Science.gov

Sample records for efficiency measures securing

  1. Improving efficiency, securing savings.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    The NHS in England could save £1 bn annually if all NHS acute Trustsachieved the median level of estates and facilities running costs, the second (and 'final') report by Lord Carter and his team into the 'productivity and efficiency' of acute NHS Trusts across England, published on 5 February,suggests. As HEJ, editor, Jonathan Baillie reports, Lord Carter's team'songoing recent discussions with senior personnel working in a range of disciplines at 32 NHS Trusts--which followed dialogue with an initial 22 Trusts--identified 'unwarranted variation' in the use of resources ranging from staff to land and buildings on such a scale that effectively addressing this 'variation' could, the DH-commissioned team says, potentially reduce by £5 bn annually the NHS in England's costs. PMID:27132300

  2. 49 CFR 1554.101 - Security Measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT REPAIR STATION SECURITY Security Measures... display area of an airport covered by an airport security program under 49 CFR part 1542 in the United... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Security Measures. 1554.101 Section...

  3. Efficient Controlled Quantum Secure Direct Communication Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patwardhan, Siddharth; Moulick, Subhayan Roy; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.

    2016-07-01

    We study controlled quantum secure direct communication (CQSDC), a cryptographic scheme where a sender can send a secret bit-string to an intended recipient, without any secure classical channel, who can obtain the complete bit-string only with the permission of a controller. We report an efficient protocol to realize CQSDC using Cluster state and then go on to construct a (2-3)-CQSDC using Brown state, where a coalition of any two of the three controllers is required to retrieve the complete message. We argue both protocols to be unconditionally secure and analyze the efficiency of the protocols to show it to outperform the existing schemes while maintaining the same security specifications.

  4. Photoreceiver efficiency measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehr, C. G.

    1975-01-01

    The efficiency and other related parameters of Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's four laser receivers were measured at the observing stations by oscilloscope photography. If the efficiency is defined as the number of photoelectrons generated by the photomultiplier tube divided by the number of photons entering the aperture of the receiver, its measured value is about 1% for the laser wavelength of 694 nm. This value is consistent with the efficiency computed from the specified characteristics of the photoreceiver's optical components.

  5. Towards Efficient Collaboration in Cyber Security

    SciTech Connect

    Hui, Peter SY; Bruce, Joseph R.; Fink, Glenn A.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Best, Daniel M.; McGrath, Liam R.; Endert, Alexander

    2010-06-03

    Cyber security analysts in different geographical and organizational domains are often largely tasked with similar duties, albeit with domain-specific variations. These analysts necessarily perform much of the same work independently— for instance, analyzing the same list of security bulletins released by largely the same set of software vendors. As such, communication and collaboration between such analysts would be mutually beneficial to the analysts involved, potentially reducing redundancy and offering the opportunity to preemptively alert each other to high-severity security alerts in a more timely fashion. However, several barriers to practical and efficient collaboration exist, and as such, no such framework exists to support such efforts. In this paper, we discuss the inherent difficulties which make efficient collaboration between cyber security analysts a difficult goal to achieve. We discuss preliminary ideas and concepts towards a collaborative cyber-security framework currently under development, whose goal is to facilitate analyst collaboration across these boundaries. While still in its early stages, we describe work-in-progress towards achieving this goal, including motivation, functionality, concepts, and a high-level description of the proposed system architecture.

  6. 33 CFR 106.265 - Security measures for restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.265 Security measures for restricted areas. (a)...

  7. 33 CFR 106.265 - Security measures for restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.265 Security measures for restricted areas. (a)...

  8. Secure and Efficient Routable Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Edgar, Thomas W.; Hadley, Mark D.; Manz, David O.; Winn, Jennifer D.

    2010-05-01

    This document provides the methods to secure routable control system communication in the electric sector. The approach of this document yields a long-term vision for a future of secure communication, while also providing near term steps and a roadmap. The requirements for the future secure control system environment were spelled out to provide a final target. Additionally a survey and evaluation of current protocols was used to determine if any existing technology could achieve this goal. In the end a four-step path was described that brought about increasing requirement completion and culminates in the realization of the long term vision.

  9. Validity and reliability of food security measures.

    PubMed

    Cafiero, Carlo; Melgar-Quiñonez, Hugo R; Ballard, Terri J; Kepple, Anne W

    2014-12-01

    This paper reviews some of the existing food security indicators, discussing the validity of the underlying concept and the expected reliability of measures under reasonably feasible conditions. The main objective of the paper is to raise awareness on existing trade-offs between different qualities of possible food security measurement tools that must be taken into account when such tools are proposed for practical application, especially for use within an international monitoring framework. The hope is to provide a timely, useful contribution to the process leading to the definition of a food security goal and the associated monitoring framework within the post-2015 Development Agenda. PMID:25407084

  10. Portfolio analysis of layered security measures.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Samrat; Hora, Stephen C; Rosoff, Heather

    2015-03-01

    Layered defenses are necessary for protecting the public from terrorist attacks. Designing a system of such defensive measures requires consideration of the interaction of these countermeasures. In this article, we present an analysis of a layered security system within the lower Manhattan area. It shows how portfolios of security measures can be evaluated through portfolio decision analysis. Consideration is given to the total benefits and costs of the system. Portfolio diagrams are created that help communicate alternatives among stakeholders who have differing views on the tradeoffs between security and economic activity. PMID:25487829

  11. Validity and reliability of food security measures.

    PubMed

    Cafiero, Carlo; Melgar-Quiñonez, Hugo R; Ballard, Terri J; Kepple, Anne W

    2014-12-01

    This paper reviews some of the existing food security indicators, discussing the validity of the underlying concept and the expected reliability of measures under reasonably feasible conditions. The main objective of the paper is to raise awareness on existing trade-offs between different qualities of possible food security measurement tools that must be taken into account when such tools are proposed for practical application, especially for use within an international monitoring framework. The hope is to provide a timely, useful contribution to the process leading to the definition of a food security goal and the associated monitoring framework within the post-2015 Development Agenda.

  12. Effects of detector efficiency mismatch on security of quantum cryptosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, Vadim; Anisimov, Andrey; Skaar, Johannes

    2006-08-15

    We suggest a type of attack on quantum cryptosystems that exploits variations in detector efficiency as a function of a control parameter accessible to an eavesdropper. With gated single-photon detectors, this control parameter can be the timing of the incoming pulse. When the eavesdropper sends short pulses using the appropriate timing so that the two gated detectors in Bob's setup have different efficiencies, the security of quantum key distribution can be compromised. Specifically, we show for the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol that if the efficiency mismatch between 0 and 1 detectors for some value of the control parameter gets large enough (roughly 15:1 or larger), Eve can construct a successful faked-states attack causing a quantum bit error rate lower than 11%. We also derive a general security bound as a function of the detector sensitivity mismatch for the BB84 protocol. Experimental data for two different detectors are presented, and protection measures against this attack are discussed.

  13. Computationally Efficient Neural Network Intrusion Security Awareness

    SciTech Connect

    Todd Vollmer; Milos Manic

    2009-08-01

    An enhanced version of an algorithm to provide anomaly based intrusion detection alerts for cyber security state awareness is detailed. A unique aspect is the training of an error back-propagation neural network with intrusion detection rule features to provide a recognition basis. Network packet details are subsequently provided to the trained network to produce a classification. This leverages rule knowledge sets to produce classifications for anomaly based systems. Several test cases executed on ICMP protocol revealed a 60% identification rate of true positives. This rate matched the previous work, but 70% less memory was used and the run time was reduced to less than 1 second from 37 seconds.

  14. 33 CFR 101.130 - Equivalent security measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equivalent security measures. 101.130 Section 101.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: GENERAL General § 101.130 Equivalent security measures. (a) For...

  15. 33 CFR 101.130 - Equivalent security measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equivalent security measures. 101... MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: GENERAL General § 101.130 Equivalent security measures. (a) For any measure required by part 104, 105, or 106 of this subchapter, the owner or operator may substitute...

  16. National Residential Efficiency Measures Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The National Residential Efficiency Measures Database is a publicly available, centralized resource of residential building retrofit measures and costs for the U.S. building industry. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy, NREL developed this tool to help users determine the most cost-effective retrofit measures for improving energy efficiency of existing homes. Software developers who require residential retrofit performance and cost data for applications that evaluate residential efficiency measures are the primary audience for this database. In addition, home performance contractors and manufacturers of residential materials and equipment may find this information useful. The database offers the following types of retrofit measures: 1) Appliances, 2) Domestic Hot Water, 3) Enclosure, 4) Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), 5) Lighting, 6) Miscellaneous.

  17. 33 CFR 106.270 - Security measures for delivery of stores and industrial supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.270 Security measures for delivery...

  18. 33 CFR 106.270 - Security measures for delivery of stores and industrial supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.270 Security measures for delivery...

  19. 33 CFR 106.270 - Security measures for delivery of stores and industrial supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.270 Security measures for delivery...

  20. 33 CFR 106.270 - Security measures for delivery of stores and industrial supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.270 Security measures for delivery...

  1. 33 CFR 104.275 - Security measures for handling cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security measures for handling... measures for handling cargo. (a) General. The vessel owner or operator must ensure that security measures... there are regular or repeated cargo operations with the same shipper, coordinate security measures...

  2. A flexible framework for secure and efficient program obfuscation.

    SciTech Connect

    Solis, John Hector

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we present a modular framework for constructing a secure and efficient program obfuscation scheme. Our approach, inspired by the obfuscation with respect to oracle machines model of [4], retains an interactive online protocol with an oracle, but relaxes the original computational and storage restrictions. We argue this is reasonable given the computational resources of modern personal devices. Furthermore, we relax the information-theoretic security requirement for computational security to utilize established cryptographic primitives. With this additional flexibility we are free to explore different cryptographic buildingblocks. Our approach combines authenticated encryption with private information retrieval to construct a secure program obfuscation framework. We give a formal specification of our framework, based on desired functionality and security properties, and provide an example instantiation. In particular, we implement AES in Galois/Counter Mode for authenticated encryption and the Gentry-Ramzan [13]constant communication-rate private information retrieval scheme. We present our implementation results and show that non-trivial sized programs can be realized, but scalability is quickly limited by computational overhead. Finally, we include a discussion on security considerations when instantiating specific modules.

  3. GENERAL: Efficient quantum secure communication with a publicly known key

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun-Yan; Li, Xi-Han; Deng, Fu-Guo; Zhou, Hong-Yu

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a simple way for an eavesdropper to eavesdrop freely the secret message in the experimental realization of quantum communication protocol proposed by Beige et al (2002 Acta Phys. Pol. A 101 357). Moreover, it introduces an efficient quantum secure communication protocol based on a publicly known key with decoy photons and two biased bases by modifying the original protocol. The total efficiency of this new protocol is double that of the original one. With a low noise quantum channel, this protocol can be used for transmitting a secret message. At present, this protocol is good for generating a private key efficiently.

  4. Efficient Authorization of Rich Presence Using Secure and Composed Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Chou, Wu

    This paper presents an extended Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) model for efficient authorization of rich presence using secure web services composed with an abstract presence data model. Following the information symmetry principle, the standard RBAC model is extended to support context sensitive social relations and cascaded authority. In conjunction with the extended RBAC model, we introduce an extensible presence architecture prototype using WS-Security and WS-Eventing to secure rich presence information exchanges based on PKI certificates. Applications and performance measurements of our presence system are presented to show that the proposed RBAC framework for presence and collaboration is well suited for real-time communication and collaboration.

  5. Efficient and provable secure pairing-free security-mediated identity-based identification schemes.

    PubMed

    Chin, Ji-Jian; Tan, Syh-Yuan; Heng, Swee-Huay; Phan, Raphael C-W

    2014-01-01

    Security-mediated cryptography was first introduced by Boneh et al. in 2001. The main motivation behind security-mediated cryptography was the capability to allow instant revocation of a user's secret key by necessitating the cooperation of a security mediator in any given transaction. Subsequently in 2003, Boneh et al. showed how to convert a RSA-based security-mediated encryption scheme from a traditional public key setting to an identity-based one, where certificates would no longer be required. Following these two pioneering papers, other cryptographic primitives that utilize a security-mediated approach began to surface. However, the security-mediated identity-based identification scheme (SM-IBI) was not introduced until Chin et al. in 2013 with a scheme built on bilinear pairings. In this paper, we improve on the efficiency results for SM-IBI schemes by proposing two schemes that are pairing-free and are based on well-studied complexity assumptions: the RSA and discrete logarithm assumptions.

  6. Efficient and Provable Secure Pairing-Free Security-Mediated Identity-Based Identification Schemes

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Ji-Jian; Tan, Syh-Yuan; Heng, Swee-Huay; Phan, Raphael C.-W.

    2014-01-01

    Security-mediated cryptography was first introduced by Boneh et al. in 2001. The main motivation behind security-mediated cryptography was the capability to allow instant revocation of a user's secret key by necessitating the cooperation of a security mediator in any given transaction. Subsequently in 2003, Boneh et al. showed how to convert a RSA-based security-mediated encryption scheme from a traditional public key setting to an identity-based one, where certificates would no longer be required. Following these two pioneering papers, other cryptographic primitives that utilize a security-mediated approach began to surface. However, the security-mediated identity-based identification scheme (SM-IBI) was not introduced until Chin et al. in 2013 with a scheme built on bilinear pairings. In this paper, we improve on the efficiency results for SM-IBI schemes by proposing two schemes that are pairing-free and are based on well-studied complexity assumptions: the RSA and discrete logarithm assumptions. PMID:25207333

  7. Efficient and provable secure pairing-free security-mediated identity-based identification schemes.

    PubMed

    Chin, Ji-Jian; Tan, Syh-Yuan; Heng, Swee-Huay; Phan, Raphael C-W

    2014-01-01

    Security-mediated cryptography was first introduced by Boneh et al. in 2001. The main motivation behind security-mediated cryptography was the capability to allow instant revocation of a user's secret key by necessitating the cooperation of a security mediator in any given transaction. Subsequently in 2003, Boneh et al. showed how to convert a RSA-based security-mediated encryption scheme from a traditional public key setting to an identity-based one, where certificates would no longer be required. Following these two pioneering papers, other cryptographic primitives that utilize a security-mediated approach began to surface. However, the security-mediated identity-based identification scheme (SM-IBI) was not introduced until Chin et al. in 2013 with a scheme built on bilinear pairings. In this paper, we improve on the efficiency results for SM-IBI schemes by proposing two schemes that are pairing-free and are based on well-studied complexity assumptions: the RSA and discrete logarithm assumptions. PMID:25207333

  8. A Secure and Efficient Threshold Group Signature Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yansheng; Wang, Xueming; Qiu, Gege

    The paper presents a secure and efficient threshold group signature scheme aiming at two problems of current threshold group signature schemes: conspiracy attack and inefficiency. Scheme proposed in this paper takes strategy of separating designed clerk who is responsible for collecting and authenticating each individual signature from group, the designed clerk don't participate in distribution of group secret key and has his own public key and private key, designed clerk needs to sign part information of threshold group signature after collecting signatures. Thus verifier has to verify signature of the group after validating signature of the designed clerk. This scheme is proved to be secure against conspiracy attack at last and is more efficient by comparing with other schemes.

  9. Muon Fluence Measurements for Homeland Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ankney, Austin S.; Berguson, Timothy J.; Borgardt, James D.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2010-08-10

    This report focuses on work conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to better characterize aspects of backgrounds in RPMs deployed for homeland security purposes. Two polyvinyl toluene scintillators were utilized with supporting NIM electronics to measure the muon coincidence rate. Muon spallation is one mechanism by which background neutrons are produced. The measurements performed concentrated on a broad investigation of the dependence of the muon flux on a) variations in solid angle subtended by the detector; b) the detector inclination with the horizontal; c) depth underground; and d) diurnal effects. These tests were conducted inside at Building 318/133, outdoors at Building 331G, and underground at Building 3425 at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  10. Secure and Efficient Reactive Video Surveillance for Patient Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Braeken, An; Porambage, Pawani; Gurtov, Andrei; Ylianttila, Mika

    2016-01-02

    Video surveillance is widely deployed for many kinds of monitoring applications in healthcare and assisted living systems. Security and privacy are two promising factors that align the quality and validity of video surveillance systems with the caliber of patient monitoring applications. In this paper, we propose a symmetric key-based security framework for the reactive video surveillance of patients based on the inputs coming from data measured by a wireless body area network attached to the human body. Only authenticated patients are able to activate the video cameras, whereas the patient and authorized people can consult the video data. User and location privacy are at each moment guaranteed for the patient. A tradeoff between security and quality of service is defined in order to ensure that the surveillance system gets activated even in emergency situations. In addition, the solution includes resistance against tampering with the device on the patient's side.

  11. Secure and Efficient Reactive Video Surveillance for Patient Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Braeken, An; Porambage, Pawani; Gurtov, Andrei; Ylianttila, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Video surveillance is widely deployed for many kinds of monitoring applications in healthcare and assisted living systems. Security and privacy are two promising factors that align the quality and validity of video surveillance systems with the caliber of patient monitoring applications. In this paper, we propose a symmetric key-based security framework for the reactive video surveillance of patients based on the inputs coming from data measured by a wireless body area network attached to the human body. Only authenticated patients are able to activate the video cameras, whereas the patient and authorized people can consult the video data. User and location privacy are at each moment guaranteed for the patient. A tradeoff between security and quality of service is defined in order to ensure that the surveillance system gets activated even in emergency situations. In addition, the solution includes resistance against tampering with the device on the patient's side. PMID:26729130

  12. Secure and Efficient Reactive Video Surveillance for Patient Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Braeken, An; Porambage, Pawani; Gurtov, Andrei; Ylianttila, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Video surveillance is widely deployed for many kinds of monitoring applications in healthcare and assisted living systems. Security and privacy are two promising factors that align the quality and validity of video surveillance systems with the caliber of patient monitoring applications. In this paper, we propose a symmetric key-based security framework for the reactive video surveillance of patients based on the inputs coming from data measured by a wireless body area network attached to the human body. Only authenticated patients are able to activate the video cameras, whereas the patient and authorized people can consult the video data. User and location privacy are at each moment guaranteed for the patient. A tradeoff between security and quality of service is defined in order to ensure that the surveillance system gets activated even in emergency situations. In addition, the solution includes resistance against tampering with the device on the patient’s side. PMID:26729130

  13. Validity Evidence for the Security Scale as a Measure of Perceived Attachment Security in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Leve, Leslie D.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the validity of a self-report measure of children's perceived attachment security (the Kerns Security Scale) was tested using adolescents. With regards to predictive validity, the Security Scale was significantly associated with (1) observed mother-adolescent interactions during conflict and (2) parent- and teacher-rated social…

  14. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Kashif; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Orgun, Mehmet A; Al-Muhtadi, Jalal; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Khalil, Mohammed Sayim; Ali Ahmed, Adel

    2016-01-01

    The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP) involves an artificial immune system (AIS) that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP) that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2) and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks. PMID:27043572

  15. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Kashif; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Orgun, Mehmet A.; Al-Muhtadi, Jalal; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.; Khalil, Mohammed Sayim; Ali Ahmed, Adel

    2016-01-01

    The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP) involves an artificial immune system (AIS) that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP) that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2) and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks. PMID:27043572

  16. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Kashif; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Orgun, Mehmet A; Al-Muhtadi, Jalal; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Khalil, Mohammed Sayim; Ali Ahmed, Adel

    2016-01-01

    The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP) involves an artificial immune system (AIS) that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP) that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2) and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks.

  17. Efficient arbitrated quantum signature and its proof of security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qin; Li, Chengqing; Long, Dongyang; Chan, Wai Hong; Wang, Changji

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, an efficient arbitrated quantum signature scheme is proposed by combining quantum cryptographic techniques and some ideas in classical cryptography. In the presented scheme, the signatory and the receiver can share a long-term secret key with the arbitrator by utilizing the key together with a random number. While in previous quantum signature schemes, the key shared between the signatory and the arbitrator or between the receiver and the arbitrator could be used only once, and thus each time when a signatory needs to sign, the signatory and the receiver have to obtain a new key shared with the arbitrator through a quantum key distribution protocol. Detailed theoretical analysis shows that the proposed scheme is efficient and provably secure.

  18. 33 CFR 104.265 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... security measures to: (1) Deter the unauthorized introduction of dangerous substances and devices... approved VSP. These additional security measures may include: (1) Increasing the frequency and detail of... operations to deter unauthorized access; (4) Limiting the number of access points to the vessel by...

  19. 33 CFR 104.265 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... security measures to: (1) Deter the unauthorized introduction of dangerous substances and devices... approved VSP. These additional security measures may include: (1) Increasing the frequency and detail of... operations to deter unauthorized access; (4) Limiting the number of access points to the vessel by...

  20. Food security: increasing yield and improving resource use efficiency.

    PubMed

    Parry, Martin A J; Hawkesford, Malcolm J

    2010-11-01

    Food production and security will be a major issue for supplying an increasing world population. The problem will almost certainly be exacerbated by climate change. There is a projected need to double food production by 2050. In recent times, the trend has been for incremental modest yield increases for most crops. There is an urgent need to develop integrated and sustainable approaches that will significantly increase both production per unit land area and the resource use efficiency of crops. This review considers some key processes involved in plant growth and development with some examples of ways in which molecular technology, plant breeding and genetics may increase the yield and resource use efficiency of wheat. The successful application of biotechnology to breeding is essential to provide the major increases in production required. However, each crop and each specific agricultural situation presents specific requirements and targets for optimisation. Some increases in production will come about as new varieties are developed which are able to produce satisfactory crops on marginal land presently not considered appropriate for arable crops. Other new varieties will be developed to increase both yield and resource use efficiency on the best land.

  1. Defining and Computing a Valued Based Cyber-Security Measure

    SciTech Connect

    Aissa, Anis Ben; Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Mili, Ali

    2012-01-01

    In earlier work, we presented a value based measure of cybersecurity that quantifies the security of a system in concrete terms, specifically, in terms of how much each system stakeholder stands to lose (in dollars per hour of operation) as a result of security threats and system vulnerabilities; our metric varies according to the stakes that each stakeholder has in meeting each security requirement. In this paper, we discuss the specification and design of a system that collects, updates, and maintains all the information that pertains to estimating our cybersecurity measure, and offers stakeholders quantitative means to make security-related decisions.

  2. Defining and Computing a Value Based Cyber-Security Measure

    SciTech Connect

    Aissa, Anis Ben; Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Mili, Ali

    2011-01-01

    In past work, we presented a value based measure of cybersecurity that quantifies the security of a system in concrete terms, specifically, in terms of how much each system stakeholder stands to lose (in dollars per hour of operation) as a result of security threats and system vulnerabilities\\; our metric varies according to the stakes that each stakeholder has in meeting each security requirement. In this paper we discuss the specification and design of a system that collects, updates and maintains all the information that pertains to estimating our cybersecurity measure, and offers stakeholders quantitative means to make security-related decisions.

  3. Measuring and Modeling Security and Privacy Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanosky, Sasha

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript presents empirical and analytical analysis and discussion of security and privacy laws. The introduction, together with the three substantive chapters each represent separate research papers written as partial fulfillment of my PhD dissertation in the Heinz College, Carnegie Mellon University. Chapter 2 is an abbreviated version of…

  4. 33 CFR 105.255 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... security measures to: (1) Deter the unauthorized introduction of dangerous substances and devices... unescorted access to secure areas for a period of no longer than 7 consecutive calendar days if: (i) The... paragraph (d) of this section. (5) Deny or revoke a person's authorization to be on the facility if...

  5. 33 CFR 105.255 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... security measures to: (1) Deter the unauthorized introduction of dangerous substances and devices... unescorted access to secure areas for a period of no longer than 7 consecutive calendar days if: (i) The... paragraph (d) of this section. (5) Deny or revoke a person's authorization to be on the facility if...

  6. Measuring Human Performance within Computer Security Incident Response Teams

    SciTech Connect

    McClain, Jonathan T.; Silva, Austin Ray; Avina, Glory Emmanuel; Forsythe, James C.

    2015-09-01

    Human performance has become a pertinen t issue within cyber security. However, this research has been stymied by the limited availability of expert cyber security professionals. This is partly attributable to the ongoing workload faced by cyber security professionals, which is compound ed by the limited number of qualified personnel and turnover of p ersonnel across organizations. Additionally, it is difficult to conduct research, and particularly, openly published research, due to the sensitivity inherent to cyber ope rations at most orga nizations. As an alternative, the current research has focused on data collection during cyb er security training exercises. These events draw individuals with a range of knowledge and experience extending from seasoned professionals to recent college gradu ates to college students. The current paper describes research involving data collection at two separate cyber security exercises. This data collection involved multiple measures which included behavioral performance based on human - machine transactions and questionnaire - based assessments of cyber security experience.

  7. 61 FR 25729 - Security Measures; Hellenikon International Airport, Athens, Greece

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1996-05-22

    ... Security Measures; Hellenikon International Airport, Athens, Greece Summary The Secretary of Transportation has now determined that Hellenikon International Airport, Athens, Greece, maintains and carries out... that Hellenikon International Airport, Athens, Greece, did not maintain and carry out...

  8. Necessary detection efficiencies for secure quantum key distribution and bound randomness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acín, Antonio; Cavalcanti, Daniel; Passaro, Elsa; Pironio, Stefano; Skrzypczyk, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, several hacking attacks have broken the security of quantum cryptography implementations by exploiting the presence of losses and the ability of the eavesdropper to tune detection efficiencies. We present a simple attack of this form that applies to any protocol in which the key is constructed from the results of untrusted measurements performed on particles coming from an insecure source or channel. Because of its generality, the attack applies to a large class of protocols, from standard prepare-and-measure to device-independent schemes. Our attack gives bounds on the critical detection efficiencies necessary for secure quantum key distribution, which show that the implementation of most partly device-independent solutions is, from the point of view of detection efficiency, almost as demanding as fully device-independent ones. We also show how our attack implies the existence of a form of bound randomness, namely nonlocal correlations in which a nonsignalling eavesdropper can find out a posteriori the result of any implemented measurement.

  9. 33 CFR 106.262 - Security measures for newly-hired employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security measures for newly-hired... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.262 Security measures for newly-hired employees....

  10. 33 CFR 106.262 - Security measures for newly-hired employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security measures for newly-hired... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.262 Security measures for newly-hired employees....

  11. Radiated microwave power transmission system efficiency measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, R. M.; Brown, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    The measured and calculated results from determining the operating efficiencies of a laboratory version of a system for transporting electric power from one point to another via a wireless free space radiated microwave beam are reported. The system's overall end-to-end efficiency as well as intermediated conversion efficiencies were measured. The maximum achieved end-to-end dc-to-ac system efficiency was 54.18% with a probable error of + or - 0.94%. The dc-to-RF conversion efficiency was measured to be 68.87% + or - 1.0% and the RF-to-dc conversion efficiency was 78.67 + or - 1.1%. Under these conditions a dc power of 495.62 + or - 3.57 W was received with a free space transmitter antenna receiver antenna separation of 170.2 cm (67 in).

  12. A Secure LFSR Based Random Measurement Matrix for Compressive Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Sudhish N.; Pattathil, Deepthi P.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, a novel approach for generating the secure measurement matrix for compressive sensing (CS) based on linear feedback shift register (LFSR) is presented. The basic idea is to select the different states of LFSR as the random entries of the measurement matrix and normalize these values to get independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables with zero mean and variance , where N is the number of input samples. The initial seed for the LFSR system act as the key to the user to provide security. Since the measurement matrix is generated from the LFSR system, and memory overload to store the measurement matrix is avoided in the proposed system. Moreover, the proposed system can provide security maintaining the robustness to noise of the CS system. The proposed system is validated through different block-based CS techniques of images. To enhance security, the different blocks of images are measured with different measurement matrices so that the proposed encryption system can withstand known plaintext attack. A modulo division circuit is used to reseed the LFSR system to generate multiple random measurement matrices, whereby after each fundamental period of LFSR, the feedback polynomial of the modulo circuit is modified in terms of a chaotic value. The proposed secure robust CS paradigm for images is subjected to several forms of attacks and is proven to be resistant against the same. From experimental analysis, it is proven that the proposed system provides better performance than its counterparts.

  13. Collection efficiency measurements for solar cell research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, H. L.; Olsen, L. C.

    1976-01-01

    A system was established for measuring absolute, spectral collection efficiency that is well suited to solar cell research and development. Determination of spectral collection efficiency involves measurements of the incident photon intensity, the device reflection coefficient, and the cell short circuit current. A monochromatic photon flux is obtained with a high intensity Bausch and Lomb monochromator, and an Epply thermopile detector is used to measure incident intensity. Normal incidence reflectivity measurements are achieved with a prism type beam splitter. The experimental approach is discussed, measurements of the reflectivity of evaporated silver films are considered. Collection efficiency measurements of silicon solar cells are presented, and collection efficiency studies of Cu20 solar cells are discussed.

  14. Defining and Computing a Valued Based Cyber Security Measure

    SciTech Connect

    Aissa, Anis Ben; Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Mili, Ali

    2011-01-01

    In earlier works (Ben-Aissa et al. 2010; Abercrombie et al. 2008; Sheldon et al. 2009), we presented a value based measure of cybersecurity that quantifies the security of a system in concrete terms, specifically, in terms of how much each system stakeholder stands to lose (in dollars per hour of operation) as a result of security threats and system vulnerabilities; our metric varies according to the stakes that each stakeholder has in meeting each security requirement. In this paper, we discuss the specification and design of a system that collects, updates, and maintains all the information that pertains to estimating our cybersecurity measure, and offers stakeholders quantitative means to make security-related decisions.

  15. Measurable Control System Security through Ideal Driven Technical Metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Miles McQueen; Wayne Boyer; Sean McBride; Marie Farrar; Zachary Tudor

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security National Cyber Security Division supported development of a small set of security ideals as a framework to establish measurable control systems security. Based on these ideals, a draft set of proposed technical metrics was developed to allow control systems owner-operators to track improvements or degradations in their individual control systems security posture. The technical metrics development effort included review and evaluation of over thirty metrics-related documents. On the bases of complexity, ambiguity, or misleading and distorting effects the metrics identified during the reviews were determined to be weaker than necessary to aid defense against the myriad threats posed by cyber-terrorism to human safety, as well as to economic prosperity. Using the results of our metrics review and the set of security ideals as a starting point for metrics development, we identified thirteen potential technical metrics - with at least one metric supporting each ideal. Two case study applications of the ideals and thirteen metrics to control systems were then performed to establish potential difficulties in applying both the ideals and the metrics. The case studies resulted in no changes to the ideals, and only a few deletions and refinements to the thirteen potential metrics. This led to a final proposed set of ten core technical metrics. To further validate the security ideals, the modifications made to the original thirteen potential metrics, and the final proposed set of ten core metrics, seven separate control systems security assessments performed over the past three years were reviewed for findings and recommended mitigations. These findings and mitigations were then mapped to the security ideals and metrics to assess gaps in their coverage. The mappings indicated that there are no gaps in the security ideals and that the ten core technical metrics provide significant coverage of standard security issues with 87% coverage. Based

  16. Transportation Security Administration Efficiency and Flexibility Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Wicker, Roger F. [R-MS

    2011-07-13

    07/13/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Low-Cost Security Measures for School Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses a variety of school safety and security measures that may be implemented at little or no cost and without the use of complex technology. Measures are presented according to these categories: (1) General; (2) Outside the Building; and (3) Inside the Building.

  18. Secure quantum weak oblivious transfer against individual measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guang Ping

    2015-06-01

    In quantum weak oblivious transfer, Alice sends Bob two bits and Bob can learn one of the bits at his choice. It was found that the security of such a protocol is bounded by , where is the probability with which Alice can guess Bob's choice, and is the probability with which Bob can guess both of Alice's bits given that he learns one of the bits with certainty. Here we propose a protocol and show that as long as Alice is restricted to individual measurements, then both and can be made arbitrarily close to , so that maximal violation of the security bound can be reached. Even with some limited collective attacks, the security bound can still be violated. Therefore, although our protocol still cannot break the bound in principle when Alice has unlimited cheating power, it is sufficient for achieving secure quantum weak oblivious transfer in practice.

  19. Gamification for Measuring Cyber Security Situational Awareness

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, Glenn A.; Best, Daniel M.; Manz, David O.; Popovsky, V. M.; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.

    2013-03-01

    Cyber defense competitions arising from U.S. service academy exercises, offer a platform for collecting data that can inform research that ranges from characterizing the ideal cyber warrior to describing behaviors during certain challenging cyber defense situations. This knowledge could lead to better preparation of cyber defenders in both military and civilian settings. This paper describes how one regional competition, the PRCCDC, a participant in the national CCDC program, conducted proof of concept experimentation to collect data during the annual competition for later analysis. The intent is to create an ongoing research agenda that expands on this current work and incorporates augmented cognition and gamification methods for measuring cybersecurity situational awareness under the stress of cyber attack.

  20. Chapter 20: Data Center IT Efficiency Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Robert; Masanet, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Data centers use about 2% of the electricity in the United States; a typical data center has 100 to 200 times the energy use intensity of a commercial building. Data centers present tremendous opportunities--energy use can be reduced as much as 80% between inefficient and efficient data centers. Data center efficiency measures generally fall into the following categories: power infrastructure (e.g., more efficient uninterruptible power supplies, power distribution units); cooling (e.g., free cooling, variable-speed drives, temperature and humidity set points); airflow management (e.g., hot aisle/cold aisle, containment, grommets); and information technology efficiency (e.g., server virtualization, efficient servers, efficient data storage).

  1. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 105 - Facility Vulnerability and Security Measures Summary (Form CG-6025)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Security Measures Summary (Form CG-6025) A Appendix A to Part 105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Pt. 105, App. A Appendix A to Part 105—Facility Vulnerability and Security Measures Summary (Form CG-6025)...

  2. Efficient Cryptography for the Next Generation Secure Cloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupcu, Alptekin

    2010-01-01

    Peer-to-peer (P2P) systems, and client-server type storage and computation outsourcing constitute some of the major applications that the next generation cloud schemes will address. Since these applications are just emerging, it is the perfect time to design them with security and privacy in mind. Furthermore, considering the high-churn…

  3. 33 CFR 106.260 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 49 CFR 1572.19(f); (ii) The individual can present another identification credential that meets the... inspections and screening of people and their personal effects; and (11) Respond to the presence of... additional security measures may include: (1) Increasing the frequency and detail of screening of people...

  4. 33 CFR 106.260 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 49 CFR 1572.19(f); (ii) The individual can present another identification credential that meets the... inspections and screening of people and their personal effects; and (11) Respond to the presence of... additional security measures may include: (1) Increasing the frequency and detail of screening of people...

  5. Punishment in School: The Role of School Security Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowen, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Although investigation of school security measures and their relationships to various outcomes including school crime rates (Gottfredson, 2001), perpetuation of social inequality (Ferguson, 2001; Nolan, 2011; Welch & Payne, 2010), and the impact on childhood experiences has seen significant growth within the last 20 years (Newman, 2004;…

  6. 33 CFR 105.260 - Security measures for restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... additional security measures may include: (1) Increasing the intensity and frequency of monitoring and access... number of access points to restricted areas, and enhancing the controls applied at the remaining accesses... equipment; (7) Enhancing the number and frequency of patrols, including waterborne patrols undertaken......

  7. 33 CFR 105.260 - Security measures for restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... additional security measures may include: (1) Increasing the intensity and frequency of monitoring and access... number of access points to restricted areas, and enhancing the controls applied at the remaining accesses... equipment; (7) Enhancing the number and frequency of patrols, including waterborne patrols undertaken......

  8. Securing Biometric Templates Where Similarity Is Measured with Set Intersection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socek, Daniel; Božović, Vladimir; Ćulibrk, Dubravko

    A novel scheme for securing biometric templates of variable size and order is proposed. The proposed scheme is based on a new similarity measure approach, namely the set intersection, which strongly resembles the methodology used in most of the current state-of-the-art biometrics matching systems. The applicability of the new scheme is compared with that of the existing principal schemes, and it is shown that the new scheme has definite advantages over the existing approaches. The proposed scheme is analyzed both in terms of security and performance.

  9. Measure Guideline. High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, L.; Rose, W.

    2012-10-01

    This measure guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces, including: when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure; how to identify and address risks; and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  10. Measure Guideline: High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, L.; Rose, W.

    2012-10-01

    This Measure Guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces. Topics covered include when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure, how to identify and address risks, and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  11. Unconditionally secure bit commitment by transmitting measurement outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kent, Adrian

    2012-09-28

    We propose a new unconditionally secure bit commitment scheme based on Minkowski causality and the properties of quantum information. The receiving party sends a number of randomly chosen Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) qubits to the committer at a given point in space-time. The committer carries out measurements in one of the two BB84 bases, depending on the committed bit value, and transmits the outcomes securely at (or near) light speed in opposite directions to remote agents. These agents unveil the bit by returning the outcomes to adjacent agents of the receiver. The protocol's security relies only on simple properties of quantum information and the impossibility of superluminal signalling. PMID:23030073

  12. Securely Measuring the Overlap between Private Datasets with Cryptosets

    PubMed Central

    Swamidass, S. Joshua; Matlock, Matthew; Rozenblit, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Many scientific questions are best approached by sharing data—collected by different groups or across large collaborative networks—into a combined analysis. Unfortunately, some of the most interesting and powerful datasets—like health records, genetic data, and drug discovery data—cannot be freely shared because they contain sensitive information. In many situations, knowing if private datasets overlap determines if it is worthwhile to navigate the institutional, ethical, and legal barriers that govern access to sensitive, private data. We report the first method of publicly measuring the overlap between private datasets that is secure under a malicious model without relying on private protocols or message passing. This method uses a publicly shareable summary of a dataset’s contents, its cryptoset, to estimate its overlap with other datasets. Cryptosets approach “information-theoretic” security, the strongest type of security possible in cryptography, which is not even crackable with infinite computing power. We empirically and theoretically assess both the accuracy of these estimates and the security of the approach, demonstrating that cryptosets are informative, with a stable accuracy, and secure. PMID:25714898

  13. Securely measuring the overlap between private datasets with cryptosets.

    PubMed

    Swamidass, S Joshua; Matlock, Matthew; Rozenblit, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Many scientific questions are best approached by sharing data--collected by different groups or across large collaborative networks--into a combined analysis. Unfortunately, some of the most interesting and powerful datasets--like health records, genetic data, and drug discovery data--cannot be freely shared because they contain sensitive information. In many situations, knowing if private datasets overlap determines if it is worthwhile to navigate the institutional, ethical, and legal barriers that govern access to sensitive, private data. We report the first method of publicly measuring the overlap between private datasets that is secure under a malicious model without relying on private protocols or message passing. This method uses a publicly shareable summary of a dataset's contents, its cryptoset, to estimate its overlap with other datasets. Cryptosets approach "information-theoretic" security, the strongest type of security possible in cryptography, which is not even crackable with infinite computing power. We empirically and theoretically assess both the accuracy of these estimates and the security of the approach, demonstrating that cryptosets are informative, with a stable accuracy, and secure.

  14. Securely measuring the overlap between private datasets with cryptosets.

    PubMed

    Swamidass, S Joshua; Matlock, Matthew; Rozenblit, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Many scientific questions are best approached by sharing data--collected by different groups or across large collaborative networks--into a combined analysis. Unfortunately, some of the most interesting and powerful datasets--like health records, genetic data, and drug discovery data--cannot be freely shared because they contain sensitive information. In many situations, knowing if private datasets overlap determines if it is worthwhile to navigate the institutional, ethical, and legal barriers that govern access to sensitive, private data. We report the first method of publicly measuring the overlap between private datasets that is secure under a malicious model without relying on private protocols or message passing. This method uses a publicly shareable summary of a dataset's contents, its cryptoset, to estimate its overlap with other datasets. Cryptosets approach "information-theoretic" security, the strongest type of security possible in cryptography, which is not even crackable with infinite computing power. We empirically and theoretically assess both the accuracy of these estimates and the security of the approach, demonstrating that cryptosets are informative, with a stable accuracy, and secure. PMID:25714898

  15. Power Measurement Methods for Energy Efficient Applications

    PubMed Central

    Calandrini, Guilherme; Gardel, Alfredo; Bravo, Ignacio; Revenga, Pedro; Lázaro, José L.; Toledo-Moreo, F. Javier

    2013-01-01

    Energy consumption constraints on computing systems are more important than ever. Maintenance costs for high performance systems are limiting the applicability of processing devices with large dissipation power. New solutions are needed to increase both the computation capability and the power efficiency. Moreover, energy efficient applications should balance performance vs. consumption. Therefore power data of components are important. This work presents the most remarkable alternatives to measure the power consumption of different types of computing systems, describing the advantages and limitations of available power measurement systems. Finally, a methodology is proposed to select the right power consumption measurement system taking into account precision of the measure, scalability and controllability of the acquisition system. PMID:23778191

  16. The Oil Security Metrics Model: A Tool for Evaluating the Prospective Oil Security Benefits of DOE's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy R&D Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, David L; Leiby, Paul Newsome

    2006-05-01

    Energy technology R&D is a cornerstone of U.S. energy policy. Understanding the potential for energy technology R&D to solve the nation's energy problems is critical to formulating a successful R&D program. In light of this, the U.S. Congress requested the National Research Council (NRC) to undertake both retrospective and prospective assessments of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Efficiency and Fossil Energy Research programs (NRC, 2001; NRC, 2005). ("The Congress continued to express its interest in R&D benefits assessment by providing funds for the NRC to build on the retrospective methodology to develop a methodology for assessing prospective benefits." NRC, 2005, p. ES-2) In 2004, the NRC Committee on Prospective Benefits of DOE's Energy Efficiency and Fossil Energy R&D Programs published a report recommending a new framework and principles for prospective benefits assessment. The Committee explicitly deferred the issue of estimating security benefits to future work. Recognizing the need for a rigorous framework for assessing the energy security benefits of its R&D programs, the DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) developed a framework and approach for defining energy security metrics for R&D programs to use in gauging the energy security benefits of their programs (Lee, 2005). This report describes methods for estimating the prospective oil security benefits of EERE's R&D programs that are consistent with the methodologies of the NRC (2005) Committee and that build on Lee's (2005) framework. Its objective is to define and implement a method that makes use of the NRC's typology of prospective benefits and methodological framework, satisfies the NRC's criteria for prospective benefits evaluation, and permits measurement of that portion of the prospective energy security benefits of EERE's R&D portfolio related to oil. While the Oil Security Metrics (OSM) methodology described in this report has been specifically developed to

  17. 33 CFR 106.262 - Security measures for newly-hired employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.262 Security measures for newly-hired employees. (a... accordance with 49 CFR part 1572 by completing the full enrollment process, paying the user fee, and is...

  18. 33 CFR 106.262 - Security measures for newly-hired employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.262 Security measures for newly-hired employees. (a... accordance with 49 CFR part 1572 by completing the full enrollment process, paying the user fee, and is...

  19. A secure and efficiently searchable health information architecture.

    PubMed

    Yasnoff, William A

    2016-06-01

    Patient-centric repositories of health records are an important component of health information infrastructure. However, patient information in a single repository is potentially vulnerable to loss of the entire dataset from a single unauthorized intrusion. A new health record storage architecture, the personal grid, eliminates this risk by separately storing and encrypting each person's record. The tradeoff for this improved security is that a personal grid repository must be sequentially searched since each record must be individually accessed and decrypted. To allow reasonable search times for large numbers of records, parallel processing with hundreds (or even thousands) of on-demand virtual servers (now available in cloud computing environments) is used. Estimated search times for a 10 million record personal grid using 500 servers vary from 7 to 33min depending on the complexity of the query. Since extremely rapid searching is not a critical requirement of health information infrastructure, the personal grid may provide a practical and useful alternative architecture that eliminates the large-scale security vulnerabilities of traditional databases by sacrificing unnecessary searching speed. PMID:27109933

  20. Efficient secure-channel free public key encryption with keyword search for EMRs in cloud storage.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lifeng; Yau, Wei-Chuen

    2015-02-01

    Searchable encryption is an important cryptographic primitive that enables privacy-preserving keyword search on encrypted electronic medical records (EMRs) in cloud storage. Efficiency of such searchable encryption in a medical cloud storage system is very crucial as it involves client platforms such as smartphones or tablets that only have constrained computing power and resources. In this paper, we propose an efficient secure-channel free public key encryption with keyword search (SCF-PEKS) scheme that is proven secure in the standard model. We show that our SCF-PEKS scheme is not only secure against chosen keyword and ciphertext attacks (IND-SCF-CKCA), but also secure against keyword guessing attacks (IND-KGA). Furthermore, our proposed scheme is more efficient than other recent SCF-PEKS schemes in the literature. PMID:25634700

  1. Efficient secure-channel free public key encryption with keyword search for EMRs in cloud storage.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lifeng; Yau, Wei-Chuen

    2015-02-01

    Searchable encryption is an important cryptographic primitive that enables privacy-preserving keyword search on encrypted electronic medical records (EMRs) in cloud storage. Efficiency of such searchable encryption in a medical cloud storage system is very crucial as it involves client platforms such as smartphones or tablets that only have constrained computing power and resources. In this paper, we propose an efficient secure-channel free public key encryption with keyword search (SCF-PEKS) scheme that is proven secure in the standard model. We show that our SCF-PEKS scheme is not only secure against chosen keyword and ciphertext attacks (IND-SCF-CKCA), but also secure against keyword guessing attacks (IND-KGA). Furthermore, our proposed scheme is more efficient than other recent SCF-PEKS schemes in the literature.

  2. Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Laitner, John A.; Michael, Ruth; Finman, Hodayah

    2004-08-30

    We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published databases, followed by an analysis of the representation of productivity benefits in energy modeling. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The case-study review suggests that energy efficiency investments can provide a significant boost to overall productivity within industry. If this relationship holds, the description of energy-efficient technologies as opportunities for larger productivity improvements has significant implications for conventional economic assessments. The paper explores the implications this change in perspective on the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the US. This examination shows that including productivity benefits explicitly in the modeling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research in this important area.

  3. [Planning a Health Residence for Prison Security Measures, Tuscany (Italy)].

    PubMed

    Porfido, Eugenio; Colombai, Renato; Scarpa, Franco; Totaro, Michele; Tani, Luca; Baldini, Claudio; Baggiani, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Health Residences for Prison Security Measures are facilities hosting psychotic persons who have committed crimes and providing them with personalized rehabilitation and treatment plans to promote their reinstatement in society. The aim of this study was to describe the criteria for planning and designing a prison health residence in the Tuscany region (Italy), to be managed by the regional healthcare service, in line with current regulations, with dedicated staff for providing specific treatment plans and programmes. PMID:27510291

  4. An efficient forward-secure group certificate digital signature scheme to enhance EMR authentication process.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yao-Chang; Hou, Ting-Wei

    2014-05-01

    The frequently used digital signature algorithms, such as RSA and the Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA), lack forward-secure function. The result is that, when private keys are renewed, trustworthiness is lost. In other words, electronic medical records (EMRs) signed by revoked private keys are no longer trusted. This significant security threat stands in the way of EMR adoption. This paper proposes an efficient forward-secure group certificate digital signature scheme that is based on Shamir's (t,n) threshold scheme and Schnorr's digital signature scheme to ensure trustworthiness is maintained when private keys are renewed and to increase the efficiency of EMRs' authentication processes in terms of number of certificates, number of keys, forward-secure ability and searching time.

  5. Efficient 41Ca measurements for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vockenhuber, C.; Schulze-König, T.; Synal, H.-A.; Aeberli, I.; Zimmermann, M. B.

    2015-10-01

    We present the performance of 41Ca measurements using low-energy Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at the 500 kV facility TANDY at ETH Zurich. We optimized the measurement procedure for biomedical applications where reliability and high sample throughput is required. The main challenge for AMS measurements of 41Ca is the interfering stable isobar 41K. We use a simplified sample preparation procedure to produce calcium fluoride (CaF2) and extract calcium tri-fluoride ions (CaF3-) ions to suppress the stable isobar 41K. Although 41K is not completely suppressed we reach 41Ca/40Ca background level in the 10-12 range which is adequate for biomedical studies. With helium as a stripper gas we can use charge state 2+ at high transmission (∼50%). The new measurement procedure with the approximately 10 × improved efficiency and the higher accuracy due to 41K correction allowed us to measure more than 600 samples for a large biomedical study within only a few weeks of measurement time.

  6. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 105 - Facility Vulnerability and Security Measures Summary (Form CG-6025)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Facility Vulnerability and Security Measures Summary (Form CG-6025) A Appendix A to Part 105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Pt. 105, App. A Appendix A to Part 105—Facility Vulnerability...

  7. Visible School Security Measures and Student Academic Performance, Attendance, and Postsecondary Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E.; Fisher, Benjamin W.

    2015-01-01

    Many U.S. schools use visible security measures (security cameras, metal detectors, security personnel) in an effort to keep schools safe and promote adolescents' academic success. This study examined how different patterns of visible security utilization were associated with U.S. middle and high school students' academic performance, attendance,…

  8. [Unnecessary use of security measures and psychiatric hospitalisation].

    PubMed

    Hajdukiewicz, Danuta; Heitzman, Janusz

    2006-01-01

    The authors of this paper formulated an expertise opinion in answering the court on the former opinion of expert psychiatrists which concerned the psychic state and legibility, as well as the necessity of using security measures in the case of a woman who was considered non legible due to a delusional disorder, when she damaged the tyres in a car. The faults in the opinion stimulated the authors to present the results of the analysis formulated, with the idea that other experts will take more care when forming their expertise opinions. PMID:17068938

  9. An Efficient and Provable Secure Revocable Identity-Based Encryption Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Changji; Li, Yuan; Xia, Xiaonan; Zheng, Kangjia

    2014-01-01

    Revocation functionality is necessary and crucial to identity-based cryptosystems. Revocable identity-based encryption (RIBE) has attracted a lot of attention in recent years, many RIBE schemes have been proposed in the literature but shown to be either insecure or inefficient. In this paper, we propose a new scalable RIBE scheme with decryption key exposure resilience by combining Lewko and Waters’ identity-based encryption scheme and complete subtree method, and prove our RIBE scheme to be semantically secure using dual system encryption methodology. Compared to existing scalable and semantically secure RIBE schemes, our proposed RIBE scheme is more efficient in term of ciphertext size, public parameters size and decryption cost at price of a little looser security reduction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first construction of scalable and semantically secure RIBE scheme with constant size public system parameters. PMID:25238418

  10. Efficient certificate-based signcryption secure against public key replacement attacks and insider attacks.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yang; Li, Jiguo

    2014-01-01

    Signcryption is a useful cryptographic primitive that achieves confidentiality and authentication in an efficient manner. As an extension of signcryption in certificate-based cryptography, certificate-based signcryption preserves the merits of certificate-based cryptography and signcryption simultaneously. In this paper, we present an improved security model of certificate-based signcryption that covers both public key replacement attack and insider security. We show that an existing certificate-based signcryption scheme is insecure in our model. We also propose a new certificate-based signcryption scheme that achieves security against both public key replacement attacks and insider attacks. We prove in the random oracle model that the proposed scheme is chosen-ciphertext secure and existentially unforgeable. Performance analysis shows that the proposed scheme outperforms all the previous certificate-based signcryption schemes in the literature.

  11. Efficient Certificate-Based Signcryption Secure against Public Key Replacement Attacks and Insider Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiguo

    2014-01-01

    Signcryption is a useful cryptographic primitive that achieves confidentiality and authentication in an efficient manner. As an extension of signcryption in certificate-based cryptography, certificate-based signcryption preserves the merits of certificate-based cryptography and signcryption simultaneously. In this paper, we present an improved security model of certificate-based signcryption that covers both public key replacement attack and insider security. We show that an existing certificate-based signcryption scheme is insecure in our model. We also propose a new certificate-based signcryption scheme that achieves security against both public key replacement attacks and insider attacks. We prove in the random oracle model that the proposed scheme is chosen-ciphertext secure and existentially unforgeable. Performance analysis shows that the proposed scheme outperforms all the previous certificate-based signcryption schemes in the literature. PMID:24959606

  12. Implementation and evaluation of an efficient secure computation system using ‘R’ for healthcare statistics

    PubMed Central

    Chida, Koji; Morohashi, Gembu; Fuji, Hitoshi; Magata, Fumihiko; Fujimura, Akiko; Hamada, Koki; Ikarashi, Dai; Yamamoto, Ryuichi

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective While the secondary use of medical data has gained attention, its adoption has been constrained due to protection of patient privacy. Making medical data secure by de-identification can be problematic, especially when the data concerns rare diseases. We require rigorous security management measures. Materials and methods Using secure computation, an approach from cryptography, our system can compute various statistics over encrypted medical records without decrypting them. An issue of secure computation is that the amount of processing time required is immense. We implemented a system that securely computes healthcare statistics from the statistical computing software ‘R’ by effectively combining secret-sharing-based secure computation with original computation. Results Testing confirmed that our system could correctly complete computation of average and unbiased variance of approximately 50 000 records of dummy insurance claim data in a little over a second. Computation including conditional expressions and/or comparison of values, for example, t test and median, could also be correctly completed in several tens of seconds to a few minutes. Discussion If medical records are simply encrypted, the risk of leaks exists because decryption is usually required during statistical analysis. Our system possesses high-level security because medical records remain in encrypted state even during statistical analysis. Also, our system can securely compute some basic statistics with conditional expressions using ‘R’ that works interactively while secure computation protocols generally require a significant amount of processing time. Conclusions We propose a secure statistical analysis system using ‘R’ for medical data that effectively integrates secret-sharing-based secure computation and original computation. PMID:24763677

  13. A secure and efficient audit mechanism for dynamic shared data in cloud storage.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ohmin; Koo, Dongyoung; Shin, Yongjoo; Yoon, Hyunsoo

    2014-01-01

    With popularization of cloud services, multiple users easily share and update their data through cloud storage. For data integrity and consistency in the cloud storage, the audit mechanisms were proposed. However, existing approaches have some security vulnerabilities and require a lot of computational overheads. This paper proposes a secure and efficient audit mechanism for dynamic shared data in cloud storage. The proposed scheme prevents a malicious cloud service provider from deceiving an auditor. Moreover, it devises a new index table management method and reduces the auditing cost by employing less complex operations. We prove the resistance against some attacks and show less computation cost and shorter time for auditing when compared with conventional approaches. The results present that the proposed scheme is secure and efficient for cloud storage services managing dynamic shared data.

  14. Measurements and efficient simulations of bowed bars

    PubMed

    Essl; Cook

    2000-07-01

    Bowing bar percussion instruments is an increasing part of the repertoire of modern composition and performance. Yet the system has not been studied systematically. In this paper experimental measurements of bars of bar percussion instruments bowed by a double bass bow and by a bowing machine are presented. They examine the relationships between performance parameters and perceptional parameters which are relevant for musical performance. In addition, a new efficient simulation method using a time-domain approach has been developed and the measured results are compared to the simulation. Most measurement results are in good qualitative agreement with the known results of the bowed string. The spectrum of the bowed bar is observed to be harmonic, independent of the harmonicity or inharmonicity of the eigenfrequencies of the bar. Important distinctions from the known results of the bowed string are the weakness or independence of bowing force and velocity on the fundamental frequency and the spectral content of the produced sound. Simulations show qualitative agreement with the measurements.

  15. An efficient and secure attribute based signcryption scheme with LSSS access structure.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hanshu; Sun, Zhixin

    2016-01-01

    Attribute based encryption (ABE) and attribute based signature (ABS) provide flexible access control with authentication for data sharing between users, but realizing both functions will bring about too much computation burden. In this paper, we combine the advantages of CP-ABE with ABS and propose a ciphertext policy attribute based signcryption scheme. In our scheme, only legal receivers can decrypt the ciphertext and verify the signature signed by data owner. Furthermore, we use linear secret sharing scheme instead of tree structure to avoid the frequent calls of recursive algorithm. By security and performance analysis, we prove that our scheme is secure as well as gains higher efficiency. PMID:27330910

  16. CSRQ: Communication-Efficient Secure Range Queries in Two-Tiered Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hua; Ye, Qingqun; Yang, Geng; Xu, Jia; He, Ruiliang

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, we have seen many applications of secure query in two-tiered wireless sensor networks. Storage nodes are responsible for storing data from nearby sensor nodes and answering queries from Sink. It is critical to protect data security from a compromised storage node. In this paper, the Communication-efficient Secure Range Query (CSRQ)-a privacy and integrity preserving range query protocol-is proposed to prevent attackers from gaining information of both data collected by sensor nodes and queries issued by Sink. To preserve privacy and integrity, in addition to employing the encoding mechanisms, a novel data structure called encrypted constraint chain is proposed, which embeds the information of integrity verification. Sink can use this encrypted constraint chain to verify the query result. The performance evaluation shows that CSRQ has lower communication cost than the current range query protocols. PMID:26907293

  17. CSRQ: Communication-Efficient Secure Range Queries in Two-Tiered Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hua; Ye, Qingqun; Yang, Geng; Xu, Jia; He, Ruiliang

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, we have seen many applications of secure query in two-tiered wireless sensor networks. Storage nodes are responsible for storing data from nearby sensor nodes and answering queries from Sink. It is critical to protect data security from a compromised storage node. In this paper, the Communication-efficient Secure Range Query (CSRQ)—a privacy and integrity preserving range query protocol—is proposed to prevent attackers from gaining information of both data collected by sensor nodes and queries issued by Sink. To preserve privacy and integrity, in addition to employing the encoding mechanisms, a novel data structure called encrypted constraint chain is proposed, which embeds the information of integrity verification. Sink can use this encrypted constraint chain to verify the query result. The performance evaluation shows that CSRQ has lower communication cost than the current range query protocols. PMID:26907293

  18. CSRQ: Communication-Efficient Secure Range Queries in Two-Tiered Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hua; Ye, Qingqun; Yang, Geng; Xu, Jia; He, Ruiliang

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, we have seen many applications of secure query in two-tiered wireless sensor networks. Storage nodes are responsible for storing data from nearby sensor nodes and answering queries from Sink. It is critical to protect data security from a compromised storage node. In this paper, the Communication-efficient Secure Range Query (CSRQ)-a privacy and integrity preserving range query protocol-is proposed to prevent attackers from gaining information of both data collected by sensor nodes and queries issued by Sink. To preserve privacy and integrity, in addition to employing the encoding mechanisms, a novel data structure called encrypted constraint chain is proposed, which embeds the information of integrity verification. Sink can use this encrypted constraint chain to verify the query result. The performance evaluation shows that CSRQ has lower communication cost than the current range query protocols.

  19. Efficient Video Similarity Measurement and Search

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, S-C S

    2002-12-19

    The amount of information on the world wide web has grown enormously since its creation in 1990. Duplication of content is inevitable because there is no central management on the web. Studies have shown that many similar versions of the same text documents can be found throughout the web. This redundancy problem is more severe for multimedia content such as web video sequences, as they are often stored in multiple locations and different formats to facilitate downloading and streaming. Similar versions of the same video can also be found, unknown to content creators, when web users modify and republish original content using video editing tools. Identifying similar content can benefit many web applications and content owners. For example, it will reduce the number of similar answers to a web search and identify inappropriate use of copyright content. In this dissertation, they present a system architecture and corresponding algorithms to efficiently measure, search, and organize similar video sequences found on any large database such as the web.

  20. Measuring efficiency among US federal hospitals.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Jeffrey P; Meyer, Sean

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficiency of federal hospitals, specifically those hospitals administered by the US Department of Veterans Affairs and the US Department of Defense. Hospital executives, health care policymakers, taxpayers, and federal hospital beneficiaries benefit from studies that improve hospital efficiency. This study uses data envelopment analysis to evaluate a panel of 165 federal hospitals in 2007 and 157 of the same hospitals again in 2011. Results indicate that overall efficiency in federal hospitals improved from 81% in 2007 to 86% in 2011. The number of federal hospitals operating on the efficiency frontier decreased slightly from 25 in 2007 to 21 in 2011. The higher efficiency score clearly documents that federal hospitals are becoming more efficient in the management of resources. From a policy perspective, this study highlights the economic importance of encouraging increased efficiency throughout the health care industry. This research examines benchmarking strategies to improve the efficiency of hospital services to federal beneficiaries. Through the use of strategies such as integrated information systems, consolidation of services, transaction-cost economics, and focusing on preventative health care, these organizations have been able to provide quality service while maintaining fiscal responsibility. In addition, the research documented the characteristics of those federal hospitals that were found to be on the Efficiency Frontier. These hospitals serve as benchmarks for less efficient federal hospitals as they develop strategies for improvement.

  1. Measuring efficiency among US federal hospitals.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Jeffrey P; Meyer, Sean

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficiency of federal hospitals, specifically those hospitals administered by the US Department of Veterans Affairs and the US Department of Defense. Hospital executives, health care policymakers, taxpayers, and federal hospital beneficiaries benefit from studies that improve hospital efficiency. This study uses data envelopment analysis to evaluate a panel of 165 federal hospitals in 2007 and 157 of the same hospitals again in 2011. Results indicate that overall efficiency in federal hospitals improved from 81% in 2007 to 86% in 2011. The number of federal hospitals operating on the efficiency frontier decreased slightly from 25 in 2007 to 21 in 2011. The higher efficiency score clearly documents that federal hospitals are becoming more efficient in the management of resources. From a policy perspective, this study highlights the economic importance of encouraging increased efficiency throughout the health care industry. This research examines benchmarking strategies to improve the efficiency of hospital services to federal beneficiaries. Through the use of strategies such as integrated information systems, consolidation of services, transaction-cost economics, and focusing on preventative health care, these organizations have been able to provide quality service while maintaining fiscal responsibility. In addition, the research documented the characteristics of those federal hospitals that were found to be on the Efficiency Frontier. These hospitals serve as benchmarks for less efficient federal hospitals as they develop strategies for improvement. PMID:24776830

  2. 33 CFR 106.265 - Security measures for restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... seeking entry; (4) Using security personnel, automatic intrusion detection devices, surveillance equipment... of patrols or automatic intrusion detection devices; (2) Reducing the number of access points...

  3. 33 CFR 106.265 - Security measures for restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... seeking entry; (4) Using security personnel, automatic intrusion detection devices, surveillance equipment... of patrols or automatic intrusion detection devices; (2) Reducing the number of access points...

  4. Efficient Anonymous Authentication Protocol Using Key-Insulated Signature Scheme for Secure VANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Youngho; Sur, Chul; Jung, Chae Duk; Rhee, Kyung-Hyune

    In this paper, we propose an efficient authentication protocol with conditional privacy preservation for secure vehicular communications. The proposed protocol follows the system model to issue on-the-fly anonymous public key certificates to vehicles by road-side units. In order to design an efficient message authentication protocol, we consider a key-insulated signature scheme for certifying anonymous public keys of vehicles to such a system model. We demonstrate experimental results to confirm that the proposed protocol has better performance than other protocols based on group signature schemes.

  5. Electronic Security Systems in Libraries: Measuring the Costs and Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Ida

    1978-01-01

    Discusses factors involved in costing and evaluating electronic security systems for libraries including equipment costs, installation and maintenance, labor costs, staff training, public relations, and comparison of systems. Assessing book losses and potential savings from a security system are also addressed. (RAO)

  6. Pitfalls and Security Measures for the Mobile EMR System in Medical Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Kiho; Lee, Keehyuck; Kim, Jong-Min; Kim, Tae-Hun; Choi, Yong-Hoon; Jeong, Woo-Jin; Hwang, Hee; Baek, Rong Min

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this paper is to examine the security measures that should be reviewed by medical facilities that are trying to implement mobile Electronic Medical Record (EMR) systems designed for hospitals. Methods The study of the security requirements for a mobile EMR system is divided into legal considerations and sectional security investigations. Legal considerations were examined with regard to remote medical services, patients' personal information and EMR, medical devices, the establishment of mobile systems, and mobile applications. For the 4 sectional security investigations, the mobile security level SL-3 from the Smartphone Security Standards of the National Intelligence Service (NIS) was used. Results From a compliance perspective, legal considerations for various laws and guidelines of mobile EMR were executed according to the model of the legal considerations. To correspond to the SL-3, separation of DMZ and wireless network is needed. Mobile access servers must be located in only the smartphone DMZ. Furthermore, security measures like 24-hour security control, WIPS, VPN, MDM, and ISMS for each section are needed to establish a secure mobile EMR system. Conclusions This paper suggested a direction for applying regulatory measures to strengthen the security of a mobile EMR system in accordance with the standard security requirements presented by the Smartphone Security Guideline of the NIS. A future study on the materialization of these suggestions after their application at actual medical facilities can be used as an illustrative case to determine the degree to which theory and reality correspond with one another. PMID:22844648

  7. Cost-Efficient and Multi-Functional Secure Aggregation in Large Scale Distributed Application

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ping; Li, Wenjun; Sun, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Secure aggregation is an essential component of modern distributed applications and data mining platforms. Aggregated statistical results are typically adopted in constructing a data cube for data analysis at multiple abstraction levels in data warehouse platforms. Generating different types of statistical results efficiently at the same time (or referred to as enabling multi-functional support) is a fundamental requirement in practice. However, most of the existing schemes support a very limited number of statistics. Securely obtaining typical statistical results simultaneously in the distribution system, without recovering the original data, is still an open problem. In this paper, we present SEDAR, which is a SEcure Data Aggregation scheme under the Range segmentation model. Range segmentation model is proposed to reduce the communication cost by capturing the data characteristics, and different range uses different aggregation strategy. For raw data in the dominant range, SEDAR encodes them into well defined vectors to provide value-preservation and order-preservation, and thus provides the basis for multi-functional aggregation. A homomorphic encryption scheme is used to achieve data privacy. We also present two enhanced versions. The first one is a Random based SEDAR (REDAR), and the second is a Compression based SEDAR (CEDAR). Both of them can significantly reduce communication cost with the trade-off lower security and lower accuracy, respectively. Experimental evaluations, based on six different scenes of real data, show that all of them have an excellent performance on cost and accuracy. PMID:27551747

  8. Cost-Efficient and Multi-Functional Secure Aggregation in Large Scale Distributed Application.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Li, Wenjun; Sun, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Secure aggregation is an essential component of modern distributed applications and data mining platforms. Aggregated statistical results are typically adopted in constructing a data cube for data analysis at multiple abstraction levels in data warehouse platforms. Generating different types of statistical results efficiently at the same time (or referred to as enabling multi-functional support) is a fundamental requirement in practice. However, most of the existing schemes support a very limited number of statistics. Securely obtaining typical statistical results simultaneously in the distribution system, without recovering the original data, is still an open problem. In this paper, we present SEDAR, which is a SEcure Data Aggregation scheme under the Range segmentation model. Range segmentation model is proposed to reduce the communication cost by capturing the data characteristics, and different range uses different aggregation strategy. For raw data in the dominant range, SEDAR encodes them into well defined vectors to provide value-preservation and order-preservation, and thus provides the basis for multi-functional aggregation. A homomorphic encryption scheme is used to achieve data privacy. We also present two enhanced versions. The first one is a Random based SEDAR (REDAR), and the second is a Compression based SEDAR (CEDAR). Both of them can significantly reduce communication cost with the trade-off lower security and lower accuracy, respectively. Experimental evaluations, based on six different scenes of real data, show that all of them have an excellent performance on cost and accuracy. PMID:27551747

  9. 78 FR 9769 - Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation Imposition of Nonproliferation Measures on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... of International Security and Nonproliferation Imposition of Nonproliferation Measures on Chinese and... persons have engaged in proliferation activities that warrant the imposition of measures pursuant to... foreign persons have engaged in proliferation activities that warrant the imposition of measures...

  10. Energy-Efficient and Secure S-Box circuit using Symmetric Pass Gate Adiabatic Logic

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Dinesh; Mohammad, Azhar; Singh, Vijay; Perumalla, Kalyan S

    2016-01-01

    Differential Power Analysis (DPA) attack is considered to be a main threat while designing cryptographic processors. In cryptographic algorithms like DES and AES, S-Box is used to indeterminate the relationship between the keys and the cipher texts. However, S-box is prone to DPA attack due to its high power consumption. In this paper, we are implementing an energy-efficient 8-bit S-Box circuit using our proposed Symmetric Pass Gate Adiabatic Logic (SPGAL). SPGAL is energy-efficient as compared to the existing DPAresistant adiabatic and non-adiabatic logic families. SPGAL is energy-efficient due to reduction of non-adiabatic loss during the evaluate phase of the outputs. Further, the S-Box circuit implemented using SPGAL is resistant to DPA attacks. The results are verified through SPICE simulations in 180nm technology. SPICE simulations show that the SPGAL based S-Box circuit saves upto 92% and 67% of energy as compared to the conventional CMOS and Secured Quasi-Adiabatic Logic (SQAL) based S-Box circuit. From the simulation results, it is evident that the SPGAL based circuits are energy-efficient as compared to the existing DPAresistant adiabatic and non-adiabatic logic families. In nutshell, SPGAL based gates can be used to build secure hardware for lowpower portable electronic devices and Internet-of-Things (IoT) based electronic devices.

  11. An Efficient Biometric-Based Algorithm Using Heart Rate Variability for Securing Body Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Pirbhulal, Sandeep; Zhang, Heye; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Li, Chunyue; Wang, Yumei; Li, Guanglin; Wu, Wanqing; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Body Sensor Network (BSN) is a network of several associated sensor nodes on, inside or around the human body to monitor vital signals, such as, Electroencephalogram (EEG), Photoplethysmography (PPG), Electrocardiogram (ECG), etc. Each sensor node in BSN delivers major information; therefore, it is very significant to provide data confidentiality and security. All existing approaches to secure BSN are based on complex cryptographic key generation procedures, which not only demands high resource utilization and computation time, but also consumes large amount of energy, power and memory during data transmission. However, it is indispensable to put forward energy efficient and computationally less complex authentication technique for BSN. In this paper, a novel biometric-based algorithm is proposed, which utilizes Heart Rate Variability (HRV) for simple key generation process to secure BSN. Our proposed algorithm is compared with three data authentication techniques, namely Physiological Signal based Key Agreement (PSKA), Data Encryption Standard (DES) and Rivest Shamir Adleman (RSA). Simulation is performed in Matlab and results suggest that proposed algorithm is quite efficient in terms of transmission time utilization, average remaining energy and total power consumption.

  12. Novel efficient and secure medical data transmission on WiMAX.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Basant; Singh, Harsh Vikram; Singh, S P; Mohan, Anand

    2008-12-01

    This paper discusses an improved technique for bandwidth-efficient and secure transmission of medical records over simulated orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)-based Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX)/IEEE 802.16 physical layer. Medical data compaction along with security has been achieved by embedding electrocardiogram (ECG) data into Haar wavelet coefficients of an x-ray image that is transmitted over the channel. The compaction ratio and peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) between the transmitted and received x-ray images for visual clinical performance have been evaluated. It is shown that 12.5% data compaction along with true reception of ECG signal can be achieved for channel signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) >or= 9.6 dB while the achieved PSNR was 55.97 dB. The PSNR value is well above the minimum acceptable 35 dB level, making it potentially useful for secure and bandwidth-efficient transmission of clinical records. PMID:19119828

  13. An Efficient Biometric-Based Algorithm Using Heart Rate Variability for Securing Body Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Pirbhulal, Sandeep; Zhang, Heye; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Li, Chunyue; Wang, Yumei; Li, Guanglin; Wu, Wanqing; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Body Sensor Network (BSN) is a network of several associated sensor nodes on, inside or around the human body to monitor vital signals, such as, Electroencephalogram (EEG), Photoplethysmography (PPG), Electrocardiogram (ECG), etc. Each sensor node in BSN delivers major information; therefore, it is very significant to provide data confidentiality and security. All existing approaches to secure BSN are based on complex cryptographic key generation procedures, which not only demands high resource utilization and computation time, but also consumes large amount of energy, power and memory during data transmission. However, it is indispensable to put forward energy efficient and computationally less complex authentication technique for BSN. In this paper, a novel biometric-based algorithm is proposed, which utilizes Heart Rate Variability (HRV) for simple key generation process to secure BSN. Our proposed algorithm is compared with three data authentication techniques, namely Physiological Signal based Key Agreement (PSKA), Data Encryption Standard (DES) and Rivest Shamir Adleman (RSA). Simulation is performed in Matlab and results suggest that proposed algorithm is quite efficient in terms of transmission time utilization, average remaining energy and total power consumption. PMID:26131666

  14. An Efficient Biometric-Based Algorithm Using Heart Rate Variability for Securing Body Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Pirbhulal, Sandeep; Zhang, Heye; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Li, Chunyue; Wang, Yumei; Li, Guanglin; Wu, Wanqing; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Body Sensor Network (BSN) is a network of several associated sensor nodes on, inside or around the human body to monitor vital signals, such as, Electroencephalogram (EEG), Photoplethysmography (PPG), Electrocardiogram (ECG), etc. Each sensor node in BSN delivers major information; therefore, it is very significant to provide data confidentiality and security. All existing approaches to secure BSN are based on complex cryptographic key generation procedures, which not only demands high resource utilization and computation time, but also consumes large amount of energy, power and memory during data transmission. However, it is indispensable to put forward energy efficient and computationally less complex authentication technique for BSN. In this paper, a novel biometric-based algorithm is proposed, which utilizes Heart Rate Variability (HRV) for simple key generation process to secure BSN. Our proposed algorithm is compared with three data authentication techniques, namely Physiological Signal based Key Agreement (PSKA), Data Encryption Standard (DES) and Rivest Shamir Adleman (RSA). Simulation is performed in Matlab and results suggest that proposed algorithm is quite efficient in terms of transmission time utilization, average remaining energy and total power consumption. PMID:26131666

  15. Novel efficient and secure medical data transmission on WiMAX.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Basant; Singh, Harsh Vikram; Singh, S P; Mohan, Anand

    2008-12-01

    This paper discusses an improved technique for bandwidth-efficient and secure transmission of medical records over simulated orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)-based Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX)/IEEE 802.16 physical layer. Medical data compaction along with security has been achieved by embedding electrocardiogram (ECG) data into Haar wavelet coefficients of an x-ray image that is transmitted over the channel. The compaction ratio and peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) between the transmitted and received x-ray images for visual clinical performance have been evaluated. It is shown that 12.5% data compaction along with true reception of ECG signal can be achieved for channel signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) >or= 9.6 dB while the achieved PSNR was 55.97 dB. The PSNR value is well above the minimum acceptable 35 dB level, making it potentially useful for secure and bandwidth-efficient transmission of clinical records.

  16. Measuring Charter School Efficiency: An Early Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Dick M., II; Noller, Scott L.

    2010-01-01

    In an era of increased accountability and challenging times for public finance, charter schools built on decentralization, grassroots accountability, and market forces may provide, in the spirit of "educational laboratories," lessons for increasing student achievement more efficiently through diverse and innovative management, organization,…

  17. Measuring efficiency in wholesale electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Bowden, Nicholas S.

    2009-06-15

    The mechanisms of the bid-based economic dispatch and market power mitigation algorithms which result in the market clearing price epitomize the complexity of the new regulatory regime. The augmented Lerner Index presented here offers a method to objectively assess the efficiency of the new structure. (author)

  18. Security camera resolution measurements: Horizontal TV lines versus modulation transfer function measurements.

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, Gabriel Carisle; Griffin, John Clark

    2015-01-01

    The horizontal television lines (HTVL) metric has been the primary quantity used by division 6000 related to camera resolution for high consequence security systems. This document shows HTVL measurements are fundamen- tally insufficient as a metric to determine camera resolution, and propose a quantitative, standards based methodology by measuring the camera system modulation transfer function (MTF), the most common and accepted metric of res- olution in the optical science community. Because HTVL calculations are easily misinterpreted or poorly defined, we present several scenarios in which HTVL is frequently reported, and discuss their problems. The MTF metric is discussed, and scenarios are presented with calculations showing the application of such a metric.

  19. What are we assessing when we measure food security? A compendium and review of current metrics.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew D; Ngure, Francis M; Pelto, Gretel; Young, Sera L

    2013-01-01

    The appropriate measurement of food security is critical for targeting food and economic aid; supporting early famine warning and global monitoring systems; evaluating nutrition, health, and development programs; and informing government policy across many sectors. This important work is complicated by the multiple approaches and tools for assessing food security. In response, we have prepared a compendium and review of food security assessment tools in which we review issues of terminology, measurement, and validation. We begin by describing the evolving definition of food security and use this discussion to frame a review of the current landscape of measurement tools available for assessing food security. We critically assess the purpose/s of these tools, the domains of food security assessed by each, the conceptualizations of food security that underpin each metric, as well as the approaches that have been used to validate these metrics. Specifically, we describe measurement tools that 1) provide national-level estimates of food security, 2) inform global monitoring and early warning systems, 3) assess household food access and acquisition, and 4) measure food consumption and utilization. After describing a number of outstanding measurement challenges that might be addressed in future research, we conclude by offering suggestions to guide the selection of appropriate food security metrics. PMID:24038241

  20. What are we assessing when we measure food security? A compendium and review of current metrics.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew D; Ngure, Francis M; Pelto, Gretel; Young, Sera L

    2013-09-01

    The appropriate measurement of food security is critical for targeting food and economic aid; supporting early famine warning and global monitoring systems; evaluating nutrition, health, and development programs; and informing government policy across many sectors. This important work is complicated by the multiple approaches and tools for assessing food security. In response, we have prepared a compendium and review of food security assessment tools in which we review issues of terminology, measurement, and validation. We begin by describing the evolving definition of food security and use this discussion to frame a review of the current landscape of measurement tools available for assessing food security. We critically assess the purpose/s of these tools, the domains of food security assessed by each, the conceptualizations of food security that underpin each metric, as well as the approaches that have been used to validate these metrics. Specifically, we describe measurement tools that 1) provide national-level estimates of food security, 2) inform global monitoring and early warning systems, 3) assess household food access and acquisition, and 4) measure food consumption and utilization. After describing a number of outstanding measurement challenges that might be addressed in future research, we conclude by offering suggestions to guide the selection of appropriate food security metrics.

  1. 33 CFR 105.270 - Security measures for delivery of vessel stores and bunkers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... vessel stores and bunkers. 105.270 Section 105.270 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Requirements § 105.270 Security measures for delivery of vessel stores and bunkers. (a) General. The facility owner or operator must ensure that security measures relating to the delivery of vessel stores...

  2. 33 CFR 105.270 - Security measures for delivery of vessel stores and bunkers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... vessel stores and bunkers. 105.270 Section 105.270 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Requirements § 105.270 Security measures for delivery of vessel stores and bunkers. (a) General. The facility owner or operator must ensure that security measures relating to the delivery of vessel stores...

  3. 33 CFR 104.280 - Security measures for delivery of vessel stores and bunkers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... vessel stores and bunkers. 104.280 Section 104.280 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 104.280 Security measures for delivery of vessel stores and bunkers. (a) General. The vessel owner or operator must ensure that security measures relating to the delivery of vessel stores and bunkers...

  4. 33 CFR 104.280 - Security measures for delivery of vessel stores and bunkers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... vessel stores and bunkers. 104.280 Section 104.280 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 104.280 Security measures for delivery of vessel stores and bunkers. (a) General. The vessel owner or operator must ensure that security measures relating to the delivery of vessel stores and bunkers...

  5. 33 CFR 104.280 - Security measures for delivery of vessel stores and bunkers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... vessel stores and bunkers. 104.280 Section 104.280 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 104.280 Security measures for delivery of vessel stores and bunkers. (a) General. The vessel owner or operator must ensure that security measures relating to the delivery of vessel stores and bunkers...

  6. 33 CFR 104.280 - Security measures for delivery of vessel stores and bunkers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... vessel stores and bunkers. 104.280 Section 104.280 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 104.280 Security measures for delivery of vessel stores and bunkers. (a) General. The vessel owner or operator must ensure that security measures relating to the delivery of vessel stores and bunkers...

  7. 33 CFR 104.280 - Security measures for delivery of vessel stores and bunkers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... vessel stores and bunkers. 104.280 Section 104.280 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 104.280 Security measures for delivery of vessel stores and bunkers. (a) General. The vessel owner or operator must ensure that security measures relating to the delivery of vessel stores and bunkers...

  8. Parental Involvement in School and the Role of School Security Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowen, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past three decades, the United States has experienced a significant increase in the use of security measures in public and private secondary schools. Measures including police officers, metal detectors, and security cameras are becoming more common in the hallways of American schools. Following this surge, a number of academics have…

  9. Development of a food security measurement tool for New Zealand households.

    PubMed

    Parnell, Winsome R; Gray, Andrew R

    2014-10-28

    To determine the prevalence of household food insecurity in New Zealand (NZ), eight food security statements were included in the 1997 National Nutrition Survey of adults. Rasch model analysis was performed to determine whether each food security statement (addressing a food security attribute) was discrete and could be ranked on a unidimensional scale. The NZ model had marginal 'household' reliability (0·60-0·66), good item separation (17·20-17·77) and item infit/outfit values between 0·8 and 1·25. Indices could be ranked by level of severity and represent the experience of household food insecurity in NZ. Categories of food security were assigned and used to predict food choice, and energy and nutrient intakes. Compared with fully secure/almost fully secure households, those that were moderately secure or of low security were less likely to consume the recommended daily servings of fruit and vegetables, and more likely to consume fatty meats. Intake of total fat, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat, cholesterol, lactose and vitamin B12 increased with lower levels of food security. Intakes of glucose, fructose and vitamin C were highest in the fully secure/almost fully secure category. This unique eight-component food security measurement tool has less respondent burden than the US Core Food Security Measure. The relationships between the level of food insecurity and food choice and nutrient intakes illustrate that the most food-insecure households have less healthy diets. This relatively brief population-specific measurement tool is suitable to monitor population food security status, and is a useful marker of nutritional status.

  10. Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content…

  11. Security Problems of Scan Design and Accompanying Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biasizzo, Anton; Novak, Franc

    2016-05-01

    The paper deals with the security problems of scan design and investigates currently proposed solutions. A solution based on data encryption to protect the data in scan chains is discussed and problems related to the block-based encoding are outlined. Next, security extension for IEEE Std. 1149.1 providing a locking mechanism is analysed. The mechanism prevents unauthorised users to interfere via test bus with the system normal operation. Possible attack scenario is considered and the probabilities of successful attack within a given time interval are calculated for different lengths of the Lock register. The paper concludes with the description of current work focused on improvements the security of the locking mechanism, in particular by using simplified public key infrastructure.

  12. A privacy preserving secure and efficient authentication scheme for telecare medical information systems.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Raghavendra; Barnwal, Amit Kumar

    2015-05-01

    The Telecare medical information system (TMIS) presents effective healthcare delivery services by employing information and communication technologies. The emerging privacy and security are always a matter of great concern in TMIS. Recently, Chen at al. presented a password based authentication schemes to address the privacy and security. Later on, it is proved insecure against various active and passive attacks. To erase the drawbacks of Chen et al.'s anonymous authentication scheme, several password based authentication schemes have been proposed using public key cryptosystem. However, most of them do not present pre-smart card authentication which leads to inefficient login and password change phases. To present an authentication scheme with pre-smart card authentication, we present an improved anonymous smart card based authentication scheme for TMIS. The proposed scheme protects user anonymity and satisfies all the desirable security attributes. Moreover, the proposed scheme presents efficient login and password change phases where incorrect input can be quickly detected and a user can freely change his password without server assistance. Moreover, we demonstrate the validity of the proposed scheme by utilizing the widely-accepted BAN (Burrows, Abadi, and Needham) logic. The proposed scheme is also comparable in terms of computational overheads with relevant schemes. PMID:25750176

  13. An efficient and provably-secure certificateless public key encryption scheme for telecare medicine information systems.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Wen, Qiaoyan; Shi, Huixian; Jin, Zhengping; Zhang, Hua

    2013-10-01

    Telecare Medicine Information Systems (TMIS) promote the traditional medical and healthcare services by information and communication technology. Since the physician and caregiver can monitor the patient's physiological condition remotely in TMIS, the confidentiality of this sensitive data should be protected, which is the key issue in the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. In this paper, we propose an efficient certificateless public key encryption scheme without bilinear pairing for TMIS. Our proposal is proved to be secure in the random oracle model under the hardness assumption of computational Diffie-Hellman problem. Moreover, after modifying the original model of the certificateless encryption, this scheme achieves Girault's trust level 3. Compared with the related protocols, the perform evaluations show that our scheme is more efficient and appropriate to collocate with low power mobile devices for TMIS.

  14. 33 CFR 104.270 - Security measures for restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Navigation bridge, machinery spaces and other control stations; (2) Spaces containing security and...-conditioning systems and other similar spaces; (4) Spaces with access to potable water tanks, pumps, or manifolds; (5) Spaces containing dangerous goods or hazardous substances; (6) Spaces containing cargo...

  15. 33 CFR 104.270 - Security measures for restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Navigation bridge, machinery spaces and other control stations; (2) Spaces containing security and...-conditioning systems and other similar spaces; (4) Spaces with access to potable water tanks, pumps, or manifolds; (5) Spaces containing dangerous goods or hazardous substances; (6) Spaces containing cargo...

  16. 33 CFR 106.265 - Security measures for restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... security and surveillance equipment and systems and their controls, and lighting system controls; and (3...) Telecommunications; (iii) Power distribution system; (iv) Access points for ventilation and air-conditioning systems... restricted areas, and enhancing the controls applied at the remaining accesses; (3) Further......

  17. 33 CFR 104.270 - Security measures for restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... security and surveillance equipment and systems; and (6) Protect cargo and vessel stores from tampering. (b... surveillance equipment and systems and their controls and lighting system controls; (3) Ventilation and air-conditioning systems and other similar spaces; (4) Spaces with access to potable water tanks, pumps,...

  18. 33 CFR 105.275 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., security guards, waterborne patrols, automatic intrusion-detection devices, or surveillance equipment, as... water; (2) Restricted areas within the facility; and (3) Vessels at the facility and areas surrounding the vessels. (b) MARSEC Level 1. At MARSEC Level 1, the facility owner or operator must ensure...

  19. 33 CFR 106.260 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the unauthorized introduction of dangerous substances and devices, including any device intended to... with the individual's claim of loss or theft. (3) If an individual cannot present his or her TWIC for... approved Facility Security Plan (FSP) the frequency of application of any access controls, particularly...

  20. 33 CFR 106.260 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the unauthorized introduction of dangerous substances and devices, including any device intended to... with the individual's claim of loss or theft. (3) If an individual cannot present his or her TWIC for... approved Facility Security Plan (FSP) the frequency of application of any access controls, particularly...

  1. 33 CFR 106.260 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... TWIC; (ii) Verification that the TWIC has not expired; and (iii) A visual check of the various security... 49 CFR 1572.19(f); (ii) The individual can present another identification credential that meets the... full or partial search of the OCS facility....

  2. 33 CFR 104.265 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... has not expired; and (iii) A visual check of the various security features present on the card to... individual has reported the TWIC as lost, damaged, or stolen to TSA as required in 49 CFR 1572.19(f); (ii... operations; (8) Evacuating the vessel; (9) Moving the vessel; or (10) Preparing for a full or partial...

  3. Building America Top Innovations 2012: National Residential Efficiency Measures Database

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes the DOE-sponsored National Residential Efficiency Measures Database, which contains performance characteristics and cost estimates for nearly 3,000 energy retrofit measures. To date, it is used in four prominent DOE software packages to help optimize energy-efficiency recommendations.

  4. Examining School Security Measures as Moderators of the Association between Homophobic Victimization and School Avoidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Benjamin W.; Tanner-Smith, Emily E.

    2015-01-01

    Homophobic victimization is a pervasive problem in U.S. schools that leads to negative outcomes for students. Those who experience homophobic victimization are at greater risk for avoiding particular spaces in school because they feel unsafe or afraid. Visible school security measures (e.g., security guards, metal detectors, and cameras) offer…

  5. Examining School Security Measures as Moderators of the Association between Homophobic Victimization and School Avoidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Benjamin W.; Tanner-Smith, Emily E.

    2016-01-01

    Homophobic victimization is a pervasive problem in U.S. schools that leads to negative outcomes for students. Those who experience homophobic victimization are at greater risk for avoiding particular spaces in school because they feel unsafe or afraid. Visible school security measures (e.g., security guards, metal detectors, and cameras) offer…

  6. Measuring capital market efficiency: Global and local correlations structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav; Vosvrda, Miloslav

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new measure for capital market efficiency. The measure takes into consideration the correlation structure of the returns (long-term and short-term memory) and local herding behavior (fractal dimension). The efficiency measure is taken as a distance from an ideal efficient market situation. The proposed methodology is applied to a portfolio of 41 stock indices. We find that the Japanese NIKKEI is the most efficient market. From a geographical point of view, the more efficient markets are dominated by the European stock indices and the less efficient markets cover mainly Latin America, Asia and Oceania. The inefficiency is mainly driven by a local herding, i.e. a low fractal dimension.

  7. An Energy-Efficient Secure Routing and Key Management Scheme for Mobile Sinks in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Deployment Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Le Xuan; Canh, Ngo Trong; Lee, Sungyoung; Lee, Young-Koo; Lee, Heejo

    2008-01-01

    For many sensor network applications such as military or homeland security, it is essential for users (sinks) to access the sensor network while they are moving. Sink mobility brings new challenges to secure routing in large-scale sensor networks. Previous studies on sink mobility have mainly focused on efficiency and effectiveness of data dissemination without security consideration. Also, studies and experiences have shown that considering security during design time is the best way to provide security for sensor network routing. This paper presents an energy-efficient secure routing and key management for mobile sinks in sensor networks, called SCODEplus. It is a significant extension of our previous study in five aspects: (1) Key management scheme and routing protocol are considered during design time to increase security and efficiency; (2) The network topology is organized in a hexagonal plane which supports more efficiency than previous square-grid topology; (3) The key management scheme can eliminate the impacts of node compromise attacks on links between non-compromised nodes; (4) Sensor node deployment is based on Gaussian distribution which is more realistic than uniform distribution; (5) No GPS or like is required to provide sensor node location information. Our security analysis demonstrates that the proposed scheme can defend against common attacks in sensor networks including node compromise attacks, replay attacks, selective forwarding attacks, sinkhole and wormhole, Sybil attacks, HELLO flood attacks. Both mathematical and simulation-based performance evaluation show that the SCODEplus significantly reduces the communication overhead, energy consumption, packet delivery latency while it always delivers more than 97 percent of packets successfully.

  8. Measuring energy efficiency in economics: Shadow value approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khademvatani, Asgar

    For decades, academic scholars and policy makers have commonly applied a simple average measure, energy intensity, for studying energy efficiency. In contrast, we introduce a distinctive marginal measure called energy shadow value (SV) for modeling energy efficiency drawn on economic theory. This thesis demonstrates energy SV advantages, conceptually and empirically, over the average measure recognizing marginal technical energy efficiency and unveiling allocative energy efficiency (energy SV to energy price). Using a dual profit function, the study illustrates how treating energy as quasi-fixed factor called quasi-fixed approach offers modeling advantages and is appropriate in developing an explicit model for energy efficiency. We address fallacies and misleading results using average measure and demonstrate energy SV advantage in inter- and intra-country energy efficiency comparison. Energy efficiency dynamics and determination of efficient allocation of energy use are shown through factors impacting energy SV: capital, technology, and environmental obligations. To validate the energy SV, we applied a dual restricted cost model using KLEM dataset for the 35 US sectors stretching from 1958 to 2000 and selected a sample of the four sectors. Following the empirical results, predicted wedges between energy price and the SV growth indicate a misallocation of energy use in stone, clay and glass (SCG) and communications (Com) sectors with more evidence in the SCG compared to the Com sector, showing overshoot in energy use relative to optimal paths and cost increases from sub-optimal energy use. The results show that energy productivity is a measure of technical efficiency and is void of information on the economic efficiency of energy use. Decomposing energy SV reveals that energy, capital and technology played key roles in energy SV increases helping to consider and analyze policy implications of energy efficiency improvement. Applying the marginal measure, we also

  9. Food safety security: a new concept for enhancing food safety measures.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, Venkatesh; Elmadfa, Ibrahim

    2012-06-01

    The food safety security (FSS) concept is perceived as an early warning system for minimizing food safety (FS) breaches, and it functions in conjunction with existing FS measures. Essentially, the function of FS and FSS measures can be visualized in two parts: (i) the FS preventive measures as actions taken at the stem level, and (ii) the FSS interventions as actions taken at the root level, to enhance the impact of the implemented safety steps. In practice, along with FS, FSS also draws its support from (i) legislative directives and regulatory measures for enforcing verifiable, timely, and effective compliance; (ii) measurement systems in place for sustained quality assurance; and (iii) shared responsibility to ensure cohesion among all the stakeholders namely, policy makers, regulators, food producers, processors and distributors, and consumers. However, the functional framework of FSS differs from that of FS by way of: (i) retooling the vulnerable segments of the preventive features of existing FS measures; (ii) fine-tuning response systems to efficiently preempt the FS breaches; (iii) building a long-term nutrient and toxicant surveillance network based on validated measurement systems functioning in real time; (iv) focusing on crisp, clear, and correct communication that resonates among all the stakeholders; and (v) developing inter-disciplinary human resources to meet ever-increasing FS challenges. Important determinants of FSS include: (i) strengthening international dialogue for refining regulatory reforms and addressing emerging risks; (ii) developing innovative and strategic action points for intervention {in addition to Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) procedures]; and (iii) introducing additional science-based tools such as metrology-based measurement systems.

  10. Development of Information Security-Focused Incident Prevention Measures for Critical Information Infrastructure in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Hideaki; Watanabe, Kenji; Watanabe, Takahito; Nagayasu, Yukinobu

    In recent years, the dilemma of cyber attacks by malicious third parties targeting security vulnerabilities in information and communication systems has emerged, resulting in security incidents. This situation suggests that the establishment of proactive efforts and recurrence prevention measures are becoming imperative, especially in critical infrastructure sectors.This paper provides an analysis of 58 security incident cases, which occurred in critical infrastructures worldwide and were published in media. The purpose of the analysis is to conclude to a valid list of recurrence prevention measures that constitute good practices.

  11. Efficient and Secure Temporal Credential-Based Authenticated Key Agreement Using Extended Chaotic Maps for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tian-Fu

    2015-06-25

    A secure temporal credential-based authenticated key agreement scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) enables a user, a sensor node and a gateway node to realize mutual authentication using temporal credentials. The user and the sensor node then negotiate a common secret key with the help of the gateway node, and establish a secure and authenticated channel using this common secret key. To increase efficiency, recent temporal credential-based authenticated key agreement schemes for WSNs have been designed to involve few computational operations, such as hash and exclusive-or operations. However, these schemes cannot protect the privacy of users and withstand possible attacks. This work develops a novel temporal credential-based authenticated key agreement scheme for WSNs using extended chaotic maps, in which operations are more efficient than modular exponential computations and scalar multiplications on an elliptic curve. The proposed scheme not only provides higher security and efficiency than related schemes, but also resolves their weaknesses.

  12. A secure and efficient password-based user authentication scheme using smart cards for the integrated EPR information system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tian-Fu; Chang, I-Pin; Lin, Tsung-Hung; Wang, Ching-Cheng

    2013-06-01

    The integrated EPR information system supports convenient and rapid e-medicine services. A secure and efficient authentication scheme for the integrated EPR information system provides safeguarding patients' electronic patient records (EPRs) and helps health care workers and medical personnel to rapidly making correct clinical decisions. Recently, Wu et al. proposed an efficient password-based user authentication scheme using smart cards for the integrated EPR information system, and claimed that the proposed scheme could resist various malicious attacks. However, their scheme is still vulnerable to lost smart card and stolen verifier attacks. This investigation discusses these weaknesses and proposes a secure and efficient authentication scheme for the integrated EPR information system as alternative. Compared with related approaches, the proposed scheme not only retains a lower computational cost and does not require verifier tables for storing users' secrets, but also solves the security problems in previous schemes and withstands possible attacks.

  13. Efficient and Secure Temporal Credential-Based Authenticated Key Agreement Using Extended Chaotic Maps for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tian-Fu

    2015-01-01

    A secure temporal credential-based authenticated key agreement scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) enables a user, a sensor node and a gateway node to realize mutual authentication using temporal credentials. The user and the sensor node then negotiate a common secret key with the help of the gateway node, and establish a secure and authenticated channel using this common secret key. To increase efficiency, recent temporal credential-based authenticated key agreement schemes for WSNs have been designed to involve few computational operations, such as hash and exclusive-or operations. However, these schemes cannot protect the privacy of users and withstand possible attacks. This work develops a novel temporal credential-based authenticated key agreement scheme for WSNs using extended chaotic maps, in which operations are more efficient than modular exponential computations and scalar multiplications on an elliptic curve. The proposed scheme not only provides higher security and efficiency than related schemes, but also resolves their weaknesses. PMID:26121612

  14. A secure and efficient password-based user authentication scheme using smart cards for the integrated EPR information system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tian-Fu; Chang, I-Pin; Lin, Tsung-Hung; Wang, Ching-Cheng

    2013-06-01

    The integrated EPR information system supports convenient and rapid e-medicine services. A secure and efficient authentication scheme for the integrated EPR information system provides safeguarding patients' electronic patient records (EPRs) and helps health care workers and medical personnel to rapidly making correct clinical decisions. Recently, Wu et al. proposed an efficient password-based user authentication scheme using smart cards for the integrated EPR information system, and claimed that the proposed scheme could resist various malicious attacks. However, their scheme is still vulnerable to lost smart card and stolen verifier attacks. This investigation discusses these weaknesses and proposes a secure and efficient authentication scheme for the integrated EPR information system as alternative. Compared with related approaches, the proposed scheme not only retains a lower computational cost and does not require verifier tables for storing users' secrets, but also solves the security problems in previous schemes and withstands possible attacks. PMID:23553734

  15. Efficient and Secure Temporal Credential-Based Authenticated Key Agreement Using Extended Chaotic Maps for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tian-Fu

    2015-01-01

    A secure temporal credential-based authenticated key agreement scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) enables a user, a sensor node and a gateway node to realize mutual authentication using temporal credentials. The user and the sensor node then negotiate a common secret key with the help of the gateway node, and establish a secure and authenticated channel using this common secret key. To increase efficiency, recent temporal credential-based authenticated key agreement schemes for WSNs have been designed to involve few computational operations, such as hash and exclusive-or operations. However, these schemes cannot protect the privacy of users and withstand possible attacks. This work develops a novel temporal credential-based authenticated key agreement scheme for WSNs using extended chaotic maps, in which operations are more efficient than modular exponential computations and scalar multiplications on an elliptic curve. The proposed scheme not only provides higher security and efficiency than related schemes, but also resolves their weaknesses. PMID:26121612

  16. Measuring Information Security Performance with 10 by 10 Model for Holistic State Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Organizations should measure their information security performance if they wish to take the right decisions and develop it in line with their security needs. Since the measurement of information security is generally underdeveloped in practice and many organizations find the existing recommendations too complex, the paper presents a solution in the form of a 10 by 10 information security performance measurement model. The model—ISP 10×10M is composed of ten critical success factors, 100 key performance indicators and 6 performance levels. Its content was devised on the basis of findings presented in the current research studies and standards, while its structure results from an empirical research conducted among information security professionals from Slovenia. Results of the study show that a high level of information security performance is mostly dependent on measures aimed at managing information risks, employees and information sources, while formal and environmental factors have a lesser impact. Experts believe that information security should evolve systematically, where it’s recommended that beginning steps include technical, logical and physical security controls, while advanced activities should relate predominantly strategic management activities. By applying the proposed model, organizations are able to determine the actual level of information security performance based on the weighted indexing technique. In this manner they identify the measures they ought to develop in order to improve the current situation. The ISP 10×10M is a useful tool for conducting internal system evaluations and decision-making. It may also be applied to a larger sample of organizations in order to determine the general state-of-play for research purposes. PMID:27655001

  17. Measuring energy efficiency in the United States` economy: A beginning

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Energy efficiency is a vital component of the Nation`s energy strategy. One of the Department of Energy`s missions are to promote energy efficiency to help the Nation manage its energy resources. The ability to define and measure energy efficiency is essential to this objective. In the absence of consistent defensible measures, energy efficiency is a vague, subjective concept that engenders directionless speculation and confusion rather than insightful analysis. The task of defining and measuring energy efficiency and creating statistical measures as descriptors is a daunting one. This publication is not a final product, but is EIA`s first attempt to define and measure energy efficiency in a systematic and robust manner for each of the sectors and the United States economy as a whole. In this process, EIA has relied on discussions, customer reviews, in-house reviews, and seminars that have focused on energy efficiency in each of the sectors. EIA solicits the continued participation of its customers in further refining this work.

  18. A secure and efficient uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care.

    PubMed

    Das, Ashok Kumar; Goswami, Adrijit

    2013-06-01

    Connected health care has several applications including telecare medicine information system, personally controlled health records system, and patient monitoring. In such applications, user authentication can ensure the legality of patients. In user authentication for such applications, only the legal user/patient himself/herself is allowed to access the remote server, and no one can trace him/her according to transmitted data. Chang et al. proposed a uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care (Chang et al., J Med Syst 37:9902, 2013). Their scheme uses the user's personal biometrics along with his/her password with the help of the smart card. The user's biometrics is verified using BioHashing. Their scheme is efficient due to usage of one-way hash function and exclusive-or (XOR) operations. In this paper, we show that though their scheme is very efficient, their scheme has several security weaknesses such as (1) it has design flaws in login and authentication phases, (2) it has design flaws in password change phase, (3) it fails to protect privileged insider attack, (4) it fails to protect the man-in-the middle attack, and (5) it fails to provide proper authentication. In order to remedy these security weaknesses in Chang et al.'s scheme, we propose an improvement of their scheme while retaining the original merit of their scheme. We show that our scheme is efficient as compared to Chang et al.'s scheme. Through the security analysis, we show that our scheme is secure against possible attacks. Further, we simulate our scheme for the formal security verification using the widely-accepted AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool to ensure that our scheme is secure against passive and active attacks. In addition, after successful authentication between the user and the server, they establish a secret session key shared between them for future secure communication. PMID

  19. Visible School Security Measures and Student Academic Performance, Attendance, and Postsecondary Aspirations.

    PubMed

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Fisher, Benjamin W

    2016-01-01

    Many U.S. schools use visible security measures (security cameras, metal detectors, security personnel) in an effort to keep schools safe and promote adolescents' academic success. This study examined how different patterns of visible security utilization were associated with U.S. middle and high school students' academic performance, attendance, and postsecondary educational aspirations. The data for this study came from two large national surveys--the School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey (N = 38,707 students; 51% male, 77% White, MAge = 14.72) and the School Survey on Crime and Safety (N = 10,340 schools; average student composition of 50% male, 57% White). The results provided no evidence that visible security measures had consistent beneficial effects on adolescents' academic outcomes; some security utilization patterns had modest detrimental effects on adolescents' academic outcomes, particularly the heavy surveillance patterns observed in a small subset of high schools serving predominantly low socioeconomic students. The findings of this study provide no evidence that visible security measures have any sizeable effects on academic performance, attendance, or postsecondary aspirations among U.S. middle and high school students.

  20. Direct efficiency measurement and characterization of residential heating equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajewski, R. F.; McDonald, R. J.; Milau, J. S.

    1980-05-01

    Preliminary characterization results for hydronic (hot water) oil fired systems are presented. Results from the fully operational warm air furnace test facility and a description of the equipment and the technique used in measuring furnace efficiencies are included. Laboratory data were used to determine annual fuel consumption and fuel weighted seasonal efficiency for each heating unit based on typical operating parametes (size of residence, geographic location, and usage). A range of hydronic burner boiler systems are evaluated. The combination of direct, accurate efficiency measurement and calculation of annual fuel use provides a standard method for comparison of individual heating units and retrofit modifications on a common and realistic basis.

  1. Alternate measures of replacement rates for social security benefits and retirement income.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Andrew G; Springstead, Glenn R

    2008-01-01

    Discussions of retirement planning and Social Security policy often focus on replacement rates, which represent retirement income or Social Security benefits relative to preretirement earnings. Replacement rates are a rule of thumb designed to simplify the process of smoothing consumption over individuals' lifetimes. Despite their widespread use, however, there is no common means of measuring replacement rates. Various measures of preretirement earnings mean that the denominators used in replacement rate calculations are often inconsistent and can lead to confusion. Whether a given replacement rate represents an adequate retirement income depends on whether the denominator in the replacement rate calculation is an appropriate measure of preretirement earnings. This article illustrates replacement rates using four measures of preretirement earnings: final earnings; the constant income payable from the present value (PV) of lifetime earnings (PV payment); the wage-indexed average of all earnings prior to claiming Social Security benefits; and the inflation-adjusted average of all earnings prior to claiming Social Security benefits (consumer price index (CPI) average). The article then measures replacement rates against a sample of the Social Security beneficiary population using the Social Security Administration's Modeling Income in the Near Term (MINT) microsimulation model. Replacement rates are shown based on Social Security benefits alone, to indicate the adequacy of the current benefit structure, as well as on total retirement income including defined benefit pensions and financial assets, to indicate total preparedness for retirement. The results show that replacement rates can vary considerably based on the definition of preretirement earnings used and whether replacement rates are measured on an individual or a shared basis. For current new retirees, replacement rates based on all sources of retirement income seem strong by most measures and are projected to

  2. Atomic teleportation via cavity QED and position measurements: Efficiency analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumminello, M.; Ciccarello, F.

    2008-07-01

    We have recently presented a novel protocol to teleport an unknown atomic state via cavity QED and position measurements. Here, after a brief review of our scheme, we provide a quantitative study of its efficiency. This is accomplished by an explicit description of the measurement process that allows us to derive the fidelity with respect to the atomic internal state to be teleported.

  3. EPA-ORD MEASUREMENT SCIENCE SUPPORT FOR HOMELAND SECURITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will describe the organization and the research and development activities of the ORD National Exposure Measurements Center and will focus on the Center's planned role in providing analytical method development, statistical sampling and design guidance, quality ...

  4. 33 CFR 104.270 - Security measures for restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... detection devices, which if used must activate an audible and/or visual alarm at a location that is... measures may include: (1) Restricting access to additional areas; and (2) Searching restricted areas...

  5. 33 CFR 104.270 - Security measures for restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... detection devices, which if used must activate an audible and/or visual alarm at a location that is... measures may include: (1) Restricting access to additional areas; and (2) Searching restricted areas...

  6. A Framework for Comparative Assessments of Energy Efficiency Policy Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, Helcio; Atkinson, Barbara; Lekov, Alex

    2011-05-24

    When policy makers propose new policies, there is a need to assess the costs and benefits of the proposed policy measures, to compare them to existing and alternative policies, and to rank them according to their effectiveness. In the case of equipment energy efficiency regulations, comparing the effects of a range of alternative policy measures requires evaluating their effects on consumers’ budgets, on national energy consumption and economics, and on the environment. Such an approach should be able to represent in a single framework the particularities of each policy measure and provide comparable results. This report presents an integrated methodological framework to assess prospectively the energy, economic, and environmental impacts of energy efficiency policy measures. The framework builds on the premise that the comparative assessment of energy efficiency policy measures should (a) rely on a common set of primary data and parameters, (b) follow a single functional approach to estimate the energy, economic, and emissions savings resulting from each assessed measure, and (c) present results through a set of comparable indicators. This framework elaborates on models that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has used in support of its rulemakings on mandatory energy efficiency standards. In addition to a rigorous analysis of the impacts of mandatory standards, DOE compares the projected results of alternative policy measures to those projected to be achieved by the standards. The framework extends such an approach to provide a broad, generic methodology, with no geographic or sectoral limitations, that is useful for evaluating any type of equipment energy efficiency market intervention. The report concludes with a demonstration of how to use the framework to compare the impacts estimated for twelve policy measures focusing on increasing the energy efficiency of gas furnaces in the United States.

  7. 'Known Secure Sensor Measurements' for Critical Infrastructure Systems: Detecting Falsification of System State

    SciTech Connect

    Miles McQueen; Annarita Giani

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes a first investigation on a low cost and low false alarm, reliable mechanism for detecting manipulation of critical physical processes and falsification of system state. We call this novel mechanism Known Secure Sensor Measurements (KSSM). The method moves beyond analysis of network traffic and host based state information, in fact it uses physical measurements of the process being controlled to detect falsification of state. KSSM is intended to be incorporated into the design of new, resilient, cost effective critical infrastructure control systems. It can also be included in incremental upgrades of already in- stalled systems for enhanced resilience. KSSM is based on known secure physical measurements for assessing the likelihood of an attack and will demonstrate a practical approach to creating, transmitting, and using the known secure measurements for detection.

  8. An assessment of various household food security measures in Hawaiì has implications for national food security research and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Derrickson, J P; Fisher, A G; Anderson, J E; Brown, A C

    2001-03-01

    The Core Food Security Module (CFSM), the national food security monitoring tool, requires three affirmative responses to categorize households as food insecure. If this tool is unreliable or inaccurate, vulnerable segments of our population may be adversely affected. The objectives of the present study were to assess the credibility of applying the CFSM categorical measure to a population sample from Hawaiì and to assess the concurrent validity of the CFSM, the new face-valid measure and measures adapted from the Radimer/Cornell (RC) measure and Community Childhood Hunger Identification Project. The sample included 1469 respondents gathered through a statewide telephone sample and 144 food pantry recipients. Responses to the 18 CFSM questions were used to create all four measures. The credibility of the CFSM categorical measure was also assessed via comparisons with individual items and with the 1995 national modal CFSM response pattern. Categorical measures were compared across food security prevalence estimates and indices of income and vegetable intake and with the CFSM scale measure. Differences in the modal response pattern between samples affected CFSM categorization. Only 36% of households followed the Hawaiì modal response pattern, and categorization was not consistent with the content of key items. Although 85% of the households were classified as food secure by the CFSM, only 78% were classified as food secure with each of the other food security measures. Concurrent validity of all measures was confirmed. A reassessment of the national CFSM categorical measure appears warranted.

  9. Information Leakage Problem in Efficient Bidirectional Quantum Secure Direct Communication with Single Photons in Both Polarization and Spatial-Mode Degrees of Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhi-Hao; Chen, Han-Wu; Liu, Wen-Jie

    2016-06-01

    The information leakage problem in the efficient bidirectional quantum secure direct communication protocol with single photons in both polarization and spatial-mode degrees of freedom is pointed out. Next, a way to revise this protocol to a truly secure one is given. We hope people pay more attention to the information leakage problem in order to design truly secure quantum communication protocols.

  10. ADAPTING FTIR MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGY TO HOMELAND SECURITY APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) sensors have numerous advantages for measuring chemical plumes over wide areas compared to point detection sensors. Extractive FTIR sensors have been used for industrial stack monitoring and are attractive for building ventilation sy...

  11. 75 FR 28672 - Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation; Lifting of Nonproliferation Measures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... January 8, 1999 (see 64 FR 2935). Dated: May 17, 2010. C.S. Eliot Kang, Acting Assistant Secretary of... of International Security and Nonproliferation; Lifting of Nonproliferation Measures Against Two... measures on two Russian entities. DATES: Effective Date: May 21, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  12. Implementation and Rejection of Industrial Steam System Energy Efficiency Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Therkelesen, Peter; McKane, Aimee

    2013-05-01

    Steam systems consume approximately one third of energy applied at U.S. industrial facilities. To reduce energy consumption, steam system energy assessments have been conducted on a wide range of industry types over the course of five years through the Energy Savings Assessment (ESA) program administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE). ESA energy assessments result in energy efficiency measure recommendations that are given potential energy and energy cost savings and potential implementation cost values. Saving and cost metrics that measure the impact recommended measures will have at facilities, described as percentages of facility baseline energy and energy cost, are developed from ESA data and used in analyses. Developed savings and cost metrics are examined along with implementation and rejection rates of recommended steam system energy efficiency measures. Based on analyses, implementation of steam system energy efficiency measures is driven primarily by cost metrics: payback period and measure implementation cost as a percentage of facility baseline energy cost (implementation cost percentage). Stated reasons for rejecting recommended measures are primarily based upon economic concerns. Additionally, implementation rates of measures are not only functions of savings and cost metrics, but time as well.

  13. Controlled quantum secure direct communication by entanglement distillation or generalized measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Xiaoqian

    2016-05-01

    We propose two controlled quantum secure communication schemes by entanglement distillation or generalized measurement. The sender Alice, the receiver Bob and the controllers David and Cliff take part in the whole schemes. The supervisors David and Cliff can control the information transmitted from Alice to Bob by adjusting the local measurement angles θ _4 and θ _3. Bob can verify his secret information by classical one-way function after communication. The average amount of information is analyzed and compared for these two methods by MATLAB. The generalized measurement is a better scheme. Our schemes are secure against some well-known attacks because classical encryption and decoy states are used to ensure the security of the classical channel and the quantum channel.

  14. Improved Methods for Identifying, Applying, and Verifying Industrial Energy Efficiency Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Andrew Chase

    Energy efficiency is the least expensive source of additional energy capacity for today's global energy expansion. Energy efficiency offers additional benefits of cost savings for consumers, reduced environmental impacts, and enhanced energy security. The challenges of energy efficiency include identifying potential efficiency measures, quantifying savings, determining cost effectiveness, and verifying savings of installed measures. This thesis presents three separate chapters which address these challenges. The first is a paper presented at the 2014 industrial energy technology conference (IETC) that details a compressed air system project using the systems approach to identify cost effective measures, energy intensity to project savings, and proper measurement and verification (M&V) practices to prove that the savings were achieved. The second is a discussion of proper M&V techniques, how these apply to international M&V protocols, and how M&V professionals can improve the accuracy and efficacy of their M&V activities. The third is an energy intensity analysis of a poultry processing facility at a unit operations level, which details the M&V practices used to determine the intensities at each unit operation and compares these to previous works.

  15. Ghost imaging using labyrinth-like phase modulation patterns for high-efficiency and high-security optical encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong

    2015-01-01

    Ghost imaging has attracted more and more current attention due to its marked physical characteristics, and many physical applications, such as sensing and optical security, have been explored. In this letter, we propose ghost imaging using labyrinth-like phase modulation patterns for optical encryption. Since only one phase-only mask should be pre-set and the labyrinth patterns occupy only few spaces, high-efficiency storage or transmission of system keys can be implemented. In addition, each labyrinth pattern (i.e., phase modulation pattern) possesses high randomness and flexibility, hence high security can be guaranteed for the proposed optical encryption.

  16. Efficient Measurement of Multiparticle Entanglement with Embedding Quantum Simulator.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Cheng; Wu, Dian; Su, Zu-En; Cai, Xin-Dong; Wang, Xi-Lin; Yang, Tao; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-02-19

    The quantum measurement of entanglement is a demanding task in the field of quantum information. Here, we report the direct and scalable measurement of multiparticle entanglement with embedding photonic quantum simulators. In this embedding framework [R. Di Candia et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240502 (2013)], the N-qubit entanglement, which does not associate with a physical observable directly, can be efficiently measured with only two (for even N) and six (for odd N) local measurement settings. Our experiment uses multiphoton quantum simulators to mimic dynamical concurrence and three-tangle entangled systems and to track their entanglement evolutions.

  17. Measuring industrial energy efficiency: Physical volume versus economic value

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, S.L.; Niefer, M.J.; Roop, J.M.

    1996-12-01

    This report examines several different measures of industrial output for use in constructing estimates of industrial energy efficiency and discusses some reasons for differences between the measures. Estimates of volume-based measures of output, as well as 3 value-based measures of output (value of production, value of shipments, and value added), are evaluated for 15 separate 4-digit industries. Volatility, simple growth rate, and trend growth rate estimates are made for each industry and each measure of output. Correlations are made between the volume- and value-based measures of output. Historical energy use data are collected for 5 of the industries for making energy- intensity estimates. Growth rates in energy use, energy intensity, and correlations between volume- and value-based measures of energy intensity are computed. There is large variability in growth trend estimates both long term and from year to year. While there is a high correlation between volume- and value-based measures of output for a few industries, typically the correlation is low, and this is exacerbated for estimates of energy intensity. Analysis revealed reasons for these low correlations. It appears that substantial work must be done before reliable measures of trends in the energy efficiency of industry can be accurately characterized.

  18. Efficiency Measurement Using a Motor-Dynamo Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Pun-hon; Wong, Siu-ling; Mak, Se-yuen

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we describe a simple method which can be used to measure the efficiency of a low power dc motor, a motor-converted dynamo and a coupled motor-dynamo module as a function of the speed of rotation. The result can also be used to verify Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction. (Contains 1 table and 8 figures.)

  19. Measuring Information Technology Performance: Operational Efficiency and Operational Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Annette G.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation provides a practical approach for measuring operational efficiency and operational effectiveness for IT organizations introducing the ITIL process framework. The intent of the study was to assist Chief Information Officers (CIOs) in explaining the impact of introducing the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL)…

  20. Measuring efficiency of rice growing farmers using data envelopment analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaibidi, Nerda Zura; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Ramli, Razamin; Baten, Md. Azizul; Khan, Sahubar Ali Nadhar

    2015-12-01

    Self-sufficiency in rice production has been the main issue in Malaysia agriculture. It is significantly low and does not comply with the current average rice yield of 3.7 tons per ha per season. One of the best options and the most effective way to improve rice productivity is through more efficient utilization of paddy farmers. Getting farmers to grow rice is indeed a challenge when they could very well be making better money doing something else. This paper attempts to study the efficiency of rice growing farmers in Kubang Pasu using Data Envelopment Analysis model. For comparative analysis, three scenarios are considered in this study in measuring efficiency of rice growing farmers. The first scenario considers only fertilizer factor as an input while for the second, the land size is added as another factor. The third scenario considers more details about the inputs such as the type of fertilizer, NPK and mixed and also land tenureship and size. In all scenarios, the outputs are rice yield (tons) and the profit (RM). As expected, the findings show that the third scenario establishes the highest number of efficient rice growing farmers. It reveals that the combination of outputs and inputs chosen has significant contribution in measuring efficiency of rice growing farmers.

  1. Efficient measurements, purification, and bounds on the mutual information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Kurt

    2003-11-01

    When a measurement is made on a quantum system in which classical information is encoded, the measurement reduces the observers’ average Shannon entropy for the encoding ensemble. This reduction, being the mutual information, is always non-negative. For efficient measurements the state is also purified; that is, on average, the observers’ von Neumann entropy for the state of the system is also reduced by a non-negative amount. Here we point out that by rewriting a bound derived by Hall [Phys. Rev. A 55, 100 (1997)], which is dual to the Holevo bound, one finds that for efficient measurements, the mutual information is bounded by the reduction in the von Neumann entropy. We also show that this result, which provides a physical interpretation for Hall’s bound, may be derived directly from the Schumacher-Westmoreland-Wootters theorem [Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3452 (1996)]. We discuss these bounds, and their relationship to another bound, valid for efficient measurements on pure state ensembles, which involves the subentropy.

  2. Biometric Methods for Secure Communications in Body Sensor Networks: Resource-Efficient Key Management and Signal-Level Data Scrambling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, Francis Minhthang; Hatzinakos, Dimitrios

    2007-12-01

    As electronic communications become more prevalent, mobile and universal, the threats of data compromises also accordingly loom larger. In the context of a body sensor network (BSN), which permits pervasive monitoring of potentially sensitive medical data, security and privacy concerns are particularly important. It is a challenge to implement traditional security infrastructures in these types of lightweight networks since they are by design limited in both computational and communication resources. A key enabling technology for secure communications in BSN's has emerged to be biometrics. In this work, we present two complementary approaches which exploit physiological signals to address security issues: (1) a resource-efficient key management system for generating and distributing cryptographic keys to constituent sensors in a BSN; (2) a novel data scrambling method, based on interpolation and random sampling, that is envisioned as a potential alternative to conventional symmetric encryption algorithms for certain types of data. The former targets the resource constraints in BSN's, while the latter addresses the fuzzy variability of biometric signals, which has largely precluded the direct application of conventional encryption. Using electrocardiogram (ECG) signals as biometrics, the resulting computer simulations demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of these methods for delivering secure communications in BSN's.

  3. The Strategic Measures for the Industrial Security of Small and Medium Business

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang-Moo

    2014-01-01

    The competitiveness of companies increasingly depends upon whether they possess the cutting-edge or core technology. The technology should be protected from industrial espionage or leakage. A special attention needs to be given to SMB (small and medium business), furthermore, because SMB occupies most of the companies but has serious problems in terms of industrial security. The technology leakages of SMB would account for more than 2/3 of total leakages during last five years. The purpose of this study is, therefore, to analyze the problems of SMB in terms of industrial security and suggest the strategic solutions for SMB in South Korea. The low security awareness and financial difficulties, however, make it difficult for SMB to build the effective security management system which would protect the company from industrial espionage and leakage of its technology. The growing dependence of SMB on network such as internet, in addition, puts the SMB at risk of leaking its technology through hacking or similar ways. It requires new measures to confront and control such a risk. Online security control services and technology deposit system are suggested for such measures. PMID:24955414

  4. The strategic measures for the industrial security of small and medium business.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Moo

    2014-01-01

    The competitiveness of companies increasingly depends upon whether they possess the cutting-edge or core technology. The technology should be protected from industrial espionage or leakage. A special attention needs to be given to SMB (small and medium business), furthermore, because SMB occupies most of the companies but has serious problems in terms of industrial security. The technology leakages of SMB would account for more than 2/3 of total leakages during last five years. The purpose of this study is, therefore, to analyze the problems of SMB in terms of industrial security and suggest the strategic solutions for SMB in South Korea. The low security awareness and financial difficulties, however, make it difficult for SMB to build the effective security management system which would protect the company from industrial espionage and leakage of its technology. The growing dependence of SMB on network such as internet, in addition, puts the SMB at risk of leaking its technology through hacking or similar ways. It requires new measures to confront and control such a risk. Online security control services and technology deposit system are suggested for such measures. PMID:24955414

  5. The strategic measures for the industrial security of small and medium business.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Moo

    2014-01-01

    The competitiveness of companies increasingly depends upon whether they possess the cutting-edge or core technology. The technology should be protected from industrial espionage or leakage. A special attention needs to be given to SMB (small and medium business), furthermore, because SMB occupies most of the companies but has serious problems in terms of industrial security. The technology leakages of SMB would account for more than 2/3 of total leakages during last five years. The purpose of this study is, therefore, to analyze the problems of SMB in terms of industrial security and suggest the strategic solutions for SMB in South Korea. The low security awareness and financial difficulties, however, make it difficult for SMB to build the effective security management system which would protect the company from industrial espionage and leakage of its technology. The growing dependence of SMB on network such as internet, in addition, puts the SMB at risk of leaking its technology through hacking or similar ways. It requires new measures to confront and control such a risk. Online security control services and technology deposit system are suggested for such measures.

  6. On frequency and efficiency measurements in counting experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotondi, Alberto

    2010-02-01

    The methods for the evaluation of the uncertainties in the frequency and the efficiency in counting experiments are re-examined. It is shown that the confidence intervals, obtained from inverting test acceptance regions with pivotal variables and including the Continuity Correction (CC), give in many cases intervals with coverage and width comparable to those of some more sophisticated methods in use. The Poisson counting with and without background (known or measured) and with acceptance effects, as well as the efficiency determination through binomial counting are considered in detail. Most of the proposed formulae are simple and could substitute the standard textbook ones used by the physicists in their daily practice.

  7. 33 CFR 106.270 - Security measures for delivery of stores and industrial supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... stores and industrial supplies. 106.270 Section 106.270 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... stores and industrial supplies. (a) General. The OCS facility owner or operator must ensure that security measures relating to the delivery of stores or industrial supplies to the OCS facility are implemented...

  8. Preventing School Bullying: Should Schools Prioritize an Authoritative School Discipline Approach over Security Measures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlinger, Julie; Wo, James C.

    2016-01-01

    A common response to school violence features the use of security measures to deter serious and violent incidents. However, a second approach, based on school climate theory, suggests that schools exhibiting authoritative school discipline (i.e., high structure and support) might more effectively reduce school disorder. We tested these approaches…

  9. 33 CFR 105.270 - Security measures for delivery of vessel stores and bunkers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... vessel stores and bunkers. 105.270 Section 105.270 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Requirements § 105.270 Security measures for delivery of vessel stores and bunkers. (a) General. The facility... bunkers are implemented to: (1) Check vessel stores for package integrity; (2) Prevent vessel stores...

  10. Efficient visible through SWIR focal plane MTF measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, Neil; Fierro, Josh; Troup, Richard; Willberger, Gary; Wyles, Jessica; Boe, Raymond; Dixon, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Raytheon Vision Systems (RVS) has developed an efficient method to measure MTF on Visible through MWIR small pixel FPAs. The measured data was obtained using an advanced but low cost test set with sub μm target projection on the FPA and real time display of the LSF as the slit is walked through focus. The test set is commercially procured, maintained and calibrated, provides target and filter holders and a light source. The analysis summary includes references from simplified MTF published analysis tools and a list of artifacts to be aware of when measuring MTF. The SWIR and MWIR detectors have a Mesa structure geometry for improved MTF performance and the Visible has state of the art crosstalk control to provide excellent MTF performance. The modeled data is compared to measured tilted slit MTF measured data and shows close agreement.

  11. Efficient measurement-device-independent detection of multipartite entanglement structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qi; Yuan, Xiao; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2016-07-01

    Witnessing entanglement is crucial in quantum information processing. With properly preparing ancillary states, it has been shown previously that genuine entanglement can be witnessed without trusting measurement devices. In this work we generalize the scenario and show that generic multipartite entanglement structures, including entanglement of subsystems and entanglement depth, can be witnessed via measurement-device-independent means. As the original measurement-device-independent entanglement witness scheme exploits only one out of four Bell measurement outcomes for each party, a direct generalization to multipartite quantum states will inevitably cause inefficiency in entanglement detection after taking account of statistical fluctuations. To resolve this problem, we also present a way to utilize all the measurement outcomes. The scheme is efficient for multipartite entanglement detection and can be realized with state-of-the-art technologies.

  12. Lessons learned on closed cavity thermophotovoltaic system efficiency measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Gethers, C.K.; Ballinger, C.T.; DePoy, D.M.

    1998-10-01

    Previous efficiency measurements have highlighted that to accurately measure and predict thermophotovoltaic (TPV) integrated cell or array efficiencies, a thorough understanding of the system is required. This includes knowledge of intrinsic diode and filter characteristics, radiative surface properties of all materials used within the cavity, and an intimate knowledge of the radiator/photon source. As a result of these and other lessons learned, the cavity test fixture used in earlier experiments was redesigned. To reduce radiator temperature gradients, the radiator was oversized and thickened, cavity walls were eliminated, the diode heat sink and shielding material were separated, and the cold side was redesigned to incorporate a steady state heat absorbed measurement technique. This redesigned test fixture provides an isothermal radiator and significantly enhances calorimetry capabilities. This newly designed cavity test fixture, in conjunction with the Monte Carlo Photon Transport code RACER-X, was used to improve and demonstrate the understanding of in-cavity TPV diode/module system efficiency testing. A single TPV diode was tested in this new fixture and yielded good agreement between measurements and predictions.

  13. Measurement and simulation of thermoelectric efficiency for single leg

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Xiaokai; Yamamoto, Atsushi Ohta, Michihiro; Nishiate, Hirotaka

    2015-04-15

    Thermoelectric efficiency measurements were carried out on n-type bismuth telluride legs with the hot-side temperature at 100 and 150°C. The electric power and heat flow were measured individually. Water coolant was utilized to maintain the cold-side temperature and to measure heat flow out of the cold side. Leg length and vacuum pressure were studied in terms of temperature difference across the leg, open-circuit voltage, internal resistance, and heat flow. Finite-element simulation on thermoelectric generation was performed in COMSOL Multiphysics, by inputting two-side temperatures and thermoelectric material properties. The open-circuit voltage and resistance were in good agreement between the measurement and simulation. Much larger heat flows were found in measurements, since they were comprised of conductive, convective, and radiative contributions. Parasitic heat flow was measured in the absence of bismuth telluride leg, and the conductive heat flow was then available. Finally, the maximum thermoelectric efficiency was derived in accordance with the electric power and the conductive heat flow.

  14. Calorimetric measurements of energy transfer efficiency and melting efficiency in CO sub 2 laser beam welding

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerschbach, P.W.

    1990-01-01

    Our previous calorimetric studies of weld melting efficiency and arc efficiency in the GTAW and PAW processes have naturally led us to speculate as to the magnitude of the efficiencies in the LBW process which to data have also not been adequately investigated. Most welding engineers that have had experience with the LBW process are acutely aware that the metals' absorptivity, the surface finish, and the laser wavelength, all play an important role in affecting the energy transfer efficiency, but the extent of their influence and our understanding of the influence of other process variables is not well understood. In addition, it is widely thought that only the LBW or EBW processes can be selected for applications where thermal damage and distortion from the welding process must be kept to a minimum. For these reasons, we have looked forward to performing these calorimetric experiments since they potentially can answer such important questions as: whether or not the melting efficiency of the LBW process is superior to that obtainable with conventional GTAW and PAW welding processes This study was prompted by poor production yields on switching device due to cracking of the ceramic header after final closure welding with the CO{sub 2} LBW process. This calorimetric study was begun in hopes of determining if allowed variations in production process control variables were responsible for increases in heat input and the resulting thermal stresses. By measuring the net heat input to the workpiece with the calorimeter and by measuring the laser output energy and the weld fusion zone size it was possible to determine the magnitudes of both the energy transfer efficiency and the melting efficiency as well as observe their dependence on the process variables. 3 refs.

  15. Relative efficiency of ambiguous vs. directly measured haplotype frequencies.

    PubMed

    Schaid, Daniel J

    2002-11-01

    Haplotypes are useful for both fine-mapping of susceptibility loci and evaluation of sequence variation at multiple sites along a chromosome. However, they are difficult to directly measure over long stretches of DNA in diploid organisms. Consequently, multiple genetic markers are typically measured, without linkage phase information, giving rise to a subject's diplotype. From diplotype data, haplotypes are often inferred by pedigree information, or treated as partially missing data when haplotype frequencies are estimated among unrelated subjects. This latter ambiguity can increase the variance of the estimated haplotype frequencies. Douglas et al. ([2001] Nat. Genet. 28:361-364) recently quantified the relative efficiency of estimating haplotype frequencies from the diplotypes of unrelated subjects, relative to directly measured haplotypes via somatic cell hybrids (conversion technology), and demonstrated that unknown linkage phase can lead to a large loss of efficiency. However, their results were based on linkage equilibrium among marker loci, which may not be realistic for closely linked markers. We extend their relative efficiency calculations by several aspects: 1) allowance for linkage disequilbrium (LD) among marker loci; 2) evaluation of different patterns of LD; and 3) evaluation of nuclear families with and without parents. We show that although the loss in efficiency of haplotype frequencies among unrelated subjects decreases as LD increases to its maximum value, the general conclusions of Douglas et al. ([2001] Nat. Genet. 28:361-364) hold true for a variety of LD patterns and magnitudes. However, our results also demonstrate that trios of parents+one child are highly efficient for haplotype frequency estimation, that additional children offer little information, and that siblings without parents can be grossly inefficient. Genet. Epidemiol. 23:426-443, 2002. PMID:12432508

  16. A two-stage DEA approach for environmental efficiency measurement.

    PubMed

    Song, Malin; Wang, Shuhong; Liu, Wei

    2014-05-01

    The slacks-based measure (SBM) model based on the constant returns to scale has achieved some good results in addressing the undesirable outputs, such as waste water and water gas, in measuring environmental efficiency. However, the traditional SBM model cannot deal with the scenario in which desirable outputs are constant. Based on the axiomatic theory of productivity, this paper carries out a systematic research on the SBM model considering undesirable outputs, and further expands the SBM model from the perspective of network analysis. The new model can not only perform efficiency evaluation considering undesirable outputs, but also calculate desirable and undesirable outputs separately. The latter advantage successfully solves the "dependence" problem of outputs, that is, we can not increase the desirable outputs without producing any undesirable outputs. The following illustration shows that the efficiency values obtained by two-stage approach are smaller than those obtained by the traditional SBM model. Our approach provides a more profound analysis on how to improve environmental efficiency of the decision making units.

  17. Measurements of charge state breeding efficiency at BNL test EBIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondrashev, S.; Alessi, J. G.; Beebe, E. N.; Dickerson, C.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Pikin, A.; Savard, G.

    2011-06-01

    Charge breeding of singly charged ions is required to efficiently accelerate rare isotope ion beams for nuclear and astrophysics experiments, and to enhance the accuracy of low-energy Penning trap-assisted spectroscopy. An efficient charge breeder for the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) to the ANL Tandem Linear Accelerator System (ATLAS) facility is being developed using the BNL Test Electron Beam Ion Source (Test EBIS) as a prototype. Parameters of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder are similar to those of the BNL Test EBIS except the electron beam current will be adjustable in the range from 1 to 2 A. The electron beam current density in the CARIBU EBIS trap will be significantly higher than in existing operational charge state breeders based on the EBIS concept. The charge state breeding efficiency is expected to be about 25% for the isotope ions extracted from the CARIBU. For the success of our EBIS project, it is essential to demonstrate high breeding efficiency at the BNL Test EBIS tuned to the regime close to the parameters of the CARIBU EBIS at ANL. The breeding efficiency optimization and measurements have been successfully carried out using a Cs + surface ionization ion source for externally pulsed injection into the BNL Test EBIS. A Cs + ion beam with a total number of ions of 5×10 8 and optimized pulse length of 70 μs has been injected into the Test EBIS and charge-bred for 5.3 ms for two different electron beam currents - 1 and 1.5 A. In these experiments we have achieved 70% injection/extraction efficiency and breeding efficiency into the most abundant charge state ˜17%.

  18. Measurements of charge state breeding efficiency at BNL test EBIS

    SciTech Connect

    Kondrashev, S.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.N.; Dickerson, C.; Ostroumov, P.N.; Pikin, A.; Savard, G.

    2011-04-02

    Charge breeding of singly charged ions is required to efficiently accelerate rare isotope ion beams for nuclear and astrophysics experiments, and to enhance the accuracy of low-energy Penning trap-assisted spectroscopy. An efficient charge breeder for the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) to the ANL Tandem Linear Accelerator System (ATLAS) facility is being developed using the BNL Test Electron Beam Ion Source (Test EBIS) as a prototype. Parameters of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder are similar to those of the BNL Test EBIS except the electron beam current will be adjustable in the range from 1 to 2 {angstrom}. The electron beam current density in the CARIBU EBIS trap will be significantly higher than in existing operational charge state breeders based on the EBIS concept. The charge state breeding efficiency is expected to be about 25% for the isotope ions extracted from the CARIBU. For the success of our EBIS project, it is essential to demonstrate high breeding efficiency at the BNL Test EBIS tuned to the regime close to the parameters of the CARIBU EBIS at ANL. The breeding efficiency optimization and measurements have been successfully carried out using a Cs{sup +} surface ionization ion source for externally pulsed injection into the BNL Test EBIS. A Cs{sup +} ion beam with a total number of ions of 5 x 10{sup 8} and optimized pulse length of 70 {mu}s has been injected into the Test EBIS and charge-bred for 5.3 ms for two different electron beam currents 1 and 1.5 {angstrom}. In these experiments we have achieved 70% injection/extraction efficiency and breeding efficiency into the most abundant charge state 17%.

  19. Measuring technical efficiency of output quality in intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Junoy, J P

    1997-01-01

    Presents some examples of the implications derived from imposing the objective of maximizing social welfare, subject to limited resources, on ethical care patients management in respect of quality performance of health services. Conventional knowledge of health economics points out that critically ill patients are responsible for increased use of technological resources and that they receive a high proportion of health care resources. Attempts to answer, from the point of view of microeconomics, the question: how do we measure comparative efficiency in the management of intensive care units? Analyses this question through data from an international empirical study using micro-economic measures of productive efficiency in public services (data envelopment analysis). Results show a 28.8 per cent level of technical inefficiency processing data from 25 intensive care units in the USA. PMID:10169231

  20. Hilbertian sine as an absolute measure of Bayesian inference in ISR, homeland security, medicine, and defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Wang, Wenjian; Hodelin, Juan; Forrester, Thomas; Romanov, Volodymyr; Kostrzewski, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, Bayesian Binary Sensing (BBS) is discussed as an effective tool for Bayesian Inference (BI) evaluation in interdisciplinary areas such as ISR (and, C3I), Homeland Security, QC, medicine, defense, and many others. In particular, Hilbertian Sine (HS) as an absolute measure of BI, is introduced, while avoiding relativity of decision threshold identification, as in the case of traditional measures of BI, related to false positives and false negatives.

  1. Intelligence and Neural Efficiency: Measures of Brain Activation versus Measures of Functional Connectivity in the Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neubauer, Aljoscha C.; Fink, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    The neural efficiency hypothesis of intelligence suggests a more efficient use of the cortex (or even the brain) in brighter as compared to less intelligent individuals. This has been shown in a series of studies employing different neurophysiological measurement methods and a broad range of different cognitive task demands. However, most of the…

  2. Toward the Effective and Efficient Measurement of Implementation Fidelity

    PubMed Central

    Schoenwald, Sonja K.; Garland, Ann F.; Chapman, Jason E.; Frazier, Stacy L.; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Southam-Gerow, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Implementation science in mental health is informed by other academic disciplines and industries. Conceptual and methodological territory charted in psychotherapy research is pertinent to two elements of the conceptual model of implementation posited by Aarons and colleagues (2010)—implementation fidelity and innovation feedback systems. Key characteristics of scientifically validated fidelity instruments, and of the feasibility of their use in routine care, are presented. The challenges of ensuring fidelity measurement methods are both effective (scientifically validated) and efficient (feasible and useful in routine care) are identified as are examples of implementation research attempting to balance these attributes of fidelity measurement. PMID:20957425

  3. Measurement and prediction of Energy Efficient Engine noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavin, S. P.; Ho, P. Y.; Chamberlin, R.

    1984-01-01

    The NASA/GE Energy Efficient Engine (E3) static noise levels were measured in an acoustic arena on the Integrated Core and Low Spool Test System. These measured levels were scaled to the appropriate size to power four study aircraft and were projected to flight for evaluation of noise levels relative to FAR36, Stage III limits. As a result of these evaluations, it is predicted that the NASA/GE E3 engine with a wide spacing cut-on blade/vane ratio fan and a forced mixer nozzle can meet FAR36 Stage III limits with sufficient design margin.

  4. What Are We Assessing When We Measure Food Security? A Compendium and Review of Current Metrics12

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Andrew D.; Ngure, Francis M.; Pelto, Gretel; Young, Sera L.

    2013-01-01

    The appropriate measurement of food security is critical for targeting food and economic aid; supporting early famine warning and global monitoring systems; evaluating nutrition, health, and development programs; and informing government policy across many sectors. This important work is complicated by the multiple approaches and tools for assessing food security. In response, we have prepared a compendium and review of food security assessment tools in which we review issues of terminology, measurement, and validation. We begin by describing the evolving definition of food security and use this discussion to frame a review of the current landscape of measurement tools available for assessing food security. We critically assess the purpose/s of these tools, the domains of food security assessed by each, the conceptualizations of food security that underpin each metric, as well as the approaches that have been used to validate these metrics. Specifically, we describe measurement tools that 1) provide national-level estimates of food security, 2) inform global monitoring and early warning systems, 3) assess household food access and acquisition, and 4) measure food consumption and utilization. After describing a number of outstanding measurement challenges that might be addressed in future research, we conclude by offering suggestions to guide the selection of appropriate food security metrics. PMID:24038241

  5. Wolf Attack Probability: A Theoretical Security Measure in Biometric Authentication Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Une, Masashi; Otsuka, Akira; Imai, Hideki

    This paper will propose a wolf attack probability (WAP) as a new measure for evaluating security of biometric authentication systems. The wolf attack is an attempt to impersonate a victim by feeding “wolves” into the system to be attacked. The “wolf” means an input value which can be falsely accepted as a match with multiple templates. WAP is defined as a maximum success probability of the wolf attack with one wolf sample. In this paper, we give a rigorous definition of the new security measure which gives strength estimation of an individual biometric authentication system against impersonation attacks. We show that if one reestimates using our WAP measure, a typical fingerprint algorithm turns out to be much weaker than theoretically estimated by Ratha et al. Moreover, we apply the wolf attack to a finger-vein-pattern based algorithm. Surprisingly, we show that there exists an extremely strong wolf which falsely matches all templates for any threshold value.

  6. PACE: Pattern Accurate Computationally Efficient Bootstrapping for Timely Discovery of Cyber-Security Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Nikki C; Bridges, Robert A; Iannacone, Michael D; Czejdo, Bogdan; Perez, Nicolas E; Goodall, John R

    2013-01-01

    Public disclosure of important security information, such as knowledge of vulnerabilities or exploits, often occurs in blogs, tweets, mailing lists, and other online sources significantly before proper classification into structured databases. In order to facilitate timely discovery of such knowledge, we propose a novel semi-supervised learning algorithm, PACE, for identifying and classifying relevant entities in text sources. The main contribution of this paper is an enhancement of the traditional bootstrapping method for entity extraction by employing a time-memory trade-off that simultaneously circumvents a costly corpus search while strengthening pattern nomination, which should increase accuracy. An implementation in the cyber-security domain is discussed as well as challenges to Natural Language Processing imposed by the security domain.

  7. Two essays on efficiency in the electric power industry: Measurement of technical and allocative efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, John Corby

    The electric power industry market structure has changed over the last twenty years since the passage of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). These changes include the entry by unregulated generator plants and, more recently, the deregulation of entry and price in the retail generation market. Such changes have introduced and expanded competitive forces on the incumbent electric power plants. Proponents of this deregulation argued that the enhanced competition would lead to a more efficient allocation of resources. Previous studies of power plant technical and allocative efficiency have failed to measure technical and allocative efficiency at the plant level. In contrast, this study uses panel data on 35 power plants over 59 years to estimate technical and allocative efficiency of each plant. By using a flexible functional form, which is not constrained by the assumption that regulation is constant over the 59 years sampled, the estimation procedure accounts for changes in both state and national regulatory/energy policies that may have occurred over the sample period. The empirical evidence presented shows that most of the power plants examined have operated more efficiently since the passage of PURPA and the resultant increase of competitive forces. Chapter 2 extends the model used in Chapter 1 and clarifies some issues in the efficiency literature by addressing the case where homogeneity does not hold. A more general model is developed for estimating both input and output inefficiency simultaneously. This approach reveals more information about firm inefficiency than the single estimation approach that has previously been used in the literature. Using the more general model, estimates are provided on the type of inefficiency that occurs as well as the cost of inefficiency by type of inefficiency. In previous studies, the ranking of firms by inefficiency has been difficult because of the cardinal and ordinal differences between different types of

  8. Measures for assessing architectural speech security (privacy) of closed offices and meeting rooms.

    PubMed

    Gover, Bradford N; Bradley, John S

    2004-12-01

    Objective measures were investigated as predictors of the speech security of closed offices and rooms. A new signal-to-noise type measure is shown to be a superior indicator for security than existing measures such as the Articulation Index, the Speech Intelligibility Index, the ratio of the loudness of speech to that of noise, and the A-weighted level difference of speech and noise. This new measure is a weighted sum of clipped one-third-octave-band signal-to-noise ratios; various weightings and clipping levels are explored. Listening tests had 19 subjects rate the audibility and intelligibility of 500 English sentences, filtered to simulate transmission through various wall constructions, and presented along with background noise. The results of the tests indicate that the new measure is highly correlated with sentence intelligibility scores and also with three security thresholds: the threshold of intelligibility (below which speech is unintelligible), the threshold of cadence (below which the cadence of speech is inaudible), and the threshold of audibility (below which speech is inaudible). The ratio of the loudness of speech to that of noise, and simple A-weighted level differences are both shown to be well correlated with these latter two thresholds (cadence and audibility), but not well correlated with intelligibility. PMID:15658699

  9. Comparison of measured efficiencies of nine turbine designs with efficiencies predicted by two empirical methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, Robert E; Cavicchi, Richard H

    1951-01-01

    Empirical methods of Ainley and Kochendorfer and Nettles were used to predict performances of nine turbine designs. Measured and predicted performances were compared. Appropriate values of blade-loss parameter were determined for the method of Kochendorfer and Nettles. The measured design-point efficiencies were lower than predicted by as much as 0.09 (Ainley and 0.07 (Kochendorfer and Nettles). For the method of Kochendorfer and Nettles, appropriate values of blade-loss parameter ranged from 0.63 to 0.87 and the off-design performance was accurately predicted.

  10. Energy Efficiency Measures to Incorporate into Remodeling Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Liaukus, C.

    2014-12-01

    Energy improvements in a home are often approached as one concerted effort, beginning with a simple walk-through assessment or more in-depth energy audit and followed by the installation of recommended energy measures. While this approach allows for systems thinking to guide the efforts, comprehensive energy improvements of this nature are undertaken by a relatively small number of U.S. households compared to piecemeal remodeling efforts. In this report, the U.S Department of Energy Building America Retrofit Alliance research team examines the improvement of a home’s energy performance in an opportunistic way by examining what can be done to incorporate energy efficiency measures into general remodeling work and home repair projects. This allows for energy efficiency upgrades to occur at the same time as remodeling proejcts. There are challenges to this approach, not the least of which being that the work will take place over time in potentially many separate projects. The opportunity to improve a home’s energy efficiency at one time expands or contracts with the scope of the remodel. As such, guidance on how to do each piece thoughtfully and with consideration for potential future projects, is critical.

  11. Energy Efficiency Measures to Incorporate into Remodeling Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Liaukus, C.

    2014-12-01

    Energy improvements in a home are often approached as one concerted effort, beginning with a simple walk-through assessment or more in-depth energy audit and followed by the installation of recommended energy measures. While this approach allows for systems thinking to guide the efforts, comprehensive energy improvements of this nature are undertaken by a relatively small number of the households in our nation compared to more piecemeal remodeling efforts. Even when programs like the Weatherization Assistance Program and Home Performance with ENERGY STAR are considered, homes that have had a comprehensive energy makeover still represent a small fraction of the 111.1 million households. In this report, the U.S Department of Energy Building America Retrofit Alliance research team looks at the improvement of a home's energy performance in an opportunistic way: it examines what can be done to incorporate energy efficiency measures into general remodeling work and home repair projects. This allows for the possibility for people who would not normally pursue energy efficiency but will remodel their kitchen or re-side their home to improve their home's performance at the same time. There are challenges to this approach, not the least of which being that the work will take place over time in potentially many separate projects. The opportunity to improve a home's energy efficiency at one time expands or contracts with the scope of the remodel. As such, guidance on how to do each piece thoughtfully and with consideration for potential future projects, is critical.

  12. Resource-Efficient Measurement-Device-Independent Entanglement Witness

    DOE PAGES

    Verbanis, E.; Martin, A.; Rosset, D.; Lim, C. C. W.; Thew, R. T.; Zbinden, H.

    2016-05-09

    Imperfections in experimental measurement schemes can lead to falsely identifying, or over estimating, entanglement in a quantum system. A recent solution to this is to define schemes that are robust to measurement imperfections—measurement-device-independent entanglement witness (MDI-EW). This approach can be adapted to witness all entangled qubit states for a wide range of physical systems and does not depend on detection efficiencies or classical communication between devices. In this paper, we extend the theory to remove the necessity of prior knowledge about the two-qubit states to be witnessed. Moreover, we tested this model via a novel experimental implementation for MDI-EW thatmore » significantly reduces the experimental complexity. Finally, by applying it to a bipartite Werner state, we demonstrate the robustness of this approach against noise by witnessing entanglement down to an entangled state fraction close to 0.4.« less

  13. Efficient security mechanisms for mHealth applications using wireless body sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Prasan Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Recent technological advances in wireless communications and physiological sensing allow miniature, lightweight, ultra-low power, intelligent monitoring devices, which can be integrated into a Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN) for health monitoring. Physiological signals of humans such as heartbeats, temperature and pulse can be monitored from a distant location using tiny biomedical wireless sensors. Hence, it is highly essential to combine the ubiquitous computing with mobile health technology using wireless sensors and smart phones to monitor the well-being of chronic patients such as cardiac, Parkinson and epilepsy patients. Since physiological data of a patient are highly sensitive, maintaining its confidentiality is highly essential. Hence, security is a vital research issue in mobile health (mHealth) applications, especially if a patient has an embarrassing disease. In this paper a three tier security architecture for the mHealth application is proposed, in which light weight data confidentiality and authentication protocols are proposed to maintain the privacy of a patient. Moreover, considering the energy and hardware constraints of the wireless body sensors, low complexity data confidential and authentication schemes are designed. Performance evaluation of the proposed architecture shows that they can satisfy the energy and hardware limitations of the sensors and still can maintain the secure fabrics of the wireless body sensor networks. Besides, the proposed schemes can outperform in terms of energy consumption, memory usage and computation time over standard key establishment security scheme.

  14. Efficient Security Mechanisms for mHealth Applications Using Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Prasan Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Recent technological advances in wireless communications and physiological sensing allow miniature, lightweight, ultra-low power, intelligent monitoring devices, which can be integrated into a Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN) for health monitoring. Physiological signals of humans such as heartbeats, temperature and pulse can be monitored from a distant location using tiny biomedical wireless sensors. Hence, it is highly essential to combine the ubiquitous computing with mobile health technology using wireless sensors and smart phones to monitor the well-being of chronic patients such as cardiac, Parkinson and epilepsy patients. Since physiological data of a patient are highly sensitive, maintaining its confidentiality is highly essential. Hence, security is a vital research issue in mobile health (mHealth) applications, especially if a patient has an embarrassing disease. In this paper a three tier security architecture for the mHealth application is proposed, in which light weight data confidentiality and authentication protocols are proposed to maintain the privacy of a patient. Moreover, considering the energy and hardware constraints of the wireless body sensors, low complexity data confidential and authentication schemes are designed. Performance evaluation of the proposed architecture shows that they can satisfy the energy and hardware limitations of the sensors and still can maintain the secure fabrics of the wireless body sensor networks. Besides, the proposed schemes can outperform in terms of energy consumption, memory usage and computation time over standard key establishment security scheme. PMID:23112734

  15. Homeland security: safeguarding America's future with energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2002-08-01

    The State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB) presents this 10th annual report following the one-year anniversary of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. This event has had profound impacts on all segments of American society, not the least of which is this country’s energy sector. Long before September 11, a number of energy issues grabbed the nation’s attention, including opening the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge to oil and natural gas exploration, the power crisis in California, nationwide natural gas and gasoline price increases, and the administration’s May 2001 National Energy Policy. However, the events of September 11 refocused attention on the prominent role energy plays in the country’s homeland security. For the most part, the energy aspects of homeland security have focused on the physical security of critical energy emergency planning and energy infrastructure, such as power plants, refineries, and power and fuel transmission systems. While STEAB recognizes the importance of protecting our existing energy infrastructure, this should not be the sole focus of homeland security as it relates to energy.

  16. Measuring efficiency of international crude oil markets: A multifractality approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niere, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    The three major international crude oil markets are treated as complex systems and their multifractal properties are explored. The study covers daily prices of Brent crude, OPEC reference basket and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude from January 2, 2003 to January 2, 2014. A multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) is employed to extract the generalized Hurst exponents in each of the time series. The generalized Hurst exponent is used to measure the degree of multifractality which in turn is used to quantify the efficiency of the three international crude oil markets. To identify whether the source of multifractality is long-range correlations or broad fat-tail distributions, shuffled data and surrogated data corresponding to each of the time series are generated. Shuffled data are obtained by randomizing the order of the price returns data. This will destroy any long-range correlation of the time series. Surrogated data is produced using the Fourier-Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (F-DFA). This is done by randomizing the phases of the price returns data in Fourier space. This will normalize the distribution of the time series. The study found that for the three crude oil markets, there is a strong dependence of the generalized Hurst exponents with respect to the order of fluctuations. This shows that the daily price time series of the markets under study have signs of multifractality. Using the degree of multifractality as a measure of efficiency, the results show that WTI is the most efficient while OPEC is the least efficient market. This implies that OPEC has the highest likelihood to be manipulated among the three markets. This reflects the fact that Brent and WTI is a very competitive market hence, it has a higher level of complexity compared against OPEC, which has a large monopoly power. Comparing with shuffled data and surrogated data, the findings suggest that for all the three crude oil markets, the multifractality is mainly due to long

  17. TPV efficiency measurements and predictions for a closed cavity geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Gethers, C.K.; Ballinger, C.T.; Postlethwait, M.A.; DePoy, D.M.; Baldasaro, P.F.

    1997-05-01

    A thermophotovoltaic (TPV) efficiency measurement, within a closed cavity, is an integrated test which incorporates four fundamental parameters of TPV direct energy conversion. These are: (1) the TPV devices, (2) spectral control, (3) a radiation/photon source, and (4) closed cavity geometry effects. The overall efficiency of the TPV device is controlled by the TP cell performance, the spectral control characteristics, the radiator temperature and the geometric arrangement. Controlled efficiency measurements and predictions provide valuable feedback on all four. This paper describes and compares two computer codes developed to model 16, 1 cm{sup 2} TPV cells (in a 4 x 4 configuration) in a cavity geometry. The first code, subdivides the infrared spectrum into several bands and then numerically integrates over the spectrum to provide absorbed heat flux and cell electrical output performance predictions (assuming infinite parallel plates). The second code, utilizes a Monte Carlo Photon Transport code that tracks photons, from birth at the radiation source, until they either escape or are absorbed. Absorption depends upon energy dependent reflection probabilities assigned to every geometrical surface within the cavity. The model also has the capability of tallying above and below bandgap absorptions (as a function of location) and can support various radiator temperature profiles. The arrays were fabricated using 0.55 eV InGaAs cells with Si/SiO interference filters for spectral control and at steady state conditions, array efficiency was calculated as the ratio of the load matched power to its absorbed heat flux. Preliminary experimental results are also compared with predictions.

  18. TPV efficiency predictions and measurements for a closed cavity geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Gethers, C.K.; Ballinger, C.T.; Postlethwait, M.A.; DePoy, D.M.; Baldasaro, P.F.

    1997-05-01

    A thermophotovoltaic (TPV) efficiency measurement, within a closed cavity, is an integrated test which incorporates four fundamental parameters of TPV direct energy conversion. These are: (1) the TPV devices, (2) spectral control, (3) a radiation/photon source, and (4) closed cavity geometry affects. The overall efficiency of the TPV device is controlled by the TPV cell performance, the spectral control characteristics, the radiator temperature and the geometric arrangement. Controlled efficiency measurements and predictions provide valuable feedback on all four. This paper describes and compares two computer codes developed to model 16, 1 cm{sup 2} TPV cells (in a 4x4 configuration) in a cavity geometry. The first code subdivides the infrared spectrum into several bands and then numerically integrates over the spectrum to provide absorbed heat flux and cell performance predictions (assuming infinite parallel plates). The second utilizes a Monte Carlo Ray-Tracing code that tracks photons, from birth at the radiation source, until they either escape or are absorbed. Absorption depends upon energy dependent reflection probabilities assigned to every geometrical surface within the cavity. The model also has the capability of tallying above and below bandgap absorptions (as a function of location) and can support various radiator temperature profiles. The arrays are fabricated using 0.55 eV InGaAs cells with Si/SiO interference filters for spectral control and at steady state conditions, array efficiency was calculated as the ratio of the load matched power to its absorbed heat flux. Preliminary experimental results are also compared with predictions.

  19. Cross-Sector Impact Analysis of Industrial Efficiency Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, William; CreskoEngineering, Joe; Carpenter, Alberta; Masanet, Eric; Nimbalkar, Sachin U; Shehabi, Arman

    2013-01-01

    The industrial or manufacturing sector is a foundational component to all economic activity. In addition to being a large direct consumer of energy, the manufacturing sector also produces materials, products, and technologies that influence the energy use of other economic sectors. For example, the manufacturing of a lighter-weight vehicle component affects the energy required to ship that component as well as the fuel efficiency of the assembled vehicle. Many energy efficiency opportunities exist to improve manufacturing energy consumption, however comparisons of manufacturing sector energy efficiency investment opportunities tend to exclude any impacts that occur once the product leaves the factory. Expanding the scope of analysis to include energy impacts across different stages of product life-cycle can highlight less obvious opportunities and inform actions that create the greatest economy-wide benefits. We present a methodology and associated analysis tool (LIGHTEnUP Lifecycle Industry GHgas, Technology and Energy through the Use Phase) that aims to capture both the manufacturing sector energy consumption and product life-cycle energy consumption implications of manufacturing innovation measures. The tool architecture incorporates U.S. national energy use data associated with manufacturing, building operations, and transportation. Inputs for technology assessment, both direct energy saving to the manufacturing sector, and indirect energy impacts to additional sectors are estimated through extensive literature review and engineering methods. The result is a transparent and uniform system of comparing manufacturing and use-phase impacts of technologies.

  20. Measuring food and nutrition security: tools and considerations for use among people living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Fielden, Sarah J; Anema, Aranka; Fergusson, Pamela; Muldoon, Katherine; Grede, Nils; de Pee, Saskia

    2014-10-01

    As an increasing number of countries implement integrated food and nutrition security (FNS) and HIV programs, global stakeholders need clarity on how to best measure FNS at the individual and household level. This paper reviews prominent FNS measurement tools, and describes considerations for interpretation in the context of HIV. There exist a range of FNS measurement tools and many have been adapted for use in HIV-endemic settings. Considerations in selecting appropriate tools include sub-types (food sufficiency, dietary diversity and food safety); scope/level of application; and available resources. Tools need to reflect both the needs of PLHIV and affected households and FNS program objectives. Generalized food sufficiency and dietary diversity tools may provide adequate measures of FNS in PLHIV for programmatic applications. Food consumption measurement tools provide further data for clinical or research applications. Measurement of food safety is an important, but underdeveloped aspect of assessment, especially for PLHIV.

  1. Efficient and Secure Self-Organized Public Key Management for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Daeseon; Lee, Younho; Park, Yongsu; Jin, Seung-Hun; Yoon, Hyunsoo

    This paper presents a fully self-organized key management scheme for mobile ad hoc networks. Unlike most previous schemes, there is no priori shared secret or no priori trust relationship in the proposed scheme; every node plays the same role and carries out the same function of key management. The proposed scheme consists of (1) Handshaking (HS) and (2) Certificate request/reply (CRR) procedures. In HS, a node acquires the public key of the approaching node via a secure side channel. In CRR, a node requests certificates of a remote node via a radio channel to the nodes that it has HSed. If the number of received valid certificates that contain the same public key exceeds a given threshold, the node accepts the remote node's public key as valid. Security is rigorously analyzed against various known attacks and network costs are intensively analyzed mathematically. Using this analysis, we provide parameter selection guideline to optimize performance and to maintain security for diverse cases. Simulation results show that every node acquires the public keys of all other nodes at least 5 times faster than in a previous scheme.

  2. Improving Control System Cyber-State Awareness using Known Secure Sensor Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ondrej Linda; Milos Manic; Miles McQueen

    2012-09-01

    Abstract—This paper presents design and simulation of a low cost and low false alarm rate method for improved cyber-state awareness of critical control systems - the Known Secure Sensor Measurements (KSSM) method. The KSSM concept relies on physical measurements to detect malicious falsification of the control systems state. The KSSM method can be incrementally integrated with already installed control systems for enhanced resilience. This paper reviews the previously developed theoretical KSSM concept and then describes a simulation of the KSSM system. A simulated control system network is integrated with the KSSM components. The effectiveness of detection of various intrusion scenarios is demonstrated on several control system network topologies.

  3. Academic Consequences of Multiple Victimization and the Role of School Security Measures.

    PubMed

    Gardella, Joseph H; Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Fisher, Benjamin W

    2016-09-01

    Adolescents who experience multiple victimization (i.e., victimization on a regular basis) are at greater risk for having negative academic outcomes including lower achievement and poorer attendance than those who do not experience such victimization. Yet, the role of school contexts in this relationship remains unclear. Nevertheless, school-based efforts to reduce victimization often focus on altering contexts without sufficient evidence of associations with improved student outcomes. School security measures constitute one such suite of contextual interventions aimed at reducing victimization. This study tested a moderated mediation model in which the relationship between multiple victimization and academic performance is mediated by absenteeism, and the relationship between multiple victimization and absenteeism is moderated by the presence of school security measures. Participants were 5930 (49.6% female and 79.51% White) 12- to 18-year-old adolescents from a national sample collected through the 2011 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey. Results of path analysis models indicated that the relationship between multiple victimization and academic performance was partially mediated by absenteeism, and that both metal detectors and security guards moderated the relationship between multiple victimization and absenteeism. Additional analyses revealed the utility of considering subpopulations of victims characterized by specific facets of their contexts. Implications for practitioners and researchers are discussed. PMID:27530261

  4. Academic Consequences of Multiple Victimization and the Role of School Security Measures.

    PubMed

    Gardella, Joseph H; Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Fisher, Benjamin W

    2016-09-01

    Adolescents who experience multiple victimization (i.e., victimization on a regular basis) are at greater risk for having negative academic outcomes including lower achievement and poorer attendance than those who do not experience such victimization. Yet, the role of school contexts in this relationship remains unclear. Nevertheless, school-based efforts to reduce victimization often focus on altering contexts without sufficient evidence of associations with improved student outcomes. School security measures constitute one such suite of contextual interventions aimed at reducing victimization. This study tested a moderated mediation model in which the relationship between multiple victimization and academic performance is mediated by absenteeism, and the relationship between multiple victimization and absenteeism is moderated by the presence of school security measures. Participants were 5930 (49.6% female and 79.51% White) 12- to 18-year-old adolescents from a national sample collected through the 2011 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey. Results of path analysis models indicated that the relationship between multiple victimization and academic performance was partially mediated by absenteeism, and that both metal detectors and security guards moderated the relationship between multiple victimization and absenteeism. Additional analyses revealed the utility of considering subpopulations of victims characterized by specific facets of their contexts. Implications for practitioners and researchers are discussed.

  5. Generic System for Remote Testing and Calibration of Measuring Instruments: Security Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurčević, M.; Hegeduš, H.; Golub, M.

    2010-01-01

    Testing and calibration of laboratory instruments and reference standards is a routine activity and is a resource and time consuming process. Since many of the modern instruments include some communication interfaces, it is possible to create a remote calibration system. This approach addresses a wide range of possible applications and permits to drive a number of different devices. On the other hand, remote calibration process involves a number of security issues due to recommendations specified in standard ISO/IEC 17025, since it is not under total control of the calibration laboratory personnel who will sign the calibration certificate. This approach implies that the traceability and integrity of the calibration process directly depends on the collected measurement data. The reliable and secure remote control and monitoring of instruments is a crucial aspect of internet-enabled calibration procedure.

  6. Controlling Crime and Delinquency in the Schools: An Exploratory Study of Student Perceptions of School Security Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ben

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of data on school security measures which were obtained from a survey administered to a sample of 230 high school students. The majority of students indicated that the school police officers and security officers help keep the schools safe and that the drug-sniffing dogs help reduce drugs in the schools, but there…

  7. An efficient wireless power transfer system with security considerations for electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhen; Chau, K. T. Liu, Chunhua; Qiu, Chun; Lin, Fei

    2014-05-07

    This paper presents a secure inductive wireless power transfer (WPT) system for electric vehicle (EV) applications, such as charging the electric devices inside EVs and performing energy exchange between EVs. The key is to employ chaos theory to encrypt the wirelessly transferred energy which can then be decrypted by specific receptors in the multi-objective system. In this paper, the principle of encrypted WPT is first revealed. Then, computer simulation is conducted to validate the feasibility of the proposed system. Moreover, by comparing the WPT systems with and without encryption, the proposed energy encryption scheme does not involve noticeable power consumption.

  8. Measuring psychotherapy outcomes with the Behavioral Health Measure-20: Efficient and comprehensive.

    PubMed

    Kopta, Mark; Owen, Jesse; Budge, Stephanie

    2015-12-01

    The Behavioral Health Measure-20 (BHM-20; Kopta & Lowry, 2002) through the computer-based CelestHealth System-MH (CHS-MH) has proven to be an effective and efficient instrument for assessing psychotherapy outcomes and providing feedback to psychotherapists. This article describes its features, the psychometric and research support of the measure, as well as its use in clinical training and practice. Additionally, we offer some hopes and possibilities for the future of clinical feedback systems.

  9. A sodium laser guide star coupling efficiency measurement method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lu; Shen, Zhi-Xia; Xue, Suijian; Li, Yang-Peng; Jin, Kai; Otarola, Angel; Bo, Yong; Zuo, Jun-Wei; Bian, Qi; Wei, Kai; Hu, Jing-Yao

    2016-09-01

    A large telescope's adaptive optics (AO) system requires one or more bright artificial laser guide stars to improve its sky coverage. The recent advent of a high power sodium laser is perfect for such application. However, besides the output power, other parameters of the laser also have a significant impact on the brightness of the generated sodium laser guide star, mostly in non-linear relationships. When tuning and optimizing these parameters it is necessary to tune based on a laser guide star generation performance metric. Although return photon fluxis widely used, variability of the atmosphere and sodium layer makes it difficult to compare results from different sites or even within a short time period for the same site. A new metric, coupling efficiency, is adopted in our field tests. In this paper, we will introduce our method for measuring the coupling efficiency of a 20W class pulse sodium laser for AO application during field tests that were conducted during 2013–2015.

  10. A sodium laser guide star coupling efficiency measurement method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lu; Shen, Zhi-Xia; Xue, Suijian; Li, Yang-Peng; Jin, Kai; Otarola, Angel; Bo, Yong; Zuo, Jun-Wei; Bian, Qi; Wei, Kai; Hu, Jing-Yao

    2016-09-01

    A large telescope's adaptive optics (AO) system requires one or more bright artificial laser guide stars to improve its sky coverage. The recent advent of a high power sodium laser is perfect for such application. However, besides the output power, other parameters of the laser also have a significant impact on the brightness of the generated sodium laser guide star, mostly in non-linear relationships. When tuning and optimizing these parameters it is necessary to tune based on a laser guide star generation performance metric. Although return photon fluxis widely used, variability of the atmosphere and sodium layer makes it difficult to compare results from different sites or even within a short time period for the same site. A new metric, coupling efficiency, is adopted in our field tests. In this paper, we will introduce our method for measuring the coupling efficiency of a 20W class pulse sodium laser for AO application during field tests that were conducted during 2013-2015.

  11. Radiation pressure efficiency measurements of nanoparticle coated microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Soo Y.; Taylor, Joseph D.; Ladouceur, Harold D.; Hart, Sean J.; Terray, Alex

    2013-12-02

    Experimental measurements of the radiation pressure efficiency (Q{sub pr}) for several microparticles have been compared to theoretical calculations extrapolated from the Bohren-Huffman code for Mie scattering of coated particles. An increased shift of the Q{sub pr} parameter was observed for 2 μm SiO{sub 2} core particles coated with nanoparticles of higher refractive indices. Coatings of 14 nm melamine particles were found to increase the Q{sub pr} parameter 135 times over similar coatings using SiO{sub 2} particles of the same size. While a coating of 100 nm polystyrene particles also showed a significant increase, they did not agree well with theoretical values. It is hypothesized that other factors such as increased scatter, drag, and finite coating coverage are no longer negligible for coatings using nanoparticles in this size regime.

  12. Energy-efficient key distribution using electrocardiograph biometric set for secure communications in wireless body healthcare networks.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jinyang; Lam, Kwok-Yan; Gu, Ming; Li, Mingze; Chung, Siu-Leung

    2011-10-01

    Wireless body sensor network (WBSN) has gained significant interests as an important infrastructure for real-time biomedical healthcare systems, while the security of the sensitive health information becomes one of the main challenges. Due to the constraints of limited power, traditional cryptographic key distribution schemes are not suitable for WBSN. This paper proposes a novel energy-efficient approach, BodyKey, which can distribute the keys using the electrocardiograph biometrics. BodyKey represents the biometric features as ordered set, and deals with the biometric variations using set reconciliation. In this way, only limited necessary information needs to be communicated for key agreement, and the total energy consumption for key distribution can thus be reduced. Experiments on the PhysioBank Database show that BodyKey can perform an energy consumption rate of 0.01 mJ/bit with an equal accuracy rate of 97.28%, allowing the system to be used as an energy-efficient key distribution scheme for secure communications in WBSN. PMID:20703727

  13. Energy-efficient key distribution using electrocardiograph biometric set for secure communications in wireless body healthcare networks.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jinyang; Lam, Kwok-Yan; Gu, Ming; Li, Mingze; Chung, Siu-Leung

    2011-10-01

    Wireless body sensor network (WBSN) has gained significant interests as an important infrastructure for real-time biomedical healthcare systems, while the security of the sensitive health information becomes one of the main challenges. Due to the constraints of limited power, traditional cryptographic key distribution schemes are not suitable for WBSN. This paper proposes a novel energy-efficient approach, BodyKey, which can distribute the keys using the electrocardiograph biometrics. BodyKey represents the biometric features as ordered set, and deals with the biometric variations using set reconciliation. In this way, only limited necessary information needs to be communicated for key agreement, and the total energy consumption for key distribution can thus be reduced. Experiments on the PhysioBank Database show that BodyKey can perform an energy consumption rate of 0.01 mJ/bit with an equal accuracy rate of 97.28%, allowing the system to be used as an energy-efficient key distribution scheme for secure communications in WBSN.

  14. Consumption, Retirement and Social Security: Evaluating the Efficiency of Reform that Encourages Longer Careers*

    PubMed Central

    Laitner, John; Silverman, Dan

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes and analyzes a Social Security reform in which individuals no longer face the OASI payroll tax after, say, age 54 or a career of 34 years, and their subsequent earnings have no bearing on their benefits. We first estimate parameters of a life–cycle model. Our specification includes non-separable preferences and possible disability. It predicts a consumption–expenditure change at retirement. We use the magnitude of the expenditure change, together with households’ retirement–age decisions, to identify key structural parameters. The estimated magnitude of the change in consumption–expenditure depends importantly on the treatment of consumption by adult children of the household. Simulations indicate that the reform could increase retirement ages one year or more, equivalent variations could average more than $4,000 per household, and income tax revenues per household could increase by more than $14,000. PMID:23729902

  15. Consumption, Retirement and Social Security: Evaluating the Efficiency of Reform that Encourages Longer Careers.

    PubMed

    Laitner, John; Silverman, Dan

    2012-08-01

    This paper proposes and analyzes a Social Security reform in which individuals no longer face the OASI payroll tax after, say, age 54 or a career of 34 years, and their subsequent earnings have no bearing on their benefits. We first estimate parameters of a life-cycle model. Our specification includes non-separable preferences and possible disability. It predicts a consumption-expenditure change at retirement. We use the magnitude of the expenditure change, together with households' retirement-age decisions, to identify key structural parameters. The estimated magnitude of the change in consumption-expenditure depends importantly on the treatment of consumption by adult children of the household. Simulations indicate that the reform could increase retirement ages one year or more, equivalent variations could average more than $4,000 per household, and income tax revenues per household could increase by more than $14,000.

  16. Consumption, Retirement and Social Security: Evaluating the Efficiency of Reform that Encourages Longer Careers.

    PubMed

    Laitner, John; Silverman, Dan

    2012-08-01

    This paper proposes and analyzes a Social Security reform in which individuals no longer face the OASI payroll tax after, say, age 54 or a career of 34 years, and their subsequent earnings have no bearing on their benefits. We first estimate parameters of a life-cycle model. Our specification includes non-separable preferences and possible disability. It predicts a consumption-expenditure change at retirement. We use the magnitude of the expenditure change, together with households' retirement-age decisions, to identify key structural parameters. The estimated magnitude of the change in consumption-expenditure depends importantly on the treatment of consumption by adult children of the household. Simulations indicate that the reform could increase retirement ages one year or more, equivalent variations could average more than $4,000 per household, and income tax revenues per household could increase by more than $14,000. PMID:23729902

  17. Improving photosynthetic efficiency to address food security in the 21st century: Strategies for a more efficient crop canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanLoocke, A. D.; Slattery, R.; Bernacchi, C.; Zhu, X.; Ort, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    Global food production will need to increase by approximately 70% by mid-century to meet the caloric and nutritional demand of population and economic growth. Achieving this goal will require successfully implementing a wide range of strategies, spanning the social and physical sciences. Here we will present opportunities for improving crop production through increasing photosynthetic rates for a crop canopy that do not require additional agronomic inputs. We will focus on a specific strategy related optimizing the distribution of light within a crop canopy because it is a possible way to improve canopy photosynthesis in crops that form dense canopies, such as soybean, by increasing the transmission of light within a canopy via reduced chlorophyll content. We hypothesized that if decreasing chlorophyll content in soybean leaves will result in greater light penetration into the canopy then this will enhance canopy photosynthesis and improve yields. In addition, if current chlorophyll content in soybean results in excess light absorption, then decreasing chlorophyll content will result in decreased photoprotection that results in the suppression of upper canopy photosynthesis associated with super-optimal light. These hypotheses were tested in 2012 and 2013 in the field on the soybean cultivar 'Clark' (WT) and a nearly isogenic chlorophyll-b deficient mutant (Y11y11). Throughout the season, profiles of light sensors measured incident and reflected light intensity at the canopy surface as well as light levels at ten heights within the canopy. Analyses of these data indicated greater reflectivity, transmissivity and within-canopy light levels for the Y11y11 canopy relative to WT especially in the top half of the canopy. A Gas exchange method was used to determine photosynthetic capacity and suppression high light levels. Daily integrals of leaf-level photosynthesis in sun leaves were greater in Y11y11 compared to WT at several times during the growing season and

  18. Industrial Technologies Program - A Clean, Secure Energy Future via Industrial Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    2010-05-01

    The Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) leads the national effort to save energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the largest energy-using sector of the U.S. economy. ITP drives energy efficiency improvements and carbon dioxide reductions throughout the manufacturing supply chain, helping develop and deploy innovative technologies that transform the way industry uses energy.

  19. Data Envelopment Analysis: Measurement of Educational Efficiency in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Lacy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficiency of Texas public school districts through Data Envelopment Analysis. The Data Envelopment Analysis estimation method calculated and assigned efficiency scores to each of the 931 school districts considered in the study. The efficiency scores were utilized in two phases. First, the school…

  20. Adaptive Measurement of Well-Being: Maximizing Efficiency and Optimizing User Experience during Individual Assessment.

    PubMed

    Kraatz, Miriam; Sears, Lindsay E; Coberley, Carter R; Pope, James E

    2016-08-01

    Well-being is linked to important societal factors such as health care costs and productivity and has experienced a surge in development activity of both theories and measurement. This study builds on validation of the Well-Being 5 survey and for the first time applies Item Response Theory, a modern and flexible measurement paradigm, to form the basis of adaptive population well-being measurement. Adaptive testing allows survey questions to be administered selectively, thereby reducing the number of questions required of the participant. After the graded response model was fit to a sample of size N = 12,035, theta scores were estimated based on both the full-item bank and a simulation of Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT). Comparisons of these 2 sets of score estimates with each other and of their correlations with external outcomes of job performance, absenteeism, and hospital admissions demonstrate that the CAT well-being scores maintain accuracy and validity. The simulation indicates that the average survey taker can expect a reduction in number of items administered during the CAT process of almost 50%. An increase in efficiency of this extent is of considerable value because of the time savings during the administration of the survey and the potential improvement of user experience, which in turn can help secure the success of a total population-based well-being improvement program. (Population Health Management 2016;19:284-290).

  1. Adaptive Measurement of Well-Being: Maximizing Efficiency and Optimizing User Experience during Individual Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Kraatz, Miriam; Coberley, Carter R.; Pope, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Well-being is linked to important societal factors such as health care costs and productivity and has experienced a surge in development activity of both theories and measurement. This study builds on validation of the Well-Being 5 survey and for the first time applies Item Response Theory, a modern and flexible measurement paradigm, to form the basis of adaptive population well-being measurement. Adaptive testing allows survey questions to be administered selectively, thereby reducing the number of questions required of the participant. After the graded response model was fit to a sample of size N = 12,035, theta scores were estimated based on both the full-item bank and a simulation of Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT). Comparisons of these 2 sets of score estimates with each other and of their correlations with external outcomes of job performance, absenteeism, and hospital admissions demonstrate that the CAT well-being scores maintain accuracy and validity. The simulation indicates that the average survey taker can expect a reduction in number of items administered during the CAT process of almost 50%. An increase in efficiency of this extent is of considerable value because of the time savings during the administration of the survey and the potential improvement of user experience, which in turn can help secure the success of a total population-based well-being improvement program. (Population Health Management 2016;19:284–290) PMID:26674396

  2. X-Ray Line Measurements with High Efficiency Bragg Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Pak, A; Gregori, G; Knight, J; Campbell, K; Landen, O; Glenzer, S

    2004-04-01

    We have studied the focusing properties of two highly oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) spectrometers, which differ in the degree of the mosaic spread: ZYA with a low mosaic spread ({gamma}=0.4 degrees) and ZYH with a large mosaic spread ({gamma}=3.5 degrees). In order to assess the crystal performance for a variety of different experiments, various K{alpha} and K{beta} x-ray lines have been produced using a high-intensity ({approx}>10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}) short-pulse ({approx} 100 fs) laser beam focused onto Ti, V, Zn, and Cu foils. The measured spectral resolution of the HOPG crystals in both first and second order diffraction has been compared with theoretical predictions. Using known values for the peak reflectivity of HOPG crystals, we have also computed K{alpha} x-ray conversion efficiencies of Ti, V, Zn, and Cu. These results are important to estimate the optimal conditions under which different types of HOPG monochromators can be used for the detection of weak x-ray signals as the one encountered in x-ray Thomson/Compton scattering experiments.

  3. X-ray line measurements with high efficiency Bragg crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Pak, A.; Gregori, G.; Knight, J.; Campbell, K.; Price, D.; Hammel, B.; Landen, O.L.; Glenzer, S.H.

    2004-10-01

    We have studied the focusing properties of two highly oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) spectrometers, which differ in the degree of the mosaic spread: ZYA with a low mosaic spread ({gamma}=0.4 deg.) and ZYH with a large mosaic spread ({gamma}=3.5 deg.). In order to asses the crystal performance for a variety of different experiments, various K{alpha} and K{beta} x-ray lines have been produced using a high-intensity (> or approx. 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}) short-pulse ({approx}100 fs) laser beam focused onto Ti, V, Zn, and Cu foils. The measured spectral resolution of the HOPG crystals in both first and second order diffraction has been compared with theoretical predictions. Using known values for the peak reflectivity of HOPG crystals, we have also computed K{alpha} x-ray conversion efficiencies of Ti, V, Zn, and Cu. These results are important to estimate the optimal conditions under which different types of HOPG monochromators can be used for the detection of weak x-ray signals as the one encountered in x-ray Thomson/Compton scattering experiments.

  4. Field Measurements and Guidelines for the Application of Wireless Sensor Networks to the Environment and Security

    PubMed Central

    Gil Jiménez, Víctor P.; Armada, Ana García

    2009-01-01

    Frequently, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are designed focusing on applications and omitting transmission problems in these wireless networks. In this paper, we present a measurement campaign that has been carried out using one of the most commonly used WSN platforms, the micaZ from Crossbow©. Based on these measurements, some guidelines to deploy a robust and reliable WSN are provided. The results are focused on security and environmental applications but can also be extrapolated to other scenarios. A main conclusion that can be extracted is that, from the transmission point of view, a dense WSN is one of the best choices to overcome many of the transmission problems such as the existence of a transitional region, redundance, forwarding, obstructions or interference with other systems. PMID:22303175

  5. Update on NRF Measurements on ^237Np for National Security and Safeguards Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angell, C. T.; Joshi, T.; Yee, R.; Swanberg, E.; Norman, E. B.; Kulp, W. D.; Warren, G.; Hicks, C. L., Jr.; Korbly, S.; Klimenko, A.; Wilson, C.; Bray, T. H.; Copping, R.; Shuh, D. K.

    2010-11-01

    Nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) uses γ rays to excite nuclear levels and measure their properties. This provides a unique isotopic signature, and can be used to identify and assay material. This is particularly important for applications that detect the smuggling of nuclear material or the diversion of fissile material for covert weapon programs, both of which present grave risks to world security. ^237Np presents significant safeguard challenges; it is fissile yet currently has fewer safeguard restrictions potentially making it an attractive material for covert weapon programs. This talk will present the final results of two measurements of NRF on ^237Np using a bremsstrahlung photon source. 15 NRF states have been identified between 1.5 and 2.5 MeV excitation energy.

  6. Issues of Intruder Analytical Model Applicability for Evaluating an Efficiency of Security Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukovetskiy, Anton V.; Boyko, Vladimir I.; Kolpakov, Gennady N.; Poner, Michael V.

    2016-06-01

    Physical protection system (PPS) is created at a nuclear object to prevent unauthorized acts regarding to nuclear materials, nuclear installations, points of storage of nuclear materials and other items under physical protection. The ability of the PPS to prevent unauthorized actions of intruder was adopted as the main criterion for evaluating the efficiency of the physical protection system. The article considers the possibility of creation of the intruder analytical model to determine time indicators of overcoming boundaries of protection of nuclear object by an intruder with set features.

  7. Measuring the operational efficiency of individual theme park attractions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Changhee; Kim, Soowook

    2016-01-01

    This study assesses the operation efficiency of theme park attractions using the data envelopment analysis, utilizing actual data on 15 attractions at Samsung Everland located in Yongin-si, Republic of Korea. In particular, this study identifies crowding and waiting time as one of the main causes of visitor's satisfaction, and analyzes the efficiency of individual attractions in terms of waiting time. The installation area, installation cost, and annual repair cost are set as input factors and the number of annual users and customer satisfaction as output factors. The results show that the roller coaster-type attractions were less efficient than other types of attractions while rotating-type attractions were relatively more efficient. However, an importance performance analysis on individual attraction's efficiency and satisfaction showed that operational efficiency should not be the sole consideration in attraction installation. In addition, the projection points for input factors for efficient use of attractions and the appropriate reference set for benchmarking are provided as guideline for attraction efficiency management.

  8. Measuring the operational efficiency of individual theme park attractions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Changhee; Kim, Soowook

    2016-01-01

    This study assesses the operation efficiency of theme park attractions using the data envelopment analysis, utilizing actual data on 15 attractions at Samsung Everland located in Yongin-si, Republic of Korea. In particular, this study identifies crowding and waiting time as one of the main causes of visitor's satisfaction, and analyzes the efficiency of individual attractions in terms of waiting time. The installation area, installation cost, and annual repair cost are set as input factors and the number of annual users and customer satisfaction as output factors. The results show that the roller coaster-type attractions were less efficient than other types of attractions while rotating-type attractions were relatively more efficient. However, an importance performance analysis on individual attraction's efficiency and satisfaction showed that operational efficiency should not be the sole consideration in attraction installation. In addition, the projection points for input factors for efficient use of attractions and the appropriate reference set for benchmarking are provided as guideline for attraction efficiency management. PMID:27386283

  9. Integrating Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing and In-situ Measurements for Africa Drought Monitoring and Food Security Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, X.; Qu, J. J.; Motha, R. P.; Stefanski, R.; Malherbe, J.

    2014-12-01

    Drought is one of the most complicated natural hazards, and causes serious environmental, economic and social consequences. Agricultural production systems, which are highly susceptible to weather and climate extremes, are often the first and most vulnerable sector to be affected by drought events. In Africa, crop yield potential and grazing quality are already nearing their limit of temperature sensitivity, and, rapid population growth and frequent drought episodes pose serious complications for food security. It is critical to promote sustainable agriculture development in Africa under conditions of climate extremes. Soil moisture is one of the most important indicators for agriculture drought, and is a fundamentally critical parameter for decision support in crop management, including planting, water use efficiency and irrigation. While very significant technological advances have been introduced for remote sensing of surface soil moisture from space, in-situ measurements are still critical for calibration and validation of soil moisture estimation algorithms. For operational applications, synergistic collaboration is needed to integrate measurements from different sensors at different spatial and temporal scales. In this presentation, a collaborative effort is demonstrated for drought monitoring in Africa, supported and coordinated by WMO, including surface soil moisture and crop status monitoring. In-situ measurements of soil moisture, precipitation and temperature at selected sites are provided by local partners in Africa. Measurements from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are integrated with in-situ observations to derive surface soil moisture at high spatial resolution. Crop status is estimated through temporal analysis of current and historical MODIS measurements. Integrated analysis of soil moisture data and crop status provides both in-depth understanding of drought conditions and

  10. Integrating Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing and In-situ Measurements for Africa Drought Monitoring and Food Security Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, X.; Qu, J. J.; Motha, R. P.; Stefanski, R.; Malherbe, J.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is one of the most complicated natural hazards, and causes serious environmental, economic and social consequences. Agricultural production systems, which are highly susceptible to weather and climate extremes, are often the first and most vulnerable sector to be affected by drought events. In Africa, crop yield potential and grazing quality are already nearing their limit of temperature sensitivity, and, rapid population growth and frequent drought episodes pose serious complications for food security. It is critical to promote sustainable agriculture development in Africa under conditions of climate extremes. Soil moisture is one of the most important indicators for agriculture drought, and is a fundamentally critical parameter for decision support in crop management, including planting, water use efficiency and irrigation. While very significant technological advances have been introduced for remote sensing of surface soil moisture from space, in-situ measurements are still critical for calibration and validation of soil moisture estimation algorithms. For operational applications, synergistic collaboration is needed to integrate measurements from different sensors at different spatial and temporal scales. In this presentation, a collaborative effort is demonstrated for drought monitoring in Africa, supported and coordinated by WMO, including surface soil moisture and crop status monitoring. In-situ measurements of soil moisture, precipitation and temperature at selected sites are provided by local partners in Africa. Measurements from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are integrated with in-situ observations to derive surface soil moisture at high spatial resolution. Crop status is estimated through temporal analysis of current and historical MODIS measurements. Integrated analysis of soil moisture data and crop status provides both in-depth understanding of drought conditions and

  11. The Role of Earnings and Financial Risk in Distributional Analyses of Social Security Reform Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hungerford, Thomas L.

    2006-01-01

    The Social Security Trustees project that the Social Security program faces longterm financing difficulties. Several proposals that have been offered to shore-up the finances of the Social Security program would create individual retirement accounts funded with part of the payroll tax. The authors of many of these proposals claim that future…

  12. Better Safe than Sorry: Panic Buttons as a Security Measure in an Academic Medical Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullen, Karen D.; Kane, Laura Townsend

    2008-01-01

    In the wake of recent tragedies, campus security has become a hot issue nationwide. Campus libraries, as traditional meeting spots for varied groups of people, are particularly vulnerable to security issues. Safety and security problems that can occur at any library generally include theft, vandalism, arson, antisocial behavior, and assaults on…

  13. Characterization of Si nanostructures using internal quantum efficiency measurements

    SciTech Connect

    ZAIDI,SALEEM H.

    2000-04-01

    Hemispherical reflectance and internal quantum efficiency measurements have been employed to evaluate the response of Si nanostructured surfaces formed by using random and periodic reactive ion etching techniques. Random RIE-textured surfaces have demonstrated solar weighted reflectance of {approx} 3% over 300--1,200-nm spectral range even without the benefit of anti-reflection films. Random RIE-texturing has been found to be applicable over large areas ({approximately} 180 cm{sup 2}) of both single and multicrystalline Si surfaces. Due to the surface contamination and plasma-induced damage, RIE-textured surfaces did not initially provide increased short circuit current as expected from the enhanced absorption. Improved processing combined with wet-chemical damage removal etches resulted in significant improvement in the short circuit current with IQEs comparable to the random, wet-chemically textured surfaces. An interesting feature of the RIE-textured surfaces was their superior performance in the near IR spectral range. The response of RIE-textured periodic surfaces can be broadly classified into three distinct regimes. One-dimensional grating structures with triangular profiles are characterized by exceptionally low, polarization-independent reflective behavior. The reflectance response of such surfaces is similar to a graded-index anti-reflection film. The IQE response from these surfaces is severely degraded in the UV-Visible spectral region due to plasma-induced surface damage. One-dimensional grating structures with rectangular profiles exhibit spectrally selective absorptive behavior with somewhat similar IQE response. The third type of grating structure combines broadband anti-reflection behavior with significant IQE enhancement in 800--1,200-nm spectral region. The hemispherical reflectance of these 2D grating structures is comparable to random RIE-textured surfaces. The IQE enhancement in the long wavelength spectral region can be attributed to

  14. Measuring political commitment and opportunities to advance food and nutrition security: piloting a rapid assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Fox, Ashley M; Balarajan, Yarlini; Cheng, Chloe; Reich, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    Lack of political commitment has been identified as a primary reason for the low priority that food and nutrition interventions receive from national governments relative to the high disease burden caused by malnutrition. Researchers have identified a number of factors that contribute to food and nutrition's 'low-priority cycle' on national policy agendas, but few tools exist to rapidly measure political commitment and identify opportunities to advance food and nutrition on the policy agenda. This article presents a theory-based rapid assessment approach to gauging countries' level of political commitment to food and nutrition security and identifying opportunities to advance food and nutrition on the policy agenda. The rapid assessment tool was piloted among food and nutrition policymakers and planners in 10 low- and middle-income countries in April to June 2013. Food and nutrition commitment and policy opportunity scores were calculated for each country and strategies to advance food and nutrition on policy agendas were designed for each country. The article finds that, in a majority of countries, political leaders had verbally and symbolically committed to addressing food and nutrition, but adequate financial resources were not allocated to implement specific programmes. In addition, whereas the low cohesion of the policy community has been viewed a major underlying cause of the low-priority status of food and nutrition, the analysis finds that policy community cohesion and having a well thought-out policy alternative were present in most countries. This tool may be useful to policymakers and planners providing information that can be used to benchmark and/or evaluate advocacy efforts to advance reforms in the food and nutrition sector; furthermore, the results can help identify specific strategies that can be employed to move the food and nutrition agenda forward. This tool complements others that have been recently developed to measure national commitment to

  15. Measuring political commitment and opportunities to advance food and nutrition security: piloting a rapid assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Fox, Ashley M; Balarajan, Yarlini; Cheng, Chloe; Reich, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    Lack of political commitment has been identified as a primary reason for the low priority that food and nutrition interventions receive from national governments relative to the high disease burden caused by malnutrition. Researchers have identified a number of factors that contribute to food and nutrition's 'low-priority cycle' on national policy agendas, but few tools exist to rapidly measure political commitment and identify opportunities to advance food and nutrition on the policy agenda. This article presents a theory-based rapid assessment approach to gauging countries' level of political commitment to food and nutrition security and identifying opportunities to advance food and nutrition on the policy agenda. The rapid assessment tool was piloted among food and nutrition policymakers and planners in 10 low- and middle-income countries in April to June 2013. Food and nutrition commitment and policy opportunity scores were calculated for each country and strategies to advance food and nutrition on policy agendas were designed for each country. The article finds that, in a majority of countries, political leaders had verbally and symbolically committed to addressing food and nutrition, but adequate financial resources were not allocated to implement specific programmes. In addition, whereas the low cohesion of the policy community has been viewed a major underlying cause of the low-priority status of food and nutrition, the analysis finds that policy community cohesion and having a well thought-out policy alternative were present in most countries. This tool may be useful to policymakers and planners providing information that can be used to benchmark and/or evaluate advocacy efforts to advance reforms in the food and nutrition sector; furthermore, the results can help identify specific strategies that can be employed to move the food and nutrition agenda forward. This tool complements others that have been recently developed to measure national commitment to

  16. Developing markets for forest environmental services: an opportunity for promoting equity while securing efficiency?

    PubMed

    Landell-Mills, Natasha

    2002-08-15

    Market-based approaches to environmental management are all the rage. Claims that market mechanisms can encourage environmental protection and promote greater economic efficiency while saving taxpayers' money are tantalizing. In the forestry sector, policy makers are widely heeding this advice and shrinking command-and-control systems in favour of incentive mechanisms that seek to align private enthusiasm with the public good. In some cases, governments are even promoting the creation of markets where none existed before. In others, markets are evolving of their own accord. In such times of change, it is difficult to stand back and take stock. Yet, it is during such times that guidance is most needed. In the rush to introduce market-based solutions to environmental problems, a particular concern is how markets are impacting on the poor. In this paper an effort is made to draw on a recent review of markets for four forest environmental services (biodiversity conservation, carbon sequestration, watershed protection and landscape beauty) to draw out preliminary insights into how markets are performing with respect to their impacts on the poor. The evidence suggests a need for caution. While the potential benefits are significant, the poor face an uphill battle in realizing them. Key constraints facing the poor include a lack of property rights over forest resources and their environmental services; inadequate skills and education; poor market information; lack of market contacts; inadequate communication infrastructure; inappropriate contract design; and lack of access to financial resources. To tackle these, four potential ways forward are highlighted: (1) assign property rights to forest assets and their related environmental services in ways that respect customary arrangements and poor people's tenure; (2) strengthen capacity for market participation, e.g. through training and education; (3) invest in the provision of market information, advice and, essentially, a

  17. Measuring hospital efficiency: a comparison of two approaches.

    PubMed Central

    Chirikos, T N; Sear, A M

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the results of scoring hospital efficiency by means of two new types of frontier models, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and stochastic frontier regression (SFR). STUDY SETTING: Financial records of Florida acute care hospitals in continuous operation over the period 1982-1993. STUDY DESIGN: Comparable DEA and SFR models are specified, and these models are then estimated to obtain the efficiency indexes yielded by each. The empirical results are subsequently examined to ascertain the extent to which they serve the needs of hospital policymakers. DATA COLLECTION: A longitudinal or panel data set is assembled, and a common set of output, input, and cost indicators is constructed to support the estimation of comparable DEA and SFR models. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DEA and SFR models yield convergent evidence about hospital efficiency at the industry level, but divergent portraits of the individual characteristics of the most and least efficient facilities. CONCLUSIONS: Hospital policymakers should not be indifferent to the choice of the frontier model used to score efficiency relationships. They may be well advised to wait until additional research clarifies reasons why DEA and SFR models yield divergent results before they introduce these methods into the policy process. PMID:10654837

  18. Measuring the efficiency of wastewater services through Data Envelopment Analysis.

    PubMed

    Guerrini, A; Romano, G; Leardini, C; Martini, M

    2015-01-01

    Efficient water management is a priority in the European Union, since the operational efficiency of many water utilities is very low compared to best practice. Several countries are restructuring the water industry to save costs. Larger-scale operations and vertical integration are promoted to achieve scale and scope economies; however, the literature is not unanimous that such economies exist. There is also little evidence of the effect of customer density on costs. This article offers some insights into this matter, analysing the Danish water industry by a two-stage Data Envelopment Analysis approach to investigate the effects of size, scope and density in the wastewater industry. The results show that the Danish wastewater industry is positively affected by vertical integration and higher population density: firms that serve more than 100 person per km of sewer and combine water and wastewater services achieve better efficiency. Size does not have any significant influence on global efficiency, although technical pure efficiency decreases statistically with firm size. PMID:26067505

  19. Measuring the efficiency of wastewater services through Data Envelopment Analysis.

    PubMed

    Guerrini, A; Romano, G; Leardini, C; Martini, M

    2015-01-01

    Efficient water management is a priority in the European Union, since the operational efficiency of many water utilities is very low compared to best practice. Several countries are restructuring the water industry to save costs. Larger-scale operations and vertical integration are promoted to achieve scale and scope economies; however, the literature is not unanimous that such economies exist. There is also little evidence of the effect of customer density on costs. This article offers some insights into this matter, analysing the Danish water industry by a two-stage Data Envelopment Analysis approach to investigate the effects of size, scope and density in the wastewater industry. The results show that the Danish wastewater industry is positively affected by vertical integration and higher population density: firms that serve more than 100 person per km of sewer and combine water and wastewater services achieve better efficiency. Size does not have any significant influence on global efficiency, although technical pure efficiency decreases statistically with firm size.

  20. 10 CFR 431.16 - Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... purposes of 10 CFR Part 431 and EPCA, the test procedures for measuring the energy efficiency of an... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency. 431.16 Section 431.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM...

  1. 10 CFR 431.16 - Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... purposes of 10 CFR part 431 and EPCA, the test procedures for measuring the energy efficiency of an... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency. 431.16 Section 431.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM...

  2. 10 CFR 431.16 - Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... purposes of 10 CFR part 431 and EPCA, the test procedures for measuring the energy efficiency of an... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency. 431.16 Section 431.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM...

  3. 10 CFR 431.16 - Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... purposes of 10 CFR Part 431 and EPCA, the test procedures for measuring the energy efficiency of an... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency. 431.16 Section 431.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM...

  4. 10 CFR 431.16 - Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... purposes of 10 CFR part 431 and EPCA, the test procedures for measuring the energy efficiency of an... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency. 431.16 Section 431.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM...

  5. Measuring Efficiencies of Academic Departments within a College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauer, Loren W.; Fried, Harold O.; Fry, William E.

    2007-01-01

    Technical and allocative efficiencies of 26 academic departments in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at Cornell University are computed using Data Envelopment Analysis over 2004/05. Allocations of faculty time between teaching, research, and extension vary by department and are used as unique prices in calculating allocative…

  6. Comparison of measured and calculated collision efficiencies at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagare, B.; Marcolli, C.; Stetzer, O.; Lohmann, U.

    2015-12-01

    Interactions of atmospheric aerosols with clouds influence cloud properties and modify the aerosol life cycle. Aerosol particles act as cloud condensation nuclei and ice nucleating particles or become incorporated into cloud droplets by scavenging. For an accurate description of aerosol scavenging and ice nucleation in contact mode, collision efficiency between droplets and aerosol particles needs to be known. This study derives the collision rate from experimental contact freezing data obtained with the ETH CoLlision Ice Nucleation CHamber (CLINCH). Freely falling 80 μm diameter water droplets are exposed to an aerosol consisting of 200 and 400 nm diameter silver iodide particles of concentrations from 500 to 5000 and 500 to 2000 cm-3, respectively, which act as ice nucleating particles in contact mode. The experimental data used to derive collision efficiency are in a temperature range of 238-245 K, where each collision of silver iodide particles with droplets can be assumed to result in the freezing of the droplet. An upper and lower limit of collision efficiency is also estimated for 800 nm diameter kaolinite particles. The chamber is kept at ice saturation at a temperature range of 236 to 261 K, leading to the slow evaporation of water droplets giving rise to thermophoresis and diffusiophoresis. Droplets and particles bear charges inducing electrophoresis. The experimentally derived collision efficiency values of 0.13, 0.07 and 0.047-0.11 for 200, 400 and 800 nm particles are around 1 order of magnitude higher than theoretical formulations which include Brownian diffusion, impaction, interception, thermophoretic, diffusiophoretic and electric forces. This discrepancy is most probably due to uncertainties and inaccuracies in the description of thermophoretic and diffusiophoretic processes acting together. This is, to the authors' knowledge, the first data set of collision efficiencies acquired below 273 K. More such experiments with different droplet and

  7. Transmission efficiency measurement at the FNAL 4-rod RFQ

    SciTech Connect

    Carneiro, J. P.; Garcia, F. G.; Ostiguy, J. F.; Saini, A.; Zwaska, R.; Mustapha, B.; Ostroumov, P.

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents measurements of the beam transmission performed on the 4-rod RFQ currently under operation at Fermilab. The beam current has been measured at the RFQ exit as a function of the magnetic field strength in the two LEBT solenoids. This measurement is compared with scans performed on the FermiGrid with the beam dynamics code TRACK. A particular attention is given to the impact, on the RFQ beam transmission, of the space-charge neutralization in the LEBT.

  8. Comparison of two methods for high purity germanium detector efficiency calibration for charcoal canister radon measurement.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, J; Pantelic, G; Zivanovic, M; Rajacic, M; Todorovic, D

    2014-11-01

    The charcoal canister method of radon measurement according to US Environment Protection Agency protocol 520/5-87-005 is widely used for screening. This method is based on radon adsorption on coal and measurement of gamma radiation of radon daughters. For the purpose of gamma spectrometry, appropriate efficiency calibration of the measuring system must be performed. The most usual method of calibration is using standard canister, a sealed canister with the same matrix and geometry as the canisters used for measurements, but with the known activity of radon. In the absence of standard canister, a different method of efficiency calibration has to be implemented. This study presents the results of efficiency calibration using the EFFTRAN efficiency transfer software. Efficiency was calculated using a soil matrix cylindrical secondary reference material as a starting point. Calculated efficiency is then compared with the one obtained using standard canister and applied to a realistic measurement in order to evaluate the results of the efficiency transfer.

  9. Measure Guideline: Energy-Efficient Window Performance and Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Carmody, J.; Haglund, K.

    2012-11-01

    This document provides guidelines for the selection of energy-efficient windows in new and existing residential construction in all US climate zones. It includes information on window products, their attributes and performance. It provides cost/benefit information on window energy savings as well as information on non-energy benefits such as thermal comfort and reduced HVAC demands. The document also provides information on energy impacts of design decisions such as window orientation, total glazing area and shading devices and conditions. Information on resources for proper window installation is included as well. This document is for builders, homeowners, designers and anyone making decisions about selecting energy efficient window. It is intended to complement other Building America information and efforts.

  10. Efficient measurement of amylose content in cereal grains.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid and economical measurement of amylose content in barley is important for genetic study and breeding improvement of this trait. Seventeen genotypes with a wide range of amylose contents were used to compare the amylose measurement accuracy of the cost-effective iodine-potassium iodide (I:KI) me...

  11. Nocturnal awakening and sleep efficiency estimation using unobtrusively measured ballistocardiogram.

    PubMed

    Da Woon Jung; Su Hwan Hwang; Hee Nam Yoon; Lee, Yu-Jin G; Do-Un Jeong; Kwang Suk Park

    2014-01-01

    Fragmented sleep due to frequent awakenings represents a major cause of impaired daytime performance and adverse health outcomes. Currently, the gold standard for studying and assessing sleep fragmentation is polysomnography (PSG). Here, we propose an alternative method for real-time detection of nocturnal awakening via ballistocardiography using an unobtrusive polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film sensor on a bed mattress. From ballistocardiogram, heart rate and body movement information were extracted to develop an algorithm for classifying sleeping and awakening epochs. In total, ten normal subjects (mean age 38.7 ± 14.6 years) and ten patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) (mean age 44.2 ± 16.5 years) of varying symptom severity participated in this study. Our study detected awakening epochs with an average sensitivity of 85.3% and 85.2%, specificity of 98.4% and 97.7%, accuracy of 97.4% and 96.5%, and Cohen's kappa coefficient of 0.83 and 0.81 for normal subjects and OSA patients, respectively. Also, sleep efficiency was estimated using detected awakening epochs and then compared with PSG results. Mean absolute errors in sleep efficiency were 1.08% and 1.44% for normal subjects and OSA patients, respectively. The results presented here indicate that our suggested method could be reliably applied to real-time nocturnal awakening detection and sleep efficiency estimation. Furthermore, our method may ultimately be an effective tool for long-term, home monitoring of sleep-wake behavior. PMID:23955694

  12. Measurement of carbon capture efficiency and stored carbon leakage

    SciTech Connect

    Keeling, Ralph F.; Dubey, Manvendra K.

    2013-01-29

    Data representative of a measured carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) concentration and of a measured oxygen (O.sub.2) concentration at a measurement location can be used to determine whether the measured carbon dioxide concentration at the measurement location is elevated relative to a baseline carbon dioxide concentration due to escape of carbon dioxide from a source associated with a carbon capture and storage process. Optionally, the data can be used to quantify a carbon dioxide concentration increase at the first location that is attributable to escape of carbon dioxide from the source and to calculate a rate of escape of carbon dioxide from the source by executing a model of gas-phase transport using at least the first carbon dioxide concentration increase. Related systems, methods, and articles of manufacture are also described.

  13. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Measurements on ^237Np for Security and Safeguards Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angell, C. T.; Joshi, T.; Yee, Ryan; Norman, E. B.; Kulp, W. D.; Warren, G. A.; Korbly, S.; Klimenko, A.; Wilson, C.; Copping, R.; Shuh, D. K.

    2009-10-01

    The smuggling of nuclear material and the diversion of fissile material for covert weapon programs both present grave risks to world security. Methods are needed to detect nuclear material smuggled in cargo, and for proper material accountability in civilian fuel re-processing facilities. Nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) is a technique that can address both needs. It is a non-destructive active interrogation method that provides isotope-specific information. It works by using a γ-ray beam to resonantly excite levels in a nucleus and observing the γ-rays emitted whose energy and intensity are characteristic of that isotope. ^237Np presents significant safeguard challenges; it is fissile yet currently has fewer safeguard restrictions. NRF measurements on ^237Np will expand the nuclear database and will permit designing interrogation and assay systems. Measurements were made using the bremsstrahlung beam at the HVRL at MIT on a 7 g target of ^237Np with two incident electron energies of 2.8 and 3.1 MeV. Results will be presented with discussion of the relevant nuclear structure necessary to predict levels in other actinides.

  14. Measure Guideline. Energy-Efficient Window Performance and Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Carmody, John; Haglund, Kerry

    2012-11-01

    This document provides guidelines for the selection of energy-efficient windows in new and existing residential construction in all U.S. climate zones. It includes information on window products, their attributes and performance. It provides cost/benefit information on window energy savings as well as information on non-energy benefits such as thermal comfort and reduced HVAC demands. The report also provides information on energy impacts of design decisions such as window orientation, total glazing area and shading devices and conditions. Information on resources for proper window installation is included as well.

  15. Sloan Digital Sky Survey observing time tracking and efficiency measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Eric H. Neilsen, Jr.; Richard G. Kron; William N. Boroski

    2002-10-16

    Accurate and consistent time tracking is essential for evaluating the efficiency of survey observing operations and identifying areas that need improvement. Off the shelf time tracking software, which requires users to enter activities by hand, proved tedious to use and insufficiently exible. In this paper, we present an alternate time tracking system developed specifically for Sloan Digital Sky Survey observing. This system uses an existing logging system, murmur, to log the beginning and ending times of tracked circumstances, including activities, weather, and problems which effect observing. Operations software automatically generates most entries for routine observing activities; in a night of routine observing, time tracking requires little or no attention from the observing staff. A graphical user interface allows observers to make entries marking time lost to weather and equipment, and to correct inaccurate entries made by the observing software. The last is necessary when the change in activity is not marked by a change in the state of the software or instruments, or when the time is used for engineering or other observing not part of routine survey data collection. A second utility generates reports of time usage from these logs. These reports include totals for the time spent for each observing task, time lost to weather and problems, efficiency statistics for comparison with the survey baseline, and a detailed listing of what activities and problems were present in any covered time period.

  16. Information Leakage in Efficient Bidirectional Quantum Secure Direct Communication with Single Photons in Both Polarization and Spatial-Mode Degrees of Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cai; Situ, Haozhen

    2016-06-01

    Recently, Wang et al. presented a bidirectional quantum secure direct communication protocol with single photons in both polarization and spatial-mode degrees of freedom (Int. J. Theor. Phys. 54(10): 3443-3453, 2015). They claimed that their protocol was efficient and removed the drawback of information leakage. However, we found that the information leakage actually exists in their protocol. In this paper, we analyze Wang et al.'s protocol in detail. In addition, we propose an improvement to avoid the information leakage. The security of the improved protocol has also been discussed.

  17. Measurements of the transport efficiency of the fragment mass analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Back, B.B.; Blumenthal, D.J.; Davids, C.N.

    1995-08-01

    Extensive calculations of the transport of reaction products were carried out during the design phase of the instrument using the computer code GIOS. These show that the energy acceptance depends strongly on the angular deviation from the optical axis of the instrument. In order to reliably measure cross sections using this instrument it is therefore necessary to verify these calculations empirically.

  18. Situational Awareness as a Measure of Performance in Cyber Security Collaborative Work

    SciTech Connect

    Malviya, Ashish; Fink, Glenn A.; Sego, Landon H.; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.

    2011-04-11

    Cyber defense competitions arising from U.S. service academy exercises, offer a platform for collecting data that can inform research that ranges from characterizing the ideal cyber warrior to describing behaviors during certain challenging cyber defense situations. This knowledge in turn could lead to better preparation of cyber defenders in both military and civilian settings. We conducted proof of concept experimentation to collect data during the Pacific-rim Regional Collegiate Cyber Defense Competition (PRCCDC) and analyzed it to study the behavior of cyber defenders. We propose that situational awareness predicts performance of cyber security professionals, and in this paper we focus on our collection and analysis of competition data to determine whether it supports our hypothesis. In addition to normal cyber data, we collected situational awareness and workload data and compared it against the performance of cyber defenders as indicated by their competition score. We conclude that there is a weak correlation between our measure of situational awareness and performance that we hope to exploit in further studies.

  19. Selected Private Higher Educational Institutions in Metro Manila: A DEA Efficiency Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Maria Corazon Gwendolyn N.; Cabana, Emilyn

    2009-01-01

    This paper measures the technical efficiency of 16 selected colleges and universities in Metro Manila, Philippines, using academic data for the SY 2001-2005. Using the data envelopment analysis (DEA), on average, schools posted 0.807 index score and need additional 19.3% efficiency growth to be efficient. Overall, there are top four efficient…

  20. Efficiencies of intracoronary sodium nitroprusside on fractional flow reserve measurement

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shaosheng; Deng, Jie; Wang, Xiaozeng; Zhao, Xin; Han, Yaling

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fractional flow reserve (FFR) has certain advantages of assessing functional severity of coronary stenosis. Adenosine(AD) is the most widely used agents in FFR measurement but has the disadvantages of higher rate of complications. Sodium Nitroprusside (SNP) represents a valuable alternative. Methods and results: In 75 patients with 86 moderate coronary stenosis, FFR values, heart rate and blood pressure were measured at baseline, after 0.6 μg boluses of intracoronary (IC) SNP, and after 140 μg/kg /min of continuous intravenous (IV) AD. FFR values decreased significantly after administering IV AD and IC SNP compared with the baseline Pd/Pa values (P < 0.001). Mean FFR induced by IV AD was not significantly different from that by IC SNP (t = 0.577, P = 0.566). The mean kappa value in the evaluation of two methods was 0.973 for FFR. There was a significant correlation between the FFR values of IV AD and IC SNP (R = 0.911, P < 0.001). Significant decreases in the blood pressures were found after agents were given compared to the baseline. No significant difference was found between AD and SNP. In addition, immediate complications occurred in 60.5% patients of IV AD in contrast to no adverse events after IC SNP. Conclusion: SNP is a safe and effective agent and easy to use for the FFR measurement. Maximal hyperemia by IC SNP is equivalent to that by IV AD. IC SNP could be considered a potential alternative in patients with contraindications to AD administration. PMID:25932219

  1. Efficient entanglement criteria beyond Gaussian limits using Gaussian measurements.

    PubMed

    Nha, Hyunchul; Lee, Su-Yong; Ji, Se-Wan; Kim, M S

    2012-01-20

    We present a formalism to derive entanglement criteria beyond the Gaussian regime that can be readily tested by only homodyne detection. The measured observable is the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlation. Its arbitrary functional form enables us to detect non-Gaussian entanglement even when an entanglement test based on second-order moments fails. We illustrate the power of our experimentally friendly criteria for a broad class of non-Gaussian states under realistic conditions. We also show rigorously that quantum teleportation for continuous variables employs a specific functional form of EPR correlation. PMID:22400723

  2. 10 CFR 431.444 - Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency. (a) Scope. Pursuant to section 346(b)(1) of EPCA, this section provides the test procedures for measuring, pursuant to EPCA, the efficiency of small electric motors pursuant to EPCA. (42 U.S.C. 6317(b)(1)) For purposes of this part 431 and EPCA, the...

  3. 10 CFR 431.444 - Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency. (a) Scope. Pursuant to section 346(b)(1) of EPCA, this section provides the test procedures for measuring, pursuant to EPCA, the efficiency of small electric motors pursuant to EPCA. (42 U.S.C. 6317(b)(1)) For purposes of this Part 431 and EPCA, the...

  4. 10 CFR 431.444 - Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency. (a) Scope. Pursuant to section 346(b)(1) of EPCA, this section provides the test procedures for measuring, pursuant to EPCA, the efficiency of small electric motors pursuant to EPCA. (42 U.S.C. 6317(b)(1)) For purposes of this part 431 and EPCA, the...

  5. 10 CFR 431.444 - Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency. (a) Scope. Pursuant to section 346(b)(1) of EPCA, this section provides the test procedures for measuring, pursuant to EPCA, the efficiency of small electric motors pursuant to EPCA. (42 U.S.C. 6317(b)(1)) For purposes of this part 431 and EPCA, the...

  6. Data Envelopment Analysis and Its Application to the Measurement of Efficiency in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnes, Jill

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the possibility of measuring efficiency in the context of higher education. The paper begins by exploring the advantages and drawbacks of the various methods for measuring efficiency in the higher education context. The ease with which data envelopment analysis (DEA) can handle multiple inputs and multiple…

  7. Airborne Dust Cloud Measurements at the INL National Security Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Abbott; Norm Stanley; Larry Radke; Charles Smeltzer

    2007-09-01

    On July 11, 2007, a surface, high-explosive test (<20,000 lb TNT-equivalent) was carried out at the National Security Test Range (NSTR) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site. Aircraft-mounted rapid response (1-sec) particulate monitors were used to measure airborne PM-10 concentrations directly in the dust cloud and to develop a PM-10 emission factor that could be used for subsequent tests at the NSTR. The blast produced a mushroom-like dust cloud that rose approximately 2,500–3,000 ft above ground level, which quickly dissipated (within 5 miles of the source). In general, the cloud was smaller and less persistence than expected, or that might occur in other areas, likely due to the coarse sand and subsurface conditions that characterize the immediate NSTR area. Maximum short time-averaged (1-sec) PM-10 concentrations at the center of the cloud immediately after the event reached 421 µg m-3 but were rapidly reduced (by atmospheric dispersion and fallout) to near background levels (~10 µg m-3) after about 15 minutes. This occurred well within the INL Site boundary, about 8 km (5 miles) from the NSTR source. These findings demonstrate that maximum concentrations in ambient air beyond the INL Site boundary (closest is 11.2 km from NSTR) from these types of tests would be well within the 150 µg m-3 24-hour National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM-10. Aircraft measurements and geostatistical techniques were used to successfully quantify the initial volume (1.64E+9 m3 or 1.64 km3) and mass (250 kg) of the PM-10 dust cloud, and a PM-10 emission factor (20 kg m-3 crater soil volume) was developed for this specific type of event at NSTR. The 250 kg of PM-10 mass estimated from this experiment is almost seven-times higher than the 36 kg estimated for the environmental assessment (DOE-ID 2007) using available Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1995) emission factors. This experiment demonstrated that advanced aircraft-mounted instruments operated by

  8. What are we measuring? Comparison of household food security indicators in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Sheryl L; van der Merwe, Corné; Ngidi, Mjabuliseni S; Manyamba, Christopher; Mbele, Mondli; McIntyre, Angela M; Mkandawire, Elizabeth; Molefe, Queeneth N; Mphephu, Mulalo Q; Ngwane, Lithle

    2016-01-01

    The development of national food security information systems is constrained by a lack of guidance on which indicators to use. This paper compares food security indicators across two seasons (summer and winter) in one of the most deprived areas of the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The results show that only anthropometric indicators are sensitive enough to differentiate levels of food insecurity. The lack of consistent classification across indicators means that surveys must use a combination of food consumption and experience of hunger measures backed up by anthropometric measures. Targeting interventions is difficult if the measures cannot be relied on. Further investigation is needed to identify a suite of appropriate indicators for a national information and surveillance system.

  9. Empirical technique to measure x-ray production and detection efficiencies in the analytical electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    King, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    In the present work, a technique is proposed to experimentally measure the effective x-ray production and detection efficiency in pure element standards. This technique supplements and in some cases is preferable to the multi-element standard technique. Measurements of effective x-ray production and detection efficiencies are expected to be preferable to the standardless technique in cases where pure element samples can be prepared since the most uncertain parameters in the standardless technique are measured in the proposed technique.

  10. Apparatus and method for measuring single cell and sub-cellular photosynthetic efficiency

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Ryan Wesley; Singh, Seema; Wu, Huawen

    2013-07-09

    Devices for measuring single cell changes in photosynthetic efficiency in algal aquaculture are disclosed that include a combination of modulated LED trans-illumination of different intensities with synchronized through objective laser illumination and confocal detection. Synchronization and intensity modulation of a dual illumination scheme were provided using a custom microcontroller for a laser beam block and constant current LED driver. Therefore, single whole cell photosynthetic efficiency, and subcellular (diffraction limited) photosynthetic efficiency measurement modes are permitted. Wide field rapid light scanning actinic illumination is provided for both by an intensity modulated 470 nm LED. For the whole cell photosynthetic efficiency measurement, the same LED provides saturating pulses for generating photosynthetic induction curves. For the subcellular photosynthetic efficiency measurement, a switched through objective 488 nm laser provides saturating pulses for generating photosynthetic induction curves. A second near IR LED is employed to generate dark adapted states in the system under study.

  11. Clinical comparison of the efficiency and security of balloon dilators versus fascial dilators in percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lingbo; Lu, Shuaiqi; Han, Xingtao; Wei, Pengtao; Yang, Jinhui; Hao, Tongtong

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficiency and security of the balloon dilators versus fascial dilators in percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL), We compared the difference of intraoperative and postoperative parameters of patients using these two different methods of expansion and having no significant statistic differences in peroperative parameters. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of 134 patients undergoing PCNL with upper urinary calculi from January 2012 to January 2014 in Luoyang Central Hospital affiliated to Zhengzhou University. These patients meeting the inclusion criteria were divided into two groups: the group of balloon dilators (group A) and the group of fascial dilators (group B). Two groups were compared for success rate of first expansion, clearance of stone, duration of surgery, intraoperative hemorrhage, blood transfusion rate, postoperative hospitalization and the incidence of complications. Result: In Group A, a total of 91 patients (51 men and 40 women, mean age 51.22±8.96 years, ranged from 28 to 68 years, the calculi maximum diameter from 0.9 to 4.5cm, 28 cases with a history of gravel, mean Body mass index 24.20±2.34, 73 cases with hydronephrosis and 26 cases with underlying diseases such as hypertension, diabetes and the like) undergoing PCNL were retrospectively reviewed. Similarly, In Group B, a total of 43 patients (28 men and 15 women, mean age 49.64±10.62 years, ranged from 15 to 70 years, the calculi maximum diameter from 1.1 to 5.2cm, 18 cases with a history of gravel, mean Body mass index 24.40±2.70, 38 cases with hydronephrosis and 14 cases with underlying diseases such as hypertension, diabetes and the like) undergoing PCNL were retrospectively reviewed. Our results showed that there was a statistically significant better outcome in Group A than in Group B in terms of success rate of first exploration, duration of operation, intraoperative hemorrhage, postoperative hospitalization and the incidence of complications

  12. Use Conditions and Efficiency Measurements of DC Power Optimizers for Photovoltaic Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Deline, C.; MacAlpine, S.

    2013-10-01

    No consensus standard exists for estimating annual conversion efficiency of DC-DC converters or power optimizers in photovoltaic (PV) applications. The performance benefits of PV power electronics including per-panel DC-DC converters depend in large part on the operating conditions of the PV system, along with the performance characteristics of the power optimizer itself. This work presents acase study of three system configurations that take advantage of the capabilities of DC power optimizers. Measured conversion efficiencies of DC-DC converters are applied to these scenarios to determine the annual weighted operating efficiency. A simplified general method of reporting weighted efficiency is given, based on the California Energy Commission's CEC efficiency rating and severalinput / output voltage ratios. Efficiency measurements of commercial power optimizer products are presented using the new performance metric, along with a description of the limitations of the approach.

  13. Mortality Measurement at Advanced Ages: A Study of the Social Security Administration Death Master File

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilov, Leonid A.; Gavrilova, Natalia S.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate estimates of mortality at advanced ages are essential to improving forecasts of mortality and the population size of the oldest old age group. However, estimation of hazard rates at extremely old ages poses serious challenges to researchers: (1) The observed mortality deceleration may be at least partially an artifact of mixing different birth cohorts with different mortality (heterogeneity effect); (2) standard assumptions of hazard rate estimates may be invalid when risk of death is extremely high at old ages and (3) ages of very old people may be exaggerated. One way of obtaining estimates of mortality at extreme ages is to pool together international records of persons surviving to extreme ages with subsequent efforts of strict age validation. This approach helps researchers to resolve the third of the above-mentioned problems but does not resolve the first two problems because of inevitable data heterogeneity when data for people belonging to different birth cohorts and countries are pooled together. In this paper we propose an alternative approach, which gives an opportunity to resolve the first two problems by compiling data for more homogeneous single-year birth cohorts with hazard rates measured at narrow (monthly) age intervals. Possible ways of resolving the third problem of hazard rate estimation are elaborated. This approach is based on data from the Social Security Administration Death Master File (DMF). Some birth cohorts covered by DMF could be studied by the method of extinct generations. Availability of month of birth and month of death information provides a unique opportunity to obtain hazard rate estimates for every month of age. Study of several single-year extinct birth cohorts shows that mortality trajectory at advanced ages follows the Gompertz law up to the ages 102–105 years without a noticeable deceleration. Earlier reports of mortality deceleration (deviation of mortality from the Gompertz law) at ages below 100 appear to be

  14. Measured efficiency of a ZnO nanostructured diode piezoelectric energy harvesting device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briscoe, J.; Bilotti, E.; Dunn, S.

    2012-08-01

    We used controlled bending of a ZnO/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate) diode at known strain rates to measure the mechanical-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency. The mechanical energy input into the nanostructured diode was measured as 330 ± 2 nJ cm-2. The electrical energy output was calculated by integrating the product of the short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage over time. This gives a measured external efficiency of the device at a bending rate of 500 mm/min of 0.0067%. The efficiency increased exponentially with bending rate, though this increase must slow as the mechanical coupling efficiency is approached, which gives a maximum possible efficiency of 23% for ZnO.

  15. [Security measures in the penal code, in the opinions of expert psychiatrists and some problems in their applications].

    PubMed

    Hajdukiewicz, Danuta

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to remind expert psychiatrists, the three basic elements required for the application of security measures such as placing the convict in a psychiatric hospital. They are: 1) An act was of serious social damage, 2) the damage was committed in a state of non-liability, 3) there is a high risk of the person repeating the act of similar social damage. The fulfilment of these three is an obligation for the court to apply the security measure of placing the person in a psychiatric hospital (art. 94 section 1 of the penal code). Practice shows that experts have difficulties in these evaluations, which in turn results in faults in directing for placement withoutjust cause, or in turn-there is no directing, even though there are causes for it. There is a huge need for legal regulations on these manners, after the forensic psychiatric observation ends. The non-liable delinquent who committed an act of serious social damage is in risk of committing this act once more, whilst he is not in custody. The issue is in showing a legal basis for keeping the non-liable delinquent from such an act in a psychiatric hospital, in spite of ending the observation, until the legal sentence on the security measure is in place.

  16. 33 CFR 105.257 - Security measures for newly-hired employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... The Coast Guard will issue guidance for use in making these determinations. (b) Newly-hired facility... applied for a TWIC in accordance with 49 CFR part 1572 by completing the full enrollment process, paying...; (iii) Social security number (optional); (iv) Employer name and 24 hour contact information; and...

  17. 33 CFR 104.267 - Security measures for newly hired employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... The Coast Guard will issue guidance for use in making these determinations. (b) Newly-hired vessel... has applied for a TWIC in accordance with 49 CFR part 1572 by completing the full enrollment process...) Social security number (optional); (iv) Employer name and 24 hour contact information; and (v) Date...

  18. 33 CFR 104.267 - Security measures for newly hired employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... The Coast Guard will issue guidance for use in making these determinations. (b) Newly-hired vessel... has applied for a TWIC in accordance with 49 CFR part 1572 by completing the full enrollment process...) Social security number (optional); (iv) Employer name and 24 hour contact information; and (v) Date...

  19. 33 CFR 105.257 - Security measures for newly-hired employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... applied for a TWIC in accordance with 49 CFR part 1572 by completing the full enrollment process, paying... operator or the Facility Security Officer (FSO) must have the new hire sign a statement affirming this, and... or the FSO enters the following information on the new hire into the Coast Guard's Homeport...

  20. 33 CFR 105.257 - Security measures for newly-hired employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... applied for a TWIC in accordance with 49 CFR part 1572 by completing the full enrollment process, paying... operator or the Facility Security Officer (FSO) must have the new hire sign a statement affirming this, and... suspicion regarding the new hire's ability to obtain a TWIC, and the facility owner or operator or FSO...

  1. 33 CFR 105.257 - Security measures for newly-hired employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... applied for a TWIC in accordance with 49 CFR part 1572 by completing the full enrollment process, paying... operator or the Facility Security Officer (FSO) must have the new hire sign a statement affirming this, and... or the FSO enters the following information on the new hire into the Coast Guard's Homeport...

  2. 33 CFR 105.257 - Security measures for newly-hired employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... applied for a TWIC in accordance with 49 CFR part 1572 by completing the full enrollment process, paying... operator or the Facility Security Officer (FSO) must have the new hire sign a statement affirming this, and... or the FSO enters the following information on the new hire into the Coast Guard's Homeport...

  3. Generation of a Parabolic Trough Collector Efficiency Curve from Separate Measurements of Outdoor Optical Efficiency and Indoor Receiver Heat Loss: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C.; Burkholder, F.; Stynes, K.

    2010-10-01

    The overall efficiency of a parabolic trough collector is a function of both the fraction of direct normal radiation absorbed by the receiver (the optical efficiency) and the heat lost to the environment when the receiver is at operating temperature. The overall efficiency can be determined by testing the collector under actual operating conditions or by separately measuring these two components. This paper describes how outdoor measurement of the optical efficiency is combined with laboratory measurements of receiver heat loss to obtain an overall efficiency curve. Further, it presents a new way to plot efficiency that is more robust over a range of receiver operating temperatures.

  4. Transmission Efficiency Measurements and Correlations with Physical Characteristics of the Lubricant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, J. J.; Mitchell, A. M.; Hamrock, B. J.

    1984-01-01

    Data from helicopter transmission efficiency tests were compared to physical properties of the eleven lubricants used in those tests. The tests were conducted with the OH-58 helicopter main rotor transmission. Efficiencies ranged from 98.3 to 98.8 percent. The data was examined for correlation of physical properties with efficiency. There was a reasonable correlation of efficiency with absolute viscosity if the viscosity was first corrected for temperature and pressure in the lubricated contact. Between lubricants, efficiency did not correlate well with viscosity at atmospheric pressure. Between lubricants, efficiency did not correlate well with calculated lubricant film forming capacity. Bench type sliding friction and wear measurements could not be correlated to transmission efficiency and component wear.

  5. Field Measurements of Heating Efficiency of Electric Forced-Air Furnaces in Six Manufactured Homes.

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Bob; Palmiter, Larry S.; Siegel, Jeff

    1994-07-26

    This report presents the results of field measurements of heating efficiency for six manufactured homes in the Pacific Northwest heated with electric forced-air systems. This is the first in a series of regional and national efforts to measure in detail the heating efficiency of manufactured homes. Only six homes were included in this study because of budgetary constraints; therefore this is not a representative sample. These investigations do provide some useful information on the heating efficiency of these homes. Useful comparisons can be drawn between these study homes and site-built heating efficiencies measured with a similar protocol. The protocol used to test these homes is very similar to another Ecotope protocol used in the study conducted in 1992 and 1993 for the Bonneville Power Administration to test the heating efficiency of 24 homes. This protocol combined real-time power measurements of furnace energy usage with energy usage during co-heat periods. Accessory data such as house and duct tightness measurements and tracer gas measurements were used to describe these homes and their heating system efficiency. Ensuring that manufactured housing is constructed in an energy and resource efficient manner is of increasing concern to manufactured home builders and consumers. No comparable work has been done to measure the heating system efficiency of MCS manufactured homes, although some co-heat tests have been performed on manufactured homes heated with natural gas to validate HUD thermal standards. It is expected that later in 1994 more research of this kind will be conducted, and perhaps a less costly and less time-consuming method for testing efficiencies will be develops.

  6. Extracting the emitter orientation in organic light-emitting diodes from external quantum efficiency measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Tobias D. Reichardt, Lukas J.; Wehrmeister, Sebastian; Scholz, Bert J.; Mayr, Christian; Brütting, Wolfgang; Rausch, Andreas F.; Wehlus, Thomas; Reusch, Thilo C. G.; Ciarnáin, Rossá Mac; Danz, Norbert

    2014-07-28

    Emitter orientation will play a major role in future applications of organic light-emitting diodes due to its strong impact on the efficiency of the devices. Up to now, determining the orientation of transition dipole moments required elaborate angular-dependent measurements of the light emission pattern. In this paper, we present a simplified and straightforward method to extract the emitter orientation from external quantum efficiency measurements. We demonstrate the validity of the method on three different dye-doped emitting systems.

  7. Energy Efficiency Under Alternative Carbon Policies. Incentives, Measurement, and Interregional Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, Daniel C.; Boyd, Erin

    2015-08-28

    In this report, we examine and compare how tradable mass-based polices and tradable rate-based policies create different incentives for energy efficiency investments. Through a generalized demonstration and set of examples, we show that as a result of the output subsidy they create, traditional rate-based policies, those that do not credit energy savings from efficiency measures, reduce the incentive for investment in energy efficiency measures relative to an optimally designed mass-based policy or equivalent carbon tax. We then show that this reduced incentive can be partially addressed by modifying the rate-based policy such that electricity savings from energy efficiency measures are treated as a source of zero-carbon generation within the framework of the standard, or equivalently, by assigning avoided emissions credit to the electricity savings at the rate of the intensity target. These approaches result in an extension of the output subsidy to efficiency measures and eliminate the distortion between supply-side and demand-side options for GHG emissions reduction. However, these approaches do not address electricity price distortions resulting from the output subsidy that also impact the value of efficiency measures. Next, we assess alternative approaches for crediting energy efficiency savings within the framework of a rate-based policy. Finally, we identify a number of challenges that arise in implementing a rate-based policy with efficiency crediting, including the requirement to develop robust estimates of electricity savings in order to assess compliance, and the requirement to track the regionality of the generation impacts of efficiency measures to account for their interstate effects.

  8. An evaluation of security measures implemented to address physical threats to water infrastructure in the state of Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Jason R; French, P Edward

    2013-01-01

    The events of September 11, 2001, increased and intensified domestic preparedness efforts in the United States against terrorism and other threats. The heightened focus on protecting this nation's critical infrastructure included legislation requiring implementation of extensive new security measures to better defend water supply systems against physical, chemical/biological, and cyber attacks. In response, municipal officials have implemented numerous safeguards to reduce the vulnerability of these systems to purposeful intrusions including ongoing vulnerability assessments, extensive personnel training, and highly detailed emergency response and communication plans. This study evaluates fiscal year 2010 annual compliance assessments of public water systems with security measures that were implemented by Mississippi's Department of Health as a response to federal requirements to address these potential terrorist threats to water distribution systems. The results show that 20 percent of the water systems in this state had at least one security violation on their 2010 Capacity Development Assessment, and continued perseverance from local governments is needed to enhance the resiliency and robustness of these systems against physical threats.

  9. An evaluation of security measures implemented to address physical threats to water infrastructure in the state of Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Jason R; French, P Edward

    2013-01-01

    The events of September 11, 2001, increased and intensified domestic preparedness efforts in the United States against terrorism and other threats. The heightened focus on protecting this nation's critical infrastructure included legislation requiring implementation of extensive new security measures to better defend water supply systems against physical, chemical/biological, and cyber attacks. In response, municipal officials have implemented numerous safeguards to reduce the vulnerability of these systems to purposeful intrusions including ongoing vulnerability assessments, extensive personnel training, and highly detailed emergency response and communication plans. This study evaluates fiscal year 2010 annual compliance assessments of public water systems with security measures that were implemented by Mississippi's Department of Health as a response to federal requirements to address these potential terrorist threats to water distribution systems. The results show that 20 percent of the water systems in this state had at least one security violation on their 2010 Capacity Development Assessment, and continued perseverance from local governments is needed to enhance the resiliency and robustness of these systems against physical threats. PMID:24187744

  10. Numerical analysis of a measured efficiency hysteresis on a bulb turbine model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houde, S.; Carrier, A.; Buron, J. D.; Deschênes, C.

    2014-03-01

    Within the framework of the BulbT project, simulations were performed to understand the origin of a measured hysteresis on the efficiency hill chart of a bulb turbine model. This hysteresis is associated with a sharp drop of efficiency located at slightly higher discharge than the best efficiency operating condition. It appears as a variation in the turbine performance whether an operating condition located in the efficiency drop is reached from a lower or a higher discharge. This hysteresis was reproduced numerically using Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) simulations. The paper presents the experimental results, the numerical methodology and a comprehensive analysis of the simulations to shed light on this interesting phenomenon.

  11. National Residential Efficiency Measures Database Aimed at Reducing Risk for Residential Retrofit Industry (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-01-01

    This technical highlight describes NREL research to develop a publicly available database of energy retrofit measures containing performance characteristics and cost estimates for nearly 3,000 measures. Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have developed the National Residential Efficiency Measures Database, a public database that characterizes the performance and costs of common residential energy efficiency measures. The data are available for use in software programs that evaluate cost-effective retrofit measures to improve the energy efficiency of residential buildings. The database provides a single, consistent source of current data for DOE and private-sector energy audit and simulation software tools and the retrofit industry. The database will reduce risk for residential retrofit industry stakeholders by providing a central, publicly vetted source of up-to-date information.

  12. Conceptual foundation for measures of physical function and behavioral health function for Social Security work disability evaluation.

    PubMed

    Marfeo, Elizabeth E; Haley, Stephen M; Jette, Alan M; Eisen, Susan V; Ni, Pengsheng; Bogusz, Kara; Meterko, Mark; McDonough, Christine M; Chan, Leighton; Brandt, Diane E; Rasch, Elizabeth K

    2013-09-01

    Physical and mental impairments represent the 2 largest health condition categories for which workers receive Social Security disability benefits. Comprehensive assessment of physical and mental impairments should include aspects beyond medical conditions such as a person's underlying capabilities as well as activity demands relevant to the context of work. The objective of this article is to describe the initial conceptual stages of developing new measurement instruments of behavioral health and physical functioning relevant for Social Security work disability evaluation purposes. To outline a clear conceptualization of the constructs to be measured, 2 content models were developed using structured and informal qualitative approaches. We performed a structured literature review focusing on work disability and incorporating aspects of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a unifying taxonomy for framework development. Expert interviews provided advice and consultation to enhance face validity of the resulting content models. The content model for work-related behavioral health function identifies 5 major domains: (1) behavior control, (2) basic interactions, (3) temperament and personality, (4) adaptability, and (5) workplace behaviors. The content model describing physical functioning includes 3 domains: (1) changing and maintaining body position, (2) whole-body mobility, and (3) carrying, moving, and handling objects. These content models informed subsequent measurement properties including item development and measurement scale construction, and provided conceptual coherence guiding future empirical inquiry. The proposed measurement approaches show promise to comprehensively and systematically assess physical and behavioral health functioning relevant to work.

  13. Conceptual foundation for measures of physical function and behavioral health function for Social Security work disability evaluation.

    PubMed

    Marfeo, Elizabeth E; Haley, Stephen M; Jette, Alan M; Eisen, Susan V; Ni, Pengsheng; Bogusz, Kara; Meterko, Mark; McDonough, Christine M; Chan, Leighton; Brandt, Diane E; Rasch, Elizabeth K

    2013-09-01

    Physical and mental impairments represent the 2 largest health condition categories for which workers receive Social Security disability benefits. Comprehensive assessment of physical and mental impairments should include aspects beyond medical conditions such as a person's underlying capabilities as well as activity demands relevant to the context of work. The objective of this article is to describe the initial conceptual stages of developing new measurement instruments of behavioral health and physical functioning relevant for Social Security work disability evaluation purposes. To outline a clear conceptualization of the constructs to be measured, 2 content models were developed using structured and informal qualitative approaches. We performed a structured literature review focusing on work disability and incorporating aspects of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a unifying taxonomy for framework development. Expert interviews provided advice and consultation to enhance face validity of the resulting content models. The content model for work-related behavioral health function identifies 5 major domains: (1) behavior control, (2) basic interactions, (3) temperament and personality, (4) adaptability, and (5) workplace behaviors. The content model describing physical functioning includes 3 domains: (1) changing and maintaining body position, (2) whole-body mobility, and (3) carrying, moving, and handling objects. These content models informed subsequent measurement properties including item development and measurement scale construction, and provided conceptual coherence guiding future empirical inquiry. The proposed measurement approaches show promise to comprehensively and systematically assess physical and behavioral health functioning relevant to work. PMID:23548543

  14. Measurements of Conversion Efficiency for a Flat Plate Thermophotovoltaic System Using a Photonic Cavity Test System

    SciTech Connect

    E.J. Brown; C.T. Ballinger; S.R. Burger; G.W. Charache; L.R. Danielson; D.M. DePoy; T.J. Donovan; M. LoCascio

    2000-05-30

    The performance of a 1 cm{sup 2} thermophotovoltaic (TPV) module was recently measured in a photonic cavity test system. A conversion efficiency of 11.7% was measured at a radiator temperature of 1076 C and a module temperature of 29.9 C. This experiment achieved the highest direct measurement of efficiency for an integrated TPV system. Efficiency was calculated from the ratio of the peak (load matched) electrical power output and the heat absorption rate. Measurements of these two parameters were made simultaneously to assure the validity of the measured efficiency value. This test was conducted in a photonic cavity which mimicked a typical flat-plate TPV system. The radiator was a large, flat graphite surface. The module was affixed to the top of a copper pedestal for heat absorption measurements. The heat absorption rate was proportional to the axial temperature gradient in the pedestal under steady-state conditions. The test was run in a vacuum to eliminate conductive and convective heat transfer mechanisms. The photonic cavity provides the optimal test environment for TPV efficiency measurements because it incorporates all important physical phenomena found in an integrated TPV system: high radiator emissivity and blackbody spectral shape, photon recycling, Lambertian distribution of incident radiation and complex geometric effects. Furthermore, the large aspect ratio between radiating surface area and radiator/module spacing produces a view factor approaching unity with minimal photon leakage.

  15. Feasibility of large-scale calorimetric efficiency measurement for wind turbine generator drivetrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagitsch, Michael; Jacobs, Georg; Schelenz, Ralf; Bosse, Dennis; Liewen, Christian; Reisch, Sebastian; Deicke, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    In the course of the global energy turnaround, the importance of wind energy is increasing continuously. For making wind energy more competitive with fossil energy, reducing the costs is an important measure. One way to reach this goal is to improve the efficiency. As the major potentials have already been exploited, improvements in the efficiency are made in small steps. One of the main preconditions for enabling these development activities is the sufficiently accurate measurement of the efficiency. This paper presents a method for measuring the efficiency of geared wind turbine generator drivetrains with errors below 0.5% by directly quantifying the power losses. The presented method is novel for wind turbines in the multi- MW-class.

  16. Separation efficiency of a wood dust collector-field measurement using a fluorescent aerosol.

    PubMed

    Bémer, D; Regnier, R; Calle, S

    2000-05-01

    Given the dangerous nature of the dust emitted in the wood industry, the quality of the recycled air in the work premises after cleaning must be strictly controlled.A method of measuring the efficiency of a wood dust collector as a function of the particle diameter has been developed using a fluorescein tracer aerosol generated upstream of the equipment. The separation efficiency is determined from the particle size mass distribution of the tracer, both upstream and downstream, measured by means of two cascade impactors. The mass efficiency measured by tracer technique was compared on a test rig to the number efficiency measured using a reference method based on optical counting. The agreement between the two efficiencies is quite good; nevertheless, the tracer method leads to results that are slightly below those obtained using the reference method. The method was applied to measure the efficiency of a 11 500 m(3) h(-1) wood dust collector. The results are presented along with those obtained from a sample of plane filter media making up the bags of the dust collector.

  17. An evaluation of accounting-based finding costs as efficiency measures for oil and gas exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Boynton, C.E. IV; Boone, J.P.

    1994-08-01

    The authors have operationalized firm-specific exploration efficiency as the difference between a firm-specific intercept estimated in a fixed-effects panel data Cobb-Douglas production frontier model and the maximum firm-specific intercept estimated in that model. The production model was estimated during two different time periods, 1982--1985 and 1989--1992, allowing efficiency to vary intertemporally. This efficiency estimate served as a benchmark against which they compared various measures of inverse finding costs. They assumed that the degree of association with an efficiency benchmark is an important attribute of any finding cost measure and that, further, the degree of association may be used as a metric for choosing between alternative finding cost measures. Accordingly, they evaluated the cross-sectional statistical association between estimated efficiency and alternative inverse finding cost measures. They discovered that the inverse finding cost measure that exhibited the strongest association with efficiency during the two time periods was a three-year moving-average finding cost which included exploration plus development expenditures as costs and reserve extensions and additions plus revisions as the units added.

  18. X-ray conversion efficiency measurements for CsI and Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benage, John; Keiter, Paul; Lanier, Nick

    2009-11-01

    We measured the absolute conversion efficiency of Sn and CsI in the energy range of 3900 to 5600 eV using the Omega laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics. The laser intensity was varied from 2x10^15 W/cm^2 to 2x10^16 W/cm^2. The efficiency measurements were for 1 ns laser pulse widths and were determined based on previous calibration measurements for several x-ray films. To obtain the efficiencies, we measured absolute film exposures in several energy bands by employing different x-ray filters. The overall efficiency was then determined by calibrating these individual band measurements to the overall spectrum. One band was used as a high energy background measurement. Our results indicate the overall conversion efficiency was relatively insensitive to intensity in this regime and in general was of order 0.1-1%. We conclude with a discussion of the usefulness of such broadband backlighters for HED experiments.

  19. A New Accountability Metric for a New Time: A Proposed Graduation Efficiency Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Howard; Ibrahim, Nabile

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors propose "graduation efficiency" as a metric that can show the success of universities in graduating students. They are not suggesting that the current measure of graduation rates be abandoned, but rather that they be supplemented with other measures that could round out the picture of how colleges and universities are…

  20. Quality of Protection Evaluation of Security Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ksiezopolski, Bogdan; Zurek, Tomasz; Mokkas, Michail

    2014-01-01

    Recent research indicates that during the design of teleinformatic system the tradeoff between the systems performance and the system protection should be made. The traditional approach assumes that the best way is to apply the strongest possible security measures. Unfortunately, the overestimation of security measures can lead to the unreasonable increase of system load. This is especially important in multimedia systems where the performance has critical character. In many cases determination of the required level of protection and adjustment of some security measures to these requirements increase system efficiency. Such an approach is achieved by means of the quality of protection models where the security measures are evaluated according to their influence on the system security. In the paper, we propose a model for QoP evaluation of security mechanisms. Owing to this model, one can quantify the influence of particular security mechanisms on ensuring security attributes. The methodology of our model preparation is described and based on it the case study analysis is presented. We support our method by the tool where the models can be defined and QoP evaluation can be performed. Finally, we have modelled TLS cryptographic protocol and presented the QoP security mechanisms evaluation for the selected versions of this protocol. PMID:25136683

  1. Quality of protection evaluation of security mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ksiezopolski, Bogdan; Zurek, Tomasz; Mokkas, Michail

    2014-01-01

    Recent research indicates that during the design of teleinformatic system the tradeoff between the systems performance and the system protection should be made. The traditional approach assumes that the best way is to apply the strongest possible security measures. Unfortunately, the overestimation of security measures can lead to the unreasonable increase of system load. This is especially important in multimedia systems where the performance has critical character. In many cases determination of the required level of protection and adjustment of some security measures to these requirements increase system efficiency. Such an approach is achieved by means of the quality of protection models where the security measures are evaluated according to their influence on the system security. In the paper, we propose a model for QoP evaluation of security mechanisms. Owing to this model, one can quantify the influence of particular security mechanisms on ensuring security attributes. The methodology of our model preparation is described and based on it the case study analysis is presented. We support our method by the tool where the models can be defined and QoP evaluation can be performed. Finally, we have modelled TLS cryptographic protocol and presented the QoP security mechanisms evaluation for the selected versions of this protocol.

  2. Direct measurement of internal quantum efficiency in light emitting diodes under electrical injection

    SciTech Connect

    Matioli, Elison; Weisbuch, Claude

    2011-01-01

    A method is presented for the direct measurement of the internal quantum efficiency in light emitting diodes (LEDs), based on the ratio of the measured external quantum efficiency and the calculated light extraction efficiency. The external quantum efficiency is measured from a single facet of the device in a simple, well-defined geometry, for which the light extraction efficiency can be calculated with good accuracy. In the proposed method, all LED facets are coated with highly absorbing material which suppresses any light that is not directly emitted into a small aperture on the top facet of the LED. We present a full wave optical model for a multilayer LED structure, from which we derive and validate an approximate model to easily calculate the extraction efficiency through the top facet of the LED. Because a current spreading electrode, often metallic, is required for uniform injection, we show that its impact on the extraction efficiency can be simply modeled through a separate transmission function calculated from the complex index of refraction of the electrode material. The various assumptions made to justify the direct emission model through a single facet (absence of photon backscatter, no photon recycling, simplified device layer model) are discussed and evaluated. The model is applied to a specific GaNLED structure.

  3. New security measures are proposed for N-plants: Insider Rule package is issued by NRC

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-01

    New rules proposed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) will require background investigations and psychological assessments of new job candidates and continual monitoring of the behavior of all power plant workers with access to sensitive areas. Licensees will have to submit an ''access authorization'' program for approval describing how they will conduct these security activities. The employee checks will go back five years to examine credit, educational, and criminal histories. Implementation of the rules could involve the Edison Electric Institute as an intermediary to funnel criminal checks from the Justice Department and FBI. The NRC is also considering a clarification of areas designated as ''vital'' because current designations may be too strict.

  4. Guidance for the Implementation and Follow-up of Identified Energy and Water Efficiency Measures in Covered Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-01

    This document provides specific guidance to agencies on the implementation and follow-up of energy and water efficiency measures identified and undertaken per Section 432 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) (42 U.S.C. 8253(f)(4) and (5)) This guidance also provides context for how these activities fit into the comprehensive approach to facility energy and water management outlined by the statute and incorporates by reference previous DOE guidance released for Section 432 of EISA and other related documents. 42 U.S.C. 8253(f)(7)(A) specifies that facility energy managers shall certify compliance for each covered facility with the 42 U.S.C. 8253(f)(2)-(5) requirements via a web-based tracking system and make it publicly available. This document also describes the role of the tracking system that has been developed for the collection and reporting of data needed for the demonstration of compliance and progress toward meeting all energy and water efficiency requirements outlined in the statute.

  5. Assessing the internal validity of a household survey-based food security measure adapted for use in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rafiei, Morteza; Nord, Mark; Sadeghizadeh, Atefeh; Entezari, Mohammad H

    2009-01-01

    Background The prevalence of food insecurity is an indicator of material well-being in an area of basic need. The U.S. Food Security Module has been adapted for use in a wide variety of cultural and linguistic settings around the world. We assessed the internal validity of the adapted U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module to measure adult and child food insecurity in Isfahan, Iran, using statistical methods based on the Rasch measurement model. Methods The U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module was translated into Farsi and after adaptation, administered to a representative sample. Data were provided by 2,004 randomly selected households from all sectors of the population of Isfahan, Iran, during 2005. Results 53.1 percent reported that their food had run out at some time during the previous 12 months and they did not have money to buy more, while 26.7 percent reported that an adult had cut the size of a meal or skipped a meal because there was not enough money for food, and 7.2 percent reported that an adult did not eat for a whole day because there was not enough money for food. The severity of the items in the adult scale, estimated under Rasch-model assumptions, covered a range of 6.65 logistic units, and those in the child scale 11.68 logistic units. Most Item-infit statistics were near unity, and none exceeded 1.20. Conclusion The range of severity of items provides measurement coverage across a wide range of severity of food insecurity for both adults and children. Both scales demonstrated acceptable levels of internal validity, although several items should be improved. The similarity of the response patterns in the Isfahan and the U.S. suggests that food insecurity is experienced, managed, and described similarly in the two countries. PMID:19558676

  6. Household food security status measured by the US-Household Food Security/Hunger Survey Module (US-FSSM) is in line with coping strategy indicators found in urban and rural Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Usfar, Avita A; Fahmida, Umi; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty

    2007-01-01

    The food security assessment used by the United State's Food Security/Hunger Survey Module (US- FSSM) was used in five studies: these were in two urban and four rural areas in Indonesia between February 2004- August 2005. The number of households assessed was 3,704 and consisted of 45% urban and 55% rural. All households had children below five years. This paper aims to assess the applicability of US-FSSM for measuring household food-insecurity in Indonesia. Common coping-strategies discussed are to borrow money from the family, get an additional job, to lessen portion size of food, and to sell small assets. Although households in urban and rural areas were similar in size/number of children and male headed; the urban households were more income-secure, educated, and had better access to electrical appliances. A majority of the households was food-insecure (77% and 84% in urban and rural consecutively). More food-insecure households without and with hunger were found in rural areas. The number of affirmative responses to 17 out of 18 questions in the USFSSM was more in the rural households, showing less fortunate cases of food-insecurity. For a given coping strategy, as food-security status becomes more severe, the higher the percentage of households employing it. For a given food-security status, percentage of households was higher among lower-degree and less among higher-degree coping. Combining food-security and coping-strategy indicators may help to identify transient-food-secure households. Observing both indicators throughout different time of the year continuously may further identify adaptive mechanism by chronic-food-insecure households. Information on household food diversity could enrich findings on dietary intake modification, hence moving from food-security to nutrition-security.

  7. Energy and protein feed-to-food conversion efficiencies in the US and potential food security gains from dietary changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepon, A.; Eshel, G.; Noor, E.; Milo, R.

    2016-10-01

    Feeding a growing population while minimizing environmental degradation is a global challenge requiring thoroughly rethinking food production and consumption. Dietary choices control food availability and natural resource demands. In particular, reducing or avoiding consumption of low production efficiency animal-based products can spare resources that can then yield more food. In quantifying the potential food gains of specific dietary shifts, most earlier research focused on calories, with less attention to other important nutrients, notably protein. Moreover, despite the well-known environmental burdens of livestock, only a handful of national level feed-to-food conversion efficiency estimates of dairy, beef, poultry, pork, and eggs exist. Yet such high level estimates are essential for reducing diet related environmental impacts and identifying optimal food gain paths. Here we quantify caloric and protein conversion efficiencies for US livestock categories. We then use these efficiencies to calculate the food availability gains expected from replacing beef in the US diet with poultry, a more efficient meat, and a plant-based alternative. Averaged over all categories, caloric and protein efficiencies are 7%–8%. At 3% in both metrics, beef is by far the least efficient. We find that reallocating the agricultural land used for beef feed to poultry feed production can meet the caloric and protein demands of ≈120 and ≈140 million additional people consuming the mean American diet, respectively, roughly 40% of current US population.

  8. National Energy Efficiency Evaluation, Measurement and Verification (EM&V) Standard: Scoping Study of Issues and Implementation Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller Consulting, Inc.; Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.; Galawish, Elsia

    2011-02-04

    This report is a scoping study that identifies issues associated with developing a national evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V) standard for end-use, non-transportation, energy efficiency activities. The objectives of this study are to identify the scope of such a standard and define EM&V requirements and issues that will need to be addressed in a standard. To explore these issues, we provide and discuss: (1) a set of definitions applicable to an EM&V standard; (2) a literature review of existing guidelines, standards, and 'initiatives' relating to EM&V standards as well as a review of 'bottom-up' versus 'top-down' evaluation approaches; (3) a summary of EM&V related provisions of two recent federal legislative proposals (Congressman Waxman's and Markey's American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 and Senator Bingaman's American Clean Energy Leadership Act of 2009) that include national efficiency resource requirements; (4) an annotated list of issues that that are likely to be central to, and need to be considered when, developing a national EM&V standard; and (5) a discussion of the implications of such issues. There are three primary reasons for developing a national efficiency EM&V standard. First, some policy makers, regulators and practitioners believe that a national standard would streamline EM&V implementation, reduce costs and complexity, and improve comparability of results across jurisdictions; although there are benefits associated with each jurisdiction setting its own EM&V requirements based on their specific portfolio and evaluation budgets and objectives. Secondly, if energy efficiency is determined by the US Environmental Protection Agency to be a Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for avoiding criteria pollutant and/or greenhouse gas emissions, then a standard can be required for documenting the emission reductions resulting from efficiency actions. The third reason for a national EM&V standard is that such a standard is

  9. Measure Guideline. Five Steps to Implement the Public Housing Authority Energy-Efficient Unit Turnover Checklist

    SciTech Connect

    Liaukus, Christine

    2015-07-09

    Five Steps to Implementing the PHA Energy Efficient Unit Turnover Package (ARIES, 2014) is a guide to prepare for the installation of energy efficient measures during a typical public housing authority unit turnover. While a PHA is cleaning, painting and readying a unit for a new resident, there is an opportunity to incorporate energy efficiency measures to further improve the unit's performance. The measures on the list are simple enough to be implemented by in-house maintenance personnel, inexpensive enough to be folded into operating expenses without needing capital budget, and fast enough to implement without substantially changing the number of days between occupancies, a critical factor for organizations where the demand for dwelling units far outweighs the supply. The following guide lays out a five step plan to implement the EE Unit Turnover Package in your PHA, from an initial Self-Assessment through to Package Implementation.

  10. Laboratory arrangement for soft x-ray zone plate efficiency measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bertilson, Michael C.; Takman, Per A. C.; Holmberg, Anders; Vogt, Ulrich; Hertz, Hans M.

    2007-02-15

    We demonstrate a laboratory-scale arrangement for rapid and accurate measurements of the absolute and local efficiency of soft x-ray micro zone plates in the water window. This in-house instrument is based on a single-line {lambda}=2.88 nm liquid-jet laser-plasma source. Measurements are performed by a simultaneous comparison of first diffraction-order photon flux with the flux in a calibrated reference signal. This arrangement eliminates existing source emission fluctuations. The performance of the method is demonstrated by the result from measurements of two {approx}55 {mu}m diameter nickel micro zone plates, showing a groove efficiency of 12.9%{+-}1.1% and 11.7%{+-}1.0%. Furthermore, we show that spatially resolved efficiency mapping is an effective tool for a detailed characterization of local zone plate properties. Thus, this laboratory-scale instrument allows rapid feedback to the fabrication process which is important for future improvements.

  11. High-efficiency tomographic reconstruction of quantum states by quantum nondemolition measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J. S.; Wei, L. F.; Oh, C. H.

    2011-03-15

    We propose a high-efficiency scheme to tomographically reconstruct an unknown quantum state by using a series of quantum nondemolition (QND) measurements. The proposed QND measurements of the qubits are implemented by probing the stationary transmissions through a driven dispersively coupled resonator. It is shown that only one kind of QND measurement is sufficient to determine all the diagonal elements of the density matrix of the detected quantum state. The remaining nondiagonal elements can be similarly determined by transferring them to the diagonal locations after a series of unitary operations. Compared with the tomographic reconstructions based on the usual destructive projective measurements (wherein one such measurement can determine only one diagonal element of the density matrix), the present reconstructive approach exhibits significantly high efficiency. Specifically, our generic proposal is demonstrated by the experimental circuit quantum electrodynamics systems with a few Josephson charge qubits.

  12. Physical and Cross-Layer Security Enhancement and Resource Allocation for Wireless Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bashar, Muhammad Shafi Al

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation, we present novel physical (PHY) and cross-layer design guidelines and resource adaptation algorithms to improve the security and user experience in the future wireless networks. Physical and cross-layer wireless security measures can provide stronger overall security with high efficiency and can also provide better…

  13. Security guide for subcontractors

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.C.

    1993-06-01

    This guide is provided to aid in the achievement of security objectives in the Department of Energy (DOE) contractor/subcontractor program. The objectives of security are to protect information that, if released, would endanger the common defense and security of the nation and to safeguard plants and installations of the DOE and its contractors to prevent the interruption of research and production programs. The security objective and means of achieving the objective are described. Specific security measures discussed in this guide include physical barriers, personnel identification systems, personnel and vehicular access control, classified document control, protection of classified matter in use, storing classified matter, and repository combinations. Means of dealing with security violations and security infractions are described. Maintenance of a security education program is discussed. Also discussed are methods of handling clearance terminations, visitor control, travel to sensitive countries, and shipment security. The Technical Surveillance Countermeasures Program (TSCM), the Computer Security Program, and the Operations Security Plan (OPSEC) are examined.

  14. Measurement of absolute diffraction efficiency of a variable line spaced grating using reflectivity beamline

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, M.; Modi, M. H.; Singhal, H.; Chakera, J. A.; Gupta, R. K.; Naik, P. A.; Lodha, G. S.; Gupta, P. D.

    2012-06-05

    First and second order diffraction efficiency of a variable line spacing grating of average 1200 lines/mm density is measured at the reflectivity beam line of Indus-1. This grating is blazed at 3.2 deg. and has a blaze wavelength of 10 nm. The measurement has been carried out in the spectral range of 4.5 nm to 80 nm at 3o grazing angle of incidence. The maximum diffraction efficiency of the first order at {approx}10 nm has been found to be {approx} 23% and for the second order it is {approx}13%.

  15. Thorough subcells diagnosis in a multi-junction solar cell via absolute electroluminescence-efficiency measurements

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shaoqiang; Zhu, Lin; Yoshita, Masahiro; Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Kim, Changsu; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Imaizumi, Mitsuru; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    World-wide studies on multi-junction (tandem) solar cells have led to record-breaking improvements in conversion efficiencies year after year. To obtain detailed and proper feedback for solar-cell design and fabrication, it is necessary to establish standard methods for diagnosing subcells in fabricated tandem devices. Here, we propose a potential standard method to quantify the detailed subcell properties of multi-junction solar cells based on absolute measurements of electroluminescence (EL) external quantum efficiency in addition to the conventional solar-cell external-quantum-efficiency measurements. We demonstrate that the absolute-EL-quantum-efficiency measurements provide I–V relations of individual subcells without the need for referencing measured I–V data, which is in stark contrast to previous works. Moreover, our measurements quantify the absolute rates of junction loss, non-radiative loss, radiative loss, and luminescence coupling in the subcells, which constitute the “balance sheets” of tandem solar cells. PMID:25592484

  16. PREFACE: 2014 Joint IMEKO TC1-TC7-TC13 Symposium: Measurement Science Behind Safety and Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, João A.; Ribeiro, Álvaro S.; Filipe, Eduarda

    2015-02-01

    The 2014 Joint IMEKO (International Measurement Confederation) TC1-TC7-TC13 Symposium was organized by RELACRE - Portuguese Association of Accredited Laboratories and the Portuguese Society for Metrology, on 3-5 September 2014. The work of this symposium is reported in this volume. The scope of the symposium includes the main topics covered by the above Technical Committees: - TC1 Education and Training in measurement and Instrumentation - TC7 Measurement Science - TC13 Measurements in Biology and Medicine The effort towards excellence of previous events, in this well established series, is maintained. There has been a special focus on measurement science behind safety and security, with the aim of highlighting the interdisciplinary character of measurement science and the importance of metrology in our daily lives. The discussion was introduced by keynote lectures on measurement challenges in biometrics, health monitoring and social sciences, to promote useful interactions with scientists from different disciplines. The Symposium was attended by experts working in these areas from 18 countries, including USA, Japan and China, and provided a useful forum for them to share and exchange their work and ideas. In total over fifty papers are included in the volume, organized according to the presentation sessions. Each paper was independently peer-reviewed by two reviewers from a distinguished international panel. The Symposium was held in Funchal, capital of Madeira Islands, known as the Atlantic Pearl. This wonderful Atlantic archipelago, formed by Madeira and Porto Santo islands, discovered in the 14th century, was chosen to host the 2014 IMEKO TC1-TC7-TC13 Joint Symposium ''Measurement Science behind Safety and Security''. It was the first territory discovered by the Portuguese sailors, when set out to discover a new world, in an epic journey where instrumentation and quality of measurement played a central role in the success of the enterprise, and gave an

  17. Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures; January 2012 - March 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Jayaweera, T.; Haeri, H.

    2013-04-01

    Under the Uniform Methods Project, DOE is developing a framework and a set of protocols for determining the energy savings from specific energy efficiency measures and programs. The protocols provide a straightforward method for evaluating gross energy savings for common residential and commercial measures offered in ratepayer-funded initiatives in the United States. They represent a refinement of the body of knowledge supporting energy efficiency evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) activities. This document deals with savings from the following measures: commercial and industrial lighting, commercial and industrial lighting controls, small commercial and residential unitary and split system HVAC cooling equipment, residential furnaces and boilers, residential lighting, refrigerator recycling, whole-building retrofit using billing analysis, metering, peak demand and time-differentiated energy savings, sample design, survey design and implementation, and assessing persistence and other evaluation issues.

  18. A benchmarking method to measure dietary absorption efficiency of chemicals by fish.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ruiyang; Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha; Åkerman, Gun; McLachlan, Michael S; MacLeod, Matthew

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the dietary absorption efficiency of chemicals in the gastrointestinal tract of fish is important from both a scientific and a regulatory point of view. However, reported fish absorption efficiencies for well-studied chemicals are highly variable. In the present study, the authors developed and exploited an internal chemical benchmarking method that has the potential to reduce uncertainty and variability and, thus, to improve the precision of measurements of fish absorption efficiency. The authors applied the benchmarking method to measure the gross absorption efficiency for 15 chemicals with a wide range of physicochemical properties and structures. They selected 2,2',5,6'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB53) and decabromodiphenyl ethane as absorbable and nonabsorbable benchmarks, respectively. Quantities of chemicals determined in fish were benchmarked to the fraction of PCB53 recovered in fish, and quantities of chemicals determined in feces were benchmarked to the fraction of decabromodiphenyl ethane recovered in feces. The performance of the benchmarking procedure was evaluated based on the recovery of the test chemicals and precision of absorption efficiency from repeated tests. Benchmarking did not improve the precision of the measurements; after benchmarking, however, the median recovery for 15 chemicals was 106%, and variability of recoveries was reduced compared with before benchmarking, suggesting that benchmarking could account for incomplete extraction of chemical in fish and incomplete collection of feces from different tests.

  19. Measurement and simulation of the neutron detection efficiency with a Pb-scintillating fiber calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anelli, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Branchini, P.; Curceanu, C.; DeZorzi, G.; Domenico, Adi; Di Micco, B.; Ferrari, A.; Fiore, S.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Happacher, F.; Iliescu, M.; Martini, M.; Miscetti, S.; Ngugen, F.; Paseri, A.; Prokfiev, A.; Sala, P.; Sciascia, B.; Sirghi, F.

    2009-04-01

    We have measured the overall detection efficiency of a small prototype of the KLOE PB-scintilation fiber calorimeter to neutrons with kinetic energy range [5,175] MeV. The measurement has been done in a dedicated test beam in the neutron beam facility of the Svedberg Laboratory, TSL Uppsala. The measurements of the neutron detection efficiency of a NE110 scintillator provided a reference calibration. At the lowest trigger threshold, the overall calorimeter efficiency ranges from 28% to 33%. This value largely exceeds the estimated ~8% expected if the response were proporetional only to the scintillator equivalent thickness. A detailed simulation of the calorimeter and of the TSL beam line has been performed with the FLUKA Monte Carlo code. The simulated response of the detector to neutrons is presented together with the first data to Monte Carlo comparison. The results show an overall neutron efficiency of about 35%. The reasons for such an efficiency enhancement, in comparison with the typical scintillator-based neutron counters, are explained, opening the road to a novel neutron detector.

  20. Air fluorescence efficiency measurements for AIRWATCH based mission: Experimental set-up

    SciTech Connect

    Biondo, B.; Catalano, O.; Celi, F.; Fazio, G.; Giarrusso, S.; La Rosa, G.; Mangano, A.; Bonanno, G.; Cosentino, R.; Di Benedetto, R.; Scuderi, S.; Richiusa, G.; Gregorio, A.

    1998-06-15

    In the framework of the AIRWATCH project we present an experimental set-up to measure the efficiency of the UV fluorescence production of the air using hard X-ray stimulus. The measures will be carried out at different pressure and temperature to emulate the same condition of the upper layers of the atmosphere where X-ray and gamma ray photons of Gamma Ray Bursts are absorbed.

  1. Experimental feasibility of the airborne measurement of absolute oil fluorescence spectral conversion efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.

    1983-01-01

    Airborne lidar oil spill experiments carried out to determine the practicability of the AOFSCE (absolute oil fluorescence spectral conversion efficiency) computational model are described. The results reveal that the model is suitable over a considerable range of oil film thicknesses provided the fluorescence efficiency of the oil does not approach the minimum detection sensitivity limitations of the lidar system. Separate airborne lidar experiments to demonstrate measurement of the water column Raman conversion efficiency are also conducted to ascertain the ultimate feasibility of converting such relative oil fluorescence to absolute values. Whereas the AOFSCE model is seen as highly promising, further airborne water column Raman conversion efficiency experiments with improved temporal or depth-resolved waveform calibration and software deconvolution techniques are thought necessary for a final determination of suitability.

  2. Efficient formulations of the material identification problem using full-field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Zerpa, Jorge M.; Canelas, Alfredo

    2016-08-01

    The material identification problem addressed consists of determining the constitutive parameters distribution of a linear elastic solid using displacement measurements. This problem has been considered in important applications such as the design of methodologies for breast cancer diagnosis. Since the resolution of real life problems involves high computational costs, there is great interest in the development of efficient methods. In this paper two new efficient formulations of the problem are presented. The first formulation leads to a second-order cone optimization problem, and the second one leads to a quadratic optimization problem, both allowing the resolution of the problem with high efficiency and precision. Numerical examples are solved using synthetic input data with error. A regularization technique is applied using the Morozov criterion along with an automatic selection strategy of the regularization parameter. The proposed formulations present great advantages in terms of efficiency, when compared to other formulations that require the application of general nonlinear optimization algorithms.

  3. Measurements at Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility in Support of Global Security Mission Space

    SciTech Connect

    Stange, Sy; Mayo, Douglas R.; Herrera, Gary D.; McLaughlin, Anastasia D.; Montoya, Charles M.; Quihuis, Becky A.; Trujillo, Julio B.; Van Pelt, Craig E.; Wenz, Tracy R.

    2012-07-13

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility at Technical Area (TA) 55 is one of a few nuclear facilities in the United States where Research & Development measurements can be performed on Safeguards Category-I (CAT-I) quantities of nuclear material. This capability allows us to incorporate measurements of CAT-IV through CAT-I materials as a component of detector characterization campaigns and training courses conducted at Los Alamos. A wider range of measurements can be supported. We will present an overview of recent measurements conducted in support of nuclear emergency response, nuclear counterterrorism, and international and domestic safeguards. This work was supported by the NNSA Office of Counterterrorism.

  4. An experiment to measure raindrop collection efficiencies: influence of rear capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quérel, A.; Lemaitre, P.; Monier, M.; Porcheron, E.; Flossmann, A. I.; Hervo, M.

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of radioactive aerosol scavenged by rain after the Chernobyl accident highlights certain differences between the modelling studies and the environmental measurements. Part of these discrepancies can probably be attributed to uncertainties in the efficiencies used to calculate aerosol particle collection by raindrops, particularly drops with a diameter larger than one millimetre. In order to improve the issue of these uncertainties, an experimental study was performed to close the gaps still existing for this key microphysical parameter. In the present article, attention is first focused on the efficiency with which aerosol particles, in the accumulation mode are collected by raindrops with a diameter of 2 mm. The collections efficiencies measured for aerosol particle in the sub-micron range are quantitatively consistent with previous theoretical model developed by Beard (1974) and thus highlight the major role of rear capture in the submicron range.

  5. Measurement and simulation of neutron detection efficiency in lead-scintillating fiber calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anelli, M.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Branchini, P.; Curceanu, C.; De Zorzi, G.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Micco, B.; Ferrari, A.; Fiore, S.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Happacher, F.; Iliescu, M.; Martini, M.; Miscetti, S.; Nguyen, F.; Passeri, A.; Prokofiev, A.; Sciascia, B.; Sirghi, F.

    2009-12-01

    The overall detection efficiency to neutrons of a small prototype of the KLOE lead-scintillating fiber calorimeter has been measured at the neutron beam facility of The Svedberg Laboratory, TSL, Uppsala, in the kinetic energy range [5-175] MeV. The measurement of the neutron detection efficiency of a NE110 scintillator provided a reference calibration. At the lowest trigger threshold, the overall calorimeter efficiency ranges from 30% to 50%. This value largely exceeds the estimated 8-15% expected if the response were proportional only to the scintillator equivalent thickness. A detailed simulation of the calorimeter and of the TSL beam line has been performed with the FLUKA Monte Carlo code. First data-MC comparisons are encouraging and allow to disentangle a neutron halo component in the beam.

  6. An efficient method of measuring the 4 mm helmet output factor for the Gamma Knife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lijun; Li, X. Allen; Yu, Cedric X.

    2000-03-01

    It is essential to have accurate measurements of the 4 mm helmet output factor in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia patients using the Gamma Knife. Because of the small collimator size and the sharp dose gradient at the beam focus, this measurement is generally tedious and difficult. We have developed an efficient method of measuring the 4 mm helmet output factor using regular radiographic films. The helmet output factor was measured by exposing a single Kodak XV film in the standard Leksell spherical phantom using the 18 mm helmet with 30-40 of its plug collimators replaced by the 4 mm plug collimators. The 4 mm helmet output factor was measured to be 0.876 ± 0.009. This is in excellent agreement with our EGS4 Monte Carlo simulated value of 0.876 ± 0.005. This helmet output factor value also agrees with more tedious TLD, diode and radiochromic film measurements that were each obtained using two separate measurements with the 18 mm helmet and the 4 mm helmet respectively. The 4 mm helmet output factor measured by the diode was 0.884 ± 0.016, and the TLD measurement was 0.890 ± 0.020. The radiochromic film measured value was 0.870 ± 0.018. Because a single-exposure measurement was performed instead of a double-exposure measurement, most of the systematic errors that appeared in the double-exposure measurements due to experimental setup variations were cancelled out. Consequently, the 4 mm helmet output factor is more precisely determined by the single-exposure approach. Therefore, routine measurement and quality assurance of the 4 mm helmet output factor of the Gamma Knife could be efficiently carried out using the proposed single-exposure technique.

  7. Tracking Our Success: How TAFE Institutes Measure Their Effectiveness and Efficiency--Case Studies. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misko, Josie; Wynes, Sian Halliday

    2009-01-01

    This report is the support document to "Tracking Our Success: How TAFE Institutes Measure Their Effectiveness and Efficiency". It comprises reports on each of the nine technical and further education (TAFE) institutes that have taken part in the study. Information was collected via in-depth interviews with chief executive officers and their senior…

  8. Relationship of glucocorticoids and hematological measures with feed intake, growth, and efficiency of finishing beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the association of glucocorticoids and markers for immune status in finishing beef steers and heifers with DMI, growth, and efficiency. Calves (n = 236) were individually fed a finishing ration for 84 d with BW measured every 21 d. Blood samples we...

  9. Genetic markers that influence feed efficiency phenotypes also affect cattle temperament as measured by flight speed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The measure of flight speed for cattle has been shown to be a predictive indicator of temperament and has also been associated with feed efficiency phenotypes, thus, genetic markers associated with both traits may assist with the selection of animals with calmer disposition and economic value. Chrom...

  10. Measuring Search Efficiency in Complex Visual Search Tasks: Global and Local Clutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Melissa R.; Lohrenz, Maura C.; Trafton, J. Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Set size and crowding affect search efficiency by limiting attention for recognition and attention against competition; however, these factors can be difficult to quantify in complex search tasks. The current experiments use a quantitative measure of the amount and variability of visual information (i.e., clutter) in highly complex stimuli (i.e.,…

  11. Efficient Thomson Scattering Measurement System for the Diagnostics of Processing Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, Akihiro; Nakatani, Keigo

    1999-10-01

    Optical measurement of electron energy distribution function (EEDF) is desirable for the diagnostics of processing plasmas. In Thomson scattering measurements, EEDF is directly derived from the Doppler broadened profile of the laser light scattered by free electrons, but one must solve the problem of very low signal intensity due to the small scattering cross section. We have constructed an efficient Thomson scattering measurement system for the diagnostics of processing plasmas, which is capable of performing multi-channel measurement of the Doppler broadened profile without suffering from strong interference due to Rayleigh scattering and other stray scattering. The measurement system consists of a specially designed triple monochromator and an ICCD camera. The plasma is irradiated by a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser (532 nm). With the aid of a spatial filter between the first and second stage, the triple monochromator outputs the dispersed scattered light with the center wavelength region (532 ± 0.5 nm) eliminated, enabling multi-channel measurements with the ICCD camera in the photon-counting mode. Use of a lens system as the focusing elements in the monochromator enables high transmittance and low aberration, both serving for a high signal collection efficiency. Preliminary Thomson scattering measurements indicated a promising performance of the measurement system.

  12. Efficiency of a bismuth-germanate scintillator: comparison of Monte Carlo calculations with measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, H.H.; Dowdy, E.J.; Estes, G.P.; Lucas, M.C.; Mack, J.M.; Moss, C.E.; Hamm, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    Monte Carlo calculations of a bismuth-germanate scintillator's efficiency agree closely with experimental measurements. For this comparison, we studied the absolute gamma-ray photopeak efficiency of a scintillator (7.62 cm long by 7.62 cm in diameter) at several gamma-ray energies from 166 to 2615 keV at distances from 0.5 to 152.4 cm. Computer calculations were done in a two-dimensional cylindrical geometry with the Monte Carlo coupled photon-electron code CYLTRAN. For the experiment we measured 11 sources with simple spectra and precisely known strengths. The average deviation between the calculations and the measurements is 3%. Our calculated results also closely agree with recently published calculated results.

  13. Improving energy efficiency via smart building energy management systems. A comparison with policy measures

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, Paula; Siddiqui, Afzal; Stadler, Michael

    2014-12-09

    In this study, to foster the transition to more sustainable energy systems, policymakers have been approving measures to improve energy efficiency as well as promoting smart grids. In this setting, building managers are encouraged to adapt their energy operations to real-time market and weather conditions. Yet, most fail to do so as they rely on conventional building energy management systems (BEMS) that have static temperature set points for heating and cooling equipment. In this paper, we investigate how effective policy measures are at improving building-level energy efficiency compared to a smart BEMS with dynamic temperature set points. To this end, we present an integrated optimisation model mimicking the smart BEMS that combines decisions on heating and cooling systems operations with decisions on energy sourcing. Using data from an Austrian and a Spanish building, we find that the smart BEMS results in greater reduction in energy consumption than a conventional BEMS with policy measures.

  14. A Novel Approach to Measuring Efficiency of Scientific Research Projects: Data Envelopment Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dilts, David; Orwoll, Eric; Zell, Adrienne

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Measuring the efficiency of resource allocation for the conduct of scientific projects in medical research is difficult due to, among other factors, the heterogeneity of resources supplied (e.g., dollars or FTEs) and outcomes expected (e.g., grants, publications). While this is an issue in medical science, it has been approached successfully in other fields by using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). DEA has a number of advantages over other techniques as it simultaneously uses multiple heterogeneous inputs and outputs to determine which projects are performing most efficiently, referred to as being at the efficiency frontier, when compared to others in the data set. Method This research uses DEA for the evaluation of supported translational science projects by the Oregon Clinical and Translational Research Institute (OCTRI), a NCATS Clinical & Translational Science Award (CTSA) recipient. Results These results suggest that the primary determinate of overall project efficiency at OCTRI is the amount of funding, with smaller amounts of funding providing more efficiency than larger funding amounts. Conclusion These results, and the use of DEA, highlight both the success of using this technique in helping determine medical research efficiency and those factors to consider when distributing funds for new projects at CTSAs. PMID:26243147

  15. First principles calculations of air fluorescence efficiencies with comparisons to measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Colman, J. J.

    2004-01-01

    The fluorescence efficiencies used in calculating the optical emissions produced by energetic particles and penetrating radiation in air are derived for the most part from the measurements, of Davidson and O'neil, Mitchell and Hartman. These efficiencies were obtained from experiments conducted at various air pressures and in the absence of an applied electric field. In this paper we describe detailed 4.5 dimensional (two spatial dimensions and 2.5 phase space dimensions) kinetic calculations for the electron distribution function resulting from the injection of energetic electrons into air at various pressures. We choose beam parameters and dimensions that are directly relevant to the original Davidson and O'Neil experiments. From the electron distribution function and measured excitation cross-sections we then compute the optical efficiencies for a large number of nitrogen and oxygen lines across the electromagnetic spectrum from 320.0 nm to 800.0 nm. A comparison with various measurements is presented. We also present results from simulations with an applied electric field. The computed fluorescence efficiencies can be used to determine the optical emissions associated with high-altitude discharges driven by runaway air breakdown and results are discussed in a separate poster. We have also recalculated optical emission rates that are applicable to discharges dominated by. conventional breakdown for comparison with Taranenko et al. These rates are also used in our self-consistent sprite simulations.

  16. Calibration and efficiency curve of SANAEM ionization chamber for activity measurements.

    PubMed

    Yeltepe, Emin; Kossert, Karsten; Dirican, Abdullah; Nähle, Ole; Niedergesäß, Christiane; Kemal Şahin, Namik

    2016-03-01

    A commercially available Fidelis ionization chamber was calibrated and assessed in PTB with activity standard solutions. The long-term stability and linearity of the system was checked. Energy-dependent efficiency curves for photons and beta particles were determined, using an iterative method in Excel™, to enable calibration factors to be calculated for radionuclides which were not used in the calibration. Relative deviations between experimental and calculated radionuclide efficiencies are of the order of 1% for most photon emitters and below 5% for pure beta emitters. The system will enable TAEK-SANAEM to provide traceable activity measurements.

  17. Alternative security

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, B.H. )

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview.

  18. Consideration for high accuracy radiation efficiency measurements for the Solar Power Satellite (SPS) subarrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozakoff, D. J.; Schuchardt, J. M.; Ryan, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    The transmit beam and radiation efficiency for 10 metersquare subarray panels were quantified. Measurement performance potential of far field elevated and ground reflection ranges and near field technique were evaluated. The state-of-the-art of critical components and/or unique facilities required was identified. Relative cost, complexity and performance tradeoffs were performed for techniques capable of achieving accuracy objectives. It is considered that because of the large electrical size of the SPS subarray panels and the requirement for high accuracy measurements, specialized measurement facilities are required. Most critical measurement error sources have been identified for both conventional far field and near field techniques. Although the adopted error budget requires advances in state-of-the-art of microwave instrumentation, the requirements appear feasible based on extrapolation from today's technology. Additional performance and cost tradeoffs need to be completed before the choice of the preferred measurement technique is finalized.

  19. Measuring Sustainability: Deriving Metrics From A Secure Human-Environment Relationship

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of individuals and institutions to take actions that would achieve sustainability is often lost in rhetoric about what it is or isn't and how to measure progress. Typically, sustainability is viewed as an objective and in this capacity efforts are made to identify i...

  20. Measuring eco-efficiency of contaminated soil management at the regional level.

    PubMed

    Kielenniva, Nea; Antikainen, Riina; Sorvari, Jaana

    2012-10-30

    Eco-efficiency and sustainable development are the key environmental topics and goals for today's society that we should strive for in all activities, including contaminated soil management (CSM). However, particularly at the regional level, CSM is studied to a lesser extent from this perspective and practical means to monitor and assess sustainability or eco-efficiency are not widely available. This study aims to fill this gap by developing indicators to measure and monitor the development of regional eco-efficiency of CSM. The indicators can be used to support decision-making at the regional level since many CSM decisions, such as prioritisation of sites and the number of soil treatment and storing facilities, are made regionally. To start with, we surveyed the methods available for determining eco-efficiency and suitable indicators to monitor and measure the development of CSM regionally. We used life cycle analysis (LCA) and material flow analysis (MFA) to identify factors that the environmental indicators should cover, and also involved economic indicators. We ended up with a selection of 28 indicators, which can be classed into three different categories: background indicators, environmental indicators and economic indicators. We further demonstrated the use of the indicators by applying data from three different regions in Finland, and evaluated their suitability. On the basis of the results we recommended 15 indicators for continuous follow-up and decision-making purposes. Even though these indicators are suitable for monitoring and measuring the eco-efficiency of CSM at the regional level, unfortunately we found several data gaps related to the actual remediation projects which impede their use in practice. The data collection practices therefore need to be regionally developed.

  1. Determination of dielectric material properties using passive MMW measurements for security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dill, Stephan; Peichl, Markus; Suess, Helmut

    2007-04-01

    Microwaves can be used to detect hidden objects behind optically opaque materials. Hence, the penetration capability through such materials is of fundamental importance. In order to characterize a material of interest in the microwave region, its permittivity should be known besides its physical structure. In many cases the permittivity is unknown, inaccurately known, or known for only specific frequencies. Also very often the range of values given in the literature can have a large variability for a specific situation. In this paper we describe a procedure to determine the permittivity from radiometric free space measurements of nearly arbitrary materials. The advantage of this method is that large material samples like brick or wooden plates, and materials like textiles, which are hard to mount in a defined way in a waveguide, can be studied. An earlier presented method has been improved to obtain more accurate results. Some representative results for those MMW measurements are shown. The first attempts showed a satisfying performance.

  2. Measuring environmental efficiency of agricultural water use: a Luenberger environmental indicator.

    PubMed

    Azad, Md A S; Ancev, Tihomir

    2014-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture creates substantial environmental pressures by withdrawing large quantities of water, leaving rivers and wetlands empty and unable to support the valuable ecosystems that depend on the water resource. The key challenge facing society is that of balancing water extractions for agricultural production and other uses with provision of appropriate environmental flow to maintain healthy rivers and wetlands. Measuring tradeoffs between economic gain of water use in agriculture and its environmental pressures can contribute to constructing policy instruments for improved water resource management. The aim of this paper is to develop a modelling framework to measure these tradeoffs. Using a new approach - Luenberger environmental indicator - the study derives environmental efficiency scores for various types of irrigation enterprises across seventeen natural resource management regions within the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. Findings show that there is a substantial variation in environmental performance of irrigation enterprises across the regions. Some enterprises were found to be relatively environmentally efficient in some regions, but they were not efficient in others. The environmental efficiency scores could be used as a guideline for formulating regional policy and strategy to achieve sustainable water use in the agricultural sector. PMID:25103337

  3. Efficiency fitting for TDCR measurement data using polynomial approximation and the Newton-Raphson method.

    PubMed

    Sato, Y; Yamada, T; Matsumoto, M; Wakitani, Y; Hasegawa, T; Yoshimura, T; Murayama, H; Oda, K; Sato, T; Unno, Y; Yunoki, A

    2012-09-01

    A tritium radioactivity source was measured by triple-to-double coincidence ratio (TDCR) equipment of the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), and measured data were fitted using polynomial approximation and the Newton-Raphson method, a technique whereby equations are solved numerically by successive approximations. The method used to obtain the activity minimizes the difference between statistically calculated data and experimental data. In the fitting, since calculated statistical efficiency and TDCR values are discrete, the calculated efficiencies are approximated by quadratic functions around experimental values and the Newton-Raphson method is used for convergence at the minimal difference between experimental data and calculated data. In this way, the activity of tritium was successfully obtained.

  4. Calculation and measurement of 235U and 238U fussion counter assembly detection efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinhoe, M. T.; Jarvis, O. N.

    1984-04-01

    The detection efficiencies of two fission counter assemblies ( 235U and 238U) designed to measure the neutron flux at JET, have been determined for monoenergetic and radioactive neutron sources. The results are in good agreement with calculations using Monte Carlo neutron transport codes, when care is used in setting up the computer models. The mean difference between calculation and experiment is (7±7%).

  5. K-alpha conversion efficiency measurments for x-ray scattering in inertial confinement fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kritcher, A L; Neumayer, P; Urry, M K; Robey, H; Niemann, C; Landen, O L; Morse, E; Glenzer, S H

    2006-11-21

    The conversion efficiency of ultra short-pulse laser radiation to K-{alpha} x-rays has been measured for various chlorine-containing targets to be used as x-ray scattering probes of dense plasmas. The spectral and temporal properties of these sources will allow spectrally-resolved x-ray scattering probing with picosecond temporal resolution required for measuring the plasma conditions in inertial confinement fusion experiments. Simulations of x-ray scattering spectra from these plasmas show that fuel capsule density, capsule ablator density, and shock timing information may be inferred.

  6. Effects of Spectral Error in Efficiency Measurements of GaInAs-Based Concentrator Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Osterwald, C. R.; Wanlass, M. W.; Moriarty, T.; Steiner, M. A.; Emery, K. A.

    2014-03-01

    This technical report documents a particular error in efficiency measurements of triple-absorber concentrator solar cells caused by incorrect spectral irradiance -- specifically, one that occurs when the irradiance from unfiltered, pulsed xenon solar simulators into the GaInAs bottom subcell is too high. For cells designed so that the light-generated photocurrents in the three subcells are nearly equal, this condition can cause a large increase in the measured fill factor, which, in turn, causes a significant artificial increase in the efficiency. The error is readily apparent when the data under concentration are compared to measurements with correctly balanced photocurrents, and manifests itself as discontinuities in plots of fill factor and efficiency versus concentration ratio. In this work, we simulate the magnitudes and effects of this error with a device-level model of two concentrator cell designs, and demonstrate how a new Spectrolab, Inc., Model 460 Tunable-High Intensity Pulsed Solar Simulator (T-HIPSS) can mitigate the error.

  7. Techniques and tools for measuring energy efficiency of scientific software applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdurachmanov, David; Elmer, Peter; Eulisse, Giulio; Knight, Robert; Niemi, Tapio; Nurminen, Jukka K.; Nyback, Filip; Pestana, Gonçalo; Ou, Zhonghong; Khan, Kashif

    2015-05-01

    The scale of scientific High Performance Computing (HPC) and High Throughput Computing (HTC) has increased significantly in recent years, and is becoming sensitive to total energy use and cost. Energy-efficiency has thus become an important concern in scientific fields such as High Energy Physics (HEP). There has been a growing interest in utilizing alternate architectures, such as low power ARM processors, to replace traditional Intel x86 architectures. Nevertheless, even though such solutions have been successfully used in mobile applications with low I/O and memory demands, it is unclear if they are suitable and more energy-efficient in the scientific computing environment. Furthermore, there is a lack of tools and experience to derive and compare power consumption between the architectures for various workloads, and eventually to support software optimizations for energy efficiency. To that end, we have performed several physical and software-based measurements of workloads from HEP applications running on ARM and Intel architectures, and compare their power consumption and performance. We leverage several profiling tools (both in hardware and software) to extract different characteristics of the power use. We report the results of these measurements and the experience gained in developing a set of measurement techniques and profiling tools to accurately assess the power consumption for scientific workloads.

  8. Measuring Physician Quality and Efficiency in an Era of Practice Transformation: PCMH as a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Sandy, Lewis G.; Haltson, Heidi; Metfessel, Brent A.; Reese, Conway

    2015-01-01

    Practicing physicians face myriad challenges as health care undergoes considerable transformation, including advancing efforts to measure and report on physician quality and efficiency, as well as the growth of new care models such as Accountable Care Organizations and patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs). How do these transformational forces relate to one another? How should practicing physicians focus and prioritize their improvement efforts? This Special Report examines how physicians’ performance on quality and efficiency measures may interact with delivery reforms, focusing on the PCMH. We note that although the PCMH is a promising model, published evidence is mixed. Using data and experience from a large commercial insurer’s performance transparency and PCMH programs, we further report that longitudinal analysis of UnitedHealthcare’s PCMH program experience has shown favorable changes; however, cross-sectional analysis indicates that National Committee for Quality Assurance’s PCMH designation is positively associated with achieving program Quality benchmarks, but negatively associated with program Efficiency benchmarks. This example illustrates some key issues for physicians in the current environment, and we provide suggestions for physicians and other stakeholders on understanding and acting on information from physician performance measurement programs. PMID:25964406

  9. Utilizing Electroencephalography Measurements for Comparison of Task-Specific Neural Efficiencies: Spatial Intelligence Tasks.

    PubMed

    Call, Benjamin J; Goodridge, Wade; Villanueva, Idalis; Wan, Nicholas; Jordan, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    Spatial intelligence is often linked to success in engineering education and engineering professions. The use of electroencephalography enables comparative calculation of individuals' neural efficiency as they perform successive tasks requiring spatial ability to derive solutions. Neural efficiency here is defined as having less beta activation, and therefore expending fewer neural resources, to perform a task in comparison to other groups or other tasks. For inter-task comparisons of tasks with similar durations, these measurements may enable a comparison of task type difficulty. For intra-participant and inter-participant comparisons, these measurements provide potential insight into the participant's level of spatial ability and different engineering problem solving tasks. Performance on the selected tasks can be analyzed and correlated with beta activities. This work presents a detailed research protocol studying the neural efficiency of students engaged in the solving of typical spatial ability and Statics problems. Students completed problems specific to the Mental Cutting Test (MCT), Purdue Spatial Visualization test of Rotations (PSVT:R), and Statics. While engaged in solving these problems, participants' brain waves were measured with EEG allowing data to be collected regarding alpha and beta brain wave activation and use. The work looks to correlate functional performance on pure spatial tasks with spatially intensive engineering tasks to identify the pathways to successful performance in engineering and the resulting improvements in engineering education that may follow. PMID:27584838

  10. Ventilation Measurements in Energy-Efficient Multifamily Dwelling Units in the Pacific Northwest Region.

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Graham Bradley

    1990-03-01

    A ventilation field measurement study was conducted during the 1986/1987 and 1987/1988 heating seasons in 39 energy-efficient multifamily dwelling units. Four buildings, two in eastern Washington and two in western Washington, were involved in the study. The purpose of the study was to determine the total and baseline (natural) air exchange rates in units representing energy-efficient construction in the multifamily sector of the Pacific Northwest. This information will be used to aid in the development of future construction codes and standards. The air exchange rate was measured a multiple perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technique. Most measurements were taken over a 2- to 4-week period, with a few measurements taken over a period of one to three consecutive months. The PFT technique allows one to determine the fresh air flow into any unit within a building as well as the air flow between adjacent units. In addition, the volumetric air flow and usage of the mechanical ventilation system installed in the units were measured. Temperature, weather, structure, and occupancy data were also collected. 12 refs., 19 figs., 14 tabs.

  11. Considerations for high accuracy radiation efficiency measurements for the Solar Power Satellite (SPS) subarrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozakoff, D. J.; Schuchardt, J. M.; Ryan, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    The relatively large apertures to be used in SPS, small half-power beamwidths, and the desire to accurately quantify antenna performance dictate the requirement for specialized measurements techniques. Objectives include the following: (1) For 10-meter square subarray panels, quantify considerations for measuring power in the transmit beam and radiation efficiency to + or - 1 percent (+ or - 0.04 dB) accuracy. (2) Evaluate measurement performance potential of far-field elevated and ground reflection ranges and near-field techniques. (3) Identify the state-of-the-art of critical components and/or unique facilities required. (4) Perform relative cost, complexity and performance tradeoffs for techniques capable of achieving accuracy objectives. the precision required by the techniques discussed below are not obtained by current methods which are capable of + or - 10 percent (+ or - dB) performance. In virtually every area associated with these planned measurements, advances in state-of-the-art are required.

  12. Radiometric measurements of dielectric material properties at MMW frequencies for security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peichl, Markus; Dill, Stephan; Suess, Helmut

    2006-05-01

    Microwaves can be used to detect hidden objects behind optically opaque materials. Hence, the penetration capability through such materials is of fundamental importance. In order to characterise a material of interest in the microwave region, its permittivity should be known besides its physical structure. In many cases the permittivity is unknown, inaccurately known, or known for only specific frequencies. Also very often the range of values given in the literature can have a large variability for a specific situation. In this paper we describe a procedure to determine the permittivity from radiometric free-space measurements of nearly arbitrary materials. The advantage of this method is that large material samples like brick or wooden plates, and materials like textiles, which are hard to mount in a defined way in a waveguide, can be investigated. Some representative results for MMW measurements are shown, and an estimation of the presently achieved precision is given. The first attempts showed a satisfying performance, although not for all materials and frequencies a unique solution could be found.

  13. A City and National Metric measuring Isolation from the Global Market for Food Security Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Silver, Kirk Coleman; Rajagopalan, Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    The World Bank has invested in infrastructure in developing countries for decades. This investment aims to reduce the isolation of markets, reducing both seasonality and variability in food availability and food prices. Here we combine city market price data, global distance to port, and country infrastructure data to create a new Isolation Index for countries and cities around the world. Our index quantifies the isolation of a city from the global market. We demonstrate that an index built at the country level can be applied at a sub-national level to quantify city isolation. In doing so, we offer policy makers with an alternative metric to assess food insecurity. We compare our isolation index with other indices and economic data found in the literature.We show that our Index measures economic isolation regardless of economic stability using correlation and analysis

  14. Measured impacts of high efficiency domestic clothes washers in a community

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlinson, J.; Rizy, T.

    1998-07-01

    The US market for domestic clothes washers is currently dominated by conventional vertical-axis washers that typically require approximately 40 gallons of water for each wash load. Although the current market for high efficiency clothes washers that use much less water and energy is quite small, it is growing slowly as manufacturers make machines based on tumble action, horizontal-axis designs available and as information about the performance and benefits of such machines is developed and made available to consumers. To help build awareness of these benefits and to accelerate markets for high efficiency washers, the Department of Energy (DOE), under its ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} Program and in cooperation with a major manufacturers of high efficiency washers, conducted a field evaluation of high efficiency washers using Bern, Kansas as a test bed. Baseline washing machine performance data as well as consumer washing behavior were obtained from data collected on the existing machines of more than 100 participants in this instrumented study. Following a 2-month initial study period, all conventional machines were replaced by high efficiency, tumble-action washers, and the study continued for 3 months. Based on measured data from over 20,000 loads of laundry, the impact of the washer replacement on (1) individual customers` energy and water consumption, (2) customers` laundry habits and perceptions, and (3) the community`s water supply and waste water systems were determined. The study, its findings, and how information from the experiment was used to improve national awareness of high efficiency clothes washer benefits are described in this paper.

  15. Investigation of security related fully polarimetric signatures of radiometer measurements at W band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dill, Stephan; Peichl, Markus; Rudolf, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    The actual and continuous threat by international terrorism and the increasing number of terroristic attacks raise the danger to the public and create a new and more complex dimension of threat. This evolution must and can only be combat by the application of new counter-measures like advanced imaging technologies for wide-area surveillance and the detection of concealed dangerous objects. Passive microwave remote sensing allows a daytime independent non-destructive observation and examination of the objects of interest under nearly all weather conditions without artificial exposure of persons and observation areas, hence fully avoiding health risks. Furthermore the acquisition of polarimetric object characteristics can increase the detection capability by gathering complementary object information. The recent development and construction of a fullypolarimetric receiver at W band allows the acquisition of a new dimension of information compared to former imaging capabilities. The new receiver can be part of various imaging systems used at DLR over the years. This paper will show some imaging results recorded recently from different sceneries.

  16. Influence of Different Temperature Sensors on Measuring Energy Efficiency and Heating-Up Time of Hobs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beges, G.; Drnovsek, J.; Ogorevc, J.; Bojkovski, J.

    2015-03-01

    Measuring performance, mainly temperature dependence, for electric cooking ranges, hobs, ovens, and grills for household use is essential for producers as low power consumption of appliances represents a powerful selling point and also in terms of ecodesign requirements. It is also important from a consumer perspective, as these appliances are responsible for the significant share of households' electricity bills. The aim of the paper was to highlight and clearly define possible ambiguities and weaknesses of standardized procedures for measuring hob performance. Differences between measurement/test results of testing laboratories are possible due to lack of detailed information in the standard, and it is difficult to obtain technical accessories required in the standard. An energy consumption comparison of three different hobs is presented (standard iron electrical hob, radiant-glass ceramic, and induction hob). Various temperature sensors (different types of thermocouples and a platinum resistance thermometer) and technical accessories (e.g., different cookware) were used to research differences or influences on final result of hobs' energy efficiency. Results show that temperature measurements with different sensors have an influence on the time difference in critical points for determination of hob energy efficiency.

  17. Time-dependent efficiency measurements of donor-acceptor, dye-sensitized polymer solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandaccari, Kyle; Chesmore, Grace; Tajalli-Tehrani Valverde, Parisa; Bugaj, Mitchel; McNelis, Brian; Barber, Richard, Jr.

    The fullerene/polymer active layer pairing of PCBM/P3HT has become the model system within the field of polymer solar cell research. A large body of work concerned with reporting improved efficiencies for this system exists, but truly quantitative studies of device lifetime and long-term degradation tendencies are much rarer. Here, we report the effects of two donor-acceptor diazo dye sensitizers on efficiency and lifetime upon addition into the PCBM/P3HT active layer at varied concentrations. The electrical and efficiency measurements were supplemented by time-dependent UV-visible spectroscopy studies and morphology investigations via atomic-force microscopy (AFM). This pairing with spectroscopy offers an internal check on the data as the rate of change in absorbance of the active layer correlates almost exactly to the rate of power conversion efficiency decrease. Additionally, AFM imaging reveals different morphology patterns when dye concentrations and functionalities change. Such observations suggest that such small-molecule sensitizers exert yet undetermined effects on the organization of components within the active layer at the molecular level.

  18. Record Deflection Efficiencies Measured for High Energy Protons in a Bent Germanium Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsener, K.; Biino, C.; Clement, M.; Doble, N.; Gatignon, L.; Grafstrom, P.; Mikkelsen, U.; Kirsebom, K.; Møller, S. P.; Uggerhøj, E.; Worm, T.; Freund, A.

    1997-05-01

    New experimental results on the deflection of 450 GeV/c and 200 GeV/c protons in a bent Ge crystal are presented. At 450 GeV/c, the 50 mm long crystal gave record deflection efficiencies up to 60% for small angles (1 mrad), while at angles as large as 12 mrad, the efficiency is about 25 times larger than for a silicon crystal of the same size. Measurements up to 20 mrad deflection angle have been performed at 200 GeV/c as well as 450 GeV/c - the lower bending dechanneling leads to a rather slow decrease in efficiency at lower momenta, and 15% of the 200 GeV/c beam hitting the crystal are still deflected at the largest angles measured. These experimental results are in good agreement with a model for channeling deflection developed by Ellison and give confidence in extrapolations to higher energies (e.g. to LHC), other crystal materials or different deflection angles.

  19. Simplified photonic-assisted digitalized microwave frequency measurement with improved coding efficiency and sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Bing; Pan, Wei; Zou, Xihua; Yan, Lianshan; Luo, Bin; Liu, Xinkai; Li, Peixuan; Yan, Xianglei

    2016-08-01

    A simplified photonic approach to implement digitalized microwave frequency measurement with improved coding efficiency and receiving sensitivity is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In the proposed approach, an optical phase-shifted filter array and multiple optical filters with multiplied FSRs are designed to obtain digitalized results in the form of binary encoding. Thanks to the complementary outputs, an adaptive threshold decision implemented using balanced receivers is employed to perform binary encoding, instead of a fixed power ratio threshold of 0.5, leading to an improvement in the receiving sensitivity. Besides, a high coding efficiency and a fine measurement resolution are achieved with relaxed accuracy requirement on phase shifts of the optical filters. In particular, compared with the previous approaches, larger tolerances on the phase shifts of the optical phase-shifted filters are provided in the proposed approach having the same coding efficiency and resolution. Therefore, the proposed system is easy to be implemented and robust to noise. A proof-of-concept experiment is then performed. 6-bit binary digital results with a 5-bit effective number are obtained in the range from 10 GHz to 40 GHz. In addition, an integrated version of such a filter array is designed and analyzed in simulation.

  20. An experiment to measure raindrop collection efficiencies: influence of rear capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quérel, A.; Lemaitre, P.; Monier, M.; Porcheron, E.; Flossmann, A. I.; Hervo, M.

    2014-05-01

    In the case of severe accident with loss of containment in a nuclear plant, radionuclides are released into the atmosphere in the form of both gases and aerosol particles (Baklanov and Sørensen, 2001). The analysis of radioactive aerosol scavenged by rain after the Chernobyl accident highlights certain differences between the modelling studies and the environmental measurements. Part of these discrepancies can probably be attributed to uncertainties in the efficiencies used to calculate aerosol particle collection by raindrops, particularly drops with a diameter larger than one millimetre. In order to address the issue of these uncertainties, an experimental study was performed to close the gaps still existing for this key microphysical parameter. In this paper, attention is first focused on the efficiency with which aerosol particles in the accumulation mode are collected by raindrops with a diameter of 2 mm. The collection efficiencies measured for aerosol particle in the sub-micron range are quantitatively consistent with previous theoretical model developed by Beard (1974) and thus highlight the major role of rear capture in the submicron range.

  1. Measuring the environmental efficiency of countries: a directional distance function metafrontier approach.

    PubMed

    Yu-Ying Lin, Eugene; Chen, Ping-Yu; Chen, Chi-Chung

    2013-04-15

    This paper measures environmental efficiency (EE) in 63 countries over the period 1981-2005 and analyzes whether the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol is accompanied by an increase in environmental efficiency during the same period. Differences in EE across countries under distinct country-specific production frontiers are measured using a directional distance function model, which incorporates a desirable output (GDP) and an undesirable output (CO2 emissions). It is further assumed that a stochastic meta-technology-frontier exists and represents potential outputs available to all countries given inputs. The metafrontier for four country groups, high income countries, upper-middle income countries, low-middle income countries, and low income countries, are estimated using balanced panel data for the sample countries over the study period. The overall results indicate that the four country groups operated under distinct stochastic production frontiers and therefore used different production technologies. It is found that high income countries achieved the highest progress in their average environmental efficiency relative to the metafrontier, while lower-middle income countries and low income countries recorded negative growth in their average EE relative to the metafrontier.

  2. Atmospheric particulate mercury in the megacity Beijing: Efficiency of mitigation measures and assessment of health effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleicher, N. J.; Schäfer, J.; Chen, Y.; Blanc, G.; Chen, Y.; Chai, F.; Cen, K.; Norra, S.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric particulate mercury (HgP) was studied before, during, and after the Olympic Summer Games in Beijing, China, in August 2008 in order to investigate the efficiency of the emission control measures implemented by the Chinese Government. These source control measures comprised traffic reductions, increase in public transportation, planting of vegetation, establishment of parks, building freeze at construction sites, cleaner production techniques for industries and industry closures in Beijing and also in the surrounding areas. Strictest measures including the "odd-even ban" to halve the vehicle volume were enforced from the 20th of July to the 20th of September 2008. The Olympic period provided the unique opportunity to investigate the efficiency of these comprehensive actions implemented in order to reduce air pollution on a large scale. Therefore, the sampling period covered summer (August, September) and winter (December and January) samples over several years from December 2005 to September 2013. Average HgP concentrations in total suspended particulates (TSP) sampled in August 2008 were 81 ± 39 pg/m3 while TSP mass concentrations were 93 ± 49 μg/m3. This equals a reduction by about 63% for TSP mass and 65% for HgP, respectively, compared to the previous two years demonstrating the short-term success of the measures. However, after the Olympic Games, HgP concentrations increased again to pre-Olympic levels in August 2009 while values in August 2010 decreased again by 30%. Moreover, winter samples, which were 2- to 11-fold higher than corresponding August values, showed decreasing concentrations over the years indicating a long-term improvement of HgP pollution in Beijing. However, regarding adverse health effects, comparisons with soil guideline values and studies from other cities highlighted that HgP concentrations in TSP remained high in Beijing despite respective control measures. Consequently, future mitigation measures need to be tailored more

  3. Determination of TFTR far-field neutron detector efficiencies by local neutron flux spectrum measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jassby, D. L.; Ascione, G.; Kugel, H. W.; Roquemore, A. L.; Barcelo, T. W.; Kumar, A.

    1997-01-01

    Neutron detectors have often been located on the tokamak fusion test reactor (TFTR) test cell floor 3 m or more from the vacuum vessel for ease of detector access, to reduce radiation damage, minimize count saturation problems, and to avoid high magnetic fields. These detectors include Si surface-barrier diodes, fission chambers, natural diamond detectors, and T2 production in a moderated 3He cell. To evaluate the performance of these detectors during deuterium-tritium (D-T) operation, we determined the neutron flux spectrum incident on the principal detector enclosure using nuclide sample sets containing Al, Ti, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Ni, Zr, Nb, In, and Au activation foils. Foils were installed and then removed after ample exposure to TFTR D-T neutrons. High efficiency, high purity Ge detectors were used for gamma spectroscopy of the irradiated foils. The incident neutron fluence and spectral distribution were unfolded from the measured results, and used to derive absolute detector efficiencies.

  4. Measurement of the charge transfer efficiency of electrons clocked on superfluid helium

    SciTech Connect

    Sabouret, G.; Lyon, S.A.

    2006-06-19

    Electrons floating on the surface of liquid helium are possible qubits for quantum information processing. Varying electric potentials do not modify spin states, which allows their transport on helium using a charge-coupled device (CCD)-like array of underlying gates. This scheme depends on an efficient intergate electron transfer and on the absence of electron traps. We will present a measurement of the charge transfer efficiency (CTE) of electrons clocked back and forth above a short CCD-like structure. The CTE obtained at low clocking frequencies is 0.999 with an electron density of about 4 electrons/{mu}m{sup 2}. We find no evidence for deep electron trapping.

  5. Indirect measurement of the thermal-acoustic efficiency spectrum of a long turbulent burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahan, J. R.; Jones, J. D.; Blevins, L. R.; Cline, J. G.

    1983-01-01

    A new method is described for deducing the thermal-acoustic efficiency spectrum (defined as the fraction of combustion heat release converted to acoustic energy at a given frequency) of a long turbulent burner from the sound spectrum measured in the far field. The method, which is based on a one-dimensional model of the unsteady flow in the burner, is applied to a tubular diffusion-flame hydrogen burner whose length is large compared to its diameter. The results for thermal powers ranging from 4.5 to 22.3 kW show that the thermal-acoustic efficiency is relatively insensitive to the burner power level, decreasing from a value of around 0.0001 at 150 Hz with a slope of about 20 dB per decade. Evidence is presented indicating that acoustic agitation of the flame below 500 Hz, especially in the neighborhood of the resonant frequencies of the burner, is a significant acoustic source.

  6. Set-up and methods for SiPM Photo-Detection Efficiency measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappalà, G.; Acerbi, F.; Ferri, A.; Gola, A.; Paternoster, G.; Zorzi, N.; Piemonte, C.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, a compact set-up and three different methods to measure the Photo-Detection Efficiency (PDE) of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) and Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) are presented. The methods, based on either continuous or pulsed light illumination, are discussed in detail and compared in terms of measurement precision and time. For the SiPM, these methods have the feature of minimizing the effect of both the primary and correlated noise on the PDE estimation. The PDE of SiPMs (produced at FBK, Trento, Italy) was measured in a range from UV to NIR, obtaining similar results with all the methods. Furthermore, the advantages of measuring, when possible, the PDE of SPADs (of the same technology and with the same layout of a single SiPM cell) instead of larger devices are also discussed and a direct comparison between measurement results is shown. Using a SPAD, it is possible to reduce the measurement complexity and uncertainty since the correlated noise sources are reduced with respect to the SiPM case.

  7. Comparison of efficiency of distance measurement methodologies in mango (Mangifera indica) progenies based on physicochemical descriptors.

    PubMed

    Alves, E O S; Cerqueira-Silva, C B M; Souza, A M; Santos, C A F; Lima Neto, F P; Corrêa, R X

    2012-03-14

    We investigated seven distance measures in a set of observations of physicochemical variables of mango (Mangifera indica) submitted to multivariate analyses (distance, projection and grouping). To estimate the distance measurements, five mango progeny (total of 25 genotypes) were analyzed, using six fruit physicochemical descriptors (fruit weight, equatorial diameter, longitudinal diameter, total soluble solids in °Brix, total titratable acidity, and pH). The distance measurements were compared by the Spearman correlation test, projection in two-dimensional space and grouping efficiency. The Spearman correlation coefficients between the seven distance measurements were, except for the Mahalanobis' generalized distance (0.41 ≤ rs ≤ 0.63), high and significant (rs ≥ 0.91; P < 0.001). Regardless of the origin of the distance matrix, the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean grouping method proved to be the most adequate. The various distance measurements and grouping methods gave different values for distortion (-116.5 ≤ D ≤ 74.5), cophenetic correlation (0.26 ≤ rc ≤ 0.76) and stress (-1.9 ≤ S ≤ 58.9). Choice of distance measurement and analysis methods influence the.

  8. Measuring the Effectiveness of Information Security Training: A Comparative Analysis of Computer-Based Training and Instructor-Based Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Financial institutions are increasingly finding difficulty defending against information security risks and threats, as they are often the number one target for information thieves. An effective information security training and awareness program can be a critical component of protecting an organization's information assets. Many financial…

  9. Measuring the Effectiveness of Visual Analytics and Data Fusion Techniques on Situation Awareness in Cyber-Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giacobe, Nicklaus A.

    2013-01-01

    Cyber-security involves the monitoring a complex network of inter-related computers to prevent, identify and remediate from undesired actions. This work is performed in organizations by human analysts. These analysts monitor cyber-security sensors to develop and maintain situation awareness (SA) of both normal and abnormal activities that occur on…

  10. The short- to medium-term predictive accuracy of static and dynamic risk assessment measures in a secure forensic hospital.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chi Meng; Thomas, Stuart D M; Ogloff, James R P; Daffern, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Although violence risk assessment knowledge and practice has advanced over the past few decades, it remains practically difficult to decide which measures clinicians should use to assess and make decisions about the violence potential of individuals on an ongoing basis, particularly in the short to medium term. Within this context, this study sought to compare the predictive accuracy of dynamic risk assessment measures for violence with static risk assessment measures over the short term (up to 1 month) and medium term (up to 6 months) in a forensic psychiatric inpatient setting. Results showed that dynamic measures were generally more accurate than static measures for short- to medium-term predictions of inpatient aggression. These findings highlight the necessity of using risk assessment measures that are sensitive to important clinical risk state variables to improve the short- to medium-term prediction of aggression within the forensic inpatient setting. Such knowledge can assist with the development of more accurate and efficient risk assessment procedures, including the selection of appropriate risk assessment instruments to manage and prevent the violence of offenders with mental illnesses during inpatient treatment.

  11. Measurement of efficiency in calculus removal with a frequency-doubled Alexandrite laser on pigs' jaws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilgrim, Christian G.; Rechmann, Peter; Goldin, Dan S.; Hennig, Thomas

    2000-03-01

    Periodontal therapy aims in a most sufficient cleaning of tooth surfaces from supra- and subgingival calculus. As a standard dental procedure teeth are treated with ultrasonic devices. The competence of the frequency doubled Alexandrite laser for a highly effective and selective removal of calculus has been repeatedly proved. Aim of the study presented here was to determine the efficiency at simulated clinical conditions of the frequency doubled Alexandrite laser (laboratory prototype, q-switched, fiber guided, wavelength 377 nm, pulse duration 1 microsecond, pulse repetition rate 70 Hz, water cooling) by quantifying it's calculus removing efficiency. The evaluated data were compared to those obtained with an ultrasonic calculus remover. In the first part of the study sample material consisted of 23 pigs' jaws. They were divided into two groups. The teeth of one group were cleaned on their buccal surfaces using an ultrasonic device (Sonosoft Lux, KaVo, Biberach, Germany; tip #9). Than hand-guided cleaning was performed until no further improvement in cleanness was visible. Cleaning time was measured. Photographic documentation was taken before and after the treatment. The teeth in the second group were cleaned engaging a frequency doubled Alexandrite laser. Treatment time was measured and photographs were taken in the same way. In the second part of the study 21 surfaces of human teeth set up in an artificial pocket model were treated with both systems again. Measurements followed the same protocol. The results strongly support the use of the frequency doubled Alexandrite laser for calculus removal.

  12. Improving energy efficiency via smart building energy management systems. A comparison with policy measures

    DOE PAGES

    Rocha, Paula; Siddiqui, Afzal; Stadler, Michael

    2014-12-09

    In this study, to foster the transition to more sustainable energy systems, policymakers have been approving measures to improve energy efficiency as well as promoting smart grids. In this setting, building managers are encouraged to adapt their energy operations to real-time market and weather conditions. Yet, most fail to do so as they rely on conventional building energy management systems (BEMS) that have static temperature set points for heating and cooling equipment. In this paper, we investigate how effective policy measures are at improving building-level energy efficiency compared to a smart BEMS with dynamic temperature set points. To this end,more » we present an integrated optimisation model mimicking the smart BEMS that combines decisions on heating and cooling systems operations with decisions on energy sourcing. Using data from an Austrian and a Spanish building, we find that the smart BEMS results in greater reduction in energy consumption than a conventional BEMS with policy measures.« less

  13. Secure Mass Measurements from Transit Timing: 10 Kepler Exoplanets between 3 and 8 M⊕ with Diverse Densities and Incident Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Ford, Eric B.; Rowe, Jason F.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Van Laerhoven, Christa; Agol, Eric; Deck, Katherine M.; Holczer, Tomer; Mazeh, Tsevi

    2016-03-01

    We infer dynamical masses in eight multiplanet systems using transit times measured from Kepler's complete data set, including short-cadence data where available. Of the 18 dynamical masses that we infer, 10 pass multiple tests for robustness. These are in systems Kepler-26 (KOI-250), Kepler-29 (KOI-738), Kepler-60 (KOI-2086), Kepler-105 (KOI-115), and Kepler-307 (KOI-1576). Kepler-105 c has a radius of 1.3 R⊕ and a density consistent with an Earth-like composition. Strong transit timing variation (TTV) signals were detected from additional planets, but their inferred masses were sensitive to outliers or consistent solutions could not be found with independently measured transit times, including planets orbiting Kepler-49 (KOI-248), Kepler-57 (KOI-1270), Kepler-105 (KOI-115), and Kepler-177 (KOI-523). Nonetheless, strong upper limits on the mass of Kepler-177 c imply an extremely low density of ˜0.1 g cm-3. In most cases, individual orbital eccentricities were poorly constrained owing to degeneracies in TTV inversion. For five planet pairs in our sample, strong secular interactions imply a moderate to high likelihood of apsidal alignment over a wide range of possible eccentricities. We also find solutions for the three planets known to orbit Kepler-60 in a Laplace-like resonance chain. However, nonlibrating solutions also match the transit timing data. For six systems, we calculate more precise stellar parameters than previously known, enabling useful constraints on planetary densities where we have secure mass measurements. Placing these exoplanets on the mass-radius diagram, we find that a wide range of densities is observed among sub-Neptune-mass planets and that the range in observed densities is anticorrelated with incident flux.

  14. A compact and high efficiency GAGG well counter for radiocesium concentration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Ogata, Yoshimune

    2014-07-01

    After the Fukushima nuclear disaster, social concern about radiocesium (137Cs and 134Cs) contamination in food increased. However, highly efficient instruments that can measure low level radioactivity are quite expensive and heavy. A compact, lightweight, and reliable radiation detector that can inexpensively monitor low level radiocesium is highly desired. We developed a compact and highly efficient radiocesium detector to detect ~32 keV X-rays from radiocesium instead of high energy gamma photons. A 1-mm thick GAGG scintillator was selected to effectively detect ~32 keV X-rays from 137Cs to reduce the influence of ambient radiation. Four sets of 25 mm×25 mm×1 mm GAGG plates, each of which was optically coupled to a triangular-shaped light guide, were optically coupled to a photomultiplier tube (PMT) to form a square-shaped well counter. Another GAGG plate was directly optically coupled to the PMT to form its bottom detector. The energy resolution of the GAGG well counter was 22.3% FWHM for 122 keV gamma rays and 32% FWHM for ~32 keV X-rays. The counting efficiency for the X-rays from radiocesium (mixture of 137Cs and 134Cs) was 4.5%. In measurements of the low level radiocesium mixture, a photo-peak of ~32 keV X-rays can clearly be distinguished from the background. The minimum detectable activity (MDA) was estimated to be ~100 Bq/kg for 1000 s measurement. The results show that our developed GAGG well counter is promising for the detection of radiocesium in food.

  15. Short and long term efficiencies of debris risk reduction measures: Application to a European LEO mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, T.; Kervarc, R.; Bertrand, S.; Carle, P.; Donath, T.; Destefanis, R.; Grassi, L.; Tiboldo, F.; Schäfer, F.; Kempf, S.; Gelhaus, J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent numerical studies indicate that the low Earth orbit (LEO) debris environment has reached a point such that even if no further space launches were conducted, the Earth satellite population would remain relatively constant for only the next 50 years or so. Beyond that, the debris population would begin to increase noticeably, due to the production of collisional debris (Liou and Johnson, 2008). Measures to be enforced play thus a major role to preserve an acceptable space mission risk and ensure sustainable space activities. The identification of such measures and the quantification of their efficiency over time for LEO missions is of prime concern in the decision-making process, as it has been investigated for the last few decades by the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC). This paper addresses the final results of a generic methodology and the characteristics of a tool developed to assess the efficiency of the risk reduction measures identified for the Sentinel-1 (S1) mission. This work is performed as part of the 34-month P2-ROTECT project (Prediction, Protection & Reduction of OrbiTal Exposure to Collision Threats), funded by the European Union within the Seventh Framework Programme. Three ways of risk reduction have been investigated, both in short and long-term, namely: better satellite protection, better conjunction prediction, and cleaner environment. According to our assumptions, the S1 mission vulnerability evaluations in the long term (from 2093 to 2100) show that full compliance to the mitigation measures leads to a situation twice safer than that induced by an active debris removal of 5 objects per year in a MASTER2009 Business-As-Usual context. Because these measures have visible risk reduction effects in the long term, complementary measures with short response time are also studied. In the short term (from 2013 to 2020), a better prediction of the conjunctions is more efficient than protecting the satellite S1 itself. By

  16. Design and implementation of an efficient acoustically levitated drop reactor for in stillo measurements.

    PubMed

    Field, Christopher R; Scheeline, Alexander

    2007-12-01

    We present the details necessary for building an efficient acoustic drop levitator with reduced electrical power consumption and greater drop stability compared to previous designs. The system is optimized so that the levitated drop may be used as a chemical reactor. By introducing a temperature, pressure, and relative humidity sensor for feedback control of a linear actuator for adjusting resonator length, we have built a completely automated system capable of continuous levitation for extended periods of time. The result is a system capable of portable operation and interfacing with a variety of detection instrumentation for in stillo (in drop) measurements. PMID:18163744

  17. The multibeam Fabry-Perot velocimeter: Efficient measurement of high velocities

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    In support of the Laboratory`s scientific stockpile stewardship mission, we have developed a multibeam Fabry-Perot velocimetry system to more efficiently measure continuous velocities during our experiments. These data are invaluable for testing the adequacy of our hydrodynamic computer modeling codes. A new fiber optic system and Laboratory-designed optical devices allow us to obtain five or even ten continuous velocity records from an experiment using just one Fabry-Perot interferometer. Before the advent of this system, we could obtain only one record per interferometer. We have also developed a dual-cavity interferometer that greatly facilitates reading the interference fringes recorded during our experiments.

  18. Measurements of the photon detection efficiency done for Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (G-APD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentile, S.; Meddi, F.; Kuznetsova, E.

    2010-04-01

    Estimation of the Photon Detect Efficiency (PDE) of multi-pixel Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (G-APD) based on measurements of the G-APD response to low-intensity light is presented. The fit of the light-response spectra takes into account after-pulsing and cross-talk effects and yields the value of initial photons. Using a calibrated photo-detector as a reference, the value of the PDE can be calculated. The sources of systematic error of the obtained PDE is discussed as well as possibility for its minimization.

  19. Predicting Perceptions of Fear at School and Going to and from School for African American and White Students: The Effects of School Security Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachman, Ronet; Randolph, Antonia; Brown, Bethany L.

    2011-01-01

    This article uses the School Crime Supplement of the National Crime Victimization Survey to investigate the factors related to White and African American students' perceived levels of fear of harm, while at school and while commuting to and from school. Of particular interest were the effects of school security measures, including metal detectors,…

  20. Secure and Authenticated Data Communication in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Alfandi, Omar; Bochem, Arne; Kellner, Ansgar; Göge, Christian; Hogrefe, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Securing communications in wireless sensor networks is increasingly important as the diversity of applications increases. However, even today, it is equally important for the measures employed to be energy efficient. For this reason, this publication analyzes the suitability of various cryptographic primitives for use in WSNs according to various criteria and, finally, describes a modular, PKI-based framework for confidential, authenticated, secure communications in which most suitable primitives can be employed. Due to the limited capabilities of common WSN motes, criteria for the selection of primitives are security, power efficiency and memory requirements. The implementation of the framework and the singular components have been tested and benchmarked in our testbed of IRISmotes.

  1. Optimizing environmental measures for landscape multifunctionality: effectiveness, efficiency and recommendations for agri-environmental programs.

    PubMed

    Galler, Carolin; von Haaren, Christina; Albert, Christian

    2015-03-15

    Agri-environmental measures differ in their capacity to simultaneously enhance the provision of multiple ecosystem services. Multifunctional approaches are hampered by funding schemes that are usually administered by individual administrative sectors that each predominantly focus on one single environmental objective. Developing integrative management strategies that exploit synergies from implementing multifunctional measures is challenged by the need to quantify expected management effects on different ecosystem services. The objective of this paper is to compare uncoordinated versus coordinated management strategies in their contribution to multiple environmental objectives. We developed and applied a method for quantifying effectiveness, as well as spatial and cost efficiency with respect to four key landscape functions: erosion prevention, water quality conservation, climate change mitigation and safeguarding biodiversity. The case study area was the county of Verden, Germany. The following findings can be drawn: Measures for safeguarding biodiversity and climate change mitigation have generally high multifunctional effects, which makes them suitable for integrative management strategies. To make use of the added value of potential multifunctional measures, a spatially targeted allocation of agri-environmental measures is necessary. Compared to uncoordinated strategies, coordinated integrative management strategies either allow the optimization of the ratio of costs to environmental effects or an increase in the effects that can be achieved within an area unit. This is however, usually not simultaneous. Future research should seek to refine the assessment and valuation indicators. PMID:25577703

  2. Measurements of antenna polar diagrams and efficiencies using a phase-switched interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, R. A.; Candy, B.; Briggs, B. H.

    1986-01-01

    It is desirable to know antenna polar patterns and efficiencies accurately. In the past, calibration measurements have been made using balloons and aircraft and more recently satellites. These techniques are usually very expensive. It is shown that under certain circumstances it is possible to use a simpler and inexpensive technique by connecting together the antenna under test with another antenna to form a phase switched interferometer as first described by Ryle (1952). The technique does require a suitable radio source which gives measurable powers when using small antennas and since dipoles have broad patterns, radio sources with similar right ascensions but different declinations to the primary source can be a problem. These problems can partly be overcome by filtering the interference pattern.

  3. Efficient method for computing the maximum-likelihood quantum state from measurements with additive Gaussian noise.

    PubMed

    Smolin, John A; Gambetta, Jay M; Smith, Graeme

    2012-02-17

    We provide an efficient method for computing the maximum-likelihood mixed quantum state (with density matrix ρ) given a set of measurement outcomes in a complete orthonormal operator basis subject to Gaussian noise. Our method works by first changing basis yielding a candidate density matrix μ which may have nonphysical (negative) eigenvalues, and then finding the nearest physical state under the 2-norm. Our algorithm takes at worst O(d(4)) for the basis change plus O(d(3)) for finding ρ where d is the dimension of the quantum state. In the special case where the measurement basis is strings of Pauli operators, the basis change takes only O(d(3)) as well. The workhorse of the algorithm is a new linear-time method for finding the closest probability distribution (in Euclidean distance) to a set of real numbers summing to one.

  4. Boundaries for efficient use of electron vortex beams to measure magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Rusz, Ján; Bhowmick, Somnath

    2013-09-01

    Development of experimental techniques for characterization of magnetic properties at high spatial resolution is essential for progress in miniaturization of magnetic devices, for example, in data storage media. Inelastic scattering of electron vortex beams (EVBs) was recently reported to contain atom-specific magnetic information. We develop a theoretical description of inelastic scattering of EVBs on crystals and perform simulations for EVBs of different diameters. We show that use of an EVB wider than an interatomic distance does not provide any advantage over an ordinary convergent beam without angular momentum. On the other hand, in the atomic-resolution limit, electron energy loss spectra measured by EVBs are strongly sensitive to the spin and orbital magnetic moments of studied matter, when channeling through or very close to the atomic columns. Our results demonstrate the boundaries for efficient use of EVBs in measurement of magnetic properties. PMID:25166681

  5. An efficient algorithm for measurement of retinal vessel diameter from fundus images based on directional filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuchu; Niu, Yanmin

    2011-02-01

    Automatic measurement of vessels from fundus images is a crucial step for assessing vessel anomalies in ophthalmological community, where the change in retinal vessel diameters is believed to be indicative of the risk level of diabetic retinopathy. In this paper, a new retinal vessel diameter measurement method by combining vessel orientation estimation and filter response is proposed. Its interesting characteristics include: (1) different from the methods that only fit the vessel profiles, the proposed method extracts more stable and accurate vessel diameter by casting this problem as a maximal response problem of a variation of Gabor filter; (2) the proposed method can directly and efficiently estimate the vessel's orientation, which is usually captured by time-consuming multi-orientation fitting techniques in many existing methods. Experimental results shows that the proposed method both retains the computational simplicity and achieves stable and accurate estimation results.

  6. Measuring and tuning energy efficiency on large scale high performance computing platforms.

    SciTech Connect

    Laros, James H., III

    2011-08-01

    Recognition of the importance of power in the field of High Performance Computing, whether it be as an obstacle, expense or design consideration, has never been greater and more pervasive. While research has been conducted on many related aspects, there is a stark absence of work focused on large scale High Performance Computing. Part of the reason is the lack of measurement capability currently available on small or large platforms. Typically, research is conducted using coarse methods of measurement such as inserting a power meter between the power source and the platform, or fine grained measurements using custom instrumented boards (with obvious limitations in scale). To collect the measurements necessary to analyze real scientific computing applications at large scale, an in-situ measurement capability must exist on a large scale capability class platform. In response to this challenge, we exploit the unique power measurement capabilities of the Cray XT architecture to gain an understanding of power use and the effects of tuning. We apply these capabilities at the operating system level by deterministically halting cores when idle. At the application level, we gain an understanding of the power requirements of a range of important DOE/NNSA production scientific computing applications running at large scale (thousands of nodes), while simultaneously collecting current and voltage measurements on the hosting nodes. We examine the effects of both CPU and network bandwidth tuning and demonstrate energy savings opportunities of up to 39% with little or no impact on run-time performance. Capturing scale effects in our experimental results was key. Our results provide strong evidence that next generation large-scale platforms should not only approach CPU frequency scaling differently, but could also benefit from the capability to tune other platform components, such as the network, to achieve energy efficient performance.

  7. Security Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Examines how to evaluate school security, begin making schools safe, secure schools without turning them into fortresses, and secure schools easily and affordably; the evolution of security systems into information technology systems; using schools' high-speed network lines; how one specific security system was developed; pros and cons of the…

  8. Collection Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Richard W.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a systematic approach to the problem of security of library collections and facilities from theft and vandalism. Highlights include responses to losses, defining security needs, typical weaknesses of facilities, policies and procedures that weaken a library's security, conducting a security audit, cost of security, cost-effectiveness, and…

  9. Mass measurement of a single unseen star and planetary detection efficiency for OGLE 2007-BLG-050

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batista, V.; Dong, S.; Gould, A.; Beaulieu, J. P.; Cassan, A.; Christie, G. W.; Han, C.; Udalski, A.; Allen, W.; Depoy, D. L.; Gal-Yam, A.; Gaudi, B. S.; Johnson, B.; Kaspi, S.; Lee, C. U.; Maoz, D.; McCormick, J.; McGreer, I.; Monard, B.; Natusch, T.; Ofek, E.; Park, B.-G.; Pogge, R. W.; Polishook, D.; Shporer, A.; μFUN Collaboration; Albrow, M. D.; Bennett, D. P.; Brillant, S.; Bode, M.; Bramich, D. M.; Burgdorf, M.; Caldwell, J. A. R.; Calitz, H.; Cole, A.; Cook, K. H.; Coutures, Ch.; Dieters, S.; Dominik, M.; Prester, D. D.; Donatowicz, J.; Fouqué, P.; Greenhill, J.; Hoffman, M.; Horne, K.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Kains, N.; Kane, S.; Kubas, D.; Marquette, J. B.; Martin, R.; Meintjes, P.; Menzies, J.; Pollard, K. R.; Sahu, K. C.; Snodgrass, C.; Steele, I.; Tsapras, Y.; Wambsganss, J.; Williams, A.; Zub, M.; PLANET/RoboNet Collaboration; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Kubiak, M.; Szymański, M. K.; Pietrzyński, G.; Soszyński, I.; Szewczyk, O.; Ulaczyk, K.; Ogle Collaboration; Abe, F.; Bond, I. A.; Fukui, A.; Furusawa, K.; Hearnshaw, J. B.; Holderness, S.; Itow, Y.; Kamiya, K.; Kilmartin, P. M.; Korpela, A.; Lin, W.; Ling, C. H.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Miyake, N.; Muraki, Y.; Nagaya, M.; Ohnishi, K.; Okumura, T.; Perrott, Y. C.; Rattenbury, N.; Saito, T.; Sako, T.; Skuljan, L.; Sullivan, D.; Sumi, T.; Sweatman, W. L.; Tristram, P. J.; Yock, P. C. M.; MOA Collaboration

    2009-12-01

    Aims. We analyze OGLE-2007-BLG-050, a high magnification microlensing event (A˜ 432) whose peak occurred on 2 May, 2007, with pronounced finite-source and parallax effects. We compute planet detection efficiencies for this event in order to determine its sensitivity to the presence of planets around the lens star. Methods: Both finite-source and parallax effects permit a measurement of the angular Einstein radius θ_E=0.48± 0.01 mas and the parallax π_E=0.12± 0.03, leading to an estimate of the lens mass M=0.50±0.14 M⊙ and its distance to the observer D_L=5.5±0.4 kpc. This is only the second determination of a reasonably precise (<30%) mass estimate for an isolated unseen object, using any method. This allows us to calculate the planetary detection efficiency in physical units (r_perp,m_p), where r_perp is the projected planet-star separation and mp is the planet mass. Results: When computing planet detection efficiency, we did not find any planetary signature, i.e. none of the planetary configurations provides a Δχ2 improvement higher than 60, and our detection efficiency results reveal significant sensitivity to Neptune-mass planets, and to a lesser extent Earth-mass planets in some configurations. Indeed, Jupiter and Neptune-mass planets are excluded with a high confidence for a large projected separation range between the planet and the lens star, respectively [0.6-10] and [1.4-4] AU, and Earth-mass planets are excluded with a 10% confidence in the lensing zone, i.e. [1.8-3.1] AU. Probing Lensing Anomalies NETwork (PLANET). Optical Gravitational Lens Experiment (OGLE). Microlensing Observations in Astrophysics (MOA). Royal Society University research fellow.

  10. Improving health, safety and energy efficiency in New Zealand through measuring and applying basic housing standards.

    PubMed

    Gillespie-Bennett, Julie; Keall, Michael; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Baker, Michael G

    2013-08-02

    Substandard housing is a problem in New Zealand. Historically there has been little recognition of the important aspects of housing quality that affect people's health and safety. In this viewpoint article we outline the importance of assessing these factors as an essential step to improving the health and safety of New Zealanders and household energy efficiency. A practical risk assessment tool adapted to New Zealand conditions, the Healthy Housing Index (HHI), measures the physical characteristics of houses that affect the health and safety of the occupants. This instrument is also the only tool that has been validated against health and safety outcomes and reported in the international peer-reviewed literature. The HHI provides a framework on which a housing warrant of fitness (WOF) can be based. The HHI inspection takes about one hour to conduct and is performed by a trained building inspector. To maximise the effectiveness of this housing quality assessment we envisage the output having two parts. The first would be a pass/fail WOF assessment showing whether or not the house meets basic health, safety and energy efficiency standards. The second component would rate each main assessment area (health, safety and energy efficiency), potentially on a five-point scale. This WOF system would establish a good minimum standard for rental accommodation as well encouraging improved housing performance over time. In this article we argue that the HHI is an important, validated, housing assessment tool that will improve housing quality, leading to better health of the occupants, reduced home injuries, and greater energy efficiency. If required, this tool could be extended to also cover resilience to natural hazards, broader aspects of sustainability, and the suitability of the dwelling for occupants with particular needs.

  11. Improving health, safety and energy efficiency in New Zealand through measuring and applying basic housing standards.

    PubMed

    Gillespie-Bennett, Julie; Keall, Michael; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Baker, Michael G

    2013-08-01

    Substandard housing is a problem in New Zealand. Historically there has been little recognition of the important aspects of housing quality that affect people's health and safety. In this viewpoint article we outline the importance of assessing these factors as an essential step to improving the health and safety of New Zealanders and household energy efficiency. A practical risk assessment tool adapted to New Zealand conditions, the Healthy Housing Index (HHI), measures the physical characteristics of houses that affect the health and safety of the occupants. This instrument is also the only tool that has been validated against health and safety outcomes and reported in the international peer-reviewed literature. The HHI provides a framework on which a housing warrant of fitness (WOF) can be based. The HHI inspection takes about one hour to conduct and is performed by a trained building inspector. To maximise the effectiveness of this housing quality assessment we envisage the output having two parts. The first would be a pass/fail WOF assessment showing whether or not the house meets basic health, safety and energy efficiency standards. The second component would rate each main assessment area (health, safety and energy efficiency), potentially on a five-point scale. This WOF system would establish a good minimum standard for rental accommodation as well encouraging improved housing performance over time. In this article we argue that the HHI is an important, validated, housing assessment tool that will improve housing quality, leading to better health of the occupants, reduced home injuries, and greater energy efficiency. If required, this tool could be extended to also cover resilience to natural hazards, broader aspects of sustainability, and the suitability of the dwelling for occupants with particular needs. PMID:24045354

  12. Quantum efficiency measurement of the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) CCD detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, A.; Villasenor, J.; Thayer, C.; Kissel, S.; Ricker, G.; Seager, S.; Lyle, R.; Deline, A.; Morgan, E.; Sauerwein, T.; Vanderspek, R.

    2016-07-01

    Very precise on-ground characterization and calibration of TESS CCD detectors will significantly assist in the analysis of the science data from the mission. An accurate optical test bench with very high photometric stability has been developed to perform precise measurements of the absolute quantum efficiency. The setup consists of a vacuum dewar with a single MIT Lincoln Lab CCID-80 device mounted on a cold plate with the calibrated reference photodiode mounted next to the CCD. A very stable laser-driven light source is integrated with a closed-loop intensity stabilization unit to control variations of the light source down to a few parts-per-million when averaged over 60 s. Light from the stabilization unit enters a 20 inch integrating sphere. The output light from the sphere produces near-uniform illumination on the cold CCD and on the calibrated reference photodiode inside the dewar. The ratio of the CCD and photodiode signals provides the absolute quantum efficiency measurement. The design, key features, error analysis, and results from the test campaign are presented.

  13. Can we measure brain efficiency? An empirical test with common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Strasser, Andrea; Burkart, Judith M

    2012-01-01

    Various measures of brain size correlate with cognitive performance; however, the fit is not perfect, which bears the question of whether brains also vary in efficiency. Such variation could be expected if a species faces constraints on brain enlargement, for example due to the impossibility of slowing down life history as a consequence of predator pressure, while simultaneously experiencing selective benefits from enhanced cognitive ability related to particular ecological or social conditions. Arguably, this applies to callitrichid monkeys and would lead to the prediction that their relatively small brains are particularly efficient in comparison to their sister taxa, Cebus. This study investigated whether callitrichids' cognitive performance is better than would be expected given their brain size rather than comparing absolute performance between the taxa. As a measure of cognitive performance, we used the reversal learning paradigm, which is reliably and closely associated with brain size across primate taxa, and assessed performance in this paradigm (transfer index) in 14 common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) as representatives of the callitrichids. These marmosets were found to show higher performance than would be expected for their brain size, and this relative performance was also higher than the relative performance in capuchin monkeys. We outline how these effects may be due to the cooperative breeding system of the callitrichids, particularly the enhancement of behavioural and cognitive propensities associated with shared care and provisioning.

  14. Measuring wealth-based health inequality among Indian children: the importance of equity vs efficiency.

    PubMed

    Arokiasamy, P; Pradhan, J

    2011-09-01

    The concentration index is the most commonly used measure of socio-economic-related health inequality. However, a critical constraint has been that it is just a measure of inequality. Equity is an important goal of health policy but the average level of health also matters. In this paper, we explore evidence of both these crucial dimensions-equity (inequality) and efficiency (average health)-in child health indicators by adopting the recently developed measure of the extended concentration index on the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) data from India. An increasing degree of inequality aversion is used to measure health inequalities as well as achievement in the following child health indicators: under-2 child mortality, full immunization coverage, and prevalence of underweight, wasting and stunting among children. State-wise adjusted under-2 child mortality scores reveal an increasing trend with increasing values of inequality aversion, implying that under-2 child deaths have been significantly concentrated among the poor households. The level of adjusted under-2 child mortality scores increases significantly with the increasing value of aversion even in states advanced in the health transition, such as Kerala and Goa. The higher values of adjusted scores for lower values of aversion for child immunization coverage are evidence that richer households benefited most from the rise in full immunization coverage. However, the lack of radical changes in the adjusted scores for underweight among children with increasing degrees of aversion implies that household economic status was not the only determinant of poor nutritional status in India.

  15. Measurements of LHCD current profile and efficiency for simulation validation on Alcator C-Mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumgaard, Robert T.

    2014-10-01

    Lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) is an effective tool to significantly modify the magnetic equilibrium by driving off-axis, non-inductive current. On Alcator C-Mod, an upgraded Motional Stark Effect (MSE) diagnostic enables the current profile to be accurately reconstructed during plasmas with strong LHCD and a hard X-ray camera measures the fast electron Bremsstrahlung profile. LHCD is applied for >4 current relaxation times, producing fully-relaxed magnetic equilibria in plasmas with non-inductive current fraction up to unity at currents up to 1.0 MA. C-Mod has developed an extensive database of LHCD performance, spanning a wide range in plasma current, launched n||, LHCD power, Te and plasma density. This dataset provides a unique platform for validation of LHCD current drive simulations with the plasma shape, density, field and LH frequency range envisioned for ITER and future reactors. In these conditions the measured current drive efficiencies are similar to that assumed for ITER with values up to 0.4*1020A/Wm2 despite being in a weak single-pass absorption regime. The driven current is observed to be off-axis, broadening the current profile, raising q0 above 1, suppressing sawteeth, decreasing/reversing the magnetic shear and sometimes destabilizing MHD modes and/or triggering internal transport barriers. Measurements indicate increased efficiency at increased temperature and plasma current but with a complicated dependence on launched n||. The MSE-constrained reconstructions show a loss in current drive efficiency as the plasma density is increased above =1.0×1020 m-3 consistent with previous observations of a precipitous drop in hard x-ray emission. Additionally, the measured driven current profile moves radially outward as the density is increased. Ray tracing simulations using GENRAY-CQL3D qualitatively reproduce these trends showing the rays make many passes through the plasma at high density and predicting a narrower current and HXR profile

  16. Gross anatomy of network security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  17. An ounce of prevention vs. a pound of cure: How can we measure the value of IT security solutions?

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, Ashish; Hall, Dennis; Pinto, C. Ariel; Ramsey, Dwayne; Telang, Rahul

    2004-01-12

    This article discusses a framework to evaluate the costs and benefits of IT security solutions using a company's risk profile. This method uses an unconventional concept of benefit based on risk avoided rather than increased productivity.

  18. MONITORING POWER PLANT EFFICIENCY USING THE MICROWAVE-EXCITED PHOTOACOUSTIC EFFECT TO MEASURE UNBURNED CARBON

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Brown; Robert J. Weber; Jeff Sweterlitsch

    2004-04-01

    Three test instruments are being evaluated to determine the feasibility of using photoacoustic technology for measuring unburned carbon in fly ash. The first test instrument is a single microwave frequency system previously constructed to measure photoacoustic signals in an off-line configuration. A second off-line instrument was constructed based in part on lessons learned with the first instrument, but which also expands the capabilities of the first instrument. Improvements include a control loop to allow more constant microwave power output and an ability to operate over a range of microwave frequencies. The third instrument, the on-line version of the fly ash monitor, has been designed, constructed, and initial efficiency tests have been conducted on the monitor's electrical components. Photoacoustic measurements were collected using the off-line MEPA spectrometer with different microwave frequencies in order to develop photoacoustic microwave spectra of several fly ash samples. Microwaves from 500 MHz to 1800 MHz were used. Modifications to the on-line thermal elastic fly ash monitor include the improving the operation of the agitator for the bottom hopper, and installing a second diaphragm assembly in the freeboard section of the fly ash monitor. This second diaphragm assembly can be used with a second MEMS-based accelerometer and in conjunction with the primary accelerometer as a method of active noise control. Repeatability and linearity experiments have begun using the on-line fly ash monitor, with some results presented in this quarterly technical report.

  19. Precision quantum efficiency measurements on 1.7 micron near infrared devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubnell, M.; Brown, M. G.; Karabina, A.; Lorenzon, W.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Tarlé, G.; Weaverdyck, C.

    2008-07-01

    High detector quantum efficiency (QE) can greatly improve speed and performance of wide field instruments that strive for fast precision photometry. SNAP, a proposed satellite mission dedicated to exploring the nature of the dark energy will employ a very large focal plane instrumented with about equal number of CCD and NIR sensors totaling more than 600 million pixels covering roughly 0.7 square degrees on the sky. To precisely characterize the NIR detector QE, the SNAP project has put in place a test set-up capable of measuring absolute QE at the 5% level with the goal of ultimately reaching a precision better than 2%. Illumination of the NIR detectors is provided by either a quartz tungsten halogen lamp combined with a set of narrow band filters or a manually tunable monochromator. The two light sources feed an integrating sphere at a distance of roughly 60 cm from the detector to be tested and a calibrated InGaAs photodiode, mounted adjacent to the NIR detector provides absolute photon flux measurements. This paper describes instrumentation, performance and measurement procedures and summarizes results of detailed characterization of the QE on several SNAP devices as a function of wavelength.

  20. Identification of Inhibitor Concentrations to Efficiently Screen and Measure Inhibition Ki Values against Solute Carrier Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiaowan; Polli, James

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to identify inhibitor concentrations to efficiently screen and measure inhibition Ki values of solute carrier (SLC) transporters. The intestinal bile acid transporter and its native substrate taurocholate were used as a model system. Inhibition experiments were conducted using 27 compounds. For each compound, the inhibition constant Ki was obtained from the comprehensive inhibition profile, and referred as the reference Ki. Ki values were also estimated from various partial profiles and were compared to the reference Ki. A screening Ki was estimated from one data point and also compared to the reference Ki. Results indicate that Ki can be accurately measured using an inhibitor concentration range of only 0-Ki via five different inhibitor concentrations. Additionally, a screening concentration of 10-fold the substrate affinity Kt for potent inhibitors (Ki < 20Kt) and 100-fold Kt for nonpotent inhibitors (Ki > 20Kt) provided an accurate Ki estimation. Results were validated through inhibition studies of two other SLC transporters. In conclusion, experimental conditions to screen and measure accurate transporter inhibition constant Ki are suggested where a low range of inhibitor concentrations can be used. This approach is advantageous in that minimal compound is needed to perform studies and accommodates compounds with low aqueous solubility. PMID:20553862

  1. Generation and efficient measurement of single photons from fixed-frequency superconducting qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindel, William F.; Schroer, M. D.; Lehnert, K. W.

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate and evaluate an on-demand source of single itinerant microwave photons. Photons are generated using a highly coherent, fixed-frequency qubit-cavity system, and a protocol where the microwave control field is far detuned from the photon emission frequency. By using a Josephson parametric amplifier (JPA), we perform efficient single-quadrature detection of the state emerging from the cavity. We characterize the imperfections of the photon generation and detection, including detection inefficiency and state infidelity caused by measurement back-action over a range of JPA gains from 17 to 33 dB. We observe that both detection efficiency and undesirable back-action increase with JPA gain. We find that the density matrix has its maximum single-photon component ρ11=0.36 ±0.01 at 29 dB JPA gain. At this gain, back-action of the JPA creates cavity photon number fluctuations that we model as a thermal distribution with an average photon number n ¯=0.041 ±0.003 .

  2. Commissioning of energy-efficiency measures: Costs and benefits for 16 buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, M.A.; Nordman, B.; Greenberg, S.

    1995-04-01

    Building systems and energy-efficiency measures (EEMs) often don`t perform as well in practice as expected at the design stage. This fact has become clear to many organizations concerned with ensuring building performance. What to do about these problems is less clear. Several electric utilities around the U.S. have begun to take action to address the start-up, control, and operational problems that are found in nearly every building. One of the most beneficial periods to intervene in the building life cycle is during the start-up phase of a now building. Building commissioning during start up is such an intervention. Commissioning can be defined as: a set of procedures, responsibilities, and methods to advance a system from static installation to full working order in accordance with design intent. In broad terms, commissioning can extend from design reviews through operations and maintenance planning and training. With such a broad scope aimed at the entire building life cycle, commissioning is often likened to {open_quotes}Total Quality Management{close_quotes} Yet the heart of commissioning are the procedures developed and executed to ensure that all building systems function as intended. The incorporation of energy-efficiency criteria into building commissioning is a new development.

  3. QED-1 device and measurements of gettering efficiency for a simulated divertor plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, D.K.; Yamada, M.

    1980-03-01

    The QED-1 device at PPL has provided gettering efficiency data for neutralized hydrogen plasma on titanium. The hollow-anode arcjet produces a plasma column 1 cm in diameter with 10/sup 12/ < n/sub e/ < 10/sup 15/ cm/sup -3/ and T/sub i/ approx.< T/sub e/ = 3-10 eV, confined by an axial magnetic field of 1-6 kG. The gettering measurements are based on monitoring neutral gas density with respect to time in the divertor simulation chamber of QED-1. The present results indicate that the plasma particles lose their charge and most of their energy when they strike the neutralizer plate.

  4. Associations between feed efficiency, sexual maturity and fertility-related measures in young beef bulls.

    PubMed

    Fontoura, A B P; Montanholi, Y R; Diel de Amorim, M; Foster, R A; Chenier, T; Miller, S P

    2016-01-01

    The beef industry has emphasized the improvement of feed utilization, as measured by modeling feed intake through performance traits to calculate residual feed intake (RFI). Evidence supports an inverse relationship between feed efficiency and reproductive function. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship of reproductive assessments and RFI unadjusted (RFI(Koch)) or adjusted for body composition (RFI(us)) and the relationship among fertility-related parameters. In total, 34 crossbred bulls were housed together for 112 days of performance evaluation, followed by assessment of scrotum IR imaging, scrotal circumference, testes ultrasonography and semen quality parameters at 377±33.4 days of age. Bulls were slaughtered at 389±34.0 days of age, and analyses of carcass composition, biometrics and histomorphometry of the testis and epididymis were conducted. Bulls were grouped into two subpopulations based on divergence of RFI, and within each RFI model either by including 50% of the population (Halves, high and low RFI, n=17) or 20.6% extremes of the population (Tails, high and low RFI, n=7). The means of productive performance and fertility-related measures were compared through these categories. Pearson's correlation was calculated among fertility-related measures. In the Halves subpopulation of the RFI(us), sperm of low-RFI bulls had decreased progressive motility (47.30% v. 59.90%) and higher abundance of tail abnormalities (4.30% v. 1.80%) than that of high-RFI bulls. In the Tails subpopulation of the RFI(Koch), low RFI displayed less variation in the scrotum surface temperature (0.62°C v. 1.16°C), decreased testis echogenicity (175.50 v 198.00 pixels) and larger (60.90 v. 56.80 mm(2)) but less-developed seminiferous tubules than high-RFI bulls. The evaluation of fertility-related parameters indicated that a higher percentage of immature seminiferous tubules was correlated with occurrence of sperm with distal droplets (r=0.59), a larger

  5. Monte Carlo calculations of the HPGe detector efficiency for radioactivity measurement of large volume environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Azbouche, Ahmed; Belgaid, Mohamed; Mazrou, Hakim

    2015-08-01

    A fully detailed Monte Carlo geometrical model of a High Purity Germanium detector with a (152)Eu source, packed in Marinelli beaker, was developed for routine analysis of large volume environmental samples. Then, the model parameters, in particular, the dead layer thickness were adjusted thanks to a specific irradiation configuration together with a fine-tuning procedure. Thereafter, the calculated efficiencies were compared to the measured ones for standard samples containing (152)Eu source filled in both grass and resin matrices packed in Marinelli beaker. From this comparison, a good agreement between experiment and Monte Carlo calculation results was obtained highlighting thereby the consistency of the geometrical computational model proposed in this work. Finally, the computational model was applied successfully to determine the (137)Cs distribution in soil matrix. From this application, instructive results were achieved highlighting, in particular, the erosion and accumulation zone of the studied site.

  6. Indoor air-quality measurements in energy-efficient residential buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, J.V.; Hollowell, C.D.; Pepper, J.H.; Young, R.

    1980-05-01

    The potential impact on indoor air quality of energy-conserving measures that reduce ventilation is being assessed in a field-monitoring program conducted by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Using a mobile laboratory, on-site monitoring of infiltration rate, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitric oxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, total aldehydes, and particulates was conducted in three houses designed to be energy-efficient. Preliminary results show that energy-conserving design features that reduce air-exchange rates compromise indoor air quality; specifically, indoor levels of several pollutants were found to exceed levels detected outdoors. Although the indoor levels of most pollutants are within limits established by present outdoor air-quality standards, considerable work remains to be accomplished before health-risk effects can be accurately assessed and broad-scale regulatory guidelines revised to comply with energy-conservation goals.

  7. Synchrotron photoionization measurements of combustion intermediates: the photoionization efficiency of HONO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L.; Cool, Terrill A.; Nakajima, Koichi

    2004-08-01

    The HONO radical has recently been observed by photoionization mass spectrometry in low-pressure hydrogen-oxygen flames doped with NO 2. The photoionization efficiency (PIE) spectrum has been measured between 10.83 and 11.63 eV. A Franck-Condon simulation using calculated geometries and force constants of the cation and neutral, and including the effects of Duschinsky rotation, is presented to describe the PIE as a function of photon energy. The simulated PIE is used as a fitting function to estimate the adiabatic ionization potential from the experimental data. The apparent ionization threshold of (10.97 ± 0.03) eV is in excellent agreement with calculated values and is consistent with published bracketing determinations of the proton affinity of NO 2.

  8. The influence of DNA shape fluctuations on fluorescence resonance energy transfer efficiency measurements in nucleosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, Lucia; Hoenderdos, Maurice; Prinsen, Peter; Schiessel, Helmut

    2015-02-01

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements allow one to observe site exposure in nucleosomes, i.e. the transient unwrapping of a part of the wrapped DNA from the histone octamer. In such experiments one can typically distinguish between a closed state and an open state but in principle one might hope to detect several states, each corresponding to a certain number of open binding sites. Here we show that even in an ideal FRET setup it would be hard to detect unwrapping states with intermediate levels of FRET efficiencies. As the unwrapped DNA molecule, modelled here as a wormlike chain, has a finite stiffness, shape fluctuations smear out FRET signals completely from such intermediate states.

  9. [Rapid measurements of CO2 flux density and water use efficiency of crop community].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhilin; Sun, Xiaomin; Zhang, Renhua; Su, Hongbo; Tang, Xinzai

    2004-09-01

    In this paper, Eddy Correlation (EC) method was employed to measure the latent heat and CO2 flux density and to calculate Water Use Efficiency (WUE) of winter wheat community in Yucheng district, Shandong Province in 1997. The results showed that the CO2 flux density had an obvious diurnal change, with a maximum about 1.5 mg x s(-1) x m(-2), which appeared at about 9:00-10:00 am in general. The WUE of wheat community presented a fall trend from morning to afternoon, and the CO2 flux density and WUE also had an obvious seasonal change, being lower in the early and late growth stages, and higher in the middle growth stage. The ranges of daily mean CO2 flux density and WUE were 0.2-0.9 mg x s(-1) x m(-2) and 5-20 gCO2 x kg(-1) H2O, respectively.

  10. Measurement of RF surface efficiency at cryogenic temperatures using a resonant cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Bolme, G.O.; Boicourt, G.P.; Booth, L.L.; Bultman, N.K.; Foley, E.; Liska, D.J.; Lohsen, R.A.; Niesen, J.B.; Rose, J.; Rusnak, B.; Spalek, G.; Wilson, N.G.

    1990-01-01

    Exploiting the potential efficiency gain of a normal conducting rf accelerator operated at cryogenic temperatures requires careful preparation of the rf conducting surface. Experimental apparatus has been assembled to study the surface conductivity to rf currents at 425 MHz and 850 MHz through a temperature range from room temperature to 14 K. The apparatus is built around an open-ended coaxial cavity with the cavity tubular ends below the cutoff frequency at resonance. The center conductor in the coaxial cavity is the test sample, and the use of a dielectric stand-off for the center conductor precludes the need for an rf contact joint and facilitates sample changes. The rf testing is conducted under vacuum with low-power rf. A CTI-Cryogenics cryopump coldhead is used for cryogenic temperature cycling of the test cavity. A detailed description of the apparatus and measurement procedures are presented.

  11. ELENA MCP detector: absolute efficiency measurement for low energy neutral atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rispoli, R.; De Angelis, E.; Colasanti, L.; Vertolli, N.; Orsini, S.; Scheer, J.; Mura, A.; Milillo, A.; Wurz, P.; Selci, S.; Di Lellis, A. M.; Leoni, R.; D'Alessandro, M.; Mattioli, F.; Cibella, S.

    2012-04-01

    MicroChannel plates (MCP) detectors are frequently used in space instrumentation for detecting a wide range of radiation and particles. In particular, the capability to detect non-thermal low energy neutral species is crucial for the sensor ELENA (Emitted Low-Energy Neutral Atoms), part of the package SERENA (Search for Exospheric Refilling and Emitted Natural Abundances) on board the BepiColombo mission to Mercury to be launched in 2014. ELENA is a TOF sensor, based on a novel concept ultra-sonic oscillating shutter (Start section)which is operated at frequencies up to 50 kHz; a MCP detector is used as a Stop section. It is aimed to detect neutral atoms in the range 10 eV - 5 keV, within 70° FOV, perpendicular to the S/C orbital plane. ELENA will monitor the emission of neutral atoms from the whole surface of Mercury thanks to the spacecraft motion. The major scientific objectives are the interaction between the environment and the planet, the global particle loss-rate and the remote sensing of the surface properties. In particular, surface release processes are investigated by identifying particles release from the surface, via solar wind-induced ion sputtering (<1eV and >100 eV) as well as Hydrogen back-scattered at hundreds eV. MCP absolute detection efficiency for very low energy neutral atoms (E< 30eV) is a crucial point not yet investigated. At the MEFISTO facility of the Physical Institute of University of Bern (CH), measurements on three different type of MCPs coating have been performed providing the behaviors of MCP detection efficiency in the range 10eV-1keV. Outcomes from such measurements are here discussed.

  12. 10 CFR 431.107 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water heaters. 431.107 Section 431.107 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Water...

  13. 10 CFR 431.107 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water heaters. 431.107 Section 431.107 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Water...

  14. 10 CFR 431.324 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of metal halide ballasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of metal halide ballasts. 431.324 Section 431.324 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Metal Halide Lamp Ballasts and Fixtures Test Procedures § 431.324...

  15. 10 CFR 431.107 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water heaters. 431.107 Section 431.107 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Water Heaters, Hot Water Supply Boilers and...

  16. 10 CFR 431.96 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial air conditioners and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Test Procedures § 431.96 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial air conditioners and heat pumps. (a) Scope. This section contains test... efficiency of commercial air conditioners and heat pumps. 431.96 Section 431.96 Energy DEPARTMENT OF...

  17. 10 CFR 431.76 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. 431.76 Section 431.76 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm...

  18. 10 CFR 431.76 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. 431.76 Section 431.76 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm...

  19. 10 CFR 431.76 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. 431.76 Section 431.76 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm...

  20. 10 CFR 431.324 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency and standby mode energy consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency and standby mode energy consumption of metal halide lamp ballasts. 431.324 Section 431.324 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND...

  1. 10 CFR 431.324 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency and standby mode energy consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency and standby mode energy consumption of metal halide lamp ballasts. 431.324 Section 431.324 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND...

  2. 10 CFR 431.107 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water heaters. 431.107 Section 431.107 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Water Heaters, Hot Water Supply Boilers and...

  3. 10 CFR 431.107 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water heaters. 431.107 Section 431.107 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Water Heaters, Hot Water Supply Boilers and...

  4. Applicability and economic efficiency of earthquake retrofit measures on existing buildings in Bucharest, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostenaru, M.

    2009-04-01

    The research discussed in this contribution contains two aspects: on one side the economic efficiency of seismic retrofit measures, and on the other their applicability. The research was limited to housing buildings. Bucharest, the capital of Romania, was the object of the research. Strong earthquakes affect Bucharest about three times in a century, the damaging earthquakes of the 20th century being in 1940 and 1977. Other strong earthquakes occurred in 1986 and 1990. Since it is a broad topic, first the building type was determined, which should serve further research. For this scope the building types of the 20th century, which are common in Bucharest, Romania, were investigated. For each building type reports have been written, which comprised the earthquake resilient features, the seismic defficiencies, the damage patterns and the retrofit measures. Each of these features was listed for elements of the building. A first result of the research was an integrated system in order to include latter aspects in the planning in the first steps. So already at the building survey attention has to be paid on how a building is subdivided in order to be able to determine the economic efficiency of the planned action. So were defined the `retrofit elements`. In a first step the characteristics were defined, through which these retrofit elements (for example column, wall part between two windows) can be recognised in the building survey. In a further one, which retrofit measures can be connected to these. Diagrams were built, in order to visualise these findings. For each retrofit element and the corresponding measure the costs were calculated. Also, these retrofit elements and the measures connected to them were modelled for the simulation with the structural software, so that the benefit of the measures could be determined. In the part which regarded the economic efficiency, benefits and costs of retrofit measures had to be compared, so the improvement in the rigidity

  5. Efficient differential Fourier-transform spectrometer for precision Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillaci, Alessandro; D'Alessandro, Giuseppe; de Bernardis, Paolo; Masi, Silvia; Paiva Novaes, Camila; Gervasi, Massimo; Zannoni, Mario

    2014-05-01

    Context. Precision measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect in clusters of galaxies require excellent rejection of common-mode signals and wide frequency coverage. Aims: We describe an imaging, efficient, differential Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS), optimized for measurements of faint brightness gradients at millimeter wavelengths. Methods: Our instrument is based on a Martin-Puplett interferometer (MPI) configuration. We combined two MPIs working synchronously to use the whole input power. In our implementation the observed sky field is divided into two halves along the meridian, and each half-field corresponds to one of the two input ports of the MPI. In this way, each detector in the FTS focal planes measures the difference in brightness between two sky pixels, symmetrically located with respect to the meridian. Exploiting the high common-mode rejection of the MPI, we can measure low sky brightness gradients over a high isotropic background. Results: The instrument works in the range ~1-20 cm-1 (30-600 GHz), has a maximum spectral resolution 1 / (2 OPD) = 0.063 cm-1 (1.9 GHz), and an unvignetted throughput of 2.3 cm2sr. It occupies a volume of 0.7 × 0.7 × 0.33 m3 and has a weight of 70 kg. This design can be implemented as a cryogenic unit to be used in space, as well as a room-temperature unit working at the focus of suborbital and ground-based mm-wave telescopes. The first in-flight test of the instrument is with the OLIMPO experiment on a stratospheric balloon; a larger implementation is being prepared for the Sardinia radio telescope.

  6. The efficiency of vaginal temperature measurement for detection of estrus in Japanese Black cows

    PubMed Central

    SAKATANI, Miki; TAKAHASHI, Masashi; TAKENOUCHI, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Recently, weak estrous behavior was assumed to be the cause of a decline in breeding efficiency in cattle. The present study investigated the effect of measuring the vaginal temperature on the detection of estrus in Japanese Black cows. First, the effect of hormone administration to cows with a functional corpus luteum on the vaginal temperature was evaluated by continuous measurement using a temperature data logger. After 24 h of cloprostenol (PG) treatment, the vaginal temperature was significantly lower than on day 7 after estrus, and the low values were maintained until the beginning of estrus (P < 0.05). The cows that received PG and exogenous progesterone (CIDR) did not show a temperature decrease until the CIDR was removed. This finding suggested that the vaginal temperature change reflected the progesterone concentration. The rate of detection of natural estrus was lower for a pedometer than for the vaginal temperature (P < 0.05); synchronization of estrus resulted in a high estrus detection rate regardless of the detection method. In a subsequent experiment, the effect of vaginal temperature measurement and the use of a pedometer on estrus detection was evaluated in the cool and hot seasons. The average activities during non-estrus and the activity increase ratio (estrus/non-estrus) changed according to season (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). However, the average vaginal temperatures during estrus and non-estrus were not affected by season. The estrus detection rate of the pedometer was lower in summer and lower than that obtained using the vaginal temperature. These results indicated that vaginal temperature measurement might be effective for detecting estrus regardless of estrous behavior. PMID:26853785

  7. Predicted versus measured photosynthetic water-use efficiency of crop stands under dynamically changing field environments.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liu-Kang; Hsiao, Theodore C

    2004-11-01

    Water-use efficiency (WUE) is critical in determining the adaptation and productivity of plants in water-limited areas, either under the present climate or future global change. Data on WUE are often highly variable and a unifying and quantitative approach is needed to analyse and predict WUE for different environments. Hsiao has already proposed a set of paradigm equations based on leaf gas exchange for this purpose, calculating WUE (ratio of assimilation to transpiration) relative to the WUE for a chosen reference situation. This study tests the validity and applicability of these equations to cotton and sweet corn stands with full canopies in the open field. Measured were evapotranspiration and downward flux of atmospheric CO2 into the canopy, soil CO2 efflux, canopy temperature, and CO2 and vapour pressure of the air surrounding the canopy. With the measured mean WUE and conditions at midday serving as the reference, WUE for other times was predicted from the air CO2 and water vapour data, intercellular water vapour pressure calculated from canopy temperature, and an assumed ratio of Ci/Ca based on leaf gas-exchange data. Provided that the stomatal response to humidity as it affected the Ci/Ca ratio was accounted for, the equations predicted the moment-by-moment changes in canopy WUE of cotton over daily cycles reasonably well, and also the variation in midday WUE from day-to-day over a 47 d period. The prediction for sweet corn was fairly good for most parts of the day except the early morning. Measurement uncertainties and possible causes of the differences between predicted and measured WUE are discussed. Overall, the results indicate that the equations may be suitable to simulate changes in WUE without upscaling, and also demonstrate clearly the importance of stomatal response to humidity in determining stand WUE in the field. PMID:15448179

  8. Effective detective quantum efficiency for two mammography systems: Measurement and comparison against established metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Salvagnini, Elena; Bosmans, Hilde; Marshall, Nicholas W.; Struelens, Lara

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: The aim of this paper was to illustrate the value of the new metric effective detective quantum efficiency (eDQE) in relation to more established measures in the optimization process of two digital mammography systems. The following metrics were included for comparison against eDQE: detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of the detector, signal difference to noise ratio (SdNR), and detectability index (d′) calculated using a standard nonprewhitened observer with eye filter.Methods: The two systems investigated were the Siemens MAMMOMAT Inspiration and the Hologic Selenia Dimensions. The presampling modulation transfer function (MTF) required for the eDQE was measured using two geometries: a geometry containing scattered radiation and a low scatter geometry. The eDQE, SdNR, and d′ were measured for poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thicknesses of 20, 40, 60, and 70 mm, with and without the antiscatter grid and for a selection of clinically relevant target/filter (T/F) combinations. Figures of merit (FOMs) were then formed from SdNR and d′ using the mean glandular dose as the factor to express detriment. Detector DQE was measured at energies covering the range of typical clinically used spectra.Results: The MTF measured in the presence of scattered radiation showed a large drop at low spatial frequency compared to the low scatter method and led to a corresponding reduction in eDQE. The eDQE for the Siemens system at 1 mm{sup −1} ranged between 0.15 and 0.27, depending on T/F and grid setting. For the Hologic system, eDQE at 1 mm{sup −1} varied from 0.15 to 0.32, again depending on T/F and grid setting. The eDQE results for both systems showed that the grid increased the system efficiency for PMMA thicknesses of 40 mm and above but showed only small sensitivity to T/F setting. While results of the SdNR and d′ based FOMs confirmed the eDQE grid position results, they were also more specific in terms of T/F selection. For the Siemens system at 20 mm PMMA

  9. Efficient mapping of agricultural soils using a novel electromagnetic measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinks, Immo; Pregesbauer, Michael

    2016-04-01

    "Despite all our accomplishments, we owe our existence to a six-inch layer of topsoil and the fact that it rains." - Paul Harvey. Despite the fact, that a farmers most precious good is the soil that he or she cultivates, in most cases actually very little is known about the soils that are being farmed. Agricultural soils are under constant threat through erosion, depletion, pollution and other degrading processes, in particular when considering intensive industrial scale farming. The capability of soils to retain water and soil moisture is of vital importance for their agricultural potential. Detailed knowledge of the physical properties of soils, their types and texture, water content and the depth of the agricultural layer would be of great importance for resource-efficient tillage with sub-area dependent variable depth, and the targeted intelligent application of fertilizers or irrigation. Precision farming, which has seen increasing popularity in the USA as well as Australia, is still in its infancy in Europe. Traditional near-surface geophysical prospection systems for agricultural soil mapping have either been based on earth resistance measurements using electrode-disks that require soil contact, with inherent issues, or electromagnetic induction (EMI) measurements conducted with EMI devices mounted in non-metallic sledges towed several metres behind survey vehicles across the fields. Every farmer passes over the fields several times during each growing season, working the soil and treating the crops. Therefore a novel user-friendly measurement system, the "Topsoil Mapper" (TSM) has been developed, which enables the farmer to simultaneously acquire soil conductivity information and derived soil parameters while anyway passing over the fields using different agricultural implements. The measurement principle of the TSM is electromagnetic induction using a multi-coil array to acquire conductivity information along a vertical profile down to approximately 1.1 m

  10. A Measurement Management Technology for Improving Energy Efficiency in Data Centers and Telecommunication Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrik Hamann, Levente Klein

    2012-06-28

    Data center (DC) electricity use is increasing at an annual rate of over 20% and presents a concern for the Information Technology (IT) industry, governments, and the society. A large fraction of the energy use is consumed by the compressor cooling to maintain the recommended operating conditions for IT equipment. The most common way to improve the DC efficiency is achieved by optimally provisioning the cooling power to match the global heat dissipation in the DC. However, at a more granular level, the large range of heat densities of today's IT equipment makes the task of provisioning cooling power optimized to the level of individual computer room air conditioning (CRAC) units much more challenging. Distributed sensing within a DC enables the development of new strategies to improve energy efficiency, such as hot spot elimination through targeted cooling, matching power consumption at rack level with workload schedule, and minimizing power losses. The scope of Measurement and Management Technologies (MMT) is to develop a software tool and the underlying sensing technology to provide critical decision support and control for DC and telecommunication facilities (TF) operations. A key aspect of MMT technology is integration of modeling tools to understand how changes in one operational parameter affect the overall DC response. It is demonstrated that reduced ordered models for DC can generate, in less than 2 seconds computational time, a three dimensional thermal model in a 50 kft{sup 2} DC. This rapid modeling enables real time visualization of the DC conditions and enables 'what if' scenarios simulations to characterize response to 'disturbances'. One such example is thermal zone modeling that matches the cooling power to the heat generated at a local level by identifying DC zones cooled by a specific CRAC. Turning off a CRAC unit can be simulated to understand how the other CRAC utilization changes and how server temperature responds. Several new sensing

  11. An "Inefficient Fin" Non-Dimensional Parameter to Measure Gas Temperatures Efficiently

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemieux, Patrick; Murray, William; Cooke, Terry; Gerhardt, James

    2012-01-01

    A gas containment vessel that is not in thermal equilibrium with the bulk gas can affect its temperature measurement. The physical nature of many gas dynamics experiments often makes the accurate measurement of temperature a challenge. The environment itself typically requires that the thermocouple be sheathed, both to protect the wires and hot junction of the instrument from their environment, and to provide a smooth, rigid surface for pressure sealing of the enclosure. However, that enclosure may also be much colder than the gas to be sensed, or vice-versa. Either way, the effect of such gradients is to potentially skew the temperature measurements themselves, since heat may then be conducted by the instrument. Thermocouple designers traditionally address this problem by insulating the sheath from the thermocouple leads and hot junction as much as possible. The thermocouple leads are typically packed in a ceramic powder inside the sheath, protecting them somewhat from temperature gradients along the sheath, but there is no effective mechanism to shield the sheath from the enclosure body itself. Standard practice dictates that thermocouples be used in installations that do not present large thermal gradients along the probe. If this conduction dominates heat transfer near the tip of the probe, then temperature measurements may be expected to be skewed. While the same problem may be experienced in the measurement of temperature at various points within a solid in a gradient, it tends to be aggravated in the measurements of gas temperature, since heat transfer dependent on convection is often less efficient than conduction along the thermocouple. The proposed solution is an inefficient fin thermocouple probe. Conventional wisdom suggests that in many experiments where gas flows through an enclosure (e.g., flow in pipe, manifold, nozzle, etc.), the thermocouple be introduced flush to the surface, so as not to interfere with the flow. In practice, however, many such

  12. MONITORING POWER PLANT EFFICIENCY USING THE MICROWAVE-EXCITED PHOTOACOUSTIC EFFECT TO MEASURE UNBURNED CARBON

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Brown; Robert J. Weber; Jeff Sweterlitsch

    2004-10-01

    Three test instruments are being evaluated to determine the feasibility of using photoacoustic technology for measuring unburned carbon in fly ash. The first test instrument is a single microwave frequency system previously constructed to measure photoacoustic signals in an off-line configuration. A second off-line instrument was constructed based in part on lessons learned with the first instrument, but which also expands the capabilities of the first instrument. Improvements include a control loop to allow more constant microwave power output and an ability to operate over a range of microwave frequencies. The third instrument, the on-line version of the fly ash monitor, has been designed, constructed, and initial efficiency tests have been conducted on the monitor's electrical components. Off-line photoacoustic microwave spectra of fly ash and coal were collected and analyzed, and the spectra demonstrated a linear correlation between the photoacoustic response and the carbon content in either fly ash or coal. Modifications were made to the on-line fly ash monitor to incorporate a dual-accelerometer system that would provide active noise control. Several experiments were conducted with flowing and non-flowing fly ash samples.

  13. [Evaluation of the efficiency of Angara River water protection measures against pollution by petroleum products].

    PubMed

    Zabuga, G A; Katul'skiĭ, Iu N; Gorbunova, O V; Storozheva, L N

    2011-01-01

    The process installations and storage reservoirs of a petroleum refinery have leaks of petroleum products (PP) that pollute soil, underground waters, and eventually nearest water objects, by worsening their hygienic state. Environmental and economic assessments of the Angara River water protection system that is in operation at the petroleum refinery OAO "Angara Petroleum Company", which comprises well clusters, a gravel-filled trench, and a drainage system, have shown the high values of preventable relative natural and economic damages and other economic indicators. At the same time, comparison of the amount of PPs accumulated at the industrial site with their annual withdrawal has demonstrated a need for further development of a river protection system. Therefore the environmental protection system efficacy evaluated by the quality of goal attainment and by means of a matrix of algorithmized statements was 60% or 5 of 20 scores, which shows the necessity of special measures to protect Angara River waters. The elaboration and implementation of these measures associated with considerable expenditures make it possible not only to increase the environmental efficiency of water protection of the Angara River, but also to do the hygienic quality of water use in its related localities.

  14. In-situ Stress Measurement of MOVPE Growth of High Efficiency Lattice-Mismatched Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Geisz, J. F.; Levander, A. X.; Norman, A. G.; Jones, K. M.; Romero, M. J.

    2007-04-01

    We have recently reported high efficiencies in a monolithic III-V triple-junction solar cell design that is grown inverted with a metamorphic 1.0 eV bottom In{sub .27}Ga{sub .73}As junction. The biaxial stress and strain grown into this highly lattice-mismatched junction can be controlled by varying the design of a step-graded Ga{sub x}In{sub 1-x}P buffer layer, in which most, but not all, of the 1.9% misfit strain is relieved. A multi-beam optical stress sensor (MOSS) is a convenient tool for in situ measurement of stress during metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) for the optimization of solar cell performance. The analysis of stress from curvature data is complicated by significant temperature effects due to relatively small thermal gradients in our atmospheric-pressure MOVPE reactor. These temperature effects are discussed and approximations made to allow practical analysis of the data. The results show excellent performance of inverted In{sub .27}Ga{sub .73}. As solar cells grown with slight compressive stress, but degradation under tensile stress. The best devices had a V{sub oc} of 0.54 V and a dislocation density in the low 10{sup 6} cm{sup -2}. The in situ stress data is also compared with ex situ strain data derived from X-ray diffraction measurements.

  15. Measure of the diffraction efficiency of a holographic grating created by two Gaussian beams.

    PubMed

    Leclere, P; Renotte, Y; Lion, Y

    1992-08-10

    We present a methodology for analyzing the characteristics of a photosensitive material for holography. When two Gaussian beams of equal intensities are exactly superimposed on the recording material, the modulation of the interference pattern is equal to unity. When they are no longer exactly superimposed, this modulation varies from one to zero depending on the analyzed point. On the other hand, the modulation is constant in a direction that is perpendicular to the incident plane. Therefore it is possible to consider a complete analysis (point by point) of only one holographic grating to measure the diffraction efficiency eta at a given modulation versus exposure or for varying modulation (or beam ratio K) for a given exposure. We present the results that are obtained with an experimental setup that was devised for that purpose. From these measurements it was possible to extract various parameters such as refractive-index modulation of the photosensitive support. The tested recording materials consist of film of dichromated gelatin and films of dichromate polyvinyl alcohol. PMID:20725484

  16. MONITORING POWER PLANT EFFICIENCY USING THE MICROWAVE-EXCITED PHOTOACOUSTIC EFFECT TO MEASURE UNBURNED CARBON

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Brown; Robert J. Weber; Jeff Sweterlitsch

    2003-01-01

    Three test instruments are being evaluated to determine the feasibility of using photoacoustic technology for measuring unburned carbon in fly ash. The first test instrument is a single microwave frequency system previously constructed to measure photoacoustic signals in an off-line configuration. A second off-line instrument was constructed based in part on lessons learned with the first instrument, but which also expands the capabilities of the first instrument. Improvements include a control loop to allow more constant microwave power output and an ability to operate over a range of microwave frequencies. The third instrument, the on-line version of the fly ash monitor, has been designed, constructed, and initial efficiency tests have been conducted on the monitor's electrical components. Design and construction of the on-line fly ash monitor has been completed, as well as supporting apparatus that includes the independent support stands for the fly ash feeders and customized bottom hopper and feeder system. Modifications were made to the original design of the on-line monitor to improve the flow of fly ash through the monitor, and improvements were made to the diaphragm assembly where the accelerometer is to be mounted. The electrical components that provide and regulate the microwave source has been completed. Microwave leakage tests have also been completed to determine the robustness of the on-line monitor.

  17. Shunt currents in vanadium flow batteries: Measurement, modelling and implications for efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, H.; Remy, M.

    2015-06-01

    Shunt currents are an important factor which must be considered when designing a stack for flow batteries. They lead to a reduction of the coulombic efficiency and can cause furthermore a critical warming of the electrolyte. Shunt currents inevitably appear at bypass connections of the hydraulic system between the single cells of a stack. In this work the shunt currents of a five-celled mini stack of a vanadium flow battery with external hydraulic system and their effects are investigated directly. The external hydraulic system allows the implementation of current sensors for direct measurement of the shunt currents; moreover, the single bypass channels can be interrupted by clamping the tube couplings and with it the shunt currents between the cells when the pumps are off. Thus the shares of losses by cross contamination and by shunt currents are quantified separately by charge conservation measurements. The experimentally gained data are compared to a shunt current model based on a equivalent circuit diagram and the linear equation system derived from it. Experiments and model data are in good agreement. The effects of shunt currents for different flow frame geometries and number of cells in a stack are simulated and presented in this work.

  18. MONITORING POWER PLANT EFFICIENCY USING THE MICROWAVE-EXCITED PHOTOACOUSTIC EFFECT TO MEASURE UNBURNED CARBON

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Brown; Robert J. Weber; Jeff Sweterlitsch

    2004-07-01

    Three test instruments are being evaluated to determine the feasibility of using photoacoustic technology for measuring unburned carbon in fly ash. The first test instrument is a single microwave frequency system previously constructed to measure photoacoustic signals in an off-line configuration. A second off-line instrument was constructed based in part on lessons learned with the first instrument, but which also expands the capabilities of the first instrument. Improvements include a control loop to allow more constant microwave power output and an ability to operate over a range of microwave frequencies. The third instrument, the on-line version of the fly ash monitor, has been designed, constructed, and initial efficiency tests have been conducted on the monitor's electrical components. This quarter focused on improving the signal strength of the accelerometer by increasing the power level of the microwaves that induced the thermo-elastic effect, and also to conduct repeatability experiments. Efforts this quarter were spent improving the coupling of the accelerometer with the diaphragm, detecting and eliminating microwave leakage, isolating stray electrical current within the laboratory, specifically within the ground, and replacing a faulty lock-in amplifier.

  19. Measuring and Benchmarking Technical Efficiency of Public Hospitals in Tianjin, China: A Bootstrap-Data Envelopment Analysis Approach.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Dong, Siping

    2015-01-01

    China has long been stuck in applying traditional data envelopment analysis (DEA) models to measure technical efficiency of public hospitals without bias correction of efficiency scores. In this article, we have introduced the Bootstrap-DEA approach from the international literature to analyze the technical efficiency of public hospitals in Tianjin (China) and tried to improve the application of this method for benchmarking and inter-organizational learning. It is found that the bias corrected efficiency scores of Bootstrap-DEA differ significantly from those of the traditional Banker, Charnes, and Cooper (BCC) model, which means that Chinese researchers need to update their DEA models for more scientific calculation of hospital efficiency scores. Our research has helped shorten the gap between China and the international world in relative efficiency measurement and improvement of hospitals. It is suggested that Bootstrap-DEA be widely applied into afterward research to measure relative efficiency and productivity of Chinese hospitals so as to better serve for efficiency improvement and related decision making.

  20. Comparison of Efficiency Measures for Academic Interventions Based on Acquisition and Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Matthew K.; Sterling-Turner, Heather E.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the importance of examining the instructional efficiency of academic interventions and has defined efficiency as the number of items learned per instructional minute. Maintenance of the skill is also an important instructional goal, however. Therefore, the current study compared efficiency metrics using initial…

  1. 10 CFR 431.106 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial water heaters and hot...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Unfired Hot Water Storage Tanks Test Procedures § 431.106 Uniform test method for the measurement..., pursuant to EPCA, you are measuring the thermal efficiency or standby loss, or both, of a storage or... procedures in subsection labeled “Method of Test” of With these additional stipulations Gas-fired Storage...

  2. 10 CFR 431.106 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial water heaters and hot...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Unfired Hot Water Storage Tanks Test Procedures § 431.106 Uniform test method for the measurement..., pursuant to EPCA, you are measuring the thermal efficiency or standby loss, or both, of a storage or... procedures in subsection labeled “Method of Test” of With these additional stipulations Gas-fired Storage...

  3. 10 CFR 431.106 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial water heaters and hot...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Unfired Hot Water Storage Tanks Test Procedures § 431.106 Uniform test method for the measurement..., pursuant to EPCA, you are measuring the thermal efficiency or standby loss, or both, of a storage or... procedures in subsection labeled “Method of Test” of With these additional stipulations Gas-fired Storage...

  4. 10 CFR 431.106 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial water heaters and hot...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... heat pump water heaters). (a) Scope. This section covers the test procedures you must follow if, pursuant to EPCA, you are measuring the thermal efficiency or standby loss, or both, of a storage or... following occurs first after you begin to measure the fuel and/or electric consumption: (1) The first...

  5. Measuring Efficiency of Tunisian Schools in the Presence of Quasi-Fixed Inputs: A Bootstrap Data Envelopment Analysis Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essid, Hedi; Ouellette, Pierre; Vigeant, Stephane

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to measure the efficiency of high schools in Tunisia. We use a statistical data envelopment analysis (DEA)-bootstrap approach with quasi-fixed inputs to estimate the precision of our measure. To do so, we developed a statistical model serving as the foundation of the data generation process (DGP). The DGP is…

  6. Secure Quantum Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Mehul

    Over the past three decades, quantum mechanics has allowed the development of technologies that provide unconditionally secure communication. In parallel, the quantum nature of the transverse electromagnetic field has spawned the field of quantum imaging that encompasses technologies such as quantum lithography, quantum ghost imaging, and high-dimensional quantum key distribution (QKD). The emergence of such quantum technologies also highlights the need for the development of accurate and efficient methods of measuring and characterizing the elusive quantum state itself. In this thesis, I present new technologies that use the quantum properties of light for security. The first of these is a technique that extends the principles behind QKD to the field of imaging and optical ranging. By applying the polarization-based BB84 protocol to individual photons in an active imaging system, we obtained images that were secure against any intercept-resend jamming attacks. The second technology presented in this thesis is based on an extension of quantum ghost imaging, a technique that uses position-momentum entangled photons to create an image of an object without directly gaining any spatial information from it. We used a holographic filtering technique to build a quantum ghost image identification system that uses a few pairs of photons to identify an object from a set of known objects. The third technology addressed in this thesis is a high-dimensional QKD system that uses orbital-angular-momentum (OAM) modes of light for encoding. Moving to a high-dimensional state space in QKD allows one to impress more information on each photon, as well as introduce higher levels of security. I discuss the development of two OAM-QKD protocols based on the BB84 and Ekert protocols of QKD. In addition, I present a study characterizing the effects of turbulence on a communication system using OAM modes for encoding. The fourth and final technology presented in this thesis is a relatively

  7. Software For Computer-Security Audits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, Kate; Lonsford, Emily

    1994-01-01

    Information relevant to potential breaches of security gathered efficiently. Automated Auditing Tools for VAX/VMS program includes following automated software tools performing noted tasks: Privileged ID Identification, program identifies users and their privileges to circumvent existing computer security measures; Critical File Protection, critical files not properly protected identified; Inactive ID Identification, identifications of users no longer in use found; Password Lifetime Review, maximum lifetimes of passwords of all identifications determined; and Password Length Review, minimum allowed length of passwords of all identifications determined. Written in DEC VAX DCL language.

  8. Measurements of erbium laser-ablation efficiency in hard dental tissues under different water cooling conditions.

    PubMed

    Kuščer, Lovro; Diaci, Janez

    2013-10-01

    Laser triangulation measurements of Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser-ablated volumes in hard dental tissues are made, in order to verify the possible existence of a "hydrokinetic" effect that has been proposed as an alternative to the "subsurface water expansion" mechanism for hard-tissue laser ablation. No evidence of the hydrokinetic effect could be observed under a broad range of tested laser parameters and water cooling conditions. On the contrary, the application of water spray during laser exposure of hard dental material is observed to diminish the laser-ablation efficiency (AE) in comparison with laser exposure under the absence of water spray. Our findings are in agreement with the generally accepted principle of action for erbium laser ablation, which is based on fast subsurface expansion of laser-heated water trapped within the interstitial structure of hard dental tissues. Our measurements also show that the well-known phenomenon of ablation stalling, during a series of consecutive laser pulses, can primarily be attributed to the blocking of laser light by the loosely bound and recondensed desiccated minerals that collect on the tooth surface during and following laser ablation. In addition to the prevention of tooth bulk temperature buildup, a positive function of the water spray that is typically used with erbium dental lasers is to rehydrate these minerals, and thus sustaining the subsurface expansion ablation process. A negative side effect of using a continuous water spray is that the AE gets reduced due to the laser light being partially absorbed in the water-spray particles above the tooth and in the collected water pool on the tooth surface. Finally, no evidence of the influence of the water absorption shift on the hypothesized increase in the AE of the Er,Cr:YSGG wavelength is observed.

  9. Measurements of erbium laser-ablation efficiency in hard dental tissues under different water cooling conditions.

    PubMed

    Kuščer, Lovro; Diaci, Janez

    2013-10-01

    Laser triangulation measurements of Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser-ablated volumes in hard dental tissues are made, in order to verify the possible existence of a "hydrokinetic" effect that has been proposed as an alternative to the "subsurface water expansion" mechanism for hard-tissue laser ablation. No evidence of the hydrokinetic effect could be observed under a broad range of tested laser parameters and water cooling conditions. On the contrary, the application of water spray during laser exposure of hard dental material is observed to diminish the laser-ablation efficiency (AE) in comparison with laser exposure under the absence of water spray. Our findings are in agreement with the generally accepted principle of action for erbium laser ablation, which is based on fast subsurface expansion of laser-heated water trapped within the interstitial structure of hard dental tissues. Our measurements also show that the well-known phenomenon of ablation stalling, during a series of consecutive laser pulses, can primarily be attributed to the blocking of laser light by the loosely bound and recondensed desiccated minerals that collect on the tooth surface during and following laser ablation. In addition to the prevention of tooth bulk temperature buildup, a positive function of the water spray that is typically used with erbium dental lasers is to rehydrate these minerals, and thus sustaining the subsurface expansion ablation process. A negative side effect of using a continuous water spray is that the AE gets reduced due to the laser light being partially absorbed in the water-spray particles above the tooth and in the collected water pool on the tooth surface. Finally, no evidence of the influence of the water absorption shift on the hypothesized increase in the AE of the Er,Cr:YSGG wavelength is observed. PMID:24105399

  10. An efficient calibration method for SQUID measurement system using three orthogonal Helmholtz coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Li; Shu-Lin, Zhang; Chao-Xiang, Zhang; Xiang-Yan, Kong; Xiao-Ming, Xie

    2016-06-01

    For a practical superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) based measurement system, the Tesla/volt coefficient must be accurately calibrated. In this paper, we propose a highly efficient method of calibrating a SQUID magnetometer system using three orthogonal Helmholtz coils. The Tesla/volt coefficient is regarded as the magnitude of a vector pointing to the normal direction of the pickup coil. By applying magnetic fields through a three-dimensional Helmholtz coil, the Tesla/volt coefficient can be directly calculated from magnetometer responses to the three orthogonally applied magnetic fields. Calibration with alternating current (AC) field is normally used for better signal-to-noise ratio in noisy urban environments and the results are compared with the direct current (DC) calibration to avoid possible effects due to eddy current. In our experiment, a calibration relative error of about 6.89 × 10-4 is obtained, and the error is mainly caused by the non-orthogonality of three axes of the Helmholtz coils. The method does not need precise alignment of the magnetometer inside the Helmholtz coil. It can be used for the multichannel magnetometer system calibration effectively and accurately. Project supported by the “Strategic Priority Research Program (B)” of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB04020200) and the Shanghai Municipal Science and Technology Commission Project, China (Grant No. 15DZ1940902).

  11. An efficient calibration method for SQUID measurement system using three orthogonal Helmholtz coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Li; Shu-Lin, Zhang; Chao-Xiang, Zhang; Xiang-Yan, Kong; Xiao-Ming, Xie

    2016-06-01

    For a practical superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) based measurement system, the Tesla/volt coefficient must be accurately calibrated. In this paper, we propose a highly efficient method of calibrating a SQUID magnetometer system using three orthogonal Helmholtz coils. The Tesla/volt coefficient is regarded as the magnitude of a vector pointing to the normal direction of the pickup coil. By applying magnetic fields through a three-dimensional Helmholtz coil, the Tesla/volt coefficient can be directly calculated from magnetometer responses to the three orthogonally applied magnetic fields. Calibration with alternating current (AC) field is normally used for better signal-to-noise ratio in noisy urban environments and the results are compared with the direct current (DC) calibration to avoid possible effects due to eddy current. In our experiment, a calibration relative error of about 6.89 × 10‑4 is obtained, and the error is mainly caused by the non-orthogonality of three axes of the Helmholtz coils. The method does not need precise alignment of the magnetometer inside the Helmholtz coil. It can be used for the multichannel magnetometer system calibration effectively and accurately. Project supported by the “Strategic Priority Research Program (B)” of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB04020200) and the Shanghai Municipal Science and Technology Commission Project, China (Grant No. 15DZ1940902).

  12. Measured transonic unsteady pressures on an energy efficient transport wing with oscillating control surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cazier, F. W., Jr.; Watson, J. J.; Doggett, R. V., Jr.; Sandford, M. C.; Ricketts, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    Highlight results are presented from subsonic and transonic pressure measurement studies conducted in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel on a supercritical wing model representative of an energy efficient transport design. Steady- and unsteady-pressure data were acquired on the upper and lower wing surface at an off-design Mach number of 0.60 and at the design Mach number of 0.78, for a Reynolds number of 2.2 x 10(6) (based on the wing average chord). The model configuration consisted of a sidewall-Mounted half-body fuselage and a semi-span wing with an aspect ratio of 10.76, a leading-edge sweepback angle of 28.8 degrees, and supercritical airfoil sections. The wing is instrumented with 252 static pressure orifices and 164 dynamic pressure gages. Model test variables included wing angle of attack, control-surface mean deflection angle, control-surface oscillating deflection angle and frequency, and phasing between oscillating leading-edge and trailing-edge controls when used together.

  13. Carbon reductions and health co-benefits from US residential energy efficiency measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Jonathan I.; Woo, May K.; Penn, Stefani L.; Omary, Mohammad; Tambouret, Yann; Kim, Chloe S.; Arunachalam, Saravanan

    2016-03-01

    The United States (US) Clean Power Plan established state-specific carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions reduction goals for fossil fuel-fired electricity generating units (EGUs). States may achieve these goals through multiple mechanisms, including measures that can achieve equivalent CO2 reductions such as residential energy efficiency, which will have important co-benefits. Here, we develop state-resolution simulations of the economic, health, and climate benefits of increased residential insulation, considering EGUs and residential combustion. Increasing insulation to International Energy Conservation Code 2012 levels for all single-family homes in the US in 2013 would lead to annual reductions of 80 million tons of CO2 from EGUs, with annual co-benefits including 30 million tons of CO2 from residential combustion and 320 premature deaths associated with criteria pollutant emissions from both EGUs and residential combustion sources. Monetized climate and health co-benefits average 49 per ton of CO2 reduced from EGUs (range across states: 12-390). State-specific co-benefit estimates can inform development of optimal Clean Power Plan implementation strategies.

  14. An Experimental Method for Measuring Water Droplet Impingement Efficiency on Two- and Three-dimensional Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadakis, M.; Zumwalt, G. W.; Elangonan, R.; Freund, G. A., Jr.; Breer, M.; Whitmer, L.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental method was developed to determine the droplet impingement characteristics on 2-D and 3-D bodies. The experimental results provide the essential droplet impingement data required to validate water droplet trajectory codes, which are used in the analysis of aircraft icing. A body, whose water droplet impingement characteristics are required, is covered at strategic locations by thin strips of moisture absorbing (blotter) paper, and is exposed to an air stream containing a water dye solution spray cloud. Water droplet impingement data are extracted from the dyed blotter strips by measuring the optical reflectance of the dye deposit on the strips, using an automated reflectometer. Models tested include a 4-inch diameter cylinder, a NACA 652015 airfoil section, a MS(1)-0317 supercritical airfoil section, three simulated ice shapes, an axisymmetric inlet and a Boeing 737-300 inlet model. Detailed descriptions of the dye tracer technique, instrumentation, data reduction method and the results obtained are presented. Analytical predictions of collection efficiency characteristics for most test configurations are included for comparison.

  15. Network Security Is Manageable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Gary

    2006-01-01

    An effective systems librarian must understand security vulnerabilities and be proactive in preventing problems. Specifics of future attacks or security challenges cannot possibly be anticipated, but this paper suggests some simple measures that can be taken to make attacks less likely to occur: program the operating system to get automatic…

  16. In situ spectral measurements improve the efficiency of light use efficiency models to estimate gross primary productivity in Mediterranean cork oak woodland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerasoli, S.; Silva, J. M.; Carvalhais, N.; Correia, A.; Costa e Silva, F.; Pereira, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    The Light Use Efficiency (LUE) concept is usually applied to retrieve Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) estimates in models integrating spectral indexes, namely Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI), considered proxies of biophysical properties of vegetation. The integration of spectral measurements into LUE models can increase the robustness of GPP estimates by optimizing particular parameters of the model. NDVI and PRI are frequently obtained by broad band sensors on remote platforms at low spatial resolution (e.g. MODIS). In highly heterogeneous ecosystems such spectral information may not be representative of the dynamic response of the ecosystem to climate variables. In Mediterranean oak woodlands different plant functional types (PFT): trees canopy, shrubs and herbaceous layer, contribute to the overall Gross Primary Productivity (GPP). In situ spectral measurements can provide useful information on each PFT and its temporal variability. The objectives of this study were: i) to analyze the temporal variability of NDVI, PRI and others spectral indices for the three PFT, their response to climate variables and their relationship with biophysical properties of vegetation; ii) to optimize a LUE model integrating selected spectral indexes in which the contribution of each PFT to the overall GPP is estimated individually; iii) to compare the performance of disaggregated GPP estimates and lumped GPP estimates, evaluated against eddy covariance measurements. Ground measurements of vegetation reflectance were performed in a cork oak woodland located in Coruche, Portugal (39°8'N, 8°19'W) where carbon and water fluxes are continuously measured by eddy covariance. Between April 2011 and June 2013 reflectance measurements of the herbaceous layer, shrubs and trees canopy were acquired with a FieldSpec3 spectroradiometer (ASD Inc.) which provided data in the range of 350-2500nm. Measurements were repeated approximately on

  17. A surface recombination model applied to large features in inorganic phosphor efficiency measurements in the soft x-ray region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benitez, E. L.; Husk, D. E.; Schnatterly, S. E.; Tarrio, C.

    1991-09-01

    The photoluminescent quantum efficiencies of the inorganic phosphors Y2O2S:Eu, Y2O3:Eu, La2O2S:Tm, Gd2O2S:Tb, and Sr5Cl(PO4)3:Eu have been measured in the range 17 to 450 eV. The optical properties of these phosphors from 2 to 160 eV have been determined from inelastic electron scattering measurements. Using a model which involves nonradiative recombination at the surface of the material, we relate photoluminescent efficiency to optical absorption properties, and find that surface recombination is the predominant source of efficiency loss for these materials in the soft x-ray range. From the model, we obtain values for the diffusion length, surface recombination velocity, and bulk quantum efficiency of these materials.

  18. Measuring capital market efficiency: long-term memory, fractal dimension and approximate entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav; Vosvrda, Miloslav

    2014-07-01

    We utilize long-term memory, fractal dimension and approximate entropy as input variables for the Efficiency Index [L. Kristoufek, M. Vosvrda, Physica A 392, 184 (2013)]. This way, we are able to comment on stock market efficiency after controlling for different types of inefficiencies. Applying the methodology on 38 stock market indices across the world, we find that the most efficient markets are situated in the Eurozone (the Netherlands, France and Germany) and the least efficient ones in the Latin America (Venezuela and Chile).

  19. Frontier-based techniques in measuring hospital efficiency in Iran: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years, there has been growing interest in measuring the efficiency of hospitals in Iran and several studies have been conducted on the topic. The main objective of this paper was to review studies in the field of hospital efficiency and examine the estimated technical efficiency (TE) of Iranian hospitals. Methods Persian and English databases were searched for studies related to measuring hospital efficiency in Iran. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models were applied for statistical analysis. The PRISMA guidelines were followed in the search process. Results A total of 43 efficiency scores from 29 studies were retrieved and used to approach the research question. Data envelopment analysis was the principal frontier efficiency method in the estimation of efficiency scores. The pooled estimate of mean TE was 0.846 (±0.134). There was a considerable variation in the efficiency scores between the different studies performed in Iran. There were no differences in efficiency scores between data envelopment analysis (DEA) and stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) techniques. The reviewed studies are generally similar and suffer from similar methodological deficiencies, such as no adjustment for case mix and quality of care differences. The results of OLS regression revealed that studies that included more variables and more heterogeneous hospitals generally reported higher TE. Larger sample size was associated with reporting lower TE. Conclusions The features of frontier-based techniques had a profound impact on the efficiency scores among Iranian hospital studies. These studies suffer from major methodological deficiencies and were of sub-optimal quality, limiting their validity and reliability. It is suggested that improving data collection and processing in Iranian hospital databases may have a substantial impact on promoting the quality of research in this field. PMID:23945011

  20. Review of Evaluation, Measurement and Verification Approaches Used to Estimate the Load Impacts and Effectiveness of Energy Efficiency Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Messenger, Mike; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Golemboski, Bill; Goldman, Charles A.; Schiller, Steven R.

    2010-04-14

    Public and private funding for end-use energy efficiency actions is expected to increase significantly in the United States over the next decade. For example, Barbose et al (2009) estimate that spending on ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs in the U.S. could increase from $3.1 billion in 2008 to $7.5 and 12.4 billion by 2020 under their medium and high scenarios. This increase in spending could yield annual electric energy savings ranging from 0.58% - 0.93% of total U.S. retail sales in 2020, up from 0.34% of retail sales in 2008. Interest in and support for energy efficiency has broadened among national and state policymakers. Prominent examples include {approx}$18 billion in new funding for energy efficiency programs (e.g., State Energy Program, Weatherization, and Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants) in the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Increased funding for energy efficiency should result in more benefits as well as more scrutiny of these results. As energy efficiency becomes a more prominent component of the U.S. national energy strategy and policies, assessing the effectiveness and energy saving impacts of energy efficiency programs is likely to become increasingly important for policymakers and private and public funders of efficiency actions. Thus, it is critical that evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) is carried out effectively and efficiently, which implies that: (1) Effective program evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) methodologies and tools are available to key stakeholders (e.g., regulatory agencies, program administrators, consumers, and evaluation consultants); and (2) Capacity (people and infrastructure resources) is available to conduct EM&V activities and report results in ways that support program improvement and provide data that reliably compares achieved results against goals and similar programs in other jurisdictions (benchmarking). The National Action Plan for Energy

  1. Seminal plasma protein concentrations vary with feed efficiency and fertility-related measures in young beef bulls.

    PubMed

    Montanholi, Y R; Fontoura, A B P; Diel de Amorim, M; Foster, R A; Chenier, T; Miller, S P

    2016-06-01

    Fertility-associated proteins (FAP) found in seminal plasma indicate sexual maturity, which appears to be influenced by feed efficiency in cattle. This study characterized FAP via proteomics and verified associations of these proteins with feed efficiency, body composition and fertility-related measures in yearling beef bulls. Assessments including testicular ultrasonography, infrared thermography, seminal quality, seminal plasma proteomics, carcass composition, and reproductive organ biometry were obtained. From a population of 31 bulls, the seven most and least feed efficient (efficient, inefficient) bulls were used for categorical comparisons. Correlations between FAP, productive performance and fertility-related measures were determined. These traits were also correlated with orthogonal factors summarized from the FAP. Efficient bulls had increased epididymal sperm-binding protein-1 and decreased concentration of protein-C inhibitor compared to inefficient bulls. Correlations between FAP with age, body size, body composition, reproductive organ biometry, scrotal temperature, and seminiferous tubule maturity are reported. Acrosin and cathepsin D increased with development of the testes and osteopontin increased with greater numbers of mature seminiferous tubules. Phosphoglycerate kinase-2 was higher in animals with a higher scrotum temperature and a higher prevalence of sperm morphology defects. The principal factor indicated that FAP variability concentrations were positively correlated with age, reproductive organ biometry, body size and composition. Our results indicate that FAP changes with body size and sexual development, and demonstrates differences in the proteomics of bulls with diverging feed efficiency. This is related to the delay in the sexual maturity of efficient young bulls.

  2. Seminal plasma protein concentrations vary with feed efficiency and fertility-related measures in young beef bulls.

    PubMed

    Montanholi, Y R; Fontoura, A B P; Diel de Amorim, M; Foster, R A; Chenier, T; Miller, S P

    2016-06-01

    Fertility-associated proteins (FAP) found in seminal plasma indicate sexual maturity, which appears to be influenced by feed efficiency in cattle. This study characterized FAP via proteomics and verified associations of these proteins with feed efficiency, body composition and fertility-related measures in yearling beef bulls. Assessments including testicular ultrasonography, infrared thermography, seminal quality, seminal plasma proteomics, carcass composition, and reproductive organ biometry were obtained. From a population of 31 bulls, the seven most and least feed efficient (efficient, inefficient) bulls were used for categorical comparisons. Correlations between FAP, productive performance and fertility-related measures were determined. These traits were also correlated with orthogonal factors summarized from the FAP. Efficient bulls had increased epididymal sperm-binding protein-1 and decreased concentration of protein-C inhibitor compared to inefficient bulls. Correlations between FAP with age, body size, body composition, reproductive organ biometry, scrotal temperature, and seminiferous tubule maturity are reported. Acrosin and cathepsin D increased with development of the testes and osteopontin increased with greater numbers of mature seminiferous tubules. Phosphoglycerate kinase-2 was higher in animals with a higher scrotum temperature and a higher prevalence of sperm morphology defects. The principal factor indicated that FAP variability concentrations were positively correlated with age, reproductive organ biometry, body size and composition. Our results indicate that FAP changes with body size and sexual development, and demonstrates differences in the proteomics of bulls with diverging feed efficiency. This is related to the delay in the sexual maturity of efficient young bulls. PMID:27288339

  3. A conceptual framework for selecting the most appropriate variables for measuring hospital efficiency with a focus on Iranian public hospitals.

    PubMed

    Afzali, Hossein Haji Ali; Moss, John R; Mahmood, Mohammad Afzal

    2009-05-01

    Over the past few decades, there has been an increasing interest in the measurement of hospital efficiency in developing countries and in Iran. While the choice of measurement methods in hospital efficiency assessment has been widely argued in the literature, few authors have offered a framework to specify variables that reflect different hospital functions, the quality of the process of care and the effectiveness of hospital services. However, without the knowledge of hospital objectives and all relevant functions, efficiency studies run the risk of making biased comparisons, particularly against hospitals that provide higher quality services requiring the use of more resources. Undertaking an in-depth investigation regarding the multi-product nature of hospitals, various hospital functions and the values of various stakeholders (patient, staff and community) with a focus on the Iranian public hospitals, this study has proposed a conceptual framework to select the most appropriate variables for measuring hospital efficiency using frontier-based techniques. This paper contributes to hospital efficiency studies by proposing a conceptual framework and incorporating a broader set of variables in Iran. This can enhance the validity of hospital efficiency studies using frontier-based methods in developing countries.

  4. Measuring effects of climate change and energy efficiency regulations in U.S. households

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koirala, Bishwa Shakha

    The first chapter explains the human causes of climate change and its costs, which is estimated to be about 3.6% of GDP by the end of 21 st century (NRDC, 2008). The second chapter investigates how projected July temperatures will increase the demand for electricity in the U.S. by 0.8%, while projected January temperatures will decrease the demand for natural gas and heating oil by 1% and 2.3%, respectively. This chapter further examines effects of the energy-efficiency building codes: IECC 2003 and IECC 2006 in the U.S. in reducing the energy consumption in the U.S. households. This study finds that these state-level building codes are effective in reducing energy demand. Adoption of these codes reduces the electricity demand by 1.8%, natural gas by 1.3% and heating oil by 2.8%. A total of about 7.54 MMT per year emission reduction of CO2 is possible from the residential sector by applying such energy-efficiency building codes. This chapter further estimates an average of 1,342 kWh/Month of electricity consumption, 3,429 CFt/Month of natural gas consumption and 277 Gallon/Year of heating oil consumption per household. It also indentifies the existence of state heterogeneity that affects household level energy demand, and finds that assumption of independence of error term is violated. Chapter 3 estimates the implicit prices of climate in dollar by analyzing the hedonic rent and wage models for homeowners and apartment renters. The estimated results show that January temperature is a disamenity for which both homeowners and renters are being compensated (negative marginal willingness to pay) through U.S. by 16 and 25 at the 2004 price level per month, respectively. It also finds that the January temperature is productive, whereas the July temperatures and annual precipitation are amenities and less productive. This study suggests that households would be willing to pay for higher temperature and increased precipitation; the estimated threshold point for July

  5. Measuring Efficiency in the Community College Sector. CCRC Working Paper No. 43

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive R.

    2012-01-01

    Community colleges are increasingly being pressed to demonstrate efficiency and improve productivity even as these concepts are not clearly defined and require a significant set of assumptions to determine. This paper sets out a preferred economic definition of efficiency: fiscal and social cost per degree. It then assesses the validity of using…

  6. Security Locks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    According to a 2008 "Year in Review" report by Educational Security Incidents, an online repository that collects data on higher education security issues, the total number of security incidents reported at universities and colleges worldwide rose to 173 in 2008, a 24.5 percent increase over 2007. The number of institutions affected--perhaps the…

  7. Electron reconstruction and identification efficiency measurements with the ATLAS detector using the 2011 LHC proton-proton collision data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abajyan, T.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Khalek, S. Abdel; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Verzini, M. J. Alconada; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allison, L. J.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Gonzalez, B. Alvarez; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Coutinho, Y. Amaral; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Ammosov, V. V.; Santos, S. P. Amor Dos; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angelidakis, S.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Bella, L. Aperio; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Mayes, J. Backus; Badescu, E.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, S.; Balek, P.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Costa, J. Barreiro Guimarães da; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Bartsch, V.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Noccioli, E. Benhar; Garcia, J. A. Benitez; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Kuutmann, E. Bergeaas; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernat, P.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia, O.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; De Mendizabal, J. Bilbao; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boek, T. T.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borri, M.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutouil, S.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Branchini, P.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brelier, B.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bromberg, C.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, G.; Brown, J.; Renstrom, P. A. Bruckman de; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Bucci, F.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R. M.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bundock, A. C.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burghgrave, B.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Butt, A. I.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Byszewski, M.; Urbán, S. Cabrera; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Toro, R. Camacho; Camarda, S.; Cameron, D.; Caminada, L. M.; Armadans, R. Caminal; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Garrido, M. D. M. Capeans; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelli, A.; Gimenez, V. Castillo; Castro, N. F.; Catastini, P.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerio, B.; Cerny, K.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chalupkova, I.; Chan, K.; Chang, P.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J. D.; Charfeddine, D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chau, C. C.; Barajas, C. A. Chavez; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, L.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Moursli, R. Cherkaoui El; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiefari, G.; Childers, J. T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chislett, R. T.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Christidi, I. A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciocio, A.; Cirkovic, P.; Citron, Z. H.; Citterio, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J. C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coffey, L.; Cogan, J. G.; Coggeshall, J.; Cole, B.; Cole, S.; Colijn, A. P.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Colon, G.; Compostella, G.; Muiño, P. Conde; Coniavitis, E.; Conidi, M. C.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consonni, S. M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cooper-Smith, N. J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Côté, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Ortuzar, M. Crispin; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Cuciuc, C.-M.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Donszelmann, T. Cuhadar; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cuthbert, C.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; De Sousa, M. J. Da Cunha Sargedas; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dafinca, A.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Daniells, A. C.; Hoffmann, M. Dano; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darlea, G. L.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J. A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davignon, O.; Davison, A. R.; Davison, P.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; de Graat, J.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De La Taille, C.; De la Torre, H.; De Lorenzi, F.; De Nooij, L.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; De Zorzi, G.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dechenaux, B.; Dedovich, D. V.; Degenhardt, J.; Deigaard, I.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Dell'Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; Ciaccio, A. Di; Di Ciaccio, L.; Domenico, A. Di; Donato, C. Di; Girolamo, A. Di; Girolamo, B. Di; Mattia, A. Di; Micco, B. Di; Nardo, R. Di; Simone, A. Di; Sipio, R. Di; Valentino, D. Di; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T. A.; Diglio, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Vale, M. A. B. do; Wemans, A. Do Valle; Doan, T. K. O.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Doglioni, C.; Doherty, T.; Dohmae, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dos Anjos, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Dube, S.; Dubreuil, E.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Duflot, L.; Duguid, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Durglishvili, A.; Dwuznik, M.; Dyndal, M.; Ebke, J.; Edson, W.; Edwards, N. C.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enari, Y.; Endner, O. C.; Endo, M.; Engelmann, R.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ernis, G.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Fabbri, L.; Facini, G.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Faltova, J.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Favareto, A.; Fayard, L.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Fehling-Kaschek, M.; Feigl, S.; Feligioni, L.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Feng, H.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Perez, S. Fernandez; Fernando, W.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrara, V.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; de Lima, D. E. Ferreira; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Parodi, A. Ferretto; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filipuzzi, M.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Finelli, K. D.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, M. J.; Fisher, W. C.; Fitzgerald, E. A.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Fletcher, G. T.; Fletcher, G.; Flick, T.; Floderus, A.; Castillo, L. R. Flores; Bustos, A. C. Florez; Flowerdew, M. J.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fortin, D.; Fournier, D.; Fox, H.; Fracchia, S.; Francavilla, P.; Franchini, M.; Franchino, S.; Francis, D.; Franklin, M.; Franz, S.; Fraternali, M.; French, S. T.; Friedrich, C.; Friedrich, F.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Torregrosa, E. Fullana; Fulsom, B. G.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gabrielli, A.; Gadatsch, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Galhardo, B.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallo, V.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galster, G.; Gan, K. K.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Gao, J.; Gao, Y. S.; Walls, F. M. Garay; Garberson, F.; García, C.; Navarro, J. E. García; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garonne, V.; Gatti, C.; Gaudio, G.; Gaur, B.; Gauthier, L.; Gauzzi, P.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gazis, E. N.; Ge, P.; Gecse, Z.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geerts, D. A. A.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Gellerstedt, K.; Gemme, C.; Gemmell, A.; Genest, M. H.; Gentile, S.; George, M.; George, S.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gershon, A.; Ghazlane, H.; Ghodbane, N.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giangiobbe, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gianotti, F.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, S. M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gillam, T. P. S.; Gillberg, D.; Gilles, G.; Gingrich, D. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M. P.; Giordano, R.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giraud, P. F.; Giugni, D.; Giuliani, C.; Giulini, M.; Gjelsten, B. K.; Gkialas, I.; Gladilin, L. K.; Glasman, C.; Glatzer, J.; Glaysher, P. C. F.; Glazov, A.; Glonti, G. L.; Goblirsch-Kolb, M.; Goddard, J. R.; Godfrey, J.; Godlewski, J.; Goeringer, C.; Goldfarb, S.; Golling, T.; Golubkov, D.; Gomes, A.; Fajardo, L. S. Gomez; Gonçalo, R.; Costa, J. Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da; Gonella, L.; de la Hoz, S. González; Parra, G. Gonzalez; Silva, M. L. Gonzalez; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goossens, L.; Gorbounov, P. A.; Gordon, H. A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorfine, G.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorišek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Goshaw, A. T.; Gössling, C.; Gostkin, M. I.; Gouighri, M.; Goujdami, D.; Goulette, M. P.; Goussiou, A. G.; Goy, C.; Gozpinar, S.; Grabas, H. M. X.; Graber, L.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grafström, P.; Grahn, K.-J.; Gramling, J.; Gramstad, E.; Grancagnolo, F.; Grancagnolo, S.; Grassi, V.; Gratchev, V.; Gray, H. M.; Graziani, E.; Grebenyuk, O. G.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregersen, K.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Griffiths, J.; Grigalashvili, N.; Grillo, A. A.; Grimm, K.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Grishkevich, Y. V.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohs, J. P.; Grohsjean, A.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Grossi, G. C.; Groth-Jensen, J.; Grout, Z. J.; Grybel, K.; Guan, L.; Guescini, F.; Guest, D.; Gueta, O.; Guicheney, C.; Guido, E.; Guillemin, T.; Guindon, S.; Gul, U.; Gumpert, C.; Gunther, J.; Guo, J.; Gupta, S.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutierrez Ortiz, N. G.; Gutschow, C.; Guttman, N.; Guyot, C.; Gwenlan, C.; Gwilliam, C. B.; Haas, A.; Haber, C.; Hadavand, H. K.; Haddad, N.; Haefner, P.; Hageboeck, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Haleem, M.; Hall, D.; Halladjian, G.; Hamacher, K.; Hamal, P.; Hamano, K.; Hamer, M.; Hamilton, A.; Hamilton, S.; Hamnett, P. G.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hanawa, K.; Hance, M.; Hanke, P.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, P. H.; Hara, K.; Hard, A. S.; Harenberg, T.; Harkusha, S.; Harper, D.; Harrington, R. D.; Harris, O. M.; Harrison, P. F.; Hartjes, F.; Harvey, A.; Hasegawa, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hasib, A.; Hassani, S.; Haug, S.; Hauschild, M.; Hauser, R.; Havranek, M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Hawkings, R. J.; Hawkins, A. D.; Hayashi, T.; Hayden, D.; Hays, C. P.; Hayward, H. S.; Haywood, S. J.; Head, S. J.; Heck, T.; Hedberg, V.; Heelan, L.; Heim, S.; Heim, T.; Heinemann, B.; Heinrich, L.; Heisterkamp, S.; Hejbal, J.; Helary, L.; Heller, C.; Heller, M.; Hellman, S.; Hellmich, D.; Helsens, C.; Henderson, J.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Hengler, C.; Henrichs, A.; Henriques Correia, A. M.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hensel, C.; Herbert, G. H.; Jiménez, Y. Hernández; Herrberg-Schubert, R.; Herten, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Hervas, L.; Hesketh, G. G.; Hessey, N. P.; Hickling, R.; Higón-Rodriguez, E.; Hill, J. C.; Hiller, K. H.; Hillert, S.; Hillier, S. J.; Hinchliffe, I.; Hines, E.; Hirose, M.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hobbs, J.; Hod, N.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Hodgson, P.; Hoecker, A.; Hoeferkamp, M. R.; Hoffman, J.; Hoffmann, D.; Hofmann, J. I.; Hohlfeld, M.; Holmes, T. R.; Hong, T. M.; Hooft van Huysduynen, L.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Hou, S.; Hoummada, A.; Howard, J.; Howarth, J.; Hrabovsky, M.; Hristova, I.; Hrivnac, J.; Hryn'ova, T.; Hsu, P. J.; Hsu, S.-C.; Hu, D.; Hu, X.; Huang, Y.; Hubacek, Z.; Hubaut, F.; Huegging, F.; Huffman, T. B.; Hughes, E. W.; Hughes, G.; Huhtinen, M.; Hülsing, T. A.; Hurwitz, M.; Huseynov, N.; Huston, J.; Huth, J.; Iacobucci, G.; Iakovidis, G.; Ibragimov, I.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Idarraga, J.; Ideal, E.; Iengo, P.; Igonkina, O.; Iizawa, T.; Ikegami, Y.; Ikematsu, K.; Ikeno, M.; Iliadis, D.; Ilic, N.; Inamaru, Y.; Ince, T.; Ioannou, P.; Iodice, M.; Iordanidou, K.; Ippolito, V.; Quiles, A. Irles; Isaksson, C.; Ishino, M.; Ishitsuka, M.; Ishmukhametov, R.; Issever, C.; Istin, S.; Iturbe Ponce, J. M.; Ivashin, A. V.; Iwanski, W.; Iwasaki, H.; Izen, J. M.; Izzo, V.; Jackson, B.; Jackson, J. N.; Jackson, M.; Jackson, P.; Jaekel, M. R.; Jain, V.; Jakobs, K.; Jakobsen, S.; Jakoubek, T.; Jakubek, J.; Jamin, D. O.; Jana, D. K.; Jansen, E.; Jansen, H.; Janssen, J.; Janus, M.; Jarlskog, G.; Javůrek, T.; Jeanty, L.; Jeng, G.-Y.; Jennens, D.; Jenni, P.; Jentzsch, J.; Jeske, C.; Jézéquel, S.; Ji, H.; Ji, W.; Jia, J.; Jiang, Y.; Jimenez Belenguer, M.; Jin, S.; Jinaru, A.; Jinnouchi, O.; Joergensen, M. D.; Johansson, K. E.; Johansson, P.; Johns, K. A.; Jon-And, K.; Jones, G.; Jones, R. W. L.; Jones, T. J.; Jongmanns, J.; Jorge, P. M.; Joshi, K. D.; Jovicevic, J.; Ju, X.; Jung, C. A.; Jungst, R. M.; Jussel, P.; Juste Rozas, A.; Kaci, M.; Kaczmarska, A.; Kado, M.; Kagan, H.; Kagan, M.; Kajomovitz, E.; Kama, S.; Kanaya, N.; Kaneda, M.; Kaneti, S.; Kanno, T.; Kantserov, V. A.; Kanzaki, J.; Kaplan, B.; Kapliy, A.; Kar, D.; Karakostas, K.; Karastathis, N.; Karnevskiy, M.; Karpov, S. N.; Karthik, K.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Karyukhin, A. N.; Kashif, L.; Kasieczka, G.; Kass, R. D.; Kastanas, A.; Kataoka, Y.; Katre, A.; Katzy, J.; Kaushik, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kawamura, G.; Kazama, S.; Kazanin, V. F.; Kazarinov, M. Y.; Keeler, R.; Keener, P. T.; Kehoe, R.; Keil, M.; Keller, J. S.; Keoshkerian, H.; Kepka, O.; Kerševan, B. P.; Kersten, S.; Kessoku, K.; Keung, J.; Khalil-zada, F.; Khandanyan, H.; Khanov, A.; Khodinov, A.; Khomich, A.; Khoo, T. J.; Khoriauli, G.; Khoroshilov, A.; Khovanskiy, V.; Khramov, E.; Khubua, J.; Kim, H. Y.; Kim, H.; Kim, S. H.; Kimura, N.; Kind, O.; King, B. T.; King, M.; King, R. S. B.; King, S. B.; Kirk, J.; Kiryunin, A. E.; Kishimoto, T.; Kisielewska, D.; Kiss, F.; Kitamura, T.; Kittelmann, T.; Kiuchi, K.; Kladiva, E.; Klein, M.; Klein, U.; Kleinknecht, K.; Klimek, P.; Klimentov, A.; Klingenberg, R.; Klinger, J. A.; Klinkby, E. B.; Klioutchnikova, T.; Klok, P. F.; Kluge, E.-E.; Kluit, P.; Kluth, S.; Kneringer, E.; Knoops, E. B. F. G.; Knue, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kocian, M.; Kodys, P.; Koevesarki, P.; Koffas, T.; Koffeman, E.; Kogan, L. A.; Kohlmann, S.; Kohout, Z.; Kohriki, T.; Koi, T.; Kolanoski, H.; Koletsou, I.; Koll, J.; Komar, A. A.; Komori, Y.; Kondo, T.; Köneke, K.; König, A. C.; König, S.; Kono, T.; Konoplich, R.; Konstantinidis, N.; Kopeliansky, R.; Koperny, S.; Köpke, L.; Kopp, A. K.; Korcyl, K.; Kordas, K.; Korn, A.; Korol, A. A.; Korolkov, I.; Korolkova, E. V.; Korotkov, V. A.; Kortner, O.; Kortner, S.; Kostyukhin, V. V.; Kotov, S.; Kotov, V. M.; Kotwal, A.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouskoura, V.; Koutsman, A.; Kowalewski, R.; Kowalski, T. Z.; Kozanecki, W.; Kozhin, A. S.; Kral, V.; Kramarenko, V. A.; Kramberger, G.; Krasnopevtsev, D.; Krasny, M. W.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Kraus, J. K.; Kravchenko, A.; Kreiss, S.; Kretz, M.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kreutzfeldt, K.; Krieger, P.; Kroeninger, K.; Kroha, H.; Kroll, J.; Kroseberg, J.; Krstic, J.; Kruchonak, U.; Krüger, H.; Kruker, T.; Krumnack, N.; Krumshteyn, Z. V.; Kruse, A.; Kruse, M. C.; Kruskal, M.; Kubota, T.; Kuday, S.; Kuehn, S.; Kugel, A.; Kuhl, A.; Kuhl, T.; Kukhtin, V.; Kulchitsky, Y.; Kuleshov, S.; Kuna, M.; Kunkle, J.; Kupco, A.; Kurashige, H.; Kurochkin, Y. A.; Kurumida, R.; Kus, V.; Kuwertz, E. S.; Kuze, M.; Kvita, J.; La Rosa, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Labarga, L.; Lacasta, C.; Lacava, F.; Lacey, J.; Lacker, H.; Lacour, D.; Lacuesta, V. R.; Ladygin, E.; Lafaye, R.; Laforge, B.; Lagouri, T.; Lai, S.; Laier, H.; Lambourne, L.; Lammers, S.; Lampen, C. L.; Lampl, W.; Lançon, E.; Landgraf, U.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lang, V. S.; Lange, C.; Lankford, A. J.; Lanni, F.; Lantzsch, K.; Laplace, S.; Lapoire, C.; Laporte, J. F.; Lari, T.; Lassnig, M.; Laurelli, P.; Lavorini, V.; Lavrijsen, W.; Law, A. T.; Laycock, P.; Le, B. T.; Le Dortz, O.; Guirriec, E. Le; Menedeu, E. Le; LeCompte, T.; Ledroit-Guillon, F.; Lee, C. A.; Lee, H.; Lee, J. S. H.; Lee, S. C.; Lee, L.; Lefebvre, G.; Lefebvre, M.; Legger, F.; Leggett, C.; Lehan, A.; Lehmacher, M.; Miotto, G. Lehmann; Lei, X.; Leister, A. G.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitner, R.; Lellouch, D.; Lemmer, B.; Leney, K. J. C.; Lenz, T.; Lenzen, G.; Lenzi, B.; Leone, R.; Leonhardt, K.; Leontsinis, S.; Leroy, C.; Lester, C. G.; Lester, C. M.; Levêque, J.; Levin, D.; Levinson, L. J.; Levy, M.; Lewis, A.; Lewis, G. H.; Leyko, A. M.; Leyton, M.; Li, B.; Li, H.; Li, H. L.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Liang, Z.; Liao, H.; Liberti, B.; Lichard, P.; Lie, K.; Liebal, J.; Liebig, W.; Limbach, C.; Limosani, A.; Limper, M.; Lin, S. C.; Linde, F.; Lindquist, B. E.; Linnemann, J. T.; Lipeles, E.; Lipniacka, A.; Lisovyi, M.; Liss, T. M.; Lissauer, D.; Lister, A.; Litke, A. M.; Liu, B.; Liu, D.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, K.; Liu, L.; Liu, M.; Liu, Y.; Livan, M.; Livermore, S. S. A.; Lleres, A.; Llorente Merino, J.; Lloyd, S. L.; Lo Sterzo, F.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loch, P.; Lockman, W. S.; Loddenkoetter, T.; Loebinger, F. K.; Loevschall-Jensen, A. E.; Loginov, A.; Loh, C. W.; Lohse, T.; Lohwasser, K.; Lokajicek, M.; Lombardo, V. P.; Long, J. D.; Long, R. E.; Lopes, L.; Lopez Mateos, D.; Paredes, B. Lopez; Lorenz, J.; Lorenzo Martinez, N.; Losada, M.; Loscutoff, P.; Losty, M. J.; Lou, X.; Lounis, A.; Love, J.; Love, P. A.; Lowe, A. J.; Lu, F.; Lubatti, H. J.; Luci, C.; Lucotte, A.; Luehring, F.; Lukas, W.; Luminari, L.; Lundberg, O.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Lungwitz, M.; Lynn, D.; Lysak, R.; Lytken, E.; Ma, H.; Ma, L. L.; Maccarrone, G.; Macchiolo, A.; Maček, B.; Miguens, J. Machado; Macina, D.; Madaffari, D.; Madar, R.; Maddocks, H. J.; Mader, W. F.; Madsen, A.; Maeno, M.; Maeno, T.; Magradze, E.; Mahboubi, K.; Mahlstedt, J.; Mahmoud, S.; Maiani, C.; Maidantchik, C.; Maio, A.; Majewski, S.; Makida, Y.; Makovec, N.; Mal, P.; Malaescu, B.; Malecki, Pa.; Maleev, V. P.; Malek, F.; Mallik, U.; Malon, D.; Malone, C.; Maltezos, S.; Malyshev, V. M.; Malyukov, S.; Mamuzic, J.; Mandelli, B.; Mandelli, L.; Mandić, I.; Mandrysch, R.; Maneira, J.; Manfredini, A.; de Andrade Filho, L. Manhaes; Ramos, J. A. Manjarres; Mann, A.; Manning, P. M.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Mansoulie, B.; Mantifel, R.; Mapelli, L.; March, L.; Marchand, J. F.; Marchese, F.; Marchiori, G.; Marcisovsky, M.; Marino, C. P.; Marques, C. N.; Marroquim, F.; Marsden, S. P.; Marshall, Z.; Marti, L. F.; Marti-Garcia, S.; Martin, B.; Martin, J. P.; Martin, T. A.; Martin, V. J.; Martin dit Latour, B.; Martinez, H.; Martinez, M.; Martin-Haugh, S.; Martyniuk, A. C.; Marx, M.; Marzano, F.; Marzin, A.; Masetti, L.; Mashimo, T.; Mashinistov, R.; Masik, J.; Maslennikov, A. L.; Massa, I.; Massol, N.; Mastrandrea, P.; Mastroberardino, A.; Masubuchi, T.; Matricon, P.; Matsunaga, H.; Matsushita, T.; Mättig, P.; Mättig, S.; Mattmann, J.; Maurer, J.; Maxfield, S. J.; Maximov, D. A.; Mazini, R.; Mazzaferro, L.; Mc Goldrick, G.; Mc Kee, S. P.; McCarn, A.; McCarthy, R. L.; McCarthy, T. G.; McCubbin, N. A.; McFarlane, K. W.; Mcfayden, J. A.; Mchedlidze, G.; Mclaughlan, T.; McMahon, S. J.; McPherson, R. A.; Meade, A.; Mechnich, J.; Medinnis, M.; Meehan, S.; Meera-Lebbai, R.; Mehlhase, S.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meineck, C.; Meirose, B.; Melachrinos, C.; Mellado Garcia, B. R.; Meloni, F.; Mendoza Navas, L.; Mengarelli, A.; Menke, S.; Meoni, E.; Mercurio, K. M.; Mergelmeyer, S.; Meric, N.; Mermod, P.; Merola, L.; Meroni, C.; Merritt, F. S.; Merritt, H.; Messina, A.; Metcalfe, J.; Mete, A. S.; Meyer, C.; Meyer, C.; Meyer, J.-P.; Meyer, J.; Middleton, R. P.; Migas, S.; Mijović, L.; Mikenberg, G.; Mikestikova, M.; Mikuž, M.; Miller, D. W.; Mills, C.; Milov, A.; Milstead, D. A.; Milstein, D.; Minaenko, A. A.; Moya, M. Miñano; Minashvili, I. A.; Mincer, A. I.; Mindur, B.; Mineev, M.; Ming, Y.; Mir, L. M.; Mirabelli, G.; Mitani, T.; Mitrevski, J.; Mitsou, V. A.; Mitsui, S.; Miucci, A.; Miyagawa, P. S.; Mjörnmark, J. U.; Moa, T.; Mochizuki, K.; Moeller, V.; Mohapatra, S.; Mohr, W.; Molander, S.; Moles-Valls, R.; Mönig, K.; Monini, C.; Monk, J.; Monnier, E.; Montejo Berlingen, J.; Monticelli, F.; Monzani, S.; Moore, R. W.; Herrera, C. Mora; Moraes, A.; Morange, N.; Morel, J.; Moreno, D.; Moreno Llácer, M.; Morettini, P.; Morgenstern, M.; Morii, M.; Moritz, S.; Morley, A. K.; Mornacchi, G.; Morris, J. D.; Morvaj, L.; Moser, H. G.; Mosidze, M.; Moss, J.; Mount, R.; Mountricha, E.; Mouraviev, S. V.; Moyse, E. J. W.; Muanza, S.; Mudd, R. D.; Mueller, F.; Mueller, J.; Mueller, K.; Mueller, T.; Muenstermann, D.; Munwes, Y.; Murillo Quijada, J. A.; Murray, W. J.; Musto, E.; Myagkov, A. G.; Myska, M.; Nackenhorst, O.; Nadal, J.; Nagai, K.; Nagai, R.; Nagai, Y.; Nagano, K.; Nagarkar, A.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nagel, M.; Nairz, A. M.; Nakahama, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, I.; Namasivayam, H.; Nanava, G.; Narayan, R.; Nattermann, T.; Naumann, T.; Navarro, G.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Nechaeva, P. Yu.; Neep, T. J.; Negri, A.; Negri, G.; Negrini, M.; Nektarijevic, S.; Nelson, A.; Nelson, T. K.; Nemecek, S.; Nemethy, P.; Nepomuceno, A. A.; Nessi, M.; Neubauer, M. S.; Neumann, M.; Neves, R. M.; Nevski, P.; Newcomer, F. M.; Newman, P. R.; Nguyen, D. H.; Nickerson, R. B.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nicquevert, B.; Nielsen, J.; Nikiforou, N.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikolaenko, V.; Nikolic-Audit, I.; Nikolics, K.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Nilsson, P.; Ninomiya, Y.; Nisati, A.; Nisius, R.; Nobe, T.; Nodulman, L.; Nomachi, M.; Nomidis, I.; Norberg, S.; Nordberg, M.; Nowak, S.; Nozaki, M.; Nozka, L.; Ntekas, K.; Nunes Hanninger, G.; Nunnemann, T.; Nurse, E.; Nuti, F.; O'Brien, B. J.; O'grady, F.; O'Neil, D. C.; O'Shea, V.; Oakham, F. G.; Oberlack, H.; Obermann, T.; Ocariz, J.; Ochi, A.; Ochoa, M. I.; Oda, S.; Odaka, S.; Ogren, H.; Oh, A.; Oh, S. H.; Ohm, C. C.; Ohman, H.; Ohshima, T.; Okamura, W.; Okawa, H.; Okumura, Y.; Okuyama, T.; Olariu, A.; Olchevski, A. G.; Olivares Pino, S. A.; Damazio, D. Oliveira; Garcia, E. Oliver; Olivito, D.; Olszewski, A.; Olszowska, J.; Onofre, A.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Oram, C. J.; Oreglia, M. J.; Oren, Y.; Orestano, D.; Orlando, N.; Barrera, C. Oropeza; Orr, R. S.; Osculati, B.; Ospanov, R.; Garzon, G. Otero y.; Otono, H.; Ouchrif, M.; Ouellette, E. A.; Ould-Saada, F.; Ouraou, A.; Oussoren, K. P.; Ouyang, Q.; Ovcharova, A.; Owen, M.; Ozcan, V. E.; Ozturk, N.; Pachal, K.; Pages, A. Pacheco; Padilla Aranda, C.; Pagáčová, M.; Pagan Griso, S.; Paganis, E.; Pahl, C.; Paige, F.; Pais, P.; Pajchel, K.; Palacino, G.; Palestini, S.; Pallin, D.; Palma, A.; Palmer, J. D.; Pan, Y. B.; Panagiotopoulou, E.; Panduro Vazquez, J. G.; Pani, P.; Panikashvili, N.; Panitkin, S.; Pantea, D.; Paolozzi, L.; Papadopoulou, Th. D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Paramonov, A.; Paredes Hernandez, D.; Parker, M. A.; Parodi, F.; Parsons, J. A.; Parzefall, U.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passaggio, S.; Passeri, A.; Pastore, F.; Pastore, Fr.; Pásztor, G.; Pataraia, S.; Patel, N. D.; Pater, J. R.; Patricelli, S.; Pauly, T.; Pearce, J.; Pedersen, M.; Lopez, S. Pedraza; Pedro, R.; Peleganchuk, S. V.; Pelikan, D.; Peng, H.; Penning, B.; Penwell, J.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perez Codina, E.; García-Estan, M. T. Pérez; Perez Reale, V.; Perini, L.; Pernegger, H.; Perrino, R.; Peschke, R.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Peters, K.; Peters, R. F. Y.; Petersen, B. A.; Petersen, J.; Petersen, T. C.; Petit, E.; Petridis, A.; Petridou, C.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, F.; Petteni, M.; Pettersson, N. E.; Pezoa, R.; Phillips, P. W.; Piacquadio, G.; Pianori, E.; Picazio, A.; Piccaro, E.; Piccinini, M.; Piec, S. M.; Piegaia, R.; Pignotti, D. T.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pilkington, A. D.; Pina, J.; Pinamonti, M.; Pinder, A.; Pinfold, J. L.; Pingel, A.; Pinto, B.; Pires, S.; Pizio, C.; Pleier, M.-A.; Pleskot, V.; Plotnikova, E.; Plucinski, P.; Poddar, S.; Podlyski, F.; Poettgen, R.; Poggioli, L.; Pohl, D.; Pohl, M.; Polesello, G.; Policicchio, A.; Polifka, R.; Polini, A.; Pollard, C. S.; Polychronakos, V.; Pommès, K.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B. G.; Popeneciu, G. A.; Popovic, D. S.; Poppleton, A.; Portell Bueso, X.; Pospelov, G. E.; Pospisil, S.; Potamianos, K.; Potrap, I. N.; Potter, C. J.; Potter, C. T.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Pozdnyakov, V.; Prabhu, R.; Pralavorio, P.; Pranko, A.; Prasad, S.; Pravahan, R.; Prell, S.; Price, D.; Price, J.; Price, L. E.; Prieur, D.; Primavera, M.; Proissl, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopapadaki, E.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Przybycien, M.; Przysiezniak, H.; Ptacek, E.; Pueschel, E.; Puldon, D.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Pylypchenko, Y.; Qian, J.; Qin, G.; Quadt, A.; Quarrie, D. R.; Quayle, W. B.; Quilty, D.; Qureshi, A.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radhakrishnan, S. K.; Radloff, P.; Rados, P.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammensee, M.; Rammes, M.; Randle-Conde, A. S.; Rangel-Smith, C.; Rao, K.; Rauscher, F.; Rave, T. C.; Ravenscroft, T.; Raymond, M.; Read, A. L.; Rebuzzi, D. M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Rehnisch, L.; Reinsch, A.; Reisin, H.; Relich, M.; Rembser, C.; Ren, Z. L.; Renaud, A.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Resende, B.; Rezanova, O. L.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richter, R.; Richter-Was, E.; Ridel, M.; Rieck, P.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Ritsch, E.; Riu, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Robertson, S. H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J. E. M.; Robson, A.; Roda, C.; Rodrigues, L.; Roe, S.; Røhne, O.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Romano, M.; Romeo, G.; Adam, E. Romero; Rompotis, N.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosbach, K.; Rose, A.; Rose, M.; Rosendahl, P. L.; Rosenthal, O.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, E.; Rossi, L. P.; Rosten, R.; Rotaru, M.; Roth, I.; Rothberg, J.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C. R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Rubbo, F.; Rubinskiy, I.; Rud, V. I.; Rudolph, C.; Rudolph, M. S.; Rühr, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Ruschke, A.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruthmann, N.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Rybar, M.; Rybkin, G.; Ryder, N. C.; Saavedra, A. F.; Sacerdoti, S.; Saddique, A.; Sadeh, I.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Sakamoto, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.; Salek, D.; Sales De Bruin, P. H.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Ferrando, B. M. Salvachua; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sanchez, A.; Sánchez, J.; Sanchez Martinez, V.; Sandaker, H.; Sander, H. G.; Sanders, M. P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandoval, T.; Sandoval, C.; Sandstroem, R.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sansoni, A.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Castillo, I. Santoyo; Sapp, K.; Sapronov, A.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarrazin, B.; Sartisohn, G.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, Y.; Satsounkevitch, I.; Sauvage, G.; Sauvan, E.; Savard, P.; Savu, D. O.; Sawyer, C.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, J.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scanlon, T.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Scarcella, M.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schaefer, D.; Schaefer, R.; Schaelicke, A.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schäfer, U.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Scherzer, M. I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schillo, C.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmidt, E.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, B.; Schnellbach, Y. J.; Schnoor, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoening, A.; Schoenrock, B. D.; Schorlemmer, A. L. S.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schram, M.; Schramm, S.; Schreyer, M.; Schroeder, C.; Schuh, N.; Schultens, M. J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwegler, Ph.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Schwoerer, M.; Sciacca, F. G.; Scifo, E.; Sciolla, G.; Scott, W. G.; Scuri, F.; Scutti, F.; Searcy, J.; Sedov, G.; Sedykh, E.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sekula, S. J.; Selbach, K. E.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Sellers, G.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Serre, T.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shank, J. T.; Shao, Q. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Sherwood, P.; Shimizu, S.; Shimmin, C. O.; Shimojima, M.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M. J.; Short, D.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Shushkevich, S.; Sicho, P.; Sidorov, D.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simoniello, R.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sircar, A.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinnari, L. A.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skovpen, K. Yu.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snidero, G.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Camillocci, E. Solfaroli; Solodkov, A. A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Song, H. Y.; Soni, N.; Sood, A.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sorin, V.; Sosebee, M.; Soualah, R.; Soueid, P.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanò, F.; Spearman, W. R.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; Denis, R. D. St.; Staerz, S.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staszewski, R.; Stavina, P.; Steele, G.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stern, S.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Subramania, HS.; Subramaniam, R.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, Y.; Svatos, M.; Swedish, S.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tam, J. Y. C.; Tamsett, M. C.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanasijczuk, A. J.; Tani, K.; Tannoury, N.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thong, W. M.; Thun, R. P.; Tian, F.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tiouchichine, E.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Topilin, N. D.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Tran, H. L.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Triplett, N.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; True, P.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tua, A.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turra, R.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urquijo, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Gallego, E. Valladolid; Vallecorsa, S.; Ferrer, J. A. Valls; Van Berg, R.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; Van Der Leeuw, R.; van der Ster, D.; Eldik, N. van; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vazeille, F.; Schroeder, T. Vazquez; Veatch, J.; Veloso, F.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virzi, J.; Vitells, O.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; Schmitt, H. von der; Radziewski, H. von; Toerne, E. von; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Milosavljevic, M. Vranjes; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, W.; Wagner, P.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Walsh, B.; Wang, C.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Warsinsky, M.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watanabe, I.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weigell, P.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wendland, D.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wijeratne, P. A.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Will, J. Z.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkelmann, S.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wittig, T.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wright, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xiao, M.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yanush, S.; Yao, L.; Yao, W.-M.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2014-07-01

    Many of the interesting physics processes to be measured at the LHC have a signature involving one or more isolated electrons. The electron reconstruction and identification efficiencies of the ATLAS detector at the LHC have been evaluated using proton-proton collision data collected in 2011 at TeV and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.7 fb. Tag-and-probe methods using events with leptonic decays of and bosons and mesons are employed to benchmark these performance parameters. The combination of all measurements results in identification efficiencies determined with an accuracy at the few per mil level for electron transverse energy greater than 30 GeV.

  8. A Cobb Douglas stochastic frontier model on measuring domestic bank efficiency in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Md Zobaer; Kamil, Anton Abdulbasah; Mustafa, Adli; Baten, Md Azizul

    2012-01-01

    Banking system plays an important role in the economic development of any country. Domestic banks, which are the main components of the banking system, have to be efficient; otherwise, they may create obstacle in the process of development in any economy. This study examines the technical efficiency of the Malaysian domestic banks listed in the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange (KLSE) market over the period 2005-2010. A parametric approach, Stochastic Frontier Approach (SFA), is used in this analysis. The findings show that Malaysian domestic banks have exhibited an average overall efficiency of 94 percent, implying that sample banks have wasted an average of 6 percent of their inputs. Among the banks, RHBCAP is found to be highly efficient with a score of 0.986 and PBBANK is noted to have the lowest efficiency with a score of 0.918. The results also show that the level of efficiency has increased during the period of study, and that the technical efficiency effect has fluctuated considerably over time. PMID:22900009

  9. A Cobb Douglas Stochastic Frontier Model on Measuring Domestic Bank Efficiency in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Md. Zobaer; Kamil, Anton Abdulbasah; Mustafa, Adli; Baten, Md. Azizul

    2012-01-01

    Banking system plays an important role in the economic development of any country. Domestic banks, which are the main components of the banking system, have to be efficient; otherwise, they may create obstacle in the process of development in any economy. This study examines the technical efficiency of the Malaysian domestic banks listed in the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange (KLSE) market over the period 2005–2010. A parametric approach, Stochastic Frontier Approach (SFA), is used in this analysis. The findings show that Malaysian domestic banks have exhibited an average overall efficiency of 94 percent, implying that sample banks have wasted an average of 6 percent of their inputs. Among the banks, RHBCAP is found to be highly efficient with a score of 0.986 and PBBANK is noted to have the lowest efficiency with a score of 0.918. The results also show that the level of efficiency has increased during the period of study, and that the technical efficiency effect has fluctuated considerably over time. PMID:22900009

  10. A Cobb Douglas stochastic frontier model on measuring domestic bank efficiency in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Md Zobaer; Kamil, Anton Abdulbasah; Mustafa, Adli; Baten, Md Azizul

    2012-01-01

    Banking system plays an important role in the economic development of any country. Domestic banks, which are the main components of the banking system, have to be efficient; otherwise, they may create obstacle in the process of development in any economy. This study examines the technical efficiency of the Malaysian domestic banks listed in the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange (KLSE) market over the period 2005-2010. A parametric approach, Stochastic Frontier Approach (SFA), is used in this analysis. The findings show that Malaysian domestic banks have exhibited an average overall efficiency of 94 percent, implying that sample banks have wasted an average of 6 percent of their inputs. Among the banks, RHBCAP is found to be highly efficient with a score of 0.986 and PBBANK is noted to have the lowest efficiency with a score of 0.918. The results also show that the level of efficiency has increased during the period of study, and that the technical efficiency effect has fluctuated considerably over time.

  11. Effects of Security actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, Ramona; Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne; Nyberg, Lars; Johansson, Magnus

    2010-05-01

    In a project funded by the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, the effort and work to reduce different kinds of accidents are being evaluated. The project wants to illuminate the links between actions and outcome, so we can learn from today's performance and in the future select more effective measures and overall deal with accidents more efficiently. The project ESS covers the field of frequent accidents such as sliding accidents at home, in house fires and less common accidents such as chemical and land fill accidents up to even more rare accidents such as natural accidents and hazards. In the ESS project SGI (Swedish geotechnical institute) will evaluate the work and effort concerning various natural hazards limited to landslides, erosion and flooding. The aim is to investigate how municipalities handle, especially prevention, of such natural disasters today. The project includes several aspects such as: • which are the driving forces for risk analysis in a municipality • do one use risk mapping (and what type) in municipal risk analysis • which aspects are most important when selecting preventive measures • in which way do one learn from past accidents • and from previous accidents elsewhere, by for example use existing databases • etc There are many aspects that play a role in a well-functioning safety promotion work. The overall goal is to examine present work and activities, highlight what is well functioning and identify weak points. The aim is to find out where more resources are needed and give suggestions for a more efficient security work. This includes identification of the most efficient "tools" in use or needed. Such tools can be education, directives, funding, more easily available maps and information regarding previous accidents and preventive measures etc. The project will result in recommendations for more effective ways to deal with landslides, erosion and flooding. Since different kinds of problems can occur depending on level of

  12. Cyber resilience: a review of critical national infrastructure and cyber security protection measures applied in the UK and USA.

    PubMed

    Harrop, Wayne; Matteson, Ashley

    This paper presents cyber resilience as key strand of national security. It establishes the importance of critical national infrastructure protection and the growing vicarious nature of remote, well-planned, and well executed cyber attacks on critical infrastructures. Examples of well-known historical cyber attacks are presented, and the emergence of 'internet of things' as a cyber vulnerability issue yet to be tackled is explored. The paper identifies key steps being undertaken by those responsible for detecting, deterring, and disrupting cyber attacks on critical national infrastructure in the United Kingdom and the USA.

  13. Cyber resilience: a review of critical national infrastructure and cyber security protection measures applied in the UK and USA.

    PubMed

    Harrop, Wayne; Matteson, Ashley

    This paper presents cyber resilience as key strand of national security. It establishes the importance of critical national infrastructure protection and the growing vicarious nature of remote, well-planned, and well executed cyber attacks on critical infrastructures. Examples of well-known historical cyber attacks are presented, and the emergence of 'internet of things' as a cyber vulnerability issue yet to be tackled is explored. The paper identifies key steps being undertaken by those responsible for detecting, deterring, and disrupting cyber attacks on critical national infrastructure in the United Kingdom and the USA. PMID:24457326

  14. Quantify the energy and environmental benefits of implementing energy-efficiency measures in China’s iron and steel production

    DOE PAGES

    Ma, Ding; Chen, Wenying; Xu, Tengfang

    2015-08-21

    As one of the most energy-, emission- and pollution-intensive industries, iron and steel production is responsible for significant emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) and air pollutants. Although many energy-efficiency measures have been proposed by the Chinese government to mitigate GHG emissions and to improve air quality, lacking full understanding of the costs and benefits has created barriers against implementing these measures widely. This paper sets out to advance the understanding by addressing the knowledge gap in costs, benefits, and cost-effectiveness of energy-efficiency measures in iron and steel production. Specifically, we build a new evaluation framework to quantify energy benefits andmore » environmental benefits (i.e., CO2 emission reduction, air-pollutants emission reduction and water savings) associated with 36 energy-efficiency measures. Results show that inclusion of benefits from CO2 and air-pollutants emission reduction affects the cost-effectiveness of energy-efficiency measures significantly, while impacts from water-savings benefits are moderate but notable when compared to the effects by considering energy benefits alone. The new information resulted from this study should be used to augment future programs and efforts in reducing energy use and environmental impacts associated with steel production.« less

  15. Quantify the energy and environmental benefits of implementing energy-efficiency measures in China’s iron and steel production

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Ding; Chen, Wenying; Xu, Tengfang

    2015-08-21

    As one of the most energy-, emission- and pollution-intensive industries, iron and steel production is responsible for significant emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) and air pollutants. Although many energy-efficiency measures have been proposed by the Chinese government to mitigate GHG emissions and to improve air quality, lacking full understanding of the costs and benefits has created barriers against implementing these measures widely. This paper sets out to advance the understanding by addressing the knowledge gap in costs, benefits, and cost-effectiveness of energy-efficiency measures in iron and steel production. Specifically, we build a new evaluation framework to quantify energy benefits and environmental benefits (i.e., CO2 emission reduction, air-pollutants emission reduction and water savings) associated with 36 energy-efficiency measures. Results show that inclusion of benefits from CO2 and air-pollutants emission reduction affects the cost-effectiveness of energy-efficiency measures significantly, while impacts from water-savings benefits are moderate but notable when compared to the effects by considering energy benefits alone. The new information resulted from this study should be used to augment future programs and efforts in reducing energy use and environmental impacts associated with steel production.

  16. National Residential Efficiency Measures Database Aimed at Reducing Risk for Residential Retrofit Industry

    SciTech Connect

    David Roberts

    2012-01-01

    This technical highlight describes NREL research to develop a publicly available database of energy retrofit measures containing performance characteristics and cost estimates for nearly 3,000 measures.

  17. Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing and Forcing Efficiencies at Surface from the shortwave Irradiance Measurements in Abu Dhabi, UAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beegum S, N.; Ben Romdhane, H.; Ghedira, H.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are known to affect the radiation balance of the Earth-Atmospheric system directly by scattering and absorbing the solar and terrestrial radiation, and indirectly by affecting the lifetime and albedo of the clouds. Continuous and simultaneous measurements of short wave global irradiance in combination with synchronous spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements (from 340 nm to 1640 nm in 8 channels), for a period of 1 year from June 2012 to May 2013, were used for the determination of the surface direct aerosol radiative forcing and forcing efficiencies under cloud free conditions in Abu Dhabi (24.42°N, 54.61o E, 7m MSL), a coastal location in United Arab Emirates (UAE) in the Arabian Peninsula. The Rotating Shadow band Pyranometer (RSP, LI-COR) was used for the irradiance measurements (in the spectral region 400-1100 nm), whereas the AOD measurements were carried out using CIMEL Sunphotometer (CE 318-2, under AERONET program). The differential method, which is neither sensitive to calibration uncertainties nor model assumptions, has been employed for estimating forcing efficiencies from the changes in the measured fluxes. The forcing efficiency, which quantifies the net change in irradiance per unit change in AOD, is an appropriate parameter for the characterization of the aerosol radiative effects even if the microphysical and optical properties of the aerosols are not completely understood. The corresponding forcing values were estimated from the forcing efficiencies. The estimated radiative forcing and forcing efficiencies exhibited strong monthly variations. The forcing efficiencies (absolute magnitudes) were highest during March, and showed continuous decrease thereafter to reach the lowest value during September. In contrast, the forcing followed a slightly different pattern of variability, with the highest solar dimming during April ( -60 W m-2) and the minimum during February ( -20 W m-2). The results indicate that the aerosol

  18. Why can’t I measure the external quantum efficiency of the Ge subcell of my multijunction solar cell?

    SciTech Connect

    Barrigón, Enrique Espinet-González, Pilar; Contreras, Yedileth; Rey-Stolle, Ignacio

    2015-09-28

    The measurement of the external quantum efficiency (EQE) of low bandgap subcells in a multijunction solar cell can be sometimes problematic. In particular, this paper describes a set of cases where the EQE of a Ge subcell in a conventional GaInP/GaInAs/Ge triple-junction solar cell cannot be fully measured. We describe the way to identify each case by tracing the I-V curve under the same light-bias conditions applied for the EQE measurement, together with the strategies that could be implemented to attain the best possible measurement of the EQE of the Ge subcell.

  19. Measuring Changes in Energy Efficiency for the Annual Energy Outlook 2002

    EIA Publications

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology used to develop the National Energy Modeling System estimate of projected aggregate energy efficiency and to describe the results of applying it to the Annual Energy Outlook 2002 (AEO2002) reference case.

  20. Covariance of cross-correlations: towards efficient measures for large-scale structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Robert E.

    2009-12-01

    We study the covariance of the cross-power spectrum of different tracers for the large-scale structure. We develop the counts-in-cells framework for the multitracer approach, and use this to derive expressions for the full non-Gaussian covariance matrix. We show that for the usual autopower statistic, besides the off-diagonal covariance generated through gravitational mode-coupling, the discreteness of the tracers and their associated sampling distribution can generate strong off-diagonal covariance, and that this becomes the dominant source of covariance as spatial frequencies become larger than the fundamental mode of the survey volume. On comparison with the derived expressions for the cross-power covariance, we show that the off-diagonal terms can be suppressed, if one cross-correlates a high tracer-density sample with a low one. Taking the effective estimator efficiency to be proportional to the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), we show that, to probe clustering as a function of physical properties of the sample, i.e. cluster mass or galaxy luminosity, the cross-power approach can outperform the autopower one by factors of a few. We confront the theory with measurements of the mass-mass, halo-mass and halo-halo power spectra from a large ensemble of N-body simulations. We show that there is a significant S/N advantage to be gained from using the cross-power approach when studying the bias of rare haloes. The analysis is repeated in configuration space and again S/N improvement is found. We estimate the covariance matrix for these samples, and find strong off-diagonal contributions. The covariance depends on halo mass, with higher mass samples having stronger covariance. In agreement with theory, we show that the covariance is suppressed for the cross-power. This work points the way towards improved estimators for studying the clustering of tracers as a function of their physical properties.