model was explored specifically in relation to the site of action through the use of microinjections into the intramedial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. Pramipexole (0.3-1 mg/kg) significantly decreased the duration of immobility in normal and ACTH-treated rats. This effect was blocked by L-741,626, a D2 receptor antagonist, and nafadotride, a D3 receptor antagonist, in normal rats. Furthermore, infusions of pramipexole into the intranucleus accumbens, but not the medial prefrontal cortex, decreased the immobility of normal and ACTH-treated rats during the forced swim test. Taken together, the results of these experiments suggested that pramipexole, administered into the intranucleus accumbens rather than the medial prefrontal cortex, exerted an antidepressant-like effect on ACTH-treated rats via the dopaminergic system. The immobility-decreasing effect of pramipexole may be mediated by dopamine D2 and D3 receptors.

  13. Long-term irrigation with treated wastewater: effects on the hydraulic properties of a clay soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardhan, Gopali; Russo, David; Levy, Guy

    2017-04-01

    Treated wastewater (TWW) is an important water resource, especially in semiarid and arid regions. However, there are some concerns that irrigation with TWW could lead to degradation of soil physical and hydraulic properties. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of long-term (≥15 y) irrigation with secondary TWW on some basic and hydraulic soil properties of a clay soil. Undisturbed soil samples (cores) were taken to a depth of 4.5 m (in sections of 0.5 m) over a diagonal cross section of a five year old orchard irrigated with TWW. Samples were taken from five sites within the tree rows (i.e., representing soil directly affected by TWW; referred to as "within rows") and four sites between the rows of trees (i.e., the control treatment representing soil that was not directly subjected to the irrigation water; referred to as "between rows"). Soil analyses included an array of basic properties, determination of a continuous particle size distribution and measurement of the saturated hydraulic conductivity (HC). The latter two were used for the computation of soil characteristic curve, Θ(ψ), and the unsaturated HC curve, K(ψ). The results showed that irrigation with TWW had insignificant effects on bulk density, moisture content, cation exchange capacity, pH and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), but caused a reduction in the saturated HC, Ks. The computed Θ(ψ) curve at a given soil depth, averaged over the different sites, was similar for the TWW-irrigated samples and the control ones. On the contrary, the computed K(ψ) curve at a given soil depth, averaged over the different sites, for the TWW-irrigated samples were lower than those for the control samples at matric potential > -100 cm (=pF< 2); similar K(ψ) values were noted at pF>2 for the two treatments. Possible reasons for the observed differences in the hydraulic properties between the TWW-irrigated samples and the control ones are discussed.

  14. THE EFFECT OF CONSERVATIVELY TREATED ACL INJURY ON KNEE JOINT POSITION Sense

    PubMed Central

    Herrington, Lee

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Proprioception is critical for effective movement patterns. However, methods of proprioceptive measurement in previous research have been inconsistent and lacking in reliability statistics making it applications to clinical practice difficult. Researchers have suggested that damage to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) can alter proprioceptive ability due to a loss of functioning mechanoreceptors. The majority of patients opt for reconstructive surgery following this injury. However, some patients chose conservative rehabilitation options rather than surgical intervention. Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ACL deficiency on knee joint position sense following conservative, non-operative treatment and return to physical activity. A secondary purpose was to report the reliability and measurement error of the technique used to measure joint position sense, (JPS) and comment on the clinical utility of this measurement. Study Design Observational study design using a cross-section of ACL deficient patients and matched uninjured controls. Methods Twenty active conservatively treated ACL deficient patients who had returned to physical activity and twenty active matched controls were included in the study. Knee joint position sense was measured using a seated passive-active reproductive angle technique. The average absolute angle of error score, between 10 °-30 ° of knee flexion was determined. This error score was derived from the difference between the target and repositioning angle. Results The ACL deficient patients had a greater error score (7.9 °±3.6) and hence poorer static proprioception ability that both the contra-lateral leg (2.0 °±1.6; p = 0.0001) and the control group (2.6 °±0.9; p = 0.0001). The standard error of the mean (SEM) of this JPS technique was 0.5 ° and 0.2 ° and the minimum detectable change (MDC) was 1.3 ° and 0.4 ° on asymptomatic and symptomatic subjects

  15. Comparison of metabolic effects of aripiprazole, quetiapine and ziprasidone after 12 weeks of treatment in first treated episode of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Iglesias, Rocio; Ortiz-Garcia de la Foz, Victor; Martínez García, Obdulia; Amado, Jose Antonio; Garcia-Unzueta, M Teresa; Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Suarez-Pinilla, Paula; Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto

    2014-10-01

    This randomized open-label study compared the incidence of metabolic side effects of aripiprazole, ziprasidone and quetiapine in a population of medication-naïve first-episode psychosis patients. A total of 202 subjects were enrolled. Body weight, body mass index, leptin, fasting lipids and fasting glycaemic parameters were measured at baseline and at 3 months follow-up. A hundred and sixty-six patients completed the follow-up and were included in the analyses. A high proportion of patients experienced a significant weight increase (>7% of their baseline weight): 23% ziprasidone (n=12), 32% with quetiapine (n=16) and 45% with aripiprazole (n=31). Patients treated with aripiprazole gained significantly more weight than the patients in the ziprasidone group (1.2 kg [SD=4.1] versus 4.3 kg [SD=4.8], respectively). The increase in leptin levels was greater in women treated with aripiprazole than in those treated with ziprasidone (p=0.030). Mean prolactin levels significantly increased in patients treated with quetiapine and ziprasidone but not in those treated with aripiprazole. Patients treated with quetiapine and aripiprazole showed a significant increase in total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol plasma levels. Quetiapine-treated patients resulted in a higher increase in LDL-cholesterol than patients treated with ziprasidone (p=0.021). No other significant differences between groups were found. No significant changes in glycaemic parameters were observed. Our results suggest that ziprasidone has a lower liability for inducing weight gain and lipid abnormalities than aripiprazole or quetiapine.

  16. Effect of Proteolytic Modification on Texture and Mastication of Heat‐Treated Egg White Gels

    PubMed Central

    Funaki, Junko; Minami, Michiko; Abe, Sachie; Ueda, Reiko; Eto, Wakako; Kugino, Kenji; Kugino, Mutsuko; Abe, Keiko; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Raw egg white undergoes sol–gel transition by heat treatment, which changes it to an elastic gel. Here, protease treatment to render a new texture to heated egg white gel was applied. Protease‐treated gels exhibited ductile flow without obvious rupture points. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that in protease‐treated gels, protein aggregates were distributed more homogeneously compared with that observed in the untreated control, probably because ovalbumin was digested into small peptides as revealed by SDS‐PAGE. The properties of the gel were evaluated by sensory tests and by measuring the movement of the masseter muscle, using surface electromyography. Results showed that maximum bite force and mastication duration were decreased for the protease‐treated gels, which were evaluated as being softer, smoother, less elastic and better textured. Overall, our results indicate that protease‐treated egg white gel has superior qualities and is easier to swallow than the untreated gel. Practical Applications In the food industry, the use of egg white is limited compared with that of egg yolk and whole eggs. In this study, we performed protease treatment to generate a new food material with smoother and softer texture compared with heat treated egg white. Our findings may expand the consumption of egg white, which can be consumed by people with mastication and swallowing disorders, and reduce the waste of egg white as a surplus product. PMID:28239213

  17. Effects of Treated versus Untreated Polystyrene on Caspofungin In Vitro Activity against Candida Species.

    PubMed

    Fothergill, Annette W; McCarthy, Dora I; Albataineh, Mohammad T; Sanders, Carmita; McElmeel, Maria; Wiederhold, Nathan P

    2016-03-01

    Significant interlaboratory variability is observed in testing the caspofungin susceptibility of Candida species by both the CLSI and EUCAST broth microdilution methodologies. We evaluated the influence of treated versus untreated polystyrene microtiter trays on caspofungin MICs using 209 isolates of four Candida species, including 16 C. albicans and 11 C. glabrata isolates with defined FKS mutations. Caspofungin MICs were also determined using the commercially available YeastOne and Etest assays and 102 isolates. All C. glabrata isolates had caspofungin MICs of ≥0.5 μg/ml, the clinical breakpoint for caspofungin resistance in this species, measured using trays made of treated polystyrene, regardless of the FKS status. In contrast, susceptible isolates could readily be distinguished from resistant/non-wild-type isolates when caspofungin MICs were measured using untreated polystyrene trays and both the YeastOne and Etest assays. Similar results were also observed for C. krusei isolates, as all isolates had caspofungin MICs above the threshold for resistance measured using treated polystyrene trays. In contrast, C. albicans isolates could be correctly identified as susceptible or resistant when caspofungin MICs were measured with treated or untreated trays and with the YeastOne and Etest assays. MICs falsely elevated above the resistance breakpoint were also not observed for C. tropicalis isolates. These results demonstrated that the use of treated polystyrene may be one factor that leads to falsely elevated caspofungin in vitro susceptibility results and that this may also be a greater issue for some Candida species than for others.

  18. Dentofacial effects of bone-anchored maxillary protraction: A controlled study of consecutively treated Class III patients

    PubMed Central

    De Clerck, Hugo; Cevidanes, Lucia; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2011-01-01

    Introduction In this cephalometric investigation, we analyzed the treatment effects of bone-anchored maxillary protraction (BAMP) with miniplates in the maxilla and mandible connected by Class III elastics in patients with Class III malocclusion. Methods The treated sample consisted of 21 Class III patients consecutively treated with the BAMP protocol before the pubertal growth spurt (mean age, 11.10 ± 1.8 years) and reevaluated after BAMP therapy, about 1 year later. The treated group was compared with a matched control group of 18 untreated Class III subjects. Significant differences between the treated and control groups were assessed with independent-sample t tests (P<0.05). Results Sagittal measurements of the maxilla showed highly significant improvements during active treatment (about 4 mm more than the untreated controls), with significant protraction effects at orbitale and pterygomaxillare. Significant improvements of overjet and molar relationship were recorded, as well as in the mandibular skeletal measures at Point B and pogonion. Vertical skeletal changes and modifications in incisor inclination were negligible, except for a significant proclination of the mandibular incisors in the treated group. Significant soft-tissue changes reflected the underlying skeletal modifications. Conclusions Compared with growth of the untreated Class III subjects, the BAMP protocol induced an average increment on skeletal and soft-tissue advancement of maxillary structures of about 4 mm, and favorable mandibular changes exceeded 2 mm. PMID:21055597

  19. Transient immunological and clinical effectiveness of treating mice bearing premalignant oral lesions with PD-1 antibodies.

    PubMed

    Levingston, Corinne A; Young, M Rita I

    2017-04-01

    A carcinogen-induced premalignant oral lesion model that progresses to oral cancer was used to examine the impact of blocking PD-1 on cytokine expression and on progression of lesions to cancer. The results of this study show increased production of IL-2 and the inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-17 and TNF-α by spleen cells of lesion-bearing mice that were treated with PD-1 antibody for 1 week compared to cytokine production by spleen cells of lesion-bearing mice treated with control antibody. Production of IFN-γ increased at 3 weeks of PD-1 antibody treatment, although production of the other Th1 and inflammatory mediators declined. By 5 weeks, levels of these cytokines declined for both control and PD-1 antibody-treated mice. Flow cytometric analysis for IFN-γ-expressing cells showed shifts in CD4(+) cells expressing IFN-γ consistent with the changes in cytokine secretion. Whether or not treatment generated reactivity to lesions or HNSCC was determined. Spleen cells from PD-1 antibody-treated mice were stimulated by lysates of premalignant lesion and HNSCC tongue tissues to produce increased levels of Th1 and select inflammatory cytokines early in the course of PD-1 antibody treatment. However, with continued treatment, reactivity to lesion and HNSCC lysates declined. Analysis of clinical response to treatment suggested an early delay in lesion progression but, with continued treatment, lesions in PD-1 antibody-treated mice progressed to the same degree as in control antibody-treated mice. Overall, these results show an early beneficial response to PD-1 antibody treatment, which then fails with continued treatment and lesion progression.

  20. Transient immunological and clinical effectiveness of treating mice bearing premalignant oral lesions with PD‐1 antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Levingston, Corinne A.

    2017-01-01

    A carcinogen‐induced premalignant oral lesion model that progresses to oral cancer was used to examine the impact of blocking PD‐1 on cytokine expression and on progression of lesions to cancer. The results of this study show increased production of IL‐2 and the inflammatory cytokines IL‐6, IL‐17 and TNF‐α by spleen cells of lesion‐bearing mice that were treated with PD‐1 antibody for 1 week compared to cytokine production by spleen cells of lesion‐bearing mice treated with control antibody. Production of IFN‐γ increased at 3 weeks of PD‐1 antibody treatment, although production of the other Th1 and inflammatory mediators declined. By 5 weeks, levels of these cytokines declined for both control and PD‐1 antibody‐treated mice. Flow cytometric analysis for IFN‐γ‐expressing cells showed shifts in CD4+ cells expressing IFN‐γ consistent with the changes in cytokine secretion. Whether or not treatment generated reactivity to lesions or HNSCC was determined. Spleen cells from PD‐1 antibody‐treated mice were stimulated by lysates of premalignant lesion and HNSCC tongue tissues to produce increased levels of Th1 and select inflammatory cytokines early in the course of PD‐1 antibody treatment. However, with continued treatment, reactivity to lesion and HNSCC lysates declined. Analysis of clinical response to treatment suggested an early delay in lesion progression but, with continued treatment, lesions in PD‐1 antibody‐treated mice progressed to the same degree as in control antibody‐treated mice. Overall, these results show an early beneficial response to PD‐1 antibody treatment, which then fails with continued treatment and lesion progression. PMID:27914100

  1. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COATINGS IN REDUCING DISLODGEABLE ARSENIC, CHROMIUM, AND COPPER FROM CCA TREATED WOOD; FINAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA conducted a study to evaluate the effect of coatings on dislodgeable arsenic, chromium, and copper residues on the surfaces of chromated copper arsenate (CAA) treated wood. Dislodgeable CCA, determined by wipe sampling the wood surfaces, was the primary evaluation criterion f...

  2. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COATINGS IN REDUCING DISLODGEABLE ARSENIC, CHROMIUM, AND COPPER FROM CCA-TREATED WOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a 2 year study designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a variety of deck sealants in reducing or eliminating potential exposure to arsenic, chromium, and copper from chromated copper arsenate-treated wood used in residential settings, like decks and playsets.

  3. Effects of replacing soybean meal with canola meal or treated canola meal on performance of lactating dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Canola meal (CM) has been shown to be a more effective crude protein (CP) source than soybean meal (SBM) for lactating dairy cows. Treating CM may increase its rumen undegradable protein (RUP) fraction and improve the amount of absorbable amino acids. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ...

  4. Preliminary Results on the Effect of Feeding Heat-Treated Colostrum on Health and Growth in Preweaned Dairy Calves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: Previous research showed that heat-treatment of colostrum at 60 ºC for 60 minutes results in a significant reduction in colostral bacteria counts without effecting colostral immunoglobulin concentrations. Moreover, calves fed heat-treated colostrum have improved serum IgG levels when ...

  5. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COATINGS IN REDUCING DISLODGEABLE ARSENIC, CHROMIUM, AND COPPER FROM CCA TREATED WOOD; FINAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA conducted a study to evaluate the effect of coatings on dislodgeable arsenic, chromium, and copper residues on the surfaces of chromated copper arsenate (CAA) treated wood. Dislodgeable CCA, determined by wipe sampling the wood surfaces, was the primary evaluation criterion f...

  6. Effects of Short Exposures to Spinosad-Treated Wheat or Maize on Four Stored-Grain Insects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of short exposures to spinosad-treated wheat and maize was evaluated against adults of four stored-product insects: the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.), the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), and the psocid Lepinotus reti...

  7. Effect of autoclave sterilization on the cyclic fatigue resistance of thermally treated Nickel-Titanium instruments.

    PubMed

    Zhao, D; Shen, Y; Peng, B; Haapasalo, M

    2016-10-01

    To compare the cyclic fatigue resistance of HyFlex CM, Twisted Files (TF), K3XF, Race, and K3, and evaluate the effect of autoclave sterilization on the cyclic fatigue resistance of these instruments both before and after the files were cycled. Five types of NiTi instruments with similar size 30, .06 taper were selected: HyFlex CM, TF, K3XF, Race and K3. Files were tested in a simulated canal with a curvature of 60° and a radius of 3 mm. The number of cycles to failure of each instrument was determined to evaluate cyclic fatigue resistance. Each type of instruments was randomly divided into four experimental groups: group 1 (n = 20), unsterilized instruments; group 2 (n = 20), pre-sterilized instruments subjected to 10 cycles of autoclave sterilization; group 3 (n = 20), instruments tested were sterilized at 25%, 50% and 75% of the mean cycles to failure as determined in group 1, and then cycled to failure; group 4 (n = 20), instruments cycled in the same manner as group 3 but without sterilization. The fracture surfaces of instruments were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). HyFlex CM, TF and K3XF had significantly higher cyclic fatigue resistance than Race and K3 in the unsterilized group 1 (P < 0.05). Autoclave sterilization significantly increased the MCF of HyFlex CM and K3XF (P < 0.05) both before and after the files were cycled. SEM examination revealed a typical pattern of cyclic fatigue fracture in all instruments. HyFlex CM, TF and K3XF instruments composed of new thermal-treated alloy were more resistant to fatigue failure than Race and K3. Autoclaving extended the cyclic fatigue life of HyFlex CM and K3XF. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Effect of aspartame on oxidative stress and monoamine neurotransmitter levels in lipopolysaccharide-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Salem, Neveen A; Hussein, Jihan Seid

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of the sweetener aspartame on oxidative stress and brain monoamines in normal circumstances and after intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 μg/kg) in mice. Aspartame (0.625-45 mg/kg) was given via subcutaneous route at the time of endotoxin administration. Mice were euthanized 4 h later. Reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances; TBARS), and nitrite concentrations were measured in brain and liver. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and glucose were determined in brain. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured in liver. The administration of only aspartame (22.5 and 45 mg/kg) increased brain TBARS by 17.7-32.8%, decreased GSH by 25.6-31.6%, and increased TNF-α by 16.7-44%. Aspartame caused dose-dependent inhibition of brain serotonin, noradrenaline, and dopamine. Aspartame did not alter liver TBARS, nitrite, GSH, AST, ALT, or ALP. The administration of LPS increased nitrite in brain and liver by 26.8 and 37.1%, respectively; decreased GSH in brain and liver by 21.6 and 31.1%, respectively; increased brain TNF-α by 340.4%, and glucose by 39.9%, and caused marked increase in brain monoamines. LPS increased AST, ALT, and ALP in liver tissue by 84.4, 173.7, and 258.9%, respectively. Aspartame given to LPS-treated mice at 11.25 and 22.5 mg/kg increased brain TBARS by 15.5-16.9%, nitrite by 12.6-20.1%, and mitigated the increase in monoamines. Aspartame did not alter liver TBARS, nitrite, GSH, ALT, AST, or ALP. Thus, the administration of aspartame alone or in the presence of mild systemic inflammatory response increases oxidative stress and inflammation in the brain, but not in the liver.

  9. Repellent-Treated Clothing

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA regulates the pesticide permethrin to pre-treat clothing. We evaluate the safety and effectiveness of such insecticide uses, by exposure scenarios and risk assessment. Read and follow the label directions for use of permethrin-treated clothing.

  10. Propensity scores based methods for estimating average treatment effect and average treatment effect among treated: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Abdia, Younathan; Kulasekera, K B; Datta, Somnath; Boakye, Maxwell; Kong, Maiying

    2017-09-01

    Propensity score based statistical methods, such as matching, regression, stratification, inverse probability weighting (IPW), and doubly robust (DR) estimating equations, have become popular in estimating average treatment effect (ATE) and average treatment effect among treated (ATT) in observational studies. Propensity score is the conditional probability receiving a treatment assignment with given covariates, and propensity score is usually estimated by logistic regression. However, a misspecification of the propensity score model may result in biased estimates for ATT and ATE. As an alternative, the generalized boosting method (GBM) has been proposed to estimate the propensity score. GBM uses regression trees as weak predictors and captures nonlinear and interactive effects of the covariate. For GBM-based propensity score, only IPW methods have been investigated in the literature. In this article, we provide a comparative study of the commonly used propensity score based methods for estimating ATT and ATE, and examine their performances when propensity score is estimated by logistic regression and GBM, respectively. Extensive simulation results indicate that the estimators for ATE and ATT may vary greatly due to different methods. We concluded that (i) regression may not be suitable for estimating ATE and ATT regardless of the estimation method of propensity score; (ii) IPW and stratification usually provide reliable estimates of ATT when propensity score model is correctly specified; (iii) the estimators of ATE based on stratification, IPW, and DR are close to the underlying true value of ATE when propensity score is correctly specified by logistic regression or estimated using GBM. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Paradoxical strategy for treating chronic diseases where the therapeutic effect is derived from compensatory response rather than drug effect.

    PubMed

    Yun, Anthony J; Lee, Patrick Y; Bazar, Kimberly A

    2005-01-01

    Reversing chronic conditions remains an elusive goal of medicine. The modern medical paradigm based on blocking overactive pathways or augmenting deficient pathways offers symptomatic benefit, but tolerance to therapy can develop and treatment cessation can produce rebound symptoms due to compensatory mechanisms. We propose a paradoxical strategy for treating chronic conditions based on harnessing compensatory mechanisms for therapeutic benefit. Many current drugs may be repurposed for a paradoxical indication where the therapeutic effect is derived from compensatory response, rather than drug effect. For example, although exercise is associated with acute adrenergia, paradoxical downregulation of baseline sympathovagal ratio occurs as a remodeling response. For conditions that manifest chronic sympathetic bias such as cardiovascular diseases, judicious administration of adrenergic agonists may induce compensatory downregulation of baseline sympathovagal ratio. The concept may generalize to many other diseases, especially those involving pathways which exhibit strong homeostatic tendencies such as the neurologic, immune, and endocrine systems. Careful consideration of chronobiologic features is necessary to optimize dosing strategies for modulating compensatory responses, and eccentric dosing schedules, shorter-acting formulations, or pulsatile delivery may be desirable in some cases. To what extent the effect of desensitization to current therapy is mistaken for disease progression in conditions such as diabetes, myopia, depression, and hypertension warrants investigation. The merits of combining behavioral and drug therapies such as diet-insulin therapy for diabetes and exercise-beta-blockade for cardiovascular disease should be revisited since there is a risk for exacerbating the underlying dysfunction. The reduced dynamic range of various environmental experiences and the tendency to revert to the mean through medical intervention, thermoregulation, and other

  12. Effect of O-ethylrutoside on serum and hepatic lipids in acute ethanal-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Wójcicki, J

    1977-01-01

    The serum total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol and free fatty acid concentrations, as well as hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels, were increased in acutely ethanol-treated rats. Treatment of ethanol-given animals with o-ethylrutoside resulted in a significant reduction in all examined fractions of serum lipids and in the hepatic total cholesterol level.

  13. Wildland fire effects in silviculturally treated vs. untreated stands of New Mexico and Arizona

    Treesearch

    Douglas S. Cram; Terrell T. Baker; Jon C. Boren

    2006-01-01

    Stand-replacement fires, particularly in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests, have replaced highfrequency, low-intensity historical fire regimes. We examined whether forest stands treated recently using silvicultural practices would be (1) less susceptible to stand-replacing crownfires, and (2) more ecologically and functionally resilient...

  14. Guide for minimizing the effect of preservative-treated wood on sensitive environments

    Treesearch

    Stan T. Lebow; Michael Tippie

    2001-01-01

    Preservative-treated wood is often used for construction of highway and foot bridges, wetland boardwalks, and other structures in or over water or sensitive environments. In these applications it is important that release of preservative from the wood into the environment is minimized. This publication addresses this concern by describing the various types of pressure-...

  15. The effect of height on severity of pecan scab in non-treated mature pecan trees

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pecan scab (Fusicladium effusum) is a destructive disease of pecan. There is concern that disease in the upper canopy of tall trees is difficult to control using ground-based sprayers. To establish a basic understanding of the distribution of scab in a non-treated pecan canopy, the vertical distribu...

  16. Analgesic Effect of Botulinum Toxin A in Myofascial Pain Syndrome Patients Previously Treated with Local Infiltration of Anesthetic and Steroids.

    PubMed

    Cartagena-Sevilla, Joaquín; García-Fernández, María R; Vicente-Villena, Juan P

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effect of botulinum toxin A (BoNTA) injections in patients with myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) who were previously treated with the local infiltration of anesthetic and steroids (LIAS). The study included a retrospective phase and a longitudinal open-label prospective phase, which were conducted on consecutive patients with MPS previously treated with the local infiltration of anesthetic (levobupivacaíne 0.25%) and steroids (triamcinolone 40 mg). Eligible patients were treated with a single intramuscular injection of BoNTA (Botox; Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA). The treatment efficacy was determined according to the degree of pain relief obtained. Eighty-two patients met the inclusion/exclusion criteria and were included in the study. Successful results were obtained for 32 (39.0%) and 30 (36.6%) patients, during treatment with BoNTA and LIAS, respectively. The mean (standard deviation) length of the analgesic effect was significantly longer with BoNTA (29.6 [SD = 17.7] weeks) than with LIAS (8.5 [SD = 6.4] weeks), P <.0001. As regards the side effects, 19 (23.2%) patients reported transient soreness at the injection site for 2 to 3 days with BoNTA. The MPS patients previously treated with a local infiltration of anesthetic and steroids who then received a single injection of BoNTA experienced significantly reduced pain for a relatively long time.

  17. Effect of ambient temperature on the 24-hour sleep-wake cycle in normal and capsaicin-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Obál, F; Tobler, I; Borbély, A A

    1983-03-01

    The 24-hour sleep-wake cycle of untreated, normal rats and of capsaicin-treated rats was continuously recorded by telemetry. Recordings were made on two baseline days at 22 degrees C, two days at 29 degrees C, and two final days at 22 degrees C. In untreated animals the daily amount of waking was reduced by the elevated ambient temperature and nonREM sleep was enhanced. This effect was mainly due to the frequent interruption of the dark-time waking episodes by sleep. In capsaicin-treated animals, raising the ambient temperature did not significantly enhance sleep. However, in both groups of rats the slow wave sleep (SWS) fraction of nonREM sleep was increased after elevating the temperature to 29 degrees C. REM sleep showed a minor increase which was significant only for the capsaicin-treated group. The results suggest that a moderate increase of ambient temperature has two effects: (1) It causes an enhancement of sleep by a reduction in the duration of waking episodes, an effect that may represent a heat-defense response. The attenuation of this response in capsaicin-treated rats may be a consequence of the impairment of warm-receptors. (2) It favors the occurrence of SWS and REM sleep.

  18. Cost-effectiveness of social marketing of insecticide-treated nets for malaria control in the United Republic of Tanzania.

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Kara; Kikumbih, Nassor; Armstrong Schellenberg, Joanna; Mponda, Haji; Nathan, Rose; Lake, Sally; Mills, Anne; Tanner, Marcel; Lengeler, Christian

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the costs and consequences of a social marketing approach to malaria control in children by means of insecticide-treated nets in two rural districts of the United Republic of Tanzania, compared with no net use. METHODS: Project cost data were collected prospectively from accounting records. Community effectiveness was estimated on the basis of a nested case-control study and a cross-sectional cluster sample survey. FINDINGS: The social marketing approach to the distribution of insecticide-treated nets was estimated to cost 1560 US dollars per death averted and 57 US dollars per disability-adjusted life year averted. These figures fell to 1018 US dollars and 37 US dollars, respectively, when the costs and consequences of untreated nets were taken into account. CONCLUSION: The social marketing of insecticide-treated nets is an attractive intervention for preventing childhood deaths from malaria. PMID:12764493

  19. Priming effects and enzymatic activity in Israeli soils under treated wastewater and freshwater irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anissimova, Marina; Heinze, Stefanie; Chen, Yona; Tarchitzky, Jorge; Marschner, Bernd

    2014-05-01

    Irrigation of soils with treated wastewater (TWW) directly influences microbial processes of soil. TWW contains easily decomposable organic material, which can stimulate the activity of soil microorganisms and, as a result, lead to the excessive consumption of soil organic carbon pool. We investigated the effects of irrigation with TWW relative to those of irrigation with freshwater (FW) on the microbial parameters in soils with low (7%) and medium (13%) clay content in a lysimeter experiment. The objectives of our study were to (i) determine the impact of water quality on soil respiration and enzymatic activity influenced by clay content and depth, and (ii) work out the changes in the turnover of soil organic matter (PE, priming effects). Samples were taken from three soil depths (0-10, 10-20, and 40-60 cm). Soil respiration and PE were determined in a 21-days incubation experiment after addition of uniformly 14C-labeled fructose. Activity of 10 extracellular enzymes (EEA, from C-, N-, P-, and S-cycle), phenol oxidase and peroxidase activity (PO+PE), and dehydrogenase activity (DHA) were assayed. Microbial Community-Level Physiological Profiles (CLPP) using four substrates, and microbial biomass were determined. The results showed that the clay content acted as the main determinative factor. In the soil with low clay content the water quality had a greater impact: the highest PE (56%) was observed in the upper layer (0-10cm) under FW irrigation; EEA of C-, P-, and S-cycles was significantly higher in the upper soil layer under TWW irrigation. Microbial biomass was higher in the soil under TWW irrigation and decreased with increasing of depth (50 μg/g soil in the upper layer, 15 μg/g soil in the lowest layer). This tendency was also observed for DHA. Contrary to the low clay content, in the soil with medium clay content both irrigation types caused the highest PE in the lowest layer (65% under FW irrigation, 48% under TWW irrigation); the higher substrate

  20. Effect of treating sugarcane bagasse with urea and calcium hydroxide on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Gunun, Nirawan; Wanapat, Metha; Gunun, Pongsatorn; Cherdthong, Anusorn; Khejornsart, Pichad; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-08-01

    Four beef cattle with initial body weight of 283 ± 14 kg were randomly allocated according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to study on the effect of feeding sugarcane bagasse (SB) treated with urea and/or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. The treatments were as follows: rice straw (RS), untreated SB (SB), 4 % urea-treated SB (SBU), and 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2-treated SB (SBUC), respectively. The results revealed that cattle fed with SBU and SBUC had higher feed intake and apparent digestibility. Ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen were increased in cattle fed with SB as roughage source (P < 0.05). Feeding SBU and SBUC to cattle resulted in higher propionic acid and lower acetic acid, acetic to propionic ratio, and methane production (P < 0.05). Moreover, the number of fungi was increased in SBU- and SBUC-fed groups while protozoa population was unchanged. This study concluded that the nutritive value of SB was improved by urea and/or Ca(OH)2 treatment, and feeding treated SB could increase feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. This study suggested that SB treated with 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2 could be used as an alternative roughage source for ruminant feeding.

  1. Risk of adverse effects in pneumonic foals treated with erythromycin versus other antibiotics: 143 cases (1986-1996).

    PubMed

    Stratton-Phelps, M; Wilson, W D; Gardner, I A

    2000-07-01

    To determine whether foals with pneumonia that were treated with erythromycin, alone or in combination with rifampin or gentamicin, had a higher risk of developing adverse effects, compared with foals treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMS), penicillin G procaine (PGP), or a combination of TMS and PGP (control foals). Retrospective study. 143 foals < 240 days old. Information on age, sex, breed, primary drug treatment, total days of treatment with the primary drug, and whether the foal developed diarrhea, hyperthermia, or respiratory distress was obtained from the medical records. Relative risk (RR) and attributable risk (AR) were calculated to compare risk of adverse reactions between foals treated with erythromycin and control foals. Only 3 (4.3%) control foals developed diarrhea; none developed hyperthermia or respiratory distress. Foals treated with erythromycin had an 8-fold risk (RR, 8.3) of developing diarrhea, compared with control foals, and increased risks of hyperthermia (AR, 25%) and respiratory distress (AR, 15%). Results suggest that use of erythromycin to treat foals with pneumonia was associated with an increased risk of diarrhea, hyperthermia, and respiratory distress, compared with use of TMS or PGP.

  2. Malaria epidemiology and economics: the effect of delayed immune acquisition on the cost-effectiveness of insecticide-treated bednets.

    PubMed Central

    Guyatt, H L; Snow, R W; Evans, D B

    1999-01-01

    An understanding of the epidemiology of a disease is central in evaluating the health impact and cost-effectiveness of control interventions. The epidemiology of life-threatening malaria is receiving renewed interest, with concerns that the implementation of preventive measures such as insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) while protecting young children might in fact increase the risks of mortality and morbidity in older ages by delaying the acquisition of functional immunity. This paper aims to illustrate how a combined approach of epidemiology and economics can be used to (i) explore the long-term impact of changes in epidemiological profiles, and (ii) identify those variables that are critical in determining whether an intervention will be an efficient use of resources. The key parameters for determining effectiveness are the protective efficacy of ITNs (reduction in all-cause mortality), the malaria attributable mortality and the increased malaria-specific mortality risk due to delays in the acquisition of functional immunity. In particular, the analysis demonstrates that delayed immune acquisition is not a problem per se, but that the critical issue is whether it occurs immediately following the implementation of an ITN programme or whether it builds up slowly over time. In the 'worst case' scenario where ITNs immediately increase malaria-specific mortality due to reduced immunity, the intervention might actually cost lives. In other words, it might be better to not use ITNs. On the other hand, if reduced immunity takes two years to develop, ITNs would still fall into the category of excellent value for money compared to other health interventions, saving a year of life (YLL) at a cost of between US$25-30. These types of calculations are important in identifying the parameters which field researchers should be seeking to measure to address the important question of the net impact of delaying the acquisition of immunity through preventive control measures. PMID

  3. Antibiotic stewardship: the lower-extremity physician's prescription for effectively treating infection.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert G; Joseph, Warren S

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of antibiotic drugs was one of the most significant medical achievements of the 20th century. The improper use of antibiotic drugs to prevent and treat infections has resulted in the emergence of resistance. Antimicrobic stewardship programs are becoming a mainstay in the fight against multidrug-resistant organisms. Individual clinicians should be encouraged to adopt the principles of antibiotic stewardship when treating lower-extremity infections in their scope of practice. First, a review of the available literature outlining the concept and practice of antibiotic stewardship is offered. Second, a discussion describing how to adopt and apply these principles to the individual clinician's practice as it applies to lower-extremity infections is offered. Finally, specific antimicrobial pharmacologic spectra and antibiogram information are offered.

  4. Effects of oil-treated mycobacterial cell walls on the organs of mice.

    PubMed

    Barclay, W R; Anacker, R; Brehmer, W; Ribi, E

    1967-11-01

    Intravenous vaccination of mice with oil-treated mycobacterial cell walls resulted in a marked macrophage accumulation in the lungs and spleens of vaccinated animals. Injection of oil emulsion alone or of cell walls alone failed to elicit the macrophage response. Although a correlation existed between the magnitude of the macrophage response and the degree of immunity against aerosol challenge with H(37)Rv organisms, the findings presented here do not rule out the possibility that qualitative differences may be present in the macrophages of animals vaccinated against tuberculosis. The ability of oil-treated cell walls to elicit an immune response appeared to be a function of the physical association of cell wall fragments and the surface of oil droplets.

  5. Effect of treated tannery effluent with domestic wastewater and amendments on growth and yield of cotton.

    PubMed

    Jagathjothi, N; Amanullah, M Mohamed; Muthukrishnan, P

    2013-11-15

    Pot culture and field experiments were carried out at the Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP), Dindigul during kharif 2011-12 to investigate the influence of irrigation of treated tannery effluent along with domestic wastewater on growth, yield attributes and yield of cotton. The pot culture was in a factorial completely randomized design and field experiment laid out in factorial randomized block design with four replications. The results revealed that the mixing proportion of 25% Treated Tannery Effluent (TTE)+75% domestic wastewater (DWW) application recorded taller plants, higher dry matter production, number of sympodial branches plant(-1), number of fruiting points plant(-1), number of bolls plant(-1) and seed cotton yield with yield reduction of 15.28 and 16.11% compared to normal water irrigation under pot culture and field experiment, respectively. Regarding amendments, gypsum application registered higher seed cotton yield followed by VAM.

  6. The effectiveness of prolotherapy in treating knee osteoarthritis in adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Fadi; Trebinjac, Suad; Murrell, William D; Maffulli, Nicola

    2017-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) often leads to symptoms such as pain, stiffness and decreased function. OA is treated with a wide range of modalities, both conservatively and surgically. Prolotherapy has been used to treat various musculoskeletal problems and has shown some promise. Searches of the electronic databases, PubMed, ISI web of science, PEDro and SPORTDiscus, were conducted for all Level 1-4 studies published from inception through to December 2016. Ten studies were evaluated and results show significant improvement in scores for pain, function and range of motion, both in the short term and long term. Patient satisfaction was also high in these patients (82%). Meta-analysis was not possible due to heterogeneity of outcome measures and populations. Moderate evidence suggests that prolotherapy is safe and can help achieve significant symptomatic control in individuals with OA. Future research should focus on larger sample size, standardization of treatment protocol and basic science evidence.

  7. The softening effect of heat-treated strengthened Al-Zn-Mg alloy in welding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Chen, Jingqing; Zhang, Kang; Chen, Hui

    2017-07-01

    Weld joint softening occurs during the welding process of heat-treatable aluminum alloys and strongly influences the mechanical properties. In this work, the softening of heat-treated Al-Zn-Mg alloy was studied in the multipass welding process. By Gleeble-3500 thermal-mechanical simulator, the heat treatment and tensile test with welding thermal cycles were carried out to simulate the microstructure evolution and mechanical softening during multipass welding. After that, the softening mechanism of the HAZ was analyzed by microstructure analysis. The results indicate that the heat-treated Al-Zn-Mg alloy exhibited obvious softening after several thermal cycles with peak temperature higher than 200∘C, and this phenomenon is worse with increasing peak temperature. Based on the microstructure analysis, it was found that the reinforcement phase changes according to the applied thermal cycles, which strongly affects the strength of Al-Zn-Mg alloys.

  8. The curative effect of adefovir dipivoxil treating HBeAg negative chronic hepatitis B and treating HBeAg positive chronic hepatitis B combining interferon α-2b.

    PubMed

    Gu, Junsheng; Sun, Ranran; Shen, Shen; Yu, Zujiang

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to research the efficiency of adefovir dipivoxil in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative chronic hepatitis B treatment and in combination with α-2b interferon in the treatment of HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B. A total of 102 cases of adult patients with HBeAg chronic hepatitis B were selected for testing. HBeAg negative chronic hepatitis B patients took 10mg adefovir dipivoxil capsules once daily, while positive chronic hepatitis B patients were randomly divided into either a treatment group or a control group. The treatment group was administrated with 10mg adefovir dipivoxil capsules, 1 time daily, and injected with 5 million U Recombinant Human Interferon α-2b through muscle every other day. The control group was treated with 10mg adefovir dipivoxil capsules, 1 time per day. We examined alanine aminotransferase (ALT) normalization and the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)-DNA negative rate (undetectable rate), as well as, HBeAg / hepatitis B e antibody (HBeAb) sero-conversion rate to detect treatment effects. The results proved that after 6 months of medication therapy, the ALT normalization rate was 49.9% and the HBV-DNA negative conversion rate was 54.3%. 18 months into the treatment, showed an ALT normalization rate of 73.2%, while the HBV-DNA negative conversion rate grew to 76.8%. The use of adefovir dipivoxil treatment of the negative chronic HBV has a certain extent combined with α-2b Interferon therapy in treatment of HbeAg positive chronic hepatitis B. After a 48-week observation period, ALT normalization and HBV-DNA rate could not be measured, HBeAg/HBeAb sero-conversion rose higher, indicating that the treatment of the combined drugs is more efficient than taking adefovir dipivoxil by itself, and the data were comparable with the control group (P<0.05). Thus adefovir dipivoxil can greatly improve the restrain function to HBV-DNA and improve the immunity and control ability of the body, with obvious short-term effects, in combination

  9. Evaluation of phytotoxicity effect on selected crops using treated and untreated wastewater from different configurative domestic wastewater plants.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, B; Kumari, S K Sheena; Stenstrom, T A; Bux, F

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the phytotoxicity effect of untreated and treated wastewater collected from two different configurations of domestic wastewater treatment plants in South Africa. The phytotoxicity effect on vegetable seed growth was studied in terms of germination index (GI), relative seed germination (RSG) and relative root elongation (RRE) using four commercial crop varieties, viz., tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), radish (Raphanus sativus), carrot (Daucus carota) and onion (Allium cepa). According to phyototoxicity limits, 80% germination and above is regarded as non-toxic and less than 50% GI is regarded as highly toxic and not suitable for agricultural purposes. In our study, seeds were irrigated with concentrations of 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% of treated effluent (TE) and untreated effluent (UTE). The TE results were best with the highest GI (%) recorded as tomato, 177; carrot, 158.5; onion, 132; and lettuce, 124. The results of this study indicate that TE showed no phytotoxicty effects and recorded above 80% GI. The UTE irrigated crops reached a GI of only 50% and above which is clear evidence of the beneficial effect of waste water treatment. The overall results confirmed that treated wastewater has a beneficial effect on agricultural crops and can be used as a liquid fertilizer.

  10. Effect of laser irradiation on the fluoride uptake of silver diamine fluoride treated dentine.

    PubMed

    Mei, May L; Ito, Leticia; Zhang, C F; Lo, Edward C M; Chu, C H

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the fluoride uptake of dentine treated with a 38 % silver diamine fluoride (SDF) solution and laser irradiation at sub-ablative energy levels. Fifteen human dentine slices were prepared and divided into four samples each. Four types of laser were chosen: CO2 (10,600 nm), Er:YAG (2,940 nm), Nd:YAG (1,064 nm) and Diode (810 nm). First, the four samples from 12 of the dentine slices were treated with SDF, and then irradiated by one of the four types of laser at three different settings. One sample was untreated and acted as a control. The setting that rendered the highest fluoride uptake was selected. Second, the remaining dentine slices were treated with SDF and irradiated by the four lasers with the selected settings. Fluoride uptake was assessed using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry at the dentine surface and up to 20 μm below the surface. The selected settings were CO2 irradiation at 1.0 W for 1 s, Er:YAG irradiation at 0.5 W for 20 s, Nd:YAG irradiation at 2.0 W for 1 s and diode irradiation at 3.0 W for 3 s. The fluoride content (weight %) at the dentine surface following CO2, Er:YAG, Nd:YAG and diode irradiation was 6.91 ± 3.15, 4.09 ± 1.19, 3.35 ± 2.29 and 1.73 ± 1.04, respectively. CO2 and Er:YAG irradiation resulted in higher fluoride uptake than Nd:YAG and diode irradiation at all levels (p < 0.05). CO2 laser and Er:YAG laser irradiation rendered higher fluoride uptake in the SDF-treated dentine than Nd:YAG laser and diode laser irradiation.

  11. Determining the Most Efficient and Cost-Effective Pumping Schemes for Treating Contaminated Aquifers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    Spills That Encounter Groundwater ....................... 173 38 Relationship Between Groundwater Velocity Induced by Pump-and-Treat System and...in response to natural or induced changes in the flow system; in an unconfined aquifer, the zone of saturation changes through time under the... induced by human activities; examples include seasonal pumpage for irrigation or municipal pumpage that is operated only to satisfy peak demands. The

  12. Extrapyramidal side effects in a blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna) treated with haloperidol and clomipramine.

    PubMed

    Starkey, Simon R; Morrisey, James K; Hickam, Hillary D; Albright, Julia D; Lynch, Mary J

    2008-09-01

    A diagnosis of adverse extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) was reached in a 14-year-old female blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna) that presented with disseminated dystonia (manifesting as pacing, head bobbing, and circling), intermittent ataxia, and coarse-muscle tremors of 60 hours duration. The patient had been treated 23 days previously with haloperidol decanoate (1.7 mg/kg IM once), and for 3 days before hospitalization with clomipramine HCl at a prescribed dosage of 3.9 mg/kg PO q12h. The patient was treated with supportive care, a gradual reduction in the clomipramine dose, and intramuscular and oral diphenhydramine (2 mg/kg q12h). As commonly observed in human patients with drug-induced EPS, a dramatic resolution of clinical signs was observed within 2 hours after the first intramuscular administration of diphenhydramine. It is recommended that EPS be considered in macaws experiencing neurologic signs secondary to clomipramine administration and, in particular, in those treated concurrently or previously with haloperidol.

  13. Antioxidant effect of Cytisus scoparius against carbon tetrachloride treated liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Raja, S; Ahamed, K F H Nazeer; Kumar, V; Mukherjee, Kakali; Bandyopadhyay, A; Mukherjee, Pulok K

    2007-01-03

    The study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity of Cytisus scoparius L. (Family: Leguminosae) on CCl(4) (carbon tetrachloride) treated oxidative stress in Wistar albino rats. CCl(4) injection induced oxidative stress by a significant rise in serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminases (SGPT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) along with reduction of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GRD). Pretreatment of rats with different doses of plant extract (250 and 500mg/kg) significantly lowered SGOT, SGPT, LDH and TBARS levels against CCl(4) treated rats. GSH and hepatic enzymes like SOD, CAT, GPx, GRD, and GST were significantly increased by treatment with the plant extract, against CCl(4) treated rats. The activity of extract at the dose of 500mg/kg was comparable to the standard drug, silymarin (25mg/kg). Based on these results, it was observed that Cytisus scoparius extract protects liver from oxidative stress induced by CCl(4) in rats and thus helps in evaluation of the traditional claim on this plant.

  14. Substrate Dependency and Effect of Xylanase Supplementation on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Ammonia-Treated Biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Rajesh; Kim, Tae Hyun; Lee, Yoon Y.

    Pretreatment based on aqueous ammonia was investigated under two different modes of operation: soaking in aqueous ammonia and ammonia recycle percolation. These processes were applied to three different feedstocks with varied composition: corn stover, high lignin (HL), and low lignin (LL) hybrid poplars. One of the important features of ammonia-based pretreatment is that most of the hemicellulose is retained after treatment, which simplifies the overall bioconversion process and enhances the conversion efficiency. The pretreatment processes were optimized for these feedstocks, taking carbohydrate retention as well as sugar yield in consideration. The data indicate that hybrid poplar is more difficult to treat than corn stover, thus, requires more severe conditions. On the other hand, hybrid poplar has a beneficial property that it retains most of the hemicellulose after pretreatment. To enhance the digestibility of ammonia-treated poplars, xylanase was supplemented during enzymatic hydrolysis. Because of high retention of hemicellulose in treated hybrid poplar, xylanase supplementation significantly improved xylan as well as glucan digestibility. Of the three feedstocks, best results and highest improvement by xylanase addition was observed with LL hybrid poplar, showing 90% of overall sugar yield.

  15. EFFECT OF PREGNANE XENOBIOTIC RECEPTOR ACTIVATION ON INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE TREATED WITH RIFAXIMIN.

    PubMed

    Wan, Y C; Li, T; Han, Y-D; Zhang, H-Y; Lin, H; Zhang, B

    2015-01-01

    The causes and pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) are still not clearly understood. This study aims to prove the important role of rifaximin played in inflammatory reaction caused by abnormity of the intestinal mucosal immune system. Intestinal microflora can greatly promote and maintain the inflammatory reaction of IBD, therefore, antibiotics can be used to treat IBD. Rifaximin is a medicine usually used for local intestinal infection. Many clinical and basic studies have shown that both a single application of rifaximin and the joint application with other medicines could achieve a good efficacy. This paper studied the activation of Pregnane Xenobiotic Receptor (PXR) in treating IBD with rifaximin and analyzed its efficacy in IBD when PXR was involved in the transport of medicine and metabolism. The results prove that rifaximin can not only serve as an anti-microbial drug, but can activate PXR and actually weaken the reaction of IBD. Thus it is safe to say that rifaximin has great potential in treating IBD.

  16. Effect of irrigation with treated wastewater on soil chemical properties and infiltration rate.

    PubMed

    Bedbabis, Saida; Ben Rouina, Béchir; Boukhris, Makki; Ferrara, Giuseppe

    2014-01-15

    In Tunisia, water scarcity is one of the major constraints for agricultural activities. The reuse of treated wastewater (TWW) in agriculture can be a sustainable solution to face water scarcity. The research was conducted for a period of four years in an olive orchard planted on a sandy soil and subjected to irrigation treatments: a) rain-fed conditions (RF), as control b) well water (WW) and c) treated wastewater (TWW). In WW and TWW treatments, an annual amount of 5000 m(3) ha(-1) of water was supplied to the orchard. Soil samples were collected at the beginning of the study and after four years for each treatment. The main soil properties such as electrical conductivity (EC), pH, soluble cations, chloride (Cl(-)), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), organic matter (OM) as well as the infiltration rate were investigated. After four years, either a significant decrease of pH and infiltration rate or a significant increase of OM, SAR and EC were observed in the soil subjected to treated wastewater treatment.

  17. Comparison of the effectiveness of brand-name and generic antipsychotic drugs for treating patients with schizophrenia in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chih-Wei; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Wang, Liang-Jen

    2017-06-16

    The purpose of this nationwide population-based study is to compare the long-term effectiveness of brand-name antipsychotics with generic antipsychotics for treating schizophrenia. We identified patients with schizophrenia who were prescribed antipsychotics from a random sample of one million records from Taiwan's National Health Insurance database, observed between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2012. Only those with no prior use of antipsychotics for at least 180days were included. We selected patients who were prescribed brand-name risperidone (N=404), generic risperidone (N=145), brand-name sulpiride (N=334), or generic sulpiride (N=991). The effectiveness of the treatments researched in this study consisted of average daily doses, rates of treatment discontinuation, augmentation therapy, and psychiatric hospitalization. We found that compared to patients treated with generic risperidone, those treated with brand-name risperidone required lower daily doses (2.14mg vs. 2.61mg). However, the two groups demonstrated similar rates of treatment discontinuation, augmentation, and psychiatric hospitalization. On the other hand, in comparison with patients prescribed generic sulpiride, those treated with brand-name sulpiride not only required lower daily doses (302.72mg vs. 340.71mg) but also had lower psychiatric admission rates (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.24, 95% confidence interval: 0.10-0.56). In conclusion, for both risperidone and sulpiride, higher daily doses of the respective generic drugs were prescribed than with brand-name drugs in clinical settings. Furthermore, the brand-name sulpiride is more effective at preventing patients from hospitalization than generic sulpiride. These findings can serve as an important reference for clinical practices and healthcare economics for treating schizophrenic patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of sodium selenite on chosen anti- and pro-oxidative parameters in rats treated with lithium: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Musik, Irena; Kocot, Joanna; Kiełczykowska, Małgorzata

    2015-06-01

    Selenium is an essential element of antioxidant properties. Lithium is widely used in medicine but its administration can cause numerous side effects including oxidative stress. The present study aimed at evaluating if sodium selenite could influence chosen anti- and pro-oxidant parameters in rats treated with lithium. The experiment was performed on four groups of Wistar rats: I (control) - treated with saline; II (Li) - treated with lithium (2.7 mgLi/kg b.w. as Li2CO3), III (Se) - treated with selenium (0.5 mgSe/kg b.w. as Na2SeO3), IV (Li+Se) - treated with Li2CO3 and Na2SeO3 together at the same doses as in group II and III, respectively. All treatments were performed by stomach tube for three weeks in form of water solutions. The following anti- and pro-oxidant parameters: total antioxidant status (TAS) value, catalase (CAT) activity, concentrations of ascorbic acid (AA) and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) in plasma as well as whole blood superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were measured. Selenium given alone markedly enhanced whole blood GPx and diminished plasma CAT vs. Lithium significantly decreased plasma CAT and slightly increased AA vs. Selenium co-administration restored these parameters to the values observed in control animals. Furthermore, selenium co-administration significantly increased GPx in Li-treated rats. All other parameters (TAS, SOD and MDA) were not affected by lithium and/or selenium. Further research seems to be warranted to decide if application of selenium as an adjuvant in lithium therapy is worth considering. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of clinical remission by treat to target strategy in established rheumatoid arthritis: results of the CREATE registry.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, M; de la Fuente, S; Castro-Villegas, M C; Romero-Gómez, M; Ruiz-Vílchez, D; Calvo-Gutiérrez, J; Escudero-Contreras, A; Del Prado, J R; Collantes-Estévez, E; Font, P

    2016-12-01

    To analyse the cost-effectiveness, in daily clinical practice, of the strategy of treating to the target of clinical remission (CR) in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA), after 2 years of treatment with biological therapy. Adult patients with established RA were treated with biological therapy and followed up for 2 years by a multidisciplinary team responsible for their clinical management. Treatment effectiveness was evaluated by the DAS28 score. The direct costs incurred during this period were quantified from the perspective of the healthcare system. We calculated the cost-effectiveness of obtaining a DAS28 < 2.6, considered as CR. The study included 144 RA patients treated with biological therapies. After 2 years of treatment, 32.6% of patients achieved CR. The mean cost of achieving CR at 2 years was 79,681 ± 38,880 euros. The strategy of treatment to the target of CR is considered the most effective, but in actual clinical practice in patients with established RA, it has a high cost.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of a 12-dose regimen for treating latent tuberculous infection in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Shepardson, D.; Marks, S. M.; Chesson, H.; Kerrigan, A.; Holland, D. P.; Scott, N.; Tian, X.; Borisov, A. S.; Shang, N.; Heilig, C. M.; Sterling, T. R.; Villarino, M. E.; Mac Kenzie, W. R.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY SETTING A large randomized controlled trial recently showed that for treating latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) in persons at high risk of progression to tuberculosis (TB) disease, a 12-dose regimen of weekly rifapentine plus isoniazid (3HP) administered as directly observed treatment (DOT) can be as effective as 9 months of daily self-administered isoniazid (9H). OBJECTIVES To assess the cost-effectiveness of 3HP compared to 9H. DESIGN A computational model was designed to simulate individuals with LTBI treated with 9H or 3HP. Costs and health outcomes were estimated to determine the incremental costs per active TB case prevented and per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained by 3HP compared to 9H. RESULTS Over a 20-year period, treatment of LTBI with 3HP rather than 9H resulted in 5.2 fewer cases of TB and 25 fewer lost QALYs per 1000 individuals treated. From the health system and societal perspectives, 3HP would cost respectively US$21 525 and $4294 more per TB case prevented, and respectively $4565 and $911 more per QALY gained. CONCLUSIONS 3HP may be a cost-effective alternative to 9H, particularly if the cost of rifapentine decreases, the effectiveness of 3HP can be maintained without DOT, and 3HP treatment is limited to those with a high risk of progression to TB disease. PMID:24200264

  1. Effect of norethindrone acetate on hormone levels and markers of bone turnover in estrogen-treated postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Onobrakpeya, O A; Fall, P M; Willard, A; Chakravarthi, P; Hansen, A; Raisz, L G

    2001-11-01

    There is controversy concerning the effects of progestins on bone. Norethindrone acetate (NETA) is synthetic progesterone that also has estrogenic and androgenic effects. We tested its effects on hormone levels, lipids and biochemical markers of bone turnover in postmenopausal women who were on estrogen replacement therapy. Women were treated with NETA, 5 mg/d for 9 weeks. Estrogenic effects included a marked lowering of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Androgenic effects included a decrease in sex hormone binding globulin and HDL cholesterol. Bone turnover showed inconsistent responses. Among markers of bone formation, bone specific alkaline phosphatase decreased significantly by 23% while procollagen peptides and osteocalcin showed a non-significant increase. The marker of bone resorption, N-telopeptide crosslinks of collagen, decreased by 19% at 6 weeks. These results indicate that NETA does not have a potent short-term anabolic effect on bone but does have effects that are likely to be mediated through the estrogen and androgen receptors.

  2. Effects of pinacidil on contractile proteins in high K(+)-treated intact, and in beta-escin-treated skinned smooth muscle of the rabbit mesenteric artery.

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, T.; Suzuki, S.; Kuriyama, H.

    1991-01-01

    1. The effects of pinacidil were investigated on changes in cellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and tension in intact and chemically skinned smooth muscle strips of the rabbit mesenteric artery. 2. High K+ (128 mM) produced a large phasic followed by a tonic increase in [Ca2+]i and tension in intact muscle strips. Pinacidil at 10 microM but not 1 microM, inhibited the phasic and tonic contractions induced by 128 mM K+ without a corresponding change in [Ca2+]i. 3. In beta-escin-treated skinned smooth muscle, the minimum Ca2+ concentration that produced contraction was 0.1 microM and the maximum contraction was obtained at 10 microM. Pinacidil at 10 microM but not 1 microM, shifted the pCa-tension relation curve to the right and also inhibited the maximum contraction induced by Ca2+. The concentrations of Ca2+ required for half maximal tension were 0.9 microM in control and 1.5 microM in the presence of 10 microM pinacidil. Calmodulin (2 microM) increased the contraction induced by 0.3 microM Ca2+ (but not by 10 microM Ca2+) in the skinned strips. Pinacidil (10 microM) inhibited the contraction induced by 0.3 microM or 10 microM Ca2+ in the presence of 2 microM calmodulin. 4. Noradrenaline (NA, 10 microM) with guanosine triphosphate (GTP, 3 microM), guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP gamma S, 3 microM) or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA, 0.1 microM) all enhanced the contraction induced by 0.3 microM Ca2+. Pinacidil (10 microM) inhibited the contraction induced by 0.3 microM Ca2+ more strongly in the presence of the above agents than in their absence.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1933133

  3. Dietary effects on liver tumor burden in mice treated with the hepatocellular carcinogen diethylnitrosamine

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Marin E.; Chow, Jenny D.Y.; Byrne, Frances L.; Breen, David S.; Leitinger, Norbert; Li, Chien; Lackner, Carolin; Caldwell, Stephen H.; Hoehn, Kyle L.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Mice exposed to the hepatocellular carcinogen diethylnitrosamine at 2 weeks of age have a high risk of developing primary liver tumors later in life. Previous studies have demonstrated that diethylnitrosamine-treated mice have increased tumor burden when fed an obesigenic “Western” diet rich in lard fat and sugar. However, the role of dietary fats versus sugars in the promotion of liver cancer is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine how altering dietary fats versus sugars affects tumor burden in the diethylnitrosamine model. Methods C57BL/6N mice were treated with diethylnitrosamine at 2 weeks of age and, from 6 to 32 weeks of age, fed one of five diets that differed in fat and sugar content including normal chow, ketogenic, and Western diets. Results Mice fed sugar-rich diets had the greatest tumor burden irrespective of dietary fat content. In contrast, mice fed a high-fat low-sugar diet had the least tumor burden despite obesity and glucose intolerance. When evaluated as independent variables, tumor burden was positively correlated with hepatic fat accumulation, postprandial insulin, and liver IL-6, and inversely correlated with serum adiponectin. In contrast, tumor burden did not correlate with adiposity, fasting insulin, or glucose intolerance. Furthermore, mice fed high sugar diets had lower liver expression of p21 and cleaved caspase-3 compared to mice fed low sugar diets. Conclusions These data indicate that dietary sugar intake contributes to liver tumor burden independent of excess adiposity or insulin resistance in mice treated with diethylnitrosamine. PMID:25450719

  4. Effects of heptachlor-treated cereal grains on Canada geese in the Columbia Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, C.J.; Lenhart, D.J.; Cromartie, E.; Jarvis, Robert L.; Bartonek, James C.

    1979-01-01

    In 1976 and 1977, die-offs of birds of several species occurred in Umatilla and Morrow counties, Oregon. Detection of high levels of heptachlor epoxide (HE) in tissues of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) prompted this study to determine the extent and impact of heptachlor contamination on geese on two study areas on the Columbia River--the Umatilla National Wildlife Refuge (Umatilla) in Oregon and Washington and on the McNary Recreation Area (McNary) about 65 km upstream in Washington. Nest success of Great Basin Canada geese (B. c. moffitti) at McNary was 90.2 percent compared to 5I.7 percent at Umatilla. HE in eggs was correlated with nest success--95 percent of the nests from which sample eggs contained 10 ug/g. Eggs from McNary were essentially clean of organochlorine pollutants, while eggs from Umatilla contained an average of 2.93 ?g/g of HE and a maximum of 24.29 ug/g. Lethal levels of HE were detected in brains of resident Great Basin Canada geese and over-wintering Taverner's geese (B. c. taverneri) that were found dead on or near Umatilla: The source of HE in geese appeared to be ingestion of seeds treated with heptachlor for wireworm control. The small population of moffitti is in danger of extirpation from heptachlor. Recommendations for minimizing the heptachlor problem include: (1) improved handling of treated grain to decrease its availability to wildlife, (2) use of treated seed only in areas requiring wireworm control, and cessation of prophylactic use, particularly on wheat planted in irrigated circles immediately following potatoes, and (3) replacement of heptachlor with a safer chemicaL

  5. Dietary effects on liver tumor burden in mice treated with the hepatocellular carcinogen diethylnitrosamine.

    PubMed

    Healy, Marin E; Chow, Jenny D Y; Byrne, Frances L; Breen, David S; Leitinger, Norbert; Li, Chien; Lackner, Carolin; Caldwell, Stephen H; Hoehn, Kyle L

    2015-03-01

    Mice exposed to the hepatocellular carcinogen diethylnitrosamine at 2 weeks of age have a high risk of developing primary liver tumors later in life. Previous studies have demonstrated that diethylnitrosamine-treated mice have increased tumor burden when fed an obesigenic "Western" diet rich in lard fat and sugar. However, the role of dietary fats vs. sugars in the promotion of liver cancer is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine how altering dietary fats vs. sugars affects tumor burden in the diethylnitrosamine model. C57BL/6N mice were treated with diethylnitrosamine at 2 weeks of age and, from 6 to 32 weeks of age, fed one of five diets that differed in fat and sugar content, including normal chow, ketogenic, and Western diets. Mice fed sugar-rich diets had the greatest tumor burden irrespective of dietary fat content. In contrast, mice fed a high-fat low-sugar diet had the least tumor burden despite obesity and glucose intolerance. When evaluated as independent variables, tumor burden was positively correlated with hepatic fat accumulation, postprandial insulin, and liver IL-6, and inversely correlated with serum adiponectin. In contrast, tumor burden did not correlate with adiposity, fasting insulin, or glucose intolerance. Furthermore, mice fed high sugar diets had lower liver expression of p21 and cleaved caspase-3 compared to mice fed low sugar diets. These data indicate that dietary sugar intake contributes to liver tumor burden independent of excess adiposity or insulin resistance in mice treated with diethylnitrosamine. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. All rights reserved.

  6. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sewage sludge and treated biosolids: effect factors and mass balance.

    PubMed

    Kim, M; Guerra, P; Theocharides, M; Barclay, K; Smyth, S A; Alaee, M

    2013-11-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants have been consistently detected in sewage sludge and treated biosolids. Two hundred and eighty-eight samples including primary sludge (PS), waste biological sludge (WBS) and treated biosolids from fifteen wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Canada were analyzed to investigate the factors affecting accumulation of PBDEs in sludge and biosolids. Factors examined included environmental/sewershed conditions and operational parameters of the WWTPs. PBDE concentrations in PS, WBS and treated biosolids were 230-82,000 ng/g, 530-8800 ng/g and 420-6000 ng/g, respectively; BDE-209,-99, and -47 were the predominant congeners. Concentrations were influenced by industrial input, leachate, and temperature. Several examinations including the measurement of BDE-202 indicated minimal debromination during wastewater treatment. Estimated solids-liquid distribution coefficients were moderately correlated to hydraulic retention time, solids loading rate, mixed liquor suspended solids, solids retention time, and removal of organic solids, indicating that PBDE partitioning to solids can be optimized by WWTPs' operational conditions. Solids treatment type strongly affected PBDE levels in biosolids: 1.5 times increase after solids digestion, therefore, digestion efficiency could be a potential factor for variability of PBDEs concentration. In contrast, alkaline treatment reduced PBDE concentrations in biosolids. Overall, mass balance approaches confirmed that PBDEs were removed from the liquid stream through partitioning to solids. Variability of PBDE levels in biosolids could result in different PBDEs burdens to agricultural land, and different exposure levels to soil organisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Endoscopic lung volume reduction effectively treats acute respiratory failure secondary to bullous emphysema.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Paul; Garrett, Jeffrey E; Rankin, Nigel; Anderson, Graeme

    2010-10-01

    Emphysema often affects the lungs in a heterogeneous fashion, and collapse or removal of severely hyperinflated portions of lung can improve overall lung function and symptoms. The role of lung volume reduction (LVR) surgery in selected patients is well established, but that of non-surgical LVR is still being defined. In particular, use of endobronchial LVR is still under development. This case report describes a 48-year-old non-smoker with severe bullous emphysema complicated by acute hypercapnic respiratory failure, who was successfully treated by endobronchial valve placement while intubated in an intensive care unit. © 2010 The Authors. Respirology © 2010 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  8. The Ripple Effect of Title IX on Women's Health Issues: Treating an Increasingly Active Population.

    PubMed

    Mees, Patricia D

    2003-04-01

    Perhaps no area in sports medicine has changed as dramatically in the last 30 years as women's health. Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 prohibited discrimination on the basis of sex in all curricular and extracurricular activities at educational institutions that receive federal funding. Before 1972, many assumed that women were not interested in sports and that there was no need to provide programs for girls and women, and most primary care physicians had little experience in treating female athletes and other active women.

  9. Absence of Close-Range Excitorepellent Effects in Malaria Mosquitoes Exposed to Deltamethrin-Treated Bed Nets

    PubMed Central

    Spitzen, Jeroen; Ponzio, Camille; Koenraadt, Constantianus J. M.; Pates Jamet, Helen V.; Takken, Willem

    2014-01-01

    Flight behavior of insecticide-resistant and susceptible malaria mosquitoes approaching deltamethrin-treated nets was examined using a wind tunnel. Behavior was linked to resulting health status (dead or alive) using comparisons between outcomes from free-flight assays and standard World Health Organization (WHO) bioassays. There was no difference in response time, latency time to reach the net, or spatial distribution in the wind tunnel between treatments. Unaffected resistant mosquitoes spent less time close to (< 30 cm) treated nets. Nettings that caused high knockdown or mortality in standard WHO assays evoked significantly less mortality in the wind tunnel; there was no excitorepellent effect in mosquitoes making contact with the nettings in free flight. This study shows a new approach to understanding mosquito behavior near insecticidal nets. The methodology links free-flight behavior to mosquito health status on exposure to nets. The results suggest that behavioral assays can provide important insights for evaluation of insecticidal effects on disease vectors. PMID:24752686

  10. Inhibition effect of phosphorus-based chemicals on corrosion of carbon steel in secondary-treated municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhanhui; Ren, Hongqiang; Xu, Ke; Geng, Jinju; Ding, Lili

    2013-01-01

    Secondary-treated municipal wastewater (MWW) could supply a viable alternative water resource for cooling water systems. Inorganic salts in the concentrated cooling water pose a great challenge to corrosion control chemicals. In this study, the inhibition effect of 1-hydroxy ethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP), trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP) and 2-phosphonobutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid (PBTCA) on corrosion of carbon steel in secondary-treated MWW was investigated by the means of potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The inhibition effect increased with increasing concentration of inhibitors. The corrosion rates of carbon steel were 1.5, 0.8, 0.2 and 0.5 mm a(-1) for blank, HEDP, ATMP and PBTCA samples at 50 mg L(-1), respectively. The phosphorus-based chemicals could adsorb onto the surface of the carbon steel electrode, form a coat of protective film and then protect the carbon steel from corrosion in the test solution.

  11. [Effects of treating with concentrated sulfuric acid on the seed germination of ten Hibiscus hamabo provenance families].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Xue; Sun, Hai-Jing; Liu, Yun; Chen, Yi-Tai; Feng, Da-Lan; Li, Sha

    2012-11-01

    The seeds from ten Hibiscus hamabo provenance families were treated with concentrated sulfuric acid for different durations (0, 10, 15, and 20 min) , and the seed germination rate, germination energy, and germination index, as well as the seed relative water adsorption rate, soluble sugar and starch contents, and alpha-amylase activity during the germination, were determined, aimed to study the effects of treating with concentrated sulfuric acid on the seed germination of H. hamabo and the differences of the seed germination among different H. hamabo provenance families. After treated with concentrated sulfuric acid, the seed germination rate, germination energy, and germination index increased significantly, and the germination time shortened remarkably. Treating with concentrated sulfuric acid for 15 minutes had the best effect, i. e., the germination rate, germination energy, and germination index were up to 95.7%, 91.3%, and 13.28, respectively, and the germination time was the shortest. The seed germination rate, germination energy, and germination index differed significantly with different provenance families, the highest germination index (15.13) being 2.12 times of the lowest germination index (7.15), and the highest germination energy (98.0%) being 1.77 times of the lowest one (55.5%). Treating with concentrated sulfuric acid accelerated the physiological and biochemical processes of seed germination, and the relative water absorption rate, soluble sugar content, and a-amylase activity were decreased after an initial increase, with the maximum at the early stage of germination. There was a significant negative relationship between the seed starch content and the seed germination index.

  12. Effects of grind size when alkaline treating corn residue and impact of ratio of alkaline-treated residue and distillers grains on performance of finishing cattle.

    PubMed

    Shreck, A L; Nuttelman, B L; Schneider, C J; Burken, D B; Harding, J L; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Cecava, M J

    2015-07-01

    Two studies were conducted to optimize use of alkaline-treated corn stover and wheat straw and distillers grains as partial corn replacements. In Exp. 1, a finishing experiment used 30 pens (12 steers/pen) of calf-fed steers (initial BW = 374 ± 23.9 kg) with a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement of treatments with 6 replications per treatment. Factors were grind size, where corn stover was processed through a 2.54- or 7.62-cm screen, and chemical treatment (corn stover either fed in native, non-treated form [NT; 93.4% DM] or alkaline treated [AT; 5% CaO hydrated to 50% DM]). No interactions (P ≥ 0.38) were noted between grind size and chemical treatment. Feeding AT compared with NT improved (P ≤ 0.02) final BW, ADG, and G:F. Reducing grind size improved (P ≤ 0.01) ADG and G:F, and no interaction with chemical treatment was observed. Steers fed AT had similar DMI, ADG, G:F, and carcass characteristics compared with a 5% roughage control that contained 15 percentage units (DM basis) more corn. In Exp. 2, 60 individually fed steers (initial BW = 402 ± 61.4 kg) were randomly assigned to 10 diets. Six treatments evaluated 10, 25, or 40% dry-rolled corn (DRC), which was replaced with either a 2:1 or 3:1 ratio (DM basis) of modified distillers grains plus solubles (MDGS) and treated corn stover analyzed as a 2 × 3 factorial. An additional 3 treatments were added where a 3:1 ratio of MDGS:straw were compared with a 3:1 ratio of MDGS:stover. As DRC increased, G:F (P = 0.06) quadratically increased for 3:1 MDGS:stover diets. Increasing DRC increased (P = 0.07) G:F in treated stover diets, regardless of ratio. Increasing DRC increased (P = 0.10) ADG for 3:1 ratios for both straw and stover. Reducing grind size, feeding a maximum of 20% treated crop residue, and maintaining at least 25% corn in the diet are strategies for optimizing cattle performance when replacing dry-rolled and high-moisture corn with treated crop residues and distillers grains.

  13. Comparison of epinephrine and felypressin pressure effects in 1K1C hypertensive rats treated or not with atenolol.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Camila A; Andreo, Vagner C; Lomba, Pedro C; Dionísio, Thiago J; Amaral, Sandra L; Santos, Carlos F; Faria, Flávio A

    2015-02-01

    Epinephrine is considered the gold standard vasoconstrictor for hypertensive patients, but few studies report felypressin's effects. The present study aimed to analyze and compare the effects of these two vasoconstrictors, injected by the intravenous route, on the arterial pressure of normotensive, hypertensive and atenolol-treated hypertensive rats. The hypertension model was one-kidney-one-clip (1K1C): the main left renal artery was partially constricted and the right kidney was surgically removed in 45-day-old male Wistar rats. 1K1C hypertensive rats received atenolol (90 mg/kg/day) by gavage for 2 weeks. 28-35 days after hypertension induction, a catheter was inserted into the left carotid artery to record direct blood pressure values. The following parameters were recorded: minimal hypotensive response, maximal hypertensive response, response duration and heart rate. Epinephrine, but not felypressin, exerted an important hypotensive action; non-treated hypertensive rats showed more pronounced vasodilation. Treated and non-treated rats showed hypertensive responses of the same magnitudes in all groups; 1K1C atenolol rats showed reduced hypertensive responses to both vasoconstrictors. Felypressin's response duration was longer than that of epinephrine in all groups. Epinephrine increased heart rate while felypressin reduced this parameter only in the normotensive group. Our results suggest that felypressin has equipotent pressure responses when compared with epinephrine, showing a greater extent of action. Atenolol's reduction of hypertensive effects surprisingly suggests that atenolol β-blockade may also be important for felypressin's cardiovascular effect, as is widely known for epinephrine. Our data suggest that felypressin is safe for hypertensive subjects, in particular those receiving atenolol.

  14. Effects of the introduction of pre-treated wastewater in a shallow lake reed stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinka, Mária; Kiss, Anita; Magyar, Norbert; Ágoston-Szabó, Edit

    2016-01-01

    Reed stands may be employed in the amelioration of water quality or even in the treatment of wastewater. In this study, the nutrient concentrations of (i) the above- and below-ground Common Reed (Phragmites australis) biomass, and (ii) surface and interstitial water were analyzed in a natural stand used in wastewater treatment. The reed stand was located in Hungarian part of Lake Fertő/Neusiedler See, by the shore near Fertőrákos Bay. The nitrate, phosphate and dissolved organic nitrogen concentrations of surface water were found to be higher on the inlet side of the reed stand compared to the outlet. The N and P concentrations in the above-ground biomass and P concentrations in the below-ground biomass increased after the introduction of pre-treated wastewater. The inter-annual differences in the characteristics of sediment interstitial water and in the nutrient content of reed tissues were assessed using statistical methods. The samples taken before and after the introduction of the pre-treated wastewater in the parcel formed different clusters. The results of the study provide further evidence that the nutrient retention capacity of natural stands of P. australis may be employed in the treatment of wastewater while protecting and preserving the valuable natural assets of the lake.

  15. Annealing temperature effect on the properties of untreated and treated copper films with oxygen plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hojabri, Alireza; Hajakbari, Fatemeh; Soltanpoor, Nasrin; Hedayati, Maryam Sadat

    2014-06-01

    In this work, the copper films were deposited on quartz substrates by DC magnetron sputtering method and then, the prepared films were annealed in air atmosphere at different annealing temperatures. Before annealing, some of the copper films, treated by oxygen plasma, for comparison of the results. The structural and morphological properties of the films have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy, and four point probe techniques. XRD results exhibited that the cuprous oxide phase changes to cupric oxide by enhancing of annealing temperatures. Also, oxygen plasma treatment can cause the better crystallinity for the prepared copper oxide films. The results confirm that oxygen plasma treatment, affected the crystal size, grain size, average roughness, sheet resistivity and strain of the films. The optical characteristics of the oxygen plasma treated films, such as refractive index, extinction coefficient and absorption coefficient were calculated by straight forward method proposed by Swanepoel using transmittance measurements. Moreover it was found that annealing temperature augmentation lead to decrease the optical band gap energy calculated using Tauc's relation from 2.45 to 1.80 eV.

  16. FLUX OF IONIC DYES ACROSS MICRONEEDLE-TREATED SKIN: EFFECT OF DYE MOLECULAR CHARACTERISTICS

    PubMed Central

    Gomaa, Yasmine A.; Garland, Martin J.; McInnes, Fiona; Donnelly, Ryan F.; El-Khordagui, Labiba K.; Wilson, Clive

    2014-01-01

    Drug flux across microneedle (MN)-treated skin is influenced by the characteristics of the MN array, microconduits and drug molecules in addition to the overall diffusional resistance of microconduits and viable tissue. Relative implication of these factors has not been fully explored. In the present study, the in vitro permeation of a series of six structurally related ionic xanthene dyes with different molecular weights (MW) and chemical substituents, across polymer MN-pretreated full thickness porcine skin was investigated in relation of their molecular characteristics. Phosphate buffer saline pH 7.4, the medium used in skin permeation experiments, was used to determine the equilibrium solubility of the dyes and their partition coefficient both in the isotropic n-octanol/ aqueous system and porcine skin/ aqueous system. Additionally, dissociation constants were determined potentiometrically. Results indicated that for rhodamine dyes, skin permeation of the zwitterionic form which predominates at physiological pH, was significantly reduced by an increase in MW, the presence of the chemically reactive isothiocyanate substituent reported to interact with stratum corneum proteins and the skin thickness. These factors were generally shown to override aqueous solubility, an important determinant of drug diffusion in an aqueous milieu. Findings provided more insight into the mechanism of drug permeation across MN-treated skin, of importance to both the design of MN-based transdermal drug delivery systems and in vitro skin permeation research. PMID:22960319

  17. Effect of restoration method on fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary premolars.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yoshihiro; Tsubota, Yuji; Fukushima, Shunji

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary premolars with mesio-occlusodistal (MOD) cavities restored using various restorative materials and luting agents. Eighty extracted human maxillary premolars satisfying certain predetermined criteria were subjected to seven different restoration methods (10 premolars per method). After endodontic treatment, an MOD cavity was prepared in each specimen, and restoration was carried out by one of the following methods: group 1 = control (intact premolars); groups 2 and 3 = restoration using a photo-cure resin composite with and without bonding, respectively; groups 4 and 5 = restoration using a cast-metal inlay with zinc phosphate and adhesive resin cements, respectively; groups 6 and 7 = restoration using a cast-metal onlay with zinc phosphate and adhesive resin cements, respectively; and group 8 = restoration using a hybrid resin onlay. A fracture test was conducted to determine the fracture resistance and fracture mode of each specimen. Fracture resistance was greatest for teeth restored using a cast-metal onlay cemented with adhesive resin cement, but those fractures that did occur were generally unrestorable. Fracture resistance of teeth restored using a cast-metal inlay was also high. Fracture resistance for teeth restored using a resin composite was significantly lower, but the majority of these fractures were restorable. Endodontically treated maxillary premolars with MOD cavities could be successfully restored by cast onlay and inlay restorations luted with adhesive resin cement, but their failure mode was often unfavorable.

  18. Effect of Carbide Distribution on Corrosion Behavior of the Deep Cryogenically Treated 1.2080 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amini, Kamran; Akhbarizadeh, Amin; Javadpour, Sirus

    2016-02-01

    Deep cryogenic heat treatment is a supplementary process performed on steels specifically tool steels before tempering to improve the wear resistance and hardness of these materials. The carbide distribution changes via the electric current flow or the application of a magnetic field during the deep cryogenic heat treatment. Hence, the electric current and the magnetic field were applied to the samples to investigate the corrosion behavior of the deep cryogenically treated samples by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The results showed that increasing the carbide percentage and achieving a more homogenous carbide distribution during the deep cryogenic heat treatment will remarkably decrease the corrosion resistance due to a decrease in the solutionized chromium atoms in the structure as well as the increase in the martensite-carbide grain boundaries (the galvanic cell areas). Moreover, it was clarified that the electric current flow and magnetic fields reduce the carbide percentage, which leads to an increase in the corrosion resistance of these samples in comparison with the deep cryogenically treated samples.

  19. Long-term effects of poultry litter, alum-treated litter, and ammonium nitrate on aluminum availability in soils.

    PubMed

    Moore, P A; Edwards, D R

    2005-01-01

    Research has shown that alum [Al(2)(SO(4))(3).14H(2)O] applications to poultry litter can greatly reduce phosphorus (P) runoff, as well as decrease ammonia (NH(3)) volatilization. However, the long-term effects of fertilizing with alum-treated litter are unknown. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the long-term effects of normal poultry litter, alum-treated litter, and ammonium nitrate (NH(4)NO(3)) on aluminum (Al) availability in soils, Al uptake by tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), and tall fescue yields. A long-term study was initiated in April of 1995. There were 13 treatments (unfertilized control, four rates of normal litter, four rates of alum-treated litter, and four rates of NH(4)NO(3)) in a randomized block design. All fertilizers were broadcast applied to 52 small plots (3.05 x 1.52 m) cropped to tall fescue annually in the spring. Litter application rates were 2.24, 4.49, 6.73, and 8.98 Mg ha(-1) (1, 2, 3, and 4 tons acre(-1)); NH(4)NO(3) rates were 65, 130, 195, and 260 kg N ha(-1) and were based on the amount of N applied with alum-treated litter. Soil pH, exchangeable Al (extracted with potassium chloride), Al uptake by fescue, and fescue yields were monitored periodically over time. Ammonium nitrate applications resulted in reductions in soil pH beginning in Year 3, causing exchangeable Al values to increase from less than 1 mg Al kg(-1) soil in Year 2 to over 100 mg Al kg(-1) soil in Year 7 for many of the NH(4)NO(3) plots. In contrast, normal and alum-treated litter resulted in an increase in soil pH, which decreased exchangeable Al when compared to unfertilized controls. Severe yield reductions were observed with NH(4)NO(3) beginning in Year 6, which were due to high levels of acidity and exchangeable Al. Aluminum uptake by forage and Al runoff from the plots were not affected by treatment. Fescue yields were highest with alum-treated litter (annual average = 7.36 Mg ha(-1)), followed by normal litter (6.93 Mg ha(-1)), NH(4)NO

  20. [Comparison of effects between two operating methods of treating intertrochanteric hip fracture with Gamma nail fixation].

    PubMed

    Chen, Qin; Zhou, Zheng; Guan, Long

    2007-10-01

    To evaluate the surgical efficiency of treating the intertrochanteric hip fracture with the Gamma nail fixation and to compare two operating methods of the Gamma nail fixation. From August 2000 to August 2006, 69 patients (32 males, 37 females; age, 43-98 years;average, 72.3 years) with the intertrochanteric hip fracture but with no associated injury were treated with the Gamma nail fixation. The patients' average illness course was 5. 6 days (range, 3-14 days). Among the 69 patients, 36 were treated with the traditional method of the Gamma nail fixation (Group A) and 33 were treated with an improved method of the Gamma nail fixation (Group B). According to the Association for the Study of Internal Fixation (AO-ASIF) classification, in Group A, 5 patients had a disease of Type A1, 23 of Type A2, and 8 of Type A3; in Group B, 8 patients had a disease of Type A1, 21 of Type A2, and 4 of Type A3. The data from the two groups were analyzed, and the statistical analysis was made on the following aspects: incision length, operating time, intraoperative bleeding, X-ray exposure frequency, drainage amount, blood transfusion volume, postoperative infection of the lungs, superficial infection of the incision, duration of antibiotic use, standing with the walking stick after operation, complication due to internal fixation, healing time for the fracture, and the hip function recovery half a year after operation assessed with the Harris scoring system. All the 69 patients were followed up for 8-80 months (average, 42 months). We studied the indexes such as incision length, operating time, intraoperative bleeding, X-ray exposure frequency, drainage amount, and blood transfusion volum; above indexes in Group A were 9.5 +/- 4.7 cm, 85 +/- 35 min, 186.0 +/- 87.3 ml, 9.0 +/- 5.1 times, 102.7 +/- 49.8 ml, 325.0 +/- 169.5 ml; and those were 5.3 +/- 1.2 cm, 46 +/- 10 min, 65.0 +/- 26.0 ml, 3.0 +/- 2.1 times, 52.5 +/- 16.2 ml, 203.0 +/- 61.2 ml in Group B. The above indexes showed that

  1. Effects of domestic wastewater treated by anaerobic stabilization on soil pollution, plant nutrition, and cotton crop yield.

    PubMed

    Uzen, Nese; Cetin, Oner; Unlu, Mustafa

    2016-12-01

    This study has aimed to determine the effects of treated wastewater on cotton yield and soil pollution in Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey during 2011 and 2012. The treated wastewater was provided from the reservoir operated as anaerobic stabilization. After treatment, suspended solids (28-60 mg/l), biological oxygen demand (29-30 mg/l), and chemical oxygen demand (71-112 mg/l) decreased significantly compared to those in the wastewater. There was no heavy metal pollution in the water used. There were no significant amounts of coliform bacteria, fecal coliform, and Escherichia coli compared to untreated wastewater. The cottonseed yield (31.8 g/plant) in the tanks where no commercial fertilizers were applied was considerably higher compared to the yield (17.2 g/plant) in the fertilized tanks where a common nitrogenous fertilizer was utilized. There were no significant differences between the values of soil pH. Soil electrical conductivity (EC) after the experiment increased from 0.8-1.0 to 0.9-1.8 dS/m. Heavy metal pollution did not occur in the soil and plants, because there were no heavy metals in the treated wastewater. It can be concluded that treated domestic wastewater could be used to grow in a controlled manner crops, such as cotton, that would not be used directly as human nutrients.

  2. A mini-review on the most important effective medicinal plants to treat hypertension in ethnobotanical evidence of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Baharvand-Ahmadi, Babak; Asadi-Samani, Majid

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, cardiovascular diseases are highly prevalent in human communities. Hypertension is a multifactorial disease which causes a mortality twice higher than general population. Given the fact that medicinal plants have long been used to treat hypertension and are currently being administered for this disease, we sought to report the mostly effective and important medicinal plants on hypertension therapy in ethno-botanical evidence of Iran. In this study, hypertension, Iran, ethno-botany, medicinal plants, and traditional medicine were used as key words to search in Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, EBSCO and EMBASE to select relevant articles. The findings of this study indicated that in Iran 40 plants in various provinces are used to treat hypertension. Because medicinal plants in this study contain effective compounds and have long been used to treat and reduce hypertension, they could provide suitable research arrangements for controlling hypertension, while effective natural drugs could be developed to control hypertension if their properties are confirmed in pharmacological studies. PMID:28197520

  3. Therapeutic effect of double-filtration plasmapheresis combined with methylprednisolone to treat diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Li, MinXia; Wang, YuanDa; Qiu, Qiang; Wei, RiBao; Gao, YuWei; Zhang, Li; Wang, Yong; Zhang, XueGuang; Chen, XiangMei

    2016-08-01

    The efficacy of double-filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP), combined with methylprednisolone, to treat diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis (LN) was studied. Twenty-four patients who were admitted to the hospital and diagnosed with diffuse proliferative LN (LN Class IV-G(A)) through renal biopsy from 2011 to 2013 were recruited as the study subjects. The patients' clinical manifestations were nephritic syndrome and/or renal insufficiency. The pathological features were glomerular diffuse proliferative lesions. The patients were divided into two groups: the treatment group and the control group, with 12 patients in each group. The patients in the treatment group were first treated with DFPP combined with methylprednisolone (0.8-1.0 mg/kg/day); subsequently, they were put on methylprednisolone therapy only. The patients in the control group were first put on methylprednisolone pulse therapy (500-1,000 mg) for 3 days; subsequently, they were treated with methylprednisolone (0.8-1.0 mg/kg/day) combined with mycophenolate mofetil (1.5 g/day). The patients were observed for 24 months. Levels of hemoglobin, platelet, albumin, serum creatinine, 24-h urinary protein, serum C3 , antinuclear antibody (ANA), anti-dsDNA, and anti-Smith were measured at 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Complete remission and recurrence standards were established. The total dosages of methylprednisolone were calculated. Repeated renal biopsy was performed on several patients. There was no statistical significance in the baseline conditions of the treatment and the control groups. For the treatment group, no plasmapheresis-related complications occurred. The two groups showed no significant difference in complete remission. The patients' edema and serous effusion resolved, urine volume, serum creatinine, and albumin levels returned to normal, urine protein decreased in treatment group more rapidly than the patients in the control group. The mean dose of methylprednisolone received in the treatment group

  4. Research on curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine treating low-grade fever of children caused by respiratory system infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangyun

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to explore the curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine treating low-grade fever of children caused by respiratory system infection. Sixty children who suffered low-grade fever caused by respiratory system infection were selected and divided into treatment group and control group randomly, each with 30 cases. Control group was treated with conventional methods including oxygen uptake, nebulization and anti-infection, etc, while treatment group was given boil-free granules of traditional Chinese medicine besides the treatment which control group received. Then clinical curative effect of two groups was compared. Results showed that 28 cases (93.3%) were cured in treatment group; while 21 cases (70.0%) were cured in control group. Compared with control group, the treatment group showed up better treatment efficiency and the difference between groups was of statistical significance (P<0.05). Comparison of results of two groups suggested that, traditional Chinese medicine granules has satisfactory curative effect in the treatment of low-grade fever of children caused by respiratory system infection; characterized by short treatment cycle and effective treatment effect, Chinese medicine granules in the combination with oxygen atomization inhalation is proved to be able to efficiently remit symptoms such as coughing, gasp and labored breathing, with outstanding curative effect in the treatment of low-grade fever of children caused by respiratory system infection, thus it is worthy of popularization and application clinically.

  5. Protective effect of silymarin on viability, motility and mitochondrial membrane potential of ram sperm treated with sodium arsenite

    PubMed Central

    Eskandari, Farzaneh; Momeni, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sodium arsenite can impair male reproductive function by inducing oxidative stress. Silymarin is known as a potent antioxidant. Objective: This study was performed to investigate if silymarin can prevent the adverse effect of sodium arsenite on ram sperm viability, motility and mitochondrial membrane potential. Materials and Methods: Epidydimal spermatozoa obtained from ram were divided into five groups: 1) Spermatozoa at 0 hr, 2) spermatozoa at 180 min (control), 3) spermatozoa treated with sodium arsenite (10 μM) for 180 min, 4) spermatozoa treated with silymarin (20 μM) + sodium arsenite (10 μM) for 180 min and 5) spermatozoa treated with silymarin (20 μM) for 180 min. MTT assay and Rhodamine 123 staining were used to assess sperm viability and mitochondrial membrane potential respectively. Sperm motility was performed according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Results: Viability (p<0.01), nonprogressive motility (p<0.001) and intact mitochondrial membrane potential (p<0.001) of the spermatozoa were significantly decreased in sodium arsenite treated group compared to control group. In silymarin + sodium arsenite group, silymarin could significantly reverse the adverse effect of sodium arsenite on these sperm parameters compared to sodium arsenite group (p<0.001). In addition, the application of silymarin alone for 180 minutes could significantly increase progressively motile sperm (p<0.001) and decrease non motile sperm (p<0.01) compared to the control. Conclusion: Silymarin could compensate the adverse effect of sodium arsenite on viability, nonprogressive motility and mitochondrial membrane potential of ram sperm. PMID:27525323

  6. The effect of deltamethrin-treated net fencing around cattle enclosures on outdoor-biting mosquitoes in Kumasi, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Maia, Marta Ferreira; Abonuusum, Ayimbire; Lorenz, Lena Maria; Clausen, Peter-Henning; Bauer, Burkhard; Garms, Rolf; Kruppa, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Classic vector control strategies target mosquitoes indoors as the main transmitters of malaria are indoor-biting and -resting mosquitoes. However, the intensive use of insecticide-treated bed-nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying have put selective pressure on mosquitoes to adapt in order to obtain human blood meals. Thus, early-evening and outdoor vector activity is becoming an increasing concern. This study assessed the effect of a deltamethrin-treated net (100 mg/m(2)) attached to a one-meter high fence around outdoor cattle enclosures on the number of mosquitoes landing on humans. Mosquitoes were collected from four cattle enclosures: Pen A - with cattle and no net; B - with cattle and protected by an untreated net; C - with cattle and protected by a deltamethrin-treated net; D - no cattle and no net. A total of 3217 culicines and 1017 anophelines were collected, of which 388 were Anopheles gambiae and 629 An. ziemanni. In the absence of cattle nearly 3 times more An. gambiae (p<0.0001) landed on humans. The deltamethrin-treated net significantly reduced (nearly three-fold, p<0.0001) culicine landings inside enclosures. The sporozoite rate of the zoophilic An. ziemanni, known to be a secondary malaria vector, was as high as that of the most competent vector An. gambiae; raising the potential of zoophilic species as secondary malaria vectors. After deployment of the ITNs a deltamethrin persistence of 9 months was observed despite exposure to African weather conditions. The outdoor use of ITNs resulted in a significant reduction of host-seeking culicines inside enclosures. Further studies investigating the effectiveness and spatial repellence of ITNs around other outdoor sites, such as bars and cooking areas, as well as their direct effect on vector-borne disease transmission are needed to evaluate its potential as an appropriate outdoor vector control tool for rural Africa.

  7. Use of insecticide-treated school uniforms for prevention of dengue in schoolchildren: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Tozan, Yesim; Ratanawong, Pitcha; Louis, Valérie R; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2014-01-01

    Dengue-related illness is a leading cause of hospitalization and death, particularly among children. Practical, acceptable and affordable measures are urgently needed to protect this age group. Schools where children spend most of their day is proposed as an ideal setting to implement preventive strategies against day-biting Aedes mosquitoes. The use of insecticide-treated school uniforms is a promising strategy currently under investigation. Using a decision-analytic model, we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of the use of insecticide-treated school uniforms for prevention of dengue, compared with a "do-nothing" alternative, in schoolchildren from the societal perspective. We explored how the potential economic value of the intervention varied under various scenarios of intervention effectiveness and cost, as well as dengue infection risk in school-aged children, using data specific to Thailand. At an average dengue incidence rate of 5.8% per year in school-aged children, the intervention was cost-effective (ICER≤$16,440) in a variety of scenarios when the intervention cost per child was $5.3 or less and the intervention effectiveness was 50% or higher. In fact, the intervention was cost saving (ICER<0) in all scenarios in which the intervention cost per child was $2.9 or less per year and the intervention effectiveness was 50% or higher. The results suggested that this intervention would be of no interest to Thai policy makers when the intervention cost per child was $10.6 or higher per year regardless of intervention effectiveness (ICER>$16,440). Our results present the potential economic value of the use of insecticide-treated uniforms for prevention of dengue in schoolchildren in a typical dengue endemic setting and highlight the urgent need for additional research on this intervention.

  8. Comparative effectiveness of azithromycin for treating scrub typhus: A PRISMA-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Szu-Chia; Cheng, Yu-Jyun; Lin, Chao-Hsu; Lei, Wei-Te; Chang, Hung-Yang; Lee, Ming-Dar; Liu, Jui-Ming; Hsu, Ren-Jun; Chiu, Nan-Chang; Chi, Hsin; Peng, Chun-Chih; Tsai, Te-Lung; Lin, Chien-Yu

    2017-09-01

    Scrub typhus is a zoonotic disease that remains an important health threat in endemic areas. Appropriate anti-rickettsial treatment ensures a successful recovery. Doxycycline is a recommended drug, but it is contraindicated in pregnant women and young children. Azithromycin is a safer alternative drug, but its effectiveness remains largely unclear. Herein, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effectiveness of azithromycin. Studies that investigated azithromycin in treating scrub typhus were systematically identified from electronic databases up to December 2016. Information regarding study population, disease severity, treatment protocols, and responses was extracted and analyzed. In this review, 5 studies were included, which comprised a total of 427 patients. When comparing the treatment failure rate, we observed a favorable outcome in patients treated with azithromycin (risk ratio [RR] 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23-2.98). However, patients in the azithromycin group had longer time to defervescence (mean difference 4.38 hours, 95% CI -2.51 to 11.27) and higher rate of fever for more than 48 hours (RR 1.31, 95% CI 0.81-2.12). Moreover, patients treated with azithromycin had less adverse effects (RR 0.8, 95% CI 0.42-1.52). Azithromycin is as effective as other anti-rickettsial drugs with higher treatment success rates, lower frequency of adverse effects, and longer time to defervescence (GRADE 2B). Therefore, it is reasonable to use azithromycin as the first-line treatment against scrub typhus. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the effectiveness of azithromycin in specific patient groups, at high dose and influence of drug resistance.

  9. Use of Insecticide-Treated School Uniforms for Prevention of Dengue in Schoolchildren: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tozan, Yesim; Ratanawong, Pitcha; Louis, Valérie R.; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue-related illness is a leading cause of hospitalization and death, particularly among children. Practical, acceptable and affordable measures are urgently needed to protect this age group. Schools where children spend most of their day is proposed as an ideal setting to implement preventive strategies against day-biting Aedes mosquitoes. The use of insecticide-treated school uniforms is a promising strategy currently under investigation. Methods Using a decision-analytic model, we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of the use of insecticide-treated school uniforms for prevention of dengue, compared with a “do-nothing” alternative, in schoolchildren from the societal perspective. We explored how the potential economic value of the intervention varied under various scenarios of intervention effectiveness and cost, as well as dengue infection risk in school-aged children, using data specific to Thailand. Results At an average dengue incidence rate of 5.8% per year in school-aged children, the intervention was cost-effective (ICER≤$16,440) in a variety of scenarios when the intervention cost per child was $5.3 or less and the intervention effectiveness was 50% or higher. In fact, the intervention was cost saving (ICER<0) in all scenarios in which the intervention cost per child was $2.9 or less per year and the intervention effectiveness was 50% or higher. The results suggested that this intervention would be of no interest to Thai policy makers when the intervention cost per child was $10.6 or higher per year regardless of intervention effectiveness (ICER>$16,440). Conclusions Our results present the potential economic value of the use of insecticide-treated uniforms for prevention of dengue in schoolchildren in a typical dengue endemic setting and highlight the urgent need for additional research on this intervention. PMID:25247556

  10. The effect of tiaprofenic acid on blood pressure control in treated hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Smith, M D; Kupa, A; Weatherall, M; Henstridge, J D; Brooks, P M

    1985-01-01

    Eleven patients with osteoarthritis and mild hypertension completed an 8-week, double-blind crossover study in which 200 mg tiaprofenic acid 3-times daily or placebo were substituted for their normal non-steroidal anti-inflammatory therapy. Systolic blood pressure was significantly higher on tiaprofenic acid therapy than on placebo and plasma renin activity was significantly lower on active treatment. No significant changes were seen in biochemical parameters, though the weight of the patient was also higher on tiaprofenic acid than on placebo. Duration of morning stiffness was also lower on tiaprofenic acid than on placebo. Blood pressure on tiaprofenic acid was not different from baseline readings on other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy. This study suggests that tiaprofenic acid, like other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, may interfere with blood pressure control in treated hypertensive patients.

  11. Beneficial effects of turnover orbicularis oculi muscle suspension flap for treating facial fractures via subciliary incision.

    PubMed

    Sevim, Kamuran Zeynep; Akcal, Arzu; Dagdelen, Daghan; Yazar, Memet; Yesilada, Aysin

    2014-07-01

    In patients with moderate lower lid laxity, the lower orbicularis oculi muscle becomes atonic or ptotic. Hence, in such patient populations, with periorbital fractures, additional vertical support endorsement either by lateral canthopexy or orbicularis oculi muscle suspension flap must accompany plate and screw fixations. In this report, we shared our experience in applying prophylactic suspension to the lower lid with turnover orbicularis oculi transposition muscle flap in zygomatic fractures treated by subciliary approach in 98 patients. Our results show that turnover orbicularis oculi muscle suspension flap avoids the rounding of the lateral canthal angle more successfully and prevents ectropion better than the resuspension orbicularis oculi muscle flap does. We advocate using this flap where zygomatic fractures are approached via the subciliary incision. We foresee that it is a reliable and easily executed technique especially in middle-aged patients with moderate lower lid laxity for the prevention of ectropion.

  12. The number needed to treat: a clinically useful measure of treatment effect.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, R. J.; Sackett, D. L.

    1995-01-01

    The relative benefit of an active treatment over a control is usually expressed as the relative risk, the relative risk reduction, or the odds ratio. These measures are used extensively in both clinical and epidemiological investigations. For clinical decision making, however, it is more meaningful to use the measure "number needed to treat." This measure is calculated on the inverse of the absolute risk reduction. It has the advantage that it conveys both statistical and clinical significance to the doctor. Furthermore, it can be used to extrapolate published findings to a patient at an arbitrary specified baseline risk when the relative risk reduction associated with treatment is constant for all levels of risk. PMID:7873954

  13. Modeling of secondary treated wastewater disinfection by UV irradiation: effects of suspended solids content.

    PubMed

    Brahmi, Mounaouer; Belhadi, Noureddine Hamed; Hamdi, Helmi; Hassen, Abdennaceur

    2010-01-01

    This work aimed to study UV-resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, to propose a formulation of the kinetics of secondary treated wastewater disinfection and to underline the influence of suspended solids on the inactivation kinetics of these strains. Some investigations were carried out for the validation of some simulation models, from the simplest, the kinetics model of Chick-Watson reduced to first order, to rather complex models such as multi-kinetic and Collins-Selleck models. Results revealed that the involved processes of UV irradiation were too complex to be approached by a simplified formulation, even in the case of specific strains of microorganisms and the use of nearly constant UV radiation intensity. In fact, the application of Chick-Watson model in its original form is not representative of the kinetics of UV disinfection. Modification, taking into account the speed change during the disinfection process, has not significantly improved results. On the other hand, the application of Collins-Selleck model demonstrates that it was necessary to exceed a least dose of critical radiation to start the process of inactivation. To better explain the process of inactivation, we have assumed that the action of disinfectant on the survival of lonely microorganisms is faster than its action on suspended solids protected or agglomerated to each others. We can assume in this case the existence of two inactivation kinetics during the processes (parallel and independent) of the first-order. For this reason, the application of a new kinetic model by introducing a third factor reflecting the influence of suspended solids in water on disinfection kinetics appeared to be determinant for modeling UV inactivation of P. aeruginosa in secondary treated wastewater.

  14. Effects of creatine supplementation on muscle wasting and glucose homeostasis in rats treated with dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Nicastro, Humberto; Gualano, Bruno; de Moraes, Wilson Max Almeida Monteiro; de Salles Painelli, Vitor; da Luz, Claudia Ribeiro; dos Santos Costa, Andre; de Salvi Guimarães, Fabiana; Medeiros, Alessandra; Brum, Patricia Chakur; Lancha, Antonio Herbert

    2012-05-01

    We aimed to investigate the possible role of creatine (CR) supplementation in counteracting dexamethasone-induced muscle wasting and insulin resistance in rats. Also, we examined whether CR intake would modulate molecular pathways involved in muscle remodeling and insulin signaling. Animals were randomly divided into four groups: (1) dexamethasone (DEX); (2) control pair-fed (CON-PF); (3) dexamethasone plus CR (DEX-CR); and (4) CR pair-fed (CR-PF). Dexamethasone (5 mg/kg/day) and CR (5 g/kg/day) were given via drinking water for 7 days. Plantaris and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles were removed for analysis. Plantaris and EDL muscle mass were significantly reduced in the DEX-CR and DEX groups when compared with the CON-PF and CR-PF groups (P<0.05). Dexamethasone significantly decreased phospho-Ser473-Akt protein levels compared to the CON-PF group (P<0.05) and CR supplementation aggravated this response (P<0.001). Serum glucose was significantly increased in the DEX group when compared with the CON-PF group (DEX 7.8±0.6 vs. CON-PF 5.2±0.5 mmol/l; P<0.05). CR supplementation significantly exacerbated hyperglycemia in the dexamethasone-treated animals (DEX-CR 15.1±2.4 mmol/l; P<0.05 vs. others). Dexamethasone reduced GLUT-4 translocation when compared with the CON-PF and CR-PF (P<0.05) groups and this response was aggravated by CR supplementation (P<0.05 vs. others). In conclusion, supplementation with CR resulted in increased insulin resistance and did not attenuate muscle wasting in rats treated with dexamethasone. Given the contrast with the results of human studies that have shown benefits of CR supplementation on muscle atrophy and insulin sensitivity, we suggest caution when extrapolating this animal data to human subjects.

  15. Thermal and infrared-diode laser effects on indocyanine-green-treated corneal collagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timberlake, George T.; Patmore, Ann; Shallal, Assaad; McHugh, Dominic; Marshall, John

    1993-07-01

    It has been suggested that laser welds of collagenous tissues form by interdigitation and chemical bonding of thermally 'unraveled' collagen fibrils. We investigated this proposal by attempting to weld highly collagenous, avascular corneal tissue with an infrared (IR) diode laser as follows. First, the temperature at which corneal collagen shrinks and collagen fibrils 'split' into subfibrillary components was determined. Second, since use of a near-IR laser wavelength necessitated addition of an absorbing dye (indocyanine green (ICG) to the cornea, we measured absorption spectra of ICG-treated tissue to ensure that peak ICG absorbance did not change markedly when ICG was present in the cornea. Third, using gel electrophoresis of thermally altered corneal collagen, we searched for covalently crosslinked compounds predicted by the proposed welding mechanism. Finally, we attempted to weld partial thickness corneal incisions infused with ICG. Principal experimental findings were as follows: (1) Human corneal (type I) collagen splits into subfibrillary components at approximately 63 degree(s)C, the same temperature that produces collagen shrinkage. (2) Peak ICG absorption does not change significantly in corneal stroma or with laser heating. (3) No evidence was found for the formation of novel compounds or the loss of proteins as a result of tissue heating. All tissue treated with ICG, however, exhibited a novel 244 kD protein band indicating chemical activity between collagen and corneal stromal components. (4) Laser welding corneal incisions was unsuccessful possibly due to shrinkage of the sides of the incision, lack of incision compression during heating, or a less than optimal combination of ICG concentration and radiant exposure. In summary, these experiments demonstrate the biochemical and morphological complexity of ICG-enhanced IR laser-tissue welding and the need for further investigation of laser welding mechanisms.

  16. Metabolic effects of prazosin on skeletal muscle insulin resistance in glucocorticoid-treated male rats.

    PubMed

    Dunford, Emily C; Mandel, Erin R; Mohajeri, Sepideh; Haas, Tara L; Riddell, Michael C

    2017-01-01

    High-dose glucocorticoids (GC) induce skeletal muscle atrophy, insulin resistance, and reduced muscle capillarization. Identification of treatments to prevent or reverse capillary rarefaction and metabolic deterioration caused by prolonged elevations in GCs would be therapeutically beneficial. Chronic administration of prazosin, an α1-adrenergic antagonist, increases skeletal muscle capillarization in healthy rodents and, recently, in a rodent model of elevated GCs and hyperglycemia. The purpose of this study was to determine whether prazosin administration would improve glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, through prazosin-mediated sparing of capillary rarefaction, in this rodent model of increased GC exposure. Prazosin was provided in drinking water (50 mg/l) to GC-treated or control rats (400 mg implants of either corticosterone or a wax pellet) for 7 or 14 days (n = 5-14/group). Whole body measures of glucose metabolism were correlated with skeletal muscle capillarization (C:F) at 7 and 14 days in the four groups of rats. Individual C:F was found to be predictive of insulin sensitivity (r(2) = 0.4781), but not of glucose tolerance (r(2) = 0.1601) and compared with water only, prazosin treatment decreased insulin values during oral glucose challenge by approximately one-third in corticosterone (Cort)-treated animals. Cort treatment, regardless of duration, induced significant glycolytic skeletal muscle atrophy (P < 0.05), decreased IRS-1 protein content (P < 0.05), and caused elevations in FOXO1 protein expression (P < 0.05), which were unaffected with prazosin administration. In summary, it appears that α1-adrenergic antagonism improves Cort-induced skeletal muscle vascular impairments and reduces insulin secretion during an oral glucose tolerance test, but is unable to improve the negative alterations directly affecting the myocyte, including muscle size and muscle signaling protein expression. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  17. A Comparison Study of Quetiapine and Risperidone's Effectiveness and Safety on Treating Alcohol-induced Mental Disorder.

    PubMed

    Lv, Bei; Duan, Haishui

    2016-08-25

    Compared with Risperidone, Quetiapine's effectiveness and safety on treating alcohol-induced mental disorder is still unclear. To investigate the clinical effectiveness and safety of Quetiapine on treating alcohol-induced mental disorder. One hundred and forty-eight patients with alcohol-induced mental disorder were divided into the experimental group (75 patients) and the control group (73 patients) by the treatments they received. The patients in the experimental group were treated with Quetiapine by taking it three times per day orally. The mean (sd) maintenance dose was 151.2(27.3) mg/d, and the treatment cycle was 6 weeks. Patients in the control group received Risperidone once per day orally with a mean (sd) maintenance dose being 2.3(0.9) mg/d, and the treatment cycle was 6 weeks as well. The PANSS scale was used to assess patients' before and after treatment. The researchers also observed any adverse reactions in both treatment strategies and evaluated the effectiveness and safety of both treatment strategies. The mean (sd) PANSS scale score of the experimental group after two weeks of treatment was 71.9 (10.2), which was clearly better than the mean (sd) score before treatment (82.6 [11.4]), and was significantly better than the control group's mean (sd) score after two weeks (76.5[12.8]). Also, the experimental group's scores after 4 weeks of treatment and 6 weeks of treatment were significantly better than the control group. The experimental group's efficacy rate (94.7%) was higher than the control group's (90.4%); the cure rate of the experimental group (33.3%) was higher than that of the control group (24.7%), and the difference was statistically significant. The rates of adverse reactions in the experimental and control groups were 13.3% and 19.2% respectively, and they were significantly different from each other. Treating alcohol-induced mental disorder with Quetiapine is more effective than treating it with Risperidone. Quetiapine can improve

  18. Behavioral Effects and Tunneling Responses of Eastern Subterranean Termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) Exposed to Chlorantraniliprole-Treated Soils.

    PubMed

    Saran, Raj K; Ziegler, Melissa; Kudlie, Sara; Harrison, Danielle; Leva, David M; Scherer, Clay; Coffelt, Mark A

    2014-10-01

    Intrinsic toxicities of chlorantraniliprole, fipronil, and imidacloprid were evaluated with topical applications on worker termites. Worker termites were exposed to substrates treated with formulated chlorantraniliprole to study contact toxicity, tunneling, and postexposure behaviors. The intrinsic toxicities (LD50, ng/termite) of chlorantraniliprole (1.25, 0.96, and 0.44) and fipronil (0.12, 0.11, and 0.13) at 11 d were similar for workers from three termite colonies. Imidacloprid toxicity (LD50) values were highly variable among the workers from three different colonies, values at 11 d ranging from 0.7 to 75 ng/termite. Termite workers exposed to sand and soils treated with chlorantraniliprole at 50 ppm exhibited delayed mortality and, for most of the exposure times, it took >5 d to observe 90-100% mortality in termite workers. Exposure to chlorantraniliprole-treated sand (50 ppm) for as little as 1 min stopped feeding and killed 90-100% of the workers. Tunneling (≈ 2 h) in different soil types treated with chlorantraniliprole at 50 ppm, even those with high organic matter (6.3%) and clay content (30%), caused immediate feeding cessation in worker termites and mortality in the next 7-14 d. Worker termites exposed for 1 and 60 min to sand treated with chlorantraniliprole (50 ppm) were able to walk normally for 4 h after exposure in most cases. Delayed toxicity, increased aggregation, and grooming were observed in exposed termites and discussed in the context of horizontal transfer effects within termite colonies.

  19. Insecticide-treated clothes for the control of vector-borne diseases: a review on effectiveness and safety.

    PubMed

    Banks, S D; Murray, N; Wilder-Smith, A; Logan, J G

    2014-08-01

    Insecticide-treated clothing has been used for many years by the military and in recreational activities as personal protection against bites from a variety of arthropods including ticks, chigger mites, sandflies and mosquitoes. Permethrin is the most commonly used active ingredient, but others, including bifenthrin, deltamethrin, cyfluthrin, DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenz-amide) and KBR3023, have also been trialled. Treatment is usually carried out by home or factory dipping. However, new microencapsulation technologies which may prolong the activity of insecticides on clothing are now available and may help to overcome the inevitable reduction in efficacy over time that occurs as a result of washing, ultraviolet light exposure, and the normal wear and tear of the fabric. The aim of this article is to review the evidence base for the use of insecticide-treated clothing for protection against bites from arthropods and its effect on arthropod-borne pathogen transmission. Although some studies do demonstrate protection against pathogen transmission, there are surprisingly few, and the level of protection provided varies according to the disease and the type of study conducted. For example, insecticide-treated clothing has been reported to give between 0% and 75% protection against malaria and between 0% and 79% protection against leishmaniasis. Studies vary in the type of treatment used, the age group of participants, the geographical location of the study, and the pathogen transmission potential. This makes it difficult to compare and assess intervention trials. Overall, there is substantial evidence that insecticide-treated clothing can provide protection against arthropod bites. Bite protection evidence suggests that insecticide-treated clothing may be useful in the prevention of pathogen transmission, but further investigations are required to accurately demonstrate transmission reduction.

  20. The clinical research for Ganoderan's effect on preventing and treating cerebral arteriosclerosis through inhibiting NADPH oxidizing enzyme expression.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhang Li; Fang, Teng Jun; Qian, Yuan Xue; Rong, Wang Huan

    2014-07-01

    A lot of researches have verified that produced excessive reactive oxygen is one of the hazard factors causing atherosclerosis. NADPH oxidase is the main protease of vascular cell's producing reactive oxygen, the expression of its relevant subunits is closely correlated with the occurring and development process of atherosclerosis. Oxidizing reaction could damage organism tissue cells, ganoderan has very significant effect on the anti-oxidizing function of cell. The pharmaceutical research of ganoderan has significant meaning in curing diabetes mellitus, preventing and controlling arteriosclerosis. This paper is mainly to discuss the effect of anoderan's inhibiting NADPH oxidizing enzyme expression on preventing and treating cerebral arteriosclerosis and its action mechanism.

  1. Trigeminal Neuralgia Treated With Stereotactic Radiosurgery: The Effect of Dose Escalation on Pain Control and Treatment Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kotecha, Rupesh; Kotecha, Ritesh; Modugula, Sujith; Murphy, Erin S; Jones, Mark; Kotecha, Rajesh; Reddy, Chandana A; Suh, John H; Barnett, Gene H; Neyman, Gennady; Machado, Andre; Nagel, Sean; Chao, Samuel T

    2016-09-01

    To analyze the effect of dose escalation on treatment outcome in patients undergoing stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for trigeminal neuralgia (TN). A retrospective review was performed of 870 patients who underwent SRS for a diagnosis of TN from 2 institutions. Patients were typically treated using a single 4-mm isocenter placed at the trigeminal nerve dorsal root entry zone. Patients were divided into groups based on treatment doses: ≤82 Gy (352 patients), 83 to 86 Gy (85 patients), and ≥90 Gy (433 patients). Pain response was classified using a categorical scoring system, with fair or poor pain control representing treatment failure. Treatment-related facial numbness was classified using the Barrow Neurological Institute scale. Log-rank tests were performed to test differences in time to pain failure or development of facial numbness for patients treated with different doses. Median age at first pain onset was 63 years, median age at time of SRS was 71 years, and median follow-up was 36.5 months from the time of SRS. A majority of patients (827, 95%) were clinically diagnosed with typical TN. The 4-year rate of excellent to good pain relief was 87% (95% confidence interval 84%-90%). The 4-year rate of pain response was 79%, 82%, and 92% in patients treated to ≤82 Gy, 83 to 86 Gy, and ≥90 Gy, respectively. Patients treated to doses ≤82 Gy had an increased risk of pain failure after SRS, compared with patients treated to ≥90 Gy (hazard ratio 2.0, P=.0007). Rates of treatment-related facial numbness were similar among patients treated to doses ≥83 Gy. Nine patients (1%) were diagnosed with anesthesia dolorosa. Dose escalation for TN to doses >82 Gy is associated with an improvement in response to treatment and duration of pain relief. Patients treated at these doses, however, should be counseled about the increased risk of treatment-related facial numbness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Persistent Effectivity of Gas Plasma-Treated, Long Time-Stored Liquid on Epithelial Cell Adhesion Capacity and Membrane Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Hoentsch, Maxi; Bussiahn, René; Rebl, Henrike; Bergemann, Claudia; Eggert, Martin; Frank, Marcus; von Woedtke, Thomas; Nebe, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Research in plasma medicine includes a major interest in understanding gas plasma-cell interactions. The immediate application of gas plasma in vitro inhibits cell attachment, vitality and cell-cell contacts via the liquid. Interestingly, in our novel experiments described here we found that the liquid-mediated plasma effect is long-lasting after storage up to seven days; i. e. the liquid preserves the characteristics once induced by the argon plasma. Therefore, the complete Dulbecco's Modified Eagle cell culture medium was argon plasma-treated (atmospheric pressure, kINPen09) for 60 s, stored for several days (1, 4 and 7 d) at 37°C and added to a confluent mouse hepatocyte epithelial cell (mHepR1) monolayer. Impaired tight junction architecture as well as shortened microvilli on the cell membrane could be observed, which was accompanied by the loss of cell adhesion capacity. Online-monitoring of vital cells revealed a reduced cell respiration. Our first time-dependent analysis of plasma-treated medium revealed that temperature, hydrogen peroxide production, pH and oxygen content can be excluded as initiators of cell physiological and morphological changes. The here observed persisting biological effects in plasma-treated liquids could open new medical applications in dentistry and orthopaedics. PMID:25170906

  3. [Effect of Oravive gel on enamel remineralization and anti-demineralization of young permanent teeth treated by sugar drink].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Gong, Ling; Ji, Yan

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of Oravive gel and fluor protectors on remineralization and the capacity of resisting sugar drink erosion. The changes of surface microhardness (SMH) of young permanent teeth treated by Oravive gel or fluor protectors which were immersed in sugar drink in advance were measured. The morphological changes of surface were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The SMH values of the young permanent teeth immersed in sugar drink and then treated with Oravive gel or fluor protectors increased significantly, and the Oravive group was stronger than fluor protectors group (P < 0.05). For the young permanent teeth treated with Oravive gel or fluor protectors and then immersed in sugar drink, the SHM value of Oravive group was significantly higher than fluor protectors group (P < 0.05). Under SEM, the enamel surface appeared solvation and remineralization after Oravive gel or fluor protectors treatment. Oravive gel may enhance the resistance of young permanent teeth enamel to sugar drink erosion, and promote the remineralization effects of demineralized enamel.

  4. Cytoprotective effects of melatonin on zoledronic acid-treated human mesenchymal stem cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lozano, Francisco Javier; García-Bernal, David; Ros-Roca, Maria de Los Ángeles; Algueró, Maria del Carmen; Oñate-Sánchez, Ricardo Elías; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio; Moraleda, Jose María

    2015-07-01

    Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a common clinical complication in patients receiving bisphosphonate therapy. Furthermore, melatonin has been proposed as a therapeutic drug for the oral cavity due to its antioxidant properties. This study aimed to evaluate the cytoprotective effects of melatonin on zoledronic acid (ZA)-treated human mesenchymal stem cells from periodontal ligament (PDLSCs) and bone marrow (BMMSCs). PDLSCs and BMMSCs were exposed to ZA, melatonin or ZA + melatonin for 72 h. Cell proliferation was measured by a colorimetric assay, whereas their mesenchymal phenotype was analyzed by flow cytometry. Proliferation assays showed that BMMSCs presented higher ZA resistance than PDLSCs, as well as a difference in response to the simultaneous treatment of ZA + melatonin. Using PDLSCs, high doses of melatonin significantly increased their proliferation, whereas lower concentrations were enough to enhance ZA-treated BMMSC proliferation. Moreover, PDLSCs displayed a CD90/CD105 downregulation and CD73 upregulation in response to ZA, which was more pronounced in response to melatonin. Furthermore, ZA or ZA + low doses of melatonin induced a decrease of expression of CD90/CD105/CD73 on BMMSCs, while a higher concentration recovered CD73 levels. These results suggest that melatonin has a cytoprotective effect on ZA-treated PDLSCs and BMMSCs. Thus, it could be used for BRONJ prevention. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor on treating tinnitus in patients stratified for presence of depression or anxiety.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Naoki; Kanzaki, Sho; Shinden, Seiichi; Saito, Hideyuki; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, paroxetine, on treating tinnitus.Tinnitus patients stratified for the presence of depression and anxiety were studied retrospectively. Fifty-six patients were observed for more than 6 months. They were initially treated with paroxetine only at a dose of 10 mg/day for 2-4 weeks; thereafter, the dose was increased to 20 mg/day. Tinnitus distress was evaluated with the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) and with visual analog scales (VASs) for tinnitus loudness and annoyance. Depression and anxiety were measured with the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and the trait section of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The patients were grouped according to their SDS and STAI scores, and each variable was compared at baseline and the 6-month follow-up. Changes among these variables were also examined to determine whether reduced tinnitus distress was related to the improvement of depression or anxiety. Patients with both depression and anxiety showed better results (decrease in THI, VASs, SDS and STAI scores) than patients with anxiety alone, or patients without depression and anxiety. In patients with depression and anxiety, changes in tinnitus variables and changes in depression and anxiety scores were strongly correlated. In other patients, however, changes in tinnitus variables and changes in depression and anxiety scores were not correlated. These results suggest that paroxetine is effective in treating distressed tinnitus patients with depression and anxiety by reducing their tinnitus severity as well as their depression and anxiety.

  6. Effects on dietary phosphorus of treating cottonseed meal with crystalline ferrous sulphate for the prevention of brown yolk discolouration.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, S; Plumb, V E

    1996-05-01

    1. Two experiments were carried out to examine whether the adverse effects on laying hen performance of treating cottonseed meal (CSM) with crystalline ferrous sulphate heptahydrate (FSH) to prevent brown yolk discolouration, was a consequence of iron reducing the availability of dietary phosphorus. Two batches of CSM, with different free gossypol and cyclopropenoid fatty acid contents, were treated with FSH at a 4:1 weight ratio of iron to free gossypol, and incorporated into diets at 300 g/kg with or without supplementation with sodium dihydrogen phosphate (SHP), and fed to hens. 2. FSH treatment of CSM reduced food intake and egg production. Although performance was improved by supplementing the FSH-treated CSM diets with SHP, it was still poorer than that achieved by hens fed a non-CSM control diet. 3. Brown yolk discolouration was prevented by treatment of CSM with FSH. Additional phosphorus did not produce any significant effects on brown colour development in yolks, indicating that the bioavailable gossypol content of the diets had not been altered; however, chemical analyses showed an apparent increase in the free gossypol content of the diets with the inclusion of SHP, suggesting that the assay gives misleading results.

  7. Effects of ruminal exposure on the amino acid profile of heated and formaldehyde-treated soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Crooker, B A; Clark, J H; Shanks, R D; Hatfield, E E

    1986-10-01

    Rumen cannulated Holstein steers, fed corn silage and a corn-soybean grain mixture twice a day, were used to compare the effectiveness of heat and formaldehyde treatments in preserving the amino acid profile of soybean meal exposed to ruminal fermentation for 12 h. Formaldehyde treatments were 0, .3, .6, and .9 g/100 g soybean meal. Defatted soybean flakes treated at 250, 250, 215, and 180 degrees C for 30, 20, 20, and 25 min, respectively, and unheated soybean meal comprised the heat treatments. The in situ polyester bag technique was used to obtain estimates of ruminal degradation of the treated and untreated soybean meals and to obtain undegraded residues from the soybean meals following 12 h of rumen exposure. Diaminopimelic acid was used to assess the extent of bacterial contamination. Significant amounts of apparent diaminopimelic acid were detected in unexposed samples (2.0 to 7.6% of soybean nitrogen) and in residues (4.8 to 12.7% of residue nitrogen). Significant differences in amino acid contents were detected between untreated and heat-treated soybean meals and their respective residues. Formaldehyde treatment was effective in preserving the original amino acid profile of soybean meal.

  8. Effect of coenzyme Q10 on the survival time and lipid peroxidation of adriamycin (doxorubicin) treated mice.

    PubMed

    Shinozawa, S; Etowo, K; Araki, Y; Oda, T

    1984-02-01

    The effect of coenzyme Q10 (Co Q10) was examined on the survival time and lipid peroxidation of adriamycin (ADM)-treated ICR mice. Co Q10 showed a protective effect against a subacute toxicity in mice induced by two intraperitoneal administrations of ADM (15 mg/kg). The group treated orally with 10 mg/kg of Co Q10 showed the longest survival time of all the groups studied (16.81 +/- 10.29 days, mean +/- S.D.) and a significantly longer survival time (p less than 0.001) than the ADM-alone group (7.48 +/- 1.99 days). The inhibitory effect of Co Q10 on the plasma and tissue lipid peroxidation levels did not correlate with the effect of prolonging the survival time of mice. Co Q10 tended to inhibit rises in plasma and liver lipid peroxidation levels induced by ADM administration, but there was no statistically significant difference between treatments. There was a statistically significant different inhibitory effect in the kidney lipid peroxidation levels, but was not in those of the heart.

  9. Glucagon-like peptide-2 but not imipramine exhibits antidepressant-like effects in ACTH-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Takashi; Ohnuki, Tomoko; Sasaki-Hamada, Sachie; Saitoh, Akiyoshi; Sugiyama, Azusa; Oka, Jun-Ichiro

    2013-04-15

    We investigated the effectiveness of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) against refractory depression in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-treated mice as a model of tricyclic antidepressant (TCA)-resistant depression. Chronic ACTH treatment (0.45 mg/kg, s.c., 14 days) weakened the antidepressant-like effects of imipramine (20 mg/kg, i.p., 6 days) in the forced-swim test (FST). Conversely, GLP-2 (3 μg/mice, i.c.v., 6 days) induced antidepressant-like effects in the ACTH-treated mice in the FST. ACTH-treatment increased basal serum corticosterone levels, with an additional increase induced by the FST. Imipramine or GLP-2 had no effect on the basal corticosterone level, but GLP-2 attenuated the additional increase caused by the FST. Moreover, GLP-2 increased 5-HT levels, but not 5-HIAA. These results suggest that GLP-2 induced antidepressant-like effects under imipramine-resistant conditions through increase in 5-HT levels.

  10. Reduced analgesic effect of acupuncture-like TENS but not conventional TENS in opioid-treated patients.

    PubMed

    Léonard, Guillaume; Cloutier, Christian; Marchand, Serge

    2011-02-01

    Evidence from recent animal studies indicates that the analgesic effect of low-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is reduced in opioid-tolerant animals. The aim of the present study was to compare the analgesic effect of conventional (high frequency) and acupuncture-like (low frequency) TENS between a group of opioid-treated patients and a group of opioid-naive patients in order to determine if this cross-tolerance effect is also present in humans. Twenty-three chronic pain patients (11 who took opioids and 12 who did not) participated in the study. Participants were assigned in a randomized crossover design to receive alternately conventional and acupuncture-like TENS. There was a significant reduction in pain during and after conventional TENS when compared to baseline for both the opioid and nonopioid group (P < .01). For acupuncture-like TENS however, the analgesic effect of TENS was only observed in the nonopioid group (P < .01), with opioid-treated patients showing no change in pain scores during and after TENS when compared to baseline (P > .09). The reduced analgesic effect of acupuncture-like TENS in opioid-treated patients is coherent with previous animal studies and suggests that conventional TENS should be preferred in patients taking opioids on a regular basis. This study shows that patients taking opioids on a regular basis are less susceptible to benefit from acupuncture-like TENS. This phenomenon is probably attributable to the fact that the analgesia induced by acupuncture-like TENS and opioids are mediated by the same receptors (ie, μ opioid receptors). Copyright © 2011 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Spirulina maxima Supplementation on Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, and Zinc Status in Obese Patients with Treated Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Suliburska, J; Szulińska, M; Tinkov, A A; Bogdański, P

    2016-09-01

    The effects of Spirulina maxima supplementation on calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc status were studied in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial of 50 obese subjects with treated hypertension, each randomized to receive 2 g of spirulina or a placebo daily for 3 months. At baseline and after treatment, the calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc concentration in plasma was assessed. It was found that 3 months of S. maxima supplementation resulted in a significant decrease in the iron level in the plasma of obese patients. In conclusion, this is the first clinical study on the influence of spirulina supplementation on mineral status in obese patients with hypertension. Spirulina supplementation affects the iron status of obese Caucasians with well-treated hypertension.

  12. Beneficial effects of nitric oxide on outcomes after cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation in hypothermia-treated mice

    PubMed Central

    Kida, Kotaro; Shirozu, Kazuhiro; Yu, Binglan; Mandeville, Joseph B.; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Ichinose, Fumito

    2015-01-01

    Background Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) improves neurological outcomes after cardiac arrest (CA) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Although nitric oxide prevents organ injury induced by ischemia and reperfusion, role of nitric oxide during TH after CPR remains unclear. Here, we examined the impact of endogenous nitric oxide synthesis on the beneficial effects of hypothermia after CA/CPR. We also examined whether or not inhaled nitric oxide during hypothermia further improves outcomes after CA/CPR in mice treated with TH. Methods Wild-type (WT) mice and mice deficient for nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3−/−) were subjected to CA at 37°C and then resuscitated with chest compression. Body temperature was maintained at 37°C (normothermia) or reduced to 33°C (TH) for 24 hours after resuscitation. Mice breathed air or air mixed with nitric oxide at 10, 20, 40, 60, or 80 ppm during hypothermia. To evaluate brain injury and cerebral blood flow, magnetic resonance imaging was performed in WT mice after CA/CPR. Results Hypothermia up-regulated the NOS3-dependent signaling in the brain (n=6–7). Deficiency of NOS3 abolished the beneficial effects of hypothermia after CA/CPR (n=5–6). Breathing nitric oxide at 40 ppm improved survival rate in hypothermia-treated NOS3−/− mice (n=6) after CA/CPR compared to NOS3−/− mice that were treated with hypothermia alone (n=6, P<0.05). Breathing nitric oxide at 40 (n=9) or 60 (n=9) ppm markedly improved survival rates in TH-treated WT mice (n=51) (both P<0.05 vs TH-treated WT mice). Inhaled nitric oxide during TH (n=7) prevented brain injury compared to TH alone (n=7) without affecting cerebral blood flow after CA/CPR (n=6). Conclusions NOS3 is required for the beneficial effects of TH. Inhaled nitric oxide during TH remains beneficial and further improves outcomes after CA/CPR. Nitric oxide breathing exerts protective effects after CA/CPR even when TH is ineffective due to impaired endogenous nitric oxide production

  13. Cost-effectiveness of parenteral artesunate for treating children with severe malaria in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; Dondorp, Arjen M; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Mokuolu, Olugbenga A; Nansumba, Margaret; Gesase, Samwel; Kent, Alison; Mtove, George; Olaosebikan, Rasaq; Ngum, Wirichada Pan; Fanello, Caterina I; Hendriksen, Ilse; Day, Nicholas PJ; White, Nicholas J; Yeung, Shunmay

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore the cost-effectiveness of parenteral artesunate for the treatment of severe malaria in children and its potential impact on hospital budgets. Methods The costs of inpatient care of children with severe malaria were assessed in four of the 11 sites included in the African Quinine Artesunate Malaria Treatment trial, conducted with over 5400 children. The drugs, laboratory tests and intravenous fluids provided to 2300 patients from admission to discharge were recorded, as was the length of inpatient stay, to calculate the cost of inpatient care. The data were matched with pooled clinical outcomes and entered into a decision model to calculate the cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted and the cost per death averted. Findings The mean cost of treating severe malaria patients was similar in the two study groups: 63.5 United States dollars (US$) (95% confidence interval, CI: 61.7–65.2) in the quinine arm and US$ 66.5 (95% CI: 63.7–69.2) in the artesunate arm. Children treated with artesunate had 22.5% lower mortality than those treated with quinine and the same rate of neurological sequelae: (artesunate arm: 2.3 DALYs per patient; quinine arm: 3.0 DALYs per patient). Compared with quinine as a baseline, artesunate showed an incremental cost per DALY averted and an incremental cost per death averted of US$ 3.8 and US$ 123, respectively. Conclusion Artesunate is a highly cost-effective and affordable alternative to quinine for treating children with severe malaria. The budgetary implications of adopting artesunate for routine use in hospital-based care are negligible. PMID:21734764

  14. Feeding heat-treated colostrum to neonatal dairy heifers: effects on growth characteristics and blood parameters.

    PubMed

    Elizondo-Salazar, J A; Heinrichs, A J

    2009-07-01

    Newborn Holstein heifer calves were studied to compare absorption of immunoglobulin G (IgG(1) and IgG(2)), total serum protein concentration, lymphocyte counts, health scores, growth, and starter intake after receiving unheated or heat-treated colostrum. First-milking colostrum was collected from Holstein cows and frozen at -20 degrees C to accumulate a large batch. After thawing and mixing, half of the colostrum was transferred into 1.89-L plastic containers and frozen at -20 degrees C until needed for feeding. The remaining half was heated at 60 degrees C for 30 min, transferred into 1.89-L plastic containers, and then frozen at -20 degrees C until needed for feeding. Forty heifer calves weighing > or =32 kg at birth were enrolled into 1 of 2 treatment groups before suckling occurred. For the first feeding, 3.8 L of colostrum was bottle fed by 1.5 to 2 h of age. For the second and third feedings, pasteurized whole milk at 5% of birth body weight (BW) was fed. Subsequently, calves received milk replacer containing 20% crude protein and 20% fat at 10% of birth BW/d until wk 5. Milk replacer was reduced to 1 feeding of 5% birth BW until weaning at 6 wk of age. Blood samples and growth data were collected through wk 8. Batch heat-treatment of colostrum at 60 degrees C for 30 min lowered colostrum bacteria concentration while maintaining colostral IgG concentration and viscosity. Calves fed heat-treated colostrum had significantly greater IgG concentrations at 24 h and greater apparent efficiency of IgG absorption (IgG = 23.4 g/L; apparent efficiency of absorption = 33.2%) compared with calves fed unheated colostrum (IgG = 19.6 g/L; apparent efficiency of absorption = 27.7%). There was no difference between treatment groups in growth measurements, calf starter intake, lymphocyte counts, or health scores.

  15. Selecting Effective Treatments: A Comprehensive, Systematic Guide to Treating Mental Disorders. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Linda

    This book presents an overview of the major types of mental disorders, accompanied by treatment models that are structured, comprehensive, grounded in research, and likely to be effective. Chapter topics are: (1) "Introduction to Effective Treatment Planning"; (2) "Mental Disorders in Infants, Children, and Adolescents"; (3) "Situationally…

  16. Effect of moisture content on strength of CCA-treated lumber

    Treesearch

    Jerrold E. Winandy

    1995-01-01

    Recent studies on the effects of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treatment on lumber design properties have primarily evaluated the effects of such treatment at or near 12% moisture content and at failure times of 1 to 10 min. The influence of various moisture contents and faster loading rates is unknown. This report discusses the influence of moisture content and its...

  17. Selecting Effective Treatments: A Comprehensive, Systematic Guide to Treating Mental Disorders. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Linda

    This book presents an overview of the major types of mental disorders, accompanied by treatment models that are structured, comprehensive, grounded in research, and likely to be effective. Chapter topics are: (1) "Introduction to Effective Treatment Planning"; (2) "Mental Disorders in Infants, Children, and Adolescents"; (3) "Situationally…

  18. The effectiveness of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) seeds in treating urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Oyelami, O A; Agbakwuru, E A; Adeyemi, L A; Adedeji, G B

    2005-04-01

    Three middle-aged males and one female were diagnosed as having urinary tract infections (UTIs) between 2001 and 2003 in the Wesley Guild Hospital, Ilesa, a unit of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. Of the 4 patients, only the female was asymptomatic. The 3 males had Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella species, and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively, in their urine samples, while the female had Escherichia coli. All 4 patients were treated with grapefruit seeds (Citrus paradisi) orally for 2 weeks and they all responded satisfactorily to the treatment except the man with P. aeruginosa isolate. However, the initial profuse growth of Pseudomonas isolate in the patient that was resistant to gentamicin, tarivid, and augmentin later subsided to mild growth with reversal of the antibiotic resistance pattern after 2 weeks' treatment with grapefruit seeds. These preliminary data thus suggest an antibacterial characteristic of dried or fresh grapefruit seeds (C. paradisi) when taken at a dosage of 5 to 6 seeds every 8 hours, that is comparable to that of proven antibacterial drugs.

  19. Alterations of phytoplankton assemblages treated with chlorinated hydrocarbons: effects of dominant species sensitivity and initial diversity.

    PubMed

    Bácsi, István; Gonda, Sándor; B-Béres, Viktória; Novák, Zoltán; Nagy, Sándor Alex; Vasas, Gábor

    2015-05-01

    Changes in composition of phytoplankton assemblages due to short-chained chlorinated hydrocarbons (tetrachloroethane, tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene) were studied in microcosm experiments with different initial diversities. Diversity decreased further during treatments in the less diverse 2011 summer assemblages, dominated by the euglenid Trachelomonas volvocinopsis (its relative abundance was nearly 70 %). Diversity did not change significantly during treatments in the more diverse 2012 summer assemblages, dominated by cryptomonads (their relative abundance was 40 %). The dominant Trachelomonas volvocinopsis in 2011, due to its insensitivity to the treatment and presumably high competition skills, filled released habitats occurring when sensitive species were not detectable any more. In contrast, cryptomonads were extremely sensitive to the treatments, their abundance decreased under detection limit in the treated assemblages, regardless of diversity conditions. Our results showed that population dynamics of dominant species determine the response to the contamination of the entire community, if these species display high resistance or resilience. If the dominant species was highly sensitive and recovered slowly, compensatory growth of rare species maintained high levels of ecosystem performance.

  20. Evolving strategies in mechanobiology to more effectively treat damaged musculoskeletal tissues.

    PubMed

    Butler, David L; Dyment, Nathaniel A; Shearn, Jason T; Kinneberg, Kirsten R C; Breidenbach, Andrew P; Lalley, Andrea L; Gilday, Steven D; Gooch, Cynthia; Rao, M B; Liu, Chia-feng; Wylie, Christopher

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we had four primary objectives. (1) We reviewed a brief history of the Lissner award and the individual for whom it is named, H.R. Lissner. We examined the type (musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and other) and scale (organism to molecular) of research performed by prior Lissner awardees using a hierarchical paradigm adopted at the 2007 Biomechanics Summit of the US National Committee on Biomechanics. (2) We compared the research conducted by the Lissner award winners working in the musculoskeletal (MS) field with the evolution of our MS research and showed similar trends in scale over the past 35 years. (3) We discussed our evolving mechanobiology strategies for treating musculoskeletal injuries by accounting for clinical, biomechanical, and biological considerations. These strategies included studies to determine the function of the anterior cruciate ligament and its graft replacements as well as novel methods to enhance soft tissue healing using tissue engineering, functional tissue engineering, and, more recently, fundamental tissue engineering approaches. (4) We concluded with thoughts about future directions, suggesting grand challenges still facing bioengineers as well as the immense opportunities for young investigators working in musculoskeletal research. Hopefully, these retrospective and prospective analyses will be useful as the ASME Bioengineering Division charts future research directions.

  1. Cystic fibrosis lung disease starts in the small airways: can we treat it more effectively?

    PubMed

    Tiddens, Harm A W M; Donaldson, Scott H; Rosenfeld, Margaret; Paré, Peter D

    2010-02-01

    The aims of this article are to summarize existing knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of small airways disease in cystic fibrosis (CF), to speculate about additional mechanisms that might play a role, and to consider the available or potential options to treat it. In the first section, we review the evidence provided by pathologic, physiologic, and imaging studies suggesting that obstruction of small airways begins early in life and is progressive. In the second section we discuss how the relationships between CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), ion transport, the volume of the periciliary liquid layer and airway mucus might lead to defective mucociliary clearance in small airways. In addition, we discuss how chronic endobronchial bacterial infection and a chronic neutrophilic inflammatory response increase the viscosity of CF secretions and exacerbate the clearance problem. Next, we discuss how the mechanical properties of small airways could be altered early in the disease process and how remodeling can contribute to small airways disease. In the final section, we discuss how established therapies impact small airways disease and new directions that may lead to improvement in the treatment of small airways disease. We conclude that there are many reasons to believe that small airways play an important role in the pathophysiology of (early) CF lung disease. Therapy should be aimed to target the small airways more efficiently, especially with drugs that can correct the basic defect at an early stage of disease.