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Sample records for effector xopn suppresses

  1. Cell Wall Degrading Enzyme Induced Rice Innate Immune Responses Are Suppressed by the Type 3 Secretion System Effectors XopN, XopQ, XopX and XopZ of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Dipanwita; Gupta, Mahesh Kumar; Patel, Hitendra Kumar; Ranjan, Ashish; Sonti, Ramesh V.

    2013-01-01

    Innate immune responses are induced in plants and animals through perception of Damage Associated Molecular Patterns. These immune responses are suppressed by pathogens during infection. A number of studies have focussed on identifying functions of plant pathogenic bacteria that are involved in suppression of Pathogen Associated Molecular Pattern induced immune responses. In comparison, there is very little information on functions used by plant pathogens to suppress Damage Associated Molecular Pattern induced immune responses. Xanthomonasoryzae pv. oryzae, a gram negative bacterial pathogen of rice, secretes hydrolytic enzymes such as LipA (Lipase/Esterase) that damage rice cell walls and induce innate immune responses. Here, we show that Agrobacterium mediated transient transfer of the gene for XopN, a X. oryzae pv. oryzae type 3 secretion (T3S) system effector, results in suppression of rice innate immune responses induced by LipA. A xopN- mutant of X. oryzae pv. oryzae retains the ability to suppress these innate immune responses indicating the presence of other functionally redundant proteins. In transient transfer assays, we have assessed the ability of 15 other X. oryzae pv. oryzae T3S secreted effectors to suppress rice innate immune responses. Amongst these proteins, XopQ, XopX and XopZ are suppressors of LipA induced innate immune responses. A mutation in any one of the xopN, xopQ, xopX or xopZ genes causes partial virulence deficiency while a xopN- xopX- double mutant exhibits a greater virulence deficiency. A xopN- xopQ- xopX- xopZ- quadruple mutant of X. oryzae pv. oryzae induces callose deposition, an innate immune response, similar to a X. oryzae pv. oryzae T3S- mutant in rice leaves. Overall, these results indicate that multiple T3S secreted proteins of X. oryzae pv. oryzae can suppress cell wall damage induced rice innate immune responses. PMID:24086651

  2. Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Type III Effector XopN Targets OsVOZ2 and a Putative Thiamine Synthase as a Virulence Factor in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Hoon; Kim, Chi-Yeol; Jeon, Jong-Seong; Lee, Byoung-Moo; Sun Moon, Jae; Hwang, Ingyu

    2013-01-01

    Xanthomonasoryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is spread systemically through the xylem tissue and causes bacterial blight in rice. We evaluated the roles of Xanthomonas outer proteins (Xop) in the Xoo strain KXO85 in a Japonica-type rice cultivar, Dongjin. Five xop gene knockout mutants (xopQKXO85, xopXKXO85, xopP1KXO85, xopP2KXO85, and xopNKXO85) were generated by EZ-Tn5 mutagenesis, and their virulence was assessed in 3-month-old rice leaves. Among these mutants, the xopNKXO85 mutant appeared to be less virulent than the wild-type KXO85; however, the difference was not statistically significant. In contrast, the xopNKXO85 mutant exhibited significantly less virulence in flag leaves after flowering than the wild-type KXO85. These observations indicate that the roles of Xop in Xoo virulence are dependent on leaf stage. We chose the xopN gene for further characterization because the xopNKXO85 mutant showed the greatest influence on virulence. We confirmed that XopNKXO85 is translocated into rice cells, and its gene expression is positively regulated by HrpX. Two rice proteins, OsVOZ2 and a putative thiamine synthase (OsXNP), were identified as targets of XopNKXO85 by yeast two-hybrid screening. Interactions between XopNKXO85 and OsVOZ2 and OsXNP were further confirmed in planta by bimolecular fluorescence complementation and in vivo pull-down assays. To investigate the roles of OsVOZ2 in interactions between rice and Xoo, we evaluated the virulence of the wild-type KXO85 and xopNKXO85 mutant in the OsVOZ2 mutant line PFG_3A-07565 of Dongjin. The wild-type KXO85 and xopNKXO85 mutant were significantly less virulent in the mutant rice line. These results indicate that XopNKXO85 and OsVOZ2 play important roles both individually and together for Xoo virulence in rice. PMID:24019919

  3. The Pseudomonas syringae effector protein HopZ1a suppresses effector-triggered immunity.

    PubMed

    Macho, Alberto P; Guevara, Carlos M; Tornero, Pablo; Ruiz-Albert, Javier; Beuzón, Carmen R

    2010-09-01

    *The Pseudomonas syringae pv syringae type III effector HopZ1a is a member of the HopZ effector family of cysteine-proteases that triggers immunity in Arabidopsis. This immunity is dependent on HopZ1a cysteine-protease activity, and independent of known resistance genes. We have previously shown that HopZ1a-triggered immunity is partially additive to that triggered by AvrRpt2. These partially additive effects could be caused by at least two mechanisms: their signalling pathways share a common element(s), or one effector interferes with the response triggered by the other. *Here, we investigate the molecular basis for the partially additive effect displayed by AvrRpt2- and HopZ1a-triggered immunities, by analysing competitive indices, hypersensitive response and symptom induction, PR-1 accumulation, expression of PR genes, and systemic acquired resistance (SAR) induction. *Partially additive effects between these defence responses require HopZ1a cysteine-protease activity, and also take place between HopZ1a and AvrRps4 or AvrRpm1-triggered responses. We establish that HopZ1a-triggered immunity is independent of salicylic acid (SA), EDS1, jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET)-dependent pathways, and show that HopZ1a suppresses the induction of PR-1 and PR-5 associated with P. syringae pv tomato (Pto)-triggered effector-triggered immunity (ETI)-like defences, AvrRpt2-triggered immunity, and Pto or Pto (avrRpt2) activation of SAR, and that suppression requires HopZ1a cysteine-protease activity. *Our results indicate that HopZ1a triggers an unusual resistance independent of known pathways and suppresses SA and EDS1-dependent resistance.

  4. Studying the Mechanism of Plasmopara viticola RxLR Effectors on Suppressing Plant Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Jiang; Li, Xinlong; Wu, Jiao; Yin, Ling; Zhang, Yali; Lu, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    The RxLR effector family, produced by oomycete pathogens, may manipulate host physiological and biochemical events inside host cells. A group of putative RxLR effectors from Plasmopara viticola have been recently identified by RNA-Seq analysis in our lab. However, their roles in pathogenesis are poorly understood. In this study, we attempted to characterize 23 PvRxLR effector candidates identified from a P. viticola isolate “ZJ-1-1.” During host infection stages, expression patterns of the effector genes were varied and could be categorized into four different groups. By using transient expression assays in Nicotiana benthamiana, we found that 17 of these effector candidates fully suppressed programmed cell death elicited by a range of cell death-inducing proteins, including BAX, INF1, PsCRN63, PsojNIP, PvRxLR16 and R3a/Avr3a. We also discovered that all these PvRxLRs could target the plant cell nucleus, except for PvRxLR55 that localized to the membrane. Furthermore, we identified a single effector, PvRxLR28, that showed the highest expression level at 6 hpi. Functional analysis revealed that PvRxLR28 could significantly enhance susceptibilities of grapevine and tobacco to pathogens. These results suggest that most P. viticola effectors tested in this study may act as broad suppressors of cell death to manipulate immunity in plant. PMID:27242731

  5. A Plasmodium-like virulence effector of the soybean cyst nematode suppresses plant innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Noon, Jason B; Qi, Mingsheng; Sill, Danielle N; Muppirala, Usha; Eves-van den Akker, Sebastian; Maier, Thomas R; Dobbs, Drena; Mitchum, Melissa G; Hewezi, Tarek; Baum, Thomas J

    2016-10-01

    Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode, delivers effector proteins into soybean roots to initiate and maintain an obligate parasitic relationship. HgGLAND18 encodes a candidate H. glycines effector and is expressed throughout the infection process. We used a combination of molecular, genetic, bioinformatic and phylogenetic analyses to determine the role of HgGLAND18 during H. glycines infection. HgGLAND18 is necessary for pathogenicity in compatible interactions with soybean. The encoded effector strongly suppresses both basal and hypersensitive cell death innate immune responses, and immunosuppression requires the presence and coordination between multiple protein domains. The N-terminal domain in HgGLAND18 contains unique sequence similarity to domains of an immunosuppressive effector of Plasmodium spp., the malaria parasites. The Plasmodium effector domains functionally complement the loss of the N-terminal domain from HgGLAND18. In-depth sequence searches and phylogenetic analyses demonstrate convergent evolution between effectors from divergent parasites of plants and animals as the cause of sequence and functional similarity. PMID:27265684

  6. A bacterial cysteine protease effector protein interferes with photosynthesis to suppress plant innate immune responses.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Herva, José J; González-Melendi, Pablo; Cuartas-Lanza, Raquel; Antúnez-Lamas, María; Río-Alvarez, Isabel; Li, Ziduo; López-Torrejón, Gema; Díaz, Isabel; Del Pozo, Juan C; Chakravarthy, Suma; Collmer, Alan; Rodríguez-Palenzuela, Pablo; López-Solanilla, Emilia

    2012-05-01

    The bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 suppresses plant innate immunity with effector proteins injected by a type III secretion system (T3SS). The cysteine protease effector HopN1, which reduces the ability of DC3000 to elicit programmed cell death in non-host tobacco, was found to also suppress the production of defence-associated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and callose when delivered by Pseudomonas fluorescens heterologously expressing a P. syringae T3SS. Purified His(6) -tagged HopN1 was used to identify tomato PsbQ, a member of the oxygen evolving complex of photosystem II (PSII), as an interacting protein. HopN1 localized to chloroplasts and both degraded PsbQ and inhibited PSII activity in chloroplast preparations, whereas a HopN1(D299A) non-catalytic mutant lost these abilities. Gene silencing of NtPsbQ in tobacco compromised ROS production and programmed cell death by DC3000. Our data reveal PsbQ as a contributor to plant immunity responses and a target for pathogen suppression.

  7. Molecular Determinants of Resistance Activation and Suppression by Phytophthora infestans Effector IPI-O

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Liu, Zhenyu; Halterman, Dennis A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite intensive breeding efforts, potato late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, remains a threat to potato production worldwide because newly evolved pathogen strains have consistently overcome major resistance genes. The potato RB gene, derived from the wild species Solanum bulbocastanum, confers resistance to most P. infestans strains through recognition of members of the pathogen effector family IPI-O. While the majority of IPI-O proteins are recognized by RB to elicit resistance (e.g. IPI-O1, IPI-O2), some family members are able to elude detection (e.g. IPI-O4). In addition, IPI-O4 blocks recognition of IPI-O1, leading to inactivation of RB-mediated programmed cell death. Here, we report results that elucidate molecular mechanisms governing resistance elicitation or suppression of RB by IPI-O. Our data indicate self-association of the RB coiled coil (CC) domain as well as a physical interaction between this domain and the effectors IPI-O4 and IPI-O1. We identified four amino acids within IPI-O that are critical for interaction with the RB CC domain and one of these amino acids, at position 129, determines hypersensitive response (HR) elicitation in planta. IPI-O1 mutant L129P fails to induce HR in presence of RB while IPI-O4 P129L gains the ability to induce an HR. Like IPI-O4, IPI-O1 L129P is also able to suppress the HR mediated by RB, indicating a critical step in the evolution of this gene family. Our results point to a model in which IPI-O effectors can affect RB function through interaction with the RB CC domain. PMID:22438813

  8. Immunity to Rice Blast Disease by Suppression of Effector-Triggered Necrosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruyi; Ning, Yuese; Shi, Xuetao; He, Feng; Zhang, Chongyang; Fan, Jiangbo; Jiang, Nan; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Ting; Hu, Yajun; Bellizzi, Maria; Wang, Guo-Liang

    2016-09-26

    Hemibiotrophic pathogens are some of the most destructive plant pathogens, causing huge economic losses and threatening global food security. Infection with these organisms often involves an initial biotrophic infection phase, during which the pathogen spreads in host tissue asymptomatically, followed by a necrotrophic phase, during which host-cell death is induced. How hemibiotrophic pathogens trigger host necrosis and how plants inhibit the transition from the biotrophic stage to the necrotrophic stage in disease symptom expression are mainly unknown. The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae spreads in rice biotrophically early during infection, but this biotrophic stage is followed by a pronounced switch to cell death and lesion formation. Here, we show that the M. oryzae effector AvrPiz-t interacts with the bZIP-type transcription factor APIP5 in the cytoplasm and suppresses its transcriptional activity and protein accumulation at the necrotrophic stage. Silencing of APIP5 in transgenic rice leads to cell death, and the phenotype is enhanced by the expression of AvrPiz-t. Conversely, Piz-t interacts with and stabilizes APIP5 to prevent necrosis at the necrotrophic stage. At the same time, APIP5 is essential for Piz-t stability. These results demonstrate a novel mechanism for the suppression of effector-triggered necrosis at the necrotrophic stage by an NLR receptor in plants.

  9. The Fusarium oxysporum effector Six6 contributes to virulence and suppresses I-2-mediated cell death.

    PubMed

    Gawehns, F; Houterman, P M; Ichou, F Ait; Michielse, C B; Hijdra, M; Cornelissen, B J C; Rep, M; Takken, F L W

    2014-04-01

    Plant pathogens secrete effectors to manipulate their host and facilitate colonization. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is the causal agent of Fusarium wilt disease in tomato. Upon infection, F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici secretes numerous small proteins into the xylem sap (Six proteins). Most Six proteins are unique to F. oxysporum, but Six6 is an exception; a homolog is also present in two Colletotrichum spp. SIX6 expression was found to require living host cells and a knockout of SIX6 in F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici compromised virulence, classifying it as a genuine effector. Heterologous expression of SIX6 did not affect growth of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves or susceptibility of Arabidopsis thaliana toward Verticillium dahliae, Pseudomonas syringae, or F. oxysporum, suggesting a specific function for F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici Six6 in the F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici- tomato pathosystem. Remarkably, Six6 was found to specifically suppress I-2-mediated cell death (I2CD) upon transient expression in N. benthamiana, whereas it did not compromise the activity of other cell-death-inducing genes. Still, this I2CD suppressing activity of Six6 does not allow the fungus to overcome I-2 resistance in tomato, suggesting that I-2-mediated resistance is independent from cell death. PMID:24313955

  10. Immunity to Rice Blast Disease by Suppression of Effector-Triggered Necrosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruyi; Ning, Yuese; Shi, Xuetao; He, Feng; Zhang, Chongyang; Fan, Jiangbo; Jiang, Nan; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Ting; Hu, Yajun; Bellizzi, Maria; Wang, Guo-Liang

    2016-09-26

    Hemibiotrophic pathogens are some of the most destructive plant pathogens, causing huge economic losses and threatening global food security. Infection with these organisms often involves an initial biotrophic infection phase, during which the pathogen spreads in host tissue asymptomatically, followed by a necrotrophic phase, during which host-cell death is induced. How hemibiotrophic pathogens trigger host necrosis and how plants inhibit the transition from the biotrophic stage to the necrotrophic stage in disease symptom expression are mainly unknown. The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae spreads in rice biotrophically early during infection, but this biotrophic stage is followed by a pronounced switch to cell death and lesion formation. Here, we show that the M. oryzae effector AvrPiz-t interacts with the bZIP-type transcription factor APIP5 in the cytoplasm and suppresses its transcriptional activity and protein accumulation at the necrotrophic stage. Silencing of APIP5 in transgenic rice leads to cell death, and the phenotype is enhanced by the expression of AvrPiz-t. Conversely, Piz-t interacts with and stabilizes APIP5 to prevent necrosis at the necrotrophic stage. At the same time, APIP5 is essential for Piz-t stability. These results demonstrate a novel mechanism for the suppression of effector-triggered necrosis at the necrotrophic stage by an NLR receptor in plants. PMID:27641772

  11. The Ustilago maydis effector Pep1 suppresses plant immunity by inhibition of host peroxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Hemetsberger, Christoph; Herrberger, Christian; Zechmann, Bernd; Hillmer, Morten; Doehlemann, Gunther

    2012-01-01

    The corn smut Ustilago maydis establishes a biotrophic interaction with its host plant maize. This interaction requires efficient suppression of plant immune responses, which is attributed to secreted effector proteins. Previously we identified Pep1 (Protein essential during penetration-1) as a secreted effector with an essential role for U. maydis virulence. pep1 deletion mutants induce strong defense responses leading to an early block in pathogenic development of the fungus. Using cytological and functional assays we show that Pep1 functions as an inhibitor of plant peroxidases. At sites of Δpep1 mutant penetrations, H₂O₂ strongly accumulated in the cell walls, coinciding with a transcriptional induction of the secreted maize peroxidase POX12. Pep1 protein effectively inhibited the peroxidase driven oxidative burst and thereby suppresses the early immune responses of maize. Moreover, Pep1 directly inhibits peroxidases in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner. Using fluorescence complementation assays, we observed a direct interaction of Pep1 and the maize peroxidase POX12 in vivo. Functional relevance of this interaction was demonstrated by partial complementation of the Δpep1 mutant defect by virus induced gene silencing of maize POX12. We conclude that Pep1 acts as a potent suppressor of early plant defenses by inhibition of peroxidase activity. Thus, it represents a novel strategy for establishing a biotrophic interaction.

  12. Ultraviolet B suppresses immunity by inhibiting effector and memory T cells.

    PubMed

    Rana, Sabita; Byrne, Scott Napier; MacDonald, Linda Joanne; Chan, Carling Yan-Yan; Halliday, Gary Mark

    2008-04-01

    Contact hypersensitivity is a T-cell-mediated response to a hapten. Exposing C57BL/6 mice to UV B radiation systemically suppresses both primary and secondary contact hypersensitivity responses. The effects of UVB on in vivo T-cell responses during UVB-induced immunosuppression are unknown. We show here that UVB exposure, before contact sensitization, inhibits the expansion of effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in skin-draining lymph nodes and reduces the number of CD4+ and IFN-gamma+ CD8+ T cells infiltrating challenged ear skin. In the absence of UVB, at 10 weeks after initial hapten exposure, the ear skin of sensitized mice was infiltrated by dermal effector memory CD8+ T cells at the site of challenge. However, if mice were previously exposed to UVB, this cell population was absent, suggesting an impaired development of peripheral memory T cells. This finding occurred in the absence of UVB-induced regulatory CD4+ T cells and did not involve prostaglandin E2, suggesting that the importance of these two factors in mediating or initiating UVB-induced immunosuppression is dependent on UVB dose. Together these data indicate that in vivo T-cell responses are prone to immunoregulation by UVB, including a novel effect on both the activated T-cell pool size and the development of memory T cells in peripheral compartments. PMID:18292235

  13. Identification of a novel effector domain of BIN1 for cancer suppression

    PubMed Central

    Lundgaard, Greta L.; Daniels, Natae E.; Pyndiah, Slovénie; Cassimere, Erica K.; Ahmed, Kazi M.; Rodrigue, Amélie; Kihara, Daisuke; Post, Carol B.; Sakamuro, Daitoku

    2011-01-01

    Bridging integrator 1 (BIN1) is a nucleocytoplasmic adaptor protein with tumor suppressor properties. The protein interacts with and inhibits the c-MYC transcription factor through the BIN1 MYC-binding domain (MBD). However, in vitro colony formation assays have clearly demonstrated that the MBD is not essential for BIN1-mediated growth arrest. We hypothesized that BIN1 contains a MYC-independent effector domain (MID) for cancer suppression. Because a functionally unique domain frequently contains a distinct structure, the human full-length BIN1 protein was subjected to limited trypsin digestion and the digested peptides were analyzed with Edman sequencing and mass spectrometry. We identified a trypsin-resistant peptide that corresponds to amino acids 146–268 of BIN1. It encompassed part of the BAR region, a putative effector region of BIN1. Computational analysis predicted that the peptide is very likely to exhibit coiled-coil motifs, implying a potential role for this region in sustaining the BIN1 structure and function. Like MBD-deleted BIN1, the trypsin-resistant peptide of BIN1 was predominantly present in the cytoplasm and was sufficient to inhibit cancer growth, regardless of dysregulated c-MYC activity. Our results suggest that the coiled-coil BIN1 BAR peptide encodes a novel BIN1 MID domain, through which BIN1 acts as a MYC-independent cancer suppressor. PMID:21678469

  14. Identification of a novel effector domain of BIN1 for cancer suppression.

    PubMed

    Lundgaard, Greta L; Daniels, Natae E; Pyndiah, Slovénie; Cassimere, Erica K; Ahmed, Kazi M; Rodrigue, Amélie; Kihara, Daisuke; Post, Carol B; Sakamuro, Daitoku

    2011-10-01

    Bridging integrator 1 (BIN1) is a nucleocytoplasmic adaptor protein with tumor suppressor properties. The protein interacts with and inhibits the c-MYC transcription factor through the BIN1 MYC-binding domain (MBD). However, in vitro colony formation assays have clearly demonstrated that the MBD is not essential for BIN1-mediated growth arrest. We hypothesized that BIN1 contains a MYC-independent effector domain (MID) for cancer suppression. Because a functionally unique domain frequently contains a distinct structure, the human full-length BIN1 protein was subjected to limited trypsin digestion and the digested peptides were analyzed with Edman sequencing and mass spectrometry. We identified a trypsin-resistant peptide that corresponds to amino acids 146-268 of BIN1. It encompassed part of the BAR region, a putative effector region of BIN1. Computational analysis predicted that the peptide is very likely to exhibit coiled-coil motifs, implying a potential role for this region in sustaining the BIN1 structure and function. Like MBD-deleted BIN1, the trypsin-resistant peptide of BIN1 was predominantly present in the cytoplasm and was sufficient to inhibit cancer growth, regardless of dysregulated c-MYC activity. Our results suggest that the coiled-coil BIN1 BAR peptide encodes a novel BIN1 MID domain, through which BIN1 acts as a MYC-independent cancer suppressor. PMID:21678469

  15. A Phytophthora sojae effector suppresses endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated immunity by stabilizing plant Binding immunoglobulin Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Maofeng; Guo, Baodian; Li, Haiyang; Yang, Bo; Wang, Haonan; Kong, Guanghui; Zhao, Yao; Xu, Huawei; Wang, Yan; Ye, Wenwu; Dong, Suomeng; Qiao, Yongli; Tyler, Brett M.; Ma, Wenbo; Wang, Yuanchao

    2016-01-01

    Phytophthora pathogens secrete an array of specific effector proteins to manipulate host innate immunity to promote pathogen colonization. However, little is known about the host targets of effectors and the specific mechanisms by which effectors increase susceptibility. Here we report that the soybean pathogen Phytophthora sojae uses an essential effector PsAvh262 to stabilize endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-luminal binding immunoglobulin proteins (BiPs), which act as negative regulators of plant resistance to Phytophthora. By stabilizing BiPs, PsAvh262 suppresses ER stress-triggered cell death and facilitates Phytophthora infection. The direct targeting of ER stress regulators may represent a common mechanism of host manipulation by microbes. PMID:27256489

  16. Prophage-Encoded Peroxidase in 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' Is a Secreted Effector That Suppresses Plant Defenses.

    PubMed

    Jain, Mukesh; Fleites, Laura A; Gabriel, Dean W

    2015-12-01

    'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' is transmitted by psyllids and causes huanglongbing (HLB), a lethal disease of citrus. Most pathogenic 'Ca. L. asiaticus' strains carry two nearly identical prophages similar to SC1 and SC2 in strain UF506. SC2 was observed to replicate as a moderately high-copy excision plasmid encoding a reactive oxygen species-scavenging peroxidase (SC2_gp095), a predicted lysogenic conversion factor. SC2_gp095 was expressed at significantly higher levels in periwinkle than in citrus and was suppressed in psyllids. SC2_gp095 was cloned in a shuttle vector and transformed into Escherichia coli and Liberibacter crescens, a culturable proxy for 'Ca. L. asiaticus'. Transformed L. crescens cells showed 20 to 25% enhanced resistance to H₂O₂on agar plates, 47% greater enzymatic activity, and enhanced growth in liquid cultures. A nonclassical secretion potential was predicted for SC2_gp095 and secretion from L. crescens was confirmed by enzymatic and Western blot analyses. Transient expression of SC2_gp095 in planta resulted in strong transcriptional downregulation of RbohB, the key gatekeeper of the H₂O₂-mediated defense signaling in plants, helping explain the surprisingly long incubation period (years) before HLB symptoms appear in 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected citrus. 'Ca. L. asiaticus' peroxidase is likely a secreted, horizontally acquired effector that suppresses host symptom development, a tactic used by most biotrophic plant pathogens. PMID:26313412

  17. The bacterial effector HopM1 suppresses PAMP-triggered oxidative burst and stomatal immunity.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Durán, Rosa; Bourdais, Gildas; He, Sheng Yang; Robatzek, Silke

    2014-04-01

    Successful pathogens counter immunity at multiple levels, mostly through the action of effectors. Pseudomonas syringae secretes c. 30 effectors, some of which have been shown to inhibit plant immunity triggered upon perception of conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). One of these is HopM1, which impairs late immune responses through targeting the vesicle trafficking-related AtMIN7 for degradation. Here, we report that in planta expressed HopM1 suppresses two early PAMP-triggered responses, the oxidative burst and stomatal immunity, both of which seem to require proteasomal function but are independent of AtMIN7. Notably, a 14-3-3 protein, GRF8/AtMIN10, was found previously to be a target of HopM1 in vivo, and expression of HopM1 mimics the effect of chemically and genetically disrupting 14-3-3 function. Our data further show that the function of 14-3-3 proteins is required for PAMP-triggered oxidative burst and stomatal immunity, and chemical-mediated disruption of the 14-3-3 interactions with their client proteins restores virulence of a HopM1-deficient P. syringae mutant, providing a link between HopM1 and the involvement of 14-3-3 proteins in plant immunity. Taken together, these results unveil the impact of HopM1 on the PAMP-triggered oxidative burst and stomatal immunity in an AtMIN7-independent manner, most likely acting at the function of (a) 14-3-3 protein(s). PMID:24372399

  18. A Novel Meloidogyne incognita Effector Misp12 Suppresses Plant Defense Response at Latter Stages of Nematode Parasitism

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jialian; Li, Shaojun; Mo, Chenmi; Wang, Gaofeng; Xiao, Xueqiong; Xiao, Yannong

    2016-01-01

    Secreted effectors in plant root-knot nematodes (RKNs, or Meloidogyne spp.) play key roles in their parasite processes. Currently identified effectors mainly focus on the early stage of the nematode parasitism. There are only a few reports describing effectors that function in the latter stage. In this study, we identified a potential RKN effector gene, Misp12, that functioned during the latter stage of parasitism. Misp12 was unique in the Meloidogyne spp., and highly conserved in Meloidogyne incognita. It encoded a secretory protein that specifically expressed in the dorsal esophageal gland, and highly up-regulated during the female stages. Transient expression of Misp12-GUS-GFP in onion epidermal cell showed that Misp12 was localized in cytoplast. In addition, in planta RNA interference targeting Misp12 suppressed the expression of Misp12 in nematodes and attenuated parasitic ability of M. incognita. Furthermore, up-regulation of jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) pathway defense-related genes in the virus-induced silencing of Misp12 plants, and down-regulation of SA pathway defense-related genes in Misp12-expressing plants indicated the gene might be associated with the suppression of the plant defense response. These results demonstrated that the novel nematode effector Misp12 played a critical role at latter parasitism of M. incognita. PMID:27446188

  19. A Novel Meloidogyne incognita Effector Misp12 Suppresses Plant Defense Response at Latter Stages of Nematode Parasitism.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jialian; Li, Shaojun; Mo, Chenmi; Wang, Gaofeng; Xiao, Xueqiong; Xiao, Yannong

    2016-01-01

    Secreted effectors in plant root-knot nematodes (RKNs, or Meloidogyne spp.) play key roles in their parasite processes. Currently identified effectors mainly focus on the early stage of the nematode parasitism. There are only a few reports describing effectors that function in the latter stage. In this study, we identified a potential RKN effector gene, Misp12, that functioned during the latter stage of parasitism. Misp12 was unique in the Meloidogyne spp., and highly conserved in Meloidogyne incognita. It encoded a secretory protein that specifically expressed in the dorsal esophageal gland, and highly up-regulated during the female stages. Transient expression of Misp12-GUS-GFP in onion epidermal cell showed that Misp12 was localized in cytoplast. In addition, in planta RNA interference targeting Misp12 suppressed the expression of Misp12 in nematodes and attenuated parasitic ability of M. incognita. Furthermore, up-regulation of jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) pathway defense-related genes in the virus-induced silencing of Misp12 plants, and down-regulation of SA pathway defense-related genes in Misp12-expressing plants indicated the gene might be associated with the suppression of the plant defense response. These results demonstrated that the novel nematode effector Misp12 played a critical role at latter parasitism of M. incognita. PMID:27446188

  20. Functionally Redundant RXLR Effectors from Phytophthora infestans Act at Different Steps to Suppress Early flg22-Triggered Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Fraiture, Malou; Liu, Xiaoyu; Boevink, Petra C.; Gilroy, Eleanor M.; Chen, Ying; Kandel, Kabindra; Sessa, Guido; Birch, Paul R. J.; Brunner, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Genome sequences of several economically important phytopathogenic oomycetes have revealed the presence of large families of so-called RXLR effectors. Functional screens have identified RXLR effector repertoires that either compromise or induce plant defense responses. However, limited information is available about the molecular mechanisms underlying the modes of action of these effectors in planta. The perception of highly conserved pathogen- or microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs), such as flg22, triggers converging signaling pathways recruiting MAP kinase cascades and inducing transcriptional re-programming, yielding a generic anti-microbial response. We used a highly synchronizable, pathogen-free protoplast-based assay to identify a set of RXLR effectors from Phytophthora infestans (PiRXLRs), the causal agent of potato and tomato light blight that manipulate early stages of flg22-triggered signaling. Of thirty-three tested PiRXLR effector candidates, eight, called Suppressor of early Flg22-induced Immune response (SFI), significantly suppressed flg22-dependent activation of a reporter gene under control of a typical MAMP-inducible promoter (pFRK1-Luc) in tomato protoplasts. We extended our analysis to Arabidopsis thaliana, a non-host plant species of P. infestans. From the aforementioned eight SFI effectors, three appeared to share similar functions in both Arabidopsis and tomato by suppressing transcriptional activation of flg22-induced marker genes downstream of post-translational MAP kinase activation. A further three effectors interfere with MAMP signaling at, or upstream of, the MAP kinase cascade in tomato, but not in Arabidopsis. Transient expression of the SFI effectors in Nicotiana benthamiana enhances susceptibility to P. infestans and, for the most potent effector, SFI1, nuclear localization is required for both suppression of MAMP signaling and virulence function. The present study provides a framework to decipher the molecular

  1. Piceatannol inhibits effector T cell functions by suppressing TcR signaling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Hyun; Lee, Yong-Gab; Park, Hong-Jai; Lee, Jung-Ah; Kim, Hyun Jung; Hwang, Jae-Kwan; Choi, Je-Min

    2015-04-01

    Piceatannol, a metabolite of resveratrol found in red wine and grapes, displays a wide spectrum of biological activity. Although the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumorigenesis activity of piceatannol has been extensively studied, its role in the adaptive immune response has received less attention. Here we investigated the role of piceatannol, a well-known Syk inhibitor, in T cell activation, proliferation, and differentiation using isolated murine splenic T cells from C57BL/6 mice. Piceatannol treatment inhibited surface expression of CD4 and CD8 T cell activation markers CD25 and CD69, reduced production of cytokines IFNγ, IL-2, and IL-17, and suppressed proliferation of activated T cells. Moreover, piceatannol treatment significantly inhibited differentiation of CD4(+)CD25(-)CD62L(+) naïve CD4 T cells into Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells, presumably due to inhibition of TcR signaling through p-Erk, p-Akt, and p-p38. Piceatannol appears to be a useful nutritional or pharmacological biomolecule that regulates effector T cell functions such as cytokine production, differentiation, and proliferation. PMID:25676533

  2. An Arabidopsis and tomato mesophyll protoplast system for fast identification of early MAMP-triggered immunity-suppressing effectors.

    PubMed

    Fraiture, Malou; Zheng, Xiangzi; Brunner, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Transient expression in plant mesophyll protoplasts allows rapid characterisation of gene functions in vivo in a simplified and synchronized manner without bias due to the use of bacteria-based gene or protein delivery systems. It offers the possibility to test whether microbial effectors can subvert early events of plant immune signaling that are activated upon recognition of Microbe-Associated Molecular Patterns (MAMPs), the so-called MAMP-triggered immunity (MTI). Here, we describe the isolation and transfection with effector genes of Arabidopsis thaliana and Solanum lycopersicum mesophyll protoplasts, the use of a non-invasive luciferase reporter assay and a simple method to detect activated Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) to identify and study, in a medium-throughput manner, new effectors suppressing early signal transduction events of MTI.

  3. Homologous RXLR effectors from Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis and Phytophthora sojae suppress immunity in distantly related plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diverse pathogens secrete effector proteins into plant cells to manipulate host cellular processes. Oomycete pathogens contain very large complements of predicted effector genes defined by an RXLR host cell entry motif. The genome of Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa, downy mildew of Arabidopsis) ...

  4. Candidate effector proteins of the necrotrophic apple canker pathogen Valsa mali can suppress BAX-induced PCD

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhengpeng; Yin, Zhiyuan; Fan, Yanyun; Xu, Ming; Kang, Zhensheng; Huang, Lili

    2015-01-01

    Canker caused by the Ascomycete Valsa mali is the most destructive disease of apple in Eastern Asia, resulting in yield losses of up to 100%. This necrotrophic fungus induces severe necrosis on apple, eventually leading to the death of the whole tree. Identification of necrosis inducing factors may help to unravel the molecular bases for colonization of apple trees by V. mali. As a first step toward this goal, we identified and characterized the V. mali repertoire of candidate effector proteins (CEPs). In total, 193 secreted proteins with no known function were predicted from genomic data, of which 101 were V. mali-specific. Compared to non-CEPs predicted for the V. mali secretome, CEPs have shorter sequence length and a higher content of cysteine residues. Based on transient over-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana performed for 70 randomly selected CEPs, seven V. mali Effector Proteins (VmEPs) were shown to significantly suppress BAX-induced PCD. Furthermore, targeted deletion of VmEP1 resulted in a significant reduction of virulence. These results suggest that V. mali expresses secreted proteins that can suppress PCD usually associated with effector-triggered immunity (ETI). ETI in turn may play an important role in the V. mali–apple interaction. The ability of V. mali to suppress plant ETI sheds a new light onto the interaction of a necrotrophic fungus with its host plant. PMID:26284095

  5. A Genetic Screen Identifies Interferon-α Effector Genes Required to Suppress Hepatitis C Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Fusco, Dahlene N.; Brisac, Cynthia; John, Sinu P.; Huang, Yi-Wen; Chin, Christopher R.; Xie, Tiao; Zhao, Hong; Zhang, Leiliang; Chevalier, Stephane; Wambua, Daniel; Lin, Wenyu; Peng, Lee; Chung, Raymond T.; Brass, Abraham L.

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of end-stage liver disease. Interferon (IFN)-α is an important component of anti-HCV therapy; it upregulates transcription of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs)—many of which have been investigated for their anti-viral effects. However, all the genes required for the anti-viral function of IFN-α (IFN effector genes, IEGs) are not known. IEGs include not only ISGs, but other non-transcriptionally induced genes that are required for the anti-viral effect of IFN-α. In contrast to candidate approaches based on analyses mRNA expression, identification of IEGs requires a broad functional approach. Methods We performed an unbiased genome-wide small-interfering (si)RNA screen to identify IEGs that inhibit HCV. Huh7.5.1 hepatoma cells were transfected with siRNAs, incubated with IFN-α, and then infected with JFH1 HCV. Cells were stained using HCV core antibody, imaged, and analyzed to determine the percent infection. Candidate IEGs detected in the screen were validated and analyzed further. Results The screen identified 120 previously unreported IEGs. From these, we more fully evaluated 9 (ALG10, BCHE, DPP4, GCKR, GUCY1B3, MYST1, PPP3CB, PDIP1, SLC27A2) and demonstrated that they enabled IFN-α–mediated suppression of HCV at multiple steps of its lifecycle. Expression of these genes had more potent effects against flaviviridae, because a subset were required for IFN-α to suppress dengue virus but not influenza A virus. Furthermore, many of the host genes detected in this screen (92%) were not transcriptionally stimulated by IFN-α; these genes represent a heretofore unknown class of non-ISG IEGs. Conclusion We performed a whole-genome loss-of-function screen to identify genes that mediate the effects of IFN-α against human pathogenic viruses. We found that IFN-α restricts HCV via actions of general and specific IEGs. PMID:23462180

  6. Analysis of Globodera rostochiensis effectors reveals conserved functions of SPRYSEC proteins in suppressing and eliciting plant immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Shawkat; Magne, Maxime; Chen, Shiyan; Obradovic, Natasa; Jamshaid, Lubna; Wang, Xiaohong; Bélair, Guy; Moffett, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCNs), including Globodera rostochiensis (Woll.), are important pests of potato. Plant parasitic nematodes produce multiple effector proteins, secreted from their stylets, to successfully infect their hosts. These include proteins delivered to the apoplast and to the host cytoplasm. A number of effectors from G. rostochiensis predicted to be delivered to the host cytoplasm have been identified, including several belonging to the secreted SPRY domain (SPRYSEC) family. SPRYSEC proteins are unique to members of the genus Globodera and have been implicated in both the induction and the repression of host defense responses. We have tested the properties of six different G. rostochiensis SPRYSEC proteins by expressing them in Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabacum. We have found that all SPRYSEC proteins tested are able to suppress defense responses induced by NB-LRR proteins as well as cell death induced by elicitors, suggesting that defense repression is a common characteristic of members of this effector protein family. At the same time, GrSPRYSEC-15 elicited a defense responses in N. tabacum, which was found to be resistant to a virus expressing GrSPRYSEC-15. These results suggest that SPRYSEC proteins may possess characteristics that allow them to be recognized by the plant immune system. PMID:26322064

  7. Analysis of Globodera rostochiensis effectors reveals conserved functions of SPRYSEC proteins in suppressing and eliciting plant immune responses.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shawkat; Magne, Maxime; Chen, Shiyan; Obradovic, Natasa; Jamshaid, Lubna; Wang, Xiaohong; Bélair, Guy; Moffett, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCNs), including Globodera rostochiensis (Woll.), are important pests of potato. Plant parasitic nematodes produce multiple effector proteins, secreted from their stylets, to successfully infect their hosts. These include proteins delivered to the apoplast and to the host cytoplasm. A number of effectors from G. rostochiensis predicted to be delivered to the host cytoplasm have been identified, including several belonging to the secreted SPRY domain (SPRYSEC) family. SPRYSEC proteins are unique to members of the genus Globodera and have been implicated in both the induction and the repression of host defense responses. We have tested the properties of six different G. rostochiensis SPRYSEC proteins by expressing them in Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabacum. We have found that all SPRYSEC proteins tested are able to suppress defense responses induced by NB-LRR proteins as well as cell death induced by elicitors, suggesting that defense repression is a common characteristic of members of this effector protein family. At the same time, GrSPRYSEC-15 elicited a defense responses in N. tabacum, which was found to be resistant to a virus expressing GrSPRYSEC-15. These results suggest that SPRYSEC proteins may possess characteristics that allow them to be recognized by the plant immune system.

  8. Ganglioside GM1 Deficiency in Effector T Cells From NOD Mice Induces Resistance to Regulatory T-Cell Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Gusheng; Lu, Zi-Hua; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; Ledeen, Robert W.; Bleich, David

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To detect GM1 deficiency and determine its role in effector T cells (Teffs) from NOD mice in establishing resistance to regulatory T-cell (Treg) suppression. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS CD4+ and CD8+ Teffs were isolated from spleens of prediabetic NOD mice for comparison with similar cells from Balb/c, C57BL/6, and NOR mice. GM1 was quantified with thin-layer chromatography for total cellular GM1 and flow cytometry for cell-surface GM1. Suppression of Teff proliferation was determined by application of GM1 cross-linking agents or coculturing with Tregs. Calcium influx in Teffs was quantified using fura-2. RESULTS Resting and activated CD4+ and CD8+ Teffs of NOD mice contained significantly less GM1 than Teffs from the other three mouse strains tested. After activation, NOD Teffs resisted suppression by Tregs or GM1 cross-linking agents in contrast to robust suppression of Balb/c Teffs; this was reversed by preincubation of NOD Teffs with GM1. NOD Teffs also showed attenuated Ca2+ influx via transient receptor potential channel 5 (TRPC5) channels induced by GM1 cross-linking, and this, too, was reversed by elevation of Teff GM1. CONCLUSIONS GM1 deficiency occurs in NOD Teffs and contributes importantly to failed suppression, which is rectified by increasing Teff GM1. Such elevation also reverses subthreshold Ca2+ influx via TRPC5 channels, an essential aspect of suppression. Our results also support a critical role for galectin-1 as a GM1 cross-linking counter-receptor that fittingly is upregulated and released by Tregs during activation. These findings suggest a novel mechanism by which pathogenic Teffs evade regulatory suppression, thereby leading to autoimmune β-cell destruction and type 1 diabetes. PMID:21788572

  9. Suppression of IL-7-dependent Effector T-cell Expansion by Multipotent Adult Progenitor Cells and PGE2.

    PubMed

    Reading, James L; Vaes, Bart; Hull, Caroline; Sabbah, Shereen; Hayday, Thomas; Wang, Nancy S; DiPiero, Anthony; Lehman, Nicholas A; Taggart, Jen M; Carty, Fiona; English, Karen; Pinxteren, Jef; Deans, Robert; Ting, Anthony E; Tree, Timothy I M

    2015-11-01

    T-cell depletion therapy is used to prevent acute allograft rejection, treat autoimmunity and create space for bone marrow or hematopoietic cell transplantation. The evolved response to T-cell loss is a transient increase in IL-7 that drives compensatory homeostatic proliferation (HP) of mature T cells. Paradoxically, the exaggerated form of this process that occurs following lymphodepletion expands effector T-cells, often causing loss of immunological tolerance that results in rapid graft rejection, autoimmunity, and exacerbated graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). While standard immune suppression is unable to treat these pathologies, growing evidence suggests that manipulating the incipient process of HP increases allograft survival, prevents autoimmunity, and markedly reduces GVHD. Multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPC) are a clinical grade immunomodulatory cell therapy known to alter γ-chain cytokine responses in T-cells. Herein, we demonstrate that MAPC regulate HP of human T-cells, prevent the expansion of Th1, Th17, and Th22 effectors, and block the development of pathogenic allograft responses. This occurs via IL-1β-primed secretion of PGE2 and activates T-cell intrinsic regulatory mechanisms (SOCS2, GADD45A). These data provide proof-of-principle that HP of human T-cells can be targeted by cellular and molecular therapies and lays a basis for the development of novel strategies to prevent immunopathology in lymphodepleted patients. PMID:26216515

  10. The 1,4-benzodiazepine Ro5-4864 (4-chlorodiazepam) suppresses multiple pro-inflammatory mast cell effector functions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Activation of mast cells (MCs) can be achieved by the high-affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRI) as well as by additional receptors such as the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptor and the receptor tyrosine kinase Kit (stem cell factor [SCF] receptor). Thus, pharmacological interventions which stabilize MCs in response to different receptors would be preferable in diseases with pathological systemic MC activation such as systemic mastocytosis. 1,4-Benzodiazepines (BDZs) have been reported to suppress MC effector functions. In the present study, our aim was to analyze molecularly the effects of BDZs on MC activation by comparison of the effects of the two BDZs Ro5-4864 and clonazepam, which markedly differ in their affinities for the archetypical BDZ recognition sites, i.e., the GABAA receptor and TSPO (previously termed peripheral-type BDZ receptor). Ro5-4864 is a selective agonist at TSPO, whereas clonazepam is a selective agonist at the GABAA receptor. Ro5-4864 suppressed pro-inflammatory MC effector functions in response to antigen (Ag) (degranulation/cytokine production) and LPS and SCF (cytokine production), whereas clonazepam was inactive. Signaling pathway analyses revealed inhibitory effects of Ro5-4864 on Ag-triggered production of reactive oxygen species, calcium mobilization and activation of different downstream kinases. The initial activation of Src family kinases was attenuated by Ro5-4864 offering a molecular explanation for the observed impacts on various downstream signaling elements. In conclusion, BDZs structurally related to Ro5-4864 might serve as multifunctional MC stabilizers without the sedative effect of GABAA receptor-interacting BDZs. PMID:23425659

  11. A Phytophthora sojae effector PsCRN63 forms homo-/hetero-dimers to suppress plant immunity via an inverted association manner

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qi; Zhang, Meixiang; Shen, Danyu; Liu, Tingli; Chen, Yanyu; Zhou, Jian-Min; Dou, Daolong

    2016-01-01

    Oomycete pathogens produce a large number of effectors to promote infection. Their mode of action are largely unknown. Here we show that a Phytophthora sojae effector, PsCRN63, suppresses flg22-induced expression of FRK1 gene, a molecular marker in pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI). However, PsCRN63 does not suppress upstream signaling events including flg22-induced MAPK activation and BIK1 phosphorylation, indicating that it acts downstream of MAPK cascades. The PsCRN63-transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed increased susceptibility to bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato (Pst) DC3000 and oomycete pathogen Phytophthora capsici. The callose deposition were suppressed in PsCRN63-transgenic plants compared with the wild-type control plants. Genes involved in PTI were also down-regulated in PsCRN63-transgenic plants. Interestingly, we found that PsCRN63 forms an dimer that is mediated by inter-molecular interactions between N-terminal and C-terminal domains in an inverted association manner. Furthermore, the N-terminal and C-terminal domains required for the dimerization are widely conserved among CRN effectors, suggesting that homo-/hetero-dimerization of Phytophthora CRN effectors is required to exert biological functions. Indeed, the dimerization was required for PTI suppression and cell death-induction activities of PsCRN63. PMID:27243217

  12. Analysis of Putative Apoplastic Effectors from the Nematode, Globodera rostochiensis, and Identification of an Expansin-Like Protein That Can Induce and Suppress Host Defenses

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Shawkat; Magne, Maxime; Chen, Shiyan; Côté, Olivier; Stare, Barbara Gerič; Obradovic, Natasa; Jamshaid, Lubna; Wang, Xiaohong; Bélair, Guy; Moffett, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The potato cyst nematode, Globodera rostochiensis, is an important pest of potato. Like other pathogens, plant parasitic nematodes are presumed to employ effector proteins, secreted into the apoplast as well as the host cytoplasm, to alter plant cellular functions and successfully infect their hosts. We have generated a library of ORFs encoding putative G. rostochiensis putative apoplastic effectors in vectors for expression in planta. These clones were assessed for morphological and developmental effects on plants as well as their ability to induce or suppress plant defenses. Several CLAVATA3/ESR-like proteins induced developmental phenotypes, whereas predicted cell wall-modifying proteins induced necrosis and chlorosis, consistent with roles in cell fate alteration and tissue invasion, respectively. When directed to the apoplast with a signal peptide, two effectors, an ubiquitin extension protein (GrUBCEP12) and an expansin-like protein (GrEXPB2), suppressed defense responses including NB-LRR signaling induced in the cytoplasm. GrEXPB2 also elicited defense response in species- and sequence-specific manner. Our results are consistent with the scenario whereby potato cyst nematodes secrete effectors that modulate host cell fate and metabolism as well as modifying host cell walls. Furthermore, we show a novel role for an apoplastic expansin-like protein in suppressing intra-cellular defense responses. PMID:25606855

  13. Analysis of putative apoplastic effectors from the nematode, Globodera rostochiensis, and identification of an expansin-like protein that can induce and suppress host defenses.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shawkat; Magne, Maxime; Chen, Shiyan; Côté, Olivier; Stare, Barbara Gerič; Obradovic, Natasa; Jamshaid, Lubna; Wang, Xiaohong; Bélair, Guy; Moffett, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The potato cyst nematode, Globodera rostochiensis, is an important pest of potato. Like other pathogens, plant parasitic nematodes are presumed to employ effector proteins, secreted into the apoplast as well as the host cytoplasm, to alter plant cellular functions and successfully infect their hosts. We have generated a library of ORFs encoding putative G. rostochiensis putative apoplastic effectors in vectors for expression in planta. These clones were assessed for morphological and developmental effects on plants as well as their ability to induce or suppress plant defenses. Several CLAVATA3/ESR-like proteins induced developmental phenotypes, whereas predicted cell wall-modifying proteins induced necrosis and chlorosis, consistent with roles in cell fate alteration and tissue invasion, respectively. When directed to the apoplast with a signal peptide, two effectors, an ubiquitin extension protein (GrUBCEP12) and an expansin-like protein (GrEXPB2), suppressed defense responses including NB-LRR signaling induced in the cytoplasm. GrEXPB2 also elicited defense response in species- and sequence-specific manner. Our results are consistent with the scenario whereby potato cyst nematodes secrete effectors that modulate host cell fate and metabolism as well as modifying host cell walls. Furthermore, we show a novel role for an apoplastic expansin-like protein in suppressing intra-cellular defense responses.

  14. Pseudomonas Type III effector AvrPto suppresses the programmed cell death induced by two nonhost pathogens in Nicotiana benthamiana and tomato.

    PubMed

    Kang, Li; Tang, Xiaoyan; Mysore, Kirankumar S

    2004-12-01

    Many gram-negative bacterial pathogens rely on a type III secretion system to deliver a number of effector proteins into the host cell. Though a number of these effectors have been shown to contribute to bacterial pathogenicity, their functions remain elusive. Here we report that AvrPto, an effector known for its ability to interact with Pto and induce Pto-mediated disease resistance, inhibited the hypersensitive response (HR) induced by nonhost pathogen interactions. Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato T1 causes an HR-like cell death on Nicotiana benthamiana. This rapid cell death was delayed significantly in plants inoculated with P. syringae pv. tomato expressing avrPto. In addition, P. syringae pv. tabaci expressing avrPto suppressed nonhost HR on tomato prf3 and ptoS lines. Transient expression of avrPto in both N. benthamiana and tomato prf3 plants also was able to suppress nonhost HR. Interestingly, AvrPto failed to suppress cell death caused by other elicitors and nonhost pathogens. AvrPto also failed to suppress cell death caused by certain gene-for-gene disease resistance interactions. Experiments with avrPto mutants revealed several residues important for the suppression effects. AvrPto mutants G2A, G99V, P146L, and a 12-amino-acid C-terminal deletion mutant partially lost the suppression ability, whereas S94P and 196T enhanced suppression of cell death in N. benthamiana. These results, together with other discoveries, demonstrated that suppression of host-programmed cell death may serve as one of the strategies bacterial pathoens use for successful invasion. PMID:15597738

  15. Broadly Conserved Fungal Effector BEC1019 Suppresses Host Cell Death and Enhances Pathogen Virulence in Powdery Mildew of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Whigham, Ehren; Qi, Shan; Mistry, Divya; Surana, Priyanka; Xu, Ruo; Fuerst, Gregory; Pliego, Clara; Bindschedler, Laurence V; Spanu, Pietro D; Dickerson, Julie A; Innes, Roger W; Nettleton, Dan; Bogdanove, Adam J; Wise, Roger P

    2015-09-01

    The interaction of barley, Hordeum vulgare L., with the powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei is a well-developed model to investigate resistance and susceptibility to obligate biotrophic pathogens. The 130-Mb Blumeria genome encodes approximately 540 predicted effectors that are hypothesized to suppress or induce host processes to promote colonization. Blumeria effector candidate (BEC)1019, a single-copy gene encoding a putative, secreted metalloprotease, is expressed in haustorial feeding structures, and host-induced gene silencing of BEC1019 restricts haustorial development in compatible interactions. Here, we show that Barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing of BEC1019 significantly reduces fungal colonization of barley epidermal cells, demonstrating that BEC1019 plays a central role in virulence. In addition, delivery of BEC1019 to the host cytoplasm via Xanthomonas type III secretion suppresses cultivar nonspecific hypersensitive reaction (HR) induced by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, as well as cultivar-specific HR induced by AvrPphB from Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola. BEC1019 homologs are present in 96 of 241 sequenced fungal genomes, including plant pathogens, human pathogens, and free-living nonpathogens. Comparative analysis revealed variation at several amino acid positions that correlate with fungal lifestyle and several highly conserved, noncorrelated motifs. Site-directed mutagenesis of one of these, ETVIC, compromises the HR-suppressing activity of BEC1019. We postulate that BEC1019 represents an ancient, broadly important fungal protein family, members of which have evolved to function as effectors in plant and animal hosts.

  16. Lactose inhibits regulatory T-cell-mediated suppression of effector T-cell interferon-γ and IL-17 production.

    PubMed

    Paasela, Monika; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Vaarala, Outi; Honkanen, Jarno

    2014-12-14

    Our interest in lactose as an immunomodulatory molecule results from studies showing that lactose binds to galectin-9, which has been shown to have various regulatory functions in the immune system including regulation of T-cell responses. Impaired regulation of T helper (Th)1 and Th17 type immune responses and dysfunction of regulatory T cells (Treg) have been implicated in many human immune-mediated diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effects of lactose on immune regulation using co-cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-derived Treg and effector T cells (Teff) obtained from twenty healthy adults. Treg, i.e. CD4+CD25+CD127-, were isolated from PBMC by immunomagnetic separation. The fraction of CD4+CD127- cells that was depleted of CD25+ cells was used as Teff. Treg and Teff at a ratio 1:5 were activated and the effects of lactose on the secretion of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and IL-17 were analysed using ELISA for protein and quantitative RT-PCR for mRNA. Treg down-regulated the secretion of both IFN-γ (8.8-3.9 ng/ml, n 20, P= 0.003) and IL-17 (0.83-0.64 ng/ml, n 15, P= 0.04) in co-cultures, while in the presence of lactose the levels of secreted IFN-γ and IL-17 remained high and no down-regulation was observed (16.4 v. 3.99 ng/ml, n 20, P< 0.0001, and 0.74 v. 0.64 ng/ml, n 15, P= 0.005, respectively). We showed that lactose inhibits human Treg-mediated suppression of Th1 and Th17 immune responses in vitro.

  17. Suppression of Xo1-Mediated Disease Resistance in Rice by a Truncated, Non-DNA-Binding TAL Effector of Xanthomonas oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Read, Andrew C.; Rinaldi, Fabio C.; Hutin, Mathilde; He, Yong-Qiang; Triplett, Lindsay R.; Bogdanove, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    Delivered into plant cells by type III secretion from pathogenic Xanthomonas species, TAL (transcription activator-like) effectors are nuclear-localized, DNA-binding proteins that directly activate specific host genes. Targets include genes important for disease, genes that confer resistance, and genes inconsequential to the host-pathogen interaction. TAL effector specificity is encoded by polymorphic repeats of 33–35 amino acids that interact one-to-one with nucleotides in the recognition site. Activity depends also on N-terminal sequences important for DNA binding and C-terminal nuclear localization signals (NLS) and an acidic activation domain (AD). Coding sequences missing much of the N- and C-terminal regions due to conserved, in-frame deletions are present and annotated as pseudogenes in sequenced strains of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc) and pv. oryzae (Xoo), which cause bacterial leaf streak and bacterial blight of rice, respectively. Here we provide evidence that these sequences encode proteins we call “truncTALEs,” for “truncated TAL effectors.” We show that truncTALE Tal2h of Xoc strain BLS256, and by correlation truncTALEs in other strains, specifically suppress resistance mediated by the Xo1 locus recently described in the heirloom rice variety Carolina Gold. Xo1-mediated resistance is triggered by different TAL effectors from diverse X. oryzae strains, irrespective of their DNA binding specificity, and does not require the AD. This implies a direct protein-protein rather than protein-DNA interaction. Similarly, truncTALEs exhibit diverse predicted DNA recognition specificities. And, in vitro, Tal2h did not bind any of several potential recognition sites. Further, a single candidate NLS sequence in Tal2h was dispensable for resistance suppression. Many truncTALEs have one 28 aa repeat, a length not observed previously. Tested in an engineered TAL effector, this repeat required a single base pair deletion in the DNA, suggesting that it

  18. Ralstonia solanacearum Type III Effector RipAY Is a Glutathione-Degrading Enzyme That Is Activated by Plant Cytosolic Thioredoxins and Suppresses Plant Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Hatanaka, Tadashi; Nakano, Masahito; Oda, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum uses a large repertoire of type III effector proteins to succeed in infection. To clarify the function of effector proteins in host eukaryote cells, we expressed effectors in yeast cells and identified seven effector proteins that interfere with yeast growth. One of the effector proteins, RipAY, was found to share homology with the ChaC family proteins that function as γ-glutamyl cyclotransferases, which degrade glutathione (GSH), a tripeptide that plays important roles in the plant immune system. RipAY significantly inhibited yeast growth and simultaneously induced rapid GSH depletion when expressed in yeast cells. The in vitro GSH degradation activity of RipAY is specifically activated by eukaryotic factors in the yeast and plant extracts. Biochemical purification of the yeast protein identified that RipAY is activated by thioredoxin TRX2. On the other hand, RipAY was not activated by bacterial thioredoxins. Interestingly, RipAY was activated by plant h-type thioredoxins that exist in large amounts in the plant cytosol, but not by chloroplastic m-, f-, x-, y- and z-type thioredoxins, in a thiol-independent manner. The transient expression of RipAY decreased the GSH level in plant cells and affected the flg22-triggered production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and expression of pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) marker genes in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. These results indicate that RipAY is activated by host cytosolic thioredoxins and degrades GSH specifically in plant cells to suppress plant immunity. PMID:27073091

  19. Foxp3(+) T cells expressing RORγt represent a stable regulatory T-cell effector lineage with enhanced suppressive capacity during intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Yang, B-H; Hagemann, S; Mamareli, P; Lauer, U; Hoffmann, U; Beckstette, M; Föhse, L; Prinz, I; Pezoldt, J; Suerbaum, S; Sparwasser, T; Hamann, A; Floess, S; Huehn, J; Lochner, M

    2016-03-01

    Foxp3 (forkhead box P3 transcription factor)-expressing regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential for immunological tolerance, best illustrated by uncontrolled effector T-cell responses and autoimmunity upon loss of Foxp3 expression. Tregs can adopt specific effector phenotypes upon activation, reflecting the diversity of functional demands in the different tissues of the body. Here, we report that Foxp3(+)CD4(+) T cells coexpressing retinoic acid-related orphan receptor-γt (RORγt), the master transcription factor for T helper type 17 (Th17) cells, represent a stable effector Treg lineage. Transcriptomic and epigenetic profiling revealed that Foxp3(+)RORγt(+) T cells display signatures of both Tregs and Th17 cells, although the degree of similarity was higher to Foxp3(+)RORγt(-) Tregs than to Foxp3(-)RORγt(+) T cells. Importantly, Foxp3(+)RORγt(+) T cells were significantly demethylated at Treg-specific epigenetic signature genes such as Foxp3, Ctla-4, Gitr, Eos, and Helios, suggesting that these cells have a stable regulatory rather than inflammatory function. Indeed, adoptive transfer of Foxp3(+)RORγt(+) T cells in the T-cell transfer colitis model confirmed their Treg function and lineage stability in vivo, and revealed an enhanced suppressive capacity as compared with Foxp3(+)RORγt(-) Tregs. Thus, our data suggest that RORγt expression in Tregs contributes to an optimal suppressive capacity during gut-specific immune responses, rendering Foxp3(+)RORγt(+) T cells as an important effector Treg subset in the intestinal system. PMID:26307665

  20. Broadly Conserved Fungal Effector BEC1019 Suppresses Host Cell Death and Enhances Pathogen Virulence in Powdery Mildew of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Whigham, Ehren; Qi, Shan; Mistry, Divya; Surana, Priyanka; Xu, Ruo; Fuerst, Gregory; Pliego, Clara; Bindschedler, Laurence V; Spanu, Pietro D; Dickerson, Julie A; Innes, Roger W; Nettleton, Dan; Bogdanove, Adam J; Wise, Roger P

    2015-09-01

    The interaction of barley, Hordeum vulgare L., with the powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei is a well-developed model to investigate resistance and susceptibility to obligate biotrophic pathogens. The 130-Mb Blumeria genome encodes approximately 540 predicted effectors that are hypothesized to suppress or induce host processes to promote colonization. Blumeria effector candidate (BEC)1019, a single-copy gene encoding a putative, secreted metalloprotease, is expressed in haustorial feeding structures, and host-induced gene silencing of BEC1019 restricts haustorial development in compatible interactions. Here, we show that Barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing of BEC1019 significantly reduces fungal colonization of barley epidermal cells, demonstrating that BEC1019 plays a central role in virulence. In addition, delivery of BEC1019 to the host cytoplasm via Xanthomonas type III secretion suppresses cultivar nonspecific hypersensitive reaction (HR) induced by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, as well as cultivar-specific HR induced by AvrPphB from Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola. BEC1019 homologs are present in 96 of 241 sequenced fungal genomes, including plant pathogens, human pathogens, and free-living nonpathogens. Comparative analysis revealed variation at several amino acid positions that correlate with fungal lifestyle and several highly conserved, noncorrelated motifs. Site-directed mutagenesis of one of these, ETVIC, compromises the HR-suppressing activity of BEC1019. We postulate that BEC1019 represents an ancient, broadly important fungal protein family, members of which have evolved to function as effectors in plant and animal hosts. PMID:25938194

  1. Analysis of Globodera rostochiensis effectors reveals conserved functions of SPRYSEC proteins in suppressing and eliciting plant immune responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCNs), including Globodera rostochiensis (Woll.), are important pests of potato. Plant parasitic nematodes produce multiple effector proteins, secreted from their stylets, to successfully infect their hosts. These include proteins that are delivered to the apoplast, as well as...

  2. CD4+FOXP3+ Regulatory T Cells Exhibit Impaired Ability to Suppress Effector T Cell Proliferation in Patients with Turner Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Ah; Kim, Hang-Rae; Lee, Jeong Seon; Jung, Hae Woon; Kim, Hwa Young; Lee, Gyung Min; Lee, Jieun; Sim, Ji Hyun; Oh, Sae Jin; Chung, Doo Hyun; Shin, Choong Ho; Yang, Sei Won

    2015-01-01

    Objective We investigated whether the frequency, phenotype, and suppressive function of CD4+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are altered in young TS patients with the 45,X karyotype compared to age-matched controls. Design and Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from young TS patients (n = 24, 17.4–35.9 years) and healthy controls (n = 16) were stained with various Treg markers to characterize their phenotypes. Based on the presence of thyroid autoimmunity, patients were categorized into TS (–) (n = 7) and TS (+) (n = 17). Tregs sorted for CD4+CD25bright were co-cultured with autologous CD4+CD25− target cells in the presence of anti-CD3 and -CD28 antibodies to assess their suppressive function. Results Despite a lower frequency of CD4+ T cells in the TS (-) and TS (+) patients (mean 30.8% and 31.7%, vs. 41.2%; P = 0.003 and P < 0.001, respectively), both groups exhibited a higher frequency of FOXP3+ Tregs among CD4+ T cells compared with controls (means 1.99% and 2.05%, vs. 1.33%; P = 0.029 and P = 0.004, respectively). There were no differences in the expression of CTLA-4 and the frequency of Tregs expressing CXCR3+, and CCR4+CCR6+ among the three groups. However, the ability of Tregs to suppress the in vitro proliferation of autologous CD4+CD25− T cells was significantly impaired in the TS (–) and TS (+) patients compared to controls (P = 0.003 and P = 0.041). Meanwhile, both the TS (–) and TS (+) groups had lower frequencies of naïve cells (P = 0.001 for both) but higher frequencies of effector memory cells (P = 0.004 and P = 0.002) than did the healthy control group. Conclusions The Tregs of the TS patients could not efficiently suppress the proliferation of autologous effector T cells, despite their increased frequency in peripheral CD4+ T cells. PMID:26709833

  3. A genetic screen to isolate type III effectors translocated into pepper cells during Xanthomonas infection

    SciTech Connect

    Julie Anne Roden, Branids Belt, Jason Barzel Ross, Thomas Tachibana, Joe Vargas, Mary Beth Mudgett

    2004-11-23

    The bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) uses a type III secretion system (TTSS) to translocate effector proteins into host plant cells. The TTSS is required for Xcv colonization, yet the identity of many proteins translocated through this apparatus is not known. We used a genetic screen to functionally identify Xcv TTSS effectors. A transposon 5 (Tn5)-based transposon construct including the coding sequence for the Xcv AvrBs2 effector devoid of its TTSS signal was randomly inserted into the Xcv genome. Insertion of the avrBs2 reporter gene into Xcv genes coding for proteins containing a functional TTSS signal peptide resulted in the creation of chimeric TTSS effector::AvrBs2 fusion proteins. Xcv strains containing these fusions translocated the AvrBs2 reporter in a TTSS-dependent manner into resistant BS2 pepper cells during infection, activating the avrBs2-dependent hypersensitive response (HR). We isolated seven chimeric fusion proteins and designated the identified TTSS effectors as Xanthomonas outer proteins (Xops). Translocation of each Xop was confirmed by using the calmodulin-dependent adenylate cydase reporter assay. Three xop genes are Xanthomonas spp.-specific, whereas homologs for the rest are found in other phytopathogenic bacteria. XopF1 and XopF2 define an effector gene family in Xcv. XopN contains a eukaryotic protein fold repeat and is required for full Xcv pathogenicity in pepper and tomato. The translocated effectors identified in this work expand our knowledge of the diversity of proteins that Xcv uses to manipulate its hosts.

  4. Pseudomonas syringae type III effector HopAF1 suppresses plant immunity by targeting methionine recycling to block ethylene induction

    PubMed Central

    Washington, Erica J.; Mukhtar, M. Shahid; Finkel, Omri M.; Wan, Li; Kieber, Joseph J.; Dangl, Jeffery L.

    2016-01-01

    HopAF1 is a type III effector protein of unknown function encoded in the genomes of several strains of Pseudomonas syringae and other plant pathogens. Structural modeling predicted that HopAF1 is closely related to deamidase proteins. Deamidation is the irreversible substitution of an amide group with a carboxylate group. Several bacterial virulence factors are deamidases that manipulate the activity of specific host protein substrates. We identified Arabidopsis methylthioadenosine nucleosidase proteins MTN1 and MTN2 as putative targets of HopAF1 deamidation. MTNs are enzymes in the Yang cycle, which is essential for the high levels of ethylene biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. We hypothesized that HopAF1 inhibits the host defense response by manipulating MTN activity and consequently ethylene levels. We determined that bacterially delivered HopAF1 inhibits ethylene biosynthesis induced by pathogen-associated molecular patterns and that Arabidopsis mtn1 mtn2 mutant plants phenocopy the effect of HopAF1. Furthermore, we identified two conserved asparagines in MTN1 and MTN2 from Arabidopsis that confer loss of function phenotypes when deamidated via site-specific mutation. These residues are potential targets of HopAF1 deamidation. HopAF1-mediated manipulation of Yang cycle MTN proteins is likely an evolutionarily conserved mechanism whereby HopAF1 orthologs from multiple plant pathogens contribute to disease in a large variety of plant hosts. PMID:27274076

  5. TLR2 ligation protects effector T cells from regulatory T-cell mediated suppression and repolarizes T helper responses following MVA-based cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Amiset, Laurent; Fend, Laetitia; Gatard-Scheikl, Tania; Rittner, Karola; Duong, Vanessa; Rooke, Ronald; Muller, Sylviane; Bonnefoy, Jean-Yves; Préville, Xavier; Haegel, Hélène

    2012-11-01

    Cancer immunotherapy is hampered by the immunosuppression maintained by regulatory T cells (Tregs) in tumor-bearing hosts. Stimulation of the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) by Pam3Cys is known to affect Treg-mediated suppression. We found that Pam3Cys increases the proliferation of both CD4(+) effector T cells (Teffs) and Tregs co-cultured in vitro, but did not induce the proliferation of Tregs alone upon CD3 and CD28 stimulation. In a mouse model of RMA-MUC1 tumors, Pam3Cys was administered either alone or in combination with a modified vaccinia ankara (MVA)-based mucin 1 (MUC1) therapeutic vaccine. The combination of Pam3Cys with MVA-MUC1 (1) diminished splenic Treg/CD4(+) T-cell ratios to those found in tumor-free mice, (2) stimulated a specific anti-MUC1 interferon γ (IFNγ) response and (3) had a significant therapeutic effect on tumor growth and mouse survival. When CD4(+) Teffs and Tregs were isolated from Pam3Cys-treated mice, Teffs had become resistant to Treg-mediated suppression while upregulating the expression of BclL-x(L). Tregs from Pam3Cys-treated mice were fully suppressive for Teffs from naïve mice. Bcl-x(L) was induced by Pam3Cys with different kinetics in Tregs and Teffs. Teff from Pam3Cys-treated mice produced increased levels of Th1 and Th2-type cytokines and an interleukin (IL)-6-dependent secretion of IL-17 was observed in Teff:Treg co-cultures, suggesting that TLR2 stimulation had skewed the immune response toward a Th17 profile. Our results show for the first time that in a tumor-bearing host, TLR2 stimulation with Pam3Cys affects both Tregs and Teffs, protects Teff from Treg-mediated suppression and has strong therapeutic effects when combined with an MVA-based antitumor vaccine. PMID:23243590

  6. TLR2 ligation protects effector T cells from regulatory T-cell mediated suppression and repolarizes T helper responses following MVA-based cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Amiset, Laurent; Fend, Laetitia; Gatard-Scheikl, Tania; Rittner, Karola; Duong, Vanessa; Rooke, Ronald; Muller, Sylviane; Bonnefoy, Jean-Yves; Préville, Xavier; Haegel, Hélène

    2012-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy is hampered by the immunosuppression maintained by regulatory T cells (Tregs) in tumor-bearing hosts. Stimulation of the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) by Pam3Cys is known to affect Treg-mediated suppression. We found that Pam3Cys increases the proliferation of both CD4+ effector T cells (Teffs) and Tregs co-cultured in vitro, but did not induce the proliferation of Tregs alone upon CD3 and CD28 stimulation. In a mouse model of RMA-MUC1 tumors, Pam3Cys was administered either alone or in combination with a modified vaccinia ankara (MVA)-based mucin 1 (MUC1) therapeutic vaccine. The combination of Pam3Cys with MVA-MUC1 (1) diminished splenic Treg/CD4+ T-cell ratios to those found in tumor-free mice, (2) stimulated a specific anti-MUC1 interferon γ (IFNγ) response and (3) had a significant therapeutic effect on tumor growth and mouse survival. When CD4+ Teffs and Tregs were isolated from Pam3Cys-treated mice, Teffs had become resistant to Treg-mediated suppression while upregulating the expression of BclL-xL. Tregs from Pam3Cys-treated mice were fully suppressive for Teffs from naïve mice. Bcl-xL was induced by Pam3Cys with different kinetics in Tregs and Teffs. Teff from Pam3Cys-treated mice produced increased levels of Th1 and Th2-type cytokines and an interleukin (IL)-6-dependent secretion of IL-17 was observed in Teff:Treg co-cultures, suggesting that TLR2 stimulation had skewed the immune response toward a Th17 profile. Our results show for the first time that in a tumor-bearing host, TLR2 stimulation with Pam3Cys affects both Tregs and Teffs, protects Teff from Treg-mediated suppression and has strong therapeutic effects when combined with an MVA-based antitumor vaccine. PMID:23243590

  7. Silymarin inhibits ultraviolet radiation-induced immune suppression through DNA repair-dependent activation of dendritic cells and stimulation of effector T cells.

    PubMed

    Vaid, Mudit; Prasad, Ram; Singh, Tripti; Elmets, Craig A; Xu, Hui; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2013-04-15

    Silymarin inhibits UVB-induced immunosuppression in mouse skin. To identify the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect, we used an adoptive transfer approach in which dendritic cells (DCs) from the draining lymph nodes of donor mice that had been UVB-exposed and sensitized to 2,4,-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) were transferred into naïve recipient mice. The contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response of the recipient mice to DNFB was then measured. When DCs were obtained from UVB-exposed donor mice that were not treated with silymarin, the CHS response was suppressed confirming the role of DCs in the UVB-induced immunosuppression. Silymarin treatment of UVB-exposed donor mice relieved this suppression of the CHS response in the recipients. Silymarin treatment was associated with rapid repair of UVB-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) in DCs and silymarin treatment did not prevent UV-induced immunosuppression in XPA-deficient mice which are unable to repair UV-induced DNA damage. The CHS response in mice receiving DCs from silymarin-treated UV-exposed donor mice also was associated with enhanced secretion of Th1-type cytokines and stimulation of T cells. Adoptive transfer of T cells revealed that transfer of either CD8(+) or CD4(+) cells from silymarin-treated, UVB-exposed donors resulted in enhancement of the CHS response. Cell culture study showed enhanced secretion of IL-2 and IFNγ by CD8(+) T cells, and reduced secretion of Th2 cytokines by CD4(+) T cells, obtained from silymarin-treated UVB-exposed mice. These data suggest that DNA repair-dependent functional activation of DCs, a reduction in CD4(+) regulatory T-cell activity, and stimulation of CD8(+) effector T cells contribute to silymarin-mediated inhibition of UVB-induced immunosuppression. PMID:23395695

  8. A novel SIV gag-specific CD4(+)T-cell clone suppresses SIVmac239 replication in CD4(+)T cells revealing the interplay between antiviral effector cells and their infected targets.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Victor I; Trivett, Matthew T; Coren, Lori V; Jain, Sumiti; Bohn, Patrick S; Wiseman, Roger W; O'Connor, David H; Ohlen, Claes; Ott, David E

    2016-06-01

    To study CD4(+)T-cell suppression of AIDS virus replication, we isolated nine rhesus macaque SIVGag-specific CD4(+)T-cell clones. One responding clone, Gag68, produced a typical cytotoxic CD8(+)T-cell response: induction of intracellular IFN-γ, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and CD107a degranulation. Gag68 effectively suppressed the spread of SIVmac239 in CD4(+)T cells with a corresponding reduction of infected Gag68 effector cells, suggesting that CD4(+)effectors need to suppress their own infection in addition to their targets to be effective. Gag68 TCR cloning and gene transfer into CD4(+)T cells enabled additional experiments with this unique specificity after the original clone senesced. Our data supports the idea that CD4(+)T cells can directly limit AIDS virus spread in T cells. Furthermore, Gag68 TCR transfer into CD4(+)T-cell clones with differing properties holds promise to better understand the suppressive effector mechanisms used by this important component of the antiviral response using the rhesus macaque model.

  9. The Xanthomonas campestris Type III Effector XopJ Targets the Host Cell Proteasome to Suppress Salicylic-Acid Mediated Plant Defence

    PubMed Central

    Börnke, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    The phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) requires type III effector proteins (T3Es) for virulence. After translocation into the host cell, T3Es are thought to interact with components of host immunity to suppress defence responses. XopJ is a T3E protein from Xcv that interferes with plant immune responses; however, its host cellular target is unknown. Here we show that XopJ interacts with the proteasomal subunit RPT6 in yeast and in planta to inhibit proteasome activity. A C235A mutation within the catalytic triad of XopJ as well as a G2A exchange within the N-terminal myristoylation motif abolishes the ability of XopJ to inhibit the proteasome. Xcv ΔxopJ mutants are impaired in growth and display accelerated symptom development including tissue necrosis on susceptible pepper leaves. Application of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 restored the ability of the Xcv ΔxopJ to attenuate the development of leaf necrosis. The XopJ dependent delay of tissue degeneration correlates with reduced levels of salicylic acid (SA) and changes in defence- and senescence-associated gene expression. Necrosis upon infection with Xcv ΔxopJ was greatly reduced in pepper plants with reduced expression of NPR1, a central regulator of SA responses, demonstrating the involvement of SA-signalling in the development of XopJ dependent phenotypes. Our results suggest that XopJ-mediated inhibition of the proteasome interferes with SA-dependent defence response to attenuate onset of necrosis and to alter host transcription. A central role of the proteasome in plant defence is discussed. PMID:23785289

  10. Broadly conserved fungal effector BEC1019 suppresses host cell death and enhances pathogen virulence in powdery mildew of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The interaction of barley, Hordeum vulgare L., with the biotrophic powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, is an ideal model to address fundamental questions in host resistance and susceptibility. Effector proteins secreted by B. graminis act to inhibit, induce, or accelerate host pr...

  11. Phenotypic analysis of apoplastic effectors from the phytopathogenic nematode, Globodera rostochiensis demonstrates that an expansin can induce and suppress host defenses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis (Woll.) is an important pest of potato. Like other biotrophic pathogens, plant parasitic nematodes are presumed to employ effector proteins, secreted into the apoplast as well as the host cytoplasm to successfully infect their hosts. We have identifie...

  12. Myeloid Dendritic Cells (DCs) of Mice Susceptible to Paracoccidioidomycosis Suppress T Cell Responses whereas Myeloid and Plasmacytoid DCs from Resistant Mice Induce Effector and Regulatory T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pina, Adriana; Frank de Araujo, Eliseu; Felonato, Maíra; Loures, Flávio V.; Feriotti, Claudia; Bernardino, Simone; Barbuto, José Alexandre M.

    2013-01-01

    The protective adaptive immune response in paracoccidioidomycosis, a mycosis endemic among humans, is mediated by T cell immunity, whereas impaired T cell responses are associated with severe, progressive disease. The early host response to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection is not known since the disease is diagnosed at later phases of infection. Our laboratory established a murine model of infection where susceptible mice reproduce the severe disease, while resistant mice develop a mild infection. This work aimed to characterize the influence of dendritic cells in the innate and adaptive immunity of susceptible and resistant mice. We verified that P. brasiliensis infection induced in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) of susceptible mice a prevalent proinflammatory myeloid phenotype that secreted high levels of interleukin-12 (IL-12), tumor necrosis factor alpha, and IL-β, whereas in resistant mice, a mixed population of myeloid and plasmacytoid DCs secreting proinflammatory cytokines and expressing elevated levels of secreted and membrane-bound transforming growth factor β was observed. In proliferation assays, the proinflammatory DCs from B10.A mice induced anergy of naïve T cells, whereas the mixed DC subsets from resistant mice induced the concomitant proliferation of effector and regulatory T cells (Tregs). Equivalent results were observed during pulmonary infection. The susceptible mice displayed preferential expansion of proinflammatory myeloid DCs, resulting in impaired proliferation of effector T cells. Conversely, the resistant mice developed myeloid and plasmacytoid DCs that efficiently expanded gamma interferon-, IL-4-, and IL-17-positive effector T cells associated with increased development of Tregs. Our work highlights the deleterious effect of excessive innate proinflammatory reactions and provides new evidence for the importance of immunomodulation during pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis. PMID:23340311

  13. The cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor (R)-roscovitine mediates selective suppression of alloreactive human T cells but preserves pathogen-specific and leukemia-specific effectors

    PubMed Central

    Nellore, Anoma; Liu, Bianling; Patsoukis, Nikolaos; Boussiotis, Vassiliki A.; Li, Lequn

    2014-01-01

    Graft versus host disease (GvHD), mediated by donor T cells, remains the primary cause of non-relapse mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and novel therapeutic approaches are required. Cdk2 is a critical node of signal integration and programming of T cell responses towards immunity versus anergy but is dispensable for hematopoiesis and thymocyte development. We examined the effects of pharmacologic Cdk2 inhibition on alloreactive human T cells. Inhibition of Cdk2 blocked expansion of alloreactive T cells upon culture with HLA-mismatched dendritic cells and prevented generation of IFN-γ-producing alloantigen-specific effectors. In contrast, Cdk2 inhibition preserved effectors specific for Wilms’ tumor 1 (WT1) leukemia antigen and for CMV as determined by WT1-specific and CMV-specific pentamers. Cdk2 inhibition preserved Treg cells, which have the ability to prevent GvHD while maintaining GvL. Thus, Cdk inhibitors may improve allogeneic HSCT by reducing alloreactivity and GvHD without loss of pathogen-specific and leukemia-specific immunity. PMID:24631965

  14. The cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor (R)-roscovitine mediates selective suppression of alloreactive human T cells but preserves pathogen-specific and leukemia-specific effectors.

    PubMed

    Nellore, Anoma; Liu, Bianling; Patsoukis, Nikolaos; Boussiotis, Vassiliki A; Li, Lequn

    2014-01-01

    Graft versus host disease (GvHD), mediated by donor T cells, remains the primary cause of non-relapse mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and novel therapeutic approaches are required. Cdk2 is a critical node of signal integration and programming of T cell responses towards immunity versus anergy but is dispensable for hematopoiesis and thymocyte development. We examined the effects of pharmacologic Cdk2 inhibition on alloreactive human T cells. Inhibition of Cdk2 blocked expansion of alloreactive T cells upon culture with HLA-mismatched dendritic cells and prevented generation of IFN-γ-producing alloantigen-specific effectors. In contrast, Cdk2 inhibition preserved effectors specific for Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) leukemia antigen and for CMV as determined by WT1-specific and CMV-specific pentamers. Cdk2 inhibition preserved Treg cells, which have the ability to prevent GvHD while maintaining GvL. Thus, Cdk inhibitors may improve allogeneic HSCT by reducing alloreactivity and GvHD without loss of pathogen-specific and leukemia-specific immunity. PMID:24631965

  15. AvrXa7-Xa7 mediated defense in rice can be suppressed by transcriptional activator-like effectors TAL6 and TAL11a from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhi-Yuan; Xiong, Li; Zou, Li-Fang; Li, Yu-Rong; Ma, Wen-Xiu; Liu, Liang; Zakria, Muhammad; Ji, Guang-Hai; Chen, Gong-You

    2014-09-01

    The closely related plant pathogens Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola and X. oryzae pv. oryzae cause bacterial leaf streak (BLS) and bacterial leaf blight (BLB), respectively, in rice. Unlike X. oryzae pv. oryzae, endogenous avirulence-resistance (avr-R) gene interactions have not been identified in the X. oryzae pv. oryzicola-rice pathosystem, though both X. oryzae pv. oryzicola and X. oryzae pv. oryzae possess transcriptional activator-like effectors (TALE), which are known to modulate R or S genes in rice. In this report, avrXa7, avrXa10, and avrXa27 from X. oryzae pv. oryzae were transferred into YNB0-17 and RS105, hypovirulent and hypervirulent strains, respectively, of X. oryzae pv. oryzicola. When YNB0-17 containing avrXa7, avrXa10, or avrXa27 was inoculated to rice, hypersensitive responses (HR) were elicited in rice cultivars containing the R genes Xa7, Xa10, and Xa27, respectively. By contrast, RS105 expressing avrXa27 elicited an HR in a rice cultivar containing Xa27 but the expression of avrXa7 and avrXa10 in RS105 did not result in HR in rice cultivars containing Xa7 and Xa10, correspondingly. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that YNB0-17 possesses only approximately nine putative tale genes, whereas the hypervirulent RS105 contains at least 20. Although YNB0-17 contains an intact type III secretion system (T3SS), its genome is lacking the T3SS effector genes avrRxo1 and xopO, which are present in RS105. The introduction of avrRxo1 and xopO into YNB0-17 did not suppress avrXa7- or avrXa10-triggered immunity in rice. However, the transference of individual tale genes from RS105 into YNB0-17 led to the identification of tal6 and tal11a that suppressed avrXa7-Xa7-mediated defense. Thus, YNB0-17 may be a useful recipient for discovering such suppressors. This is the first report that co-evolutionally generated tale genes in X. oryzae pv. oryzicola suppress gene-for-gene defense against BLB, which may explain the lack of BLS-resistant cultivars. PMID

  16. Mechanism of effector-cell blockade. I. Antigen-induced suppression of Ig synthesis in a hybridoma cell line, and correlation with cell- associated antigen

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    A mouse hybridoma cell line, FluIgM-1, which secretes IgM specific for the hapten fluorescein (FLU) was developed to allow detailed analysis of the effector-cell blockade (ECB) phenomenon, in which contact of antibody-forming cells (AFC) with specific antigen results in marked reduction of antibody secretion. Treatment of hybridoma cells with highly substituted FLU conjugates (e.g., Flu20gelatin) resulted in inhibition of plaque formation. The data indicated close parallels with the ECB of normal spleen AFC, both in speed of onset and the dose of antigen required. The inhibition of antibody secretion was confirmed with a biosynthetic-labeling procedure which demonstrated that this was a result of reduced Ig synthesis. The inhibitory effect appeared to be confined to antibody synthesis, in the total protein synthesis, DNA synthesis, and cell-doubling times were unaffected. The association of FLU conjugates with the cells during and following ECB was studied directly using fluorescence microscopy and the fluorescence-activated cell sorter. These experiments showed that FLU conjugates capable of causing blockade aggregated on the cell surface, that the clearance of cell-associated antigen correlated with recovery from ECB, and that at all times when cell associated antigen was detectable, a portion remained bound to the cell surface and was susceptible to enzymatic removal. The latter observations supported previous findings suggesting that ECB was mediated by extracellular antigen. The direct observation of aggregates of antigen on the surface of blockaded cells is consistent with a mechanism involving cross-linking of Ig receptors. Finally, Fc receptors were not present on hybridoma cells, excluding their involvement in induction of ECB. PMID:7381364

  17. Suppression of CD4+ Effector Responses by Naturally Occurring CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells Contributes to Experimental Cerebral Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, Anne-Laurence; Keswani, Tarun; Gorgette, Olivier; Bandeira, Antonio; Malissen, Bernard; Cazenave, Pierre-André

    2015-01-01

    The role of naturally occurring CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (nTreg) in the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria (CM), which involves both pathogenic T cell responses and parasite sequestration in the brain, is still unclear. To assess the contribution and dynamics of nTreg during the neuropathogenesis, we unbalanced the ratio between nTreg and naive CD4+ T cells in an attenuated model of Plasmodium berghei ANKA-induced experimental CM (ECM) by using a selective cell enrichment strategy. We found that nTreg adoptive transfer accelerated the onset and increased the severity of CM in syngeneic C57BL/6 (B6) P. berghei ANKA-infected mice without affecting the level of parasitemia. In contrast, naive CD4+ T cell enrichment prevented CM and promoted parasite clearance. Furthermore, early during the infection nTreg expanded in the spleen but did not efficiently migrate to the site of neuroinflammation, suggesting that nTreg exert their pathogenic action early in the spleen by suppressing the protective naive CD4+ T cell response to P. berghei ANKA infection in vivo in both CM-susceptible (B6) and CM-resistant (B6-CD4−/−) mice. However, their sole transfer was not sufficient to restore CM susceptibility in two CM-resistant congenic strains tested. Altogether, these results demonstrate that nTreg are activated and functional during P. berghei ANKA infection and that they contribute to the pathogenesis of CM. They further suggest that nTreg may represent an early target for the modulation of the immune response to malaria. PMID:26553468

  18. Roadmap for future research on plant pathogen effectors

    PubMed Central

    Alfano, James R.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Bacterial and eukaryotic plant pathogens deliver effector proteins into plant cells to promote pathogenesis. Bacterial pathogens containing type III protein secretion systems are known to inject many of these effectors into plant cells. More recently, oomycete pathogens have been shown to possess a large family of effectors containing the RXLR motif, and many effectors are also being discovered in fungal pathogens. Although effector activities are largely unknown, at least a subset suppress plant immunity. A plethora of new plant pathogen genomes that will soon be available thanks to next-generation sequencing technologies will allow the identification of many more effectors. This article summarizes the key approaches used to identify plant pathogen effectors, many of which will continue to be useful for future effector discovery. Thus, it can be viewed as a ‘roadmap’ for effector and effector target identification. Because effectors can be used as tools to elucidate components of innate immunity, advances in our understanding of effectors and their targets should lead to improvements in agriculture. PMID:19849786

  19. Functional Analysis of Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis RXLR Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Pel, Michiel J. C.; Wintermans, Paul C. A.; Cabral, Adriana; Robroek, Bjorn J. M.; Seidl, Michael F.; Bautor, Jaqueline; Parker, Jane E.; Van den Ackerveken, Guido; Pieterse, Corné M. J.

    2014-01-01

    The biotrophic plant pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis produces a set of putative effector proteins that contain the conserved RXLR motif. For most of these RXLR proteins the role during infection is unknown. Thirteen RXLR proteins from H. arabidopsidis strain Waco9 were analyzed for sequence similarities and tested for a role in virulence. The thirteen RXLR proteins displayed conserved N-termini and this N-terminal conservation was also found in the 134 predicted RXLR genes from the genome of H. arabidopsidis strain Emoy2. To investigate the effects of single RXLR effector proteins on plant defense responses, thirteen H. arabidopsidis Waco9 RXLR genes were expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana. Subsequently, these plants were screened for altered susceptibility to the oomycetes H. arabidopsidis and Phytophthora capsici, and the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Additionally, the effect of the RXLR proteins on flg22-triggered basal immune responses was assessed. Multifactorial analysis of results collated from all experiments revealed that, except for RXLR20, all RXLR effector proteins tested affected plant immunity. For RXLR9 this was confirmed using a P. syringae ΔCEL-mediated effector delivery system. Together, the results show that many H. arabidopsidis RXLR effectors have small effects on the plant immune response, suggesting that suppression of host immunity by this biotrophic pathogen is likely to be caused by the combined actions of effectors. PMID:25375163

  20. End-effector microprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, William R.

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include: automated structures assembly facility current control hierarchy; automated structures assembly facility purposed control hierarchy; end-effector software state transition diagram; block diagram for ideal install composite; and conclusions.

  1. Advanced Aerodynamic Control Effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    1999-01-01

    A 1990 research program that focused on the development of advanced aerodynamic control effectors (AACE) for military aircraft has been reviewed and summarized. Data are presented for advanced planform, flow control, and surface contouring technologies. The data show significant increases in lift, reductions in drag, and increased control power, compared to typical aerodynamic designs. The results presented also highlighted the importance of planform selection in the design of a control effector suite. Planform data showed that dramatic increases in lift (greater than 25%) can be achieved with multiple wings and a sawtooth forebody. Passive porosity and micro drag generator control effector data showed control power levels exceeding that available from typical effectors (moving surfaces). Application of an advanced planform to a tailless concept showed benefits of similar magnitude as those observed in the generic studies.

  2. Catch me if you can: bacterial effectors and plant targets.

    PubMed

    Deslandes, Laurent; Rivas, Susana

    2012-11-01

    To suppress plant defense responses and favor the establishment of disease, phytopathogenic bacteria have gained the ability to deliver effector molecules inside host cells through the type III secretion system. Inside plant cells, bacterial effector proteins may be addressed to different subcellular compartments where they are able to manipulate a variety of host cellular components and molecular functions. Here we review how the recent identification and functional characterization of plant components targeted by bacterial effectors, as well as the discovery of new pathogen recognition capabilities evolved in turn by plant cells, have significantly contributed to further our knowledge about the intricate molecular interactions that are established between plants and their invading bacteria.

  3. EFFECTOR CELL BLOCKADE

    PubMed Central

    Schrader, John W.; Nossal, G. J. V.

    1974-01-01

    This study describes the effects of incubating antibody-forming cells (AFC), either as mass cell suspensions, or as single AFC in microdroplets, with antigens against which the cells display specificity. Most of the work was done with hapten-specific anti-DNP-AFC, but AFC with specificity against flagellar antigens or fowl gamma globulin (FGG) were also included. It was noted that 30-min incubation of AFC with highly multivalent forms of antigen caused a substantial partial suppression of the antibody-forming performance of the AFC as measured by a hemolytic plaque test. Thus, when cell suspensions containing anti-DNP plaque-forming cells (PFC), were incubated for 30 min at 37°C with 100 µg of DNP-polymerized flagellin (DNP-POL), the number of plaques appearing after washing of the cells and placing them in plaque-revealing erythrocyte monolayers was reduced to 50% or less compared with the number of plaques observed with control portions preincubated with medium alone. Preincubation with DNP-lysine, with oligovalent DNP-protein conjugates, or with irrelevant antigens produced no such inhibition. Studies where preinhibited PFC suspensions were mixed with control suspensions before assay showed that a nonspecific carryover of antigen into the assay system was not involved. The inhibitory effect could also be initiated by holding cells at 0°C with DNP-POL, but in that case, inhibition only became manifest after cells were incubated for 30 min at 37°C before being placed in plaque-revealing monolayers. This suggested that inhibition was initiated by adsorption of multivalent antigen onto PFC-surface Ig, but required some active process before secretion actually slowed down. The effect was dose- and time-dependent, antigen-specific, and generalized for all antigens studied. As well as yielding reduced plaque numbers, the preinhibited cells also gave smaller, more turbid plaques, suggesting a reduction in antibody-forming rate by each PFC rather than the elimination

  4. End effectors and grapple fixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandersluis, Ron; Quittner, Erik

    1992-01-01

    An end effector has been developed for use with a space station remote manipulator system where capture and release capabilities are required, and which will provide for the transfer of substantial loads together with electrical power and signals across the end effector grapple fixture interface. The end effector has a latching mechanism for the transfer of substantial loads across the end effector grapple fixture interface. The functions associated with known nonlatching end effectors, namely their snaring and rigidizing capabilities, are maintained and can be operated independently of the new latching mechanisms and umbilical connectors of the end effector. The end effector is capable of functioning equally as a wrist (manipulator) and shoulder (arm base) unit. Applications of the new end effector include space station assembly, payload handling, capture of free-flyers, payload servicing, and providing stable bases for extravehicular activity work stations or robotic devices.

  5. Robotic end effector

    DOEpatents

    Minichan, R.L.

    1993-10-05

    An end effector is described for use in probing a surface with a robotic arm. The end effector has a first portion that carries a gimbal with a probe, the gimbal holding the probe normal to the surface, and a second portion with a set of three shafts within a housing for urging the gimbal and probe against the surface. The second portion contains a potentiometer connected by another shaft to the first portion to measure the position of the first portion with respect to the second so that the second portion can be moved to place and maintain the shafts at the midpoint of their travel. Then, as irregularities in the surface are encountered, the first portion can respond by moving closer to or farther from the second portion. 7 figures.

  6. Robotic end effector

    DOEpatents

    Minichan, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    An end effector for use in probing a surface with a robotic arm. The end effector has a first portion that carries a gimbal with a probe, the gimbal holding the probe normal to the surface, and a second portion with a set of three shafts within a housing for urging the gimbal and probe against the surface. The second portion contains a potentiometer connected by another shaft to the first portion to measure the position of the first portion with respect to the second so that the second portion can be moved to place and maintain the shafts at the midpoint of their travel. Then, as irregularities in the surface are encountered, the first portion can respond by moving closer to or farther from the second portion.

  7. Behind the lines–actions of bacterial type III effector proteins in plant cells

    PubMed Central

    Büttner, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenicity of most Gram-negative plant-pathogenic bacteria depends on the type III secretion (T3S) system, which translocates bacterial effector proteins into plant cells. Type III effectors modulate plant cellular pathways to the benefit of the pathogen and promote bacterial multiplication. One major virulence function of type III effectors is the suppression of plant innate immunity, which is triggered upon recognition of pathogen-derived molecular patterns by plant receptor proteins. Type III effectors also interfere with additional plant cellular processes including proteasome-dependent protein degradation, phytohormone signaling, the formation of the cytoskeleton, vesicle transport and gene expression. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the molecular functions of type III effector proteins with known plant target molecules. Furthermore, plant defense strategies for the detection of effector protein activities or effector-triggered alterations in plant targets are discussed. PMID:27526699

  8. Effector proteins that modulate plant--insect interactions.

    PubMed

    Hogenhout, Saskia A; Bos, Jorunn I B

    2011-08-01

    Insect herbivores have highly diverse life cycles and feeding behaviors. They establish close interactions with their plant hosts and suppress plant defenses. Chewing herbivores evoke characteristic defense responses distinguishable from general mechanical damage. In addition, piercing-sucking hemipteran insects display typical feeding behavior that suggests active suppression of plant defense responses. Effectors that modulate plant defenses have been identified in the saliva of these insects. Tools for high-throughput effector identification and functional characterization have been developed. In addition, in some insect species it is possible to silence gene expression by RNAi. Together, this technological progress has enabled the identification of insect herbivore effectors and their targets that will lead to the development of novel strategies for pest resistances in plants.

  9. Two-axis angular effector

    DOEpatents

    Vaughn, Mark R.; Robinett, III, Rush D.; Phelan, John R.; Van Zuiden, Don M.

    1997-01-21

    A new class of coplanar two-axis angular effectors. These effectors combine a two-axis rotational joint analogous to a Cardan joint with linear actuators in a manner to produce a wider range of rotational motion about both axes defined by the joint. This new class of effectors also allows design of robotic manipulators having very high strength and efficiency. These effectors are particularly suited for remote operation in unknown surroundings, because of their extraordinary versatility. An immediate application is to the problems which arise in nuclear waste remediation.

  10. Target selection biases from recent experience transfer across effectors.

    PubMed

    Moher, Jeff; Song, Joo-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    Target selection is often biased by an observer's recent experiences. However, not much is known about whether these selection biases influence behavior across different effectors. For example, does looking at a red object make it easier to subsequently reach towards another red object? In the current study, we asked observers to find the uniquely colored target object on each trial. Randomly intermixed pre-trial cues indicated the mode of action: either an eye movement or a visually guided reach movement to the target. In Experiment 1, we found that priming of popout, reflected in faster responses following repetition of the target color on consecutive trials, occurred regardless of whether the effector was repeated from the previous trial or not. In Experiment 2, we examined whether an inhibitory selection bias away from a feature could transfer across effectors. While priming of popout reflects both enhancement of the repeated target features and suppression of the repeated distractor features, the distractor previewing effect isolates a purely inhibitory component of target selection in which a previewed color is presented in a homogenous display and subsequently inhibited. Much like priming of popout, intertrial suppression biases in the distractor previewing effect transferred across effectors. Together, these results suggest that biases for target selection driven by recent trial history transfer across effectors. This indicates that representations in memory that bias attention towards or away from specific features are largely independent from their associated actions. PMID:26563393

  11. Phytopathogen type III effector weaponry and their plant targets

    PubMed Central

    Block, Anna; Li, Guangyong; Fu, Zheng Qing; Alfano, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Phytopathogenic bacteria suppress plant innate immunity and promote pathogenesis by injecting proteins called type III effectors into plant cells using a type III protein secretion system. These type III effectors use at least three major strategies to alter host responses. One strategy is to alter host protein turnover, either by direct cleavage or by modulating ubiquitination and targeting to the 26S proteasome. Another strategy involves alteration of RNA metabolism by transcriptional activation or ADP-ribosylation of RNA-binding proteins. A third major strategy is to inhibit the kinases involved in plant defence signalling, either by removing phosphates or by direct inhibition. The wide array of strategies bacterial pathogens employ to suppress innate immunity suggest that circumvention of innate immunity is critical for bacterial pathogenicity of plants. PMID:18657470

  12. Oomycetes, effectors, and all that jazz.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Tolga O; Schornack, Sebastian; Banfield, Mark J; Kamoun, Sophien

    2012-08-01

    Plant pathogenic oomycetes secrete a diverse repertoire of effector proteins that modulate host innate immunity and enable parasitic infection. Understanding how effectors evolve, translocate and traffic inside host cells, and perturb host processes are major themes in the study of oomycete-plant interactions. The last year has seen important progress in the study of oomycete effectors with, notably, the elucidation of the 3D structures of five RXLR effectors, and novel insights into how cytoplasmic effectors subvert host cells. In this review, we discuss these and other recent advances and highlight the most important open questions in oomycete effector biology.

  13. Multiple Xanthomonas euvesicatoria Type III Effectors Inhibit flg22-Triggered Immunity.

    PubMed

    Popov, Georgy; Fraiture, Malou; Brunner, Frederic; Sessa, Guido

    2016-08-01

    Xanthomonas euvesicatoria is the causal agent of bacterial spot disease in pepper and tomato. X. euvesicatoria bacteria interfere with plant cellular processes by injecting effector proteins into host cells through the type III secretion (T3S) system. About 35 T3S effectors have been identified in X. euvesicatoria 85-10, and a few of them were implicated in suppression of pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). We used an Arabidopsis thaliana pathogen-free protoplast-based assay to identify X. euvesicatoria 85-10 effectors that interfere with PTI signaling induced by the bacterial peptide flg22. Of 33 tested effectors, 17 inhibited activation of a PTI-inducible promoter. Among them, nine effectors also interfered with activation of an abscisic acid-inducible promoter. However, effectors that inhibited flg22-induced signaling did not affect phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases acting downstream of flg22 perception. Further investigation of selected effectors revealed that XopAJ, XopE2, and XopF2 inhibited activation of a PTI-inducible promoter by the bacterial peptide elf18 in Arabidopsis protoplasts and by flg22 in tomato protoplasts. The effectors XopF2, XopE2, XopAP, XopAE, XopH, and XopAJ inhibited flg22-induced callose deposition in planta and enhanced disease symptoms caused by attenuated Pseudomonas syringae bacteria. Finally, selected effectors were found to localize to various plant subcellular compartments. These results indicate that X. euvesicatoria bacteria utilize multiple T3S effectors to suppress flg22-induced signaling acting downstream or in parallel to MAP kinase cascades and suggest they act through different molecular mechanisms. PMID:27529660

  14. Monoclonal Antibody-Directed Effector Cells Selectively Lyse Human Melanoma Cells in vitro and in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Gregor; Bumol, Thomas F.; Reisfeld, Ralph A.

    1983-09-01

    Monoclonal antibody 9.2.27 (mAb 9.2.27) directed to a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan on human melanoma cells was able to suppress tumor growth in athymic (nu/nu) mice more effectively when bound with polyethylene glycol to murine effector cells than when injected alone. These ``armed'' effector cells also proved more effective than the monoclonal antibody in eliciting antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against human melanoma target cells in vitro.

  15. Effector proteins of rust fungi.

    PubMed

    Petre, Benjamin; Joly, David L; Duplessis, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Rust fungi include many species that are devastating crop pathogens. To develop resistant plants, a better understanding of rust virulence factors, or effector proteins, is needed. Thus far, only six rust effector proteins have been described: AvrP123, AvrP4, AvrL567, AvrM, RTP1, and PGTAUSPE-10-1. Although some are well established model proteins used to investigate mechanisms of immune receptor activation (avirulence activities) or entry into plant cells, how they work inside host tissues to promote fungal growth remains unknown. The genome sequences of four rust fungi (two Melampsoraceae and two Pucciniaceae) have been analyzed so far. Genome-wide analyses of these species, as well as transcriptomics performed on a broader range of rust fungi, revealed hundreds of small secreted proteins considered as rust candidate secreted effector proteins (CSEPs). The rust community now needs high-throughput approaches (effectoromics) to accelerate effector discovery/characterization and to better understand how they function in planta. However, this task is challenging due to the non-amenability of rust pathosystems (obligate biotrophs infecting crop plants) to traditional molecular genetic approaches mainly due to difficulties in culturing these species in vitro. The use of heterologous approaches should be promoted in the future.

  16. Elucidating the Role of Effectors in Plant-Fungal Interactions: Progress and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Selin, Carrie; de Kievit, Teresa R.; Belmonte, Mark F.; Fernando, W. G. Dilantha

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic fungi have diverse growth lifestyles that support fungal colonization on plants. Successful colonization and infection for all lifestyles depends upon the ability to modify living host plants to sequester the necessary nutrients required for growth and reproduction. Secretion of virulence determinants referred to as “effectors” is assumed to be the key governing factor that determines host infection and colonization. Effector proteins are capable of suppressing plant defense responses and alter plant physiology to accommodate fungal invaders. This review focuses on effector molecules of biotrophic and hemibiotrophic plant pathogenic fungi, and the mechanism required for the release and uptake of effector molecules by the fungi and plant cells, respectively. We also place emphasis on the discovery of effectors, difficulties associated with predicting the effector repertoire, and fungal genomic features that have helped promote effector diversity leading to fungal evolution. We discuss the role of specific effectors found in biotrophic and hemibiotrophic fungi and examine how CRISPR/Cas9 technology may provide a new avenue for accelerating our ability in the discovery of fungal effector function. PMID:27199930

  17. EffectorP: predicting fungal effector proteins from secretomes using machine learning.

    PubMed

    Sperschneider, Jana; Gardiner, Donald M; Dodds, Peter N; Tini, Francesco; Covarelli, Lorenzo; Singh, Karam B; Manners, John M; Taylor, Jennifer M

    2016-04-01

    Eukaryotic filamentous plant pathogens secrete effector proteins that modulate the host cell to facilitate infection. Computational effector candidate identification and subsequent functional characterization delivers valuable insights into plant-pathogen interactions. However, effector prediction in fungi has been challenging due to a lack of unifying sequence features such as conserved N-terminal sequence motifs. Fungal effectors are commonly predicted from secretomes based on criteria such as small size and cysteine-rich, which suffers from poor accuracy. We present EffectorP which pioneers the application of machine learning to fungal effector prediction. EffectorP improves fungal effector prediction from secretomes based on a robust signal of sequence-derived properties, achieving sensitivity and specificity of over 80%. Features that discriminate fungal effectors from secreted noneffectors are predominantly sequence length, molecular weight and protein net charge, as well as cysteine, serine and tryptophan content. We demonstrate that EffectorP is powerful when combined with in planta expression data for predicting high-priority effector candidates. EffectorP is the first prediction program for fungal effectors based on machine learning. Our findings will facilitate functional fungal effector studies and improve our understanding of effectors in plant-pathogen interactions. EffectorP is available at http://effectorp.csiro.au. PMID:26680733

  18. Dexterous end effector flight demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Edward L.; Monford, Leo G.

    1994-01-01

    The Dexterous End Effector Flight Experiment is a flight demonstration of newly developed equipment and methods which make for more dexterous manipulation of robotic arms. The following concepts are to be demonstrated: The Force Torque Sensor is a six axis load cell located at the end of the RMS which displays load data to the operator on the orbiter CCTV monitor. TRAC is a target system which provides six axis positional information to the operator. It has the characteristic of having high sensitivity to attitude misalignment while being flat. AUTO-TRAC is a variation of TRAC in which a computer analyzes a target, displays translational and attitude misalignment information, and provides cues to the operator for corrective inputs. The Magnetic End Effector is a fault tolerant end effector which grapples payloads using magnetic attraction. The Carrier Latch Assembly is a fault tolerant payload carrier, which uses mechanical latches and/or magnetic attraction to hold small payloads during launch/landing and to release payloads as desired. The flight experiment goals and objectives are explained. The experiment equipment is described, and the tasks to be performed during the demonstration are discussed.

  19. Using hierarchical clustering of secreted protein families to classify and rank candidate effectors of rust fungi.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Diane G O; Win, Joe; Cano, Liliana M; Szabo, Les J; Kamoun, Sophien; Raffaele, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    Rust fungi are obligate biotrophic pathogens that cause considerable damage on crop plants. Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, the causal agent of wheat stem rust, and Melampsora larici-populina, the poplar leaf rust pathogen, have strong deleterious impacts on wheat and poplar wood production, respectively. Filamentous pathogens such as rust fungi secrete molecules called disease effectors that act as modulators of host cell physiology and can suppress or trigger host immunity. Current knowledge on effectors from other filamentous plant pathogens can be exploited for the characterisation of effectors in the genome of recently sequenced rust fungi. We designed a comprehensive in silico analysis pipeline to identify the putative effector repertoire from the genome of two plant pathogenic rust fungi. The pipeline is based on the observation that known effector proteins from filamentous pathogens have at least one of the following properties: (i) contain a secretion signal, (ii) are encoded by in planta induced genes, (iii) have similarity to haustorial proteins, (iv) are small and cysteine rich, (v) contain a known effector motif or a nuclear localization signal, (vi) are encoded by genes with long intergenic regions, (vii) contain internal repeats, and (viii) do not contain PFAM domains, except those associated with pathogenicity. We used Markov clustering and hierarchical clustering to classify protein families of rust pathogens and rank them according to their likelihood of being effectors. Using this approach, we identified eight families of candidate effectors that we consider of high value for functional characterization. This study revealed a diverse set of candidate effectors, including families of haustorial expressed secreted proteins and small cysteine-rich proteins. This comprehensive classification of candidate effectors from these devastating rust pathogens is an initial step towards probing plant germplasm for novel resistance components.

  20. Using Hierarchical Clustering of Secreted Protein Families to Classify and Rank Candidate Effectors of Rust Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Diane G. O.; Win, Joe; Cano, Liliana M.; Szabo, Les J.; Kamoun, Sophien; Raffaele, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    Rust fungi are obligate biotrophic pathogens that cause considerable damage on crop plants. Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, the causal agent of wheat stem rust, and Melampsora larici-populina, the poplar leaf rust pathogen, have strong deleterious impacts on wheat and poplar wood production, respectively. Filamentous pathogens such as rust fungi secrete molecules called disease effectors that act as modulators of host cell physiology and can suppress or trigger host immunity. Current knowledge on effectors from other filamentous plant pathogens can be exploited for the characterisation of effectors in the genome of recently sequenced rust fungi. We designed a comprehensive in silico analysis pipeline to identify the putative effector repertoire from the genome of two plant pathogenic rust fungi. The pipeline is based on the observation that known effector proteins from filamentous pathogens have at least one of the following properties: (i) contain a secretion signal, (ii) are encoded by in planta induced genes, (iii) have similarity to haustorial proteins, (iv) are small and cysteine rich, (v) contain a known effector motif or a nuclear localization signal, (vi) are encoded by genes with long intergenic regions, (vii) contain internal repeats, and (viii) do not contain PFAM domains, except those associated with pathogenicity. We used Markov clustering and hierarchical clustering to classify protein families of rust pathogens and rank them according to their likelihood of being effectors. Using this approach, we identified eight families of candidate effectors that we consider of high value for functional characterization. This study revealed a diverse set of candidate effectors, including families of haustorial expressed secreted proteins and small cysteine-rich proteins. This comprehensive classification of candidate effectors from these devastating rust pathogens is an initial step towards probing plant germplasm for novel resistance components. PMID:22238666

  1. Computational investigation of miniature trailing edge effectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hak-Tae

    Miniature trailing edge effectors (MiTEs) are small flaps (typically 1% to 5% chord) actuated with deflection angles of up to 90 degrees. The small size, combined with little required power and good control authority, enables the device to be used for high bandwidth control as well as conventional attitude control. However, some of the aerodynamic characteristics of these devices are complex and poorly understood. This research investigated the aerodynamics of MiTEs using incompressible Navier-Stokes flow solvers, INS2D and INS3D. To understand the flow structure and establish a parametric database, two dimensional steady-state computations were performed for MiTEs with various geometries and flow conditions. Time accurate computations were used to resolve the unsteady characteristics including transient response and vortex shedding phenomena. The frequency response was studied to fully identify the dynamics of MiTEs. Three dimensional computations show the change in control effectiveness with respect to the spanwise length of MiTEs as well as the spanwise lift distribution induced by these devices. Based on the CFD results, an approximate vortex panel model was developed for design purposes that reproduces the key characteristics of MiTEs. Two application areas for MiTEs were explored. Flutter suppression was demonstrated by combining a finite element structural model with the vortex panel model. The application of MiTEs to augment maximum lift and improve the post stall behavior of an airfoil was also investigated.

  2. Marker for type VI secretion system effectors

    PubMed Central

    Salomon, Dor; Kinch, Lisa N.; Trudgian, David C.; Guo, Xiaofeng; Klimko, John A.; Grishin, Nick V.; Mirzaei, Hamid; Orth, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria use diverse mechanisms to kill, manipulate, and compete with other cells. The recently discovered type VI secretion system (T6SS) is widespread in bacterial pathogens and used to deliver virulence effector proteins into target cells. Using comparative proteomics, we identified two previously unidentified T6SS effectors that contained a conserved motif. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that this N-terminal motif, named MIX (marker for type six effectors), is found in numerous polymorphic bacterial proteins that are primarily located in the T6SS genome neighborhood. We demonstrate that several MIX-containing proteins are T6SS effectors and that they are not required for T6SS activity. Thus, we propose that MIX-containing proteins are T6SS effectors. Our findings allow for the identification of numerous uncharacterized T6SS effectors that will undoubtedly lead to the discovery of new biological mechanisms. PMID:24927539

  3. Space Station end effector strategy study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzberg, Stephen J.; Jensen, Robert L.; Willshire, Kelli F.; Satterthwaite, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    The results of a study are presented for terminology definition, identification of functional requirements, technolgy assessment, and proposed end effector development strategies for the Space Station Program. The study is composed of a survey of available or under-developed end effector technology, identification of requirements from baselined Space Station documents, a comparative assessment of the match between technology and requirements, and recommended strategies for end effector development for the Space Station Program.

  4. Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato DC3000 Type III secretion effector polymutants reveal an interplay between hopAD1 and AvrPtoB

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The model pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 suppresses the two-tiered innate immune system of plants by injecting a complex repertoire of effector proteins into host cells via the type III secretion system. The model effector AvrPtoB has multiple domains and plant protein interactors i...

  5. Immunomodulation by the Pseudomonas syringae HopZ Type III Effector Family in Aribidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas syringae employs a type III secretion system to inject 20-30 different type III effector (T3SE) proteins into plant host cells. A major role of T3SEs is to suppress plant immune responses and promote bacterial infection. The YopJ/HopZ acetyltransferases are a superfamily of T3SEs found i...

  6. Human regulatory T cells control TCR signaling and susceptibility to suppression in CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Chellappa, Stalin; Lieske, Nora V; Hagness, Morten; Line, Pål D; Taskén, Kjetil; Aandahl, Einar M

    2016-07-01

    Human CD4(+)CD25(hi)FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells maintain immunologic tolerance and prevent autoimmune and inflammatory immune responses. Regulatory T cells undergo a similar activation cycle as conventional CD4(+) T cells upon antigen stimulation. Here, we demonstrate that T cell receptors and costimulation are required to activate the regulatory T cell suppressive function. Regulatory T cells suppressed the T cell receptor signaling in effector T cells in a time-dependent manner that corresponded with inhibition of cytokine production and proliferation. Modulation of the activation level and thereby the suppressive capacity of regulatory T cells imposed distinct T cell receptor signaling signatures and hyporesponsiveness in suppressed and proliferating effector T cells and established a threshold for effector T cell proliferation. The immune suppression of effector T cells was completely reversible upon removal of regulatory T cells. However, the strength of prior immune suppression by regulatory T cells and corresponding T cell receptor signaling in effector T cells determined the susceptibility to suppression upon later reexposure to regulatory T cells. These findings demonstrate how the strength of the regulatory T cell suppressive function determines intracellular signaling, immune responsiveness, and the later susceptibility of effector T cells to immune suppression and contribute to unveiling the complex interactions between regulatory T cells and effector T cells. PMID:26715685

  7. Homeostasis of peripheral immune effectors.

    PubMed

    Warrender, Christina; Forrest, Stephanie; Segel, Lee

    2004-11-01

    In this paper, we use both mathematical modeling and simulation to explore homeostasis of peripheral immune system effector cells, particularly alveolar macrophages. Our interest is in the distributed control mechanisms that allow such a population to maintain itself. We introduce a multi-purpose simulator designed to study individual cell responses to local molecular signals and their effects on population dynamics. We use the simulator to develop a model of growth factor regulation of macrophage proliferation and survival. We examine the effects of this form of regulation in the context of two competing hypotheses regarding the source of new alveolar macrophages. In one model, local cells divide to replenish the population; in the other, only cells migrating from circulation divide. We find that either scenario is plausible, although the influx-driven system is inherently more stable. The proliferation-driven system requires lower cell death and efflux rates than the influx-driven system.

  8. Legionella effectors reflect strength in diversity.

    PubMed

    Comas, Iñaki

    2016-02-01

    The Legionella genus includes opportunistic human pathogenic species that invade human cells using effector proteins that evolved during association with their natural amoeba hosts. A new study compares the genomes of 41 Legionella species to identify nearly 6,000 effectors, providing insight into these species' evolution and pathogenic lifestyles. PMID:26813764

  9. SPRYSEC Effectors: A Versatile Protein-Binding Platform to Disrupt Plant Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Granados, Amalia; Petrescu, Andrei-José; Goverse, Aska; Smant, Geert

    2016-01-01

    Persistent infections by sedentary plant-parasitic nematodes are a major threat to important food crops all over the world. These roundworms manipulate host plant cell morphology and physiology to establish sophisticated feeding structures. Key modifications to plant cells during their transition into feeding structures are largely attributed to the activity of effectors secreted by the nematodes. The SPRYSEC effectors were initially identified in the potato cyst nematodes Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida, and are characterized by a single SPRY domain, a non-catalytic domain present in modular proteins with different functions. The SPRY domain is wide-spread among eukaryotes and thought to be involved in mediating protein–protein interactions. Thus far, the SPRY domain is only reported as a functional domain in effectors of plant-parasitic nematodes, but not of other plant pathogens. SPRYSEC effectors have been implicated in both suppression and activation of plant immunity, but other possible roles in nematode virulence remain undefined. Here, we review the latest reports on the structure, function, and sequence diversity of SPRYSEC effectors, which provide support for a model featuring these effectors as a versatile protein-binding platform for the nematodes to target a wide range of host proteins during parasitism. PMID:27812363

  10. Robust Position Control of End-Effector Considering Gear Stiffness and Arm Stiffness for Industrial Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tungpataratanawong, Somsawas; Chitbanchong, Satit; Miyazaki, Toshimasa; Katsura, Seiichiro; Ohishi, Kiyoshi

    Industrial robot with two-inertia model and resonant vibration suppression by using parameters from resonant identification method are addressed in this paper. By using only D-PD control with vibration suppression scheme for two-inertia model of flexible joint robot, the end-effector position does not perfectly reach the desired position owing to the effect of external force to the elastic arm. However, only gear stiffness parameter of two-inertia model is not enough, the new equivalent spring constant parameter including the stiffness of link and gear of the robot is introduced as the total arm spring constant. The novel load-side disturbance compensation considering total arm elasticity is proposed in this paper. The proposed control system is based on inner-loop vibration suppression feedback control and load-side disturbance suppression which motivates the simple consideration of the elastic joint under external torque. Moreover, the experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed robust position control of end-effector with disturbance compensation considering total arm stiffness. The experimentation on workspace impedance control with inner-loop disturbance suppression implementing on the three degree-of-freedom (3-DOF) robot manipulator is also presented and discussed. The performance and feasibility of the proposed position control of end-effector is confirmed to apply to industrial robot manipulator without additional device.

  11. Plant targets for Pseudomonas syringae type III effectors: virulence targets or guarded decoys?

    PubMed

    Block, Anna; Alfano, James R

    2011-02-01

    The phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae can suppress both pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) by the injection of type III effector (T3E) proteins into host cells. T3Es achieve immune suppression using a variety of strategies including interference with immune receptor signaling, blocking RNA pathways and vesicle trafficking, and altering organelle function. T3Es can be recognized indirectly by resistance proteins monitoring specific T3E targets resulting in ETI. It is presently unclear whether the monitored targets represent bona fide virulence targets or guarded decoys. Extensive overlap between PTI and ETI signaling suggests that T3Es may suppress both pathways through common targets and by possessing multiple activities. PMID:21227738

  12. ROBOTIC TANK INSPECTION END EFFECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel Landry

    1999-10-01

    The objective of this contract between Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) and the Department of Energy (DOE) was to provide a tool for the DOE to inspect the inside tank walls of underground radioactive waste storage tanks in their tank farms. Some of these tanks are suspected to have leaks, but the harsh nature of the environment within the tanks precludes human inspection of tank walls. As a result of these conditions only a few inspection methods can fulfill this task. Of the methods available, OSS chose to pursue Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM), because it does not require clean surfaces for inspection, nor any contact with the Surface being inspected, and introduces no extra by-products in the inspection process (no coupling fluids or residues are left behind). The tool produced by OSS is the Robotic Tank Inspection End Effector (RTIEE), which is initially deployed on the tip of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). The RTEE combines ACFM with a color video camera for both electromagnetic and visual inspection The complete package consists of an end effector, its corresponding electronics and software, and a user's manual to guide the operator through an inspection. The system has both coarse and fine inspection modes and allows the user to catalog defects and suspected areas of leakage in a database for further examination, which may lead to emptying the tank for repair, decommissioning, etc.. The following is an updated report to OSS document OSS-21100-7002, which was submitted in 1995. During the course of the contract, two related subtasks arose, the Wall and Coating Thickness Sensor and the Vacuum Scarifying and Sampling Tool Assembly. The first of these subtasks was intended to evaluate the corrosion and wall thinning of 55-gallon steel drums. The second was retrieved and characterized the waste material trapped inside the annulus region of the underground tanks on the DOE's tank farms. While these subtasks were derived from the original intent of

  13. Distinct Sets of Rab6 Effectors Contribute to ZW10- and COG-Dependent Golgi Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Waqar; Liu, Shijie; Storrie, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The organization of the Golgi apparatus is determined in part by the interaction of Rab proteins and their diverse array of effectors. Here, we used multiple approaches to identify and characterize a small subset of effectors that mimicked the effects of Rab6 on Golgi ribbon organization. In a visual-based, candidate-protein screen, we found that the individual depletion of any of three Rab6 effectors, myosin IIA (MyoIIA), Kif20A, and Bicaudal D (BicD), was sufficient to suppress Golgi ribbon fragmentation/dispersal coupled to retrograde tether proteins in a manner paralleling Rab6. MyoIIA and Kif20A depletion were pathway selective and suppressed ZW10-dependent Golgi ribbon fragmentation/dispersal only while BicD depletion, like Rab6, suppressed both ZW10- and COG-dependent Golgi ribbon fragmentation. The MyoIIA effects could be produced in short term assays by the reversible myosin inhibitor, blebbistatin. At the electron microscope level, the effects of BicD-depletion mimicked many of those of Rab6-depletion: longer and more continuous Golgi cisternae and a pronounced accumulation of coated vesicles. Functionally, BicD-depleted cells were inhibited in transport of newly synthesized VSV-G protein to the cell surface. In sum, our results indicate small, partially overlapping subsets of Rab6 effectors are differentially important to two tether-dependent pathways essential to Golgi organization and function. PMID:24575842

  14. Oxysterols and Their Cellular Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Olkkonen, Vesa M.; Béaslas, Olivier; Nissilä, Eija

    2012-01-01

    Oxysterols are oxidized 27-carbon cholesterol derivatives or by-products of cholesterol biosynthesis, with a spectrum of biologic activities. Several oxysterols have cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic activities, the ability to interfere with the lateral domain organization, and packing of membrane lipids. These properties may account for their suggested roles in the pathology of diseases such as atherosclerosis, age-onset macular degeneration and Alzheimer’s disease. Oxysterols also have the capacity to induce inflammatory responses and play roles in cell differentiation processes. The functions of oxysterols as intermediates in the synthesis of bile acids and steroid hormones, and as readily transportable forms of sterol, are well established. Furthermore, their actions as endogenous regulators of gene expression in lipid metabolism via liver X receptors and the Insig (insulin-induced gene) proteins have been investigated in detail. The cytoplasmic oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) homologues form a group of oxysterol/cholesterol sensors that has recently attracted a lot of attention. However, their mode of action is, as yet, poorly understood. Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors (ROR) α and γ, and Epstein-Barr virus induced gene 2 (EBI2) have been identified as novel oxysterol receptors, revealing new physiologic oxysterol effector mechanisms in development, metabolism, and immunity, and evoking enhanced interest in these compounds in the field of biomedicine. PMID:24970128

  15. Jet Engine Exhaust Nozzle Flow Effector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Silcox, Richard J. (Inventor); Buehrle, Ralph D. (Inventor); Cagle, Christopher M. (Inventor); Cabell, Randolph H. (Inventor); Hilton, George C. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A jet engine exhaust nozzle flow effector is a chevron formed with a radius of curvature with surfaces of the flow effector being defined and opposing one another. At least one shape memory alloy (SMA) member is embedded in the chevron closer to one of the chevron's opposing surfaces and substantially spanning from at least a portion of the chevron's root to the chevron's tip.

  16. Jet Engine Exhaust Nozzle Flow Effector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Silox, Richard J. (Inventor); Buehrle, Ralph D. (Inventor); Cagle, Christopher M. (Inventor); Cabell, Randolph H. (Inventor); Hilton, George C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A jet engine exhaust nozzle flow effector is a chevron formed with a radius of curvature with surfaces of the flow effector being defined and opposing one another. At least one shape memory alloy (SMA) member is embedded in the chevron closer to one of the chevron's opposing surfaces and substantially spanning from at least a portion of the chevron's root to the chevron's tip.

  17. Spiral lead platen robotic end effector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beals, David C. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A robotic end effector is disclosed which makes use of a rotating platen with spiral leads used to impact lateral motion to gripping fingers. Actuation is provided by the contact of rolling pins with the walls of the leads. The use of the disclosed method of actuation avoids jamming and provides excellent mechanical advantage while remaining light in weight and durable. The entire end effector is compact and easily adapted for attachment to robotic arms currently in use.

  18. Phytophthora suppressor of RNA silencing 2 is a conserved RxLR effector that promotes infection in soybean and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Qin; Ye, Wenwu; Choi, Duseok; Wong, James; Qiao, Yongli; Tao, Kai; Wang, Yuanchao; Ma, Wenbo

    2014-12-01

    The genus Phytophthora consists of notorious and emerging pathogens of economically important crops. Each Phytophthora genome encodes several hundreds of cytoplasmic effectors, which are believed to manipulate plant immune response inside the host cells. However, the majority of Phytophthora effectors remain functionally uncharacterized. We recently discovered two effectors from the soybean stem and root rot pathogen Phytophthora sojae with the activity to suppress RNA silencing in plants. These effectors are designated Phytophthora suppressor of RNA silencing (PSRs). Here, we report that the P. sojae PSR2 (PsPSR2) belongs to a conserved and widespread effector family in Phytophthora. A PsPSR2-like effector produced by P. infestans (PiPSR2) can also suppress RNA silencing in plants and promote Phytophthora infection, suggesting that the PSR2 family effectors have conserved functions in plant hosts. Using Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated hairy roots induction, we demonstrated that the expression of PsPSR2 rendered hypersusceptibility of soybean to P. sojae. Enhanced susceptibility was also observed in PsPSR2-expressing Arabidopsis thaliana plants during Phytophthora but not bacterial infection. These experiments provide strong evidence that PSR2 is a conserved Phytophthora effector family that performs important virulence functions specifically during Phytophthora infection of various plant hosts.

  19. Phytophthora suppressor of RNA silencing 2 is a conserved RxLR effector that promotes infection in soybean and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Qin; Ye, Wenwu; Choi, Duseok; Wong, James; Qiao, Yongli; Tao, Kai; Wang, Yuanchao; Ma, Wenbo

    2014-12-01

    The genus Phytophthora consists of notorious and emerging pathogens of economically important crops. Each Phytophthora genome encodes several hundreds of cytoplasmic effectors, which are believed to manipulate plant immune response inside the host cells. However, the majority of Phytophthora effectors remain functionally uncharacterized. We recently discovered two effectors from the soybean stem and root rot pathogen Phytophthora sojae with the activity to suppress RNA silencing in plants. These effectors are designated Phytophthora suppressor of RNA silencing (PSRs). Here, we report that the P. sojae PSR2 (PsPSR2) belongs to a conserved and widespread effector family in Phytophthora. A PsPSR2-like effector produced by P. infestans (PiPSR2) can also suppress RNA silencing in plants and promote Phytophthora infection, suggesting that the PSR2 family effectors have conserved functions in plant hosts. Using Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated hairy roots induction, we demonstrated that the expression of PsPSR2 rendered hypersusceptibility of soybean to P. sojae. Enhanced susceptibility was also observed in PsPSR2-expressing Arabidopsis thaliana plants during Phytophthora but not bacterial infection. These experiments provide strong evidence that PSR2 is a conserved Phytophthora effector family that performs important virulence functions specifically during Phytophthora infection of various plant hosts. PMID:25387135

  20. Chloroplasts play a central role in plant defence and are targeted by pathogen effectors.

    PubMed

    de Torres Zabala, Marta; Littlejohn, George; Jayaraman, Siddharth; Studholme, David; Bailey, Trevor; Lawson, Tracy; Tillich, Michael; Licht, Dirk; Bölter, Bettina; Delfino, Laura; Truman, William; Mansfield, John; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Grant, Murray

    2015-01-01

    Microbe associated molecular pattern (MAMP) receptors in plants recognize MAMPs and activate basal defences; however a complete understanding of the molecular and physiological mechanisms conferring immunity remains elusive. Pathogens suppress active defence in plants through the combined action of effector proteins. Here we show that the chloroplast is a key component of early immune responses. MAMP perception triggers the rapid, large-scale suppression of nuclear encoded chloroplast-targeted genes (NECGs). Virulent Pseudomonas syringae effectors reprogramme NECG expression in Arabidopsis, target the chloroplast and inhibit photosynthetic CO2 assimilation through disruption of photosystem II. This activity prevents a chloroplastic reactive oxygen burst. These physiological changes precede bacterial multiplication and coincide with pathogen-induced abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation. MAMP pretreatment protects chloroplasts from effector manipulation, whereas application of ABA or the inhibitor of photosynthetic electron transport, DCMU, abolishes the MAMP-induced chloroplastic reactive oxygen burst, and enhances growth of a P. syringae hrpA mutant that fails to secrete effectors. PMID:27250009

  1. Amphiregulin Is a Critical Downstream Effector of Estrogen Signaling in ERα-Positive Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Esther A; Jenkins, Edmund C; Lofgren, Kristopher A; Chandiramani, Natasha; Liu, Hui; Aranda, Evelyn; Barnett, Maryia; Kenny, Paraic A

    2015-11-15

    Estrogen stimulation promotes epithelial cell proliferation in estrogen receptor (ERα)-positive breast cancer. Many ERα target genes have been enumerated, but the identities of the key effectors mediating the estrogen signal remain obscure. During mouse mammary gland development, the estrogen growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligand amphiregulin acts as an important stage-specific effector of estrogen signaling. In this study, we investigated the role of amphiregulin in breast cancer cell proliferation using human tissue samples and tumor xenografts in mice. Amphiregulin was enriched in ERα-positive human breast tumor cells and required for estrogen-dependent growth of MCF7 tumor xenografts. Furthermore, amphiregulin levels were suppressed in patients treated with endocrine therapy. Suppression of EGF receptor signaling appeared necessary for the therapeutic response in this setting. Our findings implicate amphiregulin as a critical mediator of the estrogen response in ERα-positive breast cancer, emphasizing the importance of EGF receptor signaling in breast tumor pathogenesis and therapeutic response. PMID:26527289

  2. TAL effectors and the executor R genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junli; Yin, Zhongchao; White, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors are bacterial type III secretion proteins that function as transcription factors in plants during Xanthomonas/plant interactions, conditioning either host susceptibility and/or host resistance. Three types of TAL effector associated resistance (R) genes have been characterized—recessive, dominant non-transcriptional, and dominant TAL effector-dependent transcriptional based resistance. Here, we discuss the last type of R genes, whose functions are dependent on direct TAL effector binding to discrete effector binding elements in the promoters. Only five of the so-called executor R genes have been cloned, and commonalities are not clear. We have placed the protein products in two groups for conceptual purposes. Group 1 consists solely of the protein from pepper, BS3, which is predicted to have catalytic function on the basis of homology to a large conserved protein family. Group 2 consists of BS4C-R, XA27, XA10, and XA23, all of which are relatively short proteins from pepper or rice with multiple potential transmembrane domains. Group 2 members have low sequence similarity to proteins of unknown function in closely related species. Firm predictions await further experimentation on these interesting new members to the R gene repertoire, which have potential broad application in new strategies for disease resistance. PMID:26347759

  3. Bacterial Effector Nanoparticles as Breast Cancer Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Herrera Estrada, Lina; Padmore, Trudy J; Champion, Julie A

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial pathogens trigger cell death by a variety of mechanisms, including injection of effector proteins. Effector proteins have great potential as anticancer agents because they efficiently subvert a variety of eukaryotic signaling pathways involved in cancer development, drug resistance, and metastasis. In breast cancer, MAPK and NFκB pathways are known to be dysregulated. YopJ, an effector from Yersinia pestis, downregulates MAPK and NFκB pathways to induce cell death in specific cell types. We expressed YopJ in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase (GST), forming self-assembled protein nanoparticles with diameters of 100 nm. YopJ-GST nanoparticles efficiently delivered protein to cells, replacing the need for the pathogen secretion mechanism for effector delivery to cells. These nanoparticles induced dose and time dependent death in SKBR-3 breast cancer cells. After 72 h, 97% of cells died, significantly more than with the same molar dose of doxorubicin. Treatment with sublethal doses of nanoparticles decreased cell migration in vitro and downregulated the MAPK ERK 1/2 pathway, which has been correlated to metastasis. Exposure to a panel of breast cancer cell lines showed that YopJ-GST nanoparticles are cytotoxic to different subtypes, including doxorubicin resistant cells. However, they were not cytotoxic to NIH/3T3 fibroblasts or HeLa cells. Thus, YopJ-GST nanoparticles demonstrate the potential of effector proteins as breast cancer therapeutics with selective cytotoxicity and the capacity to decrease metastatic predictive behaviors.

  4. Activation of macrophages for destruction of Francisella tularensis: identification of cytokines, effector cells, and effector molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Fortier, A H; Polsinelli, T; Green, S J; Nacy, C A

    1992-01-01

    Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) was grown in culture with nonadherent resident, starch-elicited, or Proteose Peptone-elicited peritoneal cells. Numbers of bacteria increased 4 logs over the input inoculum in 48 to 72 h. Growth rates were faster in inflammatory cells than in resident cells: generation times for the bacterium were 3 h in inflammatory cells and 6 h in resident macrophages. LVS-infected macrophage cultures treated with lymphokines did not support growth of the bacterium, although lymphokines alone had no inhibitory effects on replication of LVS in culture medium devoid of cells. Removal of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) by immunoaffinity precipitation rendered lymphokines ineffective for induction of macrophage anti-LVS activity, and recombinant IFN-gamma stimulated both resident and inflammatory macrophage populations to inhibit LVS growth in vitro. Inflammatory macrophages were more sensitive to effects of IFN-gamma: half-maximal activity was achieved at 5 U/ml for inflammatory macrophages and 20 U/ml for resident macrophages. IFN-gamma-induced anti-LVS activity correlated with the production of nitrite (NO2-), an oxidative end product of L-arginine-derived nitric oxide (NO). Anti-LVS activity and nitrite production were both completely inhibited by the addition of either the L-arginine analog NG-monomethyl-L-arginine or anti-tumor necrosis factor antibodies to activated macrophage cultures. Thus, macrophages can be activated by IFN-gamma to suppress the growth of F. tularensis by generation of toxic levels of NO, and inflammatory macrophages are substantially more sensitive to activation activities of IFN-gamma for this effector reaction than are more differentiated resident cells. PMID:1541555

  5. Rho GTPases and their effector proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, A L; Hall, A

    2000-01-01

    Rho GTPases are molecular switches that regulate many essential cellular processes, including actin dynamics, gene transcription, cell-cycle progression and cell adhesion. About 30 potential effector proteins have been identified that interact with members of the Rho family, but it is still unclear which of these are responsible for the diverse biological effects of Rho GTPases. This review will discuss how Rho GTPases physically interact with, and regulate the activity of, multiple effector proteins and how specific effector proteins contribute to cellular responses. To date most progress has been made in the cytoskeleton field, and several biochemical links have now been established between GTPases and the assembly of filamentous actin. The main focus of this review will be Rho, Rac and Cdc42, the three best characterized mammalian Rho GTPases, though the genetic analysis of Rho GTPases in lower eukaryotes is making increasingly important contributions to this field. PMID:10816416

  6. Cellular senescence and its effector programs

    PubMed Central

    Salama, Rafik; Sadaie, Mahito; Hoare, Matthew; Narita, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    Cellular senescence is a stress response that accompanies stable exit from the cell cycle. Classically, senescence, particularly in human cells, involves the p53 and p16/Rb pathways, and often both of these tumor suppressor pathways need to be abrogated to bypass senescence. In parallel, a number of effector mechanisms of senescence have been identified and characterized. These studies suggest that senescence is a collective phenotype of these multiple effectors, and their intensity and combination can be different depending on triggers and cell types, conferring a complex and diverse nature to senescence. Series of studies on senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) in particular have revealed various layers of functionality of senescent cells in vivo. Here we discuss some key features of senescence effectors and attempt to functionally link them when it is possible. PMID:24449267

  7. Leaf-disc assay based on transient over-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana to allow functional screening of candidate effectors from aphids.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Patricia A; Hogenhout, Saskia A; Bos, Jorunn I B

    2014-01-01

    Aphids, like plant pathogens, are known to form close associations with their host. While probing and feeding, these insects deliver effectors inside the host, which are thought to be involved in suppression of host defenses and/or the release of nutrients. With increasing availability of aphid genome and transcriptome sequencing data, effectors can now be identified using bioinformatics- and proteomics-based approaches. The next step is then to apply functional assays relevant to plant-aphid interactions to identify effector activities. This chapter describes an effective and medium-throughput screen for the identification of effectors that affect aphid fecundity upon in planta over-expression. This assay will allow the identification of aphid effectors with a role in aphid virulence and can be adapted to other plant species amenable to agroinfiltration as well as to other assays based on transient expression, such as RNAi.

  8. Transcriptional Dynamics Driving MAMP-Triggered Immunity and Pathogen Effector-Mediated Immunosuppression in Arabidopsis Leaves Following Infection with Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Laura A.; Polanski, Krzysztof; de Torres-Zabala, Marta; Bowden, Laura; Jenkins, Dafyd J.; Hill, Claire; Baxter, Laura; Truman, William; Prusinska, Justyna; Hickman, Richard; Wild, David L.; Ott, Sascha; Buchanan-Wollaston, Vicky; Beynon, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptional reprogramming is integral to effective plant defense. Pathogen effectors act transcriptionally and posttranscriptionally to suppress defense responses. A major challenge to understanding disease and defense responses is discriminating between transcriptional reprogramming associated with microbial-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered immunity (MTI) and that orchestrated by effectors. A high-resolution time course of genome-wide expression changes following challenge with Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 and the nonpathogenic mutant strain DC3000hrpA- allowed us to establish causal links between the activities of pathogen effectors and suppression of MTI and infer with high confidence a range of processes specifically targeted by effectors. Analysis of this information-rich data set with a range of computational tools provided insights into the earliest transcriptional events triggered by effector delivery, regulatory mechanisms recruited, and biological processes targeted. We show that the majority of genes contributing to disease or defense are induced within 6 h postinfection, significantly before pathogen multiplication. Suppression of chloroplast-associated genes is a rapid MAMP-triggered defense response, and suppression of genes involved in chromatin assembly and induction of ubiquitin-related genes coincide with pathogen-induced abscisic acid accumulation. Specific combinations of promoter motifs are engaged in fine-tuning the MTI response and active transcriptional suppression at specific promoter configurations by P. syringae. PMID:26566919

  9. Minimal Mimicry: Mere Effector Matching Induces Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparenberg, Peggy; Topolinski, Sascha; Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Both mimicking and being mimicked induces preference for a target. The present experiments investigate the minimal sufficient conditions for this mimicry-preference link to occur. We argue that mere effector matching between one's own and the other person's movement is sufficient to induce preference, independent of which movement is actually…

  10. Game of Trans-Kingdom Effectors.

    PubMed

    Bleves, Sophie

    2016-10-01

    TplE, a type VI secreted (phospho)lipase, has been identified as the third trans-kingdom effector of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, targeting both prokaryotic and eukaryotic hosts. Indeed, TplE triggers the killing of bacterial competitors and promotes autophagy in epithelial cells once localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:27554788

  11. Game of Trans-Kingdom Effectors.

    PubMed

    Bleves, Sophie

    2016-10-01

    TplE, a type VI secreted (phospho)lipase, has been identified as the third trans-kingdom effector of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, targeting both prokaryotic and eukaryotic hosts. Indeed, TplE triggers the killing of bacterial competitors and promotes autophagy in epithelial cells once localized to the endoplasmic reticulum.

  12. MARTX toxins as effector delivery platforms.

    PubMed

    Gavin, Hannah E; Satchell, Karla J F

    2015-12-01

    Bacteria frequently manipulate their host environment via delivery of microbial 'effector' proteins to the cytosol of eukaryotic cells. In the case of the multifunctional autoprocessing repeats-in-toxins (MARTX) toxin, this phenomenon is accomplished by a single, >3500 amino acid polypeptide that carries information for secretion, translocation, autoprocessing and effector activity. MARTX toxins are secreted from bacteria by dedicated Type I secretion systems. The released MARTX toxins form pores in target eukaryotic cell membranes for the delivery of up to five cytopathic effectors, each of which disrupts a key cellular process. Targeted cellular processes include modulation or modification of small GTPases, manipulation of host cell signaling and disruption of cytoskeletal integrity. More recently, MARTX toxins have been shown to be capable of heterologous protein translocation. Found across multiple bacterial species and genera--frequently in pathogens lacking Type 3 or Type 4 secretion systems--MARTX toxins in multiple cases function as virulence factors. Innovative research at the intersection of toxin biology and bacterial genetics continues to elucidate the intricacies of the toxin as well as the cytotoxic mechanisms of its diverse effector collection.

  13. Kinematic evaluation of end effector design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Gary W.

    1992-09-01

    The complex, many degree-of-freedom end effectors at the leading edge of technology would be unusable in the sea bottom research environment. Simpler designs are required to provide adequate reliability for subsea use. This work examines selection of end effector designs to achieve optimum grasping ability with minimal mechanical complexity. A new method of calculating grasp stability is developed, incorporating elements of previous works in the field. Programs are developed which evaluate the ability of different end effector configurations to grasp representative objects (a cube, sphere, and infinite cylinder). End effector designs considered had circular palms with fingers located at the periphery, oriented so that each pointed to the center of the palm. The program tested configurations of from 1 to 4 fingers and from 1 to 3 links per finger. Three sets of finger proportions were considered: equal length links, half length links, and anthropomorphic proportions. The 2 finger, 2 link per finger configuration was determined to be the optimum design, and the half length proportions were selected as the best set of proportions.

  14. Advances in experimental methods for the elucidation of Pseudomonas syringae effector function with a focus on AvrPtoB

    PubMed Central

    Munkvold, Kathy R.; Martin, Gregory B.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Pseudomonas syringae infects a wide range of plant species through the use of a type III secretion system. The effector proteins injected into the plant cell through this molecular syringe serve as promoters of disease by subverting the plant immune response to the benefit of the bacteria in the intercellular space. The targets and activities of a subset of effectors have been elucidated recently. In this article, we focus on the experimental approaches that have proved most successful in probing the molecular basis of effectors, ranging from loss-of-function to gain-of-function analyses utilizing several techniques for effector delivery into plants. In particular, we highlight how these diverse approaches have been applied to the study of one effector—AvrPtoB—a multifunctional protein with the ability to suppress both effector-triggered immunity and pathogen (or microbe)-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity. Taken together, advances in this field illustrate the need for multiple experimental approaches when elucidating the function of a single effector. PMID:19849784

  15. Immune homeostasis enforced by co-localized effector and regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiduo; Gerner, Michael Y.; Van Panhuys, Nicholas; Levine, Andrew G.; Rudensky, Alexander Y.; Germain, Ronald N.

    2015-01-01

    Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a critical role in preventing autoimmune disease by limiting the effector activity of conventional T cells that have escaped thymic negative selection or cell-autonomous peripheral inactivation1–3. However, despite the substantial information available about the molecular players mediating Treg functional interference with auto-aggressive effector responses4,5, the relevant cellular events in intact tissues remain largely unexplored and the issues of whether Tregs prevent activation of self-specific T cells or function primarily to limit damage from such cells have not been addressed6. Here we have employed multiplex, high-resolution, quantitative imaging to reveal that within most secondary lymphoid tissues, Tregs expressing phosphorylated STAT5 (pSTAT5) and high amounts of the suppressive molecules CD73 and CTLA-4 exist in discrete clusters with rare IL-2 producing effector T cells activated by self-antigens. This local IL-2 production induces the STAT5 phosphorylation in the Tregs and is part of a feedback circuit that augments the suppressive properties of the Tregs to limit further autoimmune responses. Inducible ablation of TCR expression by Tregs reduces their regulatory capacity and disrupts their localization in such clusters, resulting in uncontrolled effector T cell responses. Our data thus reveal that autoreactive T cells reach a state of activation and cytokine gene induction on a regular basis, with physically co-clustering, TCR-stimulated Tregs responding to this activation in a feedback manner to suppress incipient autoimmunity and maintain immune homeostasis. PMID:26605524

  16. Antibodies targeting human OX40 expand effector T cells and block inducible and natural regulatory T cell function

    PubMed Central

    Voo, Kui S.; Bover, Laura; Harline, Megan L.; Vien, Long T.; Facchinetti, Valeria; Arima, Kazuhiko; Kwak, Larry W.; Liu, Yong J.

    2013-01-01

    Current cancer vaccines induce tumor-specific T cell responses without sustained tumor regression because immunosuppressive elements within the tumor induce exhaustion of effector T cells and infiltration of immune-suppressive regulatory T cells (Tregs). Therefore, much effort has been made to generate agonistic Abs targeting members of the TNFR superfamily, such as OX40, 4- 1BB, and GITR, expressed on effector T cells and Tregs, to reinvigorate T cell effector function and block Treg-suppressive function. In this article, we describe the development of a panel of anti-human OX40 agonistic mouse mAbs that could promote effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferation, inhibit the induction of CD4+ IL-10 -producing type 1 regulatory T cells, inhibit the expansion of ICOS+IL-10+ Tregs, inhibit TGF-b–induced FOXP3 expression on naive CD4+ T cells, and block natural Treg–suppressive function. We humanized two anti–human OX40 mAb clones, and they retained the potency of their parental clones. These Abs should provide broad opportunities for potential combination therapy to treat a wide realm of cancers and preventative vaccines against infectious diseases. PMID:24014877

  17. Antibodies targeting human OX40 expand effector T cells and block inducible and natural regulatory T cell function.

    PubMed

    Voo, Kui S; Bover, Laura; Harline, Megan L; Vien, Long T; Facchinetti, Valeria; Arima, Kazuhiko; Kwak, Larry W; Liu, Yong J

    2013-10-01

    Current cancer vaccines induce tumor-specific T cell responses without sustained tumor regression because immunosuppressive elements within the tumor induce exhaustion of effector T cells and infiltration of immune-suppressive regulatory T cells (Tregs). Therefore, much effort has been made to generate agonistic Abs targeting members of the TNFR superfamily, such as OX40, 4-1BB, and GITR, expressed on effector T cells and Tregs, to reinvigorate T cell effector function and block Treg-suppressive function. In this article, we describe the development of a panel of anti-human OX40 agonistic mouse mAbs that could promote effector CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell proliferation, inhibit the induction of CD4(+) IL-10 -producing type 1 regulatory T cells, inhibit the expansion of ICOS(+)IL-10(+) Tregs, inhibit TGF-β-induced FOXP3 expression on naive CD4(+) T cells, and block natural Treg-suppressive function. We humanized two anti-human OX40 mAb clones, and they retained the potency of their parental clones. These Abs should provide broad opportunities for potential combination therapy to treat a wide realm of cancers and preventative vaccines against infectious diseases. PMID:24014877

  18. Combover/CG10732, a Novel PCP Effector for Drosophila Wing Hair Formation

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Jeremy K.; Dollar, Gretchen; Lu, Qiuheng; Barnett, Austen; Pechuan Jorge, Joaquin; Schlosser, Andreas; Pfleger, Cathie; Adler, Paul; Jenny, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The polarization of cells is essential for the proper functioning of most organs. Planar Cell Polarity (PCP), the polarization within the plane of an epithelium, is perpendicular to apical-basal polarity and established by the non-canonical Wnt/Fz-PCP signaling pathway. Within each tissue, downstream PCP effectors link the signal to tissue specific readouts such as stereocilia orientation in the inner ear and hair follicle orientation in vertebrates or the polarization of ommatidia and wing hairs in Drosophila melanogaster. Specific PCP effectors in the wing such as Multiple wing hairs (Mwh) and Rho Kinase (Rok) are required to position the hair at the correct position and to prevent ectopic actin hairs. In a genome-wide screen in vitro, we identified Combover (Cmb)/CG10732 as a novel Rho kinase substrate. Overexpression of Cmb causes the formation of a multiple hair cell phenotype (MHC), similar to loss of rok and mwh. This MHC phenotype is dominantly enhanced by removal of rok or of other members of the PCP effector gene family. Furthermore, we show that Cmb physically interacts with Mwh, and cmb null mutants suppress the MHC phenotype of mwh alleles. Our data indicate that Cmb is a novel PCP effector that promotes to wing hair formation, a function that is antagonized by Mwh. PMID:25207969

  19. Different Subsets of T Cells, Memory, Effector Functions, and CAR-T Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Golubovskaya, Vita; Wu, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    This review is focused on different subsets of T cells: CD4 and CD8, memory and effector functions, and their role in CAR-T therapy--a cellular adoptive immunotherapy with T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptor. The CAR-T cells recognize tumor antigens and induce cytotoxic activities against tumor cells. Recently, differences in T cell functions and the role of memory and effector T cells were shown to be important in CAR-T cell immunotherapy. The CD4⁺ subsets (Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, Treg, and Tfh) and CD8⁺ memory and effector subsets differ in extra-cellular (CD25, CD45RO, CD45RA, CCR-7, L-Selectin [CD62L], etc.); intracellular markers (FOXP3); epigenetic and genetic programs; and metabolic pathways (catabolic or anabolic); and these differences can be modulated to improve CAR-T therapy. In addition, CD4⁺ Treg cells suppress the efficacy of CAR-T cell therapy, and different approaches to overcome this suppression are discussed in this review. Thus, next-generation CAR-T immunotherapy can be improved, based on our knowledge of T cell subsets functions, differentiation, proliferation, and signaling pathways to generate more active CAR-T cells against tumors.

  20. Different Subsets of T Cells, Memory, Effector Functions, and CAR-T Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Golubovskaya, Vita; Wu, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    This review is focused on different subsets of T cells: CD4 and CD8, memory and effector functions, and their role in CAR-T therapy––a cellular adoptive immunotherapy with T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptor. The CAR-T cells recognize tumor antigens and induce cytotoxic activities against tumor cells. Recently, differences in T cell functions and the role of memory and effector T cells were shown to be important in CAR-T cell immunotherapy. The CD4+ subsets (Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, Treg, and Tfh) and CD8+ memory and effector subsets differ in extra-cellular (CD25, CD45RO, CD45RA, CCR-7, L-Selectin [CD62L], etc.); intracellular markers (FOXP3); epigenetic and genetic programs; and metabolic pathways (catabolic or anabolic); and these differences can be modulated to improve CAR-T therapy. In addition, CD4+ Treg cells suppress the efficacy of CAR-T cell therapy, and different approaches to overcome this suppression are discussed in this review. Thus, next-generation CAR-T immunotherapy can be improved, based on our knowledge of T cell subsets functions, differentiation, proliferation, and signaling pathways to generate more active CAR-T cells against tumors. PMID:26999211

  1. Novel Control Effectors for Truss Braced Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Edward V.; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Joshi, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    At cruise flight conditions very high aspect ratio/low sweep truss braced wings (TBW) may be subject to design requirements that distinguish them from more highly swept cantilevered wings. High aspect ratio, short chord length and relative thinness of the airfoil sections all contribute to relatively low wing torsional stiffness. This may lead to aeroelastic issues such as aileron reversal and low flutter margins. In order to counteract these issues, high aspect ratio/low sweep wings may need to carry additional high speed control effectors to operate when outboard ailerons are in reversal and/or must carry additional structural weight to enhance torsional stiffness. The novel control effector evaluated in this study is a variable sweep raked wing tip with an aileron control surface. Forward sweep of the tip allows the aileron to align closely with the torsional axis of the wing and operate in a conventional fashion. Aft sweep of the tip creates a large moment arm from the aileron to the wing torsional axis greatly enhancing aileron reversal. The novelty comes from using this enhanced and controllable aileron reversal effect to provide roll control authority by acting as a servo tab and providing roll control through intentional twist of the wing. In this case the reduced torsional stiffness of the wing becomes an advantage to be exploited. The study results show that the novel control effector concept does provide roll control as described, but only for a restricted class of TBW aircraft configurations. For the configuration studied (long range, dual aisle, Mach 0.85 cruise) the novel control effector provides significant benefits including up to 12% reduction in fuel burn.

  2. Identification of Novel Coxiella burnetii Icm/Dot Effectors and Genetic Analysis of Their Involvement in Modulating a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lifshitz, Ziv; Burstein, David; Schwartz, Kierstyn; Shuman, Howard A.; Pupko, Tal

    2014-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, is a human intracellular pathogen that utilizes the Icm/Dot type IVB secretion system to translocate effector proteins into host cells. To identify novel C. burnetii effectors, we applied a machine-learning approach to predict C. burnetii effectors, and examination of 20 such proteins resulted in the identification of 13 novel effectors. To determine whether these effectors, as well as several previously identified effectors, modulate conserved eukaryotic pathways, they were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The effects on yeast growth were examined under regular growth conditions and in the presence of caffeine, a known modulator of the yeast cell wall integrity (CWI) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. In the presence of caffeine, expression of the effectors CBU0885 and CBU1676 caused an enhanced inhibition of yeast growth, and the growth inhibition of CBU0388 was suppressed. Furthermore, analysis of synthetic lethality effects and examination of the activity of the CWI MAP kinase transcription factor Rlm1 indicated that CBU0388 enhances the activation of this MAP kinase pathway in yeast, while CBU0885 and CBU1676 abolish this activation. Additionally, coexpression of CBU1676 and CBU0388 resulted in mutual suppression of their inhibition of yeast growth. These results strongly indicate that these three effectors modulate the CWI MAP kinase pathway in yeast. Moreover, both CBU1676 and CBU0885 were found to contain a conserved haloacid dehalogenase (HAD) domain, which was found to be required for their activity. Collectively, our results demonstrate that MAP kinase pathways are most likely targeted by C. burnetii Icm/Dot effectors. PMID:24958706

  3. Impact of end effector technology on telemanipulation performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Szakaly, Z.; Ohm, T.

    1990-01-01

    Generic requirements for end effector design are briefly summarized as derived from generic functional and operational requirements. Included is a brief summary of terms and definitions related to end effector technology. The second part contains a brief overview of end effector technology work as JPL during the past ten years, with emphasis on the evolution of new mechanical, sensing and control capabilities of end effectors. The third and major part is devoted to the description of current end effector technology. The ongoing work addresses mechanical, sensing and control details with emphasis on mechanical ruggedness, increased resolution in sensing, and close electronic and control integration with overall telemanipulator control system.

  4. Effector-triggered immunity blocks pathogen degradation of an immunity-associated vesicle traffic regulator in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Kinya; Mecey, Christy; Lee, Young-Nam; Imboden, Lori Alice; Chang, Jeff H; He, Sheng Yang

    2011-06-28

    Innate immunity in plants can be triggered by microbe- and pathogen-associated molecular patterns. The pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) is often suppressed by pathogen effectors delivered into the host cell. Plants can overcome pathogen suppression of PTI and reestablish pathogen resistance through effector-triggered immunity (ETI). An unanswered question is how plants might overcome pathogen-suppression of PTI during ETI. Findings described in this paper suggest a possible mechanism. During Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato (Pst) DC3000 infection of Arabidopsis, a host ADP ribosylation factor guanine nucleotide exchange factor, AtMIN7, is destabilized by the pathogen effector HopM1 through the host 26S proteasome. In this study, we discovered that AtMIN7 is required for not only PTI, consistent with the notion that Pst DC3000 degrades AtMIN7 to suppress PTI, but also ETI. The AtMIN7 level in healthy plants is low, but increases posttranscriptionally in response to activation of PTI. Whereas DC3000 infection led to degradation of AtMIN7, activation of ETI by three different effectors, AvrRpt2, AvrPphB, and HopA1, in Col-0 plants blocks the ability of Pst DC3000 to destabilize AtMIN7. Further analyses of bacterial translocation of HopM1 and AtMIN7 stability in HopM1 transgenic plants show that ETI prevents HopM1-mediated degradation of AtMIN7 inside the plant cell. Both AtMIN7 and HopM1 are localized to the trans-Golgi network/early endosome, a subcellular compartment that is not previously known to be associated with bacterial pathogenesis in plants. Thus, blocking pathogen degradation of trans-Golgi network/early endosome-associated AtMIN7 is a critical part of the ETI mechanism to counter bacterial suppression of PTI.

  5. Specific in planta recognition of two GKLR proteins of the downy mildew Bremia lactucae revealed in a large effector screen in lettuce.

    PubMed

    Stassen, Joost H M; den Boer, Erik; Vergeer, Pim W J; Andel, Annemiek; Ellendorff, Ursula; Pelgrom, Koen; Pel, Mathieu; Schut, Johan; Zonneveld, Olaf; Jeuken, Marieke J W; Van den Ackerveken, Guido

    2013-11-01

    Breeding lettuce (Lactuca sativa) for resistance to the downy mildew pathogen Bremia lactucae is mainly achieved by introgression of dominant downy mildew resistance (Dm) genes. New Bremia races quickly render Dm genes ineffective, possibly by mutation of recognized host-translocated effectors or by suppression of effector-triggered immunity. We have previously identified 34 potential RXLR(-like) effector proteins of B. lactucae that were here tested for specific recognition within a collection of 129 B. lactucae-resistant Lactuca lines. Two effectors triggered a hypersensitive response: BLG01 in 52 lines, predominantly L. saligna, and BLG03 in two L. sativa lines containing Dm2 resistance. The N-terminal sequences of BLG01 and BLG03, containing the signal peptide and GKLR variant of the RXLR translocation motif, are not required for in planta recognition but function in effector delivery. The locus responsible for BLG01 recognition maps to the bottom of lettuce chromosome 9, whereas recognition of BLG03 maps in the RGC2 cluster on chromosome 2. Lactuca lines that recognize the BLG effectors are not resistant to Bremia isolate Bl:24 that expresses both BLG genes, suggesting that Bl:24 can suppress the triggered immune responses. In contrast, lettuce segregants displaying Dm2-mediated resistance to Bremia isolate Bl:5 are responsive to BLG03, suggesting that BLG03 is a candidate Avr2 protein. PMID:23883357

  6. Potato NPH3/RPT2-Like Protein StNRL1, Targeted by a Phytophthora infestans RXLR Effector, Is a Susceptibility Factor1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lina; Naqvi, Shaista; Boevink, Petra C.; Armstrong, Miles; Giuliani, Licida M.; Zhan, Jiasui; Birch, Paul R.J.

    2016-01-01

    Plant pathogens deliver effectors to manipulate host processes. We know little about how fungal and oomycete effectors target host proteins to promote susceptibility, yet such knowledge is vital to understand crop disease. We show that either transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana, or stable transgenic expression in potato (Solanum tuberosum), of the Phytophthora infestans RXLR effector Pi02860 enhances leaf colonization by the pathogen. Expression of Pi02860 also attenuates cell death triggered by the P. infestans microbe-associated molecular pattern INF1, indicating that the effector suppresses pattern-triggered immunity. However, the effector does not attenuate cell death triggered by Cf4/Avr4 coexpression, showing that it does not suppress all cell death activated by cell surface receptors. Pi02860 interacts in yeast two-hybrid assays with potato NPH3/RPT2-LIKE1 (NRL1), a predicted CULLIN3-associated ubiquitin E3 ligase. Interaction of Pi02860 in planta was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays. Virus-induced gene silencing of NRL1 in N. benthamiana resulted in reduced P. infestans colonization and accelerated INF1-mediated cell death, indicating that this host protein acts as a negative regulator of immunity. Moreover, whereas NRL1 virus-induced gene silencing had no effect on the ability of the P. infestans effector Avr3a to suppress INF1-mediated cell death, such suppression by Pi02860 was significantly attenuated, indicating that this activity of Pi02860 is mediated by NRL1. Transient overexpression of NRL1 resulted in the suppression of INF1-mediated cell death and enhanced P. infestans leaf colonization, demonstrating that NRL1 acts as a susceptibility factor to promote late blight disease. PMID:26966171

  7. Potato NPH3/RPT2-Like Protein StNRL1, Targeted by a Phytophthora infestans RXLR Effector, Is a Susceptibility Factor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lina; McLellan, Hazel; Naqvi, Shaista; He, Qin; Boevink, Petra C; Armstrong, Miles; Giuliani, Licida M; Zhang, Wei; Tian, Zhendong; Zhan, Jiasui; Gilroy, Eleanor M; Birch, Paul R J

    2016-05-01

    Plant pathogens deliver effectors to manipulate host processes. We know little about how fungal and oomycete effectors target host proteins to promote susceptibility, yet such knowledge is vital to understand crop disease. We show that either transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana, or stable transgenic expression in potato (Solanum tuberosum), of the Phytophthora infestans RXLR effector Pi02860 enhances leaf colonization by the pathogen. Expression of Pi02860 also attenuates cell death triggered by the P. infestans microbe-associated molecular pattern INF1, indicating that the effector suppresses pattern-triggered immunity. However, the effector does not attenuate cell death triggered by Cf4/Avr4 coexpression, showing that it does not suppress all cell death activated by cell surface receptors. Pi02860 interacts in yeast two-hybrid assays with potato NPH3/RPT2-LIKE1 (NRL1), a predicted CULLIN3-associated ubiquitin E3 ligase. Interaction of Pi02860 in planta was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays. Virus-induced gene silencing of NRL1 in N. benthamiana resulted in reduced P. infestans colonization and accelerated INF1-mediated cell death, indicating that this host protein acts as a negative regulator of immunity. Moreover, whereas NRL1 virus-induced gene silencing had no effect on the ability of the P. infestans effector Avr3a to suppress INF1-mediated cell death, such suppression by Pi02860 was significantly attenuated, indicating that this activity of Pi02860 is mediated by NRL1. Transient overexpression of NRL1 resulted in the suppression of INF1-mediated cell death and enhanced P. infestans leaf colonization, demonstrating that NRL1 acts as a susceptibility factor to promote late blight disease. PMID:26966171

  8. Potato NPH3/RPT2-Like Protein StNRL1, Targeted by a Phytophthora infestans RXLR Effector, Is a Susceptibility Factor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lina; McLellan, Hazel; Naqvi, Shaista; He, Qin; Boevink, Petra C; Armstrong, Miles; Giuliani, Licida M; Zhang, Wei; Tian, Zhendong; Zhan, Jiasui; Gilroy, Eleanor M; Birch, Paul R J

    2016-05-01

    Plant pathogens deliver effectors to manipulate host processes. We know little about how fungal and oomycete effectors target host proteins to promote susceptibility, yet such knowledge is vital to understand crop disease. We show that either transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana, or stable transgenic expression in potato (Solanum tuberosum), of the Phytophthora infestans RXLR effector Pi02860 enhances leaf colonization by the pathogen. Expression of Pi02860 also attenuates cell death triggered by the P. infestans microbe-associated molecular pattern INF1, indicating that the effector suppresses pattern-triggered immunity. However, the effector does not attenuate cell death triggered by Cf4/Avr4 coexpression, showing that it does not suppress all cell death activated by cell surface receptors. Pi02860 interacts in yeast two-hybrid assays with potato NPH3/RPT2-LIKE1 (NRL1), a predicted CULLIN3-associated ubiquitin E3 ligase. Interaction of Pi02860 in planta was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays. Virus-induced gene silencing of NRL1 in N. benthamiana resulted in reduced P. infestans colonization and accelerated INF1-mediated cell death, indicating that this host protein acts as a negative regulator of immunity. Moreover, whereas NRL1 virus-induced gene silencing had no effect on the ability of the P. infestans effector Avr3a to suppress INF1-mediated cell death, such suppression by Pi02860 was significantly attenuated, indicating that this activity of Pi02860 is mediated by NRL1. Transient overexpression of NRL1 resulted in the suppression of INF1-mediated cell death and enhanced P. infestans leaf colonization, demonstrating that NRL1 acts as a susceptibility factor to promote late blight disease.

  9. Repeat-containing protein effectors of plant-associated organisms

    PubMed Central

    Mesarich, Carl H.; Bowen, Joanna K.; Hamiaux, Cyril; Templeton, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    Many plant-associated organisms, including microbes, nematodes, and insects, deliver effector proteins into the apoplast, vascular tissue, or cell cytoplasm of their prospective hosts. These effectors function to promote colonization, typically by altering host physiology or by modulating host immune responses. The same effectors however, can also trigger host immunity in the presence of cognate host immune receptor proteins, and thus prevent colonization. To circumvent effector-triggered immunity, or to further enhance host colonization, plant-associated organisms often rely on adaptive effector evolution. In recent years, it has become increasingly apparent that several effectors of plant-associated organisms are repeat-containing proteins (RCPs) that carry tandem or non-tandem arrays of an amino acid sequence or structural motif. In this review, we highlight the diverse roles that these repeat domains play in RCP effector function. We also draw attention to the potential role of these repeat domains in adaptive evolution with regards to RCP effector function and the evasion of effector-triggered immunity. The aim of this review is to increase the profile of RCP effectors from plant-associated organisms. PMID:26557126

  10. Expression Profiling during Arabidopsis/Downy Mildew Interaction Reveals a Highly-Expressed Effector That Attenuates Responses to Salicylic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Asai, Shuta; Caillaud, Marie-Cécile; Furzer, Oliver J.; Ishaque, Naveed; Wirthmueller, Lennart; Fabro, Georgina; Shirasu, Ken; Jones, Jonathan D. G.

    2014-01-01

    Plants have evolved strong innate immunity mechanisms, but successful pathogens evade or suppress plant immunity via effectors delivered into the plant cell. Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) causes downy mildew on Arabidopsis thaliana, and a genome sequence is available for isolate Emoy2. Here, we exploit the availability of genome sequences for Hpa and Arabidopsis to measure gene-expression changes in both Hpa and Arabidopsis simultaneously during infection. Using a high-throughput cDNA tag sequencing method, we reveal expression patterns of Hpa predicted effectors and Arabidopsis genes in compatible and incompatible interactions, and promoter elements associated with Hpa genes expressed during infection. By resequencing Hpa isolate Waco9, we found it evades Arabidopsis resistance gene RPP1 through deletion of the cognate recognized effector ATR1. Arabidopsis salicylic acid (SA)-responsive genes including PR1 were activated not only at early time points in the incompatible interaction but also at late time points in the compatible interaction. By histochemical analysis, we found that Hpa suppresses SA-inducible PR1 expression, specifically in the haustoriated cells into which host-translocated effectors are delivered, but not in non-haustoriated adjacent cells. Finally, we found a highly-expressed Hpa effector candidate that suppresses responsiveness to SA. As this approach can be easily applied to host-pathogen interactions for which both host and pathogen genome sequences are available, this work opens the door towards transcriptome studies in infection biology that should help unravel pathogen infection strategies and the mechanisms by which host defense responses are overcome. PMID:25329884

  11. Transcription Factor Bcl11b Controls Effector and Memory CD8 T cell Fate Decision and Function during Poxvirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Abboud, Georges; Stanfield, Jessica; Tahiliani, Vikas; Desai, Pritesh; Hutchinson, Tarun E.; Lorentsen, Kyle J.; Cho, Jonathan J.; Avram, Dorina; Salek-Ardakani, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    CD8+ T cells play an important role in host resistance to many viral infections, but the underlying transcriptional mechanisms governing their differentiation and functionality remain poorly defined. By using a highly virulent systemic and respiratory poxvirus infection in mice, we show that the transcription factor Bcl11b provides a dual trigger that sustains the clonal expansion of virus-specific effector CD8+ T cells, while simultaneously suppressing the expression of surface markers associated with short-lived effector cell (SLEC) differentiation. Additionally, we demonstrate that Bcl11b supports the acquisition of memory precursor effector cell (MPEC) phenotype and, thus, its absence causes near complete loss of lymphoid and lung-resident memory cells. Interestingly, despite having normal levels of T-bet and Eomesodermin, Bcl11b-deficient CD8+ T cells failed to execute effector differentiation needed for anti-viral cytokine production and degranulation, suggesting a non-redundant role of Bcl11b in regulation of this program. Thus, Bcl11b is a critical player in fate decision of SLECs and MPECs, as well as effector function and memory formation. PMID:27790219

  12. Design and fabrication of an end effector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crossley, F. R. E.; Umholtz, F. G.

    1975-01-01

    The construction is described of a prototype mechanical hand or 'end effector' for use on a remotely controlled robot, but with possible application as a prosthetic device. An analysis of hand motions is reported, from which it is concluded that the two most important manipulations (apart from grasps) are to be able to pick up a tool and draw it into a nested grip against the palm, and to be able to hold a pistol-grip tool such as an electric drill and pull the trigger. A model was tested and found capable of both these operations.

  13. Two cytoplasmic effectors of Phytophthora sojae regulate plant cell death via interactions with plant catalases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meixiang; Li, Qi; Liu, Tingli; Liu, Li; Shen, Danyu; Zhu, Ye; Liu, Peihan; Zhou, Jian-Min; Dou, Daolong

    2015-01-01

    Plant pathogenic oomycetes, such as Phytophthora sojae, secrete an arsenal of host cytoplasmic effectors to promote infection. We have shown previously that P. sojae PsCRN63 (for crinkling- and necrosis-inducing proteins) induces programmed cell death (PCD) while PsCRN115 blocks PCD in planta; however, they are jointly required for full pathogenesis. Here, we find that PsCRN63 alone or PsCRN63 and PsCRN115 together might suppress the immune responses of Nicotiana benthamiana and demonstrate that these two cytoplasmic effectors interact with catalases from N. benthamiana and soybean (Glycine max). Transient expression of PsCRN63 increases hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) accumulation, whereas PsCRN115 suppresses this process. Transient overexpression of NbCAT1 (for N. benthamiana CATALASE1) or GmCAT1 specifically alleviates PsCRN63-induced PCD. Suppression of the PsCRN63-induced PCD by PsCRN115 is compromised when catalases are silenced in N. benthamiana. Interestingly, the NbCAT1 is recruited into the plant nucleus in the presence of PsCRN63 or PsCRN115; NbCAT1 and GmCAT1 are destabilized when PsCRN63 is coexpressed, and PsCRN115 inhibits the processes. Thus, PsCRN63/115 manipulates plant PCD through interfering with catalases and perturbing H(2)O(2) homeostasis. Furthermore, silencing of catalase genes enhances susceptibility to Phytophthora capsici, indicating that catalases are essential for plant resistance. Taken together, we suggest that P. sojae secretes these two effectors to regulate plant PCD and H(2)O(2) homeostasis through direct interaction with catalases and, therefore, overcome host immune responses.

  14. Modification of Bacterial Effector Proteins Inside Eukaryotic Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Popa, Crina M.; Tabuchi, Mitsuaki; Valls, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria manipulate their hosts by delivering a number of virulence proteins -called effectors- directly into the plant or animal cells. Recent findings have shown that such effectors can suffer covalent modifications inside the eukaryotic cells. Here, we summarize the recent reports where effector modifications by the eukaryotic machinery have been described. We restrict our focus on proteins secreted by the type III or type IV systems, excluding other bacterial toxins. We describe the known examples of effectors whose enzymatic activity is triggered by interaction with plant and animal cell factors, including GTPases, E2-Ubiquitin conjugates, cyclophilin and thioredoxins. We focus on the structural interactions with these factors and their influence on effector function. We also review the described examples of host-mediated post-translational effector modifications which are required for proper subcellular location and function. These host-specific covalent modifications include phosphorylation, ubiquitination, SUMOylation, and lipidations such as prenylation, fatty acylation and phospholipid binding. PMID:27489796

  15. Modification of Bacterial Effector Proteins Inside Eukaryotic Host Cells.

    PubMed

    Popa, Crina M; Tabuchi, Mitsuaki; Valls, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria manipulate their hosts by delivering a number of virulence proteins -called effectors- directly into the plant or animal cells. Recent findings have shown that such effectors can suffer covalent modifications inside the eukaryotic cells. Here, we summarize the recent reports where effector modifications by the eukaryotic machinery have been described. We restrict our focus on proteins secreted by the type III or type IV systems, excluding other bacterial toxins. We describe the known examples of effectors whose enzymatic activity is triggered by interaction with plant and animal cell factors, including GTPases, E2-Ubiquitin conjugates, cyclophilin and thioredoxins. We focus on the structural interactions with these factors and their influence on effector function. We also review the described examples of host-mediated post-translational effector modifications which are required for proper subcellular location and function. These host-specific covalent modifications include phosphorylation, ubiquitination, SUMOylation, and lipidations such as prenylation, fatty acylation and phospholipid binding.

  16. Formins as effector proteins of Rho GTPases

    PubMed Central

    Kühn, Sonja; Geyer, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Formin proteins were recognized as effectors of Rho GTPases some 15 years ago. They contribute to different cellular actin cytoskeleton structures by their ability to polymerize straight actin filaments at the barbed end. While not all formins necessarily interact with Rho GTPases, a subgroup of mammalian formins, termed Diaphanous-related formins or DRFs, were shown to be activated by small GTPases of the Rho superfamily. DRFs are autoinhibited in the resting state by an N- to C-terminal interaction that renders the central actin polymerization domain inactive. Upon the interaction with a GTP-bound Rho, Rac, or Cdc42 GTPase, the C-terminal autoregulation domain is displaced from its N-terminal recognition site and the formin becomes active to polymerize actin filaments. In this review we discuss the current knowledge on the structure, activation, and function of formin-GTPase interactions for the mammalian formin families Dia, Daam, FMNL, and FHOD. We describe both direct and indirect interactions of formins with GTPases, which lead to formin activation and cytoskeletal rearrangements. The multifaceted function of formins as effector proteins of Rho GTPases thus reflects the diversity of the actin cytoskeleton in cells. PMID:24914801

  17. Multiple thermoregulatory effectors with independent central controls.

    PubMed

    McAllen, Robin M; Tanaka, Mutsumi; Ootsuka, Yoichiro; McKinley, Michael J

    2010-05-01

    This review first considers how mammalian body temperature regulation evolved, and how the brain's responses to thermoregulatory challenges are likely to be organised differently from the way an engineer would design them. This is because thermoregulatory effector mechanisms would have evolved one at a time, with each being superimposed on pre-existing mechanisms. There may be no functional need for the final ensemble of control loops to be coordinated by neural cross-connections: appropriate thermal thresholds would solve the problem sufficiently. Investigations first into thermoregulatory behaviours and later into unconscious thermoregulatory mechanisms (autonomic and shivering) have led investigators to the realisation that multiple control loops exist in the brain, with each effector system apparently regulated by its own central temperature sensors. This theme is developed with reference to data on four temperature-regulated neural outflows that have been studied on anaesthetized rats under standard conditions in the authors' laboratory. Direct comparisons were made between the behaviour of sympathetic nerves supplying the tail vasculature, vessels in the proximal hairy skin, interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) and fusimotor fibres to hind limb muscle. All four outflows were activated by cooling the skin, and all were silenced by neuronal inhibition in the medullary raphé. Their thermal thresholds were quite different, however, as were their relative responsiveness to core temperature. This was ranked as: tail > back skin > BAT > fusimotor. These and other data indicate that the four thermoeffector outflows are driven by separate neural pathways, each regulated by independent brain temperature sensors.

  18. Analysis of Yersinia enterocolitica Effector Translocation into Host Cells Using Beta-lactamase Effector Fusions.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Manuel; Zobiak, Bernd; Nauth, Theresa; Aepfelbacher, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Many gram-negative bacteria including pathogenic Yersinia spp. employ type III secretion systems to translocate effector proteins into eukaryotic target cells. Inside the host cell the effector proteins manipulate cellular functions to the benefit of the bacteria. To better understand the control of type III secretion during host cell interaction, sensitive and accurate assays to measure translocation are required. We here describe the application of an assay based on the fusion of a Yersinia enterocolitica effector protein fragment (Yersinia outer protein; YopE) with TEM-1 beta-lactamase for quantitative analysis of translocation. The assay relies on cleavage of a cell permeant FRET dye (CCF4/AM) by translocated beta-lactamase fusion. After cleavage of the cephalosporin core of CCF4 by the beta-lactamase, FRET from coumarin to fluorescein is disrupted and excitation of the coumarin moiety leads to blue fluorescence emission. Different applications of this method have been described in the literature highlighting its versatility. The method allows for analysis of translocation in vitro and also in in vivo, e.g., in a mouse model. Detection of the fluorescence signals can be performed using plate readers, FACS analysis or fluorescence microscopy. In the setup described here, in vitro translocation of effector fusions into HeLa cells by different Yersinia mutants is monitored by laser scanning microscopy. Recording intracellular conversion of the FRET reporter by the beta-lactamase effector fusion in real-time provides robust quantitative results. We here show exemplary data, demonstrating increased translocation by a Y. enterocolitica YopE mutant compared to the wild type strain. PMID:26484613

  19. The dual targeting of immunosuppressive cells and oxidants promotes effector and memory T-cell functions against lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sawant, Anandi; Schafer, Cara C; Ponnazhagan, Selvarangan; Deshane, Jessy S

    2014-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that the combination of gemcitabine and a superoxide dismutase mimetic protects mice against lung cancer by suppressing the functions of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and by activating memory CD8+ T-cell responses. Persistent memory cells exhibited a glycolytic metabolism, which may have directly enhanced their effector functions. This combinatorial therapeutic regimen may reduce the propensity of some cancer patients to relapse. PMID:24711958

  20. Exploitation of Eukaryotic Subcellular Targeting Mechanisms by Bacterial Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Stuart W.; Galán, Jorge E.

    2013-01-01

    Several bacteria have evolved specialized secretion systems to deliver bacterial effector proteins into eukaryotic cells with the capacity to modulate cellular pathways to promote bacterial survival and replication. The spatial and temporal context in which effectors exert their biochemical activities is critical for their function. Understanding the mechanisms that lead to their precise subcellular localization following delivery into host cells is essential for understanding effector function in the context of infection. Recent studies have shown that bacterial effectors exploit host cellular machinery to accurately target their biochemical activities within the host cell. PMID:23588250

  1. Imaging fluorescently tagged Phytophthora effector proteins inside infected plant tissue.

    PubMed

    Boevink, Petra C; Birch, Paul R J; Whisson, Stephen C

    2011-01-01

    Assays to determine the role of pathogen effectors within an infected plant cell are yielding valuable information about which host processes are targeted to allow successful pathogen colonization. However, this does not necessarily inform on the cellular location of these interactions, or if these effector-virulence target interactions occur only in the presence of the pathogen. Here, we describe techniques to allow the subcellular localization of pathogen effectors inside infected plant cells or tissues, based largely on infiltration of plant tissue by Agrobacterium tumefaciens and its delivery of DNA encoding fluorescent protein-tagged effectors, and subsequent confocal microscopy. PMID:21359810

  2. Fibre optic sensor on robot end effector for flexible assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Yung, K.L.; Lau, W.S.; Choi, C.K.; Shan, Y.Y.

    1995-12-31

    A fibre optic sensor system was constructed for use on robot end effectors for flexible assembly. The sensor detected the deviations between robot end effector and the workpiece. The signal was fed back to robot controller to shift the end effector until the centre of end effector and the centre of workpiece were aligned at the correct orientation. Then workpiece can be grasped symmetrically. Sensor fusion concept was used to guard against sensor system failure. Fuzzy linguistic variable and control rule concept were introduced in the sensor integration. The experimental setup for the sensor integrated system was shown. The accuracy was also discussed.

  3. Phytophthora effector targets a novel component of small RNA pathway in plants to promote infection.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yongli; Shi, Jinxia; Zhai, Yi; Hou, Yingnan; Ma, Wenbo

    2015-05-01

    A broad range of parasites rely on the functions of effector proteins to subvert host immune response and facilitate disease development. The notorious Phytophthora pathogens evolved effectors with RNA silencing suppression activity to promote infection in plant hosts. Here we report that the Phytophthora Suppressor of RNA Silencing 1 (PSR1) can bind to an evolutionarily conserved nuclear protein containing the aspartate-glutamate-alanine-histidine-box RNA helicase domain in plants. This protein, designated PSR1-Interacting Protein 1 (PINP1), regulates the accumulation of both microRNAs and endogenous small interfering RNAs in Arabidopsis. A null mutation of PINP1 causes embryonic lethality, and silencing of PINP1 leads to developmental defects and hypersusceptibility to Phytophthora infection. These phenotypes are reminiscent of transgenic plants expressing PSR1, supporting PINP1 as a direct virulence target of PSR1. We further demonstrate that the localization of the Dicer-like 1 protein complex is impaired in the nucleus of PINP1-silenced or PSR1-expressing cells, indicating that PINP1 may facilitate small RNA processing by affecting the assembly of dicing complexes. A similar function of PINP1 homologous genes in development and immunity was also observed in Nicotiana benthamiana. These findings highlight PINP1 as a previously unidentified component of RNA silencing that regulates distinct classes of small RNAs in plants. Importantly, Phytophthora has evolved effectors to target PINP1 in order to promote infection.

  4. ATP-dependent effector-like functions of RIG-I like receptors

    PubMed Central

    Peisley, Alys; Hoffmann, Hans-Heinrich; Gilmore, Rachel H.; Schmidt, Tobias; Schmidt-Burgk, Jonathan; Hornung, Veit; Rice, Charles M.; Hur, Sun

    2015-01-01

    Summary The vertebrate antiviral innate immune system is often considered to consist of two distinct groups of proteins: pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that detect viral infection and induce the interferon (IFN) signaling, and effectors that directly act against viral replication. Accordingly, previous studies on PRRs, such as RIG-I and MDA5, have primarily focused on their functions in viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) detection and consequent antiviral signaling. We here report that both RIG-I and MDA5 efficiently displace viral proteins pre-bound to dsRNA in a manner dependent on their ATP hydrolysis, and that this activity assists a dsRNA-dependent antiviral effector protein, PKR, and allows RIG-I to promote MDA5 signaling. Furthermore, truncated RIG-I/MDA5 lacking the signaling domain, and hence the IFN stimulatory activity, displace viral proteins and suppress replication of certain viruses in an ATP-dependent manner. Thus, this study reveals novel “effector-like” functions of RIG-I and MDA5 that challenge the conventional view of PRRs. PMID:25891073

  5. An Oomycete CRN Effector Reprograms Expression of Plant HSP Genes by Targeting their Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Song, Tianqiao; Ma, Zhenchuan; Shen, Danyu; Li, Qi; Li, Wanlin; Su, Liming; Ye, Tingyue; Zhang, Meixiang; Wang, Yuanchao; Dou, Daolong

    2015-01-01

    Oomycete pathogens produce a large number of CRN effectors to manipulate plant immune responses and promote infection. However, their functional mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we identified a Phytophthora sojae CRN effector PsCRN108 which contains a putative DNA-binding helix-hairpin-helix (HhH) motif and acts in the plant cell nucleus. Silencing of the PsCRN108 gene reduced P. sojae virulence to soybean, while expression of the gene in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced plant susceptibility to P. capsici. Moreover, PsCRN108 could inhibit expression of HSP genes in A. thaliana, N. benthamiana and soybean. Both the HhH motif and nuclear localization signal of this effector were required for its contribution to virulence and its suppression of HSP gene expression. Furthermore, we found that PsCRN108 targeted HSP promoters in an HSE- and HhH motif-dependent manner. PsCRN108 could inhibit the association of the HSE with the plant heat shock transcription factor AtHsfA1a, which initializes HSP gene expression in response to stress. Therefore, our data support a role for PsCRN108 as a nucleomodulin in down-regulating the expression of plant defense-related genes by directly targeting specific plant promoters. PMID:26714171

  6. An Oomycete CRN Effector Reprograms Expression of Plant HSP Genes by Targeting their Promoters.

    PubMed

    Song, Tianqiao; Ma, Zhenchuan; Shen, Danyu; Li, Qi; Li, Wanlin; Su, Liming; Ye, Tingyue; Zhang, Meixiang; Wang, Yuanchao; Dou, Daolong

    2015-12-01

    Oomycete pathogens produce a large number of CRN effectors to manipulate plant immune responses and promote infection. However, their functional mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we identified a Phytophthora sojae CRN effector PsCRN108 which contains a putative DNA-binding helix-hairpin-helix (HhH) motif and acts in the plant cell nucleus. Silencing of the PsCRN108 gene reduced P. sojae virulence to soybean, while expression of the gene in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced plant susceptibility to P. capsici. Moreover, PsCRN108 could inhibit expression of HSP genes in A. thaliana, N. benthamiana and soybean. Both the HhH motif and nuclear localization signal of this effector were required for its contribution to virulence and its suppression of HSP gene expression. Furthermore, we found that PsCRN108 targeted HSP promoters in an HSE- and HhH motif-dependent manner. PsCRN108 could inhibit the association of the HSE with the plant heat shock transcription factor AtHsfA1a, which initializes HSP gene expression in response to stress. Therefore, our data support a role for PsCRN108 as a nucleomodulin in down-regulating the expression of plant defense-related genes by directly targeting specific plant promoters. PMID:26714171

  7. Miniature Trailing Edge Effector for Aerodynamic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Hak-Tae (Inventor); Bieniawski, Stefan R. (Inventor); Kroo, Ilan M. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Improved miniature trailing edge effectors for aerodynamic control are provided. Three types of devices having aerodynamic housings integrated to the trailing edge of an aerodynamic shape are presented, which vary in details of how the control surface can move. A bucket type device has a control surface which is the back part of a C-shaped member having two arms connected by the back section. The C-shaped section is attached to a housing at the ends of the arms, and is rotatable about an axis parallel to the wing trailing edge to provide up, down and neutral states. A flip-up type device has a control surface which rotates about an axis parallel to the wing trailing edge to provide up, down, neutral and brake states. A rotating type device has a control surface which rotates about an axis parallel to the chord line to provide up, down and neutral states.

  8. Active membrane cholesterol as a physiological effector.

    PubMed

    Lange, Yvonne; Steck, Theodore L

    2016-09-01

    Sterols associate preferentially with plasma membrane sphingolipids and saturated phospholipids to form stoichiometric complexes. Cholesterol in molar excess of the capacity of these polar bilayer lipids has a high accessibility and fugacity; we call this fraction active cholesterol. This review first considers how active cholesterol serves as an upstream regulator of cellular sterol homeostasis. The mechanism appears to utilize the redistribution of active cholesterol down its diffusional gradient to the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, where it binds multiple effectors and directs their feedback activity. We have also reviewed a broad literature in search of a role for active cholesterol (as opposed to bulk cholesterol or lipid domains such as rafts) in the activity of diverse membrane proteins. Several systems provide such evidence, implicating, in particular, caveolin-1, various kinds of ABC-type cholesterol transporters, solute transporters, receptors and ion channels. We suggest that this larger role for active cholesterol warrants close attention and can be tested easily.

  9. The mast cell: a multifunctional effector cell.

    PubMed

    Crivellato, Enrico; Ribatti, Domenico; Mallardi, Franco; Beltrami, Carlo Alberto

    2003-01-01

    Mast cells (MC) are recognized key cells of type I hypersensitivity reactions. Several lines of evidence, however, indicate that MC not only express critical effector functions in classic IgE-associated allergic disorders, but also play important roles in host defence against parasites, bacteria and perhaps even viruses. Indeed, it is now clear that MC can contribute to host defence in the context of either acquired or innate immune responses through the release of a myriad of pro-inflammatory and immunoregulatory molecules and the expression of a wide spectrum of surface receptors for cytokines and chemokines. Moreover, there is growing evidence that MC exert distinct nonimmunological functions, playing a relevant role in tissue homeostasis, remodeling and fibrosis as well as in the processes of tissue angiogenesis. In this review, we provide a small insight into the biology of mast cells and their potential implications in human pathology.

  10. Rack Insertion End Effector (RIEE) automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malladi, Narasimha

    1993-01-01

    NASA is developing a mechanism to manipulate and insert Racks into the Space Station Logistic modules. The mechanism consists of the following: a base with three motorized degrees of freedom, a 3 section motorized boom that goes from 15 to 44 feet in length, and a Rack Insertion End Effector (RIEE) with 5 hand wheels for precise alignment. The robotics section was tasked with the automation of the RIEE unit. In this report, for the automation of the RIEE unit, application of the Perceptics Vision System was conceptually developed to determine the position and orientation of the RIEE relative to the logistic module, and a MathCad program is written to display the needed displacements for precise alignment and final insertion of the Rack. The uniqueness of this report is that the whole report is in fact a MathCad program including text, derivations, and executable equations with example inputs and outputs.

  11. The Piriformospora indica effector PIIN_08944 promotes the mutualistic Sebacinalean symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Akum, Fidele N.; Steinbrenner, Jens; Biedenkopf, Dagmar; Imani, Jafargholi; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic and mutualistic microbes actively suppress plant defense by secreting effector proteins to manipulate the host responses for their own benefit. Current knowledge about fungal effectors has been mainly derived from biotrophic and hemibiotrophic plant pathogenic fungi and oomycetes with restricted host range. We studied colonization strategies of the root endophytic basidiomycete Piriformospora indica that colonizes a wide range of plant species thereby establishing long-term mutualistic relationships. The release of P. indica’s genome helped to identify hundreds of genes coding for candidate effectors and provides an opportunity to investigate the role of those proteins in a mutualistic symbiosis. We demonstrate that the candidate effector PIIN_08944 plays a crucial role during fungal colonization of Arabidopsis thaliana roots. PIIN_08944 expression was detected during chlamydospore germination, and fungal deletion mutants (PiΔ08944) showed delayed root colonization. Constitutive over-expression of PIIN_08944 in Arabidopsis rescued the delayed colonization phenotype of the deletion mutant. PIIN_08944-expressing Arabidopsis showed a reduced expression of flg22-induced marker genes of pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and the salicylic acid (SA) defense pathway, and expression of PIIN_08944 in barley reduced the burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) triggered by flg22 and chitin. These data suggest that PIIN_08944 contributes to root colonization by P. indica by interfering with SA-mediated basal immune responses of the host plant. Consistent with this, PIIN_08944-expressing Arabidopsis also supported the growth of the biotrophic oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis while growth of the necrotrophic fungi Botrytis cinerea on Arabidopsis and Fusarium graminearum on barley was not affected. PMID:26579156

  12. The Piriformospora indica effector PIIN_08944 promotes the mutualistic Sebacinalean symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Akum, Fidele N; Steinbrenner, Jens; Biedenkopf, Dagmar; Imani, Jafargholi; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic and mutualistic microbes actively suppress plant defense by secreting effector proteins to manipulate the host responses for their own benefit. Current knowledge about fungal effectors has been mainly derived from biotrophic and hemibiotrophic plant pathogenic fungi and oomycetes with restricted host range. We studied colonization strategies of the root endophytic basidiomycete Piriformospora indica that colonizes a wide range of plant species thereby establishing long-term mutualistic relationships. The release of P. indica's genome helped to identify hundreds of genes coding for candidate effectors and provides an opportunity to investigate the role of those proteins in a mutualistic symbiosis. We demonstrate that the candidate effector PIIN_08944 plays a crucial role during fungal colonization of Arabidopsis thaliana roots. PIIN_08944 expression was detected during chlamydospore germination, and fungal deletion mutants (PiΔ08944) showed delayed root colonization. Constitutive over-expression of PIIN_08944 in Arabidopsis rescued the delayed colonization phenotype of the deletion mutant. PIIN_08944-expressing Arabidopsis showed a reduced expression of flg22-induced marker genes of pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and the salicylic acid (SA) defense pathway, and expression of PIIN_08944 in barley reduced the burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) triggered by flg22 and chitin. These data suggest that PIIN_08944 contributes to root colonization by P. indica by interfering with SA-mediated basal immune responses of the host plant. Consistent with this, PIIN_08944-expressing Arabidopsis also supported the growth of the biotrophic oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis while growth of the necrotrophic fungi Botrytis cinerea on Arabidopsis and Fusarium graminearum on barley was not affected. PMID:26579156

  13. Dimethyl fumarate suppresses Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelinating disease by modifying the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kunitoshi; Tomiki, Hiroki; Inaba, Yuji; Ichikawa, Motoki; Kim, Byung S; Koh, Chang-Sung

    2015-07-01

    Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is a modifier of the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-2 (Nrf2)-kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) pathway. DMF treatment in the effector phase significantly suppressed the development of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD) both clinically and histologically. DMF treatment leads to an enhanced Nrf2 antioxidant response in TMEV-IDD mice. DMF treatment in the effector phase significantly suppressed the level of IL-17A mRNA. DMF is known to inhibit differentiation of T helper 17 (Th17) cells via suppressing NF-κB. Taken together, our data suggest that DMF treatment in the effector phase may suppress TMEV-IDD not only via enhancing the antioxidant response but also via suppressing IL-17A. PMID:25721871

  14. Acquisition of effector-specific and effector-independent components of sequencing skill.

    PubMed

    Berner, Michael P; Hoffman, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    In a serial reaction time task, participants practiced a repeating sequence with 1 hand. In interleaved blocks, they responded to random sequences with the other hand. Experiment 1 was composed of 5 sessions, each consisting of 30 blocks. Intermanual transfer, reflecting a hand-independent component of sequence knowledge, increased across session. A smaller but significant, nontransferable, and hand-specific component was evident in each session and did not increase with practice. Experiment 2 comprised only 1 session. Uninterrupted practice (no interleaved random blocks) improved hand-independent sequence learning in comparison with interrupted practice (as implemented in Experiment 1), whereas hand-specific sequence learning was unaffected by this between-subjects manipulation. These findings suggest separate mechanisms for effector-independent sequence learning and effector-specific acquisition of optimized response coarticulation. PMID:19073469

  15. Computational Prediction of Effector Proteins in Fungi: Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Sonah, Humira; Deshmukh, Rupesh K; Bélanger, Richard R

    2016-01-01

    Effector proteins are mostly secretory proteins that stimulate plant infection by manipulating the host response. Identifying fungal effector proteins and understanding their function is of great importance in efforts to curb losses to plant diseases. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies have facilitated the availability of several fungal genomes and 1000s of transcriptomes. As a result, the growing amount of genomic information has provided great opportunities to identify putative effector proteins in different fungal species. There is little consensus over the annotation and functionality of effector proteins, and mostly small secretory proteins are considered as effector proteins, a concept that tends to overestimate the number of proteins involved in a plant-pathogen interaction. With the characterization of Avr genes, criteria for computational prediction of effector proteins are becoming more efficient. There are 100s of tools available for the identification of conserved motifs, signature sequences and structural features in the proteins. Many pipelines and online servers, which combine several tools, are made available to perform genome-wide identification of effector proteins. In this review, available tools and pipelines, their strength and limitations for effective identification of fungal effector proteins are discussed. We also present an exhaustive list of classically secreted proteins along with their key conserved motifs found in 12 common plant pathogens (11 fungi and one oomycete) through an analytical pipeline. PMID:26904083

  16. Computational Prediction of Effector Proteins in Fungi: Opportunities and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Sonah, Humira; Deshmukh, Rupesh K.; Bélanger, Richard R.

    2016-01-01

    Effector proteins are mostly secretory proteins that stimulate plant infection by manipulating the host response. Identifying fungal effector proteins and understanding their function is of great importance in efforts to curb losses to plant diseases. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies have facilitated the availability of several fungal genomes and 1000s of transcriptomes. As a result, the growing amount of genomic information has provided great opportunities to identify putative effector proteins in different fungal species. There is little consensus over the annotation and functionality of effector proteins, and mostly small secretory proteins are considered as effector proteins, a concept that tends to overestimate the number of proteins involved in a plant–pathogen interaction. With the characterization of Avr genes, criteria for computational prediction of effector proteins are becoming more efficient. There are 100s of tools available for the identification of conserved motifs, signature sequences and structural features in the proteins. Many pipelines and online servers, which combine several tools, are made available to perform genome-wide identification of effector proteins. In this review, available tools and pipelines, their strength and limitations for effective identification of fungal effector proteins are discussed. We also present an exhaustive list of classically secreted proteins along with their key conserved motifs found in 12 common plant pathogens (11 fungi and one oomycete) through an analytical pipeline. PMID:26904083

  17. Subcellular localization of legionella Dot/Icm effectors.

    PubMed

    Vogrin, Adam J; Mousnier, Aurelie; Frankel, Gad; Hartland, Elizabeth L

    2013-01-01

    The translocation of effector proteins by the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system is central to the ability of Legionella pneumophila to persist and replicate within eukaryotic cells. The subcellular localization of translocated Dot/Icm proteins in host cells provides insight into their function. Through co-staining with host cell markers, effector proteins may be localized to specific subcellular compartments and membranes, which frequently reflects their host cell target and mechanism of action. In this chapter, we describe protocols to (1) localize effector proteins within cells by ectopic expression using green fluorescent protein fusions and (2) localize effector proteins within infected cells using epitope-tagged effector proteins and immuno-fluorescence microscopy.

  18. Advanced Aerodynamic Design of Passive Porosity Control Effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Craig A.; Viken, Sally A.; Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes aerodynamic design work aimed at developing a passive porosity control effector system for a generic tailless fighter aircraft. As part of this work, a computational design tool was developed and used to layout passive porosity effector systems for longitudinal and lateral-directional control at a low-speed, high angle of attack condition. Aerodynamic analysis was conducted using the NASA Langley computational fluid dynamics code USM3D, in conjunction with a newly formulated surface boundary condition for passive porosity. Results indicate that passive porosity effectors can provide maneuver control increments that equal and exceed those of conventional aerodynamic effectors for low-speed, high-alpha flight, with control levels that are a linear function of porous area. This work demonstrates the tremendous potential of passive porosity to yield simple control effector systems that have no external moving parts and will preserve an aircraft's fixed outer mold line.

  19. The Xanthomonas campestris Type III Effector XopJ Proteolytically Degrades Proteasome Subunit RPT61[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Many animal and plant pathogenic bacteria inject type III effector (T3E) proteins into their eukaryotic host cells to suppress immunity. The Yersinia outer protein J (YopJ) family of T3Es is a widely distributed family of effector proteins found in both animal and plant pathogens, and its members are highly diversified in virulence functions. Some members have been shown to possess acetyltransferase activity; however, whether this is a general feature of YopJ family T3Es is currently unknown. The T3E Xanthomonas outer protein J (XopJ), a YopJ family effector from the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria, interacts with the proteasomal subunit Regulatory Particle AAA-ATPase6 (RPT6) in planta to suppress proteasome activity, resulting in the inhibition of salicylic acid-related immune responses. Here, we show that XopJ has protease activity to specifically degrade RPT6, leading to reduced proteasome activity in the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus. Proteolytic degradation of RPT6 was dependent on the localization of XopJ to the plasma membrane as well as on its catalytic triad. Mutation of the Walker B motif of RPT6 prevented XopJ-mediated degradation of the protein but not XopJ interaction. This indicates that the interaction of RPT6 with XopJ is dependent on the ATP-binding activity of RPT6, but proteolytic cleavage additionally requires its ATPase activity. Inhibition of the proteasome impairs the proteasomal turnover of Nonexpressor of Pathogenesis-Related1 (NPR1), the master regulator of salicylic acid responses, leading to the accumulation of ubiquitinated NPR1, which likely interferes with the full induction of NPR1 target genes. Our results show that YopJ family T3Es are not only highly diversified in virulence function but also appear to possess different biochemical activities. PMID:25739698

  20. The Salmonella effector AvrA mediates bacterial intracellular survival during infection in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Huixia; Jones, Rheinallt M.; Neish, Andrew S.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The enteric pathogen Salmonella typhimurium secretes the preformed AvrA effector protein into host cells. This acetyltransferase has been shown to modulate mammalian intestinal immune and survival responses by inhibition of JNK MAPK. To study the role of this effector in natural enteric infection, we used a mouse model to compare wild type Salmonella typhimurium to an isogenic AvrA null Salmonella mutant. Salmonella lacking AvrA induced increased intestinal inflammation, more intense systemic cytokine responses, and increased apoptosis in epithelial cells. Increased apoptosis was also observed in extra epithelial macrophages. AvrA null infected mice consistently showed higher bacterial burden within mucosal lymphoid tissues, spleen and liver by 5 days post infection, which indicated a more severe clinical course. To study the molecular mechanisms involved, recombinant adenoviruses expressing AvrA or mutant AvrA proteins were constructed, which showed appropriate expression and mediated the expected inhibition of JNK signaling. Cultured epithelial cells and macrophages transduced with AvrA expressing adenovirus were protected from apoptosis induced by exogenous stimuli. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that Salmonella AvrA modulates survival of infected macrophages likely via JNK suppression, and prevents macrophage death and rapid bacterial dissemination. AvrA suppression of apoptosis in infected macrophages may allow for establishment of a stable intracellular niche typical of intracellular pathogens. PMID:21899703

  1. The Salmonella effector AvrA mediates bacterial intracellular survival during infection in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huixia; Jones, Rheinallt M; Neish, Andrew S

    2012-01-01

    The enteric pathogen Salmonella typhimurium secretes the preformed AvrA effector protein into host cells. This acetyltransferase has been shown to modulate mammalian intestinal immune and survival responses by inhibition of JNK MAPK. To study the role of this effector in natural enteric infection, we used a mouse model to compare wild-type S. typhimurium to an isogenic AvrA null Salmonella mutant. Salmonella lacking AvrA induced increased intestinal inflammation, more intense systemic cytokine responses, and increased apoptosis in epithelial cells. Increased apoptosis was also observed in extra epithelial macrophages. AvrA null-infected mice consistently showed higher bacterial burden within mucosal lymphoid tissues, spleen and liver by 5 days post infection, which indicated a more severe clinical course. To study the molecular mechanisms involved, recombinant adenoviruses expressing AvrA or mutant AvrA proteins were constructed, which showed appropriate expression and mediated the expected inhibition of JNK signalling. Cultured epithelial cells and macrophages transduced with AvrA expressing adenovirus were protected from apoptosis induced by exogenous stimuli. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that Salmonella AvrA modulates survival of infected macrophages likely via JNK suppression, and prevents macrophage death and rapid bacterial dissemination. AvrA suppression of apoptosis in infected macrophages may allow for establishment of a stable intracellular niche typical of intracellular pathogens.

  2. Analysis of new type III effectors from Xanthomonas uncovers XopB and XopS as suppressors of plant immunity.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Sebastian; Kay, Sabine; Büttner, Daniela; Egler, Monique; Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Hause, Gerd; Krüger, Antje; Lee, Justin; Müller, Oliver; Scheel, Dierk; Szczesny, Robert; Thieme, Frank; Bonas, Ulla

    2012-09-01

    The pathogenicity of the Gram-negative plant-pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) is dependent on type III effectors (T3Es) that are injected into plant cells by a type III secretion system and interfere with cellular processes to the benefit of the pathogen. In this study, we analyzed eight T3Es from Xcv strain 85-10, six of which were newly identified effectors. Genetic studies and protoplast expression assays revealed that XopB and XopS contribute to disease symptoms and bacterial growth, and suppress pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered plant defense gene expression. In addition, XopB inhibits cell death reactions induced by different T3Es, thus suppressing defense responses related to both PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI). XopB localizes to the Golgi apparatus and cytoplasm of the plant cell and interferes with eukaryotic vesicle trafficking. Interestingly, a XopB point mutant derivative was defective in the suppression of ETI-related responses, but still interfered with vesicle trafficking and was only slightly affected with regard to the suppression of defense gene induction. This suggests that XopB-mediated suppression of PTI and ETI is dependent on different mechanisms that can be functionally separated. PMID:22738163

  3. Overexpression of a Phytophthora Cytoplasmic CRN Effector Confers Resistance to Disease, Salinity and Drought in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Nasir Ahmed; Zhang, Meixiang; Shen, Danyu; Liu, Tingli; Zhang, Qimeng; Ru, Yanyan; Sun, Peng; Dou, Daolong

    2015-12-01

    The Crinkler (CRN) effector family is produced by oomycete pathogens and may manipulate host physiological and biochemical events inside host cells. Here, PsCRN161 was identified from Phytophthora sojae based on its broad and strong cell death suppression activities. The effector protein contains two predicted nuclear localization signals and localized to nuclei of plant cells, indicating that it may target plant nuclei to modify host cell physiology and function. The chimeric gene GFP:PsCRN161 driven by the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter was introduced into Nicotiana benthamiana. The four independent PsCRN161-transgenic lines exhibited increased resistance to two oomycete pathogens (P. parasitica and P. capsici) and showed enhanced tolerance to salinity and drought stresses. Digital gene expression profiling analysis showed that defense-related genes, including ABC transporters, Cyt P450 and receptor-like kinases (RLKs), were significantly up-regulated in PsCRN161-transgenic plants compared with GFP (green fluorescent protein) lines, implying that PsCRN161 expression may protect plants from biotic and abiotic stresses by up-regulation of many defense-related genes. The results reveal previously unknown functions of the oomycete effectors, suggesting that the pathogen effectors could be directly used as functional genes for plant molecular breeding for enhancement of tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses.

  4. The Xanthomonas campestris effector protein XopDXcc8004 triggers plant disease tolerance by targeting DELLA proteins.

    PubMed

    Tan, Leitao; Rong, Wei; Luo, Hongli; Chen, Yinhua; He, Chaozu

    2014-11-01

    Plants protect themselves from the harmful effects of pathogens by resistance and tolerance. Disease resistance, which eliminates pathogens, can be modulated by bacterial type III effectors. Little is known about whether disease tolerance, which sustains host fitness with a given pathogen burden, is regulated by effectors. Here, we examined the effects of the Xanthomonas effector protein XopDXcc8004 on plant disease defenses by constructing knockout and complemented Xanthomonas strains, and performing inoculation studies in radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. radiculus XiaoJinZhong) and Arabidopsis plants. XopDXcc8004 suppresses disease symptoms without changing bacterial titers in infected leaves. In Arabidopsis, XopDXcc8004 delays the hormone gibberellin (GA)-mediated degradation of RGA (repressor of ga1-3), one of five DELLA proteins that repress GA signaling and promote plant tolerance under biotic and abiotic stresses. The ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif-containing region of XopDXcc8004 interacts with the DELLA domain of RGA and might interfere with the GA-induced binding of GID1, a GA receptor, to RGA. The EAR motif was found to be present in a number of plant transcriptional regulators. Thus, our data suggest that bacterial pathogens might have evolved effectors, which probably mimic host components, to initiate disease tolerance and enhance their survival.

  5. Allergic Disease and Autoimmune Effectors Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Rottem, Menachem; Gershwin, M. Eric; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2002-01-01

    Allergy and autoimmunity result from dysregulation of the immune system. Until recently, it was generally accepted that the mechanisms that govern these disease processes are quite disparate; however, new discoveries suggest possible common pathogenetic effector pathways. This review illustrates the concomitant presentation of these conditions and the potential relationship or common mechanism in some cases, by looking at the key elements that regulate the immune response in both allergic and autoimmunite conditions: mast cells, antibodies, T cells, cytokines, and genetic determinants. The parallel appearance of allergic and autoimmune conditions in the some patients may reveal that such aberrations of the immune system have a common pathophysiologic mechanism. Mast cells, which play a key role in allergic reactions, and the wealth of inflammatory mediators they express, make it likely that they have profound effects on many autoimmune processes. Activation of protein kinases by inflammatory cytokines and environmental stresses may contribute to both allergic and autoimmune diseases. The presence of autoantibodies in some allergic conditions suggests an autoimmune basis for these conditions. Because of the central role T cells play in immune reactivity, the T-cell receptor (TCR) loci have long been considered important candidates for common disease susceptibility within the immune system such as asthma, atopy, and autoimmunity. Immunomodulation is the key to a successful treatment of allergic and autoimmune conditions. PMID:12885156

  6. Msp40 effector of root-knot nematode manipulates plant immunity to facilitate parasitism

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Junhai; Liu, Pei; Liu, Qian; Chen, Changlong; Guo, Quanxin; Yin, Junmei; Yang, Guangsui; Jian, Heng

    2016-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) are obligate biotrophic parasites that invade plant roots and engage in prolonged and intimate relationships with their hosts. Nematode secretions, some of which have immunosuppressing activity, play essential roles in successful parasitism; however, their mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. Here, we show that the RKN-specific gene MiMsp40, cloned from Meloidogyne incognita, is expressed exclusively in subventral oesophageal gland cells and is strongly upregulated during early parasitic stages. Arabidopsis plants overexpressing MiMsp40 were more susceptible to nematode infection than were wild type plants. Conversely, the host-derived MiMsp40 RNAi suppressed nematode parasitism and/or reproduction. Moreover, overexpression of MiMsp40 in plants suppressed the deposition of callose and the expression of marker genes for bacterial elicitor elf18-triggered immunity. Transient expression of MiMsp40 prevented Bax-triggered defence-related programmed cell death. Co-agroinfiltration assays indicated that MiMsp40 also suppressed macroscopic cell death triggered by MAPK cascades or by the ETI cognate elicitors R3a/Avr3a. Together, these results demonstrate that MiMsp40 is a novel Meloidogyne-specific effector that is injected into plant cells by early parasitic stages of the nematode and that plays a role in suppressing PTI and/or ETI signals to facilitate RKN parasitism. PMID:26797310

  7. Effector biology during biotrophic invasion of plant cells

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Prateek; Ahmed, Bulbul; Joly, David L; Germain, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Several obligate biotrophic phytopathogens, namely oomycetes and fungi, invade and feed on living plant cells through specialized structures known as haustoria. Deploying an arsenal of secreted proteins called effectors, these pathogens balance their parasitic propagation by subverting plant immunity without sacrificing host cells. Such secreted proteins, which are thought to be delivered by haustoria, conceivably reprogram host cells and instigate structural modifications, in addition to the modulation of various cellular processes. As effectors represent tools to assist disease resistance breeding, this short review provides a bird’s eye view on the relationship between the virulence function of effectors and their subcellular localization in host cells. PMID:25513771

  8. System for exchanging tools and end effectors on a robot

    DOEpatents

    Burry, D.B.; Williams, P.M.

    1991-02-19

    A system and method for exchanging tools and end effectors on a robot permits exchange during a programmed task. The exchange mechanism is located off the robot, thus reducing the mass of the robot arm and permitting smaller robots to perform designated tasks. A simple spring/collet mechanism mounted on the robot is used which permits the engagement and disengagement of the tool or end effector without the need for a rotational orientation of the tool to the end effector/collet interface. As the tool changing system is not located on the robot arm no umbilical cords are located on robot. 12 figures.

  9. System for exchanging tools and end effectors on a robot

    DOEpatents

    Burry, David B.; Williams, Paul M.

    1991-02-19

    A system and method for exchanging tools and end effectors on a robot permits exchange during a programmed task. The exchange mechanism is located off the robot, thus reducing the mass of the robot arm and permitting smaller robots to perform designated tasks. A simple spring/collet mechanism mounted on the robot is used which permits the engagement and disengagement of the tool or end effector without the need for a rotational orientation of the tool to the end effector/collet interface. As the tool changing system is not located on the robot arm no umbilical cords are located on robot.

  10. Genomic analysis of 38 Legionella species identifies large and diverse effector repertoires.

    PubMed

    Burstein, David; Amaro, Francisco; Zusman, Tal; Lifshitz, Ziv; Cohen, Ofir; Gilbert, Jack A; Pupko, Tal; Shuman, Howard A; Segal, Gil

    2016-02-01

    Infection by the human pathogen Legionella pneumophila relies on the translocation of ∼ 300 virulence proteins, termed effectors, which manipulate host cell processes. However, almost no information exists regarding effectors in other Legionella pathogens. Here we sequenced, assembled and characterized the genomes of 38 Legionella species and predicted their effector repertoires using a previously validated machine learning approach. This analysis identified 5,885 predicted effectors. The effector repertoires of different Legionella species were found to be largely non-overlapping, and only seven core effectors were shared by all species studied. Species-specific effectors had atypically low GC content, suggesting exogenous acquisition, possibly from the natural protozoan hosts of these species. Furthermore, we detected numerous new conserved effector domains and discovered new domain combinations, which allowed the inference of as yet undescribed effector functions. The effector collection and network of domain architectures described here can serve as a roadmap for future studies of effector function and evolution.

  11. Experimental approaches to investigate effector translocation into host cells in the Ustilago maydis/maize pathosystem.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shigeyuki; Djamei, Armin; Presti, Libera Lo; Schipper, Kerstin; Winterberg, Sarah; Amati, Simone; Becker, Dirk; Büchner, Heike; Kumlehn, Jochen; Reissmann, Stefanie; Kahmann, Regine

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Ustilago maydis is a pathogen that establishes a biotrophic interaction with Zea mays. The interaction with the plant host is largely governed by more than 300 novel, secreted protein effectors, of which only four have been functionally characterized. Prerequisite to examine effector function is to know where effectors reside after secretion. Effectors can remain in the extracellular space, i.e. the plant apoplast (apoplastic effectors), or can cross the plant plasma membrane and exert their function inside the host cell (cytoplasmic effectors). The U. maydis effectors lack conserved motifs in their primary sequences that could allow a classification of the effectome into apoplastic/cytoplasmic effectors. This represents a significant obstacle in functional effector characterization. Here we describe our attempts to establish a system for effector classification into apoplastic and cytoplasmic members, using U. maydis for effector delivery.

  12. Uncovering the Legionella genus effector repertoire - strength in diversity and numbers

    PubMed Central

    Burstein, David; Amaro, Francisco; Zusman, Tal; Lifshitz, Ziv; Cohen, Ofir; Gilbert, Jack A; Pupko, Tal; Shuman, Howard A; Segal, Gil

    2016-01-01

    Infection by the human pathogen Legionella pneumophila relies on the translocation of ~300 virulence proteins, termed effectors, which manipulate host-cell processes. However, almost no information exists regarding effectors in other Legionella pathogens. Here we sequenced, assembled and characterized the genomes of 38 Legionella species, and predicted their effector repertoire using a previously validated machine-learning approach. This analysis revealed a treasure trove of 5,885 predicted effectors. The effector repertoire of different Legionella species was found to be largely non-overlapping, and only seven core-effectors were shared among all species studied. Species-specific effectors had atypically low GC content, suggesting exogenous acquisition, possibly from their natural protozoan hosts. Furthermore, we detected numerous novel conserved effector domains, and discovered new domain combinations, which allowed inferring yet undescribed effector functions. The effector collection and network of domain architectures described here can serve as a roadmap for future studies of effector function and evolution. PMID:26752266

  13. Gunite Scarifying End Effector. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    2001-09-01

    The Gunite Scarifying End Effector (GSEE) is designed to remove a layer of the gunite tank walls, which are contaminated with radioactivity. Removing this radioactivity is necessary to close the tank.

  14. Interactions of legionella effector proteins with host phosphoinositide lipids.

    PubMed

    Weber, Stephen; Dolinsky, Stephanie; Hilbi, Hubert

    2013-01-01

    By means of the Icm/Dot type IV secretion system Legionella pneumophila translocates several effector proteins into host cells, where they anchor to the cytoplasmic face of the LCV membrane by binding to phosphoinositide (PI) lipids. Thus, phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate anchors the effector proteins SidC and SidM, which promote the interaction of LCVs with the ER and the secretory vesicle trafficking -pathway. In this chapter, we describe protocols to (1) identify PI-binding proteins in Legionella lysates using PI-beads, (2) determine PI-binding specificities and affinities of recombinant Legionella effector proteins by protein-lipid overlays, and (3) use Legionella effectors to identify cellular PI lipids.

  15. An intelligent end-effector for a rehabilitation robot.

    PubMed

    Gosine, R G; Harwin, W S; Furby, L J; Jackson, R D

    1989-01-01

    A UMI RTX robot, modified with limited end-effector sensors and a restricted but effective vision system, is currently used in a developmental education setting for severely physically disabled children. The low physical and cognitive abilities of the children involved in the project require a semi-autonomous robot with environmental sensing capability to operate in a task oriented mode. A variety of low-cost sensors including proximity, distance, force and slip sensors, have been investigated for integration in end-effectors for the RTX robot. The sensors employed on a modified end-effector are detailed and experimental results are presented. A design for an end-effector with integrated sensors is discussed. The integration of the sensor information into a high-level, task-oriented programming language is detailed and examples of high-level control sequences using sensor inputs are presented. Finally, the development of intelligent gripping strategies based on sensor information is discussed. PMID:2733012

  16. An intelligent end-effector for a rehabilitation robot.

    PubMed

    Gosine, R G; Harwin, W S; Furby, L J; Jackson, R D

    1989-01-01

    A UMI RTX robot, modified with limited end-effector sensors and a restricted but effective vision system, is currently used in a developmental education setting for severely physically disabled children. The low physical and cognitive abilities of the children involved in the project require a semi-autonomous robot with environmental sensing capability to operate in a task oriented mode. A variety of low-cost sensors including proximity, distance, force and slip sensors, have been investigated for integration in end-effectors for the RTX robot. The sensors employed on a modified end-effector are detailed and experimental results are presented. A design for an end-effector with integrated sensors is discussed. The integration of the sensor information into a high-level, task-oriented programming language is detailed and examples of high-level control sequences using sensor inputs are presented. Finally, the development of intelligent gripping strategies based on sensor information is discussed.

  17. Vision-based end-effector position error compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajracharya, Max; Backes, Paul; DiCicco, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a computationally efficient algorithm that provides the ability to accurately place an arm end-effector on a target designated in an image using low speed feed back from a fixed stero camera.

  18. Robotic end-effector for rewaterproofing shuttle tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manouchehri, Davoud; Hansen, Joseph M.; Wu, Cheng M.; Yamamoto, Brian S.; Graham, Todd

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes work by Rockwell International's Space Systems Division's Robotics Group at Downey, California. The work is part of a NASA-led team effort to automate Space Shuttle rewaterproofing in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center and the ferry facility at the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility. Rockwell's effort focuses on the rewaterproofing end-effector, whose function is to inject hazardous dimethylethyloxysilane into thousands of ceramic tiles on the underside of the orbiter after each flight. The paper has five sections. First, it presents background on the present manual process. Second, end-effector requirements are presented, including safety and interface control. Third, a design is presented for the five end-effector systems: positioning, delivery, containment, data management, and command and control. Fourth, end-effector testing and integrating to the total system are described. Lastly, future applications for this technology are discussed.

  19. Design, testing and evaluation of latching end effector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, B.; Vandersluis, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Latching End Effector (LEE) forms part of the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) for which Spar Aerospace Ltd, Space Systems Division is the prime contractor. The design, testing and performance evaluation of the Latching End Effector mechanisms is the subject of this paper focusing on: (1) ambient, thermal and vibration testing; (2) snare/rigidize performance testing and interaction during payload acquisition; and (3) latch/umbilical test results and performance.

  20. Characterization of the largest effector gene cluster of Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Brefort, Thomas; Tanaka, Shigeyuki; Neidig, Nina; Doehlemann, Gunther; Vincon, Volker; Kahmann, Regine

    2014-07-01

    In the genome of the biotrophic plant pathogen Ustilago maydis, many of the genes coding for secreted protein effectors modulating virulence are arranged in gene clusters. The vast majority of these genes encode novel proteins whose expression is coupled to plant colonization. The largest of these gene clusters, cluster 19A, encodes 24 secreted effectors. Deletion of the entire cluster results in severe attenuation of virulence. Here we present the functional analysis of this genomic region. We show that a 19A deletion mutant behaves like an endophyte, i.e. is still able to colonize plants and complete the infection cycle. However, tumors, the most conspicuous symptoms of maize smut disease, are only rarely formed and fungal biomass in infected tissue is significantly reduced. The generation and analysis of strains carrying sub-deletions identified several genes significantly contributing to tumor formation after seedling infection. Another of the effectors could be linked specifically to anthocyanin induction in the infected tissue. As the individual contributions of these genes to tumor formation were small, we studied the response of maize plants to the whole cluster mutant as well as to several individual mutants by array analysis. This revealed distinct plant responses, demonstrating that the respective effectors have discrete plant targets. We propose that the analysis of plant responses to effector mutant strains that lack a strong virulence phenotype may be a general way to visualize differences in effector function.

  1. RipAY, a Plant Pathogen Effector Protein, Exhibits Robust γ-Glutamyl Cyclotransferase Activity When Stimulated by Eukaryotic Thioredoxins.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Shoko; Kawazoe, Tomoki; Ohnishi, Kouhei; Kitagawa, Takao; Popa, Crina; Valls, Marc; Genin, Stéphane; Nakamura, Kazuyuki; Kuramitsu, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Naotaka; Tabuchi, Mitsuaki

    2016-03-25

    The plant pathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum injects more than 70 effector proteins (virulence factors) into the host plant cells via the needle-like structure of a type III secretion system. The type III secretion system effector proteins manipulate host regulatory networks to suppress defense responses with diverse molecular activities. Uncovering the molecular function of these effectors is essential for a mechanistic understanding of R. solanacearum pathogenicity. However, few of the effectors from R. solanacearum have been functionally characterized, and their plant targets remain largely unknown. Here, we show that the ChaC domain-containing effector RipAY/RSp1022 from R. solanacearum exhibits γ-glutamyl cyclotransferase (GGCT) activity to degrade the major intracellular redox buffer, glutathione. Heterologous expression of RipAY, but not other ChaC family proteins conserved in various organisms, caused growth inhibition of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the intracellular glutathione level was decreased to ∼30% of the normal level following expression of RipAY in yeast. Although active site mutants of GGCT activity were non-toxic, the addition of glutathione did not reverse the toxicity, suggesting that the toxicity might be a consequence of activity against other γ-glutamyl compounds. Intriguingly, RipAY protein purified from a bacterial expression system did not exhibit any GGCT activity, whereas it exhibited robust GGCT activity upon its interaction with eukaryotic thioredoxins, which are important for intracellular redox homeostasis during bacterial infection in plants. Our results suggest that RipAY has evolved to sense the host intracellular redox environment, which triggers its enzymatic activity to create a favorable environment for R. solanacearum infection. PMID:26823466

  2. A Downy Mildew Effector Attenuates Salicylic Acid–Triggered Immunity in Arabidopsis by Interacting with the Host Mediator Complex

    PubMed Central

    Caillaud, Marie-Cécile; Asai, Shuta; Rallapalli, Ghanasyam; Piquerez, Sophie; Fabro, Georgina; Jones, Jonathan D. G.

    2013-01-01

    Plants are continually exposed to pathogen attack but usually remain healthy because they can activate defences upon perception of microbes. However, pathogens have evolved to overcome plant immunity by delivering effectors into the plant cell to attenuate defence, resulting in disease. Recent studies suggest that some effectors may manipulate host transcription, but the specific mechanisms by which such effectors promote susceptibility remain unclear. We study the oomycete downy mildew pathogen of Arabidopsis, Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa), and show here that the nuclear-localized effector HaRxL44 interacts with Mediator subunit 19a (MED19a), resulting in the degradation of MED19a in a proteasome-dependent manner. The Mediator complex of ∼25 proteins is broadly conserved in eukaryotes and mediates the interaction between transcriptional regulators and RNA polymerase II. We found MED19a to be a positive regulator of immunity against Hpa. Expression profiling experiments reveal transcriptional changes resembling jasmonic acid/ethylene (JA/ET) signalling in the presence of HaRxL44, and also 3 d after infection with Hpa. Elevated JA/ET signalling is associated with a decrease in salicylic acid (SA)–triggered immunity (SATI) in Arabidopsis plants expressing HaRxL44 and in med19a loss-of-function mutants, whereas SATI is elevated in plants overexpressing MED19a. Using a PR1::GUS reporter, we discovered that Hpa suppresses PR1 expression specifically in cells containing haustoria, into which RxLR effectors are delivered, but not in nonhaustoriated adjacent cells, which show high PR1::GUS expression levels. Thus, HaRxL44 interferes with Mediator function by degrading MED19, shifting the balance of defence transcription from SA-responsive defence to JA/ET-signalling, and enhancing susceptibility to biotrophs by attenuating SA-dependent gene expression. PMID:24339748

  3. Secretion of Rhoptry and Dense Granule Effector Proteins by Nonreplicating Toxoplasma gondii Uracil Auxotrophs Controls the Development of Antitumor Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Barbara A.; Sanders, Kiah L.; Rommereim, Leah M.; Bzik, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Nonreplicating type I uracil auxotrophic mutants of Toxoplasma gondii possess a potent ability to activate therapeutic immunity to established solid tumors by reversing immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment. Here we engineered targeted deletions of parasite secreted effector proteins using a genetically tractable Δku80 vaccine strain to show that the secretion of specific rhoptry (ROP) and dense granule (GRA) proteins by uracil auxotrophic mutants of T. gondii in conjunction with host cell invasion activates antitumor immunity through host responses involving CD8α+ dendritic cells, the IL-12/interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) TH1 axis, as well as CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Deletion of parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM) associated proteins ROP5, ROP17, ROP18, ROP35 or ROP38, intravacuolar network associated dense granule proteins GRA2 or GRA12, and GRA24 which traffics past the PVM to the host cell nucleus severely abrogated the antitumor response. In contrast, deletion of other secreted effector molecules such as GRA15, GRA16, or ROP16 that manipulate host cell signaling and transcriptional pathways, or deletion of PVM associated ROP21 or GRA3 molecules did not affect the antitumor activity. Association of ROP18 with the PVM was found to be essential for the development of the antitumor responses. Surprisingly, the ROP18 kinase activity required for resistance to IFN-γ activated host innate immunity related GTPases and virulence was not essential for the antitumor response. These data show that PVM functions of parasite secreted effector molecules, including ROP18, manipulate host cell responses through ROP18 kinase virulence independent mechanisms to activate potent antitumor responses. Our results demonstrate that PVM associated rhoptry effector proteins secreted prior to host cell invasion and dense granule effector proteins localized to the intravacuolar network and host nucleus that are secreted after host cell invasion coordinately control the

  4. A Novel Ras Effector Pathway Found to Play Significant Role in Tumor Suppression | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer; photo by Richard Frederickson, Staff Photographer Normal cells have mechanisms to prevent the development of cancer. Among these is a type of tumor suppressor mechanism known as oncogene-induced senescence, or OIS, which halts the uncontrolled growth of cells caused by mutations in oncogenes. The oncogene Ras plays a crucial role in inducing OIS through a specific cascade of proteins, as reported in a recent article in Molecular and Cellular Biology by Jacqueline Salotti, Ph.D., and colleagues in the Eukaryotic Transcriptional Regulation Section of the Mouse Cancer Genetics Program, Center for Cancer Research (CCR).

  5. A novel nematode effector suppresses plant immunity by activating host reactuve oxygen species-scavenging system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxidative burst is a hallmark event of the pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) triggered immunity (PTI), which is the first line of plant defense mechanisms, but it remains unclear how nematodes can overcome this defense mechanism. In this study, we show that plant-parasitic nematode Meloid...

  6. The limited capacity of malignant glioma-derived exosomes to suppress peripheral immune effectors.

    PubMed

    Iorgulescu, J Bryan; Ivan, Michael E; Safaee, Michael; Parsa, Andrew T

    2016-01-15

    Tumor-derived microvesicular exosomes permit intercellular communication both locally and systemically by delivering a snapshot of the tumor cell's constituents. We thus investigated whether exosomes mediate malignant glioma's facility for inducing peripheral immunosuppression. In Western blot and RT-PCR analyses, glioma-derived exosomes displayed exosome-specific markers, but failed to recapitulate the antigen-presentation machinery, surface co-modulatory signals, or immunosuppressive mediator status of their parent tumor cells. Treatment with glioma-derived exosomes promoted immunosuppressive HLA-DR(low) monocytic phenotypes, but failed to induce monocytic PD-L1 expression or alter the activation of cytotoxic T-cells from patients' peripheral blood by FACS and RT-PCR analyses. Our results suggest that malignant glioma-derived exosomes are restricted in their capacity to directly prime peripheral immunosuppression.

  7. Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate-mediated calcium signalling in effector T cells regulates autoimmunity of the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Cordiglieri, Chiara; Odoardi, Francesca; Zhang, Bo; Nebel, Merle; Kawakami, Naoto; Klinkert, Wolfgang E. F.; Lodygin, Dimtri; Lühder, Fred; Breunig, Esther; Schild, Detlev; Ulaganathan, Vijay Kumar; Dornmair, Klaus; Dammermann, Werner; Potter, Barry V. L.; Guse, Andreas H.

    2010-01-01

    Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate represents a newly identified second messenger in T cells involved in antigen receptor-mediated calcium signalling. Its function in vivo is, however, unknown due to the lack of biocompatible inhibitors. Using a recently developed inhibitor, we explored the role of nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate in autoreactive effector T cells during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, the animal model for multiple sclerosis. We provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that calcium signalling controlled by nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate is relevant for the pathogenic potential of autoimmune effector T cells. Live two photon imaging and molecular analyses revealed that nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate signalling regulates T cell motility and re-activation upon arrival in the nervous tissues. Treatment with the nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate inhibitor significantly reduced both the number of stable arrests of effector T cells and their invasive capacity. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-gamma and interleukin-17 were strongly diminished. Consecutively, the clinical symptoms of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis were ameliorated. In vitro, antigen-triggered T cell proliferation and cytokine production were evenly suppressed. These inhibitory effects were reversible: after wash-out of the nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate antagonist, the effector T cells fully regained their functions. The nicotinic acid derivative BZ194 induced this transient state of non-responsiveness specifically in post-activated effector T cells. Naïve and long-lived memory T cells, which express lower levels of the putative nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate receptor, type 1 ryanodine receptor, were not targeted. T cell priming and recall responses in vivo were not reduced. These data indicate that the nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate

  8. Substrate recognition by the zinc metalloprotease effector NleC from enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Giogha, Cristina; Lung, Tania Wong Fok; Mühlen, Sabrina; Pearson, Jaclyn S; Hartland, Elizabeth L

    2015-12-01

    Upon infection of epithelial cells, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli suppresses host cell inflammatory signalling in a type III secretion system (T3SS) dependent manner. Two key T3SS effector proteins involved in this response are NleE and NleC. NleC is a zinc metalloprotease effector that degrades the p65 subunit of NF-κB. Although the site of p65 cleavage by NleC is now well described, other areas of interaction have not been precisely defined. Here we constructed overlapping truncations of p65 to identify regions required for NleC cleavage. We determined that NleC cleaved both p65 and p50 within the Rel homology domain (RHD) and that two motifs, E22IIE25 and P177VLS180 , within the RHD of p65 were important for recognition and binding by NleC. Alanine substitution of one or both of these motifs protected p65 from binding and degradation by NleC. The E22IIE25 and P177VLS180 motifs were located within the structurally distinct N-terminal subdomain of the RHD involved in DNA binding by p65 on adjacent, parallel strands. Although these motifs have not been recognized previously, both were needed for the correct localization and function of p65. In summary, this work has identified two regions of p65 within the RHD needed for binding and cleavage by NleC and provides further insight into the molecular basis of substrate recognition by a T3SS effector.

  9. Multiple Activities of the Plant Pathogen Type III Effector Proteins WtsE and AvrE1 require WxxxE Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Jong Hyun; Majerczak, Doris R.; Nomura, Kinya; Mecey, Christy; Uribe, Francisco; He, Sheng-Yang; Mackey, David; Coplin, David L.

    2009-01-01

    The broadly conserved AvrE-family of type III effectors from Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria includes important virulence factors, yet little is known about the mechanisms by which these effectors function inside plant cells to promote disease. We have identified two conserved motifs in AvrE-family effectors: a WxxxE motif and a putative C-terminal endoplasmic reticulum membrane retention/retrieval signal (ERMRS). The WxxxE and ERMRS motifs are both required for the virulence activities of WtsE and AvrE1, which are major virulence factors of the corn pathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii and the tomato/Arabidopsis pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, respectively. The WxxxE and the predicted ERMRS motifs are also required for other biological activities of WtsE, including elicitation of the hypersensitive response in nonhost plants and suppression of defense responses in Arabidopsis. A family of type III effectors from mammalian bacterial pathogens requires WxxxE and sub-cellular targeting motifs for virulence functions that involve their ability to mimic activated G-proteins. The conservation of related motifs and their necessity for the function of type III effectors from plant pathogens indicates that disturbing host pathways by mimicking activated host G-proteins may be a virulence mechanism employed by plant pathogens as well. PMID:19445595

  10. Tyrosine phosphorylation of RAS by ABL allosterically enhances effector binding

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Pamela Y.; Johnson, Christian W.; Fang, Cong; Cao, Xiaoqing; Graeber, Thomas G.; Mattos, Carla; Colicelli, John

    2015-01-01

    RAS proteins are signal transduction gatekeepers that mediate cell growth, survival, and differentiation through interactions with multiple effector proteins. The RAS effector RAS- and RAB-interacting protein 1 (RIN1) activates its own downstream effectors, the small GTPase RAB5 and the tyrosine kinase Abelson tyrosine-protein kinase (ABL), to modulate endocytosis and cytoskeleton remodeling. To identify ABL substrates downstream of RAS-to-RIN1 signaling, we examined human HEK293T cells overexpressing components of this pathway. Proteomic analysis revealed several novel phosphotyrosine peptides, including Harvey rat sarcoma oncogene (HRAS)-pTyr137. Here we report that ABL phosphorylates tyrosine 137 of H-, K-, and NRAS. Increased RIN1 levels enhanced HRAS-Tyr137 phosphorylation by nearly 5-fold, suggesting that RAS-stimulated RIN1 can drive ABL-mediated RAS modification in a feedback circuit. Tyr137 is well conserved among RAS orthologs and is part of a transprotein H-bond network. Crystal structures of HRASY137F and HRASY137E revealed conformation changes radiating from the mutated residue. Although consistent with Tyr137 participation in allosteric control of HRAS function, the mutations did not alter intrinsic GTP hydrolysis rates in vitro. HRAS-Tyr137 phosphorylation enhanced HRAS signaling capacity in cells, however, as reflected by a 4-fold increase in the association of phosphorylated HRASG12V with its effector protein RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine protein kinase 1 (RAF1). These data suggest that RAS phosphorylation at Tyr137 allosterically alters protein conformation and effector binding, providing a mechanism for effector-initiated modulation of RAS signaling.—Ting, P. Y., Johnson, C. W., Fang, C., Cao, X., Graeber, T. G., Mattos, C., Colicelli, J. Tyrosine phosphorylation of RAS by ABL allosterically enhances effector binding. PMID:25999467

  11. Phytophthora infestans RXLR Effector AVR1 Interacts with Exocyst Component Sec5 to Manipulate Plant Immunity1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yu; Mpina, Mohamed H.; Birch, Paul R.J.; Bouwmeester, Klaas; Govers, Francine

    2015-01-01

    Phytophthora infestans secretes numerous RXLR effectors that modulate host defense and thereby pave the way for successful invasion. Here, we show that the RXLR effector AVR1 is a virulence factor that promotes colonization and suppresses callose deposition, a hallmark of basal defense. To identify host targets of AVR1, we performed yeast two-hybrid screens and selected Sec5 as a candidate. Sec5 is a subunit of the exocyst, a protein complex that is involved in vesicle trafficking. AVR1-like (A-L), a close homolog of AVR1, also acts as a virulence factor, but unlike AVR1, A-L does not suppress CRINKLER2 (CRN2)-induced cell death or interact with Sec5. Compared with AVR1, A-L is shorter and lacks the carboxyl-terminal tail, the T-region that is crucial for CRN2-induced cell death suppression and Sec5 interaction. In planta analyses revealed that AVR1 and Sec5 are in close proximity, and coimmunoprecipitation confirmed the interaction. Sec5 is required for secretion of the pathogenesis-related protein PR-1 and callose deposition and also plays a role in CRN2-induced cell death. Our findings show that P. infestans manipulates an exocyst subunit and thereby potentially disturbs vesicle trafficking, a cellular process that is important for basal defense. This is a novel strategy that oomycete pathogens exploit to modulate host defense. PMID:26336092

  12. Assaying effector function in planta using double-barreled particle bombardment.

    PubMed

    Kale, Shiv D; Tyler, Brett M

    2011-01-01

    The biolistic transient gene expression assay is a beneficial tool for studying gene function in vivo. However, biolistic transient assay systems have inherent pitfalls that often cause experimental inaccuracies such as poor transformation efficiency, which can be confused with biological phenomena. The double-barreled gene gun device is an inexpensive and highly effective attachment that enables statistically significant data to be obtained with one-tenth the number of experimental replicates compared to conventional biolistic assays. The principle behind the attachment is to perform two simultaneous bombardments with control and test DNA preparations onto the same leaf. The control bombardment measures the efficiency of the transformation while the ratio of the test bombardment to the control bombardment measures the activity of the gene of interest. With care, the ratio between the pair of bombardments can be highly reproducible from bombardment to bombardment. The double-barreled attachment has been used to study plant resistance (R) gene-mediated responses to effectors, induction and suppression of cell death by a wide variety of pathogen and host molecules, and the role of oömycete effector RXLR motifs in cell reentry.

  13. A Legionella effector modulates host cytoskeletal structure by inhibiting actin polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhenhua; Stephenson, Robert; Qiu, Jiazhang; Zheng, Shijun; Luo, Zhao-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Successful infection by the opportunistic pathogen Legionella pneumophila requires the collective activity of hundreds of virulence proteins delivered into the host cell by the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system. These virulence proteins, also called effectors modulate distinct host cellular processes to create a membrane-bound niche called the Legionella containing vacuole (LCV) supportive of bacterial growth. We found that Ceg14(Lpg0437), a Dot/Icm substrate is toxic to yeast and such toxicity can be alleviated by overexpression of profilin, a protein involved in cytoskeletal structure in eukaryotes. We further showed that mutations in profilin affect actin binding but not other functions such as interactions with poly-L-proline or phosphatidylinositol, abolish its suppressor activity. Consistent with the fact the profilin suppresses its toxicity, expression of Ceg14 but not its non-toxic mutants in yeast affects actin distribution and budding of daughter cells. Although Ceg14 does not detectably interact with profilin, it co-sediments with filamentous actin and inhibits actin polymerization, causing the accumulation of short actin filaments. These results reveal that multiple L. pneumophila effectors target components of the host cytoskeleton. PMID:24286927

  14. Effector and suppressor circuits of the immune response are activated in vivo by different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, H; Kripke, M L

    1987-06-01

    The application of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) onto the skin of mice induces a contact hypersensitivity immune response. Lymph nodes draining the skin painted with FITC contain fluorescent cells that induce contact hypersensitivity to FITC when injected into normal mice. The antigen-presenting cells responsible for activating the effector pathway of the contact hypersensitivity response express Ia histocompatibility determinants and are resistant to inactivation with gamma-radiation. Exposing the skin to low doses of UV radiation (280-320 nm) before the application of FITC suppresses the contact hypersensitivity response to FITC. Cells present in the draining lymph nodes of these mice induce suppressor T lymphocytes when injected into normal recipients. The inducer cells in the draining lymph nodes are Thy 1+, Ia- and are inactivated by gamma-radiation. These studies demonstrate that different mechanisms are involved in the in vivo activation of effector and suppressor immune responses, and they suggest that the mode of initial antigen presentation determines which immunologic circuit will be activated in response to a contact-sensitizing antigen. PMID:2884661

  15. Piperine from black pepper inhibits activation-induced proliferation and effector function of T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Doucette, Carolyn D; Rodgers, Gemma; Liwski, Robert S; Hoskin, David W

    2015-11-01

    Piperine is a major alkaloid component of black pepper (Piper nigrum Linn), which is a widely consumed spice. Here, we investigated the effect of piperine on mouse T lymphocyte activation. Piperine inhibited polyclonal and antigen-specific T lymphocyte proliferation without affecting cell viability. Piperine also suppressed T lymphocyte entry into the S and G2 /M phases of the cell cycle, and decreased expression of G1 -associated cyclin D3, CDK4, and CDK6. In addition, piperine inhibited CD25 expression, synthesis of interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, and IL-17A, and the generation of cytotoxic effector cells. The inhibitory effect of piperine on T lymphocytes was associated with hypophosphorylation of Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and inhibitor of κBα, but not ZAP-70. The ability of piperine to inhibit several key signaling pathways involved in T lymphocyte activation and the acquisition of effector function suggests that piperine might be useful in the management of T lymphocyte-mediated autoimmune and chronic inflammatory disorders. PMID:25900378

  16. Piperine from black pepper inhibits activation-induced proliferation and effector function of T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Doucette, Carolyn D; Rodgers, Gemma; Liwski, Robert S; Hoskin, David W

    2015-11-01

    Piperine is a major alkaloid component of black pepper (Piper nigrum Linn), which is a widely consumed spice. Here, we investigated the effect of piperine on mouse T lymphocyte activation. Piperine inhibited polyclonal and antigen-specific T lymphocyte proliferation without affecting cell viability. Piperine also suppressed T lymphocyte entry into the S and G2 /M phases of the cell cycle, and decreased expression of G1 -associated cyclin D3, CDK4, and CDK6. In addition, piperine inhibited CD25 expression, synthesis of interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, and IL-17A, and the generation of cytotoxic effector cells. The inhibitory effect of piperine on T lymphocytes was associated with hypophosphorylation of Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and inhibitor of κBα, but not ZAP-70. The ability of piperine to inhibit several key signaling pathways involved in T lymphocyte activation and the acquisition of effector function suggests that piperine might be useful in the management of T lymphocyte-mediated autoimmune and chronic inflammatory disorders.

  17. Effector and suppressor circuits of the immune response are activated in vivo by different mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, H.; Kripke, M.L.

    1987-06-01

    The application of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) onto the skin of mice induces a contact hypersensitivity immune response. Lymph nodes draining the skin painted with FITC contain fluorescent cells that induce contact hypersensitivity to FITC when injected into normal mice. The antigen-presenting cells responsible for activating the effector pathway of the contact hypersensitivity response express Ia histocompatibility determinants and are resistant to inactivation with gamma-radiation. Exposing the skin to low doses of UV radiation (280-320 nm) before the application of FITC suppresses the contact hypersensitivity response to FITC. Cells present in the draining lymph nodes of these mice induce suppressor T lymphocytes when injected into normal recipients. The inducer cells in the draining lymph nodes are Thy 1+, Ia- and are inactivated by gamma-radiation. These studies demonstrate that different mechanisms are involved in the in vivo activation of effector and suppressor immune responses, and they suggest that the mode of initial antigen presentation determines which immunologic circuit will be activated in response to a contact-sensitizing antigen.

  18. Ancient class of translocated oomycete effectors targets the host nucleus.

    PubMed

    Schornack, Sebastian; van Damme, Mireille; Bozkurt, Tolga O; Cano, Liliana M; Smoker, Matthew; Thines, Marco; Gaulin, Elodie; Kamoun, Sophien; Huitema, Edgar

    2010-10-01

    Pathogens use specialized secretion systems and targeting signals to translocate effector proteins inside host cells, a process that is essential for promoting disease and parasitism. However, the amino acid sequences that determine host delivery of eukaryotic pathogen effectors remain mostly unknown. The Crinkler (CRN) proteins of oomycete plant pathogens, such as the Irish potato famine organism Phytophthora infestans, are modular proteins with predicted secretion signals and conserved N-terminal sequence motifs. Here, we provide direct evidence that CRN N termini mediate protein transport into plant cells. CRN host translocation requires a conserved motif that is present in all examined plant pathogenic oomycetes, including the phylogenetically divergent species Aphanomyces euteiches that does not form haustoria, specialized infection structures that have been implicated previously in delivery of effectors. Several distinct CRN C termini localized to plant nuclei and, in the case of CRN8, required nuclear accumulation to induce plant cell death. These results reveal a large family of ubiquitous oomycete effector proteins that target the host nucleus. Oomycetes appear to have acquired the ability to translocate effector proteins inside plant cells relatively early in their evolution and before the emergence of haustoria. Finally, this work further implicates the host nucleus as an important cellular compartment where the fate of plant-microbe interactions is determined.

  19. Structural Analysis of Iac Repressor Bound to Allosteric Effectors

    SciTech Connect

    Daber,R.; Stayrook, S.; Rosenberg, A.; Lewis, M.

    2007-01-01

    The lac operon is a model system for understanding how effector molecules regulate transcription and are necessary for allosteric transitions. The crystal structures of the lac repressor bound to inducer and anti-inducer molecules provide a model for how these small molecules can modulate repressor function. The structures of the apo repressor and the repressor bound to effector molecules are compared in atomic detail. All effectors examined here bind to the repressor in the same location and are anchored to the repressor through hydrogen bonds to several hydroxyl groups of the sugar ring. Inducer molecules form a more extensive hydrogen-bonding network compared to anti-inducers and neutral effector molecules. The structures of these effector molecules suggest that the O6 hydroxyl on the galactoside is essential for establishing a water-mediated hydrogen bonding network that bridges the N-terminal and C-terminal sub-domains. The altered hydrogen bonding can account in part for the different structural conformations of the repressor, and is vital for the allosteric transition.

  20. Characterization of a chemoattractant for endothelium induced by angiogenesis effectors.

    PubMed

    Raju, K S; Alessandri, G; Gullino, P M

    1984-04-01

    The mechanism of neovascularization was further explored by the use of chemically defined angiogenesis effectors. The vascularization of the rabbit cornea was selected as an experimental approach that permits comparison of one cornea treated by the angiogenesis effector with the contralateral cornea of the same subject treated by the same molecule deprived of angiogenic capacity. Under these conditions, we observed that neovascularization was initiated by the appearance of a chemoattractant for the bovine capillary endothelium only in the cornea treated by the angiogenesis effector. The chemoattractant was purified about 150-fold by a single-step procedure, using gelatin:Sepharose affinity chromatography. Chemoattraction resulted from the combined effect of a chemotactic factor(s) and an activating factor(s). The association of the two enhanced 5- to 8-fold the motility of the capillary endothelium in a concentration-dependent manner with optimum at 0.2 mg/ml. The activating factor(s) does not have chemotactic capacity, but without it, chemotaxis is reduced to about one half. The chemotactic complex was present in the cornea regardless of the nature of the angiogenesis effector used as the triggering device. Heat and proteases eliminated chemotaxis and destroyed the chemotactic complex. Thus, neovascularization may be triggered by effectors able to induce in the cornea proteins, normally not present, that influence angiogenesis via mobilization of capillary endothelium. PMID:6200213

  1. Antigen-specific suppression of inflammatory arthritis using liposomes.

    PubMed

    Capini, Christelle; Jaturanpinyo, Montree; Chang, Hsin-I; Mutalik, Srinivas; McNally, Alice; Street, Shayna; Steptoe, Raymond; O'Sullivan, Brendan; Davies, Nigel; Thomas, Ranjeny

    2009-03-15

    Existing therapies for rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases are not Ag specific, which increases the likelihood of systemic toxicity. We show that egg phosphatidylcholine liposomes loaded with Ag (OVA or methylated BSA) and a lipophilic NF-kappaB inhibitor (curcumin, quercetin, or Bay11-7082) suppress preexisting immune responses in an Ag-specific manner. We injected loaded liposomes into mice primed with Ag or into mice suffering from Ag-induced inflammatory arthritis. The liposomes targeted APCs in situ, suppressing the cells' responsiveness to NF-kappaB and inducing Ag-specific FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells. This regulatory mechanism suppressed effector T cell responses and the clinical signs of full-blown Ag-induced arthritis. Thus, liposomes encapsulate Ags and NF-kappaB inhibitors stably and efficiently and could be readily adapted to deliver Ags and inhibitors for Ag-specific suppression of other autoimmune and allergic diseases.

  2. Signaling in Effector Lymphocytes: Insights toward Safer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekaran, Kamalakannan; Riese, Matthew J.; Rao, Sridhar; Wang, Li; Thakar, Monica S.; Sentman, Charles L.; Malarkannan, Subramaniam

    2016-01-01

    Receptors on T and NK cells systematically propagate highly complex signaling cascades that direct immune effector functions, leading to protective immunity. While extensive studies have delineated hundreds of signaling events that take place upon receptor engagement, the precise molecular mechanism that differentially regulates the induction or repression of a unique effector function is yet to be fully defined. Such knowledge can potentiate the tailoring of signal transductions and transform cancer immunotherapies. Targeted manipulations of signaling cascades can augment one effector function such as antitumor cytotoxicity while contain the overt generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines that contribute to treatment-related toxicity such as “cytokine storm” and “cytokine-release syndrome” or lead to autoimmune diseases. Here, we summarize how individual signaling molecules or nodes may be optimally targeted to permit selective ablation of toxic immune side effects. PMID:27242783

  3. Identification of Anaplasma marginale Type IV Secretion System Effector Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Brayton, Kelly A.; Beare, Paul A.; Brown, Wendy C.; Heinzen, Robert A.; Broschat, Shira L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Anaplasma marginale, an obligate intracellular alphaproteobacterium in the order Rickettsiales, is a tick-borne pathogen and the leading cause of anaplasmosis in cattle worldwide. Complete genome sequencing of A. marginale revealed that it has a type IV secretion system (T4SS). The T4SS is one of seven known types of secretion systems utilized by bacteria, with the type III and IV secretion systems particularly prevalent among pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. The T4SS is predicted to play an important role in the invasion and pathogenesis of A. marginale by translocating effector proteins across its membrane into eukaryotic target cells. However, T4SS effector proteins have not been identified and tested in the laboratory until now. Results By combining computational methods with phylogenetic analysis and sequence identity searches, we identified a subset of potential T4SS effectors in A. marginale strain St. Maries and chose six for laboratory testing. Four (AM185, AM470, AM705 [AnkA], and AM1141) of these six proteins were translocated in a T4SS-dependent manner using Legionella pneumophila as a reporter system. Conclusions The algorithm employed to find T4SS effector proteins in A. marginale identified four such proteins that were verified by laboratory testing. L. pneumophila was shown to work as a model system for A. marginale and thus can be used as a screening tool for A. marginale effector proteins. The first T4SS effector proteins for A. marginale have been identified in this work. PMID:22140462

  4. Development and testing of the cooling coil cleaning end effector

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.I.; Mullen, O.D.; Powell, M.R.; Daly, D.S.; Engel, D.W.

    1997-09-30

    The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancement (KPD{ampersand}E) program has developed and tested an end effector to support the waste retrieval mission at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The end effector was developed specifically to remove a sticky waste material from the cooling coils in the High Level Liquid Waste (HLLW) tank, and to vacuum up a sediment layer that has settled beneath the cooling coils. An extensive testing program was conducted in the hydraulic test bed (HTB) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to evaluate the performance of the end effector under simulated in-tank conditions. A mock up of the cooling coils was installed in the test bed tank, and simulated waste materials were included to represent the sticky waste on the tubes and the particulate waste settled beneath them. The testing program focused on assessing long-duration mining strategies for cleaning the cooling coils and removing the particulate waste forms. The report describes the results of the end effector testing program at PNNL. Section 2 describes the physical characteristics of the HLLW tanks, including the layout of the cooling coils, and it also describes what is known of the waste forms in the tanks. Section 3 describes the cleaning and retrieval strategy that was used in developing the end effector design. Section 4 describes the cooling coil mockup in the hydraulic test bed. Section 5 discusses the rationale used in selecting the simulants for the tarry waste and particulate waste forms. Section 6 describes the tests that were performed to evaluate cleaning of the cooling coils and retrieval of the particulate simulant. Section 7 summarizes the cleaning and retrieval tests, assesses the relative importance of cleaning the cooling coils and retrieving the particulate waste, and suggests modifications that would simplify the end effector design.

  5. Yersinia type III effectors perturb host innate immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Pha, Khavong; Navarro, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    The innate immune system is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Innate immune cells recognize molecular patterns from the pathogen and mount a response to resolve the infection. The production of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species, phagocytosis, and induced programmed cell death are processes initiated by innate immune cells in order to combat invading pathogens. However, pathogens have evolved various virulence mechanisms to subvert these responses. One strategy utilized by Gram-negative bacterial pathogens is the deployment of a complex machine termed the type III secretion system (T3SS). The T3SS is composed of a syringe-like needle structure and the effector proteins that are injected directly into a target host cell to disrupt a cellular response. The three human pathogenic Yersinia spp. (Y. pestis, Y. enterocolitica, and Y. pseudotuberculosis) are Gram-negative bacteria that share in common a 70 kb virulence plasmid which encodes the T3SS. Translocation of the Yersinia effector proteins (YopE, YopH, YopT, YopM, YpkA/YopO, and YopP/J) into the target host cell results in disruption of the actin cytoskeleton to inhibit phagocytosis, downregulation of proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine production, and induction of cellular apoptosis of the target cell. Over the past 25 years, studies on the Yersinia effector proteins have unveiled tremendous knowledge of how the effectors enhance Yersinia virulence. Recently, the long awaited crystal structure of YpkA has been solved providing further insights into the activation of the YpkA kinase domain. Multisite autophosphorylation by YpkA to activate its kinase domain was also shown and postulated to serve as a mechanism to bypass regulation by host phosphatases. In addition, novel Yersinia effector protein targets, such as caspase-1, and signaling pathways including activation of the inflammasome were identified. In this review, we summarize the recent discoveries made on Yersinia

  6. Identification of new secreted effectors in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Geddes, Kaoru; Worley, Micah; Niemann, George; Heffron, Fred

    2005-10-01

    A common theme in bacterial pathogenesis is the secretion of bacterial products that modify cellular functions to overcome host defenses. Gram-negative bacterial pathogens use type III secretion systems (TTSSs) to inject effector proteins into host cells. The genes encoding the structural components of the type III secretion apparatus are conserved among bacterial species and can be identified by sequence homology. In contrast, the sequences of secreted effector proteins are less conserved and are therefore difficult to identify. A strategy was developed to identify virulence factors secreted by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium into the host cell cytoplasm. We constructed a transposon, which we refer to as mini-Tn5-cycler, to generate translational fusions between Salmonella chromosomal genes and a fragment of the calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase gene derived from Bordetella pertussis (cyaA'). In-frame fusions to bacterial proteins that are secreted into the eukaryotic cell cytoplasm were identified by high levels of cyclic AMP in infected cells. The assay was sufficiently sensitive that a single secreted fusion could be identified among several hundred that were not secreted. This approach identified three new effectors as well as seven that have been previously characterized. A deletion of one of the new effectors, steA (Salmonella translocated effector A), attenuated virulence. In addition, SteA localizes to the trans-Golgi network in both transfected and infected cells. This approach has identified new secreted effector proteins in Salmonella and will likely be useful for other organisms, even those in which genetic manipulation is more difficult.

  7. Yersinia type III effectors perturb host innate immune responses.

    PubMed

    Pha, Khavong; Navarro, Lorena

    2016-02-26

    The innate immune system is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Innate immune cells recognize molecular patterns from the pathogen and mount a response to resolve the infection. The production of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species, phagocytosis, and induced programmed cell death are processes initiated by innate immune cells in order to combat invading pathogens. However, pathogens have evolved various virulence mechanisms to subvert these responses. One strategy utilized by Gram-negative bacterial pathogens is the deployment of a complex machine termed the type III secretion system (T3SS). The T3SS is composed of a syringe-like needle structure and the effector proteins that are injected directly into a target host cell to disrupt a cellular response. The three human pathogenic Yersinia spp. (Y. pestis, Y. enterocolitica, and Y. pseudotuberculosis) are Gram-negative bacteria that share in common a 70 kb virulence plasmid which encodes the T3SS. Translocation of the Yersinia effector proteins (YopE, YopH, YopT, YopM, YpkA/YopO, and YopP/J) into the target host cell results in disruption of the actin cytoskeleton to inhibit phagocytosis, downregulation of proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine production, and induction of cellular apoptosis of the target cell. Over the past 25 years, studies on the Yersinia effector proteins have unveiled tremendous knowledge of how the effectors enhance Yersinia virulence. Recently, the long awaited crystal structure of YpkA has been solved providing further insights into the activation of the YpkA kinase domain. Multisite autophosphorylation by YpkA to activate its kinase domain was also shown and postulated to serve as a mechanism to bypass regulation by host phosphatases. In addition, novel Yersinia effector protein targets, such as caspase-1, and signaling pathways including activation of the inflammasome were identified. In this review, we summarize the recent discoveries made on Yersinia

  8. Planar cell polarity effector gene Intu regulates cell fate-specific differentiation of keratinocytes through the primary cilia.

    PubMed

    Dai, D; Li, L; Huebner, A; Zeng, H; Guevara, E; Claypool, D J; Liu, A; Chen, J

    2013-01-01

    Genes involved in the planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway are essential for a number of developmental processes in mammals, such as convergent extension and ciliogenesis. Tissue-specific PCP effector genes of the PCP signaling pathway are believed to mediate PCP signals in a tissue- and cell type-specific manner. However, how PCP signaling controls the morphogenesis of mammalian tissues remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of inturned (Intu), a tissue-specific PCP effector gene, during hair follicle formation in mice. Tissue-specific disruption of Intu in embryonic epidermis resulted in hair follicle morphogenesis arrest because of the failure of follicular keratinocyte to differentiate. Targeting Intu in the epidermis resulted in almost complete loss of primary cilia in epidermal and follicular keratinocytes, and a suppressed hedgehog signaling pathway. Surprisingly, the epidermal stratification and differentiation programs and barrier function were not affected. These results demonstrate that tissue-specific PCP effector genes of the PCP signaling pathway control the differentiation of keratinocytes through the primary cilia in a cell fate- and context-dependent manner, which may be critical in orchestrating the propagation and interpretation of polarity signals established by the core PCP components. PMID:22935613

  9. Graft rejection by cytolytic T cells. Specificity of the effector mechanism in the rejection of allogeneic marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, H.; Gress, R.E. )

    1990-02-01

    Cellular effector mechanisms of allograft rejection remain incompletely described. Characterizing the rejection of foreign-marrow allografts rather than solid-organ grafts has the advantage that the cellular composition of the marrow graft, as a single cell suspension, can be altered to include cellular components with differing antigen expression. Rejection of marrow grafts is sensitive to lethal doses of radiation in the mouse but resistant to sublethal levels of radiation. In an effort to identify cells mediating host resistance, lymphocytes were isolated and cloned from spleens of mice 7 days after sublethal TBI (650 cGy) and inoculation with allogeneic marrow. All clones isolated were cytolytic with specificity for MHC encoded gene products of the allogeneic marrow donor. When cloned cells were transferred in vivo into lethally irradiated (1025 cGy) recipients unable to reject allogeneic marrow, results utilizing splenic 125IUdR uptake indicated that these MHC-specific cytotoxic clones could suppress marrow proliferation. In order to characterize the effector mechanism and the ability of the clones to affect final engraftment, double donor chimeras were constructed so that 2 target cell populations differing at the MHC from each other and from the host were present in the same marrow allograft. Results directly demonstrated an ability of CTL of host MHC type to mediate graft rejection and characterized the effector mechanism as one with specificity for MHC gene products.

  10. E2~Ub conjugates regulate the kinase activity of Shigella effector OspG during pathogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Pruneda, Jonathan N.; Smith, F. Donelson; Daurie, Angela; Swaney, Danielle L.; Villén, Judit; Scott, John D.; Stadnyk, Andrew W.; Le Trong, Isolde; Stenkamp, Ronald E.; Klevit, Rachel E.; Rohde, John R.; Brzovic, Peter S.

    2014-01-20

    Pathogenic bacteria introduce effector proteins directly into the cytosol of eukaryotic cells to promote invasion and colonization. OspG, a Shigella spp. effector kinase, plays a role in this process by helping to suppress the host inflammatory response. OspG has been reported to bind host E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes activated with ubiquitin (E2~Ub), a key enzyme complex in ubiquitin transfer pathways. A cocrystal structure of the OspG/UbcH5c~Ub complex reveals that complex formation has important ramifications for the activity of both OspG and the UbcH5c~Ub conjugate. OspG is a minimal kinase domain containing only essential elements required for catalysis. UbcH5c~Ub binding stabilizes an active conformation of the kinase, greatly enhancing OspG kinase activity. In contrast, interaction with OspG stabilizes an extended, less reactive form of UbcH5c~Ub. Recognizing conserved E2 features, OspG can interact with at least ten distinct human E2s~Ub. Mouse oral infection studies indicate that E2~Ub conjugates act as novel regulators of OspG effector kinase function in eukaryotic host cells.

  11. The Xanthomonas effector XopJ triggers a conditional hypersensitive response upon treatment of N. benthamiana leaves with salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Üstün, Suayib; Bartetzko, Verena; Börnke, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    XopJ is a Xanthomonas type III effector protein that promotes bacterial virulence on susceptible pepper plants through the inhibition of the host cell proteasome and a resultant suppression of salicylic acid (SA) - dependent defense responses. We show here that Nicotiana benthamiana leaves transiently expressing XopJ display hypersensitive response (HR) -like symptoms when exogenously treated with SA. This apparent avirulence function of XopJ was further dependent on effector myristoylation as well as on an intact catalytic triad, suggesting a requirement of its enzymatic activity for HR-like symptom elicitation. The ability of XopJ to cause a HR-like symptom development upon SA treatment was lost upon silencing of SGT1 and NDR1, respectively, but was independent of EDS1 silencing, suggesting that XopJ is recognized by an R protein of the CC-NBS-LRR class. Furthermore, silencing of NPR1 abolished the elicitation of HR-like symptoms in XopJ expressing leaves after SA application. Measurement of the proteasome activity indicated that proteasome inhibition by XopJ was alleviated in the presence of SA, an effect that was not observed in NPR1 silenced plants. Our results suggest that XopJ - triggered HR-like symptoms are closely related to the virulence function of the effector and that XopJ follows a two-signal model in order to elicit a response in the non-host plant N. benthamiana.

  12. Planar cell polarity effector gene Intu regulates cell fate-specific differentiation of keratinocytes through the primary cilia.

    PubMed

    Dai, D; Li, L; Huebner, A; Zeng, H; Guevara, E; Claypool, D J; Liu, A; Chen, J

    2013-01-01

    Genes involved in the planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway are essential for a number of developmental processes in mammals, such as convergent extension and ciliogenesis. Tissue-specific PCP effector genes of the PCP signaling pathway are believed to mediate PCP signals in a tissue- and cell type-specific manner. However, how PCP signaling controls the morphogenesis of mammalian tissues remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of inturned (Intu), a tissue-specific PCP effector gene, during hair follicle formation in mice. Tissue-specific disruption of Intu in embryonic epidermis resulted in hair follicle morphogenesis arrest because of the failure of follicular keratinocyte to differentiate. Targeting Intu in the epidermis resulted in almost complete loss of primary cilia in epidermal and follicular keratinocytes, and a suppressed hedgehog signaling pathway. Surprisingly, the epidermal stratification and differentiation programs and barrier function were not affected. These results demonstrate that tissue-specific PCP effector genes of the PCP signaling pathway control the differentiation of keratinocytes through the primary cilia in a cell fate- and context-dependent manner, which may be critical in orchestrating the propagation and interpretation of polarity signals established by the core PCP components.

  13. E2∼Ub conjugates regulate the kinase activity of Shigella effector OspG during pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Pruneda, Jonathan N; Smith, F Donelson; Daurie, Angela; Swaney, Danielle L; Villén, Judit; Scott, John D; Stadnyk, Andrew W; Le Trong, Isolde; Stenkamp, Ronald E; Klevit, Rachel E; Rohde, John R; Brzovic, Peter S

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria introduce effector proteins directly into the cytosol of eukaryotic cells to promote invasion and colonization. OspG, a Shigella spp. effector kinase, plays a role in this process by helping to suppress the host inflammatory response. OspG has been reported to bind host E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes activated with ubiquitin (E2∼Ub), a key enzyme complex in ubiquitin transfer pathways. A co-crystal structure of the OspG/UbcH5c∼Ub complex reveals that complex formation has important ramifications for the activity of both OspG and the UbcH5c∼Ub conjugate. OspG is a minimal kinase domain containing only essential elements required for catalysis. UbcH5c∼Ub binding stabilizes an active conformation of the kinase, greatly enhancing OspG kinase activity. In contrast, interaction with OspG stabilizes an extended, less reactive form of UbcH5c∼Ub. Recognizing conserved E2 features, OspG can interact with at least ten distinct human E2s∼Ub. Mouse oral infection studies indicate that E2∼Ub conjugates act as novel regulators of OspG effector kinase function in eukaryotic host cells. PMID:24446487

  14. Visual End-Effector Position Error Compensation for Planetary Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajracharya, Max; DiCicco, Matthew; Backes, Paul; Nickels, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a vision-guided manipulation algorithm that improves arm end-effector positioning to subpixel accuracy and meets the highly restrictive imaging and computational constraints of a planetary robotic flight system. Analytical, simulation-based, and experimental analyses of the algorithm's effectiveness and sensitivity to camera and arm model error is presented along with results on several prototype research systems and 'ground-in-the-loop' technology experiments on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) vehicles. A computationally efficient and robust subpixel end-effector fiducial detector that is instrumental to the algorithm's ability to achieve high accuracy is also described along with its validation results on MER data.

  15. Nanorobotic end-effectors: Design, fabrication, and in situ characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zheng

    Nano-robotic end-effectors have promising applications for nano-fabrication, nano-manufacturing, nano-optics, nano-medical, and nano-sensing; however, low performances of the conventional end-effectors have prevented the widespread utilization of them in various fields. There are two major difficulties in developing the end-effectors: their nano-fabrication and their advanced characterization in the nanoscale. Here we introduce six types of end-effectors: the nanotube fountain pen (NFP), the super-fine nanoprobe, the metal-filled carbon nanotube (m CNT)-based sphere-on-pillar (SOP) nanoantennas, the tunneling nanosensor, and the nanowire-based memristor. The investigations on the NFP are focused on nano-fluidics and nano-fabrications. The NFP could direct write metallic "inks" and fabricating complex metal nanostructures from 0D to 3D with a position servo control, which is critically important to future large-scale, high-throughput nanodevice production. With the help of NFP, we could fabricate the end-effectors such as super-fine nanoprobe and m CNT-based SOP nanoantennas. Those end-effectors are able to detect local flaws or characterize the electrical/mechanical properties of the nanostructure. Moreover, using electron-energy-loss-spectroscopy (EELS) technique during the operation of the SOP optical antenna opens a new basis for the application of nano-robotic end-effectors. The technique allows advanced characterization of the physical changes, such as carrier diffusion, that are directly responsible for the device's properties. As the device was coupled with characterization techniques of scanning-trasmission-electron-microscopy (STEM), the development of tunneling nanosensor advances this field of science into quantum world. Furthermore, the combined STEM-EELS technique plays an important role in our understanding of the memristive switching performance in the nanowire-based memristor. The developments of those nano-robotic end-effectors expend the study

  16. Robotic End Effectors for Hard-Rock Climbing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Brett; Leger, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Special-purpose robot hands (end effectors) now under development are intended to enable robots to traverse cliffs much as human climbers do. Potential applications for robots having this capability include scientific exploration (both on Earth and other rocky bodies in space), military reconnaissance, and outdoor search and rescue operations. Until now, enabling robots to traverse cliffs has been considered too difficult a task because of the perceived need of prohibitively sophisticated planning algorithms as well as end effectors as dexterous as human hands. The present end effectors are being designed to enable robots to attach themselves to typical rock-face features with less planning and simpler end effectors. This advance is based on the emulation of the equipment used by human climbers rather than the emulation of the human hand. Climbing-aid equipment, specifically cams, aid hooks, and cam hooks, are used by sport climbers when a quick ascent of a cliff is desired (see Figure 1). Currently two different end-effector designs have been created. The first, denoted the simple hook emulator, consists of three "fingers" arranged around a central "palm." Each finger emulates the function of a particular type of climbing hook (aid hook, wide cam hook, and a narrow cam hook). These fingers are connected to the palm via a mechanical linkage actuated with a leadscrew/nut. This mechanism allows the fingers to be extended or retracted. The second design, denoted the advanced hook emulator (see Figure 2), shares these features, but it incorporates an aid hook and a cam hook into each finger. The spring-loading of the aid hook allows the passive selection of the type of hook used. The end effectors can be used in several different modes. In the aid-hook mode, the aid hook on one of the fingers locks onto a horizontal ledge while the other two fingers act to stabilize the end effector against the cliff face. In the cam-hook mode, the broad, flat tip of the cam hook is

  17. Effectors of hemoglobin. Separation of allosteric and affinity factors.

    PubMed Central

    Marden, M C; Bohn, B; Kister, J; Poyart, C

    1990-01-01

    The relative contributions of the allosteric and affinity factors toward the change in p50 have been calculated for a series of effectors of hemoglobin (Hb). Shifts in the ligand affinity of deoxy Hb and the values for 50% ligand saturation (p50) were obtained from oxygen equilibrium data. Because the high-affinity parameters (liganded conformation) are poorly determined from the equilibrium curves, they were determined from kinetic measurements of the association and dissociation rates with CO as ligand. The CO on-rates were obtained by flash photolysis measurements. The off-rates were determined from the rate of oxidation of HbCO by ferricyanide, or by replacement of CO with NO. The partition function of fully liganded hemoglobin for oxygen and CO is only slightly changed by the effectors. Measurements were made in the presence of the effectors 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG), inositol hexakisphosphate (IHP), bezafibrate (Bzf), and two recently synthesized derivatives of Bzf (LR16 and L35). Values of p50 change by over a factor of 60; the on-rates decrease by nearly a factor of 8, with little change in the off-rates for the liganded conformation. The data indicate that both allosteric and affinity parameters are changed by the effectors; the changes in ligand affinity represent the larger contribution toward shifts in p50. PMID:2306490

  18. The Coding and Effector Transfer of Movement Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacs, Attila J.; Muhlbauer, Thomas; Shea, Charles H.

    2009-01-01

    Three experiments utilizing a 14-element arm movement sequence were designed to determine if reinstating the visual-spatial coordinates, which require movements to the same spatial locations utilized during acquisition, results in better effector transfer than reinstating the motor coordinates, which require the same pattern of homologous muscle…

  19. Hand to Mouth: Automatic Imitation across Effector Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leighton, Jane; Heyes, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    The effector dependence of automatic imitation was investigated using a stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) procedure during which participants were required to make an open or closed response with their hand or their mouth. The correct response for each trial was indicated by a pair of letters in Experiments 1 and 2 and by a colored square in…

  20. Type IV secretion system of Brucella spp. and its effectors

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Yuehua; Wang, Yufei; Li, Wengfeng; Chen, Zeliang

    2015-01-01

    Brucella spp. are intracellular bacterial pathogens that cause infection in domestic and wild animals. They are often used as model organisms to study intracellular bacterial infections. Brucella VirB T4SS is a key virulence factor that plays important roles in mediating intracellular survival and manipulating host immune response to infection. In this review, we discuss the roles of Brucella VirB T4SS and 15 effectors that are proposed to be crucial for Brucella pathogenesis. VirB T4SS regulates the inflammation response and manipulates vesicle trafficking inside host cells. VirB T4SS also plays crucial roles in the inhibition of the host immune response and intracellular survival during infection. Here, we list the key molecular events in the intracellular life cycle of Brucella that are potentially targeted by the VirB T4SS effectors. Elucidating the functions of these effectors will help clarify the molecular role of T4SS during infection. Furthermore, studying the effectors secreted by Brucella spp. might provide insights into the mechanisms used by the bacteria to hijack the host signaling pathways and aid in the development of better vaccines and therapies against brucellosis. PMID:26528442

  1. Electroporation of Functional Bacterial Effectors into Mammalian Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sontag, Ryan L.; Mihai, Cosmin; Orr, Galya; Savchenko, Alexei; Skarina, Tatiana; Cui, Hong; Cort, John R.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Brown, Roslyn N.

    2015-01-19

    Electroporation was used to insert purified bacterial virulence effector proteins directly into living eukaryotic cells. Protein localization was monitored by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. This method allows for studies on trafficking, function, and protein-protein interactions using active exogenous proteins, avoiding the need for heterologous expression in eukaryotic cells.

  2. Plasmodium cellular effector mechanisms and the hepatic microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Frevert, Ute; Krzych, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains one of the most serious health problems globally. Immunization with attenuated parasites elicits multiple cellular effector mechanisms capable of eliminating Plasmodium liver stages. However, malaria liver stage (LS) immunity is complex and the mechanisms effector T cells use to locate the few infected hepatocytes in the large liver in order to kill the intracellular LS parasites remain a mystery to date. Here, we review our current knowledge on the behavior of CD8 effector T cells in the hepatic microvasculature, in malaria and other hepatic infections. Taking into account the unique immunological and lymphogenic properties of the liver, we discuss whether classical granule-mediated cytotoxicity might eliminate infected hepatocytes via direct cell contact or whether cytokines might operate without cell–cell contact and kill Plasmodium LSs at a distance. A thorough understanding of the cellular effector mechanisms that lead to parasite death hence sterile protection is a prerequisite for the development of a successful malaria vaccine to protect the 40% of the world’s population currently at risk of Plasmodium infection. PMID:26074888

  3. [PROBLEM OF END EFFECTOR OF ISCHEMIC POSTCONDITIONING OF THE HEART].

    PubMed

    Maslov, L N; Naryzhnaya, N V; Pei, J-M; Zhang, Y; Wang, H; Khaliulin, I J; Lishmanov, Yu B

    2015-06-01

    It is well known that cardiovascular disease and in particular acute myocardial infarction are a major cause of death among working-age population in Russia. Some of the patients die after successful recanalization of the infarct-related coronary artery as a result of ischemic and reperfusion injury of the heart. It is obvious that there is an urgent need to develop new approaches to prevention reoxygenation heart damages. In this regard the study of adaptive phenomenon postconditioning is of particular interest. This analysis of literature source preformed by authors of the article indicates that main pretenders to the role of end-effectors of ischemic postconditioning of the heart are: (1) Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channel of BK-type (big conductance K+ channel), (2) mitoKATp channel (mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ channel), (3) MPT pore (mitochondrial permeability transition pore). At the same time, some investigators consider that mitoK(ATP) channel is only an intermediate link in the series of signaling events ensured an increase in cardiac tolerance to impact of ischemia-reperfusion. The most likely end effector of these three structures is MPT pore. Alternatively, it is possible, that unique molecular complex appearing a single end effector of postconditioning does not exist. Perhaps, that there are several effectors ensured cardioprotective effect of an adaptive phenomenon of postconditioning. PMID:26470485

  4. TAL effector-mediated susceptibility to bacterial blight of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial blight of cotton (BBC) caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. malvacearum (Xcm) is a destructive disease that has recently re-emerged in the U.S. Xcm injects transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors that directly induce the expression of host susceptibility (S) or resistance (R) genes. ...

  5. Robot End Effector To Place and Solder Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagerty, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    Encapsulated in robot end effector is RF induction-heating coil for heating solar cell while in transit. Holes in encapsulant permit end of unit to act as vacuum pickup to grip solar cell. Use of RF induction heating allows cell to be heated without requiring direct mechanical and thermal contact of bonding tool such as soldering iron.

  6. Structure Analysis Uncovers a Highly Diverse but Structurally Conserved Effector Family in Phytopathogenic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Gracy, Jérome; Fournier, Elisabeth; Kroj, Thomas; Padilla, André

    2015-01-01

    Phytopathogenic ascomycete fungi possess huge effector repertoires that are dominated by hundreds of sequence-unrelated small secreted proteins. The molecular function of these effectors and the evolutionary mechanisms that generate this tremendous number of singleton genes are largely unknown. To get a deeper understanding of fungal effectors, we determined by NMR spectroscopy the 3-dimensional structures of the Magnaporthe oryzae effectors AVR1-CO39 and AVR-Pia. Despite a lack of sequence similarity, both proteins have very similar 6 β-sandwich structures that are stabilized in both cases by a disulfide bridge between 2 conserved cysteins located in similar positions of the proteins. Structural similarity searches revealed that AvrPiz-t, another effector from M. oryzae, and ToxB, an effector of the wheat tan spot pathogen Pyrenophora tritici-repentis have the same structures suggesting the existence of a family of sequence-unrelated but structurally conserved fungal effectors that we named MAX-effectors (Magnaporthe Avrs and ToxB like). Structure-informed pattern searches strengthened this hypothesis by identifying MAX-effector candidates in a broad range of ascomycete phytopathogens. Strong expansion of the MAX-effector family was detected in M. oryzae and M. grisea where they seem to be particularly important since they account for 5–10% of the effector repertoire and 50% of the cloned avirulence effectors. Expression analysis indicated that the majority of M. oryzae MAX-effectors are expressed specifically during early infection suggesting important functions during biotrophic host colonization. We hypothesize that the scenario observed for MAX-effectors can serve as a paradigm for ascomycete effector diversity and that the enormous number of sequence-unrelated ascomycete effectors may in fact belong to a restricted set of structurally conserved effector families. PMID:26506000

  7. Expression of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli map is significantly different than that of other type III secreted effectors in vivo.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Mai; Rizvi, Jason; Hecht, Gail

    2015-01-01

    The enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE)-encoded effectors EspF and Map are multifunctional and have an impact on the tight junction barrier while the non-LEE-encoded proteins NleH1 and NleH2 possess significant anti-inflammatory activity. In order to address the temporal expression of these important genes in vivo, their promoters were cloned upstream of the luxCDABE operon, and luciferase expression was measured in EPEC-infected mice by bioluminescence using an in vivo imaging system (IVIS). Bioluminescent images of living mice, of excised whole intestines, and of whole intestines longitudinally opened and washed were assessed. The majority of bioluminescent bacteria localized in the cecum by 3 h postinfection, indicating that the cecum is not only a major colonization site of EPEC but also a site of EPEC effector gene expression in mice. espF, nleH1, and nleH2 were abundantly expressed over the course of infection. In contrast, map expression was suppressed at 2 days postinfection, and at 4 days postinfection it was totally abolished. After 2 to 4 days postinfection, when map is suppressed, EPEC colonization is significantly reduced, indicating that map may be one of the factors required to maintain EPEC colonization. This was confirmed in a competitive colonization study and in two models of chronic infection, repeated exposure to ketamine and Citrobacter rodentium infection. Our data suggest that map expression contributes to the maintenance of EPEC colonization.

  8. The Shigella flexneri OspB effector: an early immunomodulator.

    PubMed

    Ambrosi, Cecilia; Pompili, Monica; Scribano, Daniela; Limongi, Dolores; Petrucca, Andrea; Cannavacciuolo, Sonia; Schippa, Serena; Zagaglia, Carlo; Grossi, Milena; Nicoletti, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Through the action of the type three secretion system (T3SS) Shigella flexneri delivers several effectors into host cells to promote cellular invasion, multiplication and to exploit host-cell signaling pathways to modulate the host innate immune response. Although much progress has been made in the understanding of many type III effectors, the molecular and cellular mechanism of the OspB effector is still poorly characterized. In this study we present new evidence that better elucidates the role of OspB as pro-inflammatory factor at very early stages of infection. Indeed, we demonstrate that, during the first hour of infection, OspB is required for full activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPKs and the cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)). Activation of cPLA(2) ultimately leads to the production and secretion of PMN chemoattractant metabolite(s) uncoupled with release of IL-8. Moreover, we also present evidence that OspB is required for the development of the full and promptly inflammatory reaction characteristic of S. flexneri wild-type infection in vivo. Based on OspB and OspF similarity (both effectors share similar transcription regulation, temporal secretion into host cells and nuclear localization) we hypothesized that OspB and OspF effectors may form a pair aimed at modulating the host cell response throughout the infection process, with opposite effects. A model is presented to illustrate how OspB activity would promote S. flexneri invasion and bacterial dissemination at early critical phases of infection.

  9. Active Flow Effectors for Noise and Separation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.

    2011-01-01

    New flow effector technology for separation control and enhanced mixing is based upon shape memory alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) technology. The technology allows for variable shape control of aircraft structures through actively deformable surfaces. The flow effectors are made by embedding shape memory alloy actuator material in a composite structure. When thermally actuated, the flow effector def1ects into or out of the flow in a prescribed manner to enhance mixing or induce separation for a variety of applications, including aeroacoustic noise reduction, drag reduction, and f1ight control. The active flow effectors were developed for noise reduction as an alternative to fixed-configuration effectors, such as static chevrons, that cannot be optimized for airframe installation effects or variable operating conditions and cannot be retracted for off-design or fail-safe conditions. Benefits include: Increased vehicle control, overall efficiency, and reduced noise throughout all f1ight regimes, Reduced flow noise, Reduced drag, Simplicity of design and fabrication, Simplicity of control through direct current stimulation, autonomous re sponse to environmental heating, fast re sponse, and a high degree of geometric stability. The concept involves embedding prestrained SMA actuators on one side of the chevron neutral axis in order to generate a thermal moment and def1ect the structure out of plane when heated. The force developed in the host structure during def1ection and the aerodynamic load is used for returning the structure to the retracted position. The chevron design is highly scalable and versatile, and easily affords active and/or autonomous (environmental) control. The technology offers wide-ranging market applications, including aerospace, automotive, and any application that requires flow separation or noise control.

  10. Phytophthora infestans RXLR-WY Effector AVR3a Associates with Dynamin-Related Protein 2 Required for Endocytosis of the Plant Pattern Recognition Receptor FLS2.

    PubMed

    Chaparro-Garcia, Angela; Schwizer, Simon; Sklenar, Jan; Yoshida, Kentaro; Petre, Benjamin; Bos, Jorunn I B; Schornack, Sebastian; Jones, Alexandra M E; Bozkurt, Tolga O; Kamoun, Sophien

    2015-01-01

    Pathogens utilize effectors to suppress basal plant defense known as PTI (Pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity). However, our knowledge of PTI suppression by filamentous plant pathogens, i.e. fungi and oomycetes, remains fragmentary. Previous work revealed that the co-receptor BAK1/SERK3 contributes to basal immunity against the potato pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Moreover BAK1/SERK3 is required for the cell death induced by P. infestans elicitin INF1, a protein with characteristics of PAMPs. The P. infestans host-translocated RXLR-WY effector AVR3a is known to supress INF1-mediated cell death by binding the plant E3 ligase CMPG1. In contrast, AVR3aKI-Y147del, a deletion mutant of the C-terminal tyrosine of AVR3a, fails to bind CMPG1 and does not suppress INF1-mediated cell death. Here, we studied the extent to which AVR3a and its variants perturb additional BAK1/SERK3-dependent PTI responses in N. benthamiana using the elicitor/receptor pair flg22/FLS2 as a model. We found that all tested variants of AVR3a suppress defense responses triggered by flg22 and reduce internalization of activated FLS2. Moreover, we discovered that AVR3a associates with the Dynamin-Related Protein 2 (DRP2), a plant GTPase implicated in receptor-mediated endocytosis. Interestingly, silencing of DRP2 impaired ligand-induced FLS2 internalization but did not affect internalization of the growth receptor BRI1. Our results suggest that AVR3a associates with a key cellular trafficking and membrane-remodeling complex involved in immune receptor-mediated endocytosis. We conclude that AVR3a is a multifunctional effector that can suppress BAK1/SERK3-mediated immunity through at least two different pathways. PMID:26348328

  11. Phytophthora infestans RXLR-WY Effector AVR3a Associates with Dynamin-Related Protein 2 Required for Endocytosis of the Plant Pattern Recognition Receptor FLS2

    PubMed Central

    Chaparro-Garcia, Angela; Schwizer, Simon; Sklenar, Jan; Yoshida, Kentaro; Petre, Benjamin; Bos, Jorunn I. B.; Schornack, Sebastian; Jones, Alexandra M. E.; Bozkurt, Tolga O.; Kamoun, Sophien

    2015-01-01

    Pathogens utilize effectors to suppress basal plant defense known as PTI (Pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity). However, our knowledge of PTI suppression by filamentous plant pathogens, i.e. fungi and oomycetes, remains fragmentary. Previous work revealed that the co-receptor BAK1/SERK3 contributes to basal immunity against the potato pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Moreover BAK1/SERK3 is required for the cell death induced by P. infestans elicitin INF1, a protein with characteristics of PAMPs. The P. infestans host-translocated RXLR-WY effector AVR3a is known to supress INF1-mediated cell death by binding the plant E3 ligase CMPG1. In contrast, AVR3aKI-Y147del, a deletion mutant of the C-terminal tyrosine of AVR3a, fails to bind CMPG1 and does not suppress INF1-mediated cell death. Here, we studied the extent to which AVR3a and its variants perturb additional BAK1/SERK3-dependent PTI responses in N. benthamiana using the elicitor/receptor pair flg22/FLS2 as a model. We found that all tested variants of AVR3a suppress defense responses triggered by flg22 and reduce internalization of activated FLS2. Moreover, we discovered that AVR3a associates with the Dynamin-Related Protein 2 (DRP2), a plant GTPase implicated in receptor-mediated endocytosis. Interestingly, silencing of DRP2 impaired ligand-induced FLS2 internalization but did not affect internalization of the growth receptor BRI1. Our results suggest that AVR3a associates with a key cellular trafficking and membrane-remodeling complex involved in immune receptor-mediated endocytosis. We conclude that AVR3a is a multifunctional effector that can suppress BAK1/SERK3-mediated immunity through at least two different pathways. PMID:26348328

  12. Consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation for effector T cell function in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Rouse, B.T.; Hartley, D.; Doherty, P.C. )

    1989-01-01

    The adoptive transfer of acutely primed and memory virus-immune CD8+ T cells causes enhanced meningitis in both cyclophosphamide (Cy) suppressed, and unsuppressed, recipients infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). The severity of meningitis is assessed by counting cells in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from the cisterna magna, which allows measurement of significant inflammatory process ranging from 3 to more than 300 times the background number of cells found in mice injected with virus alone. Exposure of the donor immune population to ionizing radiation prior to transfer has shown that activated T cells from mice primed 7 or 8 days previously with virus may still promote a low level of meningitis in unsuppressed recipients following as much as 800 rads, while this effect is lost totally in Cy-suppressed mice at 600 rads. Memory T cells are more susceptible and show no evidence of in vivo effector function in either recipient population subsequent to 400 rads, a dose level which also greatly reduces the efficacy of acutely-primed T cells. The results are interpreted as indicating that heavily irradiated cells that are already fully functional show evidence of primary localization to the CNS and a limited capacity to cause pathology. Secondary localization, and events that require further proliferation of the T cells in vivo, are greatly inhibited by irradiation.

  13. Growth hormone suppression test

    MedlinePlus

    GH suppression test; Glucose loading test; Acromegaly - blood test; Gigantism - blood test ... is not changed and stays high during the suppression test, the provider will suspect gigantism or acromegaly. ...

  14. Dexamethasone suppression test

    MedlinePlus

    DST; ACTH suppression test; Cortisol suppression test ... During this test, you will receive dexamethasone. This is a strong man-made (synthetic) glucocorticoid medication. Afterward, your blood is drawn ...

  15. Die another day: molecular mechanisms of effector-triggered immunity elicited by type III secreted effector proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial pathogens inject type III secreted effector (T3SE) proteins into their hosts where they display dual roles depending on the host genotype. T3SEs promote bacterial virulence in susceptible hosts, and elicit immunity in resistant hosts. T3SEs are typically recognized when they modify a host ...

  16. Pseudomonas syringae type III effector repertoires: last words in endless arguments.

    PubMed

    Lindeberg, Magdalen; Cunnac, Sébastien; Collmer, Alan

    2012-04-01

    Many plant pathogens subvert host immunity by injecting compositionally diverse but functionally similar repertoires of cytoplasmic effector proteins. The bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae is a model for exploring the functional structure of such repertoires. The pangenome of P. syringae encodes 57 families of effectors injected by the type III secretion system. Distribution of effector genes among phylogenetically diverse strains reveals a small set of core effectors targeting antimicrobial vesicle trafficking and a much larger set of variable effectors targeting kinase-based recognition processes. Complete disassembly of the 28-effector repertoire of a model strain and reassembly of a minimal functional repertoire reveals the importance of simultaneously attacking both processes. These observations, coupled with growing knowledge of effector targets in plants, support a model for coevolving molecular dialogs between effector repertoires and plant immune systems that emphasizes mutually-driven expansion of the components governing recognition. PMID:22341410

  17. Operation and maintenance manual for the common video end effector system (CVEE) system 6260

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, A.F., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-24

    This document defines the requirements for the operation,maintenance, and storage of the Common Video End Effector System (CVEE) used with the video end effectors as part of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) system.

  18. Opening the Ralstonia solanacearum type III effector tool box: insights into host cell subversion mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Deslandes, Laurent; Genin, Stephane

    2014-08-01

    Effectors delivered to host cells by the Type III secretion system are essential to Ralstonia solanacearum pathogenicity, as in several other plant pathogenic bacteria. The establishment of exhaustive effector repertoires in multiple R. solanacearum strains drew a first picture of the evolutionary dynamics of the pathogen effector suites. Effector repertoires are diversified, with a core of 20-30 effectors present in most of the strains and the obtention of mutants lacking one or more effector genes revealed the functional overlap among this effector network. Recent functional studies have provided insights into the ability of single effectors to manipulate the host proteasome, elicit cell death, trigger the expression of plant genes, and/or display biochemical activities on plant protein targets.

  19. Early effector cells survive the contraction phase in malaria infection and generate both central and effector memory T cells.

    PubMed

    Opata, Michael M; Carpio, Victor H; Ibitokou, Samad A; Dillon, Brian E; Obiero, Joshua M; Stephens, Robin

    2015-06-01

    CD4 T cells orchestrate immunity against blood-stage malaria. However, a major challenge in designing vaccines to the disease is poor understanding of the requirements for the generation of protective memory T cells (Tmem) from responding effector T cells (Teff) in chronic parasite infection. In this study, we use a transgenic mouse model with T cells specific for the merozoite surface protein (MSP)-1 of Plasmodium chabaudi to show that activated T cells generate three distinct Teff subsets with progressive activation phenotypes. The earliest observed Teff subsets (CD127(-)CD62L(hi)CD27(+)) are less divided than CD62L(lo) Teff and express memory genes. Intermediate (CD62L(lo)CD27(+)) effector subsets include the most multicytokine-producing T cells, whereas fully activated (CD62L(lo)CD27(-)) late effector cells have a terminal Teff phenotype (PD-1(+), Fas(hi), AnnexinV(+)). We show that although IL-2 promotes expansion, it actually slows terminal effector differentiation. Using adoptive transfer, we show that only early Teff survive the contraction phase and generate the terminal late Teff subsets, whereas in uninfected recipients, they become both central and effector Tmem. Furthermore, we show that progression toward full Teff activation is promoted by increased duration of infection, which in the long-term promotes Tem differentiation. Therefore, we have defined markers of progressive activation of CD4 Teff at the peak of malaria infection, including a subset that survives the contraction phase to make Tmem, and show that Ag and cytokine levels during CD4 T cell expansion influence the proportion of activated cells that can survive contraction and generate memory in malaria infection.

  20. Early effector cells survive the contraction phase in malaria infection and generate both central and effector memory T cells.

    PubMed

    Opata, Michael M; Carpio, Victor H; Ibitokou, Samad A; Dillon, Brian E; Obiero, Joshua M; Stephens, Robin

    2015-06-01

    CD4 T cells orchestrate immunity against blood-stage malaria. However, a major challenge in designing vaccines to the disease is poor understanding of the requirements for the generation of protective memory T cells (Tmem) from responding effector T cells (Teff) in chronic parasite infection. In this study, we use a transgenic mouse model with T cells specific for the merozoite surface protein (MSP)-1 of Plasmodium chabaudi to show that activated T cells generate three distinct Teff subsets with progressive activation phenotypes. The earliest observed Teff subsets (CD127(-)CD62L(hi)CD27(+)) are less divided than CD62L(lo) Teff and express memory genes. Intermediate (CD62L(lo)CD27(+)) effector subsets include the most multicytokine-producing T cells, whereas fully activated (CD62L(lo)CD27(-)) late effector cells have a terminal Teff phenotype (PD-1(+), Fas(hi), AnnexinV(+)). We show that although IL-2 promotes expansion, it actually slows terminal effector differentiation. Using adoptive transfer, we show that only early Teff survive the contraction phase and generate the terminal late Teff subsets, whereas in uninfected recipients, they become both central and effector Tmem. Furthermore, we show that progression toward full Teff activation is promoted by increased duration of infection, which in the long-term promotes Tem differentiation. Therefore, we have defined markers of progressive activation of CD4 Teff at the peak of malaria infection, including a subset that survives the contraction phase to make Tmem, and show that Ag and cytokine levels during CD4 T cell expansion influence the proportion of activated cells that can survive contraction and generate memory in malaria infection. PMID:25911759

  1. End-Effector Development for the PIP Puck Handling Robot

    SciTech Connect

    Fowley, M.D.

    2001-01-31

    It has been decided that excess, weapons-grade plutonium shall be immobilized to prevent nuclear proliferation. The method of immobilization is to encapsulate the plutonium in a ceramic puck, roughly the size of a hockey puck, using a sintering process. This method has been officially identified as the Plutonium Immobilization Process (PIP). A Can-in-Canister storage method will be used to further immobilize the plutonium. The Can-in-Canister method uses the existing design of a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister to house the plutonium pucks. the process begins with several pucks being stacked in a stainless steel can. Several of the stainless steel cans are stacked in a cage-like magazine. Several of the magazines are then placed in a DWPF canister. The DWPF canister is then filled with molten glass containing high-level, radioactive waste from the DWPF vitrification process. The Can-in-Canister method makes reclamation of plutonium from the pucks technically difficult and highly undesirable. The mechanical requirements of the Can-in-Canister process, in conjunction with the amount of time required to immobilize the vast quantities of weapons-grade plutonium, will expose personnel to unnecessarily high levels of radiation if the processes were completed manually, in glove boxes. Therefore, automated equipment is designed into the process to reduce or eliminate personnel exposure. Robots are used whenever the automated handling operations become complicated. There are two such operations in the initial stages of the Can-in-Canister process, which required a six-axis robot. The first operation is a press unloading process. The second operation is a tray transfer process. To successfully accomplish the operational tasks described in the two operations, the end-effector of the robot must be versatile, lightweight, and rugged. As a result of these demands, an extensive development process was undertaken to design the optimum end-effector for these puck

  2. End-Effector Development for the PIP Puck Handling Robot

    SciTech Connect

    Fowley, M.D.

    2001-01-03

    It has been decided that excess, weapons-grade plutonium shall be immobilized to prevent nuclear proliferation. The method of immobilization is to encapsulate the plutonium in a ceramic puck, roughly the size of a hockey puck, using a sintering process. This method has been officially identified as the Plutonium Immobilization Process (PIP). A Can-in-Canister storage method will be used to further immobilize the plutonium. The Can-in-Canister method uses the existing design of a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister to house the plutonium pucks. the process begins with several pucks being stacked in a stainless steel can. Several of the stainless steel cans are stacked in a cage-like magazine. Several of the magazines are then placed in a DWPF canister. The DWPF canister is then filled with molten glass containing high-level, radioactive waste from the DWPF vitrification process. The Can-in-Canister method makes reclamation of plutonium from the pucks technically difficult and highly undesirable. The mechanical requirements of the Can-in-Canister process, in conjunction with the amount of time required to immobilize the vast quantities of weapons-grade plutonium, will expose personnel to unnecessarily high levels of radiation if the processes were completed manually, in glove boxes. Therefore, automated equipment is designed into the process to reduce or eliminate personnel exposure. Robots are used whenever the automated handling operations become complicated. There are two such operations in the initial stages of the Can-in-Canister process, which required a six-axis robot. The first operation is a press unloading process. The second operation is a tray transfer process. To successfully accomplish the operational tasks described in the two operations, the end-effector of the robot must be versatile, lightweight, and rugged. As a result of these demands, an extensive development process was undertaken to design the optimum end-effector for these puck

  3. Identification of divergent type VI secretion effectors using a conserved chaperone domain

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xiaoye; Moore, Richard; Wilton, Mike; Wong, Megan J. Q.; Lam, Linh; Dong, Tao G.

    2015-01-01

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a lethal weapon used by many bacteria to kill eukaryotic predators or prokaryotic competitors. Killing by the T6SS results from repetitive delivery of toxic effectors. Despite their importance in dictating bacterial fitness, systematic prediction of T6SS effectors remains challenging due to high effector diversity and the absence of a conserved signature sequence. Here, we report a class of T6SS effector chaperone (TEC) proteins that are required for effector delivery through binding to VgrG and effector proteins. The TEC proteins share a highly conserved domain (DUF4123) and are genetically encoded upstream of their cognate effector genes. Using the conserved TEC domain sequence, we identified a large family of TEC genes coupled to putative T6SS effectors in Gram-negative bacteria. We validated this approach by verifying a predicted effector TseC in Aeromonas hydrophila. We show that TseC is a T6SS-secreted antibacterial effector and that the downstream gene tsiC encodes the cognate immunity protein. Further, we demonstrate that TseC secretion requires its cognate TEC protein and an associated VgrG protein. Distinct from previous effector-dependent bioinformatic analyses, our approach using the conserved TEC domain will facilitate the discovery and functional characterization of new T6SS effectors in Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:26150500

  4. A genome-wide analysis of antimicrobial effector genes and their transcription patterns in Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    He, Yan; Cao, Xiaolong; Li, Kai; Hu, Yingxia; Chen, Yun-ru; Blissard, Gary; Kanost, Michael R; Jiang, Haobo

    2015-07-01

    Antimicrobial proteins/peptides (AMPs) are effectors of innate immune systems against pathogen infection in multicellular organisms. Over half of the AMPs reported so far come from insects, and these effectors act in concert to suppress or kill bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. In this work, we have identified 86 AMP genes in the Manduca sexta genome, most of which seem likely to be functional. They encode 15 cecropins, 6 moricins, 6 defensins, 3 gallerimycins, 4 X-tox splicing variants, 14 diapausins, 15 whey acidic protein homologs, 11 attacins, 1 gloverin, 4 lebocins, 6 lysozyme-related proteins, and 4 transferrins. Some of these genes (e.g. attacins, cecropins) constitute large clusters, likely arising after rounds of gene duplication. We compared the amino acid sequences of M. sexta AMPs with their homologs in other insects to reveal conserved structural features and phylogenetic relationships. Expression data showed that many of them are synthesized in fat body and midgut during the larval-pupal molt. Certain genes contain one or more predicted κB binding sites and other regulatory elements in their promoter regions, which may account for the dramatic mRNA level increases in fat body and hemocytes after an immune challenge. Consistent with these strong mRNA increases, many AMPs become highly abundant in the larval plasma at 24 h after the challenge, as demonstrated in our previous peptidomic study. Taken together, these data suggest the existence of a large repertoire of AMPs in M. sexta, whose expression is up-regulated via immune signaling pathways to fight off invading pathogens in a coordinated manner. PMID:25662101

  5. Effector-Triggered Immunity Determines Host Genotype-Specific Incompatibility in Legume-Rhizobium Symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Michiko; Miwa, Hiroki; Masuda, Sachiko; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Okazaki, Shin

    2016-08-01

    Symbiosis between legumes and rhizobia leads to the formation of N2-fixing root nodules. In soybean, several host genes, referred to as Rj genes, control nodulation. Soybean cultivars carrying the Rj4 gene restrict nodulation by specific rhizobia such as Bradyrhizobium elkanii We previously reported that the restriction of nodulation was caused by B. elkanii possessing a functional type III secretion system (T3SS), which is known for its delivery of virulence factors by pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, we investigated the molecular basis for the T3SS-dependent nodulation restriction in Rj4 soybean. Inoculation tests revealed that soybean cultivar BARC-2 (Rj4/Rj4) restricted nodulation by B. elkanii USDA61, whereas its nearly isogenic line BARC-3 (rj4/rj4) formed nitrogen-fixing nodules with the same strain. Root-hair curling and infection threads were not observed in the roots of BARC-2 inoculated with USDA61, indicating that Rj4 blocked B. elkanii infection in the early stages. Accumulation of H2O2 and salicylic acid (SA) was observed in the roots of BARC-2 inoculated with USDA61. Transcriptome analyses revealed that inoculation of USDA61, but not its T3SS mutant in BARC-2, induced defense-related genes, including those coding for hypersensitive-induced responsive protein, which act in effector-triggered immunity (ETI) in Arabidopsis. These findings suggest that B. elkanii T3SS triggers the SA-mediated ETI-type response in Rj4 soybean, which consequently blocks symbiotic interactions. This study revealed a common molecular mechanism underlying both plant-pathogen and plant-symbiont interactions, and suggests that establishment of a root nodule symbiosis requires the evasion or suppression of plant immune responses triggered by rhizobial effectors. PMID:27373538

  6. A genome-wide analysis of antimicrobial effector genes and their transcription patterns in Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    He, Yan; Cao, Xiaolong; Li, Kai; Hu, Yingxia; Chen, Yun-ru; Blissard, Gary; Kanost, Michael R.; Jiang, Haobo

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial proteins/peptides (AMPs) are effectors of innate immune systems against pathogen infection in multicellular organisms. Over half of the AMPs reported so far come from insects, and these effectors act in concert to suppress or kill bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. In this work, we have identified 86 AMP genes in the Manduca sexta genome, most of which seem likely to be functional. They encode 15 cecropins, 6 moricins, 6 defensins, 3 gallerimycins, 4 X-tox splicing variants, 14 diapausins, 15 whey acidic protein homologs, 11 attacins, 1 gloverin, 4 lebocins, 6 lysozyme-related proteins, and 4 transferrins. Some of these genes (e.g. attacins, cecropins) constitute large clusters, likely arising after rounds of gene duplication. We compared the amino acid sequences of M. sexta AMPs with their homologs in other insects to reveal conserved structural features and phylogenetic relationships. Expression data showed that many of them are synthesized in fat body and midgut during the larval-pupal molt. Certain genes contain one or more predicted κB binding sites and other regulatory elements in their promoter regions, which may account for the dramatic mRNA level increases in fat body and hemocytes after an immune challenge. Consistent with these strong mRNA increases, many AMPs become highly abundant in the larval plasma at 24 h after the challenge, as demonstrated in our previous peptidomic study. Taken together, these data suggest the existence of a large repertoire of AMPs in M. sexta, whose expression is up-regulated via immune signaling pathways to fight off invading pathogens in a coordinated manner. PMID:25662101

  7. Structural Analysis of Pseudomonas syringae AvrPtoB Bound to Host BAK1 Reveals Two Similar Kinase-Interacting Domains in a Type III Effector

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Wei; Munkvold, Kathy R.; Gao, Haishan; Mathieu, Johannes; Schwizer, Simon; Wang, Sha; Yan, Yong-bin; Wang, Jinjing; Martin, Gregory B.; Chai, Jijie

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY To infect plants, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato delivers ~30 type III effector proteins into host cells, many of which interfere with PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). One effector, AvrPtoB, suppresses PTI using a central domain to bind host BAK1, a kinase that acts with several pattern recognition receptors to activate defense signaling. A second AvrPtoB domain binds and suppresses the PTI-associated kinase Bti9 but is conversely recognized by the protein kinase Pto to activate effector-triggered immunity. We report the crystal structure of the AvrPtoB-BAK1 complex, which revealed structural similarity between these two AvrPtoB domains, suggesting that they arose by intragenic duplication. The BAK1 kinase domain is structurally similar to Pto, and a conserved region within both BAK1 and Pto interacts with AvrPtoB. BAK1 kinase activity is inhibited by AvrPtoB, and mutations at the interaction interface disrupt AvrPtoB virulence activity. These results shed light on a structural mechanism underlying host-pathogen coevolution. PMID:22169508

  8. Interchangeable end effector tools utilized on the protoflight manipulator arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A subset of teleoperator and effector tools was designed, fabricated, delivered and successfully demonstrated on the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) protoflight manipulator arm (PFMA). The tools delivered included a rotary power tool with interchangeable collets and two fluid coupling mate/demate tools; one for a Fairchild coupling and the other for a Purolator coupling. An electrical interface connector was also provided for the rotary power tool. A tool set, from which the subset was selected, for performing on-orbit satellite maintenance was identified and conceptionally designed. Maintenance requirements were synthesized, evaluated and prioritized to develop design requirements for a set of end effector tools representative of those needed to provide on-orbit maintenance of satellites to be flown in the 1986 to 2000 timeframe.

  9. Proteomics of effector-triggered immunity (ETI) in plants

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Brenden; Subramaniam, Rajagopal; Guttman, David S; Desveaux, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Effector-triggered immunity (ETI) was originally termed gene-for-gene resistance and dates back to fundamental observations of flax resistance to rust fungi by Harold Henry Flor in the 1940s. Since then, genetic and biochemical approaches have defined our current understanding of how plant “resistance” proteins recognize microbial effectors. More recently, proteomic approaches have expanded our view of the protein landscape during ETI and contributed significant advances to our mechanistic understanding of ETI signaling. Here we provide an overview of proteomic techniques that have been used to study plant ETI including both global and targeted approaches. We discuss the challenges associated with ETI proteomics and highlight specific examples from the literature, which demonstrate how proteomics is advancing the ETI research field. PMID:25513776

  10. Proteomics of effector-triggered immunity (ETI) in plants.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Brenden; Subramaniam, Rajagopal; Guttman, David S; Desveaux, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Effector-triggered immunity (ETI) was originally termed gene-for-gene resistance and dates back to fundamental observations of flax resistance to rust fungi by Harold Henry Flor in the 1940s. Since then, genetic and biochemical approaches have defined our current understanding of how plant "resistance" proteins recognize microbial effectors. More recently, proteomic approaches have expanded our view of the protein landscape during ETI and contributed significant advances to our mechanistic understanding of ETI signaling. Here we provide an overview of proteomic techniques that have been used to study plant ETI including both global and targeted approaches. We discuss the challenges associated with ETI proteomics and highlight specific examples from the literature, which demonstrate how proteomics is advancing the ETI research field. PMID:25513776

  11. Engineered antibody Fc variants with enhanced effector function

    PubMed Central

    Lazar, Greg A.; Dang, Wei; Karki, Sher; Vafa, Omid; Peng, Judy S.; Hyun, Linus; Chan, Cheryl; Chung, Helen S.; Eivazi, Araz; Yoder, Sean C.; Vielmetter, Jost; Carmichael, David F.; Hayes, Robert J.; Dahiyat, Bassil I.

    2006-01-01

    Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, a key effector function for the clinical efficacy of monoclonal antibodies, is mediated primarily through a set of closely related Fcγ receptors with both activating and inhibitory activities. By using computational design algorithms and high-throughput screening, we have engineered a series of Fc variants with optimized Fcγ receptor affinity and specificity. The designed variants display >2 orders of magnitude enhancement of in vitro effector function, enable efficacy against cells expressing low levels of target antigen, and result in increased cytotoxicity in an in vivo preclinical model. Our engineered Fc regions offer a means for improving the next generation of therapeutic antibodies and have the potential to broaden the diversity of antigens that can be targeted for antibody-based tumor therapy. PMID:16537476

  12. Engineered antibody Fc variants with enhanced effector function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazar, Greg A.; Dang, Wei; Karki, Sher; Vafa, Omid; Peng, Judy S.; Hyun, Linus; Chan, Cheryl; Chung, Helen S.; Eivazi, Araz; Yoder, Sean C.; Vielmetter, Jost; Carmichael, David F.; Hayes, Robert J.; Dahiyat, Bassil I.

    2006-03-01

    Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, a key effector function for the clinical efficacy of monoclonal antibodies, is mediated primarily through a set of closely related Fc receptors with both activating and inhibitory activities. By using computational design algorithms and high-throughput screening, we have engineered a series of Fc variants with optimized Fc receptor affinity and specificity. The designed variants display >2 orders of magnitude enhancement of in vitro effector function, enable efficacy against cells expressing low levels of target antigen, and result in increased cytotoxicity in an in vivo preclinical model. Our engineered Fc regions offer a means for improving the next generation of therapeutic antibodies and have the potential to broaden the diversity of antigens that can be targeted for antibody-based tumor therapy. antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity | FcR | protein engineering | cancer

  13. Engineered antibody Fc variants with enhanced effector function.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Greg A; Dang, Wei; Karki, Sher; Vafa, Omid; Peng, Judy S; Hyun, Linus; Chan, Cheryl; Chung, Helen S; Eivazi, Araz; Yoder, Sean C; Vielmetter, Jost; Carmichael, David F; Hayes, Robert J; Dahiyat, Bassil I

    2006-03-14

    Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, a key effector function for the clinical efficacy of monoclonal antibodies, is mediated primarily through a set of closely related Fcgamma receptors with both activating and inhibitory activities. By using computational design algorithms and high-throughput screening, we have engineered a series of Fc variants with optimized Fcgamma receptor affinity and specificity. The designed variants display >2 orders of magnitude enhancement of in vitro effector function, enable efficacy against cells expressing low levels of target antigen, and result in increased cytotoxicity in an in vivo preclinical model. Our engineered Fc regions offer a means for improving the next generation of therapeutic antibodies and have the potential to broaden the diversity of antigens that can be targeted for antibody-based tumor therapy.

  14. Subversion of Retrograde Trafficking by Translocated Pathogen Effectors.

    PubMed

    Personnic, Nicolas; Bärlocher, Kevin; Finsel, Ivo; Hilbi, Hubert

    2016-06-01

    Intracellular bacterial pathogens subvert the endocytic bactericidal pathway to form specific replication-permissive compartments termed pathogen vacuoles or inclusions. To this end, the pathogens employ type III or type IV secretion systems, which translocate dozens, if not hundreds, of different effector proteins into their host cells, where they manipulate vesicle trafficking and signaling pathways in favor of the intruders. While the distinct cocktail of effectors defines the specific processes by which a pathogen vacuole is formed, the different pathogens commonly target certain vesicle trafficking routes, including the endocytic or secretory pathway. Recently, the retrograde transport pathway from endosomal compartments to the trans-Golgi network emerged as an important route affecting pathogen vacuole formation. Here, we review current insight into the host cell's retrograde trafficking pathway and how vacuolar pathogens of the genera Legionella, Coxiella, Salmonella, Chlamydia, and Simkania employ mechanistically distinct strategies to subvert this pathway, thus promoting intracellular survival and replication. PMID:26924068

  15. Xanthomonas and the TAL Effectors: Nature's Molecular Biologist.

    PubMed

    White, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Agrobacterium, due to the transfer of T-DNA to the host genome, is known as nature's genetic engineer. Once again, bacteria have led the way to newfound riches in biotechnology. Xanthomonas has emerged as nature's molecular biologist as the functional domains of the sequence-specific DNA transcription factors known as TAL effectors were characterized and associated with the cognate disease susceptibility and resistance genes of plants. PMID:26443209

  16. Autonomous dexterous end-effectors for space robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekey, George A.; Iberall, Thea; Liu, Huan

    1989-01-01

    The development of a knowledge-based controller is summarized for the Belgrade/USC robot hand, a five-fingered end effector, designed for maximum autonomy. The biological principles of the hand and its architecture are presented. The conceptual and software aspects of the grasp selection system are discussed, including both the effects of the geometry of the target object and the task to be performed. Some current research issues are presented.

  17. The Functions of Effector Proteins in Yersinia Virulence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linglin; Mei, Meng; Yu, Chan; Shen, Wenwen; Ma, Lixin; He, Jiewang; Yi, Li

    2016-01-01

    Yersinia species are bacterial pathogens that can cause plague and intestinal diseases after invading into human cells through the Three Secretion System (TTSS). The effect of pathogenesis is mediated by Yersinia outer proteins (Yop) and manifested as down-regulation of the cytokine genes expression by inhibiting nuclear factor-κ-gene binding (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. In addition, its pathogenesis can also manipulate the disorder of host innate immune system and cell death such as apoptosis, pyroptosis, and autophagy. Among the Yersinia effector proteins, YopB and YopD assist the injection of other virulence effectors into the host cytoplasm, while YopE, YopH, YopJ, YopO, and YopT target on disrupting host cell signaling pathways in the host cytosols. Many efforts have been applied to reveal that intracellular proteins such as Rho-GTPase, and transmembrane receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) both play critical roles in Yersinia pathogenesis, establishing a connection between the pathogenic process and the signaling response. This review will mainly focus on how the effector proteins of Yersinia modulate the intrinsic signals in host cells and disturb the innate immunity of hosts through TTSS. PMID:27281989

  18. Multiple Regulatory and Effector Roles of Autophagy in Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Deretic, Vojo

    2009-01-01

    Summary Autophagy is a cytoplasmic homeostasis pathway, enabling cells to digest their own cytosol, remove toxic protein aggregates, and eliminate deffective or surplus organelles. A plenitude of studies have now expanded roles of autophagy to both effector and regulatory functions in innate and adaptive immunity. In its role of an immunological effector, autophagy plays many parts: (i) In its most primeval manifestation, autophagy captures and digests intracellular microbes; (ii) it is an anti-microbial output of Toll-like receptor (TLR) response to pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMP); and (iii) autophagy is an effector of Th1-Th2 polarization in resistance or susceptibility to intracellular pathogens. As a regulator of immunity, autophagy plays a multitude of functions: (i) It acts as a topological inversion device servicing both innate and adaptive immunity by delivering cytosolic antigens to the lumen of MHC II compartments and cytosolic PAMPs to endosomal TLRs; (ii) autophagy is critical in T cell repertoire selection in the thymus and control of central tolerance; (iii) it plays a role in T and B cell homeostasis; and (iv) autophagy is of significance for inflammatory pathology. A properly functioning autophagy helps prevent autoimmunity and assists in clearing pathogens. When aberrant, it contributes to human inflammatory disorders such as Crohn’s disease. PMID:19269148

  19. The Functions of Effector Proteins in Yersinia Virulence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linglin; Mei, Meng; Yu, Chan; Shen, Wenwen; Ma, Lixin; He, Jiewang; Yi, Li

    2016-01-01

    Yersinia species are bacterial pathogens that can cause plague and intestinal diseases after invading into human cells through the Three Secretion System (TTSS). The effect of pathogenesis is mediated by Yersinia outer proteins (Yop) and manifested as down-regulation of the cytokine genes expression by inhibiting nuclear factor-κ-gene binding (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. In addition, its pathogenesis can also manipulate the disorder of host innate immune system and cell death such as apoptosis, pyroptosis, and autophagy. Among the Yersinia effector proteins, YopB and YopD assist the injection of other virulence effectors into the host cytoplasm, while YopE, YopH, YopJ, YopO, and YopT target on disrupting host cell signaling pathways in the host cytosols. Many efforts have been applied to reveal that intracellular proteins such as Rho-GTPase, and transmembrane receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) both play critical roles in Yersinia pathogenesis, establishing a connection between the pathogenic process and the signaling response. This review will mainly focus on how the effector proteins of Yersinia modulate the intrinsic signals in host cells and disturb the innate immunity of hosts through TTSS.

  20. Current activities of the Yersinia effector protein YopM.

    PubMed

    Höfling, Sabrina; Grabowski, Benjamin; Norkowski, Stefanie; Schmidt, M Alexander; Rüter, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Yersinia outer protein M (YopM) belongs to the group of Yop effector proteins, which are highly conserved among pathogenic Yersinia species. During infection, the effectors are delivered into the host cell cytoplasm via the type 3 secretion system to subvert the host immune response and support the survival of Yersinia. In contrast to the other Yop effectors, YopM does not possess a known enzymatic activity and its molecular mechanism(s) of action remain(s) poorly understood. However, YopM was shown to promote colonization and dissemination of Yersinia, thus being crucial for the pathogen's virulence in vivo. Moreover, YopM interacts with several host cell proteins and might utilize them to execute its anti-inflammatory activities. The results obtained so far indicate that YopM is a multifunctional protein that counteracts the host immune defense by multiple activities, which are at least partially independent of each other. Finally, its functions seem to be also influenced by differences between the specific YopM isoforms expressed by Yersinia subspecies. In this review, we focus on the global as well as more specific contribution of YopM to virulence of Yersinia during infection and point out the various extra- and intracellular molecular functions of YopM. In addition, the novel cell-penetrating ability of recombinant YopM and its potential applications as a self-delivering immunomodulatory therapeutic will be discussed.

  1. Mouse and human FcR effector functions.

    PubMed

    Bruhns, Pierre; Jönsson, Friederike

    2015-11-01

    Mouse and human FcRs have been a major focus of attention not only of the scientific community, through the cloning and characterization of novel receptors, and of the medical community, through the identification of polymorphisms and linkage to disease but also of the pharmaceutical community, through the identification of FcRs as targets for therapy or engineering of Fc domains for the generation of enhanced therapeutic antibodies. The availability of knockout mouse lines for every single mouse FcR, of multiple or cell-specific--'à la carte'--FcR knockouts and the increasing generation of hFcR transgenics enable powerful in vivo approaches for the study of mouse and human FcR biology. This review will present the landscape of the current FcR family, their effector functions and the in vivo models at hand to study them. These in vivo models were recently instrumental in re-defining the properties and effector functions of FcRs that had been overlooked or discarded from previous analyses. A particular focus will be made on the (mis)concepts on the role of high-affinity IgG receptors in vivo and on results from antibody engineering to enhance or abrogate antibody effector functions mediated by FcRs. PMID:26497511

  2. A smart end-effector for assembly of space truss structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, William R.; Rhodes, Marvin D.; Wise, Marion A.; Armistead, Maurice F.

    1992-01-01

    A unique facility, the Automated Structures Research Laboratory, is being used to investigate robotic assembly of truss structures. A special-purpose end-effector is used to assemble structural elements into an eight meter diameter structure. To expand the capabilities of the facility to include construction of structures with curved surfaces from straight structural elements of different lengths, a new end-effector has been designed and fabricated. This end-effector contains an integrated microprocessor to monitor actuator operations through sensor feedback. This paper provides an overview of the automated assembly tasks required by this end-effector and a description of the new end-effector's hardware and control software.

  3. Multiple recognition of RXLR effectors is associated with nonhost resistance of pepper against Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Ah; Kim, Shin-Young; Oh, Sang-Keun; Yeom, Seon-In; Kim, Saet-Byul; Kim, Myung-Shin; Kamoun, Sophien; Choi, Doil

    2014-08-01

    Nonhost resistance (NHR) is a plant immune response to resist most pathogens. The molecular basis of NHR is poorly understood, but recognition of pathogen effectors by immune receptors, a response known as effector-triggered immunity, has been proposed as a component of NHR. We performed transient expression of 54 Phytophthora infestansRXLR effectors in pepper (Capsicum annuum) accessions. We used optimized heterologous expression methods and analyzed the inheritance of effector-induced cell death in an F2 population derived from a cross between two pepper accessions. Pepper showed a localized cell death response upon inoculation with P. infestans, suggesting that recognition of effectors may contribute to NHR in this system. Pepper accessions recognized as many as 36 effectors. Among the effectors, PexRD8 and Avrblb2 induced cell death in a broad range of pepper accessions. Segregation of effector-induced cell death in an F2 population derived from a cross between two pepper accessions fit 15:1, 9:7 or 3:1 ratios, depending on the effector. Our genetic data suggest that a single or two independent/complementary dominant genes are involved in the recognition of RXLR effectors. Multiple loci recognizing a series of effectors may underpin NHR of pepper to P. infestans and confer resistance durability.

  4. Effective suppressibility of chaos.

    PubMed

    López, Álvaro G; Seoane, Jesús M; Sanjuán, Miguel A F

    2013-06-01

    Suppression of chaos is a relevant phenomenon that can take place in nonlinear dynamical systems when a parameter is varied. Here, we investigate the possibilities of effectively suppressing the chaotic motion of a dynamical system by a specific time independent variation of a parameter of our system. In realistic situations, we need to be very careful with the experimental conditions and the accuracy of the parameter measurements. We define the suppressibility, a new measure taking values in the parameter space, that allows us to detect which chaotic motions can be suppressed, what possible new choices of the parameter guarantee their suppression, and how small the parameter variations from the initial chaotic state to the final periodic one are. We apply this measure to a Duffing oscillator and a system consisting on ten globally coupled Hénon maps. We offer as our main result tool sets that can be used as guides to suppress chaotic dynamics. PMID:23822472

  5. Fire Suppression and Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, Gary A.

    2004-01-01

    This report is concerned with the following topics regarding fire suppression:What is the relative effectiveness of candidate suppressants to extinguish a representative fire in reduced gravity, including high-O2 mole fraction, low -pressure environments? What are the relative advantages and disadvantages of physically acting and chemically-acting agents in spacecraft fire suppression? What are the O2 mole fraction and absolute pressure below which a fire cannot exist? What effect does gas-phase radiation play in the overall fire and post-fire environments? Are the candidate suppressants effective to extinguish fires on practical solid fuels? What is required to suppress non-flaming fires (smoldering and deep seated fires) in reduced gravity? How can idealized space experiment results be applied to a practical fire scenario? What is the optimal agent deployment strategy for space fire suppression?

  6. Prediction of bacterial type IV secreted effectors by C-terminal features

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many bacteria can deliver pathogenic proteins (effectors) through type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) to eukaryotic cytoplasm, causing host diseases. The inherent property, such as sequence diversity and global scattering throughout the whole genome, makes it a big challenge to effectively identify the full set of T4SS effectors. Therefore, an effective inter-species T4SS effector prediction tool is urgently needed to help discover new effectors in a variety of bacterial species, especially those with few known effectors, e.g., Helicobacter pylori. Results In this research, we first manually annotated a full list of validated T4SS effectors from different bacteria and then carefully compared their C-terminal sequential and position-specific amino acid compositions, possible motifs and structural features. Based on the observed features, we set up several models to automatically recognize T4SS effectors. Three of the models performed strikingly better than the others and T4SEpre_Joint had the best performance, which could distinguish the T4SS effectors from non-effectors with a 5-fold cross-validation sensitivity of 89% at a specificity of 97%, based on the training datasets. An inter-species cross prediction showed that T4SEpre_Joint could recall most known effectors from a variety of species. The inter-species prediction tool package, T4SEpre, was further used to predict new T4SS effectors from H. pylori, an important human pathogen associated with gastritis, ulcer and cancer. In total, 24 new highly possible H. pylori T4S effector genes were computationally identified. Conclusions We conclude that T4SEpre, as an effective inter-species T4SS effector prediction software package, will help find new pathogenic T4SS effectors efficiently in a variety of pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24447430

  7. Herbivore exploits orally secreted bacteria to suppress plant defenses.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seung Ho; Rosa, Cristina; Scully, Erin D; Peiffer, Michelle; Tooker, John F; Hoover, Kelli; Luthe, Dawn S; Felton, Gary W

    2013-09-24

    Induced plant defenses in response to herbivore attack are modulated by cross-talk between jasmonic acid (JA)- and salicylic acid (SA)-signaling pathways. Oral secretions from some insect herbivores contain effectors that overcome these antiherbivore defenses. Herbivores possess diverse microbes in their digestive systems and these microbial symbionts can modify plant-insect interactions; however, the specific role of herbivore-associated microbes in manipulating plant defenses remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) larvae exploit bacteria in their oral secretions to suppress antiherbivore defenses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We found that antibiotic-untreated larvae decreased production of JA and JA-responsive antiherbivore defenses, but increased SA accumulation and SA-responsive gene expression. Beetles benefit from down-regulating plant defenses by exhibiting enhanced larval growth. In SA-deficient plants, suppression was not observed, indicating that suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA-signaling pathway. Applying bacteria isolated from larval oral secretions to wounded plants confirmed that three microbial symbionts belonging to the genera Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacter are responsible for defense suppression. Additionally, reinoculation of these bacteria to antibiotic-treated larvae restored their ability to suppress defenses. Flagellin isolated from Pseudomonas sp. was associated with defense suppression. Our findings show that the herbivore exploits symbiotic bacteria as a decoy to deceive plants into incorrectly perceiving the threat as microbial. By interfering with the normal perception of herbivory, beetles can evade antiherbivore defenses of its host. PMID:24019469

  8. Herbivore exploits orally secreted bacteria to suppress plant defenses

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Seung Ho; Rosa, Cristina; Scully, Erin D.; Peiffer, Michelle; Tooker, John F.; Hoover, Kelli; Luthe, Dawn S.; Felton, Gary W.

    2013-01-01

    Induced plant defenses in response to herbivore attack are modulated by cross-talk between jasmonic acid (JA)- and salicylic acid (SA)-signaling pathways. Oral secretions from some insect herbivores contain effectors that overcome these antiherbivore defenses. Herbivores possess diverse microbes in their digestive systems and these microbial symbionts can modify plant–insect interactions; however, the specific role of herbivore-associated microbes in manipulating plant defenses remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) larvae exploit bacteria in their oral secretions to suppress antiherbivore defenses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We found that antibiotic-untreated larvae decreased production of JA and JA-responsive antiherbivore defenses, but increased SA accumulation and SA-responsive gene expression. Beetles benefit from down-regulating plant defenses by exhibiting enhanced larval growth. In SA-deficient plants, suppression was not observed, indicating that suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA-signaling pathway. Applying bacteria isolated from larval oral secretions to wounded plants confirmed that three microbial symbionts belonging to the genera Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacter are responsible for defense suppression. Additionally, reinoculation of these bacteria to antibiotic-treated larvae restored their ability to suppress defenses. Flagellin isolated from Pseudomonas sp. was associated with defense suppression. Our findings show that the herbivore exploits symbiotic bacteria as a decoy to deceive plants into incorrectly perceiving the threat as microbial. By interfering with the normal perception of herbivory, beetles can evade antiherbivore defenses of its host. PMID:24019469

  9. Herbivore exploits orally secreted bacteria to suppress plant defenses.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seung Ho; Rosa, Cristina; Scully, Erin D; Peiffer, Michelle; Tooker, John F; Hoover, Kelli; Luthe, Dawn S; Felton, Gary W

    2013-09-24

    Induced plant defenses in response to herbivore attack are modulated by cross-talk between jasmonic acid (JA)- and salicylic acid (SA)-signaling pathways. Oral secretions from some insect herbivores contain effectors that overcome these antiherbivore defenses. Herbivores possess diverse microbes in their digestive systems and these microbial symbionts can modify plant-insect interactions; however, the specific role of herbivore-associated microbes in manipulating plant defenses remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) larvae exploit bacteria in their oral secretions to suppress antiherbivore defenses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We found that antibiotic-untreated larvae decreased production of JA and JA-responsive antiherbivore defenses, but increased SA accumulation and SA-responsive gene expression. Beetles benefit from down-regulating plant defenses by exhibiting enhanced larval growth. In SA-deficient plants, suppression was not observed, indicating that suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA-signaling pathway. Applying bacteria isolated from larval oral secretions to wounded plants confirmed that three microbial symbionts belonging to the genera Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacter are responsible for defense suppression. Additionally, reinoculation of these bacteria to antibiotic-treated larvae restored their ability to suppress defenses. Flagellin isolated from Pseudomonas sp. was associated with defense suppression. Our findings show that the herbivore exploits symbiotic bacteria as a decoy to deceive plants into incorrectly perceiving the threat as microbial. By interfering with the normal perception of herbivory, beetles can evade antiherbivore defenses of its host.

  10. SseK3 Is a Salmonella Effector That Binds TRIM32 and Modulates the Host’s NF-κB Signalling Activity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhe; Soderholm, Amelia; Lung, Tania Wong Fok; Giogha, Cristina; Hill, Michelle M.; Brown, Nathaniel F.; Hartland, Elizabeth; Teasdale, Rohan D.

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium employs an array of type III secretion system effectors that facilitate intracellular survival and replication during infection. The Salmonella effector SseK3 was originally identified due to amino acid sequence similarity with NleB; an effector secreted by EPEC/EHEC that possesses N-acetylglucoasmine (GlcNAc) transferase activity and modifies death domain containing proteins to block extrinsic apoptosis. In this study, immunoprecipitation of SseK3 defined a novel molecular interaction between SseK3 and the host protein, TRIM32, an E3 ubiquitin ligase. The conserved DxD motif within SseK3, which is essential for the GlcNAc transferase activity of NleB, was required for TRIM32 binding and for the capacity of SseK3 to suppress TNF-stimulated activation of NF-κB pathway. However, we did not detect GlcNAc modification of TRIM32 by SseK3, nor did the SseK3-TRIM32 interaction impact on TRIM32 ubiquitination that is associated with its activation. In addition, lack of sseK3 in Salmonella had no effect on production of the NF-κB dependent cytokine, IL-8, in HeLa cells even though TRIM32 knockdown suppressed TNF-induced NF-κB activity. Ectopically expressed SseK3 partially co-localises with TRIM32 at the trans-Golgi network, but SseK3 is not recruited to Salmonella induced vacuoles or Salmonella induced filaments during Salmonella infection. Our study has identified a novel effector-host protein interaction and suggests that SseK3 may influence NF-κB activity. However, the lack of GlcNAc modification of TRIM32 suggests that SseK3 has further, as yet unidentified, host targets. PMID:26394407

  11. SseK3 Is a Salmonella Effector That Binds TRIM32 and Modulates the Host's NF-κB Signalling Activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhe; Soderholm, Amelia; Lung, Tania Wong Fok; Giogha, Cristina; Hill, Michelle M; Brown, Nathaniel F; Hartland, Elizabeth; Teasdale, Rohan D

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium employs an array of type III secretion system effectors that facilitate intracellular survival and replication during infection. The Salmonella effector SseK3 was originally identified due to amino acid sequence similarity with NleB; an effector secreted by EPEC/EHEC that possesses N-acetylglucoasmine (GlcNAc) transferase activity and modifies death domain containing proteins to block extrinsic apoptosis. In this study, immunoprecipitation of SseK3 defined a novel molecular interaction between SseK3 and the host protein, TRIM32, an E3 ubiquitin ligase. The conserved DxD motif within SseK3, which is essential for the GlcNAc transferase activity of NleB, was required for TRIM32 binding and for the capacity of SseK3 to suppress TNF-stimulated activation of NF-κB pathway. However, we did not detect GlcNAc modification of TRIM32 by SseK3, nor did the SseK3-TRIM32 interaction impact on TRIM32 ubiquitination that is associated with its activation. In addition, lack of sseK3 in Salmonella had no effect on production of the NF-κB dependent cytokine, IL-8, in HeLa cells even though TRIM32 knockdown suppressed TNF-induced NF-κB activity. Ectopically expressed SseK3 partially co-localises with TRIM32 at the trans-Golgi network, but SseK3 is not recruited to Salmonella induced vacuoles or Salmonella induced filaments during Salmonella infection. Our study has identified a novel effector-host protein interaction and suggests that SseK3 may influence NF-κB activity. However, the lack of GlcNAc modification of TRIM32 suggests that SseK3 has further, as yet unidentified, host targets.

  12. Activated Ras Induces Cytoplasmic Vacuolation and Non-Apoptotic Death in Glioblastoma Cells via Novel Effector Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, Aparna; Overmeyer, Jean H.; Maltese, William A.

    2007-01-01

    Expression of activated H-Ras induces a unique form of non-apoptotic cell death in human glioblastoma cells and other specific tumor cell lines. The major cytopathological features of this form of death are the accumulation of large phase-lucent, LAMP1-positive, cytoplasmic vacuoles and increased autophagic activity. In this study we sought to determine if induction of cytoplasmic vacuolation a) depends on Ras farnesylation, b) is specific to H-Ras, and c) is mediated by signaling through the major known Ras effector pathways. We find that the unusual effects of activated H-Ras depend on farnesylation and membrane association of the GTPase. Both H-Ras(G12V) and K-Ras4B(G12V) stimulate vacuolation, but activated forms of Cdc42 and RhoA do not. Amino acid substitutions in the Ras effector domain, which are known to selectively impair its interactions with Raf kinase, class-I phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), or Ral nucleotide exchange factors, initially pointed to Raf as a possible mediator of cell vacuolation. However, the MEK inhibitor, PD98059, did not block the induction of vacuoles, and constitutively active Raf-Caax did not mimic the effects of Ras(G12V). Introduction of normal PTEN together with H-Ras(G12V) into U251 glioblastoma cells reduced the PI3K-dependent activation of Akt, but had no effect on vacuolation. Finally, co-expression of H-Ras(G12V) with a dominant-negative form of RalA did not suppress vacuolation. Taken together, the observations indicate that Ras activates non-conventional and perhaps unique effector pathways to induce cytoplasmic vacuolation in glioblastoma cells. Identification of the relevant signaling pathways may uncover specific molecular targets that can be manipulated to activate non-apoptotic cell death in this type of cancer. PMID:17210246

  13. Identification and Characterisation CRN Effectors in Phytophthora capsici Shows Modularity and Functional Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Stam, Remco; Jupe, Julietta; Howden, Andrew J. M.; Morris, Jenny A.; Boevink, Petra C.; Hedley, Pete E.; Huitema, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    Phytophthora species secrete a large array of effectors during infection of their host plants. The Crinkler (CRN) gene family encodes a ubiquitous but understudied class of effectors with possible but as of yet unknown roles in infection. To appreciate CRN effector function in Phytophthora, we devised a simple Crn gene identification and annotation pipeline to improve effector prediction rates. We predicted 84 full-length CRN coding genes and assessed CRN effector domain diversity in sequenced Oomycete genomes. These analyses revealed evidence of CRN domain innovation in Phytophthora and expansion in the Peronosporales. We performed gene expression analyses to validate and define two classes of CRN effectors, each possibly contributing to infection at different stages. CRN localisation studies revealed that P. capsici CRN effector domains target the nucleus and accumulate in specific sub-nuclear compartments. Phenotypic analyses showed that few CRN domains induce necrosis when expressed in planta and that one cell death inducing effector, enhances P. capsici virulence on Nicotiana benthamiana. These results suggest that the CRN protein family form an important class of intracellular effectors that target the host nucleus during infection. These results combined with domain expansion in hemi-biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens, suggests specific contributions to pathogen lifestyles. This work will bolster CRN identification efforts in other sequenced oomycete species and set the stage for future functional studies towards understanding CRN effector functions. PMID:23536880

  14. The Capping Domain in RalF Regulates Effector Functions

    PubMed Central

    Alix, Eric; Chesnel, Laurent; Bowzard, Brad J.; Tucker, Aimee M.; Delprato, Anna; Cherfils, Jacqueline; Wood, David O.; Kahn, Richard A.; Roy, Craig R.

    2012-01-01

    The Legionella pneumophila effector protein RalF functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that activates the host small GTPase protein ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf), and recruits this host protein to the vacuoles in which this pathogen resides. GEF activity is conferred by the Sec7 domain located in the N-terminal region of RalF. Structural studies indicate that the C-terminal region of RalF makes contacts with residues in the Sec7 domain important for Arf interactions. Theoretically, the C-terminal region of RalF could prevent nucleotide exchange activity by blocking the ability of Arf to interact with the Sec7 domain. For this reason, the C-terminal region of RalF has been termed a capping domain. Here, the role of the RalF capping domain was investigated by comparing biochemical and effector activities mediated by this domain in both the Legionella RalF protein (LpRalF) and in a RalF ortholog isolated from the unrelated intracellular pathogen Rickettsia prowazekii (RpRalF). These data indicate that both RalF proteins contain a functional Sec7 domain and that the capping domain regulates RalF GEF activity. The capping domain has intrinsic determinants that mediate localization of the RalF protein inside of host cells and confer distinct effector activities. Localization mediated by the capping domain of LpRalF enables the GEF to modulate membrane transport in the secretory pathway, whereas, the capping domain of RpRalF enables this bacterial GEF to modulate actin dynamics occurring near the plasma membrane. Thus, these data reveal that divergence in the function of the C-terminal capping domain alters the in vivo functions of the RalF proteins. PMID:23166491

  15. The effector AWR5 from the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is an inhibitor of the TOR signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Popa, Crina; Li, Liang; Gil, Sergio; Tatjer, Laura; Hashii, Keisuke; Tabuchi, Mitsuaki; Coll, Núria S; Ariño, Joaquín; Valls, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens possess complex type III effector (T3E) repertoires that are translocated inside the host cells to cause disease. However, only a minor proportion of these effectors have been assigned a function. Here, we show that the T3E AWR5 from the phytopathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is an inhibitor of TOR, a central regulator in eukaryotes that controls the switch between cell growth and stress responses in response to nutrient availability. Heterologous expression of AWR5 in yeast caused growth inhibition and autophagy induction coupled to massive transcriptomic changes, unmistakably reminiscent of TOR inhibition by rapamycin or nitrogen starvation. Detailed genetic analysis of these phenotypes in yeast, including suppression of AWR5-induced toxicity by mutation of CDC55 and TPD3, encoding regulatory subunits of the PP2A phosphatase, indicated that AWR5 might exert its function by directly or indirectly inhibiting the TOR pathway upstream PP2A. We present evidence in planta that this T3E caused a decrease in TOR-regulated plant nitrate reductase activity and also that normal levels of TOR and the Cdc55 homologues in plants are required for R. solanacearum virulence. Our results suggest that the TOR pathway is a bona fide T3E target and further prove that yeast is a useful platform for T3E function characterisation. PMID:27257085

  16. The effector AWR5 from the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is an inhibitor of the TOR signalling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Popa, Crina; Li, Liang; Gil, Sergio; Tatjer, Laura; Hashii, Keisuke; Tabuchi, Mitsuaki; Coll, Núria S.; Ariño, Joaquín; Valls, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens possess complex type III effector (T3E) repertoires that are translocated inside the host cells to cause disease. However, only a minor proportion of these effectors have been assigned a function. Here, we show that the T3E AWR5 from the phytopathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is an inhibitor of TOR, a central regulator in eukaryotes that controls the switch between cell growth and stress responses in response to nutrient availability. Heterologous expression of AWR5 in yeast caused growth inhibition and autophagy induction coupled to massive transcriptomic changes, unmistakably reminiscent of TOR inhibition by rapamycin or nitrogen starvation. Detailed genetic analysis of these phenotypes in yeast, including suppression of AWR5-induced toxicity by mutation of CDC55 and TPD3, encoding regulatory subunits of the PP2A phosphatase, indicated that AWR5 might exert its function by directly or indirectly inhibiting the TOR pathway upstream PP2A. We present evidence in planta that this T3E caused a decrease in TOR-regulated plant nitrate reductase activity and also that normal levels of TOR and the Cdc55 homologues in plants are required for R. solanacearum virulence. Our results suggest that the TOR pathway is a bona fide T3E target and further prove that yeast is a useful platform for T3E function characterisation. PMID:27257085

  17. The effector AWR5 from the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is an inhibitor of the TOR signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Popa, Crina; Li, Liang; Gil, Sergio; Tatjer, Laura; Hashii, Keisuke; Tabuchi, Mitsuaki; Coll, Núria S; Ariño, Joaquín; Valls, Marc

    2016-06-03

    Bacterial pathogens possess complex type III effector (T3E) repertoires that are translocated inside the host cells to cause disease. However, only a minor proportion of these effectors have been assigned a function. Here, we show that the T3E AWR5 from the phytopathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is an inhibitor of TOR, a central regulator in eukaryotes that controls the switch between cell growth and stress responses in response to nutrient availability. Heterologous expression of AWR5 in yeast caused growth inhibition and autophagy induction coupled to massive transcriptomic changes, unmistakably reminiscent of TOR inhibition by rapamycin or nitrogen starvation. Detailed genetic analysis of these phenotypes in yeast, including suppression of AWR5-induced toxicity by mutation of CDC55 and TPD3, encoding regulatory subunits of the PP2A phosphatase, indicated that AWR5 might exert its function by directly or indirectly inhibiting the TOR pathway upstream PP2A. We present evidence in planta that this T3E caused a decrease in TOR-regulated plant nitrate reductase activity and also that normal levels of TOR and the Cdc55 homologues in plants are required for R. solanacearum virulence. Our results suggest that the TOR pathway is a bona fide T3E target and further prove that yeast is a useful platform for T3E function characterisation.

  18. Hacker within! Ehrlichia chaffeensis Effector Driven Phagocyte Reprogramming Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Lina, Taslima T.; Farris, Tierra; Luo, Tian; Mitra, Shubhajit; Zhu, Bing; McBride, Jere W.

    2016-01-01

    Ehrlichia chaffeensis is a small, gram negative, obligately intracellular bacterium that preferentially infects mononuclear phagocytes. It is the etiologic agent of human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (HME), an emerging life-threatening tick-borne zoonosis. Mechanisms by which E. chaffeensis establishes intracellular infection, and avoids host defenses are not well understood, but involve functionally relevant host-pathogen interactions associated with tandem and ankyrin repeat effector proteins. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie Ehrlichia host cellular reprogramming strategies that enable intracellular survival. PMID:27303657

  19. Hacker within! Ehrlichia chaffeensis Effector Driven Phagocyte Reprogramming Strategy.

    PubMed

    Lina, Taslima T; Farris, Tierra; Luo, Tian; Mitra, Shubhajit; Zhu, Bing; McBride, Jere W

    2016-01-01

    Ehrlichia chaffeensis is a small, gram negative, obligately intracellular bacterium that preferentially infects mononuclear phagocytes. It is the etiologic agent of human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (HME), an emerging life-threatening tick-borne zoonosis. Mechanisms by which E. chaffeensis establishes intracellular infection, and avoids host defenses are not well understood, but involve functionally relevant host-pathogen interactions associated with tandem and ankyrin repeat effector proteins. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie Ehrlichia host cellular reprogramming strategies that enable intracellular survival. PMID:27303657

  20. Complement--tapping into new sites and effector systems.

    PubMed

    Kolev, Martin; Le Friec, Gaelle; Kemper, Claudia

    2014-12-01

    Complement is traditionally known to be a system of serum proteins that provide protection against pathogens through direct cell lysis and the mobilization of innate and adaptive immunity. However, recent work indicates that the complement system has additional physiological roles beyond those in host defence. In this Opinion article, we describe the new modes and locations of complement activation that enable it to interact with other cell effector systems, such as growth factor receptors, inflammasomes and metabolic pathways. We propose that the location of complement activation dictates its function.

  1. Exact positioning of the robotic arm end effector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korepanov, Valery; Dudkin, Fedir

    2016-07-01

    Orbital service becomes a new challenge of space exploration. The necessity to introduce it is connected first of all with an attractive opportunity to prolong the exploitation terms of expensive commercial satellites by, e.g., refilling of fuel or changing batteries. Other application area is a fight with permanently increasing amount of space litter - defunct satellites, burnt-out rocket stages, discarded trash and other debris. Now more than few tens of thousands orbiting objects larger than 5-10 cm (or about 1 million junks larger than 1 cm) are a huge problem for crucial and costly satellites and manned vehicles. For example, in 2014 the International Space Station had to change three times its orbit to avoid collision with space debris. So the development of the concepts and actions related to removal of space debris or non-operational satellites with use of robotic arm of a servicing satellite is very actual. Such a technology is also applicable for unmanned exploratory missions in solar system, for example for collecting a variety of samples from a celestial body surface. Naturally, the robotic arm movements should be controlled with great accuracy at influence of its non-rigidity, thermal and other factors. In these circumstances often the position of the arm end effector has to be controlled with high accuracy. The possibility of coordinate determination for the robotic arm end effector with use of a low frequency active electromagnetic system has been considered in the presented report. The proposed design of such a system consists of a small magnetic dipole source, which is mounted inside of the arm end effector and two or three 3-component magnetic field sensors mounted on a servicing satellite body. The data from this set of 3-component magnetic field sensors, which are fixed relatively to the satellite body, allows use of the mathematical approach for determination of position and orientation of the magnetic dipole source. The theoretical

  2. Hacker within! Ehrlichia chaffeensis Effector Driven Phagocyte Reprogramming Strategy.

    PubMed

    Lina, Taslima T; Farris, Tierra; Luo, Tian; Mitra, Shubhajit; Zhu, Bing; McBride, Jere W

    2016-01-01

    Ehrlichia chaffeensis is a small, gram negative, obligately intracellular bacterium that preferentially infects mononuclear phagocytes. It is the etiologic agent of human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (HME), an emerging life-threatening tick-borne zoonosis. Mechanisms by which E. chaffeensis establishes intracellular infection, and avoids host defenses are not well understood, but involve functionally relevant host-pathogen interactions associated with tandem and ankyrin repeat effector proteins. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie Ehrlichia host cellular reprogramming strategies that enable intracellular survival.

  3. p53 as an Effector or Inhibitor of Therapy Response.

    PubMed

    Ablain, Julien; Poirot, Brigitte; Esnault, Cécile; Lehmann-Che, Jacqueline; de Thé, Hugues

    2015-12-04

    Although integrity of the p53 signaling pathway in a given tumor was expected to be a critical determinant of response to therapies, most clinical studies failed to link p53 status and treatment outcome. Here, we present two opposite situations: one in which p53 is an essential effector of cure by targeted leukemia therapies and another one in advanced breast cancers in which p53 inactivation is required for the clinical efficacy of dose-dense chemotherapy. If p53 promotes or blocks therapy response, therapies must be tailored on its status in individual tumors.

  4. Single-cell quantification of IL-2 response by effector and regulatory T cells reveals critical plasticity in immune response

    PubMed Central

    Feinerman, Ofer; Jentsch, Garrit; Tkach, Karen E; Coward, Jesse W; Hathorn, Matthew M; Sneddon, Michael W; Emonet, Thierry; Smith, Kendall A; Altan-Bonnet, Grégoire

    2010-01-01

    Understanding how the immune system decides between tolerance and activation by antigens requires addressing cytokine regulation as a highly dynamic process. We quantified the dynamics of interleukin-2 (IL-2) signaling in a population of T cells during an immune response by combining in silico modeling and single-cell measurements in vitro. We demonstrate that IL-2 receptor expression levels vary widely among T cells creating a large variability in the ability of the individual cells to consume, produce and participate in IL-2 signaling within the population. Our model reveals that at the population level, these heterogeneous cells are engaged in a tug-of-war for IL-2 between regulatory (Treg) and effector (Teff) T cells, whereby access to IL-2 can either increase the survival of Teff cells or the suppressive capacity of Treg cells. This tug-of-war is the mechanism enforcing, at the systems level, a core function of Treg cells, namely the specific suppression of survival signals for weakly activated Teff cells but not for strongly activated cells. Our integrated model yields quantitative, experimentally validated predictions for the manipulation of Treg suppression. PMID:21119631

  5. The Hippo effector YAP promotes resistance to RAF- and MEK-targeted cancer therapies.

    PubMed

    Lin, Luping; Sabnis, Amit J; Chan, Elton; Olivas, Victor; Cade, Lindsay; Pazarentzos, Evangelos; Asthana, Saurabh; Neel, Dana; Yan, Jenny Jiacheng; Lu, Xinyuan; Pham, Luu; Wang, Mingxue M; Karachaliou, Niki; Cao, Maria Gonzalez; Manzano, Jose Luis; Ramirez, Jose Luis; Torres, Jose Miguel Sanchez; Buttitta, Fiamma; Rudin, Charles M; Collisson, Eric A; Algazi, Alain; Robinson, Eric; Osman, Iman; Muñoz-Couselo, Eva; Cortes, Javier; Frederick, Dennie T; Cooper, Zachary A; McMahon, Martin; Marchetti, Antonio; Rosell, Rafael; Flaherty, Keith T; Wargo, Jennifer A; Bivona, Trever G

    2015-03-01

    Resistance to RAF- and MEK-targeted therapy is a major clinical challenge. RAF and MEK inhibitors are initially but only transiently effective in some but not all patients with BRAF gene mutation and are largely ineffective in those with RAS gene mutation because of resistance. Through a genetic screen in BRAF-mutant tumor cells, we show that the Hippo pathway effector YAP (encoded by YAP1) acts as a parallel survival input to promote resistance to RAF and MEK inhibitor therapy. Combined YAP and RAF or MEK inhibition was synthetically lethal not only in several BRAF-mutant tumor types but also in RAS-mutant tumors. Increased YAP in tumors harboring BRAF V600E was a biomarker of worse initial response to RAF and MEK inhibition in patients, establishing the clinical relevance of our findings. Our data identify YAP as a new mechanism of resistance to RAF- and MEK-targeted therapy. The findings unveil the synthetic lethality of combined suppression of YAP and RAF or MEK as a promising strategy to enhance treatment response and patient survival. PMID:25665005

  6. Milk-derived GM(3) and GD(3) differentially inhibit dendritic cell maturation and effector functionalities.

    PubMed

    Brønnum, H; Seested, T; Hellgren, L I; Brix, S; Frøkiaer, H

    2005-06-01

    Gangliosides are complex glycosphingolipids, which exert immune-modulating effects on various cell types. Ganglioside GD(3) and GM(3) are the predominant gangliosides of human breast milk but during the early phase of lactation, the content of GD(3) decreases while GM(3) increases. The biological value of gangliosides in breast milk has yet to be elucidated but when milk is ingested, dietary gangliosides might conceptually affect immune cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we address the in vitro effect of GD(3) and GM(3) on DC effector functionalities. Treatment of bone marrow-derived DCs with GD(3) before lipopolysaccharide-induced maturation decreased the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha as well as reduced the alloreactivity in mixed leucocyte reaction (MLR). In contrast, only IL-10 and IL-12 productions were significantly inhibited by GM(3,) and the potency of DCs to activate CD4(+) cells in MLR was unaffected by GM(3). However, both gangliosides suppressed expression of CD40, CD80, CD86 and major histocompatibility complex class II on DCs. Because GD(3) overall inhibits DC functionalities more than GM(3), the immune modulating effect of the ganglioside fraction of breast milk might be more prominent in the commencement of lactation during which the milk contains the most GD(3). PMID:15963050

  7. Inhibition of inflammasome activation by Coxiella burnetii type IV secretion system effector IcaA

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Larissa D.; Ribeiro, Juliana M.; Fernandes, Talita D.; Massis, Liliana M.; Khoo, Chen Ai; Moffatt, Jennifer H.; Newton, Hayley J.; Roy, Craig R.; Zamboni, Dario S.

    2015-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a highly infectious bacterium that promotes its own replication in macrophages by inhibiting several host cell responses. Here, we show that C. burnetii inhibits caspase-1 activation in primary mouse macrophages. By using co-infection experiments, we determine that the infection of macrophages with C. burnetii inhibits the caspase-11-mediated non-canonical activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome induced by subsequent infection with Escherichia coli or Legionella pneumophila. Genetic screening using flagellin mutants of L. pneumophila as a surrogate host, reveals a novel C. burnetii gene (IcaA) involved in the inhibition of caspase activation. Expression of IcaA in L. pneumophila inhibited the caspase-11 activation in macrophages. Moreover, icaA- mutants of C. burnetii failed to suppress the caspase-11-mediated inflammasome activation induced by L. pneumophila. Our data reveal IcaA as a novel C. burnetii effector protein that is secreted by the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system and interferes with the caspase-11-induced, non-canonical activation of the inflammasome. PMID:26687278

  8. The Drosophila effector caspase Dcp-1 regulates mitochondrial dynamics and autophagic flux via SesB

    PubMed Central

    DeVorkin, Lindsay; Go, Nancy Erro; Hou, Ying-Chen Claire; Moradian, Annie; Morin, Gregg B.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence reveals that a subset of proteins participates in both the autophagy and apoptosis pathways, and this intersection is important in normal physiological contexts and in pathological settings. In this paper, we show that the Drosophila effector caspase, Drosophila caspase 1 (Dcp-1), localizes within mitochondria and regulates mitochondrial morphology and autophagic flux. Loss of Dcp-1 led to mitochondrial elongation, increased levels of the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase stress-sensitive B (SesB), increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and a reduction in autophagic flux. Moreover, we find that SesB suppresses autophagic flux during midoogenesis, identifying a novel negative regulator of autophagy. Reduced SesB activity or depletion of ATP by oligomycin A could rescue the autophagic defect in Dcp-1 loss-of-function flies, demonstrating that Dcp-1 promotes autophagy by negatively regulating SesB and ATP levels. Furthermore, we find that pro–Dcp-1 interacts with SesB in a nonproteolytic manner to regulate its stability. These data reveal a new mitochondrial-associated molecular link between nonapoptotic caspase function and autophagy regulation in vivo. PMID:24862573

  9. The Drosophila effector caspase Dcp-1 regulates mitochondrial dynamics and autophagic flux via SesB.

    PubMed

    DeVorkin, Lindsay; Go, Nancy Erro; Hou, Ying-Chen Claire; Moradian, Annie; Morin, Gregg B; Gorski, Sharon M

    2014-05-26

    Increasing evidence reveals that a subset of proteins participates in both the autophagy and apoptosis pathways, and this intersection is important in normal physiological contexts and in pathological settings. In this paper, we show that the Drosophila effector caspase, Drosophila caspase 1 (Dcp-1), localizes within mitochondria and regulates mitochondrial morphology and autophagic flux. Loss of Dcp-1 led to mitochondrial elongation, increased levels of the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase stress-sensitive B (SesB), increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and a reduction in autophagic flux. Moreover, we find that SesB suppresses autophagic flux during midoogenesis, identifying a novel negative regulator of autophagy. Reduced SesB activity or depletion of ATP by oligomycin A could rescue the autophagic defect in Dcp-1 loss-of-function flies, demonstrating that Dcp-1 promotes autophagy by negatively regulating SesB and ATP levels. Furthermore, we find that pro-Dcp-1 interacts with SesB in a nonproteolytic manner to regulate its stability. These data reveal a new mitochondrial-associated molecular link between nonapoptotic caspase function and autophagy regulation in vivo.

  10. Retinoic acid alleviates Con A-induced hepatitis and differentially regulates effector production in NKT cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoo-A; Song, You Chan; Kim, Ga-Young; Choi, Gyeyoung; Lee, Yoon-Sook; Lee, Jung-Mi; Kang, Chang-Yuil

    2012-07-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is a diverse regulator of immune responses. Although RA promotes natural killer T (NKT) cell activation in vitro by increasing CD1d expression on antigen-presenting cells (APCs), the direct effects of RA on NKT-cell responses in vivo are not known. In the present study, we demonstrated the effect of RA on the severity of Con A-induced hepatitis and molecular changes of NKT cells. First, we demonstrated that Con A-induced liver damage was ameliorated by RA. In correlation with cytokine levels in serum, RA regulated the production of IFN-γ and IL-4 but not TNF-α by NKT cells without influencing the NKT-cell activation status. However, RA did not alleviate α-GalCer-induced liver injury, even though it reduced IFN-γ and IL-4 but not TNF-α levels in serum. This regulation was also detected when liver mononuclear cells (MNCs) or NKT hybridoma cells were treated with RA in vitro. The regulatory effect of RA on NKT cells was mediated by RAR-α, and RA reduced the phosphorylation of MAPK. These results suggest that RA differentially modulates the production of effector cytokines by NKT cells in hepatitis, and the suppressive effect of RA on hepatitis varies with the pathogenic mechanism of liver injury.

  11. MIWI2 as an Effector of DNA Methylation and Gene Silencing in Embryonic Male Germ Cells.

    PubMed

    Kojima-Kita, Kanako; Kuramochi-Miyagawa, Satomi; Nagamori, Ippei; Ogonuki, Narumi; Ogura, Atsuo; Hasuwa, Hidetoshi; Akazawa, Takashi; Inoue, Norimitsu; Nakano, Toru

    2016-09-13

    During the development of mammalian embryonic germ cells, global demethylation and de novo DNA methylation take place. In mouse embryonic germ cells, two PIWI family proteins, MILI and MIWI2, are essential for the de novo DNA methylation of retrotransposons, presumably through PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). Although piRNA-associated MIWI2 has been reported to play critical roles in the process, its molecular mechanisms have remained unclear. To identify the mechanism, transgenic mice were produced; they contained a fusion protein of MIWI2 and a zinc finger (ZF) that recognized the promoter region of a type A LINE-1 gene. The ZF-MIWI2 fusion protein brought about DNA methylation, suppression of the type A LINE-1 gene, and a partial rescue of the impaired spermatogenesis of MILI-null mice. In addition, ZF-MIWI2 was associated with the proteins involved in DNA methylation. These data indicate that MIWI2 functions as an effector of de novo DNA methylation of the retrotransposon. PMID:27626653

  12. Investigation of a bio-inspired lift-enhancing effector on a 2D airfoil.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Joe; Gopalarathnam, Ashok

    2012-09-01

    A flap mounted on the upper surface of an airfoil, called a 'lift-enhancing effector', has been shown in wind tunnel tests to have a similar function to a bird's covert feathers, which rise off the wing's surface in response to separated flows. The effector, fabricated from a thin Mylar sheet, is allowed to rotate freely about its leading edge. The tests were performed in the NCSU subsonic wind tunnel at a chord Reynolds number of 4 × 10(5). The maximum lift coefficient with the effector was the same as that for the clean airfoil, but was maintained over an angle-of-attack range from 12° to almost 20°, resulting in a very gentle stall behavior. To better understand the aerodynamics and to estimate the deployment angle of the free-moving effector, fixed-angle effectors fabricated out of stiff wood were also tested. A progressive increase in the stall angle of attack with increasing effector angle was observed, with diminishing returns beyond the effector angle of 60°. Drag tests on both the free-moving and fixed effectors showed a marked improvement in drag at high angles of attack. Oil flow visualization on the airfoil with and without the fixed-angle effectors proved that the effector causes the separation point to move aft on the airfoil, as compared to the clean airfoil. This is thought to be the main mechanism by which an effector improves both lift and drag. A comparison of the fixed-effector results with those from the free-effector tests shows that the free effector's deployment angle is between 30° and 45°. When operating at and beyond the clean airfoil's stall angle, the free effector automatically deploys to progressively higher angles with increasing angles of attack. This slows down the rapid upstream movement of the separation point and avoids the severe reduction in the lift coefficient and an increase in the drag coefficient that are seen on the clean airfoil at the onset of stall. Thus, the effector postpones the stall by 4-8° and makes the

  13. Transgenic Plants That Express the Phytoplasma Effector SAP11 Show Altered Phosphate Starvation and Defense Responses1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yen-Ting; Li, Meng-Ying; Cheng, Kai-Tan; Tan, Choon Meng; Su, Li-Wen; Lin, Wei-Yi; Shih, Hsien-Tzung; Chiou, Tzyy-Jen; Yang, Jun-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Phytoplasmas have the smallest genome among bacteria and lack many essential genes required for biosynthetic and metabolic functions, making them unculturable, phloem-limited plant pathogens. In this study, we observed that transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) expressing the secreted Aster Yellows phytoplasma strain Witches’ Broom protein11 shows an altered root architecture, similarly to the disease symptoms of phytoplasma-infected plants, by forming hairy roots. This morphological change is paralleled by an accumulation of cellular phosphate (Pi) and an increase in the expression levels of Pi starvation-induced genes and microRNAs. In addition to the Pi starvation responses, we found that secreted Aster Yellows phytoplasma strain Witches’ Broom protein11 suppresses salicylic acid-mediated defense responses and enhances the growth of a bacterial pathogen. These results contribute to an improved understanding of the role of phytoplasma effector SAP11 and provide new insights for understanding the molecular basis of plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:24464367

  14. Stability and Loss of a Virus Resistance Phenotype Over Time in Transgenic Mosquitoes harboring an antiviral effector gene

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Alexander W.E.; Sanchez-Vargas, Irma; Piper, Joseph; Smith, Mark R.; James, Anthony A.; Olson, Ken E.

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic Aedes aegypti were engineered to express a virus-derived, inverted repeat (IR) RNA in the mosquito midgut to trigger RNA interference (RNAi) and generate resistance to dengue virus type 2 (DENV2) in the vector. Here we characterize genotypic and phenotypic stabilities of one line, Carb77, between generations G9 and G17. The anti-DENV2 transgene was integrated at a single site within a non-coding region of the mosquito genome. The virus resistance phenotype was strong until G13 and suppressed replication of different DENV2 genotypes. From G14 –G17 the resistance phenotype to DENV2 became weaker and eventually was lost. Although the sequence of the transgene was not mutated, expression of the IR effector RNA was not detected and the Carb77 G17 mosquitoes lost their ability to silence the DENV2 genome. PMID:19754743

  15. Suppression of polymorphonuclear (PMN) and monocyte-mediated inhibition of Candida albicans growth by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol

    SciTech Connect

    Djeu, J.Y.; Parapanios, A.; Halkias, D.; Friedman, H.

    1986-03-05

    This study was an in vitro attempt to identify the effector cells responsible for growth inhibition of the opportunistic fungus, candida albicans, and to determine if THC or another marijuana derivatives, 11-hydroxyTHC, would adversely affect their function. Using a 24h radiolabel assay, the authors found that growth inhibition of C. albicans was primarily mediated by PMN and monocytes that could be isolated normal human peripheral blood. Both effector cell types caused almost complete inhibition of Candida growth at effector/target ratio of 300/1 and inhibition was often still seen at 30/1-. Incubation of PMN, PBL, or monocytes for 1 hr at 37C with THC or 11-hydroxyTHC caused a marked suppression of function in all 3 cell populations. Maximal suppression was obtained with 7.5-10..mu..g/ml of the drugs in medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) or with 2-4..mu..g/ml in 1% FBS. These drug concentrations did not affect lymphoid cell viability or candida growth in the absence of lymphoid effector cells. Marijuana derivatives, therefore, are doubly dangerous in that opportunistic fungi such as C. albicans can grow in their presence while the effector cells that control fungal growth are readily inactivated.

  16. Cellular Signaling Pathways and Posttranslational Modifications Mediated by Nematode Effector Proteins1

    PubMed Central

    Hewezi, Tarek

    2015-01-01

    Plant-parasitic cyst and root-knot nematodes synthesize and secrete a suite of effector proteins into infected host cells and tissues. These effectors are the major virulence determinants mediating the transformation of normal root cells into specialized feeding structures. Compelling evidence indicates that these effectors directly hijack or manipulate refined host physiological processes to promote the successful parasitism of host plants. Here, we provide an update on recent progress in elucidating the molecular functions of nematode effectors. In particular, we emphasize how nematode effectors modify plant cell wall structure, mimic the activity of host proteins, alter auxin signaling, and subvert defense signaling and immune responses. In addition, we discuss the emerging evidence suggesting that nematode effectors target and recruit various components of host posttranslational machinery in order to perturb the host signaling networks required for immunity and to regulate their own activity and subcellular localization. PMID:26315856

  17. bMERB domains are bivalent Rab8 family effectors evolved by gene duplication.

    PubMed

    Rai, Amrita; Oprisko, Anastasia; Campos, Jeremy; Fu, Yangxue; Friese, Timon; Itzen, Aymelt; Goody, Roger S; Gazdag, Emerich Mihai; Müller, Matthias P

    2016-01-01

    In their active GTP-bound form, Rab proteins interact with proteins termed effector molecules. In this study, we have thoroughly characterized a Rab effector domain that is present in proteins of the Mical and EHBP families, both known to act in endosomal trafficking. Within our study, we show that these effectors display a preference for Rab8 family proteins (Rab8, 10, 13 and 15) and that some of the effector domains can bind two Rab proteins via separate binding sites. Structural analysis allowed us to explain the specificity towards Rab8 family members and the presence of two similar Rab binding sites that must have evolved via gene duplication. This study is the first to thoroughly characterize a Rab effector protein that contains two separate Rab binding sites within a single domain, allowing Micals and EHBPs to bind two Rabs simultaneously, thus suggesting previously unknown functions of these effector molecules in endosomal trafficking. PMID:27552051

  18. Effector candidates in the secretome of Piriformospora indica, a ubiquitous plant-associated fungus

    PubMed Central

    Rafiqi, Maryam; Jelonek, Lukas; Akum, Ndifor F.; Zhang, Feng; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

    2013-01-01

    One of the emerging systems in plant–microbe interaction is the study of proteins, referred to as effectors, secreted by microbes in order to modulate host cells function and structure and to promote microbial growth on plant tissue. Current knowledge on fungal effectors derives mainly from biotrophic and hemibiotrophic plant fungal pathogens that have a limited host range. Here, we focus on effectors of Piriformospora indica, a soil borne endophyte forming intimate associations with roots of a wide range of plant species. Complete genome sequencing provides an opportunity to investigate the role of effectors during the interaction of this mutualistic fungus with plants. We describe in silico analyses to predict effectors of P. indica and we explore effector features considered here to mine a high priority protein list for functional analysis. PMID:23874344

  19. bMERB domains are bivalent Rab8 family effectors evolved by gene duplication.

    PubMed

    Rai, Amrita; Oprisko, Anastasia; Campos, Jeremy; Fu, Yangxue; Friese, Timon; Itzen, Aymelt; Goody, Roger S; Gazdag, Emerich Mihai; Müller, Matthias P

    2016-08-23

    In their active GTP-bound form, Rab proteins interact with proteins termed effector molecules. In this study, we have thoroughly characterized a Rab effector domain that is present in proteins of the Mical and EHBP families, both known to act in endosomal trafficking. Within our study, we show that these effectors display a preference for Rab8 family proteins (Rab8, 10, 13 and 15) and that some of the effector domains can bind two Rab proteins via separate binding sites. Structural analysis allowed us to explain the specificity towards Rab8 family members and the presence of two similar Rab binding sites that must have evolved via gene duplication. This study is the first to thoroughly characterize a Rab effector protein that contains two separate Rab binding sites within a single domain, allowing Micals and EHBPs to bind two Rabs simultaneously, thus suggesting previously unknown functions of these effector molecules in endosomal trafficking.

  20. Local sensory control of a dexterous end effector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinto, Victor H.; Everett, Louis J.; Driels, Morris

    1990-01-01

    A numerical scheme was developed to solve the inverse kinematics for a user-defined manipulator. The scheme was based on a nonlinear least-squares technique which determines the joint variables by minimizing the difference between the target end effector pose and the actual end effector pose. The scheme was adapted to a dexterous hand in which the joints are either prismatic or revolute and the fingers are considered open kinematic chains. Feasible solutions were obtained using a three-fingered dexterous hand. An algorithm to estimate the position and orientation of a pre-grasped object was also developed. The algorithm was based on triangulation using an ideal sensor and a spherical object model. By choosing the object to be a sphere, only the position of the object frame was important. Based on these simplifications, a minimum of three sensors are needed to find the position of a sphere. A two dimensional example to determine the position of a circle coordinate frame using a two-fingered dexterous hand was presented.

  1. Armet is an effector protein mediating aphid-plant interactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Dai, Huaien; Zhang, Yi; Chandrasekar, Raman; Luo, Lan; Hiromasa, Yasuaki; Sheng, Changzhong; Peng, Gongxin; Chen, Shaoliang; Tomich, John M; Reese, John; Edwards, Owain; Kang, Le; Reeck, Gerald; Cui, Feng

    2015-05-01

    Aphid saliva is predicted to contain proteins that modulate plant defenses and facilitate feeding. Armet is a well-characterized bifunctional protein in mammalian systems. Here we report a new role of Armet, namely as an effector protein in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Pea aphid Armet's physical and chemical properties and its intracellular role are comparable to those reported for mammalian Armets. Uniquely, we detected Armet in aphid watery saliva and in the phloem sap of fava beans fed on by aphids. Armet's transcript level is several times higher in the salivary gland when aphids feed on bean plants than when they feed on an artificial diet. Knockdown of the Armet transcript by RNA interference disturbs aphid feeding behavior on fava beans measured by the electrical penetration graph technique and leads to a shortened life span. Inoculation of pea aphid Armet protein into tobacco leaves induced a transcriptional response that included pathogen-responsive genes. The data suggest that Armet is an effector protein mediating aphid-plant interactions.

  2. Innovative technology summary report: Confined sluicing end effector

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    A Confined Sluicing End-Effector (CSEE) was field tested during the summer of 1997 in Tank W-3, one of the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). It should be noted that the specific device used at the Oak Ridge Reservation demonstration was the Sludge Retrieval End-Effector (SREE), although in common usage it is referred to as the CSEE. Deployed by the Modified Light-Duty Utility Arm (MLDUA) and the Houdini remotely operated vehicle (ROV), the CSEE was used to mobilize and retrieve waste from the tank. After removing the waste, the CSEE was used to scarify the gunite walls of Tank W-3, removing approximately 0.1 in of material. The CSEE uses three rotating water-jets to direct a short-range pressurized jet of water to effectively mobilize the waste. Simultaneously, the water and dislodged tank waste, or scarified materials, are aspirated using a water-jet pump-driven conveyance system. The material is then pumped outside of the tank, where it can be stored for treatment. The technology, its performance, uses, cost, and regulatory issues are discussed.

  3. Genome-Wide Silencing in Drosophila Captures Conserved Apoptotic Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Su Kit; Chen, Po; Link, Nichole; Galindo, Kathleen A.; Pogue, Kristi; Abrams, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Apoptosis is a conserved form of programmed cell death (PCD) firmly established in the etiology, pathogenesis and treatment of many human diseases. Central to the core machinery of apoptosis are the caspases and their proximal regulators. Current models for caspase control envision a balance of opposing elements, with variable contributions from positive regulators and negative regulators among different cell types and species1. To advance a comprehensive view of components that support caspase-dependent cell death, we conducted a genome-wide silencing screen in the Drosophila model. Our strategy combined a library of dsRNAs together with a chemical antagonist of Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins (IAPs) that simulates the action of native regulators in the Reaper/Smac family2. A highly validated set of targets necessary for death provoked by multiple stimuli was identified. Among these, Tango7 is advanced here as a novel effector. Cells depleted for this gene resisted apoptosis at a step prior to induction of effector caspase activity and directed silencing of Tango7 in the animal prevented caspase-dependent PCD. Unlike known apoptosis regulators in this model3, Tango7 activity did not influence stimulus-dependent loss of Drosophila IAP1 (DIAP1) but, instead, regulated levels of the apical caspase Dronc. Likewise, the human Tango7 counterpart, PCID1, similarly impinged on caspase 9, revealing a novel regulatory axis impacting the apoptosome. PMID:19483676

  4. Flight Control Using Distributed Shape-Change Effector Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, David L.; Montgomery, Raymond C.; Green, Lawrence I.; Park, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    Recent discoveries in material science and fluidics have been used to create a variety of novel effector devices that offer great potential to enable new approaches to aerospace vehicle flight control. Examples include small inflatable blisters, shape-memory alloy diaphragms, and piezoelectric patches that may be used to produce distortions or bumps on the surface of an airfoil to generate control moments. Small jets have also been used to produce a virtual shape-change through fluidic means by creating a recirculation bubble on the surface of an airfoil. An advanced aerospace vehicle might use distributed arrays of hundreds of such devices to generate moments for stabilization and maneuver control, either augmenting or replacing conventional ailerons, flaps or rudders. This research demonstrates the design and use of shape-change device arrays for a tailless aircraft in a low-rate maneuvering application. A methodology for assessing the control authority of the device arrays is described, and a suite of arrays is used in a dynamic simulation to illustrate allocation and deployment methodologies. Although the authority of the preliminary shape-change array designs studied in this paper appeared quite low, the simulation results indicate that the effector suite possessed sufficient authority to stabilize and maneuver the vehicle in mild turbulence.

  5. STAR: a simple TAL effector assembly reaction using isothermal assembly.

    PubMed

    Gogolok, Sabine; Garcia-Diaz, Claudia; Pollard, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) contain modular programmable DNA binding domains. Fusing TALEs with effector domains creates synthetic transcription factors (TALE-TFs) or nucleases (TALENs), enabling precise gene manipulations. The construction of TALEs remains challenging due to their repetitive sequences. Here we report a simple TALE assembly reaction (STAR) that enables individual laboratories to generate multiple TALEs in a facile manner. STAR uses an isothermal assembly ('Gibson assembly') that is labour- and cost-effective, accessible, rapid and scalable. A small 68-part fragment library is employed, and the specific TALE repeat sequence is generated within ~8 hours. Sequence-verified TALENs or TALE-TF plasmids targeting 17 bp target sequences can be produced within three days, without the need for stepwise intermediate plasmid production. We demonstrate the utility of STAR through production of functional TALE-TFs capable of activating human SOX2 expression. STAR addresses some of the shortcomings of existing Golden Gate or solid-phase assembly protocols and enables routine production of TALE-TFs that will complement emerging CRISPR/Cas9-based reagents across diverse applications in mammalian stem cell and synthetic biology. PMID:27615025

  6. Armet is an effector protein mediating aphid-plant interactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Dai, Huaien; Zhang, Yi; Chandrasekar, Raman; Luo, Lan; Hiromasa, Yasuaki; Sheng, Changzhong; Peng, Gongxin; Chen, Shaoliang; Tomich, John M; Reese, John; Edwards, Owain; Kang, Le; Reeck, Gerald; Cui, Feng

    2015-05-01

    Aphid saliva is predicted to contain proteins that modulate plant defenses and facilitate feeding. Armet is a well-characterized bifunctional protein in mammalian systems. Here we report a new role of Armet, namely as an effector protein in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Pea aphid Armet's physical and chemical properties and its intracellular role are comparable to those reported for mammalian Armets. Uniquely, we detected Armet in aphid watery saliva and in the phloem sap of fava beans fed on by aphids. Armet's transcript level is several times higher in the salivary gland when aphids feed on bean plants than when they feed on an artificial diet. Knockdown of the Armet transcript by RNA interference disturbs aphid feeding behavior on fava beans measured by the electrical penetration graph technique and leads to a shortened life span. Inoculation of pea aphid Armet protein into tobacco leaves induced a transcriptional response that included pathogen-responsive genes. The data suggest that Armet is an effector protein mediating aphid-plant interactions. PMID:25678626

  7. Heat shock proteins, end effectors of myocardium ischemic preconditioning?

    PubMed Central

    Guisasola, María Concepcion; Desco, Maria del Mar; Gonzalez, Fernanda Silvana; Asensio, Fernando; Dulin, Elena; Suarez, Antonio; Garcia Barreno, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate (1) whether ischemia-reperfusion increased the content of heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) transcripts and (2) whether myocardial content of Hsp72 is increased by ischemic preconditioning so that they can be considered as end effectors of preconditioning. Twelve male minipigs (8 protocol, 4 sham) were used, with the following ischemic preconditioning protocol: 3 ischemia and reperfusion 5-minute alternative cycles and last reperfusion cycle of 3 hours. Initial and final transmural biopsies (both in healthy and ischemic areas) were taken in all animals. Heat shock protein 72 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression was measured by a semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method using complementary DNA normalized against the housekeeping gene cyclophilin. The identification of heat shock protein 72 was performed by immunoblot. In our “classic” preconditioning model, we found no changes in mRNA hsp72 levels or heat shock protein 72 content in the myocardium after 3 hours of reperfusion. Our experimental model is valid and the experimental techniques are appropriate, but the induction of heat shock proteins 72 as end effectors of cardioprotection in ischemic preconditioning does not occur in the first hours after ischemia, but probably at least 24 hours after it, in the so-called “second protection window.” PMID:17009598

  8. X-ray structures of NS1 effector domain mutants.

    PubMed

    Xia, Shuangluo; Robertus, Jon D

    2010-02-15

    The influenza A virus nonstructural protein NS1 is a multifunctional dimeric protein that acts as a potent inhibitor of the host cellular antiviral state. The C-terminal effector domain of NS1 binds host proteins, including CPSF30, and is a target for the development of new antiviral drugs. Here we present crystallographic structures of two mutant effector domains, W187Y and W187A, of influenza A/Udorn/72 virus. Unlike wild-type, the mutants behave exclusively as monomers in solution based on gel filtration data and light scattering. The W187Y mutant is able to bind CPSF30 with a binding affinity close to the wild-type protein; that is, it retains a receptor site for aromatic ligands nearly identical to the wild-type. Therefore, this monomeric mutant protein could serve as a drug target for a high throughput inhibitor screening assays, since its binding pocket is unoccupied in solution and potentially more accessible to small molecule ligands.

  9. Posttranscriptional Control of T Cell Effector Function by Aerobic Glycolysis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chih-Hao; Curtis, Jonathan D.; Maggi, Leonard B.; Faubert, Brandon; Villarino, Alejandro V.; O’Sullivan, David; Huang, Stanley Ching-Cheng; van der Windt, Gerritje J.W.; Blagih, Julianna; Qiu, Jing; Weber, Jason D.; Pearce, Edward J.; Jones, Russell G.; Pearce, Erika L.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY A “switch” from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to aerobic glycolysis is a hallmark of T cell activation and is thought to be required to meet the metabolic demands of proliferation. However, why proliferating cells adopt this less efficient metabolism, especially in an oxygen-replete environment, remains incompletely understood. We show here that aerobic glycolysis is specifically required for effector function in T cells but that this pathway is not necessary for proliferation or survival. When activated T cells are provided with costimulation and growth factors but are blocked from engaging glycolysis, their ability to produce IFN-γ is markedly compromised. This defect is translational and is regulated by the binding of the glycolysis enzyme GAPDH to AU-rich elements within the 3′ UTR of IFN-γ mRNA. GAPDH, by engaging/disengaging glycolysis and through fluctuations in its expression, controls effector cytokine production. Thus, aerobic glycolysis is a metabolically regulated signaling mechanism needed to control cellular function. PMID:23746840

  10. STAR: a simple TAL effector assembly reaction using isothermal assembly

    PubMed Central

    Gogolok, Sabine; Garcia-Diaz, Claudia; Pollard, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) contain modular programmable DNA binding domains. Fusing TALEs with effector domains creates synthetic transcription factors (TALE-TFs) or nucleases (TALENs), enabling precise gene manipulations. The construction of TALEs remains challenging due to their repetitive sequences. Here we report a simple TALE assembly reaction (STAR) that enables individual laboratories to generate multiple TALEs in a facile manner. STAR uses an isothermal assembly (‘Gibson assembly’) that is labour- and cost-effective, accessible, rapid and scalable. A small 68-part fragment library is employed, and the specific TALE repeat sequence is generated within ~8 hours. Sequence-verified TALENs or TALE-TF plasmids targeting 17 bp target sequences can be produced within three days, without the need for stepwise intermediate plasmid production. We demonstrate the utility of STAR through production of functional TALE-TFs capable of activating human SOX2 expression. STAR addresses some of the shortcomings of existing Golden Gate or solid-phase assembly protocols and enables routine production of TALE-TFs that will complement emerging CRISPR/Cas9-based reagents across diverse applications in mammalian stem cell and synthetic biology. PMID:27615025

  11. STAR: a simple TAL effector assembly reaction using isothermal assembly.

    PubMed

    Gogolok, Sabine; Garcia-Diaz, Claudia; Pollard, Steven M

    2016-09-12

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) contain modular programmable DNA binding domains. Fusing TALEs with effector domains creates synthetic transcription factors (TALE-TFs) or nucleases (TALENs), enabling precise gene manipulations. The construction of TALEs remains challenging due to their repetitive sequences. Here we report a simple TALE assembly reaction (STAR) that enables individual laboratories to generate multiple TALEs in a facile manner. STAR uses an isothermal assembly ('Gibson assembly') that is labour- and cost-effective, accessible, rapid and scalable. A small 68-part fragment library is employed, and the specific TALE repeat sequence is generated within ~8 hours. Sequence-verified TALENs or TALE-TF plasmids targeting 17 bp target sequences can be produced within three days, without the need for stepwise intermediate plasmid production. We demonstrate the utility of STAR through production of functional TALE-TFs capable of activating human SOX2 expression. STAR addresses some of the shortcomings of existing Golden Gate or solid-phase assembly protocols and enables routine production of TALE-TFs that will complement emerging CRISPR/Cas9-based reagents across diverse applications in mammalian stem cell and synthetic biology.

  12. Perturbation of Maize Phenylpropanoid Metabolism by an AvrE Family Type III Effector from Pantoea stewartii1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Asselin, Jo Ann E.; Lin, Jinshan; Perez-Quintero, Alvaro L.; Gentzel, Irene; Majerczak, Doris; Opiyo, Stephen O.; Zhao, Wanying; Paek, Seung-Mann; Kim, Min Gab; Coplin, David L.; Blakeslee, Joshua J.; Mackey, David

    2015-01-01

    AvrE family type III effector proteins share the ability to suppress host defenses, induce disease-associated cell death, and promote bacterial growth. However, despite widespread contributions to numerous bacterial diseases in agriculturally important plants, the mode of action of these effectors remains largely unknown. WtsE is an AvrE family member required for the ability of Pantoea stewartii ssp. stewartii (Pnss) to proliferate efficiently and cause wilt and leaf blight symptoms in maize (Zea mays) plants. Notably, when WtsE is delivered by a heterologous system into the leaf cells of susceptible maize seedlings, it alone produces water-soaked disease symptoms reminiscent of those produced by Pnss. Thus, WtsE is a pathogenicity and virulence factor in maize, and an Escherichia coli heterologous delivery system can be used to study the activity of WtsE in isolation from other factors produced by Pnss. Transcriptional profiling of maize revealed the effects of WtsE, including induction of genes involved in secondary metabolism and suppression of genes involved in photosynthesis. Targeted metabolite quantification revealed that WtsE perturbs maize metabolism, including the induction of coumaroyl tyramine. The ability of mutant WtsE derivatives to elicit transcriptional and metabolic changes in susceptible maize seedlings correlated with their ability to promote disease. Furthermore, chemical inhibitors that block metabolic flux into the phenylpropanoid pathways targeted by WtsE also disrupted the pathogenicity and virulence activity of WtsE. While numerous metabolites produced downstream of the shikimate pathway are known to promote plant defense, our results indicate that misregulated induction of phenylpropanoid metabolism also can be used to promote pathogen virulence. PMID:25635112

  13. Marijuana effects on immunity: suppression of human natural killer cell activity of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol.

    PubMed

    Specter, S C; Klein, T W; Newton, C; Mondragon, M; Widen, R; Friedman, H

    1986-01-01

    Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive component of marijuana, was tested for its ability to modulate human natural killer (NK) cell function. THC was toxic for peripheral blood lymphocytes at 20 micrograms/ml but not at 10 micrograms/ml or less. This component of marijuana also was inhibitory for NK activity against K562, a human tumor cell line at concentrations down to 5 micrograms/ml when pre-incubated with the effector cells. Suppression of NK function was dependent upon the concentration of THC and the length of time of pre-incubation but was independent of the ratio of effector to target cells. Prostaglandins were not involved in suppression of NK activity.

  14. Evaluation of Secretion Prediction Highlights Differing Approaches Needed for Oomycete and Fungal Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Sperschneider, Jana; Williams, Angela H.; Hane, James K.; Singh, Karam B.; Taylor, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    The steadily increasing number of sequenced fungal and oomycete genomes has enabled detailed studies of how these eukaryotic microbes infect plants and cause devastating losses in food crops. During infection, fungal and oomycete pathogens secrete effector molecules which manipulate host plant cell processes to the pathogen's advantage. Proteinaceous effectors are synthesized intracellularly and must be externalized to interact with host cells. Computational prediction of secreted proteins from genomic sequences is an important technique to narrow down the candidate effector repertoire for subsequent experimental validation. In this study, we benchmark secretion prediction tools on experimentally validated fungal and oomycete effectors. We observe that for a set of fungal SwissProt protein sequences, SignalP 4 and the neural network predictors of SignalP 3 (D-score) and SignalP 2 perform best. For effector prediction in particular, the use of a sensitive method can be desirable to obtain the most complete candidate effector set. We show that the neural network predictors of SignalP 2 and 3, as well as TargetP were the most sensitive tools for fungal effector secretion prediction, whereas the hidden Markov model predictors of SignalP 2 and 3 were the most sensitive tools for oomycete effectors. Thus, previous versions of SignalP retain value for oomycete effector prediction, as the current version, SignalP 4, was unable to reliably predict the signal peptide of the oomycete Crinkler effectors in the test set. Our assessment of subcellular localization predictors shows that cytoplasmic effectors are often predicted as not extracellular. This limits the reliability of secretion predictions that depend on these tools. We present our assessment with a view to informing future pathogenomics studies and suggest revised pipelines for secretion prediction to obtain optimal effector predictions in fungi and oomycetes. PMID:26779196

  15. Evaluation of Secretion Prediction Highlights Differing Approaches Needed for Oomycete and Fungal Effectors.

    PubMed

    Sperschneider, Jana; Williams, Angela H; Hane, James K; Singh, Karam B; Taylor, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    The steadily increasing number of sequenced fungal and oomycete genomes has enabled detailed studies of how these eukaryotic microbes infect plants and cause devastating losses in food crops. During infection, fungal and oomycete pathogens secrete effector molecules which manipulate host plant cell processes to the pathogen's advantage. Proteinaceous effectors are synthesized intracellularly and must be externalized to interact with host cells. Computational prediction of secreted proteins from genomic sequences is an important technique to narrow down the candidate effector repertoire for subsequent experimental validation. In this study, we benchmark secretion prediction tools on experimentally validated fungal and oomycete effectors. We observe that for a set of fungal SwissProt protein sequences, SignalP 4 and the neural network predictors of SignalP 3 (D-score) and SignalP 2 perform best. For effector prediction in particular, the use of a sensitive method can be desirable to obtain the most complete candidate effector set. We show that the neural network predictors of SignalP 2 and 3, as well as TargetP were the most sensitive tools for fungal effector secretion prediction, whereas the hidden Markov model predictors of SignalP 2 and 3 were the most sensitive tools for oomycete effectors. Thus, previous versions of SignalP retain value for oomycete effector prediction, as the current version, SignalP 4, was unable to reliably predict the signal peptide of the oomycete Crinkler effectors in the test set. Our assessment of subcellular localization predictors shows that cytoplasmic effectors are often predicted as not extracellular. This limits the reliability of secretion predictions that depend on these tools. We present our assessment with a view to informing future pathogenomics studies and suggest revised pipelines for secretion prediction to obtain optimal effector predictions in fungi and oomycetes. PMID:26779196

  16. Antigen-specific suppression of anti-influenza antibody production in man. Possible role of a membrane-antigen complex.

    PubMed

    McCaughan, G W; Brown, M H; Basten, A

    1985-03-01

    E rosette-forming (E+) cells from human secondary lymphoid tissue were incubated with high dose influenza A virus (Mem-Bel) in an attempt to generate suppressor T cells. Suppression was assayed by transferring the antigen-pulsed E+ cells into effector cultures consisting of E+ and E- cells stimulated with immunogenic amounts of either the inducing virus Mem-Bel) or the non-cross-reacting influenza B virus (B/HK). The transfer resulted in marked inhibition of IgG, IgA and IgM antibody production to Mem-Bel but not to the control antigen, B/HK virus. The suppressive effect was specific at the level of induction as well as expression since E+ cells exposed to high dose Mem-Bel could provide help to an effector culture containing E- cells and optimal dose of B/HK virus. However, metabolically active cells did not appear to be required for suppression. Thus, it could be elicited (a) after only 15 min incubation of E+ cells with high-dose virus and (b) by E+ cells exposed to irradiation, incubated in the presence of metabolic inhibitors, or disrupted by repeated freeze thawing. In contrast, treatment of E+ cells with pronase reversed the suppressive effect. Interestingly, virus heated to 70 degree C failed to induced suppression, while retailing the ability to elicit a normal helper response. Suppression induced by exposure to standard amounts of high-dose antigen was mediated by T cells of both helper/inducer (Leu-3a+) and suppressor/cytotoxic subsets (Leu-2a+), but not by B cells. Two groups of observations pointed to the B cell as the target of suppression. First, suppression could still be transferred to effector cultures in which helper T cells had been replaced by T cell-replacing factor or suppressor T cells removed by irradiation. Second, significant inhibition of antibody production was obtained when the transfer of antigen-pulsed E+ cells was delayed for up to 120 h after initiation of the effector culture. Taken together the results suggest that suppression in

  17. Candidate Effector Proteins of the Rust Pathogen Melampsora larici-populina Target Diverse Plant Cell Compartments.

    PubMed

    Petre, Benjamin; Saunders, Diane G O; Sklenar, Jan; Lorrain, Cécile; Win, Joe; Duplessis, Sébastien; Kamoun, Sophien

    2015-06-01

    Rust fungi are devastating crop pathogens that deliver effector proteins into infected tissues to modulate plant functions and promote parasitic growth. The genome of the poplar leaf rust fungus Melampsora larici-populina revealed a large catalog of secreted proteins, some of which have been considered candidate effectors. Unraveling how these proteins function in host cells is a key to understanding pathogenicity mechanisms and developing resistant plants. In this study, we used an effectoromics pipeline to select, clone, and express 20 candidate effectors in Nicotiana benthamiana leaf cells to determine their subcellular localization and identify the plant proteins they interact with. Confocal microscopy revealed that six candidate effectors target the nucleus, nucleoli, chloroplasts, mitochondria, and discrete cellular bodies. We also used coimmunoprecipitation (coIP) and mass spectrometry to identify 606 N. benthamiana proteins that associate with the candidate effectors. Five candidate effectors specifically associated with a small set of plant proteins that may represent biologically relevant interactors. We confirmed the interaction between the candidate effector MLP124017 and TOPLESS-related protein 4 from poplar by in planta coIP. Altogether, our data enable us to validate effector proteins from M. larici-populina and reveal that these proteins may target multiple compartments and processes in plant cells. It also shows that N. benthamiana can be a powerful heterologous system to study effectors of obligate biotrophic pathogens.

  18. Filamentous pathogen effectors interfering with small RNA silencing in plant hosts.

    PubMed

    Ye, Wenwu; Ma, Wenbo

    2016-08-01

    Filamentous eukaryotic pathogens including fungi and oomycetes are major threats of plant health. During the co-evolutionary arms race with the hosts, these pathogens have evolved a large repertoire of secreted virulence proteins, called effectors, to facilitate colonization and infection. Many effectors are believed to directly manipulate targeted processes inside the host cells; and a fundamental function of the effectors is to dampen immunity. Recent evidence suggests that the destructive oomycete pathogens in the genus Phytophthora encode RNA silencing suppressors. These effectors play an important virulence role during infection, likely through their inhibitory effect on host small RNA-mediated defense. PMID:27104934

  19. Regulation of Cell Wall-Bound Invertase in Pepper Leaves by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria Type Three Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Sonnewald, Sophia; Priller, Johannes P. R.; Schuster, Julia; Glickmann, Eric; Hajirezaei, Mohammed-Reza; Siebig, Stefan; Mudgett, Mary Beth; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) possess a type 3 secretion system (T3SS) to deliver effector proteins into its Solanaceous host plants. These proteins are involved in suppression of plant defense and in reprogramming of plant metabolism to favour bacterial propagation. There is increasing evidence that hexoses contribute to defense responses. They act as substrates for metabolic processes and as metabolic semaphores to regulate gene expression. Especially an increase in the apoplastic hexose-to-sucrose ratio has been suggested to strengthen plant defense. This shift is brought about by the activity of cell wall-bound invertase (cw-Inv). We examined the possibility that Xcv may employ type 3 effector (T3E) proteins to suppress cw-Inv activity during infection. Indeed, pepper leaves infected with a T3SS-deficient Xcv strain showed a higher level of cw-Inv mRNA and enzyme activity relative to Xcv wild type infected leaves. Higher cw-Inv activity was paralleled by an increase in hexoses and mRNA abundance for the pathogenesis-related gene PRQ. These results suggest that Xcv suppresses cw-Inv activity in a T3SS-dependent manner, most likely to prevent sugar-mediated defense signals. To identify Xcv T3Es that regulate cw-Inv activity, a screen was performed with eighteen Xcv strains, each deficient in an individual T3E. Seven Xcv T3E deletion strains caused a significant change in cw-Inv activity compared to Xcv wild type. Among them, Xcv lacking the xopB gene (Xcv ΔxopB) caused the most prominent increase in cw-Inv activity. Deletion of xopB increased the mRNA abundance of PRQ in Xcv ΔxopB-infected pepper leaves, but not of Pti5 and Acre31, two PAMP-triggered immunity markers. Inducible expression of XopB in transgenic tobacco inhibited Xcv-mediated induction of cw-Inv activity observed in wild type plants and resulted in severe developmental phenotypes. Together, these data suggest that XopB interferes with cw-Inv activity in planta to suppress sugar

  20. Cough suppression disorders spectrum.

    PubMed

    Reich, Jerome M

    2014-02-01

    Volitional cough suppression, identified exclusively in females, is an unusual causal mechanism for instances of lobar atalectasis and bronchiectasis. It is a postulated mechanism for the genesis of Lady Windermere Syndrome.

  1. Isolation and characterization of cytotoxic effector cells and antibody producing cells from human intestine.

    PubMed

    MacDermott, R P

    1985-01-01

    We have examined the ability of intestinal and peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from patients with inflammatory bowel disease to mediate killing against cell line targets in spontaneous, antibody-dependent, lectin-induced, and interferon-induced cell-mediated cytotoxicity assays, as well as responsiveness in the allogeneic mixed leukocyte reaction, and effector capabilities in cell-mediated lympholysis. IMC were poor mediators of spontaneous or antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity with cell line cells as targets (in comparison to normal PBMC, but were capable of killing antibody coated chicken red blood cells. Although IMC were capable of responding to allogeneic cell surface antigens in the mixed leukocyte reaction, they did not exhibit effector function in cell-mediated lympholysis. Mitogenic lectins induced cell-mediated cytotoxicity by isolated intestinal mononuclear cells from controls and patients. HFIF induces cytotoxicity by control but not inflammatory bowel disease intestinal cells. Pokeweed mitogen was the lectin which induced the greatest amount of killing against human cell line targets. We therefore speculate that exogenous agents, or endogenous factors released during viral infection, could play a role in inducing cell mediated cytotoxic damage to the intestine in inflammatory bowel disease patients. In addition, the functional differences between IMC and PBMC indicate that intestinal MNC may have unique cell capabilities which must be better understood prior to the delineation of immunopathologic events in solid organ tissues. We have also examined the secretion of IgA, IgM, and IgG by isolated human IMC, human bone marrow MNC from rib specimens, and PBMC from patients with CD, UC, SLE, or Henoch-Schoenlein purpura (HSP). Control IMC exhibited high spontaneous secretion of IgA, while intestinal MNC from UC and CD patients exhibited only modest increases in IgA secretion. PBMC from patients with CD, UC, SLE, or HSP exhibited markedly

  2. The Yersinia Virulence Factor YopM Hijacks Host Kinases to Inhibit Type III Effector-Triggered Activation of the Pyrin Inflammasome.

    PubMed

    Chung, Lawton K; Park, Yong Hwan; Zheng, Yueting; Brodsky, Igor E; Hearing, Patrick; Kastner, Daniel L; Chae, Jae Jin; Bliska, James B

    2016-09-14

    Pathogenic Yersinia, including Y. pestis, the agent of plague in humans, and Y. pseudotuberculosis, the related enteric pathogen, deliver virulence effectors into host cells via a prototypical type III secretion system to promote pathogenesis. These effectors, termed Yersinia outer proteins (Yops), modulate multiple host signaling responses. Studies in Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis have shown that YopM suppresses infection-induced inflammasome activation; however, the underlying molecular mechanism is largely unknown. Here we show that YopM specifically restricts the pyrin inflammasome, which is triggered by the RhoA-inactivating enzymatic activities of YopE and YopT, in Y. pseudotuberculosis-infected macrophages. The attenuation of a yopM mutant is fully reversed in pyrin knockout mice, demonstrating that YopM inhibits pyrin to promote virulence. Mechanistically, YopM recruits and activates the host kinases PRK1 and PRK2 to negatively regulate pyrin by phosphorylation. These results show how a virulence factor can hijack host kinases to inhibit effector-triggered pyrin inflammasome activation. PMID:27569559

  3. Proline Isomerization of the Immune Receptor-Interacting Protein RIN4 by a Cyclophilin Inhibits Effector-Triggered Immunity in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meng; Ma, Xiqing; Chiang, Yi-Hsuan; Yadeta, Koste A.; Ding, Pengfei; Dong, Liansai; Zhao, Yan; Li, Xiuming; Yu, Yufei; Zhang, Ling; Shen, Qian-Hua; Xia, Bin; Coaker, Gitta; Liu, Dong; Zhou, Jian-Min

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY In the absence of pathogen infection, plant effector-triggered immune (ETI) receptors are maintained in a preactivation state by intermolecular interactions with other host proteins. Pathogen effector-induced alterations activate the receptor. In Arabidopsis, the ETI receptor RPM1 is activated via bacterial effector AvrB-induced phosphorylation of the RPM1-interacting protein RIN4 at Threonine 166. We find that RIN4 also interacts with the prolyl-peptidyl isomerase (PPIase) ROC1, which is reduced upon RIN4 Thr166 phosphorylation. ROC1 suppresses RPM1 immunity in a PPIase-dependent manner. Consistent with this, RIN4 Pro149 undergoes cis/trans isomerization in the presence of ROC1. While the RIN4P149V mutation abolishes RPM1 resistance, the deletion of Pro149 leads to RPM1 activation in the absence of RIN4 phosphorylation. These results support a model in which RPM1 directly senses conformational changes in RIN4 surrounding Pro149 that is controlled by ROC1. RIN4 Thr166 phosphorylation indirectly regulates RPM1 resistance by modulating the ROC1-mediated RIN4 isomerization. PMID:25299333

  4. Distinct Effects of IL-18 on the Engraftment and Function of Human Effector CD8+ T Cells and Regulatory T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Danet-Desnoyers, Gwenn; Liu, Ronghua; Jiang, Shuguang; Albelda, Steven M.; Golovina, Tatiana; Coukos, George; Riley, James L.; Jonak, Zdenka L.; June, Carl H.

    2008-01-01

    IL-18 has pleotropic effects on the activation of T cells during antigen presentation. We investigated the effects of human IL-18 on the engraftment and function of human T cell subsets in xenograft mouse models. IL-18 enhanced the engraftment of human CD8+ effector T cells and promoted the development of xenogeneic graft versus host disease (GVHD). In marked contrast, IL-18 had reciprocal effects on the engraftment of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the xenografted mice. Adoptive transfer experiments indicated that IL-18 prevented the suppressive effects of Tregs on the development of xenogeneic GVHD. The IL-18 results were robust as they were observed in two different mouse strains. In addition, the effects of IL-18 were systemic as IL-18 promoted engraftment and persistence of human effector T cells and decreased Tregs in peripheral blood, peritoneal cavity, spleen and liver. In vitro experiments indicated that the expression of the IL-18Rα was induced on both CD4 and CD8 effector T cells and Tregs, and that the duration of expression was less sustained on Tregs. These preclinical data suggest that human IL-18 may have use as an adjuvant for immune reconstitution after cytotoxic therapies, and to augment adoptive immunotherapy, donor leukocyte infusions, and vaccine strategies. PMID:18818761

  5. Macrophages play an essential role in antigen-specific immune suppression mediated by T CD8⁺ cell-derived exosomes.

    PubMed

    Nazimek, Katarzyna; Ptak, Wlodzimierz; Nowak, Bernadeta; Ptak, Maria; Askenase, Philip W; Bryniarski, Krzysztof

    2015-09-01

    Murine contact sensitivity (CS) reaction could be antigen-specifically regulated by T CD8(+) suppressor (Ts) lymphocytes releasing microRNA-150 in antibody light-chain-coated exosomes that were formerly suggested to suppress CS through action on macrophages (Mφ). The present studies investigated the role of Mφ in Ts cell-exosome-mediated antigen-specific suppression as well as modulation of Mφ antigen-presenting function in humoral and cellular immunity by suppressive exosomes. Mice depleted of Mφ by clodronate liposomes could not be tolerized and did not produce suppressive exosomes. Moreover, isolated T effector lymphocytes transferring CS were suppressed by exosomes only in the presence of Mφ, demonstrating the substantial role of Mφ in the generation and action of Ts cell regulatory exosomes. Further, significant decrease of number of splenic B cells producing trinitrophenyl (TNP) -specific antibodies with the alteration of the ratio of serum titres of IgM to IgG was observed in recipients of exosome-treated, antigen-pulsed Mφ and the significant suppression of CS was demonstrated in recipients of exosome-treated, TNP-conjugated Mφ. Additionally, exosome-pulsed, TNP-conjugated Mφ mediated suppression of CS in mice pre-treated with a low-dose of cyclophosphamide, suggesting de novo induction of T regulatory (Treg) lymphocytes. Treg cell involvement in the effector phase of the studied suppression mechanism was proved by unsuccessful tolerization of DEREG mice depleted of Treg lymphocytes. Furthermore, the inhibition of proliferation of CS effector cells cultured with exosome-treated Mφ in a transmembrane manner was observed. Our results demonstrated the essential role of Mφ in antigen-specific immune suppression mediated by Ts cell-derived exosomes and realized by induction of Treg lymphocytes and inhibition of T effector cell proliferation. PMID:25808106

  6. Macrophages play an essential role in antigen-specific immune suppression mediated by T CD8⁺ cell-derived exosomes.

    PubMed

    Nazimek, Katarzyna; Ptak, Wlodzimierz; Nowak, Bernadeta; Ptak, Maria; Askenase, Philip W; Bryniarski, Krzysztof

    2015-09-01

    Murine contact sensitivity (CS) reaction could be antigen-specifically regulated by T CD8(+) suppressor (Ts) lymphocytes releasing microRNA-150 in antibody light-chain-coated exosomes that were formerly suggested to suppress CS through action on macrophages (Mφ). The present studies investigated the role of Mφ in Ts cell-exosome-mediated antigen-specific suppression as well as modulation of Mφ antigen-presenting function in humoral and cellular immunity by suppressive exosomes. Mice depleted of Mφ by clodronate liposomes could not be tolerized and did not produce suppressive exosomes. Moreover, isolated T effector lymphocytes transferring CS were suppressed by exosomes only in the presence of Mφ, demonstrating the substantial role of Mφ in the generation and action of Ts cell regulatory exosomes. Further, significant decrease of number of splenic B cells producing trinitrophenyl (TNP) -specific antibodies with the alteration of the ratio of serum titres of IgM to IgG was observed in recipients of exosome-treated, antigen-pulsed Mφ and the significant suppression of CS was demonstrated in recipients of exosome-treated, TNP-conjugated Mφ. Additionally, exosome-pulsed, TNP-conjugated Mφ mediated suppression of CS in mice pre-treated with a low-dose of cyclophosphamide, suggesting de novo induction of T regulatory (Treg) lymphocytes. Treg cell involvement in the effector phase of the studied suppression mechanism was proved by unsuccessful tolerization of DEREG mice depleted of Treg lymphocytes. Furthermore, the inhibition of proliferation of CS effector cells cultured with exosome-treated Mφ in a transmembrane manner was observed. Our results demonstrated the essential role of Mφ in antigen-specific immune suppression mediated by Ts cell-derived exosomes and realized by induction of Treg lymphocytes and inhibition of T effector cell proliferation.

  7. Jet Noise Suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gliebe, P. R.; Brausch, J. F.; Majjigi, R. K.; Lee, R.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this chapter are to review and summarize the jet noise suppression technology, to provide a physical and theoretical model to explain the measured jet noise suppression characteristics of different concepts, and to provide a set of guidelines for evolving jet noise suppression designs. The underlying principle for all jet noise suppression devices is to enhance rapid mixing (i.e., diffusion) of the jet plume by geometric and aerothermodynamic means. In the case of supersonic jets, the shock-cell broadband noise reduction is effectively accomplished by the elimination or mitigation of the shock-cell structure. So far, the diffusion concepts have predominantly concentrated on jet momentum and energy (kinetic and thermal) diffusion, in that order, and have yielded better noise reduction than the simple conical nozzles. A critical technology issue that needs resolution is the effect of flight on the noise suppression potential of mechanical suppressor nozzles. A more thorough investigation of this mechanism is necessary for the successful development and design of an acceptable noise suppression device for future high-speed civil transports.

  8. Levels of CD56+TIM-3- effector CD8 T cells distinguish HIV natural virus suppressors from patients receiving antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Poonia, Bhawna; Pauza, C David

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged antiretroviral therapy (ART) with effective HIV suppression and reconstitution of CD4 T cells, fails to restore CD8 T cell lytic effector function that is needed to eradicate the viral reservoir. Better understanding of the phenotype and function of circulating CD8 cells in HIV patients will contribute to new targeted therapies directed at increasing CD8 T cell lytic effector function and destruction of the viral reservoir. We show that CD8 T cells from ART treated patients had sharply reduced expression of CD56 (neural cell adhesion molecule-1), a marker associated with cytolytic function whereas elite patients who control HIV in the absence of ART had CD56+ CD8 T cell levels similar to uninfected controls. The CD56+ CD8 T cells had higher perforin upregulation as well as degranulation following stimulation with HIV gag peptides compared with CD56 negative CD8 T cells. Elite patients had the highest frequencies of perforin producing CD56+ CD8 T cells among all HIV+ groups. In patients receiving ART we noted high levels of the exhaustion marker TIM-3 on CD56+ CD8 T cells, implying that defective effector function was related to immune exhaustion. CD56+ CD8 T cells from elite or treated HIV patients responded to PMA plus ionomycin stimulation, and expressed transcription factors T-bet and EOMES at levels similar to uninfected controls. Consequently, the lytic effector defect in chronic HIV disease is due to immune exhaustion and quantitative loss of CD56+ CD8 T cells and this defect is not repaired in patients where viremia is suppressed and CD4 T cells are recovered after ART. Reconstituting the cytotoxic CD56+ subset of CD8+ T cells through new interventions might improve the lytic effector capacity and contribute to reducing the viral reservoir. Our initial studies indicate that IL-15 treatment partly reverses the CD56 defect, implying that myeloid cell defects could be targeted for immune therapy during chronic HIV disease.

  9. T3SEdb: data warehousing of virulence effectors secreted by the bacterial Type III Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Effectors of Type III Secretion System (T3SS) play a pivotal role in establishing and maintaining pathogenicity in the host and therefore the identification of these effectors is important in understanding virulence. However, the effectors display high level of sequence diversity, therefore making the identification a difficult process. There is a need to collate and annotate existing effector sequences in public databases to enable systematic analyses of these sequences for development of models for screening and selection of putative novel effectors from bacterial genomes that can be validated by a smaller number of key experiments. Results Herein, we present T3SEdb http://effectors.bic.nus.edu.sg/T3SEdb, a specialized database of annotated T3SS effector (T3SE) sequences containing 1089 records from 46 bacterial species compiled from the literature and public protein databases. Procedures have been defined for i) comprehensive annotation of experimental status of effectors, ii) submission and curation review of records by users of the database, and iii) the regular update of T3SEdb existing and new records. Keyword fielded and sequence searches (BLAST, regular expression) are supported for both experimentally verified and hypothetical T3SEs. More than 171 clusters of T3SEs were detected based on sequence identity comparisons (intra-cluster difference up to ~60%). Owing to this high level of sequence diversity of T3SEs, the T3SEdb provides a large number of experimentally known effector sequences with wide species representation for creation of effector predictors. We created a reliable effector prediction tool, integrated into the database, to demonstrate the application of the database for such endeavours. Conclusions T3SEdb is the first specialised database reported for T3SS effectors, enriched with manual annotations that facilitated systematic construction of a reliable prediction model for identification of novel effectors. The T3SEdb represents a

  10. The Salmonella type III secretion system virulence effector forms a new hexameric chaperone assembly for export of effector/chaperone complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Chi -Lin; Burkinshaw, Brianne J.; Strynadka, Natalie C. J.; Tainer, John A.

    2014-12-08

    Bacteria hijack eukaryotic cells by injecting virulence effectors into host cytosol with a type III secretion system (T3SS). Effectors are targeted with their cognate chaperones to hexameric T3SS ATPase at the bacterial membrane's cytosolic face. In this issue of the Journal of Bacteriology, Roblin et al. (P. Roblin, F. Dewitte, V. Villeret, E. G. Biondi, and C. Bompard, J Bacteriol 197:688–698, 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.02294-14) show that the T3SS chaperone SigE of Salmonella can form hexameric rings rather than dimers when bound to its cognate effector, SopB, implying a novel multimeric association for chaperone/effector complexes with their ATPase.

  11. The Salmonella type III secretion system virulence effector forms a new hexameric chaperone assembly for export of effector/chaperone complexes

    DOE PAGES

    Tsai, Chi -Lin; Burkinshaw, Brianne J.; Strynadka, Natalie C. J.; Tainer, John A.

    2014-12-08

    Bacteria hijack eukaryotic cells by injecting virulence effectors into host cytosol with a type III secretion system (T3SS). Effectors are targeted with their cognate chaperones to hexameric T3SS ATPase at the bacterial membrane's cytosolic face. In this issue of the Journal of Bacteriology, Roblin et al. (P. Roblin, F. Dewitte, V. Villeret, E. G. Biondi, and C. Bompard, J Bacteriol 197:688–698, 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.02294-14) show that the T3SS chaperone SigE of Salmonella can form hexameric rings rather than dimers when bound to its cognate effector, SopB, implying a novel multimeric association for chaperone/effector complexes with their ATPase.

  12. Type VI secretion effectors: poisons with a purpose

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Alistair B.; Peterson, S. Brook; Mougous, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) mediates interactions between a diverse range of Gram-negative bacterial species. Recent studies have led to a drastic increase in the number of characterized T6SS effector proteins and produced a more complete and nuanced view of the adaptive significance of the system. While the system is most often implicated in antagonism, in this review we consider the case for its involvement in both antagonistic and non-antagonistic behaviors. Clarifying the roles that T6S plays in microbial communities will contribute to broader efforts to understand the importance of microbial interactions in maintaining human and environmental health, and will inform efforts to manipulate these interactions for therapeutic or environmental benefit. PMID:24384601

  13. NOD-like receptor cooperativity in effector-triggered immunity.

    PubMed

    Griebel, Thomas; Maekawa, Takaki; Parker, Jane E

    2014-11-01

    Intracellular nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are basic elements of innate immunity in plants and animals. Whereas animal NLRs react to conserved microbe- or damage-associated molecular patterns, plant NLRs intercept the actions of diverse pathogen virulence factors (effectors). In this review, we discuss recent genetic and molecular evidence for functional NLR pairs, and discuss the significance of NLR self-association and heteromeric NLR assemblies in the triggering of downstream signaling pathways. We highlight the versatility and impact of cooperating NLR pairs that combine pathogen sensing with the initiation of defense signaling in both plant and animal immunity. We propose that different NLR receptor molecular configurations provide opportunities for fine-tuning resistance pathways and enhancing the host's pathogen recognition spectrum to keep pace with rapidly evolving microbial populations.

  14. End effectors and attachments for buried waste excavation equipment

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.H.

    1993-09-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. Their efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER&WM) Department`s needs and objectives. The present focus of BWID is to support retrieval and ex-situ treatment configuration options. Future activities will explore and support containment, and stabilization efforts in addition to the retrieval/ex situ treatment options. This report presents a literature search on the state-of-the-art in end effectors and attachments in support of excavator of buried transuranic waste. Included in the report are excavator platforms and a discussion of the various attachments. Also included is it list of vendors and specifications.

  15. Intervention of Phytohormone Pathways by Pathogen Effectors[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kazan, Kemal; Lyons, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    The constant struggle between plants and microbes has driven the evolution of multiple defense strategies in the host as well as offense strategies in the pathogen. To defend themselves from pathogen attack, plants often rely on elaborate signaling networks regulated by phytohormones. In turn, pathogens have adopted innovative strategies to manipulate phytohormone-regulated defenses. Tactics frequently employed by plant pathogens involve hijacking, evading, or disrupting hormone signaling pathways and/or crosstalk. As reviewed here, this is achieved mechanistically via pathogen-derived molecules known as effectors, which target phytohormone receptors, transcriptional activators and repressors, and other components of phytohormone signaling in the host plant. Herbivores and sap-sucking insects employ obligate pathogens such as viruses, phytoplasma, or symbiotic bacteria to intervene with phytohormone-regulated defenses. Overall, an improved understanding of phytohormone intervention strategies employed by pests and pathogens during their interactions with plants will ultimately lead to the development of new crop protection strategies. PMID:24920334

  16. TAL Effector DNA-Binding Principles and Specificity.

    PubMed

    Richter, Annekatrin; Streubel, Jana; Boch, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are proteins with a unique DNA-binding domain that confers both a predictable and programmable specificity. The DNA-binding domain consists typically of 34-amino acid near-identical repeats. The repeats form a right-handed superhelical structure that wraps around the DNA double helix and exposes the variable amino acids at position 13 of each repeat to the sense strand DNA bases. Each repeat binds one base in a highly specific, non-overlapping, and comma-free fashion. Although TALE specificities are encoded in a simple way, sophisticated rules can be taken into account to build highly efficient DNA-binding modules for biotechnological use. PMID:26443210

  17. Identifying a Rab effector on the macroautophagy pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Cervantes, Serena; Davis, Saralin; Ferro-Novick, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Rab GTPases are key regulators of membrane traffic. The Rab GTPase Ypt1 is essential for endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi traffic, intra-Golgi traffic, and the macroautophagy pathway. To identify effectors on the macroautophagy pathway, known autophagy-related genes (Atg genes) required for macroautophagy were tagged with GFP and screened for mislocalization in the ypt1-2 mutant. At the pre-autophagosomal structure (PAS), the localization of the serine/threonine kinase Atg1 was affected in the ypt1-2 mutant. We then used an in vitro binding assay to determine if Atg1 and Ypt1 physically interact with each other and co-immunoprecipitation experiments were performed to address if Atg1 preferentially interacts with the GTP-bound form of Ypt1.

  18. TAL Effector DNA-Binding Principles and Specificity.

    PubMed

    Richter, Annekatrin; Streubel, Jana; Boch, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are proteins with a unique DNA-binding domain that confers both a predictable and programmable specificity. The DNA-binding domain consists typically of 34-amino acid near-identical repeats. The repeats form a right-handed superhelical structure that wraps around the DNA double helix and exposes the variable amino acids at position 13 of each repeat to the sense strand DNA bases. Each repeat binds one base in a highly specific, non-overlapping, and comma-free fashion. Although TALE specificities are encoded in a simple way, sophisticated rules can be taken into account to build highly efficient DNA-binding modules for biotechnological use.

  19. Gibberellin Perception by the Gibberellin Receptor and its Effector Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakoshima, Toshio; Murase, Kohji; Hirano, Yoshinori; Sun, Tai-Ping

    Gibberellins control a diverse range of growth and developmental processes in higher plants and have been widely utilized in the agricultural industry. By binding to a nuclear receptor GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1), gibberellins regulate gene expression by promoting degradation of the transcriptional regulator DELLA proteins. The precise manner in which GID1 discriminates and becomes activated by bioactive gibberellins for specific binding to DELLA proteins remains unclear. We present the crystal structure of a ternary complex of Arabidopsis thaliana GID1A, a bioactive gibberellin and the N-terminal DELLA domain of GAI. In this complex, GID1a occludes gibberellin in a deep binding pocket covered by its N-terminal helical switch region, which in turn interacts with the DELLA domain containing DELLA, VHYNP and LExLE motifs. Our results establish a structural model of a plant hormone receptor which is distinct from the hormone-perception mechanism and effector recognition of the known auxin receptors.

  20. [Transcription activator-like effectors(TALEs)based genome engineering].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mei-Wei; Duan, Cheng-Li; Liu, Jiang

    2013-10-01

    Systematic reverse-engineering of functional genome architecture requires precise modifications of gene sequences and transcription levels. The development and application of transcription activator-like effectors(TALEs) has created a wealth of genome engineering possibilities. TALEs are a class of naturally occurring DNA-binding proteins found in the plant pathogen Xanthomonas species. The DNA-binding domain of each TALE typically consists of tandem 34-amino acid repeat modules rearranged according to a simple cipher to target new DNA sequences. Customized TALEs can be used for a wide variety of genome engineering applications, including transcriptional modulation and genome editing. Such "genome engineering" has now been established in human cells and a number of model organisms, thus opening the door to better understanding gene function in model organisms, improving traits in crop plants and treating human genetic disorders.

  1. Protection after stroke: cellular effectors of neurovascular unit integrity

    PubMed Central

    Posada-Duque, Rafael Andres; Barreto, George E.; Cardona-Gomez, Gloria Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Neurological disorders are prevalent worldwide. Cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs), which account for 55% of all neurological diseases, are the leading cause of permanent disability, cognitive and motor disorders and dementia. Stroke affects the function and structure of blood-brain barrier, the loss of cerebral blood flow regulation, oxidative stress, inflammation and the loss of neural connections. Currently, no gold standard treatments are available outside the acute therapeutic window to improve outcome in stroke patients. Some promising candidate targets have been identified for the improvement of long-term recovery after stroke, such as Rho GTPases, cell adhesion proteins, kinases, and phosphatases. Previous studies by our lab indicated that Rho GTPases (Rac and RhoA) are involved in both tissue damage and survival, as these proteins are essential for the morphology and movement of neurons, astrocytes and endothelial cells, thus playing a critical role in the balance between cell survival and death. Treatment with a pharmacological inhibitor of RhoA/ROCK blocks the activation of the neurodegeneration cascade. In addition, Rac and synaptic adhesion proteins (p120 catenin and N-catenin) play critical roles in protection against cerebral infarction and in recovery by supporting the neurovascular unit and cytoskeletal remodeling activity to maintain the integrity of the brain parenchyma. Interestingly, neuroprotective agents, such as atorvastatin, and CDK5 silencing after cerebral ischemia and in a glutamate-induced excitotoxicity model may act on the same cellular effectors to recover neurovascular unit integrity. Therefore, future efforts must focus on individually targeting the structural and functional roles of each effector of neurovascular unit and the interactions in neural and non-neural cells in the post-ischemic brain and address how to promote the recovery or prevent the loss of homeostasis in the short, medium and long term. PMID:25177270

  2. Protection after stroke: cellular effectors of neurovascular unit integrity.

    PubMed

    Posada-Duque, Rafael Andres; Barreto, George E; Cardona-Gomez, Gloria Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Neurological disorders are prevalent worldwide. Cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs), which account for 55% of all neurological diseases, are the leading cause of permanent disability, cognitive and motor disorders and dementia. Stroke affects the function and structure of blood-brain barrier, the loss of cerebral blood flow regulation, oxidative stress, inflammation and the loss of neural connections. Currently, no gold standard treatments are available outside the acute therapeutic window to improve outcome in stroke patients. Some promising candidate targets have been identified for the improvement of long-term recovery after stroke, such as Rho GTPases, cell adhesion proteins, kinases, and phosphatases. Previous studies by our lab indicated that Rho GTPases (Rac and RhoA) are involved in both tissue damage and survival, as these proteins are essential for the morphology and movement of neurons, astrocytes and endothelial cells, thus playing a critical role in the balance between cell survival and death. Treatment with a pharmacological inhibitor of RhoA/ROCK blocks the activation of the neurodegeneration cascade. In addition, Rac and synaptic adhesion proteins (p120 catenin and N-catenin) play critical roles in protection against cerebral infarction and in recovery by supporting the neurovascular unit and cytoskeletal remodeling activity to maintain the integrity of the brain parenchyma. Interestingly, neuroprotective agents, such as atorvastatin, and CDK5 silencing after cerebral ischemia and in a glutamate-induced excitotoxicity model may act on the same cellular effectors to recover neurovascular unit integrity. Therefore, future efforts must focus on individually targeting the structural and functional roles of each effector of neurovascular unit and the interactions in neural and non-neural cells in the post-ischemic brain and address how to promote the recovery or prevent the loss of homeostasis in the short, medium and long term.

  3. Airway inflammation and IgE production induced by dust mite allergen-specific memory/effector Th2 cell line can be effectively attenuated by IL-35.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chiung-Hui; Loo, Evelyn Xiu-Ling; Kuo, I-Chun; Soh, Gim Hooi; Goh, Denise Li-Meng; Lee, Bee Wah; Chua, Kaw Yan

    2011-07-01

    CD4(+) memory/effector T cells play a central role in orchestrating the rapid and robust immune responses upon re-encounter with specific Ags. However, the immunologic mechanism(s) underlying these responses are still not fully understood. To investigate this, we generated an allergen (major house dust mite allergen, Blo t 5)-specific murine Th2 cell line that secreted IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13, but not IL-9 or TNF-α, upon activation by the cognate Ag. These cells also exhibited CD44(high)CD62L(-) and CD127(+) (IL-7Rα(+)) phenotypes, which are characteristics of memory/effector T cells. Experiments involving adoptive transfer of this Th2 cell line in mice, followed by three intranasal challenges with Blo t 5, induced a dexamethasone-sensitive eosinophilic airway inflammation. This was accompanied by elevation of Th2 cytokines and CC- and CXC-motif chemokines, as well as recruitment of lymphocytes and polymorphic mononuclear cells into the lungs. Moreover, Blo t 5-specific IgE was detected 4 d after the last intranasal challenge, whereas elevation of Blo t 5-specific IgG1 was found at week two. Finally, pulmonary delivery of the pVAX-IL-35 DNA construct effectively downregulated Blo t 5-specific allergic airway inflammation, and i.m. injection of pVAX-IL-35 led to long-lasting suppression of circulating Blo t 5-specific and total IgE. This model provides a robust research tool to elucidate the immunopathogenic role of memory/effector Th2 cells in allergic airway inflammation. Our results suggested that IL-35 could be a potential therapeutic target for allergic asthma through its attenuating effects on allergen-specific CD4(+) memory/effector Th2 cell-mediated airway inflammation.

  4. Structural evolution of differential amino acid effector regulation in plant chorismate mutases.

    PubMed

    Westfall, Corey S; Xu, Ang; Jez, Joseph M

    2014-10-10

    Chorismate mutase converts chorismate into prephenate for aromatic amino acid biosynthesis. To understand the molecular basis of allosteric regulation in the plant chorismate mutases, we analyzed the three Arabidopsis thaliana chorismate mutase isoforms (AtCM1-3) and determined the x-ray crystal structures of AtCM1 in complex with phenylalanine and tyrosine. Functional analyses show a wider range of effector control in the Arabidopsis chorismate mutases than previously reported. AtCM1 is activated by tryptophan with phenylalanine and tyrosine acting as negative effectors; however, tryptophan, cysteine, and histidine activate AtCM3. AtCM2 is a nonallosteric form. The crystal structure of AtCM1 in complex with tyrosine and phenylalanine identifies differences in the effector sites of the allosterically regulated yeast enzyme and the other two Arabidopsis isoforms. Site-directed mutagenesis of residues in the effector site reveals key features leading to differential effector regulation in these enzymes. In AtCM1, mutations of Gly-213 abolish allosteric regulation, as observed in AtCM2. A second effector site position, Gly-149 in AtCM1 and Asp-132 in AtCM3, controls amino acid effector specificity in AtCM1 and AtCM3. Comparisons of chorismate mutases from multiple plants suggest that subtle differences in the effector site are conserved in different lineages and may lead to specialized regulation of this branch point enzyme.

  5. Differential expression of candidate salivary effector proteins in field collections of Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence is emerging that proteins secreted by gall forming plant-parasites are the effectors responsible for systemic changes in the host plant, such as galling and nutrient tissue formation. A large number of secreted salivary gland proteins (SSGPs) that are hypothesized to be the effectors respon...

  6. Putative rust fungal effector proteins in infected bean and soybean leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The plant pathogenic fungi Uromyces appendiculatus and Phakopsora pachyrhizi cause debilitating rust diseases on common bean and soybean. These rust fungi secrete effector proteins that allow them to infect plants, but the effector repertoire for U. appendiculatus and P. pachyrhizi is not fully def...

  7. Verticillium dahliae Sge1 differentially regulates expression of candidate effector genes.

    PubMed

    Santhanam, Parthasarathy; Thomma, Bart P H J

    2013-02-01

    The ascomycete fungus Verticillium dahliae causes vascular wilt diseases in hundreds of dicotyledonous plant species. However, thus far, only few V. dahliae effectors have been identified, and regulators of pathogenicity remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of the V. dahliae homolog of Sge1, a transcriptional regulator that was previously implicated in pathogenicity and effector gene expression in Fusarium oxysporum. We show that V. dahliae Sge1 (VdSge1) is required for radial growth and production of asexual conidiospores, because VdSge1 deletion strains display reduced radial growth and reduced conidia production. Furthermore, we show that VdSge1 deletion strains have lost pathogenicity on tomato. Remarkably, VdSge1 is not required for induction of Ave1, the recently identified V. dahliae effector that activates resistance mediated by the Ve1 immune receptor in tomato. Further assessment of the role of VdSge1 in the induction of the nine most highly in-planta-induced genes that encode putative effectors revealed differential activity. Although the expression of one putative effector gene in addition to Ave1 was not affected by VdSge1 deletion, VdSge1 appeared to be required for the expression of six putative effector genes, whereas two of the putative effectors genes were found to be negatively regulated by VdSge1. In conclusion, our data suggest that VdSge1 differentially regulates V. dahliae effector gene expression.

  8. Purification of effector-target protein complexes via transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Win, Joe; Kamoun, Sophien; Jones, Alexandra M E

    2011-01-01

    Effectors of plant pathogens play important roles in not only pathogenesis but also plant immunity. Plant pathogens use these effectors to manipulate host cells for colonization, and their activities likely influence the evolution of plant immune responses. Analyses of genome sequences revealed that oomycete pathogens, such as Phytophthora spp., possess hundreds of RXLR effectors that are thought to be delivered into the host cells and hence function inside the cells by interacting with the host protein complexes. This article describes a co-immunoprecipitation protocol aimed at identifying putative target complexes of the effectors by transiently overexpressing the tagged effectors in planta. The identification of the eluted protein complexes was achieved by LC-MS/MS mass spectrometry and peptide spectrum matching. PMID:21359809

  9. The Vibrio cholerae type VI secretion system employs diverse effector modules for intraspecific competition.

    PubMed

    Unterweger, Daniel; Miyata, Sarah T; Bachmann, Verena; Brooks, Teresa M; Mullins, Travis; Kostiuk, Benjamin; Provenzano, Daniele; Pukatzki, Stefan

    2014-04-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that consists of over 200 serogroups with differing pathogenic potential. Only strains that express the virulence factors cholera toxin (CT) and toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) are capable of pandemic spread of cholera diarrhoea. Regardless, all V. cholerae strains sequenced to date harbour genes for the type VI secretion system (T6SS) that translocates effectors into neighbouring eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Here we report that the effectors encoded within these conserved gene clusters differ widely among V. cholerae strains, and that immunity proteins encoded immediately downstream from the effector genes protect their host from neighbouring bacteria producing corresponding effectors. As a consequence, strains with matching effector-immunity gene sets can coexist, while strains with different sets compete against each other. Thus, the V. cholerae T6SS contributes to the competitive behaviour of this species.

  10. MorTAL Kombat: the story of defense against TAL effectors through loss-of-susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Hutin, Mathilde; Pérez-Quintero, Alvaro L.; Lopez, Camilo; Szurek, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Many plant-pathogenic xanthomonads rely on Transcription Activator-Like (TAL) effectors to colonize their host. This particular family of type III effectors functions as specific plant transcription factors via a programmable DNA-binding domain. Upon binding to the promoters of plant disease susceptibility genes in a sequence-specific manner, the expression of these host genes is induced. However, plants have evolved specific strategies to counter the action of TAL effectors and confer resistance. One mechanism is to avoid the binding of TAL effectors by mutations of their DNA binding sites, resulting in resistance by loss-of-susceptibility. This article reviews our current knowledge of the susceptibility hubs targeted by Xanthomonas TAL effectors, possible evolutionary scenarios for plants to combat the pathogen with loss-of-function alleles, and how this knowledge can be used overall to develop new pathogen-informed breeding strategies and improve crop resistance. PMID:26236326

  11. Legionella pneumophila, armed to the hilt: justifying the largest arsenal of effectors in the bacterial world.

    PubMed

    Ensminger, Alexander W

    2016-02-01

    Many bacterial pathogens use dedicated translocation systems to deliver arsenals of effector proteins to their hosts. Once inside the host cytosol, these effectors modulate eukaryotic cell biology to acquire nutrients, block microbial degradation, subvert host defenses, and enable pathogen transmission to other hosts. Among all bacterial pathogens studied to date, the gram-negative pathogen, Legionella pneumophila, maintains the largest arsenal of effectors, with over 330 effector proteins translocated by the Dot/Icm type IVB translocation system. In this review, I will discuss some of the recent work on understanding the consequences of this large arsenal. I will also present several models that seek to explain how L. pneumophila has acquired and subsequently maintained so many more effectors than its peers.

  12. Independently Evolved Virulence Effectors Converge onto Hubs in a Plant Immune System Network

    PubMed Central

    Mukhtar, M. Shahid; Carvunis, Anne-Ruxandra; Dreze, Matija; Epple, Petra; Steinbrenner, Jens; Moore, Jonathan; Tasan, Murat; Galli, Mary; Hao, Tong; Nishimura, Marc T.; Pevzner, Samuel J.; Donovan, Susan E.; Ghamsari, Lila; Santhanam, Balaji; Romero, Viviana; Poulin, Matthew M.; Gebreab, Fana; Gutierrez, Bryan J.; Tam, Stanley; Monachello, Dario; Boxem, Mike; Harbort, Christopher J.; McDonald, Nathan; Gai, Lantian; Chen, Huaming; He, Yijian; Vandenhaute, Jean; Roth, Frederick P.; Hill, David E.; Ecker, Joseph R.; Vidal, Marc; Beynon, Jim; Braun, Pascal; Dangl, Jeffery L.

    2011-01-01

    Plants generate effective responses to infection by recognizing both conserved and variable pathogen-encoded molecules. Pathogens deploy virulence effector proteins into host cells, where they interact physically with host proteins to modulate defense. We generated a plant-pathogen immune system protein interaction network using effectors from two pathogens spanning the eukaryote-eubacteria divergence, three classes of Arabidopsis immune system proteins and ~8,000 other Arabidopsis proteins. We noted convergence of effectors onto highly interconnected host proteins, and indirect, rather than direct, connections between effectors and plant immune receptors. We demonstrated plant immune system functions for 15 of 17 tested host proteins that interact with effectors from both pathogens. Thus, pathogens from different kingdoms deploy independently evolved virulence proteins that interact with a limited set of highly connected cellular hubs to facilitate their diverse life cycle strategies. PMID:21798943

  13. Structure of NS1A effector domain from the influenza A/Udorn/72 virus

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Shuangluo; Monzingo, Arthur F.; Robertus, Jon D.

    2009-01-01

    The structure of the effector domain of the influenza protein NS1, a validated antiviral drug target, has been solved in two space groups. The nonstructural protein NS1A from influenza virus is a multifunctional virulence factor and a potent inhibitor of host immunity. It has two functional domains: an N-terminal 73-amino-acid RNA-binding domain and a C-terminal effector domain. Here, the crystallographic structure of the NS1A effector domain of influenza A/Udorn/72 virus is presented. Structure comparison with the NS1 effector domain from mouse-adapted influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) virus strain reveals a similar monomer conformation but a different dimer interface. Further analysis and evaluation shows that the dimer interface observed in the structure of the PR8 NS1 effector domain is likely to be a crystallographic packing effect. A hypothetical model of the intact NS1 dimer is presented.

  14. Molecular weaponry: diverse effectors delivered by the Type VI secretion system

    PubMed Central

    Alcoforado Diniz, Juliana; Liu, Yi‐Chia

    2015-01-01

    Summary The Type VI secretion system is a widespread bacterial nanomachine, used to deliver toxins directly into eukaryotic or prokaryotic target cells. These secreted toxins, or effectors, act on diverse cellular targets, and their action provides the attacking bacterial cell with a significant fitness advantage, either against rival bacteria or eukaryotic host organisms. In this review, we discuss the delivery of diverse effectors by the Type VI secretion system, the modes of action of the so‐called ‘anti‐bacterial’ and ‘anti‐eukaryotic’ effectors, the mechanism of self‐resistance against anti‐bacterial effectors and the evolutionary implications of horizontal transfer of Type VI secretion system‐associated toxins. Whilst it is likely that many more effectors remain to be identified, it is already clear that toxins delivered by this secretion system represent efficient weapons against both bacteria and eukaryotes. PMID:26432982

  15. Explosion suppression system

    DOEpatents

    Sapko, Michael J.; Cortese, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    An explosion suppression system and triggering apparatus therefor are provided for quenching gas and dust explosions. An electrically actuated suppression mechanism which dispenses an extinguishing agent into the path ahead of the propagating flame is actuated by a triggering device which is light powered. This triggering device is located upstream of the propagating flame and converts light from the flame to an electrical actuation signal. A pressure arming device electrically connects the triggering device to the suppression device only when the explosion is sensed by a further characteristic thereof beside the flame such as the pioneer pressure wave. The light powered triggering device includes a solar panel which is disposed in the path of the explosion and oriented between horizontally downward and vertical. Testing mechanisms are also preferably provided to test the operation of the solar panel and detonator as well as the pressure arming mechanism.

  16. Manipulation of Interleukin-1β and Interleukin-18 Production by Yersinia pestis Effectors YopJ and YopM and Redundant Impact on Virulence.

    PubMed

    Ratner, Dmitry; Orning, M Pontus A; Starheim, Kristian K; Marty-Roix, Robyn; Proulx, Megan K; Goguen, Jon D; Lien, Egil

    2016-05-01

    Innate immunity plays a central role in resolving infections by pathogens. Host survival during plague, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis, is favored by a robust early innate immune response initiated by IL-1β and IL-18. These cytokines are produced by a two-step mechanism involving NF-κB-mediated pro-cytokine production and inflammasome-driven maturation into bioactive inflammatory mediators. Because of the anti-microbial effects induced by IL-1β/IL-18, it may be desirable for pathogens to manipulate their production. Y. pestis type III secretion system effectors YopJ and YopM can interfere with different parts of this process. Both effectors have been reported to influence inflammasome caspase-1 activity; YopJ promotes caspase-8-dependent cell death and caspase-1 cleavage, whereas YopM inhibits caspase-1 activity via an incompletely understood mechanism. However, neither effector appears essential for full virulence in vivo Here we report that the sum of influences by YopJ and YopM on IL-1β/IL-18 release is suppressive. In the absence of YopM, YopJ minimally affects caspase-1 cleavage but suppresses IL-1β, IL-18, and other cytokines and chemokines. Importantly, we find that Y. pestis containing combined deletions of YopJ and YopM induces elevated levels of IL-1β/IL-18 in vitro and in vivo and is significantly attenuated in a mouse model of bubonic plague. The reduced virulence of the YopJ-YopM mutant is dependent on the presence of IL-1β, IL-18, and caspase-1. Thus, we conclude that Y. pestis YopJ and YopM can both exert a tight control of host IL-1β/IL-18 production to benefit the bacteria, resulting in a redundant impact on virulence. PMID:26884330

  17. Leptosphaeria maculans effector AvrLm4-7 affects salicylic acid (SA) and ethylene (ET) signalling and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) accumulation in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Nováková, Miroslava; Šašek, Vladimír; Trdá, Lucie; Krutinová, Hana; Mongin, Thomas; Valentová, Olga; Balesdent, Marie-HelEne; Rouxel, Thierry; Burketová, Lenka

    2016-08-01

    To achieve host colonization, successful pathogens need to overcome plant basal defences. For this, (hemi)biotrophic pathogens secrete effectors that interfere with a range of physiological processes of the host plant. AvrLm4-7 is one of the cloned effectors from the hemibiotrophic fungus Leptosphaeria maculans 'brassicaceae' infecting mainly oilseed rape (Brassica napus). Although its mode of action is still unknown, AvrLm4-7 is strongly involved in L. maculans virulence. Here, we investigated the effect of AvrLm4-7 on plant defence responses in a susceptible cultivar of B. napus. Using two isogenic L. maculans isolates differing in the presence of a functional AvrLm4-7 allele [absence ('a4a7') and presence ('A4A7') of the allele], the plant hormone concentrations, defence-related gene transcription and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation were analysed in infected B. napus cotyledons. Various components of the plant immune system were affected. Infection with the 'A4A7' isolate caused suppression of salicylic acid- and ethylene-dependent signalling, the pathways regulating an effective defence against L. maculans infection. Furthermore, ROS accumulation was decreased in cotyledons infected with the 'A4A7' isolate. Treatment with an antioxidant agent, ascorbic acid, increased the aggressiveness of the 'a4a7' L. maculans isolate, but not that of the 'A4A7' isolate. Together, our results suggest that the increased aggressiveness of the 'A4A7' L. maculans isolate could be caused by defects in ROS-dependent defence and/or linked to suppressed SA and ET signalling. This is the first study to provide insights into the manipulation of B. napus defence responses by an effector of L. maculans. PMID:26575525

  18. Manipulation of Interleukin-1β and Interleukin-18 Production by Yersinia pestis Effectors YopJ and YopM and Redundant Impact on Virulence.

    PubMed

    Ratner, Dmitry; Orning, M Pontus A; Starheim, Kristian K; Marty-Roix, Robyn; Proulx, Megan K; Goguen, Jon D; Lien, Egil

    2016-05-01

    Innate immunity plays a central role in resolving infections by pathogens. Host survival during plague, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis, is favored by a robust early innate immune response initiated by IL-1β and IL-18. These cytokines are produced by a two-step mechanism involving NF-κB-mediated pro-cytokine production and inflammasome-driven maturation into bioactive inflammatory mediators. Because of the anti-microbial effects induced by IL-1β/IL-18, it may be desirable for pathogens to manipulate their production. Y. pestis type III secretion system effectors YopJ and YopM can interfere with different parts of this process. Both effectors have been reported to influence inflammasome caspase-1 activity; YopJ promotes caspase-8-dependent cell death and caspase-1 cleavage, whereas YopM inhibits caspase-1 activity via an incompletely understood mechanism. However, neither effector appears essential for full virulence in vivo Here we report that the sum of influences by YopJ and YopM on IL-1β/IL-18 release is suppressive. In the absence of YopM, YopJ minimally affects caspase-1 cleavage but suppresses IL-1β, IL-18, and other cytokines and chemokines. Importantly, we find that Y. pestis containing combined deletions of YopJ and YopM induces elevated levels of IL-1β/IL-18 in vitro and in vivo and is significantly attenuated in a mouse model of bubonic plague. The reduced virulence of the YopJ-YopM mutant is dependent on the presence of IL-1β, IL-18, and caspase-1. Thus, we conclude that Y. pestis YopJ and YopM can both exert a tight control of host IL-1β/IL-18 production to benefit the bacteria, resulting in a redundant impact on virulence.

  19. Phenotypic analysis of nylon-wool-adherent suppressor cells that inhibit the effector process of tumour cell lysis by lymphokine-activated killer cells in patients with advanced gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Koyama, S; Fukao, K

    1994-01-01

    The causes of down-regulation of cytotoxic immune responses in cancer patients have not been fully evaluated. We previously demonstrated that T-cell-growth-factor-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) with the surface phenotype CD8+ CD11b-, from patients with widespread metastasis of gastric carcinoma, inhibited the effector process of lymphokine-activated-killer(LAK)-cell-mediated cytolysis. In this study, we examined suppressor cell activity in freshly prepared PBL from 18 patients with advanced gastric carcinoma, and 10 normal healthy individuals. The suppressor cell activity was assayed by recording whether or not PBL inhibited directly the effector process of LAK cell cytotoxicity. Most of the PBL suspensions from cancer patients showed that they contained a population of cells that can directly inhibit the effector phase of tumor cell lysis of the cytotoxic cells. To analyze further the PBL responsible for the suppression, the cells were passed over a nylon-wool column. Nylon-wool-adherent cells significantly augmented the suppression, while the cells passing through abrogated the suppressive effect. Most nylon-wool-adherent cells from 10 normal healthy controls did not inhibit the cytotoxic reaction. To determine further the suppressor-effector population in nylon-wool-adherent cells, negative-selection studies using CD8-, CD4- or CD11b-coated magnetic beads, and positive-selection studies using CD8- or CD4-coated magnetic beads were performed. Finally the results suggest that the suppressor-effector cells comprise at least two different surface phenotypes: CD8+ T and CD8-CD11b+ cells. The possible role of CD4+ T cells and HLA-DR+ LeuM3+ macrophages as suppressor cells was ruled out in nylon-wool-adherent cells. CD8+ T and possibly CD8-CD11b+ cells apparently suppressed the efferent limb of the antitumor immunity. The selective immune suppression mediated by these cells may partly be concerned with escape mechanisms of gastric carcinoma from the host

  20. Crystal Structure of Xanthomonas AvrRxo1-ORF1, a Type III Effector with a Polynucleotide Kinase Domain, and Its Interactor AvrRxo1-ORF2.

    PubMed

    Han, Qian; Zhou, Changhe; Wu, Shuchi; Liu, Yi; Triplett, Lindsay; Miao, Jiamin; Tokuhisa, James; Deblais, Loïc; Robinson, Howard; Leach, Jan E; Li, Jianyong; Zhao, Bingyu

    2015-10-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc) causes bacterial leaf streak (BLS) disease on rice plants. Xoc delivers a type III effector AvrRxo1-ORF1 into rice plant cells that can be recognized by disease resistance (R) protein Rxo1, and triggers resistance to BLS disease. However, the mechanism and virulence role of AvrRxo1 is not known. In the genome of Xoc, AvrRxo1-ORF1 is adjacent to another gene AvrRxo1-ORF2, which was predicted to encode a molecular chaperone of AvrRxo1-ORF1. We report the co-purification and crystallization of the AvrRxo1-ORF1:AvrRxo1-ORF2 tetramer complex at 1.64 Å resolution. AvrRxo1-ORF1 has a T4 polynucleotide kinase domain, and expression of AvrRxo1-ORF1 suppresses bacterial growth in a manner dependent on the kinase motif. Although AvrRxo1-ORF2 binds AvrRxo1-ORF1, it is structurally different from typical effector-binding chaperones, in that it has a distinct fold containing a novel kinase-binding domain. AvrRxo1-ORF2 functions to suppress the bacteriostatic activity of AvrRxo1-ORF1 in bacterial cells.

  1. Suppression of developmental anomalies by maternal macrophages in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, T.; Hata, S.; Kusafuka, T. )

    1990-11-01

    We tested whether nonspecific tumoricidal immune cells can suppress congenital malformations by killing precursor cells destined to cause such defects. Pretreatment of pregnant ICR mice with synthetic (Pyran copolymer) and biological (Bacillus Calmette-Guerin) agents significantly suppressed radiation- and chemical-induced congenital malformations (cleft palate, digit anomalies, tail anomalies, etc.). Such suppressive effects were associated with the activation of maternal macrophages by these agents, but were lost either after the disruption of activated macrophages by supersonic waves or by inhibition of their lysosomal enzyme activity with trypan blue. These results indicate that a live activated macrophage with active lysosomal enzymes can be an effector cell to suppress maldevelopment. A similar reduction by activated macrophages was observed in strain CL/Fr, which has a high spontaneous frequency of cleft lips and palates. Furthermore, Pyran-activated maternal macrophages could pass through the placenta, and enhanced urethane-induced cell killing (but not somatic mutation) in the embryo. It is likely that a maternal immunosurveillance system eliminating preteratogenic cells allows for the replacement with normal totipotent blast cells during the pregnancy to protect abnormal development.

  2. The genome sequence and effector complement of the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini.

    PubMed

    Nemri, Adnane; Saunders, Diane G O; Anderson, Claire; Upadhyaya, Narayana M; Win, Joe; Lawrence, Gregory J; Jones, David A; Kamoun, Sophien; Ellis, Jeffrey G; Dodds, Peter N

    2014-01-01

    Rust fungi cause serious yield reductions on crops, including wheat, barley, soybean, coffee, and represent real threats to global food security. Of these fungi, the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini has been developed most extensively over the past 80 years as a model to understand the molecular mechanisms that underpin pathogenesis. During infection, M. lini secretes virulence effectors to promote disease. The number of these effectors, their function and their degree of conservation across rust fungal species is unknown. To assess this, we sequenced and assembled de novo the genome of M. lini isolate CH5 into 21,130 scaffolds spanning 189 Mbp (scaffold N50 of 31 kbp). Global analysis of the DNA sequence revealed that repetitive elements, primarily retrotransposons, make up at least 45% of the genome. Using ab initio predictions, transcriptome data and homology searches, we identified 16,271 putative protein-coding genes. An analysis pipeline was then implemented to predict the effector complement of M. lini and compare it to that of the poplar rust, wheat stem rust and wheat stripe rust pathogens to identify conserved and species-specific effector candidates. Previous knowledge of four cloned M. lini avirulence effector proteins and two basidiomycete effectors was used to optimize parameters of the effector prediction pipeline. Markov clustering based on sequence similarity was performed to group effector candidates from all four rust pathogens. Clusters containing at least one member from M. lini were further analyzed and prioritized based on features including expression in isolated haustoria and infected leaf tissue and conservation across rust species. Herein, we describe 200 of 940 clusters that ranked highest on our priority list, representing 725 flax rust candidate effectors. Our findings on this important model rust species provide insight into how effectors of rust fungi are conserved across species and how they may act to promote infection on their

  3. Diverse Secreted Effectors Are Required for Salmonella Persistence in a Mouse Infection Model

    SciTech Connect

    Kidwai, Afshan S.; Mushamiri, Ivy T.; Niemann, George; Brown, Roslyn N.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Heffron, Fred

    2013-08-12

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium causes typhoid-like disease in mice and is a model of typhoid fever in humans. One of the hallmarks of typhoid is persistence, the ability of the bacteria to survive in the host weeks after infection. Virulence factors called effectors facilitate this process by direct transfer to the cytoplasm of infected cells thereby subverting cellular processes. Secretion of effectors to the cell cytoplasm takes place through multiple routes, including two separate type III secretion (T3SS) apparati as well as outer membrane vesicles. The two T3SS are encoded on separate pathogenicity islands, SPI-1 and -2, with SPI-1 more strongly associated with the intestinal phase of infection, and SPI-2 with the systemic phase. Both T3SS are required for persistence, but the effectors required have not been systematically evaluated. In this study, mutations in 48 described effectors were tested for persistence. We replaced each effector with a specific DNA barcode sequence by allelic exchange and co-infected with a wild-type reference to calculate the ratio of wild-type parent to mutant at different times after infection. The competitive index (CI) was determined by quantitative PCR in which primers that correspond to the barcode were used for amplification. Mutations in all but seven effectors reduced persistence demonstrating that most effectors were required. One exception was CigR, a recently discovered effector that is widely conserved throughout enteric bacteria. Deletion of cigR increased lethality, suggesting that it may be an anti-virulence factor. The fact that almost all Salmonella effectors are required for persistence argues against redundant functions. This is different from effector repertoires in other intracellular pathogens such as Legionella.

  4. QueTAL: a suite of tools to classify and compare TAL effectors functionally and phylogenetically

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Quintero, Alvaro L.; Lamy, Léo; Gordon, Jonathan L.; Escalon, Aline; Cunnac, Sébastien; Szurek, Boris; Gagnevin, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    Transcription Activator-Like (TAL) effectors from Xanthomonas plant pathogenic bacteria can bind to the promoter region of plant genes and induce their expression. DNA-binding specificity is governed by a central domain made of nearly identical repeats, each determining the recognition of one base pair via two amino acid residues (a.k.a. Repeat Variable Di-residue, or RVD). Knowing how TAL effectors differ from each other within and between strains would be useful to infer functional and evolutionary relationships, but their repetitive nature precludes reliable use of traditional alignment methods. The suite QueTAL was therefore developed to offer tailored tools for comparison of TAL effector genes. The program DisTAL considers each repeat as a unit, transforms a TAL effector sequence into a sequence of coded repeats and makes pair-wise alignments between these coded sequences to construct trees. The program FuncTAL is aimed at finding TAL effectors with similar DNA-binding capabilities. It calculates correlations between position weight matrices of potential target DNA sequence predicted from the RVD sequence, and builds trees based on these correlations. The programs accurately represented phylogenetic and functional relationships between TAL effectors using either simulated or literature-curated data. When using the programs on a large set of TAL effector sequences, the DisTAL tree largely reflected the expected species phylogeny. In contrast, FuncTAL showed that TAL effectors with similar binding capabilities can be found between phylogenetically distant taxa. This suite will help users to rapidly analyse any TAL effector genes of interest and compare them to other available TAL genes and should improve our understanding of TAL effectors evolution. It is available at http://bioinfo-web.mpl.ird.fr/cgi-bin2/quetal/quetal.cgi. PMID:26284082

  5. QueTAL: a suite of tools to classify and compare TAL effectors functionally and phylogenetically.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Quintero, Alvaro L; Lamy, Léo; Gordon, Jonathan L; Escalon, Aline; Cunnac, Sébastien; Szurek, Boris; Gagnevin, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    Transcription Activator-Like (TAL) effectors from Xanthomonas plant pathogenic bacteria can bind to the promoter region of plant genes and induce their expression. DNA-binding specificity is governed by a central domain made of nearly identical repeats, each determining the recognition of one base pair via two amino acid residues (a.k.a. Repeat Variable Di-residue, or RVD). Knowing how TAL effectors differ from each other within and between strains would be useful to infer functional and evolutionary relationships, but their repetitive nature precludes reliable use of traditional alignment methods. The suite QueTAL was therefore developed to offer tailored tools for comparison of TAL effector genes. The program DisTAL considers each repeat as a unit, transforms a TAL effector sequence into a sequence of coded repeats and makes pair-wise alignments between these coded sequences to construct trees. The program FuncTAL is aimed at finding TAL effectors with similar DNA-binding capabilities. It calculates correlations between position weight matrices of potential target DNA sequence predicted from the RVD sequence, and builds trees based on these correlations. The programs accurately represented phylogenetic and functional relationships between TAL effectors using either simulated or literature-curated data. When using the programs on a large set of TAL effector sequences, the DisTAL tree largely reflected the expected species phylogeny. In contrast, FuncTAL showed that TAL effectors with similar binding capabilities can be found between phylogenetically distant taxa. This suite will help users to rapidly analyse any TAL effector genes of interest and compare them to other available TAL genes and should improve our understanding of TAL effectors evolution. It is available at http://bioinfo-web.mpl.ird.fr/cgi-bin2/quetal/quetal.cgi.

  6. miR-218 is Essential to Establish Motor Neuron Fate as a Downstream Effector of Isl1-Lhx3

    PubMed Central

    Thiebes, Karen P.; Nam, Heejin; Cambronne, Xiaolu A.; Shen, Rongkun; Glasgow, Stacey M.; Cho, Hyong-Ho; Kwon, Ji-sun; Goodman, Richard H.; Lee, Jae W.; Lee, Seunghee; Lee, Soo-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    While microRNAs have emerged as an important component of gene regulatory networks, it remains unclear how microRNAs collaborate with transcription factors in the gene networks that determines neuronal cell fate. Here, we show that in the developing spinal cord, the expression of miR-218 is directly upregulated by the Isl1-Lhx3 complex, which drives motor neuron fate. Inhibition of miR-218 suppresses the generation of motor neurons in both chick neural tube and mouse embryonic stem cells, suggesting that miR-218 plays a crucial role in motor neuron differentiation. Results from unbiased RISC-trap screens, in vivo reporter assays, and overexpression studies indicated that miR-218 directly represses transcripts that promote developmental programs for interneurons. Additionally, we found that miR-218 activity is required for Isl1-Lhx3 to effectively induce motor neurons and suppress interneuron fates. Together, our results reveal an essential role of miR-218 as a downstream effector of the Isl1-Lhx3 complex in establishing motor neuron identity. PMID:26212498

  7. Photoimmune suppression and photocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Stephen E

    2002-03-01

    The primary cause of non-melanoma skin cancer, the most prevalent form of human neoplasia, is the ultraviolet (UV) radiation found in sunlight. Exposing mice to UV radiation induces skin cancers that are highly antigenic. Upon transfer of an UV-induced skin cancer to a normal syngeneic mouse, the tumor cells are recognized and rapidly destroyed by the immune system of the recipient. This raises the question of how these cancers avoided immune destruction during their development in the UV-irradiated host. This question was answered when it was discovered that in addition to being carcinogenic, UV radiation was also immunosuppressive. Studies with immune suppressed transplantation recipients, and biopsy proven skin cancer patients have confirmed that UV-induced immune suppression is a risk factor for skin cancer development in humans. It is of great importance, therefore, to understand the mechanisms underlying UV-induced immune suppression. The focus of this manuscript will be to use some examples from the more recent scientific literature to review the mechanisms by which UV radiation suppresses the immune response and allows for the progressive outgrowth of antigenic skin tumors. PMID:11861222

  8. Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola effector HopF1 inhibits pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity in a RIN4-independent manner in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Hou, Shuguo; Mu, Ruimin; Ma, Guixia; Xu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Chao; Yang, Yifei; Wu, Daoji

    2011-10-01

    Plant pathogens usually promote pathogenesis by secreting effector proteins into host plant cells. One of the secreted effectors of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola, the causative agent of halo-blight disease in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), HopF1, activates effector-triggered immunity (ETI) in a bean cultivar containing R1 resistance gene, but displays virulence function in a bean cultivar without the R1 gene. The virulence mechanism of the effector remained unknown, although it was identified more than a decade ago. Here we demonstrated that HopF1 can inhibit pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) in a susceptible bean cultivar Tendergreen. HopF1 directly interacted with two RPM1-interacting protein 4 (RIN4) orthologs of bean, PvRIN4a and PvRIN4b. Like RIN4 in Arabidopsis, both PvRIN4 orthologs negatively regulated the PTI responses in bean. However, the virulence function of HopF1 was enhanced in Tendergreen silencing PvRIN4. Furthermore, silencing PvRIN4a compromised the avrβ1-induced hypersensitive response (HR), which previously was reported to be suppressed by HopF1. Together, these results demonstrated that PvRIN4 orthologs were not the virulence target of HopF1 for inhibiting PTI, but probably for interfering with ETI.

  9. Genghis Khan (Gek) as a putative effector for Drosophila Cdc42 and regulator of actin polymerization.

    PubMed

    Luo, L; Lee, T; Tsai, L; Tang, G; Jan, L Y; Jan, Y N

    1997-11-25

    The small GTPases Cdc42 and Rac regulate a variety of biological processes, including actin polymerization, cell proliferation, and JNK/mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, conceivably via distinct effectors. Whereas the effector for mitogen-activated protein kinase activation appears to be p65PAK, the identity of effector(s) for actin polymerization remains unclear. We have found a putative effector for Drosophila Cdc42, Genghis Khan (Gek), which binds to Dcdc42 in a GTP-dependent and effector domain-dependent manner. Gek contains a predicted serine/threonine kinase catalytic domain that is 63% identical to human myotonic dystrophy protein kinase and has protein kinase activities. It also possesses a large coiled-coil domain, a putative phorbol ester binding domain, a pleckstrin homology domain, and a Cdc42 binding consensus sequence that is required for its binding to Dcdc42. To study the in vivo function of gek, we generated mutations in the Drosophila gek locus. Egg chambers homozygous for gek mutations exhibit abnormal accumulation of F-actin and are defective in producing fertilized eggs. These phenotypes can be rescued by a wild-type gek transgene. Our results suggest that this multidomain protein kinase is an effector for the regulation of actin polymerization by Cdc42.

  10. Intrinsic disorder in pathogen effectors: protein flexibility as an evolutionary hallmark in a molecular arms race.

    PubMed

    Marín, Macarena; Uversky, Vladimir N; Ott, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    Effector proteins represent a refined mechanism of bacterial pathogens to overcome plants' innate immune systems. These modular proteins often manipulate host physiology by directly interfering with immune signaling of plant cells. Even if host cells have developed efficient strategies to perceive the presence of pathogenic microbes and to recognize intracellular effector activity, it remains an open question why only few effectors are recognized directly by plant resistance proteins. Based on in-silico genome-wide surveys and a reevaluation of published structural data, we estimated that bacterial effectors of phytopathogens are highly enriched in long-disordered regions (>50 residues). These structurally flexible segments have no secondary structure under physiological conditions but can fold in a stimulus-dependent manner (e.g., during protein-protein interactions). The high abundance of intrinsic disorder in effectors strongly suggests positive evolutionary selection of this structural feature and highlights the dynamic nature of these proteins. We postulate that such structural flexibility may be essential for (1) effector translocation, (2) evasion of the innate immune system, and (3) host function mimicry. The study of these dynamical regions will greatly complement current structural approaches to understand the molecular mechanisms of these proteins and may help in the prediction of new effectors.

  11. Chimeric adaptor proteins translocate diverse type VI secretion system effectors in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Unterweger, Daniel; Kostiuk, Benjamin; Ötjengerdes, Rina; Wilton, Ashley; Diaz-Satizabal, Laura; Pukatzki, Stefan

    2015-08-13

    Vibrio cholerae is a diverse species of Gram-negative bacteria, commonly found in the aquatic environment and the causative agent of the potentially deadly disease cholera. These bacteria employ a type VI secretion system (T6SS) when they encounter prokaryotic and eukaryotic competitors. This contractile puncturing device translocates a set of effector proteins into neighboring cells. Translocated effectors are toxic unless the targeted cell produces immunity proteins that bind and deactivate incoming effectors. Comparison of multiple V. cholerae strains indicates that effectors are encoded in T6SS effector modules on mobile genetic elements. We identified a diverse group of chimeric T6SS adaptor proteins required for the translocation of diverse effectors encoded in modules. An example for a T6SS effector that requires T6SS adaptor protein 1 (Tap-1) is TseL found in pandemic V. cholerae O1 serogroup strains and other clinical isolates. We propose a model in which Tap-1 is required for loading TseL onto the secretion apparatus. After T6SS-mediated TseL export is completed, Tap-1 is retained in the bacterial cell to load other T6SS machines.

  12. Development of a Mild Viral Expression System for Gain-Of-Function Study of Phytoplasma Effector In Planta

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li-Yu Daisy; Hong, Syuan-Fei; Yang, Chiao-Yin; Lo, Hsiao-Feng; Tseng, Ting-Yu; Chen, Wei-Yao; Lin, Shih-Shun

    2015-01-01

    PHYL1 and SAP54 are orthologs of pathogenic effectors of Aster yellow witches’-broom (AYWB) phytoplasma and Peanut witches’-broom (PnWB) phytoplasma, respectively. These effectors cause virescence and phyllody symptoms (hereafter leafy flower) in phytoplasma-infected plants. T0 lines of transgenic Arabidopsis expressing the PHYL1 or SAP54 genes (PHYL1 or SAP54 plants) show a leafy flower phenotype and result in seedless, suggesting that PHYL1 and SAP54 interfere with reproduction stage that restrict gain-of-function studies in the next generation of transgenic plants. Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) mild strain (TuGK) has an Arg182Lys mutation in the helper-component proteinase (HC-ProR182K) that blocks suppression of the miRNA pathway and prevents symptom development in TuGK-infected plants. We exploited TuGK as a viral vector for gain-of-function studies of PHYL1 and SAP54 in Arabidopsis plants. TuGK-PHYL1- and TuGK-SAP54-infected Arabidopsis plants produced identical leafy flower phenotypes and similar gene expression profiles as PHYL1 and SAP54 plants. In addition, the leafy flower formation rate was enhanced in TuGK-PHYL1- or TuGK-SAP54-infected Arabidopsis plants that compared with the T0 lines of PHYL1 plants. These results provide more evidence and novel directions for further studying the mechanism of PHYL1/SAP54-mediated leafy flower development. In addition, the TuGK vector is a good alternative in transgenic plant approaches for rapid gene expression in gain-of-function studies. PMID:26076458

  13. NopC Is a Rhizobium-Specific Type 3 Secretion System Effector Secreted by Sinorhizobium (Ensifer) fredii HH103.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Guerrero, Irene; Pérez-Montaño, Francisco; Medina, Carlos; Ollero, Francisco Javier; López-Baena, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    Sinorhizobium (Ensifer) fredii HH103 is a broad host-range nitrogen-fixing bacterium able to nodulate many legumes, including soybean. In several rhizobia, root nodulation is influenced by proteins secreted through the type 3 secretion system (T3SS). This specialized secretion apparatus is a common virulence mechanism of many plant and animal pathogenic bacteria that delivers proteins, called effectors, directly into the eukaryotic host cells where they interfere with signal transduction pathways and promote infection by suppressing host defenses. In rhizobia, secreted proteins, called nodulation outer proteins (Nops), are involved in host-range determination and symbiotic efficiency. S. fredii HH103 secretes at least eight Nops through the T3SS. Interestingly, there are Rhizobium-specific Nops, such as NopC, which do not have homologues in pathogenic bacteria. In this work we studied the S. fredii HH103 nopC gene and confirmed that its expression was regulated in a flavonoid-, NodD1- and TtsI-dependent manner. Besides, in vivo bioluminescent studies indicated that the S. fredii HH103 T3SS was expressed in young soybean nodules and adenylate cyclase assays confirmed that NopC was delivered directly into soybean root cells by means of the T3SS machinery. Finally, nodulation assays showed that NopC exerted a positive effect on symbiosis with Glycine max cv. Williams 82 and Vigna unguiculata. All these results indicate that NopC can be considered a Rhizobium-specific effector secreted by S. fredii HH103. PMID:26569401

  14. NopC Is a Rhizobium-Specific Type 3 Secretion System Effector Secreted by Sinorhizobium (Ensifer) fredii HH103

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Carlos; Ollero, Francisco Javier; López-Baena, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    Sinorhizobium (Ensifer) fredii HH103 is a broad host-range nitrogen-fixing bacterium able to nodulate many legumes, including soybean. In several rhizobia, root nodulation is influenced by proteins secreted through the type 3 secretion system (T3SS). This specialized secretion apparatus is a common virulence mechanism of many plant and animal pathogenic bacteria that delivers proteins, called effectors, directly into the eukaryotic host cells where they interfere with signal transduction pathways and promote infection by suppressing host defenses. In rhizobia, secreted proteins, called nodulation outer proteins (Nops), are involved in host-range determination and symbiotic efficiency. S. fredii HH103 secretes at least eight Nops through the T3SS. Interestingly, there are Rhizobium-specific Nops, such as NopC, which do not have homologues in pathogenic bacteria. In this work we studied the S. fredii HH103 nopC gene and confirmed that its expression was regulated in a flavonoid-, NodD1- and TtsI-dependent manner. Besides, in vivo bioluminescent studies indicated that the S. fredii HH103 T3SS was expressed in young soybean nodules and adenylate cyclase assays confirmed that NopC was delivered directly into soybean root cells by means of the T3SS machinery. Finally, nodulation assays showed that NopC exerted a positive effect on symbiosis with Glycine max cv. Williams 82 and Vigna unguiculata. All these results indicate that NopC can be considered a Rhizobium-specific effector secreted by S. fredii HH103. PMID:26569401

  15. Salmonella SPI1 effector SipA persists after entry and cooperates with a SPI2 effector to regulate phagosome maturation and intracellular replication.

    PubMed

    Brawn, Lyndsey C; Hayward, Richard D; Koronakis, Vassilis

    2007-03-15

    Salmonellae employ two type III secretion systems (T3SSs), SPI1 and SPI2, to deliver virulence effectors into mammalian cells. SPI1 effectors, including actin-binding SipA, trigger initial bacterial uptake, whereas SPI2 effectors promote subsequent replication within customized Salmonella-containing vacuoles (SCVs). SCVs sequester actin filaments and subvert microtubule-dependent motors to migrate to the perinuclear region. We demonstrate that SipA delivery continues after Salmonella internalization, with dosage being restricted by host-mediated degradation. SipA is exposed on the cytoplasmic face of the SCV, from where it stimulates bacterial replication in both nonphagocytic cells and macrophages. Although SipA is sufficient to target and redistribute late endosomes, during infection it cooperates with the SPI2 effector SifA to modulate SCV morphology and ensure perinuclear positioning. Our findings define an unexpected additional function for SipA postentry and reveal precise intracellular communication between effectors deployed by distinct T3SSs underlying SCV biogenesis.

  16. Receptor-coupled effector systems and their interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Wiener, E.C.

    1988-01-01

    We investigated the modulation of intracellular signal generation by receptor-coupled effector systems in B lymphocytes, and whether these alterations are consistent with the effects of prostaglandins. TPA (12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate) and sn-1,2,-dioctanoylglycerol (diC{sub 8}) substitute for lipid derived signals which activate protein kinase C. Pretreating splenocytes from athymic nude mice with 100nM TPA or 5 {mu}M diC{sub 8} potentiated the forskolin-induced increased in cAMP (measured by radioimmunoassay) 2.5 and 3.0 times (respectively), but they decreased the PGE{sub 1}-induced cAMP rise 48% and 35% (respectively). Goat anti-mouse IgM, which activates diacylglycerol production, potentiated the forskolin-induced cAMP increase by 76%, but reduced that of PGE{sub 1} by 30%. Rabbit anti-mouse IgG, its F(ab{prime}){sub 2} fragment, or goat anti-mouse IGM induced increases in the cytosolic free (Ca{sup 2+}), (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i}, which TPA inhibited. In contrast, TPA potential antibody-induced {sup 3}H-thymidine (85x) and {sup 3}H-uridine (30x) uptake in B lymphocytes.

  17. Characteristics of Unintentional Movements by a Multi-Joint Effector

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Lei; Latash, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    We explored the phenomenon of unintentional changes in the equilibrium state of a multi-joint effector produced by transient changes in the external force. The subjects performed a position-holding task against a constant force produced by a robot and were instructed not to intervene voluntarily with movements produced by changes in the robot force. The robot produced a smooth force increase leading to a hand movement, followed by a dwell time. Then, the force dropped to its initial value leading to hand movement towards the initial position, but the hand stopped short of the initial position. The undershoot magnitude increased linearly with the peak hand displacement and exponentially with dwell time (time constant of about 1 s). For long dwell times, the hand stopped at about half the total distance to the initial position. We interpret the results as consequences of a drift of the referent hand coordinate. Our results provide support for back-coupling between the referent and actual body configurations during multi-joint actions and produce the first quantitative analysis of this phenomenon. This mechanism can also explain the phenomena of “slacking” and force drop after turning visual feedback off during accurate force production task. PMID:25565394

  18. The molecular makeup and function of regulatory and effector synapses.

    PubMed

    Reichardt, Peter; Dornbach, Bastian; Gunzer, Matthias

    2007-08-01

    Physical interactions between T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) form the basis of any specific immune response. Upon cognate contacts, a multimolecular assembly of receptors and adhesion molecules on both cells is created, termed the immunological synapse (IS). Very diverse structures of ISs have been described, yet the functional importance for T-cell differentiation is largely unclear. Here we discuss the principal structure and function of ISs. We then focus on two characteristic T-cell-APC pairs, namely T cells contacting dendritic cells (DCs) or naive B cells, for which extremely different patterns of the IS have been observed as well as fundamentally different effects on the function of the activated T cells. We provide a model on how differences in signaling and the involvement of adhesion molecules might lead to diverse interaction kinetics and, eventually, diverse T-cell differentiation. We hypothesize that the preferred activation of the adhesion molecule leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) and of the negative regulator for T-cell activation, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), through contact with naive B cells, lead to prolonged cell-cell contacts and the generation of T cells with regulatory capacity. In contrast, DCs might have evolved mechanisms to avoid LFA-1 overactivation and CTLA-4 triggering, thereby promoting more dynamic contacts that lead to the preferential generation of effector cells.

  19. Strain Specific Factors Control Effector Gene Silencing in Phytophthora sojae.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Sirjana Devi; Chapman, Patrick; Zhang, Yun; Gijzen, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The Phytophthora sojae avirulence gene Avr3a encodes an effector that is capable of triggering immunity on soybean plants carrying the resistance gene Rps3a. P. sojae strains that express Avr3a are avirulent to Rps3a plants, while strains that do not are virulent. To study the inheritance of Avr3a expression and virulence towards Rps3a, genetic crosses and self-fertilizations were performed. A cross between P. sojae strains ACR10 X P7076 causes transgenerational gene silencing of Avr3a allele, and this effect is meiotically stable up to the F5 generation. However, test-crosses of F1 progeny (ACR10 X P7076) with strain P6497 result in the release of silencing of Avr3a. Expression of Avr3a in the progeny is variable and correlates with the phenotypic penetrance of the avirulence trait. The F1 progeny from a direct cross of P6497 X ACR10 segregate for inheritance for Avr3a expression, a result that could not be explained by parental imprinting or heterozygosity. Analysis of small RNA arising from the Avr3a gene sequence in the parental strains and hybrid progeny suggests that the presence of small RNA is necessary but not sufficient for gene silencing. Overall, we conclude that inheritance of the Avr3a gene silenced phenotype relies on factors that are variable among P. sojae strains.

  20. Exosomes: novel effectors of human platelet lysate activity.

    PubMed

    Torreggiani, E; Perut, F; Roncuzzi, L; Zini, N; Baglìo, S R; Baldini, N

    2014-01-01

    Despite the popularity of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet lysate (PL) in orthopaedic practice, the mechanism of action and the effectiveness of these therapeutic tools are still controversial. So far, the activity of PRP and PL has been associated with different growth factors (GF) released during platelet degranulation. This study, for the first time, identifies exosomes, nanosized vesicles released in the extracellular compartment by a number of elements, including platelets, as one of the effectors of PL activity. Exosomes were isolated from human PL by differential ultracentrifugation, and analysed by electron microscopy and Western blotting. Bone marrow stromal cells (MSC) treated with three different exosome concentrations (0.6 μg, 5 μg and 50 μg) showed a significant, dose-dependent increase in cell proliferation and migration compared to the control. In addition, osteogenic differentiation assays demonstrated that exosome concentration differently affected the ability of MSC to deposit mineralised matrix. Finally, the analysis of exosome protein content revealed a higher amount of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) as compared to PL. In regards to RNA content, an enrichment of small RNAs in exosomes as compared to donor platelets has been found. These results suggest that exosomes consistently contribute to PL activity and could represent an advantageous nanodelivery system for cell-free regeneration therapies. PMID:25241964

  1. Membrane flickering of the human erythrocyte: physical and chemical effectors.

    PubMed

    Puckeridge, Max; Chapman, Bogdan E; Conigrave, Arthur D; Kuchel, Philip W

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies suggest a link between adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration and the amplitude of cell membrane flickering (CMF) in the human erythrocyte (red blood cell; RBC). Potentially, the origin of this phenomenon and the unique discocyte shape could be active processes that account for some of the ATP turnover in the RBC. Active flickering could depend on several factors, including pH, osmolality, enzymatic rates and metabolic fluxes. In the present work, we applied the data analysis described in the previous article to study time courses of flickering RBCs acquired using differential interference contrast light microscopy in the presence of selected effectors. We also recorded images of air bubbles in aqueous detergent solutions and oil droplets in water, both of which showed rapid fluctuations in image intensity, the former showing the same type of spectral envelope (relative frequency composition) to RBCs. We conclude that CMF is not directly an active process, but that ATP affects the elastic properties of the membrane that flickers in response to molecular bombardment in a manner that is described mathematically by a constrained random walk. PMID:24668224

  2. [Advances in transcription activator-like effectors--a review].

    PubMed

    Yu, Tang; Li, Lisha; Lin, Jun

    2015-07-01

    As a protein originally found in plant pathogenic bacteria, transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) can be fused with the cleaving domain of restriction endonuclease (For example Fok I) to form artificial nucleases named TALENs. These proteins are dependent on variable numbers of tandem Repeats of TALEs to recognize and bind DNA sequences. Each of these repeats consists of a set of approximately 34 amino acids, composed of about 32 conserved amino acids and 2 highly variable amino acids called repeat variant di-residues (RVDs). RVDs distinguish one TALE from another and can make TALEs have a simple cipher for the one-to-one recognition for proteins and DNA bases. Based on this, in theory, artificially constructed TALENs could recognize and break DNA sites specifically and arbitrarily to perform gene knockout, insertion or modification. We reviewed the development of this technology in multi-level and multi species, and its advantages and disadvantages compared with ZFNs and CRISPR/Cas technology. We also address its special advantages in industrial microbe breeding, vector construction, targeting precision, high efficiency of editing and biological safety. PMID:26647578

  3. Plasma Aerodynamic Control Effectors for Improved Wind Turbine Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Mehul P. Patel; Srikanth Vasudevan; Robert C. Nelson; Thomas C. Corke

    2008-08-01

    Orbital Research Inc is developing an innovative Plasma Aerodynamic Control Effectors (PACE) technology for improved performance of wind turbines. The PACE system is aimed towards the design of "smart" rotor blades to enhance energy capture and reduce aerodynamic loading and noise using flow-control. The PACE system will provide ability to change aerodynamic loads and pitch distribution across the wind turbine blade without any moving surfaces. Additional benefits of the PACE system include reduced blade structure weight and complexity that should translate into a substantially reduced initial cost. During the Phase I program, the ORI-UND Team demonstrated (proof-of-concept) performance improvements on select rotor blade designs using PACE concepts. Control of both 2-D and 3-D flows were demonstrated. An analytical study was conducted to estimate control requirements for the PACE system to maintain control during wind gusts. Finally, independent laboratory experiments were conducted to identify promising dielectric materials for the plasma actuator, and to examine environmental effects (water and dust) on the plasma actuator operation. The proposed PACE system will be capable of capturing additional energy, and reducing aerodynamic loading and noise on wind turbines. Supplementary benefits from the PACE system include reduced blade structure weight and complexity that translates into reduced initial capital costs.

  4. Characteristics of unintentional movements by a multijoint effector.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Lei; Latash, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    The authors explored the phenomenon of unintentional changes in the equilibrium state of a multijoint effector produced by transient changes in the external force. The subjects performed a position-holding task against a constant force produced by a robot and were instructed not to intervene voluntarily with movements produced by changes in the robot force. The robot produced a smooth force increase leading to a hand movement, followed by a dwell time. Then, the force dropped to its initial value leading to hand movement toward the initial position, but the hand stopped short of the initial position. The undershoot magnitude increased linearly with the peak hand displacement and exponentially with dwell time (time constant of about 1 s). For long dwell times, the hand stopped at about half the total distance to the initial position. The authors interpret the results as consequences of a drift of the referent hand coordinate. Our results provide support for back-coupling between the referent and actual body configurations during multijoint actions and produce the first quantitative analysis of this phenomenon. This mechanism can also explain the phenomena of slacking and force drop after turning visual feedback off during accurate force production task. PMID:25565394

  5. Strain Specific Factors Control Effector Gene Silencing in Phytophthora sojae.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Sirjana Devi; Chapman, Patrick; Zhang, Yun; Gijzen, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The Phytophthora sojae avirulence gene Avr3a encodes an effector that is capable of triggering immunity on soybean plants carrying the resistance gene Rps3a. P. sojae strains that express Avr3a are avirulent to Rps3a plants, while strains that do not are virulent. To study the inheritance of Avr3a expression and virulence towards Rps3a, genetic crosses and self-fertilizations were performed. A cross between P. sojae strains ACR10 X P7076 causes transgenerational gene silencing of Avr3a allele, and this effect is meiotically stable up to the F5 generation. However, test-crosses of F1 progeny (ACR10 X P7076) with strain P6497 result in the release of silencing of Avr3a. Expression of Avr3a in the progeny is variable and correlates with the phenotypic penetrance of the avirulence trait. The F1 progeny from a direct cross of P6497 X ACR10 segregate for inheritance for Avr3a expression, a result that could not be explained by parental imprinting or heterozygosity. Analysis of small RNA arising from the Avr3a gene sequence in the parental strains and hybrid progeny suggests that the presence of small RNA is necessary but not sufficient for gene silencing. Overall, we conclude that inheritance of the Avr3a gene silenced phenotype relies on factors that are variable among P. sojae strains. PMID:26930612

  6. Space-based multifunctional end effector systems functional requirements and proposed designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishkin, A. H.; Jau, B. M.

    1988-01-01

    The end effector is an essential element of teleoperator and telerobot systems to be employed in space in the next decade. The report defines functional requirements for end effector systems to perform operations that are currently only feasible through Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). Specific tasks and functions that the end effectors must be capable of performing are delineated. Required capabilities for forces and torques, clearances, compliance, and sensing are described, using current EVA requirements as guidelines where feasible. The implications of these functional requirements on the elements of potential end effector systems are discussed. The systems issues that must be considered in the design of space-based manipulator systems are identified; including impacts on subsystems tightly coupled to the end effector, i.e., control station, information processing, manipulator arm, tool and equipment stowage. Possible end effector designs are divided into three categories: single degree-of-freedom end effectors, multiple degree of freedom end effectors, and anthropomorphic hands. Specific design alternatives are suggested and analyzed within the individual categories. Two evaluations are performed: the first considers how well the individual end effectors could substitute for EVA; the second compares how manipulator systems composed of the top performers from the first evaluation would improve the space shuttle Remote Manipulator System (RMS) capabilities. The analysis concludes that the anthropomorphic hand is best-suited for EVA tasks. A left- and right-handed anthropomorphic manipulator arm configuration is suggested as appropriate to be affixed to the RMS, but could also be used as part of the Smart Front End for the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV). The technical feasibility of the anthropomorphic hand and its control are demonstrated. An evolutionary development approach is proposed and approximate scheduling provided for implementing the suggested

  7. Mining novel effector proteins from the esophageal gland cells of Meloidogyne incognita.

    PubMed

    Rutter, William B; Hewezi, Tarek; Abubucker, Sahar; Maier, Tom R; Huang, Guozhong; Mitreva, Makedonka; Hussey, Richard S; Baum, Thomas J

    2014-09-01

    Meloidogyne incognita is one of the most economically damaging plant pathogens in agriculture and horticulture. Identifying and characterizing the effector proteins which M. incognita secretes into its host plants during infection is an important step toward finding new ways to manage this pest. In this study, we have identified the cDNAs for 18 putative effectors (i.e., proteins that have the potential to facilitate M. incognita parasitism of host plants). These putative effectors are secretory proteins that do not contain transmembrane domains and whose genes are specifically expressed in the secretory gland cells of the nematode, indicating that they are likely secreted from the nematode through its stylet. We have determined that, in the plant cells, these putative effectors are likely to localize to the cytoplasm. Furthermore, the transcripts of many of these novel effectors are specifically upregulated during different stages of the nematode's life cycle, indicating that they function at specific stages during M. incognita parasitism. The predicted proteins showed little to no homology to known proteins from free-living nematode species, suggesting that they evolved recently to support the parasitic lifestyle. On the other hand, several of the effectors are part of gene families within the M. incognita genome as well as that of M. hapla, which points to an important role that these putative effectors are playing in both parasites. With the discovery of these putative effectors, we have increased our knowledge of the effector repertoire utilized by root-knot nematodes to infect, feed on, and reproduce on their host plants. Future studies investigating the roles that these proteins play in planta will help mitigate the effects of this damaging pest.

  8. Transfer of the Salmonella type III effector sopE between unrelated phage families.

    PubMed

    Mirold, S; Rabsch, W; Tschäpe, H; Hardt, W D

    2001-09-01

    Salmonella spp. are pathogenic enterobacteria that employ type III secretion systems to translocate effector proteins and modulate responses of host cells. The repertoire of translocated effector proteins is thought to define host specificity and epidemic virulence, and varies even between closely related Salmonella strains. Therefore, horizontal transfer of effector protein genes between Salmonella strains plays a key role in shaping the Salmonella-host interaction. Several effector protein genes are located in temperate phages. The P2-like phage SopE Phi encodes SopE and the lambda-like GIFSY phages encode several effector proteins of the YopM/IpaH-family. Lysogenic conversion with these phages is responsible for much of the diversity of the effector protein repertoires observed among Salmonella spp. However, free exchange of effector proteins by lysogenic conversion can be restricted by superinfection immunity. To identify genetic mechanisms that may further enhance horizontal transfer of effector genes, we have analyzed sopE loci from Salmonella spp. that do not harbor P2-like sequences of SopE Phi. In two novel sopE loci that were identified, the 723 nt sopE gene is located in a conserved 1.2 kb cassette present also in SopE Phi. Most strikingly, in Salmonella enterica subspecies I serovars Gallinarum, Enteritidis, Hadar and Dublin, the sopE-cassette is located in a cryptic lambda-like prophage with similarity to the GIFSY phages. This provides the first evidence for transfer of virulence genes between different phage families. We show that such a mechanism can circumvent restrictions to phage-mediated gene transfer and thereby enhances reassortment of the effector protein repertoires in Salmonella spp.

  9. CdiA Effectors from Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Use Heterotrimeric Osmoporins as Receptors to Recognize Target Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Christina M.; Willett, Julia L. E.; Kim, Jeff J.; Low, David A.; Hayes, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    Many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens express contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) systems that promote cell-cell interaction. CDI+ bacteria express surface CdiA effector proteins, which transfer their C-terminal toxin domains into susceptible target cells upon binding to specific receptors. CDI+ cells also produce immunity proteins that neutralize the toxin domains delivered from neighboring siblings. Here, we show that CdiAEC536 from uropathogenic Escherichia coli 536 (EC536) uses OmpC and OmpF as receptors to recognize target bacteria. E. coli mutants lacking either ompF or ompC are resistant to CDIEC536-mediated growth inhibition, and both porins are required for target-cell adhesion to inhibitors that express CdiAEC536. Experiments with single-chain OmpF fusions indicate that the CdiAEC536 receptor is heterotrimeric OmpC-OmpF. Because the OmpC and OmpF porins are under selective pressure from bacteriophages and host immune systems, their surface-exposed loops vary between E. coli isolates. OmpC polymorphism has a significant impact on CDIEC536 mediated competition, with many E. coli isolates expressing alleles that are not recognized by CdiAEC536. Analyses of recombinant OmpC chimeras suggest that extracellular loops L4 and L5 are important recognition epitopes for CdiAEC536. Loops L4 and L5 also account for much of the sequence variability between E. coli OmpC proteins, raising the possibility that CDI contributes to the selective pressure driving OmpC diversification. We find that the most efficient CdiAEC536 receptors are encoded by isolates that carry the same cdi gene cluster as E. coli 536. Thus, it appears that CdiA effectors often bind preferentially to "self" receptors, thereby promoting interactions between sibling cells. As a consequence, these effector proteins cannot recognize nor suppress the growth of many potential competitors. These findings suggest that self-recognition and kin selection are important functions of CDI. PMID:27723824

  10. Phytoplasma SAP11 alters 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine biosynthesis in Nicotiana benthamiana by suppressing NbOMT1.

    PubMed

    Tan, Choon Meng; Li, Chia-Hua; Tsao, Nai-Wen; Su, Li-Wen; Lu, Yen-Ting; Chang, Shu Heng; Lin, Yi Yu; Liou, Jyun-Cyuan; Hsieh, Li-Ching; Yu, Jih-Zu; Sheue, Chiou-Rong; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Lee, Chin-Fa; Yang, Jun-Yi

    2016-07-01

    Phytoplasmas are bacterial phytopathogens that release virulence effectors into sieve cells and act systemically to affect the physiological and morphological state of host plants to promote successful pathogenesis. We show here that transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana lines expressing the secreted effector SAP11 from Candidatus Phytoplasma mali exhibit an altered aroma phenotype. This phenomenon is correlated with defects in the development of glandular trichomes and the biosynthesis of 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP). IBMP is a volatile organic compound (VOC) synthesized by an O-methyltransferase, via a methylation step, from a non-volatile precursor, 3-isobutyl-2-hydroxypyrazine (IBHP). Based on comparative and functional genomics analyses, NbOMT1, which encodes an O-methyltransferase, was found to be highly suppressed in SAP11-transgenic plants. We further silenced NbOMT1 through virus-induced gene silencing and demonstrated that this enzyme influenced the accumulation of IBMP in N. benthamiana In vitro biochemical analyses also showed that NbOMT1 can catalyse IBHP O-methylation in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine. Our study suggests that the phytoplasma effector SAP11 has the ability to modulate host VOC emissions. In addition, we also demonstrated that SAP11 destabilized TCP transcription factors and suppressed jasmonic acid responses in N. benthamiana These findings provide valuable insights into understanding how phytoplasma effectors influence plant volatiles. PMID:27279277

  11. Interleukin-13 Pathway Alterations Impair Invariant Natural Killer T-Cell-Mediated Regulation of Effector T Cells in Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Usero, Lorena; Sánchez, Ana; Pizarro, Eduarda; Xufré, Cristina; Martí, Mercè; Jaraquemada, Dolores; Roura-Mir, Carme

    2016-08-01

    Many studies have shown that human natural killer T (NKT) cells can promote immunity to pathogens, but their regulatory function is still being investigated. Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells have been shown to be effective in preventing type 1 diabetes in the NOD mouse model. Activation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells, modulation of B-cell responses, and immune deviation were proposed to be responsible for the suppressive effect of iNKT cells. We studied the regulatory capacity of human iNKT cells from control subjects and patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) at disease clinical onset. We demonstrate that control iNKT cells suppress the proliferation of effector T cells (Teffs) through a cell contact-independent mechanism. Of note, suppression depended on the secretion of interleukin-13 (IL-13) by iNKT cells because an antibody blocking this cytokine resulted from the abrogation of Teff suppression; however, T1D-derived iNKT cells showed impaired regulation that could be attributed to the decrease in IL-13 secretion. Thus, alteration of the IL-13 pathway at disease onset may lead to the progression of the autoimmune response in T1D. Advances in the study of iNKT cells and the selection of agonists potentiating IL-13 secretion should permit new therapeutic strategies to prevent the development of T1D. PMID:27207542

  12. Using the Kinect to limit abnormal kinematics and compensation strategies during therapy with end effector robots.

    PubMed

    Brokaw, Elizabeth B; Lum, Peter S; Cooper, Rory A; Brewer, Bambi R

    2013-06-01

    Abnormal kinematics and the use of compensation strategies during training limit functional improvement from therapy. The Kinect is a low cost ($100) sensor that does not require any markers to be placed on the user. Integration of this sensor into currently used therapy systems can provide feedback about the user's movement quality, and the use of compensatory strategies to complete tasks. This paper presents a novel technique of adding the Kinect to an end effector robot to limit compensation strategies and to train normal joint coordination during movements with an end effector robot. This methodology has wider implications for other robotic and passively actuated end effector rehabilitation devices.

  13. Transcriptional regulation of effector and memory CD8+ T cell fates

    PubMed Central

    Thaventhiran, James E. D.; Fearon, Douglas T.; Gattinoni, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Immunity to intracellular pathogens and cancer relies on the generation of robust CD8+ T cell effector responses as well as the establishment of immunological memory. During a primary immune response CD8+ T cells experience diverse extracellular environmental cues and cell-cell interactions that trigger downstream transcriptional programs ultimately guiding a CD8+ T cell to undertake either an effector or a memory cell fate. Here, we discuss our current understanding of the signaling pathways and transcriptional networks that regulate effector and memory commitment in CD8+ T lymphocytes. PMID:23747000

  14. Using the Kinect to limit abnormal kinematics and compensation strategies during therapy with end effector robots.

    PubMed

    Brokaw, Elizabeth B; Lum, Peter S; Cooper, Rory A; Brewer, Bambi R

    2013-06-01

    Abnormal kinematics and the use of compensation strategies during training limit functional improvement from therapy. The Kinect is a low cost ($100) sensor that does not require any markers to be placed on the user. Integration of this sensor into currently used therapy systems can provide feedback about the user's movement quality, and the use of compensatory strategies to complete tasks. This paper presents a novel technique of adding the Kinect to an end effector robot to limit compensation strategies and to train normal joint coordination during movements with an end effector robot. This methodology has wider implications for other robotic and passively actuated end effector rehabilitation devices. PMID:24187203

  15. Tetracycline-suppressible female lethality and sterility in the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens.

    PubMed

    Schetelig, M F; Targovska, A; Meza, J S; Bourtzis, K; Handler, A M

    2016-08-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) involves the mass release of sterile males to suppress insect pest populations. SIT has been improved for larval pests by the development of strains for female-specific tetracycline-suppressible (Tet-off) embryonic lethal systems for male-only populations. Here we describe the extension of this approach to the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, using a Tet-off driver construct with the Tet-transactivator (tTA) under embryo-specific Anastrepha suspensa serendipity α (As-sry-α) promoter regulation. In the absence of tetracycline, tTA acts upon a Tet-response element linked to the pro-apoptotic cell death gene lethal effector, head involuation defective (hid), from A. ludens (Alhid(Ala2) ) that contains a sex-specific intron splicing cassette, resulting in female-specific expression of the lethal effector. Parental adults double-homozygous for the driver/effector vectors were expected to yield male-only progeny when reared on Tet-free diet, but a complete lack of oviposited eggs resulted for each of the three strains tested. Ovary dissection revealed nonvitellogenic oocytes in all strains that was reversible by feeding females tetracycline for 5 days after eclosion, resulting in male-only adults in one strain. Presumably the sry-α promoter exhibits prezygotic maternal expression as well as zygotic embryonic expression in A. ludens, resulting in a Tet-off sterility effect in addition to female-specific lethality. PMID:27135433

  16. Tetracycline-suppressible female lethality and sterility in the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens.

    PubMed

    Schetelig, M F; Targovska, A; Meza, J S; Bourtzis, K; Handler, A M

    2016-08-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) involves the mass release of sterile males to suppress insect pest populations. SIT has been improved for larval pests by the development of strains for female-specific tetracycline-suppressible (Tet-off) embryonic lethal systems for male-only populations. Here we describe the extension of this approach to the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, using a Tet-off driver construct with the Tet-transactivator (tTA) under embryo-specific Anastrepha suspensa serendipity α (As-sry-α) promoter regulation. In the absence of tetracycline, tTA acts upon a Tet-response element linked to the pro-apoptotic cell death gene lethal effector, head involuation defective (hid), from A. ludens (Alhid(Ala2) ) that contains a sex-specific intron splicing cassette, resulting in female-specific expression of the lethal effector. Parental adults double-homozygous for the driver/effector vectors were expected to yield male-only progeny when reared on Tet-free diet, but a complete lack of oviposited eggs resulted for each of the three strains tested. Ovary dissection revealed nonvitellogenic oocytes in all strains that was reversible by feeding females tetracycline for 5 days after eclosion, resulting in male-only adults in one strain. Presumably the sry-α promoter exhibits prezygotic maternal expression as well as zygotic embryonic expression in A. ludens, resulting in a Tet-off sterility effect in addition to female-specific lethality.

  17. Pressure suppression containment system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, Douglas M.; Townsend, Harold E.

    1994-03-15

    A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto.

  18. Pressure suppression containment system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, D.M.; Townsend, H.E.

    1994-03-15

    A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto. 6 figures.

  19. Nonsense suppression in archaea

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Arpita; Köhrer, Caroline; Mandal, Debabrata; RajBhandary, Uttam L.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial strains carrying nonsense suppressor tRNA genes played a crucial role in early work on bacterial and bacterial viral genetics. In eukaryotes as well, suppressor tRNAs have played important roles in the genetic analysis of yeast and worms. Surprisingly, little is known about genetic suppression in archaea, and there has been no characterization of suppressor tRNAs or identification of nonsense mutations in any of the archaeal genes. Here, we show, using the β-gal gene as a reporter, that amber, ochre, and opal suppressors derived from the serine and tyrosine tRNAs of the archaeon Haloferax volcanii are active in suppression of their corresponding stop codons. Using a promoter for tRNA expression regulated by tryptophan, we also show inducible and regulatable suppression of all three stop codons in H. volcanii. Additionally, transformation of a ΔpyrE2 H. volcanii strain with plasmids carrying the genes for a pyrE2 amber mutant and the serine amber suppressor tRNA yielded transformants that grow on agar plates lacking uracil. Thus, an auxotrophic amber mutation in the pyrE2 gene can be complemented by expression of the amber suppressor tRNA. These results pave the way for generating archaeal strains carrying inducible suppressor tRNA genes on the chromosome and their use in archaeal and archaeviral genetics. We also provide possible explanations for why suppressor tRNAs have not been identified in archaea. PMID:25918386

  20. Nonsense suppression in archaea.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Arpita; Köhrer, Caroline; Mandal, Debabrata; RajBhandary, Uttam L

    2015-05-12

    Bacterial strains carrying nonsense suppressor tRNA genes played a crucial role in early work on bacterial and bacterial viral genetics. In eukaryotes as well, suppressor tRNAs have played important roles in the genetic analysis of yeast and worms. Surprisingly, little is known about genetic suppression in archaea, and there has been no characterization of suppressor tRNAs or identification of nonsense mutations in any of the archaeal genes. Here, we show, using the β-gal gene as a reporter, that amber, ochre, and opal suppressors derived from the serine and tyrosine tRNAs of the archaeon Haloferax volcanii are active in suppression of their corresponding stop codons. Using a promoter for tRNA expression regulated by tryptophan, we also show inducible and regulatable suppression of all three stop codons in H. volcanii. Additionally, transformation of a ΔpyrE2 H. volcanii strain with plasmids carrying the genes for a pyrE2 amber mutant and the serine amber suppressor tRNA yielded transformants that grow on agar plates lacking uracil. Thus, an auxotrophic amber mutation in the pyrE2 gene can be complemented by expression of the amber suppressor tRNA. These results pave the way for generating archaeal strains carrying inducible suppressor tRNA genes on the chromosome and their use in archaeal and archaeviral genetics. We also provide possible explanations for why suppressor tRNAs have not been identified in archaea.

  1. Denervation suppresses gastric tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Yosuke; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Westphalen, Christoph B.; Andersen, Gøran T.; Flatberg, Arnar; Johannessen, Helene; Friedman, Richard A.; Renz, Bernhard W.; Sandvik, Arne K.; Beisvag, Vidar; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Hara, Akira; Quante, Michael; Li, Zhishan; Gershon, Michael D.; Kaneko, Kazuhiro; Fox, James G.; Wang, Timothy C.; Chen, Duan

    2015-01-01

    The nervous system plays an important role in the regulation of epithelial homeostasis and has also been postulated to play a role in tumorigenesis. We provide evidence that proper innervation is critical at all stages of gastric tumorigenesis. In three separate mouse models of gastric cancer, surgical or pharmacological denervation of the stomach (bilateral or unilateral truncal vagotomy, or local injection of botulinum toxin type A) markedly reduced tumor incidence and progression, but only in the denervated portion of the stomach. Vagotomy or botulinum toxin type A treatment also enhanced the therapeutic effects of systemic chemotherapy and prolonged survival. Denervation-induced suppression of tumorigenesis was associated with inhibition of Wnt signaling and suppression of stem cell expansion. In gastric organoid cultures, neurons stimulated growth in a Wnt-mediated fashion through cholinergic signaling. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition or genetic knockout of the muscarinic acetylcholine M3 receptor suppressed gastric tumorigenesis. In gastric cancer patients, tumor stage correlated with neural density and activated Wnt signaling, whereas vagotomy reduced the risk of gastric cancer. Together, our findings suggest that vagal innervation contributes to gastric tumorigenesis via M3 receptor–mediated Wnt signaling in the stem cells, and that denervation might represent a feasible strategy for the control of gastric cancer. PMID:25143365

  2. Nonsense suppression in archaea.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Arpita; Köhrer, Caroline; Mandal, Debabrata; RajBhandary, Uttam L

    2015-05-12

    Bacterial strains carrying nonsense suppressor tRNA genes played a crucial role in early work on bacterial and bacterial viral genetics. In eukaryotes as well, suppressor tRNAs have played important roles in the genetic analysis of yeast and worms. Surprisingly, little is known about genetic suppression in archaea, and there has been no characterization of suppressor tRNAs or identification of nonsense mutations in any of the archaeal genes. Here, we show, using the β-gal gene as a reporter, that amber, ochre, and opal suppressors derived from the serine and tyrosine tRNAs of the archaeon Haloferax volcanii are active in suppression of their corresponding stop codons. Using a promoter for tRNA expression regulated by tryptophan, we also show inducible and regulatable suppression of all three stop codons in H. volcanii. Additionally, transformation of a ΔpyrE2 H. volcanii strain with plasmids carrying the genes for a pyrE2 amber mutant and the serine amber suppressor tRNA yielded transformants that grow on agar plates lacking uracil. Thus, an auxotrophic amber mutation in the pyrE2 gene can be complemented by expression of the amber suppressor tRNA. These results pave the way for generating archaeal strains carrying inducible suppressor tRNA genes on the chromosome and their use in archaeal and archaeviral genetics. We also provide possible explanations for why suppressor tRNAs have not been identified in archaea. PMID:25918386

  3. Expression of the bacterial type III effector DspA/E in Saccharomyces cerevisiae down-regulates the sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway leading to growth arrest.

    PubMed

    Siamer, Sabrina; Guillas, Isabelle; Shimobayashi, Mitsugu; Kunz, Caroline; Hall, Michael N; Barny, Marie-Anne

    2014-06-27

    Erwinia amylovora, the bacterium responsible for fire blight, relies on a type III secretion system and a single injected effector, DspA/E, to induce disease in host plants. DspA/E belongs to the widespread AvrE family of type III effectors that suppress plant defense responses and promote bacterial growth following infection. Ectopic expression of DspA/E in plant or in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is toxic, indicating that DspA/E likely targets a cellular process conserved between yeast and plant. To unravel the mode of action of DspA/E, we screened the Euroscarf S. cerevisiae library for mutants resistant to DspA/E-induced growth arrest. The most resistant mutants (Δsur4, Δfen1, Δipt1, Δskn1, Δcsg1, Δcsg2, Δorm1, and Δorm2) were impaired in the sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway. Exogenously supplied sphingolipid precursors such as the long chain bases (LCBs) phytosphingosine and dihydrosphingosine also suppressed the DspA/E-induced yeast growth defect. Expression of DspA/E in yeast down-regulated LCB biosynthesis and induced a rapid decrease in LCB levels, indicating that serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway, was repressed. SPT down-regulation was mediated by dephosphorylation and activation of Orm proteins that negatively regulate SPT. A Δcdc55 mutation affecting Cdc55-PP2A protein phosphatase activity prevented Orm dephosphorylation and suppressed DspA/E-induced growth arrest.

  4. Intraspecies Competition in Serratia marcescens Is Mediated by Type VI-Secreted Rhs Effectors and a Conserved Effector-Associated Accessory Protein

    PubMed Central

    Alcoforado Diniz, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is widespread in Gram-negative bacteria and can deliver toxic effector proteins into eukaryotic cells or competitor bacteria. Antibacterial T6SSs are increasingly recognized as key mediators of interbacterial competition and may contribute to the outcome of many polymicrobial infections. Multiple antibacterial effectors can be delivered by these systems, with diverse activities against target cells and distinct modes of secretion. Polymorphic toxins containing Rhs repeat domains represent a recently identified and as-yet poorly characterized class of T6SS-dependent effectors. Previous work had revealed that the potent antibacterial T6SS of the opportunistic pathogen Serratia marcescens promotes intraspecies as well as interspecies competition (S. L. Murdoch, K. Trunk, G. English, M. J. Fritsch, E. Pourkarimi, and S. J. Coulthurst, J Bacteriol 193:6057–6069, 2011, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.05671-11). In this study, two new Rhs family antibacterial effectors delivered by this T6SS have been identified. One of these was shown to act as a DNase toxin, while the other contains a novel, cytoplasmic-acting toxin domain. Importantly, using S. marcescens, it has been demonstrated for the first time that Rhs proteins, rather than other T6SS-secreted effectors, can be the primary determinant of intraspecies competition. Furthermore, a new family of accessory proteins associated with T6SS effectors has been identified, exemplified by S. marcescens EagR1, which is specifically required for deployment of its associated Rhs effector. Together, these findings provide new insight into how bacteria can use the T6SS to deploy Rhs-family effectors and mediate different types of interbacterial interactions. IMPORTANCE Infectious diseases caused by bacterial pathogens represent a continuing threat to health and economic prosperity. To counter this threat, we must understand how such organisms survive and prosper. The type VI secretion

  5. Prostaglandin D2-loaded microspheres effectively activate macrophage effector functions.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Priscilla Aparecida Tartari; Bitencourt, Claudia da Silva; dos Santos, Daiane Fernanda; Nicolete, Roberto; Gelfuso, Guilherme Martins; Faccioli, Lúcia Helena

    2015-10-12

    Biodegradable lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microspheres (MS) improve the stability of biomolecules stability and allow enable their sustained release. Lipid mediators represent a strategy for improving host defense; however, most of these mediators, such as prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), have low water solubility and are unstable. The present study aimed to develop and characterize MS loaded with PGD2 (PGD2-MS) to obtain an innovative tool to activate macrophages. PGD2-MS were prepared using an oil-in-water emulsion solvent extraction-evaporation process, and the size, zeta potential, surface morphology and encapsulation efficiency were determined. It was also evaluated in vitro the phagocytic index, NF-κB activation, as well as nitric oxide and cytokine production by alveolar macrophages (AMs) in response to PGD2-MS. PGD2-MS were spherical with a diameter of 5.0±3.3 μm and regular surface, zeta potential of -13.4±5.6 mV, and 36% of encapsulation efficiency, with 16-26% release of entrapped PGD2 at 4 and 48 h, respectively. PGD2-MS were more efficiently internalized by AMs than unloaded-MS, and activated NF-κB more than free PGD2. Moreover, PGD2-MS stimulated the production of nitric oxide, TNF-α, IL-1β, and TGF-β, more than free PGD2, indicating that microencapsulation increased the activating effect of PGD2 on cells. In LPS-pre-treated AMs, PGD2-MS decreased the release of IL-6 but increased the production of nitric oxide and IL-1β. These results show that the morphological characteristics of PGD2-MS facilitated interaction with, and activation of phagocytic cells; moreover, PGD2-MS retained the biological activities of PGD2 to trigger effector mechanisms in AMs. It is suggested that PGD2-MS represent a strategy for therapeutic intervention in the lungs of immunocompromised subjects.

  6. Post-modern pathogens: surprising activities of translocated effectors from E. coli and Legionella.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Jaclyn S; Zhang, Ying; Newton, Hayley J; Hartland, Elizabeth L

    2015-02-01

    Many bacterial pathogens have the ability to manipulate cellular processes and interfere with host cell function through the translocation of bacterial 'effector' proteins. Dedicated protein secretion machines from Gram-negative pathogens, including type III, type IV and type VI secretion systems, inject virulence proteins into infected cells, altering normal cell physiology, including cell structure, metabolism, trafficking and signalling. While effectors were once thought to exert an effect simply by their localization and binding to host cell proteins, increasingly effectors are being recognised as enzymes, in some cases mediating highly novel post-translational modifications on host proteins. Here we highlight some of the more unusual activities of translocated effectors from enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and Legionella pneumophila.

  7. End-effector: Joint conjugates for robotic assembly of large truss structures in space: Extended concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, W. V.; Rasis, E. P.; Shih, H. R.

    1993-01-01

    Results from NASA/HBCU Grant No. NAG-1-1125 are summarized. Designs developed for model fabrication, exploratory concepts drafted, interface of computer with robot and end-effector, and capability enhancement are discussed.

  8. [Problem of end-effector of ischemic postconditioning of the heart].

    PubMed

    Maslov, L N; Naryzhnaia, N V; Hanuš, L; Pei, J-M; Baĭkov, A N; Zhang, I; Wang, H; Khaliulin, I G

    2013-05-01

    Analysis of literature source indicates that main pretenders to the role of end-effectors of ischemic postconditioning of the heart are: 1) Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channel of BK-type (big conductance K+ channel), 2) mitoK(ATP) channel (mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K(+)-channel), 3) MPT pore (mitochondrial permeability transition pore). At the same time, some investigators consider that mitoK(ATP) channel is only an intermediate link in the series of signaling events ensured an increase in cardiac tolerance to impact of ischemia-reperfusion. The most likely end-effector of the three structures is MPT pore. Alternatively, it is possible, that unique molecular complex appearing a single end-effector of postconditioning does not exist. Perhaps, that there are several effectors ensured cardioprotective effect of adaptive phenomenon of postconditioning. PMID:24459867

  9. Methods and Systems for Authorizing an Effector Command in an Integrated Modular Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunderland, Dean E. (Inventor); Ahrendt, Terry J. (Inventor); Moore, Tim (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods and systems are provided for authorizing a command of an integrated modular environment in which a plurality of partitions control actions of a plurality of effectors is provided. A first identifier, a second identifier, and a third identifier are determined. The first identifier identifies a first partition of the plurality of partitions from which the command originated. The second identifier identifies a first effector of the plurality of effectors for which the command is intended. The third identifier identifies a second partition of the plurality of partitions that is responsible for controlling the first effector. The first identifier and the third identifier are compared to determine whether the first partition is the same as the second partition for authorization of the command.

  10. A Chlamydia effector recruits CEP170 to reprogram host microtubule organization

    PubMed Central

    Dumoux, Maud; Menny, Anais; Delacour, Delphine; Hayward, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis deploys virulence effectors to subvert host cell functions enabling its replication within a specialized membrane-bound compartment termed an inclusion. The control of the host cytoskeleton is crucial for Chlamydia uptake, inclusion biogenesis and cell exit. Here, we demonstrate how a Chlamydia effector rearranges the microtubule (MT) network by initiating organization of the MTs at the inclusion surface. We identified an inclusion-localized effector that is sufficient to interfere with MT assembly, which we named inclusion protein acting on MTs (IPAM). We established that IPAM recruits and stimulates the centrosomal protein 170 kDa (CEP170) to hijack the MT organizing functions of the host cell. We show that CEP170 is essential for chlamydial control of host MT assembly, and is required for inclusion morphogenesis and bacterial infectivity. Together, we demonstrate how a pathogen effector reprograms the host MT network to support its intracellular development. PMID:26220855

  11. Structure of NS1A effector domain from the influenza A/Udorn/72 virus.

    PubMed

    Xia, Shuangluo; Monzingo, Arthur F; Robertus, Jon D

    2009-01-01

    The nonstructural protein NS1A from influenza virus is a multifunctional virulence factor and a potent inhibitor of host immunity. It has two functional domains: an N-terminal 73-amino-acid RNA-binding domain and a C-terminal effector domain. Here, the crystallographic structure of the NS1A effector domain of influenza A/Udorn/72 virus is presented. Structure comparison with the NS1 effector domain from mouse-adapted influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) virus strain reveals a similar monomer conformation but a different dimer interface. Further analysis and evaluation shows that the dimer interface observed in the structure of the PR8 NS1 effector domain is likely to be a crystallographic packing effect. A hypothetical model of the intact NS1 dimer is presented.

  12. Ubiquitin Ligases and Deubiquitinating Enzymes in CD4+ T Cell Effector Fate Choice and Function.

    PubMed

    Layman, Awo A K; Oliver, Paula M

    2016-05-15

    The human body is exposed to potentially pathogenic microorganisms at barrier sites such as the skin, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract. To mount an effective response against these pathogens, the immune system must recruit the right cells with effector responses that are appropriate for the task at hand. Several types of CD4(+) T cells can be recruited, including Th cells (Th1, Th2, and Th17), T follicular helper cells, and regulatory T cells. These cells help to maintain normal immune homeostasis in the face of constantly changing microbes in the environment. Because these cells differentiate from a common progenitor, the composition of their intracellular milieu of proteins changes to appropriately guide their effector function. One underappreciated process that impacts the levels and functions of effector fate-determining factors is ubiquitylation. This review details our current understanding of how ubiquitylation regulates CD4(+) T cell effector identity and function.

  13. Effectors as tools in disease resistance breeding against biotrophic, hemibiotrophic, and necrotrophic plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Vleeshouwers, Vivianne G A A; Oliver, Richard P

    2014-03-01

    One of most important challenges in plant breeding is improving resistance to the plethora of pathogens that threaten our crops. The ever-growing world population, changing pathogen populations, and fungicide resistance issues have increased the urgency of this task. In addition to a vital inflow of novel resistance sources into breeding programs, the functional characterization and deployment of resistance also needs improvement. Therefore, plant breeders need to adopt new strategies and techniques. In modern resistance breeding, effectors are emerging as tools to accelerate and improve the identification, functional characterization, and deployment of resistance genes. Since genome-wide catalogues of effectors have become available for various pathogens, including biotrophs as well as necrotrophs, effector-assisted breeding has been shown to be successful for various crops. "Effectoromics" has contributed to classical resistance breeding as well as for genetically modified approaches. Here, we present an overview of how effector-assisted breeding and deployment is being exploited for various pathosystems.

  14. X-ray structure of influenza virus NS1 effector domain.

    PubMed

    Bornholdt, Zachary A; Prasad, B V Venkataram

    2006-06-01

    The nonstructural protein NS1 of influenza virus is an antagonist of host immune responses and is implicated in virulence. It has two domains, an N-terminal double-stranded RNA-binding domain (RBD) and an effector domain crucial for RBD function, for nuclear export and for sequestering messenger RNA-processing proteins. Here we present the crystallographic structure of the effector domain, which has a novel fold and suggests mechanisms for increased virulence in H5N1 strains.

  15. Enhancement of Immune Effector Functions by Modulating IgG’s Intrinsic Affinity for Target Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Mazor, Yariv; Yang, Chunning; Borrok, M. Jack; Ayriss, Joanne; Aherne, Karen; Wu, Herren; Dall’Acqua, William F.

    2016-01-01

    Antibody-mediated immune effector functions play an essential role in the anti-tumor efficacy of many therapeutic mAbs. While much of the effort to improve effector potency has focused on augmenting the interaction between the antibody-Fc and activating Fc-receptors expressed on immune cells, the role of antibody binding interactions with the target antigen remains poorly understood. We show that antibody intrinsic affinity to the target antigen clearly influences the extent and efficiency of Fc-mediated effector mechanisms, and report the pivotal role of antibody binding valence on the ability to regulate effector functions. More particularly, we used an array of affinity modulated variants of three different mAbs, anti-CD4, anti-EGFR and anti-HER2 against a panel of target cell lines expressing disparate levels of the target antigen. We found that at saturating antibody concentrations, IgG variants with moderate intrinsic affinities, similar to those generated by the natural humoral immune response, promoted superior effector functions compared to higher affinity antibodies. We hypothesize that at saturating concentrations, effector function correlates most directly with the amount of Fc bound to the cell surface. Thus, high affinity antibodies exhibiting slow off-rates are more likely to interact bivalently with the target cell, occupying two antigen sites with a single Fc. In contrast, antibodies with faster off-rates are likely to dissociate each binding arm more rapidly, resulting in a higher likelihood of monovalent binding. Monovalent binding may in turn increase target cell opsonization and lead to improved recruitment of effector cells. This unpredicted relationship between target affinity and effector function potency suggests a careful examination of antibody design and engineering for the development of next-generation immunotherapeutics. PMID:27322177

  16. Event-related alpha suppression in response to facial motion.

    PubMed

    Girges, Christine; Wright, Michael J; Spencer, Janine V; O'Brien, Justin M D

    2014-01-01

    While biological motion refers to both face and body movements, little is known about the visual perception of facial motion. We therefore examined alpha wave suppression as a reduction in power is thought to reflect visual activity, in addition to attentional reorienting and memory processes. Nineteen neurologically healthy adults were tested on their ability to discriminate between successive facial motion captures. These animations exhibited both rigid and non-rigid facial motion, as well as speech expressions. The structural and surface appearance of these facial animations did not differ, thus participants decisions were based solely on differences in facial movements. Upright, orientation-inverted and luminance-inverted facial stimuli were compared. At occipital and parieto-occipital regions, upright facial motion evoked a transient increase in alpha which was then followed by a significant reduction. This finding is discussed in terms of neural efficiency, gating mechanisms and neural synchronization. Moreover, there was no difference in the amount of alpha suppression evoked by each facial stimulus at occipital regions, suggesting early visual processing remains unaffected by manipulation paradigms. However, upright facial motion evoked greater suppression at parieto-occipital sites, and did so in the shortest latency. Increased activity within this region may reflect higher attentional reorienting to natural facial motion but also involvement of areas associated with the visual control of body effectors.

  17. The tomato Prf complex is a molecular trap for bacterial effectors based on Pto transphosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Ntoukakis, Vardis; Balmuth, Alexi L; Mucyn, Tatiana S; Gutierrez, Jose R; Jones, Alexandra M E; Rathjen, John P

    2013-01-01

    The major virulence strategy of phytopathogenic bacteria is to secrete effector proteins into the host cell to target the immune machinery. AvrPto and AvrPtoB are two such effectors from Pseudomonas syringae, which disable an overlapping range of kinases in Arabidopsis and Tomato. Both effectors target surface-localized receptor-kinases to avoid bacterial recognition. In turn, tomato has evolved an intracellular effector-recognition complex composed of the NB-LRR protein Prf and the Pto kinase. Structural analyses have shown that the most important interaction surface for AvrPto and AvrPtoB is the Pto P+1 loop. AvrPto is an inhibitor of Pto kinase activity, but paradoxically, this kinase activity is a prerequisite for defense activation by AvrPto. Here using biochemical approaches we show that disruption of Pto P+1 loop stimulates phosphorylation in trans, which is possible because the Pto/Prf complex is oligomeric. Both P+1 loop disruption and transphosphorylation are necessary for signalling. Thus, effector perturbation of one kinase molecule in the complex activates another. Hence, the Pto/Prf complex is a sophisticated molecular trap for effectors that target protein kinases, an essential aspect of the pathogen's virulence strategy. The data presented here give a clear view of why bacterial virulence and host recognition mechanisms are so often related and how the slowly evolving host is able to keep pace with the faster-evolving pathogen.

  18. In-flight adaptive performance optimization (APO) control using redundant control effectors of an aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilyard, Glenn B. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Practical application of real-time (or near real-time) Adaptive Performance Optimization (APO) is provided for a transport aircraft in steady climb, cruise, turn descent or other flight conditions based on measurements and calculations of incremental drag from a forced response maneuver of one or more redundant control effectors defined as those in excess of the minimum set of control effectors required to maintain the steady flight condition in progress. The method comprises the steps of applying excitation in a raised-cosine form over an interval of from 100 to 500 sec. at the rate of 1 to 10 sets/sec of excitation, and data for analysis is gathered in sets of measurements made during the excitation to calculate lift and drag coefficients C.sub.L and C.sub.D from two equations, one for each coefficient. A third equation is an expansion of C.sub.D as a function of parasitic drag, induced drag, Mach and altitude drag effects, and control effector drag, and assumes a quadratic variation of drag with positions .delta..sub.i of redundant control effectors i=1 to n. The third equation is then solved for .delta..sub.iopt the optimal position of redundant control effector i, which is then used to set the control effector i for optimum performance during the remainder of said steady flight or until monitored flight conditions change by some predetermined amount as determined automatically or a predetermined minimum flight time has elapsed.

  19. Pathogen effectors target Arabidopsis EDS1 and alter its interactions with immune regulators.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Saikat; Halane, Morgan K; Kim, Sang Hee; Gassmann, Walter

    2011-12-01

    Plant resistance proteins detect the presence of specific pathogen effectors and initiate effector-triggered immunity. Few immune regulators downstream of resistance proteins have been identified, none of which are known virulence targets of effectors. We show that Arabidopsis ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1), a positive regulator of basal resistance and of effector-triggered immunity specifically mediated by Toll-interleukin-1 receptor-nucleotide binding-leucine-rich repeat (TIR-NB-LRR) resistance proteins, forms protein complexes with the TIR-NB-LRR disease resistance proteins RPS4 and RPS6 and with the negative immune regulator SRFR1 at a cytoplasmic membrane. Further, the cognate bacterial effectors AvrRps4 and HopA1 disrupt these EDS1 complexes. Tight association of EDS1 with TIR-NB-LRR-mediated immunity may therefore derive mainly from being guarded by TIR-NB-LRR proteins, and activation of this branch of effector-triggered immunity may directly connect to the basal resistance signaling pathway via EDS1.

  20. Human yeast-specific CD8 T lymphocytes show a nonclassical effector molecule profile.

    PubMed

    Breinig, Tanja; Scheller, Nicoletta; Glombitza, Birgit; Breinig, Frank; Meyerhans, Andreas

    2012-05-01

    Pathogenic yeast and fungi represent a major group of human pathogens. The consequences of infections are diverse and range from local, clinically uncomplicated mycosis of the skin to systemic, life-threatening sepsis. Despite extensive MHC class I-restricted frequencies of yeast-specific CD8 T lymphocytes in healthy individuals and the essential role of the cell-mediated immunity in controlling infections, the characteristics and defense mechanisms of antifungal effector cells are still unclear. Here, we describe the direct analysis of yeast-specific CD8 T lymphocytes in whole blood from healthy individuals. They show a unique, nonclassical phenotype expressing granulysin and granzyme K in lytic granules instead of the major effector molecules perforin and granzyme B. After stimulation in whole blood, yeast-specific CD8 T cells degranulated and, upon cultivation in the presence of IL-2, their granula were refilled with granulysin rather than with perforin and granzyme B. Moreover, yeast-specific stimulation through dendritic cells but not by yeast cells alone led to degranulation of the effector cells. As granulysin is the only effector molecule in lytic granules known to have antifungal properties, our data suggest yeast-specific CD8 T cells to be a nonclassical effector population whose antimicrobial effector machinery seems to be tailor-made for the efficient elimination of fungi as pathogens.

  1. Effector-Mining in the Poplar Rust Fungus Melampsora larici-populina Secretome

    PubMed Central

    Lorrain, Cécile; Hecker, Arnaud; Duplessis, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    The poplar leaf rust fungus, Melampsora larici-populina has been established as a tree-microbe interaction model. Understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling infection by pathogens appears essential for durable management of tree plantations. In biotrophic plant-parasites, effectors are known to condition host cell colonization. Thus, investigation of candidate secreted effector proteins (CSEPs) is a major goal in the poplar–poplar rust interaction. Unlike oomycetes, fungal effectors do not share conserved motifs and candidate prediction relies on a set of a priori criteria established from reported bona fide effectors. Secretome prediction, genome-wide analysis of gene families and transcriptomics of M. larici-populina have led to catalogs of more than a thousand secreted proteins. Automatized effector-mining pipelines hold great promise for rapid and systematic identification and prioritization of CSEPs for functional characterization. In this review, we report on and discuss the current status of the poplar rust fungus secretome and prediction of candidate effectors from this species. PMID:26697026

  2. Effector-Mining in the Poplar Rust Fungus Melampsora larici-populina Secretome.

    PubMed

    Lorrain, Cécile; Hecker, Arnaud; Duplessis, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    The poplar leaf rust fungus, Melampsora larici-populina has been established as a tree-microbe interaction model. Understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling infection by pathogens appears essential for durable management of tree plantations. In biotrophic plant-parasites, effectors are known to condition host cell colonization. Thus, investigation of candidate secreted effector proteins (CSEPs) is a major goal in the poplar-poplar rust interaction. Unlike oomycetes, fungal effectors do not share conserved motifs and candidate prediction relies on a set of a priori criteria established from reported bona fide effectors. Secretome prediction, genome-wide analysis of gene families and transcriptomics of M. larici-populina have led to catalogs of more than a thousand secreted proteins. Automatized effector-mining pipelines hold great promise for rapid and systematic identification and prioritization of CSEPs for functional characterization. In this review, we report on and discuss the current status of the poplar rust fungus secretome and prediction of candidate effectors from this species. PMID:26697026

  3. A Salmonella type three secretion effector/chaperone complex adopts a hexameric ring-like structure.

    PubMed

    Roblin, Pierre; Dewitte, Frédérique; Villeret, Vincent; Biondi, Emanuele G; Bompard, Coralie

    2015-02-15

    Many bacterial pathogens use type three secretion systems (T3SS) to inject virulence factors, named effectors, directly into the cytoplasm of target eukaryotic cells. Most of the T3SS components are conserved among plant and animal pathogens, suggesting a common mechanism of recognition and secretion of effectors. However, no common motif has yet been identified for effectors allowing T3SS recognition. In this work, we performed a biochemical and structural characterization of the Salmonella SopB/SigE chaperone/effector complex by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Our results showed that the SopB/SigE complex is assembled in dynamic homohexameric-ring-shaped structures with an internal tunnel. In this ring, the chaperone maintains a disordered N-terminal end of SopB molecules, in a good position to be reached and processed by the T3SS. This ring dimensionally fits the ring-organized molecules of the injectisome, including ATPase hexameric rings; this organization suggests that this structural feature is important for ATPase recognition by T3SS. Our work constitutes the first evidence of the oligomerization of an effector, analogous to the organization of the secretion machinery, obtained in solution. As effectors share neither sequence nor structural identity, the quaternary oligomeric structure could constitute a strategy evolved to promote the specificity and efficiency of T3SS recognition.

  4. bMERB domains are bivalent Rab8 family effectors evolved by gene duplication

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Amrita; Oprisko, Anastasia; Campos, Jeremy; Fu, Yangxue; Friese, Timon; Itzen, Aymelt; Goody, Roger S; Gazdag, Emerich Mihai; Müller, Matthias P

    2016-01-01

    In their active GTP-bound form, Rab proteins interact with proteins termed effector molecules. In this study, we have thoroughly characterized a Rab effector domain that is present in proteins of the Mical and EHBP families, both known to act in endosomal trafficking. Within our study, we show that these effectors display a preference for Rab8 family proteins (Rab8, 10, 13 and 15) and that some of the effector domains can bind two Rab proteins via separate binding sites. Structural analysis allowed us to explain the specificity towards Rab8 family members and the presence of two similar Rab binding sites that must have evolved via gene duplication. This study is the first to thoroughly characterize a Rab effector protein that contains two separate Rab binding sites within a single domain, allowing Micals and EHBPs to bind two Rabs simultaneously, thus suggesting previously unknown functions of these effector molecules in endosomal trafficking. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18675.001 PMID:27552051

  5. Abl suppresses cell extrusion and intercalation during epithelium folding.

    PubMed

    Jodoin, Jeanne N; Martin, Adam C

    2016-09-15

    Tissue morphogenesis requires control over cell shape changes and rearrangements. In the Drosophila mesoderm, linked epithelial cells apically constrict, without cell extrusion or intercalation, to fold the epithelium into a tube that will then undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Apical constriction drives tissue folding or cell extrusion in different contexts, but the mechanisms that dictate the specific outcomes are poorly understood. Using live imaging, we found that Abelson (Abl) tyrosine kinase depletion causes apically constricting cells to undergo aberrant basal cell extrusion and cell intercalation. abl depletion disrupted apical-basal polarity and adherens junction organization in mesoderm cells, suggesting that extruding cells undergo premature EMT. The polarity loss was associated with abnormal basolateral contractile actomyosin and Enabled (Ena) accumulation. Depletion of the Abl effector Enabled (Ena) in abl-depleted embryos suppressed the abl phenotype, consistent with cell extrusion resulting from misregulated ena Our work provides new insight into how Abl loss and Ena misregulation promote cell extrusion and EMT.

  6. Next generation fire suppressants

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.A.

    1995-03-01

    Spectrex, Inc., located in Cedar Grove, NJ is a manufacturer of fire detection and suppression equipment. Spectrex is one of the original pioneers in high speed fire detection and suppression systems for combat vehicles. Spectrex has installed fire suppressions systems in thousands of combat vehicles and ships throughout the world. Additionally, they manufacture flame explosion detectors, ship damage control systems, and optical gas and vapor detectors. The culmination of several years of research and development has recently produced an innovative electro-optical continuous monitoring systems called SharpEye 20/20I IR(sup 3) and SAFEYE that provide fast and reliable gas, vapor, aerosol, flame, and explosion detection. SharpEye 20/20I IR(sup 3) is a self-contained triple spectrum flame detector which scans for oscillating IR radiation (1 to 10 Hz) in the spectral bands ranging from 4.0 to 5.0 microns and uses programmed algorithms to check the ratio and correlation of data received by the three sensors to make the system highly immune to false alarms. It is extremely sensitive as it can detect a 1 x 1 square foot gasoline pan fire at 200 feet in less than 3 seconds. The sensitivity is user programmable, offering 4 ranges of detection. SAFEYE is comprised of a selected number of multispectral band microprocessor controlled detectors which are in communication with one or more radiation sources that is projected along a 600 feet optical path. The signals from the selected narrow bands are processed and analyzed by highly sophisticated algorithms. It is ideal for high risk, remote, large areas such as petroleum and chemical manufacturing sites, waste dumps, aircraft cargo bays, and ship compartments. The SAFEYE will perform direct readings of the presence or rate of rise of concentrations of gases, vapors, or aerosols at the range of parts per million and provide alarms at various set points at different levels of concentrations.

  7. Next generation fire suppressants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Jerry A.

    1995-01-01

    Spectrex, Inc., located in Cedar Grove, NJ is a manufacturer of fire detection and suppression equipment. Spectrex is one of the original pioneers in high speed fire detection and suppression systems for combat vehicles. Spectrex has installed fire suppressions systems in thousands of combat vehicles and ships throughout the world. Additionally, they manufacture flame explosion detectors, ship damage control systems, and optical gas and vapor detectors. The culmination of several years of research and development has recently produced an innovative electro-optical continuous monitoring systems called SharpEye 20/20I IR(sup 3) and SAFEYE that provide fast and reliable gas, vapor, aerosol, flame, and explosion detection. SharpEye 20/20I IR(sup 3) is a self-contained triple spectrum flame detector which scans for oscillating IR radiation (1 to 10 Hz) in the spectral bands ranging from 4.0 to 5.0 microns and uses programmed algorithms to check the ratio and correlation of data received by the three sensors to make the system highly immune to false alarms. It is extremely sensitive as it can detect a 1 x 1 square foot gasoline pan fire at 200 feet in less than 3 seconds. The sensitivity is user programmable, offering 4 ranges of detection. SAFEYE is comprised of a selected number of multispectral ban microprocessors controlled detectors which are in communication with one or more radiation sources that is projected along a 600 feet optical path. The signals from the selected narrow bands are processed and analyzed by highly sophisticated algorithms. It is ideal for high risk, remote, large areas such as petroleum and chemical manufacturing sites, waste dumps, aircraft cargo bays, and ship compartments. The SAFEYE will perform direct readings of the presence or rate of rise of concentrations of gases, vapors, or aerosols at the range of parts per million and provide alarms at various set points at different levels of concentrations.

  8. A diametric role for OX40 in the response of effector/memory CD4+ T cells and regulatory T cells to alloantigen

    PubMed Central

    Kinnear, Gillian; Wood, Kathryn J.; Fallah-Arani, Farnaz; Jones, Nick D.

    2013-01-01

    OX40 is a member of the TNFR superfamily that has potent costimulatory properties. Although the impact of blockade of the OX40-OX40L pathway has been well documented in models of autoimmune disease, its effect on the rejection of allografts is less well defined. Here we show that the alloantigen-mediated activation of naïve and memory CD4+ T cells results in the induction of OX40 expression and that blockade of OX40-OX40L interactions prevents skin allograft rejection mediated by either subset of T cells. Moreover, a blocking anti-OX40 was found to have no effect on the activation and proliferation of T cells, but rather effector T cells failed to accumulate in peripheral lymph nodes and subsequently migrate to skin allografts. This was found to be the result of an enhanced degree of cell death amongst proliferating effector cells. In clear contrast, blockade of OX40-OX40L interactions at the time of exposure to alloantigen enhanced the ability of regulatory T cells to suppress T cell responses to alloantigen by supporting rather than diminishing regulatory T cell survival. These data show that OX40-OX40L signalling contributes to the evolution of the adaptive immune response to an allograft via the differential control of alloreactive effector and regulatory T cell survival. Moreover, these data serve to further highlight OX40 and OX40L as therapeutic targets to assist the induction of tolerance to allografts and self-antigens. PMID:23817421

  9. The Structure and Specificity of the Type III Secretion System Effector NleC Suggest a DNA Mimicry Mechanism of Substrate Recognition

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Many pathogenic bacteria utilize the type III secretion system (T3SS) to translocate effector proteins directly into host cells, facilitating colonization. In enterohemmorhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), a subset of T3SS effectors is essential for suppression of the inflammatory response in hosts, including humans. Identified as a zinc protease that cleaves NF-κB transcription factors, NleC is one such effector. Here, we investigate NleC substrate specificity, showing that four residues around the cleavage site in the DNA-binding loop of the NF-κB subunit RelA strongly influence the cleavage rate. Class I NF-κB subunit p50 is cleaved at a reduced rate consistent with conservation of only three of these four residues. However, peptides containing 10 residues on each side of the scissile bond were not efficiently cleaved by NleC, indicating that elements distal from the cleavage site are also important for substrate recognition. We present the crystal structure of NleC and show that it mimics DNA structurally and electrostatically. Consistent with this model, mutation of phosphate-mimicking residues in NleC reduces the level of RelA cleavage. We propose that global recognition of NF-κB subunits by DNA mimicry combined with a high sequence selectivity for the cleavage site results in exquisite NleC substrate specificity. The structure also shows that despite undetectable similarity of its sequence to those of other Zn2+ proteases beyond its conserved HExxH Zn2+-binding motif, NleC is a member of the Zincin protease superfamily, albeit divergent from its structural homologues. In particular, NleC displays a modified Ψ-loop motif that may be important for folding and refolding requirements implicit in T3SS translocation. PMID:25040221

  10. The Salmonella effector SopB prevents ROS-induced apoptosis of epithelial cells by retarding TRAF6 recruitment to mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Haihua; Zhang, Zhen; Tian, Li; Wang, Suying; Hu, Shuangyan; Qiao, Jian-Jun

    2016-09-16

    Microbial pathogens enter host cells by injecting effector proteins of the Type III secretion system (T3SS), which facilitate pathogen translocation across the host cell membrane. These effector proteins exert their effects by modulating a variety of host innate immune responses, thereby facilitating bacterial replication and systemic infection. Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium (S.typhimurium) is a clinically important pathogen that causes food poisoning and gastroenteritis. The SopB effector protein of S. typhimurium, encoded by Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPI)-1 T3SS, protects host epithelial cells from infection-induced apoptosis. However, how SopB influences apoptosis induction remains unclear. Here, we investigated the mechanism of SopB action in host cells. We found that SopB inhibits infection-induced apoptosis by attenuating the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mitochondria, the crucial organelles for apoptosis initiation. Further investigation revealed that SopB binds to cytosolic tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and forms a trap preventing the mitochondrial recruitment of TRAF6, an essential event for ROS generation within mitochondria. By studying the response of Traf6(+/+) and Traf6(-/-)mouse embryonic fibroblasts to S. typhimurium infection, we found that TRAF6 promoted apoptosis by increasing ROS accumulation, which led to increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, Bax recruitment to mitochondrial membrane, and release of Cyt c into the cytoplasm. These findings show that SopB suppresses host cell apoptosis by binding to TRAF6 and preventing mitochondrial ROS generation. PMID:27473656

  11. The type 3 effector NopL of Sinorhizobium sp. strain NGR234 is a mitogen-activated protein kinase substrate.

    PubMed

    Ge, Ying-Ying; Xiang, Qi-Wang; Wagner, Christian; Zhang, Di; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Staehelin, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Pathogenic bacteria utilize type 3 secretion systems to inject type 3 effectors (T3Es) into host cells, thereby subverting host defense reactions. Similarly, T3Es of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing rhizobia can affect nodule formation on roots of legumes. Previous work showed that NopL (nodulation outer protein L) of Sinorhizobium(Ensifer) sp. strain NGR234 is multiply phosphorylated in eukaryotic cells and that this T3E suppresses responses mediated by mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling in yeast (mating pheromone signaling) and plant cells (expression of pathogenesis-related defense proteins). Here, we show that NopL is a MAP kinase substrate. Microscopic observations of fluorescent fusion proteins and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis in onion cells indicated that NopL is targeted to the nucleus and forms a complex with SIPK (salicylic acid-induced protein kinase), a MAP kinase of tobacco. In vitro experiments demonstrated that NopL is phosphorylatyed by SIPK. At least nine distinct spots were observed after two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, indicating that NopL can be hyperphosphorylated by MAP kinases. Senescence symptoms in nodules of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Tendergreen) were analyzed to determine the symbiotic effector activity of different NopL variants with serine to alanine substitutions at identified and predicted phosphorylation sites (serine-proline motif). NopL variants with six or eight serine to alanine substitutions were partially active, whereas NopL forms with 10 or 12 substituted serine residues were inactive. In conclusion, our findings provide evidence that NopL interacts with MAP kinases and reveals the importance of serine-proline motifs for effector activity during symbiosis. PMID:26931172

  12. Recent developments in sequence selective minor groove DNA effectors.

    PubMed

    Reddy, B S; Sharma, S K; Lown, J W

    2001-04-01

    DNA is a well characterized intracellular target but its large size and sequential nature make it an elusive target for selective drug action. Binding of low molecular weight ligands to DNA causes a wide variety of potential biological responses. In this respect the main consideration is given to recent developments in DNA sequence selective binding agents bearing conjugated effectors because of their potential application in diagnosis and treatment of cancers as well as in molecular biology. Recent progress in the development of cross linked lexitropsin oligopeptides and hairpins, which bind selectively to the minor groove of duplex DNA, is discussed. Bis-distamycins and related lexitropsins show inhibitory activity against HIV-1 and HIV-2 integrases at low nanomolar concentrations. Benzoyl nitrogen mustard analogs of lexitropsins are active against a variety of tumor models. Certain of the bis-benzimidazoles show altered DNA sequence preference and bind to DNA at 5'CG and TG sequences rather than at the preferred AT sites of the parent drug. A comparison of bifunctional bizelesin with monoalkylating adozelesin shows that it appears to have an increased sequence selectivity such that monoalkylating compounds react at more than one site but bizelesin reacts only at sites where there are two suitably positioned alkylation sites. Adozelesin, bizelesin and carzelesin are far more potent as cytotoxic agents than cisplatin or doxorubicin. A new class of 1,2,9,9a-tetrahydrocyclo-propa[c]benz[e]indole-4-one (CBI) analogs i.e., CBI-lexitropsin conjugates arising from the latter leads are also discussed.A number of cyclopropylpyrroloindole (CPI) and CBI-lexitropsin conjugates related to CC-1065 alkylate at the N3 position of adenine in the minor groove of DNA in a sequence specific manner, and also show cytotoxicities in the femtomolar range. The cross linking efficiency of PBD dimers is much greater than that of other cross linkers including cisplatin, and melphalan. A new

  13. Summation of punishment suppression.

    PubMed

    Van Houten, R; Rudolph, R

    1971-01-01

    In two experiments, eight rats were trained to lever press with food on a variable-interval schedule. Bar pressing produced shock on a variable-interval schedule in the presence of two independently presented stimuli, a light and a tone. Two rats in each experiment received alternative presentations of the light and the tone and were consequently always in the presence of a stimulus that signalled variable-interval punishment. The other two rats in each experiment were treated similarly except that they received periods in which neither light nor tone was present. During these periods, bar pressing was not punished. The two stimuli that signalled punishment were then presented simultaneously to evaluate the effect of stimulus compounding on response suppression. The subjects trained without punishment-free periods did not show summation to the compound stimulus; the subjects trained with punishment-free periods showed summation of suppression. The major difference between the two experiments was the longer mean interval of variable-interval punishment used in the second experiment. This manipulation made the summation effect more resistant to extinction and thus increased its magnitude. PMID:16811483

  14. Structures of the flax-rust effector AvrM reveal insights into the molecular basis of plant-cell entry and effector-triggered immunity.

    PubMed

    Ve, Thomas; Williams, Simon J; Catanzariti, Ann-Maree; Rafiqi, Maryam; Rahman, Motiur; Ellis, Jeffrey G; Hardham, Adrienne R; Jones, David A; Anderson, Peter A; Dodds, Peter N; Kobe, Bostjan

    2013-10-22

    Fungal and oomycete pathogens cause some of the most devastating diseases in crop plants, and facilitate infection by delivering a large number of effector molecules into the plant cell. AvrM is a secreted effector protein from flax rust (Melampsora lini) that can internalize into plant cells in the absence of the pathogen, binds to phosphoinositides (PIPs), and is recognized directly by the resistance protein M in flax (Linum usitatissimum), resulting in effector-triggered immunity. We determined the crystal structures of two naturally occurring variants of AvrM, AvrM-A and avrM, and both reveal an L-shaped fold consisting of a tandem duplicated four-helix motif, which displays similarity to the WY domain core in oomycete effectors. In the crystals, both AvrM variants form a dimer with an unusual nonglobular shape. Our functional analysis of AvrM reveals that a hydrophobic surface patch conserved between both variants is required for internalization into plant cells, whereas the C-terminal coiled-coil domain mediates interaction with M. AvrM binding to PIPs is dependent on positive surface charges, and mutations that abrogate PIP binding have no significant effect on internalization, suggesting that AvrM binding to PIPs is not essential for transport of AvrM across the plant membrane. The structure of AvrM and the identification of functionally important surface regions advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying how effectors enter plant cells and how they are detected by the plant immune system.

  15. Design of endoscopic micro-robotic end effectors: safety and performance evaluation based on physical intestinal tissue damage characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Tae; Kim, Dae-Eun; Yang, Sungwook; Yoon, Eui-Sung

    2014-06-01

    During the last several years, legged locomotive mechanism has been considered as one of the main self-propelling mechanisms for future endoscopic microrobots due to its superior propulsion efficiency of an endoscopic microrobot inside the intestinal track. Nevertheless, its clinical application has been largely limited since the legged locomotive mechanism utilizes an end effector which has a sharp tip to generate sufficient traction by physically penetrating and interlocking with the intestinal tissue. This can cause excessive physical tissue damage or even complete perforation of the intestinal wall that can lead to abdominal inflammation. Hence, in this work two types of new end effectors, penetration-limited end effector (PLEE) and bi-material structured end effector (BMEE) were specially designed to acquire high medical safety as well as effective traction generation performance. The microscopic end effector specimens were fabricated with micro-wire electric discharge machining process. Traction generation performance of the end effectors was evaluated by direct measurement of resistance forces during contact-sliding tests using a custom-built contact-sliding tester. The safety of the end effector design was evaluated by examination of microscopic intestinal tissue damage using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Physical damage characteristics of the intestinal tissue and related contact physics of the end effectors were discussed. From the results, the end effectors were evaluated with respect to their prospects in future medical applications as safe end effectors as well as micro-surgical tools.

  16. Direct and Indirect Targeting of PP2A by Conserved Bacterial Type-III Effector Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Lin; Ham, Jong Hyun; Hage, Rosemary; Zhao, Wanying; Soto-Hernández, Jaricelis; Lee, Sang Yeol; Paek, Seung-Mann; Kim, Min Gab; Boone, Charles; Coplin, David L.; Mackey, David

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial AvrE-family Type-III effector proteins (T3Es) contribute significantly to the virulence of plant-pathogenic species of Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Ralstonia, Erwinia, Dickeya and Pectobacterium, with hosts ranging from monocots to dicots. However, the mode of action of AvrE-family T3Es remains enigmatic, due in large part to their toxicity when expressed in plant or yeast cells. To search for targets of WtsE, an AvrE-family T3E from the maize pathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, we employed a yeast-two-hybrid screen with non-lethal fragments of WtsE and a synthetic genetic array with full-length WtsE. Together these screens indicate that WtsE targets maize protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) heterotrimeric enzyme complexes via direct interaction with B’ regulatory subunits. AvrE1, another AvrE-family T3E from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (Pto DC3000), associates with specific PP2A B’ subunit proteins from its susceptible host Arabidopsis that are homologous to the maize B’ subunits shown to interact with WtsE. Additionally, AvrE1 was observed to associate with the WtsE-interacting maize proteins, indicating that PP2A B’ subunits are likely conserved targets of AvrE-family T3Es. Notably, the ability of AvrE1 to promote bacterial growth and/or suppress callose deposition was compromised in Arabidopsis plants with mutations of PP2A genes. Also, chemical inhibition of PP2A activity blocked the virulence activity of both WtsE and AvrE1 in planta. The function of HopM1, a Pto DC3000 T3E that is functionally redundant to AvrE1, was also impaired in specific PP2A mutant lines, although no direct interaction with B’ subunits was observed. These results indicate that sub-component specific PP2A complexes are targeted by bacterial T3Es, including direct targeting by members of the widely conserved AvrE-family. PMID:27191168

  17. Quantitative proteomic analysis of Burkholderia pseudomallei Bsa type III secretion system effectors using hypersecreting mutants.

    PubMed

    Vander Broek, Charles W; Chalmers, Kevin J; Stevens, Mark P; Stevens, Joanne M

    2015-04-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is an intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of melioidosis, a severe disease of humans and animals. One of the virulence factors critical for early stages of infection is the Burkholderia secretion apparatus (Bsa) Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS), a molecular syringe that injects bacterial proteins, called effectors, into eukaryotic cells where they subvert cellular functions to the benefit of the bacteria. Although the Bsa T3SS itself is known to be important for invasion, intracellular replication, and virulence, only a few genuine effector proteins have been identified and the complete repertoire of proteins secreted by the system has not yet been fully characterized. We constructed a mutant lacking bsaP, a homolog of the T3SS "gatekeeper" family of proteins that exert control over the timing and magnitude of effector protein secretion. Mutants lacking BsaP, or the T3SS translocon protein BipD, were observed to hypersecrete the known Bsa effector protein BopE, providing evidence of their role in post-translational control of the Bsa T3SS and representing key reagents for the identification of its secreted substrates. Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantification (iTRAQ), a gel-free quantitative proteomics technique, was used to compare the secreted protein profiles of the Bsa T3SS hypersecreting mutants of B. pseudomallei with the isogenic parent strain and a bsaZ mutant incapable of effector protein secretion. Our study provides one of the most comprehensive core secretomes of B. pseudomallei described to date and identified 26 putative Bsa-dependent secreted proteins that may be considered candidate effectors. Two of these proteins, BprD and BapA, were validated as novel effector proteins secreted by the Bsa T3SS of B. pseudomallei.

  18. Imbalanced expression of functional surface molecules in regulatory and effector T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, D; Cruvinel, W M; Araujo, J A P; Salmazi, K C; Kallas, E G; Andrade, L E C

    2014-08-01

    Regulatory T (TREG) cells play an important role in maintaining immune tolerance and avoiding autoimmunity. We analyzed the expression of membrane molecules in TREG and effector T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). TREG and effector T cells were analyzed for the expression of CTLA-4, PD1, CD28, CD95, GITR, HLA-DR, OX40, CD40L, and CD45RO in 26 patients with active disease, 31 with inactive disease, and 26 healthy controls. TREG cells were defined as CD25+/high CD127 Ø/low FoxP3+, and effector T cells were defined as CD25+CD127+FoxP3 Ø. The ratio of TREG to effector T cells expressing GITR, PD1, HLA-DR, OX40, CD40L, and CD45RO was determined in the three groups. The frequency of TREG cells was similar in patients with SLE and controls. However, SLE patients had a decreased frequency of CTLA-4+TREG and CD28+TREG cells and an increased frequency of CD40L+TREG cells. There was a decrease in the TREG/effector-T ratio for GITR+, HLA-DR+, OX40+, and CD45RO+ cells, and an increased ratio of TREG/effector-T CD40L+ cells in patients with SLE. In addition, CD40L+TREG cell frequency correlated with the SLE disease activity index (P=0.0163). In conclusion, our findings showed several abnormalities in the expression of functionally critical surface molecules in TREG and effector T cells in SLE that may be relevant to the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:25098715

  19. Imbalanced expression of functional surface molecules in regulatory and effector T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita Júnior, D.; Cruvinel, W.M.; Araujo, J.A.P.; Salmazi, K.C.; Kallas, E.G.; Andrade, L.E.C.

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory T (TREG) cells play an important role in maintaining immune tolerance and avoiding autoimmunity. We analyzed the expression of membrane molecules in TREG and effector T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). TREG and effector T cells were analyzed for the expression of CTLA-4, PD1, CD28, CD95, GITR, HLA-DR, OX40, CD40L, and CD45RO in 26 patients with active disease, 31 with inactive disease, and 26 healthy controls. TREG cells were defined as CD25+/highCD127Ø/lowFoxP3+, and effector T cells were defined as CD25+CD127+FoxP3Ø. The ratio of TREG to effector T cells expressing GITR, PD1, HLA-DR, OX40, CD40L, and CD45RO was determined in the three groups. The frequency of TREG cells was similar in patients with SLE and controls. However, SLE patients had a decreased frequency of CTLA-4+TREG and CD28+TREG cells and an increased frequency of CD40L+TREG cells. There was a decrease in the TREG/effector-T ratio for GITR+, HLA-DR+, OX40+, and CD45RO+ cells, and an increased ratio of TREG/effector-T CD40L+ cells in patients with SLE. In addition, CD40L+TREG cell frequency correlated with the SLE disease activity index (P=0.0163). In conclusion, our findings showed several abnormalities in the expression of functionally critical surface molecules in TREG and effector T cells in SLE that may be relevant to the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:25098715

  20. A bacterial type III secretion assay for delivery of fungal effector proteins into wheat.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Narayana M; Mago, Rohit; Staskawicz, Brian J; Ayliffe, Michael A; Ellis, Jeffrey G; Dodds, Peter N

    2014-03-01

    Large numbers of candidate effectors from fungal pathogens are being identified through whole-genome sequencing and in planta expression studies. Although Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression has enabled high-throughput functional analysis of effectors in dicot plants, this assay is not effective in cereal leaves. Here, we show that a nonpathogenic Pseudomonas fluorescens engineered to express the type III secretion system (T3SS) of P. syringae and the wheat pathogen Xanthomonas translucens can deliver fusion proteins containing T3SS signals from P. syringae (AvrRpm1) and X. campestris (AvrBs2) avirulence (Avr) proteins, respectively, into wheat leaf cells. A calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase reporter protein was delivered effectively into wheat and barley by both bacteria. Absence of any disease symptoms with P. fluorescens makes it more suitable than X. translucens for detecting a hypersensitive response (HR) induced by an effector protein with avirulence activity. We further modified the delivery system by removal of the myristoylation site from the AvrRpm1 fusion to prevent its localization to the plasma membrane which could inhibit recognition of an Avr protein. Delivery of the flax rust AvrM protein by the modified delivery system into transgenic tobacco leaves expressing the corresponding M resistance protein induced a strong HR, indicating that the system is capable of delivering a functional rust Avr protein. In a preliminary screen of effectors from the stem rust fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, we identified one effector that induced a host genotype-specific HR in wheat. Thus, the modified AvrRpm1:effector-Pseudomonas fluorescens system is an effective tool for large-scale screening of pathogen effectors for recognition in wheat. PMID:24156769

  1. The Vici Syndrome Protein EPG5 Is a Rab7 Effector that Determines the Fusion Specificity of Autophagosomes with Late Endosomes/Lysosomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Miao, Guangyan; Xue, Xue; Guo, Xiangyang; Yuan, Chongzhen; Wang, Zhaoyu; Zhang, Gangming; Chen, Yingyu; Feng, Du; Hu, Junjie; Zhang, Hong

    2016-09-01

    Mutations in the human autophagy gene EPG5 cause the multisystem disorder Vici syndrome. Here we demonstrated that EPG5 is a Rab7 effector that determines the fusion specificity of autophagosomes with late endosomes/lysosomes. EPG5 is recruited to late endosomes/lysosomes by direct interaction with Rab7 and the late endosomal/lysosomal R-SNARE VAMP7/8. EPG5 also binds to LC3/LGG-1 (mammalian and C. elegans Atg8 homolog, respectively) and to assembled STX17-SNAP29 Qabc SNARE complexes on autophagosomes. EPG5 stabilizes and facilitates the assembly of STX17-SNAP29-VAMP7/8 trans-SNARE complexes, and promotes STX17-SNAP29-VAMP7-mediated fusion of reconstituted proteoliposomes. Loss of EPG5 activity causes abnormal fusion of autophagosomes with various endocytic vesicles, in part due to elevated assembly of STX17-SNAP25-VAMP8 complexes. SNAP25 knockdown partially suppresses the autophagy defect caused by EPG5 depletion. Our study reveals that EPG5 is a Rab7 effector involved in autophagosome maturation, providing insight into the molecular mechanism underlying Vici syndrome. PMID:27588602

  2. Inhibition of Nuclear Transport of NF-ĸB p65 by the Salmonella Type III Secretion System Effector SpvD

    PubMed Central

    Rolhion, Nathalie; Furniss, R. Christopher D.; Grabe, Grzegorz; Ryan, Aindrias; Liu, Mei; Matthews, Sophie A.; Holden, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica replicates in macrophages through the action of effector proteins translocated across the vacuolar membrane by a type III secretion system (T3SS). Here we show that the SPI-2 T3SS effector SpvD suppresses proinflammatory immune responses. SpvD prevented activation of an NF-ĸB-dependent promoter and caused nuclear accumulation of importin-α, which is required for nuclear import of p65. SpvD interacted specifically with the exportin Xpo2, which mediates nuclear-cytoplasmic recycling of importins. We propose that interaction between SpvD and Xpo2 disrupts the normal recycling of importin-α from the nucleus, leading to a defect in nuclear translocation of p65 and inhibition of activation of NF-ĸB regulated promoters. SpvD down-regulated pro-inflammatory responses and contributed to systemic growth of bacteria in mice. This work shows that a bacterial pathogen can manipulate host cell immune responses by interfering with the nuclear transport machinery. PMID:27232334

  3. Inhibition of Nuclear Transport of NF-ĸB p65 by the Salmonella Type III Secretion System Effector SpvD.

    PubMed

    Rolhion, Nathalie; Furniss, R Christopher D; Grabe, Grzegorz; Ryan, Aindrias; Liu, Mei; Matthews, Sophie A; Holden, David W

    2016-05-01

    Salmonella enterica replicates in macrophages through the action of effector proteins translocated across the vacuolar membrane by a type III secretion system (T3SS). Here we show that the SPI-2 T3SS effector SpvD suppresses proinflammatory immune responses. SpvD prevented activation of an NF-ĸB-dependent promoter and caused nuclear accumulation of importin-α, which is required for nuclear import of p65. SpvD interacted specifically with the exportin Xpo2, which mediates nuclear-cytoplasmic recycling of importins. We propose that interaction between SpvD and Xpo2 disrupts the normal recycling of importin-α from the nucleus, leading to a defect in nuclear translocation of p65 and inhibition of activation of NF-ĸB regulated promoters. SpvD down-regulated pro-inflammatory responses and contributed to systemic growth of bacteria in mice. This work shows that a bacterial pathogen can manipulate host cell immune responses by interfering with the nuclear transport machinery.

  4. Naïve CD8+ T cell derived tumor-specific cytotoxic effectors as a potential remedy for overcoming TGF-β immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hong Hanh; Kim, Therasa; Song, Sang Yun; Park, Somang; Cho, Hyang Hee; Jung, Sung-Hoon; Ahn, Jae-Sook; Kim, Hyeoung-Joon; Lee, Je-Jung; Kim, Hee-Ok; Cho, Jae-Ho; Yang, Deok-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Despite of the potential implications for cancer immunotherapy, conventional approaches using in vitro expanded CD8+ T cells have suboptimal outcomes, mostly due to loss of functionality from cellular exhaustion. We therefore investigated the phenotypic and functional differences among in vitro activated CD8+ T cells of three different sources, namely naïve (NTeff), memory (MTeff) and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILeff) from human and mice, to better understand mechanisms behind potent effector functions and potential for overcoming current limitations. In line with the greater proliferation activity and longer telomere lengths of NTeff populations, cells of naïve origin exhibited significantly less amounts of T cell exhaustion markers than those of MTeff and TILeff, and moreover, acquired distinct expression patterns of memory-promoting transcription factors, T-bet and Eomes, induced in a rapid and sustainable manner. NTeff cells appeared to have lower expression of Foxp1 and were refractory to apoptosis upon TGF-β conditioning, implying better survival potential and resistance to tumor-induced immune suppression. Of CD8+ T cell pools activated to tumor-specific CTLs, naïve cell generated effectors possessed the most potent cytotoxic activity, validating implications for use in rational design of adoptive immunotherapy. PMID:27306834

  5. The Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria Type-3 Effector XopB Inhibits Plant Defence Responses by Interfering with ROS Production

    PubMed Central

    Priller, Johannes Peter Roman; Reid, Stephen; Konein, Patrick; Dietrich, Petra

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria 85–10 (Xcv) translocates about 30 type-3 effector proteins (T3Es) into pepper plants (Capsicum annuum) to suppress plant immune responses. Among them is XopB which interferes with PTI, ETI and sugar-mediated defence responses, but the underlying molecular mechanisms and direct targets are unknown so far. Here, we examined the XopB-mediated suppression of plant defence responses in more detail. Infection of susceptible pepper plants with Xcv lacking xopB resulted in delayed symptom development compared to Xcv wild type infection concomitant with an increased formation of salicylic acid (SA) and expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. Expression of xopB in Arabidopsis thaliana promoted the growth of the virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 strain. This was paralleled by a decreased SA-pool and a lower induction of SA-dependent PR gene expression. The expression pattern of early flg22-responsive marker genes indicated that MAPK signalling was not altered in the presence of XopB. However, XopB inhibited the flg22-triggered burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Consequently, the transcript accumulation of AtOXI1, a ROS-dependent marker gene, was reduced in xopB-expressing Arabidopsis plants as well as callose deposition. The lower ROS production correlated with a low level of basal and flg22-triggered expression of apoplastic peroxidases and the NADPH oxidase RBOHD. Conversely, deletion of xopB in Xcv caused a higher production of ROS in leaves of susceptible pepper plants. Together our results demonstrate that XopB modulates ROS responses and might thereby compromise plant defence. PMID:27398933

  6. The Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria Type-3 Effector XopB Inhibits Plant Defence Responses by Interfering with ROS Production.

    PubMed

    Priller, Johannes Peter Roman; Reid, Stephen; Konein, Patrick; Dietrich, Petra; Sonnewald, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria 85-10 (Xcv) translocates about 30 type-3 effector proteins (T3Es) into pepper plants (Capsicum annuum) to suppress plant immune responses. Among them is XopB which interferes with PTI, ETI and sugar-mediated defence responses, but the underlying molecular mechanisms and direct targets are unknown so far. Here, we examined the XopB-mediated suppression of plant defence responses in more detail. Infection of susceptible pepper plants with Xcv lacking xopB resulted in delayed symptom development compared to Xcv wild type infection concomitant with an increased formation of salicylic acid (SA) and expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. Expression of xopB in Arabidopsis thaliana promoted the growth of the virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 strain. This was paralleled by a decreased SA-pool and a lower induction of SA-dependent PR gene expression. The expression pattern of early flg22-responsive marker genes indicated that MAPK signalling was not altered in the presence of XopB. However, XopB inhibited the flg22-triggered burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Consequently, the transcript accumulation of AtOXI1, a ROS-dependent marker gene, was reduced in xopB-expressing Arabidopsis plants as well as callose deposition. The lower ROS production correlated with a low level of basal and flg22-triggered expression of apoplastic peroxidases and the NADPH oxidase RBOHD. Conversely, deletion of xopB in Xcv caused a higher production of ROS in leaves of susceptible pepper plants. Together our results demonstrate that XopB modulates ROS responses and might thereby compromise plant defence. PMID:27398933

  7. Salmonella typhimurium impedes innate immunity with a mast-cell-suppressing protein tyrosine phosphatase, SptP.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hae Woong; Brooking-Dixon, Rhea; Neupane, Subham; Lee, Chul-Jin; Miao, Edward A; Staats, Herman F; Abraham, Soman N

    2013-12-12

    The virulence of Salmonella is linked to its invasive capacity and suppression of adaptive immunity. This does not explain, however, the rapid dissemination of the pathogen after it breaches the gut. In our study, S. Typhimurium suppressed degranulation of local mast cells (MCs), resulting in limited neutrophil recruitment and restricting outflow of vascular contents into infection sites, thus facilitating bacterial spread. MC suppression was mediated by secreted effector protein (SptP), which shares structural homology with Yersinia YopH. SptP functioned by dephosphorylating the vesicle fusion protein N-ethylmalemide-sensitive factor and by blocking phosphorylation of Syk. Without SptP, orally challenged S. Typhimurium failed to suppress MC degranulation and exhibited limited colonization of the mesenteric lymph nodes. Administration of SptP to sites of E. coli infection markedly enhanced its virulence. Thus, SptP-mediated inactivation of local MCs is a powerful mechanism utilized by S. Typhimurium to impede early innate immunity.

  8. Leptin directly promotes T-cell glycolytic metabolism to drive effector T-cell differentiation in a mouse model of autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Gerriets, Valerie A; Danzaki, Keiko; Kishton, Rigel J; Eisner, William; Nichols, Amanda G; Saucillo, Donte C; Shinohara, Mari L; MacIver, Nancie J

    2016-08-01

    Upon activation, T cells require energy for growth, proliferation, and function. Effector T (Teff) cells, such as Th1 and Th17 cells, utilize high levels of glycolytic metabolism to fuel proliferation and function. In contrast, Treg cells require oxidative metabolism to fuel suppressive function. It remains unknown how Teff/Treg-cell metabolism is altered when nutrients are limited and leptin levels are low. We therefore examined the role of malnutrition and associated hypoleptinemia on Teff versus Treg cells. We found that both malnutrition-associated hypoleptinemia and T cell-specific leptin receptor knockout suppressed Teff-cell number, function, and glucose metabolism, but did not alter Treg-cell metabolism or suppressive function. Using the autoimmune mouse model EAE, we confirmed that fasting-induced hypoleptinemia altered Teff-cell, but not Treg-cell, glucose metabolism, and function in vivo, leading to decreased disease severity. To explore potential mechanisms, we examined HIF-1α, a key regulator of Th17 differentiation and Teff-cell glucose metabolism, and found HIF-1α expression was decreased in T cell-specific leptin receptor knockout Th17 cells, and in Teff cells from fasted EAE mice, but was unchanged in Treg cells. Altogether, these data demonstrate a selective, cell-intrinsic requirement for leptin to upregulate glucose metabolism and maintain function in Teff, but not Treg cells.

  9. Leptin directly promotes T-cell glycolytic metabolism to drive effector T-cell differentiation in a mouse model of autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Gerriets, Valerie A; Danzaki, Keiko; Kishton, Rigel J; Eisner, William; Nichols, Amanda G; Saucillo, Donte C; Shinohara, Mari L; MacIver, Nancie J

    2016-08-01

    Upon activation, T cells require energy for growth, proliferation, and function. Effector T (Teff) cells, such as Th1 and Th17 cells, utilize high levels of glycolytic metabolism to fuel proliferation and function. In contrast, Treg cells require oxidative metabolism to fuel suppressive function. It remains unknown how Teff/Treg-cell metabolism is altered when nutrients are limited and leptin levels are low. We therefore examined the role of malnutrition and associated hypoleptinemia on Teff versus Treg cells. We found that both malnutrition-associated hypoleptinemia and T cell-specific leptin receptor knockout suppressed Teff-cell number, function, and glucose metabolism, but did not alter Treg-cell metabolism or suppressive function. Using the autoimmune mouse model EAE, we confirmed that fasting-induced hypoleptinemia altered Teff-cell, but not Treg-cell, glucose metabolism, and function in vivo, leading to decreased disease severity. To explore potential mechanisms, we examined HIF-1α, a key regulator of Th17 differentiation and Teff-cell glucose metabolism, and found HIF-1α expression was decreased in T cell-specific leptin receptor knockout Th17 cells, and in Teff cells from fasted EAE mice, but was unchanged in Treg cells. Altogether, these data demonstrate a selective, cell-intrinsic requirement for leptin to upregulate glucose metabolism and maintain function in Teff, but not Treg cells. PMID:27222115

  10. The Glucose Transporter Glut1 is Selectively Essential for CD4 T Cell Activation and Effector Function

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Amanda G.; Michalek, Ryan D.; Rudolph, Michael C.; Deoliveira, Divino; Anderson, Steven M.; Abel, E. Dale; Chen, Benny J.; Hale, Laura P.; Rathmell, Jeffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY CD4 T cell activation leads to rapid proliferation and differentiation into effector (Teff) or regulatory (Treg) cells that mediate or control immunity. While Teff and Treg prefer distinct glycolytic or oxidative metabolic programs in vitro, requirements and mechanisms that control T cell glucose uptake and metabolism in vivo are poorly understood. Despite expression of multiple glucose transporters, Glut1-deficiency selectively impaired metabolism and function of thymocytes and Teff. Resting T cells were normal until activated, when Glut1-deficiency prevented increased glucose uptake and glycolysis, growth, proliferation, and decreased cell survival and Teff differentiation. Importantly, Glut1-deficiency decreased Teff expansion and ability to induce inflammatory disease in vivo. Treg, in contrast, were enriched in vivo and appeared functionally unaffected by Glut1-deficiency and able to suppress Teff irrespective of Glut1 expression. These data show a selective in vivo requirement for Glut1 in metabolic reprogramming of CD4 T cell activation and Teff expansion and survival. PMID:24930970

  11. Compatibility in the Ustilago maydis-maize interaction requires inhibition of host cysteine proteases by the fungal effector Pit2.

    PubMed

    Mueller, André N; Ziemann, Sebastian; Treitschke, Steffi; Aßmann, Daniela; Doehlemann, Gunther

    2013-02-01

    The basidiomycete Ustilago maydis causes smut disease in maize, with large plant tumors being formed as the most prominent disease symptoms. During all steps of infection, U. maydis depends on a biotrophic interaction, which requires an efficient suppression of plant immunity. In a previous study, we identified the secreted effector protein Pit2, which is essential for maintenance of biotrophy and induction of tumors. Deletion mutants for pit2 successfully penetrate host cells but elicit various defense responses, which stops further fungal proliferation. We now show that Pit2 functions as an inhibitor of a set of apoplastic maize cysteine proteases, whose activity is directly linked with salicylic-acid-associated plant defenses. Consequently, protease inhibition by Pit2 is required for U. maydis virulence. Sequence comparisons with Pit2 orthologs from related smut fungi identified a conserved sequence motif. Mutation of this sequence caused loss of Pit2 function. Consequently, expression of the mutated protein in U. maydis could not restore virulence of the pit2 deletion mutant, indicating that the protease inhibition by Pit2 is essential for fungal virulence. Moreover, synthetic peptides of the conserved sequence motif showed full activity as protease inhibitor, which identifies this domain as a new, minimal protease inhibitor domain in plant-pathogenic fungi.

  12. Salivary proteins of spider mites suppress defenses in Nicotiana benthamiana and promote mite reproduction.

    PubMed

    Villarroel, Carlos A; Jonckheere, Wim; Alba, Juan M; Glas, Joris J; Dermauw, Wannes; Haring, Michel A; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Schuurink, Robert C; Kant, Merijn R

    2016-04-01

    Spider mites (Tetranychidae sp.) are widely occurring arthropod pests on cultivated plants. Feeding by the two-spotted spider mite T. urticae, a generalist herbivore, induces a defense response in plants that mainly depends on the phytohormones jasmonic acid and salicylic acid (SA). On tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), however, certain genotypes of T. urticae and the specialist species T. evansi were found to suppress these defenses. This phenomenon occurs downstream of phytohormone accumulation via an unknown mechanism. We investigated if spider mites possess effector-like proteins in their saliva that can account for this defense suppression. First we performed an in silico prediction of the T. urticae and the T. evansi secretomes, and subsequently generated a short list of candidate effectors based on additional selection criteria such as life stage-specific expression and salivary gland expression via whole mount in situ hybridization. We picked the top five most promising protein families and then expressed representatives in Nicotiana benthamiana using Agrobacterium tumefaciens transient expression assays to assess their effect on plant defenses. Four proteins from two families suppressed defenses downstream of the phytohormone SA. Furthermore, T. urticae performance on N. benthamiana improved in response to transient expression of three of these proteins and this improvement was similar to that of mites feeding on the tomato SA accumulation mutant nahG. Our results suggest that both generalist and specialist plant-eating mite species are sensitive to SA defenses but secrete proteins via their saliva to reduce the negative effects of these defenses. PMID:26946468

  13. Salivary proteins of spider mites suppress defenses in Nicotiana benthamiana and promote mite reproduction.

    PubMed

    Villarroel, Carlos A; Jonckheere, Wim; Alba, Juan M; Glas, Joris J; Dermauw, Wannes; Haring, Michel A; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Schuurink, Robert C; Kant, Merijn R

    2016-04-01

    Spider mites (Tetranychidae sp.) are widely occurring arthropod pests on cultivated plants. Feeding by the two-spotted spider mite T. urticae, a generalist herbivore, induces a defense response in plants that mainly depends on the phytohormones jasmonic acid and salicylic acid (SA). On tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), however, certain genotypes of T. urticae and the specialist species T. evansi were found to suppress these defenses. This phenomenon occurs downstream of phytohormone accumulation via an unknown mechanism. We investigated if spider mites possess effector-like proteins in their saliva that can account for this defense suppression. First we performed an in silico prediction of the T. urticae and the T. evansi secretomes, and subsequently generated a short list of candidate effectors based on additional selection criteria such as life stage-specific expression and salivary gland expression via whole mount in situ hybridization. We picked the top five most promising protein families and then expressed representatives in Nicotiana benthamiana using Agrobacterium tumefaciens transient expression assays to assess their effect on plant defenses. Four proteins from two families suppressed defenses downstream of the phytohormone SA. Furthermore, T. urticae performance on N. benthamiana improved in response to transient expression of three of these proteins and this improvement was similar to that of mites feeding on the tomato SA accumulation mutant nahG. Our results suggest that both generalist and specialist plant-eating mite species are sensitive to SA defenses but secrete proteins via their saliva to reduce the negative effects of these defenses.

  14. Pressure suppression system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, Douglas M.

    1994-01-01

    A pressure suppression system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and an enclosed gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The GDCS pool includes a plenum for receiving through an inlet the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). A condenser is disposed in the GDCS plenum for condensing the steam channeled therein and to trap the non-condensable gas therein. A method of operation includes draining the GDCS pool following the LOCA and channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the GDCS plenum for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith for trapping the gas therein.

  15. Pressure suppression system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, D.M.

    1994-10-04

    A pressure suppression system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and an enclosed gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The GDCS pool includes a plenum for receiving through an inlet the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). A condenser is disposed in the GDCS plenum for condensing the steam channeled therein and to trap the non-condensable gas therein. A method of operation includes draining the GDCS pool following the LOCA and channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the GDCS plenum for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith for trapping the gas therein. 3 figs.

  16. ZERO SUPPRESSION FOR RECORDERS

    DOEpatents

    Fort, W.G.S.

    1958-12-30

    A zero-suppression circuit for self-balancing recorder instruments is presented. The essential elements of the circuit include a converter-amplifier having two inputs, one for a reference voltage and the other for the signal voltage under analysis, and a servomotor with two control windings, one coupled to the a-c output of the converter-amplifier and the other receiving a reference input. Each input circuit to the converter-amplifier has a variable potentiometer and the sliders of the potentiometer are ganged together for movement by the servoinotor. The particular noveity of the circuit resides in the selection of resistance values for the potentiometer and a resistor in series with the potentiometer of the signal circuit to ensure the full value of signal voltage variation is impressed on a recorder mechanism driven by servomotor.

  17. Factors influencing dust suppressant effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, C.R.; Eisele, T.C.; Chesney, D.J.; Kawatra, S.K.

    2008-11-15

    Water sprays are a common method used to reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions. Various factors such as wettability, surface area coverage, fine particle engulfment rates, interparticle adhesion forces, suppressant penetration and suppressant longevity have all been suggested as critical factors in achieving effective PM control. However, it has not been established which of these factors are the most important. Experimental work indicated that suppressant penetration is the most critical of these factors. The length of time after application that suppressants were effective was also improved by using hygroscopic reagents that retained moisture to prevent evaporation. Maximizing suppressant penetration and improving suppressant longevity led to an average 86% reduction in PM10 concentrations in laboratory dust tower tests.

  18. Mcl-1 regulates effector and memory CD8 T-cell differentiation during acute viral infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eui Ho; Neldner, Brandon; Gui, Jingang; Craig, Ruth W; Suresh, M

    2016-03-01

    Mcl-1, an anti-apoptotic member of Bcl-2 family maintains cell viability during clonal expansion of CD8 T cells, but the cell intrinsic role of Mcl-1 in contraction of effectors or the number of memory CD8 T cells is unknown. Mcl-1 levels decline during the contraction phase but rebound to high levels in memory CD8 T cells. Therefore, by overexpressing Mcl-1 in CD8 T cells we asked whether limiting levels of Mcl-1 promote contraction of effectors and constrain CD8 T-cell memory. Mcl-1 overexpression failed to affect CD8 T-cell expansion, contraction or the magnitude of CD8 T-cell memory. Strikingly, high Mcl-1 levels enhanced mTOR phosphorylation and augmented the differentiation of terminal effector cells and effector memory CD8 T cells to the detriment of poly-cytokine-producing central memory CD8 T cells. Taken together, these findings provided unexpected insights into the role of Mcl-1 in the differentiation of effector and memory CD8 T cells.

  19. Perturbation of host ubiquitin systems by plant pathogen/pest effector proteins

    PubMed Central

    Banfield, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Microbial pathogens and pests of animals and plants secrete effector proteins into host cells, altering cellular physiology to the benefit of the invading parasite. Research in the past decade has delivered significant new insights into the molecular mechanisms of how these effector proteins function, with a particular focus on modulation of host immunity-related pathways. One host system that has emerged as a common target of effectors is the ubiquitination system in which substrate proteins are post-translationally modified by covalent conjugation with the small protein ubiquitin. This modification, typically via isopeptide bond formation through a lysine side chain of ubiquitin, can result in target degradation, relocalization, altered activity or affect protein–protein interactions. In this review, I focus primarily on how effector proteins from bacterial and filamentous pathogens of plants and pests perturb host ubiquitination pathways that ultimately include the 26S proteasome. The activities of these effectors, in how they affect ubiquitin pathways in plants, reveal how pathogens have evolved to identify and exploit weaknesses in this system that deliver increased pathogen fitness. PMID:25339602

  20. Wind Tunnel Test of an RPV with Shape-Change Control Effector and Sensor Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, David L.; Cabell, Randolph H.; Sloan, Adam R.; Barnwell, William G.; Lion, S. Todd; Hautamaki, Bret A.

    2004-01-01

    A variety of novel control effector concepts have recently emerged that may enable new approaches to flight control. In particular, the potential exists to shift the composition of the typical aircraft control effector suite from a small number of high authority, specialized devices (rudder, aileron, elevator, flaps), toward larger numbers of smaller, less specialized, distributed device arrays. The concept envisions effector and sensor networks composed of relatively small high-bandwidth devices able to simultaneously perform a variety of control functions using feedback from disparate data sources. To investigate this concept, a remotely piloted flight vehicle has been equipped with an array of 24 trailing edge shape-change effectors and associated pressure measurements. The vehicle, called the Multifunctional Effector and Sensor Array (MESA) testbed, was recently tested in NASA Langley's 12-ft Low Speed wind tunnel to characterize its stability properties, control authorities, and distributed pressure sensitivities for use in a dynamic simulation prior to flight testing. Another objective was to implement and evaluate a scheme for actively controlling the spanwise pressure distribution using the shape-change array. This report describes the MESA testbed, design of the pressure distribution controller, and results of the wind tunnel test.

  1. The Barley Powdery Mildew Effector Candidates CSEP0081 and CSEP0254 Promote Fungal Infection Success

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Ali Abdurehim; Pedersen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Effectors play significant roles in the success of pathogens. Recent advances in genome sequencing have revealed arrays of effectors and effector candidates from a wide range of plant pathogens. Yet, the vast majority of them remain uncharacterized. Among the ~500 Candidate Secreted Effector Proteins (CSEPs) predicted from the barley powdery mildew fungal genome, only a few have been studied and shown to have a function in virulence. Here, we provide evidence that CSEP0081 and CSEP0254 contribute to infection by the fungus. This was studied using Host-Induced Gene Silencing (HIGS), where independent silencing of the transcripts for these CSEPs significantly reduced the fungal penetration and haustoria formation rate. Both CSEPs are likely required during and after the formation of haustoria, in which their transcripts were found to be differentially expressed, rather than in epiphytic tissue. When expressed in barley leaf epidermal cells, both CSEPs appears to move freely between the cytosol and the nucleus, suggesting that their host targets locate in these cellular compartments. Collectively, our data suggest that, in addition to the previously reported effectors, the barley powdery mildew fungus utilizes these two CSEPs as virulence factors to enhance infection. PMID:27322386

  2. Immunotherapy of human neuroblastoma using umbilical cord blood-derived effector cells.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Avadhut D; Clark, Erin M; Wang, Peng; Munger, Corey M; Hegde, Ganapati V; Sanderson, Sam; Dave, Harish P G; Joshi, Shantaram S

    2007-06-01

    Tumors of the nervous system, including neuroblastoma and glioblastoma, are difficult to treat with current therapies. Despite the advances in cancer therapeutics, the outcomes in these patients remain poor and, therefore, new modalities are required. Recent literature demonstrates that cytotoxic effector cells can effectively kill tumors of the nervous system. In addition, we have previously shown that umbilical cord blood (UCB) contains precursors of antitumor cytotoxic effector cells. Therefore, to evaluate the antitumor potential of UCB-derived effector cells, studies were designed to compare the in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects of UCB- and peripheral blood (PB)-derived antigen-nonspecific and antigen-specific effector cells against tumors of the nervous system. Mononuclear cells (MNCs) from UCB were used to generate both interleukin-2 (IL-2)-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). UCB-derived LAK cells showed a significant in vitro cytotoxicity against IMR-32, SK-NMC, and U-87 human neuroblastoma and glioblastoma, respectively. In addition, the CTLs generated using dendritic cells primed with IMR-32 tumor cell lysate showed a selective cytotoxicity in vitro against IMR-32 cells, but not against U-87 or MDA-231 cells. Furthermore, treatment of SCID mice bearing IMR-32 neuroblastoma with tumor-specific CTLs resulted in a significant (p < 0.01) inhibition of tumor growth and increased overall survival. Thus, these results demonstrate the potential of UCB-derived effector cells against human neuroblastoma and warrant further preclinical studies.

  3. Structure of a pathogen effector reveals the enzymatic mechanism of a novel acetyltransferase family.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Min; Ma, Ka-Wai; Yuan, Shuguang; Luo, Youfu; Jiang, Shushu; Hawara, Eva; Pan, Songqin; Ma, Wenbo; Song, Jikui

    2016-09-01

    Effectors secreted by the type III secretion system are essential for bacterial pathogenesis. Members of the Yersinia outer-protein J (YopJ) family of effectors found in diverse plant and animal pathogens depend on a protease-like catalytic triad to acetylate host proteins and produce virulence. However, the structural basis for this noncanonical acetyltransferase activity remains unknown. Here, we report the crystal structures of the YopJ effector HopZ1a, produced by the phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae, in complex with the eukaryote-specific cofactor inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) and/or coenzyme A (CoA). Structural, computational and functional characterizations reveal a catalytic core with a fold resembling that of ubiquitin-like cysteine proteases and an acetyl-CoA-binding pocket formed after IP6-induced structural rearrangements. Modeling-guided mutagenesis further identified key IP6-interacting residues of Salmonella effector AvrA that are required for acetylating its substrate. Our study reveals the structural basis of a novel class of acetyltransferases and the conserved allosteric regulation of YopJ effectors by IP6. PMID:27525589

  4. The Salmonella effector SteA binds phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate for subcellular targeting within host cells.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Lia; Ismail, Ahmad; Charro, Nuno; Rodríguez-Escudero, Isabel; Holden, David W; Molina, María; Cid, Víctor J; Mota, Luís Jaime

    2016-07-01

    Many bacterial pathogens use specialized secretion systems to deliver virulence effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells. The function of these effectors depends on their localization within infected cells, but the mechanisms determining subcellular targeting of each effector are mostly elusive. Here, we show that the Salmonella type III secretion effector SteA binds specifically to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PI(4)P]. Ectopically expressed SteA localized at the plasma membrane (PM) of eukaryotic cells. However, SteA was displaced from the PM of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in mutants unable to synthesize the local pool of PI(4)P and from the PM of HeLa cells after localized depletion of PI(4)P. Moreover, in infected cells, bacterially translocated or ectopically expressed SteA localized at the membrane of the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV) and to Salmonella-induced tubules; using the PI(4)P-binding domain of the Legionella type IV secretion effector SidC as probe, we found PI(4)P at the SCV membrane and associated tubules throughout Salmonella infection of HeLa cells. Both binding of SteA to PI(4)P and the subcellular localization of ectopically expressed or bacterially translocated SteA were dependent on a lysine residue near the N-terminus of the protein. Overall, this indicates that binding of SteA to PI(4)P is necessary for its localization within host cells.

  5. The effector repertoire of Fusarium oxysporum determines the tomato xylem proteome composition following infection

    PubMed Central

    Gawehns, Fleur; Ma, Lisong; Bruning, Oskar; Houterman, Petra M.; Boeren, Sjef; Cornelissen, Ben J. C.; Rep, Martijn; Takken, Frank L. W.

    2015-01-01

    Plant pathogens secrete small proteins, of which some are effectors that promote infection. During colonization of the tomato xylem vessels the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol) secretes small proteins that are referred to as SIX (Secreted In Xylem) proteins. Of these, Six1 (Avr3), Six3 (Avr2), Six5, and Six6 are required for full virulence, denoting them as effectors. To investigate their activities in the plant, the xylem sap proteome of plants inoculated with Fol wild-type or either AVR2, AVR3, SIX2, SIX5, or SIX6 knockout strains was analyzed with nano-Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (nLC-MSMS). Compared to mock-inoculated sap 12 additional plant proteins appeared while 45 proteins were no longer detectable in the xylem sap of Fol-infected plants. Of the 285 proteins found in both uninfected and infected plants the abundance of 258 proteins changed significantly following infection. The xylem sap proteome of plants infected with four Fol effector knockout strains differed significantly from plants infected with wild-type Fol, while that of the SIX2-knockout inoculated plants remained unchanged. Besides an altered abundance of a core set of 24 differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs), each of the four effector knockout strains affected specifically the abundance of a subset of DAPs. Hence, Fol effectors have both unique and shared effects on the composition of the tomato xylem sap proteome. PMID:26583031

  6. Intermediate filaments enable pathogen docking to trigger type 3 effector translocation

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Brian C.; Stamm, Luisa M.; Raaben, Matthijs; Kim, Caleb M.; Kahoud, Emily; Robinson, Lindsey R.; Bose, Sayantan; Queiroz, Ana L.; Herrera, Bobby Brooke; Baxt, Leigh A.; Mor-Vaknin, Nirit; Fu, Yang; Molina, Gabriel; Markovitz, David M.; Whelan, Sean P.; Goldberg, Marcia B.

    2016-01-01

    Type 3 secretion systems (T3SSs) of bacterial pathogens translocate bacterial effector proteins that mediate disease into the eukaryotic cytosol. Effectors traverse the plasma membrane through a translocon pore formed by T3SS proteins. In a genome-wide selection, we identified the intermediate filament vimentin as required for infection by the T3SS-dependent pathogen Shigella flexneri. We found that vimentin is required for efficient T3SS translocation of effectors by S. flexneri and other pathogens that use T3SS, Salmonella Typhimurium and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Vimentin and the intestinal epithelial intermediate filament keratin 18 interact with the C-terminus of the Shigella translocon pore protein IpaC. Vimentin and its interaction with IpaC are dispensable for pore formation, but are required for stable docking of S. flexneri to cells; moreover, stable docking triggers effector secretion. These findings establish that stable docking of the bacterium specifically requires intermediate filaments, is a process distinct from pore formation, and is a prerequisite for effector secretion. PMID:27572444

  7. Antimicrobial effectors in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans: an outgroup to the Arthropoda.

    PubMed

    Dierking, Katja; Yang, Wentao; Schulenburg, Hinrich

    2016-05-26

    Nematodes and arthropods likely form the taxon Ecdysozoa. Information on antimicrobial effectors from the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans may thus shed light on the evolutionary origin of these defences in arthropods. This nematode species possesses an extensive armory of putative antimicrobial effector proteins, such as lysozymes, caenopores (or saposin-like proteins), defensin-like peptides, caenacins and neuropeptide-like proteins, in addition to the production of reactive oxygen species and autophagy. As C. elegans is a bacterivore that lives in microbe-rich environments, some of its effector peptides and proteins likely function in both digestion of bacterial food and pathogen elimination. In this review, we provide an overview of C. elegans immune effector proteins and mechanisms. We summarize the experimental evidence of their antimicrobial function and involvement in the response to pathogen infection. We further evaluate the microbe-induced expression of effector genes using WormExp, a recently established database for C. elegans gene expression analysis. We emphasize the need for further analysis at the protein level to demonstrate an antimicrobial activity of these molecules both in vitro and in vivoThis article is part of the themed issue 'Evolutionary ecology of arthropod antimicrobial peptides'.

  8. Intermediate filaments enable pathogen docking to trigger type 3 effector translocation.

    PubMed

    Russo, Brian C; Stamm, Luisa M; Raaben, Matthijs; Kim, Caleb M; Kahoud, Emily; Robinson, Lindsey R; Bose, Sayantan; Queiroz, Ana L; Herrera, Bobby Brooke; Baxt, Leigh A; Mor-Vaknin, Nirit; Fu, Yang; Molina, Gabriel; Markovitz, David M; Whelan, Sean P; Goldberg, Marcia B

    2016-01-01

    Type 3 secretion systems (T3SSs) of bacterial pathogens translocate bacterial effector proteins that mediate disease into the eukaryotic cytosol. Effectors traverse the plasma membrane through a translocon pore formed by T3SS proteins. In a genome-wide selection, we identified the intermediate filament vimentin as required for infection by the T3SS-dependent pathogen S. flexneri. We found that vimentin is required for efficient T3SS translocation of effectors by S. flexneri and other pathogens that use T3SS, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Vimentin and the intestinal epithelial intermediate filament keratin 18 interact with the C-terminus of the Shigella translocon pore protein IpaC. Vimentin and its interaction with IpaC are dispensable for pore formation, but are required for stable docking of S. flexneri to cells; moreover, stable docking triggers effector secretion. These findings establish that stable docking of the bacterium specifically requires intermediate filaments, is a process distinct from pore formation, and is a prerequisite for effector secretion. PMID:27572444

  9. A Phytophthora sojae cytoplasmic effector mediates disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meixiang; Ahmed Rajput, Nasir; Shen, Danyu; Sun, Peng; Zeng, Wentao; Liu, Tingli; Juma Mafurah, Joseph; Dou, Daolong

    2015-06-03

    Each oomycete pathogen encodes a large number of effectors. Some effectors can be used in crop disease resistance breeding, such as to accelerate R gene cloning and utilisation. Since cytoplasmic effectors may cause acute physiological changes in host cells at very low concentrations, we assume that some of these effectors can serve as functional genes for transgenic plants. Here, we generated transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants that express a Phytophthora sojae CRN (crinkling and necrosis) effector, PsCRN115. We showed that its expression did not significantly affect the growth and development of N. benthamiana, but significantly improved disease resistance and tolerance to salt and drought stresses. Furthermore, we found that expression of heat-shock-protein and cytochrome-P450 encoding genes were unregulated in PsCRN115-transgenic N. benthamiana based on digital gene expression profiling analyses, suggesting the increased plant defence may be achieved by upregulation of these stress-related genes in transgenic plants. Thus, PsCRN115 may be used to improve plant tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses.

  10. GTP- and GDP-Dependent Rab27a Effectors in Pancreatic Beta-Cells.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Mami; Ishizaki, Toshimasa; Kimura, Toshihide

    2015-01-01

    Small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) participate in a wide variety of cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and intracellular transport. Conventionally, only the guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP)-bound small GTPase interacts with effector proteins, and the resulting downstream signals control specific cellular functions. Therefore, the GTP-bound form is regarded as active, and the focus has been on searching for proteins that bind the GTP form to look for their effectors. The Rab family small GTPase Rab27a is highly expressed in some secretory cells and is involved in the control of membrane traffic. The present study reviews recent progress in our understanding of the roles of Rab27a and its effectors in pancreatic beta-cells. In the basal state, GTP-bound Rab27a controls insulin secretion at pre-exocytic stages via its GTP-dependent effectors. We previously identified novel guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP)-bound Rab27-interacting proteins. Interestingly, GDP-bound Rab27a controls endocytosis of the secretory membrane via its interaction with these proteins. We also demonstrated that the insulin secretagogue glucose converts Rab27a from its GTP- to GDP-bound forms. Thus, GTP- and GDP-bound Rab27a regulate pre-exocytic and endocytic stages in membrane traffic, respectively. Since the physiological importance of GDP-bound GTPases has been largely overlooked, we consider that the investigation of GDP-dependent effectors for other GTPases is necessary for further understanding of cellular function.

  11. Transient Expression of Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus Effector Induces Cell Death in Nicotiana benthamiana

    PubMed Central

    Pitino, Marco; Armstrong, Cheryl M.; Cano, Liliana M.; Duan, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus “Las” is a phloem-limited bacterial plant pathogen, and the most prevalent species of Liberibacter associated with citrus huanglongbing (HLB), a devastating disease of citrus worldwide. Although, the complete sequence of the Las genome provides the basis for studying functional genomics of Las and molecular mechanisms of Las-plant interactions, the functional characterization of Las effectors remains a slow process since remains to be cultured. Like other plant pathogens, Las may deliver effector proteins into host cells and modulate a variety of host cellular functions for their infection progression. In this study, we identified 16 putative Las effectors via bioinformatics, and transiently expressed them in Nicotiana benthamiana. Diverse subcellular localization with different shapes and aggregation patterns of the effector candidates were revealed by UV- microscopy after transient expression in leaf tissue. Intriguingly, one of the 16 candidates, Las5315mp (mature protein), was localized in the chloroplast and induced cell death at 3 days post inoculation (dpi) in N. benthamiana. Moreover, Las5315mp induced strong callose deposition in plant cells. This study provides new insights into the localizations and potential roles of these Las effectors in planta. PMID:27458468

  12. Transient Expression of Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus Effector Induces Cell Death in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Pitino, Marco; Armstrong, Cheryl M; Cano, Liliana M; Duan, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus "Las" is a phloem-limited bacterial plant pathogen, and the most prevalent species of Liberibacter associated with citrus huanglongbing (HLB), a devastating disease of citrus worldwide. Although, the complete sequence of the Las genome provides the basis for studying functional genomics of Las and molecular mechanisms of Las-plant interactions, the functional characterization of Las effectors remains a slow process since remains to be cultured. Like other plant pathogens, Las may deliver effector proteins into host cells and modulate a variety of host cellular functions for their infection progression. In this study, we identified 16 putative Las effectors via bioinformatics, and transiently expressed them in Nicotiana benthamiana. Diverse subcellular localization with different shapes and aggregation patterns of the effector candidates were revealed by UV- microscopy after transient expression in leaf tissue. Intriguingly, one of the 16 candidates, Las5315mp (mature protein), was localized in the chloroplast and induced cell death at 3 days post inoculation (dpi) in N. benthamiana. Moreover, Las5315mp induced strong callose deposition in plant cells. This study provides new insights into the localizations and potential roles of these Las effectors in planta. PMID:27458468

  13. Pluripotent Allospecific CD8+ Effector T Cells Traffic to Lung in Murine Obliterative Airway Disease

    PubMed Central

    West, Erin E.; Lavoie, Tera L.; Orens, Jonathan B.; Chen, Edward S.; Ye, Shui Q.; Finkelman, Fred D.; Garcia, Joe G. N.; McDyer, John F.

    2006-01-01

    Long-term success in lung transplantation is limited by obliterative bronchiolitis, whereas T cell effector mechanisms in this process remain incompletely understood. Using the mouse heterotopic allogeneic airway transplant model, we studied T cell effector responses during obliterative airways disease (OAD). Allospecific CD8+IFN-γ+ T cells were detected in airway allografts, with significant coexpression of TNF-α and granzyme B. Therefore, using IFN-γ as a surrogate marker, we assessed the distribution and kinetics of extragraft allo-specific T cells during OAD. Robust allospecific IFN-γ was produced by draining the lymph nodes, spleen, and lung mononuclear cells from allograft, but not isograft recipients by Day 14, and significantly decreased by Day 28. Although the majority of allospecific T cells were CD8+, allospecific CD4+ T cells were also detected in these compartments, with each employing distinct allorecognition pathways. An influx of pluripotent CD8+ effector cells with a memory phenotype were detected in the lung during OAD similar to those seen in the allografts and secondary lymphoid tissue. Antibody depletion of CD8+ T cells markedly reduced airway lumen obliteration and fibrosis at Day 28. Together, these data demonstrate that allospecific CD8+ effector T cells play an important role in OAD and traffic to the lung after heterotopic airway transplant, suggesting that the lung is an important immunologic site, and perhaps a reservoir, for effector cells during the rejection process. PMID:16195540

  14. CD4⁺ effector and memory cell populations protect against Cryptosporidium parvum infection.

    PubMed

    McNair, Nina N; Mead, Jan R

    2013-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a protozoan parasite that infects the epithelial cells of the small intestine causing diarrheal illness in humans. While T cells are known to be important in resistance and recovery from infection, little has been characterized as to the phenotypic expression of surface effector and memory markers after infection. We used an acute model of infection (C57BL/6 interleukin-12p40), which develops long-standing resistance to re-infection, to characterize expression of different effector and memory cells. Using flow cytometry, we found that heterogeneous populations were generated after infection, consisting of both CD62L(high) central memory T cells (T(CM)) and CD62L(low) effector memory T cells (T(EM)) that were competent to produce the Th type 1 effector cytokine, IFN-γ. Both CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T(CM) and T(EM) populations persisted in the absence of infection (up to 60 days post-infection). Additionally, transfer of either CD62L(low)CD4⁺ T(EM) or CD62L(high)CD4⁺ T(CM) into naive recipients resulted in a protective response. Taken together, these studies show that distinct subsets of effector and memory CD4⁺ T cells develop after infection with C. parvum, and mediate protective immunity to re-challenge.

  15. Secreted Fungal Effector Lipase Releases Free Fatty Acids to Inhibit Innate Immunity-Related Callose Formation during Wheat Head Infection[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Blümke, Antje; Falter, Christian; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Sode, Björn; Bode, Rainer; Schäfer, Wilhelm; Feussner, Ivo; Voigt, Christian A.

    2014-01-01

    The deposition of the (1,3)-β-glucan cell wall polymer callose at sites of attempted penetration is a common plant defense response to intruding pathogens and part of the plant’s innate immunity. Infection of the Fusarium graminearum disruption mutant Δfgl1, which lacks the effector lipase FGL1, is restricted to inoculated wheat (Triticum aestivum) spikelets, whereas the wild-type strain colonized the whole wheat spike. Our studies here were aimed at analyzing the role of FGL1 in establishing full F. graminearum virulence. Confocal laser-scanning microscopy revealed that the Δfgl1 mutant strongly induced the deposition of spot-like callose patches in vascular bundles of directly inoculated spikelets, while these callose deposits were not observed in infections by the wild type. Elevated concentrations of the polyunsaturated free fatty acids (FFAs) linoleic and α-linolenic acid, which we detected in F. graminearum wild type-infected wheat spike tissue compared with Δfgl1-infected tissue, provided clear evidence for a suggested function of FGL1 in suppressing callose biosynthesis. These FFAs not only inhibited plant callose biosynthesis in vitro and in planta but also partially restored virulence to the Δfgl1 mutant when applied during infection of wheat spikelets. Additional FFA analysis confirmed that the purified effector lipase FGL1 was sufficient to release linoleic and α-linolenic acids from wheat spike tissue. We concluded that these two FFAs have a major function in the suppression of the innate immunity-related callose biosynthesis and, hence, the progress of F. graminearum wheat infection. PMID:24686113

  16. Differential contributions of central and effector memory T cells to recall responses

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Alan D.; Ely, Kenneth H.; Woodland, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Although the absolute number of memory CD8+ T cells established in the spleen following antigen encounter remains stable for many years, the relative capacity of these cells to mediate recall responses is not known. Here we used a dual adoptive transfer approach to demonstrate a progressive increase in the quality of memory T cell pools in terms of their ability to proliferate and accumulate at effector sites in response to secondary pathogen challenge. This temporal increase in efficacy occurred in CD62Llo (effector memory) and CD62Lhi (central memory) subpopulations, but was most prominent in the CD62Lhi subpopulation. These data indicate that the contribution of effector memory and central memory T cells to the recall response changes substantially over time. PMID:15983064

  17. CD152 (CTLA-4) regulates effector functions of CD8+ T lymphocytes by repressing Eomesodermin.

    PubMed

    Hegel, Johannes K; Knieke, Karin; Kolar, Paula; Reiner, Steven L; Brunner-Weinzierl, Monika C

    2009-03-01

    CD8(+) T lymphocytes are required for effective host defense against pathogens and also for mediating effector responses against uncontrolled proliferating self-tissues. In this study, we determine that individual CD8(+) T cells are tightly controlled in their effector functions by CD152 (CTLA-4). We demonstrate that signals induced by CD152 reduce the frequency of IFN-gamma and granzyme B expressing CD8(+) T cells independently of the transcription factors T-bet or cKrox by selectively inhibiting accumulation of Eomesodermin mRNA and protein. Ectopic expression of Eomesodermin reversed the CD152-mediated inhibition of effector molecule production. Additionally, enhanced cytotoxicity of individual CD8(+) T cells differentiated in the absence of CD152 signaling was determined in vivo. These novel insights extend our understanding of how immune responses of CD8(+) T cells are selectively modulated.

  18. Quantifying elasticity analysis: how external effectors cause changes to metabolic systems.

    PubMed

    Ainscow, E K; Brand, M D

    1999-02-01

    The sites of action of external effectors, such as inhibitors or hormones, on metabolic systems can be described qualitatively by elasticity analysis, or quantitatively by regulation analysis. The use of the latter approach has been limited, due to its practical complexity. In this study, we report mathematical relationships that relate the finite changes in system variables (fluxes and metabolite concentrations) to changes in activity of metabolic processes brought about by a single step addition of an effector. The activation or inhibition of a process by an effector is measured from changes in flux and intermediate levels. The changes in activity of each process can be used to describe, semi-quantitatively, which activations or inhibitions of the system processes are important in bringing about the observed levels of system variables.

  19. Toluene 4-Monooxygenase and its Complex with Effector Protein T4moD

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Lucas J.; Fox, Brian G.

    2012-10-16

    Toluene 4-monooxygenase (T4MO) is a multiprotein diiron enzyme complex that catalyzes the regiospecific oxidation of toluene to p-cresol. Catalytic function requires the presence of a small protein, called the effector protein. Effector protein exerts substantial control on the diiron hydroxylase catalytic cycle through protein-protein interactions. High-resolution crystal structures of the stoichometric hydroxylase and effector protein complex described here reveal how protein-protein interactions and reduction of the diiron center produce an active site configuration poised for reaction with O{sub 2}. Further information from crystal structures of mutated isoforms of the hydroxylase and a peroxo adduct is combined with catalytic results to give a fuller picture of the geometry of the enzyme-substrate complex used for the high fidelity oxidation of hydrocarbon substrates.

  20. Specificity of DNA microarray hybridization: characterization, effectors and approaches for data correction

    PubMed Central

    Koltai, Hinanit; Weingarten-Baror, Carmiya

    2008-01-01

    Microarray-hybridization specificity is one of the main effectors of microarray result quality. In the present review, we suggest a definition for specificity that spans four hybridization levels, from the single probe to the microarray platform. For increased hybridization specificity, it is important to quantify the extent of the specificity at each of these levels, and correct the data accordingly. We outline possible effects of low hybridization specificity on the obtained results and list possible effectors of hybridization specificity. In addition, we discuss several studies in which theoretical approaches, empirical means or data filtration were used to identify specificity effectors, and increase the specificity of the hybridization results. However, these various approaches may not yet provide an ultimate solution; rather, further tool development is needed to enhance microarray-hybridization specificity. PMID:18299281

  1. Learning-based position control of a closed-kinematic chain robot end-effector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Charles C.; Zhou, Zhen-Lei

    1990-01-01

    A trajectory control scheme whose design is based on learning theory, for a six-degree-of-freedom (DOF) robot end-effector built to study robotic assembly of NASA hardwares in space is presented. The control scheme consists of two control systems: the feedback control system and the learning control system. The feedback control system is designed using the concept of linearization about a selected operating point, and the method of pole placement so that the closed-loop linearized system is stabilized. The learning control scheme consisting of PD-type learning controllers, provides additional inputs to improve the end-effector performance after each trial. Experimental studies performed on a 2 DOF end-effector built at CUA, for three tracking cases show that actual trajectories approach desired trajectories as the number of trials increases. The tracking errors are substantially reduced after only five trials.

  2. Mining the human gut microbiota for effector strains that shape the immune system.

    PubMed

    Ahern, Philip P; Faith, Jeremiah J; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2014-06-19

    The gut microbiota codevelops with the immune system beginning at birth. Mining the microbiota for bacterial strains responsible for shaping the structure and dynamic operations of the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system represents a formidable combinatorial problem but one that needs to be overcome to advance mechanistic understanding of microbial community and immune system coregulation and to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches that promote health. Here, we discuss a scalable, less biased approach for identifying effector strains in complex microbial communities that impact immune function. The approach begins by identifying uncultured human fecal microbiota samples that transmit immune phenotypes to germ-free mice. Clonally arrayed sequenced collections of bacterial strains are constructed from representative donor microbiota. If the collection transmits phenotypes, effector strains are identified by testing randomly generated subsets with overlapping membership in individually housed germ-free animals. Detailed mechanistic studies of effector strain-host interactions can then be performed. PMID:24950201

  3. New insights into the role of Bartonella effector proteins in pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Siamer, Sabrina; Dehio, Christoph

    2015-02-01

    The facultative intracellular bacteria Bartonella spp. share a common infection strategy to invade and colonize mammals in a host-specific manner. Following transmission by blood-sucking arthropods, Bartonella are inoculated in the derma and then spread, via two sequential enigmatic niches, to the blood stream where they cause a long-lasting intra-erythrocytic bacteraemia. The VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system (VirB/D4 T4SS) is essential for the pathogenicity of most Bartonella species by injecting an arsenal of effector proteins into host cells. These bacterial effector proteins share a modular architecture, comprising domains and/or motifs that confer an array of functions. Here, we review recent advances in understanding the function and evolutionary origin of this fascinating repertoire of host-targeted bacterial effectors.

  4. Transcription Factor Networks Directing the Development, Function, and Evolution of Innate Lymphoid Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Joonsoo; Malhotra, Nidhi

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian lymphoid immunity is mediated by fast and slow responders to pathogens. Fast innate lymphocytes are active within hours after infections in mucosal tissues. Slow adaptive lymphocytes are conventional T and B cells with clonal antigen receptors that function days after pathogen exposure. A transcription factor (TF) regulatory network guiding early T cell development is at the core of effector function diversification in all innate lymphocytes, and the kinetics of immune responses is set by developmental programming. Operational units within the innate lymphoid system are not classified by the types of pathogen-sensing machineries but rather by discrete effector functions programmed by regulatory TF networks. Based on the evolutionary history of TFs of the regulatory networks, fast effectors likely arose earlier in the evolution of animals to fortify body barriers, and in mammals they often develop in fetal ontogeny prior to the establishment of fully competent adaptive immunity. PMID:25650177

  5. Of guards, decoys, baits and traps: pathogen perception in plants by type III effector sensors.

    PubMed

    Khan, Madiha; Subramaniam, Rajagopal; Desveaux, Darrell

    2016-02-01

    Effector-triggered immunity (ETI) is conferred by dominant plant resistance (R) genes, which encode predominantly nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat domain proteins (NLRs), against cognate microbial avirulence (Avr) genes, which include bacterial type III secreted effectors (T3Es). The 'guard model' describes the mechanism of T3E perception by plants, whereby NLRs monitor host proteins ('sensors') for T3E-induced perturbations. This model has provided a molecular framework to understand T3E perception and has rationalized how plants can use a limited number of NLRs (∼160 in Arabidopsis) to contend with a potentially limitless number of evolving effectors. In this review we provide a characteristic overview of plant T3E sensors and discuss how these sensors convey the presence of T3Es to NLR proteins to activate ETI.

  6. TAL effectors and activation of predicted host targets distinguish Asian from African strains of the rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola while strict conservation suggests universal importance of five TAL effectors

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Katherine E.; Booher, Nicholas J.; Wang, Li; Bogdanove, Adam J.

    2015-01-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc) causes the increasingly important disease bacterial leaf streak of rice (BLS) in part by type III delivery of repeat-rich transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors to upregulate host susceptibility genes. By pathogen whole genome, single molecule, real-time sequencing and host RNA sequencing, we compared TAL effector content and rice transcriptional responses across 10 geographically diverse Xoc strains. TAL effector content is surprisingly conserved overall, yet distinguishes Asian from African isolates. Five TAL effectors are conserved across all strains. In a prior laboratory assay in rice cv. Nipponbare, only two contributed to virulence in strain BLS256 but the strict conservation indicates all five may be important, in different rice genotypes or in the field. Concatenated and aligned, TAL effector content across strains largely reflects relationships based on housekeeping genes, suggesting predominantly vertical transmission. Rice transcriptional responses did not reflect these relationships, and on average, only 28% of genes upregulated and 22% of genes downregulated by a strain are up- and down- regulated (respectively) by all strains. However, when only known TAL effector targets were considered, the relationships resembled those of the TAL effectors. Toward identifying new targets, we used the TAL effector-DNA recognition code to predict effector binding elements in promoters of genes upregulated by each strain, but found that for every strain, all upregulated genes had at least one. Filtering with a classifier we developed previously decreases the number of predicted binding elements across the genome, suggesting that it may reduce false positives among upregulated genes. Applying this filter and eliminating genes for which upregulation did not strictly correlate with presence of the corresponding TAL effector, we generated testable numbers of candidate targets for four of the five strictly conserved TAL

  7. Genetically distinct pathways guide effector export through the type VI secretion system

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, John C.; Beck, Christina M.; Goo, Young Ah; Russell, Alistair B.; Harding, Brittany; De Leon, Justin A.; Cunningham, David A.; Tran, Bao Q.; Low, David A.; Goodlett, David R.; Hayes, Christopher S.; Mougous, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Bacterial secretion systems often employ molecular chaperones to recognize and facilitate export of their substrates. Recent work demonstrated that a secreted component of the type VI secretion system (T6SS), hemolysin co-regulated protein (Hcp), binds directly to effectors, enhancing their stability in the bacterial cytoplasm. Herein, we describe a quantitative cellular proteomics screen for T6S substrates that exploits this chaperone-like quality of Hcp. Application of this approach to the Hcp secretion island I-encoded T6SS (H1-T6SS) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa led to the identification of a novel effector protein, termed Tse4 (type VI secretion exported 4), subsequently shown to act as a potent intra-specific H1-T6SS-delivered antibacterial toxin. Interestingly, our screen failed to identify two predicted H1-T6SS effectors, Tse5 and Tse6, which differ from Hcp-stabilized substrates by the presence of toxin-associated PAAR-repeat motifs and genetic linkage to members of the valine-glycine repeat protein G (vgrG) genes. Genetic studies further distinguished these two groups of effectors: Hcp-stabilized effectors were found to display redundancy in interbacterial competition with respect to the requirement for the two H1-T6SS-exported VgrG proteins, whereas Tse5 and Tse6 delivery strictly required a cognate VgrG. Together, we propose that interaction with either VgrG or Hcp defines distinct pathways for T6S effector export. PMID:24589350

  8. Coxiella burnetii Effector Proteins That Localize to the Parasitophorous Vacuole Membrane Promote Intracellular Replication

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Charles L.; Beare, Paul A.; Voth, Daniel E.; Howe, Dale; Cockrell, Diane C.; Bastidas, Robert J.; Valdivia, Raphael H.

    2014-01-01

    The intracellular bacterial pathogen Coxiella burnetii directs biogenesis of a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) that acquires host endolysosomal components. Formation of a PV that supports C. burnetii replication requires a Dot/Icm type 4B secretion system (T4BSS) that delivers bacterial effector proteins into the host cell cytosol. Thus, a subset of T4BSS effectors are presumed to direct PV biogenesis. Recently, the PV-localized effector protein CvpA was found to promote C. burnetii intracellular growth and PV expansion. We predict additional C. burnetii effectors localize to the PV membrane and regulate eukaryotic vesicle trafficking events that promote pathogen growth. To identify these vacuolar effector proteins, a list of predicted C. burnetii T4BSS substrates was compiled using bioinformatic criteria, such as the presence of eukaryote-like coiled-coil domains. Adenylate cyclase translocation assays revealed 13 proteins were secreted in a Dot/Icm-dependent fashion by C. burnetii during infection of human THP-1 macrophages. Four of the Dot/Icm substrates, termed Coxiella vacuolar protein B (CvpB), CvpC, CvpD, and CvpE, labeled the PV membrane and LAMP1-positive vesicles when ectopically expressed as fluorescently tagged fusion proteins. C. burnetii ΔcvpB, ΔcvpC, ΔcvpD, and ΔcvpE mutants exhibited significant defects in intracellular replication and PV formation. Genetic complementation of the ΔcvpD and ΔcvpE mutants rescued intracellular growth and PV generation, whereas the growth of C. burnetii ΔcvpB and ΔcvpC was rescued upon cohabitation with wild-type bacteria in a common PV. Collectively, these data indicate C. burnetii encodes multiple effector proteins that target the PV membrane and benefit pathogen replication in human macrophages. PMID:25422265

  9. Fructose 1-Phosphate Is the Preferred Effector of the Metabolic Regulator Cra of Pseudomonas putida*

    PubMed Central

    Chavarría, Max; Santiago, César; Platero, Raúl; Krell, Tino; Casasnovas, José M.; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2011-01-01

    The catabolite repressor/activator (Cra) protein is a global sensor and regulator of carbon fluxes through the central metabolic pathways of Gram-negative bacteria. To examine the nature of the effector (or effectors) that signal such fluxes to the protein of Pseudomonas putida, the Cra factor of this soil microorganism has been purified and characterized and its three-dimensional structure determined. Analytical ultracentrifugation, gel filtration, and mobility shift assays showed that the effector-free Cra is a dimer that binds an operator DNA sequence in the promoter region of the fruBKA cluster. Furthermore, fructose 1-phosphate (F1P) was found to most efficiently dissociate the Cra-DNA complex. Thermodynamic parameters of the F1P-Cra-DNA interaction calculated by isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that the factor associates tightly to the DNA sequence 5′-TTAAACGTTTCA-3′ (KD = 26.3 ± 3.1 nm) and that F1P binds the protein with an apparent stoichiometry of 1.06 ± 0.06 molecules per Cra monomer and a KD of 209 ± 20 nm. Other possible effectors, like fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, did not display a significant affinity for the regulator under the assay conditions. Moreover, the structure of Cra and its co-crystal with F1P at a 2-Å resolution revealed that F1P fits optimally the geometry of the effector pocket. Our results thus single out F1P as the preferred metabolic effector of the Cra protein of P. putida. PMID:21239488

  10. An Alternative to Thought Suppression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boice, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Setting free the bears: Escape from thought suppression," by D. M. Wegner (see record 2011-25622-008). While Wegner supposed that we might have to learn to live with bad thoughts, the present author discusses the use of imagination and guided imagery as an alternative to forced thought suppression.

  11. Nonanesthetics can suppress learning.

    PubMed

    Kandel, L; Chortkoff, B S; Sonner, J; Laster, M J; Eger, E I

    1996-02-01

    Nonanesthetic gases or vapors do not abolish movement in response to noxious stimuli despite partial pressures and affinities for lipids that would, according to the Meyer-Overton hypothesis, predict such abolition. We investigated whether nonanesthetics depress learning and memory (i.e., provide amnesia). To define learning, we used a "fear-potentiated startle paradigm": rats trained to associate light with a noxious stimulus (footshock) will startle more, as measured by an accelerometer, when a startle-eliciting stimulus (e.g., a noise) is paired with light than when the startle-eliciting stimulus is presented alone. We imposed light-shock pairings on 98 rats under three conditions: no anesthesia (control); 0.20, 0.29, and 0.38 times the minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration (MAC) of desflurane; or two nonanesthetics (1,2-dichloroperfluorocyclobutane and perfluoropentane) at partial pressures predicted from their lipid solubilities to be between 0.2 and 1 MAC. Desflurane produced a dose-related depression of learning with abolition of learning at 0.28 MAC. Perfluoropentane at 0.2-predicted MAC had the same effect as 0.28 MAC desflurane. 1,2-Dichloroperfluorocyclobutane at 0.5- to 1-predicted MAC abolished learning. Because nonanesthetics suppress learning but not movement (the two critical components of anesthesia), they may prove useful in discriminating between mechanisms and sites of action of anesthetics. PMID:8561335

  12. Inducing amnesia through systemic suppression

    PubMed Central

    Hulbert, Justin C.; Henson, Richard N.; Anderson, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal damage profoundly disrupts the ability to store new memories of life events. Amnesic windows might also occur in healthy people due to disturbed hippocampal function arising during mental processes that systemically reduce hippocampal activity. Intentionally suppressing memory retrieval (retrieval stopping) reduces hippocampal activity via control mechanisms mediated by the lateral prefrontal cortex. Here we show that when people suppress retrieval given a reminder of an unwanted memory, they are considerably more likely to forget unrelated experiences from periods surrounding suppression. This amnesic shadow follows a dose-response function, becomes more pronounced after practice suppressing retrieval, exhibits characteristics indicating disturbed hippocampal function, and is predicted by reduced hippocampal activity. These findings indicate that stopping retrieval engages a suppression mechanism that broadly compromises hippocampal processes and that hippocampal stabilization processes can be interrupted strategically. Cognitively triggered amnesia constitutes an unrecognized forgetting process that may account for otherwise unexplained memory lapses following trauma. PMID:26977589

  13. Inducing amnesia through systemic suppression.

    PubMed

    Hulbert, Justin C; Henson, Richard N; Anderson, Michael C

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal damage profoundly disrupts the ability to store new memories of life events. Amnesic windows might also occur in healthy people due to disturbed hippocampal function arising during mental processes that systemically reduce hippocampal activity. Intentionally suppressing memory retrieval (retrieval stopping) reduces hippocampal activity via control mechanisms mediated by the lateral prefrontal cortex. Here we show that when people suppress retrieval given a reminder of an unwanted memory, they are considerably more likely to forget unrelated experiences from periods surrounding suppression. This amnesic shadow follows a dose-response function, becomes more pronounced after practice suppressing retrieval, exhibits characteristics indicating disturbed hippocampal function, and is predicted by reduced hippocampal activity. These findings indicate that stopping retrieval engages a suppression mechanism that broadly compromises hippocampal processes and that hippocampal stabilization processes can be interrupted strategically. Cognitively triggered amnesia constitutes an unrecognized forgetting process that may account for otherwise unexplained memory lapses following trauma. PMID:26977589

  14. Sound can suppress visual perception.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Souta; Ide, Masakazu

    2015-05-29

    In a single modality, the percept of an input (e.g., voices of neighbors) is often suppressed by another (e.g., the sound of a car horn nearby) due to close interactions of neural responses to these inputs. Recent studies have also suggested that close interactions of neural responses could occur even across sensory modalities, especially for audio-visual interactions. However, direct behavioral evidence regarding the audio-visual perceptual suppression effect has not been reported in a study with humans. Here, we investigated whether sound could have a suppressive effect on visual perception. We found that white noise bursts presented through headphones degraded visual orientation discrimination performance. This auditory suppression effect on visual perception frequently occurred when these inputs were presented in a spatially and temporally consistent manner. These results indicate that the perceptual suppression effect could occur across auditory and visual modalities based on close and direct neural interactions among those sensory inputs.

  15. An effector of the Irish potato famine pathogen antagonizes a host autophagy cargo receptor

    PubMed Central

    Dagdas, Yasin F; Belhaj, Khaoula; Maqbool, Abbas; Chaparro-Garcia, Angela; Pandey, Pooja; Petre, Benjamin; Tabassum, Nadra; Cruz-Mireles, Neftaly; Hughes, Richard K; Sklenar, Jan; Win, Joe; Menke, Frank; Findlay, Kim; Banfield, Mark J; Kamoun, Sophien; Bozkurt, Tolga O

    2016-01-01

    Plants use autophagy to safeguard against infectious diseases. However, how plant pathogens interfere with autophagy-related processes is unknown. Here, we show that PexRD54, an effector from the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans, binds host autophagy protein ATG8CL to stimulate autophagosome formation. PexRD54 depletes the autophagy cargo receptor Joka2 out of ATG8CL complexes and interferes with Joka2's positive effect on pathogen defense. Thus, a plant pathogen effector has evolved to antagonize a host autophagy cargo receptor to counteract host defenses. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10856.001 PMID:26765567

  16. Assembly of Customized TAL Effectors Through Advanced ULtiMATE System.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junjiao; Guo, Shengjie; Yuan, Pengfei; Wei, Wensheng

    2016-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) have been widely applied in gene targeting. Here we describe an advanced ULtiMATE (USER-based Ligation-Mediated Assembly of TAL Effector) system that utilizes USER fusion technique and archive of 512 tetramer templates to achieve highly efficient construction of TALEs, which takes only half a day to accomplish the assembly of any given TALE construct. This system is also suitable for large-scale assembly of TALENs and any other TALE-based constructions. PMID:26443213

  17. Assembly of Customized TAL Effectors Through Advanced ULtiMATE System.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junjiao; Guo, Shengjie; Yuan, Pengfei; Wei, Wensheng

    2016-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) have been widely applied in gene targeting. Here we describe an advanced ULtiMATE (USER-based Ligation-Mediated Assembly of TAL Effector) system that utilizes USER fusion technique and archive of 512 tetramer