Science.gov

Sample records for efficient control technologies

  1. The aircraft energy efficiency active controls technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, R. V., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Broad outlines of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program for expediting the application of active controls technology to civil transport aircraft are presented. Advances in propulsion and airframe technology to cut down on fuel consumption and fuel costs, a program for an energy-efficient transport, and integrated analysis and design technology in aerodynamics, structures, and active controls are envisaged. Fault-tolerant computer systems and fault-tolerant flight control system architectures are under study. Contracts with leading manufacturers for research and development work on wing-tip extensions and winglets for the B-747, a wing load alleviation system, elastic mode suppression, maneuver-load control, and gust alleviation are mentioned.

  2. Advanced Control Technologies and Strategies Linking DemandResponse and Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

    2005-09-02

    This paper presents a preliminary framework to describe how advanced controls can support multiple modes of operations including both energy efficiency and demand response (DR). A general description of DR, its benefits, and nationwide status is outlined. The role of energy management and control systems for DR is described. Building systems such as HVAC and lighting that utilize control technologies and strategies for energy efficiency are mapped on to DR and demand shedding strategies are developed. Past research projects are presented to provide a context for the current projects. The economic case for implementing DR from a building owner perspective is also explored.

  3. Emission Control Research to Enable Fuel Efficiency: Department of Energy Heavy Vehicle Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Gurpreet Singh; Ronald L. Graves; John M. Storey; William P. Partridge; John F. Thomas; Bernie M. Penetrante; Raymond M. Brusasco; Bernard T. Merritt; George E. Vogtlin; Christopher L. Aardahl; Craig F. Habeger; M.L. Balmer

    2000-06-19

    The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies supports research to enable high-efficiency diesel engines to meet future emissions regulations, thus clearing the way for their use in light trucks as well as continuing as the most efficient powerplant for freight-haulers. Compliance with Tier 2 rules and expected heavy duty engine standards will require effective exhaust emission controls (after-treatment) for diesels in these applications. DOE laboratories are working with industry to improve emission control technologies in projects ranging from application of new diagnostics for elucidating key mechanisms, to development and tests of prototype devices. This paper provides an overview of these R and D efforts, with examples of key findings and developments.

  4. Design of modern monitoring systems for efficient control and management of technological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abitova, Gulnara; Beisenbi, Mamirbek; Nikulin, Vladimir

    2011-04-01

    Proliferation of new and upgrade of existing industrial technologies is impossible without the development of efficient systems and algorithms of automatic control of technological processes that rely on modern monitoring approaches. Typically, the monitoring tools, which include various sensors and other devices, have to be tightly integrated with automatic control systems of industrial processes to reduce service expenses and downtime, increase capacity and optimize production as a whole. While designing technological and automation lines, it is necessary to carefully select parameters to be monitored such that optimal operation is achieved. At the same time, every step of industrial production has to be monitored to assure that each particular process is properly executed and resources are utilized in an efficient manner. An example presented in this paper is based on an ac electric drive equipped with control and monitoring systems. The result of a properly designed monitoring system is a simplified architecture of the control devices. The overall method can be implemented on the basis of a microprocessor, which offers several advantages including the possibility of designing intelligent control loops, expanding the fault-tolerant range of operation, extending the resource of operation, and coordinating interaction between different systems.

  5. Energy-efficient air pollution controls for fossil-fueled plants: Technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sayer, J.H.

    1995-06-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require most fossil-fuel fired power plants to reduce sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate emissions. While emission-control equipment is available to help most of New York State`s 91 utility units in 31 power plants comply with the new regulations, technologies currently available consume energy, increase carbon dioxide emissions, reduce operating efficiency, and may produce large amounts of solid and/or semisolid byproducts that use additional energy for processing and disposal. This report discribes several pollution-control technologies that are more energy efficient compared to traditional technologies for controlling sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and particulates, that may have application in New York State. These technologies are either in commercial use, under development, or in the demonstration phase; This report also presents operating characteristics for these technologies and discusses solutions to dispose of pollution-control system byproducts. Estimated energy consumption for emission-control systems relative to a plant`s gross generating capacity is 3 to 5 for reducing up to 90% sulfur dioxide emissions from coal-fired plants. 0.5 to 2.5% for reducing nitrogen oxide emissions by up to 80% from all fossil-fuel fired plants; and 0.5 to 1.5 % for controlling particulate emissions from oil- and coal-fired plants. While fuel switching and/or cofiring with natural gas are options to reduce emissions, these techniques are not considered in this report; the discussion is limited to fossil-fueled steam-generating plants.

  6. Energy-Efficient Power Control: A Look at 5G Wireless Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappone, Alessio; Sanguinetti, Luca; Bacci, Giacomo; Jorswieck, Eduard; Debbah, Merouane

    2016-04-01

    This work develops power control algorithms for energy efficiency (EE) maximization (measured in bit/Joule) in wireless networks. Unlike previous related works, minimum-rate constraints are imposed and the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio takes a more general expression, which allows one to encompass some of the most promising 5G candidate technologies. Both network-centric and user-centric EE maximizations are considered. In the network-centric scenario, the maximization of the global EE and the minimum EE of the network are performed. Unlike previous contributions, we develop centralized algorithms that are guaranteed to converge, with affordable computational complexity, to a Karush-Kuhn-Tucker point of the considered non-convex optimization problems. Moreover, closed-form feasibility conditions are derived. In the user-centric scenario, game theory is used to study the equilibria of the network and to derive convergent power control algorithms, which can be implemented in a fully decentralized fashion. Both scenarios above are studied under the assumption that single or multiple resource blocks are employed for data transmission. Numerical results assess the performance of the proposed solutions, analyzing the impact of minimum-rate constraints, and comparing the network-centric and user-centric approaches.

  7. Efficient control of odors and VOC emissions via activated carbon technology.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Farhana; Kim, James; Huang, Ruey; Nu, Huong Ton; Lorenzo, Vlad

    2014-07-01

    This research study was undertaken to enhance the efficiency and economy of carbon scrubbers in controlling odors and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at the wastewater collection and treatment facilities of the Bureau of Sanitation, City of Los Angeles. The butane activity and hydrogen sulfide breakthrough capacity of activated carbon were assessed. Air streams were measured for odorous gases and VOCs and removal efficiency (RE) determined. Carbon towers showed average to excellent removal of odorous compounds, VOCs, and siloxanes; whereas, wet scrubbers demonstrated good removal of odorous compounds but low to negative removal of VOCs. It was observed that the relative humidity and empty bed contact time are one of the most important operating parameters of carbon towers impacting the pollutant RE. Regular monitoring of activated carbon and VOCs has resulted in useful information on carbon change-out frequency, packing recommendations, and means to improve performance of carbon towers.

  8. Technology for aircraft energy efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klineberg, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Six technology programs for reducing fuel use in U.S. commercial aviation are discussed. The six NASA programs are divided into three groups: Propulsion - engine component improvement, energy efficient engine, advanced turboprops; Aerodynamics - energy efficient transport, laminar flow control; and Structures - composite primary structures. Schedules, phases, and applications of these programs are considered, and it is suggested that program results will be applied to current transport derivatives in the early 1980s and to all-new aircraft of the late 1980s and early 1990s.

  9. Energy recovery efficiency and cost analysis of VOC thermal oxidation pollution control technology.

    PubMed

    Warahena, Aruna S K; Chuah, Yew Khoy

    2009-08-01

    Thermal oxidation of VOC is extremely energy intensive, and necessitates high efficiency heat recovery from the exhaust heat. In this paper, two independent parameters heat recovery factor (HRF) and equipment cost factor (ECF) are introduced. HRF and ECF can be used to evaluate separately the merits of energy efficiency and cost effectiveness of VOC oxidation systems. Another parameter equipment cost against heat recovery (ECHR) which is a function of HRF and ECF is introduced to evaluate the merit of different systems for the thermal oxidation of VOC. Respective cost models were derived for recuperative thermal oxidizer (TO) and regenerative thermal oxidizer (RTO). Application examples are presented to show the use and the importance of these parameters. An application examples show that TO has a lower ECF while RTO has a higher HRF. However when analyzed using ECHR, RTO would be of advantage economically in longer periods of use. The analytical models presented can be applied in similar environmental protection systems.

  10. Computationally efficient control allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durham, Wayne (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A computationally efficient method for calculating near-optimal solutions to the three-objective, linear control allocation problem is disclosed. The control allocation problem is that of distributing the effort of redundant control effectors to achieve some desired set of objectives. The problem is deemed linear if control effectiveness is affine with respect to the individual control effectors. The optimal solution is that which exploits the collective maximum capability of the effectors within their individual physical limits. Computational efficiency is measured by the number of floating-point operations required for solution. The method presented returned optimal solutions in more than 90% of the cases examined; non-optimal solutions returned by the method were typically much less than 1% different from optimal and the errors tended to become smaller than 0.01% as the number of controls was increased. The magnitude of the errors returned by the present method was much smaller than those that resulted from either pseudo inverse or cascaded generalized inverse solutions. The computational complexity of the method presented varied linearly with increasing numbers of controls; the number of required floating point operations increased from 5.5 i, to seven times faster than did the minimum-norm solution (the pseudoinverse), and at about the same rate as did the cascaded generalized inverse solution. The computational requirements of the method presented were much better than that of previously described facet-searching methods which increase in proportion to the square of the number of controls.

  11. High Efficiency Engine Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect

    Rich Kruiswyk

    2010-07-13

    Caterpillar's Product Development and Global Technology Division carried out a research program on waste heat recovery with support from DOE (Department of Energy) and the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. The objective of the program was to develop a new air management and exhaust energy recovery system that would demonstrate a minimum 10% improvement in thermal efficiency over a base heavy-duty on-highway diesel truck engine. The base engine for this program was a 2007 C15 15.2L series-turbocharged on-highway truck engine with a LPL (low-pressure loop) exhaust recirculation system. The focus of the program was on the development of high efficiency turbomachinery and a high efficiency turbocompound waste heat recovery system. The focus of each area of development was as follows: (1) For turbine stages, the focus was on investigation and development of technologies that would improve on-engine exhaust energy utilization compared to the conventional radial turbines in widespread use today. (2) For compressor stages, the focus was on investigating compressor wheel design parameters beyond the range typically utilized in production, to determine the potential efficiency benefits thereof. (3) For turbocompound, the focus was on the development of a robust bearing system that would provide higher bearing efficiencies compared to systems used in turbocompound power turbines in production. None of the turbocharger technologies investigated involved addition of moving parts, actuators, or exotic materials, thereby increasing the likelihood of a favorable cost-value tradeoff for each technology. And the turbocompound system requires less hardware addition than competing bottoming cycle technologies, making it a more attractive solution from a cost and packaging standpoint. Main outcomes of the program are as follows: (1) Two turbine technologies that demonstrated up to 6% improvement in turbine efficiency on gas stand and 1-3% improvement in thermal efficiency in

  12. Energy Efficiency for Electrical Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharmann, Larry, Ed.

    Intended primarily but not solely for use at the postsecondary level, this curriculum guide contains five units on energy efficiency that were designed to be incorporated into an existing program in electrical technology. The following topics are examined: where to look for energy waste; conservation methods for electrical consumers, for…

  13. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a chapter for John Wiley & Son's Mechanical Engineers' Handbook, and covers issues involving air pollution control. Various technologies for controlling sulfur oxides is considered including fuel desulfurization. It also considers control of nitrogen oxides including post...

  14. Fuel efficiency through new airframe technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    In its Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program, NASA has expended approximately 200 million dollars toward development and application of advanced airframe technologies to United States's commercial transports. United States manufacturers have already been given a significant boost toward early application of advanced composite materials to control surface and empennage structures and toward selected applications of active controls and advanced aerodynamic concepts. In addition, significant progress in definition and development of innovative, but realistic systems for laminar flow control over the wings of future transports has already been made.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS, COLUMBUS INDUSTRIES HIGH EFFICIENCY MINI PLEAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has created the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental technologies through performance verification and dissemination of information. The goal of the...

  16. Macrofouling control technology update

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, J.L.; Armor, A.F.

    1996-12-31

    Macrofouling of condenser systems with debris, fish, clams, barnacles, mussels, algae, and other marine organisms can significantly affect power plant availability and performance. Typical difficulties include increased condenser back pressure due to reduced cooling-water flow, malfunctioning of on-line tube-cleaning equipment, and accelerated corrosion and erosion of tubing. In some severe cases, condenser back pressure increased to a point that the turbine had to be tripped. In 1981 EPRI initiated a research project to develop utility industry guidelines for reducing macrofouling problems. In 1987 EPRI published the Guidelines on Macrofouling Control Technology. Since then significant progress has been made by EPRI, utility members, equipment manufacturers, and others. The purpose of this paper is to update the macrofouling control technology. Control technology covered will include thermal treatment, mechanical removal devices, antifouling coatings, and chemical treatment.

  17. Buildings sector demand-side efficiency technology summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Koomey, J.G.; Johnson, F.X.; Schuman, J.

    1994-03-01

    This report provides descriptions of the following energy efficiency technologies: energy management systems; electronic fluorescent ballasts; compact fluorescent lamps; lighting controls; room air conditioners; high albedo materials, coatings and paints; solar domestic water heaters; heat pump water heaters; energy-efficient motors; adjustable-speed drives; energy-efficient refrigerators; daylight control glazing; insulating glazing; solar control glazing; switchable glazing; tree planting; and advanced insulation. For each technology, the report provides a description of performance characteristics, consumer utility, development status, technology standards, equipment cost, installation, maintenance, conservation programs, and environmental impacts.

  18. Emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, N.; Worrell, E.; Ruth, M.; Price, L.; Elliott, R.N.; Shipley, A.M.; Thorne, J.

    2000-10-01

    U.S. industry consumes approximately 37 percent of the nation's energy to produce 24 percent of the nation's GDP. Increasingly, industry is confronted with the challenge of moving toward a cleaner, more sustainable path of production and consumption, while increasing global competitiveness. Technology will be essential for meeting these challenges. At some point, businesses are faced with investment in new capital stock. At this decision point, new and emerging technologies compete for capital investment alongside more established or mature technologies. Understanding the dynamics of the decision-making process is important to perceive what drives technology change and the overall effect on industrial energy use. The assessment of emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies can be useful for: (1) identifying R&D projects; (2) identifying potential technologies for market transformation activities; (3) providing common information on technologies to a broad audience of policy-makers; and (4) offering new insights into technology development and energy efficiency potentials. With the support of PG&E Co., NYSERDA, DOE, EPA, NEEA, and the Iowa Energy Center, staff from LBNL and ACEEE produced this assessment of emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies. The goal was to collect information on a broad array of potentially significant emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies and carefully characterize a sub-group of approximately 50 key technologies. Our use of the term ''emerging'' denotes technologies that are both pre-commercial but near commercialization, and technologies that have already entered the market but have less than 5 percent of current market share. We also have chosen technologies that are energy-efficient (i.e., use less energy than existing technologies and practices to produce the same product), and may have additional ''non-energy benefits.'' These benefits are as important (if not more important in many cases) in influencing

  19. Environmental Control Technology

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-10

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) study was conducted using the Carbon Injection System (the 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber and the Pulse-Jet Fabric Filter). Testing also continued across the B&W/CHX Heat Exchanger this month as the effects of increased particulate loading are being studied. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit and the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet Scrubber remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly. On September 13, 1996, the ECTC completed an independent test block for a third-party company, Air Purification Inc. (API). For this testing, the ECTC's staff (O&M and Testing) were contracted to conduct performance and validation testing across a new, integrated emissions control device, the Rotorfilter{trademark}. This testing was conducted for a thirty (30) day period simultaneously with the B&W/CHX test block. The HAP testing resumed as this third-party test block was completed. Testing in September at the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC) included tests from the Pilot Trace Elements Removal (TER) test block as part of EPRI's overall program to develop control technology options for reduction of trace element emissions. This experimental program investigates mercury removal and mercury speciation under different operating conditions. The 1996 program is being performed on the 4.0 MW wet FGD pilot unit and the spray dryer/pulse jet fabric filter (SDA/PJFF) pilot units. The 1996 Trace Elements Removal (TER) test block is a continuation of the 1995 TER test block and will focus on up to five research areas, depending on experimental results. These areas are: (1) Mercury speciation methods; (2) Effect of FGD system operating variables on mercury removal; (3) Novel methods for elemental mercury

  20. New controls spark boiler efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Engels, T. )

    1993-09-01

    Monsanto's NutraSweet plant in University Park, IL, produces aspartame, the patented NutraSweet artificial sweetener product. Until recently, boiler control was managed by a '60s-era Fireye jackshaft system in which air and natural gas were mechanically linked with an offset to compensate for oxygen trim. The interlocking devices on the Fireye system were becoming obsolete, and the boiler needed a new front end retrofitted for low emissions. In order to improve boiler control efficiency, we decided to modernize and automate the entire boiler control system. We replaced the original jackshaft system, and installed a Gordon-Piet burner system, including gas valves, air dampers, blowers, and burner. The upgrade challenges included developing a control strategy and selecting and implementing a process control system. Since our plant has standardized on the PROVOX process management information system from Fisher Controls (now Fisher-Rosemount Systems) to support most of our process, it was a natural and logical choice for boiler controls as well. 2 figs.

  1. Liquid Cooling Technology Increases Exercise Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    To keep astronauts' airtight spacesuits from becoming hot and humid, Ames Research Center developed liquid cooling garments that were integrated into each suit's long underwear. Vasper Systems, in San Jose, California, is using the technology in its liquid-cooled compression cuffs, which help people exercise more efficiently by concentrating lactic acid in their muscles.

  2. Electroluminescence imaging of Morgan Solar Inc.'s 4th generation CPV technology for in-line quality control and optical efficiency estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, Michael; Dufour, Pascal; Drew, Kristine; Myrskog, Stefan; Morgan, John Paul

    2014-10-01

    An electroluminescence test for a Concentrated PV system is presented with the objective of capturing high resolution pseudo-efficiency maps that highlight optical defects in the concentrator system. Key parameters of the experimental setup and imaging system are presented. Image processing is discussed, including comparison of experimental to nominal results and the quantitative estimation of optical efficiency. Efficiency estimates are validated using measurements under a collimated solar simulator and ray-tracing software. Further validation is performed by comparison of the electroluminescence technique to direct mapping of the optical efficiency. Initial results indicate the mean estimation error for Isc is -2.4% with a standard deviation is 6.9% and a combined measurement and analysis time of less than 5 seconds per optic. An extension of this approach to in-line quality control is discussed.

  3. Technology Development for High Efficiency Optical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, William H.

    2012-01-01

    Deep space optical communications is a significantly more challenging operational domain than near Earth space optical communications, primarily due to effects resulting from the vastly increased range between transmitter and receiver. The NASA Game Changing Development Program Deep Space Optical Communications Project is developing four key technologies for the implementation of a high efficiency telecommunications system that will enable greater than 10X the data rate of a state-of-the-art deep space RF system (Ka-band) for similar transceiver mass and power burden on the spacecraft. These technologies are a low mass spacecraft disturbance isolation assembly, a flight qualified photon counting detector array, a high efficiency flight laser amplifier and a high efficiency photon counting detector array for the ground-based receiver.

  4. Control Center Technology Conference Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Conference papers and presentations are compiled and cover evolving architectures and technologies applicable to flight control centers. Advances by NASA Centers and the aerospace industry are presented.

  5. Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manthey, Lori A.

    2001-01-01

    The Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program includes seven key projects that work with industry to develop and hand off revolutionary propulsion technologies that will enable future-generation vehicles over a wide range of flight speeds. A new program office, the Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program Office, was formed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to manage an important National propulsion program for NASA. The Glenn-managed UEET Program, which began on October 1, 1999, includes participation from three other NASA centers (Ames, Goddard, and Langley), as well as five engine companies (GE Aircraft Engines, Pratt & Whitney, Honeywell, Allison/Rolls Royce, and Williams International) and two airplane manufacturers (the Boeing Company and Lockheed Martin Corporation). This 6-year, nearly $300 million program will address local air-quality concerns by developing technologies to significantly reduce nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. In addition, it will provide critical propulsion technologies to dramatically increase performance as measured in fuel burn reduction that will enable reductions of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. This is necessary to address the potential climate impact of long-term aviation growth.

  6. Airframe technology for aircraft energy efficiency. [economic factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, R. L., Jr.; Maddalon, D. V.

    1984-01-01

    The economic factors that resulted in the implementation of the aircraft energy efficiency program (ACEE) are reviewed and airframe technology elements including content, progress, applications, and future direction are discussed. The program includes the development of laminar flow systems, advanced aerodynamics, active controls, and composite structures.

  7. Energy Efficient Engine: Control system preliminary definition report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, David C.

    1986-01-01

    The object of the Control Preliminary Definition Program was to define a preliminary control system concept as a part of the Energy Efficient Engine program. The program was limited to a conceptual definition of a full authority digital electronic control system. System requirements were determined and a control system was conceptually defined to these requirements. Areas requiring technological development were identified and a plan was established for implementing the identified technological features, including a control technology demonstration. A significant element of this program was a study of the potential benefits of closed-loop active clearance control, along with laboratory tests of candidate clearance sensor elements for a closed loop system.

  8. Semiconductor technology for reducing emissions and increasing efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Duffin, B.; Frank, R.

    1997-12-31

    The cooperation and support of all industries are required to significantly impact a worldwide reduction in gaseous emissions that may contribute to climate change. Each industry also is striving to more efficiently utilize the resources that it consumes since this is both conservation for good citizenship and an intelligent approach to business. The semiconductor industry is also extremely concerned with these issues. However, semiconductor manufacturer`s products provide solutions for reduced emissions and increased efficiency in their industry, other industries and areas that can realize significant improvements through control technology. This paper will focus on semiconductor technologies of digital control, power switching and sensing to improve efficiency and reduce emissions in automotive, industrial, and office/home applications. 10 refs., 13 figs.

  9. Odor Control Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Amos; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Dispersion, chemical oxidation, and masking are reviewed as techniques primarily employed for odor control. Devices and systems, costs, and problems of measurement are considered in light of environmental agencies' efforts to curb smelly emissions. (BL)

  10. Using Technology to Control Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Simon; Schoenberg, Doug; Richards, Dan; Morath, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors examines the use of technology to control costs in the child care industry. One of these technology solutions is Software-as-a-Service (SaaS). SaaS solutions can help child care providers save money in many aspects of center management. In addition to cost savings, SaaS solutions are also particularly appealing to…

  11. HVAC & Building Management Control System Energy Efficiency Replacements

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, Adriana

    2012-09-21

    The project objective was the replacement of an aging, un-repairable HVAC system which has grown inefficient and a huge energy consumer with low energy and efficient HVAC units, and installation of energy efficient building control technologies at City's YMCA Community Center.

  12. Energy Efficient Engine Exhaust Mixer Model Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlowski, H.; Larkin, M.

    1981-01-01

    An exhaust mixer test program was conducted to define the technology required for the Energy Efficient Engine Program. The model configurations of 1/10 scale were tested in two phases. A parametric study of mixer design options, the impact of residual low pressure turbine swirl, and integration of the mixer with the structural pylon of the nacelle were investigated. The improvement of the mixer itself was also studied. Nozzle performance characteristics were obtained along with exit profiles and oil smear photographs. The sensitivity of nozzle performance to tailpipe length, lobe number, mixer penetration, and mixer modifications like scalloping and cutbacks were established. Residual turbine swirl was found detrimental to exhaust system performance and the low pressure turbine system for Energy Efficient Engine was designed so that no swirl would enter the mixer. The impact of mixer/plug gap was also established, along with importance of scalloping, cutbacks, hoods, and plug angles on high penetration mixers.

  13. Optimization for efficient structure-control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oz, Hayrani; Khot, Narendra S.

    1993-01-01

    The efficiency of a structure-control system is a nondimensional parameter which indicates the fraction of the total control power expended usefully in controlling a finite-dimensional system. The balance of control power is wasted on the truncated dynamics serving no useful purpose towards the control objectives. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the concept of efficiency can be used to address a number of control issues encountered in the control of dynamic systems such as the spillover effects, selection of a good input configuration and obtaining reduced order control models. Reference (1) introduced the concept and presented analyses of several Linear Quadratic Regulator designs on the basis of their efficiencies. Encouraged by the results of Ref. (1), Ref. (2) introduces an efficiency modal analysis of a structure-control system which gives an internal characterization of the controller design and establishes the link between the control design and the initial disturbances to affect efficient structure-control system designs. The efficiency modal analysis leads to identification of principal controller directions (or controller modes) distinct from the structural natural modes. Thus ultimately, many issues of the structure-control system revolve around the idea of insuring compatibility of the structural modes and the controller modes with each other, the better the match the higher the efficiency. A key feature in controlling a reduced order model of a high dimensional (or infinity-dimensional distributed parameter system) structural dynamic system must be to achieve high efficiency of the control system while satisfying the control objectives and/or constraints. Formally, this can be achieved by designing the control system and structural parameters simultaneously within an optimization framework. The subject of this paper is to present such a design procedure.

  14. AFWAL space control technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehne, V. O.

    1985-01-01

    An overview of space oriented control technology programs which are applicable to flexible large space structures is presented. The spacecraft control activity is interdisciplinary with activities in structures, structural dynamics and control brought together. The large flexible structures to be controlled have many physical factors that influence the final controllability of the vehicle. Factors are studied such as rigidity of both structural elements and joints, damping inherent in both material as well as discrete dampers located throughout the structure, and the bandwidth of both sensors and actuators used to sense motion and control it. Descriptions of programs both in-house and contracted are given.

  15. Energy efficient transport technology: Program summary and bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, D. B.; Bartlett, D. W.; Hood, R. V.

    1985-01-01

    The Energy Efficient Transport (EET) Program began in 1976 as an element of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Program. The EET Program and the results of various applications of advanced aerodynamics and active controls technology (ACT) as applicable to future subsonic transport aircraft are discussed. Advanced aerodynamics research areas included high aspect ratio supercritical wings, winglets, advanced high lift devices, natural laminar flow airfoils, hybrid laminar flow control, nacelle aerodynamic and inertial loads, propulsion/airframe integration (e.g., long duct nacelles) and wing and empennage surface coatings. In depth analytical/trade studies, numerous wind tunnel tests, and several flight tests were conducted. Improved computational methodology was also developed. The active control functions considered were maneuver load control, gust load alleviation, flutter mode control, angle of attack limiting, and pitch augmented stability. Current and advanced active control laws were synthesized and alternative control system architectures were developed and analyzed. Integrated application and fly by wire implementation of the active control functions were design requirements in one major subprogram. Additional EET research included interdisciplinary technology applications, integrated energy management, handling qualities investigations, reliability calculations, and economic evaluations related to fuel savings and cost of ownership of the selected improvements.

  16. Technologies for the Energy Efficient Data Center

    SciTech Connect

    Cader, Tahir; Westra, Levi; Marquez, Andres

    2007-07-17

    Although semiconductor manufacturers have provided temporary relief with lower-power multi-core microprocessors, OEMs and data center operators continue to push the limits for individual rack power densities. It is not uncommon today for data center operators to deploy multiple 20 kW racks in a facility. Such rack densities are exacerbating the major issues of power and cooling in data centers. Data center operators are now forced to take a hard look at the efficiencies of their data centers. Malone and Belady (2006) have proposed three metrics, i.e., Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE), Data Center Efficiency (DCE), and the Energy-to-Acquisition Cost ratio (EAC), to help data center operators quickly quantify the efficiency of their data centers. In their paper, Malone and Belady present nominal values of PUE across a broad crosssection of data centers. PUE values are presented for data centers at four levels of optimization. One of these optimizations involves the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). In the current paper, CFD is used to conduct an in-depth investigation of a liquid-cooled data center that would potentially be housed at the Pacific Northwest National Labs (PNNL). The boundary conditions used in the CFD model are based upon actual measurements on a rack of liquid-cooled servers housed at PNNL. The analysis shows that the liquid-cooled facility could achieve a PUE of 1.57 as compared to a PUE of 3.0 for a typical data center (the lower the PUE, the better, with values below 1.6 approaching ideal). The increase in data center efficiency is also translated into an increase in the amount of IT equipment that can be deployed. At a PUE of 1.57, the analysis shows that 91% more IT equipment can be deployed as compared to the typical data center. The paper will discuss the analysis of the PUE, and will also explore the impact of the raising data center efficiency via the use of multiple cooling technologies and CFD analysis. Complete results of the

  17. Technology innovations and experience curves for nitrogen oxides control technologies.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Sonia; Rubin, Edward S; Taylor, Margaret R; Hounshell, David A

    2005-12-01

    This paper reviews the regulatory history for nitrogen oxides (NOx) pollutant emissions from stationary sources, primarily in coal-fired power plants. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is one of the six criteria pollutants regulated by the 1970 Clean Air Act where National Ambient Air Quality Standards were established to protect public health and welfare. We use patent data to show that in the cases of Japan, Germany, and the United States, innovations in NOx control technologies did not occur until stringent government regulations were in place, thus "forcing" innovation. We also demonstrate that reductions in the capital and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs of new generations of high-efficiency NOx control technologies, selective catalytic reduction (SCR), are consistently associated with the increasing adoption of the control technology: the so-called learning-by-doing phenomena. The results show that as cumulative world coal-fired SCR capacity doubles, capital costs decline to approximately 86% and O&M costs to 58% of their original values. The observed changes in SCR technology reflect the impact of technological advance as well as other factors, such as market competition and economies of scale.

  18. Efficient manufacturing technology of metal optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jizhen; Wu, Yanxiong; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Liping; Wang, Lingjie; Qu, Hemeng

    2015-10-01

    The efficient manufacturing technologies greatly accelerate the development and production process. Optical components have higher precision requirements than mechanical parts. This provides great challenge for rapid manufacturing. Metallic optical system is featured high resolution, wide spectral range, light weight, compact design, low cost and short manufacturing period. Reflective mirrors and supporting structures can be made from the same material to improve athermal performance of the system. Common materials for metal mirrors in optical applications include aluminum, copper, beryllium, aluminum beryllium alloy and so on. Their physical characteristics and relative advantages are presented. Most kinds of metals have good machinability and can be manufactured by many kinds of producing methods. This makes metallic optical system saving 30%~60% cost and time than others. The manufacturing process of metal mirror is different due to its working spectral. The metal mirror can be directly manufactured by single point diamond turning. This is an outstanding technique in point of ultra-precision as well as economical manufacture of mirrors. The roughness values and form accuracy of optical surfaces after diamond turning can satisfy the quality level for applications in the near infrared and infrared range. And for visible light spectral the turning structures must be removed with a smoothing procedure in order to minimize the scatter losses. Some smoothing methods to obtain visible quality metal mirrors are given in this paper. Some new manufacturing technology, such as 3D printing, can be used for metallic optical system and several promising techniques are presented.

  19. Operational efficiency subpanel advanced mission control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedland, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Herein, the term mission control will be taken quite broadly to include both ground and space based operations as well as the information infrastructure necessary to support such operations. Three major technology areas related to advanced mission control are examined: (1) Intelligent Assistance for Ground-Based Mission Controllers and Space-Based Crews; (2) Autonomous Onboard Monitoring, Control and Fault Detection Isolation and Reconfiguration; and (3) Dynamic Corporate Memory Acquired, Maintained, and Utilized During the Entire Vehicle Life Cycle. The current state of the art space operations are surveyed both within NASA and externally for each of the three technology areas and major objectives are discussed from a user point of view for technology development. Ongoing NASA and other governmental programs are described. An analysis of major research issues and current holes in the program are provided. Several recommendations are presented for enhancing the technology development and insertion process to create advanced mission control environments.

  20. Efficient utilization of graphics technology for space animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panos, Gregory Peter

    1989-01-01

    Efficient utilization of computer graphics technology has become a major investment in the work of aerospace engineers and mission designers. These new tools are having a significant impact in the development and analysis of complex tasks and procedures which must be prepared prior to actual space flight. Design and implementation of useful methods in applying these tools has evolved into a complex interaction of hardware, software, network, video and various user interfaces. Because few people can understand every aspect of this broad mix of technology, many specialists are required to build, train, maintain and adapt these tools to changing user needs. Researchers have set out to create systems where an engineering designer can easily work to achieve goals with a minimum of technological distraction. This was accomplished with high-performance flight simulation visual systems and supercomputer computational horsepower. Control throughout the creative process is judiciously applied while maintaining generality and ease of use to accommodate a wide variety of engineering needs.

  1. Particulate control system for biomass firing technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Easom, B.H.; Smolensky, L.A.; Wysk, S.R.

    1996-12-31

    The new particulate control equipment, the so-called Core Separator, overcomes most of the limitations inherent in conventional particulate control systems and can be effectively adapted for biomass applications. The Core Separator is a mechanical collector; however, this technology overcomes the performance limitation inherent in cyclones by performing the tasks of separation and collection in two separate components. The separation process is less affected by secondary flows and is much more efficient than the collection process. Also, the components of the system are arranged in such a way that the separation process determines the system efficiency. As a result, particulate emission rates downstream of this system are one fourth of those from the most efficient cyclones. This technology has been demonstrated through commercial unit installations in the U.S. and abroad. It has been used for industrial separations including coal fly ash, minerals, and chemical recovery applications. It is considered a lower-cost alternative to fabric filters and electrostatic precipitators, albeit one that can meet or exceed regulations for particulate emissions. Development of this technology has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Environmental Protection Agency, and Electric Power Research Institute.

  2. Innovative Technologies for Efficient Pharmacotherapeutic Management in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, Lakshmi; Daniels, Vernie

    2014-01-01

    Current and future Space exploration missions and extended human presence in space aboard the ISS will expose crew to risks that differ both quantitatively and qualitatively from those encountered before by space travelers and will impose an unknown risk of safety and crew health. The technology development challenges for optimizing therapeutics in space must include the development of pharmaceuticals with extended stability, optimal efficacy and bioavailability with minimal toxicity and side effects. Innovative technology development goals may include sustained/chronic delivery preventive health care products and vaccines, low-cost high-efficiency noninvasive, non-oral dosage forms with radio-protective formulation matrices and dispensing technologies coupled with self-reliant tracking technologies for quality assurance and quality control assessment. These revolutionary advances in pharmaceutical technology will assure human presence in space and healthy living on Earth. Additionally, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations advocates the use of health information technologies to effectively execute all aspects of medication management (prescribing, dispensing, and administration). The advent of personalized medicine and highly streamlined treatment regimens stimulated interest in new technologies for medication management. Intelligent monitoring devices enhance medication accountability compliance, enable effective drug use, and offer appropriate storage and security conditions for dangerous drug and controlled substance medications in remote sites where traditional pharmacies are unavailable. These features are ideal for Exploration Medical Capabilities. This presentation will highlight current novel commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) intelligent medication management devices for the unique dispensing, therapeutic drug monitoring, medication tracking, and drug delivery demands of exploration space medical operations.

  3. Efficient Portfolios of the Energy Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikonov, Oleg I.; Medvedeva, Marina A.

    2011-09-01

    The goal of the research is to apply the methods of Portfolio Theory to a set of technologies instead of to a set of securities on a stock market (as it is the case in the original model). Assets on the stock market are objects that have risk and return, parameters that depend on uncertain factors and thus are uncertain. The returns from the use of technologies also depend on uncertain factors and thus each technology has a certain amount of risk. The simultaneous use of technologies could diversify the risks that are associated with technologies just the same way as diversification works on the stock market.

  4. The research of laser marking control technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiue; Zhang, Rong

    2009-08-01

    In the area of Laser marking, the general control method is insert control card to computer's mother board, it can not support hot swap, it is difficult to assemble or it. Moreover, the one marking system must to equip one computer. In the system marking, the computer can not to do the other things except to transmit marking digital information. Otherwise it can affect marking precision. Based on traditional control methods existed some problems, introduced marking graphic editing and digital processing by the computer finish, high-speed digital signal processor (DSP) control marking the whole process. The laser marking controller is mainly contain DSP2812, digital memorizer, DAC (digital analog converting) transform unit circuit, USB interface control circuit, man-machine interface circuit, and other logic control circuit. Download the marking information which is processed by computer to U disk, DSP read the information by USB interface on time, then processing it, adopt the DSP inter timer control the marking time sequence, output the scanner control signal by D/A parts. Apply the technology can realize marking offline, thereby reduce the product cost, increase the product efficiency. The system have good effect in actual unit markings, the marking speed is more quickly than PCI control card to 20 percent. It has application value in practicality.

  5. Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies Technical Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Hallbert

    2012-09-01

    Reliable instrumentation, information, and control (II&C) systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration.

  6. Efficient Power Amplifier for Motor Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Pulse-width-modulated amplifier supplies high current as efficiently as low current needed for starting and running motor. Key to efficiency of motor-control amplifier is V-channel metal-oxide/semiconductor transistor Q1. Device has low saturation resistance. However, has large gate input capacitance and small margin between its turn-on voltage and maximum allowable gate-to-source voltage. Circuits for output stages overcome limitations of VMOS device.

  7. On eco-efficient technologies to minimize industrial water consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiri, Mohammad C.; Mohammadifard, Hossein; Ghaffari, Ghasem

    2016-07-01

    Purpose - Water scarcity will further stress on available water systems and decrease the security of water in many areas. Therefore, innovative methods to minimize industrial water usage and waste production are of paramount importance in the process of extending fresh water resources and happen to be the main life support systems in many arid regions of the world. This paper demonstrates that there are good opportunities for many industries to save water and decrease waste water in softening process by substituting traditional with echo-friendly methods. The patented puffing method is an eco-efficient and viable technology for water saving and waste reduction in lime softening process. Design/methodology/approach - Lime softening process (LSP) is a very sensitive process to chemical reactions. In addition, optimal monitoring not only results in minimizing sludge that must be disposed of but also it reduces the operating costs of water conditioning. Weakness of the current (regular) control of LSP based on chemical analysis has been demonstrated experimentally and compared with the eco-efficient puffing method. Findings - This paper demonstrates that there is a good opportunity for many industries to save water and decrease waste water in softening process by substituting traditional method with puffing method, a patented eco-efficient technology. Originality/value - Details of the required innovative works to minimize industrial water usage and waste production are outlined in this paper. Employing the novel puffing method for monitoring of lime softening process results in saving a considerable amount of water while reducing chemical sludge.

  8. Energy Efficient Engine: Control system component performance report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beitler, R. S.; Bennett, G. W.

    1984-01-01

    An Energy Efficient Engine (E3) program was established to develop technology for improving the energy efficiency of future commercial transport aircraft engines. As part of this program, General Electric designed and tested a new engine. The design, fabrication, bench and engine testing of the Full Authority Digital Electronic Control (FADEC) system used for controlling the E3 Demonstrator Engine is described. The system design was based on many of the proven concepts and component designs used on the General Electric family of engines. One significant difference is the use of the FADEC in place of hydromechanical computation currently used.

  9. High efficiency low cost GaAs/Ge cell technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Frank

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on high efficiency low cost GaAs/Ge cell technology are presented. Topics covered include: high efficiency, low cost GaAs/Ge solar cells; advantages of Ge; comparison of typical production cells for space applications; panel level comparisons; and solar cell technology trends.

  10. Global climate change: Mitigation opportunities high efficiency large chiller technology

    SciTech Connect

    Stanga, M.V.

    1997-12-31

    This paper, comprised of presentation viewgraphs, examines the impact of high efficiency large chiller technology on world electricity consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. Background data are summarized, and sample calculations are presented. Calculations show that presently available high energy efficiency chiller technology has the ability to substantially reduce energy consumption from large chillers. If this technology is widely implemented on a global basis, it could reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 65 million tons by 2010.

  11. Langley Research Center contributions in advancing active control technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abel, I.; Newsom, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    The application of active control technology to reduce aeroelastic response of aircraft structures offers a potential for significant payoffs in terms of aerodynamic efficiency and weight savings. Some of the contributions of the Langley Research Center in advancing active control technology are described. Contributions are categorized into the development of appropriate analysis tools, control law synthesis methodology, and experimental investigations aimed at verifying both analysis and synthesis methodology.

  12. An Affect Control Theory of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shank, Daniel B.

    2010-01-01

    Affect control theory is a theory of interaction that takes into account cultural meanings. Affect control research has previously considered interaction with technology, but there remains a lack of theorizing about inclusion of technology within the theory. This paper lays a foundation for an affect control theory of technology by addressing key…

  13. Conduct a process control technology audit

    SciTech Connect

    Ayral, T.E.; Melville, S.J. )

    1992-06-01

    This paper reports that increasing environmental, safety and quality control concerns, coupled with rapid advances in process control technology, are prompting many plants to review their current technology. The goals are to maximize productivity of existing process control resources and determine the improvement potential of today's technology. By implementing the guidelines provided based on recently conducted surveys, control engineer productivity and therefore, plant productivity and profitability can be increased. These studies, called process control technology audits (PCTA), cover the following subjects as they relate to process control: Process control systems, Control and optimization technology overview, System interconnectivity and integration evaluation, and Information system review. A PCTA is designed to answer the following questions for a processing plant: Is our current control technology the most appropriate Do we have the required hardware and software What is the obsolescence level of our hardware Is more computer system integration necessary How can we improve in the process control area

  14. New screen technology proves efficient, versatile

    SciTech Connect

    Herod, S.

    1985-06-01

    The achievements of a company that designs and fabricates aggregate handling and processing equipment are described, beginning with the design of a double-crown harp deck and leading to an effective new concept in screening technology where the fines are screened from the flow first, before separating the coarser fractions. The operation and applications of the screening method are discussed in some detail.

  15. Cryogenic thermal control technology summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, J. A.; Leonhard, K. E.; Bennett, F. O., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A summarization and categorization is presented of the pertinent literature associated with cryogenic thermal control technology having potential application to in-orbit fluid transfer systems and/or associated space storage. Initially, a literature search was conducted to obtain pertinent documents for review. Reports determined to be of primary significance were summarized in detail. Each summary, where applicable, consists of; (1) report identification, (2) objective(s) of the work, (3) description of pertinent work performed, (4)major results, and (5) comments of the reviewer (GD/C). Specific areas covered are; (1) multilayer insulation of storage tanks with and without vacuum jacketing, (2) other insulation such as foams, shadow shields, microspheres, honeycomb, vent cooling and composites, (3) vacuum jacketed and composite fluid lines, and (4) low conductive tank supports and insulation penetrations. Reports which were reviewed and not summarized, along with reasons for not summarizing, are also listed.

  16. Efficient Controlled Quantum Secure Direct Communication Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patwardhan, Siddharth; Moulick, Subhayan Roy; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.

    2016-07-01

    We study controlled quantum secure direct communication (CQSDC), a cryptographic scheme where a sender can send a secret bit-string to an intended recipient, without any secure classical channel, who can obtain the complete bit-string only with the permission of a controller. We report an efficient protocol to realize CQSDC using Cluster state and then go on to construct a (2-3)-CQSDC using Brown state, where a coalition of any two of the three controllers is required to retrieve the complete message. We argue both protocols to be unconditionally secure and analyze the efficiency of the protocols to show it to outperform the existing schemes while maintaining the same security specifications.

  17. Energy Efficient Engine acoustic supporting technology report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavin, S. P.; Ho, P. Y.

    1985-01-01

    The acoustic development of the Energy Efficient Engine combined testing and analysis using scale model rigs and an integrated Core/Low Spool demonstration engine. The scale model tests show that a cut-on blade/vane ratio fan with a large spacing (S/C = 2.3) is as quiet as a cut-off blade/vane ratio with a tighter spacing (S/C = 1.27). Scale model mixer tests show that separate flow nozzles are the noisiest, conic nozzles the quietest, with forced mixers in between. Based on projections of ICLS data the Energy Efficient Engine (E3) has FAR 36 margins of 3.7 EPNdB at approach, 4.5 EPNdB at full power takeoff, and 7.2 EPNdB at sideline conditions.

  18. Controlled Structures Technology Steering Committee Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on controlled structures technology presented at the steering committee workshop on 22-23 Jan. 1992 are included. Topics addressed include: interferometer testbed; middeck 0-gravity dynamics experiment; middeck active control experiment; multivariable identification for control; strain actuated aeroelastic control; sensor/actuator technology development; input command shaping; and other research projects. A description of the organization and committee are included.

  19. Aircraft energy efficiency laminar flow control wing design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, T. F., Jr.; Pride, J. D., Jr.; Fernald, W. W.

    1977-01-01

    An engineering design study was performed in which laminar flow control (LFC) was integrated into the wing of a commercial passenger transport aircraft. A baseline aircraft configuration was selected and the wing geometry was defined. The LFC system, with suction slots, ducting, and suction pumps was integrated with the wing structure. The use of standard aluminum technology and advanced superplastic formed diffusion bonded titanium technology was evaluated. The results of the design study show that the LFC system can be integrated with the wing structure to provide a structurally and aerodynamically efficient wing for a commercial transport aircraft.

  20. Secure and Efficient Routable Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Edgar, Thomas W.; Hadley, Mark D.; Manz, David O.; Winn, Jennifer D.

    2010-05-01

    This document provides the methods to secure routable control system communication in the electric sector. The approach of this document yields a long-term vision for a future of secure communication, while also providing near term steps and a roadmap. The requirements for the future secure control system environment were spelled out to provide a final target. Additionally a survey and evaluation of current protocols was used to determine if any existing technology could achieve this goal. In the end a four-step path was described that brought about increasing requirement completion and culminates in the realization of the long term vision.

  1. JPL Advanced Thermal Control Technology Roadmap - 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birur, Gaj; Rodriguez, Jose I.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's new emphasis on human exploration program for missions beyond LEO requires development of innovative and revolutionary technologies. Thermal control requirements of future NASA science instruments and missions are very challenging and require advanced thermal control technologies. Limited resources requires organizations to cooperate and collaborate; government, industry, universities all need to work together for the successful development of these technologies.

  2. Ultra Efficient Engine Technology Systems Integration and Environmental Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, David L.; Geiselhart, Karl A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This study documents the design and analysis of four types of advanced technology commercial transport airplane configurations (small, medium large and very large) with an assumed technology readiness date of 2010. These airplane configurations were used as a platform to evaluate the design concept and installed performance of advanced technology engines being developed under the NASA Ultra Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) program. Upon installation of the UEET engines onto the UEET advanced technology airframes, the small and medium airplanes both achieved an additional 16% increase in fuel efficiency when using GE advanced turbofan engines. The large airplane achieved an 18% increase in fuel efficiency when using the P&W geared fan engine. The very large airplane (i.e. BWB), also using P&W geared fan engines, only achieved an additional 16% that was attributed to a non-optimized airplane/engine combination.

  3. Regaining Control Over Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsborough, Reid

    2005-01-01

    Living in postindustrial, 21st-century society means being surrounded by the accoutrements of information technology. Information technology is in people's offices, cars and homes. One third of adults do not deal well with information technology, according to the research of Larry Rosen, psychology professor, author, and pundit. Rosen is the Paul…

  4. Advanced component technologies for energy-efficient turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, N. T.

    1980-01-01

    A cooperative government-industry effort, the Energy Efficient Engine Project, to develop the advanced technology base for future commercial development of a new generation of more fuel conservative turbofan engines for airline use is described. Engine configurations that are dependent upon technology advances in each major engine component are defined and current design and development of the advanced components are included.

  5. Advanced component technologies for energy-efficient turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, N. T.

    1980-01-01

    The paper reviews NASA's Energy Efficient Engine Project which was initiated to provide the advanced technology base for a new generation of fuel-conservative engines for introduction into airline service by the late 1980s. Efforts in this project are directed at advancing engine component and systems technologies to a point of demonstrating technology-readiness by 1984. Early results indicate high promise in achieving most of the goals established in the project.

  6. Efficient foot motor control by Neymar's brain.

    PubMed

    Naito, Eiichi; Hirose, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    How very long-term (over many years) motor skill training shapes internal motor representation remains poorly understood. We provide valuable evidence that the football brain of Neymar da Silva Santos Júnior (the Brasilian footballer) recruits very limited neural resources in the motor-cortical foot regions during foot movements. We scanned his brain activity with a 3-tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while he rotated his right ankle at 1 Hz. We also scanned brain activity when three other age-controlled professional footballers, two top-athlete swimmers and one amateur footballer performed the identical task. A comparison was made between Neymar's brain activity with that obtained from the others. We found activations in the left medial-wall foot motor regions during the foot movements consistently across all participants. However, the size and intensity of medial-wall activity was smaller in the four professional footballers than in the three other participants, despite no difference in amount of foot movement. Surprisingly, the reduced recruitment of medial-wall foot motor regions became apparent in Neymar. His medial-wall activity was smallest among all participants with absolutely no difference in amount of foot movement. Neymar may efficiently control given foot movements probably by largely conserving motor-cortical neural resources. We discuss this possibility in terms of over-years motor skill training effect, use-dependent plasticity, and efficient motor control.

  7. Control technology for future aircraft propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeller, J. R.; Szuch, J. R.; Merrill, W. C.; Lehtinen, B.; Soeder, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    The need for a more sophisticated engine control system is discussed. The improvements in better thrust-to-weight ratios demand the manipulation of more control inputs. New technological solutions to the engine control problem are practiced. The digital electronic engine control (DEEC) system is a step in the evolution to digital electronic engine control. Technology issues are addressed to ensure a growth in confidence in sophisticated electronic controls for aircraft turbine engines. The need of a control system architecture which permits propulsion controls to be functionally integrated with other aircraft systems is established. Areas of technology studied include: (1) control design methodology; (2) improved modeling and simulation methods; and (3) implementation technologies. Objectives, results and future thrusts are summarized.

  8. Resource efficiency potential of selected technologies, products and strategies.

    PubMed

    Rohn, Holger; Pastewski, Nico; Lettenmeier, Michael; Wiesen, Klaus; Bienge, Katrin

    2014-03-01

    Despite rising prices for natural resources during the past 30 years, global consumption of natural resources is still growing. This leads to ecological, economical and social problems. So far, however, limited effort has been made to decrease the natural resource use of goods and services. While resource efficiency is already on the political agenda (EU and national resource strategies), there are still substantial knowledge gaps on the effectiveness of resource efficiency improvement strategies in different fields. In this context and within the project "Material Efficiency and Resource Conservation", the natural resource use of 22 technologies, products and strategies was calculated and their resource efficiency potential analysed. In a preliminary literature- and expert-based identification process, over 250 technologies, strategies, and products, which are regarded as resource efficient, were identified. Out of these, 22 subjects with high resource efficiency potential were selected. They cover a wide range of relevant technologies, products and strategies, such as energy supply and storage, Green IT, transportation, foodstuffs, agricultural engineering, design strategies, lightweight construction, as well as the concept "Using Instead of Owning". To assess the life-cycle-wide resource use of the selected subjects, the material footprint has been applied as a reliable indicator. In addition, sustainability criteria on a qualitative basis were considered. The results presented in this paper show significant resource efficiency potential for many technologies, products and strategies.

  9. Service program diagnostics and decision support technology for improving health technology service efficiency and productivity.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, D F

    1998-01-01

    Our in-depth survey of both the state of the art and the results of application, implementation, and rollout of problem resolution diagnostics in control help desks and field service clearly shows the potential of online remote diagnostics technology (Figure 9) to improve service force productivity and efficiency and to make more effective use of service resources (people and parts). Our survey of the current and planned future expenditures for diagnostics used in field service clearly indicates that the overall service diagnostics market is currently sizable, in the range of $2 billion as of 1997, and is projected to grow to approximately $2.6 billion by 2000. This current expenditure and growth will occur primarily in the electronics arena, but there are still substantial development and application investments occurring in both electromechanical and mechanical areas. We believe that the pace of investment will fall off as the service industry shifts from development and experimental research to the application and rollout of standard off-the-shelf technology. Thus, the overall pattern of the diagnostics market indicates a continuing increase in expenditures by the field service industry for electronics-oriented service diagnostics and some increase with respect to use of this technology in electromechanical and mechanical applications. The application and use of diagnostics technology will also be affected by the ability of the field service management community to recognize the need to search for an optimum as opposed to a feasible solution to dispatch, assignment, call screening, call avoidance, and logistics deployment. The further rollout of affordable wireless communications technology such as Ardis and Ram mobile and the new cellular-based CPDP technology, coupled with the increased availability of inexpensive wireless-based laptops, portables, and CD-ROM-based problem resolution and diagnostics technology clearly shows the value of this technology in

  10. Energy efficiency in municipal wastewater treatment plants: Technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) estimates that municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in New York State consume about 1.5 billion kWh of electricity each year for sewage treatment and sludge management based on the predominant types of treatment plants, the results of an energy use survey, and recent trends in the amounts of electricity WWTPs use nationwide. Electric utilities in New York State have encouraged demand-side management (DSM) to help control or lower energy costs and make energy available for new customers without constructing additional facilities. This report describes DSM opportunities for WWTPs in New York State; discusses the costs and benefits of several DSM measures; projects energy impact statewide of the DSM technologies; identifies the barrier to implementing DSM at WWTPs; and outlines one possible incentive that could stimulate widespread adoption of DSM by WWTP operators. The DSM technologies discussed are outfall hydropower, on-site generation, aeration efficiency, time-of-day electricity pricing, and storing wastewater.

  11. OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT AND ECONOMICAL OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    A. Wang; H. Xiao; R. May

    1999-10-29

    Efficient and complete recovery of petroleum reserves from existing oil wells has proven difficult due to a lack of robust instrumentation that can monitor processes in the downhole environment. Commercially available sensors for measurement of pressure, temperature, and fluid flow exhibit shortened lifetimes in the harsh downhole conditions, which are characterized by high pressures (up to 20 kpsi), temperatures up to 250 C, and exposure to chemically reactive fluids. Development of robust sensors that deliver continuous, real-time data on reservoir performance and petroleum flow pathways will facilitate application of advanced recovery technologies, including horizontal and multi-lateral wells. The main objective of the research program is to develop cost-effective, reliable fiber sensor instrumentation for real-time monitoring and /or control of various key parameters crucial to efficient and economical oil production. This report presents the detailed research work and technical progress from October 1, 1998 to September 30, 1999. The research performed over the first year of the program has followed the schedule as proposed, and solid research progress has been made in specification of the technical requirements, design and fabrication of the SCIIB sensor probes, development of the sensor systems, development of DSP-based signal processing techniques, and construction of the test systems. These technical achievements will significantly help to advance continued research on sensor tests and evaluation during the second year of the program.

  12. Advanced technologies for Mission Control Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, John T.; Hughes, Peter M.

    1991-01-01

    Advance technologies for Mission Control Centers are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: technology needs; current technology efforts at GSFC (human-machine interface development, object oriented software development, expert systems, knowledge-based software engineering environments, and high performance VLSI telemetry systems); and test beds.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the activities and progress of the pilot Air Pollution Control Technologies (APCT) portion of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program during the period from 09/15/97 to 09/15/02. The objective of the ETV Program is to verify the performance of...

  14. Energy Efficiency: Information Sources for New and Emerging Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Steven A.

    2007-12-31

    The purpose of this article is to share a list of useful organizations that provide reliable information on new and emerging energy-efficient technologies based on research and experience. Experienced energy managers may use the information provided by these organizations to enhance their knowledge and understanding, thereby improving their energy management programs. The scope is limited to publicly-available and open-membership organizations that deal with new and emerging, energy-efficient technologies, strategies, and products. The sources identified should not be considered exhaustive but rather a first step “go to” list suggested by the author when searching for useful information on new and emerging energy-efficient technologies.

  15. Technological options for acid rain control

    SciTech Connect

    Princiotta, F.T.; Sedman, C.B.

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses technological options for acid rain control. Compliance with Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 will require careful scrutiny of a number of issues before selecting control options to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. One key consideration is the effect of fuel switching or control technology upon the existing dust collector, with additional air toxics legislation looming ahead. A number of likely SO2 and NOx retrofit technologies and estimated costs are presented, along with results of retrofit case studies. New hybrid particulate controls are also being developed to meet future requirements.

  16. Dynamo efficiency controlled by hydrodynamic bistability.

    PubMed

    Miralles, Sophie; Herault, Johann; Herault, Johann; Fauve, Stephan; Gissinger, Christophe; Pétrélis, François; Daviaud, François; Dubrulle, Bérengère; Boisson, Jean; Bourgoin, Mickaël; Verhille, Gautier; Odier, Philippe; Pinton, Jean-François; Plihon, Nicolas

    2014-06-01

    Hydrodynamic and magnetic behaviors in a modified experimental setup of the von Kármán sodium flow-where one disk has been replaced by a propeller-are investigated. When the rotation frequencies of the disk and the propeller are different, we show that the fully turbulent hydrodynamic flow undergoes a global bifurcation between two configurations. The bistability of these flow configurations is associated with the dynamics of the central shear layer. The bistable flows are shown to have different dynamo efficiencies; thus for a given rotation rate of the soft-iron disk, two distinct magnetic behaviors are observed depending on the flow configuration. The hydrodynamic transition controls the magnetic field behavior, and bifurcations between high and low magnetic field branches are investigated. PMID:25019895

  17. Automatic process control in anaerobic digestion technology: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duc; Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana; Nitayavardhana, Saoharit; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a mature technology that relies upon a synergistic effort of a diverse group of microbial communities for metabolizing diverse organic substrates. However, AD is highly sensitive to process disturbances, and thus it is advantageous to use online monitoring and process control techniques to efficiently operate AD process. A range of electrochemical, chromatographic and spectroscopic devices can be deployed for on-line monitoring and control of the AD process. While complexity of the control strategy ranges from a feedback control to advanced control systems, there are some debates on implementation of advanced instrumentations or advanced control strategies. Centralized AD plants could be the answer for the applications of progressive automatic control field. This article provides a critical overview of the available automatic control technologies that can be implemented in AD processes at different scales.

  18. Why simulation can be efficient: on the preconditions of efficient learning in complex technology based practices

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Bjørn

    2009-01-01

    Background It is important to demonstrate learning outcomes of simulation in technology based practices, such as in advanced health care. Although many studies show skills improvement and self-reported change to practice, there are few studies demonstrating patient outcome and societal efficiency. The objective of the study is to investigate if and why simulation can be effective and efficient in a hi-tech health care setting. This is important in order to decide whether and how to design simulation scenarios and outcome studies. Methods Core theoretical insights in Science and Technology Studies (STS) are applied to analyze the field of simulation in hi-tech health care education. In particular, a process-oriented framework where technology is characterized by its devices, methods and its organizational setting is applied. Results The analysis shows how advanced simulation can address core characteristics of technology beyond the knowledge of technology's functions. Simulation's ability to address skilful device handling as well as purposive aspects of technology provides a potential for effective and efficient learning. However, as technology is also constituted by organizational aspects, such as technology status, disease status, and resource constraints, the success of simulation depends on whether these aspects can be integrated in the simulation setting as well. This represents a challenge for future development of simulation and for demonstrating its effectiveness and efficiency. Conclusion Assessing the outcome of simulation in education in hi-tech health care settings is worthwhile if core characteristics of medical technology are addressed. This challenges the traditional technical versus non-technical divide in simulation, as organizational aspects appear to be part of technology's core characteristics. PMID:19627610

  19. [Current technologies for enhancing efficiency of laboratory techniques].

    PubMed

    Nazarenko, G I; Polubentseva, E I; Dolgov, V V; Kishkun, A A

    2004-01-01

    The current approaches to promoting the efficiency of applying the laboratory tools were comprehensively analyzed. It was for the first time that the above issue was considered from the standpoint of a scientifically substantiated management scheme applicable to the laboratory examination volume and within the framework of the modern conclusive medicine. The problem can be solved through starting, in each clinic, an independent research project and through patient management (critical course--technological card) with respect to available technological and personnel resources. Finally, the basic principles are outlined that are needed for designing the technological cards; the related role of experts in clinical laboratory diagnostics is demonstrated.

  20. An Updated Assessment of NASA Ultra-Efficient Engine Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong Michael T.; Jones, Scott M.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Ultra Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) project features advanced aeropropulsion technologies that include highly loaded turbomachinery, an advanced low-NOx combustor, high-temperature materials, and advanced fan containment technology. A probabilistic system assessment is performed to evaluate the impact of these technologies on aircraft CO2 (or equivalent fuel burn) and NOx reductions. A 300-passenger aircraft, with two 396-kN thrust (85,000-lb) engines is chosen for the study. The results show that a large subsonic aircraft equipped with the current UEET technology portfolio has very high probabilities of meeting the UEET minimum success criteria for CO2 reduction (-12% from the baseline) and LTO (landing and takeoff) NOx reductions (-65% relative to the 1996 International Civil Aviation Organization rule).

  1. SOURCEBOOK: NOX CONTROL TECHNOLOGY DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, a compilation of available information on the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from stationary sources, is provided to assist new source permitting activities by regulatory agencies. he sources covered are combustion turbines, internal combustion engines, non...

  2. Measuring Information Technology Performance: Operational Efficiency and Operational Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Annette G.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation provides a practical approach for measuring operational efficiency and operational effectiveness for IT organizations introducing the ITIL process framework. The intent of the study was to assist Chief Information Officers (CIOs) in explaining the impact of introducing the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL)…

  3. Analysis of technological conditions influence on efficiency of oilfield treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usheva, N. V.; Moizes, O. E.; Kuzmenko, E. A.; Kim, S. F.; Khlebnikova, E. S.; Dyalilova, S. N.; Filippova, T. V.

    2015-11-01

    The results of influence of process parameters on oil quality and recommended effective technological modes of oilfield treatment processes are presented in this paper. It is shown that the parameters that significantly affect the efficiency of oil processes are temperature and water-oil emulsion flow rate with a given number of working process units and the structure of flowsheet flows.

  4. Energy Efficient High-Pressure Turbine Leakage Technology Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    The leakage test program was one of such supporting technology programs structured to provide guidance to the Energy Efficient Engine High Pressure Turbine Component Design Effort. Leakage reduction techniques were identified and evaluated. Test models were used to simulate component leak paths and to evaluate leakage reduction techniques. These models simulated the blade/disk attachment, the vane inner platform attachment, and the vane outer platform attachment combined with the blade outer airseal. Disk blade attachment testing indicated that leakage in this area could be reduced to very low levels by paying careful attention to the tolerances along the contact surface between the blade vibration damper and the blade platform contact surface. The aim of feather seal testing was to achieve a goal for an effective leakage gap of one mil (.001 inch) per inch of feather seal length. Results indicated that effective gaps even below the goal level were achievable by (1) maintaining close tolerances between feather seals and their slots to minimize end gaps and limit seal rotation, (2) avoiding feather seal overlap, and (3) minimizing feather seal intersections. W seals were shown to be effective leakage control devices. Wire rope, in its present state of development, was shown not to be an effective sealing concept for application to the component design.

  5. SOURCE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The options for pollution abatement in WWF can be implemented at the source by land management and pollution prevention techniques, in the collection system, offline by storage, or in a treatment plant. An integrated system that combines prevention, control, and treatment has of...

  6. Condensing economizers for thermal efficiency improvements and emissions control

    SciTech Connect

    Heaphy, J.P.; Carbonara, J.; Litzke, W.; Butcher, T.A.

    1993-12-31

    Flue gas condensing economizers improve the thermal efficiency of boilers by recovering sensible heat and water vapor latent heat from flue gas exhaust. In addition to improving thermal efficiency, condensing economizers also have the potential to act as control devices for emissions of particulates, SO{sub x}, and air toxics. Both Consolidated Edison of New York and Brookhaven National LaborAtory are currently working on condensing economizer technology with an emphasis on developing their potential for emissions control. Con Edison is currently conducting a condensing economizer demonstration at their oil-fired 74th Street Station in New York. Since installing this equipment in February of 1992 a heat rate improvement of 800 Btu/kWh has been seen. At another location, Ravenswood Station, a two stage condensing economizer has been installed in a pilot test. In this advanced configuration -the ``Integrated Flue Gas Treatment or IFGT system- two heat exchanger sections are installed and sprays of water with and without SO{sub 2} sorbents are included. Detailed studies of the removal of particulates, SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, and selected air toxics have been done for a variety of operating conditions. Removal efficiencies for SO{sub 2} have been over 98% and for SO{sub 3} over 65%. Brookhaven National Laboratory`s studies involve predicting and enhancing particulate capture in condensing economizers with an emphasis on small, coal-fired applications. This work is funded by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the Department of Energy. Flyash capture efficiencies as high as 97% have been achieved to date with a single stage economizer.

  7. Current submarine atmosphere control technology.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, W

    1998-01-01

    Air purification in submarines was introduced towards the end of World War II and was limited to the use of soda lime for the removal of carbon dioxide and oxygen candles for the regeneration of oxygen. The next major advances came with the advent of nuclear-powered submarines. These included the development of regenerative and, sometimes, energy-intensive processes for comprehensive atmosphere revitalization. With the present development of conventional submarines using air-independent propulsion there is a requirement for air purification similar to that of the nuclear-powered submarines but it is constrained by limited power and space. Some progress has been made in the development of new technology and the adoption of air purification equipment used in the nuclear-powered submarines for this application.

  8. Single-Lever Power Control for General Aviation Aircraft Promises Improved Efficiency and Simplified Pilot Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musgrave, Jeffrey L.

    1997-01-01

    General aviation research is leading to major advances in internal combustion engine control systems for single-engine, single-pilot aircraft. These advances promise to increase engine performance and fuel efficiency while substantially reducing pilot workload and increasing flight safety. One such advance is a single-lever power control (SLPC) system, a welcome departure from older, less user-friendly, multilever engine control systems. The benefits of using single-lever power controls for general aviation aircraft are improved flight safety through advanced engine diagnostics, simplified powerplant operations, increased time between overhauls, and cost-effective technology (extends fuel burn and reduces overhaul costs). The single-lever concept has proven to be so effective in preliminary studies that general aviation manufacturers are making plans to retrofit current aircraft with the technology and are incorporating it in designs for future aircraft.

  9. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES (CHAPTER 65)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter discusses the use of technologies for reducing air pollution emissions from stationary sources, with emphasis on the control of combustion gen-erated air pollution. Major stationary sources include utility power boilers, industrial boilers and heaters, metal smelting ...

  10. TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS FOR ACID RAIN CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussed are acid rain control options available to the electric utility industry. They include coal switching, flue gas desulfurization, and such emerging lower cost technologies as Limestone Injection Multistage Burners (LIMB) and Advanced Silicate (ADVACATE), both developed ...

  11. [Diesel emission control technologies: a review].

    PubMed

    He, Hong; Weng, Duan; Zi, Xin-Yun

    2007-06-01

    The authors reviewed the researches on diesel emission control for both new engine technologies and aftertreatment technologies. Emphases were focused on the recent advancements of the diesel particulate filter (DPF) and the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO(x). In addition, it was explored for the future development in this field.

  12. Instrumentation and Control. Energy Technology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This course in instrumentation and controls is one of 16 courses in the Energy Technology Series developed for an Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary technical institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in…

  13. Active Structural Control for Aircraft Efficiency with the X-56A Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ouellette, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The X-56A Multi-Utility Technology Testbed is an experimental aircraft designed to study active control of flexible structures. The vehicle is easily reconfigured to allow for testing of different configurations. The vehicle is being used to study new sensor, actuator, modeling and controls technologies. These new technologies will allow for lighter vehicles and new configurations that exceed the efficiency currently achievable. A description of the vehicle and the current research efforts that it enables are presented.

  14. Economic convergence of environmental control and advanced technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bolli, R.E.; Haslbeck, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    Emerging advanced technologies for environmental control have many advantages over conventional, single pollutant removal processes. Features include high efficiencies, multiple pollutant control and zero waste streams. In the past, the economics for state-of-the-art emission control processes could not compete with proven, low-efficiency scrubbers that create throw away by-products. With the implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), the entire economic environment has changed. If a single process can provide a facility`s compliance requirements for Title I, Title III and Title IV of the CAAA, its net costs can be lower than conventional technology and actually provide economic incentives for overcontrol. The emission allowance program is maturing and the annual revenues from overcontrol of SO{sub 2} are easily quantified. The economics of NO{sub x} control and offsets are currently being realized as EPA identified Title IV requirements, and facilities begin to realize the impact from Title I NO{sub x} control. Air toxic control from Title III could require yet a third control process for a facility to maintain emission compliance. The costs associated with single control strategies vs. multiple pollutant control processes will be discussed and compared. This paper will also present a specific application of the NOXSO Process and identify the potential advantages that can transform advanced technologies, like NOXSO, into the prudent solution for overall environmental compliance.

  15. Aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle control technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langehough, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    The focus of this control has been to develop the control technology required to identify the sophistication required for the Aeroassisted Orbital Transfer Vehicle (AOTV) control system. An angle of attack, bank angle command control technique has been developed which uses either on-off thruster or proportional thruster. An angle of attack adaptive controller was included to minimize the reactor control system (RCS) usage due to payload center of gravity uncertainties. The guidance and control techniques were verified using a detail six degrees-of-freedom simulation. Mission sensitivity was developed for uncertainties in the entry state, mass properties, atmosphere, aerodynamic, and sensor.

  16. Progress in emission control technologies

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    Partial contents of this book include: Ozone precursor emissions from alternatively fueled vehicles; Cycle resolved measurements of diesel particulate by optical techniques; A lubricant formulation for lower unburnt hydrocarbon emissions; Chassis test cycles for assessing emissions from heavy duty trucks; A non-intrusive method of measuring PCV blowby constituents; Some problems in the improvement of measurement of transient emissions; and Oxidation catalyst systems for emission control of LPG-powered forklift trucks.

  17. Electronic control/display interface technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, R. V.; Busquets, A. M.; Murray, R. F.; Hatfield, J. J.

    1985-01-01

    An effort to produce a representative workstation for the Space Station Data Management Test Bed that provides man/machine interface design options for consolidating, automating, and integrating the space station work station, and hardware/software technology demonstrations of space station applications is discussed. The workstation will emphasize the technologies of advanced graphics engines, advanced display/control medias, image management techniques, multifunction controls, and video disk utilizations.

  18. Thermal Control Technologies for Complex Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Theodore D.

    2004-01-01

    Thermal control is a generic need for all spacecraft. In response to ever more demanding science and exploration requirements, spacecraft are becoming ever more complex, and hence their thermal control systems must evolve. This paper briefly discusses the process of technology development, the state-of-the-art in thermal control, recent experiences with on-orbit two-phase systems, and the emerging thermal control technologies to meet these evolving needs. Some "lessons learned" based on experience with on-orbit systems are also presented.

  19. Efficient control structures for digital programmable retinas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Thierry M.

    2001-05-01

    A digital programmable artificial retina (PAR) is a functional extension of a CMOS imager, in which every pixel is fitted with a local ADC and a tiny digital programmable processor. From an architectural viewpoint, a PAR is an SIMD array processor with local optical input. A PAR is aimed at processing images on-site until they can be output from the array under concentrated form. The overall goal is to get compact, fast and inexpensive vision systems, in particular for robotics applications. A 256 by 256 PAR with up to a few tens bits of local memory per pixel is now within reach at reasonable cost. However, whereas the local memory size benefits quadratically from the feature size decrease, wiring density improvement can only be linear, at best. So control should become more complex with the danger of a growing proportion of the digital pixel area being devoted to instruction or address decoding. We propose efficient scalable solutions to this problem at the architectural, circuit and topological levels, which attempt to minimize both silicon area and power consumption.

  20. Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology 1985: High Efficiency, Space Environment, and Array Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The seventh NASA Conference on Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology was held at NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, from 30 April until 2 May 1985. Its purpose was to assess the progress made, the problems remaining, and future strategy for space photovoltaic research. Particular emphasis was placed on high efficiency, space environment, and array technology.

  1. EV Charging Through Wireless Power Transfer: Analysis of Efficiency Optimization and Technology Trends

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, John M; Rakouth, Heri; Suh, In-Soo

    2012-01-01

    This paper is aimed at reviewing the technology trends for wireless power transfer (WPT) for electric vehicles (EV). It also analyzes the factors affecting its efficiency and describes the techniques currently used for its optimization. The review of the technology trends encompasses both stationary and moving vehicle charging systems. The study of the stationary vehicle charging technology is based on current implementations and on-going developments at WiTricity and Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL). The moving vehicle charging technology is primarily described through the results achieved by the Korean Advanced Institute of Technology (KAIST) along with on-going efforts at Stanford University. The factors affecting the efficiency are determined through the analysis of the equivalent circuit of magnetic resonant coupling. The air gap between both transmitting and receiving coils along with the magnetic field distribution and the relative impedance mismatch between the related circuits are the primary factors affecting the WPT efficiency. Currently the industry is looking at an air gap of 25 cm or below. To control the magnetic field distribution, Kaist has recently developed the Shaped Magnetic Field In Resonance (SMFIR) technology that uses conveniently shaped ferrite material to provide low reluctance path. The efficiency can be further increased by means of impedance matching. As a result, Delphi's implementation of the WiTricity's technology exhibits a WPT efficiency above 90% for stationary charging while KAIST has demonstrated a maximum efficiency of 83% for moving vehicle with its On Line Vehicle (OLEV) project. This study is restricted to near-field applications (short and mid-range) and does not address long-range technology such as microwave power transfer that has low efficiency as it is based on radiating electromagnetic waves. This paper exemplifies Delphi's work in powertrain electrification as part of its innovation for the real world program geared

  2. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Roy Payne; Lary Swanson; Antonio Marquez; Ary Chang; Vladimir M. Zamansky; Pete M. Maly; Vitali V. Lissianski

    2000-09-30

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) which has the potential to achieve 90+% NO{sub x} control in coal-fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than SCR. The twelfth reporting period in Phase II (July 3-October 15, 2000) included design validation AR-Lean tests (Task No.2.6) in the 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr Tower Furnace. The objective of tests was to determine the efficiency of AR-Lean at higher than optimum OFA/N-Agent injection temperatures in large pilot-scale combustion facility. Tests demonstrated that co-injection of urea with overfire air resulted in NO{sub x} reduction. However, observed NO{sub x} reduction was smaller than that under optimum conditions.

  3. SECOND GENERATION ADVANCED REBURNING FOR HIGH EFFICIENCY NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Peter M. Maly; Vitali V. Lissianski

    1999-10-29

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning which has the potential to achieve 90+ NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than Selective Catalytic Reduction. The eighth reporting period in Phase II (July 1--September 26, 1999) included combined chemistry-mixing modeling on advanced gas reburning and experimental activities in support of modeling. Modeling efforts focused on description of AR-Lean--combination of basic reburning and co-injection of N-agent with overfire air. Modeling suggests that efficiency of AR-Lean strongly depends on the amount of the reburning fuel, temperature of flue gas at the point of OFA/N-agent injection, and evaporation time of N-agent. The model describes the most important features of AR-Lean and can be used for AR-Lean optimization.

  4. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir Zamansky

    2000-06-30

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) which has the potential to achieve 90+ NO{sub x} control in coal-fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than SCR. The eleventh reporting period in Phase II (April 1-June 30, 2000) included design validation AR-Lean tests (Task 2.6) in the 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr Tower Furnace. The objective of tests was to determine the efficiency of AR-Lean at higher than optimum OFA/N-Agent injection temperatures in large pilot-scale combustion facility. Tests demonstrated that co-injection of urea with overfire air resulted in NO{sub x} reduction. However, observed NO{sub x} reduction was smaller than that under optimum conditions.

  5. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Peter M. Maly; Vitali V. Lissianski

    1999-06-30

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning which has the potential to achieve 90+ NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than Selective Catalytic Reduction. The seventh reporting period in Phase II (April 1-June 30, 1999) included experimental activities and combined chemistry-mixing modeling on advanced gas reburning. The goal of combustion tests was to determine the efficiency of advanced reburning using coal as the reburning fuel. Tests were conducted in Boiler Simulator Facility (BSF). Several coals were tested. The modeling effort was focused on the description of N-agent injection along with overfire air. Modeling identified process parameters that can be used to optimize the AR-Lean process.

  6. NASA Thermal Control Technologies for Robotic Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Theodore D.; Birur, Gajanana C.

    2003-01-01

    Technology development is inevitably a dynamic process in search of an elusive goal. It is never truly clear whether the need for a particular technology drives its development, or the existence of a new capability initiates new applications. Technology development for the thermal control of spacecraft presents an excellent example of this situation. Nevertheless, it is imperative to have a basic plan to help guide and focus such an effort. Although this plan will be a living document that changes with time to reflect technological developments, perceived needs, perceived opportunities, and the ever-changing funding environment, it is still a very useful tool. This presentation summarizes the current efforts at NASA/Goddard and NASA/JPL to develop new thermal control technology for future robotic NASA missions.

  7. NASA Thermal Control Technologies for Robotic Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Theodore D.; Biur, Gajanana C.

    2002-01-01

    Technology development is inevitably a dynamic process in search of an elusive goal. It is never truly clear whether the need for a particular technology drives its development, or the existence of a new capability initiates new applications. Technology development for the thermal control of spacecraft presents an excellent example of this situation. Nevertheless, it is imperative to have a basic plan to help guide and focus such an effort. Although this plan will be a living document that changes with time to reflect technological developments, perceived needs, perceived opportunities, and the ever-changing funding environment, it is still a very useful tool. This presentation summarizes the current efforts at NASA/Goddard and NASA/JPL to develop new thermal control technology for future NASA missions.

  8. Overview of Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Joe

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the work done at NASA's Glenn Research Center on the ultra-efficient engine technology (UEET) program. The intent at the program's outset in 1998 was to establish a foundation for the next generation of aircraft engines for both commercial and military applications. A primary focus of this program was to be the development and utilization of technologies which would improve both subsonic and high-speed flight capabilities. Included in the presentation are details on the development of propulsion systems for varied types of aircraft, and results from attempts at reduction of emissions.

  9. Saving Energy, Water, and Money with Efficient Water Treatment Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-06-01

    Reverse Osmosis (RO) is a method of purifying water for industrial processes and human consumption; RO can remove mineral salts as well as contaminants such as bacteria and pesticides. Advances in water treatment technologies have enhanced and complemented the conventional RO process, reducing energy and water consumption, lowering capital and operating costs, and producing purer water. This publication of the Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program introduces RO, describes the benefits of high-efficiency reverse osmosis (HERO), and compares HERO with RO/electrodeionization (EDI) technology.

  10. Incentives and technologies for improving irrigation water use efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruggeman, Adriana; Djuma, Hakan; Giannakis, Elias; Eliades, Marinos

    2014-05-01

    The European Water Framework Directive requires Member States to set water prices that provide adequate incentives for users to use water resources efficiently. These new water pricing policies need to consider cost recovery of water services, including financial, environmental and resource cost. Prices were supposed to have been set by 2010. So far the record has been mixed. The European Commission has sent reasoned opinions to a number of countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Sweden) requesting them to adjust their national legislation to include all water services. Unbalanced water pricing may negatively affect the agricultural sector, especially in the southern EU countries, which are more dependent on irrigation water for production. The European Commission is funding several projects that aim to reduce the burden of increasing water prices on farmers by developing innovative technologies and decision support systems that will save water and increase productivity. The FP7 ENORASIS project (grant 282949) has developed a new integrated irrigation management decision support platform, which include high-resolution, ensemble weather forecasting, a GIS widget for the location of fields and sensors and a comprehensive decision support and database management software package to optimize irrigation water management. The field component includes wireless, solar-powered soil moisture sensors, small weather stations, and remotely controlled irrigation valves. A mobile App and a web-package are providing user-friendly interfaces for farmers, water companies and environmental consultants. In Cyprus, agricultural water prices have been set to achieve a cost recovery rate of 54% (2010). The pricing policy takes in consideration the social importance and financial viability of the agricultural sector, an important flexibility provided by the Water Framework Directive. The new price was set at 0.24 euro per m3 for water supply

  11. Technology review of flight crucial flight controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rediess, H. A.; Buckley, E. C.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a technology survey in flight crucial flight controls conducted as a data base for planning future research and technology programs are provided. Free world countries were surveyed with primary emphasis on the United States and Western Europe because that is where the most advanced technology resides. The survey includes major contemporary systems on operational aircraft, R&D flight programs, advanced aircraft developments, and major research and technology programs. The survey was not intended to be an in-depth treatment of the technology elements, but rather a study of major trends in systems level technology. The information was collected from open literature, personal communications and a tour of several companies, government organizations and research laboratories in the United States, United Kingdom, France, and the Federal Republic of Germany.

  12. TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS FOR ACID RAIN CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses technological options for acid rain control. Compliance with Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 will require careful scrutiny of a number of issues before selecting control options to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions...

  13. Comparison of advanced cooling technologies efficiency depending on outside temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Blaise Hamanaka; Haihua Zhao; Phil Sharpe

    2009-09-01

    In some areas, water availability is a serious problem during the summer and could disrupt the normal operation of thermal power plants which needs large amount of water to operate. Moreover, when water quantities are sufficient, there can still be problem created by the waste heat rejected into the water which is regulated in order to limit the impact of thermal pollution on the environment. All these factors can lead to a decrease of electricity production during the summer and during peak hours, when electricity is the most needed. In order to deal with these problems, advanced cooling technologies have been developed and implemented to reduce water consumption and withdrawals but with an effect in the plant efficiency. This report aims at analyzing the efficiency of several cooling technologies with a fixed power plant design and so to produce a reference to be able to compare them.

  14. Using technology to control the environment.

    PubMed

    Dickey, R; Shealey, S H

    1987-11-01

    Over the last 5 years, technological advances have resulted in specialized technical aids, such as electronic communication devices, computer input devices, and environmental control systems, which have made it possible for many persons who are severely physically disabled to enjoy greater functional independence within the home, school, workplace, and the community. This paper focuses on environmental control systems and discusses how occupational therapists match environmental control systems with clients' needs. PMID:3425665

  15. Controls and Health Management Technologies for Intelligent Aerospace Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2004-01-01

    With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Technology Branch at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced controls and health management technologies that will help meet these challenges through the concept of an Intelligent Engine. The key enabling technologies for an Intelligent Engine are the increased efficiencies of components through active control, advanced diagnostics and prognostics integrated with intelligent engine control to enhance component life, and distributed control with smart sensors and actuators in an adaptive fault tolerant architecture. This paper describes the current activities of the Controls and Dynamics Technology Branch in the areas of active component control and propulsion system intelligent control, and presents some recent analytical and experimental results in these areas.

  16. Proceedings: Energy-efficient office technologies: The outlook and market

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.; Gould, S.; Halperson, C. )

    1992-12-01

    Energy-Efficient Office Technologies. The Outlook and Market Workshop held from June 17 to 18, 1992, in San Jose, California, was planned with the goal of developing and implementing strategies to make more energy-efficient office automation equipment a part of the modern business environment. The consumption of electricity in the office environment has increased dramatically since the advent of the desktop personal computer for the mass market. During that same period, other office automation equipment, such as facsimile machines (faxes) and convenience copiers, has also proliferated, contributing to a dramatic increase in plug loads. Participants in the workshop gathered in plenary session to hear a series of stage-setting'' informal presentations, then divided into three concurrent working groups: PCs, Workstations, and Terminals; Imaging Technologies: Printers, Copiers, and Facsimile Machines; and LANS, Software, and Telecommunications. These working groups developed brief consensus statements of the state of the art and trends in energy efficiency and power management; user acceptance; and energy-efficiency implementation strategies. More complete statistics on power consumption by office equipment are needed to heighten awareness among end users and to facilitate better design for new office space. The collaboration of manufacturers, customers, and energy suppliers across international boundaries is critical to identify mechanisms to improve energy performance in the commercial office environment The most promising strategies will work best if they are voluntary, market-driven, and are truly the end result of a common vision.

  17. High-efficiency photovoltaic technology including thermoelectric generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisac, Miguel; Villasevil, Francesc X.; López, Antonio M.

    2014-04-01

    Nowadays, photovoltaic solar energy is a clean and reliable source for producing electric power. Most photovoltaic systems have been designed and built up for use in applications with low power requirements. The efficiency of solar cells is quite low, obtaining best results in monocrystalline silicon structures, with an efficiency of about 18%. When temperature rises, photovoltaic cell efficiency decreases, given that the short-circuit current is slightly increased, and the open-circuit voltage, fill factor and power output are reduced. To ensure that this does not affect performance, this paper describes how to interconnect photovoltaic and thermoelectric technology into a single structure. The temperature gradient in the solar panel is used to supply thermoelectric cells, which generate electricity, achieving a positive contribution to the total balance of the complete system.

  18. Demonstration of improved vehicle fuel efficiency through innovative tire design, materials, and weight reduction technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Donley, Tim

    2014-12-31

    Cooper completed an investigation into new tire technology using a novel approach to develop and demonstrate a new class of fuel efficient tires using innovative materials technology and tire design concepts. The objective of this work was to develop a new class of fuel efficient tires, focused on the “replacement market” that would improve overall passenger vehicle fuel efficiency by 3% while lowering the overall tire weight by 20%. A further goal of this project was to accomplish the objectives while maintaining the traction and wear performance of the control tire. This program was designed to build on what has already been accomplished in the tire industry for rolling resistance based on the knowledge and general principles developed over the past decades. Cooper’s CS4 (Figure #1) premium broadline tire was chosen as the control tire for this program. For Cooper to achieve the goals of this project, the development of multiple technologies was necessary. Six technologies were chosen that are not currently being used in the tire industry at any significant level, but that showed excellent prospects in preliminary research. This development was divided into two phases. Phase I investigated six different technologies as individual components. Phase II then took a holistic approach by combining all the technologies that showed positive results during phase one development.

  19. The nuclear materials control technology briefing book

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, J.K.; Fernandez, S.J.

    1992-03-01

    As national and international interests in nuclear arms control and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, intensify, it becomes ever more important that contributors be aware of the technologies available for the measurement and control of the nuclear materials important to nuclear weapons development. This briefing book presents concise, nontechnical summaries of various special nuclear material (SNM) and tritium production monitoring technologies applicable to the control of nuclear materials and their production. Since the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) operates a multinational, on-site-inspector-based safeguards program in support of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), many (but not all) of the technologies reported in this document are in routine use or under development for IAEA safeguards.

  20. Lignocellulosic ethanol: Technology design and its impact on process efficiency.

    PubMed

    Paulova, Leona; Patakova, Petra; Branska, Barbora; Rychtera, Mojmir; Melzoch, Karel

    2015-11-01

    This review provides current information on the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass, with the main focus on relationships between process design and efficiency, expressed as ethanol concentration, yield and productivity. In spite of unquestionable advantages of lignocellulosic biomass as a feedstock for ethanol production (availability, price, non-competitiveness with food, waste material), many technological bottlenecks hinder its wide industrial application and competitiveness with 1st generation ethanol production. Among the main technological challenges are the recalcitrant structure of the material, and thus the need for extensive pretreatment (usually physico-chemical followed by enzymatic hydrolysis) to yield fermentable sugars, and a relatively low concentration of monosaccharides in the medium that hinder the achievement of ethanol concentrations comparable with those obtained using 1st generation feedstocks (e.g. corn or molasses). The presence of both pentose and hexose sugars in the fermentation broth, the price of cellulolytic enzymes, and the presence of toxic compounds that can inhibit cellulolytic enzymes and microbial producers of ethanol are major issues. In this review, different process configurations of the main technological steps (enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation of hexose/and or pentose sugars) are discussed and their efficiencies are compared. The main features, benefits and drawbacks of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with delayed inoculation (dSSF), consolidated bioprocesses (CBP) combining production of cellulolytic enzymes, hydrolysis of biomass and fermentation into one step, together with an approach combining utilization of both pentose and hexose sugars are discussed and compared with separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) processes. The impact of individual technological steps on final process efficiency is emphasized and the potential for use

  1. OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT AND ECONOMICAL OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    Anbo Wang; Kristie L. Cooper; Gary R. Pickrell

    2003-06-01

    Efficient recovery of petroleum reserves from existing oil wells has been proven to be difficult due to the lack of robust instrumentation that can accurately and reliably monitor processes in the downhole environment. Commercially available sensors for measurement of pressure, temperature, and fluid flow exhibit shortened lifetimes in the harsh downhole conditions, which are characterized by high pressures (up to 20 kpsi), temperatures up to 250 C, and exposure to chemically reactive fluids. Development of robust sensors that deliver continuous, real-time data on reservoir performance and petroleum flow pathways will facilitate application of advanced recovery technologies, including horizontal and multilateral wells. This is the final report for the four-year program ''Optical Fiber Sensor Technologies for Efficient and Economical Oil Recovery'', funded by the National Petroleum Technology Office of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech from October 1, 1999 to March 31, 2003. The main objective of this research program was to develop cost-effective, reliable optical fiber sensor instrumentation for real-time monitoring of various key parameters crucial to efficient and economical oil production. During the program, optical fiber sensors were demonstrated for the measurement of temperature, pressure, flow, and acoustic waves, including three successful field tests in the Chevron/Texaco oil fields in Coalinga, California, and at the world-class oil flow simulation facilities in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Research efforts included the design and fabrication of sensor probes, development of signal processing algorithms, construction of test systems, development and testing of strategies for the protection of optical fibers and sensors in the downhole environment, development of remote monitoring capabilities allowing real-time monitoring of the field

  2. Emerging Energy-Efficient Technologies in Buildings Technology Characterizations for Energy Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, SW

    2004-10-11

    The energy use in America's commercial and residential building sectors is large and growing. Over 38 quadrillion Btus (Quads) of primary energy were consumed in 2002, representing 39% of total U.S. energy consumption. While the energy use in buildings is expected to grow to 52 Quads by 2025, a large number of energy-related technologies exist that could curtail this increase. In recent years, improvements in such items as high efficiency refrigerators, compact fluorescent lights, high-SEER air conditioners, and improved building shells have all contributed to reducing energy use. Hundreds of other technology improvements have and will continue to improve the energy use in buildings. While many technologies are well understood and are gradually penetrating the market, more advanced technologies will be introduced in the future. The pace and extent of these advances can be improved through state and federal R&D. This report focuses on the long-term potential for energy-efficiency improvement in buildings. Five promising technologies have been selected for description to give an idea of the wide range of possibilities. They address the major areas of energy use in buildings: space conditioning (33% of building use), water heating (9%), and lighting (16%). Besides describing energy-using technologies (solid-state lighting and geothermal heat pumps), the report also discusses energy-saving building shell improvements (smart roofs) and the integration of multiple energy service technologies (CHP packaged systems and triple function heat pumps) to create synergistic savings. Finally, information technologies that can improve the efficiency of building operations are discussed. The report demonstrates that the United States is not running out of technologies to improve energy efficiency and economic and environmental performance, and will not run out in the future. The five technology areas alone can potentially result in total primary energy savings of between 2 and 4

  3. Decoupling control technology for medium STOL transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, D. K.; Neighbor, T. L.

    1976-01-01

    The advanced control technology is considered that is necessary to cope with the medium STOL transport landing problem and, in particular, the necessity to decouple with active control techniques. It is shown that the need to decouple is independent of the powered lift concept but that the provisioning for decoupling is most greatly dependent on the preassumed piloting technique. The implications of decoupling and active control techniques with respect to pilot technique options, handling quality criteria, flight control mechanization, and the use of piloted simulation as a design tool, are also discussed.

  4. Automated Boiler Combustion Controls for Emission Reduction and Efficiency Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1998-12-02

    In the late 1980s, then President Bush visited Krakow, Poland. The terrible air quality theremotivated him to initiate a USAID-funded program, managed by DOE, entitled "Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program." The primary objective of this program was to encourage the formation of commercial ventures between U.S. and Polish firms to provide equipment and/or services to reduce pollution from low-emission sources in Krakow, Poland. This program led to the award of a number of cooperative agreements, including one to Control Techtronics International. The technical objective of CTI's cooperative agreement is to apply combustion controls to existing boiler plants in Krakow and transfer knowledge and technology through a joint U.S. and Polish commercial venture. CTI installed automatic combustion controls on five coal boilers for the district heating system in Krakow. Three of these were for domestic hot-water boilers, and two were for steam for industrial boilers. The following results have occurred due to the addition of CTI's combustion controls on these five existing boilers: ! 25% energy savings ! 85% reduction in particulate emissions The joint venture company CTI-Polska was then established. Eleven additional technical and costing proposals were initiated to upgrade other coal boilers in Krakow. To date, no co-financing has been made available on the Polish side. CTI-Polska continues in operation, serving customers in Russia and Ukraine. Should the market in Poland materialize, the joint venture company is established there to provide equipment and service.

  5. Advanced control technology and its potential for future transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The topics covered include fly by wire, digital control, control configured vehicles, applications to advanced flight vehicles, advanced propulsion control systems, and active control technology for transport aircraft.

  6. Technologies for antenna shape and vibration control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mettler, Edward; Scheid, Robert; Eldred, Daniel

    1988-05-01

    This paper describes the application of advanced control methods and techniques to the second- and third-generation mobile satellite (MSAT) configurations having wrap-rib offset feed construction. The technologies are generically applicable to other designs such as hoop-column and other elastically deformable non-rigid structures. The focus of the discussion is on reflector shape determination and control, dynamics identification, and pointing jitter suppression.

  7. Technologies and Policies to Improve Energy Efficiency in Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Price, Lynn

    2008-03-01

    The industrial sector consumes nearly 40% of annual global primary energy use and is responsible for a similar share of global energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Many studies and actual experience indicate that there is considerable potential to reduce the amount of energy used to manufacture most commodities, concurrently reducing CO2 emissions. With the support of strong policies and programs, energy-efficient technologies and measures can be implemented that will reduce global CO2 emissions. A number of countries, including the Netherlands, the UK, and China, have experience implementing aggressive programs to improve energy efficiency and reduce related CO2 emissions from industry. Even so, there is no silver bullet and all options must be pursued if greenhouse gas emissions are to be constrained to the level required to avoid significant negative impacts from global climate change.

  8. Enhancing efficiency and quality of ambulatory care through telehealth technology.

    PubMed

    Prince, Thomas R; Croghan, John E; Sheridan, Phillip H; Weatherly, Jonathan D

    2005-01-01

    Technology has made great strides in healthcare, but has been slow in reaching a Senior's home or residence. At 35 million and growing, the Senior population is making it known that home is where they want to stay. Technology advancements in devices, communications, and wireless capability are now making possible the delivery of customized telehealth solutions to provide Seniors with "enabled independence," allowing them to confidently "age in place" at home or residence for much longer, with improved health outcomes and quality of life. Combined with traditional ambulatory care services, integrating telehealth technology services now allows delivery of "virtual assisted living" services at home that can more efficiently meet Senior health requirements, and can simplify other aspects of a Senior's life that can play a role in extending time at home. To be successful, an integrated service must be able to usefully address a range of activities of daily living-instrumental activities of daily living, and enhanced activities of daily living-requirements. Already proven in other areas such as radiology, intensive care units, prisons, and rural communities, companies are working to develop practical telehealth service offerings designed for the home or residence. These services must be (a) packaged to meet individual Senior needs and (b) reviewed and revised regularly to match changes in Senior requirements over time. A core element of this service is the use of regular "virtual visits" between healthcare professionals and a Senior at home or residence, which have been shown to both increase efficiency and Senior health outcomes. Another important element is centralizing key data from the telehealth technology into a single database to improve information delivered to a Senior's doctor, family, and other ambulatory care providers. North Shore eCare and other companies are conducting extensive market tests and pilot efforts to make sure service offerings meet Senior

  9. NOVEL EXCAVATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT AND ECONOMIC SURFACE MINING

    SciTech Connect

    Vladislav Kecojevic; Samuel Frimpong

    2005-05-01

    Ground excavation constitutes a significant component of production costs in any surface mining operation. The excavation process entails material digging and removal in which the equipment motion is constrained by the workspace geometry. A major excavation problem is the variability of material properties, resulting in varying mechanical energy input and stress loading of shovel dipper-and-tooth assembly across the working bench. This variability has a huge impact on the shovel dipper and tooth assembly in hard formations. With this in mind, the primary objectives of the project were to (i) provide the theoretical basis to develop the Intelligent Shovel Excavation (ISE) technology to solve the problems associated with excavation in material formations; (ii) advance knowledge and frontiers in shovel excavation through intelligent navigation; and (iii) submit proposal for the design, development and implementation of the ISE technology for shovel excavation at experimental surface mining sites. The mathematical methods were used to (i) develop shovel's kinematics and dynamics, and (ii) establish the relationship between shovel parameters and the resistive forces from the material formation during excavation process. The ADAMS simulation environment was used to develop the hydraulic and cable shovel virtual prototypes. Two numerical examples are included to test the theoretical hypotheses and the obtained results are discussed. The area of sensor technology was studied. Application of specific wrist-mounted sensors to characterize the material, bucket and frame assembly was determined. Data acquisition, display and control system for shovel loading technology was adopted. The concept of data acquisition and control system was designed and a shovel boom stresses were simulated. A multi-partner collaboration between research organizations, shovel manufacturer, hardware and sensor technology companies, and surface mining companies is proposed to test design features

  10. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Peter M. Maly; Vitali V. Lissianski; Mark S. Sheldon; David Moyeda; Roy Payne

    2001-06-30

    viability of the AR technology. The performance goals of the project to reduce NO{sub x} by up to 95% with net emissions less than 0.06 lb/10{sup 6} Btu and to minimize other pollutants (N{sub 2}O and NH{sub 3}) to levels lower than reburning and SNCR have been met. Experimental data demonstrated that AR-Lean + SNCR and Reburning + SNCR are the most effective AR configurations, followed by AR-Lean and AR-Rich. Promoters can increase AR NO{sub x} reduction efficiency. Promoters are the most effective at small amounts of the reburning fuel (6-10% of the total fuel heat input). Promoters provide the means to improve NO{sub x} reduction and simultaneously decrease the amount of reburning fuel. Tests also showed that alkali-containing compounds are effective promoters of the AR process. When co-injected with N-agent, they provide up to 25 % improvement in NO{sub x} reduction. A detailed reaction mechanism and simplified representation of mixing were used in modeling of AR processes. Modeling results demonstrated that the model correctly described a wide range of experimental data. Mixing and thermal parameters in the model can be adjusted depending on characteristics of the combustion facility. Application of the model to the optimization of AR-Lean has been demonstrated. Economic analysis demonstrated a considerable economic advantage of AR technologies in comparison with existing commercial NO{sub x} control techniques, such as basic reburning, SNCR, and SCR. Particularly for deep NO{sub x} control, coal-based AR technologies are 50% less expansive than SCR for the same level of NO{sub x} control. The market for AR technologies is estimated to be above $110 million.

  11. Inlet Flow Control and Prediction Technologies for Embedded Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillan, Michelle L.; Mackie, Scott A.; Gissen, Abe; Vukasinovic, Bojan; Lakebrink, Matthew T.; Glezer, Ari; Mani, Mori; Mace, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Fail-safe, hybrid, flow control (HFC) is a promising technology for meeting high-speed cruise efficiency, low-noise signature, and reduced fuel-burn goals for future, Hybrid-Wing-Body (HWB) aircraft with embedded engines. This report details the development of HFC technology that enables improved inlet performance in HWB vehicles with highly integrated inlets and embedded engines without adversely affecting vehicle performance. In addition, new test techniques for evaluating Boundary-Layer-Ingesting (BLI)-inlet flow-control technologies developed and demonstrated through this program are documented, including the ability to generate a BLI-like inlet-entrance flow in a direct-connect, wind-tunnel facility, as well as, the use of D-optimal, statistically designed experiments to optimize test efficiency and enable interpretation of results. Validated improvements in numerical analysis tools and methods accomplished through this program are also documented, including Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes CFD simulations of steady-state flow physics for baseline, BLI-inlet diffuser flow, as well as, that created by flow-control devices. Finally, numerical methods were employed in a ground-breaking attempt to directly simulate dynamic distortion. The advances in inlet technologies and prediction tools will help to meet and exceed "N+2" project goals for future HWB aircraft.

  12. Efficient heating with a controlled microwave field.

    PubMed

    Chang, T H; Chao, H W; Syu, F H; Chiang, W Y; Fong, S C; Chin, T S

    2011-12-01

    To uncover the intriguing non-thermal microwave effect, an experiment was conducted using an amplifier rather than an oscillator as the radiation source, which was injected into an applicator with strong electromagnetic field enhancement. The characteristics of the applicator are discussed and the enhancement of the microwave field is illustrated and explained. Thermal distribution is simulated based on the calculated microwave field profile. It was demonstrated that the proposed system heated a SiC susceptor to a temperature of 637 °C with the input power of 60 W. The reasons for such an efficient heating are discussed. PMID:22225237

  13. OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT AND ECONOMICAL OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

    2003-04-01

    This report summarizes technical progress over the fourth year of the ''Optical Fiber Sensor Technologies for Efficient and Economical Oil Recovery'' program, funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. During the reporting period, research efforts under the program were focused on the development and evaluation of the fiber optic flow sensor system, and field testing in Tulsa, OK and the second field test of the pressure and temperature sensors in Coalinga, CA. The feasibility of a self-compensating fiber optic flow sensor based on a cantilever beam and interferometer for real-time flow rate measurements in the fluid filled pipes of oil field was clearly demonstrated. In addition, field testing of the pressure and temperature sensors deployed downhole continued. These accomplishments are summarized here: (1) Theoretical analysis and simulations were performed to ensure performance of the design. (2) The sensor fabrication and packaging techniques were investigated and improved. (3) Prototype flow sensors were fabricated based on the fabrication experience of hundreds of test sensors. (4) A lab-scale flow testing system was constructed and used for sensor evaluation. (5) Field-testing was performed in both the indoor and outdoor flow testing facility at the University of Tulsa, OK. (6) Testing of a multimode white light pressure and temperature sensor system continued at the oil site of Chevron/Texaco Company (Coalinga CA).

  14. Energy efficient engine shroudless, hollow fan blade technology report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michael, C. J.

    1981-01-01

    The Shroudless, Hollow Fan Blade Technology program was structured to support the design, fabrication, and subsequent evaluation of advanced hollow and shroudless blades for the Energy Efficient Engine fan component. Rockwell International was initially selected to produce hollow airfoil specimens employing the superplastic forming/diffusion bonding (SPF/DB) fabrication technique. Rockwell demonstrated that a titanium hollow structure could be fabricated utilizing SPF/DB manufacturing methods. However, some problems such as sharp internal cavity radii and unsatisfactory secondary bonding of the edge and root details prevented production of the required quantity of fatigue test specimens. Subsequently, TRW was selected to (1) produce hollow airfoil test specimens utilizing a laminate-core/hot isostatic press/diffusion bond approach, and (2) manufacture full-size hollow prototype fan blades utilizing the technology that evolved from the specimen fabrication effort. TRW established elements of blade design and defined laminate-core/hot isostatic press/diffusion bonding fabrication techniques to produce test specimens. This fabrication technology was utilized to produce full size hollow fan blades in which the HIP'ed parts were cambered/twisted/isothermally forged, finish machined, and delivered to Pratt & Whitney Aircraft and NASA for further evaluation.

  15. Utilizing Internet Technologies in Observatory Control Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cording, Dean

    2002-12-01

    The 'Internet boom' of the past few years has spurred the development of a number of technologies to provide services such as secure communications, reliable messaging, information publishing and application distribution for commercial applications. Over the same period, a new generation of computer languages have also developed to provide object oriented design and development, improved reliability, and cross platform compatibility. Whilst the business models of the 'dot.com' era proved to be largely unviable, the technologies that they were based upon have survived and have matured to the point were they can now be utilized to build secure, robust and complete observatory control control systems. This paper will describe how Electro Optic Systems has utilized these technologies in the development of its third generation Robotic Observatory Control System (ROCS). ROCS provides an extremely flexible configuration capability within a control system structure to provide truly autonomous robotic observatory operation including observation scheduling. ROCS was built using Internet technologies such as Java, Java Messaging Service (JMS), Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), eXtendible Markup Language (XML), Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP) and Java WebStart. ROCS was designed to be capable of controlling all aspects of an observatory and be able to be reconfigured to handle changing equipment configurations or user requirements without the need for an expert computer programmer. ROCS consists of many small components, each designed to perform a specific task, with the configuration of the system specified using a simple meta language. The use of small components facilitates testing and makes it possible to prove that the system is correct.

  16. COFS 3: Multibody dynamics and control technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Letchworth, Robert; Mcgowan, Paul E.

    1986-01-01

    COFS 3 is the third project within the Control of Flexible Structures (COFS) program. It deals with developing multibody dynamics and control technology for large space structures. It differs from COFS 1 and 2 in two respects. First, it addresses a more complex class of structure, and second it is basically a scale model ground test and analysis program while COFS 1 and 2 feature Shuttle flight experiments. The specific technology thrusts within COFS 3 are model sensitivities, test methods, analysis validation, systems identification, and vibration suppression. The COFS 3 project will develop the methods for using dynamically scaled models and analysis to predict the structural dynamics of large space structures. The project uses the space station as a focus because it is typical of the structures of interest and provides the first opportunity to obtain full-scale on-orbit dynamics data.

  17. Energy Efficiency of Distributed Environmental Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Khalifa, H. Ezzat; Isik, Can; Dannenhoffer, John F. III

    2011-02-23

    In this report, we present an analytical evaluation of the potential of occupant-regulated distributed environmental control systems (DECS) to enhance individual occupant thermal comfort in an office building with no increase, and possibly even a decrease in annual energy consumption. To this end we developed and applied several analytical models that allowed us to optimize comfort and energy consumption in partitioned office buildings equipped with either conventional central HVAC systems or occupant-regulated DECS. Our approach involved the following interrelated components: 1. Development of a simplified lumped-parameter thermal circuit model to compute the annual energy consumption. This was necessitated by the need to perform tens of thousands of optimization calculations involving different US climatic regions, and different occupant thermal preferences of a population of ~50 office occupants. Yearly transient simulations using TRNSYS, a time-dependent building energy modeling program, were run to determine the robustness of the simplified approach against time-dependent simulations. The simplified model predicts yearly energy consumption within approximately 0.6% of an equivalent transient simulation. Simulations of building energy usage were run for a wide variety of climatic regions and control scenarios, including traditional “one-size-fits-all” (OSFA) control; providing a uniform temperature to the entire building, and occupant-selected “have-it-your-way” (HIYW) control with a thermostat at each workstation. The thermal model shows that, un-optimized, DECS would lead to an increase in building energy consumption between 3-16% compared to the conventional approach depending on the climate regional and personal preferences of building occupants. Variations in building shape had little impact in the relative energy usage. 2. Development of a gradient-based optimization method to minimize energy consumption of DECS while keeping each occupant

  18. Optical technology for flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayanagi, M.

    1986-01-01

    Optical applications to the flight control system including optical data bus, sensors, and transducers are analyzed. Examples of optical data bus include airborne light optical fiber technology (ALOFT), F-5E, YA-7D, MIL-STD-1553 fiber optic data bus and NAL-optic data bus. This NAL-optic data bus is applied to STOL, and its characteristics are stressed. Principles and advantages of optical pulse-digital transducers are discussed.

  19. Efficient Controls for Finitely Convergent Sequential Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Herman, Gabor T.

    2010-01-01

    Finding a feasible point that satisfies a set of constraints is a common task in scientific computing: examples are the linear feasibility problem and the convex feasibility problem. Finitely convergent sequential algorithms can be used for solving such problems; an example of such an algorithm is ART3, which is defined in such a way that its control is cyclic in the sense that during its execution it repeatedly cycles through the given constraints. Previously we found a variant of ART3 whose control is no longer cyclic, but which is still finitely convergent and in practice it usually converges faster than ART3 does. In this paper we propose a general methodology for automatic transformation of finitely convergent sequential algorithms in such a way that (i) finite convergence is retained and (ii) the speed of convergence is improved. The first of these two properties is proven by mathematical theorems, the second is illustrated by applying the algorithms to a practical problem. PMID:20953327

  20. The future for weed control and technology.

    PubMed

    Shaner, Dale L; Beckie, Hugh J

    2014-09-01

    This review is both a retrospective (what have we missed?) and prospective (where are we going?) examination of weed control and technology, particularly as it applies to herbicide-resistant weed management (RWM). Major obstacles to RWM are discussed, including lack of diversity in weed management, unwillingness of many weed researchers to conduct real integrated weed management research or growers to accept recommendations, influence or role of agrichemical marketing and governmental policy and lack of multidisciplinary research. We then look ahead to new technologies that are needed for future weed control in general and RWM in particular, in areas such as non-chemical and chemical weed management, novel herbicides, site-specific weed management, drones for monitoring large areas, wider application of 'omics' and simulation model development. Finally, we discuss implementation strategies for integrated weed management to achieve RWM, development of RWM for developing countries, a new classification of herbicides based on mode of metabolism to facilitate greater stewardship and greater global exchange of information to focus efforts on areas that maximize progress in weed control and RWM. There is little doubt that new or emerging technologies will provide novel tools for RMW in the future, but will they arrive in time?

  1. SECOND GENERATION ADVANCED REBURNING FOR HIGH EFFICIENCY NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-30

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning which has the potential to achieve 90+% NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than SCR. The fourth reporting period in Phase II (July 1--September 30, 1998) included experimental activities at pilot scale and combined chemistry-mixing modeling on gas reburning. The pilot scale tests reported in previous Quarterly Reports QR-2 and QR-3 were continued. The objective was to simulate furnace conditions at the Greenidge boiler No. 6 owned and operated by NYSEG and to improve the process performance. The tests were conducted in EER's Boiler Simulator Facility (BSF). During the reporting period, measurements of CO and ammonia emissions were conducted for reburn + SNCR conditions, as well as tests on the effect of sodium on NO{sub x} control efficiency. Exhaust levels of CO remained below 100 ppm in all tests. Prospective process conditions for the full-scale facility have been identified that can provide over 80% NO{sub x} reduction while maintaining ammonia slip below 4 ppm. Addition of sodium resulted in NO{sub x} control improvement of about 7-10 percentage points. The objective of modeling work was to further understand the influence of the mixing process on gas reburning and to identify factors that can increase the effectiveness of NO reduction. Modeling results demonstrated that the main features of gas reburning could be described using a detailed chemical mechanism with one-dimensional representation of mixing.

  2. Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology Project Continued to Contribute to Breakthrough Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), local environmental groups, and the public have become increasingly concerned over damage to local air quality from aircraft emissions and the impact of producing greenhouse gases. The NASA Glenn Research Center has been working to develop revolutionary technologies to minimize environmentally harmful engine emissions, such as nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide, aerosols, and particulates. The two objectives of UEET are (1) to develop technologies to reduce nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions by 70 percent below 1996 ICAO regulations and (2) to decrease carbon dioxide emissions (CO2) by dramatically increasing performance and efficiency. High temperature engine materials, ultra-low-NOx combustor designs, efficient, highly loaded turbomachinery, and propulsion-airframe integration analysis are technologies being developed at Glenn to meet these goals. Technology developed in the previous Advanced Subsonic Technology Program is being put into commercial production for large and regional aircraft to reduce NOx emissions 50 percent below 1996 ICAO regulations for landing and takeoff cycles. UEET will take the technology to the next quantum leap-reducing emissions to 70 percent below the ICAO regulations level. In addition, NASA-developed research will significantly reduce carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and corresponding cruise NOx levels for the next generation of aircraft engines. Glenn's UEET research will be useful across the whole range of flight: subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic. It will improve the subsonic transportation that the public depends on, contribute to supersonic commercial aircraft, improve military aircraft, and contribute to the design of a future hypersonic vehicle. These technologies are contributing to a better quality of life on Earth.

  3. Improving conveyor efficiency by controlling fugitive material

    SciTech Connect

    Goldbeck, L.J.

    1996-11-01

    The conveyor belt has been identified as one of the major sources of what call DURT-fugitive material that escapes from bulk handling systems. This presentation is focused on ways to dramatically improve belt conveyor designs to control DURT. This information can`t be found in any of the computer design software currently used to guide engineers. It is the result of the author`s examination of DURT-generating conveyors all over the world, in all types of industries. The solution to conveyor DURT starts with the client--the people who will live with the conveyor and its fugitive material on a daily basis. Too often the client specifies the tonnage he expects the conveyor to deliver but does not include in the same specification a target for cleanliness. Until these specifications list a quantitative amount of belt carryback permissible and the amount of spillage allowed to leak out at the transfer points--and until design and engineering firms are held accountable for these performance levels--belt conveyors will continue to be a major source of DURT. This paper examines a typical conveyor transfer point and reviews a number of items that are seldom given more than a cursory look at the design stage, but which can contribute heavily to fugitive material problems.

  4. Position statement on efficiency of technologies for diabetes management.

    PubMed

    Martín-Vaquero, Pilar; Martínez-Brocca, María Asunción; García-López, José Manuel

    2014-12-01

    Di@bet.es study results are impressive, showing that diabetes affects 13.8% of the Spanish population. Not only the statistical facts are alarming, but the increasing incidence of this disease is a major problem, as pandemic proportions of type 2 diabetes are expected. Thus, the study of diabetes represents a challenge not only for health services, but also for the Ministries of Health and Finance. Technology has become an essential tool in the quality are of patients with diabetes, as it helps in the healthcare processes to obtain an optimum metabolic balance and prevent possible complications. Insulin pumps, continuous glucose monitoring nd self-monitoring blood glucose have all proved their efficiency, and telemedicine it is making good progress. The indirect costs of diabetes in Spain are much higher than the directones, showing the importance of inverting the paradox. The optimization of resources depends not only on the ability of the physicians, but also the administration, to implant and sustain technological innovations in our system, and with that make it effective in terms of benefits. Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis are needed to prioritize and allow health management services to make the correct choices for approaching this prevalent chronic disease.

  5. Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program. Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Efficient Separations and Processing (ESP) Crosscutting Program was created in 1991 to identify, develop, and perfect separations technologies and processes to treat wastes and address environmental problems throughout the DOE Complex. The ESP funds several multi-year tasks that address high-priority waste remediation problems involving high-level, low-level, transuranic, hazardous, and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. The ESP supports applied research and development (R and D) leading to demonstration or use of these separations technologies by other organizations within DOE-EM. Treating essentially all DOE defense wastes requires separation methods that concentrate the contaminants and/or purify waste streams for release to the environment or for downgrading to a waste form less difficult and expensive to dispose of. Initially, ESP R and D efforts focused on treatment of high-level waste (HLW) from underground storage tanks (USTs) because of the potential for large reductions in disposal costs and hazards. As further separations needs emerge and as waste management and environmental restoration priorities change, the program has evolved to encompass the breadth of waste management and environmental remediation problems.

  6. Position statement on efficiency of technologies for diabetes management.

    PubMed

    Martín-Vaquero, Pilar; Martínez-Brocca, María Asunción; García-López, José Manuel

    2014-12-01

    Di@bet.es study results are impressive, showing that diabetes affects 13.8% of the Spanish population. Not only the statistical facts are alarming, but the increasing incidence of this disease is a major problem, as pandemic proportions of type 2 diabetes are expected. Thus, the study of diabetes represents a challenge not only for health services, but also for the Ministries of Health and Finance. Technology has become an essential tool in the quality are of patients with diabetes, as it helps in the healthcare processes to obtain an optimum metabolic balance and prevent possible complications. Insulin pumps, continuous glucose monitoring nd self-monitoring blood glucose have all proved their efficiency, and telemedicine it is making good progress. The indirect costs of diabetes in Spain are much higher than the directones, showing the importance of inverting the paradox. The optimization of resources depends not only on the ability of the physicians, but also the administration, to implant and sustain technological innovations in our system, and with that make it effective in terms of benefits. Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis are needed to prioritize and allow health management services to make the correct choices for approaching this prevalent chronic disease. PMID:25453400

  7. EPA`s adaptive controls system research program for pollution prevention and clean technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegel, R.J.; Chappell, P.J.; Miller, C.A.

    1994-12-31

    The current effort of EPA`s control systems research is concentrated in three areas: electric motors, wind turbines, and combustion technologies. In general, these projects are concerned with pollution prevention through enhanced efficiency of operation and pollution control through lower emission levels. Pioneering effort has been achieved in the application of fuzzy-logic-based controls in these areas. Based on the results of these projects, fuzzy logic has emerged as an important tool in environmental technology for pollution elimination and control.

  8. Technology transfer: Imaging tracker to robotic controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otaguro, M. S.; Kesler, L. O.; Land, Ken; Erwin, Harry; Rhoades, Don

    1988-01-01

    The transformation of an imaging tracker to a robotic controller is described. A multimode tracker was developed for fire and forget missile systems. The tracker locks on to target images within an acquisition window using multiple image tracking algorithms to provide guidance commands to missile control systems. This basic tracker technology is used with the addition of a ranging algorithm based on sizing a cooperative target to perform autonomous guidance and control of a platform for an Advanced Development Project on automation and robotics. A ranging tracker is required to provide the positioning necessary for robotic control. A simple functional demonstration of the feasibility of this approach was performed and described. More realistic demonstrations are under way at NASA-JSC. In particular, this modified tracker, or robotic controller, will be used to autonomously guide the Man Maneuvering Unit (MMU) to targets such as disabled astronauts or tools as part of the EVA Retriever efforts. It will also be used to control the orbiter's Remote Manipulator Systems (RMS) in autonomous approach and positioning demonstrations. These efforts will also be discussed.

  9. Plant-wide control: eco-efficiency and control loop configuration.

    PubMed

    Munir, M T; Yu, W; Young, B R

    2013-01-01

    Since the eco-efficiency of all industrial processes/plants has become increasingly important, engineers need to find a way to integrate the control loop configuration and the measurements of eco-efficiency. A new measure of eco-efficiency, the exergy eco-efficiency factor, for control loop configuration, is proposed in this paper. The exergy eco-efficiency factor is based on the thermodynamic concept of exergy which can be used to analyse a process in terms of its efficiency associated with the control configuration. The combination of control pairing configuration techniques (such as the relative gain array, RGA and Niederlinski index, NI) and the proposed exergy eco-efficiency factor will guide the process designer to reach the optimal control design with low operational cost (i.e., energy consumption). The exergy eco-efficiency factor is implemented in the process simulation case study and the reliability of the proposed method is demonstrated by dynamic simulation results.

  10. Stochastic Control of Energy Efficient Buildings: A Semidefinite Programming Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Xiao; Dong, Jin; Djouadi, Seddik M; Nutaro, James J; Kuruganti, Teja

    2015-01-01

    The key goal in energy efficient buildings is to reduce energy consumption of Heating, Ventilation, and Air- Conditioning (HVAC) systems while maintaining a comfortable temperature and humidity in the building. This paper proposes a novel stochastic control approach for achieving joint performance and power control of HVAC. We employ a constrained Stochastic Linear Quadratic Control (cSLQC) by minimizing a quadratic cost function with a disturbance assumed to be Gaussian. The problem is formulated to minimize the expected cost subject to a linear constraint and a probabilistic constraint. By using cSLQC, the problem is reduced to a semidefinite optimization problem, where the optimal control can be computed efficiently by Semidefinite programming (SDP). Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness and power efficiency by utilizing the proposed control approach.

  11. A Probabilistic Assessment of NASA Ultra-Efficient Engine Technologies for a Large Subsonic Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, Michael T.; Jones, Scott M.; Arcara, Philip C., Jr.; Haller, William J.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Ultra Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) program features advanced aeropropulsion technologies that include highly loaded turbomachinery, an advanced low-NOx combustor, high-temperature materials, intelligent propulsion controls, aspirated seal technology, and an advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) design tool to help reduce airplane drag. A probabilistic system assessment is performed to evaluate the impact of these technologies on aircraft fuel burn and NOx reductions. A 300-passenger aircraft, with two 396-kN thrust (85,000-pound) engines is chosen for the study. The results show that a large subsonic aircraft equipped with the UEET technologies has a very high probability of meeting the UEET Program goals for fuel-burn (or equivalent CO2) reduction (15% from the baseline) and LTO (landing and takeoff) NOx reductions (70% relative to the 1996 International Civil Aviation Organization rule). These results are used to provide guidance for developing a robust UEET technology portfolio, and to prioritize the most promising technologies required to achieve UEET program goals for the fuel-burn and NOx reductions.

  12. Decentralized and efficient control of transboundary pollution in federal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, E.C.D.

    1997-01-01

    Decentralized control of transboundary pollution in federal systems can be efficient when population crowding is socially costly. In this paper, an upstream region abates pollution or makes an interregional income transfer to the downstream region with the sole intent of deterring immigration. Because either instrument, abatement expenditure or interregional income transfer, alone implements an efficient population distribution between the regions, interregional income transfers are unnecessary for efficiency. Without explicit income transfers, each region provides the efficient portion of the aggregate level of pollution abatement in the Nash equilibrium. 12 refs.

  13. Enhancing the Efficiency of Electrokinetic Remediation through Technology Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Komai, T.

    2009-12-01

    Remediation or cleanup of soils and groundwater polluted by heavy metals remains a challenge in the field of geo-environmental engineering. Many sites, like ore dressing plants, electroplating plants and battery factories may be polluted by heavy metals. In addition, some natural factors like metal deposits or abundant metal mines, hot springs and volcanic eruptions may also cause heavy metal pollutions. Unlike organic pollutants, heavy metals do not decay naturally, and active approaches to remediation are generally necessary. Although electrokinetic method is considered to be the only technique that is highly-perspective for in situ remediation of heavy metals, and numerous bench-scale studies as well as a few pilot scale experiments illustrated its applicability, this technique has not yet been widely used in practice due to the low efficiencies and/or unacceptable long remediation periods. To enhance the total efficiency of electrokinetic remediation, a systematic approach by integrating different technologies is proposed. This systematic approach includes 1) on-site quick mapping for screening out localized pollution areas, characterizing chemical composition of polluted soils, and for examining the progress of in situ remediation; 2) electrical resistivity tomography(ERT) or electrical resistivity imaging(ERI) for predicting geological structure and hydrogeological boundaries conditions of a polluted site, and for optimizing parameters like voltage and current density for an effective remediation; 3) the use of solar energy to increase flexibility in and applicability of electrokinetic technique; 4) combination with large scale modeling tests for a pertinent evaluation of the feasibility related to electrokinetic remediation for a given soil type taken from a specific polluted site; 5) combination with risk-assessment method to determine feasible cleanup levels; and 6) recovery of heavy metals deposited on electrode plates for possible use as resources

  14. Disruptive technology for vector control: the Innovative Vector Control Consortium and the US Military join forces to explore transformative insecticide application technology for mosquito control programmes.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Jennifer; Macdonald, Michael; Malone, David; Hamon, Nicholas; Richardson, Jason H

    2015-09-26

    Malaria vector control technology has remained largely static for decades and there is a pressing need for innovative control tools and methodology to radically improve the quality and efficiency of current vector control practices. This report summarizes a workshop jointly organized by the Innovative Vector Control Consortium (IVCC) and the Armed Forces Pest Management Board (AFPMB) focused on public health pesticide application technology. Three main topics were discussed: the limitations with current tools and techniques used for indoor residual spraying (IRS), technology innovation to improve efficacy of IRS programmes, and truly disruptive application technology beyond IRS. The group identified several opportunities to improve application technology to include: insuring all IRS programmes are using constant flow valves and erosion resistant tips; introducing compression sprayer improvements that help minimize pesticide waste and human error; and moving beyond IRS by embracing the potential for new larval source management techniques and next generation technology such as unmanned "smart" spray systems. The meeting served to lay the foundation for broader collaboration between the IVCC and AFPMB and partners in industry, the World Health Organization, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and others.

  15. Disruptive technology for vector control: the Innovative Vector Control Consortium and the US Military join forces to explore transformative insecticide application technology for mosquito control programmes.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Jennifer; Macdonald, Michael; Malone, David; Hamon, Nicholas; Richardson, Jason H

    2015-01-01

    Malaria vector control technology has remained largely static for decades and there is a pressing need for innovative control tools and methodology to radically improve the quality and efficiency of current vector control practices. This report summarizes a workshop jointly organized by the Innovative Vector Control Consortium (IVCC) and the Armed Forces Pest Management Board (AFPMB) focused on public health pesticide application technology. Three main topics were discussed: the limitations with current tools and techniques used for indoor residual spraying (IRS), technology innovation to improve efficacy of IRS programmes, and truly disruptive application technology beyond IRS. The group identified several opportunities to improve application technology to include: insuring all IRS programmes are using constant flow valves and erosion resistant tips; introducing compression sprayer improvements that help minimize pesticide waste and human error; and moving beyond IRS by embracing the potential for new larval source management techniques and next generation technology such as unmanned "smart" spray systems. The meeting served to lay the foundation for broader collaboration between the IVCC and AFPMB and partners in industry, the World Health Organization, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and others. PMID:26409879

  16. Reliable, Efficient and Cost-Effective Electric Power Converter for Small Wind Turbines Based on AC-link Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Darren Hammell; Mark Holveck; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2006-08-01

    Grid-tied inverter power electronics have been an Achilles heel of the small wind industry, providing opportunity for new technologies to provide lower costs, greater efficiency, and improved reliability. The small wind turbine market is also moving towards the 50-100kW size range. The unique AC-link power conversion technology provides efficiency, reliability, and power quality advantages over existing technologies, and Princeton Power will adapt prototype designs used for industrial asynchronous motor control to a 50kW small wind turbine design.

  17. Boosting thermoelectric efficiency using time-dependent control.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hangbo; Thingna, Juzar; Hänggi, Peter; Wang, Jian-Sheng; Li, Baowen

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectric efficiency is defined as the ratio of power delivered to the load of a device to the rate of heat flow from the source. Till date, it has been studied in presence of thermodynamic constraints set by the Onsager reciprocal relation and the second law of thermodynamics that severely bottleneck the thermoelectric efficiency. In this study, we propose a pathway to bypass these constraints using a time-dependent control and present a theoretical framework to study dynamic thermoelectric transport in the far from equilibrium regime. The presence of a control yields the sought after substantial efficiency enhancement and importantly a significant amount of power supplied by the control is utilised to convert the wasted-heat energy into useful-electric energy. Our findings are robust against nonlinear interactions and suggest that external time-dependent forcing, which can be incorporated with existing devices, provides a beneficial scheme to boost thermoelectric efficiency.

  18. Boosting thermoelectric efficiency using time-dependent control.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hangbo; Thingna, Juzar; Hänggi, Peter; Wang, Jian-Sheng; Li, Baowen

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectric efficiency is defined as the ratio of power delivered to the load of a device to the rate of heat flow from the source. Till date, it has been studied in presence of thermodynamic constraints set by the Onsager reciprocal relation and the second law of thermodynamics that severely bottleneck the thermoelectric efficiency. In this study, we propose a pathway to bypass these constraints using a time-dependent control and present a theoretical framework to study dynamic thermoelectric transport in the far from equilibrium regime. The presence of a control yields the sought after substantial efficiency enhancement and importantly a significant amount of power supplied by the control is utilised to convert the wasted-heat energy into useful-electric energy. Our findings are robust against nonlinear interactions and suggest that external time-dependent forcing, which can be incorporated with existing devices, provides a beneficial scheme to boost thermoelectric efficiency. PMID:26464021

  19. Boosting thermoelectric efficiency using time-dependent control

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hangbo; Thingna, Juzar; Hänggi, Peter; Wang, Jian-Sheng; Li, Baowen

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectric efficiency is defined as the ratio of power delivered to the load of a device to the rate of heat flow from the source. Till date, it has been studied in presence of thermodynamic constraints set by the Onsager reciprocal relation and the second law of thermodynamics that severely bottleneck the thermoelectric efficiency. In this study, we propose a pathway to bypass these constraints using a time-dependent control and present a theoretical framework to study dynamic thermoelectric transport in the far from equilibrium regime. The presence of a control yields the sought after substantial efficiency enhancement and importantly a significant amount of power supplied by the control is utilised to convert the wasted-heat energy into useful-electric energy. Our findings are robust against nonlinear interactions and suggest that external time-dependent forcing, which can be incorporated with existing devices, provides a beneficial scheme to boost thermoelectric efficiency. PMID:26464021

  20. Boosting thermoelectric efficiency using time-dependent control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hangbo; Thingna, Juzar; Hänggi, Peter; Wang, Jian-Sheng; Li, Baowen

    2015-10-01

    Thermoelectric efficiency is defined as the ratio of power delivered to the load of a device to the rate of heat flow from the source. Till date, it has been studied in presence of thermodynamic constraints set by the Onsager reciprocal relation and the second law of thermodynamics that severely bottleneck the thermoelectric efficiency. In this study, we propose a pathway to bypass these constraints using a time-dependent control and present a theoretical framework to study dynamic thermoelectric transport in the far from equilibrium regime. The presence of a control yields the sought after substantial efficiency enhancement and importantly a significant amount of power supplied by the control is utilised to convert the wasted-heat energy into useful-electric energy. Our findings are robust against nonlinear interactions and suggest that external time-dependent forcing, which can be incorporated with existing devices, provides a beneficial scheme to boost thermoelectric efficiency.

  1. Efficient Conversation: The Talk between Pilots and Air Traffic Controllers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, James L.

    Two-way radio communications between air traffic controllers using radar on the ground to give airplane pilots instructions are of interest within the developing framework of the sociology of language. The main purpose of air traffic control language is efficient communication to promote flight safety. This study describes the standardized format…

  2. EFFICIENCY OPTIMIZATIN CONTROL OF AC INDUCTION MOTORS: INITIAL LABORATORY RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the development of a fuzzy logic, energy-optimizing controller to improve the efficiency of motor/drive combinations that operate at varying loads and speeds. This energy optimizer is complemented by a sensorless speed controller that maintains motor shaft re...

  3. Integrating intelligent, energy-efficient technologies into modern office architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Beckering, J.

    1995-12-01

    Businesses are becoming more team-based, and the physical surroundings must change in order to support the new working methods. As a result, architectural and real estate requirement are changing. Fundamentally, facilities must reduce operating costs and become more efficient. It is also important to find a way to combat obsolescence. In many U.S. office buildings, the infrastructure can`t handle the requirements placed on it. This includes power distribution, signal distribution, and HVAC; all the computers brought into the office generate heat. Computers and other devices keep proliferating, and as a result, the infrastructure of buildings is obsolete in 7 to 10 years. One example is the Sears Tower in Chicago, which was built in 1972; by 1985 it could no longer handle the computer loads. This occurs everywhere. The changing office technology requires mobility. Work may be done in a train, a car, at home, or in an office building. A person may work with different teams in four or five different locations. The proliferation of electronic equipment adds up to an increase in power loads, and the bottom line is the increased demand on HVAC systems.

  4. Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology, 1988. High Efficiency, Space Environment, and Array Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The 9th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology conference was held at the NASA Lewis Research Center from April 19 to 21, 1988. The papers and workshop summaries report remarkable progress on a wide variety of approaches in space photovoltaics, for both near and far term applications. Among the former is the recently developed high efficiency GaAs/Ge cell, which formed the focus of a workshop discussion on heteroepitaxial cells. Still aimed at the long term, but with a significant payoff in a new mission capability, are InP cells, with their potentially dramatic improvement in radiation resistance. Approaches to near term, array specific powers exceeding 130 W/kg are also reported, and advanced concentrator panel technology with the potential to achieve over 250 W/sq m is beginning to take shape.

  5. 22 CFR 120.29 - Missile Technology Control Regime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Missile Technology Control Regime. 120.29... DEFINITIONS § 120.29 Missile Technology Control Regime. (a) For purposes of this subchapter, Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) means the policy statement between the United States, the United...

  6. 22 CFR 120.29 - Missile Technology Control Regime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Missile Technology Control Regime. 120.29... DEFINITIONS § 120.29 Missile Technology Control Regime. (a) For purposes of this subchapter, Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) means the policy statement between the United States, the United...

  7. 22 CFR 120.29 - Missile Technology Control Regime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Missile Technology Control Regime. 120.29... DEFINITIONS § 120.29 Missile Technology Control Regime. (a) For purposes of this subchapter, Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) means the policy statement between the United States, the United...

  8. 22 CFR 120.29 - Missile Technology Control Regime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Missile Technology Control Regime. 120.29... DEFINITIONS § 120.29 Missile Technology Control Regime. (a) For purposes of this subchapter, Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) means the policy statement between the United States, the United...

  9. 22 CFR 120.29 - Missile Technology Control Regime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Missile Technology Control Regime. 120.29... DEFINITIONS § 120.29 Missile Technology Control Regime. (a) For purposes of this subchapter, Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) means the policy statement among the United States, the United Kingdom,...

  10. Improving plant competitiveness through conveyor dust control technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Goldbeck, L.J.

    1997-09-01

    In the past, three different approaches--containment, suppression, and collection--have been used to control dust arising at conveyor load zones. Dust containment consists of those mechanical systems employed to keep material inside the transfer point with the main material body. Dust suppression systems increase the mass of suspended dust particles, allowing them to fall from the airstream. Dust collection is the mechanical capture and return of airborne material after it becomes airborne from the main material body. Previously, these three approaches have always been seen as separate entities, offered by separate organizations competing in the marketplace. Each system claimed its own technology was the best solution, providing the most effective, most cost-efficient, most maintenance-free answer to fugitive material. These three technologies are evaluated.

  11. A Measurement Management Technology for Improving Energy Efficiency in Data Centers and Telecommunication Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrik Hamann, Levente Klein

    2012-06-28

    Data center (DC) electricity use is increasing at an annual rate of over 20% and presents a concern for the Information Technology (IT) industry, governments, and the society. A large fraction of the energy use is consumed by the compressor cooling to maintain the recommended operating conditions for IT equipment. The most common way to improve the DC efficiency is achieved by optimally provisioning the cooling power to match the global heat dissipation in the DC. However, at a more granular level, the large range of heat densities of today's IT equipment makes the task of provisioning cooling power optimized to the level of individual computer room air conditioning (CRAC) units much more challenging. Distributed sensing within a DC enables the development of new strategies to improve energy efficiency, such as hot spot elimination through targeted cooling, matching power consumption at rack level with workload schedule, and minimizing power losses. The scope of Measurement and Management Technologies (MMT) is to develop a software tool and the underlying sensing technology to provide critical decision support and control for DC and telecommunication facilities (TF) operations. A key aspect of MMT technology is integration of modeling tools to understand how changes in one operational parameter affect the overall DC response. It is demonstrated that reduced ordered models for DC can generate, in less than 2 seconds computational time, a three dimensional thermal model in a 50 kft{sup 2} DC. This rapid modeling enables real time visualization of the DC conditions and enables 'what if' scenarios simulations to characterize response to 'disturbances'. One such example is thermal zone modeling that matches the cooling power to the heat generated at a local level by identifying DC zones cooled by a specific CRAC. Turning off a CRAC unit can be simulated to understand how the other CRAC utilization changes and how server temperature responds. Several new sensing

  12. Case histories of recently implemented technologies for citrus-processing energy-efficiency improvement. Volume II. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    For each of six citrus industry sites where energy efficiency improvement technologies have been implemented, a case history is presented which describes the implemented technology, its investment cost, and the energy and cost savings. The technologies are: double pressing in feed mill operation; evaporator microprocessor controller; feed mill vent stack controller; addition of a waste heat evaporator to a feed mill; enhanced lime reaction for improved pressing and dewatering in a feed mill, and added effect to a temperature-accelerated short-time evaporator. (LEW)

  13. The Autonomy of Technology: Do Courts Control Technology or Do They Just Legitimize Its Social Acceptance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    This article draws on the suggestion that modern technology is "autonomous" in that our social control mechanisms are unable to control technology and instead merely adapt society to integrate new technologies. In this article, I suggest that common law judges tend systematically to support the integration of novel technologies into society. For…

  14. Vehicle Technologies Program - Improving Vehicle Efficiency, Reducing Dependence on Foreign Oil

    SciTech Connect

    2011-08-01

    R&D drives innovation while lowering technology costs, which then enables the private sector to accelerate clean technology deployment. Along with R&D, DOE's Vehicles Technologies Program deploys clean, efficient vehicle technologies and renewable fuels, which reduce U.S. demand for petroleum products.

  15. Quantum effects improve the energy efficiency of feedback control.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Jordan M; Jacobs, Kurt

    2014-04-01

    The laws of thermodynamics apply equally well to quantum systems as to classical systems, and because of this, quantum effects do not change the fundamental thermodynamic efficiency of isothermal refrigerators or engines. We show that, despite this fact, quantum mechanics permits measurement-based feedback control protocols that are more thermodynamically efficient than their classical counterparts. As part of our analysis, we perform a detailed accounting of the thermodynamics of unitary feedback control and elucidate the sources of inefficiency in measurement-based and coherent feedback.

  16. Quantum effects improve the energy efficiency of feedback control.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Jordan M; Jacobs, Kurt

    2014-04-01

    The laws of thermodynamics apply equally well to quantum systems as to classical systems, and because of this, quantum effects do not change the fundamental thermodynamic efficiency of isothermal refrigerators or engines. We show that, despite this fact, quantum mechanics permits measurement-based feedback control protocols that are more thermodynamically efficient than their classical counterparts. As part of our analysis, we perform a detailed accounting of the thermodynamics of unitary feedback control and elucidate the sources of inefficiency in measurement-based and coherent feedback. PMID:24827219

  17. Applications of CELSS technology to controlled environment agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, Maynard E.; Bubenheim, David L.

    1991-01-01

    Controlled environment agriculture (CEA) is defined as the use of environmental manipulation for the commercial production of organisms, whether plants or animals. While many of the technologies necessary for aquaculture systems in North America is nevertheless doubling approximately every five years. Economic, cultural, and environmental pressures all favor CEA over field production for many non-commodity agricultural crops. Many countries around the world are already dependent on CEA for much of their fresh food. Controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS), under development at ARC, KSC, and JSC expand the concept of CEA to the extent that all human requirements for food, oxygen, and water will be provided regenerated by processing of waste streams to supply plant inputs. The CELSS will likely contain plants, humans, possibly other animals, microorganisms and physically and chemical processors. In effect, NASA will create engineered ecosystems. In the process of developing the technology for CELSS, NASA will develop information and technology which will be applied to improving the efficiency, reliability, and cost effectiveness for CEA, improving its resources recycling capabilities, and lessening its environmental impact to negligible levels.

  18. Controlling Second Harmonic Efficiency of Laser Beam Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P. (Inventor); Walsh, Brian M. (Inventor); Reichle, Donald J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method is provided for controlling second harmonic efficiency of laser beam interactions. A laser system generates two laser beams (e.g., a laser beam with two polarizations) for incidence on a nonlinear crystal having a preferred direction of propagation. Prior to incidence on the crystal, the beams are optically processed based on the crystal's beam separation characteristics to thereby control a position in the crystal along the preferred direction of propagation at which the beams interact.

  19. Nanopore formation by controlled electrical breakdown: Efficient molecular-sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, S.; Al-Marzouki, F. M.; Abdel-Daiem, A. M.

    2016-08-01

    A controlled electrical breakdown is used to produce efficient nanopore (NP) sensors. This phenomenon can be used to precisely fabricate these nanopore (NP) sensors through the membranes of the polydimethylsiloxane microarrays. This can be carried out, when localizing the electrical potential through a suitable microfluidic channel. Organic molecules, and other different protein-molecules, can be easily and precisely detected using this procedure referred to as controlled electrical breakdown technique.

  20. Comparison of Vehicle Efficiency Technology Attributes and Synergy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Duleep, G.

    2011-02-01

    Analyzing the future fuel economy of light-duty vehicles (LDVs) requires detailed knowledge of the vehicle technologies available to improve LDV fuel economy. The National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) has been relying on technology data from a 2001 National Academy of Sciences (NAS) study (NAS 2001) on corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards, but the technology parameters were updated in the new proposed rulemaking (EPA and NHTSA 2009) to set CAFE and greenhouse gas standards for the 2011 to 2016 period. The update is based largely on an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analysis of technology attributes augmented by NHTSA data and contractor staff assessments. These technology cost and performance data were documented in the Draft Joint Technical Support Document (TSD) issued by EPA and NHTSA in September 2009 (EPA/NHTSA 2009). For these tasks, the Energy and Environmental Analysis (EEA) division of ICF International (ICF) examined each technology and technology package in the Draft TSD and assessed their costs and performance potential based on U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program assessments. ICF also assessed the technologies? other relevant attributes based on data from actual production vehicles and from recently published technical articles in engineering journals. ICF examined technology synergy issues through an ICF in-house model that uses a discrete parameter approach.

  1. Comparison of Vehicle Efficiency Technology Attributes and Synergy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Duleep, G.

    2011-02-01

    Analyzing the future fuel economy of light-duty vehicles (LDVs) requires detailed knowledge of the vehicle technologies available to improve LDV fuel economy. The National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) has been relying on technology data from a 2001 National Academy of Sciences (NAS) study (NAS 2001) on corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards, but the technology parameters were updated in the new proposed rulemaking (EPA and NHTSA 2009) to set CAFE and greenhouse gas standards for the 2011 to 2016 period. The update is based largely on an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analysis of technology attributes augmented by NHTSA data and contractor staff assessments. These technology cost and performance data were documented in the Draft Joint Technical Support Document (TSD) issued by EPA and NHTSA in September 2009 (EPA/NHTSA 2009). For these tasks, the Energy and Environmental Analysis (EEA) division of ICF International (ICF) examined each technology and technology package in the Draft TSD and assessed their costs and performance potential based on U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program assessments. ICF also assessed the technologies, other relevant attributes based on data from actual production vehicles, and recently published technical articles in engineering journals. ICF examined technology synergy issues through an ICF in-house model that uses a discrete parameter approach.

  2. Natural gas and efficient technologies: A response to global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M.

    1998-02-01

    It has become recognized by the international scientific community that global warming due to fossil fuel energy buildup of greenhouse CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is a real environmental problem. Worldwide agreement has also been reached to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. A leading approach to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions is to utilize hydrogen-rich fuels and improve the efficiency of conversion in the power generation, transportation and heating sectors of the economy. In this report, natural gas, having the highest hydrogen content of all the fossil fuels, can have an important impact in reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. This paper explores natural gas and improved conversion systems for supplying energy to all three sectors of the economy. The improved technologies include combined cycle for power generation, the Carnol system for methanol production for the transportation sector and fuel cells for both power generation and transportation use. The reduction in CO{sub 2} from current emissions range from 13% when natural gas is substituted for gasoline in the transportation sector to 45% when substituting methanol produced by the Carnol systems (hydrogen from thermal decomposition of methane reacting with CO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plants) used in the transportation sector. CO{sub 2} reductions exceeding 60% can be achieved by using natural gas in combined cycle for power generation and Carnol methanol in the transportation sector and would, thus, stabilize CO{sub 2} concentration in the atmosphere predicted to avoid undue climate change effects. It is estimated that the total fossil fuel energy bill in the US can be reduced by over 40% from the current fuel bill. This also allows a doubling in the unit cost for natural gas if the current energy bill is maintained. Estimates of the total net incremental replacement capital cost for completing the new improved equipment is not more than that which will have to be spent to replace the existing equipment conducting

  3. Transferrin Receptor Controls AMPA Receptor Trafficking Efficiency and Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ke; Lei, Run; Li, Qiong; Wang, Xin-Xin; Wu, Qian; An, Peng; Zhang, Jianchao; Zhu, Minyan; Xu, Zhiheng; Hong, Yang; Wang, Fudi; Shen, Ying; Li, Hongchang; Li, Huashun

    2016-01-01

    Transferrin receptor (TFR) is an important iron transporter regulating iron homeostasis and has long been used as a marker for clathrin mediated endocytosis. However, little is known about its additional function other than iron transport in the development of central nervous system (CNS). Here we demonstrate that TFR functions as a regulator to control AMPA receptor trafficking efficiency and synaptic plasticity. The conditional knockout (KO) of TFR in neural progenitor cells causes mice to develop progressive epileptic seizure, and dramatically reduces basal synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP). We further demonstrate that TFR KO remarkably reduces the binding efficiency of GluR2 to AP2 and subsequently decreases AMPA receptor endocytosis and recycling. Thus, our study reveals that TFR functions as a novel regulator to control AMPA trafficking efficiency and synaptic plasticity. PMID:26880306

  4. 40 CFR 725.422 - Physical containment and control technologies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... technologies. 725.422 Section 725.422 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Exemptions for New Microorganisms § 725.422 Physical containment and control technologies. The manufacturer must meet all of the following criteria for physical containment and control technologies for...

  5. 40 CFR 725.422 - Physical containment and control technologies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... technologies. 725.422 Section 725.422 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Exemptions for New Microorganisms § 725.422 Physical containment and control technologies. The manufacturer must meet all of the following criteria for physical containment and control technologies for...

  6. 40 CFR 725.422 - Physical containment and control technologies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... technologies. 725.422 Section 725.422 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Exemptions for New Microorganisms § 725.422 Physical containment and control technologies. The manufacturer must meet all of the following criteria for physical containment and control technologies for...

  7. 40 CFR 725.422 - Physical containment and control technologies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... technologies. 725.422 Section 725.422 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Exemptions for New Microorganisms § 725.422 Physical containment and control technologies. The manufacturer must meet all of the following criteria for physical containment and control technologies for...

  8. 40 CFR 725.422 - Physical containment and control technologies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... technologies. 725.422 Section 725.422 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Exemptions for New Microorganisms § 725.422 Physical containment and control technologies. The manufacturer must meet all of the following criteria for physical containment and control technologies for...

  9. Increasing Educational Efficiency Through Technology (Commission Discussion and Background Materials).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Commission for Higher Education, Indianapolis.

    A program schedule and background information for Indiana Commission for Higher Education-sponsored discussion of the use of educational technology to increase educational effeciency are presented. The four major topics of discussion to illustrate the uses and advantages/disadvantages of audio, video, and computing technologies are as follows:…

  10. Electric Power Research Institute: Environmental Control Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the month continued with the Phase I DOE/PRDA investigation of the Clear Liquor Scrubbing Process with Anhydrite Production and Chloride Control. The Phase I DOE/PRDA testing of the B&W/Condensing Heat Exchanger (CHE) also continued this month as the inlet particulate control system (installed September 1996) is maintaining the inlet particulate mass loading to the unit at an average value of 0.2 lb./MMBTU. The one-year tube wear analysis project conducted across this unit will be completed in the early part of March. At the completion of testing, a final inspection will be conducted before the unit is cleaned, disassembled, and returned to B&W and CH Corp. for additional analysis. Once the unit is removed from the ECTC, the 0.4 MW Mini-Pilot Wet Scrubber unit will be assembled and configured back into the flue gas path for future testing. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit and the Carbon Injection System (the Pulse-jet Fabric Filter configuration) remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly. In February 1997, the Clear Liquor Scrubbing with Anhydrite Production test block continued. This PRDA project is being jointly funded by the Electric Power Research Institute and the Department of Energy and is part of the DOE`s Advanced Power Systems Program, whose mission is to accelerate the commercialization of affordable, high-efficiency, low-emission, coal-fueled electric generating technologies. The pilot portion of the CLS/Anhydrite project is being conducted on the 4.0 MW wet FGD pilot unit at EPRI`s Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). The project is designed to develop an advanced FGD process incorporating chloride control, clear liquor scrubbing, and anhydrite (anhydrous calcium sulfate) production. While the three areas of the

  11. Energy efficient engine: High pressure turbine uncooled rig technology report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, W. B.

    1979-01-01

    Results obtained from testing five performance builds (three vane cascades and two rotating rigs of the Energy Efficient Engine uncooled rig have established the uncooled aerodynamic efficiency of the high-pressure turbine at 91.1 percent. This efficiency level was attained by increasing the rim speed and annulus area (AN(2)), and by increasing the turbine reaction level. The increase in AN(2) resulted in a performance improvement of 1.15 percent. At the design point pressure ratio, the increased reaction level rig demonstrated an efficiency of 91.1 percent. The results of this program have verified the aerodynamic design assumptions established for the Energy Efficient Engine high-pressure turbine component.

  12. Technology installation review. A case study on energy-efficient technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, Van

    2001-12-31

    The purpose of this Technology Installation Review is to provide an overview of hybrid geothermal heat pump systems. It presents the results of recent research on these systems, looks at system types, energy savings, maintenance considerations, and measured technology performance from several examples. Using the ground as a thermal energy source and/or a heat sink for heat pumps has long been recognized to have a number of advantages over the similar use of ambient air. Ground temperatures at about 3-ft depth or lower are much less variable than ambient air temperatures. Further, soil or rock at these depths is usually warmer than ambient air during the coldest winter months and cooler than ambient air during the summer months. This fact leads directly to cooler condensation temperatures (during cooling operation) and warmer evaporating temperatures (during heating) for a heat pump with consequent improved energy efficiency. It also results in increased heating and cooling capacity at extreme temperatures, thereby reducing or eliminating the need for auxiliary heat.

  13. Emerging technologies in microguidance and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Marc S.

    1993-01-01

    Employing recent advances in microfabrication, the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory has developed inertial guidance instruments of very small size and low cost. Microfabrication employs the batch processing techniques of solid state electronics, such as photolithography, diffusion, and etching, to carve mechanical parts. Within a few years, microfabricated gyroscopes should perform in the 10 to 100 deg/h range. Microfabricated accelerometers have demonstrated performance in the 50 to 500 microgravity range. These instruments will result in not only the redesign of conventional military products, but also new applications that could not exist without small, inexpensive sensors and computing. Draper's microfabricated accelerometers and gyroscopes will be described and test results summarized. Associated electronics and control issues will also be addressed. Gimballed, vibrating gyroscopes and force rebalance accelerometers constructed from bulk silicon, polysilicon surface-machined tuning fork gyroscopes, and quartz resonant accelerometers and gyroscopes are examined. Draper is pursuing several types of devices for the following reasons: to address wide ranges of performance, to realize construction in a flat pack, and to lessen the risks associated with emerging technologies.

  14. Environmental control technology for shale oil wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Mercer, B.W.; Wakamiya, W.; Bell, N.E.; Mason, M.J.; Spencer, R.R.; English, C.J.; Riley, R.G.

    1982-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of studies conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory from 1976 to 1982 on environmental control technology for shale oil wastewaters. Experimental studies conducted during the course of the program were focused largely on the treatment and disposal of retort water, particularly water produced by in situ retorting of oil shale. Alternative methods were evaluated for the treatment and disposal of retort water and minewater. Treatment and disposal processes evaluated for retort water include evaporation for separation of water from both inorganic and organic pollutants; steam stripping for ammonia and volatile organics removal; activated sludge and anaerobic digestion for removal of biodegradable organics and other oxidizable substances; carbon adsorption for removal of nonbiodegradable organics; chemical coagulation for removal of suspended matter and heavy metals; wet air oxidation and solvent extraction for removal of organics; and land disposal and underground injection for disposal of retort water. Methods for the treatment of minewater include chemical processing and ion exchange for fluoride and boron removal. Preliminary cost estimates are given for several retort water treatment processes.

  15. 48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free... related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational...

  16. 48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free... related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational...

  17. 48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free... related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational...

  18. 48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free... related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational...

  19. 48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free... related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational...

  20. Basic mechanisms controlling the sweeping efficiency of propagating current sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkery, J. W.; Choueiri, E. Y.

    2006-02-01

    The basic mechanisms controlling the sweeping efficiency of propagating current sheets are investigated through experiments and analytical modelling. The sweeping efficiency of a current sheet in a parallel plate gas-fed pulsed plasma accelerator is defined as the ratio of the current sheet mass to the total available propellant mass. Permeability of neutrals through the sheet, and leakage of mass out of the sheet and into a cathode wake, decrease the sweeping efficiency. The sweeping efficiency of current sheets in argon, neon, helium and hydrogen propellants at different initial pressures was determined through measurements of sheet velocity with high speed photography and of sheet mass with laser interferometry. The mechanism that controls the sweeping efficiency of propagating current sheets was found to be an interplay of two processes: the flux of mass entering the sheet and the leakage of mass at the cathode, with the former dependent on the degree of permeability and the latter dependent on the level of ion current as determined by the ion Hall parameter.

  1. NASA/DOD Control/Structures Interaction Technology, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Robert L. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    Papers presented at the CSI Technology Conference are given. The conference was jointly sponsored by the NASA Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology and the Department of Defense. The conference is the beginning of a series of annual conferences whose purpose is to report to industry, academia, and government agencies the current status of Control/Structures Interaction technology. The conference program was divided into five sessions: (1) Future spacecraft requirements; Technology issues and impact; (2) DOD special topics; (3) Large space systems technology; (4) Control of flexible structures, and (5) Selected NASA research in control structures interaction.

  2. Controlling the efficiency of trapping in treelike fractals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bin; Zhang, Zhongzhi

    2013-07-14

    Efficiently controlling the trapping process, especially the trapping efficiency, is central in the study of trap problem in complex systems, since it is a fundamental mechanism for diverse other dynamic processes. Thus, it is of theoretical and practical significance to study the control technique for trapping problem. In this paper, we study the trapping problem in a family of proposed directed fractals with a deep trap at a central node. The directed fractals are a generalization of previous undirected fractals by introducing the directed edge weights dominated by a parameter. We characterize all the eigenvalues and their degeneracies for an associated matrix governing the trapping process. The eigenvalues are provided through an exact recursive relation deduced from the self-similar structure of the fractals. We also obtain the expressions for the smallest eigenvalue and the mean first-passage time (MFPT) as a measure of trapping efficiency, which is the expected time for the walker to first visit the trap. The MFPT is evaluated according to the proved fact that it is approximately equal to reciprocal of the smallest eigenvalue. We show that the MFPT is controlled by the weight parameter by modifying which the MFPT can scale superlinealy, linearly, or sublinearly with the system size. Thus, this work paves a way to delicately controlling the trapping process in the fractals.

  3. The 3rd Annual Controlled Structures Technology Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs of presentations at the Controlled Structures Technology (CST) MIT Space Engineering Research Center 3rd Annual Symposium are included. Topics covered include optical interferometer testbed; active impedence matching of complex structural systems; application of CST to adaptive optics; middeck 0-G dynamics Experiment (MODE); inhibiting multiple mode vibration in controlled flexible systems; the middeck active control experiment (MACE); robust control for uncertain structures; cost averaging techniques for robust structural control; and intelligent structures technology.

  4. SECOND GENERATION ADVANCED REBURNING FOR HIGH EFFICIENCY NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-30

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning which has the potential to achieve 90+% NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than SCR. The third reporting period in Phase II (April 1--June 30, 1998) included experimental activities at pilot scale and comparison of the results with full-scale data. The pilot scale tests were performed with the objective of simulating furnace conditions of ongoing full-scale tests at the Greenidge boiler No. 6 owned and operated by NYSEG and defining the processes controlling AR performance to subsequently improve the performance. The tests were conducted in EER' s Boiler Simulator Facility. The main fuel pulsing system was used at the BSF to control the degree of unmixedness, thus providing control over furnace gas O{sub 2} and CO concentrations. Results on AR-Lean, presented in the previous quarterly report, were compared with full-scale data. Performance of reburn+SNCR was tested to predict NO{sub x} control at Greenidge. The results of the BSF reburn+SNCR simulation tests demonstrated that there are synergistic advantages of using these two technologies in series. In particular, injection of overfire air provides additional mixing that reduces negative effects on AR performance at the temperature regime of the Greenidge boiler.

  5. Efficiency of the Technology Acceptance Model to Explain Pre-Service Teachers' Intention to Use Technology: A Turkish Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy; Ursavas, Omer Faruk; Bahcekapili, Ekrem

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess the efficiency of the technology acceptance model (TAM) to explain pre-service teachers' intention to use technology in Turkey. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 197 pre-service teachers from a Turkish university completed a survey questionnaire measuring their responses to four constructs…

  6. Digital Control Technologies for Modular DC-DC Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert M.; Kascak, Peter E.; Lebron-Velilla, Ramon

    2002-01-01

    Recent trends in aerospace Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) systems focus on using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components as standard building blocks. This move to more modular designs has been driven by a desire to reduce costs and development times, but is also due to the impressive power density and efficiency numbers achieved by today's commercial DC-DC converters. However, the PMAD designer quickly learns of the hidden "costs" of using COTS converters. The most significant cost is the required addition of external input filters to meet strict electromagnetic interference (MIAMI) requirements for space systems. In fact, the high power density numbers achieved by the commercial manufacturers are greatly due to the lack of necessary input filters included in the COTS module. The NASA Glenn Research Center is currently pursuing a digital control technology that addresses this problem with modular DC-DC converters. This paper presents the digital control technologies that have been developed to greatly reduce the input filter requirements for paralleled, modular DC-DC converters. Initial test result show that the input filter's inductor size was reduced by 75 percent, and the capacitor size was reduced by 94 percent while maintaining the same power quality specifications.

  7. Electric utility Zebra Mussel Control technology conference: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, J.L. ); Mussalli, Y.G. )

    1992-03-01

    This Conference on Zebra Mussel Control technology was held on October 22--23, 1991 in Itasca (Chicago), Illinois. The Conference was sponsored by EPRI Zebra Mussel Task Force and hosted by Commonwealth Edison Company to bring together representatives of utilities, manufacturers, researches, and consultants. Nineteen papers were presented in three sessions. These sessions were devoted to the following topics: Overview and Control Strategy, Monitoring and Non-Chemical Control Technology, and Chemical Control Technology. A half-day workshop/panel discussion devoted to the same topics was conducted at the second day of the formal presentations. More than 160 people attended this Conference. This report contains technical papers and summaries of the workshop/panel sessions. Of these 19 papers, there are 4 papers related to overview and control strategy, 7 papers related to monitoring and non-chemical control technology, and 8 papers related to chemical control technology.

  8. Energy Efficient Engine (E3) controls and accessories detail design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beitler, R. S.; Lavash, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    An Energy Efficient Engine program has been established by NASA to develop technology for improving the energy efficiency of future commercial transport aircraft engines. As part of this program, a new turbofan engine was designed. This report describes the fuel and control system for this engine. The system design is based on many of the proven concepts and component designs used on the General Electric CF6 family of engines. One significant difference is the incorporation of digital electronic computation in place of the hydromechanical computation currently used.

  9. Current Issues in Human Spacecraft Thermal Control Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene K.

    2008-01-01

    Efficient thermal management of Earth-orbiting human spacecraft, lunar transit spacecraft and landers, as well as a lunar habitat will require advanced thermal technology. These future spacecraft will require more sophisticated thermal control systems that can dissipate or reject greater heat loads at higher input heat fluxes while using fewer of the limited spacecraft mass, volume and power resources. The thermal control designs also must accommodate the harsh environments associated with these missions including dust and high sink temperatures. The lunar environment presents several challenges to the design and operation of active thermal control systems. During the Apollo program, landings were located and timed to occur at lunar twilight, resulting in a benign thermal environment. The long duration polar lunar bases that are foreseen in 15 years will see extremely cold thermal environments. Long sojourns remote from low-Earth orbit will require lightweight, but robust and reliable systems. Innovative thermal management components and systems are needed to accomplish the rejection of heat from lunar bases. Advances are required in the general areas of radiators, thermal control loops and equipment. Radiators on the Moon's poles must operate and survive in very cold environments. Also, the dusty environment of an active lunar base may require dust mitigation and removal techniques to maintain radiator performance over the long term.

  10. Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chong, Katie E.; Staude, Isabelle; James, Anthony Randolph; Dominguez, Jason James; Liu, Sheng; Campione, Salvatore; Subramania, Ganapathi Subramanian; Luk, Ting S.; Decker, Manuel; Neshev, Dragomir N.; et al

    2015-07-20

    In this study, we experimentally demonstrate a functional silicon metadevice at telecom wavelengths that can efficiently control the wavefront of optical beams by imprinting a spatially varying transmittance phase independent of the polarization of the incident beam. Near-unity transmittance efficiency and close to 0–2π phase coverage are enabled by utilizing the localized electric and magnetic Mie-type resonances of low-loss silicon nanoparticles tailored to behave as electromagnetically dual-symmetric scatterers. We apply this concept to realize a metadevice that converts a Gaussian beam into a vortex beam. The required spatial distribution of transmittance phases is achieved by a variation of the latticemore » spacing as a single geometric control parameter.« less

  11. Polarization-Independent Silicon Metadevices for Efficient Optical Wavefront Control.

    PubMed

    Chong, Katie E; Staude, Isabelle; James, Anthony; Dominguez, Jason; Liu, Sheng; Campione, Salvatore; Subramania, Ganapathi S; Luk, Ting S; Decker, Manuel; Neshev, Dragomir N; Brener, Igal; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2015-08-12

    We experimentally demonstrate a functional silicon metadevice at telecom wavelengths that can efficiently control the wavefront of optical beams by imprinting a spatially varying transmittance phase independent of the polarization of the incident beam. Near-unity transmittance efficiency and close to 0-2π phase coverage are enabled by utilizing the localized electric and magnetic Mie-type resonances of low-loss silicon nanoparticles tailored to behave as electromagnetically dual-symmetric scatterers. We apply this concept to realize a metadevice that converts a Gaussian beam into a vortex beam. The required spatial distribution of transmittance phases is achieved by a variation of the lattice spacing as a single geometric control parameter. PMID:26192100

  12. Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control

    SciTech Connect

    Chong, Katie E.; Staude, Isabelle; James, Anthony Randolph; Dominguez, Jason James; Liu, Sheng; Campione, Salvatore; Subramania, Ganapathi Subramanian; Luk, Ting S.; Decker, Manuel; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Brener, Igal; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2015-07-20

    In this study, we experimentally demonstrate a functional silicon metadevice at telecom wavelengths that can efficiently control the wavefront of optical beams by imprinting a spatially varying transmittance phase independent of the polarization of the incident beam. Near-unity transmittance efficiency and close to 0–2π phase coverage are enabled by utilizing the localized electric and magnetic Mie-type resonances of low-loss silicon nanoparticles tailored to behave as electromagnetically dual-symmetric scatterers. We apply this concept to realize a metadevice that converts a Gaussian beam into a vortex beam. The required spatial distribution of transmittance phases is achieved by a variation of the lattice spacing as a single geometric control parameter.

  13. IC-BASED CONTROLS FOR ENERGY-EFFICIENT LIGHTING

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Zhang

    2005-03-01

    A new approach for driving high frequency energy saving ballasts is developed and documented in this report. The developed approach utilizes an IC-based platform that provides the benefits of reduced system cost, reduced ballast size, and universal application to a wide range of lamp technologies, such as linear fluorescent lamps (LFL), compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) and high intensity discharge lamps (HID). The control IC chip set developed for the platform includes dual low voltage (LV) IC gate drive that provides gate drive for high and low side power switches in typical ballast circuits, and ballast controller IC that provides control functionalities optimal for different lamps and digital interface for future extension to more sophisticated control and communication.

  14. Holographic Setup With Phase Control For High Efficiency Gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budzinski, Christel

    1990-04-01

    An active stabilizied holographic setup for production of corrected concave gratings is decribed. Phase perturbations during exposure decrease diffraction efficiency. Two-wave interference at a holographic phase grating in a positive photoresist coated film is used for phase controlling during recording. The basic feature is the possibility of stabilization and resetting of the setup by the reference grating. Positive resist PFKL S-1 manufactured by VEB Foto-chemische Werke Berlin was used for recording deep grooves on plan and concave blanks.

  15. Efficient Control Law Simulation for Multiple Mobile Robots

    SciTech Connect

    Driessen, B.J.; Feddema, J.T.; Kotulski, J.D.; Kwok, K.S.

    1998-10-06

    In this paper we consider the problem of simulating simple control laws involving large numbers of mobile robots. Such simulation can be computationally prohibitive if the number of robots is large enough, say 1 million, due to the 0(N2 ) cost of each time step. This work therefore uses hierarchical tree-based methods for calculating the control law. These tree-based approaches have O(NlogN) cost per time step, thus allowing for efficient simulation involving a large number of robots. For concreteness, a decentralized control law which involves only the distance and bearing to the closest neighbor robot will be considered. The time to calculate the control law for each robot at each time step is demonstrated to be O(logN).

  16. Efficient Scheduling of Recursive Control Flow on GPUs

    SciTech Connect

    Huo, Xin; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Agrawal, Gagan

    2013-06-10

    Graphics processing units (GPUs) have rapidly emerged as a very significant player in high performance computing. Single instruction multiple thread (SIMT) pipelines are typically used in GPUs to exploit parallelism and maximize performance. Although support for unstructured control flow has been included in GPUs, efficiently managing thread divergence for arbitrary parallel programs remains a critical challenge. In this paper, we focus on the problem of supporting recursion in modern GPUs. We design and comparatively evaluate various algorithms to manage thread divergence encountered in recursive programs. The results improve upon traditional post-dominator based reconvergence mechanisms designed to handle thread divergence due to control flow within a procedure.

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, NOX CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, CATALYTICA COMBUSTION SYSTEMS, INC., XONON FLAMELESS COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Xonon Cool Combustion System manufactured by Catalytica Energy Systems, Inc., formerly Catalytica Combustion Systems, Inc., to control NOx emissions from gas turbines that operate wit...

  18. Environmentally Benign Technology for Efficient Warm-White Light Emission

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Pin-Chun; Lin, Ming-Shiun; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays efficient down conversion for white light emission is mainly based on rare-earth doped phosphors or cadmium-containing quantum dots. Although they exhibit high luminescence efficiency, the rare-earth mining and cadmium pollution have so far led to extremely high environmental cost, which conflicts the original purpose of pursuing efficient lighting. Here, we explore a new strategy to achieve efficient luminescence conversion based on polymer-decorated nanoparticles. The ZnO and Mn2+ doped ZnS nanoparticles are encapsulated by poly(9,9-di-n- hexylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl). The resultant core-shell nanocomposites then encompass three UV-to-visible luminescence conversion routes for photon emissions at blue, green, and orange colors, respectively. As a result, the color temperature is widely tunable (2100 K ~ 6000 K), so candle light or pure white light can be generated. The quantum yield up to 91% could also be achieved. Such rare-earth-element free nanocomposites give the bright perspectives for energy-saving, healthy, and environmentally benign lighting. PMID:24930640

  19. Environmentally benign technology for efficient warm-white light emission.

    PubMed

    Shen, Pin-Chun; Lin, Ming-Shiun; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays efficient down conversion for white light emission is mainly based on rare-earth doped phosphors or cadmium-containing quantum dots. Although they exhibit high luminescence efficiency, the rare-earth mining and cadmium pollution have so far led to extremely high environmental cost, which conflicts the original purpose of pursuing efficient lighting. Here, we explore a new strategy to achieve efficient luminescence conversion based on polymer-decorated nanoparticles. The ZnO and Mn(2+) doped ZnS nanoparticles are encapsulated by poly(9,9-di-n- hexylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl). The resultant core-shell nanocomposites then encompass three UV-to-visible luminescence conversion routes for photon emissions at blue, green, and orange colors, respectively. As a result, the color temperature is widely tunable (2100 K ~ 6000 K), so candle light or pure white light can be generated. The quantum yield up to 91% could also be achieved. Such rare-earth-element free nanocomposites give the bright perspectives for energy-saving, healthy, and environmentally benign lighting. PMID:24930640

  20. Environmentally Benign Technology for Efficient Warm-White Light Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Pin-Chun; Lin, Ming-Shiun; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays efficient down conversion for white light emission is mainly based on rare-earth doped phosphors or cadmium-containing quantum dots. Although they exhibit high luminescence efficiency, the rare-earth mining and cadmium pollution have so far led to extremely high environmental cost, which conflicts the original purpose of pursuing efficient lighting. Here, we explore a new strategy to achieve efficient luminescence conversion based on polymer-decorated nanoparticles. The ZnO and Mn2+ doped ZnS nanoparticles are encapsulated by poly(9,9-di-n- hexylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl). The resultant core-shell nanocomposites then encompass three UV-to-visible luminescence conversion routes for photon emissions at blue, green, and orange colors, respectively. As a result, the color temperature is widely tunable (2100 K ~ 6000 K), so candle light or pure white light can be generated. The quantum yield up to 91% could also be achieved. Such rare-earth-element free nanocomposites give the bright perspectives for energy-saving, healthy, and environmentally benign lighting.

  1. Bank-to-turn control technology survey for homing missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedel, F. W.

    1980-01-01

    The potential advantages of bank-to-turn control are summarized. Recent and current programs actively investigating bank-to-turn steering are reviewed and critical technology areas concerned with bank-to-turn control are assessed.

  2. Technology Efficiency Study on Nuclear Power and Coal Power in Guangdong Province Based on DEA

    SciTech Connect

    Yinong Li; Dong Wang

    2006-07-01

    Guangdong Province has taken the lead in embarking on nuclear power development to resolve its dire lack of primary resources. With the deepening of the on-going structural reform in the electric power sector in China, the market competition scheme is putting electricity generation enterprises under severe strain. Consequently, it is incumbent upon the nuclear power producers to steadily upgrade management, enhance technical capabilities, reduce cost and improve efficiency. At present, gradual application of such efficiency evaluation methodology has already commenced in some sectors in China including the electric power industry. The purpose of this paper is to use the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), which is a cutting-edge approach in the efficiency evaluation field - to study the technological efficiency between nuclear power and coal power in Guangdong Province. The DEA results demonstrate that, as far as Guangdong Province is concerned, the technological efficiency of nuclear power is higher than that of coal power in terms of Technological Efficiency (TE), Pure Technology Efficiency (PTE) and Scale Efficiency (SE). The reason is that nuclear power technology is advanced with a much higher equipment availability factor. Under the same scale, the generation output of nuclear power is far higher than that of equivalent coal power generation. With the environmental protection and sustainable development requirements taken into full account, nuclear power constitutes a clean, safe and highly-efficient energy form which should be extensively harnessed in Guangdong Province to fuel its future continuing economic growth. (authors)

  3. CERAMIC MEMBRANE ENABLING TECHNOLOGY FOR IMPROVED IGCC EFFICIENCY

    SciTech Connect

    Ravi Prasad

    2003-04-30

    The objectives of the first year of phase 2 of the program are to construct and operate an engineering pilot reactor for OTM oxygen. Work to support this objective is being undertaken in the following areas in this quarter: Element reliability; Element fabrication; Systems technology; Power recovery; and IGCC process analysis and economics. The major accomplishments this quarter were Preferred OTM architectures have been identified through stress analysis; and The 01 reactor was operated at target flux and target purity for 1000 hours.

  4. Energy level control: toward an efficient hot electron transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xiao; Li, Qinghua; Li, Yue; Chen, Zihan; Wei, Tai-Huei; He, Xingdao; Sun, Weifu

    2014-08-01

    Highly efficient hot electron transport represents one of the most important properties required for applications in photovoltaic devices. Whereas the fabrication of efficient hot electron capture and lost-cost devices remains a technological challenge, regulating the energy level of acceptor-donor system through the incorporation of foreign ions using the solution-processed technique is one of the most promising strategies to overcome this obstacle. Here we present a versatile acceptor-donor system by incorporating MoO3:Eu nanophosphors, which reduces both the `excess' energy offset between the conduction band of acceptor and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of donor, and that between the valence band and highest occupied molecular orbital. Strikingly, the hot electron transfer time has been shortened. This work demonstrates that suitable energy level alignment can be tuned to gain the higher hot electron/hole transport efficiency in a simple approach without the need for complicated architectures. This work builds up the foundation of engineering building blocks for third-generation solar cells.

  5. Energy level control: toward an efficient hot electron transport.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiao; Li, Qinghua; Li, Yue; Chen, Zihan; Wei, Tai-Huei; He, Xingdao; Sun, Weifu

    2014-08-07

    Highly efficient hot electron transport represents one of the most important properties required for applications in photovoltaic devices. Whereas the fabrication of efficient hot electron capture and lost-cost devices remains a technological challenge, regulating the energy level of acceptor-donor system through the incorporation of foreign ions using the solution-processed technique is one of the most promising strategies to overcome this obstacle. Here we present a versatile acceptor-donor system by incorporating MoO3:Eu nanophosphors, which reduces both the 'excess' energy offset between the conduction band of acceptor and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of donor, and that between the valence band and highest occupied molecular orbital. Strikingly, the hot electron transfer time has been shortened. This work demonstrates that suitable energy level alignment can be tuned to gain the higher hot electron/hole transport efficiency in a simple approach without the need for complicated architectures. This work builds up the foundation of engineering building blocks for third-generation solar cells.

  6. Enabling technologies: Supporting the development and use of innovative, energy-efficient, and environmentally friendly products and processes

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    This pamphlet describes the Office of Industrial Technologies cooperative efforts to address industry needs for advanced materials, sensors and controls, process energy and energy efficiency. US industry needs enabling materials that are stronger and lighter, with resistance to high-temperature fatigue and improved resistance to corrosion and wear. New industrial materials such as intermetallic alloys and advanced ceramics have the potential to meet the challenges of the Industries of the Future. The manufacturing industries obtain over 85% of their energy from the on-site combustion of fuels. Enhancements to burners, boilers, and process heating systems can lower energy costs, reduce emissions, enhance fuel options, and increase safety and reliability. Robust, integrated measurement devices linked to intelligent control systems will enable US industry to use resources more efficiently and improve product quality. Through constant process monitoring and adjustment of parameters, these systems can reduce energy use and labor, minimize waste and pollution, and boost productivity. The Enabling Technologies Program is designed to address the cross-cutting needs of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT). OIT partners with industry to promote the development and use of energy-efficient, pollution-preventing technologies. The Nation`s environment benefits from greater use of these technologies, and industries benefit from cost savings, improved productivity, and increased competitiveness.

  7. Energy-efficient container handling using hybrid model predictive control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Jianbin; Negenborn, Rudy R.; Lodewijks, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    The performance of container terminals needs to be improved to adapt the growth of containers while maintaining sustainability. This paper provides a methodology for determining the trajectory of three key interacting machines for carrying out the so-called bay handling task, involving transporting containers between a vessel and the stacking area in an automated container terminal. The behaviours of the interacting machines are modelled as a collection of interconnected hybrid systems. Hybrid model predictive control (MPC) is proposed to achieve optimal performance, balancing the handling capacity and energy consumption. The underlying control problem is hereby formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming problem. Simulation studies illustrate that a higher penalty on energy consumption indeed leads to improved sustainability using less energy. Moreover, simulations illustrate how the proposed energy-efficient hybrid MPC controller performs under different types of uncertainties.

  8. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Current and advanced act control system definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Current and Advanced Technology ACT control system definition tasks of the Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) Technology project within the Energy Efficient Transport Program are summarized. The systems mechanize six active control functions: (1) pitch augmented stability; (2) angle of attack limiting; (3) lateral/directional augmented stability; (4) gust load alleviation; (5) maneuver load control; and (6) flutter mode control. The redundant digital control systems meet all function requirements with required reliability and declining weight and cost as advanced technology is introduced.

  9. Carrier signal technology applied to solar collector field control

    SciTech Connect

    Alvis, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The development and operational performance are described of a control system designed specifically for solar distributed collector field systems. Carrier technology is employed to eliminate costly field constructed control wiring and allows the control system quality to be controlled at system suppliers' plants. Prototype hardware has been built and tested in the field with excellent operating results.

  10. How to Compute a Slot Marker - Calculation of Controller Managed Spacing Tools for Efficient Descents with Precision Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prevot, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the underlying principles and algorithms for computing the primary controller managed spacing (CMS) tools developed at NASA for precisely spacing aircraft along efficient descent paths. The trajectory-based CMS tools include slot markers, delay indications and speed advisories. These tools are one of three core NASA technologies integrated in NASAs ATM technology demonstration-1 (ATD-1) that will operationally demonstrate the feasibility of fuel-efficient, high throughput arrival operations using Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) and ground-based and airborne NASA technologies for precision scheduling and spacing.

  11. CERAMIC MEMBRANE ENABLING TECHNOLOGY FOR IMPROVED IGCC EFFICIENCY

    SciTech Connect

    John Sirman

    2005-01-01

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for Phase 2 Program during the quarter April to June 2004. In task 7, reactor cost analysis was performed to determine whether OTM technology when integrated with IGCC provides a commercially attractive process. In task 9, discussions with DOE regarding restructuring the program continued. The objectives of the second year of phase 2 of the program are to construct and operate an engineering pilot reactor for OTM oxygen. Work to support this objective is being undertaken in the following areas in this quarter: IGCC process analysis and economics.

  12. Survey of multi-function display and control technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiger, R. J.; Farrell, R. J.; Tonkin, M. H.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA orbiter spacecraft incorporates a complex array of systems, displays and controls. The incorporation of discrete dedicated controls into a multi-function display and control system (MFDCS) offers the potential for savings in weight, power, panel space and crew training time. The technology applicable to the development of a MFDCS for orbiter application is surveyed. Technology thought to be applicable presently or in the next five years is highlighted. Areas discussed include display media, data handling and processing, controls and operator interactions and the human factors considerations which are involved in a MFDCS design. Several examples of applicable MFDCS technology are described.

  13. Applying Trusted Network Technology To Process Control Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okhravi, Hamed; Nicol, David

    Interconnections between process control networks and enterprise networks expose instrumentation and control systems and the critical infrastructure components they operate to a variety of cyber attacks. Several architectural standards and security best practices have been proposed for industrial control systems. However, they are based on older architectures and do not leverage the latest hardware and software technologies. This paper describes new technologies that can be applied to the design of next generation security architectures for industrial control systems. The technologies are discussed along with their security benefits and design trade-offs.

  14. Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology 1986. High Efficiency, Space Environment, and Array Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The conference provided a forum to assess the progress made, the problems remaining, and the strategy for the future of photovoltaic research. Cell research and technology, space environmental effects, array technology and applications were discussed.

  15. Demonstrating VOC capture efficiency using Permanent Total Enclosure technology: Common practices, challenges and rewards

    SciTech Connect

    Bemi, D.; Pearson, E.

    1997-12-31

    During the past decade, the Permanent Total Enclosure (PTE) has been gaining acceptance among flexographic printers and coaters, as a viable, cost effective means of demonstrating compliance with overall Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) control efficiency regulations. Throughout this period, industry has voiced a number of concerns regarding the implementation of PTE solutions. Many of these concerns, including control device upsizing requirements, operator safety and health issues, work area interference and onerous expense, have proven to be overstated and in some cases unwarranted. The purpose of this paper is twofold. The first objective is to address some of the practical design considerations associated with the use of PTE technology. Secondly, the authors will review some of the more common misconceptions concerning PTE implementation. This paper will cover the following topics: a brief discussion of the EPA approved alternative methods for capture efficiency testing, a summary of the EPA criteria for achieving PTE status, a presentation of some of the misconceptions associated with PTE implementation, a discussion of practical PTE design issues, the presentation of a case study highlighting a typical application, and finally, a summary of the benefits of using a PTE. Finally, it should be noted that the scope of this paper will be limited to the discussion of walk in type PTE`s versus uninhabited PTE designs.

  16. Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET), Proof of Concept Compressor, Advanced Compressor Casing T

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET), Proof of Concept Compressor, Advanced Compressor Casing Treatment testing; close up - throttle valve -wide open; oil and air lines plus instrumentation between collector and gearbox.

  17. Study of the efficiency of immobilized algal technology for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Kanherkar, S V; Late, A M; Nalawade, P M; Bhosaleanda, B J; Dhapate, S A

    2012-01-01

    The present paper deals with the study of efficiency of immobilized algal technology in wastewater treatment. The acclimatized algal species and wastewater samples were collected from three different sampling sites such as Kham River, Waluj [MIDC], Salim Ali Lake for the study. The encapsulation of collected algal species such as Spirogyra, Cyanobacteria in mixture form and Arthospira from selected sampling sites were made in sodium alginate for wastewater treatment. The percentage efficiency of immobilized algal technology for wastewater treatment was studied with respect to physico-chemical parameters. The physicochemical parameters were analyzed before and after treatment and compared for percentage efficiency study. The results obtained from present investigation reveal that the immobilized algal technology has maximum percentage efficiency in reduction of BOD, COD, Total Hardness, Total Alkalinity, Chloride. TSS, TDS and TSS. Whereas, the minimum fluctuations were found in pH and temperature. However, the immobilized algal technology is also useful to increase the dissolved oxygen concentration in wastewater treatment process.

  18. A Survey of Intelligent Control and Health Management Technologies for Aircraft Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Simon, Donald L.; Garg, Sanjay; Guo, Ten-Heui; Mercer, Carolyn; Behbahani, Alireza; Bajwa, Anupa; Jensen, Daniel T.

    2005-01-01

    Intelligent Control and Health Management technology for aircraft propulsion systems is much more developed in the laboratory than in practice. With a renewed emphasis on reducing engine life cycle costs, improving fuel efficiency, increasing durability and life, etc., driven by various government programs, there is a strong push to move these technologies out of the laboratory and onto the engine. This paper describes the existing state of engine control and on-board health management, and surveys some specific technologies under development that will enable an aircraft propulsion system to operate in an intelligent way--defined as self-diagnostic, self-prognostic, self-optimizing, and mission adaptable. These technologies offer the potential for creating extremely safe, highly reliable systems. The technologies will help to enable a level of performance that far exceeds that of today s propulsion systems in terms of reduction of harmful emissions, maximization of fuel efficiency, and minimization of noise, while improving system affordability and safety. Technologies that are discussed include various aspects of propulsion control, diagnostics, prognostics, and their integration. The paper focuses on the improvements that can be achieved through innovative software and algorithms. It concentrates on those areas that do not require significant advances in sensors and actuators to make them achievable, while acknowledging the additional benefit that can be realized when those technologies become available. The paper also discusses issues associated with the introduction of some of the technologies.

  19. Efficient evaluation of wireless real-time control networks.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Peter; Yampolskiy, Mark; Koutsoukos, Xenofon

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a system simulation framework for the design and performance evaluation of complex wireless cyber-physical systems. We describe the simulator architecture and the specific developments that are required to simulate cyber-physical systems relying on multi-channel, multihop mesh networks. We introduce realistic and efficient physical layer models and a system simulation methodology, which provides statistically significant performance evaluation results with low computational complexity. The capabilities of the proposed framework are illustrated in the example of WirelessHART, a centralized, real-time, multi-hop mesh network designed for industrial control and monitor applications. PMID:25679314

  20. Efficient Evaluation of Wireless Real-Time Control Networks

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Peter; Yampolskiy, Mark; Koutsoukos, Xenofon

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a system simulation framework for the design and performance evaluation of complex wireless cyber-physical systems. We describe the simulator architecture and the specific developments that are required to simulate cyber-physical systems relying on multi-channel, multihop mesh networks. We introduce realistic and efficient physical layer models and a system simulation methodology, which provides statistically significant performance evaluation results with low computational complexity. The capabilities of the proposed framework are illustrated in the example of WirelessHART, a centralized, real-time, multi-hop mesh network designed for industrial control and monitor applications. PMID:25679314

  1. Efficient identity management and access control in cloud environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloster, Jonathan

    2013-05-01

    As more enterprises are enticed to move data to a cloud environment to enhance data sharing and reduce operating costs by exploiting shared resources, concerns have risen over the ability to secure information within the cloud. This paper examines how a traditional Identity and Access Control (IDAM) architecture can be adapted to address security concerns of a cloud environment. We propose changing the paradigm of IDAM form a pure trust model to a risk based model will enable information to be protected securely in a cloud environment without impacting efficiencies of cloud environments.

  2. Limits of control: the effects of uncontrollability experiences on the efficiency of attentional control.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, Marcin; Asanowicz, Dariusz; Marzecová, Anna; Lupiáñez, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to explore the effects of experiencing uncontrollability on the efficiency of attentional control. The experience of uncontrollability was induced either by unsolvable tasks (Experiment 1) or by tasks in which non-contingent feedback was provided (Experiment 2). A version of the Attentional Network Test-Interactions with an additional measure of vigilance (ANTI-V) was used to evaluate the efficiency of the attentional networks (i.e., alerting, orienting, and executive). Results of both experiments revealed a decreased efficiency of executive attention in participants who experienced stable control deprivation but no negative effects in participants who were able to restore their sense of previously deprived control. Additionally, when participants were asked to perform unsolvable tasks and did not receive feedback (Experiment 1), detrimental effects on the orienting network and vigilance were observed. The motivational and cognitive mechanisms underlying the effects of various uncontrollability experiences on conflict resolution and attentional control are discussed.

  3. Magnetic Refrigeration Technology for High Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Boeder, A; Zimm, C

    2006-09-30

    Magnetic refrigeration was investigated as an efficient, environmentally friendly, flexible alternative to conventional residential vapor compression central air conditioning systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) models of advanced geometry active magnetic regenerator (AMR) beds were developed to minimize bed size and thus magnet mass by optimizing geometry for fluid flow and heat transfer and other losses. Conventional and magnetocaloric material (MCM) regenerator fabrication and assembly techniques were developed and advanced geometry passive regenerators were built and tested. A subscale engineering prototype (SEP) magnetic air conditioner was designed, constructed and tested. A model of the AMR cycle, combined with knowledge from passive regenerator experiments and FEA results, was used to design the regenerator beds. A 1.5 Tesla permanent magnet assembly was designed using FEA and the bed structure and plenum design was extensively optimized using FEA. The SEP is a flexible magnetic refrigeration platform, with individually instrumented beds and high flow rate and high frequency capability, although the current advanced regenerator geometry beds do not meet performance expectations, probably due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. A model of the AMR cycle was used to optimize the design of a 3 ton capacity magnetic air conditioner, and the system design was iterated to minimize external parasitic losses such as heat exchanger pressure drop and fan power. The manufacturing cost for the entire air conditioning system was estimated, and while the estimated SEER efficiency is high, the magnetic air conditioning system is not cost competitive as currently configured. The 3 ton study results indicate that there are other applications where magnetic refrigeration is anticipated to have cost advantages over conventional systems, especially applications where magnetic refrigeration, through the use of its aqueous heat transfer fluid, could eliminate intermediate

  4. Controlled evacuation using the biocompatible and energy efficient microfluidic ejector.

    PubMed

    Lad, V N; Ralekar, Swati

    2016-10-01

    Development of controlled vacuum is having many applications in the realm of biotechnology, cell transfer, gene therapy, biomedical engineering and other engineering activities involving separation or chemical reactions. Here we show the controlled vacuum generation through a biocompatible, energy efficient, low-cost and flexible miniature device. We have designed and fabricated microfluidic devices from polydimethylsiloxane which are capable of producing vacuum at a highly controlled rate by using water as a motive fluid. Scrupulous removal of infected fluid/body fluid from the internal hemorrhage affected parts during surgical operations, gene manipulation, cell sorting, and other biomedical activities require complete isolation of the delicate cells or tissues adjacent to the targeted location. We demonstrate the potential of the miniature device to obtain controlled evacuation without the use of highly pressurized motive fluids. Water has been used as a motive liquid to eject vapor and liquid at ambient conditions through the microfluidic devices prepared using a low-cost fabrication method. The proposed miniature device may find applications in vacuum generation especially where the controlled rate of evacuation, and limited vacuum generation are of utmost importance in order to precisely protect the cells in the nearby region of the targeted evacuated area. PMID:27647149

  5. a New Efficient Control Method for Blended Wing Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wenhua; Chen, Dehua; Qin, Ning; Peng, Xin; Tang, Xinwu

    The blended wing body (BWB) is the hottest one of the aerodynamic shapes of next generation airliner because of its' high lift-drag ratio, but there are still some flaws that cut down its aerodynamical performance. One of the most harmful flaws is the low efficiency of elevator and direction rudder, this makes the BWB hard to be controlled. In this paper, we proposed a new control method to solve this problem by morphing wing—that is, to control the BWB only by changing its wing shape but without any rudder. The pitching moments, rolling moments and yawing moments are plotted versus the parameters section and the wing shape in figures and are discussed in the paper. The result shows that the morphing wing can control the moments of BWB more precisely and in wider range. The pitching moments, rolling moments and yawing moments increases or decreases linearly or almost linearly, with the value of the selected parameters. These results show that using morphing wing is an excellent aerodynamic control way for a BWB craft.

  6. LNG fire and vapor control system technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Konzek, G.J.; Yasutake, K.M.; Franklin, A.L.

    1982-06-01

    This report provides a review of fire and vapor control practices used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. Specific objectives of this effort were to summarize the state-of-the-art of LNG fire and vapor control; define representative LNG facilities and their associated fire and vapor control systems; and develop an approach for a quantitative effectiveness evaluation of LNG fire and vapor control systems. In this report a brief summary of LNG physical properties is given. This is followed by a discussion of basic fire and vapor control design philosophy and detailed reviews of fire and vapor control practices. The operating characteristics and typical applications and application limitations of leak detectors, fire detectors, dikes, coatings, closed circuit television, communication systems, dry chemicals, water, high expansion foam, carbon dioxide and halogenated hydrocarbons are described. Summary descriptions of a representative LNG peakshaving facility and import terminal are included in this report together with typical fire and vapor control systems and their locations in these types of facilities. This state-of-the-art review identifies large differences in the application of fire and vapor control systems throughout the LNG industry.

  7. The use of speech technology in air traffic control simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, J. A.; Hobbs, G. R.; Howes, J. R.; Cope, N.

    The advantages of applying speech technology to air traffic control (ATC) simulators are discussed with emphasis placed on the simulation of the pilot end of the pilot-controller dialog. Speech I/O in an ATC simulator is described as well as technology capability, and research on an electronic blip driver. It is found that the system is easier to use and performs better for less experienced controllers.

  8. EPA`s adaptive controls system research program for pollution prevention and clean technologies. Report for October 1991-March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegel, R.J.; Chappell, P.J.; Miller, C.A.

    1995-03-01

    EPA`s control systems research is concentrated in three areas: electric motors, wind turbines, and combustion technologies. In general, these projects are concerned with pollution prevention through enhanced efficiency of operation and pollution control through lower emission levels. Pioneering effort has been achieved in the application of fuzzy-logic-based controls in these areas. Based on the results of these projects, fuzzy logic has emerged as an important tool in environmental technology for pollution elimination and control.

  9. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Vitali V. Lissianski

    1999-12-31

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) which has the potential to achieve 90+ NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than Selective Catalytic Reduction. The ninth reporting period in Phase II (October 1-December 31, 1999) included preparation of the 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr Tower Furnace for tests and setting the SGAR model to predict process performance under Tower Furnace conditions. Based on results of previous work, a paper has been prepared and submitted for the presentation at the 28 Symposium (International) on Combustion to be held at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland.

  10. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Pete M. Maly; Vitali V. Lissianski

    2000-12-31

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) which has the potential to achieve 90+% NO{sub x} control in coal-fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than SCR. The thirteenth reporting period in Phase II (October 1-December 31, 2000) included SGAR tests in which coal was used as the reburning fuel. All test work was conducted at GE-EER's 1.0 MMBtu/hr Boiler Simulator Facility. Three test series were performed including AR-Lean, AR-Rich, and reburning + SNCR. Tests demonstrated that over 90% NO{sub x} reduction could be achieved with utilization of coal as a reburning fuel in SGAR. The most effective SGAR variant is reburning + SNCR followed by AR-Lean and AR-Rich.

  11. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Pete M. Maly

    2000-03-31

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) which has the potential to achieve 90+ NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than Selective Catalytic Reduction. The tenth reporting period in Phase II (January 1-March 31, 2000) included proof-of concept tests in the 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr Tower Furnace. Several variants of Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) were studied, including AR-Lean, AR-Rich, reburning + SNCR, and Multiple Injection Advanced Reburning (MIAR). Tests demonstrated that the SGAR performance was the most effective under MIAR conditions achieving maximum overall NO{sub x} reduction of 96%.

  12. Electron Beam Technology for Environmental Pollution Control.

    PubMed

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G; Han, Bumsoo

    2016-10-01

    Worldwide, there are over 1700 electron beam (EB) units in commercial use, providing an estimated added value to numerous products, amounting to 100 billion USD or more. High-current electron accelerators are used in diverse industries to enhance the physical and chemical properties of materials and to reduce undesirable contaminants such as pathogens, toxic byproducts, or emissions. Over the past few decades, EB technologies have been developed aimed at ensuring the safety of gaseous and liquid effluents discharged to the environment. It has been demonstrated that EB technologies for flue gas treatment (SO x and NO x removal), wastewater purification, and sludge hygienization can be effectively deployed to mitigate environmental degradation. Recently, extensive work has been carried out on the use of EB for environmental remediation, which also includes the removal of emerging contaminants such as VOCs, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), and potential EDCs.

  13. Navy electroplating pollution control technology assessment manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cushnie, G. C., Jr.

    1984-02-01

    The report provides information on more than 27 separate technologies encompassing conventional treatment, alternate treatment, material recovery techniques and processes and new plating bath formulations. In addition, the incorporation of a section on in-plant process changes enhances the usefulness of the product in that it highlights noncapital-intensive changes to current practices and/or processes that may have significant bearing on reducing overall chemical and water usage costs as well as consequent wastewater treatment needs and disposal costs. This document was prepared as a joint Air Force-Navy effort. It is intended to serve as a guide for technical personnel making decisions on an appropriate means of meeting effluent limits. The selection of any of the described technologies should be done only after a rigorous identification of site requirements has been performed.

  14. Electron Beam Technology for Environmental Pollution Control.

    PubMed

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G; Han, Bumsoo

    2016-10-01

    Worldwide, there are over 1700 electron beam (EB) units in commercial use, providing an estimated added value to numerous products, amounting to 100 billion USD or more. High-current electron accelerators are used in diverse industries to enhance the physical and chemical properties of materials and to reduce undesirable contaminants such as pathogens, toxic byproducts, or emissions. Over the past few decades, EB technologies have been developed aimed at ensuring the safety of gaseous and liquid effluents discharged to the environment. It has been demonstrated that EB technologies for flue gas treatment (SO x and NO x removal), wastewater purification, and sludge hygienization can be effectively deployed to mitigate environmental degradation. Recently, extensive work has been carried out on the use of EB for environmental remediation, which also includes the removal of emerging contaminants such as VOCs, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), and potential EDCs. PMID:27620188

  15. Energy efficient glazing for adaptive solar control fabricated with photothermotropic hydrogels containing graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dowan; Lee, Eunsu; Lee, Heon Sang; Yoon, Jinhwan

    2015-01-06

    Glazing for adaptive solar control is the most promising for energy efficient development, because the use of this technology in buildings can be expected to significantly impact energy use and efficiency by screening sunlight that enters a building in summer. To achieve autonomous adjustable transparency, we have developed photothermotropic material system by combining photothermal materials with thermotropic hydrogels. We found that graphene oxide dispersed within a hydrogel matrix effectively converts the photo energy of sunlight into thermal energy, providing the efficient means to trigger transparency of thermotropic hydrogels. Therefore, we could develop switchable glazing of novel photothermotropic mechanism that screen strong sunlight and heat radiation in response to the sunlight intensity, as well as the temperature. Furthermore, in this study, a prototype device was manufactured with developed materials and successfully operated in outdoor testing.

  16. Energy Efficient Glazing for Adaptive Solar Control Fabricated with Photothermotropic Hydrogels Containing Graphene Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dowan; Lee, Eunsu; Lee, Heon Sang; Yoon, Jinhwan

    2015-01-01

    Glazing for adaptive solar control is the most promising for energy efficient development, because the use of this technology in buildings can be expected to significantly impact energy use and efficiency by screening sunlight that enters a building in summer. To achieve autonomous adjustable transparency, we have developed photothermotropic material system by combining photothermal materials with thermotropic hydrogels. We found that graphene oxide dispersed within a hydrogel matrix effectively converts the photo energy of sunlight into thermal energy, providing the efficient means to trigger transparency of thermotropic hydrogels. Therefore, we could develop switchable glazing of novel photothermotropic mechanism that screen strong sunlight and heat radiation in response to the sunlight intensity, as well as the temperature. Furthermore, in this study, a prototype device was manufactured with developed materials and successfully operated in outdoor testing. PMID:25561372

  17. Hazards Control Department annual technology review, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, R.V.; Anderson, K.J.

    1988-07-01

    This document describes some of the research performed in the LLNL Hazards Control Department from October 1986 to September 1987. The sections in the Annual report cover scientific concerns in the areas of Health Physics, Industrial Hygiene, Industrial Safety, Aerosol Science, Resource Management, Dosimetry and Radiation Physics, Criticality Safety, and Fire Science. For a broader overview of the types of work performed in the Hazards Control Department, we have also compiled a selection of abstracts of recent publications by Hazards Control employees. Individual reports are processed separately for the data base.

  18. CERAMIC MEMBRANE ENABLING TECHNOLOGY FOR IMPROVED IGCC EFFICIENCY

    SciTech Connect

    Ravi Prasad

    2003-03-01

    The objectives of the first year of phase 2 of the program are to construct and operate an engineering pilot reactor for OTM oxygen. Work to support this objective is being undertaken in the following areas in this quarter: Element reliability; Element fabrication; Systems technology; Power recovery; and IGCC process analysis and economics. The major accomplishments this quarter were: (1) Methods to improve the strength and stability of PSO1x were identified. (2) The O1 reactor was operated at target flux and target purity for 1000 hours. This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for Phase 2 Program during the quarter October to December 2002. In task 1 improvements to PSO1x have shown increased performance in strength and stability. In task 2, PSO1d and PSO1x elements have been fabricated for testing in the pilot reactor. In task 3, the lab-scale pilot reactor has been operated for 1000 hours. In task 6 initial power recovery simulation has begun. In task 7, HYSIS models have been developed to optimize the process for a future demonstration unit.

  19. CERAMIC MEMBRANE ENABLING TECHNOLOGY FOR IMPROVED IGCC EFFICIENCY

    SciTech Connect

    Ravi Prasad

    2003-11-01

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for Phase 2 Program during the quarter July to September 2003. In task 1 OTM development has led to improved strength and composite design. In task 2, the manufacture of robust PSO1d elements has been scaled up. In task 3, operational improvements in the lab-scale pilot reactor have reduced turn-around time and increased product purity. In task 7, economic models show substantial benefit of OTM IGCC over CRYO based oxygen production. The objectives of the first year of phase 2 of the program are to construct and operate an engineering pilot reactor for OTM oxygen. Work to support this objective is being undertaken in the following areas in this quarter: Element reliability; Element fabrication; Systems technology; Power recovery; and IGCC process analysis and economics. The major accomplishments this quarter were Element production at Praxair's manufacturing facility is being scaled up and Substantial improvements to the OTM high temperature strength have been made.

  20. Micro-Optic Color Separation Technology for Efficient Projection Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunning, W. J.; Boehmer, E.

    1997-01-01

    Phase 1 of this project focused on development of an overall optical concept which incorporated a single liquid crystal spatial light modulator. The system achieved full color by utilizing an echelon grating, which diffracted the incident light into three orders with different color spectra, in combination with a microlens array, which spatially separated RGB bands and directed the light of the appropriate wavelength to the appropriate color dot. Preliminary echelon grating designs were provided by MIT/LL and reviewed by Rockwell. Additional Rockwell activities included the Identification of microlens designs, light sources (ILC), and projection optics to fulfill the overall design requirements. An Internal subcontract was established with Rockwell's Collins Avionics and Communications Division (CACD) which specified the liquid crystal SLM (Sharp Model No. LQ 46EO2) and built the projection display baseline projector. Full Color projected video images were produced and shown at the 1995 HDS meeting in Washington. Analysis of the luminance performance of the projector and detailed parameter trade studies helped define the dependence of overall display efficiency on lamp collimation, and indicated that a lamp with very small arc dimension is required for the optical concept to be viable.

  1. Load Reduction, Demand Response and Energy Efficient Technologies and Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Paul A.; Parker, Graham B.; Hatley, Darrel D.

    2008-11-19

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by the DOE Office of Electricity (OE) to recommend load reduction and grid integration strategies, and identify additional demand response (energy efficiency/conservation opportunities) and strategies at the Forest City Housing (FCH) redevelopment at Pearl Harbor and the Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) at Kaneohe Bay. The goal was to provide FCH staff a path forward to manage their electricity load and thus reduce costs at these FCH family housing developments. The initial focus of the work was at the MCBH given the MCBH has a demand-ratchet tariff, relatively high demand (~18 MW) and a commensurate high blended electricity rate (26 cents/kWh). The peak demand for MCBH occurs in July-August. And, on average, family housing at MCBH contributes ~36% to the MCBH total energy consumption. Thus, a significant load reduction in family housing can have a considerable impact on the overall site load. Based on a site visit to the MCBH and meetings with MCBH installation, FCH, and Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) staff, recommended actions (including a "smart grid" recommendation) that can be undertaken by FCH to manage and reduce peak-demand in family housing are made. Recommendations are also made to reduce overall energy consumption, and thus reduce demand in FCH family housing.

  2. Industrial Technologies Program - A Clean, Secure Energy Future via Industrial Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    2010-05-01

    The Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) leads the national effort to save energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the largest energy-using sector of the U.S. economy. ITP drives energy efficiency improvements and carbon dioxide reductions throughout the manufacturing supply chain, helping develop and deploy innovative technologies that transform the way industry uses energy.

  3. Efficiency enhancement of liquid crystal projection displays using light recycle technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Y.

    2002-01-01

    A new technology developed at JPL using low absorption color filters with polarization and color recycle system, is able to enhance efficiency of a single panel liquid crytal display (LCD) projector to the same efficiency of a 3 panel LCD projector.

  4. Energy from Waste--clean, efficient, renewable: transitions in combustion efficiency and NOx control.

    PubMed

    Waldner, M H; Halter, R; Sigg, A; Brosch, B; Gehrmann, H J; Keunecke, M

    2013-02-01

    Traditionally EfW (Energy from Waste) plants apply a reciprocating grate to combust waste fuel. An integrated steam generator recovers the heat of combustion and converts it to steam for use in a steam turbine/generator set. This is followed by an array of flue gas cleaning technologies to meet regulatory limitations. Modern combustion applies a two-step method using primary air to fuel the combustion process on the grate. This generates a complex mixture of pyrolysis gases, combustion gases and unused combustion air. The post-combustion step in the first pass of the boiler above the grate is intended to "clean up" this mixture by oxidizing unburned gases with secondary air. This paper describes modifications to the combustion process to minimize exhaust gas volumes and the generation of noxious gases and thus improving the overall thermal efficiency of the EfW plant. The resulting process can be coupled with an innovative SNCR (Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction) technology to form a clean and efficient solid waste combustion system. Measurements immediately above the grate show that gas compositions along the grate vary from 10% CO, 5% H(2) and 0% O(2) to essentially unused "pure" air, in good agreement with results from a mathematical model. Introducing these diverse gas compositions to the post combustion process will overwhelm its ability to process all these gas fractions in an optimal manner. Inserting an intermediate step aimed at homogenizing the mixture above the grate has shown to significantly improve the quality of combustion, allowing for optimized process parameters. These measures also resulted in reduced formation of NO(x) (nitrogenous oxides) due to a lower oxygen level at which the combustion process was run (2.6 vol% O(2,)(wet) instead of 6.0 vol% O(2,)(wet)). This reduction establishes optimal conditions for the DyNOR™ (Dynamic NO(x) Reduction) NO(x) reduction process. This innovative SNCR technology is adapted to situations typically

  5. Energy from Waste--clean, efficient, renewable: transitions in combustion efficiency and NOx control.

    PubMed

    Waldner, M H; Halter, R; Sigg, A; Brosch, B; Gehrmann, H J; Keunecke, M

    2013-02-01

    Traditionally EfW (Energy from Waste) plants apply a reciprocating grate to combust waste fuel. An integrated steam generator recovers the heat of combustion and converts it to steam for use in a steam turbine/generator set. This is followed by an array of flue gas cleaning technologies to meet regulatory limitations. Modern combustion applies a two-step method using primary air to fuel the combustion process on the grate. This generates a complex mixture of pyrolysis gases, combustion gases and unused combustion air. The post-combustion step in the first pass of the boiler above the grate is intended to "clean up" this mixture by oxidizing unburned gases with secondary air. This paper describes modifications to the combustion process to minimize exhaust gas volumes and the generation of noxious gases and thus improving the overall thermal efficiency of the EfW plant. The resulting process can be coupled with an innovative SNCR (Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction) technology to form a clean and efficient solid waste combustion system. Measurements immediately above the grate show that gas compositions along the grate vary from 10% CO, 5% H(2) and 0% O(2) to essentially unused "pure" air, in good agreement with results from a mathematical model. Introducing these diverse gas compositions to the post combustion process will overwhelm its ability to process all these gas fractions in an optimal manner. Inserting an intermediate step aimed at homogenizing the mixture above the grate has shown to significantly improve the quality of combustion, allowing for optimized process parameters. These measures also resulted in reduced formation of NO(x) (nitrogenous oxides) due to a lower oxygen level at which the combustion process was run (2.6 vol% O(2,)(wet) instead of 6.0 vol% O(2,)(wet)). This reduction establishes optimal conditions for the DyNOR™ (Dynamic NO(x) Reduction) NO(x) reduction process. This innovative SNCR technology is adapted to situations typically

  6. A natural basis for efficient brain-actuated control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makeig, S.; Enghoff, S.; Jung, T. P.; Sejnowski, T. J.

    2000-01-01

    The prospect of noninvasive brain-actuated control of computerized screen displays or locomotive devices is of interest to many and of crucial importance to a few 'locked-in' subjects who experience near total motor paralysis while retaining sensory and mental faculties. Currently several groups are attempting to achieve brain-actuated control of screen displays using operant conditioning of particular features of the spontaneous scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) including central mu-rhythms (9-12 Hz). A new EEG decomposition technique, independent component analysis (ICA), appears to be a foundation for new research in the design of systems for detection and operant control of endogenous EEG rhythms to achieve flexible EEG-based communication. ICA separates multichannel EEG data into spatially static and temporally independent components including separate components accounting for posterior alpha rhythms and central mu activities. We demonstrate using data from a visual selective attention task that ICA-derived mu-components can show much stronger spectral reactivity to motor events than activity measures for single scalp channels. ICA decompositions of spontaneous EEG would thus appear to form a natural basis for operant conditioning to achieve efficient and multidimensional brain-actuated control in motor-limited and locked-in subjects.

  7. Attitude Control Subsystem for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewston, Alan W.; Mitchell, Kent A.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the on-orbit operation of the Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). The three ACTS control axes are defined, including the means for sensing attitude and determining the pointing errors. The desired pointing requirements for various modes of control as well as the disturbance torques that oppose the control are identified. Finally, the hardware actuators and control loops utilized to reduce the attitude error are described.

  8. ULTRA HIGH EFFICIENCY ESP DEVELOPMENT FOR AIR TOXICS CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    David K. Anderson

    1999-11-01

    Because more than 90 percent of U.S. coal-fired utility boilers are equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), retrofitable ESP technologies represent a logical approach towards achieving the Department of Energy's (DOE) goal of a major reduction in fine particulate and mercury emissions (air toxics) from coal based power systems. EPA's recent issuance of significantly tightened ambient air standards for particles smaller than 2.5 {micro}m (PM{sub 2.5}) creates a new urgency for developing cost-effective means to control fine particulate emissions. This challenge is compounded by the on-going switch in the utility industry to low-sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) coals, that generate higher resistivity and difficult-to-collect fly ash. Particulate emissions can increase by a factor of ten when a utility switches to a low-sulfur coal. Numerous power plants are presently limited in operation by the inability of their ESPs to control opacity at high loads. In Phase I of this program, ABB investigated five technologies to improve the collection of fine particulate and trace metals in ESPs. These included: (1) flue-gas cooling, (2) flue-gas humidification, (3) pulsed energization, (4) wet ESP and precharger modules, and (5) sorbent injection for mercury control. Tests were conducted with an Eastern bituminous coal and a Powder River Basin sub-bituminous low-sulfur coal in an integrated pilot-scale combustor and ESP test facility. The impacts of the different retrofit technologies on ESP performance, individually and in combination, were evaluated indepth through advanced sampling and measurement techniques. In Phase II, the most promising concepts identified from Phase I testing, flue-gas cooling and humidification, pulsed energization, and sorbent injection at low flue-gas temperatures for mercury control, were integrated into a commercially oriented sub-scale system for field testing at Commonwealth Edison's Waukegan Unit No. 8. The main objective of the proposed

  9. Control system renewal for efficient operation in RIKEN 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, A.; Ozeki, K.; Higurashi, Y.; Kidera, M.; Komiyama, M.; Nakagawa, T.

    2016-02-01

    A RIKEN 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (18 GHz ECRIS) is used as an external ion source at the Radioactive Ion Beam Factory (RIBF) accelerator complex to produce an intense beam of medium-mass heavy ions (e.g., Ca and Ar). In most components that comprise the RIBF, the control systems (CSs) are integrated by the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). On the other hand, a non-EPICS-based system has hardwired controllers, and it is used in the 18 GHz ECRIS CS as an independent system. In terms of efficient and effective operation, the 18 GHz ECRIS CS as well as the RIBF CS should be renewed using EPICS. Therefore, we constructed an 18 GHz ECRIS CS by using programmable logic controllers with embedded EPICS technology. In the renewed system, an operational log system was developed as a new feature, for supporting of the 18 GHz ECRIS operation.

  10. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies Technical Program Plan for 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Hallbert, Bruce; Thomas, Ken

    2014-09-01

    Reliable instrumentation, information, and control (II&C) systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration.

  11. Environmental control technology for atmospheric carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M; Albanese, A S

    1980-01-01

    The impact of fossil fuel use in the United States on worldwide CO/sub 2/ emissions and the impact of increased coal utilization on CO/sub 2/ emission rates are assessed. The aspects of CO/sub 2/ control are discussed as well as the available CO/sub 2/ control points (CO/sub 2/ removal sites). Two control scenarios are evaluated, one based on the absorption of CO/sub 2/ contained in power plant flue gas by seawater; the other, based on absorption of CO/sub 2/ by MEA (Mono Ethanol Amine). Captured CO/sub 2/ is injected into the deep ocean in both cases. The analyses indicate that capture and disposal by seawater is energetically not feasible, whereas capture and disposal using MEA is a possibility. However, the economic penalities of CO/sub 2/ control are significant. The use of non-fossil energy sources, such as hydroelectric, nuclear or solar energy is considered as an alternative for limiting and controlling CO/sub 2/ emissions resulting from fossil energy usage.

  12. High heralding-efficiency of near-IR fiber coupled photon pairs for quantum technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, P. Ben; Murphy, Ryan; Rosenberg, Danna; Grein, Matthew E.; Stelmakh, Veronika; Bennink, Ryan S; Wong, Franco N. C.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the development and use of a high heralding-efficiency, single-mode-fiber coupled telecom-band source of entangled photons for quantum technology applications. The source development efforts consisted of theoretical and experimental efforts and we demonstrated a correlated-mode coupling efficiency of 97% 2%, the highest efficiency yet achieved for this type of system. We then incorporated these beneficial source development techniques in a Sagnac configured telecom-band entangled photon source that generates photon pairs entangled in both time/energy and polarization degrees of freedom. We made use of these highly desirable entangled states to investigate several promising quantum technologies.

  13. Configurable technology development for reusable control and monitor ground systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uhrlaub, David R.

    1994-01-01

    The control monitor unit (CMU) uses configurable software technology for real-time mission command and control, telemetry processing, simulation, data acquisition, data archiving, and ground operations automation. The base technology is currently planned for the following control and monitor systems: portable Space Station checkout systems; ecological life support systems; Space Station logistics carrier system; and the ground system of the Delta Clipper (SX-2) in the Single-Stage Rocket Technology program. The CMU makes extensive use of commercial technology to increase capability and reduce development and life-cycle costs. The concepts and technology are being developed by McDonnell Douglas Space and Defense Systems for the Real-Time Systems Laboratory at NASA's Kennedy Space Center under the Payload Ground Operations Contract. A second function of the Real-Time Systems Laboratory is development and utilization of advanced software development practices.

  14. Technology Of Controlled-Environment Agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Bates, Maynard E.

    1995-01-01

    Report discusses controlled-environment agriculture (CEA) for commercial production of organisms, whether plants or animals. Practiced in greenhouses to produce food on nonarable lands. Describes conceptual regenerative system that incorporates biological, physical, and chemical processes to support humans in extraterrestrial environments.

  15. 40 CFR 51.1010 - Requirements for reasonably available control technology (RACT) and reasonably available control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology (RACT) and reasonably available control measures (RACM). 51.1010 Section 51.1010... PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1010 Requirements for reasonably available control technology...

  16. A novel simultaneous diffusion technology for low-cost, high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krygowski, Thomas Wendell

    Crystalline silicon solar cells account for ˜80% of the modules produced today, and clearly represent the dominant technology for terrestrial photovoltaics applications. In the present work, a novel processing technology was developed to simultaneously diffuse a phosphorus (nsp+) emitter, a boron (psp+) Back Surface Field (BSF), and grow a thin passivating thermal oxide in-situ, for the production of high efficiency nsp+ppsp+ silicon solar cells in a single thermal cycle. This novel processing technology uses dummy silicon wafers coated with Boron (B) and Phosphorus (P) spin-on dopant films as planar doping sources. These homemade B and P sources are interleaved with the solar cell wafers to simultaneously form nsp+ emitter and psp+ BSF diffusions on opposite sides of a silicon wafer. It is shown that the surface concentration of boron and phosphorus can be independently tailored within a fixed thermal budget by controlling the B and P concentration in the Spin-On Dopant (SOD) films. Since the residual diffusion glass is only 50-75 A, a passivating thermal oxide is grown in-situ to provide surface passivation without degrading the anti-reflection coating properties. The passivating quality of the in-situ oxide is shown through reverse saturation current density (Jsbo) measurements to be comparable to a regrown thermal oxide, resulting in Jsbo values in the low 100 fA/cmsp2 range. In addition, by using separate doping sources, impurities in the SOD films remain in the source wafers, producing minority carrier lifetimes in excess of 1 ms on the sample wafers, and efficiency improvements of as much as 28%. Using optimal B and P diffusion profiles, in-situ oxide surface passivation, and high bulk lifetimes resulting from impurity filtering, three generations of solar cells have been fabricated with efficiencies as high as 20.3%, using only one high-temperature furnace step and standard photolithography techniques. A model is presented to explain several attributes of

  17. Efficient mission control for the 48-satellite Globalstar Constellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Dan

    1994-11-01

    The Globalstar system is being developed by Globalstar, Limited Partnership and will utilize 48 satellites in low earth orbit (See Figure 1) to create a world-wide mobile communications system consistent with Vice President Gore's vision of a Global Information Infrastructure. As a large long term commercial system developed by a newly formed organization, Globalstar provides an excellent opportunity to explore innovative solutions for highly efficient satellite command and control. Design and operational concepts being developed are unencumbered by existing physical and organizational infrastructures. This program really is 'starting with a clean sheet of paper'. Globalstar operations challenges can appear enormous. Clearly, assigning even a single person around the clock to monitor and control each satellite is excessive for Globalstar (it would require a staff of 200] . Even with only a single contact per orbit per satellite, data acquisitions will start or stop every 45 seconds] Although essentially identical, over time the satellites will develop their own 'personalities'and will re quire different data calibrations and levels of support. This paper discusses the Globalstar system and challenges and presents engineering concepts, system design decisions, and operations concepts which address the combined needs and concerns of satellite, ground system, and operations teams. Lessons from past missions have been applied, organizational barriers broken, partnerships formed across the mission segments, and new operations concepts developed for satellite constellation management. Control center requirements were then developed from the operations concepts.

  18. Efficient mission control for the 48-satellite Globalstar Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Dan

    1994-01-01

    The Globalstar system is being developed by Globalstar, Limited Partnership and will utilize 48 satellites in low earth orbit (See Figure 1) to create a world-wide mobile communications system consistent with Vice President Gore's vision of a Global Information Infrastructure. As a large long term commercial system developed by a newly formed organization, Globalstar provides an excellent opportunity to explore innovative solutions for highly efficient satellite command and control. Design and operational concepts being developed are unencumbered by existing physical and organizational infrastructures. This program really is 'starting with a clean sheet of paper'. Globalstar operations challenges can appear enormous. Clearly, assigning even a single person around the clock to monitor and control each satellite is excessive for Globalstar (it would require a staff of 200! . Even with only a single contact per orbit per satellite, data acquisitions will start or stop every 45 seconds! Although essentially identical, over time the satellites will develop their own 'personalities'and will re quire different data calibrations and levels of support. This paper discusses the Globalstar system and challenges and presents engineering concepts, system design decisions, and operations concepts which address the combined needs and concerns of satellite, ground system, and operations teams. Lessons from past missions have been applied, organizational barriers broken, partnerships formed across the mission segments, and new operations concepts developed for satellite constellation management. Control center requirements were then developed from the operations concepts.

  19. Network Efficient Power Control for Wireless Communication Systems

    PubMed Central

    Campos-Delgado, Daniel U.; Luna-Rivera, Jose Martin; Martinez-Sánchez, C. J.; Gutierrez, Carlos A.; Tecpanecatl-Xihuitl, J. L.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a two-loop power control that allows an efficient use of the overall power resources for commercial wireless networks based on cross-layer optimization. This approach maximizes the network's utility in the outer-loop as a function of the averaged signal to interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) by considering adaptively the changes in the network characteristics. For this purpose, the concavity property of the utility function was verified with respect to the SINR, and an iterative search was proposed with guaranteed convergence. In addition, the outer-loop is in charge of selecting the detector that minimizes the overall power consumption (transmission and detection). Next the inner-loop implements a feedback power control in order to achieve the optimal SINR in the transmissions despite channel variations and roundtrip delays. In our proposal, the utility maximization process and detector selection and feedback power control are decoupled problems, and as a result, these strategies are implemented at two different time scales in the two-loop framework. Simulation results show that substantial utility gains may be achieved by improving the power management in the wireless network. PMID:24683350

  20. Lifelong bilingualism maintains neural efficiency for cognitive control in aging.

    PubMed

    Gold, Brian T; Kim, Chobok; Johnson, Nathan F; Kryscio, Richard J; Smith, Charles D

    2013-01-01

    Recent behavioral data have shown that lifelong bilingualism can maintain youthful cognitive control abilities in aging. Here, we provide the first direct evidence of a neural basis for the bilingual cognitive control boost in aging. Two experiments were conducted, using a perceptual task-switching paradigm, including a total of 110 participants. In Experiment 1, older adult bilinguals showed better perceptual switching performance than their monolingual peers. In Experiment 2, younger and older adult monolinguals and bilinguals completed the same perceptual task-switching experiment while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed. Typical age-related performance reductions and fMRI activation increases were observed. However, like younger adults, bilingual older adults outperformed their monolingual peers while displaying decreased activation in left lateral frontal cortex and cingulate cortex. Critically, this attenuation of age-related over-recruitment associated with bilingualism was directly correlated with better task-switching performance. In addition, the lower blood oxygenation level-dependent response in frontal regions accounted for 82% of the variance in the bilingual task-switching reaction time advantage. These results suggest that lifelong bilingualism offsets age-related declines in the neural efficiency for cognitive control processes.

  1. NASA/DOD Controls-Structures Interaction Technology 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, Jerry R. (Compiler)

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this conference was to report to industry, academia, and government agencies on the current status of controls-structures interaction technology. The agenda covered ground testing, integrated design, analysis, flight experiments, and concepts.

  2. VERIFICATION TESTING OF AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY QUALITY MANAGEMENT PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is the basis for quality assurance for the Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center (APCT Center) operated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It describes the policies, organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, and qualit...

  3. Center of excellence for atomically controlled fabrication technology.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, Yuji; Saito, Akira; Arima, Kenta; Ohmi, Hiromasa

    2011-04-01

    This short review aims to show the introduction of the educational and research program of "Center of excellence of atomically controlled fabrication technology" supported ministry of education, culture, sports, science and technology--Japan. We would like to introduce research activity and a unique trait of educational system.

  4. Technology research for digital flight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carestia, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    The use of advanced digital systems for flight control and guidance for a specific mission is investigated. The research areas include advanced electronic system architectures, tests with the global positioning system (GPS) in a helicopter, and advanced integrated systems concept for rotorcraft. Emphasis is on a search and rescue mission, differential global positioning systems to provide a data base of performance information for navigation, and a study to determine the present usage and trends of microcomputers and microcomputer components in the avionics industries.

  5. Control technology for surface treatment of materials using induction hardening

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, J.B.; Skocypec, R.D.

    1997-04-01

    In the industrial and automotive industries, induction case hardening is widely used to provide enhanced strength, wear resistance, and toughness in components made from medium and high carbon steels. The process uses significantly less energy than competing batch process, is environmentally benign, and is a very flexible in-line manufacturing process. As such, it can directly contribute to improved component reliability, and the manufacture of high-performance lightweight parts. However, induction hardening is not as widely used as it could be. Input material and unexplained process variations produce significant variation in product case depth and quality. This necessitates frequent inspection of product quality by destructive examination, creates higher than desired scrap rates, and causes de-rating of load stress sensitive components. In addition, process and tooling development are experience-based activities, accomplished by trial and error. This inhibits the use of induction hardening for new applications, and the resultant increase in energy efficiency in the industrial sectors. In FY96, a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement under the auspices of the Technology Transfer Initiative and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles was completed. A multidisciplinary team from Sandia National Labs and Delphi Saginaw Steering Systems investigated the induction hardening by conducting research in the areas of process characterization, computational modeling, materials characterization, and high speed data acquisition and controller development. The goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of closed-loop control for a specific material, geometry, and process. Delphi Steering estimated annual savings of $2-3 million per year due to reduced scrap losses, inspection costs, and machine down time if reliable closed-loop control could be achieved. A factor of five improvement in process precision was demonstrated and is now operational on the factory floor.

  6. Electric Power Research Institute: Environmental Control Technology Center.

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the month involved the completion of the Clear Liquor Scrubbing with Anhydrite Production test block extension. Also, the test plan for July (Dry Sorbent Injection with the Carbon Injection System) was developed and reconfiguration activities were initiated. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit and the 0.4 MW Mini-Pilot Wet Scrubber remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly. These units remain available for testing as future project work is identified. In June 1997, the extension to the Anhydrite Production test block was completed. The extended Anhydrite test block was funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) after reviewing the promising results from the original test program. Both EPRI and the Department of Energy (DOE) funded the original PRDA test program as part of the DOE`s Advanced Power Systems Program, whose mission is to accelerate the commercialization of affordable, high-efficiency, low-emission, coal-fueled electric generating technologies. The project is designed to develop an advanced FGD process that produces a usable byproduct, anhydrite (anhydrous calcium sulfate). While the pilot portion of the Anhydrite PRDA project was conducted on the 4-MW wet FGD pilot unit at EPRI`s Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC) in Barker, New York, the extension testing mainly used the 0.4 MW wet FGD pilot unit to reduce operating costs. As discussed in previous progress reports, the original CLS/Anhydrite process included three steps: chloride removal, clear liquor scrubbing, and anhydrite production. The final step in the process involved sending the calcium sulfite slurry from the sludge bed reactor to the anhydrite reaction tank for conversion to anhydrous calcium sulfate (anhydrite). The original objective in the PRDA

  7. Electric Power Research Institute: environmental Control Technology Center.

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-04

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the month involved continued investigations into the Clear Liquor Scrubbing Process for the production of Anhydrous Calcium Sulfate (Anhydrite). The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit and the Carbon Injection System (the Pulse-jet Fabric Filter) remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly. From May 3-18, the NYSEG Kintigh Station and the ECTC were off-line for a two-week scheduled Station outage. During the ECTC outage, the major systems of the Center were inspected, and several preventive maintenance activities were completed. A listing of the major O&M outage activities completed during this period is presented in the Pilot/Mini-Pilot section of this report. In May 1997, an extension to the Anhydrite Production test block was started following the NYSEG outage. The extension to the Anhydrite Production test block is being funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) after promising results from the original test program. Both EPRI and the Department of Energy (DOE) funded the original test program as part of the DOE`s Advanced Power Systems Program, whose mission is to accelerate the commercialization of affordable, high- efficiency, low-emission, coal-fueled electric generating technologies. While the pilot portion of the Anhydrite project was conducted on the 4.0 MW wet FGD pilot unit at EPRI`s Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC) in Barker, New York, the extension mainly used the 0.4 MW Mini-Pilot wet FGD unit to reduce operating costs. The project is designed to develop an advanced FGD process that produces a useable byproduct, anhydrite (anhydrous calcium sulfate). The original CLS/Anhydrite process included three steps: chloride removal, clear liquor scrubbing, and anhydrite production. The final step in the process involved

  8. Analyzing the efficiency of small and medium-sized enterprises of a national technology innovation research and development program.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungmin

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the efficiency of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) of a national technology innovation research and development (R&D) program. In particular, an empirical analysis is presented that aims to answer the following question: "Is there a difference in the efficiency between R&D collaboration types and between government R&D subsidy sizes?" Methodologically, the efficiency of a government-sponsored R&D project (i.e., GSP) is measured by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), and a nonparametric analysis of variance method, the Kruskal-Wallis (KW) test is adopted to see if the efficiency differences between R&D collaboration types and between government R&D subsidy sizes are statistically significant. This study's major findings are as follows. First, contrary to our hypothesis, when we controlled the influence of government R&D subsidy size, there was no statistically significant difference in the efficiency between R&D collaboration types. However, the R&D collaboration type, "SME-University-Laboratory" Joint-Venture was superior to the others, achieving the largest median and the smallest interquartile range of DEA efficiency scores. Second, the differences in the efficiency were statistically significant between government R&D subsidy sizes, and the phenomenon of diseconomies of scale was identified on the whole. As the government R&D subsidy size increases, the central measures of DEA efficiency scores were reduced, but the dispersion measures rather tended to get larger. PMID:25120949

  9. Analyzing the efficiency of small and medium-sized enterprises of a national technology innovation research and development program.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungmin

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the efficiency of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) of a national technology innovation research and development (R&D) program. In particular, an empirical analysis is presented that aims to answer the following question: "Is there a difference in the efficiency between R&D collaboration types and between government R&D subsidy sizes?" Methodologically, the efficiency of a government-sponsored R&D project (i.e., GSP) is measured by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), and a nonparametric analysis of variance method, the Kruskal-Wallis (KW) test is adopted to see if the efficiency differences between R&D collaboration types and between government R&D subsidy sizes are statistically significant. This study's major findings are as follows. First, contrary to our hypothesis, when we controlled the influence of government R&D subsidy size, there was no statistically significant difference in the efficiency between R&D collaboration types. However, the R&D collaboration type, "SME-University-Laboratory" Joint-Venture was superior to the others, achieving the largest median and the smallest interquartile range of DEA efficiency scores. Second, the differences in the efficiency were statistically significant between government R&D subsidy sizes, and the phenomenon of diseconomies of scale was identified on the whole. As the government R&D subsidy size increases, the central measures of DEA efficiency scores were reduced, but the dispersion measures rather tended to get larger.

  10. Plant growth chamber based on space proven controlled environment technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignatius, Ronald W.; Ignatius, Matt H.; Imberti, Henry J.

    1997-01-01

    Quantum Devices, Inc., in conjunction with Percival Scientific, Inc., and the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR) have developed a controlled environment plant growth chamber for terrestrial agricultural and scientific applications. This chamber incorporates controlled environment technology used in the WCSAR ASTROCULTURE™ flight unit for conducting plant research on the Space Shuttle. The new chamber, termed CERES 2010, features air humidity, temperature, and carbon dioxide control, an atmospheric contaminant removal unit, an LED lighting system, and a water and nutrient delivery system. The advanced environment control technology used in this chamber will increase the reliability and repeatability of environmental physiology data derived from plant experiments conducted in this chamber.

  11. Development of Plant Control Diagnosis Technology and Increasing Its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugemoto, Hidekazu; Yoshimura, Satoshi; Hashizume, Satoru; Kageyama, Takashi; Yamamoto, Toru

    A plant control diagnosis technology was developed to improve the performance of plant-wide control and maintain high productivity of plants. The control performance diagnosis system containing this technology picks out the poor performance loop, analyzes the cause, and outputs the result on the Web page. Meanwhile, the PID tuning tool is used to tune extracted loops from the control performance diagnosis system. It has an advantage of tuning safely without process changes. These systems are powerful tools to do Kaizen (continuous improvement efforts) step by step, coordinating with the operator. This paper describes a practical technique regarding the diagnosis system and its industrial applications.

  12. Efficient model learning methods for actor-critic control.

    PubMed

    Grondman, Ivo; Vaandrager, Maarten; Buşoniu, Lucian; Babuska, Robert; Schuitema, Erik

    2012-06-01

    We propose two new actor-critic algorithms for reinforcement learning. Both algorithms use local linear regression (LLR) to learn approximations of the functions involved. A crucial feature of the algorithms is that they also learn a process model, and this, in combination with LLR, provides an efficient policy update for faster learning. The first algorithm uses a novel model-based update rule for the actor parameters. The second algorithm does not use an explicit actor but learns a reference model which represents a desired behavior, from which desired control actions can be calculated using the inverse of the learned process model. The two novel methods and a standard actor-critic algorithm are applied to the pendulum swing-up problem, in which the novel methods achieve faster learning than the standard algorithm. PMID:22156998

  13. Highly efficient and controllable method to fabricate ultrafine metallic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Hongbing; Zhang, Kun; Yu, Xinxin; Pan, Nan; Tian, Yangchao; Luo, Yi; Wang, Xiaoping

    2015-11-01

    We report a highly efficient, controllable and scalable method to fabricate various ultrafine metallic nanostructures in this paper. The method starts with the negative poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) resist pattern with line-width superior to 20 nm, which is obtained from overexposing of the conventionally positive PMMA under a low energy electron beam. The pattern is further shrunk to sub-10 nm line-width through reactive ion etching. Using the patter as a mask, we can fabricate various ultrafine metallic nanostructures with the line-width even less than 10 nm. This ion tailored mask lithography (ITML) method enriches the top-down fabrication strategy and provides potential opportunity for studying quantum effects in a variety of materials.

  14. Highly efficient and controllable method to fabricate ultrafine metallic nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Hongbing; Zhang, Kun; Pan, Nan E-mail: xpwang@ustc.edu.cn; Luo, Yi; Wang, Xiaoping E-mail: xpwang@ustc.edu.cn; Yu, Xinxin; Tian, Yangchao

    2015-11-15

    We report a highly efficient, controllable and scalable method to fabricate various ultrafine metallic nanostructures in this paper. The method starts with the negative poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) resist pattern with line-width superior to 20 nm, which is obtained from overexposing of the conventionally positive PMMA under a low energy electron beam. The pattern is further shrunk to sub-10 nm line-width through reactive ion etching. Using the patter as a mask, we can fabricate various ultrafine metallic nanostructures with the line-width even less than 10 nm. This ion tailored mask lithography (ITML) method enriches the top-down fabrication strategy and provides potential opportunity for studying quantum effects in a variety of materials.

  15. Highly Efficient Thermoresponsive Nanocomposite for Controlled Release Applications.

    PubMed

    Yassine, Omar; Zaher, Amir; Li, Er Qiang; Alfadhel, Ahmed; Perez, Jose E; Kavaldzhiev, Mincho; Contreras, Maria F; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T; Khashab, Niveen M; Kosel, Jurgen

    2016-01-01

    Highly efficient magnetic release from nanocomposite microparticles is shown, which are made of Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogel with embedded iron nanowires. A simple microfluidic technique was adopted to fabricate the microparticles with a high control of the nanowire concentration and in a relatively short time compared to chemical synthesis methods. The thermoresponsive microparticles were used for the remotely triggered release of Rhodamine (B). With a magnetic field of only 1 mT and 20 kHz a drug release of 6.5% and 70% was achieved in the continuous and pulsatile modes, respectively. Those release values are similar to the ones commonly obtained using superparamagnetic beads but accomplished with a magnetic field of five orders of magnitude lower power. The high efficiency is a result of the high remanent magnetization of the nanowires, which produce a large torque when exposed to a magnetic field. This causes the nanowires to vibrate, resulting in friction losses and heating. For comparison, microparticles with superparamagnetic beads were also fabricated and tested; while those worked at 73 mT and 600 kHz, no release was observed at the low field conditions. Cytotoxicity assays showed similar and high cell viability for microparticles with nanowires and beads. PMID:27335342

  16. Highly Efficient Thermoresponsive Nanocomposite for Controlled Release Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yassine, Omar; Zaher, Amir; Li, Er Qiang; Alfadhel, Ahmed; Perez, Jose E.; Kavaldzhiev, Mincho; Contreras, Maria F.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.; Khashab, Niveen M.; Kosel, Jurgen

    2016-06-01

    Highly efficient magnetic release from nanocomposite microparticles is shown, which are made of Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogel with embedded iron nanowires. A simple microfluidic technique was adopted to fabricate the microparticles with a high control of the nanowire concentration and in a relatively short time compared to chemical synthesis methods. The thermoresponsive microparticles were used for the remotely triggered release of Rhodamine (B). With a magnetic field of only 1 mT and 20 kHz a drug release of 6.5% and 70% was achieved in the continuous and pulsatile modes, respectively. Those release values are similar to the ones commonly obtained using superparamagnetic beads but accomplished with a magnetic field of five orders of magnitude lower power. The high efficiency is a result of the high remanent magnetization of the nanowires, which produce a large torque when exposed to a magnetic field. This causes the nanowires to vibrate, resulting in friction losses and heating. For comparison, microparticles with superparamagnetic beads were also fabricated and tested; while those worked at 73 mT and 600 kHz, no release was observed at the low field conditions. Cytotoxicity assays showed similar and high cell viability for microparticles with nanowires and beads.

  17. Highly Efficient Thermoresponsive Nanocomposite for Controlled Release Applications

    PubMed Central

    Yassine, Omar; Zaher, Amir; Li, Er Qiang; Alfadhel, Ahmed; Perez, Jose E.; Kavaldzhiev, Mincho; Contreras, Maria F.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.; Khashab, Niveen M.; Kosel, Jurgen

    2016-01-01

    Highly efficient magnetic release from nanocomposite microparticles is shown, which are made of Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogel with embedded iron nanowires. A simple microfluidic technique was adopted to fabricate the microparticles with a high control of the nanowire concentration and in a relatively short time compared to chemical synthesis methods. The thermoresponsive microparticles were used for the remotely triggered release of Rhodamine (B). With a magnetic field of only 1 mT and 20 kHz a drug release of 6.5% and 70% was achieved in the continuous and pulsatile modes, respectively. Those release values are similar to the ones commonly obtained using superparamagnetic beads but accomplished with a magnetic field of five orders of magnitude lower power. The high efficiency is a result of the high remanent magnetization of the nanowires, which produce a large torque when exposed to a magnetic field. This causes the nanowires to vibrate, resulting in friction losses and heating. For comparison, microparticles with superparamagnetic beads were also fabricated and tested; while those worked at 73 mT and 600 kHz, no release was observed at the low field conditions. Cytotoxicity assays showed similar and high cell viability for microparticles with nanowires and beads. PMID:27335342

  18. Energy-Efficient Context Classification With Dynamic Sensor Control

    PubMed Central

    Au, Lawrence K.; Bui, Alex A. T.; Batalin, Maxim A.; Kaiser, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Energy efficiency has been a longstanding design challenge for wearable sensor systems. It is especially crucial in continuous subject state monitoring due to the ongoing need for compact sizes and better sensors. This paper presents an energy-efficient classification algorithm, based on partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP). In every time step, POMDP dynamically selects sensors for classification via a sensor selection policy. The sensor selection problem is formalized as an optimization problem, where the objective is to minimize misclassification cost given some energy budget. State transitions are modeled as a hidden Markov model (HMM), and the corresponding sensor selection policy is represented using a finite-state controller (FSC). To evaluate this framework, sensor data were collected from multiple subjects in their free-living conditions. Relative accuracies and energy reductions from the proposed method are compared against naïve Bayes (always-on) and simple random strategies to validate the relative performance of the algorithm. When the objective is to maintain the same classification accuracy, significant energy reduction is achieved. PMID:23852981

  19. NOVEL TECHNOLOGIES FOR GASEOUS CONTAMINANTS CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    B.S. Turk; T. Merkel; A. Lopez-Ortiz; R.P. Gupta; J.W. Portzer; G.N. Krishnan; B.D. Freeman; G.K. Fleming

    2001-09-30

    The overall objective of this project is to develop technologies for cleaning/conditioning the syngas from an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) system to meet the tolerance limits for contaminants such as H{sub 2}S, COS, NH{sub 3}, HCN, HCl, and alkali for fuel cell and chemical production applications. RTI's approach is to develop a modular system that (1) removes reduced sulfur species to sub-ppm levels using a hybrid process consisting of a polymer membrane and a regenerable ZnO-coated monolith or a mixed metal oxide sorbent; (2) removes hydrogen chloride vapors to sub-ppm levels using an inexpensive, high-surface area material; and (3) removes NH{sub 3} with acidic adsorbents. RTI is working with MEDAL, Inc., and North Carolina State University (NCSU) to develop polymer membrane technology for bulk removal of H{sub 2}S from syngas. These membranes are being engineered to remove the acid gas components (H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, and H{sub 2}O) from syngas by focusing on the ''solubility selectivity'' of the novel polymer compositions. The desirable components of the syngas (H{sub 2} and CO) are maintained at high-pressure conditions as a non-permeate stream while the impurities are transported across the membrane to the low pressure side. RTI tested commercially available and novel materials from MEDAL using a high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) permeation apparatus. H{sub 2}S/H{sub 2} selectivities >30 were achieved, although there was a strong negative dependence with temperature. MEDAL believes that all the polymer compositions tested so far can be prepared as hollow fiber membrane modules using the existing manufacturing technology. For fuel cell and chemical applications, additional sulfur removal (beyond that achievable with the membranes) is required. To overcome limitations of conventional ZnO pellets, RTI is testing a monolith with a thin coating of high surface area zinc-oxide based materials. Alternatively, a regenerable sorbent

  20. Combined Heat and Power Systems Technology Development and Demonstration 370 kW High Efficiency Microturbine

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2015-10-14

    The C370 Program was awarded in October 2010 with the ambitious goal of designing and testing the most electrically efficient recuperated microturbine engine at a rated power of less than 500 kW. The aggressive targets for electrical efficiency, emission regulatory compliance, and the estimated price point make the system state-of-the-art for microturbine engine systems. These goals will be met by designing a two stage microturbine engine identified as the low pressure spool and high pressure spool that are based on derivative hardware of Capstone’s current commercially available engines. The development and testing of the engine occurred in two phases. Phase I focused on developing a higher power and more efficient engine, that would become the low pressure spool which is based on Capstone’s C200 (200kW) engine architecture. Phase II integrated the low pressure spool created in Phase I with the high pressure spool, which is based on Capstone’s C65 (65 kW) commercially available engine. Integration of the engines, based on preliminary research, would allow the dual spool engine to provide electrical power in excess of 370 kW, with electrical efficiency approaching 42%. If both of these targets were met coupled with the overall CHP target of 85% total combined heating and electrical efficiency California Air Resources Board (CARB) level emissions, and a price target of $600 per kW, the system would represent a step change in the currently available commercial generation technology. Phase I of the C370 program required the development of the C370 low pressure spool. The goal was to increase the C200 engine power by a minimum of 25% — 250 kW — and efficiency from 32% to 37%. These increases in the C200 engine output were imperative to meet the power requirements of the engine when both spools were integrated. An additional benefit of designing and testing the C370 low pressure spool was the possibility of developing a stand-alone product for possible

  1. Control of binder viscosity and hygroscopicity on particle aggregation efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Sebastian B.; Kueppers, Ulrich; Ayris, Paul M.; Jacob, Michael; Delmelle, Pierre; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-04-01

    In the course of explosive volcanic eruptions, large amounts of ash are released into the atmosphere and may subsequently pose a threat to infrastructure, such as aviation industry. Ash plume forecasting is therefore a crucial tool for volcanic hazard mitigation but may be significantly affected by aggregation, altering the aerodynamic properties of particles. Models struggle with the implementation of aggregation since external conditions promoting aggregation have not been completely understood; in a previous study we have shown the rapid generation of ash aggregates through liquid bonding via the use of fluidization bed technology and further defined humidity and temperature ranges necessary to trigger aggregation. Salt (NaCl) was required for the recovery of stable aggregates, acting as a cementation agent and granting aggregate cohesion. A numerical model was used to explain the physics behind particle aggregation mechanisms and further predicted a dependency of aggregation efficiency on liquid binder viscosity. In this study we proof the effect of viscosity on particle aggregation. HCl and H2SO4 solutions were diluted to various concentrations resulting in viscosities between 1 and 2 mPas. Phonolitic and rhyolitic ash samples as well as soda-lime glass beads (serving as analogue material) were fluidized in the ProCell Lab® of Glatt Ingenieurtechnik GmbH and treated with the acids via a bottom-spray technique. Chemically driven interaction between acid liquids and surfaces of the three used materials led to crystal precipitation. Salt crystals (e.g. NaCl) have been confirmed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and leachate analysis. Both volcanic ash samples as well as the glass beads showed a clear dependency of aggregation efficiency on viscosity of the sprayed HCl solution. Spraying H2SO4 provoked a collapse of the fluidized bed and no aggregation has been observed. This is accounted by the high hygroscopicity of H2SO4. Dissolving CaCl2 (known to be

  2. Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology 1980. High Efficiency, Radiation Damage and Blanket Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The application of silicon solar cells are discussed with respect to their importance in the exploration of space. Several aspects of the technology associated with the development of photovoltaic devices are reported.

  3. Energy-efficient technologies for point-to-point fiber access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ka-Lun; Li, Jie; Chan, Chien Aun; Anthapadmanabhan, N. Prasanth; Chow, Hungkei (Keith)

    2015-12-01

    This article discusses the fundamental issues and the technologies to achieve an energy-efficient Gigabit-Ethernet point-to-point (PtP) fiber access network. To minimize the power consumption of PtP fiber access for long-term development, it is essential to optimize each of the network components such as optical transceiver, user network interface, Ethernet aggregator and also their modes of operation. Our analysis shows that the energy consumption of a PtP fiber access network using our proposed technologies can be up to 7.5 times lower than that of the 2010 technologies when a combination of appropriate technologies is applied.

  4. Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology 1983. High Efficiency, Radiation Damage, and Blanket Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    This three day conference, sixth in a series that began in 1974, was held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on October 18-20, 1983. The conference provided a forum for the discussion of space photovoltaic systems, their research status, and program goals. Papers were presented and workshops were held in a variety of technology areas, including basic cell research, advanced blanket technology, and radiation damage.

  5. Applications of aerospace technology in industry, a technology transfer profile: Contamination control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The strong influence NASA-sponsored research has had on the development of solutions to difficult contamination problems is considered. The contamination control field is comprised of an industrial base, supplying the tools of control; a user base, adopting control techniques; and a technical base, expanding the concepts of control. Both formal and informal mechanisms used by NASA to communicate a variety of technical advances are reviewed and certain examples of the expansion of the user base through technology transfer are given. Issues related to transfer of NASA-generated contamination control technology are emphasized.

  6. Foreign technology summary of flight crucial flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rediess, H. A.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of foreign technology in flight crucial flight controls is being conducted to provide a data base for planning future research and technology programs. Only Free World countries were surveyed, and the primary emphasis was on Western Europe because that is where the most advanced technology resides. The survey includes major contemporary systems on operational aircraft, R&D flight programs, advanced aircraft developments, and major research and technology programs. The information was collected from open literature, personal communications, and a tour of several companies, government organizations, and research laboratories in the United Kingdom, France, and the Federal Republic of Germany. A summary of the survey results to date is presented.

  7. Integrated Tools for Future Distributed Engine Control Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culley, Dennis; Thomas, Randy; Saus, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Turbine engines are highly complex mechanical systems that are becoming increasingly dependent on control technologies to achieve system performance and safety metrics. However, the contribution of controls to these measurable system objectives is difficult to quantify due to a lack of tools capable of informing the decision makers. This shortcoming hinders technology insertion in the engine design process. NASA Glenn Research Center is developing a Hardware-inthe- Loop (HIL) platform and analysis tool set that will serve as a focal point for new control technologies, especially those related to the hardware development and integration of distributed engine control. The HIL platform is intended to enable rapid and detailed evaluation of new engine control applications, from conceptual design through hardware development, in order to quantify their impact on engine systems. This paper discusses the complex interactions of the control system, within the context of the larger engine system, and how new control technologies are changing that paradigm. The conceptual design of the new HIL platform is then described as a primary tool to address those interactions and how it will help feed the insertion of new technologies into future engine systems.

  8. Sec16 alternative splicing dynamically controls COPII transport efficiency.

    PubMed

    Wilhelmi, Ilka; Kanski, Regina; Neumann, Alexander; Herdt, Olga; Hoff, Florian; Jacob, Ralf; Preußner, Marco; Heyd, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The transport of secretory proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi depends on COPII-coated vesicles. While the basic principles of the COPII machinery have been identified, it remains largely unknown how COPII transport is regulated to accommodate tissue- or activation-specific differences in cargo load and identity. Here we show that activation-induced alternative splicing of Sec16 controls adaptation of COPII transport to increased secretory cargo upon T-cell activation. Using splice-site blocking morpholinos and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering, we show that the number of ER exit sites, COPII dynamics and transport efficiency depend on Sec16 alternative splicing. As the mechanistic basis, we suggest the C-terminal Sec16 domain to be a splicing-controlled protein interaction platform, with individual isoforms showing differential abilities to recruit COPII components. Our work connects the COPII pathway with alternative splicing, adding a new regulatory layer to protein secretion and its adaptation to changing cellular environments. PMID:27492621

  9. Sec16 alternative splicing dynamically controls COPII transport efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelmi, Ilka; Kanski, Regina; Neumann, Alexander; Herdt, Olga; Hoff, Florian; Jacob, Ralf; Preußner, Marco; Heyd, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The transport of secretory proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi depends on COPII-coated vesicles. While the basic principles of the COPII machinery have been identified, it remains largely unknown how COPII transport is regulated to accommodate tissue- or activation-specific differences in cargo load and identity. Here we show that activation-induced alternative splicing of Sec16 controls adaptation of COPII transport to increased secretory cargo upon T-cell activation. Using splice-site blocking morpholinos and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering, we show that the number of ER exit sites, COPII dynamics and transport efficiency depend on Sec16 alternative splicing. As the mechanistic basis, we suggest the C-terminal Sec16 domain to be a splicing-controlled protein interaction platform, with individual isoforms showing differential abilities to recruit COPII components. Our work connects the COPII pathway with alternative splicing, adding a new regulatory layer to protein secretion and its adaptation to changing cellular environments. PMID:27492621

  10. The NASA controls-structures interaction technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, Jerry R.; Layman, W. E.; Waites, H. B.; Hayduk, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    The interaction between a flexible spacecraft structure and its control system is commonly referred to as controls-structures interaction (CSI). The CSI technology program is developing the capability and confidence to integrate the structure and control system, so as to avoid interactions that cause problems and to exploit interactions to increase spacecraft capability. A NASA program has been initiated to advance CSI technology to a point where it can be used in spacecraft design for future missions. The CSI technology program is a multicenter program utilizing the resources of the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The purpose is to describe the current activities, results to date, and future activities of the NASA CSI technology program.

  11. Ultra-High Efficiency and Low-Emissions Combustion Technology for Manufacturing Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Atreya, Arvind

    2013-04-15

    -dimensional parameters controlling RFC in furnaces were identified. These are: (i) The Boltzmann number; (ii) The Damkohler number, (iii) The dimensionless Arrhenius number, and (iv) The equivalence ratio. Together they define the parameter space where RFC is possible. It was also found that the Damkohler number must be small for RFC to exist and that the Boltzmann number expands the RFC domain. The experimental data obtained during the course of this work agrees well with the predictions made by the theoretical analysis. Interestingly, the equivalence ratio dependence shows that it is easier to establish RFC for rich mixtures than for lean mixtures. This was also experimentally observed. Identifying the parameter space for RFC is necessary for controlling the RFC furnace operation. It is hoped that future work will enable the methodology developed here to be applied to the operation of real furnaces, with consequent improvement in efficiency and pollutant reduction. To reiterate, the new furnace combustion technology developed enables intense radiation from combustion products and has many benefits: (i) Ultra-High Efficiency and Low-Emissions; (ii) Uniform and intense radiation to substantially increase productivity; (iii) Oxygen-free atmosphere to reduce dross/scale formation; (iv) Provides multi-fuel capability; and (v) Enables carbon sequestration if pure oxygen is used for combustion.

  12. Research on NC motion controller based on SOPC technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Tingbiao; Meng, Biao

    2006-11-01

    With the rapid development of the digitization and informationization, the application of numerical control technology in the manufacturing industry becomes more and more important. However, the conventional numerical control system usually has some shortcomings such as the poor in system openness, character of real-time, cutability and reconfiguration. In order to solve these problems, this paper investigates the development prospect and advantage of the application in numerical control area with system-on-a-Programmable-Chip (SOPC) technology, and puts forward to a research program approach to the NC controller based on SOPC technology. Utilizing the characteristic of SOPC technology, we integrate high density logic device FPGA, memory SRAM, and embedded processor ARM into a single programmable logic device. We also combine the 32-bit RISC processor with high computing capability of the complicated algorithm with the FPGA device with strong motivable reconfiguration logic control ability. With these steps, we can greatly resolve the defect described in above existing numerical control systems. For the concrete implementation method, we use FPGA chip embedded with ARM hard nuclear processor to construct the control core of the motion controller. We also design the peripheral circuit of the controller according to the requirements of actual control functions, transplant real-time operating system into ARM, design the driver of the peripheral assisted chip, develop the application program to control and configuration of FPGA, design IP core of logic algorithm for various NC motion control to configured it into FPGA. The whole control system uses the concept of modular and structured design to develop hardware and software system. Thus the NC motion controller with the advantage of easily tailoring, highly opening, reconfigurable, and expandable can be implemented.

  13. Effect of ambient temperatures on disinfection efficiency of various sludge treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Bauerfeld, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    Sewage sludge produced during municipal wastewater treatment has to be treated efficiently in order to reduce impacts on the environment and on public health. In Germany and many countries, large quantities of sludge are reused in agriculture in order to recycle nutrients and organic material. In order to quantify the effect of different ambient temperatures on conventional and advanced sludge treatment technologies as well as on disinfection efficiency, a comprehensive research study was performed at Braunschweig Institute of Technology. The detailed results show that ambient temperature has a strong effect on biological liquid sludge stabilization and on natural dewatering and drying technologies, although microbiological quality of treated sludge, indicated by Escherichia coli concentration, does not meet the requirements for unrestricted reuse in agriculture. Composting and lime treatment of sludge are most efficient on reducing E. coli, as high temperatures and high pH values arise in the material respectively. PMID:24434963

  14. Effect of ambient temperatures on disinfection efficiency of various sludge treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Bauerfeld, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    Sewage sludge produced during municipal wastewater treatment has to be treated efficiently in order to reduce impacts on the environment and on public health. In Germany and many countries, large quantities of sludge are reused in agriculture in order to recycle nutrients and organic material. In order to quantify the effect of different ambient temperatures on conventional and advanced sludge treatment technologies as well as on disinfection efficiency, a comprehensive research study was performed at Braunschweig Institute of Technology. The detailed results show that ambient temperature has a strong effect on biological liquid sludge stabilization and on natural dewatering and drying technologies, although microbiological quality of treated sludge, indicated by Escherichia coli concentration, does not meet the requirements for unrestricted reuse in agriculture. Composting and lime treatment of sludge are most efficient on reducing E. coli, as high temperatures and high pH values arise in the material respectively.

  15. Mercury emission control technologies: An EPRI synopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Change, R.; Offen, G.R.

    1995-11-01

    The air toxics provisions under Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) require the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to conduct a study that focuses on electric utility emissions. Due to be completed by the end of 1995, this study is being conducted to determine whether the release of toxic materials, including mercury, present an unacceptable risk to public health. Of the 189 substances designated hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics), mercury was also singled out for a separate report because of concerns that humans could be harmed by the consumption of fish that have accumulated methylmercury from their food sources. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the research and development arm of its member electric utilities, is conducting research on mercury in four areas: (1) determining the extent of mercury emissions from electric utility power plants, (2) understanding health effects, (3) modeling mercury dispersion transport, deposition and bioaccumulation, and (4) assessing mercury control strategies. While the focus of this paper is on the last area, a precis of the results obtained to date in the other three areas is presented first.

  16. ProSens: integrated production control by automated inspection planning and efficient multisensor metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, Ulf; Li, Zhichao; Bichmann, Stephan, II; Pfeifer, Tilo

    2003-05-01

    By China's entry into the WTO, Chinese as well as German companies are facing the question, how to minimize the risk of unfamiliar cooperation partners when developing products. The rise of customer demands concerning quality, product diversity and the reduction of expenses require flexibility and efficiency with reliable component suppliers. In order to build and strengthen sino-german cooperations, a manufacturing control using homogenized and efficient measures to assure high quality is of vital importance. Lack of unifications may cause identical measurements conducted at subcontractors or customers to be carried out with different measurement processes which leads to incomparable results. Rapidly growing company cooperations and simultaneously decreasing of manufacturing scope cause substantial difficulties when coordinating joint quality control activities. "ProSens," a sino-german project consortium consisting of industrial users, technology producers and research institutes, aims at improving selected production processes by: Creation of a homogeneous quality awareness in sino-german cooperations. Sensitization for process accompanying metrology at an early stage of product development. Increase of the process performance by the use of integrated metrology. Reduction of production time and cost. Unification of quality control of complex products by means of efficient measurement strategies and CAD-based inspection planning.

  17. Distributed automatic control of technological processes in conditions of weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kukhtenko, A. I.; Merkulov, V. I.; Samoylenko, Y. I.; Ladikov-Royev, Y. P.

    1986-01-01

    Some problems associated with the automatic control of liquid metal and plasma systems under conditions of weightlessness are examined, with particular reference to the problem of stability of liquid equilibrium configurations. The theoretical fundamentals of automatic control of processes in electrically conducting continuous media are outlined, and means of using electromagnetic fields for simulating technological processes in a space environment are discussed.

  18. Status of fiberoptics technology for propulsion control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Optical sensors and optically controlled actuators for use in airbreathing engine control systems are discussed. The environmental conditions in which the aircraft will operate require the fiberoptic cables and optical connectors to perform reliably at temperatures over the -55 C to 260 C range. The status of fiberoptics technology for operation in this environment is reviewed.

  19. Propulsion/flight control integration technology (PROFIT) software system definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlin, C. M.; Hastings, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    The Propulsion Flight Control Integration Technology (PROFIT) program is designed to develop a flying testbed dedicated to controls research. The control software for PROFIT is defined. Maximum flexibility, needed for long term use of the flight facility, is achieved through a modular design. The Host program, processes inputs from the telemetry uplink, aircraft central computer, cockpit computer control and plant sensors to form an input data base for use by the control algorithms. The control algorithms, programmed as application modules, process the input data to generate an output data base. The Host program formats the data for output to the telemetry downlink, the cockpit computer control, and the control effectors. Two applications modules are defined - the bill of materials F-100 engine control and the bill of materials F-15 inlet control.

  20. Effect of locus of resource control on operational efficiency in distributed operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geoffroy, A. L.

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in view graph form: space network control (SNC) usage in the Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (ATDRSS) era; an acronym and icon list; demands of the SNC; tightness of resources coupling; sharing information and sharing control; potential ways of distributing control; efficiency problems unrelated to distribution of control; efficiency problems related to distribution of control; and recommendations.

  1. INL Control System Situational Awareness Technology Annual Report 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon Rueff; Bryce Wheeler; Todd Vollmer; Tim McJunkin; Robert Erbes

    2012-10-01

    The overall goal of this project is to develop an interoperable set of tools to provide a comprehensive, consistent implementation of cyber security and overall situational awareness of control and sensor network implementations. The operation and interoperability of these tools will fill voids in current technological offerings and address issues that remain an impediment to the security of control systems. This report provides an FY 2012 update on the Sophia, Mesh Mapper, Intelligent Cyber Sensor, and Data Fusion projects with respect to the year-two tasks and annual reporting requirements of the INL Control System Situational Awareness Technology report (July 2010).

  2. Entry control technology biometric field evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.R.; Ahrens, J.S.; Lowe, D.L.

    1995-07-01

    Throughout the years, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has performed various laboratory evaluations of entry control devices, including biometric identity verifiers. The reports which resulted from this testing have been very well received by the physical security community. This same community now requires equally informative field study data. To meet this need we have conducted a field study in an effort to develop the tools and methods which our customers can use to translate laboratory data into operational field performance. The field testing described in this report was based on the Recognition Systems Inc.`s (RSI) model ID3D HandKey biometric verifier. This device was selected because it is referenced in DOE documents such as the Guide for Implementation of the DOE Standard Badge and is the de facto biometric standard for the DOE. The ID3D HandKey is currently being used at several DOE sites such as Hanford, Rocky Flats, Pantex, Savannah River, and Idaho Nuclear Engineering Laboratory. The ID3D HandKey was laboratory tested at SNL. It performed very well during this test, exhibiting an equal error point of 0.2 percent. The goals of the field test were to identify operational characteristics and design guidelines to help system engineers translate laboratory data into field performance. A secondary goal was to develop tools which could be used by others to evaluate system effectiveness or improve the performance of their systems. Operational characteristics were determined by installing a working system and studying its operation over a five month period. Throughout this test we developed tools which could be used by others to similarly gauge system effectiveness.

  3. Controlling microarray DNA hybridization efficiency by probe-surface distance and external surface electrostatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qamhieh, K.; Pettitt, B. Montgomery

    2015-03-01

    DNA microarrays are analytical devices designed to determine the composition of multicomponent solutions of nucleic acids, DNA or RNA. These devices are promising technology for diverse applications, including sensing, diagnostics, and drug/gene delivery. Here, we modify a hybridization adsorption isotherm to study the effects of probe-surface distance and the external electrostatic fields, on the oligonucleotide hybridization in microarray and how these effects are varies depending on surface probe density and target concentration. This study helps in our understanding on-surface hybridization mechanisms, and from it we can observe a significant effect of the probe-surface distance, and the external electrostatic fields, on the hybridization yield. In addition we present a simple new criteria to control the oligonucleotide hybridization efficiency by providing a chart illustrating the effects of all factors on the DNA-hybridization efficiency.

  4. Control research in the NASA high-alpha technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, William P.; Nguyen, Luat T.; Gera, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    NASA is conducting a focused technology program, known as the High-Angle-of-Attack Technology Program, to accelerate the development of flight-validated technology applicable to the design of fighters with superior stall and post-stall characteristics and agility. A carefully integrated effort is underway combining wind tunnel testing, analytical predictions, piloted simulation, and full-scale flight research. A modified F-18 aircraft has been extensively instrumented for use as the NASA High-Angle-of-Attack Research Vehicle used for flight verification of new methods and concepts. This program stresses the importance of providing improved aircraft control capabilities both by powered control (such as thrust-vectoring) and by innovative aerodynamic control concepts. The program is accomplishing extensive coordinated ground and flight testing to assess and improve available experimental and analytical methods and to develop new concepts for enhanced aerodynamics and for effective control, guidance, and cockpit displays essential for effective pilot utilization of the increased agility provided.

  5. Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) data book. Volume 3: Operations technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilja, John O.

    1990-01-01

    The study was initiated to identify operational problems and cost drivers for current propulsion systems and to identify technology and design approaches to increase the operational efficiency and reduce operations costs for future propulsion systems. To provide readily usable data for the Advanced Launch System (ALS) program, the results of the OEPSS study were organized into a series of OEPSS Data Books. This volume describes operations technologies that will enhance operational efficiency of propulsion systems. A total of 15 operations technologies were identified that will eliminate or mitigate operations problems described in Volume 2. A recommended development plan is presented for eight promising technologies that will simplify the propulsion system and reduce operational requirements.

  6. Health-systems efficiency in the Russian Federation: tuberculosis control.

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Katherine; Hutubessy, Raymond; Samyshkin, Yevgeniy; Korobitsyn, Alexei; Fedorin, Ivan; Volchenkov, Gregory; Kazeonny, Boris; Coker, Richard; Drobniewski, Francis; Jakubowiak, Wieslaw; Shilova, Margarita; Atun, Rifat A.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To conduct a comprehensive assessment of the case-mix of patients admitted to tuberculosis hospitals and the reasons for their admission in four Russian regions: Ivanovo, Orel, Samara and Vladimir. We also sought to quantify the extent to which efficiency could be improved by reducing hospitalization rates and re-profiling hospital beds available in the tuberculosis-control system. METHODS: We used a standard questionnaire to determine how beds were being used and who was using the beds in tuberculosis facilities in four Russian regions. Data were collected to determine how 4306 tuberculosis beds were utilized as well as on the socioeconomic and demographic indicators, clinical parameters and reasons for hospitalization for 3352 patients. FINDINGS: Of the 3352 patients surveyed about 70% were male; the average age was 40; and rates of unemployment, disability and alcohol misuse were high. About one-third of beds were occupied by smear-positive or culture-positive tuberculosis patients; 20% were occupied by tuberculosis patients who were smear-negative and/or culture-negative; 20% were occupied by patients who no longer had tuberculosis; and 20% were unoccupied. If clinical and public health admission criteria were applied then < 50% of admissions would be justified and < 50% of the current number of beds would be required. Up to 85% of admissions and beds were deemed to be necessary when social problems and poor access to outpatient care were considered along with clinical and public health admission criteria. CONCLUSION: Much of the Russian Federation's large tuberculosis hospital infrastructure is unnecessary when clinical and public health criteria are used, but the large hospital infrastructure within the tuberculosis-control system has an important social support function. Improving the efficiency of the system will require the reform of health-system norms and regulations as they relate to resource allocation and clinical care and implementation of

  7. Residential Energy Efficiency Demonstration: Hawaii and Guam Energy Improvement Technology Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Earle, L.; Sparn, B.; Rutter, A.; Briggs, D.

    2014-03-01

    In order to meet its energy goals, the Department of Defense (DOD) has partnered with the Department of Energy (DOE) to rapidly demonstrate and deploy cost-effective renewable energy and energy-efficiency technologies. The scope of this project was to demonstrate tools and technologies to reduce energy use in military housing, with particular emphasis on measuring and reducing loads related to consumer electronics (commonly referred to as 'plug loads'), hot water, and whole-house cooling.

  8. Dust control technology usage patterns in the drywall finishing industry.

    PubMed

    Young-Corbett, Deborah E; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2009-06-01

    A telephone survey was conducted to quantify drywall finishing industry usage rates of dust control technology, identify barriers to technology adoption, and explore firm owner perception of risk. Industry use of the following technologies was described: wet methods, respiratory protection, pole sanders, ventilated sanders, and low-dust joint compound. A survey instrument composed of both Likert-type scaled items and open-ended items was developed and administered by telephone to the census population of the owners of member firms of trade associations: Finishing Contractors Association and Association of the Wall and Ceiling Industries. Of 857 firms, 264 interviews were completed. Along with descriptive statistics, results were analyzed to examine effects of firm size and union affiliation on responses. Responses to open-ended items were analyzed using content analysis procedures. Firm owners rated the risk of dust to productivity and customer satisfaction as low-moderate. Half rated the dust as having some impact on worker health, with higher impacts indicated by owners of small firms. Among the available control technologies, respiratory protection was used most frequently. Several barriers to implementation of the more effective control technologies were identified. Barriers associated with technology usability, productivity, and cost, as well as misperceptions of risk, should be addressed to improve dust control in the drywall finishing industry.

  9. Overview of NASA's Thermal Control Technology Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, Ryan A.

    2010-01-01

    NASA?s Constellation Program included the Orion, Altair, and Lunar Surface Systems project offices. The first two elements, Orion and Altair, were planned to be manned space vehicles while the third element was much broader and included several sub-elements including Rovers and a Lunar Habitat. The planned missions involving these systems and vehicles included several risks and design challenges. Due to the unique thermal operating environment, many of these risks and challenges were associated with the vehicles? thermal control system. NASA?s Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) consisted of several technology development projects. The project chartered with mitigating the aforementioned thermal risks and design challenges was the Thermal Control System Development for Exploration Project. These risks and design challenges were being addressed through a rigorous technology development process that was planned to culminate with an integrated thermal control system test. Although these Constellation elements have been cancelled or significantly changed, the thermal technology development process is being continued within a new program entitled Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration (ETDD). The current paper summarizes the development efforts being performed by the technology development project. The development efforts involve heat acquisition and heat rejection hardware including radiators, heat exchangers, and evaporators. The project has also been developing advanced phase change material heat sinks and performing a material compatibility assessment for a promising thermal control system working fluid. The to-date progress and lessons-learned from these development efforts will be discussed throughout the paper.

  10. Study of the technology of the plasma nanostructuring of silicon to form highly efficient emission structures

    SciTech Connect

    Galperin, V. A.; Kitsyuk, E. P.; Pavlov, A. A.; Shamanaev, A. A.

    2015-12-15

    New methods for silicon nanostructuring and the possibility of raising the aspect ratios of the structures being formed are considered. It is shown that the technology developed relates to self-formation methods and is an efficient tool for improving the quality of field-emission cathodes based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by increasing the Si–CNT contact area and raising the efficiency of the heat sink.

  11. Technology for CO{sub 2} emission monitoring and control

    SciTech Connect

    Joyce, E.L. Jr.; Unkefer, P.J.; Pendergrass, J.H.; Parkinson, W.J.; Loose, V.W.; Brainard, J.R.

    1998-12-31

    The authors examined three specific areas relative to CO{sub 2} emissions and controls: (1) the effect of deregulation of the utility industry on emissions, (2) the role of advanced power systems in reducing emissions, and (3) developing CO{sub 2} mitigation technologies. In this work the Energy Technologies program office at Los Alamos attempted to initiate an integrated approach that includes a range of tasks involving both point and distributed CO{sub 2} control. The authors have examined evolving mitigation (separation and sequestration) technologies for CO{sub 2} disposal. The separation of hydrogen gas from high-temperature CO{sub 2}-containing streams is a critical component of carbon dioxide mitigation technology, and cost-effective point sequestration will require separation of CO{sub 2} from H{sub 2}. They investigated four types of separation techniques: two high-temperature membrane technologies, an intermediate-temperature membrane technology, and a separation technology based on the formation of CO{sub 2} hydrate compounds through reaction of CO{sub 2} with water at near freezing conditions. At Los Alamos, sequestration technologies are being developed along three principal areas: mineral sequestration of CO{sub 2}, the enhancement of natural sinks using biotechnology methods, and the conversion of CO{sub 2} to methanol using high-temperature photolysis.

  12. Technologies for the marketplace from the Centers for Disease Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid-Sanden, Frances L.; Greene, R. Eric; Malvitz, Dolores M.

    1991-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control, a Public Health Service agency, is responsible for the prevention and control of disease and injury. Programs range from surveillance and prevention of chronic and infectious diseases to occupational health and injury control. These programs have produced technologies in a variety of fields, including vaccine development, new methods of disease diagnosis, and new tools to ensure a safer work environment.

  13. Engineering control technology in polyvinyl chloride polymerization plants.

    PubMed

    Gideon, J A

    1979-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Physical Sciences and Engineering has initiated a research program in control technology. The objective of this program is to facilitate the implementation of effective preventative measures in order to prevent occupational illness. The plastics and resins industry control technology assessment has recently been completed. The objectives of this study were to document and evaluate effective control technology for plastics and resins polymerization plants. Particular emphasis was given to PVC polymerization processes, since the relatively recent lowering in the personal exposure limit for vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) to an 8-hour 1-ppm time-weighted average has required the application of state-of-the-art controls. The present paper contains a summary of the control technology that was found to be effective in controlling VCM in processes manufacturing PVC by suspension, bulk, and dispersion polymerization. Controls necessary for VCM include process and equipment modification, isolation, local and general ventilation, work practices, personal protective equipment, workplace monitoring systems, employee/employer education, and on-going effort by both workers and management. All of these components must function together as an integrated coordinated system in order to assure worker protection under normal operating conditions or under conditions of process upset or maintenance.

  14. High-speed civil transport flight- and propulsion-control technological issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, J. K.; Carlin, C. M.; Lambregts, A. A.

    1992-01-01

    Technology advances required in the flight and propulsion control system disciplines to develop a high speed civil transport (HSCT) are identified. The mission and requirements of the transport and major flight and propulsion control technology issues are discussed. Each issue is ranked and, for each issue, a plan for technology readiness is given. Certain features are unique and dominate control system design. These features include the high temperature environment, large flexible aircraft, control-configured empennage, minimizing control margins, and high availability and excellent maintainability. The failure to resolve most high-priority issues can prevent the transport from achieving its goals. The flow-time for hardware may require stimulus, since market forces may be insufficient to ensure timely production. Flight and propulsion control technology will contribute to takeoff gross weight reduction. Similar technology advances are necessary also to ensure flight safety for the transport. The certification basis of the HSCT must be negotiated between airplane manufacturers and government regulators. Efficient, quality design of the transport will require an integrated set of design tools that support the entire engineering design team.

  15. Biotic control of water use efficiency across global terrestrial ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhongmin; Yu, Guirui; Li, Shenggong; Sun, Xiaomin

    2016-04-01

    Ecosystem water use efficiency (WUE) is an important index to clarifying the coupling between ecosystem carbon and water cycle, and it also act as an emergent constraint for land models. Although many attempts have been made to address the spatial and temporal variations in ecosystem WUE, little is known about the underlying controlling mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the spatial pattern of WUE across 81 Fluxnet sites. Further, with a partitioning approach, we presented a framework to clarify the processes affecting the spatial variations in WUE. With the framework, our results indicate that biotic factors, i.e., leaf area index (LAI) and canopy level Ci/Ca are the key factors dominating the spatial pattern of WUE. Our results also reveal that the relative contributions of LAI and Ci/Ca to WUE vary under conditions with different magnitudes of water vapor deficit and degrees of the coupling between canopy and atmosphere. Finally, we compared the spatial pattern of WUE estimated with five land models and eddy covariance measurements. We found that some models failed to capture the key process affecting WUE and hence cannot reproduce the general spatial pattern of WUE.

  16. Application technology of stacked film with highly controlled edge structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichino, Katsunori; Tanouchi, Keiji; Iseki, Tomohiro; Ogata, Nobuhiro; Yamamoto, Taro; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Fujimoto, Akihiro

    2008-03-01

    On the device manufacturing, the film edge control around the wafer edge has been critical at the point of edge control of deposited film. So far, the film edge control is operated by the wafer edge exposure system and/or the edge beam remover. The immersion lithography which is applied to the device generation below 65 nm node requires more additional and severe items for film edge control. These typical requirements are position control of coating film and wafer bevel cleanness. For examples, top coat film is widely applied to the immersion lithography. But this topcoat film is easily peeled off, if top coat film edge should be directly located on the wafer substrate like Si wafer. Thus, the edge position of topcoat film must be controlled very carefully. And the particle or residues on the wafer bevel is thought to be one of the causes to generate immersion defect. Wafer bevel must be clean in order to reduce the immersion defect. Then we have developed novel application technology in order to solve these kinds of immersion defectivities. This new application technology is based on rinse solution technology and new hardware concept. This new application technology can control the edge position of coating film with high accuracy and can reduce the particle and residues. We show the edge position accuracy using our application technology and furthermore, the stability of edge position accuracy in case of multi-layered resist process. We also show the cleanness of the wafer bevel area at the same time. And we can achieve the immersion process with wide process latitude with innovative application technology.

  17. The Office of Industrial Technologies - enhancing the competitiveness, efficiency, and environmental quality of American industry through technology partnerships

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    A critical component of the Federal Government`s effort to stimulate improved industrial energy efficiency is the DOE`s Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT). OIT funds research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) efforts and transfers the resulting technology and knowledge to industry. This document describes OIT`s program, including the new Industries of the Future (IOF) initiative and the strategic activities that are part of the IOF process. It also describes the energy, economic, and environmental characteristics of the materials and process industries that consume nearly 80% of all energy used by manufacturing in the United States. OIT-supported RD&D activities relating to these industries are described, and quantitative estimates of the potential benefits of many OIT-supported technologies for industry are also provided.

  18. High-Efficiency Rooftop Air Conditioners: Innovative Procurement to Achieve Advances in Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hollomon, Brad

    2003-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Defense Logistics Agency, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory recently conducted a technology procurement to increase the availability of energy-efficient, packaged unitary ''rooftop'' air conditioners. The procurement encouraged air conditioner manufacturers to produce equipment that exceeded US energy efficiency standards by at least 25% at a lower life-cycle cost. An outgrowth of the project, a web-based cost estimator tool is now available to help consumers determine the cost-effectiveness of purchasing energy-efficient air conditioners based on climate conditions and other factors at their own locations.

  19. Energy-saving technology of vector controlled induction motor based on the adaptive neuro-controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, E.; Kovalev, I. V.; Karandeev, D.

    2015-10-01

    The ongoing evolution of the power system towards a Smart Grid implies an important role of intelligent technologies, but poses strict requirements on their control schemes to preserve stability and controllability. This paper presents the adaptive neuro-controller for the vector control of induction motor within Smart Gird. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed energy-saving technology of vector controlled induction motor based on adaptive neuro-controller are verified by simulation results at different operating conditions over a wide speed range of induction motor.

  20. Acid rain control II. The promise of new technology

    SciTech Connect

    Gilleland, D.S.; Swisher, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on acid rain. Topics considered at the conference included the evolving science of acid deposition, natural acidity, the renovation of acid lakes and streams, the role of advanced coal cleaning technology in the reduction of sulfur dioxide emissions, fluidized-bed combustion, desulfurization using limestone, the Kilngas project, current technology for sulfur dioxide emission control, and coal liquefaction.

  1. Space Technology 7 Disturbance Reduction System - precision control flight Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmain, Andrew J.; Dunn, Charles; Folkner, William; Hruby, Vlad; Spence, Doug; O'Donnell, James; Markley, Landis; Maghami, Peiman; Hsu, Oscar; Demmons, N.; Roy, T.; Gasdaska, C.; Young, J.; Connolly, W.; McCormick, R.; Gasdaska, C.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA New Millennium Program Space Technology 7 (ST7) project will validate technology for precision spacecraft control. The Disturbance Reduction System (DRS) will be part of the European Space Agency's LISA Pathfinder project. The DRS will control the position of the spacecraft relative to a reference to an accuracy of one nanometer over time scales of several thousand seconds. To perform the control, the spacecraft will use a new colloid thruster technology. The thrusters will operate over the range of 5 to 30 micro-Newtons with precision of 0.1 micro- Newton. The thrust will be generated by using a high electric field to extract charged droplets of a conducting colloid fluid and accelerating them with a precisely adjustable voltage. The control reference will be provided by the European LISA Technology Package, which will include two nearly freefloating test masses. The test mass positions and orientations will be measured using a capacitance bridge. The test mass position and attitude will be adjustable using electrostatically applied forces and torques. The DRS will control the spacecraft position with respect to one test mass while minimizing disturbances on the second test mass. The dynamic control system will cover eighteen degrees of freedom: six for each of the test masses and six for the spacecraft. After launch in late 2009 to a low Earth orbit, the LISA Pathfinder spacecraft will be maneuvered to a halo orbit about the Earth-Sun L1 Lagrange point for operations.

  2. Infrared Technology Trends and Implications to Home and Building Energy Use Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolaway, James T.

    2008-09-01

    It has long been realized that infrared technology would have applicability in improving the energy efficiency of homes and buildings. Walls that are missing or are poorly insulated can be quickly evaluated by looking at the thermal images of these surfaces. Similarly, air infiltration leaks under doors and around windows leave a telltale thermal signature easily seen in the infrared. The ability to view, evaluate and quickly respond to these images has immediate benefits in addressing and correcting situations where these types of losses are occurring. The principle issue that has been limiting the use of infrared technology in these applications has been the lack of availability and accessibility of infrared technology at a cost point suited to this market. The emergence of low cost microbolometer based infrared cameras, not needing sensor cooling, will greatly increase the accessibility and use of infrared technology for House Doctor inspections. The technology cost for this use is projected to be less than 1 per inspection.

  3. A critical review of boiler controls for improved efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Kaya, A.

    1988-08-01

    Control of industrial equipment has improved with concerns for energy conservation and powerful low-cost microprocessors. These control system have been applied to boilers regardless of where they are used and their size. This paper addresses some critical issues and misconceptions about boiler controls. Combustion control is sometimes shown to be the primary control for a boiler and drum level control is included within the combustion control loops. But many important control loops are omitted, although they are related to combustion and boiler controls. In addition, literature is not cited on boiler control, which has over 60 years of history.

  4. Application of Autonomous Spacecraft Power Control Technology to Terrestrial Microgrids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Timothy P.; Trase, Larry M.; Soeder, James F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the potential of the power campus located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio for microgrid development. First, the benefits provided by microgrids to the terrestrial power grid are described, and an overview of Technology Needs for microgrid development is presented. Next, GRC's work on development of autonomous control for manned deep space vehicles, which are essentially islanded microgrids, is covered, and contribution of each of these developments to the microgrid Technology Needs is detailed. Finally, a description is provided of GRC's existing physical assets which can be applied to microgrid technology development, and a phased plan for development of a microgrid test facility is presented.

  5. New sensorless, efficient optimized and stabilized v/f control for pmsm machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, Seyed Hesam

    With the rapid advances in power electronics and motor drive technologies in recent decades, permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSM) have found extensive applications in a variety of industrial systems due to its many desirable features such as high power density, high efficiency, and high torque to current ratio, low noise, and robustness. In low dynamic applications like pumps, fans and compressors where the motor speed is nearly constant, usage of a simple control algorithm that can be implemented with least number of the costly external hardware can be highly desirable for industry. In recent published works, for low power PMSMs, a new sensorless volts-per-hertz (V/f) controlling method has been proposed which can be used for PMSM drive applications where the motor speed is constant. Moreover, to minimize the cost of motor implementation, the expensive rotor damper winding was eliminated. By removing the damper winding, however, instability problems normally occur inside of the motor which in some cases can be harmful for a PMSM drive. As a result, to address the instability issue, a stabilizing loop was developed and added to the conventional V/f. By further studying the proposed sensorless stabilized V/f, and calculating power loss, it became known that overall motor efficiency still is needed to be improved and optimized. This thesis suggests a new V/f control method for PMSMs, where both efficiency and stability problems are addressed. Also, although in nearly all recent related research, methods have been applied to low power PMSM, for the first time, in this thesis, the suggested method is implemented for a medium power 15 kW PMSM. A C2000 F2833x Digital Signal Processor (DSP) is used as controller part for the student custom built PMSM drive, but instead of programming the DSP in Assembly or C, the main control algorithm was developed in a rapid prototype software environment which here Matlab Simulink embedded code library is used.

  6. Detection Technologies, Arms control and nonproliferation technologies. Third/fourth quarters 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Staehle, G; Stull, S; Talaber, C; Moulthrop, P

    1993-12-31

    This issue of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies is another in a series of issues about specific means for detecting and identifying proliferation and other suspect activities outside the realm of arms control treaties. All the projects discussed are funded by the Office of Research and Development of the Department of Energy`s Office of Nonproliferation and National Security.

  7. Proceedings of the First National Workshop on Energy Efficiency Education Through Technology Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Karen C., Ed.

    This publication contains the proceedings from a workshop held in Washington, D.C. in December, 1977. The purpose of the conference was to examine project PROCEED (Program for Continuing Engineering Education) as an innovative approach to technology transfer in energy efficiency education and the potential relationships of the project with the…

  8. Learning Methods for Efficient Adoption of Contemporary Technologies in Architectural Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahdavinejad, Mohammadjavad; Dehghani, Sohaib; Shahsavari, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between technology and history is one of the most significant issues in achieving an efficient and progressive architecture in any era. This is a concept which stems from lesson of traditional architecture of Iran. Architecture as a part of art, has permanently been transforming just like a living organism. In fact, it has been…

  9. The research of high efficient optical fiber coupling technology in space laser communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao-zeng; Tong, Shou-feng; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Hong-kun

    2013-08-01

    With the development of optical fiber communications, especially the maturity of the optical amplifiers and the WDM technology, space optical communication at 1550 nm becomes a promising solution for future high speed satellite communication. Receiving technology with optical amplifiers and coupling space light into single mode fiber are key technologies in space optical communication at 1550 nm. Free-space-to-fiber coupling technique investigated in this paper is the first challenge of applying fiber communication techniques to free space optical communications. We analyzed the factors that affect the efficiency of free-space-to single-mode-fiber coupling based on mode-matching theory of electromagnetic fields. On this objective, in this paper, the theoretical analysis of the effect of atmospheric turbulence on the space light-single mode fiber coupling efficiency is discussed. On this basis, the short-distance experiment coupling space light into single mode fiber is carried out. 1. The main factors affecting the process coupling space light into single mode fiber are analyzed. This paper introduced the statistical theory of atmospheric turbulence and gave out the main turbulence parameters and meteyard based on the theory of the space light-single mode fiber coupling efficiency under ideal conditions. 2. The influence of atmospheric turbulence on the space light-single mode fiber coupling efficiency is analyzed and simulated. In the weak turbulence condition, mathematical model of the mean coupling efficiency and its fluctuation variance was given. And the fluctuation variance of coupling efficiency was simulated studied under the atmospheric conditions. The influences on the average coupling efficiency was theoretically studied, which were induced by the structure constant of atmospheric refractive index, the diameter of coupling lens and the single-mode fiber mode field radius. 3. Validating the theoretical model by a experiment under a short link coupling

  10. Optimization of technology and boiler control to improve economical and environmental parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Stosek, V.; Neuman, P.; Mechura, V.; Masek, Z.

    1995-12-01

    For cutting emissions NO{sub x} and CO in the Czech Republic are mostly applied primary measurers. At the same time measuring and control systems are innovated. Analog control systems are replaced by digital and computer network is developed in the power energy generation. It enables application of sophisticated information and diagnostic systems. It is shown how the EGU designs modification of technology equipment, measurement and control systems to increase efficiency and cut NO{sub x} emission levels at 110 MWe units at Prunerov power station and 200 MWe units at Tusimice before and after reconstruction are presented.

  11. Energy efficiency: Policies for technology transfer in Eastern Europe, the Former Soviet Union, and China

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, W.U.; Ledbetter, M.R.; Hamburger, J.; Bashmakov, I. |

    1993-10-01

    This paper summarizes the energy-efficiency potential in three major regions of the world -- the Former Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, and China and discusses policy measures that might stimulate adoption of technologies that constitute that potential. The authors suggest that major gains in energy efficiency are indeed possible, and that capturing this potential would provide a major reduction in future levels of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. The authors indicate, however, that the requisite technological improvement -- often referred to as technology transfer -- is unlikely without the stimulus of strong policy measures. These measures include the rapid introduction of market mechanisms as well as policy intervention to overcome significant market barriers. Moreover, we observe that strong policies -- heavy taxes and performance standards are becoming increasingly unpopular and problematic, but can be replaced to some extent by incentive, market-pull, and research and development programs.

  12. Computer Controlled Portable Greenhouse Climate Control System for Enhanced Energy Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datsenko, Anthony; Myer, Steve; Petties, Albert; Hustek, Ryan; Thompson, Mark

    2010-04-01

    This paper discusses a student project at Kettering University focusing on the design and construction of an energy efficient greenhouse climate control system. In order to maintain acceptable temperatures and stabilize temperature fluctuations in a portable plastic greenhouse economically, a computer controlled climate control system was developed to capture and store thermal energy incident on the structure during daylight periods and release the stored thermal energy during dark periods. The thermal storage mass for the greenhouse system consisted of a water filled base unit. The heat exchanger consisted of a system of PVC tubing. The control system used a programmable LabView computer interface to meet functional specifications that minimized temperature fluctuations and recorded data during operation. The greenhouse was a portable sized unit with a 5' x 5' footprint. Control input sensors were temperature, water level, and humidity sensors and output control devices were fan actuating relays and water fill solenoid valves. A Graphical User Interface was developed to monitor the system, set control parameters, and to provide programmable data recording times and intervals.

  13. U.S. Department of Energy Instrumentation and Controls Technology Research for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Richard Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interfaces (ICHMI) are essential enabling technologies that strongly influence nuclear power plant performance and operational costs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized that ICHMI research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) is needed to resolve the technical challenges that may compromise the effective and efficient utilization of modern ICHMI technology and consequently inhibit realization of the benefits offered by expanded utilization of nuclear power. Consequently, key DOE programs have substantial ICHMI RD&D elements to their respective research portfolio. This article describes current ICHMI research to support the development of advanced small modular reactors.

  14. Available technology for the control of nutrient pollution in the Chesapeake Bay watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, C.W.; Krome, E.C.; Randall, A.A.

    1987-10-01

    There is a general consensus that the quality of the Chesapeake Bay aquatic environment is rapidly deteriorating, and that nutrient enrichment is the primary cause. This report was developed to provide readers with an overview of the various technologies that have been used for the control of nutrients from both point (wastewater treatment plants) and nonpoint (stormwater, farm and urban runoff) sources of pollution, and to assist them in the selection or appropriate technology for particular situations. Information on anticipated removal efficiencies, potential installational and operational difficulties, and economics has been provided to facilitate the selection process.

  15. Randomized Controlled Trials in Health Technology Assessment: Overkill or Overdue?

    PubMed Central

    Bentzen, Søren M.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine has become a cornerstone in the development of radiation oncology and the randomized controlled phase III trial remains the gold standard for assessing differential benefits in clinical outcome between therapies. Health technologies aimed at improving treatment quality should primarily be tested using process measures or operational characteristics, the reason being that the sensitivity and specificity of clinical outcome is low for detecting quality improvements. The ongoing discussion of the relative merits of intensity modulated photon vs. proton radiotherapy is used to illustrate these concepts. Concerns over clinical and individual equipoise as well as the potential limitations of health economics considerations in this setting are also discussed. Working in a technology and science based medical discipline, radiation oncology researchers need to further develop methodology for critical assessment of health technologies as a complement to randomized controlled trials. PMID:18237799

  16. Adapting Wireless Technology to Lighting Control and Environmental Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Dana Teasdale; Francis Rubinstein; Dave Watson; Steve Purdy

    2005-10-01

    The high cost of retrofitting buildings with advanced lighting control systems is a barrier to adoption of this energy-saving technology. Wireless technology, however, offers a solution to mounting installation costs since it requires no additional wiring to implement. To demonstrate the feasibility of such a system, a prototype wirelessly-controlled advanced lighting system was designed and built. The system includes the following components: a wirelessly-controllable analog circuit module (ACM), a wirelessly-controllable electronic dimmable ballast, a T8 3-lamp fixture, an environmental multi-sensor, a current transducer, and control software. The ACM, dimmable ballast, multi-sensor, and current transducer were all integrated with SmartMesh{trademark} wireless mesh networking nodes, called motes, enabling wireless communication, sensor monitoring, and actuator control. Each mote-enabled device has a reliable communication path to the SmartMesh Manager, a single board computer that controls network functions and connects the wireless network to a PC running lighting control software. The ACM is capable of locally driving one or more standard 0-10 Volt electronic dimmable ballasts through relay control and a 0-10 Volt controllable output. The mote-integrated electronic dimmable ballast is designed to drive a standard 3-lamp T8 light fixture. The environmental multi-sensor measures occupancy, light level and temperature. The current transducer is used to measure the power consumed by the fixture. Control software was developed to implement advanced lighting algorithms, including daylight ramping, occupancy control, and demand response. Engineering prototypes of each component were fabricated and tested in a bench-scale system. Based on standard industry practices, a cost analysis was conducted. It is estimated that the installation cost of a wireless advanced lighting control system for a retrofit application is at least 30% lower than a comparable wired system for

  17. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM - UNDERGROUND MINE SOURCE CONTROL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents results of the Mine Waste Technology Program Activity III, Project 8, Underground Mine Source Control Demonstration Project implemented and funded by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U. S. Department of E...

  18. Challenges of Technology, Social Media, and Information Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Today's youth must deal with friend management 24 hours a day, seven days a week, through smartphones and such social networking sites as Facebook. Technology in the classroom can be valuable, but not without challenges. The key is well-thought-out policies. While school districts can't completely control how students use their…

  19. Technology review of flight crucial flight control systems (application of optical technology)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rediess, H. A.; Buckley, E. C.

    1984-01-01

    The survey covers the various optical elements that are considered in a fly-by-light flight control system including optical sensors and transducers, optical data links, so-called optical actuators, and optical/electro-optical processing. It also addresses airframe installation, maintenance, and repair issues. Rather than an in-depth treatment of optical technology, the survey concentrates on technology readiness and the potential advantages/disadvantages of applying the technology. The information was assembled from open literature, personal interviews, and responses to a questionnaire distributed specifically for this survey. Not all of the information obtained was consistent, particularly with respect to technology readiness. The synthesis of information into the perception of the state-of-technology is presented.

  20. Controls on the Efficiency of Estuarine Particle Trapping: Ecosystem Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jay, D. A.; Orton, P. M.; Chisholm, T. A.

    2002-12-01

    Comparisons between the Columbia and Fraser river estuaries suggest several important controls on retention of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in estuarine turbidity maxima (ETM). Observations were carried out in spring 1997 and 1999 in the Columbia under moderate to high-flow conditions. Because of flow regulation, flow levels were ~60% of their natural values, considerably increasing the salinity intrusion length and efficiency of particle trapping. Observations in the Fraser were made under extreme high-flow conditions (1999) and under normal spring conditions (2000). Concentrations of coarse material (sand and flocs landward of salinity intrusion, primarily large aggregates within the salt-water mass) were inferred from acoustic backscatter (ABS). Concentrations of silt and clay were estimated from optical backscatter (OBS). Both were calibrated through gravimetric analysis of pump samples and Owen tube results. The very high flows in the Fraser prevented efficient SPM retention for several reasons, and no permanent ETM was observed. First, the salinity intrusion was forced out of the estuary mouth on every greater ebb, exposing the bed to high bedstress levels. Moreover, the estuary was so short that individual silt particles could not settle to the bed before being exported by the river flow. Finally, aggregation appeared to be rate-limited, such that fluvial particles were unable to form into large aggregates during their rapid transit through the estuary. Aggregation occurred instead in the buoyant plume outside the estuary. Thus, the time scale for particle retention in the Fraser was <1 day. Conditions for ETM particle trapping were more favorable in the Columbia, because salt was never totally expelled from the system, and the fronts at the upstream limit of salinity intrusion were never forced back to the plume lift-off zone at the mouth. Also, near-surface waters required most of a tide to transit the length of salinity intrusion, allowing formation

  1. An assessment of advanced displays and controls technology applicable to future space transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, Jack J.; Villarreal, Diana

    1990-01-01

    The topic of advanced display and control technology is addressed along with the major objectives of this technology, the current state of the art, major accomplishments, research programs and facilities, future trends, technology issues, space transportation systems applications and projected technology readiness for those applications. The holes that may exist between the technology needs of the transportation systems versus the research that is currently under way are addressed, and cultural changes that might facilitate the incorporation of these advanced technologies into future space transportation systems are recommended. Some of the objectives are to reduce life cycle costs, improve reliability and fault tolerance, use of standards for the incorporation of advancing technology, and reduction of weight, volume and power. Pilot workload can be reduced and the pilot's situational awareness can be improved, which would result in improved flight safety and operating efficiency. This could be accomplished through the use of integrated, electronic pictorial displays, consolidated controls, artificial intelligence, and human centered automation tools. The Orbiter Glass Cockpit Display is an example examined.

  2. 40 CFR 51.912 - What requirements apply for reasonably available control technology (RACT) and reasonably...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... available control technology (RACT) and reasonably available control measures (RACM) under the 8-hour NAAQS... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for... reasonably available control technology (RACT) and reasonably available control measures (RACM) under the...

  3. Integration of advanced teleoperation technologies for control of space robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stagnaro, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    Teleoperated robots require one or more humans to control actuators, mechanisms, and other robot equipment given feedback from onboard sensors. To accomplish this task, the human or humans require some form of control station. Desirable features of such a control station include operation by a single human, comfort, and natural human interfaces (visual, audio, motion, tactile, etc.). These interfaces should work to maximize performance of the human/robot system by streamlining the link between human brain and robot equipment. This paper describes development of a control station testbed with the characteristics described above. Initially, this testbed will be used to control two teleoperated robots. Features of the robots include anthropomorphic mechanisms, slaving to the testbed, and delivery of sensory feedback to the testbed. The testbed will make use of technologies such as helmet mounted displays, voice recognition, and exoskeleton masters. It will allow tor integration and testing of emerging telepresence technologies along with techniques for coping with control link time delays. Systems developed from this testbed could be applied to ground control of space based robots. During man-tended operations, the Space Station Freedom may benefit from ground control of IVA or EVA robots with science or maintenance tasks. Planetary exploration may also find advanced teleoperation systems to be very useful.

  4. Developments in Stochastic Fuel Efficient Cruise Control and Constrained Control with Applications to Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonough, Kevin K.

    The dissertation presents contributions to fuel-efficient control of vehicle speed and constrained control with applications to aircraft. In the first part of this dissertation a stochastic approach to fuel-efficient vehicle speed control is developed. This approach encompasses stochastic modeling of road grade and traffic speed, modeling of fuel consumption through the use of a neural network, and the application of stochastic dynamic programming to generate vehicle speed control policies that are optimized for the trade-off between fuel consumption and travel time. The fuel economy improvements with the proposed policies are quantified through simulations and vehicle experiments. It is shown that the policies lead to the emergence of time-varying vehicle speed patterns that are referred to as time-varying cruise. Through simulations and experiments it is confirmed that these time-varying vehicle speed profiles are more fuel-efficient than driving at a comparable constant speed. Motivated by these results, a simpler implementation strategy that is more appealing for practical implementation is also developed. This strategy relies on a finite state machine and state transition threshold optimization, and its benefits are quantified through model-based simulations and vehicle experiments. Several additional contributions are made to approaches for stochastic modeling of road grade and vehicle speed that include the use of Kullback-Liebler divergence and divergence rate and a stochastic jump-like model for the behavior of the road grade. In the second part of the dissertation, contributions to constrained control with applications to aircraft are described. Recoverable sets and integral safe sets of initial states of constrained closed-loop systems are introduced first and computational procedures of such sets based on linear discrete-time models are given. The use of linear discrete-time models is emphasized as they lead to fast computational procedures. Examples of

  5. Gelsolin activity controls efficient early HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV-1 entry into target lymphocytes requires the activity of actin adaptors that stabilize and reorganize cortical F-actin, like moesin and filamin-A. These alterations are necessary for the redistribution of CD4-CXCR4/CCR5 to one pole of the cell, a process that increases the probability of HIV-1 Envelope (Env)-CD4/co-receptor interactions and that generates the tension at the plasma membrane necessary to potentiate fusion pore formation, thereby favouring early HIV-1 infection. However, it remains unclear whether the dynamic processing of F-actin and the amount of cortical actin available during the initial virus-cell contact are required to such events. Results Here we show that gelsolin restructures cortical F-actin during HIV-1 Env-gp120-mediated signalling, without affecting cell-surface expression of receptors or viral co-receptor signalling. Remarkably, efficient HIV-1 Env-mediated membrane fusion and infection of permissive lymphocytes were impaired when gelsolin was either overexpressed or silenced, which led to a loss or gain of cortical actin, respectively. Indeed, HIV-1 Env-gp120-induced F-actin reorganization and viral receptor capping were impaired under these experimental conditions. Moreover, gelsolin knockdown promoted HIV-1 Env-gp120-mediated aberrant pseudopodia formation. These perturbed-actin events are responsible for the inhibition of early HIV-1 infection. Conclusions For the first time we provide evidence that through its severing of cortical actin, and by controlling the amount of actin available for reorganization during HIV-1 Env-mediated viral fusion, entry and infection, gelsolin can constitute a barrier that restricts HIV-1 infection of CD4+ lymphocytes in a pre-fusion step. These findings provide important insights into the complex molecular and actin-associated dynamics events that underlie early viral infection. Thus, we propose that gelsolin is a new factor that can limit HIV-1 infection acting at a pre-fusion step

  6. Evaluation of information technology impact on effective internal control in the University system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanusi Fasilat, A.; Hassan, Haslinda

    2015-12-01

    Information Technology (IT) plays a key role in internal control system in various organizations in terms of maintaining records and other internal services. Internal control system is defined as an efficient control procedures set up by firm to safeguard resources and to assure the reliability and accuracy of both financial and non-financial records in line with applicable governance and procedure to acquire the established goal and objectives. This paper focuses on the impact of IT on internal control system in the Nigerian universities. Data are collected from three different universities via questionnaire. Descriptive statistics is used to analyze the data; Chi-square is performed to test the hypothesis. The results of the hypothesis showed that IT has a positive relationship with the effective internal control activities in the University system. It is concluded that the adoption of IT will significantly improve the effectiveness of the internal control system operations in the University in terms of quality service delivery.

  7. Evaluation of information technology impact on effective internal control in the University system

    SciTech Connect

    Sanusi Fasilat, A. Hassan, Haslinda

    2015-12-11

    Information Technology (IT) plays a key role in internal control system in various organizations in terms of maintaining records and other internal services. Internal control system is defined as an efficient control procedures set up by firm to safeguard resources and to assure the reliability and accuracy of both financial and non-financial records in line with applicable governance and procedure to acquire the established goal and objectives. This paper focuses on the impact of IT on internal control system in the Nigerian universities. Data are collected from three different universities via questionnaire. Descriptive statistics is used to analyze the data; Chi-square is performed to test the hypothesis. The results of the hypothesis showed that IT has a positive relationship with the effective internal control activities in the University system. It is concluded that the adoption of IT will significantly improve the effectiveness of the internal control system operations in the University in terms of quality service delivery.

  8. Impact of active controls technology on structural integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, Thomas; Austin, Edward; Donley, Shawn; Graham, George; Harris, Terry

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings of The Technical Cooperation Program to assess the impact of active controls technology on the structural integrity of aeronautical vehicles and to evaluate the present state-of-the-art for predicting the loads caused by a flight-control system modification and the resulting change in the fatigue life of the flight vehicle. The potential for active controls to adversely affect structural integrity is described, and load predictions obtained using two state-of-the-art analytical methods are given.

  9. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-01-01

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  10. Full report: Assessment and opportunity identification of energy efficient pollution prevention technologies and processes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    US industry produces about 12 billion tons of waste a year, or two-thirds of the waste generated in the US. The costs of handling and disposing of these wastes are significant, estimated to be between $25 and $43 billion in 1991, and represent an increase of 66% since 1986. US industry also uses about one-third of all energy consumed in the nation, which adds to the environmental burden. Industrial wastes affect the environmental well-being of the nation and, because of their growing costs, the competitive abilities of US industry. As part of a national effort to reduce industrial wastes, the US Congress passed the Energy Policy Act (EPAct, P.L. 102-486). Section 2108, subsections (b) and (c), of EPAct requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to identify opportunities to demonstrate energy efficient pollution prevention technologies and processes; to assess their availability and the energy, environmental, and cost effects of such technologies; and to report the results. Work for this report clearly pointed to two things, that there is insufficient data on wastes and that there is great breadth and diversity in the US industrial sector. This report identifies: information currently available on industrial sector waste streams, opportunities for demonstration of energy efficient pollution prevention technologies in two industries that produce significant amounts of waste--chemicals and petroleum, characteristics of waste reducing and energy saving technologies identifiable in the public literature, and potential barriers to adoption of waste reducing technologies by industry.

  11. Efficient Separations and Processing Integrated Program (ESP-IP): Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Efficient Separations and Processing Integrated Program (ESPIP) was created in 1991 to identify, develop and perfect separations technologies and processes to treat wastes and address environmental problems throughout the DOE Complex. These wastes and environmental problems, located at more than 100 contaminated installations in 36 states and territories, are the result of half a century of nuclear processing activities by DOE and its predecessor organizations. The cost of cleaning up this legacy has been estimated to be of the order of hundreds of billions of dollars, and ESPIP`s origin came with the realization that if new separations and processes can produce even a marginal reduction in cost then billions of dollars will be saved. The ultimate mission for ESPIP, as outlined in the ESPIP Strategic Plan, is: to provide Separations Technologies and Processes (STPS) to process and immobilize a wide spectrum of radioactive and hazardous defense wastes; to coordinate STP research and development efforts within DOE; to explore the potential uses of separated radionuclides; to transfer demonstrated separations and processing technologies developed by DOE to the US industrial sector, and to facilitate competitiveness of US technology and industry in the world market. Technology research and development currently under investigation by ESPIP can be divided into four broad areas: cesium and strontium removal; TRU and other HLW separations; sludge technology, and other technologies.

  12. Sensor Technology Integration for Efficient and Cost-Effective D&D

    SciTech Connect

    Varona, J. M.; Lagos, L. E.

    2002-02-25

    The deactivation and decommissioning of radiologically contaminated facilities require the use of a multitude of technologies to perform characterization, decontamination, dismantlement, and waste management. Current baseline technologies do not provide adequate tools to perform this work in an efficient and cost-effective manner. Examples of such tasks that can be modified to enhance the D&D work include: floor and wall decontamination, pipe decontamination, and surveillance and monitoring. FIU-HCET's Technology Development, Integration and Deployment (TDID) group aims to enhance the D&D process by integrating sensor technology to existing decontamination and remote surveillance tools. These integrated systems have been demonstrated throughout the DOE Complex and commercial nuclear facilities undergoing decommissioning. Finding new ways of integrating technologies utilized in the decommissioning and surveillance & monitoring process has been a goal of this group during the past several years. Current and previous integration projects include: Mobile Integrated Piping Decontamination and Characterization System, On-Line Decontamination and Characterization System, In-Situ Pipe Decontamination and Unplugging System, Remote Hazardous Environment Surveyor (RHES), and the Online Handheld grit blasting decontamination system As a result of integrating sensors with D&D tools, the resulting technologies have removed the downtime currently found in baseline processes by allowing operators and project managers to have real-time contamination data during the specified D&D process. This added component allows project managers to verify that full decontamination and surveillance has been conducted. Through successful demonstration and deployments of the TDID-developed technologies, FIU-HCET has provided tools that can impact the cost, schedule and health and safety of D&D operations in a positive way, leading to shorter downtimes and significant cost-savings. This paper will

  13. Survey of LWR environmental control technology performance and cost

    SciTech Connect

    Heeb, C.M.; Aaberg, R.L.; Cole, B.M.; Engel, R.L.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Lewallen, M.A.

    1980-03-01

    This study attempts to establish a ranking for species that are routinely released to the environment for a projected nuclear power growth scenario. Unlike comparisons made to existing standards, which are subject to frequent revision, the ranking of releases can be used to form a more logical basis for identifying the areas where further development of control technology could be required. This report describes projections of releases for several fuel cycle scenarios, identifies areas where alternative control technologies may be implemented, and discusses the available alternative control technologies. The release factors were used in a computer code system called ENFORM, which calculates the annual release of any species from any part of the LWR nuclear fuel cycle given a projection of installed nuclear generation capacity. This survey of fuel cycle releases was performed for three reprocessing scenarios (stowaway, reprocessing without recycle of Pu and reprocessing with full recycle of U and Pu) for a 100-year period beginning in 1977. The radioactivity releases were ranked on the basis of a relative ranking factor. The relative ranking factor is based on the 100-year summation of the 50-year population dose commitment from an annual release of radioactive effluents. The nonradioactive releases were ranked on the basis of dilution factor. The twenty highest ranking radioactive releases were identified and each of these was analyzed in terms of the basis for calculating the release and a description of the currently employed control method. Alternative control technology is then discussed, along with the available capital and operating cost figures for alternative control methods.

  14. Developments in centrifugal compressor surge control: A technology assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botros, K. K.; Henderson, J. F.

    1994-04-01

    There are a number of surge control schemes in current use for centrifugal compressors employed in natural gas transmission systems. Basically, these schemes consist of a set of detection devices that either anticipate surge or detect it at its inception, and a set of control devices that act to prevent surge from occurring. A patent search was conducted in an attempt to assess the level and direction of technology development over the last 20 years and to define the focus for future R&D activities. In addition, the paper presents the current state of technology in three areas: surge control, surge detection, and surge suppression. Patent data obtained from on-line databases showed that most of the emphasis has been on surge control rather than on detection and control and that the current trend in surge control will likely continue toward incremental improvement of a basic or conventional surge control strategy. Various surge suppression techniques can be grouped in two categories: (i) those that are focused on better compressor interior design, and (ii) others that attempt to suppress surge by external and operational means.

  15. An environmental decision framework applied to marine engine control technologies.

    PubMed

    Corbett, James J; Chapman, David

    2006-06-01

    This paper develops a decision framework for considering emission control technologies on marine engines, informed by standard decision theory, with an open structure that may be adapted by operators with specific vessel and technology attributes different from those provided here. Attributes relate objectives important to choosing control technologies with specific alternatives that may meet several of the objectives differently. The transparent framework enables multiple stakeholders to understand how different subjective judgments and varying attribute properties may result in different technology choices. Standard scoring techniques ensure that attributes are not biased by subjective scoring and that weights are the primary quantitative input where subjective preferences are exercised. An expected value decision structure is adopted that considers probabilities (likelihood) that a given alternative can meet its claims; alternative decision criteria are discussed. Capital and annual costs are combined using a net present value approach. An iterative approach is advocated that allows for screening and disqualifying alternatives that do not meet minimum conditions for acceptance, such as engine warranty or U.S. Coast Guard requirements. This decision framework assists vessel operators in considering explicitly important attributes and in representing choices clearly to other stakeholders concerned about reducing air pollution from vessels. This general decision structure may also be applied similarly to other environmental controls in marine applications.

  16. Process Control in Production-Worthy Plasma Doping Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Winder, Edmund J.; Fang Ziwei; Arevalo, Edwin; Miller, Tim; Persing, Harold; Singh, Vikram; Parrill, T. M.

    2006-11-13

    As the semiconductor industry continues to scale devices of smaller dimensions and improved performance, many ion implantation processes require lower energy and higher doses. Achieving these high doses (in some cases {approx}1x1016 ions/cm2) at low energies (<3 keV) while maintaining throughput is increasingly challenging for traditional beamline implant tools because of space-charge effects that limit achievable beam density at low energies. Plasma doping is recognized as a technology which can overcome this problem. In this paper, we highlight the technology available to achieve process control for all implant parameters associated with modem semiconductor manufacturing.

  17. Invited Article: Broadband highly efficient dielectric metadevices for polarization control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruk, Sergey; Hopkins, Ben; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Miroshnichenko, Andrey; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2016-06-01

    Metadevices based on dielectric nanostructured surfaces with both electric and magnetic Mie-type resonances have resulted in the best efficiency to date for functional flat optics with only one disadvantage: a narrow operational bandwidth. Here we experimentally demonstrate broadband transparent all-dielectric metasurfaces for highly efficient polarization manipulation. We utilize the generalized Huygens principle, with a superposition of the scattering contributions from several electric and magnetic multipolar modes of the constituent meta-atoms, to achieve destructive interference in reflection over a large spectral bandwidth. By employing this novel concept, we demonstrate reflectionless (˜90% transmission) half-wave plates, quarter-wave plates, and vector beam q-plates that can operate across multiple telecom bands with ˜99% polarization conversion efficiency.

  18. Information-Technology Approach to Quantum Feedback Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Dao-Yi; Zhang, Chen-Bin; Chen, Zong-Hai; Chen, Chun-Lin

    Quantum control theory is profitably reexamined from the perspective of quantum information, two results on the role of quantum information technology in quantum feedback control are presented and two quantum feedback control schemes, teleportation-based distant quantum feedback control and quantum feedback control with quantum cloning, are proposed. In the first feedback scheme, the output from the quantum system to be controlled is fed back into the distant actuator via teleportation to alter the dynamics of system. The result theoretically shows that it can accomplish some tasks such as distant feedback quantum control that Markovian or Bayesian quantum feedback can not complete. In the second feedback strategy, the design of quantum feedback control algorithms is separated into a state recognition step, which gives "on-off" signal to the actuator through recognizing some copies from the cloning machine, and a feedback (control) step using another copies of cloning machine. A compromise between information acquisition and measurement disturbance is established, and this strategy can perform some quantum control tasks with coherent feedback.

  19. VISIR: technological infrastructure of an operational service for safe and efficient navigation in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannarini, Gianandrea; Turrisi, Giuseppe; D'Anca, Alessandro; Scalas, Mario; Pinardi, Nadia; Coppini, Giovanni; Palermo, Francesco; Carluccio, Ivano; Scuro, Matteo; Cretì, Sergio; Lecci, Rita; Nassisi, Paola; Tedesco, Luca

    2016-08-01

    VISIR (discoVerIng Safe and effIcient Routes) is an operational decision support system (DSS) for optimal ship routing designed and implemented in the frame of the TESSA (TEchnology for Situational Sea Awareness) project. The system is aimed to increase safety and efficiency of navigation through the use of forecast environmental fields and route optimization. VISIR can be accessed through a web interface (www.visir-nav.com) and mobile applications for both iOS and Android devices. This paper focuses on the technological infrastructure developed for operating VISIR as a DSS. Its main components are described, the performance of the operational system is assessed through experimental measurements, and a few case studies are presented.

  20. Robust efficiency and actuator saturation explain healthy heart rate control and variability

    PubMed Central

    Li, Na; Cruz, Jerry; Chien, Chenghao Simon; Sojoudi, Somayeh; Recht, Benjamin; Stone, David; Csete, Marie; Bahmiller, Daniel; Doyle, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The correlation of healthy states with heart rate variability (HRV) using time series analyses is well documented. Whereas these studies note the accepted proximal role of autonomic nervous system balance in HRV patterns, the responsible deeper physiological, clinically relevant mechanisms have not been fully explained. Using mathematical tools from control theory, we combine mechanistic models of basic physiology with experimental exercise data from healthy human subjects to explain causal relationships among states of stress vs. health, HR control, and HRV, and more importantly, the physiologic requirements and constraints underlying these relationships. Nonlinear dynamics play an important explanatory role––most fundamentally in the actuator saturations arising from unavoidable tradeoffs in robust homeostasis and metabolic efficiency. These results are grounded in domain-specific mechanisms, tradeoffs, and constraints, but they also illustrate important, universal properties of complex systems. We show that the study of complex biological phenomena like HRV requires a framework which facilitates inclusion of diverse domain specifics (e.g., due to physiology, evolution, and measurement technology) in addition to general theories of efficiency, robustness, feedback, dynamics, and supporting mathematical tools. PMID:25092335

  1. Technological forecasting and research inputs in the area of birth control technology.

    PubMed

    Rohatgi, K; Bowonder, B; Rohatgi, P K

    1974-12-01

    Technological forecasting, defined as quantified probabilistic prediction of timings and degree of change in the technological parameters, capabilities desirability or needs at different times in the future, is applied to birth control technology (BCT) as a means of revealing the paths of most promising research through identifying the necessary points for breakthroughs. The present status of BCT in the areas of pills and the IUD, male contraceptives, immumological approaches, post-coital pills, abortion, sterilization, luteolytic agents, laser technologies, and control of the sex of the child, are each summarized and evaluated in turn. Fine mapping is done to identify the most potentially promising areas of BCT. These include efforts to make oral contraception easier, improvement of the design of the IUD, clinical evaluation of the male contraceptive danazol, the effecting of biochemical changes in the seminal fluid, and researching of immunological approaches and the effects of other new drugs such as prostaglandins. The areas that require immediate and large research inputs are oral contraception and the IUD. On the basis of population and technological forecasts, it is deduced that research efforts could most effectively aid countries like India through the immediate production of an oral contraceptive pill or IUD with long-lasting effects. Development of a pill for males or an immunization against pre gnancy would also have a significant impact. However, the major impediment to birth control programs to date is attitudes, which must be changed through education.

  2. Efficient needle plasma actuators for flow control and surface cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Pengfei; Portugal, Sherlie; Roy, Subrata

    2015-07-01

    We introduce a milliwatt class needle actuator suitable for plasma channels, vortex generation, and surface cooling. Electrode configurations tested for a channel configuration show 1400% and 300% increase in energy conversion efficiency as compared to conventional surface and channel corona actuators, respectively, generating up to 3.4 m/s air jet across the channel outlet. The positive polarity of the needle is shown to have a beneficial effect on actuator efficiency. Needle-plate configuration is demonstrated for improving cooling of a flat surface with a 57% increase in convective heat transfer coefficient. Vortex generation by selective input signal manipulation is also demonstrated.

  3. Developing an Integration Infrastructure for Distributed Engine Control Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culley, Dennis; Zinnecker, Alicia; Aretskin-Hariton, Eliot; Kratz, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Turbine engine control technology is poised to make the first revolutionary leap forward since the advent of full authority digital engine control in the mid-1980s. This change aims squarely at overcoming the physical constraints that have historically limited control system hardware on aero-engines to a federated architecture. Distributed control architecture allows complex analog interfaces existing between system elements and the control unit to be replaced by standardized digital interfaces. Embedded processing, enabled by high temperature electronics, provides for digitization of signals at the source and network communications resulting in a modular system at the hardware level. While this scheme simplifies the physical integration of the system, its complexity appears in other ways. In fact, integration now becomes a shared responsibility among suppliers and system integrators. While these are the most obvious changes, there are additional concerns about performance, reliability, and failure modes due to distributed architecture that warrant detailed study. This paper describes the development of a new facility intended to address the many challenges of the underlying technologies of distributed control. The facility is capable of performing both simulation and hardware studies ranging from component to system level complexity. Its modular and hierarchical structure allows the user to focus their interaction on specific areas of interest.

  4. Macro versus Microlab: A Controlled Study of Time Efficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Miles; LaPrade, Joseph E.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a comparison of scale of laboratory with respect to time efficiency. Compared full scale and one-tenth scale Grignard reactions with full scale averaging 330 minutes to completion and scaled-down averaging 204. Savings are seen in air pollution, toxicity, solvent cost, and time. (JM)

  5. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency N0x Control

    SciTech Connect

    Zamansky, Vladimir M.; Maly, Peter, M.; Sheldon, Mark; Seeker, W. Randall; Folsom, Blair A.

    1997-12-31

    Energy and Environmental Research Corporation is developing a family of high efficiency and low cost NO{sub x} control technologies for coal fired utility boilers based on Advanced Reburning (AR), a synergistic integration of basic reburning with injection of an N-agent. In conventional AR, injection of the reburn fuel is followed by simultaneous N-agent and overfire air injection. The second generation AR systems incorporate several components which can be used in different combinations. These components include: (1) Reburning Injection of the reburn fuel and overfire air. (2) N-agent Injection The N-agent (ammonia or urea) can be injected at different locations: into the reburning zone, along with the overfire air, and downstream of the overfire air injection. (3) N-agent Promotion Several sodium compounds can considerably enhance the NO{sub x} control from N-agent injection. These ''promoters'' can be added to aqueous N-agents. (4) Two Stages of N-agent Injection and Promotion Two N-agents with or without promoters can be injected at different locations for deeper NO{sub x} control. AR systems are intended for post-RACT applications in ozone non-attainment areas where NO{sub x} control in excess of 80% is required. AR will provide flexible installations that allow NO{sub x} levels to be lowered when regulations become more stringent. The total cost of NO{sub x} control for AR systems is approximately half of that for SCR. Experimental and kinetic modeling results for development of these novel AR systems are presented. Tests have been conducted in a 1.0 MMBtu/hr Boiler Simulator Facility with coal as the main fuel and natural gas as the reburning fuel. The results show that high efficiency NO{sub x} control, in the range 84-95%, can be achieved with various elements of AR. A comparative byproduct emission study was performed to compare the emissions from different variants of AR with commercial technologies (reburning and SNCR). For each technology sampling

  6. Industrialization, energy efficiency and environmental protection in Asian industrializing countries: The role of technological change

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X.

    1995-06-01

    Rapid industrialization in many Asian developing countries has caused an explosive growth in energy consumption and an unsustainable environmental pressure: local water and atmospheric pollution are compromising the results of economic growth with health and ecological destruction, whereas increasing emission of greenhouse gases contributes to the global climate change. The key question is how to orient this industrialization process toward a more energy efficient and environmentally sound direction in order to avoid the errors made by the present day developed countries during their industrialization period. Rapid uptake of technological innovation, fostered by a high turnover of the capital stock and a strong trade orientation, and advantages as latecomers in the industrialization process may help these countries to adopt the latest available technologies in the form of clean process innovations, thus ``leap-frogging`` some of the problems associated with industrialization and avoiding many of the more serious environmental impacts of old technologies. This paper focuses its analysis on the role of technologic change in the greening of industrialization processes of Asian developing countries. After analyzing the technological causes of energy and environmental problems created by the rapid industrialization process in these Asian countries, the paper suggests that not only should the ``end-of-the-pipe`` cleaning technologies be widely promoted, but also the clean process innovations be encouraged, thus tackling the pollution problems in their roots.

  7. Exploring efficiencies of SISO, multi-SISO, and MIMO AVC schemes for floor vibration control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyawako, Donald S.; Reynolds, Paul; Hudson, Malcolm J.

    2012-04-01

    Continued advancements in steel and concrete materials as well as improved computer-optimized designs are resulting in more efficient floor structures, which have longer spans and are more lightweight. In addition, there is a tendency for offices to be more open-plan with fewer internal partitions. These structures possess low and closely spaced natural frequencies, sometimes falling within the range of frequencies produced by human activities, as well as low damping levels. Vibration serviceability problems are thus arising more frequently than before. The tendency for developers to require floor structures suitable for a variety of types of occupation so as to increase their economic viability also has clear ramifications for their vibration serviceability. Active vibration control (AVC) is emerging as a viable technology for mitigation of human-induced vibrations in problem floors. Past AVC research work, as demonstrated in analytical studies and successfully implemented in field trials, have focused predominantly on collocated sensor and actuator pairs in SISO or multi-SISO direct-output feedback schemes, for example, direct velocity feedback (DVF). This paper demonstrates the potential benefits that may be derived from using model-based control approaches, for example, in isolating and controlling specific problematic frequencies only. The approaches investigated here comprise of independent modal space control (IMSC) and pole-placement controllers that are implemented in SISO, SIMO, and MIMO control structures. Both the analytical and experimental studies presented are based on a laboratory structure. Attenuations in target modes of vibration ranged between 15.0-27.0 dB in the analytical studies and experimental implementation for all the controllers studied. Further, both analytical studies and experimental implementation yielded a 70-89 % reduction in acceleration responses from two different walking frequencies.

  8. Rogue athletes and recombinant DNA technology: challenges for doping control.

    PubMed

    Azzazy, Hassan M E; Mansour, Mai M H

    2007-10-01

    The quest for athletic excellence holds no limit for some athletes, and the advances in recombinant DNA technology have handed these athletes the ultimate doping weapons: recombinant proteins and gene doping. Some detection methods are now available for several recombinant proteins that are commercially available as pharmaceuticals and being abused by dopers. However, researchers are struggling to come up with efficient detection methods in preparation for the imminent threat of gene doping, expected in the 2008 Olympics. This Forum article presents the main detection strategies for recombinant proteins and the forthcoming detection strategies for gene doping as well as the prime analytical challenges facing them.

  9. Innovative traffic control: Technology practice in Europe. International technology exchange program

    SciTech Connect

    Tignor, S.C.; Brown, L.L.; Butner, J.L.; Cunard, R.; Davis, S.C.

    1999-08-01

    This summary report describes a may 1998 transportation technology scanning tour of four European countries. The tour was co-sponsored by FHWA, AASHTO, and TRB. The tour team consisted of 10 traffic engineers who visited England, France, Germany, and Sweden to observe traffic control devices and methodology and to determine if any European practices should and could be recommended for use in the United States. This report is organized into five key chapters: Traffic Control Devices, Freeway Control, Operational Practices, Information Management, and Administrative Practices. Among the devices and practices recommended for further study for US adoption are specific freeway pavement markings, variable speed control, lane control signals, intelligent speed adaptation, innovative intersection control, and variable message signs that incorporate pictograms. The report includes statements for proposed research problems.

  10. NREL Helps Apply Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Technologies Worldwide (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) applies its technical expertise and capabilities to promote the use of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) technologies throughout the world. NREL's international work spans our full range of capabilities, which include three primary areas of expertise: 1. Analysis - NREL provides technology-neutral information, global and regional assessments and decision tools, and expert advice. 2. Research and Development - NREL conducts collaborative research and development (R&D) and shares methods and results with leading research institutions throughout the world. 3. Deployment/Commercialization - NREL teams with private industry, other countries, and international institutions to invest in RE and EE technologies. This fact sheet highlights NREL's international multilateral partnerships, bilateral partnerships, climate and environmental initiatives, and energy assessments and resources.

  11. Message transmission efficiency through five telecommunication technologies for signing deaf users.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Claude; Bergeron, François; Hotton, Mathieu; Deaudelin, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    This cross-sectional research design compares the efficiency of videoconferencing in distance communication for signing deaf persons with that of teletypewriter (TTY)-based telecommunication for the deaf. The efficiency of message transmission was evaluated among 30 signing deaf persons (18 to 65 years) under the six following experimental conditions: (a) Omnitor Allan eC software, (b) Polycom ViaVideo II software, (c) Microsoft Windows Live Messenger software, (d) the D-Link videophone, (e) TTY (written French), and (f) face to face (reference standard). Three timed intelligibility tests and a satisfaction assessment were carried out for each of the experimental conditions. Results showed that videoconferencing technologies offer a better efficacy/time ratio for communication than does TTY. Communication using videoconferencing technologies was very similar to face-to-face communication; this was also true for technologies that are not designed specifically for the deaf population. Equivalent satisfaction levels were observed between TTY and videoconferencing technologies. Microsoft Windows Live Messenger was less preferred due to image fluidity issues.

  12. Electricity end-use efficiency: Experience with technologies, markets, and policies throughout the world

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, M.D.; Koomey, J.; Price, L.; Geller, H.; Nadel, S.

    1992-03-01

    In its August meeting in Geneva, the Energy and Industry Subcommittee (EIS) of the Policy Response Panel of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) identified a series of reports to be produced. One of these reports was to be a synthesis of available information on global electricity end-use efficiency, with emphasis on developing nations. The report will be reviewed by the IPCC and approved prior to the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), Brazil, June 1992. A draft outline for the report was submitted for review at the November 1991 meeting of the EIS. This outline, which was accepted by the EIS, identified three main topics to be addressed in the report: status of available technologies for increasing electricity end-use efficiency; review of factors currently limiting application of end-use efficiency technologies; and review of policies available to increase electricity end-use efficiency. The United States delegation to the EIS agreed to make arrangements for the writing of the report.

  13. Technology Prioritization: Transforming the U.S. Building Stock to Embrace Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Farese, Philip; Abramson, Alexis; Phelan, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Buildings sector is responsible for about 40% of the national energy expenditures. This is due in part to wasteful use of resources and limited considerations made for energy efficiency during the design and retrofit phases. Recent studies have indicated the potential for up to 30-50% energy savings in the U.S. buildings sector using currently available technologies. This paper discusses efforts to accelerate the transformation in the U.S. building energy efficiency sector using a new technology prioritization framework. The underlying analysis examines building energy use micro segments using the Energy Information Administration Annual Energy Outlook and other publically available information. The tool includes a stock-and-flow model to track stock vintage and efficiency levels with time. The tool can be used to investigate energy efficiency measures under a variety of scenarios and has a built-in energy accounting framework to prevent double counting of energy savings within any given portfolio. This tool is developed to inform decision making and estimate long term potential energy savings for different market adoption scenarios.

  14. 40 CFR 51.1010 - Requirements for reasonably available control technology (RACT) and reasonably available control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements for reasonably available control technology (RACT) and reasonably available control measures (RACM). 51.1010 Section 51.1010 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL...

  15. Energy-Efficient and Comfortable Buildings through Multivariate Integrated Control (ECoMIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Birru, Dagnachew; Wen, Yao-Jung; Rubinstein, Francis M.; Clear, Robert D.

    2013-10-28

    This project aims to develop an integrated control solution for enhanced energy efficiency and user comfort in commercial buildings. The developed technology is a zone-based control framework that minimizes energy usage while maintaining occupants’ visual and thermal comfort through control of electric lights, motorized venetian blinds and thermostats. The control framework is designed following a modular, scalable and flexible architecture to facilitate easy integration with exiting building management systems. The control framework contains two key algorithms: 1) the lighting load balancing algorithm and 2) the thermostat control algorithm. The lighting load balancing algorithm adopts a model-based closed-loop control approach to determine the optimal electric light and venetian blind settings. It is formulated into an optimization problem with minimizing lighting-related energy consumptions as the objective and delivering adequate task light and preventing daylight glare as the constraints. The thermostat control algorithm is based on a well-established thermal comfort model and formulated as a root-finding problem to dynamically determine the optimal thermostat setpoint for both energy savings and improved thermal comfort. To address building-wide scalability, a system architecture was developed for the zone-based control technology. Three levels of services are defined in the architecture: external services, facility level services and zone level services. The zone-level service includes the control algorithms described above as well as the corresponding interfaces, profiles, sensors and actuators to realize the zone controller. The facility level services connect to the zones through a backbone network, handle supervisory level information and controls, and thus facilitate building-wide scalability. The external services provide communication capability to entities outside of the building for grid interaction and remote access. Various aspects of the

  16. Molecular technology: improving strategies for controlling hydatid disease and cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    McManus, D P

    1990-06-01

    Recombinant DNA and related technologies are providing valuable, novel reagents for application in control strategies against the major parasitic diseases, including hydatid disease and cysticercosis. The impact of these powerful techniques for improving diagnosis and identification of various life cycle stages of Echinococcus spp. and Taenia solium, essential pre-requisites for epidemiological studies and for evaluating control programs, is beyond question. Furthermore, the use of molecular technology for characterizing sub-specific variants of strains of both Echinococcus and T. solium has led to important revisions of our understanding of the diseases they cause. In light of the recent remarkable development of a recombinant vaccine against T. ovis, the first practical parasite vaccine to be produced, the prospects for rapid development of similar vaccines against the medically important taeniids appear to be very encouraging.

  17. Assessment of pollution prevention and control technology for plating operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chalmer, Paul D.; Sonntag, William A.; Cushnie, George C., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) is sponsoring an on-going project to assess pollution prevention and control technology available to the plating industry and to make this information available to those who can benefit from it. Completed project activities include extensive surveys of the plating industry and vendors of technologies and an indepth literature review. The plating industry survey was performed in cooperation with the National Association of Metal Finishers. The contractor that conducted the surveys and prepared the project products was CAI Engineering. The initial products of the project were made available in April, 1994. These products include an extensive report that presents the results of the surveys and literature review and an electronic database. The project results are useful for all those associated with pollution prevention and control in the plating industry. The results show which treatment, recovery and bath maintenance technologies have been most successful for different plating processes and the costs for purchasing and operating these technologies. The project results also cover trends in chemical substitution, the identification of compliance-problem pollutants, sludge generation rates, off-site sludge recovery and disposal options, and many other pertinent topics.

  18. Adapting Wireless Technology to Lighting Control and Environmental Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Dana Teasdale; Francis Rubinstein; David S. Watson; Steve Purdy

    2006-04-30

    Although advanced lighting control systems offer significant energy savings, the high cost of retrofitting buildings with advanced lighting control systems is a barrier to adoption of this energy-saving technology. Wireless technology, however, offers a solution to mounting installation costs since it requires no additional wiring to implement. To demonstrate the feasibility of such a system, a prototype wirelessly-controlled advanced lighting system was designed and built. The system includes the following components: a wirelessly-controllable analog circuit module (ACM), a wirelessly-controllable electronic dimmable ballast, a T8 3-lamp fixture, an environmental multi-sensor, a current transducer, and control software. The ACM, dimmable ballast, multi-sensor, and current transducer were all integrated with SmartMesh{trademark} wireless mesh networking nodes, called motes, enabling wireless communication, sensor monitoring, and actuator control. Each mote-enabled device has a reliable communication path to the SmartMesh Manager, a single board computer that controls network functions and connects the wireless network to a PC running lighting control software. The ACM is capable of locally driving one or more standard 0-10 Volt electronic dimmable ballasts through relay control and a 0-10 Volt controllable output, in addition to 0-24 Volt and 0-10 Volt inputs. The mote-integrated electronic dimmable ballast is designed to drive a standard 3-lamp T8 light fixture. The environmental multisensor measures occupancy, light level and temperature. The current transducer is used to measure the power consumed by the fixture. Control software was developed to implement advanced lighting algorithms, including open and closed-loop daylight ramping, occupancy control, and demand response. Engineering prototypes of each component were fabricated and tested in a bench-scale system. Based on standard industry practices, a cost analysis was conducted. It is estimated that the

  19. Highly efficient source for indistinguishable single photons of controlled shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisbet-Jones, Peter B. R.; Dilley, Jerome; Ljunggren, Daniel; Kuhn, Axel

    2011-10-01

    We demonstrate a straightforward implementation of a push-button like single-photon source, which is based on a strongly coupled atom-cavity system. The device operates intermittently for periods of up to 100 μs, with single-photon repetition rates of 1.0 MHz and an efficiency of 60%. Atoms are loaded into the cavity using an atomic fountain, with the upper turning point near the cavity's mode centre. This ensures long interaction times without any disturbances induced by trapping potentials. The latter is the key to reaching deterministic efficiencies as high as obtained in probabilistic photon-heralding schemes. The price to pay is the random loading of atoms into the cavity and the resulting intermittency. However, for all practical purposes, this has a negligible impact as an individual atom may emit up to 100 successive photons.

  20. Control of coupled oscillator networks with application to microgrid technologies.

    PubMed

    Skardal, Per Sebastian; Arenas, Alex

    2015-08-01

    The control of complex systems and network-coupled dynamical systems is a topic of vital theoretical importance in mathematics and physics with a wide range of applications in engineering and various other sciences. Motivated by recent research into smart grid technologies, we study the control of synchronization and consider the important case of networks of coupled phase oscillators with nonlinear interactions-a paradigmatic example that has guided our understanding of self-organization for decades. We develop a method for control based on identifying and stabilizing problematic oscillators, resulting in a stable spectrum of eigenvalues, and in turn a linearly stable synchronized state. The amount of control, that is, number of oscillators, required to stabilize the network is primarily dictated by the coupling strength, dynamical heterogeneity, and mean degree of the network, and depends little on the structural heterogeneity of the network itself.

  1. Control of coupled oscillator networks with application to microgrid technologies.

    PubMed

    Skardal, Per Sebastian; Arenas, Alex

    2015-08-01

    The control of complex systems and network-coupled dynamical systems is a topic of vital theoretical importance in mathematics and physics with a wide range of applications in engineering and various other sciences. Motivated by recent research into smart grid technologies, we study the control of synchronization and consider the important case of networks of coupled phase oscillators with nonlinear interactions-a paradigmatic example that has guided our understanding of self-organization for decades. We develop a method for control based on identifying and stabilizing problematic oscillators, resulting in a stable spectrum of eigenvalues, and in turn a linearly stable synchronized state. The amount of control, that is, number of oscillators, required to stabilize the network is primarily dictated by the coupling strength, dynamical heterogeneity, and mean degree of the network, and depends little on the structural heterogeneity of the network itself. PMID:26601231

  2. Control of coupled oscillator networks with application to microgrid technologies

    PubMed Central

    Skardal, Per Sebastian; Arenas, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The control of complex systems and network-coupled dynamical systems is a topic of vital theoretical importance in mathematics and physics with a wide range of applications in engineering and various other sciences. Motivated by recent research into smart grid technologies, we study the control of synchronization and consider the important case of networks of coupled phase oscillators with nonlinear interactions—a paradigmatic example that has guided our understanding of self-organization for decades. We develop a method for control based on identifying and stabilizing problematic oscillators, resulting in a stable spectrum of eigenvalues, and in turn a linearly stable synchronized state. The amount of control, that is, number of oscillators, required to stabilize the network is primarily dictated by the coupling strength, dynamical heterogeneity, and mean degree of the network, and depends little on the structural heterogeneity of the network itself. PMID:26601231

  3. Experience with ISO quality control in assisted reproductive technology.

    PubMed

    Alper, Michael M

    2013-12-01

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) programs are complex organizations requiring the integration of multiple disciplines. ISO 9001:2008 is a quality management system that is readily adaptable to an ART program. The value that ISO brings to the entire organization includes control of documents, clear delineation of responsibilities of staff members, documentation of the numerous processes and procedures, improvement in tracking and reducing errors, and overall better control of systems. A quality ART program sets quality objectives and monitors their progress. ISO provides a sense of transparency within the organization and clearer understanding of how service is provided to patients. Most importantly, ISO provides the framework to allow for continual improvement.

  4. Phased Array Technology with Phase and Amplitude Controlled Magnetron for Microwave Power Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, N.; Matsumoto, H.

    2004-12-01

    We need a microwave power transmitter with light weight and high DC-RF conversion efficiency for an economical SSPS (Space Solar Power System). We need a several g/W for a microwave power transmission (MPT) system with a phased array with 0.0001 degree of beam control accuracy (=tan-1 (100m/36,000km)) and over 80 % of DC-RF conversion efficiency when the weight of the 1GW-class SPS is below a several thousand ton - a several tens of thousand ton. We focus a microwave tube, especially magnetron by economical reason and by the amount of mass-production because it is commonly used for microwave oven in the world. At first, we have developed a phase controlled magnetron (PCM) with different technologies from what Dr. Brown developed. Next we have developed a phase and amplitude controlled magnetron (PACM). For the PACM, we add a feedback to magnetic field of the PCM with an external coil to control and stabilize amplitude of the microwave. We succeed to develop the PACM with below 10-6 of frequency stability and within 1 degree of an error in phase and within 1% of amplitude. We can control a phase and amplitude of the PACM and we have developed a phased array the PCMs. With the PCM technology, we have developed a small light weight MPT transmitter COMET (Compact Microwave Energy Transmitter) with consideration of heat radiation for space use and with consideration of mobility to space.

  5. Constitutional and legal implications of arms control verification technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A.; Haffenden, R.

    1992-09-01

    United States law can both help and hinder the use of instrumentation as a component of arms control verification in this country. It can foster the general use of sophisticated verification technologies, where such devices are consistent with the value attached to privacy by the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution. On the other hand, law can hinder reliance on devices that cross this constitutional line, or where such technology itself threatens health, safety, or environment as such threats are defined in federal statutes. The purpose of this conference paper is to explain some of the lessons that have been learned about the relationship between law and verification technologies in the hope that law can help more than hinder. This paper has three parts. In order to start with a common understanding, part I will briefly describe the hierarchy of treaties, the Constitution, federal statutes, and state and local laws. Part 2 will discuss how the specific constitutional requirement that the government respect the right of privacy in all of its endeavors may affect the use of verification technologies. Part 3 will explain the environmental law constraints on verification technology as exemplified by the system of on-site sampling embodied in the current Rolling Text of the Draft Chemical Weapons Convention.

  6. Fuel Economy Regulations and Efficiency Technology Improvements in U.S. Cars Since 1975

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenzie, Donald Warren

    Light-duty vehicles account for 43% of petroleum consumption and 23% of greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards are the primary policy tool addressing petroleum consumption in the U.S., and are set to tighten substantially through 2025. In this dissertation, I address several interconnected questions on the technical, policy, and market aspects of fuel consumption reduction. I begin by quantifying historic improvements in fuel efficiency technologies since the 1970s. First. I develop a linear regression model of acceleration performance conditional on power, weight, powertrain, and body characteristics, showing that vehicles today accelerate 20-30% faster than vehicles with similar specifications in the 1970s. Second, I find that growing use of alternative materials and a switch to more weight-efficient vehicle architectures since 1975 have cut the weight of today's new cars by approximately 790 kg (46%). Integrating these results with model-level specification data, I estimate that the average fuel economy of new cars could have tripled from 1975-2009, if not for changes in performance, size, and features over this period. The pace of improvements was not uniform, averaging 5% annually from 1975-1990, but only 2% annually since then. I conclude that the 2025 standards can be met through improvements in efficiency technology, if we can return to 1980s rates of improvement, and growth in acceleration performance and feature content is curtailed. I next test the hypotheses that higher fuel prices and more stringent CAFE standards cause automotive firms to deploy efficiency technologies more rapidly. I find some evidence that higher fuel prices cause more rapid changes in technology, but little to no evidence that tighter CAFE standards increase rates of technology change. I conclude that standards alone, without continued high gasoline prices, may not drive technology improvements at rates needed to meet the 2025

  7. Structurally Efficient Three-dimensional Metamaterials with Controllable Thermal Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hang; Pasini, Damiano

    2016-01-01

    The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of architected materials, as opposed to that of conventional solids, can be tuned to zero by intentionally altering the geometry of their structural layout. Existing material architectures, however, achieve CTE tunability only with a sacrifice in structural efficiency, i.e. a drop in both their stiffness to mass ratio and strength to mass ratio. In this work, we elucidate how to resolve the trade-off between CTE tunability and structural efficiency and present a lightweight bi-material architecture that not only is stiffer and stronger than other 3D architected materials, but also has a highly tunable CTE. Via a combination of physical experiments on 3D fabricated prototypes and numeric simulations, we demonstrate how two distinct mechanisms of thermal expansion appearing in a tetrahedron, can be exploited in an Octet lattice to generate a large range of CTE values, including negative, zero, or positive, with no loss in structural efficiency. The novelty and simplicity of the proposed design as well as the ease in fabrication, make this bi-material architecture well-suited for a wide range of applications, including satellite antennas, space optical systems, precision instruments, thermal actuators, and MEMS. PMID:27721437

  8. Structurally Efficient Three-dimensional Metamaterials with Controllable Thermal Expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hang; Pasini, Damiano

    2016-10-01

    The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of architected materials, as opposed to that of conventional solids, can be tuned to zero by intentionally altering the geometry of their structural layout. Existing material architectures, however, achieve CTE tunability only with a sacrifice in structural efficiency, i.e. a drop in both their stiffness to mass ratio and strength to mass ratio. In this work, we elucidate how to resolve the trade-off between CTE tunability and structural efficiency and present a lightweight bi-material architecture that not only is stiffer and stronger than other 3D architected materials, but also has a highly tunable CTE. Via a combination of physical experiments on 3D fabricated prototypes and numeric simulations, we demonstrate how two distinct mechanisms of thermal expansion appearing in a tetrahedron, can be exploited in an Octet lattice to generate a large range of CTE values, including negative, zero, or positive, with no loss in structural efficiency. The novelty and simplicity of the proposed design as well as the ease in fabrication, make this bi-material architecture well-suited for a wide range of applications, including satellite antennas, space optical systems, precision instruments, thermal actuators, and MEMS.

  9. Pareto Efficient Policy for Supervisory Power Management Control

    SciTech Connect

    Malikopoulos, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    n this paper we address the problem of online optimization of the supervisory power management control in parallel hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). We model HEV opera- tion as a controlled Markov chain using the long-run expected average cost per unit time criterion, and we show that the control policy yielding the Pareto optimal solution minimizes the average cost criterion online. The effectiveness of the proposed solution is validated through simulation and compared to the solution derived with dynamic programming using the average cost criterion.

  10. Advanced Environmental Monitoring and Control Program: Technology Development Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jan, Darrell (Editor); Seshan, Panchalam (Editor); Ganapathi, Gani (Editor); Schmidt, Gregory (Editor); Doarn, Charles (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    Human missions in space, from the International Space Station on towards potential human exploration of the moon, Mars and beyond into the solar system, will require advanced systems to maintain an environment that supports human life. These systems will have to recycle air and water for many months or years at a time, and avoid harmful chemical or microbial contamination. NASA's Advanced Environmental Monitoring and Control program has the mission of providing future spacecraft with advanced, integrated networks of microminiaturized sensors to accurately determine and control the physical, chemical and biological environment of the crew living areas. This document sets out the current state of knowledge for requirements for monitoring the crew environment, based on (1) crew health, and (2) life support monitoring systems. Both areas are updated continuously through research and space mission experience. The technologies developed must meet the needs of future life support systems and of crew health monitoring. These technologies must be inexpensive and lightweight, and use few resources. Using these requirements to continue to push the state of the art in miniaturized sensor and control systems will produce revolutionary technologies to enable detailed knowledge of the crew environment.

  11. Flexible structure control laboratory development and technology demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vivian, H. C.; Blaire, P. E.; Eldred, D. B.; Fleischer, G. E.; Ih, C.-H. C.; Nerheim, N. M.; Scheid, R. E.; Wen, J. T.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental structure is described which was constructed to demonstrate and validate recent emerging technologies in the active control and identification of large flexible space structures. The configuration consists of a large, 20 foot diameter antenna-like flexible structure in the horizontal plane with a gimballed central hub, a flexible feed-boom assembly hanging from the hub, and 12 flexible ribs radiating outward. Fourteen electrodynamic force actuators mounted to the hub and to the individual ribs provide the means to excite the structure and exert control forces. Thirty permanently mounted sensors, including optical encoders and analog induction devices provide measurements of structural response at widely distributed points. An experimental remote optical sensor provides sixteen additional sensing channels. A computer samples the sensors, computes the control updates and sends commands to the actuators in real time, while simultaneously displaying selected outputs on a graphics terminal and saving them in memory. Several control experiments were conducted thus far and are documented. These include implementation of distributed parameter system control, model reference adaptive control, and static shape control. These experiments have demonstrated the successful implementation of state-of-the-art control approaches using actual hardware.

  12. Study on rule-based adaptive fuzzy excitation control technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui; Wang, Hong-jun; Liu, Lu-yuan; Yue, You-jun

    2008-10-01

    Power system is a kind of typical non-linear system, it is hard to achieve excellent control performance with conventional PID controller under different operating conditions. Fuzzy parameter adaptive PID exciting controller is very efficient to overcome the influence of tiny disturbances, but the performance of the control system will be worsened when operating conditions of the system change greatly or larger disturbances occur. To solve this problem, this article presents a rule adaptive fuzzy control scheme for synchronous generator exciting system. In this scheme the control rule adaptation is implemented by regulating the value of parameter di under the given proportional divisors K1, K2 and K3 of fuzzy sets Ai and Bi. This rule adaptive mechanism is constituted by two groups of original rules about the self-generation and self-correction of the control rule. Using two groups of rules, the control rule activated by status 1 and 2 in figure 2 system can be regulated automatically and simultaneously at the time instant k. The results from both theoretical analysis and simulation show that the presented scheme is effective and feasible and possesses good performance.

  13. Condensing economizers for efficiency improvement and emissions control in industrial boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Litzke, W.L.; Schulze, K.; Bailey, R.

    1996-06-01

    Condensing economizers recover sensible and latent heat from boiler flue gas, leading to marked improvements in thermal efficiency. This paper summarizes the current commercial status and continuing development efforts with one type of condensing economizer. In this design Teflon{reg_sign} covered tubes and enclosure walls are used to handle the corrosive condensate. Flue gas flows around the tubes and feed water, being heated, flows through the inside. In addition to improving thermal efficiency, condensing economizers can also be used to reduce particulate emissions primarily by inertial impaction of particles on tube surfaces, water droplets, and added impactors. Collected particles are then removed with condensate. Water sprays directly on the tubes can be used to enhance particle capture. With coal-firing, tests have shown particle removal efficiencies as high as 98%. To enhance the emissions control potential of condensing economizer technology a two-stage economizer system concept has been developed. Two heat exchanger modules are used. The first is a downflow design and recovers primarily sensible heat from the flue gas. The second is upflow and recovers mostly latent heat. Condensate is collected in a transition plenum between the two stages. This configuration, termed the Integrated Flue Gas Treatment System, provides great flexibility for implementing emissions reduction strategies. Particulate emissions can be reduced without impacting sensible heat recovery by recirculating collected condensate to spray nozzles at the top of the second stage heat exchanger. In tests at BNL with heavy oil firing, particulate reductions over 90% and final emission rates on the order of.005 lb/MMBtu are achieved. Adding sorbents to the recirculated condensate reduces sulfur dioxide emissions and SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies over 95% are achieved. Also, condensing economizers show great potential for the removal of certain air toxics such as mercury and nickel.

  14. Appraising the Cost Efficiency of Higher Technological and Vocational Education Institutions in Taiwan Using the Metafrontier Cost-Function Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Yung-Hsiang; Chen, Ku-Hsieh

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at appraising the cost efficiency and technology of institutions of higher technological and vocational education. Differing from conventional literature, it considers the potential influence of inherent discrepancies in output quality and characteristics of school systems for institutes of technology (ITs) and universities of…

  15. Embedded Web Technology: Internet Technology Applied to Real-Time System Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniele, Carl J.

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is developing software tools to bridge the gap between the traditionally non-real-time Internet technology and the real-time, embedded-controls environment for space applications. Internet technology has been expanding at a phenomenal rate. The simple World Wide Web browsers (such as earlier versions of Netscape, Mosaic, and Internet Explorer) that resided on personal computers just a few years ago only enabled users to log into and view a remote computer site. With current browsers, users not only view but also interact with remote sites. In addition, the technology now supports numerous computer platforms (PC's, MAC's, and Unix platforms), thereby providing platform independence.In contrast, the development of software to interact with a microprocessor (embedded controller) that is used to monitor and control a space experiment has generally been a unique development effort. For each experiment, a specific graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed. This procedure works well for a single-user environment. However, the interface for the International Space Station (ISS) Fluids and Combustion Facility will have to enable scientists throughout the world and astronauts onboard the ISS, using different computer platforms, to interact with their experiments in the Fluids and Combustion Facility. Developing a specific GUI for all these users would be cost prohibitive. An innovative solution to this requirement, developed at Lewis, is to use Internet technology, where the general problem of platform independence has already been partially solved, and to leverage this expanding technology as new products are developed. This approach led to the development of the Embedded Web Technology (EWT) program at Lewis, which has the potential to significantly reduce software development costs for both flight and ground software.

  16. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transpot project-demonstration act system definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanks, G. W.; Shomber, H. A.; Crumb, C. B.; Flora, C. C.; Macdonald, K. A. B.; Smith, R. D.; Sassi, A. P.; Dorwart, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    The 1985 ACT airplane is the Final Active Controls Technology (ACT) Airplane with the addition of three-axis fly by wire. Thus it retains all the efficiency features of the full ACT system plus the weight and cost savings accruing from deletion of the mechanical control system. The control system implements the full IAAC spectrum of active controls except flutter-mode control, judged essentially nonbeneficial, and incorporates new control surfaces called flaperons to make the most of wing-load alleviation. This redundant electronic system is conservatively designed to preserve the extreme reliability required of crucial short-period pitch augmentation, which provides more than half of the fuel savings.

  17. Electron beam technology for multipollutant emissions control from heavy fuel oil-fired boiler.

    PubMed

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G; Ostapczuk, Anna; Licki, Janusz

    2010-08-01

    The electron beam treatment technology for purification of exhaust gases from the burning of heavy fuel oil (HFO) mazout with sulfur content approximately 3 wt % was tested at the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology laboratory plant. The parametric study was conducted to determine the sulfur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) removal efficiency as a function of temperature and humidity of irradiated gases, absorbed irradiation dose, and ammonia stoichiometry process parameters. In the test performed under optimal conditions with an irradiation dose of 12.4 kGy, simultaneous removal efficiencies of approximately 98% for SO2, and 80% for NO(x) were recorded. The simultaneous decrease of PAH and one-ringed aromatic hydrocarbon (benzene, toluene, and xylenes [BTX]) concentrations was observed in the irradiated flue gas. Overall removal efficiencies of approximately 42% for PAHs and 86% for BTXs were achieved with an irradiation dose 5.3 kGy. The decomposition ratio of these compounds increased with an increase of absorbed dose. The decrease of PAH and BTX concentrations was followed by the increase of oxygen-containing aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations. The PAH and BTX decomposition process was initialized through the reaction with hydroxyl radicals that formed in the electron beam irradiated flue gas. Their decomposition process is based on similar principles as the primary reaction concerning SO2 and NO(x) removal; that is, free radicals attack organic compound chains or rings, causing volatile organic compound decomposition. Thus, the electron beam flue gas treatment (EBFGT) technology ensures simultaneous removal of acid (SO2 and NO(x)) and organic (PAH and BTX) pollutants from flue gas emitted from burning of HFO. This technology is a multipollutant emission control technology that can be applied for treatment of flue gas emitted from coal-, lignite-, and HFO-fired boilers. Other thermal processes such

  18. Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology Project Integrated Into NASA's Vehicle Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    The Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Project is formulated according to the Office of Aerospace Technology's objectives as outlined in the NASA Strategic Plan. It is directly related to the "protect the environment" objective and will make progress toward the "increase mobility" and "support national security" objectives as well. UEET technologies will impact future civil and military aircraft and will benefit the development of future space transportation propulsion systems. UEET Project success will, therefore, depend on developing revolutionary, but affordable, technology solutions that are inherently safe and reliable and thus can be incorporated in future propulsion system designs. In fiscal year 2003, UEET became part of NASA's Vehicle Systems Program and continues to evolve its programmatic role. The Vehicle Systems Program aims to develop breakthrough technologies and methodologies, push the boundaries of flight through research on advanced vehicle concepts, respond quickly to industry and the Department of Defense on critical safety and other issues, and provide facilities and expert consultation for industry and other Government agencies during product development.

  19. Preventing unauthorized use of firearms by implementing use control technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, D.R.

    1995-07-01

    A goal among many law enforcement and security professionals, and the National Institute of Justice, is to decrease the risk that an officer or security guard may encounter. One risk that officers confront is unpredictable persons who sometimes try to gain control of the officer`s firearm. The addition of user-recognizing-and-authorizing technologies to a firearm could eliminate the capability of an unauthorized user from firing an officer`s firearm. Sandia National Laboratories has been active in the research and development of nuclear security systems that include access and use control technologies. Sandia is being sponsored by the National Institute of Justice to perform a research and development project to determine the feasibility of a user authorized firearm, or {open_quotes}smart gun.{close_quotes} The focus group for the research is law enforcement officers because of the number of firearm take aways that have occurred in the past and the severe use requirements placed on their firearms. A comprehensive look at the problem of weapon take aways in the United States was conducted using information available from the Federal Bureau of Investigation and other law enforcement sources. An investigation into the end user requirements for smart gun technologies has been completed. During the remainder of the project, the user requirements are being transformed into engineering requirements. which will then be used to evaluate numerous technologies that could be used in a smart gun. Demonstration models will be made of the most promising technologies. Other potential applications are remote enabling and disabling of firearms, transportation of prisoners by corrections officers, military use in operations other than war, and use by private citizens.

  20. Mathematical modeling of efficient protocols to control glioma growth.

    PubMed

    Branco, J R; Ferreira, J A; de Oliveira, Paula

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we propose a mathematical model to describe the evolution of glioma cells taking into account the viscoelastic properties of brain tissue. The mathematical model is established considering that the glioma cells are of two phenotypes: migratory and proliferative. The evolution of the migratory cells is described by a diffusion-reaction equation of non Fickian type deduced considering a mass conservation law with a non Fickian migratory mass flux. The evolution of the proliferative cells is described by a reaction equation. A stability analysis that leads to the design of efficient protocols is presented. Numerical simulations that illustrate the behavior of the mathematical model are included.

  1. A software algorithm/package for control loop configuration and eco-efficiency.

    PubMed

    Munir, M T; Yu, W; Young, B R

    2012-11-01

    Software is a powerful tool to help us analyze industrial information and control processes. In this paper, we will show our recently development of a software algorithm/package which can help us select the more eco-efficient control configuration. Nowadays, the eco-efficiency of all industrial processes/plants has become more and more important; engineers need to find a way to integrate control loop configuration and measurements of eco-efficiency. The exergy eco-efficiency factor; a new measure of eco-efficiency for control loop configuration has been developed. This software algorithm/package will combine a commercial simulator, VMGSim, and Excel together to calculate the exergy eco-efficiency factor.

  2. Personalised Adaptive Task Selection in Air Traffic Control: Effects on Training Efficiency and Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salden, Ron J. C. M.; Paas, Fred; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2006-01-01

    The differential effects of four task selection methods on training efficiency and transfer in a computer-based training for Air Traffic Control were investigated. Two personalised conditions were compared with two corresponding yoked control conditions. The hypothesis that personalised adaptive task selection leads to more efficient training than…

  3. Control and Room Temperature Optimization of Energy Efficient Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Djouadi, Seddik M; Kuruganti, Phani Teja

    2012-01-01

    The building sector consumes a large part of the energy used in the United States and is responsible for nearly 40% of greenhouse gas emissions. It is therefore economically and environmentally important to reduce the building energy consumption to realize massive energy savings. In this paper, a method to control room temperature in buildings is proposed. The approach is based on a distributed parameter model represented by a three dimensional (3D) heat equation in a room with heater/cooler located at ceiling. The latter is resolved using finite element methods, and results in a model for room temperature with thousands of states. The latter is not amenable to control design. A reduced order model of only few states is then derived using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD). A Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) is computed based on the reduced model, and applied to the full order model to control room temperature.

  4. Patenting the bomb: nuclear weapons, intellectual property, and technological control.

    PubMed

    Wellerstein, Alex

    2008-03-01

    During the course of the Manhattan Project, the U.S. government secretly attempted to acquire a monopoly on the patent rights for inventions used in the production of nuclear weapons and nuclear energy. The use of patents as a system of control, while common for more mundane technologies, would seem at first glance to conflict with the regimes of secrecy that have traditionally been associated with nuclear weapons. In explaining the origins and operations of the Manhattan Project patent system, though, this essay argues that the utilization of patents was an ad hoc attempt at legal control of the atomic bomb by Manhattan Project administrators, focused on the monopolistic aspects of the patent system and preexisting patent secrecy legislation. From the present perspective, using patents as a method of control for such weapons seems inadequate, if not unnecessary; but at the time, when the bomb was a new and essentially unregulated technology, patents played an important role in the thinking of project administrators concerned with meaningful postwar control of the bomb.

  5. The Space Technology-7 Disturbance Reduction System Precision Control Flight Validation Experiment Control System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Donnell, James R.; Hsu, Oscar C.; Maghami, Peirman G.; Markley, F. Landis

    2006-01-01

    As originally proposed, the Space Technology-7 Disturbance Reduction System (DRS) project, managed out of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was designed to validate technologies required for future missions such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). The two technologies to be demonstrated by DRS were Gravitational Reference Sensors (GRSs) and Colloidal MicroNewton Thrusters (CMNTs). Control algorithms being designed by the Dynamic Control System (DCS) team at the Goddard Space Flight Center would control the spacecraft so that it flew about a freely-floating GRS test mass, keeping it centered within its housing. For programmatic reasons, the GRSs were descoped from DRS. The primary goals of the new mission are to validate the performance of the CMNTs and to demonstrate precise spacecraft position control. DRS will fly as a part of the European Space Agency (ESA) LISA Pathfinder (LPF) spacecraft along with a similar ESA experiment, the LISA Technology Package (LTP). With no GRS, the DCS attitude and drag-free control systems make use of the sensor being developed by ESA as a part of the LTP. The control system is designed to maintain the spacecraft s position with respect to the test mass, to within 10 nm/the square root of Hz over the DRS science frequency band of 1 to 30 mHz.

  6. Efficiency and cost advantages of an advanced-technology nuclear electrolytic hydrogen-energy production facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donakowski, T. D.; Escher, W. J. D.; Gregory, D. P.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of an advanced-technology (viz., 1985 technology) nuclear-electrolytic water electrolysis facility was assessed for hydrogen production cost and efficiency expectations. The facility integrates (1) a high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (HTGR) operating a binary work cycle, (2) direct-current (d-c) electricity generation via acyclic generators, and (3) high-current-density, high-pressure electrolyzers using a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE). All subsystems are close-coupled and optimally interfaced for hydrogen production alone (i.e., without separate production of electrical power). Pipeline-pressure hydrogen and oxygen are produced at 6900 kPa (1000 psi). We found that this advanced facility would produce hydrogen at costs that were approximately half those associated with contemporary-technology nuclear electrolysis: $5.36 versus $10.86/million Btu, respectively. The nuclear-heat-to-hydrogen-energy conversion efficiency for the advanced system was estimated as 43%, versus 25% for the contemporary system.

  7. Technology Prioritization: Transforming the U.S. Building Stock to Embrace Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    2013-07-01

    This paper discusses the efforts to accelerate the transformation in the U.S. building energy efficiency sector using a new technology prioritization framework. The underlying analysis examines building energy use micro segments using the Energy Information Administration Annual Energy Outlook and other publically available information. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building Technologies Office (BTO) has developed a prioritization tool in an effort to inform programmatic decision making based on the long-term national impact of different energy efficiency measures. The prioritization tool can be used to investigate energy efficiency measures under a variety of scenarios and has a built-in energy accounting framework to prevent double counting of energy savings within any given portfolio. This tool is developed to inform decision making and estimate long term potential energy savings for different market adoption scenarios. It provides an objective comparison of new and existing measures and is being used to inform decision making with respect to BTO’s portfolio of projects.

  8. Reviewing the impact of advanced control room technology

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelmsen, C.A.; Gertman, D.I.; Ostrom, L.T.; Nelson, W.R.; Galyean, W.J.; Byers, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    Progress to date on assessing the nature of the expected changes in human performance and risk associated with the introduction of digital control, instrumentation, and display systems is presented. Expected changes include the shift toward more supervisory tasks, development of intervention strategies, and reallocation of function between human and machine. Results are reported in terms of the scope of new technology, human performance issues, and crews experience with digital control systems in a variety of industries petrochemical and aerospace. Plans to conduct a limited Probabilistic Risk Assessment/Human Reliability Assessment (PRA/HRA) comparison between a conventional NUREG-1150 series plant and that same plant retrofit with distributed control and advanced instrumentation and display are also presented. Changes needed to supplement existing HRA modeling methods and quantification techniques are discussed.

  9. Reviewing the impact of advanced control room technology

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelmsen, C.A.; Gertman, D.I.; Ostrom, L.T.; Nelson, W.R.; Galyean, W.J.; Byers, J.C.

    1992-08-01

    Progress to date on assessing the nature of the expected changes in human performance and risk associated with the introduction of digital control, instrumentation, and display systems is presented. Expected changes include the shift toward more supervisory tasks, development of intervention strategies, and reallocation of function between human and machine. Results are reported in terms of the scope of new technology, human performance issues, and crews experience with digital control systems in a variety of industries petrochemical and aerospace. Plans to conduct a limited Probabilistic Risk Assessment/Human Reliability Assessment (PRA/HRA) comparison between a conventional NUREG-1150 series plant and that same plant retrofit with distributed control and advanced instrumentation and display are also presented. Changes needed to supplement existing HRA modeling methods and quantification techniques are discussed.

  10. Structural Acoustic Prediction and Interior Noise Control Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, G. P.; Chin, C. L.; Simpson, M. A.; Lee, J. T.; Palumbo, Daniel L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report documents the results of Task 14, "Structural Acoustic Prediction and Interior Noise Control Technology". The task was to evaluate the performance of tuned foam elements (termed Smart Foam) both analytically and experimentally. Results taken from a three-dimensional finite element model of an active, tuned foam element are presented. Measurements of sound absorption and sound transmission loss were taken using the model. These results agree well with published data. Experimental performance data were taken in Boeing's Interior Noise Test Facility where 12 smart foam elements were applied to a 757 sidewall. Several configurations were tested. Noise reductions of 5-10 dB were achieved over the 200-800 Hz bandwidth of the controller. Accelerometers mounted on the panel provided a good reference for the controller. Configurations with far-field error microphones outperformed near-field cases.

  11. Alternative control technology document for bakery oven emissions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, C.W.

    1992-12-01

    The document was produced in response to a request by the baking industry for Federal guidance to assist in providing a more uniform information base for State decision-making with regard to control of bakery oven emissions. The information in the document pertains to bakeries that produce yeast-leavened bread, rolls, buns, and similar products but not crackers, sweet goods, or baked foodstuffs that are not yeast leavened. Information on the baking processes, equipment, operating parameters, potential emissions from baking, and potential emission control options are presented. Catalytic and regenerative oxidation are identified as the most appropriate existing control technologies applicable to VOC emissions from bakery ovens. Cost analyses for catalytic and regenerative oxidation are included. A predictive formula for use in estimating oven emissions has been derived from source tests done in junction with the development of the document. Its use and applicability are described.

  12. Shuttle Ground Operations Efficiencies/Technologies Study (SGOE/T). Volume 5: Technical Information Sheets (TIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholz, A. L.; Hart, M. T.; Lowry, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    The Technology Information Sheet was assembled in database format during Phase I. This document was designed to provide a repository for information pertaining to 144 Operations and Maintenance Instructions (OMI) controlled operations in the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF), Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB), and PAD. It provides a way to accumulate information about required crew sizes, operations task time duration (serial and/or parallel), special Ground Support Equipment (GSE). required, and identification of a potential application of existing technology or the need for the development of a new technolgoy item.

  13. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project. ACT/Control/Guidance System study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The active control technology (ACT) control/guidance system task of the integrated application of active controls (IAAC) technology project within the NASA energy efficient transport program was documented. The air traffic environment of navigation and air traffic control systems and procedures were extrapolated. An approach to listing flight functions which will be performed by systems and crew of an ACT configured airplane of the 1990s, and a determination of function criticalities to safety of flight, are the basis of candidate integrated ACT/Control/Guidance System architecture. The system mechanizes five active control functions: pitch augmented stability, angle of attack limiting, lateral/directional augmented stability, gust load alleviation, and maneuver load control. The scope and requirements of a program for simulating the integrated ACT avionics and flight deck system, with pilot in the loop, are defined, system and crew interface elements are simulated, and mechanization is recommended. Relationships between system design and crew roles and procedures are evaluated.

  14. Application of intelligent controls in EPA`s combustion technology research and development. Report for October 1993--July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.A.; Lemieux, P.M.

    1998-12-31

    The abstract provides a brief description of the work at EPA`s to apply artificial intelligence (AI) methods to control certain combustion emissions. In recent years, studies have been conducted to evaluate fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks as means to improve the performance of combustion systems and instrumentation to monitor those systems. A mission of EPA`s is the application of new technologies to the problem of preventing and controlling air pollution from combustion sources. One area of interest is the use of AI methods to improve the performance of existing air pollution control technologies, in terms of both operating and economic efficiencies.

  15. Environmentally Friendly Coating Technology for Autonomous Corrosion Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz M.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Johnsey, Marissa N.; Jolley, Scott T.; Pearman, Benjamin P.; Zhang, Xuejun; Fitzpatrick, Lilliana; Gillis, Mathew; Blanton, Michael; Hanna, Joshua S.; Rawlins, James W.

    2016-01-01

    This work concerns the development of environmentally friendly encapsulation technology, specifically designed to incorporate corrosion indicators, inhibitors, and self-healing agents into a coating, in such a way that the delivery of the indicators and inhibitors is triggered by the corrosion process, and the delivery of self-healing agents is triggered by mechanical damage to the coating. Encapsulation of the active corrosion control ingredients allows the incorporation of desired autonomous corrosion control functions such as: early corrosion detection, hidden corrosion detection, corrosion inhibition, and self-healing of mechanical damage into a coating. The technology offers the versatility needed to include one or several corrosion control functions into the same coating.The development of the encapsulation technology has progressed from the initial proof-of-concept work, in which a corrosion indicator was encapsulated into an oil-core (hydrophobic) microcapsule and shown to be delivered autonomously, under simulated corrosion conditions, to a sophisticated portfolio of micro carriers (organic, inorganic, and hybrid) that can be used to deliver a wide range of active corrosion ingredients at a rate that can be adjusted to offer immediate as well as long-term corrosion control. The micro carriers have been incorporated into different coating formulas to test and optimize the autonomous corrosion detection, inhibition, and self-healing functions of the coatings. This paper provides an overview of progress made to date and highlights recent technical developments, such as improved corrosion detection sensitivity, inhibitor test results in various types of coatings, and highly effective self-healing coatings based on green chemistry.

  16. Variable stiffness and damping semi-active vibration control technology based on magnetorheological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shiyu; Deng, Huaxia; Zhang, Jin; Sun, ShuaiShuai; Li, Weihua; Wang, Lei

    2013-10-01

    Vibration is a source to induce uncertainty for the measurement. The traditional passive vibration control method has low efficiency and limited working conditions. The active vibration control method is not practical for its power demanding, complexity and instability. In this paper, a novel semi-active vibration control technology based on magnetorheological (MR) fluid is presented with dual variable stiffness and damping capability. Because of the rheological behavior depending on the magnetic field intensity, MR fluid is used in many damping semi-active vibration control systems. The paper proposed a structure to allow the both overall damping and stiffness variable. The equivalent damping and stiffness of the structure are analyzed and the influences of the parameters on the stiffness and damping changing are further discussed.

  17. Technological and life cycle assessment of organics processing odour control technologies.

    PubMed

    Bindra, Navin; Dubey, Brajesh; Dutta, Animesh

    2015-09-15

    As more municipalities and communities across developed world look towards implementing organic waste management programmes or upgrading existing ones, composting facilities are emerging as a popular choice. However, odour from these facilities continues to be one of the most important concerns in terms of cost & effective mitigation. This paper provides a technological and life cycle assessment of some of the different odour control technologies and treatment methods that can be implemented in organics processing facilities. The technological assessment compared biofilters, packed tower wet scrubbers, fine mist wet scrubbers, activated carbon adsorption, thermal oxidization, oxidization chemicals and masking agents. The technologies/treatment methods were evaluated and compared based on a variety of operational, usage and cost parameters. Based on the technological assessment it was found that, biofilters and packed bed wet scrubbers are the most applicable odour control technologies for use in organics processing faculties. A life cycle assessment was then done to compare the environmental impacts of the packed-bed wet scrubber system, organic (wood-chip media) bio-filter and inorganic (synthetic media) bio-filter systems. Twelve impact categories were assessed; cumulative energy demand (CED), climate change, human toxicity, photochemical oxidant formation, metal depletion, fossil depletion, terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, terrestrial eco-toxicity, freshwater eco-toxicity and marine eco-toxicity. The results showed that for all impact categories the synthetic media biofilter had the highest environmental impact, followed by the wood chip media bio-filter system. The packed-bed system had the lowest environmental impact for all categories.

  18. The Benchmark Active Controls Technology Model Aerodynamic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Robert C.; Hoadley, Sherwood T.; Wieseman, Carol D.; Durham, Michael H.

    1997-01-01

    The Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) model is a part of the Benchmark Models Program (BMP). The BMP is a NASA Langley Research Center program that includes a series of models which were used to study different aeroelastic phenomena and to validate computational fluid dynamics codes. The primary objective of BACT testing was to obtain steady and unsteady loads, accelerations, and aerodynamic pressures due to control surface activity in order to calibrate unsteady CFD codes and active control design tools. Three wind-tunnel tests in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) have been completed. The first and parts of the second and third tests focused on collecting open-loop data to define the model's aeroservoelastic characteristics, including the flutter boundary across the Mach range. It is this data that is being presented in this paper. An extensive database of over 3000 data sets was obtained. This database includes steady and unsteady control surface effectiveness data, including pressure distributions, control surface hinge moments, and overall model loads due to deflections of a trailing edge control surface and upper and lower surface

  19. Towards a brain controlled assistive technology for powered mobility.

    PubMed

    Kaneswaran, Kelly; Arshak, Khalil; Burke, Edward; Condron, James

    2010-01-01

    For individuals with mobility limitations, powered wheelchair systems provide improved functionality, increased access to healthcare, education and social activities. Input devices such as joystick and switches can provide the necessary input required for efficient control of the powered wheelchair. For persons with limited dexterity, or fine control of the fingers, access to mechanical hardware such as buttons and joysticks can be quite difficult and sometimes painful. For individuals with conditions such as Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), Multiple Sclerosis (MS) or Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) voluntary control of limb movement maybe substantially limited or completely absent. Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) are emerging as a possible method to replace the brains normal output pathways of peripheral nerves and muscles, allowing individuals with paralysis a method of communication and computer control. This study involves the analysis of non-invasive electroencephalograms (EEG) arising from the use of a newly developed Human Machine Interface (HMI) for powered wheelchair control. Using a delayed response task, binary classification of left and right movement intentions were classified with a best classification rate of 81.63% from single trial EEG. Results suggest that this method may be used to enhance control of HMI's for individuals with severe mobility limitations. PMID:21096887

  20. An efficient navigation-control system for small unmanned aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girwar-Nath, Jonathan Alejandro

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles have been research in the past decade for a broad range of tasks and application domains such as search and rescue, reconnaissance, traffic control, pipe line inspections, surveillance, border patrol, and communication bridging. This work describes the design and implementation of a lightweight Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) semi-autonomous Fixed-Wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Presented here is a methodology for System Identification utilizing the Box-Jenkins model estimator on recorded flight data to characterize the system and develop a mathematical model of the aircraft. Additionally, a novel microprocessor, the XMOS, is utilized to navigate and maneuver the aircraft utilizing a PD control system. In this thesis is a description of the aircraft and the sensor suite utilized, as well as the flight data and supporting videos for the benefit of the UAV research community.

  1. Finding stability regions for preserving efficiency classification of variable returns to scale technology in data envelopment analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani, P.; Borzouei, M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper addresses issue of sensitivity of efficiency classification of variable returns to scale (VRS) technology for enhancing the credibility of data envelopment analysis (DEA) results in practical applications when an additional decision making unit (DMU) needs to be added to the set being considered. It also develops a structured approach to assisting practitioners in making an appropriate selection of variation range for inputs and outputs of additional DMU so that this DMU be efficient and the efficiency classification of VRS technology remains unchanged. This stability region is simply specified by the concept of defining hyperplanes of production possibility set of VRS technology and the corresponding halfspaces. Furthermore, this study determines a stability region for the additional DMU within which, in addition to efficiency classification, the efficiency score of a specific inefficient DMU is preserved and also using a simulation method, a region in which some specific efficient DMUs become inefficient is provided.

  2. Implicit methods for efficient musculoskeletal simulation and optimal control

    PubMed Central

    van den Bogert, Antonie J.; Blana, Dimitra; Heinrich, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    The ordinary differential equations for musculoskeletal dynamics are often numerically stiff and highly nonlinear. Consequently, simulations require small time steps, and optimal control problems are slow to solve and have poor convergence. In this paper, we present an implicit formulation of musculoskeletal dynamics, which leads to new numerical methods for simulation and optimal control, with the expectation that we can mitigate some of these problems. A first order Rosenbrock method was developed for solving forward dynamic problems using the implicit formulation. It was used to perform real-time dynamic simulation of a complex shoulder arm system with extreme dynamic stiffness. Simulations had an RMS error of only 0.11 degrees in joint angles when running at real-time speed. For optimal control of musculoskeletal systems, a direct collocation method was developed for implicitly formulated models. The method was applied to predict gait with a prosthetic foot and ankle. Solutions were obtained in well under one hour of computation time and demonstrated how patients may adapt their gait to compensate for limitations of a specific prosthetic limb design. The optimal control method was also applied to a state estimation problem in sports biomechanics, where forces during skiing were estimated from noisy and incomplete kinematic data. Using a full musculoskeletal dynamics model for state estimation had the additional advantage that forward dynamic simulations, could be done with the same implicitly formulated model to simulate injuries and perturbation responses. While these methods are powerful and allow solution of previously intractable problems, there are still considerable numerical challenges, especially related to the convergence of gradient-based solvers. PMID:22102983

  3. Implicit methods for efficient musculoskeletal simulation and optimal control.

    PubMed

    van den Bogert, Antonie J; Blana, Dimitra; Heinrich, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    The ordinary differential equations for musculoskeletal dynamics are often numerically stiff and highly nonlinear. Consequently, simulations require small time steps, and optimal control problems are slow to solve and have poor convergence. In this paper, we present an implicit formulation of musculoskeletal dynamics, which leads to new numerical methods for simulation and optimal control, with the expectation that we can mitigate some of these problems. A first order Rosenbrock method was developed for solving forward dynamic problems using the implicit formulation. It was used to perform real-time dynamic simulation of a complex shoulder arm system with extreme dynamic stiffness. Simulations had an RMS error of only 0.11 degrees in joint angles when running at real-time speed. For optimal control of musculoskeletal systems, a direct collocation method was developed for implicitly formulated models. The method was applied to predict gait with a prosthetic foot and ankle. Solutions were obtained in well under one hour of computation time and demonstrated how patients may adapt their gait to compensate for limitations of a specific prosthetic limb design. The optimal control method was also applied to a state estimation problem in sports biomechanics, where forces during skiing were estimated from noisy and incomplete kinematic data. Using a full musculoskeletal dynamics model for state estimation had the additional advantage that forward dynamic simulations, could be done with the same implicitly formulated model to simulate injuries and perturbation responses. While these methods are powerful and allow solution of previously intractable problems, there are still considerable numerical challenges, especially related to the convergence of gradient-based solvers.

  4. Efficient algorithms for the laboratory discovery of optimal quantum controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turinici, Gabriel; Le Bris, Claude; Rabitz, Herschel

    2004-07-01

    The laboratory closed-loop optimal control of quantum phenomena, expressed as minimizing a suitable cost functional, is currently implemented through an optimization algorithm coupled to the experimental apparatus. In practice, the most commonly used search algorithms are variants of genetic algorithms. As an alternative choice, a direct search deterministic algorithm is proposed in this paper. For the simple simulations studied here, it outperforms the existing approaches. An additional algorithm is introduced in order to reveal some properties of the cost functional landscape.

  5. Environmental control technology for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Albanese, A. S.; Steinberg, M.

    1980-05-01

    The impact of fossil fuel use in the US on worldwide CO/sub 2/ emissions and the impact of increased coal utilization on CO/sub 2/ emission rates are assessed. The aspects of CO/sub 2/ control are discussed as well as the available CO/sub 2/ removal sites. The primary factor affecting the practicability of a CO/sub 2/ control system is its energy requirements. Of the three potential CO/sub 2/ control points, removal from the stacks of fossil fuel power plants appears to require the least amount of energy. Estimates of the energy required to capture and recover CO/sub 2/ from coal-fired power plant stacks by various processes are presented. Although capture and recovery of CO/sub 2/ is an important consideration in the overall scheme of CO/sub 2/ control, disposal or reuse of recovered CO/sub 2/ may be the weakest link in the CO/sub 2/ control chain. Of the several options considered, deep ocean storage appears to be the most promising. Two control scenarios are evaluated, one based on the absorption of CO/sub 2/ contained in power plant flue gas by seawater; the other, based on absorption of CO/sub 2/ by monoethanolamine (MEA). Captured CO/sub 2/ is injected into the deep ocean in both cases. Our analyses indicate that capture and disposal by seawater is not feasible, whereas capture and disposal using MEA is a possibility. However, the economic penalties of CO/sub 2/ control are significant; for example, at a CO/sub 2/ removal efficiency of 50%, the power generation efficiency of a conventional coal fired power plant would be reduced from 34% to about 25%, and the cost of power generation would be expected to double. For 90% CO/sub 2/ removal, power generation efficiency is reduced to between 15 and 6% and the cost of power generation increases by a factor of from 4 to 7.

  6. Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Highway Lodging Buildings: Development of 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Wei; Gowri, Krishnan; Thornton, Brian A.; Liu, Bing

    2010-06-30

    This paper presents the process, methodology, and assumptions for development of the 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Highway Lodging Buildings, a design guidance document that provides specific recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings in roadside motels (highway lodging) above the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004. This 50% solution represents a further step toward realization of the U.S. Department of Energy’s net-zero energy building goal, and go beyond the 30% savings in the Advanced Energy Design Guide series (upon which this work was built). This work can serve as the technical feasibility study for the development of a 50% saving Advanced Energy Design Guide for highway lodging, and thus should greatly expedite the development process. The purpose of this design package is to provide user-friendly design assistance to designers, developers, and owners of highway lodging properties. It is intended to encourage energy-efficient design by providing prescriptive energy-efficiency recommendations for each climate zone that attains the 50% the energy savings target. This paper describes the steps that were taken to demonstrate the technical feasibility of achieving a 50% reduction in whole-building energy use with practical and commercially available technologies. The energy analysis results are presented, indicating the recommended energy-efficient measures achieved a national-weighted average energy savings of 55%, relative to Standard 90.1-2004. The cost-effectiveness of the recommended technology package is evaluated and the result shows an average simple payback of 11.3 years.

  7. New Material Development for Surface Layer and Surface Technology in Tribology Science to Improve Energy Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, R.; Tauviqirrahman, M.; Jamari, Jamari; Schipper, D. J.

    2009-09-01

    This paper reviews the development of new material and surface technology in tribology and its contribution to energy efficiency. Two examples of the economic benefits, resulted from the optimum tribology in the transportation sector and the manufacturing industry are discussed. The new materials are proposed to modify the surface property by laminating the bulk material with thin layer/coating. Under a suitable condition, the thin layer on a surface can provide a combination of good wear, a low friction and corrosion resistance for the mechanical components. The innovation in layer technology results molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), diamond like carbon (DLC), cubic boron nitride (CBN) and diamond which perform satisfactory outcome. The application of the metallic coatings to carbon fibre reinforced polymer matrix composites (CFRP) has the capacity to provide considerable weight and power savings for many engineering components. The green material for lubricant and additives such as the use of sunflower oil which possesses good oxidation resistance and the use of mallee leaves as bio-degradable solvent are used to answer the demand of the environmentally friendly material with good performance. The tribology research implementation for energy efficiency also touches the simple things around us such as: erasing the laser-print in a paper with different abrasion techniques. For the technology in the engineering surface, the consideration for generating the suitable surface of the components in running-in period has been discussed in order to prolong the components life and reduce the machine downtime. The conclusion, tribology can result in reducing manufacturing time, reducing the maintenance requirements, prolonging the service interval, improving durability, reliability and mechanical components life, and reducing harmful exhaust emission and waste. All of these advantages will increase the energy efficiency and the economic benefits.

  8. Novel and innovative pyrolysis and gasification technologies for energy efficient and environmentally sound MSW disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Malkow, Thomas

    2004-07-01

    Within the context of European Union (EU) energy policy and sustainibility in waste management, recent EU regulations demand energy efficient and environmentally sound disposal methods of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). Currently, landfill with its many drawbacks is the preferred option in the EU and many other industrialised countries. Within the waste management hierarchy thermal disposal especially incineration is a viable and proven alternative. But, the dominating method, mass-burn grate incineration has drawbacks as well particularly hazardous emissions and harmful process residues. In recent years, pyrolysis and gasification technologies have emerged to address these issues and improve the energy output. To keep the many players in the field comprehensively informed and up-to-date, novel and innovative technology approaches emphasising European developments are reviewed.

  9. Low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells utilizing GaAs-on-Si technology

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, S.M. )

    1993-04-01

    This report describes work to develop technology to deposit GaAs on Si using a nucleation layer of atomic-layer-epitaxy-grown GaAs or AlAs on Si. This ensures two-dimensional nucleation and should lead to fewer defects in the final GaAs layer. As an alternative, we also developed technology for depositing GaAs on sawtooth-patterned Si. Preliminary studies showed that this material can have a very low defect density, [approximately] 1 [times] 10[sup 5] cm[sup [minus]5], as opposed to our conventionally grown GaAs on SL which has a typical defect density of over 1 [times]10[sup 7] cm[sup [minus]2]. Using these two now methods of GaAs-on-Si material growth, we made solar cells that are expected to show higher efficiencies than those of previous cells.

  10. Improving the efficiency of thermal power equipment based on technologies using surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaeva, L. A.; Zueva, O. S.

    2015-10-01

    The formation of deposits on the functional surfaces of the equipment of heating systems and their corrosion are one of the major energetic problems. To improve the operational efficiency of thermal power equipment, surface-active agents (surfactants) are widely used, which are applied for the treatment of the working surfaces before use, during use, to prevent the parking corrosion, as well as while performing periodic chemical cleanings of power equipment. The tests have been performed, and the technology of application of Auge Neo Ac 56 acid product (MAHIM, Kazan) has been developed, designed to remove mineral deposits and scale from cooling and boiler systems without mechanical influence on them and without disassembly of technological equipment.

  11. High-Efficiency Solid State Cooling Technologies: Non-Equilibrium Asymmetic Thermoelectrics (NEAT) Devices

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: Sheetak is developing a thermoelectric-based solid state cooling system to replace typical air conditioners that use vapor compression to cool air. With noisy mechanical components, vapor compression systems use a liquid refrigerant to circulate within the air conditioner, absorb heat, and pump the heat out into the external environment. With no noisy moving parts or polluting refrigerants, thermoelectric systems rely on an electrical current being passed through the junction of the two different conducting materials to change temperature. Using advanced semiconductor technology, Sheetak is improving solid state cooling systems by using proprietary thermoelectric materials along with other innovations to achieve significant energy efficiency. Sheetak’s new design displaces compressor-based technology; improves reliability; and decreases energy usage. Sheetak’s use of semiconductor manufacturing methods leads to less material use—facilitating cheaper production.

  12. Report of feasibility study on international-cooperation in high efficient energy conversion technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-03-01

    With regard to accelerated introduction of high efficient energy conversion technology to developing countries, the paper investigates the countries' thoughts of the introduction of the technology and the status of the introduction bases. The countries for survey are the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. The Philippine government expects to develop cogeneration as well as large power sources and to widen effective use of natural energy. In Indonesia, they largely expect effective use of biomass energy using Stirling engines by international cooperation and the promoted local electrification using standalone distributed fuel cells. In Malaysia, they have great expectations of the introduction of air conditioning facilities using Stirling engines and the use of standalone distributed fuel cells for promotion of local electrification. Thailand hopes for the use of Stirling engines to air conditioning systems, and the development of solar Stirling generators with solar energy as a heat source and electric vehicles.

  13. Novel and innovative pyrolysis and gasification technologies for energy efficient and environmentally sound MSW disposal.

    PubMed

    Malkow, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Within the context of European Union (EU) energy policy and sustainibility in waste management, recent EU regulations demand energy efficient and environmentally sound disposal methods of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). Currently, landfill with its many drawbacks is the preferred option in the EU and many other industrialised countries. Within the waste management hierarchy thermal disposal especially incineration is a viable and proven alternative. But, the dominating method, mass-burn grate incineration has drawbacks as well particularly hazardous emissions and harmful process residues. In recent years, pyrolysis and gasification technologies have emerged to address these issues and improve the energy output. To keep the many players in the field comprehensively informed and up-to-date, novel and innovative technology approaches emphasising European developments are reviewed. PMID:14672726

  14. Novel and innovative pyrolysis and gasification technologies for energy efficient and environmentally sound MSW disposal.

    PubMed

    Malkow, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Within the context of European Union (EU) energy policy and sustainibility in waste management, recent EU regulations demand energy efficient and environmentally sound disposal methods of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). Currently, landfill with its many drawbacks is the preferred option in the EU and many other industrialised countries. Within the waste management hierarchy thermal disposal especially incineration is a viable and proven alternative. But, the dominating method, mass-burn grate incineration has drawbacks as well particularly hazardous emissions and harmful process residues. In recent years, pyrolysis and gasification technologies have emerged to address these issues and improve the energy output. To keep the many players in the field comprehensively informed and up-to-date, novel and innovative technology approaches emphasising European developments are reviewed.

  15. Comparative disinfection efficiency of pulsed and continuous-wave UV irradiation technologies.

    PubMed

    Bohrerova, Zuzana; Shemer, Hilla; Lantis, Robert; Impellitteri, Christopher A; Linden, Karl G

    2008-06-01

    Pulsed UV (PUV) is a novel UV irradiation system that is a non-mercury lamp-based alternative to currently used continuous-wave systems for water disinfection. PUV polychromatic irradiation disinfection efficiency was compared to that from continuous-wave monochromatic low-pressure (LP) and polychromatic medium-pressure (MP) UV systems, using two types of actinometry (ferrioxalate and iodide-iodate) and an absolute spectral emission method for fluence measurement. All three methods were in good agreement. Once accurate and reliable methods for fluence measurement were established, the inactivation of Escherichia coli and pathogen surrogates phage T4 and T7 were investigated under each technology. Inactivation was significantly faster using PUV irradiation compared to LP or MP UV lamps at equivalent fluence levels. A significant fraction of the enhanced PUV inactivation efficiency was due to wavelengths greater than 295 nm. PMID:18460414

  16. Implementation of Autonomous Control Technology for Plant Growth Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costello, Thomas A.; Sager, John C.; Krumins, Valdis; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2002-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center has significant infrastructure for research using controlled environment plant growth chambers. Such research supports development of bioregenerative life support technology for long-term space missions. Most of the existing chambers in Hangar L and Little L will be moved to the new Space Experiment Research and Processing Laboratory (SERPL) in the summer of 2003. The impending move has created an opportunity to update the control system technologies to allow for greater flexibility, less labor for set-up and maintenance, better diagnostics, better reliability and easier data retrieval. Part of these improvements can be realized using hardware which communicates through an ethernet connection to a central computer for supervisory control but can be operated independently of the computer during routine run-time. Both the hardware and software functionality of an envisioned system were tested on a prototype plant growth chamber (CEC-4) in Hangar L. Based upon these tests, recommendations for hardware and software selection and system design for implementation in SERPL are included.

  17. Increased project efficiency using telemetry technology as part of an integrated data management system

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.R.

    1996-12-31

    Until recently, the use of telemetry in the environmental consulting industry has generally been limited to large scale projects and the occasional collection of equipment or field instrumentation data from environmental remediation hardware. With today`s ever increasing personal computer processing power and decreasing prices, telemetry based management is feasible for smaller scale projects. With the increased focus on cost reduction within the environmental industry, successful project managers will take advantage of increased efficiencies available through the use of telemetry. Like any tool though, those that use it must understand how to make use of telemetry technology from raw data collection through data reduction and analysis to production of the final report.

  18. Gas laser for efficient sustaining a continuous optical discharge plasma in scientific and technological applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zimakov, V P; Kuznetsov, V A; Kedrov, A Yu; Solov'ev, N G; Shemyakin, A N; Yakimov, M Yu

    2009-09-30

    A stable high-power laser is developed for the study and technical applications of a continuous optical discharge (COD). The laser based on the technology of a combined discharge in a scheme with a fast axial gas flow emits 2.2 kW at 10.6 {mu}m per meter of the active medium in continuous and repetitively pulsed regimes with the electrooptical efficiency 20%. The sustaining of the COD plasma in argon and air is demonstrated at the atmospheric pressure. The emission properties of the COD plasma are studied and its possible applications are discussed. (lasers)

  19. Impact of information technology on productivity and efficiency in Iranian manufacturing industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abri, Amir Gholam; Mahmoudzadeh, Mahmoud

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of information technology (IT) on the productivity and efficiency of manufacturing industries in Iran. So, the data will be collected from 23 Iranian manufacturing industries during "2002-2006" and the methods such as DEA and panel data used to study the subject. Results obtained by the above two methods represent that IT has a positive and statistically significant effect on the productivity of manufacturing industries. It will be more in high IT-intensive industries than the other industries. But, there is no significant difference between the growth of labor productivity in IT-producing and IT-using industries.

  20. Engineered Silybin Nanoparticles Educe Efficient Control in Experimental Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Das, Suvadra; Roy, Partha; Pal, Rajat; Auddy, Runa Ghosh; Chakraborti, Abhay Sankar; Mukherjee, Arup

    2014-01-01

    Silybin, is one imminent therapeutic for drug induced hepatotoxicity, human prostrate adenocarcinoma and other degenerative organ diseases. Recent evidences suggest that silybin influences gluconeogenesis pathways favorably and is beneficial in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The compound however is constrained due to solubility (0.4 mg/mL) and bioavailabilty limitations. Appropriate nanoparticle design for silybin in biocompatible polymers was thus proposed as a probable solution for therapeutic inadequacy. New surface engineered biopolymeric nanoparticles with high silybin encapsulation efficiency of 92.11% and zeta potential of +21 mV were designed. Both the pure compound and the nanoparticles were evaluated in vivo for the first time in experimental diabetic conditions. Animal health recovered substantially and the blood glucose levels came down to near normal values after 28 days treatment schedule with the engineered nanoparticles. Restoration from hyperglycemic damage condition was traced to serum insulin regeneration. Serum insulin recovered from the streptozotocin induced pancreatic damage levels of 0.17±0.01 µg/lit to 0.57±0.11 µg/lit after nanoparticle treatment. Significant reduction in glycated hemoglobin level, and restoration of liver glycogen content were some of the other interesting observations. Engineered silybin nanoparticle assisted recovery in diabetic conditions was reasoned due to improved silybin dissolution, passive transport in nanoscale, and restoration of antioxidant status. PMID:24991800

  1. Transparent sound screens. [and their noise control efficiency in buildings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bizo, F.; Draghici, R.

    1974-01-01

    Transparent sound screens consisting of glass (organic glass) plates placed at fixed angles with respect to the floor are considered. Noise levels in the screened area depend on the cumulative effect of direct, reverberated and refracted components of sound energy radiated by the source. This effect is analyzed on the analogy of the summation of electrical impedances. Inasmuch as under given circumstances sufficient noise control can be obtained, transparent screens seem to solve the problem of unimpeded supervision of installations in noisy workshops and power plants; in administrative buildings, computing centers, design bureaus, etc., they ensure acoustic comfort without space losses and without inspiring claustrophobia.

  2. Efficient algorithms for the laboratory discovery of optimal quantum controls.

    PubMed

    Turinici, Gabriel; Le Bris, Claude; Rabitz, Herschel

    2004-01-01

    The laboratory closed-loop optimal control of quantum phenomena, expressed as minimizing a suitable cost functional, is currently implemented through an optimization algorithm coupled to the experimental apparatus. In practice, the most commonly used search algorithms are variants of genetic algorithms. As an alternative choice, a direct search deterministic algorithm is proposed in this paper. For the simple simulations studied here, it outperforms the existing approaches. An additional algorithm is introduced in order to reveal some properties of the cost functional landscape. PMID:15324201

  3. Enabling Technologies for Microfluidic Flow Control and Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, Daniel Christopher

    Advances in microfluidic technologies have expanded conventional chemical and biological techniques to the point where we can envision rapid, inexpensive and portable analysis. Among the numerous challenges in the development of portable, chip-based technologies are simple flow control and detection strategies, which will be essential to widespread acceptance and implementation at both the point-of-care and in locales with limited facilities/resources. The research presented in this dissertation is focused on the development of precise flow control techniques and new, simplified detection technologies aimed at addressing these challenges. An introduction to the concepts important to microfluidics and a brief history to the field are presented in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 will present the development of a technique for the precise control of small volumes of liquids, where well-studied electrical circuit concepts are employed to create frequency-dependent microfluidic circuits. In this system, elastomeric thin films act as fluidic capacitors and diodes, which, when combined with resistors (channels), make fluidic circuits that are described by analytical models. Metering of two separate chemical inputs with a single oscillatory pneumatic control line is demonstrated by combining simple fluidic circuits (i.e., band-pass filters) to significantly reduce the external hardware required for microfluidic flow control. In order to quantify multiple flow profiles in microfluidic circuits, a novel multiplexed flow measurement method using visible dyes is introduced in Chapter 3 and rapidly determines individual flow in connected channels, post-fabrication device quality and solution viscosity. Another thrust of this dissertation research has been to develop miniaturized bioanalytical systems. Chapter 4 describes the adaption of a nucleic-acid-tagged antibody protein detection reaction to a microfluidic platform for detection of down to 5 E. coli O157:H7 cells. Furthermore, a

  4. Developing Information on Energy Savings and Associated Costs and Benefits of Energy Efficient Emerging Technologies Applicable in California

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tengfang; Slaa, Jan Willem; Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-12-15

    Implementation and adoption of efficient end-use technologies have proven to be one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the industries. In many cases, implementing energy efficiency measures is among one of the most cost effective investments that the industry could make in improving efficiency and productivity while reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Over the years, there have been incentives to use resources and energy in a cleaner and more efficient way to create industries that are sustainable and more productive. With the working of energy programs and policies on GHG inventory and regulation, understanding and managing the costs associated with mitigation measures for GHG reductions is very important for the industry and policy makers around the world and in California. Successful implementation of applicable emerging technologies not only may help advance productivities, improve environmental impacts, or enhance industrial competitiveness, but also can play a significant role in climate-mitigation efforts by saving energy and reducing the associated GHG emissions. Developing new information on costs and savings benefits of energy efficient emerging technologies applicable in California market is important for policy makers as well as the industries. Therefore, provision of timely evaluation and estimation of the costs and energy savings potential of emerging technologies applicable to California is the focus of this report. The overall goal of the project is to identify and select a set of emerging and under-utilized energy-efficient technologies and practices as they are important to reduce energy consumption in industry while maintaining economic growth. Specifically, this report contains the results from performing Task 3 Technology Characterization for California Industries for the project titled Research Opportunities in Emerging and Under-Utilized Energy-Efficient Industrial Technologies, sponsored by

  5. Cooperative Control Technology with ITP Method for SCADA Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosakaya, Juichi; Tadokoro, Hideyuki; Inazumi, Yasuhiro

    Introducing multi-agent (MA) technology into a SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system can improve the serviceability and enhance maintenance-free operation with the inter-terminal parameter (ITP) method. In addition, the system's distributed intelligent field terminals (IFTs) use a common algorithm that is unaffected by any changes to the system specifications. As a result of these innovations, the proposed system has much better serviceability because it is much easier to make modifications compared to that of conventional systems. This system has been implemented for practical purposes at over 60 sites.

  6. Technological aspects of corrosion control in metallic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Matthew Logan

    Three corrosion control technologies were investigated, including the effect of nitrogen on the passivity of chromium in sulfate solutions, possible issues associated with the use of amines in steam turbine environments and the microstructure of naval advanced amorphous coatings. Nitrogen (N) is a minor alloying element commonly used to increase the strength of steels by stabilizing the austenite phase. Physical vapor deposited chromium + nitrogen (0, 6.8 and 8.9 at.%N) coatings were investigated as a model system, to test the model. Because Cr passive films have been observed to be generally n-type semiconductors, an impedance function containing a n-type Faradaic impedance was constructed and optimized to electrochemical impedance spectra for the model system at pH 4,7 and 10 1M sulfate solution at 30°C. An apparent deviation from theory was observed, however. The n-type model predicted steady state currents which were independent of potential, while the observed current densities had a positive correlation with potential. Mott-Schottky analysis revealed that the test potentials were within the n-p transition and p-type potential range, which resolves the apparent deviation. Despite this difficulty, however, the impedance model produced reasonably accurate results, calculating current densities to within one order of magnitude of the measured steady state currents where anodic currents were available and passive film thicknesses on the order of 1-2 nm. Various amines are commonly used to inhibit corrosion in thermal power generation systems, including steam turbines, by increasing the pH. However, during the shutdown phase of the power plant, it is possible for these inhibitors to concentrate and cause corrosion of the turbine rotor. The effect of two ammine inhibitors (monoethanolamine and dimethylamine) on the passivity of ASTM A470/471 steel is investigated in a simulated turbine environment at pH 7, and temperatures of 95°C and at 175°C. Potentiodynamic

  7. Interoperability for Space Mission Monitor and Control: Applying Technologies from Manufacturing Automation and Process Control Industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Michael K.

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with interoperability for space mission monitor and control are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Space Project Mission Operations Control Architecture (SuperMOCA) goals and methods for achieving them; 2) Specifics on the architecture: open standards ad layering, enhancing interoperability, and promoting commercialization; 3) An advertisement; 4) Status of the task - government/industry cooperation and architecture and technology demonstrations; and 5) Key features of messaging services and virtual devices.

  8. Efficiency effects of variation in controlled experimental variables

    SciTech Connect

    Wendelbeger, J.R.

    1993-06-01

    When a designed experiment is conducted, the exact levels of controlled experimental variables specified by the design may not be attainable. Two different types of situations can occur in which the actual settings of the design variables deviate from the target design settings. In one case, the actual settings obtained are unknown. In the other case, the actual settings are known; however desirable design properties such as orthogonality may have been lost. This paper examines the impact of known and unknown errors in experimental variables for designed experiments in which the response is assumed to be approximately linear in the region of interest. For comparison, the well known situation where the target values of the experimental variables can actually be obtained will also be considered.

  9. Bridging the gap: adapting advanced display technologies for use in hybrid control rooms

    SciTech Connect

    Jokstad, Håkon; Boring, Ronald

    2015-02-01

    The Institute for Energy Technology (IFE), runs the OECD Halden Reactor Project (HRP), featuring a state-of-the-art research simulator facility in Halden, Norway, called HAMMLAB. HAMMLAB serves two main purposes: the study of human behaviour in interaction with complex process systems; and the development, test and evaluation of prototype control centres and their individual systems. By studying operator performance in HAMMLAB and integrating the knowledge gained into new designs, the HRP contributes to improving operational safety, reliability, efficiency and productivity. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program has contracted IFE to assist DOE national laboratory staff at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in adapting HAMMLAB design concepts for the purpose of control room modernization at nuclear power plants in the U.S. In support of this effort, the DOE has built a simulator research facility at INL called the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory (HSSL). The HSSL is centered on control room modernization, in which industry provided plant instrumentation and controls are modified for upgrade opportunities. The HSSL houses the LWRS simulator, which is a reconfigurable full-scale and full-scope control room simulator. Consisting of 45 large touchscreens on 15 panels, the LWRS simulator is currently using this glass top technology to digitally represent and replicate the functionality of the analog I&C systems in existing control rooms. The LWRS simulator is reconfigurable in that different plant training simulator models obtained from the utilities can be run on the panels, and the panels can be physically moved and arranged to mimic the layout of those control rooms. The glass top technology and reconfigurability capabilities allow the LWRS simulator to be the research platform that is necessary to design, prototype, and validate human-system interface (HSI) technologies that can replace existing analog I&C. IFE has

  10. Flight Technology Improvement. [spaceborne optical radiometric instruments, attitude control, and electromechanical and power subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Shortcomings in spaceborne instrumentation technology are analyzed and recommendations are given for corrections and technology development. The technologies discussed are optical radiometric instruments and calibration, attitude control and determination, and electromechanical and power subsystems.

  11. Implementing supercritical water oxidation technology in a lunar base environmental control/life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer Sedej, M.

    1985-01-01

    A supercritical water oxidation system (SCWOS) offers several advantages for a lunar base environmental control/life support system (ECLSS) compared to an ECLSS based on Space Station technology. In supercritically heated water (630 K, 250 atm) organic materials mix freely with oxygen and undergo complete combustion. Inorganic salts lose solubility and precipitate out. Implementation of SCWOS can make an ECLSS more efficient and reliable by elimination of several subsystems and by reduction in potential losses of life support consumables. More complete closure of the total system reduces resupply requirements from the earth, a crucial cost item in maintaining a lunar base.

  12. Propulsion/flight control integration technology (PROFIT) design analysis status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlin, C. M.; Hastings, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    The propulsion flight control integration technology (PROFIT) program was designed to develop a flying testbed dedicated to controls research. The preliminary design, analysis, and feasibility studies conducted in support of the PROFIT program are reported. The PROFIT system was built around existing IPCS hardware. In order to achieve the desired system flexibility and capability, additional interfaces between the IPCS hardware and F-15 systems were required. The requirements for additions and modifications to the existing hardware were defined. Those interfaces involving the more significant changes were studied. The DCU memory expansion to 32K with flight qualified hardware was completed on a brassboard basis. The uplink interface breadboard and a brassboard of the central computer interface were also tested. Two preliminary designs and corresponding program plans are presented.

  13. Systems Analysis for Material Control and Accountancy Technology (SAMCAT)

    SciTech Connect

    Persiani, P.J., Bucher, R.G.; Rothman, A.B.; Cha, B.K.

    1990-01-01

    The Systems Analysis for Material Control and Accountancy Technology (SAMCAT) is an interactive computer-based management system developed for the Department of Energy Office of Safeguards and Security, to assist in defining and prioritizing measurement upgrades programs for Material Control and Accountancy (MC A). The accountancy upgrades options evaluated by SAMCAT in this study are: (1) improvement of the uncertainties in the SNM measurement methods, (2) reduction of throughputs and/or inventories of SNM, and (3) reduction of the material balance accounting period. The goals of the MC A upgrades program are reduced inventory differences and associated uncertainties, improved detection probabilities for theft/diversion, decreased operating costs, and enhanced material traceability. 6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Fully interferometric controllable anomalous refraction efficiency using cross modulation with plasmonic metasurfaces.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaocheng; Chen, Shuqi; Li, Jianxiong; Cheng, Hua; Li, Zhancheng; Liu, Wenwei; Yu, Ping; Xia, Ji; Tian, Jianguo

    2014-12-01

    We present a method of fully interferometric, controllable anomalous refraction efficiency by introducing cross-modulated incident light based on plasmonic metasurfaces. Theoretical analyses and numerical simulations indicate that the anomalous and ordinary refracted beams generated from two opposite-helicity incident beams and following the generalized Snell's law will have a superposition for certain incident angles, and the anomalous refraction efficiency can be dynamically controlled by changing the relative phase of the incident sources. As the incident wavelength nears the resonant wavelength of the plasmonic metasurfaces, two equal-amplitude incident beams with opposite helicity can be used to control the anomalous refraction efficiency. Otherwise, two unequal-amplitude incident beams with opposite helicity can be used to fully control the anomalous refraction efficiency. This Letter may offer a further step in the development of controllable anomalous refraction.

  15. Propellantless Attitude Control of Solar Sail Technology Utilizing Reflective Control Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munday, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Solar sails offer an opportunity for a CubeSatscale, propellant-free spacecraft technology that enables long-term and long-distance missions not possible with traditional methods. Solar sails operate using the transfer of linear momentum from photons of sunlight reflected from the surface of the sail. To propel the spacecraft, no mechanically moving parts, thrusters, or propellant are needed. However, attitude control, or orientation, is still performed using traditional methods involving reaction wheels and propellant ejection, which severely limit mission lifetime. For example, the current state of the art solutions employed by upcoming missions couple solar sails with a state of the art propellant ejection gas system. Here, the use of the gas thruster has limited the lifetime of the mission. To solve the limited mission lifetime problem, the Propellantless Attitude Control of Solar Sail Technology Utilizing Reflective Control Devices project team is working on propellantless attitude control using thin layers of material, an optical film, electrically switchable from transparent to reflective. The technology is based on a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC), which allows this switch upon application of a voltage. This technology removes the need for propellant, which reduces weight and cost while improving performance and lifetime.

  16. Solar efficient technologies for valorising an archaeological site in the rural area Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tǎmǎşan, Maria; Mǎrǎcineanu, Cristian; Bica, Smaranda Maria

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the study is finding viable methods of rehabilitation and re-use of the cultural heritage in rural areas by efficient contemporary technological and architectural solutions. In this respect, this paper describes the phases of an environmental-friendly intervention on an archaeological site near the village Şiria, Arad County, as case study, the expected results and the steps which must be taken in order to implement the proposal. The final aim is to create a complex and sustainable tourist attraction through musealisation, integrated in the already known, but poorly promoted tourist itinerary, known as The Wine Path - Şiria is in a wine-growing region first documented in the 9th century. The proposed design reflects our sustainable approach by combining local materials with non-invasive structural solutions and efficient solar technologies. The purpose of this approach is to reduce the building's maintenance costs nearly to 0 and to extend the visiting time of the archaeological site during the entire year, whatever the weather or season. The proposals are to be submitted to the County Council, having issued the Strategy for Tourist Development for Arad County, elaborated in 2011 by The Analysis for Institutional Development Centre - Bucharest.

  17. Low background high efficiency radiocesium detection system based on positron emission tomography technology

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Ogata, Yoshimune

    2013-09-15

    After the 2011 nuclear power plant accident at Fukushima, radiocesium contamination in food became a serious concern in Japan. However, low background and high efficiency radiocesium detectors are expensive and huge, including semiconductor germanium detectors. To solve this problem, we developed a radiocesium detector by employing positron emission tomography (PET) technology. Because {sup 134}Cs emits two gamma photons (795 and 605 keV) within 5 ps, they can selectively be measured with coincidence. Such major environmental gamma photons as {sup 40}K (1.46 MeV) are single photon emitters and a coincidence measurement reduces the detection limit of radiocesium detectors. We arranged eight sets of Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12} (BGO) scintillation detectors in double rings (four for each ring) and measured the coincidence between these detectors using PET data acquisition system. A 50 × 50 × 30 mm BGO was optically coupled to a 2 in. square photomultiplier tube (PMT). By measuring the coincidence, we eliminated most single gamma photons from the energy distribution and only detected those from {sup 134}Cs at an average efficiency of 12%. The minimum detectable concentration of the system for the 100 s acquisition time is less than half of the food monitor requirements in Japan (25 Bq/kg). These results show that the developed radiocesium detector based on PET technology is promising to detect low level radiocesium.

  18. Analysis of energetic and exergetic efficiency, and environmental benefits of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle technology.

    PubMed

    Mínguez, María; Jiménez, Angel; Rodríguez, Javier; González, Celina; López, Ignacio; Nieto, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    The problem of the high carbon dioxide emissions linked to power generation makes necessary active research on the use of biofuels in gas turbine systems as a promising alternative to fossil fuels. Gasification of biomass waste is particularly of interest in obtaining a fuel to be run in gas turbines, as it is an efficient biomass-to-biofuel conversion process, and an integration into a combined cycle power plant leads to a high performance with regard to energetic efficiency. The goal of this study was to carry out an energetic, exergetic and environmental analysis of the behaviour of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant fuelled with different kinds of biomass waste by means of simulations. A preliminary economic study is also included. Although a technological development in gasification technology is necessary, the results of simulations indicate a high technical and environmental interest in the use of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BioIGCC) systems for large-scale power generation from biomass waste. PMID:23444152

  19. Efficiency of wastewater treatment in SBR and IFAS-MBSBBR systems in specified technological conditions.

    PubMed

    Sytek-Szmeichel, K; Podedworna, J; Zubrowska-Sudol, M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare wastewater treatment effectiveness in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and integrated fixed-film activated sludge-moving-bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor (IFAS-MBSBBR) systems in specific technological conditions. The comparison of these two technologies was based on the following assumptions, shared by both series, I and II: the reactor's active volume was 28 L; 8-hour cycle of reactor's work, with the same sequence and duration of its consecutive phases; and the dissolved oxygen concentration in the aerobic phases was maintained at a level of 3.0 mg O2/L. For both experimental series (I and II), comparable effectiveness of organic compound (chemical oxygen demand (COD)) removal, nitrification and biological phosphorus removal has been obtained at levels of 95.1%, 97% and 99%, respectively. The presence of the carrier improved the efficiency of total nitrogen removal from 86.3% to 91.7%. On the basis of monitoring tests, it has been found that the ratio of simultaneous denitrification in phases with aeration to the total efficiency of denitrification in the cycle was 1.5 times higher for IFAS-MBSBBR. PMID:27003075

  20. Efficient computer algebra algorithms for polynomial matrices in control design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baras, J. S.; Macenany, D. C.; Munach, R.

    1989-01-01

    The theory of polynomial matrices plays a key role in the design and analysis of multi-input multi-output control and communications systems using frequency domain methods. Examples include coprime factorizations of transfer functions, cannonical realizations from matrix fraction descriptions, and the transfer function design of feedback compensators. Typically, such problems abstract in a natural way to the need to solve systems of Diophantine equations or systems of linear equations over polynomials. These and other problems involving polynomial matrices can in turn be reduced to polynomial matrix triangularization procedures, a result which is not surprising given the importance of matrix triangularization techniques in numerical linear algebra. Matrices with entries from a field and Gaussian elimination play a fundamental role in understanding the triangularization process. In the case of polynomial matrices, matrices with entries from a ring for which Gaussian elimination is not defined and triangularization is accomplished by what is quite properly called Euclidean elimination. Unfortunately, the numerical stability and sensitivity issues which accompany floating point approaches to Euclidean elimination are not very well understood. New algorithms are presented which circumvent entirely such numerical issues through the use of exact, symbolic methods in computer algebra. The use of such error-free algorithms guarantees that the results are accurate to within the precision of the model data--the best that can be hoped for. Care must be taken in the design of such algorithms due to the phenomenon of intermediate expressions swell.

  1. Process control in cell culture technology using dielectric spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Justice, C; Brix, A; Freimark, D; Kraume, M; Pfromm, P; Eichenmueller, B; Czermak, P

    2011-01-01

    In the biopharmaceutical industry, mammalian and insect cells as well as plant cell cultures are gaining worldwide importance to produce biopharmaceuticals and as products themselves, for example in stem cell therapy. These highly sophisticated cell-based production processes need to be monitored and controlled to guarantee product quality and to satisfy GMP requirements. With the process analytical technology (PAT) initiative, requirements regarding process monitoring and control have changed and real-time in-line monitoring tools are now recommended. Dielectric spectroscopy (DS) can serve as a tool to satisfy some PAT requirements. DS has been used in the medical field for quite some time and it may allow real-time process monitoring of biological cell culture parameters. DS has the potential to enable process optimization, automation, cost reduction, and a more consistent product quality. Dielectric spectroscopy is reviewed here as a tool to monitor biochemical processes. Commercially available dielectric sensing systems are discussed. The potential of this technology is demonstrated through examples of current and potential future applications in research and industry for mammalian and insect cell culture.

  2. MULTIPOLLUTANT EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY OPTIONS FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents and analyzes various existing and novel control technologies designed to achieve multipollutant [sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxide (NOX), and mercury (Hg)] emission reductions. Summary descriptions are included of 23 multipollutant control technologies that...

  3. 76 FR 72215 - Certain Products Containing Interactive Program Guide and Parental Controls Technology; Receipt...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... COMMISSION Certain Products Containing Interactive Program Guide and Parental Controls Technology; Receipt of... received a complaint entitled In Re Certain Products Containing Interactive Program Guide and Parental... certain products containing interactive program guide and parental controls technology. The...

  4. 40 CFR Table 10 to Part 455 - List of Appropriate Pollution Control Technologies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Technologies 10 Table 10 to Part 455 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Appropriate Pollution Control Technologies This table contains those pollutant control technologies, such as... estimating compliance costs on a PAI specific basis. In general, these treatment technologies have...

  5. New Technology and Changing Organisational Forms: Implications for Managerial Control and Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimshaw, Damian; Cooke, Fang-Lee; Grugulis, Irena; Vincent, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Case studies of client relations in a call center and an information technology company's partnership with a government agency examined how new technology affects organizational structures and managerial control. Evidence suggests that new structures arise in tandem with technological changes and technology's use as a form of control differs in…

  6. Diffusion of Energy Efficient Technology in Commercial Buildings: An Analysis of the Commercial Building Partnerships Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonopoulos, Chrissi Argyro

    This study presents findings from survey and interview data investigating replication of green building measures by Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) partners that worked directly with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL partnered directly with 12 organizations on new and retrofit construction projects, which represented approximately 28 percent of the entire U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CBP program. Through a feedback survey mechanism, along with personal interviews, quantitative and qualitative data were gathered relating to replication efforts by each organization. These data were analyzed to provide insight into two primary research areas: 1) CBP partners' replication efforts of green building approaches used in the CBP project to the rest of the organization's building portfolio, and, 2) the market potential for technology diffusion into the total U.S. commercial building stock, as a direct result of the CBP program. The first area of this research focused specifically on replication efforts underway or planned by each CBP program participant. The second area of this research develops a diffusion of innovations model to analyze potential broad market impacts of the CBP program on the commercial building industry in the United States. Findings from this study provided insight into motivations and objectives CBP partners had for program participation. Factors that impact replication include motivation, organizational structure and objectives firms have for implementation of energy efficient technologies. Comparing these factors between different CBP partners revealed patterns in motivation for constructing energy efficient buildings, along with better insight into market trends for green building practices. The optimized approach to the CBP program allows partners to develop green building parameters that fit the specific uses of their building, resulting in greater motivation for replication. In addition, the diffusion model developed

  7. Electric Power Research Institute: Environmental Control Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP) test block was conducted using the Carbon Injection System (the 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber and the Pulse-jet Fabric Filter). Testing also continued across the B&W/CHX Heat Exchanger this month as the effects of increased particulate loading are being studied. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit and the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet Scrubber remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly. Testing in October at the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC) included tests from the Pilot Trace Elements Removal (TER) test block as part of EPRI`s overall program to develop control technology options for reduction of trace element emissions. This experimental program investigates mercury removal and mercury speciation under different operating conditions. The 1996 program is being performed on the 4.0 MW wet FGD pilot unit and the spray dryer/pulse jet fabric filter (SDA/PJFF) pilot units. The 1996 Trace Elements Removal (TER) test block is a continuation of the 1995 TER test block and will focus on up to five research areas, depending on experimental results. These areas are: (1) Mercury speciation methods; (2) Effect of FGD system operating variables on mercury removal; (3) Novel methods for elemental mercury control; (4) Catalytic methods for converting elemental mercury to oxidized mercury; and (5) Electrostatic charging of particulate material in the FGD inlet flue gas stream. The work during October continued to focus on catalytic oxidation of elemental mercury. These tests included the evaluation of two different loadings of catalyst CT-9 (carbon-based material) over extended periods (8-10 days) and an evaluation of FAB-2B (bulk bituminous fly ash taken from the first hopper of the

  8. Feasibility and testing of lighweight, energy efficient, additive manufactured pneumatic control valve

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie J.; Mell, Ellen

    2015-02-01

    AeroValve s innovative pneumatic valve technology recycles compressed air through the valve body with each cycle of the valve, and was reported to reduce compressed air requirements by an average of 25% 30%.This technology collaboration project between ORNL and Aerovalve confirms the energy efficiency of valve performance. Measuring air consumption per work completed, the AeroValve was as much as 85% better than the commercial Festo valve.

  9. Quiet, Efficient Fans for Spaceflight: An Overview of NASA's Technology Development Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, L. Danielle

    2010-01-01

    A Technology Development Plan to improve the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of spaceflight fans has been submitted to NASA s Exploration Technology Development Program. The plan describes a research program intended to make broader use of the technology developed at NASA Glenn to increase the efficiency and reduce the noise of aircraft engine fans. The goal is to develop a set of well-characterized government-owned fans nominally suited for spacecraft ventilation and cooling systems. NASA s Exploration Life Support community will identify design point conditions for the fans in this study. Computational Fluid Dynamics codes will be used in the design and analysis process. The fans will be built and used in a series of tests. Data from aerodynamic and acoustic performance tests will be used to validate performance predictions. These performance maps will also be entered into a database to help spaceflight fan system developers make informed design choices. Velocity measurements downstream of fan rotor blades and stator vanes will also be collected and used for code validation. Details of the fan design, analysis, and testing will be publicly reported. With access to fan geometry and test data, the small fan industry can independently evaluate design and analysis methods and work towards improvement.

  10. Efficient production of cynomolgus monkeys with a toolbox of enhanced assisted reproductive technologies

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yunhan; Li, Jiayu; Wang, Ge; Ke, Qiong; Qiu, Sien; Gao, Liang; Wan, Haifeng; Zhou, Yang; Xiang, Andy Peng; Huang, Qunshan; Feng, Guoping; Zhou, Qi; Yang, Shihua

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) in nonhuman primates is low due to no screening criterions for selecting sperm, oocyte, and embryo as well as its surrogate mothers. Here we analyzed 15 pairs of pregnant and non-pregnant cynomolgus monkeys, each pair of which received embryos from one batch of fertilized oocytes, and found ratio of endometrial to myometrial thicknesses in abdominal ultrasonic transverse section of uterus is a reliable indicator for selection of recipients for embryo transfer. We performed 305 ovarian stimulations in 128 female cynomolgus monkeys and found that ovarian stimulation can be performed in a whole year and repeated up to six times in the same monkey without deteriorating fertilization potential of eggs until a poor response to stimulation happened. Fertilization can be efficiently achieved with both conventional and piezo-driven intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedures. In semen collection, semen quality is higher with the penile robe electrical stimulus method compared with the rectal probe method. Moreover, caesarean section is an effective strategy for increasing baby survival rates of multiple pregnancies. These findings provide a practical guidance for the efficient use of ARTs, facilitating their use in genetic engineering of macaque monkeys for basic and translational neuroscience research. PMID:27173128

  11. Impact of technical and technological changes on energy efficiency of production company - case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szwedzka, K.; Gruszka, J.; Szafer, P.

    2016-08-01

    Improving energy efficiency is one of the strategic objectives of the European Union for rational energy economy. To make efforts to improve energy efficiency have been obliged both small and large end-users. This article aims to show the possibilities of improving energy efficiency by introducing technical and technological process changes of pine lumber drying. The object of the research is process of drying lumber implemented in a production company, which is a key supplier of large furniture manufacturer. Pine lumber drying chamber consume about 45% of total electricity in sawmill. According to various sources, drying of 1m3 of lumber uses about 3060kWh and is dependent of inter alia: the drying process itself, the factors affecting the processing time and the desired output moisture content of the timber. The article proposals for changes in the process of drying lumber pine have been positively validated in the company, and as a result their energy consumption per 1 m3 of product declined by 18%.

  12. SSTAC/ARTS review of the draft Integrated Technology Plan (ITP). Volume 6: Controls and guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs of briefings from the Space Systems and Technology Advisory Committee (SSTAC)/ARTS review of the draft Integrated Technology Plan (ITP) on controls and guidance are included. Topics covered include: strategic avionics technology planning and bridging programs; avionics technology plan; vehicle health management; spacecraft guidance research; autonomous rendezvous and docking; autonomous landing; computational control; fiberoptic rotation sensors; precision instrument and telescope pointing; microsensors and microinstruments; micro guidance and control initiative; and earth-orbiting platforms controls-structures interaction.

  13. State of the art survey of technologies applicable to NASA's aeronautics, avionics and controls program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, R. K. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The state of the art survey (SOAS) covers six technology areas including flightpath management, aircraft control system, crew station technology, interface & integration technology, military technology, and fundamental technology. The SOAS included contributions from over 70 individuals in industry, government, and the universities.

  14. Development of Energy Efficient Technologies for Burning Coal in Modern Thermal Power Plants and Efficiency Assessment Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovskiy, Vitali; Zubova, Marina; Sedelnikov, Nikolai; Dihnova, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Universal ecological energy-efficient burner was described. The burner allows to burn different types of coal and lignite without the use of fuel oil for kindling the boiler. Efficiency assessment tools of the introduction of the burner for combustion of coal in modern thermal power plants were given.

  15. Formation of the Integral Ecological Quality Index of the Technological Processes in Machine Building Based on Their Energy Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egorov, Sergey B.; Kapitanov, Alexey V.; Mitrofanov, Vladimir G.; Shvartsburg, Leonid E.; Ivanova, Natalia A.; Ryabov, Sergey A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of article is to provide development of a unified assessment methodology in relation to various technological processes and the actual conditions of their implementation. To carry the energy efficiency analysis of the technological processes through comparison of the established power and the power consumed by the actual technological…

  16. 77 FR 33487 - Certain Products Containing Interactive Program Guide and Parental Control Technology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain Products Containing Interactive Program Guide and Parental Control Technology; Institution... interactive program guide and parental control technology by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S... products containing interactive program guide and parental control technology that infringe one or more...

  17. Electric Power Research Institute, Environmental Control Technology Center report to the Steering Committee. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit continued this month with the Trace Element Removal (TER) test block, and a simultaneous testing of the Lime Forced Oxidation process with DBA addition (LDG). At the end of the month, a series of Duct Injection tests began in a study to determine the efficiencies of alkaline injection for removing trace elements (mercury). On the Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, low temperature performance testing continued this month as measurements were taken for NO{sub x} removal efficiency, residual ammonia slip, and SO{sub 3} generation across the catalysts installed in the SCR reactor. This report describes the status of the facilities and test activities at the pilot and mini-pilot plants.

  18. Technology For Command, Control, Communications And Intelligence (C3I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, John S.

    1980-02-01

    I am happy to be here this morning with this distinguished technical audience of the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. You have recognized a very important problem area and I think that through this conference or seminar, you will address many technical aspects of the problems associated with Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence (C³I). C³I is a term that is gaining more and more visibility and acceptance in all areas of military operations. In the past, the transfer of technology into military operations has been concentrated on force effectiveness. Our leaders now recognize more fully that force effectiveness depends to a very high degree on the command and control functions which in turn need to know the status of enemy as well as friendly forces. Perhaps the best way to start this discussion of C³I is to arrive at a definition. Unfortunately, I'm sure that if I ask each of you to give me a definition of C³I, I would have just as many definitions as there are people in the audience. The situation is similar to the old story about the three blind men trying to describe an elephant. I would like to paraphrase a few remarks of Julian Lake in a recent editorial in Military Electronics/Countermeasures Magazine. As he points out, C3 is many things to many people. To the intelligence specialist who is so wrapped up in his intelligence community activity, C³I is simply an extension of the modern applications of intelligence. In fact, the intelligence officer feels that he is the actual center of the C³I structure. On the other hand, the communications specialist thinks that communications is the actual heartbeat of C³I activity, and this is right to a point because communications is a fundamental building block of the C3 function. The computer specialist will point out that C³I is merely a product of the computer age. One reason there was very little done about C³I in the past was the nonavailability of computer techniques and

  19. Towards energy efficient operation of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning systems via advanced supervisory control design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswiecinska, A.; Hibbs, J.; Zajic, I.; Burnham, K. J.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents conceptual control solution for reliable and energy efficient operation of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems used in large volume building applications, e.g. warehouse facilities or exhibition centres. Advanced two-level scalable control solution, designed to extend capabilities of the existing low-level control strategies via remote internet connection, is presented. The high-level, supervisory controller is based on Model Predictive Control (MPC) architecture, which is the state-of-the-art for indoor climate control systems. The innovative approach benefits from using passive heating and cooling control strategies for reducing the HVAC system operational costs, while ensuring that required environmental conditions are met.

  20. Urban drainage control applying rational method and geographic information technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldalur, Beatriz; Campo, Alicia; Fernández, Sandra

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a method of controlling urban drainages in the town of Ingeniero White motivated by the problems arising as a result of floods, water logging and the combination of southeasterly and high tides. A Rational Method was applied to control urban watersheds and used tools of Geographic Information Technology (GIT). A Geographic Information System was developed on the basis of 28 panchromatic aerial photographs of 2005. They were georeferenced with control points measured with Global Positioning Systems (basin: 6 km2). Flow rates of basins and sub-basins were calculated and it was verified that the existing open channels have a low slope with the presence of permanent water and generate stagnation of water favored by the presence of trash. It is proposed for the output of storm drains, the use of an existing channel to evacuate the flow. The solution proposed in this work is complemented by the placement of three pumping stations: one on a channel to drain rain water which will allow the drain of the excess water from the lower area where is located the Ingeniero White city and the two others that will drain the excess liquid from the port area.