Science.gov

Sample records for effects test series

  1. Extending the Alternating Series Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsuura, Hidefumi

    2012-01-01

    Alternating series have the simplest of sign patterns. What about series with more complicated patterns? By inspecting the alternating series test closely, we find a theorem that applies to more complicated sign patterns, and beyond.

  2. The Effect of Schooling and Ability on Achievement Test Scores. NBER Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Karsten; Heckman, James J.; Mullen, Kathleen J.

    This study developed two methods for estimating the effect of schooling on achievement test scores that control for the endogeneity of schooling by postulating that both schooling and test scores are generated by a common unobserved latent ability. The methods were applied to data on schooling and test scores. Estimates from the two methods are in…

  3. Flight Test Series 3: Flight Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, Mike; Sternberg, Daniel; Valkov, Steffi

    2015-01-01

    This document is a flight test report from the Operational perspective for Flight Test Series 3, a subpart of the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) project. Flight Test Series 3 testing began on June 15, 2015, and concluded on August 12, 2015. Participants included NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center, NASA Glenn Research Center, NASA Langley Research center, General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., and Honeywell. Key stakeholders analyzed their System Under Test (SUT) in two distinct configurations. Configuration 1, known as Pairwise Encounters, was subdivided into two parts: 1a, involving a low-speed UAS ownship and intruder(s), and 1b, involving a high-speed surrogate ownship and intruder. Configuration 2, known as Full Mission, involved a surrogate ownship, live intruder(s), and integrated virtual traffic. Table 1 is a summary of flights for each configuration, with data collection flights highlighted in green. Section 2 and 3 of this report give an in-depth description of the flight test period, aircraft involved, flight crew, and mission team. Overall, Flight Test 3 gathered excellent data for each SUT. We attribute this successful outcome in large part from the experience that was acquired from the ACAS Xu SS flight test flown in December 2014. Configuration 1 was a tremendous success, thanks to the training, member participation, integration/testing, and in-depth analysis of the flight points. Although Configuration 2 flights were cancelled after 3 data collection flights due to various problems, the lessons learned from this will help the UAS in the NAS project move forward successfully in future flight phases.

  4. Effective Strategies for Dealing with Test Anxiety. Teacher to Teacher Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Lisa

    Test anxiety is exceedingly common among learners in adult basic education. Any one or more of the following can cause individuals to experience test anxiety: learned behavior resulting from the expectations of parents, teachers, or significant others; associations that students have built between grades or test performance and personal worth;…

  5. Testing the Effectiveness of Cognitive Analytic Therapy for Hypersexuality Disorder: An Intensive Time-Series Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kellett, Stephen; Simmonds-Buckley, Mel; Totterdell, Peter

    2016-07-06

    The evidence base for treatment of hypersexuality disorder (HD) has few studies with appropriate methodological rigor. This study therefore conducted a single case experiment of cognitive analytic therapy (CAT) for HD using an A/B design with extended follow-up. Cruising, pornography usage, masturbation frequency and associated cognitions and emotions were measured daily in a 231-day time series. Following a three-week assessment baseline (A: 21 days), treatment was delivered via outpatient sessions (B: 147 days), with the follow-up period lasting 63 days. Results show that cruising and pornography usage extinguished. The total sexual outlet score no longer met caseness, and the primary nomothetic hypersexuality outcome measure met recovery criteria. Reduced pornography consumption was mediated by reduced obsessionality and greater interpersonal connectivity. The utility of the CAT model for intimacy problems shows promise. Directions for future HD outcome research are also provided.

  6. Item Banking. Basic Testing Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Roy

    This pamphlet describes the exciting potential of item banking--a new approach to testing which combines both comparability of scores with flexibility of test format. Item banks are collections of items where the characteristics of each item is known and these characteristics can be summated to described a test made from such items. The principle…

  7. Single-event Effect Report for EPC Series eGaN FETs: Proton Testing for SEE and TNID Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheick, Leif

    2014-01-01

    Previous testing of the Enhanced Power Conversion (EPC) eGaN FETs showed sensitivity to destructive single-event effects (SEE) effects to heavy ions. The presence of tungsten plugs in the gate area raises concerns that the device may be vulnerable to SEE from protons. Irradiation of biased and unbiased devices with heavy ion has results in some damage suspected of being due to total non-ionizing dose (TNID). Proton irradiation is a better radiation type to study this effect. This study presents the results of testing device with protons for SEE and TNID. No SEE in the EPC2012 device, the most sensitive device to SEE, were seen with 53 MeV protons at several angles. The devices continued to function after 1.5 Mrad (Si) of proton dose with only a slight shift in parameters. These results suggest that gross TNID will not be a factor in using these devices nor suffer from SEE due to protons. However, the device should be tested at with 500 MeV protons to guarantee to immunity proton SEE.

  8. The effect of cell design and test criteria on the series/parallel performance of nickel cadmium cells and batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, G.; Webb, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Three batteries were operated in parallel from a common bus during charge and discharge. SMM utilized NASA Standard 20AH cells and batteries, and LANDSAT-D NASA 50AH cells and batteries of a similar design. Each battery consisted of 22 series connected cells providing the nominal 28V bus. The three batteries were charged in parallel using the voltage limit/current taper mode wherein the voltage limit was temperature compensated. Discharge occurred on the demand of the spacecraft instruments and electronics. Both flights were planned for three to five year missions. The series/parallel configuration of cells and batteries for the 3-5 yr mission required a well controlled product with built-in reliability and uniformity. Examples of how component, cell and battery selection methods affect the uniformity of the series/parallel operation of the batteries both in testing and in flight are given.

  9. Mighty Eagle 'Rocks' Flight Testing Series

    NASA Video Gallery

    The "Mighty Eagle," a NASA robotic prototype lander, recently completed a series of test objectives – even going as high as 100 feet for several free flights. The vehicle is a three-legged protot...

  10. Multi-frac test series. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, R A; Warpinski, N R; Finley, S J; Shear, R C

    1981-11-01

    This paper describes a series of five full-scale tests performed to evaluate various multi-frac concepts. The tests were conducted at the Nevada Test Site in horizontal boreholes drilled in ash-fall tuff from a tunnel under 1300 ft of overburden.

  11. Determinism test for very short time series.

    PubMed

    Binder, P-M; Igarashi, Ryu; Seymour, William; Takeishi, Candy

    2005-03-01

    A test for determinism suitable for time series shorter than 100 points is presented, and applied to numerical and observed data. The method exploits the linear d(d(0)) dependence in the expression d(t) approximately d(0)e(lambda t) which describes the growth of small separations between trajectories in chaotic systems.

  12. UAS-NAS Flight Test Series 3: Test Environment Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoang, Ty; Murphy, Jim; Otto, Neil

    2016-01-01

    The desire and ability to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is of increasing urgency. The application of unmanned aircraft to perform national security, defense, scientific, and emergency management are driving the critical need for less restrictive access by UAS to the NAS. UAS represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the NAS. NASA's UAS Integration in the NAS Project is conducting research in the areas of Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability (SSI), Human Systems Integration (HSI), and Communications (Comm), and Certification to support reducing the barriers of UAS access to the NAS. This research is broken into two research themes namely, UAS Integration and Test Infrastructure. UAS Integration focuses on airspace integration procedures and performance standards to enable UAS integration in the air transportation system, covering Detect and Avoid (DAA) performance standards, command and control performance standards, and human systems integration. The focus of Test Infrastructure is to enable development and validation of airspace integration procedures and performance standards, including integrated test and evaluation. In support of the integrated test and evaluation efforts, the Project will develop an adaptable, scalable, and schedulable relevant test environment capable of evaluating concepts and technologies for unmanned aircraft systems to safely operate in the NAS. To accomplish this task, the Project is conducting a series of human-in-the-loop (HITL) and flight test activities that integrate key concepts, technologies and/or procedures in a relevant air traffic environment. Each of the integrated events will build on the technical achievements, fidelity, and

  13. Testing for intracycle determinism in pseudoperiodic time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, Mara C. S.; Mendes, Eduardo M. A. M.; Aguirre, Luis A.

    2008-06-01

    A determinism test is proposed based on the well-known method of the surrogate data. Assuming predictability to be a signature of determinism, the proposed method checks for intracycle (e.g., short-term) determinism in the pseudoperiodic time series for which standard methods of surrogate analysis do not apply. The approach presented is composed of two steps. First, the data are preprocessed to reduce the effects of seasonal and trend components. Second, standard tests of surrogate analysis can then be used. The determinism test is applied to simulated and experimental pseudoperiodic time series and the results show the applicability of the proposed test.

  14. Effects of Scale Transformation and Test Termination Rule on the Precision of Ability Estimates in CAT. ACT Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Qing; Wang, Tianyou; Ban, Jae-Chun

    Error indices (bias, standard error of estimation, and root mean square error) obtained on different scales of measurement under different test termination rules in a computerized adaptive test (CAT) context were examined. Four ability estimation methods were studied: (1) maximum likelihood estimation (MLE); (2) weighted likelihood estimation…

  15. Photopatch testing: recommendations for a European photopatch test baseline series.

    PubMed

    Gonçalo, Margarida; Ferguson, James; Bonevalle, Annie; Bruynzeel, Derk P; Giménez-Arnau, Ana; Goossens, An; Kerr, Alastair; Lecha, Mario; Neumann, Norbert; Niklasson, Bo; Pigatto, Paolo; Rhodes, Lesley E; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Sarkany, Robert; Thomas, Pierre; Wilkinson, Mark

    2013-04-01

    In order to establish a consensus recommendation for performing photopatch testing, a photopatch test taskforce group was established under the joint umbrella of the European Society for Contact Dermatitis and the European Society for Photodermatology in 2000. After proposing the most adequate methodology in 2004 and completing a European multicentre photopatch test study in 2011, this taskforce is recommending a list of photoallergens that should form part of a baseline series for photopatch testing in Europe. It contains mainly ultraviolet filters and drugs, mostly non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The choice of chemicals was based on the results of a recent multicentre study, previous published cases of photoallergy, and use of the substances in the European market. It is suggested that an extended list of photoallergens should be photopatch tested in selected cases, along with patients' own products. Two contact allergens, cinnamyl alcohol and decyl glucoside, should be simultaneously patch tested in order to clarify photopatch and patch test reactions, respectively, to ketoprofen and methylene bis-benzotriazolyl tetramethylbutylphenol (Tinosorb M™).

  16. Testing the Effectiveness of an Intervention Model Based on Data Use: A Replication Series across Clusters of Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaughton, Stuart; Lai, Mei Kuin; Hsiao, Selena

    2012-01-01

    Intervention models based on data use can be effective in raising student achievement. This article presents 3 studies of one such model which had reported improved reading comprehension levels in 7 poor urban multicultural schools serving indigenous and ethnic minority communities. The intervention (the Learning Schools Model) used a process…

  17. Permutation test for periodicity in short time series data

    PubMed Central

    Ptitsyn, Andrey A; Zvonic, Sanjin; Gimble, Jeffrey M

    2006-01-01

    Background Periodic processes, such as the circadian rhythm, are important factors modulating and coordinating transcription of genes governing key metabolic pathways. Theoretically, even small fluctuations in the orchestration of circadian gene expression patterns among different tissues may result in functional asynchrony at the organism level and may contribute to a wide range of pathologic disorders. Identification of circadian expression pattern in time series data is important, but equally challenging. Microarray technology allows estimation of relative expression of thousands of genes at each time point. However, this estimation often lacks precision and microarray experiments are prohibitively expensive, limiting the number of data points in a time series expression profile. The data produced in these experiments carries a high degree of stochastic variation, obscuring the periodic pattern and a limited number of replicates, typically covering not more than two complete periods of oscillation. Results To address this issue, we have developed a simple, but effective, computational technique for the identification of a periodic pattern in relatively short time series, typical for microarray studies of circadian expression. This test is based on a random permutation of time points in order to estimate non-randomness of a periodogram. The Permutated time, or Pt-test, is able to detect oscillations within a given period in expression profiles dominated by a high degree of stochastic fluctuations or oscillations of different irrelevant frequencies. We have conducted a comprehensive study of circadian expression on a large data set produced at PBRC, representing three different peripheral murine tissues. We have also re-analyzed a number of similar time series data sets produced and published independently by other research groups over the past few years. Conclusion The Permutated time test (Pt-test) is demonstrated to be effective for detection of periodicity in

  18. UAS in the NAS Flight Test Series 3 Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, James R.

    2015-01-01

    The UAS Integration in the NAS Project is conducting a series of flight tests to acheive the following objectives: 1.) Validate results previously collected during project simulations with live data 2.) Evaluate TCAS IISS interoperability 3.) Test fully integrated system in a relevant live test environment 4.) Inform final DAA and C2 MOPS 5.) Reduce risk for Flight Test Series 4.

  19. Space shuttle orbiter test flight series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, D.; Gordon, R.; Jackson, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    The proposed studies on the space shuttle orbiter test taxi runs and captive flight tests were set forth. The orbiter test flights, the approach and landing tests (ALT), and the ground vibration tests were cited. Free flight plans, the space shuttle ALT crews, and 747 carrier aircraft crew were considered.

  20. Series and parallel arc-fault circuit interrupter tests.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jay Dean; Fresquez, Armando J.; Gudgel, Bob; Meares, Andrew

    2013-07-01

    While the 2011 National Electrical Codeª (NEC) only requires series arc-fault protection, some arc-fault circuit interrupter (AFCI) manufacturers are designing products to detect and mitigate both series and parallel arc-faults. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has extensively investigated the electrical differences of series and parallel arc-faults and has offered possible classification and mitigation solutions. As part of this effort, Sandia National Laboratories has collaborated with MidNite Solar to create and test a 24-string combiner box with an AFCI which detects, differentiates, and de-energizes series and parallel arc-faults. In the case of the MidNite AFCI prototype, series arc-faults are mitigated by opening the PV strings, whereas parallel arc-faults are mitigated by shorting the array. A range of different experimental series and parallel arc-fault tests with the MidNite combiner box were performed at the Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory (DETL) at SNL in Albuquerque, NM. In all the tests, the prototype de-energized the arc-faults in the time period required by the arc-fault circuit interrupt testing standard, UL 1699B. The experimental tests confirm series and parallel arc-faults can be successfully mitigated with a combiner box-integrated solution.

  1. Ecotoxicological test systems proceedings of a series of workshops

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, A.S.

    1981-06-01

    A series of six workshops was conducted by the Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, to identify laboratory methods and data evaluation techniques for predicting the environmental effects of chemical substances. Methods were evaluated for their potential for standardization and for use in the ecological hazard and risk assessment processes under the Toxic Substances Control Act. The workshops addressed assessment and policy requirements of multispecies toxicology test procedures, mathematical models useful in hazard and risk assessments, and methods for measuring effects of chemicals on terrestrial and aquatic population interactions and ecosystem properties. The workshops were primarily used as a mechanism to gather information about research in progress. This information was part of the data base used to prepare a critical review of laboratory methods for ecological toxicology.

  2. Integrated Test and Evaluation (ITE) Flight Test Series 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The integrated Flight Test 4 (FT4) will gather data for the UAS researchers Sense and Avoid systems (referred to as Detect and Avoid in the RTCA SC 228 ToR) algorithms and pilot displays for candidate UAS systems in a relevant environment. The technical goals of FT4 are to: 1) perform end-to-end traffic encounter test of pilot guidance generated by DAA algorithms; 2) collect data to inform the initial Minimum Operational Performance Standards (MOPS) for Detect and Avoid systems. FT4 objectives and test infrastructure builds from previous UAS project simulations and flight tests. NASA Ames (ARC), NASA Armstrong (AFRC), and NASA Langley (LaRC) Research Centers will share responsibility for conducting the tests, each providing a test lab and critical functionality. UAS-NAS project support and participation on the 2014 flight test of ACAS Xu and DAA Self Separation (SS) significantly contributed to building up infrastructure and procedures for FT3 as well. The DAA Scripted flight test (FT4) will be conducted out of NASA Armstrong over an eight-week period beginning in April 2016.

  3. UAS in the NAS Flight Test Series 4 Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Flight Test Series 4 (FT4) provides the researchers with an opportunity to expand on the data collected during the first flight tests. Following Flight Test Series 3, additional scripted encounters with different aircraft performance and sensors will be conducted. FT4 is presently planned for Spring of 2016 to ensure collection of data to support the validation of the final RTCA Phase 1 DAA (Detect and Avoid) Minimum Operational Performance Standards (MOPS). There are three research objectives associated with this goal: Evaluate the performance of the DAA system against cooperative and non-cooperative aircraft encounters Evaluate UAS (Unmanned Aircraft Systems) pilot performance in response to DAA maneuver guidance and alerting with live intruder encounters Evaluate TCAS/DAA (Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System/Detect and Avoid) interoperability. This flight test series will focus on only the Scripted Encounters configuration, supporting the collection of data to validate the interoperability of DAA and collision avoidance algorithms.

  4. Reactivity initiated accident test series Test RIA 1-4

    SciTech Connect

    Martinson, Z.R.; El-Genk, M.S.; Fukuda, S.K.; LaPointe, R.E.; Osetek, D.J.

    1980-05-01

    The Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA) Test RIA 1-4, the first 9-rod fuel rod bundle RIA Test to be performed at BWR hot startup conditions, was completed on April 16, 1980. The test was performed in the Power Burst Facility (PBF). Objective for Test RIA 1-4 was to provide information regarding loss-of-coolable fuel rod geometry following a RIA event for a peak fuel enthalpy equivalent to the present licensing criteria of 280 cal/g. The most severe RIA is the postulated Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) control rod drop during reactor startup. Therefore the test was conducted at BWR hot startup coolant conditions (538 K, 6.45 MPa, 0.8 1/sec). The test sequence began with steady power operation to condition the fuel, establish a short-lived fission product inventory, and calibrate the calorimetric measurements and core power chambers, neutron flux and gamma flux detectors. The test train was removed from the in-pile tube (IPT) to replace one of the fuel rods with a nominally identical irradiated rod and twelve flux wire monitors. A 2.8 ms period power burst was then performed. Coolant flow measurements were made before and after the power burst to characterize the flow blockage that occurred as a result of fuel rod failure.

  5. Testing time series irreversibility using complex network methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donges, Jonathan F.; Donner, Reik V.; Kurths, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    The absence of time-reversal symmetry is a fundamental property of many nonlinear time series. Here, we propose a new set of statistical tests for time series irreversibility based on standard and horizontal visibility graphs. Specifically, we statistically compare the distributions of time-directed variants of the common complex network measures degree and local clustering coefficient. Our approach does not involve surrogate data and is applicable to relatively short time series. We demonstrate its performance for paradigmatic model systems with known time-reversal properties as well as for picking up signatures of nonlinearity in neuro-physiological data.

  6. Time Series Analysis in Flight Flutter Testing at the Air Force Flight Test Center: Concepts and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenz, R. W.; Mckeever, B.

    1976-01-01

    The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC) flight flutter facility is described. Concepts of using a minicomputer-based time series analyzer and a modal analysis software package for flight flutter testing are examined. The results of several evaluations of the software package are given. The reasons for employing a minimum phase concept in analyzing response only signals are discussed. The use of a Laplace algorithm is shown to be effective for the modal analysis of time histories in flutter testing. Sample results from models and flight tests are provided. The limitations inherent in time series analysis methods are discussed, and the need for effective noise reduction techniques is noted. The use of digital time series analysis techniques in flutter testing is shown to be fast, accurate, and cost effective.

  7. Multiple (Two) Met Bel 601 In Series Ultimate Vacuum Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Restivo, M.

    2016-09-30

    SRNL Environmental and Chemical Process Technology (E&CPT) was requested to perform testing of vacuum pumps per a verbal request from the Customer, SRNL Hydrogen Processing Technology. Tritium Operations is currently having difficulties procuring the Normetex™® Model 15 m3/hr (9 CFM) vacuum pump (formerly Normetex Pompes, now EumecaSARL). One possible solution proposed by Hydrogen Processing Technology personnel is to use two Senior Aerospace Metal Bellows MB-601 vacuum pumps piped with the heads in series, and the pumps in series (Figure 1 below). This memorandum documents the ultimate vacuum testing that was performed to determine if this concept was a viable alternate vacuum pump strategy. This testing dovetails with previous pump evaluations documented in references 1 and 2.

  8. Test to determine the Markov order of a time series.

    PubMed

    Racca, E; Laio, F; Poggi, D; Ridolfi, L

    2007-01-01

    The Markov order of a time series is an important measure of the "memory" of a process, and its knowledge is fundamental for the correct simulation of the characteristics of the process. For this reason, several techniques have been proposed in the past for its estimation. However, most of this methods are rather complex, and often can be applied only in the case of Markov chains. Here we propose a simple and robust test to evaluate the Markov order of a time series. Only the first-order moment of the conditional probability density function characterizing the process is used to evaluate the memory of the process itself. This measure is called the "expected value Markov (EVM) order." We show that there is good agreement between the EVM order and the known Markov order of some synthetic time series.

  9. Testing the effectiveness of mobile home weatherization measures in a controlled environment: The SERI CMFERT (Collaborative Manufactured Buildings Facility for Energy Research and Training) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Judkoff, R.D.; Hancock, C.E.; Franconi, E.

    1990-03-01

    For several years the Solar Energy Research Institute has been testing the effectiveness of mobile home weatherization measures, with the support of the US DOE Office of State and Local Assistance Programs Weatherization Assistance Program, the DOE Office of Buildings and Community Systems, the seven states within the federal Weatherization Region 7, the Colorado Division of Housing, and the DOE Denver Support Office. During the winter of 1988--89, several weatherization measures were thermally tested on three mobile homes under controlled conditions inside a large environmental enclosure. The effects of each weatherization measure on conduction losses, infiltration losses, and combined furnace and duct-delivered heat efficiency were monitored. The retrofit options included air sealing, duct repair, furnace tune-up, interior storm panels, floor insulation, and roof insulation. The study demonstrated that cost-effective heating energy savings of about 20% to 50% are possible if weatherization techniques adapted to the special construction details in mobile homes are applied. 24 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Eleven. Mastery Testing Programme. [Mastery Tests Series 3.] Tests M27-M38.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As part of a series of tests to measure mastery of specific skills in the natural sciences, copies of tests 27 through 38 include: (27) reading a grid plan; (28) identifying common invertebrates; (29) characteristics of invertebrates; (30) identifying elements; (31) using scientific notation part I; (32) classifying minerals; (33) predicting the…

  11. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Ten. Mastery Testing Programme. [Mastery Tests Series 2.] Tests M14-M26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As part of a series of tests to measure mastery of specific skills in the natural sciences, copies of tests 14 through 26 include: (14) calculating an average; (15) identifying parts of the scientific method; (16) reading a geological map; (17) identifying elements, mixtures and compounds; (18) using Ohm's law in calculation; (19) interpreting…

  12. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Twelve. Mastery Testing Programme. [Mastery Tests Series 4.] Tests M39-M50.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As part of a series of tests to measure mastery of specific skills in the natural sciences, copies of tests 39 through 50 include: (39) using a code; (40) naming the parts of a microscope; (41) calculating density and predicting flotation; (42) estimating metric length; (43) using SI symbols; (44) using s=vt; (45) applying a novel theory; (46)…

  13. SPE5 Sub-Scale Test Series Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Vandersall, Kevin S.; Reeves, Robert V.; DeHaven, Martin R.; Strickland, Shawn L.

    2016-01-14

    A series of 2 SPE5 sub-scale tests were performed to experimentally confirm that a booster system designed and evaluated in prior tests would properly initiate the PBXN-110 case charge fill. To conduct the experiments, a canister was designed to contain the nominally 50 mm diameter booster tube with an outer fill of approximately 150 mm diameter by 150 mm in length. The canisters were filled with PBXN-110 at NAWS-China Lake and shipped back to LLNL for testing in the High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF). Piezoelectric crystal pins were placed on the outside of the booster tube before filling, and a series of piezoelectric crystal pins along with Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) probes were placed on the outer surface of the canister to measure the relative timing and magnitude of the detonation. The 2 piezoelectric crystal pins integral to the booster design were also utilized along with a series of either piezoelectric crystal pins or piezoelectric polymer pads on the top of the canister or outside case that utilized direct contact, gaps, or different thicknesses of RTV cushions to obtain time of arrival data to evaluate the response in preparation for the large-scale SPE5 test. To further quantify the margin of the booster operation, the 1st test (SPE5SS1) was functioned with both detonators and the 2nd test (SPE5SS2) was functioned with only 1 detonator. A full detonation of the material was observed in both experiments as observed by the pin timing and PDV signals. The piezoelectric pads were found to provide a greater measured signal magnitude during the testing with an RTV layer present, and the improved response is due to the larger measurement surface area of the pad. This report will detail the experiment design, canister assembly for filling, final assembly, experiment firing, presentation of the diagnostic results, and a discussion of the results.

  14. Using Textbooks Effectively. TESOL Classroom Practice Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savova, Lilia, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume in the TESOL Classroom Practice Series asks one fundamental question, "How can teachers teach the students, not the book?" The response, given within "Using Textbooks Effectively", is to move beyond the textbook as a separate entity and view it instead as part of the ESOL curriculum process and as a tool for student learning. The…

  15. The NASA B-757 HIRF test series: Low power on-the-ground tests

    SciTech Connect

    Poggio, A.J.; Zacharias, R.A.; Pennock, S.T.; Avalle, C.A.; Carney, H.

    1995-07-01

    The data acquisition phase of a program intended to provide data for the validation of computational, analytical and experimental for the assessment of electromagnetic effects i n transports, for the checkout of instrumentation for following test programs, and for the support of protection engineering of airborne systems has been completed. Funded by the NASA Fly-By-Light/Power-By-Wire Program, the initial phase involved on-the-ground electromagnetic measurements using the NASA Boeing 757 and was executed in the LESLI Facility at the USAF Phillips Laboratory. The major participants were LLNL, NASA Langley Research Center, Phillips Laboratory, and UIE, Inc. Measurements were made of the fields coupled into the aircraft interior and signals induced in select structures and equipment under controlled illumination by RF fields. A characterization of the ground was also performed to permit ground effects to be included in forthcoming validation exercises. A series of fly-by experiments were conducted in early 1995 in which the NASA B-757 was flown in the vicinity of a Voice of America station ({approximately}25 MHz), a fixed transmitter driving an LP array (172 MHz), and an ASRF radar at Wallops Island (430 MHz). In this paper, the overall test program is defined with particular attention to the on-the-ground portion. It is described in detail with presentation of the test rationale, test layout, and samples of the data. Samples of some inferences from the data that will be useful in protection engineering and EM effects mitigation will also be presented.

  16. Design and testing of the Series III AMTEC cell

    SciTech Connect

    Mital, R.; Sievers, R.K.

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the design and testing of the Series III (S3) Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converter (AMTEC) cell which is capable of high efficiency (15--25%) and high power density (100--150 W/kg). Compared to the Series 2 cell which is being developed primarily for space power systems, the Series III cell design provides a significantly higher beta{double_prime}-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) tube packing density around the heat source thereby increasing cell power and minimizing heat loss. The prototype S3 cell will have 96 BASE tubes and is expected to produce about 150 We. In this cell design the BASE tube assemblies are mounted on a cylindrical tube support plate. The BASE tubes are arranged like spokes on a wheel. The inner cylinder, concentric to the tube support plate, is the hot side of the cell and the outer cylinder is the condenser. Since the prototype S3 cell will be the first of its kind, an engineering cell with same dimensions as the prototype but with 24 BASE tubes was built first. The purpose of this cell was to identify and resolve structural, thermal, manufacturing and sodium management issues before launching into the build of a complete 96 BASE tube cell. The engineering cell has been successfully built and tested. The data of the engineering cells have been used to calibrate the SINDA/FLUINT code to predict the prototype cell performance more accurately. The build of the prototype 96 BASE tube cells is now in progress. This paper presents the design and development of the prototype S3 cell. The fabrication and testing of the first S3 engineering cell is discussed next. Based on the test data of the engineering cell, the anticipated thermal performance of the prototype cells predicted by the calibrated SINDA model are also presented.

  17. Effects of Hofmeister salt series on gluten network formation: Part I. Cation series.

    PubMed

    Tuhumury, H C D; Small, D M; Day, L

    2016-12-01

    Different cationic salts were used to investigate the effects of the Hofmeister salt series on gluten network formation. The effects of cationic salts on wheat flour dough mixing properties, the rheological and the chemical properties of the gluten extracted from the dough with different respective salts, were investigated. The specific influence of different cationic salts on the gluten structure formation during dough mixing, compared to the sodium ion, were determined. The effects of different cations on dough and gluten of different flours mostly followed the Hofmeister series (NH4(+), K(+), Na(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+)). The impacts of cations on gluten structure and dough rheology at levels tested were relatively small. Therefore, the replacement of sodium from a technological standpoint is possible, particularly by monovalent cations such as NH4(+), or K(+). However the levels of replacement need to take into account sensory attributes of the cationic salts.

  18. 77 FR 15750 - Final Test Guidelines; OCSPP 810 Series; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... AGENCY Final Test Guidelines; OCSPP 810 Series; Notice of Availability AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA is announcing the availability of the final test guidelines for Series 810--Product Performance Test Guidelines, specifically public health uses of...

  19. Evaluation of patch test results with denture material series.

    PubMed

    Gebhart, M; Geier, J

    1996-03-01

    791 patients, among them 59 dental technicians and 732 other patients, were tested with the denture material series (DMS) recommended by the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group (DKG) in the hospitals of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK) between January 1990 and July 1993. Most frequently, positive reactions occurred to cadmium chloride in both groups. However, there was no evidence at all for relevance of these reactions. Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) ranked 2nd in patch test positivity. Although not statistically significant, reactions were more frequent in dental technicians, who might be exposed to BPO the in working environment. Methyl methacrylate (MMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) were common sensitizers in dental technicians but not in other patients. This finding, too, has its explanation in the working process of manufacturing dental prostheses.

  20. Gas Generation from K East Basin Sludges - Series II Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sell, Rachel L.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2001-03-14

    This report describes work to examine the gas generation behavior of actual K East (KE) Basin floor, pit and canister sludge. Mixed and unmixed and fractionated KE canister sludge were tested, along with floor and pit sludges from areas in the KE Basin not previously sampled. The first report in this series focused on gas generation from KE floor and canister sludge collected using a consolidated sampling technique. The third report will present results of gas generation testing of irradiated uranium fuel fragments with and without sludge addition. The path forward for management of the K Basin Sludge is to retrieve, ship, and store the sludge at T Plant until final processing at some future date. Gas generation will impact the designs and costs of systems associated with retrieval, transportation and storage of sludge.

  1. Wind tunnel pressure distribution tests on a series of biplane wing models Part II : effects of changes in decalage, dihedral, sweepback and overhang

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Montgomery; Noyes, Richard W

    1929-01-01

    This preliminary report furnishes information on the changes in the forces on each wing of a biplane cellule when the decalage, dihedral, sweepback and overhang are separately varied. The data were obtained from pressure distribution tests made in the Atmospheric Wind Tunnel of the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory. Since each test was carried up to 90 degree angle of attack, the results may be used in the study of stalled flight and of spinning and in the structural design of biplane wings.

  2. Materials Evaluation Test Series (METS) 04, 05, and 06

    SciTech Connect

    Zalk, D; Ingram, C; Simmons, L; Arganbright, R; Lyle, J; Wong, K

    2006-03-23

    The purpose of this work is to examine the environmental, safety, health and operational aspects of detonating a confined explosive test apparatus that has been designed to maximize the dynamics of impact on beryllium metal components for Contained Firing Facility (CFF) applications. A combination of experimental collection and evaluation methods were designed and implemented to provide an evaluation of immediately postdetonation by-products reflecting a potential worst-case scenario beryllium aerosolization explosive event. The collective Material Evaluation Test Series (METS) 04 - 06 provided explosive devices designed to scale for the dedicated METS firing tank that would provide a post-detonation internal environment comparable to the CFF. The experimental results provided appropriate information to develop operational parameters to be considered for conducting full-scale beryllium-containing experimental tests with similar designs within CFF and B801A. These operational procedures include the inclusion of chelating agents in pre-shot CFF cardboard containers with a minimum of 600 gallons content, an extended time period post-test before purging the CFF chamber, and an adaptation of approaches toward applications of the scrubber and HEPA systems during the post-shot sequence for an integrated environmental, safety, and health approach. In addition, re-entry and film retrieval procedures will be adapted, in line with abatement techniques for cleaning the chamber, that will be required for work inside a CFF that will contain an elevated concentration of spherical and highly aerosolizable beryllium particulate.

  3. Test plan for Enraf Series 854 level gauge testing in Tank 241-S-106

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, G.A.

    1994-08-23

    An Enraf Series 854 level gauge was installed on Tank 241-S-106 (S-106) during the first week of June 1994. On August 11, 1994, the gauge`s measuring wire broke. An investigation has been started to determine how the wire broke. This test plan identifies a qualification test that is part of this investigation. This test will also provide evidence as to the location and extent of potential corrosion on the measuring wire due to tank environment. The results from this testing will provide data for better material selections. This test will involve placing the existing Enraf Series 854 level gauge back into service with the same type of measuring wire (316 stainless steel) that originally broke on August 11, 1994. The gauge will be operated for 14 days. At the end of the 14-day test, the wire shall be sent to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for analysis.

  4. Operation TEAPOT, 1955 Continental Nuclear Weapons Test Series

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-23

    Rock VI observer programs, troop tests, and technical service programs; AEC scientific and diagnostic experiments to evaluate the effects of the nuclear...TESLA, TURK, BEE, ESS, APPLE 1, and APPLE 2, generally involved instruction on the effects of nuclear weapons, observation of a nuclear detonation, and a...militar4 equipment and structures to withstand nuclear detonations. Scientific experiments studying the effects of each nuclear detona- tion were conducted

  5. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Sixteen. Mastery Testing Program. Series 6. Tests M66-M91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As part of a series of tests to measure mastery of specific skills in the natural sciences, print masters of tests 66 through 91 are provided. Among the areas covered are: carbon compounds; evolution; map reading; genetics; energy; chemical formulae; electricity; graphs; metric measures; solubility; and physical separations. Many tests contain…

  6. Progress report on LLTR Series II Test A-2 (Part 1). [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Freede, W.J.; Neely, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    This document contains a complete set of valid and final digital and analog data plots for LLTR Series II, Test A-2. Included is an Accuracy Statement regarding this data as required by Revision 0 of the GE Test Request, Specification No. 23A2062. The Series II, Sodium-Water Reaction Test A-2 was performed in the Large Leak Test Rig (LLTR) at the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC). This was the third of three planned double-edged guillotine (DEG) rupture tests of a single tube which will be followed by a number of small leak tests. The test article is the LLTI which is a full-size diameter internals, shortened in length and prototypic of the CRBR steam generator. It is installed in the Large Leak Test Vessel (LLTV). The overall test program was formulated by General Electric (GE) as Test Requester to establish steam generator design and to verify analytical models/codes to estimate the effect of large leak accidents in an LMFBR demonstration plant steam generator and system.

  7. Biostatistics Series Module 2: Overview of Hypothesis Testing

    PubMed Central

    Hazra, Avijit; Gogtay, Nithya

    2016-01-01

    Hypothesis testing (or statistical inference) is one of the major applications of biostatistics. Much of medical research begins with a research question that can be framed as a hypothesis. Inferential statistics begins with a null hypothesis that reflects the conservative position of no change or no difference in comparison to baseline or between groups. Usually, the researcher has reason to believe that there is some effect or some difference which is the alternative hypothesis. The researcher therefore proceeds to study samples and measure outcomes in the hope of generating evidence strong enough for the statistician to be able to reject the null hypothesis. The concept of the P value is almost universally used in hypothesis testing. It denotes the probability of obtaining by chance a result at least as extreme as that observed, even when the null hypothesis is true and no real difference exists. Usually, if P is < 0.05 the null hypothesis is rejected and sample results are deemed statistically significant. With the increasing availability of computers and access to specialized statistical software, the drudgery involved in statistical calculations is now a thing of the past, once the learning curve of the software has been traversed. The life sciences researcher is therefore free to devote oneself to optimally designing the study, carefully selecting the hypothesis tests to be applied, and taking care in conducting the study well. Unfortunately, selecting the right test seems difficult initially. Thinking of the research hypothesis as addressing one of five generic research questions helps in selection of the right hypothesis test. In addition, it is important to be clear about the nature of the variables (e.g., numerical vs. categorical; parametric vs. nonparametric) and the number of groups or data sets being compared (e.g., two or more than two) at a time. The same research question may be explored by more than one type of hypothesis test. While this may be

  8. General-Purpose Heat Source Development: Safety Verification Test Program. Flyer plate test series

    SciTech Connect

    Cull, T.A.; Pavone, D.

    1986-09-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular component of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide electric power for space missions. The initial RTG applications will be for the NASA Galileo and the ESA Ulysses missions. Each of the 18 GPHS modules in an RTG contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. A series of Safety Verification Tests (SVTs) has been conducted to assess the ability of the GPHS fueled clads to contain the plutonia in accident environments. Because a launch pad or postlaunch explosion of the Space Transportation System Vehicle (space shuttle) is one conceivable accident, the SVT plan included a series of tests to simulate the fragment environment that the RTG and GPHS modules would experience in such an event. These tests deal specifically with the flat-on collision of flyer-plate-type fragments with bare, simulant-fueled (depleted UO/sub 2/) clads. Results of these tests suggest that the fueled clad is only minimally breached by collision with 3.53-mm-thick flyer-plate-type fragments of space shuttle alloy at velocities up to 1170 m/s. However, collision of a 38.1-mm-thick plate with a bare GPHS clad, at a velocity of 270 m/s, results in a total release of fuel.

  9. General-purpose heat source development: Extended series test program SRB fragment/fuselage tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cull, Theresa A.

    1989-06-01

    General-Purpose Heat Source radioisotope thermoelectric generators (GPHS-RTGs) will provide electrical power for the NASA Galileo and European Space Agency (ESA) Ulysses missions. Each GPHS-RTG comprises two major components: GPHS modules, which provide thermal energy, and a thermoelectric converter, which converts the thermal energy into electrical power. Each of the 18 GPHS modules in a GPHS-RTG contains four Pu-238O2-fueled capsules. LANL conducted a series of safety verification tests on the GPHS-RTG before the scheduled May 1986 launch of the Galileo spacecraft to assess the ability of the GPHS modules to contain plutonia in potential accident environments. As a result of the Challenger 51-L accident in January 1986, NASA postponed the launch of Galileo; the spacecraft launch vehicle was reconfigured and the spacecraft trajectory modified. These actions prompted NASA to reevaluate potential mission accidents and the extended series safety test program was initiated. This program included a series of solid rocket booster (SRB) fragment/fuselage tests that simulated the interaction of SRB fragments generated in an SRB motor case rupture (or resulting from a range safety officer SRB destruct action) with sections of the Shuttle Orbiter. The test data helped verify and refine the analytical models of the SRB fragment/fuselage interaction. The results showed that the fragment velocity decreased significantly (up to 40 percent) after penetrating the Orbiter section(s). The interactions also reduced, and in some cases eliminated, the original fragment rotational rate and direction and initiated rotation in other directions.

  10. Test Series 4: seismic-fragility tests of naturally-aged Exide EMP-13 battery cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bonzon, L.L.; Hente, D.B.; Kukreti, B.M.; Schendel, J.; Tulk, J.D.; Janis, W.J.; Black, D.A.; Paulsen, G.D.; Aucoin, B.D.

    1985-03-01

    This report, the fourth in a test series of an extensive seismic research program, covers the testing of a 27-year old lead-antimony Exide EMP-13 cells from the recently decommissioned Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The Exide cells were tested in two configurations using a triaxial shake table: single-cell tests, rigidly mounted; and multicell (five-cell) tests, mounted in a typical battery rack. A total of nine electrically active cells was used in the two different cell configurations. None of the nine cells failed during the actual seismic tests when a range of ZPAs up to 1.5 g was imposed. Subsequent discharge capacity tests of five of the cells showed, however, that none of the cells could deliver the accepted standard of 80% of their rated electrical capacity for 3 hours. In fact, none of the 5 cells could deliver more than a 33% capacity. Two of the seismically tested cells and one untested, low capacity cell were disassembled for examination and metallurgical analyses. The inspection showed the cells to be in poor condition. The negative plates in the vicinity of the bus connections were extremely weak, the positive buses were corroded and brittle, negative and positive active material utilization was extremely uneven, and corrosion products littered the cells.

  11. What Makes a Coursebook Series Stand the Test of Time?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illes, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Intriguingly, at a time when the ELT market is inundated with state-of-the-art coursebooks teaching modern-day English, a 30-year-old series enjoys continuing popularity in some secondary schools in Hungary. Why would teachers, several of whom are school-based teacher-mentors in the vanguard of the profession, purposefully choose materials which…

  12. The Investment Committee. AGB Effective Committee Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Jay A.

    2011-01-01

    This publication is part of an AGB series devoted to strengthening the role of key standing committees of governing boards. While there is no optimum committee system for institutions of higher education, certain principles, practices, and procedures prevail. The best practices included in this text support the objectives of board committees:…

  13. The Compensation Committee. AGB Effective Committee Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, Thomas K.

    2013-01-01

    This publication is part of an Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges (AGB) series devoted to strengthening the role of key standing committees of governing boards. While there is no optimum committee system for institutions of higher education, certain principles, practices, and procedures prevail. The best practices…

  14. The Audit Committee. AGB Effective Committee Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staisloff, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    This publication is part of an Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges (AGB) series devoted to strengthening the role of key standing committees of governing boards. While there is no optimum committee system for institutions of higher education, certain principles, practices, and procedures prevail. The best practices…

  15. The Executive Committee. AGB Effective Committee Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legon, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    This publication is part of an Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges (AGB) series devoted to strengthening the role of key standing committees of governing boards. While there is no optimum committee system for institutions of higher education, certain principles, practices, and procedures prevail. The best practices…

  16. The Facilities Committee. AGB Effective Committee Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Harvey H.

    2012-01-01

    This publication is part of an Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges (AGB) series devoted to strengthening the role of key standing committees of governing boards. While there is no optimum committee system for institutions of higher education, certain principles, practices, and procedures prevail. The best practices…

  17. HARD PAN I Test Series Test and Instrumentation Plans. Volume I. Test Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-01

    structure in a layered geology due to a simulated neer-surface nuclear detonation. The test geology was clay over interbedded limtstone and shale ...a geology characterized by a layer of clay over a competent rock layer composed of interbedded limestone and shales . Certain portions of the test...and shale has much higher seismic velocities. A downward propagating shock wave is formed in the upper medium due to the interaction of the

  18. Explosion overpressure test series: General-Purpose Heat Source development: Safety Verification Test program

    SciTech Connect

    Cull, T.A.; George, T.G.; Pavone, D.

    1986-09-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular, radioisotope heat source that will be used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) to supply electric power for space missions. The first two uses will be the NASA Galileo and the ESA Ulysses missions. The RTG for these missions will contain 18 GPHS modules, each of which contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. A series of Safety Verification Tests (SVTs) was conducted to assess the ability of the GPHS modules to contain the plutonia in accident environments. Because a launch pad or postlaunch explosion of the Space Transportation System vehicle (space shuttle) is a conceivable accident, the SVT plan included a series of tests that simulated the overpressure exposure the RTG and GPHS modules could experience in such an event. Results of these tests, in which we used depleted UO/sub 2/ as a fuel simulant, suggest that exposure to overpressures as high as 15.2 MPa (2200 psi), without subsequent impact, does not result in a release of fuel.

  19. A Surrogate Test for Pseudo-periodic Time Series Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, Michael; Harrison, Robert G.; Tse, C. K.

    2002-07-01

    Standard (linear) surrogate methods are only useful for time series exhibiting no pseudo-periodic structure. We describe a new algorithm that can distinguish between a noisy periodic orbit and deterministic non-periodic inter-cycle dynamics. Possible origins of deterministic non-periodic inter-cycle dynamics include: non-periodic linear or nonlinear dynamics, or chaos. This new algorithm is based on mimicking the large-scale dynamics with a local model, but obliterating the fine scale features with dynamic noise. We demonstrate the application of this method to artificial data and experimental time series, including human electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings during sinus rhythm and ventricular tachycardia (VT). The method is able to successfully differentiate between the chaotic Rössler system and a pseudo periodic realization of the Rössler equations with dynamic noise. Application to ECG data demonstrates that both sinus rhythm and VT exhibit nontrivial inter-cycle dynamics.

  20. J-2X Engine Ready For Second Test Series

    NASA Video Gallery

    Time-lapse video of the installation of J-2X engine 10001 in the A-2 test-stand at Stennis, complete with clamshell assembly and nozzle extension. With these enhancements test engineers will measur...

  1. Current Developments in Language Testing. Anthology Series 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anivan, Sarinee, Ed.

    The selection of papers on language testing includes: "Language Testing in the 1990s: How Far Have We Come? How Much Further Have We To Go?" (J. Charles Alderson); "Current Research/Development in Language Testing" (John W. Oller, Jr.); "The Difficulties of Difficulty: Prompts in Writing Assessment" (Liz Hamp-Lyons,…

  2. Effects of a Year-Long Newspaper Energy Series on Reader Knowledge and Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Eric A.

    The effects of a year-long newspaper series about energy on peoples' knowledge and actions were assessed in a Wisconsin study. The series consisted of 20 full-page newspaper articles, which appeared at intervals of from three to five weeks. Results, based on responses to a 16-item knowledge test mailed to newspaper subscribers and nonsubscribers…

  3. Misuse study of latch attachment: a series of frontal sled tests.

    PubMed

    Menon, Rajiv; Ghati, Yoganand

    2007-01-01

    This study was initiated to quantify the effects of the misuse in LATCH lower webbing. In the short period since the implementation of the LATCH system several cases of potential misuses have been reported. A series of sled tests in frontal impact mode were conducted with various misuse conditions (loose attachment of LATCH lower webbing, misrouting of LATCH lower webbing and child seat back inclination) for both forward and rearward facing child safety seats (FFCSS and RFCSS). Results from these tests are compared and discussed with that of the standard test with no misuse and showed that as the slack in the lower LATCH webbing increased, ATD injury measures exceeded the limits. The FFCSS tests in the reclined condition yielded lower injury values for all except the chest G's when compared to the standard upright test. In the misrouting tests the ATD kinematics depended on the routing pivot point, the lower the pivot point the better the ATD kinematics. Similar findings were also observed in the RFCSS tests. The use of top tether with the FFCSS substantially improved the performance of the Hybrid III 3 year old ATD in spite of misuse conditions and the injury values were lower than the corresponding tests with no top tether. The effective reduction was 37% in the HIC values, 6% in the chest G's, 30% in the head excursion, 22 % in the knee excursion and finally 37 % reduction in the Nij values.

  4. The Building Blocks of State Testing Programs. Statement Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Arnold; Pedulla, Joseph; Clarke, Marguerite

    To ensure that educational tests do the least harm and bring the greatest good to the education of elementary and secondary school students, it is important that parents, teachers, educational administrators, and policy makers be actively involved in test construction and use. The purpose of this Statement is to provide a checklist of some…

  5. Test Information: A Selective Annotated Bibliography. Bibliography Series Fourteen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockman, Ilene F., Comp.

    Developed as a guide to resources in the Robert E. Kennedy Library at California Polytechnic State University, this bibliography includes a selective listing of books, microfiche, and reference materials on the topic of educational and psychological testing. The publications included either contain sample or entire test items, and…

  6. Biostatistics Series Module 7: The Statistics of Diagnostic Tests.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Avijit; Gogtay, Nithya

    2017-01-01

    Crucial therapeutic decisions are based on diagnostic tests. Therefore, it is important to evaluate such tests before adopting them for routine use. Although things such as blood tests, cultures, biopsies, and radiological imaging are obvious diagnostic tests, it is not to be forgotten that specific clinical examination procedures, scoring systems based on physiological or psychological evaluation, and ratings based on questionnaires are also diagnostic tests and therefore merit similar evaluation. In the simplest scenario, a diagnostic test will give either a positive (disease likely) or negative (disease unlikely) result. Ideally, all those with the disease should be classified by a test as positive and all those without the disease as negative. Unfortunately, practically no test gives 100% accurate results. Therefore, leaving aside the economic question, the performance of diagnostic tests is evaluated on the basis of certain indices such as sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. Likelihood ratios combine information on specificity and sensitivity to expresses the likelihood that a given test result would occur in a subject with a disorder compared to the probability that the same result would occur in a subject without the disorder. Not all test can be categorized simply as "positive" or "negative." Physicians are frequently exposed to test results on a numerical scale, and in such cases, judgment is required in choosing a cutoff point to distinguish normal from abnormal. Naturally, a cutoff value should provide the greatest predictive accuracy, but there is a trade-off between sensitivity and specificity here - if the cutoff is too low, it will identify most patients who have the disease (high sensitivity) but will also incorrectly identify many who do not (low specificity). A receiver operating characteristic curve plots pairs of sensitivity versus (1 - specificity) values and helps in selecting an optimum cutoff

  7. Biostatistics Series Module 7: The Statistics of Diagnostic Tests

    PubMed Central

    Hazra, Avijit; Gogtay, Nithya

    2017-01-01

    Crucial therapeutic decisions are based on diagnostic tests. Therefore, it is important to evaluate such tests before adopting them for routine use. Although things such as blood tests, cultures, biopsies, and radiological imaging are obvious diagnostic tests, it is not to be forgotten that specific clinical examination procedures, scoring systems based on physiological or psychological evaluation, and ratings based on questionnaires are also diagnostic tests and therefore merit similar evaluation. In the simplest scenario, a diagnostic test will give either a positive (disease likely) or negative (disease unlikely) result. Ideally, all those with the disease should be classified by a test as positive and all those without the disease as negative. Unfortunately, practically no test gives 100% accurate results. Therefore, leaving aside the economic question, the performance of diagnostic tests is evaluated on the basis of certain indices such as sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. Likelihood ratios combine information on specificity and sensitivity to expresses the likelihood that a given test result would occur in a subject with a disorder compared to the probability that the same result would occur in a subject without the disorder. Not all test can be categorized simply as “positive” or “negative.” Physicians are frequently exposed to test results on a numerical scale, and in such cases, judgment is required in choosing a cutoff point to distinguish normal from abnormal. Naturally, a cutoff value should provide the greatest predictive accuracy, but there is a trade-off between sensitivity and specificity here - if the cutoff is too low, it will identify most patients who have the disease (high sensitivity) but will also incorrectly identify many who do not (low specificity). A receiver operating characteristic curve plots pairs of sensitivity versus (1 − specificity) values and helps in selecting an

  8. Full-scale aircraft cabin flammability tests of improved fire-resistant materials, test series 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckey, R. N.; Bricker, R. W.; Kuminecz, J. F.; Supkis, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Full-scale aircraft flammability tests in which the effectiveness of new fire-resistant materials was evaluated by comparing their burning characteristics with those of other fire-resistant aircraft materials were described. New-fire-resistant materials that are more economical and better suited for aircraft use than the previously tested fire-resistant materials were tested. The fuel ignition source for one test was JP-4; a smokeless fuel was used for the other test. Test objectives, methods, materials, and results are presented and discussed. The results indicate that, similar to the fire-resistant materials tested previously, the new materials decompose rather than ignite and do not support fire propagation. Furthermore, the new materials did not produce a flash fire.

  9. Multiple skin testing of Kenyan schoolchildren with a series of new tuberculins.

    PubMed Central

    Paul, R. C.; Stanford, J. L.; Misljenóvic, O.; Lefering, J.

    1975-01-01

    This study on Kenyan schoolchildren aims to elucidate the effect of contact with environmental mycobacteria on the development of specific delayed hypersensitivity. A series of 12 skin test reagents was employed; eleven of them were prepared from extracts of living mycobacteria and the last was the P.P.D. RT 23. Eight of the new tuberculins were prepared from mycobacteria recovered from the East African environment. A total of 8641 tests were carried out on 4320 children between the ages of 6 and 17 years in four townships. Two of these townships were in fertile agricultural areas and two were in the desert. Just over 80% of the children had received BCG immunization The results obtained showed that increasing age, geographical locality and BCG immunization all had a profound effect, and socioeconomic background had some effect, on the pattern of reactivity to the various reagents. The rationale behind the use of the series of new tuberculins and the results obtained with them are discussed in relation to the interacting effects of the factors complicating these results. PMID:1058246

  10. NASA Boeing 757 HIRF test series low power on-the-ground tests

    SciTech Connect

    Poggio, A.J.; Pennock, S.T.; Zacharias, R.A.; Avalle, C.A.; Carney, H.L.

    1996-08-01

    The data acquisition phase of a program intended to provide data for the validation of computational, analytical, and experimental techniques for the assessment of electromagnetic effects in commercial transports; for the checkout of instrumentation for following test programs; and for the support of protection engineering of airborne systems has been completed. Funded by the NASA Fly-By-Light/ Power-By-Wire Program, the initial phase involved on-the-ground electromagnetic measurements using the NASA Boeing 757 and was executed in the LESLI Facility at the USAF Phillips Laboratory. The major participants in this project were LLNL, NASA Langley Research Center, Phillips Laboratory, and UIE, Inc. The tests were performed over a five week period during September through November, 1994. Measurements were made of the fields coupled into the aircraft interior and signals induced in select structures and equipment under controlled illumination by RF fields. A characterization of the ground was also performed to permit ground effects to be included in forthcoming validation exercises. This report and the associated test plan that is included as an appendix represent a definition of the overall on-the-ground test program. They include descriptions of the test rationale, test layout, and samples of the data. In this report, a detailed description of each executed test is provided, as is the data identification (data id) relating the specific test with its relevant data files. Samples of some inferences from the data that will be useful in protection engineering and EM effects mitigation are also presented. The test plan which guided the execution of the tests, a test report by UIE Inc., and the report describing the concrete pad characterization are included as appendices.

  11. General-Purpose Heat Source development: Safety Verification Test Program. Bullet/fragment test series

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.; Tate, R.E.; Axler, K.M.

    1985-05-01

    The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide power for space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. Each module contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. Because a launch-pad or post-launch explosion is always possible, we need to determine the ability of GPHS fueled clads within a module to survive fragment impact. The bullet/fragment test series, part of the Safety Verification Test Plan, was designed to provide information on clad response to impact by a compact, high-energy, aluminum-alloy fragment and to establish a threshold value of fragment energy required to breach the iridium cladding. Test results show that a velocity of 555 m/s (1820 ft/s) with an 18-g bullet is at or near the threshold value of fragment velocity that will cause a clad breach. Results also show that an exothermic Ir/Al reaction occurs if aluminum and hot iridium are in contact, a contact that is possible and most damaging to the clad within a narrow velocity range. The observed reactions between the iridium and the aluminum were studied in the laboratory and are reported in the Appendix.

  12. Volume Sensor Development Test. Series 5 - Multi-Compartment System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-30

    bag is approximately half filled with trash (20 crumpled paper towels, 20 crumpled tissues, three 16 oz plastic soda bottles, a 3 oz stick of deodorant ...spray interval at multiple locations in the test space by 8 Spray aerosol two aerosols. The aerosols used are: 1) Old Spice High Endurance deodorant 2

  13. Modeling Periodic Impulsive Effects on Online TV Series Diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Qiwen; Wang, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Background Online broadcasting substantially affects the production, distribution, and profit of TV series. In addition, online word-of-mouth significantly affects the diffusion of TV series. Because on-demand streaming rates are the most important factor that influences the earnings of online video suppliers, streaming statistics and forecasting trends are valuable. In this paper, we investigate the effects of periodic impulsive stimulation and pre-launch promotion on on-demand streaming dynamics. We consider imbalanced audience feverish distribution using an impulsive susceptible-infected-removed(SIR)-like model. In addition, we perform a correlation analysis of online buzz volume based on Baidu Index data. Methods We propose a PI-SIR model to evolve audience dynamics and translate them into on-demand streaming fluctuations, which can be observed and comprehended by online video suppliers. Six South Korean TV series datasets are used to test the model. We develop a coarse-to-fine two-step fitting scheme to estimate the model parameters, first by fitting inter-period accumulation and then by fitting inner-period feverish distribution. Results We find that audience members display similar viewing habits. That is, they seek new episodes every update day but fade away. This outcome means that impulsive intensity plays a crucial role in on-demand streaming diffusion. In addition, the initial audience size and online buzz are significant factors. On-demand streaming fluctuation is highly correlated with online buzz fluctuation. Conclusion To stimulate audience attention and interpersonal diffusion, it is worthwhile to invest in promotion near update days. Strong pre-launch promotion is also a good marketing tool to improve overall performance. It is not advisable for online video providers to promote several popular TV series on the same update day. Inter-period accumulation is a feasible forecasting tool to predict the future trend of the on-demand streaming amount

  14. X-0557 modified Steven tests : series I and II /.

    SciTech Connect

    Straight, J. W.; Osborn, M. A.; Coulter, W. L.; Mang, J. T.; Anderson, M. C.; Idar, D. J.

    2002-01-01

    Low-velocity mechanical impact leading to unintentional reaction is of concern in accident scenarios involving the handling, transport, and storage of high explosives (HE). These have been investigated using different experimental techniques, from small- to large-scale, including, but not limited to the drop weight impact, Taylor anvil impact, Susan,1 and more recently, the Steven and Modified Steven tests.2-8 Ideally, the data will be used to further advance 3-D finite element analysis predictive capability with improved bulk constitutive HE models for the assessment of HE response to mechanical insult. Our overall objectives for these experiments were to (1) evaluate the HE reaction threshold behavior for two different lots of X-0557, and (2) characterize the degree of reaction violence relative to a detonation. This report summarizes our single impact test results on the two different lots of X-0557 in Modified Steven targets.

  15. Uniaxial and triaxial compression test series on Calico Hills tuff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, R. H.; Jones, A. K.

    1982-10-01

    Forty-four uniaxial and triaxial compression experiments were performed on samples of the Tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills obtained from drill hole USW-G1 at Yucca Mountain on the Nevada Test Site. Water saturated and room dry test specimens were deformed at nominal strain rates of 0.001,0.00001, 10 to the minus 7th power, s(1), confining pressures of 0.1, 10 and 20 MPa; and room temperature. Resultant unconfined compressive strengths, axial strains to failure, Young's moduli and Poisson's ratios ranged from 14.2 to 42.0 MPa, 0.0037 to 0.0087, 2.52 to 9.72 GPA and 0.17 to 0.37, respectively.

  16. Uniaxial and triaxial compression test series on Calico Hills tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.H.; Jones, A.K.

    1982-10-01

    Forty-four uniaxial and triaxial compression experiments were performed on samples of the Tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills obtained from drill hole USW-G1 at Yucca Mountain on the Nevada Test Site. Water saturated and room dry test specimens were deformed at nominal strain rates of 10{sup -3}, 10{sup -5} and 10{sup -7} s{sup -1}; confining pressures of 0.1, 10 and 20 MPa; and room temperature. Resultant unconfined compressive strengths, axial strains to failure, Young`s moduli and Poisson`s ratios ranged from 14.2 to 42.0 MPa, 0.0037 to 0.0087, 2.52 to 9.72 GPA and 0.17 to 0.37, respectively.

  17. Smoke Emission Tests on Series II and Series III Allison T56 Turboprop Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    shows schematically the ARL smoke measuring equipment. Engine exhaust _». Refrigerated water trap Stainless steel sample probe Heated sample line...a system based on ARP 1179A. Experience at ARL has confirmed one major criticism of condensed water effecting the filter paper. This was largely...overcome by ensuring that the stainless steel lines and filter luolder were maintained at a temperature of 70oC. The addition of a refrigerated water

  18. Material Evaluation Test Series 07, 08A, and 09A

    SciTech Connect

    Zalk, D; Ingram, C; Simmons, L; Arganbright, R; Koester, C; Lyle, J

    2006-04-11

    This research effort examines the post-detonation environmental, safety, health and operational aspects of experimental explosive tests with mercury. Specific experimental information is necessary for the evaluation of post-detonation by-products in comparison with those potentially resulting from mercury-bearing material accumulation in biomass accumulation areas, such as landfills, from batteries, electrical switches, thermometers, and fluorescent lights (Lindberg et al 2001). This will assist in determining appropriate abatement techniques for cleaning the work environment and environmental mitigation to determine waste stream components and risk assessment protocol. Determination of the by-products for personal protection equipment and personal exposure monitoring parameters are also part of this experimental work.

  19. Financial time series analysis based on effective phase transfer entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Pengbo; Shang, Pengjian; Lin, Aijing

    2017-02-01

    Transfer entropy is a powerful technique which is able to quantify the impact of one dynamic system on another system. In this paper, we propose the effective phase transfer entropy method based on the transfer entropy method. We use simulated data to test the performance of this method, and the experimental results confirm that the proposed approach is capable of detecting the information transfer between the systems. We also explore the relationship between effective phase transfer entropy and some variables, such as data size, coupling strength and noise. The effective phase transfer entropy is positively correlated with the data size and the coupling strength. Even in the presence of a large amount of noise, it can detect the information transfer between systems, and it is very robust to noise. Moreover, this measure is indeed able to accurately estimate the information flow between systems compared with phase transfer entropy. In order to reflect the application of this method in practice, we apply this method to financial time series and gain new insight into the interactions between systems. It is demonstrated that the effective phase transfer entropy can be used to detect some economic fluctuations in the financial market. To summarize, the effective phase transfer entropy method is a very efficient tool to estimate the information flow between systems.

  20. Blast Mitigation Using Water Mist: Test Series II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-12

    effectiveness of different explosives are the detonation velocity and detonation pressure ( Chapman - Jouguet , C-J) [11,18,19]. Detonation velocity is...explosives simulating traditional materials used in military application (Destex and PBXN-109) is also of interest [17]. Prior to the detonation in the

  1. Perseus B Taxi Tests in Preparation for a New Series of Flight Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Perseus B remotely piloted aircraft taxis on the runway at Edwards Air Force Base, California, before a series of development flights at NASA's Dryden flight Research Center. The Perseus B is the latest of three versions of the Perseus design developed by Aurora Flight Sciences under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus

  2. Test plan for long-term, low-temperature oxidation of spent fuel, Series 1

    SciTech Connect

    Einziger, R.E.

    1986-06-01

    Preliminary studies indicated the need for more spent fuel oxidation data in order to determine the probable behavior of spent fuel in a tuff repository. Long-term, low-temperature testing was recommended in a comprehensive technical approach to: (1) confirm the findings of the short-term thermogravimetric analyses scoping experiments; (2) evaluate the effects of variables such as burnup, atmospheric moisture and fuel type on the oxidation rate; and (3) extend the oxidation data base ot representative repository temperatures and better define the temperature dependence of the operative oxidation mechanisms. This document presents the Series 1 test plan to study, on a large number of samples, the effects of atmospheric moisture and temperature on oxidation rate and phase formation. Tests will run for up to two years, use characterized fragmented, and pulverized fuel samples, cover a temperature range of 110{sup 0}C to 175{sup 0}C and be conducted with an atmospheric moisture content rangeing from <-55{sup 0}C to {similar_to}80{sup 0}C dew point. After testing, the samples will be examined and made available for leaching testing.

  3. Perseus B Taxi Tests in Preparation for a New Series of Flight Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Perseus B remotely piloted aircraft taxis on the runway at Edwards Air Force Base, California, before a series of development flights at NASA's Dryden flight Research Center. The Perseus B is the latest of three versions of the Perseus design developed by Aurora Flight Sciences under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus

  4. Spotlight on High-Stakes Testing. No. 1 in the Harvard Education Letter Spotlight Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Education Press, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This inaugural volume of our Spotlight Series features recent "Harvard Education Letter" articles on testing and new reports never before published on this important topic. Contributors address such issues as how educators can manage the "avalanche" of tests; whether the benefits of high-stakes tests justify the risks to…

  5. Perseus B Taxi Tests in Preparation for a New Series of Flight Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Perseus B remotely piloted aircraft on the runway at Edwards Air Force Base, California at the conclusion of a development flight at NASA's Dryden flight Research Center. The Perseus B is the latest of three versions of the Perseus design developed by Aurora Flight Sciences under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus

  6. Can Teachers Be Evaluated by Their Students' Test Scores? Should They Be? The Use of Value-Added Measures of Teacher Effectiveness in Policy and Practice. Education Policy for Action Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Sean P.

    2010-01-01

    Value-added measures of teacher effectiveness are the centerpiece of a national movement to evaluate, promote, compensate, and dismiss teachers based in part on their students' test results. Federal, state, and local policy-makers have adopted these methods en masse in recent years in an attempt to objectively quantify teaching effectiveness and…

  7. Perseus B Taxi Tests in Preparation for a New Series of Flight Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Perseus B remotely piloted aircraft on the runway at Edwards Air Force Base, California at the conclusion of a development flight at NASA's Dryden flight Research Center. The Perseus B is the latest of three versions of the Perseus design developed by Aurora Flight Sciences under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus

  8. JPL Test Effectiveness Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shreck, Stephanie; Sharratt, Stephen; Smith, Joseph F.; Strong, Edward

    2008-01-01

    1) The pilot study provided meaningful conclusions that are generally consistent with the earlier Test Effectiveness work done between 1992 and 1994: a) Analysis of pre-launch problem/failure reports is consistent with earlier work. b) Analysis of post-launch early mission anomaly reports indicates that there are more software issues in newer missions, and the no-test category for identification of post-launch failures is more significant than in the earlier analysis. 2) Future work includes understanding how differences in Missions effect these analyses: a) There are large variations in the number of problem reports and issues that are documented by the different Projects/Missions. b) Some missions do not have any reported environmental test anomalies, even though environmental tests were performed. 3) Each project/mission has different standards and conventions for filling out the PFR forms, the industry may wish to address this issue: a) Existing problem reporting forms are to document and track problems, failures, and issues (etc.) for the projects, to ensure high quality. b) Existing problem reporting forms are not intended for data mining.

  9. Design and evaluation of a 3 million DN series-hybrid thrust bearing. [stability tests and fatigue tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scibbe, H. W.; Winn, L. W.; Eusepi, M.

    1976-01-01

    The bearing, consisting of a 150-mm ball bearing and a centrifugally actuated, conical, fluid-film bearing, was fatigue tested. Test conditions were representative of a mainshaft ball bearing in a gas turbine engine operating at maximum thrust load to simulate aircraft takeoff conditions. Tests were conducted up to 16000 rpm and at this speed an axial load of 15568 newtons (3500 lb) was safely supported by the hybrid bearing system. Through the series-hybrid bearing principle, the effective ball bearing speed was reduced to approximately one-half of the shaft speed. It was concluded that a speed reduction of this magnitude results in a ten-fold increase in the ball bearing fatigue life. A successful evaluation of fluid-film bearing lubricant supply failure was performed repeatedly at an operating speed of 10,000 rpm. A complete and smooth changeover to full-scale ball bearing operation was effected when the oil supply to the fluid-film bearing was cut off. Reactivation of the fluid-film oil supply system resulted in a flawless return to the original mode of hybrid operation.

  10. Reliability Analysis for the Internationally Administered 2002 Series GED Tests. GED Testing Service[R] Research Studies, 2009-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setzer, J. Carl; He, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Reliability Analysis for the Internationally Administered 2002 Series GED (General Educational Development) Tests Reliability refers to the consistency, or stability, of test scores when the authors administer the measurement procedure repeatedly to groups of examinees (American Educational Research Association [AERA], American Psychological…

  11. Results of the mission profile life test. [for J-series mercury ion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtel, R. T.; Trump, G. E.; James, E. L.

    1982-01-01

    Seven J series 30-cm diameter thrusters have been tested in segments of up to 5,070 hr, for 14,541 hr in the Mission Profile Life Test facility. Test results have indicated the basic thruster design to be consistent with the lifetime goal of 15,000 hr at 2-A beam. The only areas of concern identified which appear to require additional verification testing involve contamination of mercury propellant isolators, which may be due to facility constituents, and the ability of specially covered surfaces to contain sputtered material and prevent flake formation. The ability of the SCR, series resonant inverter power processor to operate the J series thruster and autonomous computer control of the thruster/processor system were demonstrated.

  12. 77 FR 38280 - Final Test Guidelines; 810 Series 2000 Product Performance; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... Coordination Staff (7101M), Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention, Environmental Protection Agency... Administrator, Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention. BILLING CODE 6560-50-P .... These test guidelines are part of a series of test guidelines established by the Office of...

  13. The Impact of Time-Series Diagnostic Tests on the Writing Ability of Iranian EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atashgahi, Bahareh Molazem

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to show whether administering a battery of time-series diagnostic tests (screening) has any impact on Iranian EFL learners' writing ability. The study was conducted on the intermediate EFL learners at Islamic Azad University North Tehran branch. The researcher administered a homogenizing test in order to exclude the exceptional…

  14. SERIES-X test results. [for measuring TOPEX earth satellite orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, R. B.; Bletzacker, F. R.; Najarian, R. J.; Purcell, G. H., Jr.; Statman, J. I.; Thomas, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    The SERIES-X project which demonstrates the feasibility of a method involving measurements of the distance from the TOPEX earth satellite and various points on the ground to Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites is described. The features of SERIES-X are compared with three better-known geodetic-quality GPS systems (Geostar, Macrometer, and SERIES). It is shown that the system is capable of measuring the positions of isolated stations, but its accuracy is improved when it measures baselines. Test results of some measurements of baselines ranging in length from 15 to 171,000 m are presented and discussed.

  15. Time Series Analysis of Alternative Media Effects Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, James H., Jr.; van den Berg, Sjef A.

    A study was conducted in the Washington, D.C., area to test mass media effects in a community controversy. Five possible theories were hypothesized to explain the effects media have on a community: indirect and direct effects, null effects, agenda setting, reverse effects, and reverse agenda setting. During the 16-month test period of the British…

  16. Effective Second Language Writing. TESOL Classroom Practice Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasten, Susan, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The classroom practices discussed in "Effective Second Language Writing" reflect various trends and methodologies; however, the underlying theme in this volume of the Classroom Practice Series is the need for clear and meaningful communication between ESL writers and their readers. While approaches differ, two core beliefs are constant: ESL…

  17. Effects of Hofmeister salt series on gluten network formation: Part II. Anion series.

    PubMed

    Tuhumury, H C D; Small, D M; Day, L

    2016-12-01

    Different anion salts from the Hofmeister series were used to investigate their effects on gluten network formation. The effects of these anion salts on the mixing properties of the dough and the rheological and chemical properties of gluten samples extracted from the dough with these respective salts were compared. The aim of this work was to determine how different anion salts influence the formation of the gluten structure during dough mixing. It was found that the Hofmeister anion salts affected the gluten network formation by interacting directly with specific amino acid residues that resulted in changes in gluten protein composition, specifically the percentage of the unextractable polymeric protein fractions (%UPP). These changes consequently led to remarkable differences in the mixing profiles and microstructural features of the dough, small deformation rheological properties of the gluten and a strain hardening behaviour of both dough and gluten samples.

  18. Single-Event Effect Report for EPC Series eGaN FETs: Comparison of EPC1000 and EPC2000 Series Devices for Destructive SEE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheick, Leif

    2014-01-01

    Recent testing of the EPC1000 series eGaN FETs has shown sensitivity to Single Event Effects (SEE) that are destructive. These effects are most likely the failure of the very thin gate structure in HEMT architecture. EPC has recently changed the doping of the substrate to improve the performance and the SEE response. This testing compares the SEE response of both devices.

  19. Testing for homogeneity of variance in time series: Long memory, wavelets, and the Nile River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitcher, B.; Byers, S. D.; Guttorp, P.; Percival, D. B.

    2002-05-01

    We consider the problem of testing for homogeneity of variance in a time series with long memory structure. We demonstrate that a test whose null hypothesis is designed to be white noise can, in fact, be applied, on a scale by scale basis, to the discrete wavelet transform of long memory processes. In particular, we show that evaluating a normalized cumulative sum of squares test statistic using critical levels for the null hypothesis of white noise yields approximately the same null hypothesis rejection rates when applied to the discrete wavelet transform of samples from a fractionally differenced process. The point at which the test statistic, using a nondecimated version of the discrete wavelet transform, achieves its maximum value can be used to estimate the time of the unknown variance change. We apply our proposed test statistic on five time series derived from the historical record of Nile River yearly minimum water levels covering 622-1922 A.D., each series exhibiting various degrees of serial correlation including long memory. In the longest subseries, spanning 622-1284 A.D., the test confirms an inhomogeneity of variance at short time scales and identifies the change point around 720 A.D., which coincides closely with the construction of a new device around 715 A.D. for measuring the Nile River. The test also detects a change in variance for a record of only 36 years.

  20. Test results on direct containment heating by high-pressure melt ejection into the Surtsey vessel: The TDS test series

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.D.; Blanchat, T.K.; Pilch, M.M.

    1994-08-01

    The Technology Development and Scoping (TDS) test series was conducted to test and develop instrumentation and procedures for performing steam-driven, high-pressure melt ejection (HPME) experiments at the Surtsey Test Facility to investigate direct containment heating (DCH). Seven experiments, designated TDS-1 through TDS-7, were performed in this test series. These experiments were conducted using similar initial conditions; the primary variable was the initial pressure in the Surtsey vessel. All experiments in this test series were performed with a steam driving gas pressure of {approx_equal} 4 MPa, 80 kg of lumina/iron/chromium thermite melt simulant, an initial hole diameter of 4.8 cm (which ablated to a final hole diameter of {approx_equal} 6 cm), and a 1/10th linear scale model of the Surry reactor cavity. The Surtsey vessel was purged with argon (<0.25 mol% O{sub 2}) to limit the recombination of hydrogen and oxygen, and gas grab samples were taken to measure the amount of hydrogen produced.

  1. Semiautomatic validation of RR time series in an ECG stress test database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armijos, Jairo; García, David; Astudillo, Darwin; Palacio-Baus, Kenneth; Medina, Rubén.; Wong, Sara

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports an automatic method for characterizing the quality of the RR-time series in the stress test database known as DICARDIA. The proposed methodology is simple and consists in subdividing the RR time series in a set of windows for estimating the quantity of artifacts based on a threshold value that depends on the standard deviation of RR-time series for each recorded lead. In a first stage, a manual annotation was performed considering four quality classes for the RR-time series (Reference lead, Good Lead, Low Quality Lead and Useless Lead). Automatic annotation was then performed varying the number of windows and threshold value for the standard deviation of the RR-time series. The metric used for evaluating the quality of the annotation was the Matching Ratio. The best results were obtained using a higher number of windows and considering only three classes (Good Lead, Low Quality Lead and Useless). The proposed methodology allows the utilization of the online available DICARDIA Stress Test database for different types of research.

  2. Optical Kerr-effect measurement for a series of alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Neil J.; Jennings, Barry R.

    1993-06-01

    Nanosecond optical Kerr-effect (OKE) measurements are reported using a modified apparatus, designed to enable rapid and precise data recording in pure liquids. Careful design of the apparatus enables measurements to be made at several inducing wavelengths without substantial apparatus modifications. The first measurement of the optical Kerr effect for benzene at an inducing wavelength of 532 nm is presented together with novel OKE data for the hitherto unstudied homologous alcohol series from methanol to 1-dodecanol. Analysis of the results indicates for this series the existence of a linear relationship between the carbon chain length and the optically induced Kerr constant somewhat similar to the behavior previously observed in the n-alkanes.

  3. Hospital waste shredder test series at the DONLEE Pilot Test Facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    This report describes the coal firing and coal and noninfectious hospital waste co-firing testing and emissions rates for the tests conducted at the DONLEE pilot plant facility during mid-December 1991 through early March 1992. The emissions obtained during these tests are in turn used to predict the emission rates for the proof-of-concept facility that is to be built at the Lebanon Veterans Affairs Medical Center. In addition, the reliability and performance of the waste shredding/feeding system were evaluated from this testing.

  4. Hospital waste shredder test series at the DONLEE Pilot Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Robert; Sak, James

    1992-09-01

    This report describes the coal firing and coal and noninfectious hospital waste co-firing testing and emissions rates for the tests conducted at the DONLEE pilot plant facility during mid-December 1991 through early March 1992. The emissions obtained during these tests are in turn used to predict the emission rates for the proof-of-concept facility that is to be built at the Lebanon Veterans Affairs Medical Center. In addition, the reliability and performance of the waste shredding/feeding system were evaluated from this testing.

  5. Long GPS coordinate time series: multipath and geometry effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, M. A.; Watson, C. S.

    2009-04-01

    Within analyses of Global Positioning System (GPS) observations, unmodelled sub-daily signals are known to propagate into long-period signals via a number of different mechanisms. In this paper, we investigate the effects of time-variable satellite geometry and the propagation of an unmodelled multipath signal that is analogous to a change in the elevation dependant phase centre of the receiving antenna. Multipath reflectors at H=0.1 m, 0.2 m and 1.5 m below the antenna are modeled and their effects on GPS coordinate time series are examined. Simulated time series at 20 global IGS sites for 2000-2008 were derived using the satellite geometry as defined by daily broadcast orbits, in addition to that defined using a perfectly repeating synthetic orbit. For the simulations generated using the broadcast orbits with a perfectly clear horizon, we observe the introduction of a time variable bias in the time series of up to several centimeters. Considerable site to site variability of the frequency and magnitude of the signal is observed, in addition to variation as a function of multipath source. When adopting realistic GPS observation geometries obtained from real data (e.g., those that include the effects of tracking outages, local obstructions, etc.), we observe concerning levels of temporal coordinate variation in the presence of the multipath signals. In these cases, we observe spurious signals across the frequency domain, in addition to what appears as offsets and secular trends. Velocity biases of more than 1mm/yr are evident at some few sites. The propagated signal in the vertical component is consistent with a noise model with a spectral index marginally above flicker noise (mean index -1.4), with some sites exhibiting power law magnitudes at comparable levels to actual height time series generated in GIPSY. The propagated signal also shows clear spectral peaks across all coordinate components at harmonics of the draconitic year for a GPS satellite (351.4 days

  6. Long GPS coordinate time series: multipath and geometry effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, M.; Watson, C. S.

    2009-12-01

    Within analyses of Global Positioning System (GPS) observations, unmodelled sub-daily signals are known to propagate into long-period signals via a number of different mechanisms. We report on the effects of time-variable satellite geometry and the propagation of an unmodelled multipath signal. Multipath reflectors at H=0.1 m, 0.2 m and 1.5 m below the antenna are modeled and their effects on GPS coordinate time series are examined. Simulated time series at 20 global IGS sites for 2000-2008 were derived using the satellite geometry as defined by daily broadcast orbits, in addition to that defined using a perfectly repeating synthetic orbit. For the simulations generated using the broadcast orbits with a perfectly clear horizon, we observe the introduction of a time variable bias in the time series of up to several centimeters. Considerable site to site variability of the frequency and magnitude of the signal is observed, in addition to variation as a function of multipath source. When adopting realistic GPS observation geometries obtained from real data (e.g., those that include the effects of tracking outages, local obstructions, etc.), we observe concerning levels of temporal coordinate variation in the presence of the multipath signals. In these cases, we observe spurious signals across the frequency domain, in addition to what appears as offsets and secular trends. Velocity biases of more than 1mm/yr are evident at some few sites. The propagated signal in the vertical component is consistent with a noise model with a spectral index marginally above flicker noise (mean index -1.4), with some sites exhibiting power law magnitudes at comparable levels to actual height time series generated in GIPSY. The propagated signal also shows clear spectral peaks across all coordinate components at harmonics of the draconitic year for a GPS satellite (351.2 days). When a perfectly repeating synthetic GPS constellation is used, the simulations show near-negligible power law

  7. ORNL rod-bundle heat-transfer test data. Volume 7. Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility experimental data report for test series 3. 07. 9 - steady-state film boiling in upflow

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, C.B.; Felde, D.K.; Sutton, A.G.; Gould, S.S.; Morris, D.G.; Robinson, J.J.

    1982-05-01

    Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF) test series 3.07.9 was conducted by members of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Pressurized-Water Reactor (ORNL-PWR) Blowdown Heat Transfer (BDHT) Separate-Effects Program on September 11, September 18, and October 1, 1980. The objective of the program is to investigate heat transfer phenomena believed to occur in PWRs during accidents, including small- and large-break loss-of-coolant accidents. Test series 3.07.9 was designed to provide steady-state film boiling data in rod bundle geometry under reactor accident-type conditions. This report presents the reduced instrument responses for THTF test series 3.07.9. Also included are uncertainties in the instrument responses, calculated mass flows, and calculated rod powers.

  8. Unraveling the cause-effect relation between time series.

    PubMed

    Liang, X San

    2014-11-01

    Given two time series, can one faithfully tell, in a rigorous and quantitative way, the cause and effect between them? Based on a recently rigorized physical notion, namely, information flow, we solve an inverse problem and give this important and challenging question, which is of interest in a wide variety of disciplines, a positive answer. Here causality is measured by the time rate of information flowing from one series to the other. The resulting formula is tight in form, involving only commonly used statistics, namely, sample covariances; an immediate corollary is that causation implies correlation, but correlation does not imply causation. It has been validated with touchstone linear and nonlinear series, purportedly generated with one-way causality that evades the traditional approaches. It has also been applied successfully to the investigation of real-world problems; an example presented here is the cause-and-effect relation between the two climate modes, El Niño and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), which have been linked to hazards in far-flung regions of the globe. In general, the two modes are mutually causal, but the causality is asymmetric: El Niño tends to stabilize IOD, while IOD functions to make El Niño more uncertain. To El Niño, the information flowing from IOD manifests itself as a propagation of uncertainty from the Indian Ocean.

  9. Test Series 2: seismic-fragility tests of naturally-aged Class 1E Exide FHC-19 battery cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bonzon, L. L.; Hente, D. B.; Kukreti, B. M.; Schendel, J.; Tulk, J. D.; Janis, W. J.; Black, D. A.; Paulsen, G. D.; Aucoin, B. D.

    1985-03-01

    The seismic-fragility of naturally-aged nuclear station safety-related batteries is of interest for two reasons: (1) to determine actual failure modes and their thresholds and (2) to determine the validity of using the electrical capacity of individual cells as an indicator of the ''end-of-life'' of a battery if subjected to a seismic event. This report, the second in a test series of an extensive seismic research program, covers the testing of 10-year old lead-calcium Exide FHC-19 cells from the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Station operated by the Baltimore Gas and Electric Company. The Exide cells were tested in two configurations using a triaxial shake table: single-cell tests, both rigidly and loosely mounted; and multicell (three-cell) tests, mounted in a typical battery rack. A total of six electrically active cells was used in the two different cell configurations.

  10. Testing for nonlinearity in time series: The method of surrogate data

    SciTech Connect

    Theiler, J.; Galdrikian, B.; Longtin, A. ); Eubank, S.; Farmer, J.D. Santa Fe Inst., NM )

    1991-01-01

    We describe a statistical approach for identifying nonlinearity in time series; in particular, we want to avoid claims of chaos when simpler models (such as linearly correlated noise) can explain the data. The method requires a careful statement of the null hypothesis which characterizes a candidate linear process, the generation of an ensemble of surrogate'' data sets which are similar to the original time series but consistent with the null hypothesis, and the computation of a discriminating statistic for the original and for each of the surrogate data sets. The idea is to test the original time series against the null hypothesis by checking whether the discriminating statistic computed for the original time series differs significantly from the statistics computed for each of the surrogate sets. We present algorithms for generating surrogate data under various null hypotheses, and we show the results of numerical experiments on artificial data using correlation dimension, Lyapunov exponent, and forecasting error as discriminating statistics. Finally, we consider a number of experimental time series -- including sunspots, electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, and fluid convection -- and evaluate the statistical significance of the evidence for nonlinear structure in each case. 56 refs., 8 figs.

  11. A periodogram-based test for weak stationarity and consistency between sections in time series.

    PubMed

    Halliday, D M; Rosenberg, J R; Rigas, A; Conway, B A

    2009-05-30

    In one approach to spectral estimation, a sample record is broken into a number of disjoint sections, or data is collected over a number of discrete trials. Spectral parameters are formed by averaging periodograms across these discrete sections or trials. A key assumption in this approach is that of weak stationarity. This paper describes a simple test that checks if periodogram ordinates are consistent across sections as a means of assessing weak stationarity. The test is called the Periodogram Coefficient of Variation (PCOV) test, and is a frequency domain test based on a technique of spectral analysis. Application of the test is illustrated to both simulated and experimental data (EMG, physiological tremor, EEG). An additional role for the test as a useful tool in exploratory analysis of time series is highlighted.

  12. Overview of the 6 Meter HIAD Inflatable Structure and Flexible TPS Static Load Test Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Greg; Kazemba, Cole; Johnson, Keith; Calomino, Anthony; Hughes, Steve; Cassell, Alan; Cheatwood, Neil

    2014-01-01

    To support NASAs long term goal of landing humans on Mars, technologies which enable the landing of heavy payloads are being developed. Current entry, decent, and landing technologies are not practical for this class of payloads due to geometric constraints dictated by current launch vehicle fairing limitations. Therefore, past and present technologies are now being explored to provide a mass and volume efficient solution to atmospheric entry, including Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators (HIADs). At the beginning of 2014, a 6m HIAD inflatable structure with an integrated flexible thermal protection system (TPS) was subjected to a static load test series to verify the designs structural performance. The 6m HIAD structure was constructed in a stacked toroid configuration using nine inflatable torus segments composed of fiber reinforced thin films, which were joined together using adhesives and high strength textile woven structural straps to help distribute the loads throughout the inflatable structure. The 6m flexible TPS was constructed using multiple layers of high performance materials to protect the inflatable structure from heat loads that would be seen during atmospheric entry. To perform the static load test series, a custom test fixture was constructed. The fixture consisted of a structural tub rim with enough height to allow for displacement of the inflatable structure as loads were applied. The bottom of the tub rim had an airtight seal with the floor. The centerbody of the inflatable structure was attached to a pedestal mount as seen in Figure 1. Using an impermeable membrane seal draped over the test article, partial vacuum was pulled beneath the HIAD, resulting in a uniform static pressure load applied to the outer surface. During the test series an extensive amount of instrumentation was used to provide many data sets including: deformed shape, shoulder deflection, strap loads, cord loads, inflation pressures, and applied static load

  13. Systematic two-dimensional cascade tests of NACA 65-series compressor blades at low speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrig, L Joseph; Emery, James C; Erwin, John R

    1957-01-01

    A two-dimensional low-speed porous-wall cascade tunnel investigation has been conducted to establish the performance of the NACA 65-series compressor blade sections over the useful range of inlet angle, solidity, and section camber. Design points for optimum high-speed operation are presented. The loading limitation is determined for some conditions. Trends of section operating range with increasing section camber are determined for the four inlet angles tested.

  14. Test series 1: seismic-fragility tests of naturally-aged Class 1E Gould NCX-2250 battery cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bonzon, L. L.; Hente, D. B.; Kukreti, B. M.; Schendel, J. S.; Tulk, J. D.; Janis, W. J.; Black, D A; Paulsen, G. D.; Aucoin, B. D.

    1984-09-01

    The seismic-fragility response of naturally-aged, nuclear station, safety-related batteries is of interest for two reasons: (1) to determine actual failure modes and thresholds; and (2) to determine the validity of using the electrical capacity of individual cells as an indicator of the end-of-life of a battery, given a seismic event. This report covers the first test series of an extensive program using 12-year old, lead-calcium, Gould NCX-2250 cells, from the James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Station operated by the New York Power Authority. Seismic tests with three cell configurations were performed using a triaxial shake table: single-cell tests, rigidly mounted; multi-cell (three) tests, mounted in a typical battery rack; and single-cell tests specifically aimed towards examining propagation of pre-existing case cracks. In general the test philosophy was to monitor the electrical properties including discharge capacity of cells through a graduated series of g-level step increases until either the shake-table limits were reached or until electrical failure of the cells occurred. Of nine electrically active cells, six failed during seismic testing over a range of imposed g-level loads in excess of a 1-g ZPA. Post-test examination revealed a common failure mode, the cracking at the abnormally brittle, positive lead bus-bar/post interface; further examination showed that the failure zone was extremely coarse grained and extensively corroded. Presently accepted accelerated-aging methods for qualifying batteries, per IEEE Std. 535-1979, are based on plate growth, but these naturally-aged 12-year old cells showed no significant plate growth.

  15. Loading effects in GPS vertical displacement time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memin, A.; Boy, J. P.; Santamaría-Gómez, A.; Watson, C.; Gravelle, M.; Tregoning, P.

    2015-12-01

    Surface deformations due to loading, with yet no comprehensive representation, account for a significant part of the variability in geodetic time series. We assess effects of loading in GPS vertical displacement time series at several frequency bands. We compare displacement derived from up-to-date loading models to two global sets of positioning time series, and investigate how they are reduced looking at interannual periods (> 2 months), intermediate periods (> 7 days) and the whole spectrum (> 1day). We assess the impact of interannual loading on estimating velocities. We compute atmospheric loading effects using surface pressure fields from the ECMWF. We use the inverted barometer (IB) hypothesis valid for periods exceeding a week to describe the ocean response to the pressure forcing. We used general circulation ocean model (ECCO and GLORYS) to account for wind, heat and fresh water flux. We separately use the Toulouse Unstructured Grid Ocean model (TUGO-m), forced by air pressure and winds, to represent the dynamics of the ocean response at high frequencies. The continental water storage is described using GLDAS/Noah and MERRA-land models. Non-hydrology loading reduces the variability of the observed vertical displacement differently according to the frequency band. The hydrology loading leads to a further reduction mostly at annual periods. ECMWF+TUGO-m better agrees with vertical surface motion than the ECMWF+IB model at all frequencies. The interannual deformation is time-correlated at most of the locations. It is adequately described by a power-law process of spectral index varying from -1.5 to -0.2. Depending on the power-law parameters, the predicted non-linear deformation due to mass loading variations leads to vertical velocity biases up to 0.7 mm/yr when estimated from 5 years of continuous observations. The maximum velocity bias can reach up to 1 mm/yr in regions around the southern Tropical band.

  16. AGARD Flight Test Instrumentation Series. Volume 15. Gyroscopic Instruments and Their Application to Flight Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    center of gravity, Eq. (J.Z.,5)r [in radius of light been, Eq. (3.5.1) r aplitude of baCkscattere•d light with respect to incident light of a mirror , Eq...output, see Eq. (3.5.9)). High quality sensors are being4 built using three or more mirrors within a linear dimension of 10 co. At the present time...Fig. 3.5.1, showed an effect. The SRI shown in fjt.ýj consists of a light source (LS). a beam splitter (8S). three fully re- flecting; mirrors ,. M1I.iF

  17. Removing atmosphere loading effect from GPS time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiampo, K. F.; Samadi Alinia, H.; Samsonov, S. V.; Gonzalez, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    The GPS time series of site position are contaminated by various sources of noise; in particular, the ionospheric and tropospheric path delays are significant [Gray et al., 2000; Meyer et al., 2006]. The GPS path delay in the ionosphere is largely dependent on the wave frequency whereas the delay in troposphere is dependent on the length of the travel path and therefore site elevation. Various approaches available for compensating ionosphere path delay cannot be used for removal of the tropospheric component. Quantifying the tropospheric delay plays an important role for determination of the vertical GPS component precision, as tropospheric parameters over a large distance have very little correlation with each other. Several methods have been proposed for tropospheric signal elimination from GPS vertical time series. Here we utilize surface temperature fluctuations and seasonal variations in water vapour and air pressure data for various spatial and temporal profiles in order to more accurately remove the atmospheric path delay [Samsonov et al., 2014]. In this paper, we model the atmospheric path delay of vertical position time series by analyzing the signal in the frequency domain and study its dependency on topography in eastern Ontario for the time period from January 2008 to December 2012. Systematic dependency of amplitude of atmospheric path delay as a function of height and its temporal variations based on the development of a new, physics-based model relating tropospheric/atmospheric effects with topography and can help in determining the most accurate GPS position.The GPS time series of site position are contaminated by various sources of noise; in particular, the ionospheric and tropospheric path delays are significant [Gray et al., 2000; Meyer et al., 2006]. The GPS path delay in the ionosphere is largely dependent on the wave frequency whereas the delay in troposphere is dependent on the length of the travel path and therefore site elevation. Various

  18. Minimum-test series for the intermediate-size inducer pump in SPTF at ETEC

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-04

    The overall test program includes pump assembly, installation, testing, removal from the test loop, disassembly and final inspection of the entire pump. Testing will include: checkout tests, head/flow and efficiency characterizations at design and two-loop flow/speed ratios and at selected sodium temperatures; suction performance determination; and a design point endurance test, up to 2000 hours, based on available time. The endurance test will be run at 100 percent NPSH margin. After testing, the pump will be cleaned of sodium, disassembled, and examined to determine the effects of operation at 100 percent NPSH margin for an extended period of time. The testing will be done at Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC). Assembly, sodium removal, disassembly, and initial inspection will be performed at Component Handling and Cleaning Facility (CHCF) and sodium testing will be done at Sodium Pump Test Facility (SPTF).

  19. VISAR Validation Test Series at the Light Initiated High Explosive (LIHE) facility.

    SciTech Connect

    Covert, Timothy Todd

    2007-02-01

    A velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR) was recently deployed at the light initiated high explosive facility (LIHE) to measure the velocity of an explosively accelerated flyer plate. The velocity data from the flyer plate experiments, using the vendor's fringe constant of 100m/s/fringe, were consistently lower than model predictions. The goal of the VISAR validation test series was to confirm the VISAR system fringe constant. A low velocity gas gun was utilized to impact and accelerate a target at the LIHE facility. VISAR velocity data from the accelerated target was compared against an independent velocity measurement. The data from this test series did in fact reveal the fringe constant was significantly higher than the vendor's specification. The correct fringe constant for the LIHE VISAR system has been determined to be 123 m/s/fringe. The Light Initiated High Explosive (LIHE) facility recently completed a Phase I test series to develop an explosively accelerated flyer plate (X-Flyer). The X-Flyer impulse technique consists of first spraying a thin layer of silver acetylide silver nitrate explosive onto a thin flyer plate. The explosive is then initiated using an intense flash of light. The explosive detonation accelerates the flyer across a small air gap towards the test item. The impact of the flyer with the test item creates a shock pulse and an impulsive load in the test unit. The goal of Phase I of the X-Flyer development series was to validate the technique theory and design process. One of the key parameters that control the shock pulse and impulsive load is the velocity of the flyer at impact. To measure this key parameter, a velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR) was deployed at the LIHE facility. The VISAR system was assembled by Sandia personnel from the Explosive Projects and Diagnostics department. The VISAR was a three leg, push-pull system using a fixed delay cavity. The primary optical components consisted of

  20. Testing the Perey effect

    DOE PAGES

    Titus, L. J.; Nunes, Filomena M.

    2014-03-12

    Here, the effects of non-local potentials have historically been approximately included by applying a correction factor to the solution of the corresponding equation for the local equivalent interaction. This is usually referred to as the Perey correction factor. In this work we investigate the validity of the Perey correction factor for single-channel bound and scattering states, as well as in transfer (p, d) cross sections. Method: We solve the scattering and bound state equations for non-local interactions of the Perey-Buck type, through an iterative method. Using the distorted wave Born approximation, we construct the T-matrix for (p,d) on 17O, 41Ca,more » 49Ca, 127Sn, 133Sn, and 209Pb at 20 and 50 MeV. As a result, we found that for bound states, the Perey corrected wave function resulting from the local equation agreed well with that from the non-local equation in the interior region, but discrepancies were found in the surface and peripheral regions. Overall, the Perey correction factor was adequate for scattering states, with the exception of a few partial waves corresponding to the grazing impact parameters. These differences proved to be important for transfer reactions. In conclusion, the Perey correction factor does offer an improvement over taking a direct local equivalent solution. However, if the desired accuracy is to be better than 10%, the exact solution of the non-local equation should be pursued.« less

  1. Testing the Perey effect

    SciTech Connect

    Titus, L. J.; Nunes, Filomena M.

    2014-03-12

    Here, the effects of non-local potentials have historically been approximately included by applying a correction factor to the solution of the corresponding equation for the local equivalent interaction. This is usually referred to as the Perey correction factor. In this work we investigate the validity of the Perey correction factor for single-channel bound and scattering states, as well as in transfer (p, d) cross sections. Method: We solve the scattering and bound state equations for non-local interactions of the Perey-Buck type, through an iterative method. Using the distorted wave Born approximation, we construct the T-matrix for (p,d) on 17O, 41Ca, 49Ca, 127Sn, 133Sn, and 209Pb at 20 and 50 MeV. As a result, we found that for bound states, the Perey corrected wave function resulting from the local equation agreed well with that from the non-local equation in the interior region, but discrepancies were found in the surface and peripheral regions. Overall, the Perey correction factor was adequate for scattering states, with the exception of a few partial waves corresponding to the grazing impact parameters. These differences proved to be important for transfer reactions. In conclusion, the Perey correction factor does offer an improvement over taking a direct local equivalent solution. However, if the desired accuracy is to be better than 10%, the exact solution of the non-local equation should be pursued.

  2. Undulator Beam Pipe Magnetic Shielding Effect Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Andrew; Wolf, Zachary; /SLAC

    2010-11-23

    The proposed stainless steel beampipe for the LCLS undulator has a measurable shielding effect on the magnetic field of the LCLS undulators. This note describes the tests used to determine the magnitude of the shielding effect, as well as deviations in the shielding effect caused by placing different phase shims in the undulator gap. The effect of the proposed Steel strongback which will be used to support the beam pipe, was also studied. A hall probe on a 3 axis movement system was set up to measure the main component of the magnetic field in the Prototype Undulator. To account for temperature variations of the magnetic field of the undulator for successive tests, a correction is applied which is described in this technical note. Using this method, we found the shielding effect, the amount which the field inside the gap was reduced due to the placement of the beampipe, to be {approx}10 Gauss. A series of tests was also performed to determine the effect of phase shims and X and Y correction shims on the shielding. The largest effect on shielding was found for the .3 mm phase shims. The effect of the .3 mm phase shims was to increase the shielding effect {approx}4 Gauss. The tolerance for the shielding effect of the phase shims is less than 1 gauss. The effect of the strongback was seen in its permanent magnetic field. It introduced a dipole field across the measured section of the undulator of {approx}3 gauss. This note documents the tests performed to determine these effects, as well as the results of those tests.

  3. Shot APPLE 2, A Test of the TEAPOT Series, 5 May 1955

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    volume: Shot BEE 9 Multi-shot volume: Shots ESS through MET and Shot ZUCCHINI , the Final TEAPOT ’rests. The volumes addressing the test events of...TURK "- TESLA ]2 \\ 91• POSTl -IL9 BEE ZUCCHINI APPLEl I -WS I -- ~L.. WASP S4 I7’I WASP PRIME APPLE 2 I MOTH HA ___ __ 0 HORNET HADR( I 1 31 I 1 S...roentgens, respectively. These officers were ordered not to enter contaminated areas for the one remaining shot of the series, ZUCCHINI . The other two

  4. A test of uranium-series dating of fossil tooth enamel: results from Tournal Cave, France

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bischoff, J.L.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Tavoso, A.; de Lumley, Henry

    1988-01-01

    A series of well preserved mammal bones and horse teeth was analyzed from archaeological levels of Tournal Cave (Magdalenian, Aurignacian, and Mousterain) to test the hypothesis that well-crystallized enamel behaves more as a closed system than does whole bone. The isotopic composition of bones and tooth enamels from this deposit meet criteria for confidence, and gave no reasons to suspect contamination or open-system behavior. Two samples for which 231Pa could be analyzed showed internal concordance with the respective 230Th ages. In spite of the favourable isotopic criteria, however, comparison of the U-series ages of the bones and the tooth enamel with stratigraphic position and 14C control indicated the dates were not meaningful. In general, both bones and tooth enamels gave ages too young, although some were clearly too old. Neither group showed any systematic increase of age with stratigraphic depth. Tooth enamel, therefore, shows no advantage over bone for U-series dating for this site. In Tournal cave both bones and enamel are apparently open to U, which is probably cycling as a consequences of post-depositional groundwater movement. ?? 1988.

  5. Time series trends of the safety effects of pavement resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Park, Juneyoung; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Wang, Jung-Han

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluated the safety performance of pavement resurfacing projects on urban arterials in Florida using the observational before and after approaches. The safety effects of pavement resurfacing were quantified in the crash modification factors (CMFs) and estimated based on different ranges of heavy vehicle traffic volume and time changes for different severity levels. In order to evaluate the variation of CMFs over time, crash modification functions (CMFunctions) were developed using nonlinear regression and time series models. The results showed that pavement resurfacing projects decrease crash frequency and are found to be more safety effective to reduce severe crashes in general. Moreover, the results of the general relationship between the safety effects and time changes indicated that the CMFs increase over time after the resurfacing treatment. It was also found that pavement resurfacing projects for the urban roadways with higher heavy vehicle volume rate are more safety effective than the roadways with lower heavy vehicle volume rate. Based on the exploration and comparison of the developed CMFucntions, the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) and exponential functional form of the nonlinear regression models can be utilized to identify the trend of CMFs over time.

  6. General-Purpose Heat Source: Research and development program: Cold-Process Verification Test Series

    SciTech Connect

    Reimus, M.A.H.; George, T.G.

    1996-06-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Because any space mission could experience a launch abort or return from orbit, the heat source must be designed and constructed to survive credible accident environments. Previous testing conducted in support of the Galileo and Ulysses missions documented the response of GPHSs and individual GPHS capsules fueled with {sup 238}UO{sub 2} ({sup 235}U-depleted) to a variety of explosive overpressure and impact events. In the early 1990s, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) resumed fabrication of {sup 238}UO{sub 2} GPHS pellets. The Cold-Process Verification (CPV) Test Series was designed to compare the response of GPHS heat sources loaded with recently fabricated hot- and cold-pressed {sup 238}UO{sub 2} pellets to the response of urania pellets used in the Galileo and Ulysses performance tests. This report documents eleven bare-capsule impacts and one impact of a fully loaded GPHS module. All of the failures observed in the bare-clad impact tests were similar to failures observed in previous safety tests. No failures occurred in the module impact test.

  7. Validity and reliability of the Newtest Powertimer 300-series testing system.

    PubMed

    Enoksen, Eystein; Tønnessen, Espen; Shalfawi, Shaher

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Newtest Powertimer 300-series portable contact mat and photocells (Newtest Oy, Finland). The participants were 20 male soccer players aged 19.1+/-3.5 years. The validity and reliability of the Powertimer (contact mat and photocells) were assessed in a comparison of a laboratory testing method (force platform and photocells) and the Newtest Powertimer system. All participants were tested on 40-m sprint, countermovement jump, and squat jump. The results showed that the Powertimer was a reliable instrument for both jumping and running. The system did not show any marked systematic bias (P<0.05) and the random error associated with it was negligible. A comparison of the laboratory testing method with the Powertimer revealed that the Powertimer contact mat and photocells had poor validity and the bias in measurement differed from that of the laboratory testing method (P<0.05). The Newtest Powertimer testing system was shown to be a useful instrument for measuring jump height and running speed. However, if a comparison of overall values of jumping height is intended, it is important to use the same testing system, because different systems give different results. It is also advisable to use this equipment only if no other "gold standard" equipment is available.

  8. Attention and the Testing Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Picklesimer, Milton

    2016-01-01

    Memory retrieval often enhances still later memory as evidenced by the testing effect. Divided attention (DA) is known to produce different effects on encoding and retrieval, substantially disrupting the former and often producing little effect on the latter. The present experiments examine whether the mnemonic consequences of retrieval are…

  9. Accountability and Testing. NAESP School Leadership Digest Second Series, Number 5. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzarella, Jo Ann

    What is meant by "accountability" varies a great deal. It is not, however, the tools such as merit salary plans, voucher plans, and management techniques that are used to achieve accountability. Accountability has from its earliest days been tied to testing. In discussing testing, it is necessary to discuss the pros and cons of standardized, or…

  10. Fabrication and Test of LARP Technological Quadrupole Models of TQC Series

    SciTech Connect

    Bossert, Rodger C.; Ambrosio, Giorgio; Andreev, Nilolai; Barzi, Emanuela; Chlachidze, Guram; Feher, Sandor; Kashikhin, Vladimir S.; Kashikhin, Vadim V.; Lamm, Michael; Nobrega, Alfred; Novitski, Igor; Orris, Darryl; Tartaglia, Michael; Zlobin, Alexander V.; Caspi, Shlomo; Dietderich, Daniel R.; Ferracin, Paolo; Hafalia, A. R.; Sabbi, GianLuca; Ghosh, Arup; Wanderer, Peter

    2008-08-17

    In support of the development of a large-aperture Nb3Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, several two-layer technological quadrupole models of TQC series with 90 mm aperture and collar-based mechanical structure have been developed at Fermilab in collaboration with LBNL. This paper summarizes the results of fabrication and test of TQC02a, the second TQC model based on RRP Nb3Sn strand, and TQC02b, built with both MJR and RRP strand. The test results presented include magnet strain and quench performance during training, as well as quench studies of current ramp rate and temperature dependence from 1.9 K to 4.5 K.

  11. Wind-Tunnel Tests on a Series of Wing Models Through a Large Angle of Attack Range. Part I : Force Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Montgomery; Wenzinger, Carl J

    1930-01-01

    This investigation covers force tests through a large range of angle of attack on a series of monoplane and biplane wing models. The tests were conducted in the atmospheric wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The models were arranged in such a manner as to make possible a determination of the effects of variations in tip shape, aspect ratio, flap setting, stagger, gap, decalage, sweep back, and airfoil profile. The arrangements represented most of the types of wing systems in use on modern airplanes. The effect of each variable is illustrated by means of groups of curves. In addition, there are included approximate autorotational characteristics in the form of calculated ranges of "rotary instability." a correction for blocking in this tunnel which applies to monoplanes at large angles of attack has been developed, and is given in an appendix. (author)

  12. Economic downturns and male cesarean deliveries: a time-series test of the economic stress hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In light of the recent Great Recession, increasing attention has focused on the health consequences of economic downturns. The perinatal literature does not converge on whether ambient economic declines threaten the health of cohorts in gestation. We set out to test the economic stress hypothesis that the monthly count of cesarean deliveries (CD), which may gauge the level of fetal distress in a population, rises after the economy declines. We focus on male CD since the literature reports that male more than female fetuses appear sensitive to stressors in utero. Methods We tested our ecological hypothesis in California for 228 months from January 1989 to December 2007, the most recent data available to us at the time of our tests. We used as the independent variable the Bureau of Labor Statistics unadjusted total state employment series. Time-series methods controlled for patterns of male CD over time. We also adjusted for the monthly count of female CD, which controls for well-characterized factors (e.g., medical-legal environment, changing risk profile of births) that affect CD but are shared across infant sex. Results Findings support the economic stress hypothesis in that male CD increases above its expected value one month after employment declines (employment coefficient = -24.09, standard error = 11.88, p = .04). Additional exploratory analyses at the metropolitan level indicate that findings in Los Angeles and Orange Counties appear to drive the State-level relation. Conclusions Contracting economies may perturb the health of male more than female fetuses sufficiently enough to warrant more CD. Male relative to female CD may sensitively gauge the cohort health of gestations. PMID:24906208

  13. Acceptance tests and their results for 1st Pre-Series Cryoline (PTCL) of ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapoor, H.; Garg, A.; Shah, N.; Muralidhara, S.; Choukekar, K.; Dash, B.; Gaur, V.; Madeenavalli, S.; Patel, P.; Kumar, U.; Jadon, M.; Shukla, V.; Sarkar, B.; Sarvaiya, Y.; Mukherjee, D.; Dutta, A.; Murugan, KV.; Gajera, S.; Joshi, B.; Panjwani, R.

    2017-02-01

    The Pre-Series Cryoline (PTCL) for ITER is a representative cryoline from the complicated network of all cryolines for the ITER project. It is ∼28 m in length with same cross-section (1:1) including main line (ML) and branch line (BL) as of ITER torus & cryostat cryoline. Geometrically; it has bends at different angles i.e. 90°, 120°, 135° & 160° comprising T-section & Z-section. The PTCL has been fabricated in 5 different elements based on the installation feasibility. The mechanical & instrumentation installation like sensors mounting, displacement sensors, etc. has been completed. The PTCL test has been performed after complete installation of PTCL and integration with the existing test facility at ITER-India cryogenics laboratory in order to verify the thermal performance and mechanical integrity. The primary objectives, which are evaluated during the PTCL test, are (i) Thermal performance of the PTCL (ii) Measurement of temperature profile on thermal shield of PTCL, (iii) Stress measurement at critical locations, (iv) Measurement of Outer Vacuum Jacket (OVJ) temperature during Break of Insulation Vacuum (BIV) test. The paper will summarize the methodology and observed results of PTCL.

  14. Tank Tests of NACA Model 40 Series of Hulls for Small Flying Boats and Amphibians

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, John B; Dawson, John R

    1937-01-01

    The NACA model 40 series of flying-boat hull models consists of 2 forebodies and 3 afterbodies combined to provide several forms suitable for use in small marine aircraft. One forebody is the usual form with hollow bow sections and the other has a bottom surface that is completely developable from bow to step. The afterbodies include a short pointed afterbody with an extension for the tail surfaces, a long afterbody similar to that of a seaplane float but long enough to carry the tail surfaces, and a third obtained by fitting a second step in the latter afterbody. The various combinations were tested in the NACA Tank by the general method over a suitable range of loadings. Fixed-trim tests were made for all speeds likely to be used and free-to-trim tests were made at low speeds to slightly beyond the hump speed. The characteristics of the hulls at best trim angles have been deduced from the data of the tests at fixed trim angles and are given in the form of nondimensional coefficients applicable to any size hull.

  15. Fuel performance improvement program: description and characterization of HBWR Series H-2, H-3, and H-4 test rods

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, R.J.; Barner, J.O.; Welty, R.K.

    1980-03-01

    The fabrication process and as-built characteristics of the HBWR Series H-2 and H-3 test rods, as well as the three packed-particle (sphere-pac) rods in HBWR Series H-4 are described. The HBWR Series H-2, H-3, and H-4 tests are part of the irradiation test program of the Fuel Performance Improvement Program. Fifteen rods were fabricated for the three test series. Rod designs include: (1) a reference dished pellet design incorporating chamfered edges, (2) a chamfered, annular pellet design combined with graphite-coated cladding, and (3) a sphere-pac design. Both the annular-coated and sphere-pac designs include internal pressurization using helium.

  16. Frozen Gaussian series representation of the imaginary time propagator theory and numerical tests

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Dong H.; Shao Jiushu; Pollak, Eli

    2009-07-28

    Thawed Gaussian wavepackets have been used in recent years to compute approximations to the thermal density matrix. From a numerical point of view, it is cheaper to employ frozen Gaussian wavepackets. In this paper, we provide the formalism for the computation of thermal densities using frozen Gaussian wavepackets. We show that the exact density may be given in terms of a series, in which the zeroth order term is the frozen Gaussian. A numerical test of the methodology is presented for deep tunneling in the quartic double well potential. In all cases, the series is observed to converge. The convergence of the diagonal density matrix element is much faster than that of the antidiagonal one, suggesting that the methodology should be especially useful for the computation of partition functions. As a by product of this study, we find that the density matrix in configuration space can have more than two saddle points at low temperatures. This has implications for the use of the quantum instanton theory.

  17. Reconstruction of effective cloud field geometry from series of sunshine number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badescu, Viorel; Paulescu, Marius; Brabec, Marek

    2016-07-01

    A new method is proposed for extracting the parameters of effective cloud field models from time series of sunshine number (SSN). Data of SSN number and point cloudiness during 2009 and 2010 at Timisoara (Romania, South Eastern Europe; temperate continental climate) are used to illustrate the method. Two procedures of fitting the estimated point cloudiness to the observed point cloudiness data are proposed and tested. Seven simple effective cloud field models are analyzed. All models underestimate the point cloudiness. The MBE ranges between - 0.06 and - 0.23 while RMSE between 0.15 and 0.38, depending on the month and the duration of the SSN data averaging interval. The best model is based on a field of clouds of semicircle form. This agrees with previous results obtained in the semi-arid climate of Great South Plains in US. The dynamics of the effective cloud field is reconstructed during all months of 2010 at Timisoara. The time series of effective cloud fields are dominated by semicircle clouds but short episodes of semielliptic clouds, ellipsoid clouds, truncated cone clouds and cuboidal clouds are included in the series.

  18. Evaluation of a series hybrid thrust bearing at DN values to three million. 2: Fabrication and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eusepi, M.; Winn, L. W.

    1975-01-01

    Results of tests made to determine the experimental performance of a series hybrid bearing are reported. The bearing consists of a 150 mm ball bearing and a centrifugally actuated, conical, fluid film bearing fitting an envelope with an outer radius of 86.4 mm (3.4 in.) and inner radius of 71 mm (2.8 in.). Tests were conducted up to 16,500 rpm, at which speed an axial load of 15,568 N (3500 lb) was safely supported by the hybrid bearing system. Through the employment of the series hybrid bearing principle, it was possible to reduce the effective ball bearing speed to approximately one-half of the shaft speed. A reduction of this magnitude should result in a tenfold increase in the ball bearing fatigue life. A successful simulation of fluid film bearing lubricant supply failure, performed repeatedly at an operating speed of 10,000 rpm, resulted in complete and smooth change over to full scale ball bearing operation when the oil supply to the fluid film bearing was discontinued. Reactivation of the fluid film supply system produced a flawless return to the original mode of hybrid operation.

  19. Effects of aging condition on the fracture toughness of 2XXX and 7XXX series aluminum alloy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manoharan, M.; Lewandowski, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented on the effects of matrix aging condition (i.e., matrix temper) on the fracture toughness of 2XXX and 7XXX Al matrix alloys reinforced with SiC particulates, and the results are compared with the mechanical behavior. Fracture toughness testing was conducted on fatigue precracked bend specimens, and fracture surfaces were examined using SEM. Results revealed dramatic differences in the effect of matrix microstructure on the fracture properties of the two composite series. In the 7XXX material, the toughness values decreased from the underaged (UA) condition to the overaged (OA) condition by approximately 40 percent, while in the 2XXX series composite, the effect of matrix microstructure was marginal. In the 7XXX series composites, a transition in fracture mode from particle cracking (in UA) to matrix and linear-interface failure (in OA) was observed, while the 2XXX series composite failed predominantly by particle cracking.

  20. Space Fission System Test Effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houts, Mike; Schmidt, Glen L.; van Dyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Martin, James; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Harper, Roger

    2004-02-01

    Space fission technology has the potential to enable rapid access to any point in the solar system. If fission propulsion systems are to be developed to their full potential, however, near-term customers need to be identified and initial fission systems successfully developed, launched, and utilized. One key to successful utilization is to develop reactor designs that are highly testable. Testable reactor designs have a much higher probability of being successfully converted from paper concepts to working space hardware than do designs which are difficult or impossible to realistically test. ``Test Effectiveness'' is one measure of the ability to realistically test a space reactor system. The objective of this paper is to discuss test effectiveness as applied to the design, development, flight qualification, and acceptance testing of space fission systems. The ability to perform highly effective testing would be particularly important to the success of any near-term mission, such as NASA's Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter, the first mission under study within NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program.

  1. Space Fission System Test Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Houts, Mike; Schmidt, Glen L.; Van Dyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Martin, James; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Harper, Roger

    2004-02-04

    Space fission technology has the potential to enable rapid access to any point in the solar system. If fission propulsion systems are to be developed to their full potential, however, near-term customers need to be identified and initial fission systems successfully developed, launched, and utilized. One key to successful utilization is to develop reactor designs that are highly testable. Testable reactor designs have a much higher probability of being successfully converted from paper concepts to working space hardware than do designs which are difficult or impossible to realistically test. ''Test Effectiveness'' is one measure of the ability to realistically test a space reactor system. The objective of this paper is to discuss test effectiveness as applied to the design, development, flight qualification, and acceptance testing of space fission systems. The ability to perform highly effective testing would be particularly important to the success of any near-term mission, such as NASA's Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter, the first mission under study within NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program.

  2. Early results from the thermal/structural in situ test series at the WIPP

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, D.E.; Torres, T.M.; Blankenship, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Thermal/Structural Interactions (TSI) In Situ Tests are a series of large-scale, well instrumented tests that have been constructed at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico. As a precursor to the TSI tests, a ventilation drift (Room D) was mined, drilled and instrumented. This room provided the contractor an excellent area to practice controlled construction methods and was proving ground for construction monitoring and documentation methods. All gages in this first room have been monitored since their initial installation, which has provided a small, but representative, data base. These data also were the first to be available from any TSI area for analysis. This paper discusses the construction activities in Room D and the data generated from the construction and drilling. Deformation of the room is compared briefly to numerical calculations that used a rather simple creep model as a reference. The constitutive model for salt, it appears, must be improved before it can predict the underground deformations.

  3. Time-series intervention analysis of pedestrian countdown timer effects.

    PubMed

    Huitema, Bradley E; Van Houten, Ron; Manal, Hana

    2014-11-01

    Pedestrians account for 40-50% of traffic fatalities in large cities. Several previous studies based on relatively small samples have concluded that Pedestrian Countdown Timers (PCT) may reduce pedestrian crashes at signalized intersections, but other studies report no reduction. The purposes of the present article are to (1) describe a new methodology to evaluate the effectiveness of introducing PCT signals and (2) to present results of applying this methodology to pedestrian crash data collected in a large study carried out in Detroit, Michigan. The study design incorporated within-unit as well as between-unit components. The main focus was on dynamic effects that occurred within the PCT unit of 362 treated sites during the 120 months of the study. An interrupted time-series analysis was developed to evaluate whether change in crash frequency depended upon of the degree to which the countdown timers penetrated the treatment unit. The between-unit component involved comparisons between the treatment unit and a control unit. The overall conclusion is that the introduction of PCT signals in Detroit reduced pedestrian crashes to approximately one-third of the preintervention level. The evidence for this reductionis strong and the change over time was shown to be a function of the extent to which the timers were introduced during the intervention period. There was no general drop-off in crash frequency throughout the baseline interval of over five years; only when the PCT signals were introduced in large numbers was consistent and convincing crash reduction observed. Correspondingly, there was little evidence of change in the control unit.

  4. The Spanish standard patch test series: 2016 update by the Spanish Contact Dermatitis and Skin Allergy Research Group (GEIDAC).

    PubMed

    Hervella-Garcés, M; García-Gavín, J; Silvestre-Salvador, J F

    2016-09-01

    The Spanish standard patch test series, as recommended by the Spanish Contact Dermatitis and Skin Allergy Research Group (GEIDAC), has been updated for 2016. The new series replaces the 2012 version and contains the minimum set of allergens recommended for routine investigation of contact allergy in Spain from 2016 onwards. Four haptens -clioquinol, thimerosal, mercury, and primin- have been eliminated owing to a low frequency of relevant allergic reactions, while 3 new allergens -methylisothiazolinone, diazolidinyl urea, and imidazolidinyl urea- have been added. GEIDAC has also modified the recommended aqueous solution concentrations for the 2 classic, major haptens methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone, which are now to be tested at 200ppm in aqueous solution, and formaldehyde, which is now to be tested in a 2% aqueous solution. Updating the Spanish standard series is one of the functions of GEIDAC, which is responsible for ensuring that the standard series is suited to the country's epidemiological profile and pattern of contact sensitization.

  5. 17 CFR 240.12d1-1 - Registration effective as to class or series.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... class or series. 240.12d1-1 Section 240.12d1-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Registration § 240.12d1-1 Registration effective as to class or series. (a) An application filed pursuant to... of additional shares or amounts. (d) If a class of security is issuable in two or more series...

  6. 17 CFR 240.12d1-1 - Registration effective as to class or series.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... class or series. 240.12d1-1 Section 240.12d1-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Registration § 240.12d1-1 Registration effective as to class or series. (a) An application filed pursuant to... of additional shares or amounts. (d) If a class of security is issuable in two or more series...

  7. 17 CFR 240.12d1-1 - Registration effective as to class or series.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... class or series. 240.12d1-1 Section 240.12d1-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Registration § 240.12d1-1 Registration effective as to class or series. (a) An application filed pursuant to... of additional shares or amounts. (d) If a class of security is issuable in two or more series...

  8. 17 CFR 240.12d1-1 - Registration effective as to class or series.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... class or series. 240.12d1-1 Section 240.12d1-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Registration § 240.12d1-1 Registration effective as to class or series. (a) An application filed pursuant to... of additional shares or amounts. (d) If a class of security is issuable in two or more series...

  9. 17 CFR 240.12d1-1 - Registration effective as to class or series.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... class or series. 240.12d1-1 Section 240.12d1-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Registration § 240.12d1-1 Registration effective as to class or series. (a) An application filed pursuant to... of additional shares or amounts. (d) If a class of security is issuable in two or more series...

  10. Retrospective testing and case series study of porcine delta coronavirus in U.S. swine herds.

    PubMed

    McCluskey, Brian J; Haley, Charles; Rovira, Albert; Main, Rodger; Zhang, Yan; Barder, Sunny

    2016-01-01

    Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) was first reported in the United States (US) in February 2014. This was the second novel swine enteric coronavirus detected in the US since May 2013. In this study, we conducted retrospective testing of samples submitted to three veterinary diagnostic laboratories where qualifying biological samples were derived from previously submitted diagnostic case submissions from US commercial swine farms with a clinical history of enteric disease or from cases that had been previously tested for transmissible gastroenteritis virus, PEDV, or rotavirus. Overall, 2286 banked samples were tested from 27 States. Samples were collected in 3 separate years and in 17 different months. Test results revealed 4 positive samples, 3 collected in August 2013 and 1 collected in October 2013. In addition, a case series including 42 operations in 10 States was conducted through administration of a survey. Survey data collected included information on characteristics of swine operations that had experienced PDCoV clinical signs. Special emphasis was placed on obtaining descriptive estimates of biosecurity practices and disease status over time of each operation. Clinical signs of PDCoV were reported to be similar to those of PEDV. The average number of animals on each operation exhibiting clinical signs (morbidity) and the average number of case fatalities was greatest for suckling and weaned pigs. Average operation-level weaned pig morbidity was greatest in the first week of the outbreak while average operation-level suckling pig case fatality was greatest in the second week of the outbreak. The survey included questions regarding biosecurity practices for visitors and operation employees; trucks, equipment and drivers; and feed sources. These questions attempted to identify a likely pathway of introduction of PDCoV onto the operations surveyed.

  11. A benchmark test of accuracy and precision in estimating dynamical systems characteristics from a time series.

    PubMed

    Rispens, S M; Pijnappels, M; van Dieën, J H; van Schooten, K S; Beek, P J; Daffertshofer, A

    2014-01-22

    Characteristics of dynamical systems are often estimated to describe physiological processes. For instance, Lyapunov exponents have been determined to assess the stability of the cardio-vascular system, respiration, and, more recently, human gait and posture. However, the systematic evaluation of the accuracy and precision of these estimates is problematic because the proper values of the characteristics are typically unknown. We fill this void with a set of standardized time series with well-defined dynamical characteristics that serve as a benchmark. Estimates ought to match these characteristics, at least to good approximation. We outline a procedure to employ this generic benchmark test and illustrate its capacity by examining methods for estimating the maximum Lyapunov exponent. In particular, we discuss algorithms by Wolf and co-workers and by Rosenstein and co-workers and evaluate their performances as a function of signal length and signal-to-noise ratio. In all scenarios, the precision of Rosenstein's algorithm was found to be equal to or greater than Wolf's algorithm. The latter, however, appeared more accurate if reasonably large signal lengths are available and noise levels are sufficiently low. Due to its modularity, the presented benchmark test can be used to evaluate and tune any estimation method to perform optimally for arbitrary experimental data.

  12. Novel covariance-based neutrality test of time-series data reveals asymmetries in ecological and economic systems

    DOE PAGES

    Washburne, Alex D.; Burby, Joshua W.; Lacker, Daniel; ...

    2016-09-30

    Systems as diverse as the interacting species in a community, alleles at a genetic locus, and companies in a market are characterized by competition (over resources, space, capital, etc) and adaptation. Neutral theory, built around the hypothesis that individual performance is independent of group membership, has found utility across the disciplines of ecology, population genetics, and economics, both because of the success of the neutral hypothesis in predicting system properties and because deviations from these predictions provide information about the underlying dynamics. However, most tests of neutrality are weak, based on static system properties such as species-abundance distributions or themore » number of singletons in a sample. Time-series data provide a window onto a system’s dynamics, and should furnish tests of the neutral hypothesis that are more powerful to detect deviations from neutrality and more informative about to the type of competitive asymmetry that drives the deviation. Here, we present a neutrality test for time-series data. We apply this test to several microbial time-series and financial time-series and find that most of these systems are not neutral. Our test isolates the covariance structure of neutral competition, thus facilitating further exploration of the nature of asymmetry in the covariance structure of competitive systems. Much like neutrality tests from population genetics that use relative abundance distributions have enabled researchers to scan entire genomes for genes under selection, we anticipate our time-series test will be useful for quick significance tests of neutrality across a range of ecological, economic, and sociological systems for which time-series data are available. Here, future work can use our test to categorize and compare the dynamic fingerprints of particular competitive asymmetries (frequency dependence, volatility smiles, etc) to improve forecasting and management of complex adaptive systems.« less

  13. Novel covariance-based neutrality test of time-series data reveals asymmetries in ecological and economic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Washburne, Alex D.; Burby, Joshua W.; Lacker, Daniel; Allesina, Stefano

    2016-09-30

    Systems as diverse as the interacting species in a community, alleles at a genetic locus, and companies in a market are characterized by competition (over resources, space, capital, etc) and adaptation. Neutral theory, built around the hypothesis that individual performance is independent of group membership, has found utility across the disciplines of ecology, population genetics, and economics, both because of the success of the neutral hypothesis in predicting system properties and because deviations from these predictions provide information about the underlying dynamics. However, most tests of neutrality are weak, based on static system properties such as species-abundance distributions or the number of singletons in a sample. Time-series data provide a window onto a system’s dynamics, and should furnish tests of the neutral hypothesis that are more powerful to detect deviations from neutrality and more informative about to the type of competitive asymmetry that drives the deviation. Here, we present a neutrality test for time-series data. We apply this test to several microbial time-series and financial time-series and find that most of these systems are not neutral. Our test isolates the covariance structure of neutral competition, thus facilitating further exploration of the nature of asymmetry in the covariance structure of competitive systems. Much like neutrality tests from population genetics that use relative abundance distributions have enabled researchers to scan entire genomes for genes under selection, we anticipate our time-series test will be useful for quick significance tests of neutrality across a range of ecological, economic, and sociological systems for which time-series data are available. Here, future work can use our test to categorize and compare the dynamic fingerprints of particular competitive asymmetries (frequency dependence, volatility smiles, etc) to improve forecasting and management of complex adaptive systems.

  14. Novel Covariance-Based Neutrality Test of Time-Series Data Reveals Asymmetries in Ecological and Economic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Burby, Joshua W.; Lacker, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Systems as diverse as the interacting species in a community, alleles at a genetic locus, and companies in a market are characterized by competition (over resources, space, capital, etc) and adaptation. Neutral theory, built around the hypothesis that individual performance is independent of group membership, has found utility across the disciplines of ecology, population genetics, and economics, both because of the success of the neutral hypothesis in predicting system properties and because deviations from these predictions provide information about the underlying dynamics. However, most tests of neutrality are weak, based on static system properties such as species-abundance distributions or the number of singletons in a sample. Time-series data provide a window onto a system’s dynamics, and should furnish tests of the neutral hypothesis that are more powerful to detect deviations from neutrality and more informative about to the type of competitive asymmetry that drives the deviation. Here, we present a neutrality test for time-series data. We apply this test to several microbial time-series and financial time-series and find that most of these systems are not neutral. Our test isolates the covariance structure of neutral competition, thus facilitating further exploration of the nature of asymmetry in the covariance structure of competitive systems. Much like neutrality tests from population genetics that use relative abundance distributions have enabled researchers to scan entire genomes for genes under selection, we anticipate our time-series test will be useful for quick significance tests of neutrality across a range of ecological, economic, and sociological systems for which time-series data are available. Future work can use our test to categorize and compare the dynamic fingerprints of particular competitive asymmetries (frequency dependence, volatility smiles, etc) to improve forecasting and management of complex adaptive systems. PMID:27689714

  15. Novel Covariance-Based Neutrality Test of Time-Series Data Reveals Asymmetries in Ecological and Economic Systems.

    PubMed

    Washburne, Alex D; Burby, Joshua W; Lacker, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    Systems as diverse as the interacting species in a community, alleles at a genetic locus, and companies in a market are characterized by competition (over resources, space, capital, etc) and adaptation. Neutral theory, built around the hypothesis that individual performance is independent of group membership, has found utility across the disciplines of ecology, population genetics, and economics, both because of the success of the neutral hypothesis in predicting system properties and because deviations from these predictions provide information about the underlying dynamics. However, most tests of neutrality are weak, based on static system properties such as species-abundance distributions or the number of singletons in a sample. Time-series data provide a window onto a system's dynamics, and should furnish tests of the neutral hypothesis that are more powerful to detect deviations from neutrality and more informative about to the type of competitive asymmetry that drives the deviation. Here, we present a neutrality test for time-series data. We apply this test to several microbial time-series and financial time-series and find that most of these systems are not neutral. Our test isolates the covariance structure of neutral competition, thus facilitating further exploration of the nature of asymmetry in the covariance structure of competitive systems. Much like neutrality tests from population genetics that use relative abundance distributions have enabled researchers to scan entire genomes for genes under selection, we anticipate our time-series test will be useful for quick significance tests of neutrality across a range of ecological, economic, and sociological systems for which time-series data are available. Future work can use our test to categorize and compare the dynamic fingerprints of particular competitive asymmetries (frequency dependence, volatility smiles, etc) to improve forecasting and management of complex adaptive systems.

  16. Design considerations and test facilities for accelerated radiation effects testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, W. E.; Miller, C. G.; Parker, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    Test design parameters for accelerated dose rate radiation effects tests for spacecraft parts and subsystems used in long term mission (years) are detailed. A facility for use in long term accelerated and unaccelerated testing is described.

  17. The Governance Committee: Independent Institutions. AGB Effective Committee Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, E. B.; Lanier, James L.

    2013-01-01

    This publication is part of an AGB series devoted to strengthening the role of key standing committees of governing boards. While there is no optimal committee system for institutions of higher education, certain principles, practices, and procedures prevail. The best practices outlined in this publication support the objectives of board…

  18. The Effects of Test Anxiety on Listening Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    In'nami, Yo.

    2006-01-01

    Although decisions or inferences we make based on test scores depend both on characteristics of test-takers and of testing situations, little research has been undertaken on the effects of these characteristics on test performance (e.g., Alderson and Banerjee, 2002). This study focuses on one of the personal characteristics of test-takers, namely…

  19. Pretest Report for the Full Span Propulsive Wing/Canard Model Test in the NASA Langley 4 x 7 Meter Low Speed Wind Tunnel Second Series Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, V. R.

    1986-01-01

    A full span propulsive wing/canard model is to be tested in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 4 x 7 meter low speed wind tunnel. These tests are a continuation of the tests conducted in Feb. 1984, NASA test No.290, and are being conducted under NASA Contract NAS1-17171. The purpose of these tests is to obtain extensive lateral-directional data with a revised fuselage concept. The wings, canards, and vertical tail of this second test series model are the same as tested in the previous test period. The fuselage and internal flow path have been modified to better reflect an external configuration suitable for a fighter airplane. Internal ducting and structure were changed as required to provide test efficiency and blowing control. The model fuselage tested during the 1984 tests was fabricated with flat sides to provide multiple wing and canard placement variations. The locations of the wing and canard are important variables in configuration development. With the establishment of the desired relative placement of the lifting surfaces, a typically shaped fuselage has been fabricated for these tests. This report provides the information necessary for the second series tests of the propulsive wing/canard model. The discussion in this report is limited to that affected by the model changes and to the second series test program. The pretest report information for test 290 which is valid for the second series test was published in Rockwell report NR 83H-79. This report is presented as Appendix 1 and the modified fuselage stress report is presented as Appendix 2 to this pretest report.

  20. Propulsion Induced Effects Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cappuccio, Gelsomina; Won, Mark; Bencze, Dan

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this milestone is to assess the propulsion/airframe integration characteristics of the Technology Concept Airplane and design variations through computational analysis and experimental subsonic through supersonic wind tunnel testing. The Milestone will generate a comprehensive CFD and wind tunnel data base of the baseline, and design variations. Emphasis will be placed on establishing the propulsion induced effects on the flight performance of the Technology Concept Airplane with all appropriate wind tunnel corrections.

  1. Effect of filler particles on surface roughness of experimental composite series

    PubMed Central

    MARGHALANI, Hanadi Yousif

    2010-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different filler sizes and shapes on the surface roughness of experimental resin-composite series. Material and Methods Thirty-three disc-shaped specimens of the series (Spherical-RZD 102, 105, 106, 107, 114 and Irregular-RZD 103, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112) were prepared in a split Teflon mold and irradiated with an halogen light-curing unit (450 mW/cm2 for 40 s) at both top and bottom surfaces. The specimens were stored for 3 months in distilled water. The surface roughness values in form of surface finish-vertical parameter (Ra), maximum roughness depth (Rmax) and horizontal roughness parameter (Sm) were recorded using a contact profilometer. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and the means were compared by Scheffé post-hoc test (α=0.05). Results The lowest surface roughness (Ra) was observed in S-100 (0.079±0.013), while the roughest surface was noted in I-450/ 700/1000 (0.125±0.011) and I-450/1000 (0.124±0.004). The spherical-shape series showed the smoothest surface finish compared to the irregular-shape ones with higher significant difference (p>0.05). The vertical surface roughness parameter (Ra) values increased as the filler size increased yielding a linear relation (r2=0.82). On the contrary, the horizontal parameter (Sm) was not significantly affected by the filler size (r2=0.24) as well as the filler shape. Conclusions Filler particle’s size and shape have a great effect on the surface roughness parameters of these composite series. PMID:20379683

  2. Metals Analysis Results for the Structural Qualification Test Series (SQTS) 01 - 05.

    SciTech Connect

    Zalk, D

    2006-04-11

    Enclosed is the report summarizing the metals analysis results at the Contained Firing Facility (CFF), during SQTS 01 - 05. This metals analysis includes evaluation of a bulk dust and surface swipe sampling protocol during the testing series that obtained samples at 3 primary locations in the CFF chamber area. The sampling protocol for each of the bulk dust samples involves an assessment of the concentration for 20 different metals, the oxidation state of selected metals, a particle size selective analysis, and morphological information. In addition, surface swipes were taken during SQTS 05 on the equipment and personnel door frames to indicate the characteristics of airborne metals due to leakage past the gasket seals. The bulk dust metals analysis indicates a nearly complete conversion of the aluminum casing to an oxide form with an even split between spherical and non-spherical morphology. Size selective analysis shows 83% of the particulates are in the inhalable size range of less than 100 microns and 46% are in the respirable range of less than 10 microns. Combining metals analysis and leakage results indicate the potential for a problematic personal exposure to metals external to the chamber unless modifications are made. Please feel free to call me at 2-8904 if you have any questions or if I may be of further service.

  3. Assessment of thermal gradient tube results from the HI series of fission product release tests

    SciTech Connect

    Norwood, K.S.

    1985-03-01

    A thermal gradient tube was used to analyze fission product vapors released from fuel heated in the HI test series. Complete deposition profiles were obtained for Cs, I, Ag, and Sb. The cesium profiles were complex and probably were dominated by Cs-S-O compounds formed by release of sulfur from furnace ceramics. The iodine profiles were simple, indicating that more than 99.5% of the released iodine behaved as a single nonvolatile species, probably CsI. Mass transfer coefficients for this species onto platinum were estimated to be 1.9 to 5.8 cm/s. Silver was probably released in elemental form, condensed to an aerosol, and captured by filters. Antimony was released as the element and reacted rapidly with platinum (or gold) as it deposited. Antimony profiles were calculated a priori with some success. A method was developed for isolating tellurium from platinum and mixed fission products in a form suitable for neutron activation analysis. The platinum samples were completely dissolved in acid (HCl/HNO/sub 3/), and the tellurium was precipitated on selenium carrier by reduction. Finally, tellurium was loaded onto Dowex 1X-4 ion-exchange resin for activation and analysis. Tellurium recovery was approx. 88%, and the theoretical sensitivity was approx. 30 ng.

  4. Metabolic and Subjective Results Review of the Integrated Suit Test Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, J.R.; Stroud, L.C.; Klein, J.; Desantis, L.; Gernhardt, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Crewmembers will perform a variety of exploration and construction activities on the lunar surface. These activities will be performed while inside an extravehicular activity (EVA) spacesuit. In most cases, human performance is compromised while inside an EVA suit as compared to a crewmember s unsuited performance baseline. Subjects completed different EVA type tasks, ranging from ambulation to geology and construction activities, in different lunar analog environments including overhead suspension, underwater and 1-g lunar-like terrain, in both suited and unsuited conditions. In the suited condition, the Mark III (MKIII) EVA technology demonstrator suit was used and suit pressure and suit weight were parameters tested. In the unsuited conditions, weight, mass, center of gravity (CG), terrain type and navigation were the parameters. To the extent possible, one parameter was varied while all others were held constant. Tests were not fully crossed, but rather one parameter was varied while all others were left in the most nominal setting. Oxygen consumption (VO2), modified Cooper-Harper (CH) ratings of operator compensation and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured for each trial. For each variable, a lower value correlates to more efficient task performance. Due to a low sample size, statistical significance was not attainable. Initial findings indicate that suit weight, CG and the operational environment can have a large impact on human performance during EVA. Systematic, prospective testing series such as those performed to date will enable a better understanding of the crucial interactions of the human and the EVA suit system and their environment. However, work remains to be done to confirm these findings. These data have been collected using only unsuited subjects and one EVA suit prototype that is known to fit poorly on a large demographic of the astronaut population. Key findings need to be retested using an EVA suit prototype better suited to a

  5. Effect of captopril on infantile haemangiomas: a retrospective case series.

    PubMed

    Christou, Elizabeth M; Wargon, Orli

    2012-08-01

    The mechanism of action of beta adrenergic blockers in the involution of infantile haemangioma (IH) remains unclear. It has been proposed that the renin-angiotensin pathway may play a role. We present a retrospective case series of 17 patients with IH who were treated with oral corticosteroid therapy and developed hypertension requiring treatment with the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril. All patients, with written documentation, demonstrated an improvement in their lesion at the start of oral corticosteroid therapy (n = 14). Captopril alone did not sustain the corticosteroid-induced involution with a documented worsening of infantile haemangioma in seven out of 12 patients (58%).

  6. Qualifciation test series of the indium needle FEEP micro-propulsion system for LISA Pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharlemann, C.; Buldrini, N.; Killinger, R.; Jentsch, M.; Polli, A.; Ceruti, L.; Serafini, L.; DiCara, D.; Nicolini, D.

    2011-11-01

    consisting of acceptance, vibration, shock, and thermal vacuum test. During the last test, the thermal vacuum test (TVT), a performance decrease was observed. According to a preliminary analysis, this performance decrease is not linked to the thermal conditions simulated in the TVT but might be rather linked to secondary effects of the TVT set-up.

  7. Mortality among military participants at the 1957 PLUMBBOB nuclear weapons test series and from leukemia among participants at the SMOKY test.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Glyn G; Zack, Matthew M; Mumma, Michael T; Falk, Henry; Heath, Clark W; Till, John E; Chen, Heidi; Boice, John D

    2016-09-01

    Health effects following low doses of ionizing radiation are uncertain. Military veterans at the Nevada test site (NTS) during the SMOKY atmospheric nuclear weapons test in 1957 were reported to be at increased risk for leukemia in 1979, but this increase was not evaluated with respect to radiation dose. The SMOKY test was one of 30 tests in 1957 within the PLUMBBOB test series. These early studies led to public laws where atomic veterans could qualify for compensation for presumptive radiogenic diseases. A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 12219 veterans at the PLUMBBOB test series, including 3020 at the SMOKY nuclear test. Mortality follow-up was through 2010 and observed causes of death were compared with expected causes based on general population rates. Radiation dose to red bone marrow was based on individual dose reconstructions, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate dose response for all leukemias other than chronic lymphocytic leukemia (non-CLL leukemia). Vital status was determined for 95.3% of the 12 219 veterans. The dose to red bone marrow was low (mean 3.2 mGy, maximum 500 mGy). Military participants at the PLUMBBOB nuclear test series remained relatively healthy after 53 years and died at a lower rate than the general population. In contrast, and in comparison with national rates, the SMOKY participants showed significant increases in all causes of death, respiratory cancer, leukemia, nephritis and nephrosis, and accidents, possibly related in part to lifestyle factors common to enlisted men who made up 81% of the SMOKY cohort. Compared with national rates, a statistically significant excess of non-CLL leukemia was observed among SMOKY participants (Standardized Mortality Ratio  =  1.89, 95% 1.24-2.75, n  =  27) but not among PLUMBBOB participants after excluding SMOKY (SMR  =  0.87, 95% 0.64-1.51, n  =  47). Leukemia risk, initially reported to be significantly increased among SMOKY

  8. Boundary lubrication by sodium salts: a Hofmeister series effect.

    PubMed

    Garrec, D A; Norton, I T

    2012-08-01

    Boundary lubrication plays an important role in the function of sliding surfaces in contact. Of particular interest in this study, boundary regime tribology is relevant for understanding textural attributes perceived during oral consumption of food, where the tongue squeezes and slides against the hard palate. This work investigates aqueous lubrication of a sliding/rolling ball-on-disc contact by sodium anions of the Hofmeister series in both water and guar gum solutions. Low concentrations (0.001 M) of strongly kosmotropic salts provide reduced friction coefficients in both systems (water and guar gum solutions), although a different mechanism prevails in each. Surface-bound hydrated ions are responsible in the case of water, and salt-promoted adsorption of hydrated-polymer chains dominate with guar gum. In each system, friction decreases in accordance with the Hofmeister series: iodide, nitrate, bromide, chloride, fluoride, phosphate and citrate. The addition of salt has little impact on solution of bulk viscosity, and so this work demonstrates that significant boundary lubrication can be provided without surface modification and with lubricants of viscosity similar to that of water.

  9. Testing backreaction effects with observations

    SciTech Connect

    Larena, Julien; Alimi, Jean-Michel; Corasaniti, Pier-Stefano; Buchert, Thomas; Kunz, Martin

    2009-04-15

    In order to quantitatively test the ability of averaged inhomogeneous cosmologies to correctly describe observations of the large-scale properties of the Universe, we introduce a smoothed template metric corresponding to a constant spatial curvature model at any time, but with an evolving curvature parameter. This metric is used to compute quantities along an approximate effective light cone of the averaged model of the Universe. As opposed to the standard Friedmann model, we parametrize this template metric by exact scaling properties of an averaged inhomogeneous cosmology, and we also motivate this form of the metric by results on a geometrical smoothing of inhomogeneous cosmological hypersurfaces. The purpose of the paper is not to demonstrate that the backreaction effect is actually responsible for the dark energy phenomenon by explicitly calculating the effect from a local model of the geometry and the distribution of matter, but rather to propose a way to deal with observations in the backreaction context, and to understand what kind of generic properties have to hold in order for a backreaction model to explain the observed features of the Universe on large scales. We test our hypothesis for the template metric against supernova data and the position of the cosmic microwave background peaks, and infer the goodness of fit and parameter uncertainties. We find that averaged inhomogeneous models can reproduce the observations without requiring an additional dark energy component (though a volume acceleration is still needed), and that current data do not disfavor our main assumption on the effective light cone structure. We also show that the experimental uncertainties on the angular diameter distance and the Hubble parameter from baryon acoustic oscillations measurements--forseen in future surveys like the proposed EUCLID satellite project--are sufficiently small to distinguish between a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker template geometry and the template

  10. The Effects of Data Set Size on Nonlinear Time Series Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, John; Tolle, Charles

    2000-09-01

    We present the results of our study in which we investigated the effects small data sets have on nonlinear time series analysis tools, namely average mutual information, false nearest-neighbors tests and the dominant Lyapunov exponent. We also looked at the subsequent effects on attractor reconstruction. We drew our data from four well-known systems: Henon map, Rossler (3D), Lorenz (3D), and the Pinsky-Rinzel neuron model (8D), as well as an integrate-and-fire version of the Rossler system. Using results from the TISEAN and Nonlinear Dynamics Toolbox software packages, we show that for properly sampled data, there is a limiting set size less than which the algorithms fail to give clear or accurate results and complicates or prevents attractor reconstruction.

  11. Separation of hydrological effects from GNSS time series on regional and local scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Giuliana; Zuliani, David; Fabris, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Continuous GNSS networks provide unique information about the crustal displacements, of use for studies concerning gravity field, plate motions, tectonic processes, and earthquake cycle understanding. For these purposes, overall in the case of regions with slow deformation strain, we have to individuate and separate all the possible contributions, at the various frequencies. Among the others, hydrological loading effects can be present over a wide frequency range and have to be accurately modelled. The present work is aimed to test, whether the GNSS signal is sensitive to hydrological effects at a regional or a more local scale. The dataset we chose for the tests is ideal: it relates to a relatively small region, where the active collisional processes generate a moderate seismic activity and is characterized by high rainfall rate and significant hydrological phenomena. The data belong to the Friuli Regional Deformation Network (FReDNet) of OGS (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e Geofisica Sperimentale), consisting of 16 GNSS permanent sites distributed on the northern edge of the Adria microplate (NE-Italy). The data set includes the time series from the 10 GNSS permanent sites of the Marussi network of the Friuli-Venezia Giulia Regional Council. The time-span covered by the network overcomes in many cases the twelve years, giving the possibility to study the various terms superimposed to the linear one, due to the plate motion. After a first processing of the GPS data of the longest time series, using GAMIT/GLOBK, eliminating the outliers, and filling eventual short gaps in the data through linear interpolation, we corrected them for the annual and seasonal terms and the displacements due to hydrological mass loading effects on multiyear timescales. For our test, we first addressed the regional level problem. Following the approach of Chamoli et al. (2014), we separated the annual, semiannual, and pluriannual terms of the displacements excited by the

  12. Formulating and testing a method for perturbing precipitation time series to reflect anticipated climatic changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jomo Danielsen Sørup, Hjalte; Georgiadis, Stylianos; Bülow Gregersen, Ida; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Urban water infrastructure has very long planning horizons, and planning is thus very dependent on reliable estimates of the impacts of climate change. Many urban water systems are designed using time series with a high temporal resolution. To assess the impact of climate change on these systems, similarly high-resolution precipitation time series for future climate are necessary. Climate models cannot at their current resolutions provide these time series at the relevant scales. Known methods for stochastic downscaling of climate change to urban hydrological scales have known shortcomings in constructing realistic climate-changed precipitation time series at the sub-hourly scale. In the present study we present a deterministic methodology to perturb historical precipitation time series at the minute scale to reflect non-linear expectations to climate change. The methodology shows good skill in meeting the expectations to climate change in extremes at the event scale when evaluated at different timescales from the minute to the daily scale. The methodology also shows good skill with respect to representing expected changes of seasonal precipitation. The methodology is very robust against the actual magnitude of the expected changes as well as the direction of the changes (increase or decrease), even for situations where the extremes are increasing for seasons that in general should have a decreasing trend in precipitation. The methodology can provide planners with valuable time series representing future climate that can be used as input to urban hydrological models and give better estimates of climate change impacts on these systems.

  13. The effect of pranayama on test anxiety and test performance

    PubMed Central

    Nemati, Azadeh

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: In an educational setting, anxiety is often experienced by students when taking a test; which is called ‘test anxiety’. This study intends to investigate the effect of doing pranayama on test anxiety and test performance. Materials and Methods: The participants consisted of 107 MA students who were randomly assigned to the control and experimental groups. The students of the experimental group practiced pranayama for one full semester. Sarason's (1980) test anxiety scale was given to both the control and experimental groups in the final session, before taking the examination. Results: After practicing pranayama, only 33% of the participants of the experimental group experienced high test anxiety, while this percentage was nearly twice in the control group (66.7%). Furthermore, the result of the t-test for test anxiety and test performance showed that the students of the experimental group had significantly lower mean test anxiety scores (M = 16.00) as compared to the students of the control group (M = 19.31). Also, the test performance scores of the experimental group were higher when compared with the control group. There was a negative correlation between the final test performance and test anxiety (r = −.204, P < .05). Conclusions: Pranayama seems to have a significant positive effect on test anxiety and test performance. It could be used as an important technique by students prior to their examinations, to reduce their test anxiety and increase their test performance. PMID:23439436

  14. AGARD flight test techniques series. Volume 9: Aircraft exterior noise measurement and analysis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, H.

    1991-04-01

    Testing and analysis techniques to measure aircraft noise primarily for purposes of noise certification as specified by the 'International Civil Aviation Organization', ICAO are described. The relevant aircraft noise certification standards and recommended practices are presented in detail for subsonic jet aircraft, for heavy and light propeller-driven aircraft, and for helicopters. The practical execution of conducting noise certification tests is treated in depth. The characteristics and requirements of the acoustic and non-acoustic instrumentation for data acquisition and data processing are discussed, as are the procedures to determine the special noise measures - effective perceived noise level (EPNL) and maximum overall A-weighted noise level (L sub pA,max) - that are required for the noise certification of different types of aircraft. The AGARDograph also contains an extensive, although selective, discussion of test and analysis techniques for more detailed aircraft noise studies by means of either flight experiments or full-scale and model-scale wind tunnel experiments. Appendices provide supplementary information.

  15. A wavelet-based estimator of the degrees of freedom in denoised fMRI time series for probabilistic testing of functional connectivity and brain graphs.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ameera X; Bullmore, Edward T

    2016-11-15

    Connectome mapping using techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become a focus of systems neuroscience. There remain many statistical challenges in analysis of functional connectivity and network architecture from BOLD fMRI multivariate time series. One key statistic for any time series is its (effective) degrees of freedom, df, which will generally be less than the number of time points (or nominal degrees of freedom, N). If we know the df, then probabilistic inference on other fMRI statistics, such as the correlation between two voxel or regional time series, is feasible. However, we currently lack good estimators of df in fMRI time series, especially after the degrees of freedom of the "raw" data have been modified substantially by denoising algorithms for head movement. Here, we used a wavelet-based method both to denoise fMRI data and to estimate the (effective) df of the denoised process. We show that seed voxel correlations corrected for locally variable df could be tested for false positive connectivity with better control over Type I error and greater specificity of anatomical mapping than probabilistic connectivity maps using the nominal degrees of freedom. We also show that wavelet despiked statistics can be used to estimate all pairwise correlations between a set of regional nodes, assign a P value to each edge, and then iteratively add edges to the graph in order of increasing P. These probabilistically thresholded graphs are likely more robust to regional variation in head movement effects than comparable graphs constructed by thresholding correlations. Finally, we show that time-windowed estimates of df can be used for probabilistic connectivity testing or dynamic network analysis so that apparent changes in the functional connectome are appropriately corrected for the effects of transient noise bursts. Wavelet despiking is both an algorithm for fMRI time series denoising and an estimator of the (effective) df of denoised

  16. A Model for Optimal Constrained Adaptive Testing. Law School Admission Council Computerized Testing Report. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Reese, Lynda M.

    A model for constrained computerized adaptive testing is proposed in which the information on the test at the ability estimate is maximized subject to a large variety of possible constraints on the contents of the test. At each item-selection step, a full test is first assembled to have maximum information at the current ability estimate fixing…

  17. Thermal Coatings Seminar Series Training Part 2: Environmental Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Triolo, Jack

    2015-01-01

    This course will present an overview of a variety of thermal coatings-related topics, including: coating types and availability, thermal properties measurements, environmental testing (lab and in-flight), environmental impacts, contamination impacts, contamination liabilities, determination of BOLEOL values, and what does specularity mean to the thermal engineer.

  18. Changes to United Nations Test Series 7 for Hazard Division 1.6 Explosive Articles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    substances that pass the UN TS 7(c)(ii) Friability test and 7(e) EIDS external fire test unless their maximum cross-sectional dimension (e.g...response obtained during article tests. The logic behind the choice of boostering component tests is as follows: • The UN TS 7 (c)(ii) Friability ...c) (ii) Friability test • UN TS 7 Type 7 (e) EIDS External Fire test – Allow other EM containing components, e.g., explosive actuators or

  19. Normal heartbeat series are nonchaotic, nonlinear, and multifractal: new evidence from semiparametric and parametric tests.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Richard T; Cecen, Aydin A; Erkal, Cahit

    2009-06-01

    We present new evidence that normal heartbeat series are nonchaotic, nonlinear, and multifractal. In addition to considering the largest Lyapunov exponent and the correlation dimension, the results of the parametric and semiparametric estimation of the long memory parameter (long-range dependence) unambiguously reveal that the underlying process is nonstationary, multifractal, and has strong nonlinearity.

  20. Probable Nootropicinduced Psychiatric Adverse Effects: A Series of Four Cases

    PubMed Central

    Ajaltouni, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The misuse of nootropics—any substance that may alter, improve, or augment cognitive performance, mainly through the stimulation or inhibition of certain neurotransmitters—may potentially be dangerous and deleterious to the human brain, and certain individuals with a history of mental or substance use disorders might be particularly vulnerable to their adverse effects. We describe four cases of probable nootropic-induced psychiatric adverse effects to illustrate this theory. To the best of our knowledge this has not been previously reported in the formal medical literature. We briefly describe the most common classes of nootropics, including their postulated or proven methods of actions, their desired effects, and their adverse side effects, and provide a brief discussion of the cases. Our objective is to raise awareness among physicians in general and psychiatrists and addiction specialists in particular of the potentially dangerous phenomenon of unsupervised nootropic use among young adults who may be especially vulnerable to nootropics’ negative effects. PMID:27222762

  1. TESTING FOR HIGHER EDUCATION, CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE AND FUTURE FOCUS. STUDENT PERSONNEL SERIES NO. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BARCLAY, JAMES R.

    THE ROLE OF TESTING AS A SPECIAL MODERN TECHNIQUE OF ASSESSMENT IN COLLEGE ADMISSIONS IS EXAMINED. THE EMPHASIS IS UPON THE USE OF TESTS AS PREDICTORS OF SUCCESS IN COLLEGE, THE CLARIFICATION OF CRITERIA USED TO EVALUATE HUMAN BEHAVIOR IN THIS SETTING, AND THE BROADER IMPLICATIONS OF CULTURAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL DIMENSIONS OF TESTING AND TEST USAGE.…

  2. The Language Testing Cycle: From Inception to Washback. Series S, Number 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigglesworth, Gillian, Ed.; Elder, Catherine, Ed.

    A selection of essays on language testing includes: "Perspectives on the Testing Cycle: Setting the Scene" (Catherine Elder, Gillian Wigglesworth); "The Politicisation of English: The Case of the STEP Test and the Chinese Students" (Lesleyanne Hawthorne); "Developing Language Tests for Specific Populations" (Rosemary…

  3. Just entertainment: effects of TV series about intrigue on young adults

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Lin, Shengdong; Ke, Xue

    2015-01-01

    The potential harmful effects of media violence have been studied systematically and extensively. However, very little attention has been devoted to the intrigue and struggles between people depicted in the mass media. A longitudinal randomized experimental group-control group, pretest–posttest design study was conducted to examine the potential effects of this type of TV series on young adults. A typical and popular TV series was select as a stimulus. By scrutinizing the outline of this TV series and inspired by studies of the effects of media violence, one behavioral observation and five scales were adopted as dependent measures. The study did not find any effect of the intrigue TV series on any of the six dependent variables. Finally, possible interference variables or moderators were discussed. PMID:26029127

  4. Just entertainment: effects of TV series about intrigue on young adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Lin, Shengdong; Ke, Xue

    2015-01-01

    The potential harmful effects of media violence have been studied systematically and extensively. However, very little attention has been devoted to the intrigue and struggles between people depicted in the mass media. A longitudinal randomized experimental group-control group, pretest-posttest design study was conducted to examine the potential effects of this type of TV series on young adults. A typical and popular TV series was select as a stimulus. By scrutinizing the outline of this TV series and inspired by studies of the effects of media violence, one behavioral observation and five scales were adopted as dependent measures. The study did not find any effect of the intrigue TV series on any of the six dependent variables. Finally, possible interference variables or moderators were discussed.

  5. Secrets of Highly Effective Meetings. The Practicing Administrator's Leadership Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Maria M.; Bauer, Laurie K.

    Whenever educators gather to achieve a common goal, every participant should arrive with a sense of purpose and leave with a feeling of accomplishment. This book explains how to make meetings more efficient and effective. It outlines: (1) the correlation between excellent meetings and excellent results; (2) how to plan, open, conduct, and follow…

  6. Facing the Risks of the "Mozart Effect." Grand Masters Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimer, Bennett

    1999-01-01

    Explores the argument introduced by the "Mozart Effect" research: that music's positive influence on spatial-temporal reasoning should be the purpose for music education. Considers the implications by reshaping the National Standards for Music Education to fulfill the spatial-temporal rationale. Suggests how to reconcile musical and…

  7. Effective Pedagogy in Social Sciences. Educational Practices Series-23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnema, Claire; Aitken, Graeme

    2012-01-01

    This booklet is a synthesis of research on social sciences teaching that has been shown to have a positive effect on a range of desirable student outcomes: cognitive, skills, participatory and affective outcomes. Education in the social sciences plays an important role in developing students' sense of identity and influencing the ways in which…

  8. Cost-Effective School Alarm Systems. Security Topics Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufer, Steve

    This document outlines considerations in the selection of a cost-effective school-alarm system. Steps in the planning process include: conducting a district needs assessment; gathering input from all staff levels; consulting technical expertise; and selecting a security system that can be integrated with other site needs. It further describes the…

  9. Development, testing, and certification of the Northrup, Inc., ML series concentrating solar collector model NSC-01-0732

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    A summary is presented of the additional development work on the existing ML Series concentrating solar collector for use with solar heating and cooling systems. The report discusses the intended use of the final report, describes the development hardware, lists deliverable end items, deals with problems encountered during fabrication and testing, and includes certification statements of performance. This report shows that the products developed are marketable and suitable for public use.

  10. Full-Scale Wind-Tunnel Tests of a Series of Metal Propellers on a VE-7 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weick, Fred E

    1929-01-01

    An adjustable blade metal propeller was tested at five different angle settings, forming a series varying in pitch. The propeller was mounted on a VE-7 airplane in the twenty-foot propeller research tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The efficiencies were found to be from 4 to 7 per cent higher than those of standard wood propellers operating under the same conditions. The results are given in convenient form for use in selecting propellers for aircraft.

  11. Some Psychometric and Legal Considerations in Cooperative Testing. Professional Series 74-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorham, William A.

    Cooperative testing is a rather specific and practical aspect of validity generalization or test transportability. It refers to two or more units of government combining their testing and/or recruiting efforts. The Intergovernmental Personnel Act of 1970 (P.L. 1-648) made specific provision for cooperative examining in stating that the Civil…

  12. A Review of State Test Security Laws in 2013. ACT Research Report Series, 2014 (1)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croft, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Test security has increased in importance in the last few years given high-profile cases of educator misconduct. This paper provides a review of state test security statutes and regulations related to statewide achievement testing using as a framework recent best practices reports by the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education…

  13. National Tests and Education Reform: Are They Compatible? William H. Angoff Memorial Lecture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lyle V.

    The President and the Department of Education have advocated national testing, but they have not really justified their use. Most educators argue for the importance of multiple assessments, rather than a single test of achievement with great impact on the future of a student and an educational system. Misuses of test results would plague national…

  14. A Classical Test Theory Perspective on LSAT Local Item Dependence. LSAC Research Report Series. Statistical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Lynda M.

    This study extended prior Law School Admission Council (LSAC) research related to the item response theory (IRT) local item independence assumption into the realm of classical test theory. Initially, results from the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) and two other tests were investigated to determine the approximate state of local item independence…

  15. Health maintenance facility system effectiveness testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, Charles W.; Gosbee, John; Bueker, Richard; Kupra, Debra; Ruta, Mary

    1993-01-01

    The Medical Simulations Working Group conducted a series of medical simulations to evaluate the proposed Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) Preliminary Design Review (PDR) configuration. The goal of these simulations was to test the system effectiveness of the HMF PDR configurations. The objectives of the medical simulations are to (1) ensure fulfillment of requirements with this HMF design, (2) demonstrate the conformance of the system to human engineering design criteria, and (3) determine whether undesirable design or procedural features were introduced into the design. The simulations consisted of performing 6 different medical scenarios with the HMF mockup in the KRUG laboratory. The scenarios included representative medical procedures and used a broad spectrum of HMF equipment and supplies. Scripts were written and simulations performed by medical simulations working group members under observation from others. Data were collected by means of questionnaires, debriefings, and videotapes. Results were extracted and listed in the individual reports. Specific issues and recommendations from each simulation were compiled into the individual reports. General issues regarding the PDR design of the HMF are outlined in the summary report.

  16. Open-source Software for Demand Forecasting of Clinical Laboratory Test Volumes Using Time-series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Emad A.; Naugler, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Background: Demand forecasting is the area of predictive analytics devoted to predicting future volumes of services or consumables. Fair understanding and estimation of how demand will vary facilitates the optimal utilization of resources. In a medical laboratory, accurate forecasting of future demand, that is, test volumes, can increase efficiency and facilitate long-term laboratory planning. Importantly, in an era of utilization management initiatives, accurately predicted volumes compared to the realized test volumes can form a precise way to evaluate utilization management initiatives. Laboratory test volumes are often highly amenable to forecasting by time-series models; however, the statistical software needed to do this is generally either expensive or highly technical. Method: In this paper, we describe an open-source web-based software tool for time-series forecasting and explain how to use it as a demand forecasting tool in clinical laboratories to estimate test volumes. Results: This tool has three different models, that is, Holt-Winters multiplicative, Holt-Winters additive, and simple linear regression. Moreover, these models are ranked and the best one is highlighted. Conclusion: This tool will allow anyone with historic test volume data to model future demand.

  17. Results from Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Series 3 spent fuel dissolution tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.N.

    1990-06-01

    The dissolution and radionuclide release behavior of spent fuel in groundwater is being studied by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), formerly the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. Specimens prepared from pressurized water reactor fuel rod segments were tested in sealed stainless steel vessels in Nevada Test Site J-13 well water at 85{degree}C and 25{degree}C. The test matrix included three specimens of bare-fuel particles plus cladding hulls, two fuel rod segments with artificially defected cladding and water-tight end fittings, and an undefected fuel rod section with watertight end fittings. Periodic solution samples were taken during test cycles with the sample volumes replenished with fresh J-13 water. Test cycles were periodically terminated and the specimens restarted in fresh J-13 water. The specimens were run for three cycles for a total test duration of 15 months. 22 refs., 32 figs., 26 tabs.

  18. Now Available – Final Test Guidelines for Ecological Effects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's, “Guidelines for Aquatic and Sediment-Dwelling Fauna, Aquatic Microcosm and Field Testing,”are part of a series of test guidelines established by the EPA for use in testing pesticides and other chemical substances.

  19. Mining precise cause and effect rules in large time series data of socio-economic indicators.

    PubMed

    Hira, Swati; Deshpande, P S

    2016-01-01

    Discovery of cause-effect relationships, particularly in large databases of time-series is challenging because of continuous data of different characteristics and complex lagged relationships. In this paper, we have proposed a novel approach, to extract cause-effect relationships in large time series data set of socioeconomic indicators. The method enhances the scope of relationship discovery to cause-effect relationships by identifying multiple causal structures such as binary, transitive, many to one and cyclic. We use temporal association and temporal odds ratio to exclude noncausal association and to ensure the high reliability of discovered causal rules. We assess the method with both synthetic and real-world datasets. Our proposed method will help to build quantitative models to analyze socioeconomic processes by generating a precise cause-effect relationship between different economic indicators. The outcome shows that the proposed method can effectively discover existing causality structure in large time series databases.

  20. Fairness of Selection Tests: A Critical Analysis. Professional Series 76-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, John E.; Schmidt, Frank L.

    The first section of this paper defines three incompatible ethical positions in regard to the fair and unbiased use of psychological tests for selection in minority and majority groups. Also in this section, five statistical definitions of "test fairness" are reviewed and examined critically for technical, logical, and social weaknesses. In the…

  1. Factors in Performance on the Law School Admission Test. Statistical Report. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kenneth M.; Powers, Donald E.

    This study was undertaken to clarify the internal structure of the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) and shed light on the ability or abilities measured by the three item types that make up the test (logical reasoning, analytical reasoning, and reading comprehension). The study used data for two forms of the LSAT for general samples of LSAT…

  2. Advances in Educational and Psychological Testing: Theory and Applications. Evaluation in Education and Human Services Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambleton, Ronald K., Ed.; Zaal, Jac N., Ed.

    The 14 chapters of this book focus on the technical advances, advances in applied settings, and emerging topics in the testing field. Part 1 discusses methodological advances, Part 2 considers developments in applied settings, and Part 3 reviews emerging topics in the field of testing. Part 1 papers include: (1) "Advances in…

  3. Shot BEE, A Test of the TEAPOT Series, 22 March 1955.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-24

    Volume: Shot APPLE 2 * Multi-shot Volume: Shots ESS through MET and Shot ZUCCHINI , the Final TEAPOT Tests. All volumes addressing the test events of...I1w 1( ,I r ESS N TURK I TESLA POST 2 \\BEE A-------------,-’ ZUCCHINI AL 1 ’I IWASP WASP PRIME APPLE 2 t MOTH HORNET HA - _ _ _I HADR II 31 II I News

  4. Test Anxiety: Theory, Assessment, and Treatment. The Series in Clinical and Community Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielberger, Charles D., Ed.; Vagg, Peter R., Ed.

    It is not surprising that a broad array of treatment programs have been developed to reduce test anxiety, since the consequences can be serious. The contributions in this volume review and evaluate the theory of test anxiety, its measurement, its manifestations, and possible treatments and their outcomes. The following chapters are included: (1)…

  5. Statistical Considerations in Choosing a Test Reliability Coefficient. ACT Research Report Series, 2012 (10)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, David; Wu, Yi-Fang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate alpha's robustness and usefulness, using actual and simulated educational test data. The sampling properties of alpha are compared with the sampling properties of several other reliability coefficients: Guttman's lambda[subscript 2], lambda[subscript 4], and lambda[subscript 6]; test-retest reliability;…

  6. Dynamic Testing with Tangible Electronics: Measuring Children's Change in Strategy Use with a Series Completion Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resing, Wilma C. M.; Elliott, Julian G.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: This study sought to explore the use of a novel approach that incorporates dynamic testing and tangible electronics in the assessment of children's learning potential and strategy use. Sample: A total of 77 children with a mean age 8.9 years participated in the study; half of them were dynamically tested using graduate prompt techniques; the…

  7. The Second Century of Ability Testing: Some Predictions and Speculations. William H. Angoff Memorial Lecture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embretson, Susan E.

    This report asserts that rapid changes in many areas, such as technology and communications, marked the 20th century, the first century of ability testing. Predictions about the second century of testing seem difficult in such a context. Yet, looking back to the turn of the last century, E. Kirkpatrick (1900) in his American Psychological…

  8. On Giving Test Takers a Choice among Constructive Response Items. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xiang Bo

    The Law School Admission Council (LSAC) is currently investigating the feasibility and advisability of administering a computerized Law School Admission Test (LSAT). In this context, using data from the College Boards 1989 National Advanced Placement (AP) Chemistry Examination for 18,462 test takers and a survey of all AP Chemistry teachers in…

  9. Stochastic model stationarization by eliminating the periodic term and its effect on time series prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeeni, Hamid; Bonakdari, Hossein; Fatemi, Seyed Ehsan

    2017-04-01

    Because time series stationarization has a key role in stochastic modeling results, three methods are analyzed in this study. The methods are seasonal differencing, seasonal standardization and spectral analysis to eliminate the periodic effect on time series stationarity. First, six time series including 4 streamflow series and 2 water temperature series are stationarized. The stochastic term for these series obtained with ARIMA is subsequently modeled. For the analysis, 9228 models are introduced. It is observed that seasonal standardization and spectral analysis eliminate the periodic term completely, while seasonal differencing maintains seasonal correlation structures. The obtained results indicate that all three methods present acceptable performance overall. However, model accuracy in monthly streamflow prediction is higher with seasonal differencing than with the other two methods. Another advantage of seasonal differencing over the other methods is that the monthly streamflow is never estimated as negative. Standardization is the best method for predicting monthly water temperature although it is quite similar to seasonal differencing, while spectral analysis performed the weakest in all cases. It is concluded that for each monthly seasonal series, seasonal differencing is the best stationarization method in terms of periodic effect elimination. Moreover, the monthly water temperature is predicted with more accuracy than monthly streamflow. The criteria of the average stochastic term divided by the amplitude of the periodic term obtained for monthly streamflow and monthly water temperature were 0.19 and 0.30, 0.21 and 0.13, and 0.07 and 0.04 respectively. As a result, the periodic term is more dominant than the stochastic term for water temperature in the monthly water temperature series compared to streamflow series.

  10. Radiation Effects Test Chip Guidelines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    Process Evalua- tion," Proceedings of the International Conference on Microelectronic Test Structures, Vol. 2 (March 1989), p. 61. 69. E. W. Enlow , et al...1990). 70. E. W. Enlow , "Standard Test Method for Determining the Mean Interface Trap Density of MOSFETs by Charge Pump," ASTM F-996 (October 1990). 71...245. 80. E. W. Enlow , et al., "Total Dose Induced Hole Trapping in Trench Oxides," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., Vol. 36, No. 6 (December 1989), p. 2415. 81

  11. Note: Characterization and test of a high input impedance RF amplifier for series nanowire detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Chao; Pei, Yufeng; Jiang, Zhou; Kang, Lin; Wu, Peiheng

    2016-09-01

    We designed a high input impedance RF amplifier based on Tower Jazz's 0.18 μm SiGe BiCMOS process for series nanowire detector. The characterization of its gain and input impedance with a vector network analyzer is described in detail for its specificity. The actual 15 dB gain should be the measured value subtracts 6 dB, which is easy to be ignored. Its input impedance can be equivalent to 6.7 kΩ ∥ 3.4 pF though fitting the measurement, whose accuracy is verified. The process of measurement provides a good reference to characterize the similar special amplifier with unmatched impedance.

  12. Profile of GMAT® Testing: Citizenship Report: Testing Years 2010 through 2014. GMAC® Data-to-Go Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Alex

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes five-year global GMAT testing trends and includes: (1) GMAT exams taken by citizenship; (2) GMAT exams taken by gender; (3) Mean age of GMAT examinees; (4) Mean GMAT Total score; and (5) GMAT score-sending breakdowns by program type (MBA, non-MBA master's, and doctoral/other), TY2014. This data brief can help build candidate…

  13. Profile of GMAT® Testing: North American Report. Testing Years 2010 through 2014. GMAC® Data-to-Go Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Alex

    2014-01-01

    This Data-to-Go brief summarizes five year GMAT testing trends for US and Canadian residents, and race/ethnicity breakdowns for US citizens. It includes: (1) GMAT exams taken by US region, US state of residence, and race/ethnicity of examinees (US citizens only), (2) GMAT exams taken by Canadian residents, by Canadian province, (3) GMAT exams…

  14. Bayesian and Empirical Bayes Approaches to Setting Passing Scores on Mastery Tests. Publication Series in Mastery Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huynh, Huynh; Saunders, Joseph C., III

    The Bayesian approach to setting passing scores, as proposed by Swaminathan, Hambleton, and Algina, is compared with the empirical Bayes approach to the same problem that is derived from Huynh's decision-theoretic framework. Comparisons are based on simulated data which follow an approximate beta-binomial distribution and on real test results from…

  15. Abrasion Testing of Products Containing Nanomaterials, SOP-R-2: Scientific Operating Procedure Series: Release (R)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    Possible applications include CNTs incorporated in epoxy or other polymer matrices and TiO2 embedded in concrete . The particle number/mass concentration...i.e., epoxy test samples, CNT reinforced epoxy test samples, commercially available CNTs, concrete disks, plates painted with ENM-containing...show possible release of 30 nm TiO2 particles from self-cleaning concrete . ERDC SR-16-2 13 Figure 3. Total particle concentration released

  16. Profile of GMAT® Testing: Residence Report. Testing Years 2010 through 2014. GMAC® Data-to-Go Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Alex

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes five-year global GMAT testing trends and includes: (1) GMAT exams taken by residence; (2) GMAT exams taken by gender; (3) Mean age of GMAT examinees; (4) Mean GMAT Total score; and (5) GMAT score-sending breakdowns by program type (MBA, non-MBA master's, and doctoral/other), TY 2014. This data brief can be used to help build…

  17. AGARD Flight Test Instrumentation Series. Volume 12. Aircraft Flight Test Data Processing. A Review of the State of the Art

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    can be at very high frequen- cies. Test systems need to cover ranges up to tens of thousands of Hz and, in the case of radaz and similar equipment...the tracking is in progress, a camera records the telescope view at regular intervals nf one, five, ten , or twenty frames per second. Each fram contains...submission can prevent costly reruns. 3.2.3 Sophistication The flowv of data processing should be as straightforward and simple as i.. con- sistent

  18. A generalized Grubbs-Beck test statistic for detecting multiple potentially influential low outliers in flood series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohn, T.A.; England, J.F.; Berenbrock, C.E.; Mason, R.R.; Stedinger, J.R.; Lamontagne, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    he Grubbs-Beck test is recommended by the federal guidelines for detection of low outliers in flood flow frequency computation in the United States. This paper presents a generalization of the Grubbs-Beck test for normal data (similar to the Rosner (1983) test; see also Spencer and McCuen (1996)) that can provide a consistent standard for identifying multiple potentially influential low flows. In cases where low outliers have been identified, they can be represented as “less-than” values, and a frequency distribution can be developed using censored-data statistical techniques, such as the Expected Moments Algorithm. This approach can improve the fit of the right-hand tail of a frequency distribution and provide protection from lack-of-fit due to unimportant but potentially influential low flows (PILFs) in a flood series, thus making the flood frequency analysis procedure more robust.

  19. Testing the impact of stratigraphic uncertainty on spectral analyses of sedimentary series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Mathieu; Kotov, Sergey; De Vleeschouwer, David; Pas, Damien; Pälike, Heiko

    2016-09-01

    Spectral analysis is a key tool for identifying periodic patterns in sedimentary sequences, including astronomically related orbital signals. While most spectral analysis methods require equally spaced samples, this condition is rarely achieved either in the field or when sampling sediment core. Here, we propose a method to assess the impact of the uncertainty or error made in the measurement of the sample stratigraphic position on the resulting power spectra. We apply a Monte Carlo procedure to randomise the sample steps of depth series using a gamma distribution. Such a distribution preserves the stratigraphic order of samples and allows controlling the average and the variance of the distribution of sample distances after randomisation. We apply the Monte Carlo procedure on two geological datasets and find that gamma distribution of sample distances completely smooths the spectrum at high frequencies and decreases the power and significance levels of the spectral peaks in an important proportion of the spectrum. At 5 % of stratigraphic uncertainty, a small portion of the spectrum is completely smoothed. Taking at least three samples per thinnest cycle of interest should allow this cycle to be still observed in the spectrum, while taking at least four samples per thinnest cycle of interest should allow its significance levels to be preserved in the spectrum. At 10 and 15 % uncertainty, these thresholds increase, and taking at least four samples per thinnest cycle of interest should allow the targeted cycles to be still observed in the spectrum. In addition, taking at least 10 samples per thinnest cycle of interest should allow their significance levels to be preserved. For robust applications of the power spectrum in further studies, we suggest providing a strong control of the measurement of the sample position. A density of 10 samples per putative precession cycle is a safe sampling density for preserving spectral power and significance level in the

  20. Difficulty and Discrimination Parameters of Boston Naming Test Items in a Consecutive Clinical Series

    PubMed Central

    Pedraza, Otto; Sachs, Bonnie C.; Ferman, Tanis J.; Rush, Beth K.; Lucas, John A.

    2011-01-01

    The Boston Naming Test is one of the most widely used neuropsychological instruments; yet, there has been limited use of modern psychometric methods to investigate its properties at the item level. The current study used Item response theory to examine each item's difficulty and discrimination properties, as well as the test's measurement precision across the range of naming ability. Participants included 300 consecutive referrals to the outpatient neuropsychology service at Mayo Clinic in Florida. Results showed that successive items do not necessarily reflect a monotonic increase in psychometric difficulty, some items are inadequate to distinguish individuals at various levels of naming ability, multiple items provide redundant psychometric information, and measurement precision is greatest for persons within a low-average range of ability. These findings may be used to develop short forms, improve reliability in future test versions by replacing psychometrically poor items, and analyze profiles of intra-individual variability. PMID:21593059

  1. Pressure Distribution Tests on a Series of Clark Y Biplane Cellules with Special Reference to Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noyes, Richard W

    1933-01-01

    The pressure distribution data discussed in this report represents the results of part of an investigation conducted on the factors affecting the aerodynamic safety of airplanes. The present tests were made on semispan, circular-tipped Clark Y airfoil models mounted in the conventional manner on a separation plane. Pressure readings were made simultaneously at all test orifices at each of 20 angles of attack between -8 degrees and +90 degrees. The results of the tests on each wing arrangement are compared on the bases of maximum normal force coefficient, lateral stability at a low rate of roll, and relative longitudinal stability. Tabular data are also presented giving the center of pressure location of each wing.

  2. Testing the heterospecific attraction hypothesis with time-series data on species co-occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Sebastián-González, Esther; Sánchez-Zapata, José Antonio; Botella, Francisco; Ovaskainen, Otso

    2010-01-01

    The distributional patterns of actively moving animals are influenced by the cues that the individuals use for choosing sites into which they settle. Individuals may gather information about habitat quality using two types of strategies, either directly assessing the relevant environmental factors, or using the presence of conspecifics or heterospecifics as an indirect measure of habitat quality. We examined patterns of heterospecific attraction with observational time-series data on a community of seven waterbird species breeding in artificial irrigation ponds. We fitted to the data a multivariate logistic regression model, which attributes the presence–absence of each species to a set of environmental and spatial covariates, to the presence of con- and heterospecifics in the previous year and to the presence of heterospecifics in the same year. All species showed a clear tendency to continue breeding in the same sites where they were observed in the previous year. Additionally, the presence of heterospecifics, both in the previous year and in the same year, generally increased the probability that the focal species was found breeding on a given pond. Our data thus give support for the heterospecific attraction hypothesis, though causal inference should be confirmed with manipulative experiments. PMID:20462909

  3. Volume Sensor Development Test Series 4 Results - Multi-Component Prototype Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-25

    multiple locations in the test space by two aerosols, The aerosols used were: 1) Old Spice High Endurance deodorant 2) Lysol disinfectant spray. 9... Deodorant / Lysol and Old spice Deodorant (High Endurance) were sprayed Aerosol 5 seconds, off for 5 seconds, then sprayed for 5 seconds at spray

  4. Validity Evidence for ACT Compass® Placement Tests. ACT Research Report Series 2014 (2)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westrick, Paul A.; Allen, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    We examined the validity of using Compass® test scores and high school grade point average (GPA) for placing students in first-year college courses and for identifying students at risk of not succeeding. Consistent with other research, the combination of high school GPA and Compass scores performed better than either measure used alone. Results…

  5. Design, Fabrication, and Testing of a Scalable Series Augmented Railgun Research Platform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Lawrence Livermore (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is underway in order to conduct in-bore testing of laser peened [13], ion-beam...ion beam surface treatments on pairs of each of these materials. Tania Zaleski, Project Leader for Laser Peening at LLNL, has 44 conducted

  6. Relationship of Bar Examinations to Performance Tests of Lawyering Skills. Rand Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Stephen P.

    The relationship between scores on a typical bar exam and the ability to practice law was investigated with 485 applicants who took the bar exam and a 2-day performance test involving basic oral and written legal tasks. These tasks consisted of simulated cases; each participant functioned as the attorney for the plantiff in one case and as the…

  7. Measured versus predicted performance of the SERI test house: A validation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judkoff, R.; Wortman, D.; Burch, J.

    1983-11-01

    The reliability of building energy analysis simulations was investigated by testing key algorithms against detailed thermal performance data collected under controlled building operating conditions. Comparative studies showed significant disagreement among several programs when used to simulate the performance of passive solar buildings. The sources of prediction errors were assessed.

  8. Urine Testing for Drugs of Abuse. NIDA Research Monograph Series 73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawks, Richard L., Ed.; Chiang, C. Nora, Ed.

    In the past 5 years, a growing concern over the use of illicit drugs in the workplace has led to an interest in urinalysis as a way to detect and deter drug use. This monograph provides information that will assist those involved in the planning or implementation of drug testing programs in making informed choices. Articles include: (1)…

  9. 77 FR 38282 - Final Test Guidelines; OCSPP 850 Series; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... modified to specify that young birds cannot survive 5 days without feeding. Additionally, when delayed... Toxicity Test'' and with FIFRA SAP comments. A method for immobilizing bees using cold temperature was... satisfying FIFRA data requirements either in data call-ins issued pursuant to FIFRA section 3(c)(2)(B) or...

  10. Characteristics of NACA 4400R Series Rectangular and Tapered Airfoils, Including the Effect of Split Flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Harry

    1941-01-01

    At the request of the Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy Department, tests were made in the variable-density wind tunnel of a tapered wing of 3-10-18 plan form and based on the NACA 4400R series sections. The wing was also tested with 0.2 chord spit flaps, deflected 60 deg span ratios of 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1.0 respectively. In order to get data from which to calculate the characteristics of the flapped wing, the investigation was extended to include tests of the four rectangular airfoils of the NACA 4400R series (4409R, 4412R, 4415R, and 4418R) with full-span 0.2 chord, trailing edge split flaps deflected 60 deg.

  11. Multistage Adaptive Testing for a Large-Scale Classification Test: Design, Heuristic Assembly, and Comparison with Other Testing Modes. ACT Research Report Series, 2012 (6)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Yi; Nozawa, Yuki; Gao, Xiaohong; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Multistage adaptive tests (MSTs) have gained increasing popularity in recent years. MST is a balanced compromise between linear test forms (i.e., paper-and-pencil testing and computer-based testing) and traditional item-level computer-adaptive testing (CAT). It combines the advantages of both. On one hand, MST is adaptive (and therefore more…

  12. AGARD Flight Test Techniques Series. Volume 13. Reliability and Maintainability (Fiabilite’ et Maintenabilite’).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-02-01

    relatively new maintenance-free, sealed lead-acid battery is another example. When a fighter development program encountered problems with a...more conventional nickel-cadmium battery , the flight test reliability engineers convinced the manufacturer to adopt the new battery and improve...THIS STATION . RETURN TO VENDOR FOR FIX, FAILURE ANALYSIS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION. FADLEDITEM: 2A3 SERIAIJ: 00208004 ETI METER: 0095 INSTALLED

  13. Shot SMOKY, A Test of the PLUMBBOB Series, 31 August 1957.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-31

    the Federal Civil Defense Administration, the Lovelace Foundation for Medical Education and Research, and the Sandia Corporation . The CETG conducted 22...Displacement Potential of Blast DBM/FCDA 14 Lovelace Foundation 34.2 Comparison Tests of Reinforcing Steels AEC 1 Sandia Corporation 34.3 Comparative...Responses of Static and AEC 1 Sandia Corporation ; Dynamic Loadings Holmes and Narver 35.2 Decontamination Procedures in Residential Areas FCDA None FCDA

  14. An Analysis of Craters Produced by Artillery Munitions during Dusty Infrared Test Series.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    various military munitions. However, Mason and Carnes , show that craters formed by cased munitions are irregular in shape and have "troughs" on each side...crater. Carnes attributed this to the work exerted on the soil by the shell fragments. Further studies have indicated that there are different equivalences...Bruce W., B. I. Carnes , and James B. Mason, "Dusty Infrared Test II (DIRT-II)," presented to Smoke/Obscurant Symposium IV, Adelphl, MD, April 1980. 9

  15. Results from NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations] Series 2 bare fuel dissolution tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.N.

    1990-09-01

    The dissolution and radionuclide release behavior of spent fuel in groundwater is being studied by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. Two bare spent fuel specimens plus the empty cladding hulls were tested in NNWSI J-13 well water in unsealed fused silica vessels under ambient hot cell air conditions (25{degree}C) in the currently reported tests. One of the specimens was prepared from a rod irradiated in the H. B. Robinson Unit 2 reactor and the other from a rod irradiated in the Turkey Point Unit 3 reactor. Results indicate that most radionuclides of interest fall into three groups for release modeling. The first group principally includes the actinides (U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm), all of which reached solubility-limited concentrations that were orders of magnitude below those necessary to meet the NRC 10 CFR 60.113 release limits for any realistic water flux predicted for the Yucca Mountain repository site. The second group is nuclides of soluble elements such as Cs, Tc, and I, for which release rates do not appear to be solubility-limited and may depend on the dissolution rate of fuel. In later test cycles, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 129}I were continuously released at rates between about 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} and 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} of inventory per year. The third group is radionuclides that may be transported in the vapor phase, of which {sup 14}C is of primary concern. Detailed test results are presented and discussed. 17 refs., 15 figs., 21 tabs.

  16. Analysis of effects of meteorological factors on dengue incidence in Sri Lanka using time series data.

    PubMed

    Goto, Kensuke; Kumarendran, Balachandran; Mettananda, Sachith; Gunasekara, Deepa; Fujii, Yoshito; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    In tropical and subtropical regions of eastern and South-eastern Asia, dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) outbreaks occur frequently. Previous studies indicate an association between meteorological variables and dengue incidence using time series analyses. The impacts of meteorological changes can affect dengue outbreak. However, difficulties in collecting detailed time series data in developing countries have led to common use of monthly data in most previous studies. In addition, time series analyses are often limited to one area because of the difficulty in collecting meteorological and dengue incidence data in multiple areas. To gain better understanding, we examined the effects of meteorological factors on dengue incidence in three geographically distinct areas (Ratnapura, Colombo, and Anuradhapura) of Sri Lanka by time series analysis of weekly data. The weekly average maximum temperature and total rainfall and the total number of dengue cases from 2005 to 2011 (7 years) were used as time series data in this study. Subsequently, time series analyses were performed on the basis of ordinary least squares regression analysis followed by the vector autoregressive model (VAR). In conclusion, weekly average maximum temperatures and the weekly total rainfall did not significantly affect dengue incidence in three geographically different areas of Sri Lanka. However, the weekly total rainfall slightly influenced dengue incidence in the cities of Colombo and Anuradhapura.

  17. Antibacterial and osteo-stimulatory effects of a borate-based glass series doped with strontium ions.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiming; Stone, Wendy; Schemitsch, Emil H; Zalzal, Paul; Papini, Marcello; Waldman, Stephen D; Towler, Mark R

    2016-11-01

    This work considered the effect of both increasing additions of Strontium (Sr(2+)) and incubation time on solubility and both antibacterial and osteo-stimulatory effects of a series of glasses based on the B2O3-P2O5-CaCO3-Na2CO3-TiO2-SrCO3 series. The amorphous nature of all the glasses was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Discs of each glass were immersed in de-ionized water for 1, 7 and 30 days, and the water extracts were used for ion release profiles, pH measurements and cytotoxicity testing. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was employed to detect the release of Na(+), Ca(2+) and Sr(2+) ions from the glasses with respect to maturation, which indicated that the addition of Sr(2+) retarded solubility of the glass series. This effect was also confirmed by weight loss analysis through comparing the initial weight of glass discs before and after periods of incubation. The incorporation of Sr(2+) in the glasses did not influence the pH of the water extracts when the glasses were stored for up to 30 days. Cytotoxicity testing with an osteoblastic cell line (MC3T3-E1) indicated that glasses with the higher (20 mol% and 25 mol%) Sr(2+) incorporation promoted proliferation of osteoblast cells, while the glasses with lower Sr(2+) contents inhibited cell growth. The glass series, except for Ly-B5 (which contained the highest Sr(2+) incorporation; 25 mol%), were bacteriostatic against S. aureus in the short term (1-7 days) as a result of the dissolution products released.

  18. A Testing Effect with Multimedia Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Cheryl I.; Mayer, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    A testing effect occurs when a learner performs better on a retention test after studying the material and taking a practice-retention test than after studying the material twice. In the present study, 282 participants watched a narrated animation about lightning formation and then watched the presentation again (restudy), took a…

  19. AGARD Flight Test Instrumentation Series. Volume 7. Strain Gauge Measurements on Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-01

    Epoxy resin-glass fibre 4 550 650 Asbestos 100 670 700 The values refer to the supporting materials; the limits for the measuring grid materials are...AGARD publications. 13.Keywords/Descriptors 14.UDC Aircraft Flight tests Strain measurement Airborne equipment 620.17:5533.6.054:629.73.05 Loads (forces...3.5.4 A.C. voltage supply 28I 3.6 lImmunity from electrical and magnetic disturbances 29 3.6.1 Common-mode voltages 29 3.6.2 Electrical and magnetic

  20. AGARD Flight Test Instrumentation Series. Volume 11. Pressure and Flow Measurement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    PdgPt-Pa pression qc,Pd dynamischer qc impact pressure pressure dynamique Druck 1 24 q 7k:v kinetic - pression q kinetischer q dynamic...number of parallel transducers may have to be used. To save weight and cost, up to 48 pressures of up to 200 bar press- ure scanners (scanivalves...control is accomplished following "ATLAS"-requirement5 by means of a scanner unit, giving access to designated test pins on the computer’s main

  1. Historical estimates of external gamma exposure and collective external gamma exposure from testing at the Nevada Test Site. I. Test series through HARDTACK II, 1958

    SciTech Connect

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Church, B.W.

    1986-07-01

    In 1959, the Test Manager's Committee to Establish Fallout Doses calculated estimated external gamma exposure at populated locations based upon measurements of external gamma-exposure rate. Using these calculations and estimates of population, we have tabulated the collective estimated external gamma exposures for communities within established fallout patterns. The total collective estimated external gamma exposure is 85,000 person-R. The greatest collective exposures occurred in three general areas: Saint George, UT; Ely, NV; and Las Vegas, NV. Three events, HARRY (19 May 1953), BEE (22 March 1955), and SMOKY (31 August 1957), accounted for more than half the total collective estimated external gamma exposure. The bases of the calculational models for external gamma exposure of infinite exposure, estimated exposure, and 1-yr effective biological exposure are explained.

  2. Historical estimates of external gamma exposure and collective external gamma exposure from testing at the Nevada Test Site. I. Test series through HARDTACK II, 1958

    SciTech Connect

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Church, B.W.

    1985-12-01

    In 1959, the Test Manager's Committee to Establish Fallout Doses calculated estimated external gamma exposure at populated locations based upon measurements of external gamma-exposure rate. Using these calculations and estimates of population, we have tabulated the collective estimated external gamma exposures for communities within established fallout patterns. The total collective estimated external gamma exposure is 85,000 person-R. The greatest collective exposures occurred in three general areas: Saint George, Utah; Ely, Nevada; and Las Vegas, Nevada. Three events, HARRY (May 19, 1953), BEE (March 22, 1955), and SMOKY (August 31, 1957), accounted for over half of the total collective estimated external gamma exposure. The bases of the calculational models for external gamma exposure of ''infinite exposure,'' ''estimated exposure,'' and ''one year effective biological exposure'' are explained. 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. A PERFORMANCE TEST OF TEACHING EFFECTIVENESS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BAKER, EVA L.; POPHAM, V. JAMES

    THIS REPORT DESCRIBES THE INITIAL VALIDATION OF PERFORMANCE TESTS OF TEACHER EFFECTIVENESS--USING PUPIL GAINS AS THE CRITERION OF EFFECTIVENESS--AND THE STEPS TAKEN IN RECOGNITION OF THE PROPRIETY OF SUCH MEASURES ONLY IF ALL TEACHERS ARE TEACHING FOR THE SAME OBJECTIVES. AS A FIRST STEP, IT WAS HYPOTHESIZED THAT A VALID PERFORMANCE TEST OF…

  4. Using power series expansions of moduli to interpolate between release curves from dynamic tests: Technique and application

    SciTech Connect

    Furnish, M.D.

    1990-08-01

    Recently an appreciable number of continuous release profiles have been measured from dynamic experiments with geological materials. For each material an empirical generalization of the available release curves may be constructed to allow easy application of the experimental data to problems in much the same way as a linear shock velocity -- particle velocity fit allows easy application of Hugoniot data. This generalization is made in two steps. The first is to compute the Eulerian axial modulus at the Hugoniot pressure and its first three pressure derivatives along the release for each test. This corresponds to a partial Taylor series of the axial modulus, which integrates to give a very close match to the original release. An alternative formulation, which takes volume as the independent variable, fails because that Taylor series does not converge with the rapidity needed for these calculations. The second step is to plot each of these quantities against the Hugoniot pressure for the suite of tests, and fit these data. A release from an arbitrary pressure within the general range of the experimental data may be computed by using the interpolated modulus and its interpolated derivatives. This generalization, which allows volume to be computed as a function of pressure, reproduces the experimental curves fairly well. We present the results of applying this technique to release data for Mini Jade 2 grout, and briefly compare these results with those from several Nevada Test Site tuffs, saturated and dry Indiana Limestone, and aluminum. Finally, we use the generalized Mini Jade 2 data to solve a sample problem, that of estimating the error produced by making the release = Hugoniot'' assumption in the analysis of ground motion gauges in an underground test. 12 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Test report for single event effects of the 80386DX microprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, R. Kevin; Schwartz, Harvey R.; Nichols, Donald K.

    1993-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory Section 514 Single Event Effects (SEE) Testing and Analysis Group has performed a series of SEE tests of certain strategic registers of Intel's 80386DX CHMOS 4 microprocessor. Following a summary of the test techniques and hardware used to gather the data, we present the SEE heavy ion and proton test results. We also describe the registers tested, along with a system impact analysis should these registers experience a single event upset.

  6. Single Event Effect (SEE) Test Planning 101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Pellish, Jonathan; Berg, Melanie D.

    2011-01-01

    This is a course on SEE Test Plan development. It is an introductory discussion of the items that go into planning an SEE test that should complement the SEE test methodology used. Material will only cover heavy ion SEE testing and not proton, LASER, or other though many of the discussed items may be applicable. While standards and guidelines for how-to perform single event effects (SEE) testing have existed almost since the first cyclotron testing, guidance on the development of SEE test plans has not been as easy to find. In this section of the short course, we attempt to rectify this lack. We consider the approach outlined here as a "living" document: mission specific constraints and new technology related issues always need to be taken into account. We note that we will use the term "test planning" in the context of those items being included in a test plan.

  7. Single-Event Transient Testing of Low Dropout PNP Series Linear Voltage Regulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adell, Philippe; Allen, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    As demand for high-speed, on-board, digital-processing integrated circuits on spacecraft increases (field-programmable gate arrays and digital signal processors in particular), the need for the next generation point-of-load (POL) regulator becomes a prominent design issue. Shrinking process nodes have resulted in core rails dropping to values close to 1.0 V, drastically reducing margin to standard switching converters or regulators that power digital ICs. The goal of this task is to perform SET characterization of several commercial POL converters, and provide a discussion of the impact of these results to state-of-the-art digital processing IC through laser and heavy ion testing

  8. Effects of Series Elasticity on the Human Knee Extension Torque-Angle Relationship in Vivo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubo, Keitaro; Ohgo, Kazuya; Takeishi, Ryuichi; Yoshinaga, Kazunari; Tsunoda, Naoya; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of series elasticity on the torque-angle relationship of the knee extensors in vivo. Forty-two men volunteered to take part in the present study. The participants performed maximal voluntary isometric contractions at eight knee-joint angles (40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110[degree]). The…

  9. AGARD Flight Test Instrumentation Series. Volume 13. Practical Aspects of Instrumentation System Installation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    completely eliminated. in specifying reliability requirements, the cost of assembling an instrumentation system is weighed against the cost and effects of...from lack of awareness of the procedures used during the assembly of the product or installation of the system/subsystem. Ref. (81) The identification...that the heat problem will be solved. The temperatures in the cooler compartments may still rise due to conduction through the walls . The conduction

  10. Two-part test of vaccine effect.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zonghui; Proschan, Michael

    2015-05-20

    Vaccine benefit is usually two-folded: (i) prevent a disease or, failing that, (ii) diminish the severity of a disease. To assess vaccine effect, we propose two adaptive tests. The weighted two-part test is a combination of two statistics, one on disease incidence and one on disease severity. More weight is given to the statistic with the larger a priori effect size, and the weights are determined to maximize testing power. The randomized test applies to the scenario where the total number of infections is relatively small. It uses information on disease severity to bolster power while preserving disease incidence as the primary interest. Properties of the proposed tests are explored asymptotically and by numerical studies. Although motivated by vaccine studies, the proposed tests apply to any trials that involve both binary and continuous outcomes for evaluating treatment effect.

  11. Distributed series resistance effects in solar cells: Dark and illuminated cases

    SciTech Connect

    Araujo, G.L.; Cuevas, A.; Ruiz, J.M.

    1984-05-01

    A new approach to calculate the distributed series resistance of a solar cell is presented. Since we include the contribution of the substrate resistance, our approach is more general than previous ones. Analytical solutions for the variation of r /SUB s/ for dark, short and open-circuit operation conditions are given. The authors show that the series resistance depends on flowing current and can be different in the dark and under illumination conditions, due to current crowding effects in the emitter layer. But it is also shown that this crowding can be significantly attenuated by the presence of substrate resistivity.

  12. A new series of diarylamides possessing quinoline nucleus: Synthesis, in vitro anticancer activities, and kinase inhibitory effect.

    PubMed

    El-Gamal, Mohammed I; Khan, Mohammad Ashrafuddin; Abdel-Maksoud, Mohammed S; Gamal El-Din, Mahmoud M; Oh, Chang-Hyun

    2014-11-24

    Synthesis of a new series of diarylamides possessing 6,7-dimethoxy(dihydroxy)quinoline scaffold is described. Their in vitro antiproliferative activities against NCI-58 human cancer cell lines of nine different cancer types were tested. Compounds 1a and 1d-g showed the highest mean %inhibition values over the 58 cell line panel at 10 μM, and they were further tested in 5-dose testing mode to determine their IC50 values. The five compounds were more potent than Imatinib against all the cell lines of nine different cancer types. Compound 1g showed the highest potencies. It showed inhibitory effect against C-RAF kinase (76.65% at 10 μM concentration).

  13. Retrieval Mode Distinguishes the Testing Effect from the Generation Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karpicke, Jeffrey D.; Zaromb, Franklin M.

    2010-01-01

    A series of four experiments examined the effects of generation vs. retrieval practice on subsequent retention. Subjects were first exposed to a list of target words. Then the subjects were shown the targets again intact for Read trials or they were shown fragments of the targets. Subjects in Generate conditions were told to complete the fragments…

  14. The "edge effect" with patch test materials.

    PubMed

    Fyad, A; Masmoudi, M L; Lachapelle, J M

    1987-03-01

    A positive "edge effect", i.e., the accumulation on the skin of a chemical solution (such as fluorescein 0.01% in a 50/50 water-ethanol solution) at the periphery of the patch test sites has been demonstrated. It occurs with different test materials (Finn Chamber; Silver Patch Test; Patch Test Chamber). Practical implications are discussed: this observation could be important when discussing results of laboratory investigations. In clinical practice, it could explain the occurrence of "ring-shaped" positive allergic patch test reactions to chemicals used in solution, i.e., Kathon CG or hydrocortisone.

  15. Random Test Run Length and Effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, James H.; Groce, Alex; Weston, Melissa; Xu, Ru-Gang

    2008-01-01

    A poorly understood but important factor in many applications of random testing is the selection of a maximum length for test runs. Given a limited time for testing, it is seldom clear whether executing a small number of long runs or a large number of short runs maximizes utility. It is generally expected that longer runs are more likely to expose failures -- which is certainly true with respect to runs shorter than the shortest failing trace. However, longer runs produce longer failing traces, requiring more effort from humans in debugging or more resources for automated minimization. In testing with feedback, increasing ranges for parameters may also cause the probability of failure to decrease in longer runs. We show that the choice of test length dramatically impacts the effectiveness of random testing, and that the patterns observed in simple models and predicted by analysis are useful in understanding effects observed.

  16. Advanced CMOS Radiation Effects Testing and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellish, J. A.; Marshall, P. W.; Rodbell, K. P.; Gordon, M. S.; LaBel, K. A.; Schwank, J. R.; Dodds, N. A.; Castaneda, C. M.; Berg, M. D.; Kim, H. S.; Phan, A. M.; Seidleck, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Presentation at the annual NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program Electronic Technology Workshop (ETW). The material includes an update of progress in this NEPP task area over the past year, which includes testing, evaluation, and analysis of radiation effects data on the IBM 32 nm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The testing was conducted using test vehicles supplied by directly by IBM.

  17. Gravity effects obtained from global hydrology models in comparison with high precision gravimetric time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wziontek, Hartmut; Wilmes, Herbert; Güntner, Andreas; Creutzfeldt, Benjamin

    2010-05-01

    Water mass changes are a major source of variations in residual gravimetric time series obtained from the combination of observations with superconducting and absolute gravimeters. Changes in the local water storage are the main influence, but global variations contribute to the signal significantly. For three European gravity stations, Bad Homburg, Wettzell and Medicina, different global hydrology models are compared. The influence of topographic effects is discussed and due to the long-term stability of the combined gravity time series, inter-annual signals in model data and gravimetric observations are compared. Two sources of influence are discriminated, i.e., the effect of a local zone with an extent of a few kilometers around the gravimetric station and the global contribution beyond 50km. Considering their coarse resolution and uncertainties, local effects calculated from global hydrological models are compared with the in-situ gravity observations and, for the station Wettzell, with local hydrological monitoring data.

  18. The Negative Testing Effect and Multifactor Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Daniel J.; Mulligan, Neil W.

    2013-01-01

    Across 3 experiments, we investigated the factors that dictate when taking a test improves subsequent memory performance (the "testing effect"). In Experiment 1, participants retrieving a set of targets during a retrieval practice phase ultimately recalled fewer of those targets compared with a group of participants who studied the…

  19. Beyond the Hofmeister Series: Ion-Specific Effects on Proteins and Their Biological Functions.

    PubMed

    Okur, Halil I; Hladílková, Jana; Rembert, Kelvin B; Cho, Younhee; Heyda, Jan; Dzubiella, Joachim; Cremer, Paul S; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2017-03-09

    Ions differ in their ability to salt out proteins from solution as expressed in the lyotropic or Hofmeister series of cations and anions. Since its first formulation in 1888, this series has been invoked in a plethora of effects, going beyond the original salting out/salting in idea to include enzyme activities and the crystallization of proteins, as well as to processes not involving proteins like ion exchange, the surface tension of electrolytes, or bubble coalescence. Although it has been clear that the Hofmeister series is intimately connected to ion hydration in homogeneous and heterogeneous environments and to ion pairing, its molecular origin has not been fully understood. This situation could have been summarized as follows: Many chemists used the Hofmeister series as a mantra to put a label on ion-specific behavior in various environments, rather than to reach a molecular level understanding and, consequently, an ability to predict a particular effect of a given salt ion on proteins in solutions. In this Feature Article we show that the cationic and anionic Hofmeister series can now be rationalized primarily in terms of specific interactions of salt ions with the backbone and charged side chain groups at the protein surface in solution. At the same time, we demonstrate the limitations of separating Hofmeister effects into independent cationic and anionic contributions due to the electroneutrality condition, as well as specific ion pairing, leading to interactions of ions of opposite polarity. Finally, we outline the route beyond Hofmeister chemistry in the direction of understanding specific roles of ions in various biological functionalities, where generic Hofmeister-type interactions can be complemented or even overruled by particular steric arrangements in various ion binding sites.

  20. Tide effects removed from well tests

    SciTech Connect

    Aase, E.P.B.; Jelmert, T.A.; Vik, S.A.

    1995-05-01

    To avoid distorted data when analyzing well pressure tests of permeable offshore reservoirs, one needs to account for periodic ocean tidal stress. Quartz-crystal bottom hole pressure recorders provide a high resolution of reservoir pressure but also measures pressure fluctuations from tidal effects during well testing. Periodic oscillations in the reservoir pressure are due to the three mechanisms: solid earth tide; barometric tide/effect; and ocean tide. The paper uses sample data from an offshore reservoir to illustrate how tide effects can be identified in the data and the correction procedure to use to remove these effects.

  1. Modular Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Youth Anxiety Disorders: A Partial Effectiveness Test in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Angela Wai Mon

    2010-01-01

    The current study used a programmatic dissemination model as a guiding framework for testing an evidence-supported treatment (EST) for child anxiety disorders in the school setting. The main goal of the project was to conduct the first of a planned series of partial-effectiveness tests (group-design randomized controlled trials) evaluating the…

  2. Relativistic effects on the nuclear magnetic shielding in the MF (M=Cu, Ag, Au) series

    SciTech Connect

    David, Jorge; Restrepo, Albeiro

    2007-11-15

    Relativistic effects on the nuclear magnetic shielding {sigma}(M) of the series of diatomics MF (M=Cu, Ag, Au) are calculated and analyzed using the Dirac-Hartree-Fock (DHF) method in the random phase approximation (RPA). Significant differences due to relativistic effects on the shielding constant {sigma}(M) are found in this series of atoms. The high electronegativity of the fluorine atom works in conjunction with the spin-orbit coupling to increase the calculated value for {sigma}(Au). An unusually large diamagnetic contribution to the shielding constant is observed. Nonrelativistic nuclear magnetic shielding [{sigma}{sup NR}(M)] shows very good linear correlation with the nuclear charge (Z) of the metal, while the relativistic shielding [{sigma}{sup rel}(M)] varies as Z{sup 2.26}.

  3. Non-verbal Effects in Oral Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seddon, G. M.; Pedrosa, M. A.

    1990-01-01

    Investigated the effects of nonverbal communication during oral examinations by testing two groups of British secondary students, one group in a face-to-face situation. Finds nonverbal effects increased the mean scores by two points but could not conclude that the increase was a result of student appearance and gestures. (CH)

  4. Fault detection using a two-model test for changes in the parameters of an autoregressive time series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholtz, P.; Smyth, P.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes an investigation of a statistical hypothesis testing method for detecting changes in the characteristics of an observed time series. The work is motivated by the need for practical automated methods for on-line monitoring of Deep Space Network (DSN) equipment to detect failures and changes in behavior. In particular, on-line monitoring of the motor current in a DSN 34-m beam waveguide (BWG) antenna is used as an example. The algorithm is based on a measure of the information theoretic distance between two autoregressive models: one estimated with data from a dynamic reference window and one estimated with data from a sliding reference window. The Hinkley cumulative sum stopping rule is utilized to detect a change in the mean of this distance measure, corresponding to the detection of a change in the underlying process. The basic theory behind this two-model test is presented, and the problem of practical implementation is addressed, examining windowing methods, model estimation, and detection parameter assignment. Results from the five fault-transition simulations are presented to show the possible limitations of the detection method, and suggestions for future implementation are given.

  5. Eliminating access to anonymous HIV antibody testing in North Carolina: effects on HIV testing and partner notification.

    PubMed

    Kassler, W J; Meriwether, R A; Klimko, T B; Peterman, T A; Zaidi, A

    1997-03-01

    Anonymous HIV testing may attract persons who might otherwise not be tested but may hinder partner notification. We evaluated the effects on North Carolina's HIV testing and partner notification programs of policy changes that eliminated and later restored anonymous testing in 82 counties. We used an interrupted time-series design to compare counties eliminating with counties retaining anonymous testing. We analyzed HIV testing and partner notification data from before, during, and after elimination of anonymous testing. After elimination of anonymous testing in 82 counties, the mean monthly level of testing (+/- SE) increased by 45%, or 548 (+/- 123) tests per month, while in 18 counties that retained anonymous testing, there was a 63% increase, or 802 (+/- 162) tests per month (p > .05). Among men of all races, testing increased by 16%, or 155 (+/- 35) tests per month, in counties that eliminated anonymous testing; and by 51%, or 305 (+/- 42) tests per month (p < .05), in counties that retained anonymous testing. After elimination of anonymous testing, both county types experienced similar increases in the rate of partners notified. However, partner notification was more successful if the index patient was tested confidentially; 2.7 times as many partners per index patient were notified and counseled. There was no effect on testing or on partner notification rates following restoration of anonymous testing. Substantial community opposition to eliminating anonymous testing was encountered. The policy change appeared to result in a slight decrease in testing among men and a slight increase in partners notified. Programs considering the elimination of anonymous testing should weigh these potential gains and losses, as well as the impact on relationships between the public health and advocacy communities

  6. Effects of linear trends on estimation of noise in GNSS position time-series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitrieva, K.; Segall, P.; Bradley, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    A thorough understanding of time-dependent noise in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) position time-series is necessary for computing uncertainties in any signals found in the data. However, estimation of time-correlated noise is a challenging task and is complicated by the difficulty in separating noise from signal, the features of greatest interest in the time-series. In this paper, we investigate how linear trends affect the estimation of noise in daily GNSS position time-series. We use synthetic time-series to study the relationship between linear trends and estimates of time-correlated noise for the six most commonly cited noise models. We find that the effects of added linear trends, or conversely de-trending, vary depending on the noise model. The commonly adopted model of random walk (RW), flicker noise (FN) and white noise (WN) is the most severely affected by de-trending, with estimates of low-amplitude RW most severely biased. FN plus WN is least affected by adding or removing trends. Non-integer power-law noise estimates are also less affected by de-trending, but are very sensitive to the addition of trend when the spectral index is less than one. We derive an analytical relationship between linear trends and the estimated RW variance for the special case of pure RW noise. Overall, we find that to ascertain the correct noise model for GNSS position time-series and to estimate the correct noise parameters, it is important to have independent constraints on the actual trends in the data.

  7. Effects of linear trends on estimation of noise in GNSS position time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitrieva, K.; Segall, P.; Bradley, A. M.

    2016-10-01

    A thorough understanding of time dependent noise in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) position time series is necessary for computing uncertainties in any signals found in the data. However, estimation of time-correlated noise is a challenging task and is complicated by the difficulty in separating noise from signal, the features of greatest interest in the time series. In this paper we investigate how linear trends affect the estimation of noise in daily GNSS position time series. We use synthetic time series to study the relationship between linear trends and estimates of time-correlated noise for the six most commonly cited noise models. We find that the effects of added linear trends, or conversely de-trending, vary depending on the noise model. The commonly adopted model of random walk (RW), flicker noise (FN), and white noise (WN) is the most severely affected by de-trending, with estimates of low amplitude RW most severely biased. Flicker noise plus white noise is least affected by adding or removing trends. Non-integer power-law noise estimates are also less affected by de-trending, but are very sensitive to the addition of trend when the spectral index is less than one. We derive an analytical relationship between linear trends and the estimated random walk variance for the special case of pure random walk noise. Overall, we find that to ascertain the correct noise model for GNSS position time series and to estimate the correct noise parameters, it is important to have independent constraints on the actual trends in the data.

  8. Effects of linear trends on estimation of noise in GNSS position time-series

    DOE PAGES

    Dmitrieva, K.; Segall, P.; Bradley, A. M.

    2016-10-20

    A thorough understanding of time-dependent noise in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) position time-series is necessary for computing uncertainties in any signals found in the data. However, estimation of time-correlated noise is a challenging task and is complicated by the difficulty in separating noise from signal, the features of greatest interest in the time-series. In this study, we investigate how linear trends affect the estimation of noise in daily GNSS position time-series. We use synthetic time-series to study the relationship between linear trends and estimates of time-correlated noise for the six most commonly cited noise models. We find that themore » effects of added linear trends, or conversely de-trending, vary depending on the noise model. The commonly adopted model of random walk (RW), flicker noise (FN) and white noise (WN) is the most severely affected by de-trending, with estimates of low-amplitude RW most severely biased. FN plus WN is least affected by adding or removing trends. Non-integer power-law noise estimates are also less affected by de-trending, but are very sensitive to the addition of trend when the spectral index is less than one. We derive an analytical relationship between linear trends and the estimated RW variance for the special case of pure RW noise. Finally, overall, we find that to ascertain the correct noise model for GNSS position time-series and to estimate the correct noise parameters, it is important to have independent constraints on the actual trends in the data.« less

  9. Effects of linear trends on estimation of noise in GNSS position time-series

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitrieva, K.; Segall, P.; Bradley, A. M.

    2016-10-20

    A thorough understanding of time-dependent noise in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) position time-series is necessary for computing uncertainties in any signals found in the data. However, estimation of time-correlated noise is a challenging task and is complicated by the difficulty in separating noise from signal, the features of greatest interest in the time-series. In this study, we investigate how linear trends affect the estimation of noise in daily GNSS position time-series. We use synthetic time-series to study the relationship between linear trends and estimates of time-correlated noise for the six most commonly cited noise models. We find that the effects of added linear trends, or conversely de-trending, vary depending on the noise model. The commonly adopted model of random walk (RW), flicker noise (FN) and white noise (WN) is the most severely affected by de-trending, with estimates of low-amplitude RW most severely biased. FN plus WN is least affected by adding or removing trends. Non-integer power-law noise estimates are also less affected by de-trending, but are very sensitive to the addition of trend when the spectral index is less than one. We derive an analytical relationship between linear trends and the estimated RW variance for the special case of pure RW noise. Finally, overall, we find that to ascertain the correct noise model for GNSS position time-series and to estimate the correct noise parameters, it is important to have independent constraints on the actual trends in the data.

  10. Testing & Research, Part I. Options in Education: Program Transcripts of a Weekly Series Broadcast by Member Stations of National Public Radio. Program No. 78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for Educational Leadership.

    Several program transcripts on educational testing from the National Public Radio series, Options in Education, are included in this pamphlet. In "The I.Q. Controversy," Ned Block discusses culturally biased standardized tests. Dr. Harold Hodgkinson, former Director of the National Institute of Education, and Noel Epstein, Education Editor of the…

  11. Propulsion Induced Effects (PIE) Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cappuccio, Gelsomina; Won, Mark J.

    1999-01-01

    The Propulsion Induced Effects (PIE) test program is being lead by NASA Ames for Configuration Aerodynamics (CA). Representatives from CA, Technology Integration (TI), Inlet, and the Nozzle ITD's are working with Ames in defining and executing this test program. The objective of the CA 4-14 milestone is to assess the propulsion/airframe integration characteristics of the Technology Concept Airplane (TCA) and design variations using computational and experimental methods. The experimental aspect includes static calibrations, transonic and supersonic wind tunnel testing. The test program will generate a comprehensive database that will include all appropriate wind tunnel corrections, with emphasis placed on establishing the propulsion induced effects on the flight performance of the TCA.

  12. Physics-Based Correction of Inhomogeneities in Temperature Series: Model Transferability Testing and Comparison to Statistical Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auchmann, Renate; Brönnimann, Stefan; Croci-Maspoli, Mischa

    2016-04-01

    For the correction of inhomogeneities in sub-daily temperature series, Auchmann and Brönnimann (2012) developed a physics-based model for one specific type of break, i.e. the transition from a Wild screen to a Stevenson screen at one specific station in Basel, Switzerland. The model is based solely on physical considerations, no relationships of the covariates to the differences between the parallel measurements have been investigated. The physics-based model requires detailed information on the screen geometry, the location, and includes a variety of covariates in the model. The model is mainly based on correcting the radiation error, including a modification by ambient wind. In this study we test the application of the model to another station, Zurich, experiencing the same type of transition. Furthermore we compare the performance of the physics based correction to purely statistical correction approaches (constant correction, correcting for annual cycle using spline). In Zurich the Wild screen was replaced in 1954 by the Stevenson screen, from 1954-1960 parallel temperature measurements in both screens were taken, which will be used to assess the performance of the applied corrections. For Zurich the required model input is available (i.e. three times daily observations of wind, cloud cover, pressure and humidity measurements, local times of sunset and sunrise). However, a large number of stations do not measure these additional input data required for the model, which hampers the transferability and applicability of the model to other stations. Hence, we test possible simplifications and generalizations of the model to make it more easily applicable to stations with the same type of inhomogeneity. In a last step we test whether other types of transitions (e.g., from a Stevenson screen to an automated weather system) can be corrected using the principle of a physics-based approach.

  13. Effect of restart at signals on traffic flow through a series of signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hino, Yuki; Tobita, Kazuhiro; Nagatani, Takashi

    2013-08-01

    We study the effect of restart at signals on the vehicular traffic controlled by a series of signals. The Nagel-Schreckenberg model (NS model) and Fukui-Ishibashi model (FI model) are applied to the vehicular motion. In the FI model, the step-by-step acceleration is not taken into account but the acceleration effect is included in the NS model. It is shown that the difference between both models results in the restart effect at signals. The extended version of the NS model with signals is formulated by the difference equation. The restart at signals has an effective effect on the traffic flow. The fundamental diagram changes highly by the restart effect. The dependences of mean speed on the cycle time are shown.

  14. Pyroshock testing: Effects of equipment simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, William O.

    2002-05-01

    It is critical to a spacecraft's mission success that flight equipment be properly qualified to its expected shock environment. Simulators of varying fidelity are often used to measure the shock levels during spacecraft shock tests. Pyroshock test data from a recent spacecraft separation test will be shown that illustrates how shock response spectra differ for avionics equipment simulators of both low and high fidelity. The effect of the simulator weight on the shock response will also be shown. Additionally, data showing the attenuation of pyroshock levels, including its reduction with distance and across joints will be discussed. This observed attenuation data generally supports the standard methodologies for predictions of shock attenuation.

  15. Effects of Laser Wavelength on Ablator Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Wavelength-dependent or spectral radiation effects are potentially significant for thermal protection materials. NASA atmospheric entry simulations include trajectories with significant levels of shock layer radiation which is concentrated in narrow spectral lines. Tests using two different high powered lasers, the 10.6 micron LHMEL I CO2 laser and the near-infrared 1.07 micron fiber laser, on low density ablative thermal protection materials offer a unique opportunity to evaluate spectral effects. Test results indicated that the laser wavelength can impact the thermal response of an ablative material, in terms of bond-line temperatures, penetration times, mass losses, and char layer thicknesses.

  16. Use of Fixed Effects Models to Analyze Self-Controlled Case Series Data in Vaccine Safety Studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Stanley; Zeng, Chan; Newcomer, Sophia; Nelson, Jennifer; Glanz, Jason

    2012-04-19

    Conditional Poisson models have been used to analyze vaccine safety data from self-controlled case series (SCCS) design. In this paper, we derived the likelihood function of fixed effects models in analyzing SCCS data and showed that the likelihoods from fixed effects models and conditional Poisson models were proportional. Thus, the maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) of time-varying variables including vaccination effect from fixed effects model and conditional Poisson model were equal. We performed a simulation study to compare empirical type I errors, means and standard errors of vaccination effect coefficient, and empirical powers among conditional Poisson models, fixed effects models, and generalized estimating equations (GEE), which has been commonly used for analyzing longitudinal data. Simulation study showed that both fixed effect models and conditional Poisson models generated the same estimates and standard errors for time-varying variables while GEE approach produced different results for some data sets. We also analyzed SCCS data from a vaccine safety study examining the association between measles mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). In analyzing MMR-ITP data, likelihood-based statistical tests were employed to test the impact of time-invariant variable on vaccination effect. In addition a complex semi-parametric model was fitted by simply treating unique event days as indicator variables in the fixed effects model. We conclude that theoretically fixed effects models provide identical MLEs as conditional Poisson models. Because fixed effect models are likelihood based, they have potentials to address methodological issues in vaccine safety studies such as how to identify optimal risk window and how to analyze SCCS data with misclassification of adverse events.

  17. Multifractal cross-correlation effects in two-variable time series of complex network vertex observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    OświÈ©cimka, Paweł; Livi, Lorenzo; DroŻdŻ, Stanisław

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the scaling of the cross-correlations calculated for two-variable time series containing vertex properties in the context of complex networks. Time series of such observables are obtained by means of stationary, unbiased random walks. We consider three vertex properties that provide, respectively, short-, medium-, and long-range information regarding the topological role of vertices in a given network. In order to reveal the relation between these quantities, we applied the multifractal cross-correlation analysis technique, which provides information about the nonlinear effects in coupling of time series. We show that the considered network models are characterized by unique multifractal properties of the cross-correlation. In particular, it is possible to distinguish between Erdös-Rényi, Barabási-Albert, and Watts-Strogatz networks on the basis of fractal cross-correlation. Moreover, the analysis of protein contact networks reveals characteristics shared with both scale-free and small-world models.

  18. Hall Effect Thruster Ground Testing Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-18

    high purity propellent to eliminate the risk of oxidation poisoning the thermionically emitting electron/neutralizer source drive the entire Hall effect...Mason, L., Jankovsky, R., Snyder, J. S., Malone , S., Haas, J., and Gallimore, A. D., “Spacecraft Interaction Test Results for the High Performance

  19. Leadership Effectiveness. ACSA School Management Digest, Series 1, No. 16. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series Number 44.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzarella, Jo Ann

    Many educational administrators are too overwhelmed by paperwork and too short of time, resources, and training, to be effective leaders. Yet some educators and schools are finding ways to make good leadership easier through improving time management skills, providing assistants, instituting administrative training programs, and cutting paperwork.…

  20. On Granger causality and the effect of interventions in time series.

    PubMed

    Eichler, Michael; Didelez, Vanessa

    2010-01-01

    We combine two approaches to causal reasoning. Granger causality, on the one hand, is popular in fields like econometrics, where randomised experiments are not very common. Instead information about the dynamic development of a system is explicitly modelled and used to define potentially causal relations. On the other hand, the notion of causality as effect of interventions is predominant in fields like medical statistics or computer science. In this paper, we consider the effect of external, possibly multiple and sequential, interventions in a system of multivariate time series, the Granger causal structure of which is taken to be known. We address the following questions: under what assumptions about the system and the interventions does Granger causality inform us about the effectiveness of interventions, and when does the possibly smaller system of observable times series allow us to estimate this effect? For the latter we derive criteria that can be checked graphically and are in the same spirit as Pearl's back-door and front-door criteria (Pearl 1995).

  1. Effects of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on performance and perceptual responses in a laboratory-simulated BMX cycling qualification series.

    PubMed

    Zabala, Mikel; Requena, Bernardo; Sánchez-Muñoz, Cristóbal; González-Badillo, Juan José; García, Inmaculada; Oöpik, Vahur; Pääsuke, Mati

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3-) ingestion on performance and perceptual responses in a laboratory-simulated bicycle motocross (BMX) qualification series. Nine elite BMX riders volunteered to participate in this study. After familiarization, subjects undertook two trials involving repeated sprints (3 x Wingate tests [WTs] separated by 30 minutes of recovery; WT1, WT2, WT3). Ninety minutes before each trial, subjects ingested either NaHCO3- or placebo in a counterbalanced, randomly assigned, double-blind manner. Each trial was separated by 4 days. Performance variables of peak power, mean power, time to peak power, and fatigue index were calculated for each sprint. Ratings of perceived exertion were obtained after each sprint, and ratings of perceived readiness were obtained before each sprint. No significant differences were observed in performance variables between successive sprints or between trials. For the NaHCO3- trial, peak blood lactate during recovery was greater after WT2 (p < 0.05) and tended to be greater after WT3 (p = 0.07), and ratings of perceived exertion were not influenced. However, improved ratings of perceived readiness were observed before WT2 and WT3 (p < 0.05). In conclusion, NaHCO3- ingestion had no effect on performance and RPE during a series of three WT simulating a BMX qualification series, possibly because of the short duration of each effort and the long recovery time used between the three WTs. On the contrary, NaHCO3- ingestion improved perceived readiness before each WT.

  2. Hands-On Approach to Structure Activity Relationships: The Synthesis, Testing, and Hansch Analysis of a Series of Acetylcholineesterase Inhibitors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locock, Katherine; Tran, Hue; Codd, Rachel; Allan, Robin

    2015-01-01

    This series of three practical sessions centers on drugs that inhibit the enzyme acetylcholineesterase. This enzyme is responsible for the inactivation of acetylcholine and has been the target of drugs to treat glaucoma and Alzheimer's disease and for a number of insecticides and warfare agents. These sessions relate to a series of carbamate…

  3. Data report on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Small-Scale Seal Performance Test, Series F grouting experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, E.H.; Dale, T.F.; Van Pelt, R.S.

    1996-03-01

    SSSPT-F was designed to evaluate sealing materials at WIPP. It demonstrated: (1) the ability to practically and consistently produce ultrafine cementitious grout at the grouting site, (2) successful, consistent, and efficient injection and permeation of the grout into fractured rock at the repository horizon, (3) ability of the grout to penetrate and seal microfractures, (4) procedures and equipment used to inject the grout. Also techniques to assess the effectiveness of the grout in reducing the gas transmissivity of the fractured rock were evaluated. These included gas-flow/tracer testing, post-grout coring, pre- and post-grout downhole televiewer logging, slab displacement measurements, and increased loading on jacks during grout injection. Pre- and post-grout diamond drill core was obtained for use in ongoing evaluations of grouting effectiveness, degradation, and compatibility. Diamond drill equipment invented for this test successfully prevented drill cuttings from plugging fractures in grout injection holes.

  4. Laboratory tests for single-event effects

    SciTech Connect

    Buchner, S.; McMorrow, D.; Melinger, J.; Campbell, A.B.

    1996-04-01

    Integrated circuits are currently tested at accelerators for their susceptibility to single-event effects (SEE`s). However, because of the cost and limited accessibility associated with accelerator testing, there is considerable interest in developing alternate testing methods. Two laboratory techniques for measuring SEE, one involving a pulsed laser and the other {sup 252}Cf, are described in detail in this paper. The pulsed laser provides information on the spatial and temporal dependence of SEE, information that has proven invaluable in understanding and mitigating SEE in spite of the differences in the physical mechanisms responsible for SEE induced by light and by ions. Considerable effort has been expended on developing {sup 252}Cf as a laboratory test for SEE, but the technique has not found wide use because it is severely limited by the low energy and short range of the emitted ions that are unable to reach junctions either covered with dielectric layers or deep below the surface. In fact, there are documented cases where single-event latchup (SEL) testing with {sub 252}Cf gave significantly different results from accelerator testing. A detailed comparison of laboratory and accelerator SEE data is presented in this review in order to establish the limits of each technique.

  5. The Effects of Alternative Input Devices and Repeated Exposures on the Test of Basic Aviation Skills (TBAS) Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    DOT: Directional Orientation Test DL3: 3- Digit Dichotic Listening Test DL5: 5- Digit Dichotic Listening Test HTT: Horizontal Tracking Test (requires...practice effects for all the TBAS subtests except for the dichotic listening tests. INTRODUCTION Presently, the U.S. Navy is engaged in the revalidation...TBAS has been operational since 2006. The TBAS consists of a series of individual tasks such as the directional orientation test, 3- digit listening

  6. [Time series studies of air pollution by fires and the effects on human health].

    PubMed

    do Carmo, Cleber Nascimento; Hacon, Sandra de Souza

    2013-11-01

    Burnoffs (intentional fires for agricultural purposes) and forest fires of large proportions have been observed in various regions of the planet. Exposure to high levels of air pollutants emitted by fires can be responsible for various harmful effects on human health. In this article, the literature on estimating acute effects of air pollution on human health by fires in the regions with the highest number of fires on the planet, using a time series approach is summarized. An attempt was made to identify gaps in knowledge. The study consisted of a narrative review, in which the characteristics of the selected studies were grouped by regions of the planet with a higher incidence of burnoffs: Amazon, America, Australia and Asia. The results revealed a large number of studies in Australia, few studies in the Amazon and great heterogeneity in the results on the significant effects on human health.

  7. Preliminary Results of the Third Test Series of Nonmetal Material Flammability Evaluation In SKOROST Apparatus on the Space Station Mir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, A. V.; Alymov, V. F.; Smirnov, A. B.; Shalayev, S. P.; Ye.Belov, D.; Balashov, Ye.V.; Andreeva, T. V.; Semenov, A. V.; Melikhov, A. S.; Bolodyan, I. A.; Potyakin, V. I.

    1999-01-01

    The work has been done according to the US/Russian Joint Project "Experimental Evaluation of the Material Flammability in Microgravity" a continued combustion study in the SKOROST test apparatus on the OS Mir. The objective of the project was to evaluate the flammability and flame-spread rate for the selected polymer materials in low velocity flow in microgravity. Lately, the issue of nonmetal material combustion in microgravity has become of great importance, based on the necessity to develop the fire safety system for the new International Space Station (ISS). Lack of buoyant flow in microgravity reduces oxygen transfer into the combustion zone, which leads to flame extinction when the flow velocity is less than the limiting flow velocity V(sub lim) for the material. The ISS FGB fire-safety system was developed based on this phenomenon. The existence of minimum flow velocity V(sub lim) to sustain fire for the selected materials was determined both theoretically and experimentally. In the latter, it is shown that, even for thermally thin nonmetal materials with a very low oxygen index C(sub lim) of 12.5% (paper sheets with the thickness of 0.1 mm), a limiting flow velocity V(sub lim) exists at oxygen concentration Co(sub OX) = 17-21%, and is about 1.0 - 0.1 cm/sec. This might be explained by the relative increase in thermal losses due to radiation from the surface and from the gaseous phase. In the second series of experiments in Skorost apparatus on Orbital Station Mir the existence of the limiting flow velocity V(sub lim) for combustion was confirmed for PMMA and glass-epoxy composite strip samples 2 mm thick at oxygen concentration C(sub OX) = 21.5%. It was concluded that V(sub lim) depends on C(sub OX) for the PMMA sample with a low oxygen index of 15.5%, the limiting flow velocity V(sub lim) was less than 0.5 cm/sec, and for the glass-epoxy composite sample with a high oxygen index of 19%, the limiting flow velocity V(sub lim) was higher than 15 cm/sec. As of

  8. Diabetogenic effect of a series of tricyclic delta opioid agonists structurally related to cyproheptadine.

    PubMed

    Codd, Ellen E; Baker, Judith; Brandt, Michael R; Bryant, Stewart; Cai, Chaozhong; Carson, John R; Chevalier, Kristen M; Colburn, Raymond W; Coogan, Timothy P; Dax, Scott L; Decorte, Bart; Kemmerer, Michael; Legrand, Edmund K; Lenhard, James M; Leone, Angelique M; Lin, Ling; Mabus, John R; McDonnell, Mark E; McMillian, Michael K; McNally, James J; Stone, Dennis J; Wang, Charles Y; Zhang, Sui-Po; Flores, Christopher M

    2010-10-01

    The unexpected observation of a hyperglycemic effect of some tricycle-based delta opioid receptor (DOR) agonists led to a series of studies to better understand the finding. Single administration of two novel tricyclic DOR agonists dose dependently elevated rat plasma glucose levels; 4-week toxicology studies confirmed the hyperglycemic finding and further revealed pancreatic β-cell hypertrophy, including vacuole formation, as well as bone dysplasia and Harderian gland degeneration with regeneration. Similar diabetogenic effects were observed in dog. A review of the literature on the antiserotonergic and antihistaminergic drug cyproheptadine (CPH) and its metabolites revealed shared structural features as well as similar hyperglycemic effects to the present series of DOR agonists. To further evaluate these effects, we established an assay measuring insulin levels in the rat pancreatic β-cell-derived RINm5F cell line, extensively used to study CPH and its metabolites. Like CPH, the initial DOR agonists studied reduced RINm5F cell insulin levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Importantly, compound DOR potency did not correlate with the insulin-reducing potency. Furthermore, the RINm5F cell insulin results correlated with the diabetogenic effect of the compounds in a 5-day mouse study. The RINm5F cell insulin assay enabled the identification of aryl-aryl-amine DOR agonists that lacked an insulin-reducing effect and did not elevate blood glucose in repeated dosing studies conducted over a suprapharmacologic dose range. Thus, not only did the RINm5F cell assay open a path for the further discovery of DOR agonists lacking diabetogenic potential but also it established a reliable, economical, and high-throughput screen for such potential, regardless of chemotype or target pharmacology. The present findings also suggest a mechanistic link between the toxicity observed here and that underlying Wolcott-Rallison Syndrome.

  9. Change detection in a time series of polarimetric SAR data by an omnibus test statistic and its factorization (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Allan A.; Conradsen, Knut; Skriver, Henning

    2016-10-01

    Test statistics for comparison of real (as opposed to complex) variance-covariance matrices exist in the statistics literature [1]. In earlier publications we have described a test statistic for the equality of two variance-covariance matrices following the complex Wishart distribution with an associated p-value [2]. We showed their application to bitemporal change detection and to edge detection [3] in multilook, polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data in the covariance matrix representation [4]. The test statistic and the associated p-value is described in [5] also. In [6] we focussed on the block-diagonal case, we elaborated on some computer implementation issues, and we gave examples on the application to change detection in both full and dual polarization bitemporal, bifrequency, multilook SAR data. In [7] we described an omnibus test statistic Q for the equality of k variance-covariance matrices following the complex Wishart distribution. We also described a factorization of Q = R2 R3 … Rk where Q and Rj determine if and when a difference occurs. Additionally, we gave p-values for Q and Rj. Finally, we demonstrated the use of Q and Rj and the p-values to change detection in truly multitemporal, full polarization SAR data. Here we illustrate the methods by means of airborne L-band SAR data (EMISAR) [8,9]. The methods may be applied to other polarimetric SAR data also such as data from Sentinel-1, COSMO-SkyMed, TerraSAR-X, ALOS, and RadarSat-2 and also to single-pol data. The account given here closely follows that given our recent IEEE TGRS paper [7]. Selected References [1] Anderson, T. W., An Introduction to Multivariate Statistical Analysis, John Wiley, New York, third ed. (2003). [2] Conradsen, K., Nielsen, A. A., Schou, J., and Skriver, H., "A test statistic in the complex Wishart distribution and its application to change detection in polarimetric SAR data," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 41(1): 4-19, 2003. [3] Schou, J

  10. Hilbert series and operator bases with derivatives in effective field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henning, Brian; Lu, Xiaochuan; Melia, Tom; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2016-10-01

    We introduce a systematic framework for counting and finding independent operators in effective field theories, taking into account the redundancies associated with use of the classical equations of motion and integration by parts. By working in momentum space, we show that the enumeration problem can be mapped onto that of understanding a polynomial ring in the field momenta. All-order information about the number of independent operators in an effective field theory is encoded in a geometrical object of the ring known as the Hilbert series. We obtain the Hilbert series for the theory of N real scalar fields in (0+1) dimensions—an example, free of space-time and internal symmetries, where aspects of our framework are most transparent. Although this is as simple a theory involving derivatives as one could imagine, it provides fruitful lessons to be carried into studies of more complicated theories: we find surprising and rich structure from an interplay between integration by parts and equations of motion and a connection with SL(2,C) representation theory, which controls the structure of the operator basis.

  11. Phthalate esters: Testing for ecological effects

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.; Thompson, R.; Croudace, C.; Stewart, K.; Williams, N.

    1995-12-31

    Ortho-phthalate esters are produced in high tonnages for use as plasticizers, in particular for PVC. Their physical chemical properties are typically very low water solubility and high octanol/water partition coefficient. This combination of properties presents a number of experimental difficulties in the design and interpretation of ecological effect studies. These difficulties are described and results presented showing techniques for the performance of reproduction studies with the water flea, Daphnia magna, in aqueous solution and with the midge, Chironomus riparius, in sediments. The results which showed no effect for the phthalate esters tested are discussed in the context of other ecotoxicity data obtained on these products.

  12. Effects of State Tests on Classroom Test Items in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Brian T.

    2008-01-01

    Classroom tests from nine eighth-grade mathematics teachers were collected from the 2003-04 and 2005-06 school years. These years represent one school year prior to the eighth-grade Ohio Achievement Test (OAT) in mathematics being implemented and the year after the eighth-grade OAT in mathematics was implemented, respectively. In addition,…

  13. Assessments of higher-order ionospheric effects on GPS coordinate time series: A case study of CMONOC with longer time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Weiping; Deng, Liansheng; Zhou, Xiaohui; Ma, Yifang

    2014-05-01

    Higher-order ionospheric (HIO) corrections are proposed to become a standard part for precise GPS data analysis. For this study, we deeply investigate the impacts of the HIO corrections on the coordinate time series by implementing re-processing of the GPS data from Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC). Nearly 13 year data are used in our three processing runs: (a) run NO, without HOI corrections, (b) run IG, both second- and third-order corrections are modeled using the International Geomagnetic Reference Field 11 (IGRF11) to model the magnetic field, (c) run ID, the same with IG but dipole magnetic model are applied. Both spectral analysis and noise analysis are adopted to investigate these effects. Results show that for CMONOC stations, HIO corrections are found to have brought an overall improvement. After the corrections are applied, the noise amplitudes decrease, with the white noise amplitudes showing a more remarkable variation. Low-latitude sites are more affected. For different coordinate components, the impacts vary. The results of an analysis of stacked periodograms show that there is a good match between the seasonal amplitudes and the HOI corrections, and the observed variations in the coordinate time series are related to HOI effects. HOI delays partially explain the seasonal amplitudes in the coordinate time series, especially for the U component. The annual amplitudes for all components are decreased for over one-half of the selected CMONOC sites. Additionally, the semi-annual amplitudes for the sites are much more strongly affected by the corrections. However, when diplole model is used, the results are not as optimistic as IGRF model. Analysis of dipole model indicate that HIO delay lead to the increase of noise amplitudes, and that HIO delays with dipole model can generate false periodic signals. When dipole model are used in modeling HIO terms, larger residual and noise are brought in rather than the effective improvements.

  14. Series-coupled silicon racetrack resonators and the Vernier effect: theory and measurement.

    PubMed

    Boeck, Robi; Jaeger, Nicolas A; Rouger, Nicolas; Chrostowski, Lukas

    2010-11-22

    Silicon-on-insulator racetrack resonators can be used as multiplexers in wavelength division multiplexing applications. The free spectral range should be comparable to the span of the C-band so that a maximum number of channels can be multiplexed. However, the free spectral range is inversely proportional to the length of the resonator and, therefore, bending losses can become non-negligible. A viable alternative to increase the free spectral range is to use the Vernier effect. In this work, we present the theory of series-coupled racetrack resonators exhibiting the Vernier effect. We demonstrate the experimental performance of the device using silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides. The extended free spectral range is 36 nm and the interstitial peak suppression is from 9 dB to 17 dB.

  15. Negative effects of chelants on soil qualities of five soil series.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hung-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Due to the low phytoavailability of some heavy metals (HMs), a prolonged period is required when phytoextraction is used to remove these HMs from contaminated soils. The use of chelants and other chemical compounds are often used to increase the phytoavailability of the HMs for plant uptake. Negative effects of chemical agents on the soil and groundwater have rarely been reported during chemical-enhanced phytoextraction. This research applied chelants to various soil series with different characteristics to assess their impacts on soil quality. The experimental results showed that the application of 5 mmol kg(-1) of all chelants had a negative effect on the soil quality. This was especially true for electrical conductivity (EC) when diethylene trinitrilo pentaacetic acid (DTPA) was used as the chemical extracting agent.

  16. Evaluating disease management program effectiveness: an introduction to time-series analysis.

    PubMed

    Linden, Ariel; Adams, John L; Roberts, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Currently, the most widely used method in the disease management (DM) industry for evaluating program effectiveness is referred to as the "total population approach." This model is a pretest-posttest design, with the most basic limitation being that without a control group, there may be sources of bias and/or competing extraneous confounding factors that offer a plausible rationale explaining the change from baseline. Furthermore, with the current inclination of DM programs to use financial indicators rather than program-specific utilization indicators as the principal measure of program success, additional biases are introduced that may cloud evaluation results. This paper presents a non-technical introduction to time-series analysis (using disease-specific utilization measures) as an alternative, and more appropriate, approach to evaluating DM program effectiveness than the current total population approach.

  17. Dairy heifer manure management, dietary phosphorus, and soil test P effects on runoff phosphorus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure application to cropland can contribute to runoff losses of P and eutrophication of surface waters. We conducted a series of three rainfall simulation experiments to assess the effects of dairy heifer dietary P, manure application method, application rate, and soil test P on runoff P losses fr...

  18. Identifying Autocorrelation Generated by Various Error Processes in Interrupted Time-Series Regression Designs: A Comparison of AR1 and Portmanteau Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huitema, Bradley E.; McKean, Joseph W.

    2007-01-01

    Regression models used in the analysis of interrupted time-series designs assume statistically independent errors. Four methods of evaluating this assumption are the Durbin-Watson (D-W), Huitema-McKean (H-M), Box-Pierce (B-P), and Ljung-Box (L-B) tests. These tests were compared with respect to Type I error and power under a wide variety of error…

  19. Improving estimates of ecosystem metabolism by reducing effects of tidal advection on dissolved oxygen time series

    EPA Science Inventory

    In aquatic systems, time series of dissolved oxygen (DO) have been used to compute estimates of ecosystem metabolism. Central to this open-water method is the assumption that the DO time series is a Lagrangian specification of the flow field. However, most DO time series are coll...

  20. Effect of nitrogen and fluorine on mechanical properties and bioactivity in two series of bioactive glasses.

    PubMed

    Bachar, Ahmed; Mercier, Cyrille; Tricoteaux, Arnaud; Hampshire, Stuart; Leriche, Anne; Follet, Claudine

    2013-07-01

    Bioactive glasses are able to bond to bone through formation of carbonated hydroxyapatite in body fluids, and fluoride-releasing bioactive glasses are of interest for both orthopaedic and, in particular, dental applications for caries inhibition. However, because of their poor strength their use is restricted to non-load-bearing applications. In order to increase their mechanical properties, doping with nitrogen has been performed on two series of bioactive glasses: series (I) was a "bioglass" composition (without P2O5) within the quaternary system SiO2-Na2O-CaO-Si3N4 and series (II) was a simple substitution of CaF2 for CaO in series (I) glasses keeping the Na:Ca ratio constant. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the variation in nitrogen and fluorine content on the properties of these glasses. The density, glass transition temperature, hardness and elastic modulus all increased linearly with nitrogen content which indicates that the incorporation of nitrogen stiffens the glass network because N is mainly in 3-fold coordination with Si atoms. Fluorine addition significantly decreases the thermal property values but the mechanical properties of these glasses remain unchanged with fluorine. The combination of both nitrogen and fluorine in oxyfluoronitride glasses gives better mechanical properties at much lower melting temperatures since fluorine reduces the melting point, allows higher solubility of nitrogen and does not affect the higher mechanical properties arising from incorporation of nitrogen. The characterization of these N and F substituted bioactive glasses using (29)Si MAS NMR has shown that the increase in rigidity of the glass network can be explained by the formation of SiO3N, SiO2N2 tetrahedra and Q(4) units with extra bridging anions at the expense of Q(3) units. Bioactivity of the glasses was investigated in vitro by examining apatite formation on the surface of glasses treated in acellular simulated body fluid (SBF) with ion

  1. Augmentation of Psychotherapy through Alternative Preconscious Priming: A Case Series Exploring Effects on Residual Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Zidani, Melha; Audet, Jean-Sébastien; Borgeat, François; Aardema, Frederick; O’Connor, Kieron Philip; Khazaal, Yasser

    2017-01-01

    The current paper describes a case series using a new strategy for facilitating change based on Augmentation of Psychotherapy through Alternative Preconscious Priming (APAP) (1) in the treatment of eight treatment-resistant patients suffering from social phobia or generalized anxiety disorder. The patients had previously only shown a partial response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) despite good treatment adherence. The patients completed APAP using a computerized program, which consisted of three steps during which alternative, more functional thoughts and beliefs relevant to the idiosyncratic difficulties experienced by the patients were formulated. Subsequently, these formulations were recorded and mixed with masking relaxing music, which the patient listened to in a passive state twice daily for 20 min for a period of 8 weeks. This case series aimed to assess the effect and acceptability of APAP using quantitative and qualitative measures administered before, after, and 16 weeks’ posttreatment. Results showed a reduction in dysfunctional idiosyncratic thoughts reported by most patients, as well as mild improvements in anxiety and important improvements in quality of life. APAP could be a valuable addition to CBT by facilitating or enhancing cognitive and symptom change. Further studies are needed to confirm these promising results. PMID:28197107

  2. Time-Series Analysis of Mortality Effects of Fine Particulate Matter Components in Detroit and Seattle

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiang; Ito, Kazuhiko; Lall, Ramona; Lippmann, Morton; Thurston, George

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent toxicological and epidemiological studies have shown associations between particulate matter (PM) and adverse health effects, but which PM components are most influential is less well known. Objectives In this study, we used time-series analyses to determine the associations between daily fine PM [PM ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5)] concentrations and daily mortality in two U.S. cities—Seattle, Washington, and Detroit, Michigan. Methods We obtained daily PM2.5 filters for the years of 2002–2004 and analyzed trace elements using X-ray fluorescence and black carbon using light reflectance as a surrogate measure of elemental carbon. We used Poisson regression and distributed lag models to estimate excess deaths for all causes and for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases adjusting for time-varying covariates. We computed the excess risks for interquartile range increases of each pollutant at lags of 0 through 3 days for both warm and cold seasons. Results The cardiovascular and respiratory mortality series exhibited different source and seasonal patterns in each city. The PM2.5 components and gaseous pollutants associated with mortality in Detroit were most associated with warm season secondary aerosols and traffic markers. In Seattle, the component species most closely associated with mortality included those for cold season traffic and other combustion sources, such as residual oil and wood burning. Conclusions The effects of PM2.5 on daily mortality vary with source, season, and locale, consistent with the hypothesis that PM composition has an appreciable influence on the health effects attributable to PM. PMID:21193387

  3. Design, fabrication, test, and evaluation of RF MEMS series switches using lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin film actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polcawich, Ronald G.

    The aim of this thesis was to design and prototype a robust, low voltage RF MEMS switch for use in military phased arrays. The frequencies of interest for this work include very low frequencies down to DC operation with the upper limit extending to at least 40 GHz. This broad frequency requirement requires a robust high frequency design and simulation using microwave transmission lines. With the aid of researchers at the US Army Research Laboratory, co-planar waveguide (CPW) transmission lines were chosen and designed to provide a low loss, 50 ohm impedance transmission line for the switch. CPW designs allow for both series and shunt switch configuration with this work focusing on a series switch. Furthermore, a series switch an ohmic contact was chosen as opposed to capacitive contacts. Piezoelectric actuation is chosen for the switch to enable operating voltages less than 10 volts while still maintaining a restoring force to prevent stiction. To meet these demands, lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films have been chosen for the piezoelectric actuator. Mechanical modeling of cantilevers comprised of an elastic layer and a Pt-PZT-Pt actuator were used to demonstrate feasibility of closing large gaps between switch contacts. Placement of the actuator to minimize perturbations to the RF transmission line is critical for broadband performance. Using fabrication design rules, electro-mechanical modeling, and high frequency design, the actuators were designed to fit with the RF gap between the RF conductor and ground planes of the CPW transmission line. Optimal performance was obtained with the actuators mechanically isolated from a majority of the RF transmission except for a small section that provides the contact pad to enable switch closure. The resulting switch is the first demonstrated first surface micromachined RF MEMS switch operating from DC to 65 GHz. This switch has a median actuation voltage below 5 volts with operation as low as 2 volts. Isolation in the

  4. Tests of the Aharonov-Bohm effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caprez, Adam Preston

    The Aharonov-Bohm effect was first proposed in 1959, and has stimulated discussion and controversy since the start. Seen by many as a purely quantum mechanical effect, it nevertheless involves such issues as gauge invariance and relativistic dynamics. This multi-faceted nature has led it to be considered a keystone of modern quantum theory. Over the past half-century, interest has remained strong in what many believe is still an open debate as to the purely quantum nature. Additionally, discovery of similar effects for particles other than electrons has further driven curiosity. To better understand the issues such as electromagnetic mass and relativistic effects involved in the Aharonov-Bohm effect, a theoretical study of a simpler two particle system was done. The goal was to understand the manner in which mass of the system behaved strictly classically as compared to a relativistically. As a result of this, a Gedanken experiment is presented which serves as a test for covariance. The two particle system was extended to a spherical shell interacting with a single particle, and a second thought experiment put forth to explore a coupling between electromagnetism and gravitation. In the course of searching for simpler systems which involved the same issues as the Aharonov-Bohm effect, a system presented in the Feynman Lectures of Physics was found to be appropriate. We conduct a complete relativistic analysis of this system as a step towards a full relativistic analysis of the Aharonov-Bohm effect. Given the history and significance of the Aharonov-Bohm effect, it is perhaps surprising that relevant experimental tests had not been completed. For the first time, we searched for time delays as an electron passes a macroscopic solenoid. Such time delays are characteristic of classical forces acting on the electron. No such delays were found, seemingly confirming the standard viewpoint. It is still possible a classical explanation may exist for microscopic solenoids

  5. Don't They All Measure the Same Thing? Consequences of Selecting Standardized Tests. Research Series No. 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floden, Robert E.; And Others

    The authors argue that personnel who select standardized achievement tests have been led to believe that the major achievement test batteries differ very little in terms of the topics they test; but that the content covered by these major tests is different, and that such differences have consequences for instructional content. To test this…

  6. Single Event Effects (SEE) Testing: Practical Approach to Test Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Pellish, Jonathan Allen; Berg, Melanie D.

    2014-01-01

    While standards and guidelines for performing SEE testing have existed for several decades, guidance for developing SEE test plans has not been as easy to find. In this presentation, the variety of areas that need to be considered ranging from resource issues (funds, personnel, schedule) to extremely technical challenges (particle interaction and circuit application), shall be discussed. Note: we consider the approach outlined here as a "living" document: Mission-specific constraints and new technology related issues always need to be taken into account.

  7. A Quick-Test for Biochar Effects on Seed Germination ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Biochar is being globally evaluated as a soil amendment to improve soil characteristics (e.g. soil water holding, nutrient exchange, microbiology, pesticides and chemical availability) to increase crop yields. Unfortunately, there are no quick tests to determine what biochar types are most effective at improving soil characteristics amenable for higher crop yields. Seed germination is a critical parameter for plant establishment and may be a quick indicator of biochar quality. We adapted Oregon State University Seed Laboratory procedures to develop a “quick-test” for screening the effects of biochar on seed germination. We used 11.0 cm rectangular x 3.5 cm deep containers fitted with blotter paper. The paper was premoistened with reverse-osmosis water, followed by placement of seeds (25 in a uniform 5 x 5 vacuum-assisted pattern, and biochar mixtures). A Norfolk and Coxville soil series from South Carolina were used. A total of 18 biochars were evaluated that were produced from 6 feedstocks (pine chips, poultry litter, swine solids, switchgrass, and two blends of pine chips and poultry litter); with biochar from each feedstock made by pyrolysis at 350, 500 and 700 ̊ C. Crops were cabbage, cucumber, onion, ryegrass and tomato. Preliminary results from the test indicated differences in seed germination due to soil type and possibly soil x biochar feedstock interactions. Other measurements including shoot dry weight per plate and pH of the soil+ biochar mixtur

  8. Data book for 12.5-inch diameter SRB thermal model water flotation test: 14.7 psia, series P020

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allums, S. L.

    1974-01-01

    Data acquired from the initial series of tests conducted to determine how thermal conditions affect SRB (Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster) flotation are presented. Acceleration, pressure, and temperature data recorded from initial water impact to final flotation position using a 12.5-inch diameter thermal model of the SRB at ambient pressure are included. The model was 136.9 inches long and weighed 117.3 lbm. The tests indicated the following differences from ambient temperature tests: (1) significant negative static pressures can occur during penetration; (2) maximum penetration is increased; and (3) final flotation is in the spar buoy mode.

  9. Thermal effects testing at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralph, Mark E.; Cameron, Christopher P.; Ghanbari, Cheryl M.

    The National Solar Thermal Test Facility is operated by Sandia National Laboratories and located on Kirtland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The permanent features of the facility include a heliostat field and associated receiver tower, two solar furnaces, two point-focus parabolic concentrators, and Engine Test Facility. The heliostat field contains 220 computer-controlled mirrors, which reflect concentrated solar energy to test stations on a 61-m tower. The field produces a peak flux density of 250 W/sq cm that is uniform over a 15-cm diameter with a total beam power of over 5 MWt. One solar furnace produces flux levels of 270 W/sq cm over and delivers a 6-mm diameter and total power of 16 kWt. A second furnace produces flux levels up to 1000 W/sq cm over a 4 cm diameter and total power of 60 kWt. Both furnaces include shutters and attenuators that can provide square or shaped pulses. The two 11-m diameter tracking parabolic point-focusing concentrators at the facility can each produce peak flux levels of 1500 W/sq cm over a 2.5-cm diameter and total power of 75 kWt. High-speed shutters have been used to produce square pulses.

  10. Does Testing Impair Relational Processing? Failed Attempts to Replicate the Negative Testing Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawson, Katherine A.; Wissman, Kathryn T.; Vaughn, Kalif E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research on testing effects (i.e., practice tests are more effective than restudy for enhancing subsequent memory) has focused on explaining when and why testing enhances memory. Of particular interest for present purposes, Zaromb and Roediger (2010) reported evidence that testing effects in part reflect enhanced relational processing,…

  11. A Look at Computer-Assisted Testing Operations. The Illinois Series on Educational Application of Computers, No. 12e.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muiznieks, Viktors; Dennis, J. Richard

    In computer assisted test construction (CATC) systems, the computer is used to perform the mechanical aspects of testing while the teacher retains control over question content. Advantages of CATC systems include question banks, decreased importance of test item security, computer analysis and response to student test answers, item analysis…

  12. Multiple Choice Testing and the Retrieval Hypothesis of the Testing Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sensenig, Amanda E.

    2010-01-01

    Taking a test often leads to enhanced later memory for the tested information, a phenomenon known as the "testing effect". This memory advantage has been reliably demonstrated with recall tests but not multiple choice tests. One potential explanation for this finding is that multiple choice tests do not rely on retrieval processes to the same…

  13. The "Volvo Effect"--Questioning Standardized Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesson, Kenneth A.

    2001-01-01

    Questions current emphasis on standardized tests and discusses several factors about the tests that should prompt reevaluation of their usefulness. Issues discussed include: development and design of standardized tests; the correlation between test scores and socioeconomic position; the discrepancy between test designs and accurate reflection of…

  14. Wind-Tunnel Tests of an NACA 44R-Series Tapered Wing with a Straight Trailing Edge and a Constant-Chord Center Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neely, Robert H.

    1943-01-01

    As part of a general investigation in the NACA 19-foot pressure tunnel to determine stall characteristics and effectiveness of high-lift devices on wings of various sections, tests were made of a tapered. wing having NACA 44R-series airfoil sections. Lift, drag, pitching-moment, and stall characteristics were determined at a Reynolds number of 4,850,000 for the plain wing and for the wing with partial-and with full-span split flaps. The stall progressed slowly over The plain wing; a gradual loss of lift for angles of attack up to and beyond that for the maximum lift coefficient resulted. As Compared with the stall of the plain wing, the initial stall of the wing with either partial-span or full-span flaps deflected occurred at a higher angle of attack and the stall progressed much more rapidly. The maximum lift coefficients at a Reynolds number of 4,850,000 were 1.35 for the plain wing, 2.25 for the wing with partial-span flaps at 60 deg, and 2.67 for the wing with full-span flaps at 60 deg. The positions of the aerodynamic center, in terms of mean chords back of the leading edge of the root section, were approximately 0.458 with no flaps, 0.483 with partial-span flaps at 60 deg, and 0.498 with full-span flaps at 60 deg.

  15. EFFECTS OF FOREFOOT RUNNING ON CHRONIC EXERTIONAL COMPARTMENT SYNDROME: A CASE SERIES

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Robert; Alitz, Curtis; Gerber, J. Parry

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a condition that occurs almost exclusively with running whereby exercise increases intramuscular pressure compromising circulation, prohibiting muscular function, and causing pain in the lower leg. Currently, a lack of evidence exists for the effective conservative management of CECS. Altering running mechanics by adopting forefoot running as opposed to heel striking may assist in the treatment of CECS, specifically with anterior compartment symptoms. Case Description: The purpose of this case series is to describe the outcomes for subjects with CECS through a systematic conservative treatment model focused on forefoot running. Subject one was a 21 y/o female with a 4 year history of CECS and subject two was a 21 y/o male, 7 months status-post two-compartment right leg fasciotomy with a return of symptoms and a new onset of symptoms on the contralateral side. Outcome: Both subjects modified their running technique over a period of six weeks. Kinematic and kinetic analysis revealed increased step rate while step length, impulse, and peak vertical ground reaction forces decreased. In addition, leg intracompartmental pressures decreased from pre-training to post-training. Within 6 weeks of intervention subjects increased their running distance and speed absent of symptoms of CECS. Follow-up questionnaires were completed by the subjects at 7 months following intervention; subject one reported running distances up to 12.87 km pain-free and subject two reported running 6.44 km pain-free consistently 3 times a week. Discussion: This case series describes a potentially beneficial conservative management approach to CECS in the form of forefoot running instruction. Further research in this area is warranted to further explore the benefits of adopting a forefoot running technique for CECS as well as other musculoskeletal overuse complaints. PMID:22163093

  16. Explicit-water theory for the salt-specific effects and Hofmeister series in protein solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyuzhnyi, Yuriy V.; Vlachy, Vojko

    2016-06-01

    Effects of addition of salts on stability of aqueous protein solutions are studied theoretically and the results are compared with experimental data. In our approach, all the interacting species, proteins, ions, and water molecules, are accounted for explicitly. Water molecules are modeled as hard spheres with four off-center attractive square-well sites. These sites serve to bind either another water or to solvate the ions or protein charges. The ions are represented as charged hard spheres, and decorated by attractive sites to allow solvation. Spherical proteins simultaneously possess positive and negative groups, represented by charged hard spheres, attached to the surface of the protein. The attractive square-well sites, mimicking the protein-protein van der Waals interaction, are located on the surface of the protein. To obtain numerical results, we utilized the energy route of Wertheim's associative mean spherical approximation. From measurable properties, we choose to calculate the second virial coefficient B2, which is closely related to the tendency of proteins to aggregate and eventually crystalize. Calculations are in agreement with experimental trends: (i) For low concentration of added salt, the alkali halide salts follow the inverse Hofmeister series. (ii) At higher concentration of added salt, the trend is reversed. (iii) When cations are varied, the salts follow the direct Hofmeister series. (iv) In contrast to the colloidal theories, our approach correctly predicts the non-monotonic behavior of B2 upon addition of salts. (v) With respect to anions, the theory predicts for the B2 values to follow different sequences below and above the iso-ionic point, as also confirmed experimentally. (vi) A semi-quantitative agreement between measured and calculated values for the second virial coefficient, as functions of pH of solution and added salt type and concentration, is obtained.

  17. Thermal effects testing at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralph, M. E.; Cameron, C. P.; Ghanbari, C. M.

    1992-11-01

    The National Solar Thermal Test Facility is operated by Sandia National Laboratories and located on Kirkland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The permanent features of the facility include a heliostat field and associated receiver tower, two solar furnaces, two point-focus parabolic concentrators, and Engine Test Facility. The heliostat field contains 220 computer-controlled mirrors, which reflect concentrated solar energy to test stations on a 61-m tower. The field produces a peak flux density of 250 W/cm(sup 2) that is uniform over a 15-cm diameter with a total beam power of over 5 MW(sub t). The solar beam has been used to simulate aerodynamic heating for several customers. Thermal nuclear blasts have also been simulated using a high-speed shutter in combination with heliostat control. The shutter can accommodate samples up to 1 m (times) 1 m and it has been used by several US and Canadian agencies. A glass-windowed wind tunnel is also available in the Solar Tower. It provides simultaneous exposure to the thermal flux and air flow. Each solar furnace at the facility includes a heliostat, an attenuator, and a parabolic concentrator. One solar furnace produces flux levels of 270 W/cm(sup 2) over and delivers a 6-mm diameter and total power of 16 kW(sub t). A second furnace produces flux levels up to 1000 W/cm(sup 2) over a 4 cm diameter and total power of 60 kW(sub t). Both furnaces include shutters and attenuators that can provide square or shaped pulses. The two 11 m diameter tracking parabolic point-focusing concentrators at the facility can each produce peak flux levels of 1500 W/cm(sup 2) over a 2.5 cm diameter and total power of 75 kW(sub t). High-speed shutters have been used to produce square pulses.

  18. A Test of the Testing Effect: Acquiring Problem-Solving Skills from Worked Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Gog, Tamara; Kester, Liesbeth

    2012-01-01

    The "testing effect" refers to the finding that after an initial study opportunity, testing is more effective for long-term retention than restudying. The testing effect seems robust and is a finding from the field of cognitive science that has important implications for education. However, it is unclear whether this effect also applies…

  19. Diverse Effects on M1 Signaling and Adverse Effect Liability within a Series of M1 Ago-PAMs.

    PubMed

    Rook, Jerri M; Abe, Masahito; Cho, Hyekyung P; Nance, Kellie D; Luscombe, Vincent B; Adams, Jeffrey J; Dickerson, Jonathan W; Remke, Daniel H; Garcia-Barrantes, Pedro M; Engers, Darren W; Engers, Julie L; Chang, Sichen; Foster, Jarrett J; Blobaum, Anna L; Niswender, Colleen M; Jones, Carrie K; Conn, P Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W

    2017-01-10

    Both historical clinical and recent preclinical data suggest that the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor is an exciting target for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and the cognitive and negative symptom clusters in schizophrenia; however, early drug discovery efforts targeting the orthosteric binding site have failed to afford selective M1 activation. Efforts then shifted to focus on selective activation of M1 via either allosteric agonists or positive allosteric modulators (PAMs). While M1 PAMs have robust efficacy in rodent models, some chemotypes can induce cholinergic adverse effects (AEs) that could limit their clinical utility. Here, we report studies aimed at understanding the subtle structural and pharmacological nuances that differentiate efficacy from adverse effect liability within an indole-based series of M1 ago-PAMs. Our data demonstrate that closely related M1 PAMs can display striking differences in their in vivo activities, especially their propensities to induce adverse effects. We report the discovery of a novel PAM in this series that is devoid of observable adverse effect liability. Interestingly, the molecular pharmacology profile of this novel PAM is similar to that of a representative M1 PAM that induces severe AEs. For instance, both compounds are potent ago-PAMs that demonstrate significant interaction with the orthosteric site (either bitopic or negative cooperativity). However, there are subtle differences in efficacies of the compounds at potentiating M1 responses, agonist potencies, and abilities to induce receptor internalization. While these differences may contribute to the differential in vivo profiles of these compounds, the in vitro differences are relatively subtle and highlight the complexities of allosteric modulators and the need to focus on in vivo phenotypic screening to identify safe and effective M1 PAMs.

  20. A Series Circuit of Thermal Rectifiers: An Effective Way to Enhance Rectification Ratio.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shiqian; An, Meng; Yang, Nuo; Li, Baowen

    2017-02-01

    A novel approachis proposed to enhance the thermal rectification ratio, namely, arranging two thermal rectifiers in series. Through theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics simulations on graphene/phononic crystal structures, the results show that the series thermal rectifiers enhance thermal rectification ratio significantly, compared to a single rectifier. Meanwhile, the results of theoretical prediction match well with simulation results.

  1. Sediment Bioaccumulation Test with Lumbriculus variegatus: Effects of Organism Loading

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegatus were performed on seven sediments with a series of ratios of total organic carbon in sediment to L. variegatus (dry weight) (TOC/Lv) that spanned the recommendation of no less than 50:1. With increasing loading of organi...

  2. Sediment bioaccumulation test with Lumbriculus variegatus: Effects of feeding

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegatus were performed on seven sediments with a series of ratios of total organic carbon in sediment to L. variegatus (dry weight) (TOC/Lv) that spanned the recommendation of no less than 50:1. With increasing loading of organi...

  3. Effects of temperature on mortality in Chiang Mai city, Thailand: a time series study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The association between temperature and mortality has been examined mainly in North America and Europe. However, less evidence is available in developing countries, especially in Thailand. In this study, we examined the relationship between temperature and mortality in Chiang Mai city, Thailand, during 1999–2008. Method A time series model was used to examine the effects of temperature on cause-specific mortality (non-external, cardiopulmonary, cardiovascular, and respiratory) and age-specific non-external mortality (<=64, 65–74, 75–84, and > =85 years), while controlling for relative humidity, air pollution, day of the week, season and long-term trend. We used a distributed lag non-linear model to examine the delayed effects of temperature on mortality up to 21 days. Results We found non-linear effects of temperature on all mortality types and age groups. Both hot and cold temperatures resulted in immediate increase in all mortality types and age groups. Generally, the hot effects on all mortality types and age groups were short-term, while the cold effects lasted longer. The relative risk of non-external mortality associated with cold temperature (19.35°C, 1st percentile of temperature) relative to 24.7°C (25th percentile of temperature) was 1.29 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16, 1.44) for lags 0–21. The relative risk of non-external mortality associated with high temperature (31.7°C, 99th percentile of temperature) relative to 28°C (75th percentile of temperature) was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.24) for lags 0–21. Conclusion This study indicates that exposure to both hot and cold temperatures were related to increased mortality. Both cold and hot effects occurred immediately but cold effects lasted longer than hot effects. This study provides useful data for policy makers to better prepare local responses to manage the impact of hot and cold temperatures on population health. PMID:22613086

  4. Improving Single Event Effects Testing Through Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banker, M. W.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation encountered in space environments can be damaging to microelectronics and potentially cause spacecraft failure. Single event effects (SEE) are a type of radiation effect that occur when an ion strikes a device. Single event gate rupture (SEGR) is a type of SEE that can cause failure in power transistors. Unlike other SEE rates in which a constant linear energy transfer (LET) can be used, SEGR rates sometimes require a non-uniform LET to be used to be accurate. A recent analysis shows that SEGR rates are most easily calculated when the environment is described as a stopping rate per unit volume for each ion species. Stopping rates in silicon for pertinent ions were calculated using the Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) software and CREME-MC software. A reference table was generated and can be used by others to calculate SEGR rates for a candidate device. Additionally, lasers can be used to simulate SEEs, providing more control and information at lower cost than heavy ion testing. The electron/hole pair generation rate from a laser pulse in a semiconductor can be related to the LET of an ion. MATLAB was used to generate a plot to easily make this comparison.

  5. Calculation of indoor effective dose factors in ORNL phantoms series due to natural radioactivity in building materials.

    PubMed

    Krstic, D; Nikezic, D

    2009-10-01

    In this paper the effective dose in the age-dependent ORNL phantoms series, due to naturally occurring radionuclides in building materials, was calculated. The absorbed doses for various organs or human tissues have been calculated. The MCNP-4B computer code was used for this purpose. The effective dose was calculated according to ICRP Publication 74. The obtained values of dose conversion factors for a standard room are: 1.033, 0.752 and 0.0538 nSv h-1 per Bq kg-1 for elements of the U and Th decay series and for the K isotope, respectively. The values of effective dose agreed generally with those found in the literature, although the values estimated here for elements of the U series were higher in some cases.

  6. Will Teacher Value-Added Scores Change When Accountability Tests Change? What We Know Series: Value-Added Methods and Applications. Knowledge Brief 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    Value-added evaluations use student test scores to assess teacher effectiveness. How student achievement is judged can depend on which test is used to measure it. Thus it is reasonable to ask whether a teacher's value-added score depends on which test is used to calculate it. Would it change if a different test was used? Specifically, might a…

  7. Use of sediment serial dilution series to establish biological effect levels and clean-up goals

    SciTech Connect

    Timmer, E.; DeLong, T.; Millard, J.; Dobroski, C.

    1995-12-31

    A sediment serial dilution study was used to determine biological effect levels for two freshwater invertebrates, Chironomus tentans and Hyalella azteca. The sediments for the test were collected from a New England brook which contained elevated levels of lead and polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons. The objective of the sediment dilution study was two-fold: (1 ) to provide a site-specific estimation of biological effect levels, thus reducing uncertainties associated with using literature-based values, and (2) to establish clean-up goals specific to this freshwater system.

  8. AGARD Flight Test Instrumentation Series. Volume 19. Digital Signal Conditioning for Flight Test. (Le Traitement du Signal Numerique pour les Essais n Vol)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    for battery -operated equipment. However 4000 series CMOS lisvery slow when compard with the bipolar logic families (ftg 2-1). As technology has...only one direction at a time. The best example of this is a two-way radio, where each station can transmit over the same frequency by takling turns...transmission, resulting in wuatd bandwidth. The PCM trMamision following 0IG tandards i a unidirectional transfer. If the reiving station detects

  9. Effects of series elastic compliance on muscle force summation and the rate of force rise.

    PubMed

    Mayfield, Dean L; Cresswell, Andrew G; Lichtwark, Glen A

    2016-10-15

    Compliant tendons permit mechanically unfavourable fascicle dynamics during fixed-end contractions. The purpose of this study was to reduce the effective compliance of tendon and investigate how small reductions in active shortening affect twitch kinetics and contractile performance in response to a second stimulus. The series elastic element (SEE) of the human triceps surae (N=15) was effectively stiffened by applying a 55 ms rotation to the ankle, through a range of 5 deg, at the onset of twitch and doublet [interstimulus interval (ISI) of 80 ms] stimulation. Ultrasonography was employed to quantify lateral gastrocnemius and soleus fascicle lengths. Rotation increased twitch torque (40-75%), rate of torque development (RTD; 124-154%) and torque-time integral (TTI; 70-110%) relative to constant-length contractions at the initial and final joint positions, yet caused only modest reductions in shortening amplitude and velocity. The torque contribution of the second pulse increased when stimulation was preceded by rotation, a finding unable to be explained on the basis of fascicle length or SEE stiffness during contraction post-rotation. A further increase in torque contribution was not demonstrated, nor was an increase in doublet TTI, when the second pulse was delivered during rotation and shortly after the initial pulse (ISI of 10 ms). The depressant effect of active shortening on subsequent torque generation suggests that compliant tendons, by affording large length changes, may limit torque summation. Our findings indicate that changes in tendon compliance shown to occur in response to resistance training or unloading are likely sufficient to considerably alter contractile performance, particularly maximal RTD.

  10. The Effect of Epidural Analgesia on the Delivery Outcome of Induced Labour: A Retrospective Case Series

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate whether the use of epidural analgesia during induced labour was a risk factor for instrumental vaginal delivery and caesarean section (CS) delivery. Study Design. This was a retrospective case series of primigravidae women being induced at term for all indications with a normal body mass index (BMI) at booking and under the age of 40 years. Results. We identified 1,046 women who fulfilled the inclusion criteria of which 31.2% had an epidural analgesia. Those with an epidural analgesia had significantly greater maternal age, higher BMI, greater percentage of oxytocin usage, and a longer first and second stage of labour. Women with an epidural analgesia had a higher instrumental delivery (37.9% versus 16.4%; p < 0.001) and CS delivery rate (26% versus 10.1%; p < 0.001). Multivariable analysis indicated that the use of an epidural was not a risk factor for a CS delivery but was a risk factor for an instrument-assisted delivery (adjusted OR = 3.63; 95% CI: 2.51–5.24; p < 0.001). Conclusion. Our study supports the literature evidence that the use of an epidural increases the instrumental delivery rates. It has also added that there is no effect on CS delivery and the observed increase is due to the presence of confounding factors. PMID:27990163

  11. Separation of three-dimensional scattering effects in tilt-series Fourier ptychography.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Batey, Darren J; Edo, Tega B; Rodenburg, John M

    2015-11-01

    We investigate a strategy for separating the influence of three-dimensional scattering effects in tilt-series reconstruction, a method for computationally increasing the resolution of a transmission microscope with an objective lens of small numerical aperture, as occurs in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). Recent work with visible light refers to the method as Fourier ptychography. To date, reconstruction methods presume that the object is thin enough so that the beam tilt induces only a shift of the diffraction pattern in the back focal plane. In fact, it is well known that the diffraction pattern changes as a function of beam tilt when the object is thick. In this paper, we use a simple visible light model to demonstrate a proof-of-principle of a new reconstruction algorithm that can cope with this difficulty and compare it with the aperture-scanning method. Although the experiment uses a model specimen with just two distinct layers separated along the optic axis, it should in principle be extendable to continuous objects.

  12. Time-series modeling of reservoir effects on river nitrate concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoch, A.L.; Schilling, K.E.; Chan, K.-S.

    2009-01-01

    Saylorville Reservoir is a 24.1 km2 impoundment of the Des Moines River located approximately 10 km north of the City of Des Moines, Iowa, USA. Surface water from the Des Moines River used for drinking water supply is impaired for nitrate-nitrogen. Monthly mean nitrate concentration data collected upstream and downstream of the reservoir for a 30-year period (1977-2006) were selected for time-series analysis. Our objectives were to (1) develop a model describing nitrate concentrations downstream of the reservoir as a function of the concentrations entering the reservoir and (2) use the model to provide a 1-month ahead forecast for downstream water quality. Results indicated that downstream nitrate can be effectively modeled using a transfer function approach that utilized inflow concentrations during the current and previous month as input variables. Inflow concentrations were modeled using an AR(20) model, with the higher order model consistent with temporal correlation noted by others. The transfer function model suggested that the reservoir is reducing nitrate concentrations by 22 ?? 6%, a reduction that greatly exceeds previous estimates. Monthly nitrate forecasted with the model were nearly all within a 95% prediction interval of their actual measured values and did not appear greatly affected by flow variations. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effectiveness of an improved road safety policy in Ethiopia: an interrupted time series study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in implementing road safety policy by different low income countries. However; the evidence is scarce on its success in the reduction of crashes, injuries and deaths. This study was conducted to assess whether road crashes, injuries and fatalities was reduced following the road safety regulation introduced as of September 2007 by Oromia Regional State Transport Bureau. Methods Routine road traffic accident data for the year 2002-2011were collected from sixteen traffic police offices. Data on average daily vehicle flow was obtained from the Ethiopian Road Authority. Interrupted time series design using segmented linear regression model was applied to estimate the effect of an improved road safety policy. Results A total of 4,053 crashes occurred on Addis Ababa - Adama/Hawassa main road. Of these crashes, almost half 46.4% (1,880) were property damage, 29.4% (1,193) were fatal and 24.2% (980) injury crashes, resulting 1,392 fatalities and 1,749 injuries. There were statistically significant reductions in non-injury crashes and deaths. Non-injury crash was reduced by 19% and fatality by 12.4% in the first year of implementing the revised transport safety regulation. Conclusion Although revised road safety policy helped in reducing motor vehicle crashes and associated fatalities, the overall incidence rate is still very high. Further action is required to avoid unnecessary loss of lives. PMID:24886220

  14. Effect of weather variability on the incidence of mumps in children: a time-series analysis.

    PubMed

    Onozuka, D; Hashizume, M

    2011-11-01

    The increasing international interest in the potential health effects of climate change has emphasized the importance of investigations into the relationship between weather variability and infectious diseases. However, few studies have examined the impact of weather variability on mumps in children, despite the fact that children are considered particularly vulnerable to climate change. We acquired data about cases of mumps in children aged <15 years and weather variability in Fukuoka, Japan from 2000 to 2008, and then used time-series analyses to assess how weather variability affected mumps cases, adjusting for seasonal variations, inter-annual variations, and temporal variations of two large epidemics in 2001 and 2004-2005. The weekly number of mumps cases increased by 7·5% (95% CI 4·0-11·1) for every 1°C increase in average temperature and by 1·4% (95% CI 0·5-2·4) for every 1% increase in relative humidity. The percentage increase was greatest in the 0-4 years age group and tended to decrease with increasing age. The number of mumps cases in children increased significantly with increased average temperature and relative humidity.

  15. Low-derivative operators of the Standard Model effective field theory via Hilbert series methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehman, Landon; Martin, Adam

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we explore an extension of Hilbert series techniques to count operators that include derivatives. For sufficiently low-derivative operators, we conjecture an algorithm that gives the number of invariant operators, properly accounting for redundancies due to the equations of motion and integration by parts. Specifically, the conjectured technique can be applied whenever there is only one Lorentz invariant for a given partitioning of derivatives among the fields. At higher numbers of derivatives, equation of motion redundancies can be removed, but the increased number of Lorentz contractions spoils the subtraction of integration by parts redundancies. While restricted, this technique is sufficient to automatically recreate the complete set of invariant operators of the Standard Model effective field theory for dimensions 6 and 7 (for arbitrary numbers of flavors). At dimension 8, the algorithm does not automatically generate the complete operator set; however, it suffices for all but five classes of operators. For these remaining classes, there is a well defined procedure to manually determine the number of invariants. Assuming our method is correct, we derive a set of 535 dimension-8 N f = 1 operators.

  16. A Dynamic Directional Model for Effective Brain Connectivity using Electrocorticographic (ECoG) Time Series

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tingting; Li, Fan

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a dynamic directional model (DDM) for studying brain effective connectivity based on intracranial electrocorticographic (ECoG) time series. The DDM consists of two parts: a set of differential equations describing neuronal activity of brain components (state equations), and observation equations linking the underlying neuronal states to observed data. When applied to functional MRI or EEG data, DDMs usually have complex formulations and thus can accommodate only a few regions, due to limitations in spatial resolution and/or temporal resolution of these imaging modalities. In contrast, we formulate our model in the context of ECoG data. The combined high temporal and spatial resolution of ECoG data result in a much simpler DDM, allowing investigation of complex connections between many regions. To identify functionally segregated sub-networks, a form of biologically economical brain networks, we propose the Potts model for the DDM parameters. The neuronal states of brain components are represented by cubic spline bases and the parameters are estimated by minimizing a log-likelihood criterion that combines the state and observation equations. The Potts model is converted to the Potts penalty in the penalized regression approach to achieve sparsity in parameter estimation, for which a fast iterative algorithm is developed. The methods are applied to an auditory ECoG dataset. PMID:25983358

  17. Effects of series elasticity on the human knee extension torque-angle relationship in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Keitaro; Ohgo, Kazuya; Takeishi, Ryuichi; Yoshinaga, Kazunari; Tsunoda, Naoya; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of series elasticity on the torque-angle relationship of the knee extensors in vivo. Forty-two men volunteered to take part in the present study. The participants performed maximal voluntary isometric contractions at eight knee-joint angles (40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110 degrees). The elongation of the tendon and aponeurosis of the vastus lateralis muscle was directly measured by ultrasonography, while the participants performed ramp isometric knee extensions to the voluntary maximum at 800 of knee angle. There was no significant difference in the torque value between 50 degrees and 100 degrees, although there was variation in the shape of the "torque-angle" relationship. The variability in the torque-angle curve was not affected by the activation level of agonist and antagonist muscles and the moment arm length. The ratio of torque at 1000 compared to that at 50 degrees was significantly (r(2) = 18-23 %) correlated to the maximal elongation and strain (to initial length) of the tendon structures. These results suggest that increased compliance of tendon structures of the knee extensors may contribute to variations in the torque-angle curves of the knee extensors.

  18. Design of a cost effective solar powered water pump. Hydrology and hydraulics series report

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, D.G.

    1980-04-01

    The design and performance of a vacuum lift, solar powered water pump is discussed. The basic design consists of an expanding gaseous piston confined inside a chamber which is located in series with, and between, an inlet and an outlet check valve. The gas is generated by volatilizing cyclopentane or hexane. Four variations of this basic design concept were built and evaluated. The various features of each are discussed. Considerations in the choice of a cost-effective solar collector are also reviewed. Several of the more promising types of solar collectors were built and evaluated for use on the pump. A 70C heat source temperature is required to operate the pump if cyclopentane is used as the volatile fluid, 90C is required if hexane is used. The volatile fluid is not expended in the pumping process. The pumps constructed on this project have a capacity of approximately 6 liters/minute when pumped to a height of 2 meters. Two square meters of sunshine are sufficient to operate the pump.

  19. Effects of reinforcement on test-enhanced learning in a large, diverse introductory college psychology course.

    PubMed

    Trumbo, Michael C; Leiting, Kari A; McDaniel, Mark A; Hodge, Gordon K

    2016-06-01

    A robust finding within laboratory research is that structuring information as a test confers benefit on long-term retention-referred to as the testing effect. Although well characterized in laboratory environments, the testing effect has been explored infrequently within ecologically valid contexts. We conducted a series of 3 experiments within a very large introductory college-level course. Experiment 1 examined the impact of required versus optional frequent low-stakes testing (quizzes) on student grades, revealing students were much more likely to take advantage of quizzing if it was a required course component. Experiment 2 implemented a method of evaluating pedagogical intervention within a single course (thereby controlling for instructor bias and student self-selection), which revealed a testing effect. Experiment 3 ruled out additional exposure to information as an explanation for the findings of Experiment 2 and suggested that students at the college level, enrolled in very large sections, accept frequent quizzing well. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. SERI Desiccant Cooling Test Facility. Status report. Preliminary data on the performance of a rotary parallel-passage silica-gel dehumidifier

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, K.J.

    1986-04-01

    This report describes the SERI Desiccant Cooling Test Facility. The facility can test bench-scale rotary dehumidifiers over a wide range of controlled conditions. We constructed and installed in the test loop a prototype parallel-passage rotary dehumidifier that has spirally wound polyester tape coated with silica gel. The initial tests gave satisfactory results indicating that approximately 90% of the silica gel was active and the overall Lewis number of the wheel was near unity. The facility has several minor difficulties including an inability to control humidity satisfactorily and nonuniform and highly turbulent inlet velocities. To completely validate the facility requires a range of dehumidifier designs. Several choices are available including constructing a second parallel-passage dehumidifier with the passage spacing more uniform.

  1. Potential effects of alpha-recoil on uranium-series dating of calcrete

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neymark, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of paleosol ages in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, at the time the site of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository, is important for fault-displacement hazard assessment. Uranium-series isotope data were obtained for surface and subsurface calcrete samples from trenches and boreholes in Midway Valley, Nevada, adjacent to Yucca Mountain. 230Th/U ages of 33 surface samples range from 1.3 to 423 thousand years (ka) and the back-calculated 234U/238U initial activity ratios (AR) are relatively constant with a mean value of 1.54 ± 0.15 (1σ), which is consistent with the closed-system behavior. Subsurface calcrete samples are too old to be dated by the 230Th/U method. U-Pb data for post-pedogenic botryoidal opal from a subsurface calcrete sample show that these subsurface calcrete samples are older than ~ 1.65 million years (Ma), old enough to have attained secular equilibrium had their U-Th systems remained closed. However, subsurface calcrete samples show U-series disequilibrium indicating open-system behavior of 238U daughter isotopes, in contrast with the surface calcrete, where open-system behavior is not evident. Data for 21 subsurface calcrete samples yielded calculable 234U/238U model ages ranging from 130 to 1875 ka (assuming an initial AR of 1.54 ± 0.15, the mean value calculated for the surface calcrete samples). A simple model describing continuous α-recoil loss predicts that the 234U/238U and 230Th/238U ARs reach steady-state values ~ 2 Ma after calcrete formation. Potential effects of open-system behavior on 230Th/U ages and initial 234U/238U ARs for younger surface calcrete were estimated using data for old subsurface calcrete samples with the 234U loss and assuming that the total time of water-rock interaction is the only difference between these soils. The difference between the conventional closed-system and open-system ages may exceed errors of the calculated conventional ages for samples older than ~ 250 ka, but is

  2. Validation of an Academic Listening Test: Effects of "Breakdown" Tests and Test Takers' Cognitive Awareness of Listening Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chi, Youngshin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the breakdown effect of a listening comprehension test, whether test takers are affected in comprehending lectures by impediments, and collected test takers' cognitive awareness on test tasks which contain listening breakdown factors how they perceived these impediments. In this context of the study, a "Breakdown" is a test…

  3. Antibiotic treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis based on rapid urine test and local epidemiology: lessons from a primary care series

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) is an ideal target of optimization for antibiotic therapy in primary care. Because surveillance networks on urinary tract infections (UTI) mix complicated and uncomplicated UTI, reliable epidemiological data on AUC lack. Whether the antibiotic choice should be guided by a rapid urine test (RUT) for leukocytes and nitrites has not been extensively studied in daily practice. The aim of this primary care study was to investigate local epidemiology and RUT-daily use to determine the optimal strategy. Methods General practitioners included 18–65 years women with symptoms of AUC, performed a RUT and sent urines for analysis at a central laboratory. Different treatment strategies were simulated based on RUT and resistance results. Results Among 347 enrolled patients, 78% had a positive urine culture. Escherichia coli predominated (71%) with high rates of susceptibility to nitrofurantoin (100%), fosfomycin (99%), ofloxacin (97%), and even pivmecillinam (87%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (87%). Modelization showed that the systematic use of RUT would reduce by 10% the number of patients treated. Fosfomycin for patients with positive RUT offered a 90% overall bacterial coverage, compared to 98% for nitrofurantoin. 95% for ofloxacin, 86% for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and 78% for pivmecillinam. Conclusion Local epidemiology surveillance data not biased by complicated UTI demonstrates that the worldwide increase in antibiotic resistance has not affected AUC yet. Fosfomycin first line in all patients with positive RUT seems the best treatment strategy for AUC, combining good bacterial coverage with expected low toxicity and limited effect on fecal flora. Trial registration The current study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00958295) PMID:24612927

  4. Issues and Consequences for State-Level Minimum Competency Testing Programs. State Assessment Series. Wyoming Report 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, Scott F.; Sheinker, Alan

    This report reviews the current status, empirical findings, theoretical issues, and practical considerations related to state-level minimum competency testing programs. It finds that, although two-thirds of current testing programs now use direct writing prompts to assess writing achievement, essentially all programs rely on multiple choice tests…

  5. Intelligence Testing and Minority Students: Foundations, Performance Factors, and Assessment Issues. Racial and Ethnic Minority Psychology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia, Richard R.; Suzuki, Lisa A.

    This book examines intelligence assessment among ethnic minority children. Part 1, "Foundations," includes: (1) "Historical Issues" (e.g., emergence of intelligence testing in Europe and ideology of the intelligence testing movement); and (2) "Multicultural Perspective of Intelligence: Theory and Measurement Issues"…

  6. Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study: 2000/01 Follow-Up Field Test Methodology Report. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biber, Melissa R.; Link, Michael W.; Riccobono, John A.; Siegel, Peter H.

    This report describes and evaluates the methods and procedures used for the field test of the Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:2000/01). The B&B:2000/01 field test included important changes from previous B&B surveys (conducted in 1994 and 1997) in its sample design and collection of data. The introductory chapter…

  7. Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study First Follow-up (BPS:96/98) Field Test Report. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Daniel J.; Wine, Jennifer S.; Heuer, Ruth E.; Whitmore, Roy W.; Kelly, Janice E.; Doherty, John M.; Simpson, Joe B.; Marti, Norma

    This report describes the methods and procedures used for the field test of the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study First Followup 1996-98 (BPS:96/98). Students in this survey were first interviewed during 1995 as part of the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study 1996 field test. The BPS:96/98 full-scale student sample includes…

  8. An Empirical Bayes Enhancement of Mantel-Haenszel DIF Analysis for Computer-Adaptive Tests. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwick, Rebecca; Thayer, Dorothy T.

    This study investigated the applicability to computerized adaptive testing (CAT) data of a differential item functioning (DIF) analysis that involves an empirical Bayes (EB) enhancement of the popular Mantel Haenszel (MH) DIF analysis method. The computerized Law School Admission Test (LSAT) assumed for this study was similar to that currently…

  9. The scaling of time series size towards detrended fluctuation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiaolei; Ren, Liwei; Shang, Pengjian; Feng, Guochen

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we introduce a modification of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), called multivariate DFA (MNDFA) method, based on the scaling of time series size N. In traditional DFA method, we obtained the influence of the sequence segmentation interval s, and it inspires us to propose a new model MNDFA to discuss the scaling of time series size towards DFA. The effectiveness of the procedure is verified by numerical experiments with both artificial and stock returns series. Results show that the proposed MNDFA method contains more significant information of series compared to traditional DFA method. The scaling of time series size has an influence on the auto-correlation (AC) in time series. For certain series, we obtain an exponential relationship, and also calculate the slope through the fitting function. Our analysis and finite-size effect test demonstrate that an appropriate choice of the time series size can avoid unnecessary influences, and also make the testing results more accurate.

  10. Trend Change Detection in NDVI Time Series: Effects of Inter-Annual Variability and Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forkel, Matthias; Carvalhais, Nuno; Verbesselt, Jan; Mahecha, Miguel D.; Neigh, Christopher S.R.; Reichstein, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Changing trends in ecosystem productivity can be quantified using satellite observations of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). However, the estimation of trends from NDVI time series differs substantially depending on analyzed satellite dataset, the corresponding spatiotemporal resolution, and the applied statistical method. Here we compare the performance of a wide range of trend estimation methods and demonstrate that performance decreases with increasing inter-annual variability in the NDVI time series. Trend slope estimates based on annual aggregated time series or based on a seasonal-trend model show better performances than methods that remove the seasonal cycle of the time series. A breakpoint detection analysis reveals that an overestimation of breakpoints in NDVI trends can result in wrong or even opposite trend estimates. Based on our results, we give practical recommendations for the application of trend methods on long-term NDVI time series. Particularly, we apply and compare different methods on NDVI time series in Alaska, where both greening and browning trends have been previously observed. Here, the multi-method uncertainty of NDVI trends is quantified through the application of the different trend estimation methods. Our results indicate that greening NDVI trends in Alaska are more spatially and temporally prevalent than browning trends. We also show that detected breakpoints in NDVI trends tend to coincide with large fires. Overall, our analyses demonstrate that seasonal trend methods need to be improved against inter-annual variability to quantify changing trends in ecosystem productivity with higher accuracy.

  11. The Effectiveness of Negative Pressure Therapy in Diabetic Foot Ulcers with Elevated Protease Activity: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Izzo, Valentina; Meloni, Marco; Giurato, Laura; Ruotolo, Valeria; Uccioli, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Despite several works have described the usefulness of negative pressure therapy (NPT) in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs), no studies have reported its ability in the proteases modulation in DFUs. The aim of this work was to evaluate the role of NPT as a protease-modulating treatment in DFUs. Approach: We conducted a prospective study of a series of diabetic patients affected by chronic DFUs. Each ulcer was assessed for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity with a protease status diagnostic test at the baseline and after 2 weeks of NPT. Results: Four patients were included. All patients had type 2 diabetes with a disease duration of ≈20 years. A1c was 79.5 ± 15.3 mmol/mol. Ulcer area was >5 cm2 in all cases. All wounds showed elevated protease activity (EPA) at the baseline. After 2 weeks, all patients showed a normalization of MMPs activity. Innovation: NPT showed its effectiveness in the reduction of EPA in chronic DFUs. Conclusion: This study confirms the role of NPT in the positive modulation of protease activity also in chronic DFUs. PMID:28116227

  12. [Contact allergens in the standard patch test series from 1980-2004 at the University Clinic Aachen].

    PubMed

    Hoeller Obrigkeit, D; Vens, N; Merk, H F; Schroeder, C M

    2005-12-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common disease whose specific therapy is avoidance of allergens. It is critical to identify frequency of occurrence of allergic reactions to initiate preventive measures (e.g. elimination of substances with an especially high allergic potential). This study analyzes results of patch testing performed between 1980 and 1993 at the University Clinic of the RWTH Aachen. Additionally, age and sex-related distribution was evaluated. The data is compared to published patch test results covering the years 1995-2001 and patch test results from 2004 in the University Clinic Aachen.

  13. Effect of nortriptyline and paroxetine on measures of chaos of heart rate time series in patients with panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Yeragani, Vikram Kumar; Rao, Radhakrishna

    2003-12-01

    Tricyclic antidepressants have notable cardiac side effects, and this issue has become important due to the recent reports of increased cardiovascular mortality in patients with depression and anxiety. Several previous studies indicate that serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) do not appear to have such adverse effects. Apart from the effects of these drugs on routine 12-lead ECG, the effects on beat-to-beat heart rate (HR) and QT interval time series provide more information on the side effects related to cardiac autonomic function. In this study, we evaluated the effects of two antidepressants, nortriptyline (n=13), a tricyclic, and paroxetine (n=16), an SRI inhibitor, on HR variability in patients with panic disorder, using a measure of chaos, the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) using pre- and posttreatment HR time series. Our results show that nortriptyline is associated with a decrease in LLE of high frequency (HF: 0.15-0.5 Hz) filtered series, which is most likely due to its anticholinergic effect, while paroxetine had no such effect. Paroxetine significantly decreased sympathovagal ratios as measured by a decrease in LLE of LF/HF. These results suggest that paroxetine appears to be safer in regards to cardiovascular effects compared to nortriptyline in this group of patients.

  14. Behavioral Effects of Low Doses of Cholinesterase Inhibitors in Robot- Tested Marmosets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    IJW hL l !2Y r GRANT NO.: DAMDI7-88-Z-8020 TITLE: Behavioral effects of low doses of cholinesterase inhibitors in robot-tested marmosets ...Behavioral effects of low doses of cholinesterase inhibitors in robot-tested marmosets 12Z. PERSONAL AUfl4R() Otto L. Wolt huts, Bap Groen. Raymond Vanwerech...mg/kg) and 20 min after i.m. physostigmine (0.02-0.08 mg/kg) in experimentally naive marmosets . The behavioral tasks in series 1 were hand-eye

  15. The Effectiveness of Blind Source Separation Using Independent Component Analysis for GNSS Time Series Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jun; Dong, Danan; Chen, Wen

    2016-04-01

    Due to the development of GNSS technology and the improvement of its positioning accuracy, observational data obtained by GNSS is widely used in Earth space geodesy and geodynamics research. Whereas the GNSS time series data of observation stations contains a plenty of information. This includes geographical space changes, deformation of the Earth, the migration of subsurface material, instantaneous deformation of the Earth, weak deformation and other blind signals. In order to decompose some instantaneous deformation underground, weak deformation and other blind signals hided in GNSS time series, we apply Independent Component Analysis (ICA) to daily station coordinate time series of the Southern California Integrated GPS Network. As ICA is based on the statistical characteristics of the observed signal. It uses non-Gaussian and independence character to process time series to obtain the source signal of the basic geophysical events. In term of the post-processing procedure of precise time-series data by GNSS, this paper examines GNSS time series using the principal component analysis (PCA) module of QOCA and ICA algorithm to separate the source signal. Then we focus on taking into account of these two signal separation technologies, PCA and ICA, for separating original signal that related geophysical disturbance changes from the observed signals. After analyzing these separation process approaches, we demonstrate that in the case of multiple factors, PCA exists ambiguity in the separation of source signals, that is the result related is not clear, and ICA will be better than PCA, which means that dealing with GNSS time series that the combination of signal source is unknown is suitable to use ICA.

  16. Improving estimates of ecosystem metabolism by reducing effects of tidal advection on dissolved oxygen time series-Abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Continuous time series of dissolved oxygen (DO) have been used to compute estimates of metabolism in aquatic ecosystems. Central to this open water or "Odum" method is the assumption that the DO time is not strongly affected by advection and that effects due to advection or mixin...

  17. Dosage Effect and the Efficacy of a Video-Based Teamwork-Building Series with Urban Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokrue, Kathariya; Elias, Maurice J.; Bry, Brenna H.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the role of implementation dosage in the effectiveness of a school-based social and emotional skills building curriculum, The Talking with TJ video series, among urban, predominantly minority elementary school children. It was hypothesized that children in higher dosage schools will exhibit greater improvements in their social…

  18. Is Post-Secondary Education in Canada a Cost-Effective Proposition? Working Paper Series. W-01-9E

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleby, John; Fougere, Maxime; Rouleau, Manon

    2002-01-01

    This study provides an overview of the return on investment to post-secondary education in Canada, by gender. In it, three time series are developed respectively on the cost-effectiveness of non-university post-secondary diplomas (1981-1996), bachelor's degrees (1989-1996) and university degrees (1981-1996), including bachelor's, master's and…

  19. Effect of an evidence-based website on healthcare usage: an interrupted time-series study

    PubMed Central

    Spoelman, Wouter A; Bonten, Tobias N; de Waal, Margot W M; Drenthen, Ton; Smeele, Ivo J M; Nielen, Markus M J; Chavannes, Niels H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Healthcare costs and usage are rising. Evidence-based online health information may reduce healthcare usage, but the evidence is scarce. The objective of this study was to determine whether the release of a nationwide evidence-based health website was associated with a reduction in healthcare usage. Design Interrupted time series analysis of observational primary care data of healthcare use in the Netherlands from 2009 to 2014. Setting General community primary care. Population 912 000 patients who visited their general practitioners 18.1 million times during the study period. Intervention In March 2012, an evidence-based health information website was launched by the Dutch College of General Practitioners. It was easily accessible and understandable using plain language. At the end of the study period, the website had 2.9 million unique page views per month. Main outcomes measures Primary outcome was the change in consultation rate (consultations/1000 patients/month) before and after the release of the website. Additionally, a reference group was created by including consultations about topics not being viewed at the website. Subgroup analyses were performed for type of consultations, sex, age and socioeconomic status. Results After launch of the website, the trend in consultation rate decreased with 1.620 consultations/1000 patients/month (p<0.001). This corresponds to a 12% decline in consultations 2 years after launch of the website. The trend in consultation rate of the reference group showed no change. The subgroup analyses showed a specific decline for consultations by phone and were significant for all other subgroups, except for the youngest age group. Conclusions Healthcare usage decreased by 12% after providing high-quality evidence-based online health information. These findings show that e-Health can be effective to improve self-management and reduce healthcare usage in times of increasing healthcare costs. PMID:28186945

  20. Effect on road traffic injuries of criminalizing road traffic offences: a time–series study

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Katherine; Santamariña-Rubio, Elena; Borrell, Carme

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the effect of criminalizing some traffic behaviours, after the reform of the Spanish penal code in 2007, on the number of drivers involved in injury collisions and of people injured in traffic collisions in Spain. Methods This study followed an interrupted times–series design in which the number of drivers involved in injury collisions and of people injured in traffic collisions in Spain before and after the criminalization of offences were compared. The data on road traffic injuries in 2000–2009 were obtained from the road traffic collision database of the General Traffic Directorate. The dependent variables were stratified by sex, age, injury severity, type of road user, road type and time of collision. Quasi-Poisson regression models were fitted with adjustments for time trend, seasonality, previous interventions and national fuel consumption. Findings The overall number of male drivers involved in injury collisions dropped (relative risk, RR: 0.93; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.89–0.97) after the reform of the penal code, but among women no change was observed (RR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.95–1.03). In addition, 13 891 men (P < 0.01) were prevented from being injured. Larger reductions were observed among young male drivers and among male motorcycle or moped riders than among the drivers of other vehicles. Conclusion The findings suggest that criminalizing certain traffic behaviours can improve road safety by reducing both the number of drivers involved in injury collisions and the number of people injured in such collisions. PMID:21673858

  1. Effects of Including Humor in Test Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMorris, Robert F.; And Others

    Two 50-item multiple-choice forms of a grammar test were developed differing only in humor being included in 20 items of one form. One hundred twenty-six (126) eighth graders received the test plus alternate forms of a questionnaire. Humor inclusion did not affect grammar scores on matched humorous/nonhumorous items nor on common post-treatment…

  2. A Generalized DIF Effect Variance Estimator for Measuring Unsigned Differential Test Functioning in Mixed Format Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penfield, Randall D.; Algina, James

    2006-01-01

    One approach to measuring unsigned differential test functioning is to estimate the variance of the differential item functioning (DIF) effect across the items of the test. This article proposes two estimators of the DIF effect variance for tests containing dichotomous and polytomous items. The proposed estimators are direct extensions of the…

  3. An on-road shock and vibration response test series utilizing worst case and statistical analysis techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Cap, J.S.

    1997-11-01

    Defining the maximum expected shock and vibration responses for an on-road truck transportation environment is strongly dependent on the amount of response data that can be obtained. One common test scheme consists of measuring response data over a relatively short prescribed road course and then reviewing that data to obtain the maximum response levels. The more mathematically rigorous alternative is to collect an unbiased ensemble of response data during a long road trip. This paper compares data gathered both ways during a recent on-road certification test for a tractor trailer van being designed by Sandia.

  4. The effects of nonlinear series resonance on Ohmic and stochastic heating in capacitive discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J.; Kawamura, E.; Mussenbrock, Thomas; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter

    2008-06-15

    The flow of electron and ion conduction currents across a nonlinear capacitive sheath to the electrode surface self-consistently sets the dc bias voltage across the sheath. We incorporate these currents into a model of a homogeneous capacitive sheath in order to determine the enhancement of the Ohmic and stochastic heating due to self-excitation of the nonlinear series resonance in an asymmetric capacitive discharge. At lower pressures, the series resonance can enhance both the Ohmic and stochastic heating by factors of 2-4, with the Ohmic heating tending to zero as the pressure decreases. The model was checked, for a particular set of parameters, by a particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation using the homogeneous sheath approximation, giving good agreement. With a self-consistent Child-law sheath, the PIC simulation showed increased heating, as expected, whether the series resonance is important or not.

  5. The effect of cognitive testing and feedback on older adults' subjective age.

    PubMed

    Geraci, Lisa; De Forrest, Ross; Hughes, Matthew; Saenz, Gabriel; Tirso, Robert

    2017-03-10

    Subjective age, or how old a person feels, is an important measure of self-perception that is associated with consequential cognitive and health outcomes. Recent research suggests that subjective age is affected by certain situations, including cognitive testing contexts. The current study examined whether cognitive testing and positive performance feedback affect subjective age and subsequent cognitive performance. Older adults took a series of neuropsychological and cognitive tests and subjective age was measured at various time points. Participants also either received positive or no feedback on an initial cognitive task, an analogies task. Results showed that participants felt older over the course of the testing session, particularly after taking a working memory test, relative to baseline. Positive feedback did not significantly mitigate this subjective aging effect. Results suggest that subjective age is malleable and that it can be affected by standard cognitive and neuropsychological test conditions.

  6. Effect of sequence on the ionization behavior of a series of amphiphilic polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Michael; Siddique, Bushra; Duhamel, Jean

    2013-04-09

    The behavior of five polypeptides made of hydrophilic and pH-responsive aspartic acid (Asp) and hydrophobic phenylalanine (Phe), which had been prepared by stitching together short well-defined sequences of Asp and Phe, was studied as a function of pH. The effect of pH on these polypeptides referred to as (Asp3Phe1)n, (Asp2Phe1)n, (Asp1Phe1)n, (Asp1Phe2)n, and (Asp1Phe3)n varied dramatically depending on their constituting sequence. The more hydrophobic polypeptides (Asp1Phe2)n and (Asp1Phe3)n behaved as if the Asp's were isolated from each other and showed an apparent pKa (pKa(app)) that remained constant with level of ionization (α = [Asp(-)]/[Asp]total) and equaled 5.4 and 6.4, respectively. The more hydrophilic polypeptides (Asp3Phe1)n and (Asp2Phe1)n behaved like weak polyacids showing a linear increase in pKa(app) with increasing α. The pKa(app) of (Asp1Phe1)n showed a trend as a function of α intermediate between the Asp-rich and Phe-rich polypeptides, behaving as if the Asp's were isolated at low α values (<0.35) but acting as a weak polyacid for large α values (>0.35). The effect that α, and thus the charge density of the polypeptides, had on the collapse and aggregation of the polypeptides was characterized by conducting static light scattering and fluorescence measurements. Static light scattering measurements demonstrated that all polypeptides precipitated and aggregated in solution at a critical charge density of 0.2. Fluorescence measurements with pyrene indicated that this behavior was due to the formation of Phe aggregates in water. Together, these experiments provide a complete description of how pH affects the behavior of a series of unique amphiphilic polypeptides designed with a well-defined sequence.

  7. South Carolina Statewide Testing Program 1977-78. General Report. Office of Research Report Series. Volume One/Number 40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busbee, Cyril B.

    The results and methodology of the South Carolina 1977-78 statewide spring testing program for grades 3, 6, and 11 are presented and discussed. The discussion of the results focuses on a comparison of the 1978 results to national norms, a comparison of 1978 to 1977 results, a performance comparison across grade levels, and a comparison of skill…

  8. Estimation of Item Dimensional Measurement Direction Using Conditional Covariance Patterns. Computerized Testing Report. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolt, Daniel; Roussos, Louis; Stout, William

    Several nonparametric dimensionality assessment tools have demonstrated the usefulness of item pair conditional covariances as building blocks for investigating multidimensional test structure. Recently, J. Zhang and W. Stout (1999) have related the structural properties of conditional covariances in a generalized compensatory framework to a test…

  9. The Effects of Test Difficulty Manipulation in Computerized Adaptive Testing and Self-Adapted Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponsoda, Vicente; Olea, Julio; Rodriguez, Maria Soledad; Revuelta, Javier

    1999-01-01

    Compared easy and difficult versions of self-adapted tests (SAT) and computerized adapted tests. No significant differences were found among the tests for estimated ability or posttest state anxiety in studies with 187 Spanish high school students, although other significant differences were found. Discusses implications for interpreting test…

  10. Aerodynamic and Hydrodynamic Tests of a Family of Models of Flying Hulls Derived from a Streamline Body -- NACA Model 84 Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, John B; Olson, Roland E; Draley, Eugene C; Luoma, Arvo A

    1943-01-01

    A series of related forms of flying-boat hulls representing various degrees of compromise between aerodynamic and hydrodynamic requirements was tested in Langley Tank No. 1 and in the Langley 8-foot high-speed tunnel. The purpose of the investigation was to provide information regarding the penalties in water performance resulting from further aerodynamic refinement and, as a corollary, to provide information regarding the penalties in range or payload resulting from the retention of certain desirable hydrodynamic characteristics. The information should form a basis for over-all improvements in hull form.

  11. The Effects of the Reverse Current Caused by the Series Compensation on the Current Differential Protection

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Cui; Yin, Xianggen; Qi, Xuanwei; Zhang, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    The series capacitor compensation is one of the key technologies in the EHV and UHV long distance power transmission lines. This paper analyzes the operation characteristics of the main protection combined with the engineering practice when the transmission line overcompensation due to the series compensation system is modified and analyzes the influence of the transition resistance and the system operation mode on the current differential protection. According to the simulation results, it presents countermeasure on improving the sensitivity of differential current protection. PMID:25247206

  12. Taylor Series Trajectory Calculations Including Oblateness Effects and Variable Atmospheric Density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Taylor series integration is implemented in NASA Glenn's Spacecraft N-body Analysis Program, and compared head-to-head with the code's existing 8th- order Runge-Kutta Fehlberg time integration scheme. This paper focuses on trajectory problems that include oblateness and/or variable atmospheric density. Taylor series is shown to be significantly faster and more accurate for oblateness problems up through a 4x4 field, with speedups ranging from a factor of 2 to 13. For problems with variable atmospheric density, speedups average 24 for atmospheric density alone, and average 1.6 to 8.2 when density and oblateness are combined.

  13. AGARD Flight Test Techniques Series. Volume 14. Introduction to Flight Test Engineering (Introduction a la Technique d’essais en vol)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-09-01

    34Demonstration Requirements", 18 Mar 1971 with Amendment 1 of 30 Jun 1983 MIL-D-8708A( WEP ), "Demonstration Requirements for Airplanes", 13 Sep 1960 DoD...executed on full-scale airframes, mockups or airframe sections mounted atop heavy 3-axis positioners on outdoor antenna test ranges. The advantages...various design phases are subject to human engineering verification and validation tests beginning with rapid prototyping and mockups , extending through

  14. Compendium of Test Results of Recent Single Event Effect Tests Conducted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClure, Steven S.; Allen, Gregory R.; Irom, Farokh; Scheick, Leif Z.; Adell, Philippe C.; Miyahira, Tetsuo F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports heavy ion and proton-induced single event effect (SEE) results from recent tests for a variety of microelectronic devices. The compendium covers devices tested over the last two years by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  15. Shots SUGAR and UNCLE, the Final Tests of the BUSTER-JANGLE Series 19 November - 29 November 1951.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-23

    survey (22). 2.3 RADIOLOGICA : PROTECTION AT SHOT SUGAR-4 The primary purpose of the radiological protection proce- dures developed for members of...characteristics of the one detonation, DOD * personnel activities in the training and scientific projects, and the radiological protection procedures. *The...Activities .. . . . 49 2.3 Radiological Protection at Shot SUGAR. .. ...... 51 2.3.1 Desert Rock Radiological Protection 2.3.2 Test Organization

  16. Unique effects of The transporters animated series and of parental support on emotion recognition skills of children with ASD: Results of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gev, Tali; Rosenan, Ruthie; Golan, Ofer

    2016-11-03

    Emotion recognition (ER) and understanding deficits are characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The Transporters (TT) animated series has shown promising results in teaching children with ASD to recognize emotions, with mixed findings about generalization and maintenance of effects. This study aimed to evaluate the unique role of TT and of parental support in the acquisition, generalization, and maintenance of acquired ER skills in children with ASD. 77 Israeli children with high functioning ASD, aged 4-7 were randomly assigned into four groups according to a 2 × 2 design of the factors Series (TT, control series) and Parental Support (with/without). Thirty typically developing children, matched to the ASD groups on mental age, were tested with no intervention. Participants' ER (on three generalization levels) and emotional vocabulary (EV) were tested pre and post 8 weeks of intervention, and at 3 months' follow-up. Compared to the control series, watching TT significantly improved children's ER skills at all generalization levels, with good skill maintenance. All groups improved equally on EV. The amount of parental support given, in the groups that had received it, contributed to the generalization and maintenance of ER skills. Autism severity negatively correlated with ER improvement. The current study provides evidence to the unique role of TT in ER skill acquisition, generalization, and maintenance in children with high functioning ASD. In addition, this study provides evidence for a successful cultural adaptation of TT to a non-English speaking culture. Autism Res 2016,. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Test and evaluation of the Argonne BPAC10 Series air chamber calorimeter designed for 20 minute measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, R.B.; Fiarman, S.; Jung, E.A. ); Cremers, T. )

    1990-10-01

    This paper is the final report on DOE-OSS Task ANLE88002 Fast Air Chamber Calorimetry.'' The task objective was to design, construct, and test an isothermal air chamber calorimeter for plutonium assay of bulk samples that would meet the following requirements for sample power measurement: average sample measurement time less than 20 minutes. Measurement of samples with power output up to 10 W. Precision of better than 1% RSD for sample power greater than 1 W. Precision better than 0.010 watt SD, for sample power less than 1 W. This report gives a description of the calorimeter hardware and software and discusses the test results. The instrument operating procedure, included as an appendix, gives examples of typical input/output and explains the menu driven software. Sample measurement time of less than 20 minutes was attained by pre-equilibration of the samples in low cost precision preheaters and by prediction of equilibrium measurements. Tests at the TA55 Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, on typical samples, indicates that the instrument meets all the measurement requirements.

  18. MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL MODELS FOR EFFECTS OF PM AND COPOLLUTANTS IN A DAILY TIME SERIES EPIDEMIOLOGY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most analyses of daily time series epidemiology data relate mortality or morbidity counts to PM and other air pollutants by means of single-outcome regression models using multiple predictors, without taking into account the complex statistical structure of the predictor variable...

  19. A series expansion of the solid Earth tide effect on geopotential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, Sergey M.

    2013-04-01

    We develop analytical series representing the main part of corrections to the geopotential coefficients caused by the solid Earth tides, where Love numbers are assumed to be frequency-independent. The series are compact, precise and valid over 1800 A.D.-2200 A.D. The maximum difference between the corrections given by the analytical series and their numerical values, obtained with use of the DE/LE-423 planetary/lunar ephemerides, does not exceed 0.7× 10^{-12}. A new algorithm is proposed for calculating amplitudes of the additional variations of the geopotential coefficients for frequency dependence of Love numbers. It uses the representation of the Earth tide-generating potential in the standard HW95 format and takes into account the phase of tidal waves. Corrections of up to 2× 10^{-12} to the published by the IERS Conventions (2010) amplitudes of the additional variations of the geopotential coefficients are suggested. Examples of use of the obtained series in analytical theories of motion of low-altitude STARLETTE and high-altitude ETALON-1 satellites are given.

  20. Effective low-order models for atmospheric dynamics and time series analysis.

    PubMed

    Gluhovsky, Alexander; Grady, Kevin

    2016-02-01

    The paper focuses on two interrelated problems: developing physically sound low-order models (LOMs) for atmospheric dynamics and employing them as novel time-series models to overcome deficiencies in current atmospheric time series analysis. The first problem is warranted since arbitrary truncations in the Galerkin method (commonly used to derive LOMs) may result in LOMs that violate fundamental conservation properties of the original equations, causing unphysical behaviors such as unbounded solutions. In contrast, the LOMs we offer (G-models) are energy conserving, and some retain the Hamiltonian structure of the original equations. This work examines LOMs from recent publications to show that all of them that are physically sound can be converted to G-models, while those that cannot lack energy conservation. Further, motivated by recent progress in statistical properties of dynamical systems, we explore G-models for a new role of atmospheric time series models as their data generating mechanisms are well in line with atmospheric dynamics. Currently used time series models, however, do not specifically utilize the physics of the governing equations and involve strong statistical assumptions rarely met in real data.

  1. The Effect of Divorce on Suicide in Japan: A Time Series Analysis, 1950-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steve

    1992-01-01

    Explored relationship between divorce and suicide in Japan. Time series analysis was unable to substantiate divorce-suicide pattern for Japan. Although research did not offer support for relationship between divorce and suicide which Durkheim predicted, it did corroborate Durkheim's general theory of family integration. (Author/NB)

  2. A Unified Framework for Estimating Minimum Detectable Effects for Comparative Short Interrupted Time Series Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Cristofer; Unlu, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    The Comparative Short Interrupted Time Series (C-SITS) design is a frequently employed quasi-experimental method, in which the pre- and post-intervention changes observed in the outcome levels of a treatment group is compared with those of a comparison group where the difference between the former and the latter is attributed to the treatment. The…

  3. Tidal effects on stratospheric temperature series derived from successive advanced microwave sounding units.

    PubMed

    Keckhut, P; Funatsu, B M; Claud, C; Hauchecorne, A

    2015-01-01

    Stratospheric temperature series derived from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) on board successive NOAA satellites reveal, during periods of overlap, some bias and drifts. Part of the reason for these discrepancies could be atmospheric tides as the orbits of these satellites drifted, inducing large changes in the actual times of measurement. NOAA 15 and 16, which exhibit a long period of overlap, allow deriving diurnal tides that can correct such temperature drifts. The characteristics of the derived diurnal tides during summer periods is in good agreement with those calculated with the Global Scale Wave Model, indicating that most of the observed drifts are likely due to the atmospheric tides. Cooling can be biased by a factor of 2, if times of measurement are not considered. When diurnal tides are considered, trends derived from temperature lidar series are in good agreement with AMSU series. Future adjustments of temperature time series based on successive AMSU instruments will require considering corrections associated with the local times of measurement.

  4. Bond Testing for Effects of Silicone Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaia, James; Evans, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    In 2003 ATK Thiokol discovered that the smocks and coveralls worn by its operations personnel for safety and contamination control were themselves contaminated with a silicone defoamer and a silicone oil. As a growing list of items have been identified as having this form of contamination, it was desirable to devise a test method to determine if the contamination level detected could cause subsequent processing concerns. The smocks and coveralls could potentially contact bonding surfaces during processing so the test method focused on dry transfer of the silicone from the clothing to the bonding surface.

  5. The Effect of Font Selection on Student Test Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Peter V.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of standards-based curriculums has resulted in an increased frequency of student testing, including high-stakes testing. Of students who take tests, up to 65% may experience test anxiety, which can have negative effects on student outcomes. For this reason, the purpose of this single-group, repeated measures design, quantitative…

  6. Effects of Incorporating Humor in Test Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMorris, Robert F.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Two matched forms of a 50 item grammar test were developed. Twenty items designed to be humorous were included in one form. Inclusion of humorous items did not affect grammar scores on matched humorous/nonhumorous items, nor on commmon post-treatment items. Inclusion did not affect results of anxiety measures. (Author/DWH)

  7. The interim test effect: testing prior material can facilitate the learning of new material.

    PubMed

    Wissman, Kathryn T; Rawson, Katherine A; Pyc, Mary A

    2011-12-01

    A wealth of prior research has shown that testing can improve subsequent learning of the initially tested material. In contrast, only one recent study has shown that an interim test over prior material can improve learning of subsequent new material (i.e., an interim-test effect). Five experiments replicated and extended this initial work by exploring the extent to which interim test effects generalize to complex text material. Participants were prompted to recall each section of an expository text before moving on to study the next section, or were only prompted to recall after the final section. In all experiments, recall of the final, target section was greater when prior sections had received interim tests versus no interim tests. Experiment 3 established that the effect was due to interim testing in particular rather than to intervening activity in general. Experiment 4 established that the effect was not due to test expectancy differences. In contrast to prior research, Experiment 4 also provided evidence that the effect is not due to release from proactive interference. We discuss other possible mechanisms underlying interim-test effects with text, including shifting to more effective encoding strategies.

  8. Jet Propulsion Laboratory Environmental Verification Processes and Test Effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Alan R.; Green, Nelson W.

    2006-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the JPL processes for enviornmental verification and testing of aerospace systems is presented. The topics include: 1) Processes: a) JPL Design Principles b) JPL Flight Project Practices; 2) Environmental Verification; and 3) Test Effectiveness Assessment: Inflight Anomaly Trends.

  9. Endovascular treatment of intracranial infectious aneurysms in eloquent cortex with super-selective provocative testing: Case series and literature review.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Matthew R; Stapleton, Christopher J; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Thomas, Ajith J; Ogilvy, Christopher S

    2016-04-01

    Intracranial infectious aneurysms (IIAs) are a rare subgroup of intracranial aneurysms. Often erroneously termed mycotic aneurysms, these lesions most often result from infectious endocarditis and involve the distal anterior cortical circulation. Diagnosis typically follows headaches or septic infarcts, although increasing numbers of lesions are found incidentally, during screening protocols for infectious endocarditis. Open surgical treatment was previously the mainstay of treatment; however, these IIAs are often fusiform and quite fragile, making open surgical obliteration difficult and typically requiring lesion trapping. Current treatment techniques more commonly involve endovascular coil embolization or parent vessel occlusion. Many of these lesions occur distally, in or around the eloquent cortex, making embolization potentially dangerous. We present cases that highlight the use of super-selective provocative testing with sodium amobarbital and lidocaine, to help clarify and predict the risk of parent vessel occlusion in IIAs located in the eloquent cortex.

  10. Scaling effects in direct shear tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orlando, A.D.; Hanes, D.M.; Shen, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory experiments of the direct shear test were performed on spherical particles of different materials and diameters. Results of the bulk friction vs. non-dimensional shear displacement are presented as a function of the non-dimensional particle diameter. Simulations of the direct shear test were performed using the Discrete Element Method (DEM). The simulation results show Considerable differences with the physical experiments. Particle level material properties, such as the coefficients of static friction, restitution and rolling friction need to be known a priori in order to guarantee that the simulation results are an accurate representation of the physical phenomenon. Furthermore, laboratory results show a clear size dependency on the results, with smaller particles having a higher bulk friction than larger ones. ?? 2009 American Institute of Physics.

  11. Assessment of the Cytotoxic Effect of a Series of 1,4-Dihydropyridine Derivatives Against Human Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Razzaghi-Asl, Nima; Miri, Ramin; Firuzi, Omidreza

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Despite the availability of several chemotherapeutic drugs, there is still a great need for more efficient agents for a better management of cancer. In this contribution, a series of 11 1,4-dihydropyridines (1,4-DHPs) (4a, 4b and 7a-i) were synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic effect against MCF-7, LS180 and MOLT-4 cancer cell lines using MTT assay. Synthesized 2,6-dimethyl-3,5-bis-N-(aryl/heteroaryl) carbamoyl-4-aryl-1,4-dihydropyridines exhibited different potencies ranging from weak to good cytotoxic activities, while no activity could be recorded for 1,4-bis(2,6-dimethyl-3,5-dialkyloxylcarbonyl,4-dihydropyridine-4-yl) benzene compounds (4a and 4b). Tested DHP derivatives were more potent against MOLT-4 cells, when compared to LS180 and MCF-7 cells. Compounds 7d (IC50 = 28.5 ± 3.5 µM), 7a (IC50 = 29.7 ± 4.7 µM) and 7a (IC50 = 17.4 ± 2.0 µM) were the most potent derivatives against MCF-7, LS180 and MOLT-4 cells, respectively. It appeared that the introduction of N-thiazolyl carbamoyl group at the C3 and C5 positions of DHP ring enhanced the cytotoxic potential of these derivatives (compounds 7a-e). The findings of this study suggest that some of the thiazole substituted 1,4-DHPs may be candidates for further modifications towards the discovery of potent anticancer agents.

  12. Assessment of the Cytotoxic Effect of a Series of 1,4-Dihydropyridine Derivatives Against Human Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Razzaghi-Asl, Nima; Miri, Ramin; Firuzi, Omidreza

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Despite the availability of several chemotherapeutic drugs, there is still a great need for more efficient agents for a better management of cancer. In this contribution, a series of 11 1,4-dihydropyridines (1,4-DHPs) (4a, 4b and 7a-i) were synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic effect against MCF-7, LS180 and MOLT-4 cancer cell lines using MTT assay. Synthesized 2,6-dimethyl-3,5-bis-N-(aryl/heteroaryl) carbamoyl-4-aryl-1,4-dihydropyridines exhibited different potencies ranging from weak to good cytotoxic activities, while no activity could be recorded for 1,4-bis(2,6-dimethyl-3,5-dialkyloxylcarbonyl,4-dihydropyridine-4-yl) benzene compounds (4a and 4b). Tested DHP derivatives were more potent against MOLT-4 cells, when compared to LS180 and MCF-7 cells. Compounds 7d (IC50 = 28.5 ± 3.5 µM), 7a (IC50 = 29.7 ± 4.7 µM) and 7a (IC50 = 17.4 ± 2.0 µM) were the most potent derivatives against MCF-7, LS180 and MOLT-4 cells, respectively. It appeared that the introduction of N-thiazolyl carbamoyl group at the C3 and C5 positions of DHP ring enhanced the cytotoxic potential of these derivatives (compounds 7a-e). The findings of this study suggest that some of the thiazole substituted 1,4-DHPs may be candidates for further modifications towards the discovery of potent anticancer agents. PMID:27980576

  13. AGARD Flight Test Techniques Series. Volume 18. Flight Testing of Radio Navigation Systems. (Les Essais en Vol des Systemes de Radionavigation)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-01

    Space Administration SCIENTIFIC & TECHNICAL INFORMATION RTO-AG-300 Vol. 18 AC/323(SCI)TP/26 NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION I- 0 o RESEARCH AND... 18 Flight Testing of Radio Navigation Systems (les Essais en vol des systemes de radionavigation) This AGARDograph has been sponsored by the Systems...TO: Recipients of AG-300 Vol. 18 FROM: Executive, Information Policy and Publications SUBJECT: AG-300, Vol 18 , pages A-1, A-2 and A-3 We regret that

  14. Flying Qualities Flight Testing of Digital Flight Control Systems. Flight Test Techniques Series - Volume 21 (les Essais en vol des performances des systemes de ommande de vol numeriques)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-12-01

    next phase. This involved a full handling qualities assessment including high AOA testing where the stall departure and spin prevention function of the...Method 52 Figure 18 Nyquist Sampling Theory 54 Figure 19 Aliasing of High Frequency Data to a Lower Frequency 54 Figure 20 Typical Closed-Loop System...which have low stability, combined with low control surface power. This combination usually requires high -gain closed-loop systems, which can

  15. An effective series expansion to the equation of state of unitary Fermi gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Silva, Theja N.

    2016-11-01

    Using universal properties and a basic statistical mechanical approach, we propose a general equation of state for unitary Fermi gases. The universal equation of state is written as a series solution to a self consistent integral equation where the general solution is a linear combination of Fermi functions. First, by truncating our series solution to four terms with already known exact theoretical inputs at limiting cases, namely the first three virial coefficients and using the Bertsch parameter as a free parameter, we find a good agreement with experimental measurements in the entire temperature region in the normal state. This analytical equation of state agrees with experimental data up to the fugacity z = 18, which is a vast improvement over the other analytical equations of state available where the agreements is only up to z≈ 7. Second, by truncating our series solution to four terms again using first four virial coefficients, we find the Bertsch parameter ξ =0.35, which is in good agreement with the direct experimental measurement of ξ =0.37. This second form of equation of state shows a good agreement with self-consistent T-matrix calculations in the normal phase.

  16. Fear Appeals in the Primary Classroom: Effects on Test Anxiety and Test Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, David William; Best, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated whether fear appeals used prior to a test increased self-reported test anxiety and had a detrimental effect on test scores. Forty primary school pupils were instructed for one week under a low threat condition under which no fear appeals were made and another week under a high threat condition in which fear appeals…

  17. Counseling and testing for HIV prevention: costs, effects, and cost-effectiveness of more rapid screening tests.

    PubMed Central

    Farnham, P G; Gorsky, R D; Holtgrave, D R; Jones, W K; Guinan, M E

    1996-01-01

    New rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody tests permit many individuals to receive test results and appropriate counseling at one clinic visit. Because currently used tests require significant time for processing, all individuals must return for a second visit for test results and counseling. Since return rates for the second visit are low, the more rapid tests present an opportunity to improve the efficiency of HIV counseling and testing. The authors compared the costs and effectiveness of the currently used counseling and testing procedure and a streamlined procedure made possible by the new, more rapid screening tests. When test-positive clients are given preliminary screening test results, the rapid procedure is more cost-effective than the current procedure. Since over 90% of the clients in most clinics will test negative, the rapid counseling and testing procedure allows the vast majority of clients to be counseled and tested and to receive their results and posttest counseling in one visit. However, in the case where the goal of HIV counseling and testing is to focus only on infected individuals, if information regarding a positive result from the rapid screening test is not given to clients at the initial visit before a confirmatory test is performed, then the rapid counseling and testing procedure is not more cost-effective than the current procedure. PMID:8610190

  18. Summary of Adsorption Capacity and Adsorption Kinetics of Uranium and Other Elements on Amidoxime-based Adsorbents from Time Series Marine Testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, Gary A.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Strivens, Jonathan E.; Wood, Jordana R.; Schlafer, Nicholas J.; Janke, Christopher J.; Das, Sadananda; Mayes, Richard; Saito, Tomonori; Brown, Suree S.; Tsouris, Constantinos; Tsouris, Costas; Wai, Chien M.; Pan, Horng-Bin

    2016-09-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been conducting marine testing of uranium adsorbent materials for the Fuel Resources Program, Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) beginning in FY 2012. The marine testing program is being conducted at PNNL’s Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL), located at Sequim Bay, along the coast of Washington. One of the main efforts of the marine testing program is the determination of adsorption capacity and adsorption kinetics for uranium and selected other elements (e.g. vanadium, iron, copper, nickel, and zinc) for adsorbent materials provided primarily by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), but also includes other Fuel Resources Program participants. This report summarizes the major marine testing results that have been obtained to date using time series sampling for 42 to 56 days using either flow-through column or recirculating flume exposures. The major results are highlighted in this report, and the full data sets are appended as a series of Excel spreadsheet files. Over the four year period (2012-2016) that marine testing of amidoxime-based polymeric adsorbents was conducted at PNNL’s Marine Science Laboratory, there has been a steady progression of improvement in the 56-day adsorbent capacity from 3.30 g U/kg adsorbent for the ORNL 38H adsorbent to the current best performing adsorbent prepared by a collaboration between the University of Tennessee and ORNL to produce the adsorbent SB12-8, which has an adsorption capacity of 6.56 g U/kg adsorbent. This nearly doubling of the adsorption capacity in four years is a significant advancement in amidoxime-based adsorbent technology and a significant achievement for the Uranium from Seawater program. The achievements are evident when compared to the several decades of work conducted by the Japanese scientists beginning in the 1980’s (Kim et al., 2013). The best adsorbent capacity reported by the Japanese scientists was 3.2 g U/kg adsorbent for a

  19. Development of Methodology and Technology for Identifying and Quantifying Emission Products from Open Burning and Open Detonatin Thermal Treatment Methods. Bangbox Test Series. Volume 1. Test Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    chamber’s fabric walls, it was suggested that a surrogate fireball-mitigating material ( aqueous foam) should be used to surround the TNT block on one of... Aqueous foam-attenuated (227-g) TNT OD data trial. 15 FEB 89 Midtiple tank sampling 227-g TNT OD data trial: simultaneous air sammple c -ection in 27 32-L...As shown in Figure 2.6 (on page 2-13) the BB test facility is an air-supported, rubber- coated fabric hemisphere with a radius of 7.6 meter5. Access

  20. Using Response-Time Constraints in Item Selection To Control for Differential Speededness in Computerized Adaptive Testing. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Scrams, David J.; Schnipke, Deborah L.

    This paper proposes an item selection algorithm that can be used to neutralize the effect of time limits in computer adaptive testing. The method is based on a statistical model for the response-time distributions of the test takers on the items in the pool that is updated each time a new item has been administered. Predictions from the model are…

  1. A series of low-altitude aerial radiological surveys of selected regions within Areas 3, 5, 8, 9, 11, 18, and 25 at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, D.P.

    1999-12-01

    A series of low-altitude, aerial radiological surveys of selected regions within Areas 3, 5, 8, 9, 11, 18,and 25 of the Nevada Test Site was conducted from December 1996 through June 1999. The surveys were conducted for the US Department of Energy by the Remote Sensing Laboratory, located in Las Vegas, Nevada, and maintained and operated by Bechtel Nevada. The flights were conducted at a nominal altitude of 15 meters above ground level along a set of parallel flight lines spaced 23 meters apart. The purpose of these low-altitude surveys was to measure, map, and define the areas of americium-241 activity. The americium contamination will be used to determine the areas of plutonium contamination. Americium-241 activity was detected within 8 of the 11 regions. The three regions where americium-241 was not detected were in the inactive Nuclear Rocket Development Station complex in Area 25, which encompassed the Test Cell A and Test Cell C reactor test stands and the Reactor Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly facility.

  2. Effects of changes in observational sites position and surrounding urbanisation on the temperature time series of the city of Trento

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannini, Lorenzo; Zardi, Dino; de Franceschi, Massimiliano

    2014-05-01

    Results from field measurements and numerical simulations are analysed to evaluate the spatial variability of near-surface temperature in the urban area of Trento in the Alps. The analysis aims at gaining information supporting the reconstruction of the series of temperature observations in the city, the earliest dating back to 1816: a challenging task, due to various relocations of the observatories and the increasing effects of urbanisation. The specifically designed field campaign was carried out from August 2009 to November 2010: five identical temperature sensors were placed at the sites of the historical observatories of Trento, to detect possible systematic differences between these places under various seasonal patterns and weather conditions. However, since differences measured nowadays may not be representative of those occurred in the past, numerical simulations were also run with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, coupled with an advanced urban parameterization scheme, using a historical land use, reproducing early XX century urbanisation. Moreover, to test if the model is suitable to reproduce microclimatic differences in the urban area, simulations including the present land use, high-resolution urban morphology and anthropogenic heat sources were performed and compared against the observations carried out during the field campaign. The validation highlights that the model captures well the thermal field inside the urban area, as well as the average temperature differences between the urban sites, with mean absolute errors of order 1°C and 0.5°C respectively. However it reproduces poorly the variability connected with seasonality and weather conditions. Furthermore it is found that the model simulates well the typical features of the urban heat island, even though urbanisation effects tend to be overestimated. The analysis of the results of the "historical" simulations shows that temperature differences between the observatories more

  3. Time-series analysis of ion and isotope geochemistry of selected springs of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Lyles, B.F.; Edkins, J.; Jacobson, R.L.; Hess, J.W.

    1990-11-01

    The temporal variations of ion and isotope geochemistry were observed at six selected springs on the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada and included: Cane, Whiterock, Captain Jack, Topopah, Tippipah, and Oak Springs. The sites were monitored from 1980 to 1982 and the following parameters were measured: temperature, pH, electrical conductance, discharge, cations (Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}. Na{sup +}, K{sup +}), anions Cl{sup {minus}}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}. HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, silica, stable isotopes ({delta}{sup 18}O, {delta}D, {delta}{sup 13}C), and radioactive isotopes ({sup 3}H, {sup 14}C). A more detailed study was continued from 1982 to 1988 at Cane and Whiterock Springs. Field microloggers were installed at these sites in 1985 to measure the high frequency response of temperature, electrical conductance, and discharge to local precipitation. Stage fluctuations near the discharge point dissolve minerals/salts as groundwater inundates the mineralized zone immediately above the equilibrium water table. This phenomena was most noticeable at Whiterock Spring and lagged the discharge response by several hours. Stable isotope analysis of precipitation and groundwater suggests a 1.5 to 2 month travel time for meteoric water to migrate from the recharge area to the discharge point. Groundwater age determinations suggest a mean age of approximately 30 years at Whiterock Spring and possibly older at Cane Spring. However, the short travel time and geochemical integrity of recharge pulses suggest that the waters are poorly mixed along the flow paths. 25 refs., 25 figs., 24 tabs.

  4. Cost effective dynamic design and test requirements for Shuttle payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahle, C. V.; Gongloff, H. R.; Bangs, W. F.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a study examining current spacecraft dynamic design and test requirements for the cost effective design and development of Shuttle payloads are presented. Dynamic environments, payload configurations, design/test requirements, test levels, assembly level of testing, simulation methods, prototype role, load limiting, test facilities, and flight measurements are discussed as they relate to the development of a cost effective design and test philosophy for Shuttle Spacelab payloads. It is concluded that changes to current design/test practices will minimize long range payload costs. However, changes to current practices need be quantitatively evaluated before an orderly progression to more cost effective methods can be achieved without undue risk of mission failures. Of major importance is optimization of test levels and plans for payloads and payload subsystems which will result in minimum project costs.

  5. An efficient and flexible test for rare variant effects.

    PubMed

    Sugasawa, Shonosuke; Noma, Hisashi; Otani, Takahiro; Nishino, Jo; Matsui, Shigeyuki

    2017-04-12

    Since it has been claimed that rare variants with extremely small allele frequency play a crucial role in complex traits, there is great demand for the development of a powerful test for detecting these variants. However, due to the extremely low frequencies of rare variants, common statistical testing methods do not work well, which has motivated recent extensive research on developing an efficient testing procedure for rare variant effects. Many studies have suggested effective testing procedures with reasonably high power under some presumed assumptions of parametric statistical models. However, if the parametric assumptions are violated, these tests are possibly under-powered. In this paper, we develop an optimal, powerful statistical test called the aggregated conditional score test (ACST) for simultaneously testing M rare variant effects without restrictive parametric assumptions. The proposed test uses a test statistic aggregating the conditional score statistics of effect sizes of M rare variants. In simulation studies, ACST generally performed well compared with the two most commonly used tests, the optimal sequence kernel association test (SKAT-O) and Kullback-Leibler distance test. Finally, we demonstrate the performance and practical utility of ACST using the Dallas Heart Study data.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 12 April 2017; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2017.43.

  6. Test of an anomalous electromagnetic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, D. F.; Maglic, Steven

    1990-10-01

    Sansbury has suggested and measured a new electromagnetic attraction between a current and a static charge. We have searched in vain for this interaction. The sensitivity of our measurement is roughly 5 times higher than that of the experiment in which the effect was originally seen.

  7. A Test of the Abstinence Violation Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruderman, Audrey J.

    According to the abstinence violation effect, highly controlled drinkers tend to overindulge following an initial slip. To investigate this relapse model, 47 male college students, ranging in age from 21 to 46, were assigned either to an unrestrained or a restrained drinker group according to their scores on the Restrained Drinking Scale. Subjects…

  8. A simulated lightning effects test facility for testing live and inert missiles and components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craven, Jeffery D.; Knaur, James A.; Moore, Truman W., Jr.; Shumpert, Thomas H.

    1991-01-01

    Details of a simulated lightning effects test facility for testing live and inert missiles, motors, and explosive components are described. The test facility is designed to simulate the high current, continuing current, and high rate-of-rise current components of an idealized direct strike lightning waveform. The Lightning Test Facility was in operation since May, 1988, and consists of: 3 separate capacitor banks used to produce the lightning test components; a permanently fixed large steel safety cage for retaining the item under test (should it be ignited during testing); an earth covered bunker housing the control/equipment room; a charge/discharge building containing the charging/discharging switching; a remotely located blockhouse from which the test personnel control hazardous testing; and interconnecting cables.

  9. Single-Event Effect Report for EPC Series eGaN FETs: EPC2015, EPC2014, EPC2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheick, Leif

    2014-01-01

    Heavy ion testing of newly available eGaN FETs from EPC were tested in May of 2012 at TAM. The EPC2001, EPC2012, and EPC2014 were tested for general single-event effect response from gold and xenon ions. Overall, the devices showed radiation degradation commensurate with breakdown in isolation oxides, and similar testing by EPC and Microsemi agrees with these data.

  10. Advances in series resonant inverter technology and its effect on spacecraft employing electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    The efficiency of transistorized Series Resonant Inverters (SRIs), which is higher than that of silicon-controlled rectifier alternatives, reduces spacecraft radiator requirements by 40% and may eliminate the need for heat pipes on 30-cm ion thruster systems. Recently developed 10- and 25-kW inverters have potential applications in gas thrusters, and represent the first spaceborne SRI designs for such power levels. Attention is given to the design and control system approaches employed in these inverter designs to improve efficiency and reduce weight, along with the impact of such improved parameters on electric propulsion systems.

  11. Test effectiveness study report: An analytical study of system test effectiveness and reliability growth of three commercial spacecraft programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldstein, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    Failure data from 16 commercial spacecraft were analyzed to evaluate failure trends, reliability growth, and effectiveness of tests. It was shown that the test programs were highly effective in ensuring a high level of in-orbit reliability. There was only a single catastrophic problem in 44 years of in-orbit operation on 12 spacecraft. The results also indicate that in-orbit failure rates are highly correlated with unit and systems test failure rates. The data suggest that test effectiveness estimates can be used to guide the content of a test program to ensure that in-orbit reliability goals are achieved.

  12. Ionizing radiation effects on silicon test structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kraner, H.W.; Beuttenmuller, R.; Chen, W.; Kierstead, J.A.; Li, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Dou, L.; Fretwurst, E.; Lindstroem, G.

    1993-12-01

    The effects of {sup 60}Co gamma irradiation on MOSCAPS and special junction diode detectors have been studied. The capacitors were used to ellicit the charge accumulation and anneal in two types of thermally grown oxides representative of those used in routine detector processing. Ion implanted, oxide passivated junction detectors having 0.25 and 1 cm{sup 2} areas and perimeter to area ratios of 1 (a square), 2 and 5 were designed and constructed to amplify the ionizing effects expected to largely affect junction edges through changes in fixed oxide charges. Detectors were exposed to over 4 Mrad and showed clear increases in leakage current in proportion to the junction edge length. Annealing schedules were determined to provide a continuous response to incremental irradiations and subsequent room temperature anneals of leakage current. Besides an increase in gate threshold, little effect on the C(V) response was found. PISCES simulation of the edge fields using different fixed oxide charge revealed regions of very high lateral fields near the junction edges for fixed charges in the 2 {times} 10{sup 12}/cm{sup 2} range expected from the capacitor studies which could be responsible for the observed leakage currents.

  13. Relationship between pumping-test and slug-test parameters: Scale effect or artifact?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, J.J.; Healey, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    In most field investigations, information about hydraulic conductivity (K) is obtained through pumping or slug tests. A considerable body of data has been amassed that indicates that the K estimate from a pumping test is, on average, considerably larger than the estimate obtained from a series of slug tests in the same formation. Although these data could be interpreted as indicating a natural underlying scale dependence in K, an alternate explanation is that the slug-test K is artificially low as a result of incomplete well development and, to a much lesser extent, failure to account for vertical anisotropy. Incomplete well development will often result in only the most permeable zones being cleared of drilling debris, with much of the screened interval remaining undeveloped. More cursory development can leave a low-K skin along the entire screened interval. Failure to recognize such conditions can result in a K estimate from a slug test that is much lower than the average K of the formation in the vicinity of the well. By contrast, neither a skin nor vertical anisotropy will have a significant impact on K estimates from pumping tests when semi-log analyses and/or observation wells are used. However, a reasonable estimate of aquifer thickness is required to convert the transmissivity calculated from a pumping test Into an average K for the aquifer. Prior to invoking a natural scale dependence to explain the results of different types of hydraulic tests, head data should be closely examined and serious consideration given to alternate explanations.Pumping and slug tests are the primary means to obtain in situ estimates of the transmissive properties of a formation. Since the duration of most pumping tests is on the order of hours to days, the formation volume that is affected by the average pumping test is considerably larger than that affected by a slug test. These tests can yield different parameter estimates when performed at the same well. In this regard, the

  14. Effects of Purity Level on the Mechanical Properties of 7000-Series Aluminums

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    grorh rate properties were not affected in a systematic manner. Stress corrosion cracking tests showed there does not appear to be a corrosion problem...Aluminum Extrusions 30 26 Stress Corrosion Test Results for 7XXX-T7351i Aluminum Extrusions 31 ix AFWAL-TR-80-4079 SECTION I INTRODUCTION Aluminum... STRESS CORROSION CRACKING Stress corrosion cracking test results for the seven extrusions are presented in Table 26. It can be observed that most of the

  15. Approaches to Testing Interaction Effects Using Structural Equation Modeling Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter; Duncan, Terry E.; Duncan, Susan C.; Acock, Alan; Boles, Shawn

    1998-01-01

    Reviews a single indicator approach and multiple indicator approaches that simplify testing interaction effects using structural equation modeling. An illustrative application examines the interactive effect of perceptions of competence and perceptions of autonomy on exercise-intrinsic motivation. (SLD)

  16. The Testing Effect on Skills Learning Might Last 6 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kromann, C. B.; Bohnstedt, C.; Jensen, M. L.; Ringsted, C.

    2010-01-01

    In a recent study we found that testing as a final activity in a skills course increases the learning outcome compared to spending an equal amount of time practicing. Whether this testing effect measured as skills performance can be demonstrated on long-term basis is not known. The research question was: does testing as a final activity in a…

  17. Test Experience Effects in Longitudinal Comparisons of Adult Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salthouse, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    It is widely recognized that experience with cognitive tests can influence estimates of cognitive change. Prior research has estimated experience effects at the level of groups by comparing the performance of a group of participants tested for the second time with the performance of a different group of participants at the same age tested for the…

  18. The Testing Effect for Learning Principles and Procedures from Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirkx, Kim J. H.; Kester, Liesbeth; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    The authors explored whether a testing effect occurs not only for retention of facts but also for application of principles and procedures. For that purpose, 38 high school students either repeatedly studied a text on probability calculations or studied the text, took a test on the content, restudied the text, and finally took the test a second…

  19. Using Cost-Effectiveness Tests to Design CHP Incentive Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Tidball, Rick

    2014-11-01

    This paper examines the structure of cost-effectiveness tests to illustrate how they can accurately reflect the costs and benefits of CHP systems. This paper begins with a general background discussion on cost-effectiveness analysis of DER and then describes how cost-effectiveness tests can be applied to CHP. Cost-effectiveness results are then calculated and analyzed for CHP projects in five states: Arkansas, Colorado, Iowa, Maryland, and North Carolina. Based on the results obtained for these five states, this paper offers four considerations to inform regulators in the application of cost-effectiveness tests in developing CHP programs.

  20. A method to filter out the effect of river stage fluctuation on groundwater level using time series models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Heesung; Park, Eungyu; Yoon, Pilsun; Lee, Eunhee; Kim, Gyoo-Bum

    2016-04-01

    A method to filter out the effect of river stage fluctuations on groundwater level was designed using an artificial neural network-based time series model of groundwater level prediction. The designed method was applied to daily groundwater level data near the Gangjeong-Koryeong Barrage in the Nakdong river, South Korea. First, one-step ahead direct prediction time series models were successfully developed for both cases of before and after the barrage construction using past measurement data of rainfall, river stage, and groundwater level as inputs. The correlation coefficient values between observed and predicted data were over 0.97. Based on the direct prediction models, recursive prediction models for the simulation of groundwater level fluctuations were designed. The effect of river stage fluctuation on groundwater level data was filtered out by setting a constant value for river stage inputs of the recursive time series models. The hybrid water table fluctuation method was employed to estimate the groundwater recharge using the filtered data. The calculated ratios of groundwater recharge to precipitation before and after the barrage construction were 11.0% and 4.3%, respectively. It is expected that the proposed method can be a useful tool for groundwater level prediction and recharge estimation in the riverside area.

  1. Effect of parasitic series resistances and spurious currents on the extracted temperature of a bipolar junction transistor.

    PubMed

    Mimila-Arroyo, J

    2013-12-01

    Verster's proposition to directly extract the temperature of a bipolar junction transistor using its collector current is widely used. However, the resulting temperature is low accurate even when calibrated. Here, it is demonstrated that the misuse of the emitter current instead of the collector one, because of the presence of spurious currents other than the injection-diffusion one and transistor parasitic series resistances both contribute to the observed inaccuracy. Particularly parasitic series resistances increase the inaccuracy and introduce a strong dependence of the extracted temperature on the collector currents used to extract the temperature; the higher those resistances the higher the inaccuracy. A proposition is made to reduce the effect of those resistances on the inaccuracy of this thermometric element, which allows obtaining a more accurate value on a wider range of the collector probe currents.

  2. The effect of doping on magnetic properties of (Fe1-xMnx)2P1-ySiy series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goraus, Jerzy; Hawełek, Lukasz; Włodarczyk, Patryk

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we present results of ab initio calculations for the (Fe1-xMnx)2P1-ySiy series, where we investigate the effect of doping on magnetic properties of these materials. Such compounds, which belong to the Fe2 P class of magnetocaloric materials are now extensively studied, due to their potential applications in magnetic cooling. In the hexagonal Fe2 P-type structure, transition metals occupy two inequivalent Wyckoff positions: 3 f and 3 g. We have shown that the preference of occupation of one site by the particular transition metal leads to different dependence of magnetic properties with respect to the total doping effect.

  3. Effect-based interpretation of toxicity test data using probability and comparison with alternative methods of analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gully, J.R.; Baird, R.B.; Markle, P.J.; Bottomley, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    A methodology is described that incorporates the intra- and intertest variability and the biological effect of bioassay data in evaluating the toxicity of single and multiple tests for regulatory decision-making purposes. The single- and multiple-test regulatory decision probabilities were determined from t values (n {minus} 1, one-tailed) derived from the estimated biological effect and the associated standard error at the critical sample concentration. Single-test regulatory decision probabilities below the selected minimum regulatory decision probability identify individual tests as noncompliant. A multiple-test regulatory decision probability is determined by combining the regulatory decision probability of a series of single tests. A multiple-test regulatory decision probability is determined by combining the regulatory decision probability of a series of single tests. A multiple-test regulatory decision probability below the multiple-test regulatory decision minimum identifies groups of tests in which the magnitude and persistence of the toxicity is sufficient to be considered noncompliant or to require enforcement action. Regulatory decision probabilities derived from the t distribution were compared with results based on standard and bioequivalence hypothesis tests using single- and multiple-concentration toxicity test data from an actual national pollutant discharge incorporated the precision of the effect estimate into regulatory decisions at a fixed level of effect. Also, probability-based interpretation of toxicity tests provides incentive to laboratories to produce, and permit holders to use, high-quality, precise data, particularly when multiple tests are used in regulatory decisions. These results are contrasted with standard and bioequivalence hypothesis tests in which the intratest precision is a determining factor in setting the biological effect used for regulatory decisions.

  4. A test battery for measuring nicotine effects in mice.

    PubMed

    Marks, M J; Romm, E; Bealer, S M; Collins, A C

    1985-08-01

    A test battery consisting of measurement of respiration, startle response, Y-maze activity, heart rate, and body temperature has been developed to assess the effects of nicotine on the mouse. Results obtained using the test battery were compared to those obtained with each test individually in four inbred strains of mouse (BALB, C57BL, DBA and C3H). No significant differences between the results obtained using the test battery and those obtained with individual tests were found. The results did demonstrate, however, that the genotype of the mouse strongly influenced the responses in several of the tests.

  5. Interteaching and the Testing Effect: A Preliminary Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Tonya; Saville, Bryan K.

    2012-01-01

    In a number of studies, interteaching has produced better student-learning outcomes than traditional teaching methods. Little research, however, has examined ways to make interteaching more effective. Research on the testing effect suggests that frequent testing may improve performance. Thus, including postdiscussion quizzes as a part of…

  6. Metal-ion-specific screening of charge effects in protein amide H/D exchange and the Hofmeister series.

    PubMed

    Abdolvahabi, Alireza; Gober, Jennifer L; Mowery, Richard A; Shi, Yunhua; Shaw, Bryan F

    2014-10-21

    In this study, protein charge ladders and mass spectrometry were used to quantify how metal cations in the Hofmeister series (Na(+), K(+), Li(+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+)) permute the effects of lysine acetylation on the rate of amide H/D exchange in a representative protein (myoglobin, Mb). The successive acetylation of up to 18 Lys-ε-NH3(+) groups in Mb caused a linear decrease in its global rate of amide H/D exchange (as measured by mass spectrometry), despite also decreasing the thermostability of Mb by >10 °C. The ability of a metal cation to screen kinetic electrostatic effects during H/D exchange-and to abolish the protective effect of acetylation against H/D exchange-was found to depend on the position of the cation in the Hofmeister series. Na(+) and K(+) cations did not fully equalize the rates of H/D exchange among each "rung" of the charge ladder, whereas Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) did equalize rates without eliminating the hydrophobic core of the protein (i.e., without unfolding Mb); Li(+) exhibited intermediate effects. The ability of Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) to completely screen electrostatic effects associated with the H/D exchange of charge isomers of Mb suggests that Mg(2+) or Ca(2+) (but not Na(+) or K(+)) can be used to quantify the magnitude by which electrostatic charge contributes to the observed rates of amide H/D exchange in proteins.

  7. Boussignac CPAP system for brain death confirmation with apneic test in case of acute lung injury/adult respiratory distress syndrome – series of cases

    PubMed Central

    Wieczorek, Andrzej; Gaszynski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There are some patients with severe respiratory disturbances like adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and suspicion of brain death, for whom typical performance of the apneic test is difficult to complete because of quick desaturation and rapid deterioration without effective ventilation. To avoid failure of brain death confirmation and possible loss of organ donation another approach to apneic test is needed. We present two cases of patients with clinical symptoms of brain death, with lung pathology (acute lung injury, ARDS, lung embolism and lung infection), in whom apneic tests for recognizing brain death were difficult to perform. During typical performance of apneic test involving the use of oxygen catheter for apneic oxygenation we observed severe desaturation with growing hypotension and hemodynamic destabilization. But with the use of Boussignac CPAP system all necessary tests were successfully completed, confirming the patient’s brain death, which gave us the opportunity to perform procedures for organ donation. The main reason of apneic test difficulties was severe gas exchange disturbances secondary to ARDS. Thus lack of positive end expiratory pressure during classical performance of apneic test leads to quick desaturation and rapid hemodynamic deterioration, limiting the observation period below dedicated at least 10-minute interval. Conclusion The Boussignac CPAP system may be an effective tool for performing transparent apneic test in case of serious respiratory disturbances, especially in the form of acute lung injury or ARDS. PMID:26124664

  8. Analytic expression for the Fowler-Nordheim V- I characteristic including the series resistance effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, E.; Palumbo, F.

    2011-07-01

    It is shown in this communication that the Fowler-Nordheim (FN) tunneling expression for the current-voltage ( I- V) characteristic can be analytically inverted so that an exact expression for the voltage-current ( V- I) characteristic can be obtained. The solution of the resulting implicit equation is found using the Lambert W function, i.e. the solution of the transcendental equation we w = x. The reported expressions are supported by experimental I- V curves measured in thin (≈5 nm) SiO 2 films in MOS capacitors. The analysis includes the case of a tunneling oxide with a large series resistance. For practical purposes, a closed-form expression for W based on a Padé-type approximation is also provided.

  9. Atmospheric Effects Detection By Short Baseline Processing In RADARSTAT Time Series Over Manaus City, Amazon Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Fernanda Ledo G.; Nico, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    In this work we present an analysis of RADARSAT- 1 and RADARSAT-2 times series acquired from 2006 to 2010 aiming to recognize the presence of atmospheric artefacts in the interferometric phase. The dataset was interferometrically processed using a short-baseline strategy, i.e. all interferometric pairs characterized by the shortest temporal baselines were identified. In this dataset the temporal baseline corresponds to the shortest temporal baseline of 24 days which can be achieved using the Radarsat mission. Interferometric phase was compared to estimates of the atmospheric artefacts obtained from the available measurements of the atmospheric parameters (air temperature, pressure, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, precipitations) over the studied area provided by the Brazilian Aeronautic Center of Meteorology.

  10. A test of the testing effect: acquiring problem-solving skills from worked examples.

    PubMed

    van Gog, Tamara; Kester, Liesbeth

    2012-01-01

    The "testing effect" refers to the finding that after an initial study opportunity, testing is more effective for long-term retention than restudying. The testing effect seems robust and is a finding from the field of cognitive science that has important implications for education. However, it is unclear whether this effect also applies to the acquisition of problem-solving skills, which is important to establish given the key role problem solving plays in, for instance, math and science education. Worked examples are an effective and efficient way of acquiring problem-solving skills. Forty students either only studied worked examples (SSSS) or engaged in testing after studying an example by solving an isomorphic problem (STST). Surprisingly, results showed equal performance in both conditions on an immediate retention test after 5 min, but the SSSS condition outperformed the STST condition on a delayed retention test after 1 week. These findings suggest the testing effect might not apply to acquiring problem-solving skills from worked examples.

  11. A Meta-Analysis of Testing Mode Effects in Grade K-12 Mathematics Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shudong; Jiao, Hong; Young, Michael J.; Brooks, Thomas; Olson, John

    2007-01-01

    This study conducted a meta-analysis of computer-based and paper-and-pencil administration mode effects on K-12 student mathematics tests. Both initial and final results based on fixed- and random-effects models are presented. The results based on the final selected studies with homogeneous effect sizes show that the administration mode had no…

  12. The sensitivity of health effect estimates from time-series studies to fine particulate matter component sampling schedule.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Young; Sheppard, Lianne; Hannigan, Michael P; Dutton, Steven J; Peel, Jennifer L; Clark, Maggie L; Vedal, Sverre

    2013-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency air pollution monitoring data have been a valuable resource commonly used for investigating the associations between short-term exposures to PM2.5 chemical components and human health. However, the temporally sparse sampling on every third or sixth day may affect health effect estimation. We examined the impact of non-daily monitoring data on health effect estimates using daily data from the Denver Aerosol Sources and Health (DASH) study. Daily concentrations of four PM2.5 chemical components (elemental and organic carbon, sulfate, and nitrate) and hospital admission counts from 2003 through 2007 were used. Three every-third-day time series were created from the daily DASH monitoring data, imitating the US Speciation Trend Network (STN) monitoring schedule. A fourth, partly irregular, every-third-day time series was created by matching existing sampling days at a nearby STN monitor. Relative risks (RRs) of hospital admissions for PM2.5 components at lags 0-3 were estimated for each data set, adjusting for temperature, relative humidity, longer term temporal trends, and day of week using generalized additive models, and compared across different sampling schedules. The estimated RRs varied somewhat between the non-daily and daily sampling schedules and between the four non-daily schedules, and in some instances could lead to different conclusions. It was not evident which features of the data or analysis were responsible for the variation in effect estimates, although seeing similar variability in resampled data sets with relaxation of the every-third-day constraint suggests that limited power may have had a role. The use of non-daily monitoring data can influence interpretation of estimated effects of PM2.5 components on hospital admissions in time-series studies.

  13. Sediment Bioaccumulation Test with Lumbriculus variegatus: Effects of Organism Loading.

    PubMed

    Burkhard, Lawrence P; Hubin-Barrows, Dylan; Billa, Nanditha; Highland, Terry L; Hockett, James R; Mount, David R; Norberg-King, Teresa J

    2016-07-01

    At contaminated sediment sites, the bioavailability of contaminants in sediments is assessed using sediment-bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegates (Lv). The testing protocols recommend that ratio of total organic carbon (TOC) in sediment to L. variegatus (dry weight) (TOC/Lv) should be no less than 50:1. Occasionally, this recommendation is not followed, especially with sediments having low TOC, e.g., <1 %. This study evaluated the impacts and resulting biases in the testing results when the recommendation of "no less than 50:1" is not followed. In the study, seven sediments were tested with a series of TOC/Lv ratios that spanned the recommendation. With increasing loading of organisms, growth of the organisms decreased in six of the seven sediments tested. Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the L. variegatus were measured in six of the seven sediments tested, and differences in PCB residues among loading ratios across all sediments were small, i.e., ±50 %, from those measured at the minimum recommended ratio of 50:1 TOC/Lv. In all sediment, PCB residues increased with increasing loading of the organisms for the mono-, di-, and tri-chloro-PCBs. For tetra-chloro and heavier PCBs, residues increased with increasing loading of organisms for only two of the six sediments. PCB residues were not significantly different between TOC/Lv loadings of 50:1 and mid-20:1 ratios indicating that equivalent results can be obtained with TOC/Lv ratios into the mid-20:1 ratios. Overall, the testing results suggest that when testing recommendation of 50:1 TOC/Lv is not followed, potential biases in the biota-sediment accumulations factors from the sediment-bioaccumulation test will be small.

  14. Effects of Test Cell Recirculation on High-Bypass Turbofan Engines during Simulated Altitude Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    methods used to describe and correct for test cell recirculation have led to this investigation, which is in line with the objectives previously stated...between pressure profiles on the cell wall and those on the model surfaces, which is in line with previous observations. Removal of the diffuser...AEDC-TR-85-55 , , . ’ . . . .L Effects of Test Cell Recirculation on High-Bypass Turbofan Engines During Simulated Altitude Tests OCT 0 9

  15. Transfer of Mathematical Knowledge: Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akgun, Levent; Isik, Cemalettin; Tatar, Enver; Isleyen, Tevfik; Soylu, Yasin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explain students' ability to transfer their knowledge about mathematical series to the problems that they encounter. The data of the study were obtained by using two different tests, namely "Problem Solving Test (PST)" and "Series Character Identification Test (SCT)" which were developed by the…

  16. A Case Series on the Effects of Kripalu Yoga for Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Jessica R; Sullivan, Marlysa; Masuda, Akihiko; Tully, Erin; Cohen, Lindsey L; Anderson, Page L

    2016-07-14

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a prevalent psychiatric disorder associated with substantial impairment and poor treatment response. Yoga influences processes that are linked to the maintenance of GAD including mindfulness, anxiety, and heart rate variability, but has yet to be evaluated among people with the disorder. The present study is a first step toward documenting the efficacy of yoga for reducing worry among people with GAD using a single-subject AB design case series and daily ratings of worry. Standardized self-report measures of worry, trait anxiety, experiential avoidance, mindfulness, and heart rate variability were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Three participants with primary GAD received eight twice-weekly Kripalu yoga sessions following a baseline data collection period. All participants showed systematic improvement in daily worry ratings on at least one index and all scores on self-reported measures of worry, anxiety, experiential avoidance, and mindfulness changed in the expected direction following yoga (with one or two exceptions). Participants also showed improved heart rate variability during a worry period from pre- to post-intervention. Yoga has the potential to improve the processes linked to GAD and should stimulate further research in this area.

  17. In-office bleaching effects on the pulp flow and tooth sensitivity - case series.

    PubMed

    Cartagena, Andrés Felipe; Parreiras, Sibelli Olivieri; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; Reis, Alessandra; Campanha, Nara Hellen

    2015-01-01

    Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is a noninvasive method capable of evaluating variations in pulp blood flow (PBF) and pulp vitality. This method has thus far not been used to assess changes in blood flow after in-office bleaching. The aim of this case series report was to measure changes in PBF by LDF in the upper central incisor of three patients submitted to in-office bleaching. The buccal surfaces of the upper arch were bleached with a single session of 35% hydrogen peroxide gel with three 15-min applications. The color was recorded using a value-oriented Vita shade guide before in-office bleaching and one week after the procedure. The tooth sensitivity (TS) in a verbal scale was reported, and PBF was assessed by LDF before, immediately, and one week after the bleaching session. The lower arch was submitted to dental bleaching but not used for data assessment. A whitening degree of 3 to 4 shade guide units was detected. All participants experienced moderate to considerable TS after the procedure. The PBF readings reduced 20% to 40% immediately after bleaching. One week post-bleaching, TS and PBF were shown to be equal to baseline values. A reversible decrease of PBF was detected immediately after bleaching, which recovered to the baseline values or showed a slight increase sooner than one week post-bleaching. The LDF method allows detection of pulp blood changes in teeth submitted to in-office bleaching, but further studies are still required.

  18. A Case Series on the Effects of Kripalu Yoga for Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Jessica R; Sullivan, Marlysa; Masuda, Akihiko; Tully, Erin; Cohen, Lindsey L; Anderson, Page L

    2016-01-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a prevalent psychiatric disorder associated with substantial impairment and poor treatment response. Yoga influences processes that are linked to the maintenance of GAD including mindfulness, anxiety, and heart rate variability, but has yet to be evaluated among people with the disorder. The present study is a first step toward documenting the efficacy of yoga for reducing worry among people with GAD using a single-subject AB design case series and daily ratings of worry. Standardized self-report measures of worry, trait anxiety, experiential avoidance, mindfulness, and heart rate variability were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Three participants with primary GAD received eight twice-weekly Kripalu yoga sessions following a baseline data collection period. All participants showed systematic improvement in daily worry ratings on at least one index and all scores on self-reported measures of worry, anxiety, experiential avoidance, and mindfulness changed in the expected direction following yoga (with one or two exceptions). Participants also showed improved heart rate variability during a worry period from pre- to post-intervention. Yoga has the potential to improve the processes linked to GAD and should stimulate further research in this area.

  19. Acute and subacute effects of urban air pollution on cardiopulmonary emergencies and mortality: time series studies in Austrian cities.

    PubMed

    Neuberger, Manfred; Moshammer, Hanns; Rabczenko, Daniel

    2013-10-02

    Daily pollution data (collected in Graz over 16 years and in the Linz over 18 years) were used for time series studies (GAM and case-crossover) on the relationship with daily mortality (overall and specific causes of death). Diagnoses of patients who had been transported to hospitals in Linz were also available on a daily basis from eight years for time series analyses of cardiopulmonary emergencies. Increases in air pollutant levels over several days were followed by increases in mortality and the observed effects increased with the length of the exposure window considered, up to a maximum of 15 days. These mortality changes in Graz and Linz showed similar patterns like the ones found before in Vienna. A significant association of mortality could be demonstrated with NO2, PM2.5 and PM10 even in summer, when concentrations are lower and mainly related to motor traffic. Cardiorespiratory ambulance transports increased with NO2/PM2.5/PM10 by 2.0/6.1/1.7% per 10 µg/m³ on the same day. Monitoring of NO2 (related to motor traffic) and fine particulates at urban background stations predicts acute effects on cardiopulmonary emergencies and extended effects on cardiopulmonary mortality. Both components of urban air pollution are indicators of acute cardiopulmonary health risks, which need to be monitored and reduced, even below current standards.

  20. Acute and Subacute Effects of Urban Air Pollution on Cardiopulmonary Emergencies and Mortality: Time Series Studies in Austrian Cities

    PubMed Central

    Neuberger, Manfred; Moshammer, Hanns; Rabczenko, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Daily pollution data (collected in Graz over 16 years and in the Linz over 18 years) were used for time series studies (GAM and case-crossover) on the relationship with daily mortality (overall and specific causes of death). Diagnoses of patients who had been transported to hospitals in Linz were also available on a daily basis from eight years for time series analyses of cardiopulmonary emergencies. Increases in air pollutant levels over several days were followed by increases in mortality and the observed effects increased with the length of the exposure window considered, up to a maximum of 15 days. These mortality changes in Graz and Linz showed similar patterns like the ones found before in Vienna. A significant association of mortality could be demonstrated with NO2, PM2.5 and PM10 even in summer, when concentrations are lower and mainly related to motor traffic. Cardiorespiratory ambulance transports increased with NO2/PM2.5/PM10 by 2.0/6.1/1.7% per 10 µg/m3 on the same day. Monitoring of NO2 (related to motor traffic) and fine particulates at urban background stations predicts acute effects on cardiopulmonary emergencies and extended effects on cardiopulmonary mortality. Both components of urban air pollution are indicators of acute cardiopulmonary health risks, which need to be monitored and reduced, even below current standards. PMID:24157504

  1. Stereotype threat? Effects of inquiring about test takers' gender on conceptual test performance in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maries, Alexandru; Singh, Chandralekha

    2015-12-01

    It has been found that activation of a stereotype, for example by indicating one's gender before a test, typically alters performance in a way consistent with the stereotype, an effect called "stereotype threat." On a standardized conceptual physics assessment, we found that asking test takers to indicate their gender right before taking the test did not deteriorate performance compared to an equivalent group who did not provide gender information. Although a statistically significant gender gap was present on the standardized test whether or not students indicated their gender, no gender gap was observed on the multiple-choice final exam students took, which included both quantitative and conceptual questions on similar topics.

  2. Coverage Metrics for Requirements-Based Testing: Evaluation of Effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staats, Matt; Whalen, Michael W.; Heindahl, Mats P. E.; Rajan, Ajitha

    2010-01-01

    In black-box testing, the tester creates a set of tests to exercise a system under test without regard to the internal structure of the system. Generally, no objective metric is used to measure the adequacy of black-box tests. In recent work, we have proposed three requirements coverage metrics, allowing testers to objectively measure the adequacy of a black-box test suite with respect to a set of requirements formalized as Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) properties. In this report, we evaluate the effectiveness of these coverage metrics with respect to fault finding. Specifically, we conduct an empirical study to investigate two questions: (1) do test suites satisfying a requirements coverage metric provide better fault finding than randomly generated test suites of approximately the same size?, and (2) do test suites satisfying a more rigorous requirements coverage metric provide better fault finding than test suites satisfying a less rigorous requirements coverage metric? Our results indicate (1) only one coverage metric proposed -- Unique First Cause (UFC) coverage -- is sufficiently rigorous to ensure test suites satisfying the metric outperform randomly generated test suites of similar size and (2) that test suites satisfying more rigorous coverage metrics provide better fault finding than test suites satisfying less rigorous coverage metrics.

  3. In vitro binding affinities of a series of flavonoids for μ-opioid receptors. Antinociceptive effect of the synthetic flavonoid 3,3-dibromoflavanone in mice.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Josefina; Wasowski, Cristina; Loscalzo, Leonardo M; Marder, Mariel

    2013-09-01

    The pharmacotherapy for the treatment of pain is an active area of investigation. There are effective drugs to treat this problem, but there is also a need to find alternative treatments free of undesirable side effects. In the present work the capacity of a series of flavonoids to bind to the μ opioid receptor was evaluated. The most active compound, 3,3-dibromoflavanone (31), a synthetic flavonoid, presented a significant inhibition of the binding of the selective μ opioid ligand [(3)H]DAMGO, with a Ki of 0.846 ± 0.263 μM. Flavanone 31 was further synthesized using a simple and cheap procedure with good yield. Its in vivo effects in mice, after acute treatments, were studied using antinociceptive and behavioral assays. It showed no sedative, anxiolytic, motor incoordination effects or inhibition of the gastrointestinal transit in mice at the doses tested. It evidenced antinociceptive activity on the acetic acid-induced nociception, hot plate and formalin tests (at 10 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg). The results showed that the 5-HT2 receptor and the adrenoceptors seem unlikely to be involved in its antinociceptive effects. Naltrexone, a nonselective opioid receptors antagonist, totally blocked compound 31 antinociceptive effects on the hot plate test, but naltrindole (δ opioid antagonist) and nor-binaltorphimine (κ opioid antagonist) did not. These findings demonstrated that 3,3-dibromoflavanone (31), at doses that did not interfere with the motor performance, exerted clear dose dependent antinociception when assessed in the chemical and thermal models of nociception in mice and it seems that its action is related to the activation of the μ opioid receptor.

  4. Ring-testing and field-validation of a terrestrial model ecosystem (TME)--an instrument for testing potentially harmful substances: effects of carbendazim on nutrient cycling.

    PubMed

    Van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Koolhaas, Josée E; Schallnass, Hans-Joachim; Rodrigues, José M L; Jones, Susan E

    2004-01-01

    The effect of the fungicide carbendazim (applied in the formulation Derosal) on nutrient cycling in soil was determined in Terrestrial Model Ecosystem (TME) tests and corresponding field-validation studies, which were performed in four different countries (United Kingdom, Germany, Portugal, and The Netherlands). The tests used different soil types, and lasted for 16 weeks. On three of the four sites, grassland soils were used while the fourth site had an arable soil. TMEs consisted of intact soil columns (diameter 17.5 cm; length 40 cm) and were taken from the site where the field study was performed. In the first series of TME tests, carbendazim applied at dosages unto 77.8 kg a.i./ha did not affect sulfate and phosphate concentrations in the top 15 cm soil layers. These nutrients were therefore no longer included in the second series of TME tests and the field-validation studies. Ammonium concentrations in the top soil layers of TMEs and field plots, and in the leachates of the TME columns did not show any effect of carbendazim treatment. Nitrate concentrations in soils and leachates did show some reduction at the highest treatment levels (77.8 kg a.i./ha in the first TME tests, 87.5 kg a.i/ha in the second TME tests and the field-validation studies). Since nitrate concentrations in both soils and leachates were correlated with soil moisture content, these effects could however, mainly be attributed to variations in soil moisture contents, and in some cases also indirectly to effects on earthworm activity. It is concluded that carbendazim, even at dosages as high as 87.5 kg a.i./ha, does not have a significant impact on soil nutrient cycling processes. Nutrient levels in TME tests and the field-validation studies generally showed similar patterns, thus confirming the predictive value of the TME test system.

  5. Neuroleptics related to butaclamol. Synthesis and some psychopharmacological effects of a series of 3-aryl analogues.

    PubMed

    Voith, K; Bruderlein, F T; Humber, L G

    1978-07-01

    The synthesis and some pharmacological effects of 16 3-aryl analogues of butaclamol, a new antipsychotic drug, are described. The animal models were predictive of neuroleptic activity as well as side effects commonly associated with neuroleptic therapy. The results indicate that the 3-substituent plays a critical role with regard to the potency of the compounds as well as to their tendencies to induce extrapyramidal side effects and/or hypotension.

  6. Ada Compiler Validation Summary Report. Certificate Number: 891019W1. 10178, Hewlett Packard Company HP 9000 Series 800 Ada Compiler, Version 4.35 HP 9000 Series 800 Model 850. Completion of On-Site Testing: 19 October 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-19

    ACVC Version: 1.10 Certificate Number: 891019W1.10178 Host Computer: Machine : HP 9000 Series 800 Model 850 Operating System: HP-UX Version A.B3.10...release 3.1) Memory Size: 96 Mb Target Computer: Machine : HP 9000 Series 800 Model 850 Operating System: HP-UX Version A.B3.10 (release 3.1) Memory...allowed implementation dependencies correspond to implementation-dependent pragmas, to certain machine -dependent conventions as mentioned in Chapter 13

  7. Manual on Cost-Effectiveness of Training Modalities in Population Education. Population Education Programme Service Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This manual is the result of a regional training workshop on the cost-effectiveness of different training strategies in population education by Unesco in Kathmandu, Nepal, June 1-8, 1987. The purpose of the manual is to enable project staff to initiate studies to determine cost-effective training strategies in population growth control education.…

  8. A THEORY OF LEADERSHIP EFFECTIVENESS. MCGRAW-HILL SERIES IN MANAGEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FIEDLER, FRED E.

    CENTRAL TO THE THEORY OF LEADERSHIP EFFECTIVENESS OUTLINED HERE IS A CONTINGENCY MODEL, ACCORDING TO WHICH GROUP EFFECTIVENESS DEPENDS ON INTERACTION BETWEEN LEADERSHIP STYLES AND THE DEGREE TO WHICH SITUATIONS ENABLE LEADERS TO EXERT INFLUENCE. THE THEORY PREDICTS THAT A TASK-ORIENTED STYLE WILL BE THE BEST STYLE IN FAVORABLE LEADERSHIP…

  9. Lagged PM2.5 effects in mortality time series: Critical impact of covariate model

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two most common approaches to modeling the effects of air pollution on mortality are the Harvard and the Johns Hopkins (NMMAPS) approaches. These two approaches, which use different sets of covariates, result in dissimilar estimates of the effect of lagged fine particulate ma...

  10. Estimation of Effect Size from a Series of Experiments Involving Paired Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Robert D.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A distribution theory is derived for a G. V. Glass-type (1976) estimator of effect size from studies involving paired comparisons. The possibility of combining effect sizes from studies involving a mixture of related and unrelated samples is also explored. Resulting estimates are illustrated using data from previous psychiatric research. (SLD)

  11. The Correlation of the TBC Lifetimes in Burner Cycling Test with Thermal Gradient and Furnace Isothermal Cycling Test by TGO Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chang-Jiu; Dong, Hui; Ding, Hang; Yang, Guan-Jun; Li, Cheng-Xin

    2017-02-01

    Two types of typical thermal cycling tests are used for the evaluation of thermal cycling lifetime of thermal barrier coatings. Those are the burner cycling test with a thermal gradient and the isothermal furnace cycling test. There are diverse explanations to test results up to now. Although certain correlations should exist between the results obtained by two types of the tests, no evident parameters in two tests were directly related, possibly due to large range of difference test conditions. In this investigation, a series of TBC samples with carefully prepared Al2O3-based TGO of different thicknesses were used for both the burner cycling and the furnace cycling tests. The relationships between thermal cycling lifetime and TGO thickness were obtained for two types of the tests. It was found that TGO thickness presents the same influence tendency despite of different types of thermal cycling test. The results reveal the existence of the critical TGO thickness by which the transition of failure mode takes place. Moreover, the values of the critical TGO thickness for two tests are comparable. The results evidently suggest that the lifetimes during different thermal cycling tests can be correlated by TGO effects on failure behavior. However, it is clear that the apparent dominant driving factors to TBC failure are different in two types of tests. Accordingly, the burner cycling test could be used for optimizing the durability of ceramic top coat by separating the effect of individual factors through test condition design, while the furnace cycling test results represent the integrated TBC durable performance of the bond coat and top ceramic coating.

  12. Effects of First Occasion Test Experience on Longitudinal Cognitive Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    Effects of additional test experience on longitudinal change in 5 cognitive abilities was examined in a sample of healthy adults ranging from 18 to 80 years of age. Participants receiving experience with parallel versions of the cognitive tests on the first occasion had more positive cognitive change an average of 2.5 years later than participants…

  13. Teacher Effectiveness on High- and Low-Stakes Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Sean P.; Jennings, Jennifer L.; Beveridge, Andrew A.

    2011-01-01

    The authors use data from the Houston Independent School District to estimate teacher effects on two different academic tests of the same subject areas, administered in the same school year to the same students at approximately the same time of year. The first is the statewide "high-stakes" test administered as part of the Texas…

  14. USING POTATOES IN PROPAGATION TESTS FOR NONTARGET PLANT EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current tests required for pesticide registration under the FIFRA only investigate seedling emergence and early growth. Previous research with sulfonylurea (SU) herbicides has shown that significant impacts can occur to plant reproduction with little or no visible effect on vege...

  15. Testing Mediation in Structural Equation Modeling: The Effectiveness of the Test of Joint Significance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leth-Steensen, Craig; Gallitto, Elena

    2016-01-01

    A large number of approaches have been proposed for estimating and testing the significance of indirect effects in mediation models. In this study, four sets of Monte Carlo simulations involving full latent variable structural equation models were run in order to contrast the effectiveness of the currently popular bias-corrected bootstrapping…

  16. Test-Potentiated Learning: Distinguishing between Direct and Indirect Effects of Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Kathleen M.; McDermott, Kathleen B.

    2013-01-01

    The facilitative effect of retrieval practice, or testing, on the probability of later retrieval has been the focus of much recent empirical research. A lesser known benefit of retrieval practice is that it may also enhance the ability of a learner to benefit from a subsequent restudy opportunity. This facilitative effect of retrieval practice on…

  17. Neural correlates of testing effects in vocabulary learning.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, Gesa S E; Takashima, Atsuko; Segers, Eliane; Fernández, Guillén; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2013-09-01

    Tests that require memory retrieval strongly improve long-term retention in comparison to continued studying. For example, once learners know the translation of a word, restudy practice, during which they see the word and its translation again, is less effective than testing practice, during which they see only the word and retrieve the translation from memory. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we investigated the neuro-cognitive mechanisms underlying this striking testing effect. Twenty-six young adults without prior knowledge of Swahili learned the translation of 100 Swahili words and then further practiced the words in an fMRI scanner by restudying or by testing. Recall of the translations on a final memory test after one week was significantly better and faster for tested words than for restudied words. Brain regions that were more active during testing than during restudying included the left inferior frontal gyrus, ventral striatum, and midbrain areas. Increased activity in the left inferior parietal and left middle temporal areas during testing but not during restudying predicted better recall on the final memory test. Together, results suggest that testing may be more beneficial than restudying due to processes related to targeted semantic elaboration and selective strengthening of associations between retrieval cues and relevant responses, and may involve increased effortful cognitive control and modulations of memory through striatal motivation and reward circuits.

  18. Effect of Environmental Factors on Low Weight in Non-Premature Births: A Time Series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Julio; Arroyo, Virginia; Ortiz, Cristina; Carmona, Rocío; Linares, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Objective Exposure to pollutants during pregnancy has been related to adverse birth outcomes. LBW can give rise to lifelong impairments. Prematurity is the leading cause of LBW, yet few studies have attempted to analyse how environmental factors can influence LBW in infants who are not premature. This study therefore sought to analyse the influence of air pollution, noise levels and temperature on LBW in non-premature births in Madrid during the period 2001–2009. Methods Ecological time-series study to assess the impact of PM2.5, NO2 and O3 concentrations, noise levels, and temperatures on LBW among non-premature infants across the period 2001–2009. Our analysis extended to infants having birth weights of 1,500 g to 2,500 g (VLBW) and less than 1,500 g (ELBW). Environmental variables were lagged until 37 weeks with respect to the date of birth, and cross-correlation functions were used to identify explaining lags. Results were quantified using Poisson regression models. Results Across the study period 298,705 births were registered in Madrid, 3,290 of which had LBW; of this latter total, 1,492 were non-premature. PM2.5 was the only pollutant to show an association with the three variables of LBW in non-premature births. This association occurred at around the third month of gestation for LBW and VLBW (LBW: lag 23 and VLBW: lag 25), and at around the eighth month of gestation for ELBW (lag 6). Leqd was linked to LBW at lag zero. The RR of PM2.5 on LBW was 1.01 (1.00 1.03). The RR of Leqd on LBW was 1.09 (0.99 1.19)(p<0.1). Conclusions The results obtained indicate that PM2.5 had influence on LBW. The adoption of measures aimed at reducing the number of vehicles would serve to lower pregnant women's exposure. In the case of noise should be limited the exposure to high levels during the final weeks of pregnancy. PMID:27788159

  19. A study of the effect of nonrandom sampling on the estimation of exposure variability using exposure-time series from the OSHA IMIS health inspection database

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, L.T.

    1997-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of nonrandom sampling over time may have on the estimation of variability, namely the geometric standard deviation, using time series of personal exposure data.

  20. Fluid dynamics test method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayman, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    Test method and apparatus determine fluid effective mass and damping in frequency range where effective mass may be considered as total mass less sum of slosh masses. Apparatus is designed so test tank and its mounting yoke are supported from structural test wall by series of flexures.

  1. [The assessment of no adverse effect doses for plant populations chronically exposed to radionuclides of uranium and thorium decay series].

    PubMed

    Evseeva, T I; Maĭstrenko, T A; Belykh, E S; Geras'kin, S A

    2010-01-01

    Dose rates cause no adverse effects on natural populations of Pinus sylvestris L. and Vicia cracca L. inhabiting territories contaminated by uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes (Vodny settlement, Komi Republic) were determined. A significant increase in embryonic lethal mutation frequency in V. cracca legumes and decrease in seedlings survival rate as compared with control values were registered at dose rate equal to 1.67 mGy/day, that is 280 times higher than the one calculated for the reference site. The adverse effects in P. sylvestris expressed in increased frequency of chromosome aberrations in meristematic root tips and decreased reproductive capacity of seeds were determined at absorbed dose rate equal to 0.083 mGy/day. Data obtained show that the decrease in plant reproductive capacity in case of chronic exposure of radionuclides of uranium and thorium decay series can observe at lower weighted absorbed dose rates than in case of environmental contamination by artificial radionuclides.

  2. Assiniboine Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Minerva

    This series of illustrated booklets presents 13 Indian stories in a bilingual format of English and Assiniboine, an Indian tribal language. Written on the first grade level, the stories have the following titles: (1) "Orange Tree in Lodgepole"; (2) "Pretty Flower"; (3) Inktomi and the Rock"; (4) "Inktomi and the…

  3. The Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) program: A unique series of scientific experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reasoner, David L.; Mccook, Morgan W. (Editor); Vaughan, William W. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The Defense Department and NASA have joined in a program to study the space environment which surrounds the earth and the effects of space radiation on modern satellite electronic systems. The Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) will carry an array of active experiments including chemical releases and a complement of sophisticated scientific instruments to accomplish these objectives. Other chemical release active experiments will be performed with sub-orbital rocket probes. The chemical releases will 'paint' the magnetic and electric fields of earthspace with clouds of glowing ions. Earthspace will be a laboratory, and the releases will be studied with an extensive network of ground-, aircraft-, and satellite-based diagnostic instruments. Some of the topics discussed include the following: the effects of earthspace; the need for active experiments; types of chemical releases; the CRRES program schedule; international support and coordinated studies; photographing chemical releases; information on locating chemical releases for observation by the amateur; and CRRES as a program.

  4. Docking studies on monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors: estimation of inhibition constants (K(i)) of a series of experimentally tested compounds.

    PubMed

    Toprakçí, Mustafa; Yelekçi, Kemal

    2005-10-15

    Monoamine oxidase (EC1.4.3.4; MAO) is a mitochondrial outer membrane flavoenzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of biogenic amines. It has two distinct isozymic forms designated MAO-A and MAO-B, each displaying different substrate and inhibitor specificities. They are the well-known targets for antidepressant and neuroprotective drugs. Elucidation of the X-ray crystallographic structure of MAO-B has opened the way for molecular modeling studies. A series of experimentally tested (1-10) model compounds has been docked computationally to the active site of the MAO-B enzyme. The AutoDock 3.0.5 program was employed to perform automated molecular docking. The free energies of binding (DeltaG) and inhibition constants (K(i)) of the docked compounds were calculated by the Lamarckian Genetic Algorithm (LGA) of AutoDock 3.0.5. Excellent to good correlations between the calculated and experimental K(i) values were obtained.

  5. Unusual edge effect in patch testing with silver nitrate.

    PubMed

    Iliev, D; Elsner, P

    1998-03-01

    Silver nitrate is a widely used substance and has been applied topically for cauterizing bleeding and healing wounds. In the past it has even been used to mark patch test sites, when no one knew that the substance itself might be a sensitizer. However, there are also toxic reactions to that substance. We report a case in which a positive "edge effect" at the periphery of the patch test site could be shown. It can be explained by the unequal distribution of patch test solutions in the different patch test systems with a concentration at the rim. Distinguishing between allergic and toxic reactions may be difficult when an edge effect occurs. Therefore, in certain rare cases a biopsy or a lymphocyte transformation test might be of help.

  6. The effects of protoype medium on usability testing.

    PubMed

    Boothe, Chase; Strawderman, Lesley; Hosea, Ethan

    2013-11-01

    Inconsistencies among testing methods and results in previous research prompted this study that builds upon a systematic usability testing research framework to better understand how interface medium influences users' abilities to detect usability flaws in applications. Interface medium was tested to identify its effects on users' perceptions of usability and abilities to detect usability problems and severe usability problems. Results indicated that medium has no effect on users' abilities to detect usability problems or perceptions of usability. However, results did indicate an interaction between the medium and the tested application in which users were able to identify significantly more usability problems on a higher fidelity medium using a particular application. Results also indicated that as users' perceptions of an application's usability increases, the users are less able to detect usability problems in that application. Usability testing should begin early in the design process, even if low fidelity mediums will be used.

  7. Testing effects in mixed- versus pure-list designs.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Christopher A; Littrell-Baez, Megan K; Sensenig, Amanda E; DeLosh, Edward L

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, we investigated the role of list composition in the testing effect. Across three experiments, participants learned items through study and initial testing or study and restudy. List composition was manipulated, such that tested and restudied items appeared either intermixed in the same lists (mixed lists) or in separate lists (pure lists). In Experiment 1, half of the participants received mixed lists and half received pure lists. In Experiment 2, all participants were given both mixed and pure lists. Experiment 3 followed Erlebacher's (Psychological Bulletin, 84, 212-219, 1977) method, such that mixed lists, pure tested lists, and pure restudied lists were given to independent groups. Across all three experiments, the final recall results revealed significant testing effects for both mixed and pure lists, with no reliable difference in the magnitude of the testing advantage across list designs. This finding suggests that the testing effect is not subject to a key boundary condition-list design-that impacts other memory phenomena, including the generation effect.

  8. Effectiveness of cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) in anorexia nervosa: a case series.

    PubMed

    Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Buzzichelli, Sara; Marzola, Enrica; Amianto, Federico; Fassino, Secondo

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) is effective in improving cognitive flexibility in anorexia nervosa (AN). Twenty AN outpatients were consecutively recruited at the Eating Disorders Center of the Turin University. All participants completed 10 sessions of CRT. Neuropsychological performances improved with CRT. Data showed also a significant improvement of impulse regulation and interoceptive awareness (subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory-2). CRT was also associated with improvement of reflexive skills and awareness. These preliminary findings are promising, but further work is necessary to find ways of enhancing the effects of this treatment.

  9. SERI Wind Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    Noun, R. J.

    1983-06-01

    The SERI Wind Energy Program manages the areas or innovative research, wind systems analysis, and environmental compatibility for the U.S. Department of Energy. Since 1978, SERI wind program staff have conducted in-house aerodynamic and engineering analyses of novel concepts for wind energy conversion and have managed over 20 subcontracts to determine technical feasibility; the most promising of these concepts is the passive blade cyclic pitch control project. In the area of systems analysis, the SERI program has analyzed the impact of intermittent generation on the reliability of electric utility systems using standard utility planning models. SERI has also conducted methodology assessments. Environmental issues related to television interference and acoustic noise from large wind turbines have been addressed. SERI has identified the causes, effects, and potential control of acoustic noise emissions from large wind turbines.

  10. Analysis of groundwater contamination using concentration-time series recorded during an integral pumping test: bias introduced by strong concentration gradients within the plume.

    PubMed

    Zeru, Allelign; Schäfer, Gerhard

    2005-12-01

    When only few monitoring wells are available to assess the extent and level of groundwater contamination, inversion of concentration breakthrough curves acquired during an integral pumping test can be used as an alternative quantification method. The idea is to use concentration-time series recorded during integral pumping tests through an inversion technique to estimate contaminant mass fluxes crossing a control plane. In this paper, we examine how a longitudinal concentration gradient along a contaminant plume length scale affects the estimated inversed-concentration distribution and its associated mass flux. The analytically inversed-concentration distribution at the imaginary control plane (ICP) is compared to a numerically generated concentration distribution, treating the latter one as a "real contaminant plume" characterized by the presence of a longitudinal concentration gradient. It is found that the analytically inversed-concentration can lead to overestimation or underestimation of concentration distribution values depending on the transport time period and dispersivity values. At lower dispersivity values, with shorter transport time periods, the analytically inversed-concentration distribution overestimates the "real" concentration distribution. A better fit of the estimated concentration distribution to the "real" one is observed when the transport time period increases, i.e. when the advective front has already crossed the ICP. However, for higher dispersivity values, underestimation of the real concentration distribution is observed. Deviation of the inversed-concentration distribution from the "real" one is assessed for a site-specific concentration gradient term. A concentration gradient adjusted contaminant mass flux is thus formulated to evaluate groundwater contamination levels at a given time period through an ICP. This concentration gradient ratio can indicate whether the ICP is well positioned to evaluate accurately contaminant mass fluxes

  11. Rehearsal Strategy Effects on Developmental Differences for Recall of a Movement Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Jere Dee; Thomas, Jerry R.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation of the effects of passive and active rehearsal on developmental processing differences for movement reproduction indicated that active and mature rehearsal had positive results for the younger child. A discussion of the three methods of rehearsal that were used is included. (Author/DF)

  12. Effective Teaching Communities: Lessons from High-Needs, High-Performing Delaware Schools. SREB Spotlight Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandha, Tysza; Baxter, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Teachers hold the greatest potential impact on student achievement compared to every other in-school factor. Yet schools with the greatest needs, those with a high percentage of low-income students and students of color, face the greatest teacher and leader turnover. They also often have less experienced and less effective teachers, according to…

  13. Effects of Neighborhood Consensus on Services Delivery. Human Services Bibliography Series. Project SHARE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspen Systems Corp., Germantown, MD.

    This Project SHARE bibliography lists 43 documents that are representative of the literature concerning the effects of neighborhood consensus on human services delivery. It is divided into three sections: abstracts, an alphabetical list of personal or corporate authors, and a title index. The abstracts are preceded by citation data to aid in…

  14. The Effects of Instruction on College Nonmajors' Conceptions of Respiration and Photosynthesis. Research Series No. 164.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Charles W.; And Others

    The processes of photosynthesis and respiration are basic to the understanding of many other aspects and functions of biological systems. Because of their curricular significance, these processes served as the focal point in an investigation of student conceptions and instructional effectiveness. In this study, students in a college nonscience…

  15. Supervision: Exploring the Effective Components. ERIC/CASS Counseling Digest Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borders, L. DiAnne, Ed.

    This document contains a collection of ERIC Digests on supervision, a topic of critical professional importance for counselors. Following an introductory article by the guest editor, L. DiAnne Borders, "Supervision: Exploring the Effective Components," 19 digests address a different facet of supervision. The 19 digests are: (1)…

  16. The Greenhouse Effect: A Selected Bibliography. Bibliography Series Twenty-two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Gertrudis, Comp.

    The purpose of this bibliography is to provide listings of articles, books, and documents which are available in the Robert E. Kennedy Library, California Polytechnic State University, and other libraries on the problem of the greenhouse effect published since 1980. Listings are organized as: (1) "Subject Headings"; (2) "Carbon…

  17. [Stimulating effect of triphenylmethane series dyes on growth of Escherichia coli bacteria].

    PubMed

    Bagramian, K A; Panosian, G A; Trchunian, A A

    1998-01-01

    The stimulating effect of a dye of the triphenylmethane group (fast green) applied at low concentrations (10(-4)%) in the presence of toluene on the specific growth rate of bacteria was found. The cell size did not change during batch cultivation. However, the cell dry weight and zeta-potential increased sharply.

  18. Research Synthesis on Effective Teaching Practices for English Language Learners. Publication Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxman, Hersh C.; Tellez, Kip

    This study synthesized research from 1990 to the present on effective teaching for English Language Learners (ELLs), focusing on instructional strategies and methods found to have the most educational benefit and value to the greatest number of ELLs. A total of nearly 100 potentially applicable articles were retrieved, and 34 were included in the…

  19. Retention and Rewards: Promoting Career Advancement for Effective Leaders. [Federal Policy Platform Series. Brief 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Leaders, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Principals are the leverage point for education reforms and the primary drivers of school improvement. A critical part of maintaining a corps of effective principals is rewarding and retaining the best school leaders. Unfortunately, few systems systematically identify principals that make important contributions to student learning or celebrate…

  20. Preparing Effective Special Education Teachers. What Works for Special-Needs Learners Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamlin, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    What tools are in the toolkit of an excellent special educator, and how can teacher preparation programs provide these tools in the most efficient, effective way possible? This practical, clearly written book is grounded in current research and policy as well as the author's extensive experience as a teacher educator. It identifies what special…

  1. Communication for the Workplace: An Integrated Language Approach. Second Edition. Job Skills. Net Effect Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettinger, Blanche; Perfetto, Edda

    Using a developmental, hands-on approach, this text/workbook helps students master the basic English skills that are essential to write effective business correspondence, to recognize language errors, and to develop decision-making and problem-solving skills. Its step-by-step focus and industry-specific format encourages students to review,…

  2. [Effects of coca chewing on the glucose tolerance test].

    PubMed

    Galarza Guzmán, M; Peñaloza Imaña, R; Echalar Afcha, L; Aguilar Valerio, M; Spielvogel, H; Sauvain, M

    1997-01-01

    The effects of coca chewing on the glucose tolerance test were measured. The subjects were 14 habitual coca chewers and 14 non-chewers. All were of Aymara ancestry and came from a rural community from the "Altiplano" close to the city of La Paz. The coca users chewed coca leaves during 3 1/2 hours of the test. The non-chewers showed a significant hypoglycemia at 120 minutes of the test. This effect was not observed in the coca chewers. The hormonal counter-regulation response to hypoglycemia worked perfectly in non-chewers, since glucose levels reached normal values at 180 minutes of the test. These results suggest that coca chewers, at high altitude do not present hypoglycemia, due to an antagonic action of coca metabolites on insulin; allowing a greater availability of glucose in the organism. This would have a positive effect on metabolism in an environment of hypobaric hypoxia, known to lead to situations of hypoglycemia.

  3. The origins of multifractality in financial time series and the effect of extreme events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Elena; Hanan, William; Heffernan, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the results of multifractal testing of two sets of financial data: daily data of the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) index and minutely data of the Euro Stoxx 50 index. Where multifractal scaling is found, the spectrum of scaling exponents is calculated via Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis. In both cases, further investigations reveal that the temporal correlations in the data are a more significant source of the multifractal scaling than are the distributions of the returns. It is also shown that the extreme events which make up the heavy tails of the distribution of the Euro Stoxx 50 log returns distort the scaling in the data set. The most extreme events are inimical to the scaling regime. This result is in contrast to previous findings that extreme events contribute to multifractality.

  4. Effects of temperature on mortality in Hong Kong: a time series analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Wen; Chan, Albert P. C.

    2015-07-01

    Although interest in assessing the impacts of hot temperature and mortality in Hong Kong has increased, less evidence on the effect of cold temperature on mortality is available. We examined both the effects of heat and cold temperatures on daily mortality in Hong Kong for the last decade (2002-2011). A quasi-Poisson model combined with a distributed lag non-linear model was used to assess the non-linear and delayed effects of temperatures on cause-specific and age-specific mortality. Non-linear effects of temperature on mortality were identified. The relative risk of non-accidental mortality associated with cold temperature (11.1 °C, 1st percentile of temperature) relative to 19.4 °C (25th percentile of temperature) was 1.17 (95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.29) for lags 0-13. The relative risk of non-accidental mortality associated with high temperature (31.5 °C, 99th percentile of temperature) relative to 27.8 °C (75th percentile of temperature) was 1.09 (95 % CI: 1.03, 1.17) for lags 0-3. In Hong Kong, extreme cold and hot temperatures increased the risk of mortality. The effect of cold lasted longer and greater than that of heat. People older than 75 years were the most vulnerable group to cold temperature, while people aged 65-74 were the most vulnerable group to hot temperature. Our findings may have implications for developing intervention strategies for extreme cold and hot temperatures.

  5. Effects of temperature on mortality in Hong Kong: a time series analysis.

    PubMed

    Yi, Wen; Chan, Albert P C

    2015-07-01

    Although interest in assessing the impacts of hot temperature and mortality in Hong Kong has increased, less evidence on the effect of cold temperature on mortality is available. We examined both the effects of heat and cold temperatures on daily mortality in Hong Kong for the last decade (2002-2011). A quasi-Poisson model combined with a distributed lag non-linear model was used to assess the non-linear and delayed effects of temperatures on cause-specific and age-specific mortality. Non-linear effects of temperature on mortality were identified. The relative risk of non-accidental mortality associated with cold temperature (11.1 °C, 1st percentile of temperature) relative to 19.4 °C (25th percentile of temperature) was 1.17 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.29) for lags 0-13. The relative risk of non-accidental mortality associated with high temperature (31.5 °C, 99th percentile of temperature) relative to 27.8 °C (75th percentile of temperature) was 1.09 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.17) for lags 0-3. In Hong Kong, extreme cold and hot temperatures increased the risk of mortality. The effect of cold lasted longer and greater than that of heat. People older than 75 years were the most vulnerable group to cold temperature, while people aged 65-74 were the most vulnerable group to hot temperature. Our findings may have implications for developing intervention strategies for extreme cold and hot temperatures.

  6. Building neurophenomics in zebrafish: Effects of prior testing stress and test batteries.

    PubMed

    Song, Cai; Yang, Lei; Wang, JiaJia; Chen, Peirong; Li, Shaomin; Liu, Yingcong; Nguyen, Michael; Kaluyeva, Aleksandra; Kyzar, Evan J; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Kalueff, Allan V

    2016-09-15

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a promising model organism for neurophenomics - a new field of neuroscience linking neural phenotypes to various genetic and environmental factors. However, the effects of prior experimental manipulations on zebrafish performance in different behavioral paradigms remain unclear. Here, we examine the influence of selected stressful procedures and test batteries on adult zebrafish anxiety-like behaviors in two commonly used models - the novel tank (NTT) and the light-dark box (LDB) tests. While no overt behavioral differences between outbred short-fin wild-type (WT) and mutant 'pink' glowfish were seen in both tests under baseline (control) conditions, an acute severe stressor (a 30-min car transportation) detected significantly lower mutant fish anxiety-like behavior in these tests. In contrast, WT zebrafish showed no overt NTT or LDB responses following a mild stressor (5-min 40-Wt light) exposure, also showing no differences in batteries of NTT and LDB run immediately one after another, or with a 1-day interval. Collectively, these findings suggest that zebrafish may be relatively less sensitive (e.g., than other popular species, such as rodents) to the test battery effect, and show that stronger stressors may be needed (to complement low-to-moderate stress aquatic screens) to better reveal phenotypical variance in zebrafish assays. Strengthening the value of zebrafish models in neurophenotyping research, this study indicates the potential of using more test batteries and a wider spectrum of pre-test stressors in zebrafish behavioral assays.

  7. Homogenising time series: beliefs, dogmas and facts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domonkos, P.

    2011-06-01

    In the recent decades various homogenisation methods have been developed, but the real effects of their application on time series are still not known sufficiently. The ongoing COST action HOME (COST ES0601) is devoted to reveal the real impacts of homogenisation methods more detailed and with higher confidence than earlier. As a part of the COST activity, a benchmark dataset was built whose characteristics approach well the characteristics of real networks of observed time series. This dataset offers much better opportunity than ever before to test the wide variety of homogenisation methods, and analyse the real effects of selected theoretical recommendations. Empirical results show that real observed time series usually include several inhomogeneities of different sizes. Small inhomogeneities often have similar statistical characteristics than natural changes caused by climatic variability, thus the pure application of the classic theory that change-points of observed time series can be found and corrected one-by-one is impossible. However, after homogenisation the linear trends, seasonal changes and long-term fluctuations of time series are usually much closer to the reality than in raw time series. Some problems around detecting multiple structures of inhomogeneities, as well as that of time series comparisons within homogenisation procedures are discussed briefly in the study.

  8. Magnetocaloric effect of Gd4(BixSb1-x)3 alloy series

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, Xuejun

    1999-01-01

    Alloys from the Gd4(BixSb1-x)3 series were prepared by melting a stoichiometric amounts of pure metals in an induction furnace. The crystal structure is of the anti-Th3P4 type (space group I$\\bar{4}$3d) for all the compounds tested. The linear increase of the lattice parameters with Bi concentration is attributed to the larger atomic radius of Bi than that of Sb. Magnetic measurements show that the alloys order ferromagnetically from 266K to 330K, with the ordering temperature increasing with decreasing Bi concentration. The alloys are soft ferromagnets below their Curie temperatures, and follow the Curie-Weiss law above their ordering temperatures. The paramagnetic effective magnetic moments are low compared to the theoretical value for a free Gd3+, while the ordered magnetic moments are close to the theoretical value for Gd. The alloys exhibit a moderate magnetocaloric effect (MCE) whose maxima are located between 270K and 338K and have relatively wide peaks. The peak MCE temperature decreases with decreasing Bi concentration while the peak height increases with decreasing Bi concentration. The Curie temperatures determined from inflection points of heat capacity are in good agreement with those obtained from the magnetocaloric effect. The MCE results obtained from the two different methods (magnetization and heat capacity) agree quite well with each other for all of the alloys in the series.

  9. Two levels ARIMAX and regression models for forecasting time series data with calendar variation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhartono, Lee, Muhammad Hisyam; Prastyo, Dedy Dwi

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research is to develop a calendar variation model for forecasting retail sales data with the Eid ul-Fitr effect. The proposed model is based on two methods, namely two levels ARIMAX and regression methods. Two levels ARIMAX and regression models are built by using ARIMAX for the first level and regression for the second level. Monthly men's jeans and women's trousers sales in a retail company for the period January 2002 to September 2009 are used as case study. In general, two levels of calendar variation model yields two models, namely the first model to reconstruct the sales pattern that already occurred, and the second model to forecast the effect of increasing sales due to Eid ul-Fitr that affected sales at the same and the previous months. The results show that the proposed two level calendar variation model based on ARIMAX and regression methods yields better forecast compared to the seasonal ARIMA model and Neural Networks.

  10. Embryonic development of lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis: a staging series, analysis of growth and effects of fixation.

    PubMed

    Sreetharan, S; Thome, C; Mitz, C; Eme, J; Mueller, C A; Hulley, E N; Manzon, R G; Somers, C M; Boreham, D R; Wilson, J Y

    2015-09-01

    A reference staging series of 18 morphological stages of laboratory reared lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis is provided. The developmental processes of blastulation, gastrulation, neurulation as well as development of the eye, circulatory system, chromatophores and mouth are included and accompanied by detailed descriptions and live imaging. Quantitative measurements of embryo size and mass were taken at each developmental stage. Eggs were 3·19 ± 0·16 mm (mean ± s.d.) in diameter at fertilization and embryos reached a total length (LT ) of 14·25 ± 0·41 mm at hatch. Separated yolk and embryo dry mass were 0·25 ± 0·08 mg and 1·39 ± 0·17 mg, respectively, at hatch. The effects of two common preservatives (formalin and ethanol) were examined throughout development and post hatch. Embryo LT significantly decreased following fixation at all points in development. A correction factor to estimate live LT from corresponding fixed LT was determined as live LT = (fixed LT )(1·025) . Eye diameter and yolk area measurements significantly increased in fixed compared with live embryos up to 85-90% development for both measurements. The described developmental stages can be generalized to teleost species, and is particularly relevant for the study of coregonid development due to additionally shared developmental characteristics. The results of this study and staging series are therefore applicable across various research streams encompassing numerous species that require accurate staging of embryos and descriptions of morphological development.

  11. A case series study of the neurophysiological effects of altered states of mind during intense Islamic prayer.

    PubMed

    Newberg, Andrew B; Wintering, Nancy A; Yaden, David B; Waldman, Mark R; Reddin, Janet; Alavi, Abass

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a case series with preliminary data regarding the neurophysiological effects of specific prayer practices associated with the Islamic religion. Such practices, like other prayer practices, are likely associated with several coordinated cognitive activities and a complex pattern of brain physiology. However, there may also be changes specific to the goals of Islamic prayer which has, as its most fundamental concept, the surrendering of one's self to God. To evaluate Islamic prayer practices, we measured changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in three Islamic individuals while practicing two different types of Islamic prayer. In this case series, intense Islamic prayer practices generally showed decreased CBF in the prefrontal cortex and related frontal lobe structures, and the parietal lobes. However, there were also several regions that differed between the two types of prayer practices including increased CBF in the caudate nucleus, insula, thalamus, and globus pallidus. These patterns also appear distinct from concentrative techniques in which an individual focuses on a particular idea or object. It is hypothesized that the changes in brain activity may be associated with feelings of "surrender" and "connectedness with God" described to be experienced during these intense Islamic prayer practices. Overall, these results suggest that several coordinated cognitive processes occur during intense Islamic prayer. Methodological issues and implications of the results are also discussed.

  12. ASSESSMENT OF EXISTING TEST REPORTS FOR EVALUATING VOC CONTROL EFFECTIVENESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report outlines the approach taken by EPA to review existing test reports for evaluating volatile organic compound (VOC) control device effectiveness and identifying missing control device effectiveness information. A format is presented to provide guidance and serve as the b...

  13. Effect of Differential Item Functioning on Test Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabasakal, Kübra Atalay; Kelecioglu, Hülya

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effect of differential item functioning (DIF) items on test equating through multilevel item response models (MIRMs) and traditional IRMs. The performances of three different equating models were investigated under 24 different simulation conditions, and the variables whose effects were examined included sample size, test…

  14. Estimating and Testing Mediation Effects with Censored Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated influences of censored data on mediation analysis. Mediation effect estimates can be biased and inefficient with censoring on any one of the input, mediation, and output variables. A Bayesian Tobit approach was introduced to estimate and test mediation effects with censored data. Simulation results showed that the Bayesian…

  15. Curriculum and Student Matching without the Negative Effects of Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, J. John, III; Carter, David G., Sr.

    The main objective of this paper is to examine the issue of matching the school curriculum with the needs of students, without the negative effects of testing. The paper next discusses curricular incompatibilities. It is only by carefully designing, implementing, and evaluating instructional programs that the negative effects of ability grouping,…

  16. The Effects of Student-Generated Questions on Test Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves-Kazelskis, Carolyn; Kazelskis, Richard

    A total of 50 college students enrolled in different sections of a language arts methodology course served as treatment and control groups to investigate the effects of student-generated questions on test performance. Periodically throughout the course, students in the treatment group received instruction in effective questioning techniques by…

  17. Permutations and time series analysis.

    PubMed

    Cánovas, Jose S; Guillamón, Antonio

    2009-12-01

    The main aim of this paper is to show how the use of permutations can be useful in the study of time series analysis. In particular, we introduce a test for checking the independence of a time series which is based on the number of admissible permutations on it. The main improvement in our tests is that we are able to give a theoretical distribution for independent time series.

  18. Test of the gravitational redshift effect at Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisher, T. P.; Anderson, J. D.; Campbell, J. K.

    1990-03-01

    The results of a test of the gravitational redshift effect at Saturn are reported. Measurements of the redshift were obtained with the Voyager 1 spacecraft during its encounter with Saturn in 1980. Because the spacecraft was equipped with an ultrastable crystal oscillator (USO), it is possible to test the redshift effect at an interesting level of accuracy. Assuming that radiation in the Saturn magnetosphere has had a negligible effect on the USO, the prediction of general relativity to an accuracy of 1 percent is verified. This limit could be of interest for constraining possible alternative theories of gravity.

  19. Short term effects of air pollution on health: a European approach using epidemiologic time series data: the APHEA protocol.

    PubMed Central

    Katsouyanni, K; Schwartz, J; Spix, C; Touloumi, G; Zmirou, D; Zanobetti, A; Wojtyniak, B; Vonk, J M; Tobias, A; Pönkä, A; Medina, S; Bachárová, L; Anderson, H R

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Results from several studies over the past five years have shown that the current levels of pollutants in Europe and North America have adverse short term effects on health. The APHEA project aims to quantifying these in Europe, using standardised methodology. The project protocol and analytical methodology are presented here. DESIGN: Daily time series data were gathered for several air pollutants (sulphur dioxide; particulate matter, measured as total particles or as the particle fraction with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than a certain cut off, or as black smoke; nitrogen dioxide; and ozone) and health outcomes (the total and cause specific number of deaths and emergency hospital admissions). The data included fulfilled the quality criteria set by the APHEA protocol. SETTING: Fifteen European cities from 10 different countries with a total population over 25 million. METHODOLOGY: The APHEA collaborative group decided on a specific methodological procedure to control for confounding effects and evaluate the hypothesis. At the same time there was sufficient flexibility to allow local characteristics to be taken into account. The procedure included modelling of all potential confounding factors (that is, seasonal and long term patterns, meteorological factors, day of the week, holidays, and other unusual events), choosing the "best" air pollution models, and applying diagnostic tools to check the adequacy of the models. The final analysis used autoregressive Poisson models allowing for overdispersion. Effects were reported as relative risks contrasting defined increases in the corresponding pollutant levels. Each participating group applied the analyses to their own data. CONCLUSIONS: This methodology enabled results from many different European settings to be considered collectively. It represented the best available compromise between feasibility, comparability, and local adaptibility when using aggregated time series data not

  20. Anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis: case series and analysis of the effects of antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Dalmau, Josep; Gleichman, Amy J; Hughes, Ethan G; Rossi, Jeffrey E; Peng, Xiaoyu; Lai, Meizan; Dessain, Scott K; Rosenfeld, Myrna R; Balice-Gordon, Rita; Lynch, David R

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background A severe form of encephalitis associated with antibodies against NR1–NR2 heteromers of the NMDA receptor was recently identified. We aimed to analyse the clinical and immunological features of patients with the disorder and examine the effects of antibodies against NMDA receptors in neuronal cultures. Methods We describe the clinical characteristics of 100 patients with encephalitis and NR1–NR2 antibodies. HEK293 cells ectopically expressing single or assembled NR1–NR2 subunits were used to determine the epitope targeted by the antibodies. Antibody titres were measured with ELISA. The effect of antibodies on neuronal cultures was determined by quantitative analysis of NMDA-receptor clusters. Findings Median age of patients was 23 years (range 5–76 years); 91 were women. All patients presented with psychiatric symptoms or memory problems; 76 had seizures, 88 unresponsiveness (decreased conciousness), 86 dyskinesias, 69 autonomic instability, and 66 hypoventilation. 58 (59%) of 98 patients for whom results of oncological assessments were available had tumours, most commonly ovarian teratoma. Patients who received early tumour treatment (usually with immunotherapy) had better outcome (p=0.004) and fewer neurological relapses (p=0.009) than the rest of the patients. 75 patients recovered or had mild deficits and 25 had severe deficits or died. Improvement was associated with a decrease of serum antibody titres. The main epitope targeted by the antibodies is in the extracellular N-terminal domain of the NR1 subunit. Patients’ antibodies decreased the numbers of cell-surface NMDA receptors and NMDA-receptor clusters in postsynaptic dendrites, an effect that could be reversed by antibody removal. Interpretation A well-defined set of clinical characteristics are associated with anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis. The pathogenesis of the disorder seems to be mediated by antibodies. PMID:18851928