Efficient finite element method for grating profile reconstruction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Ruming; Sun, Jiguang
2015-12-01
This paper concerns the reconstruction of grating profiles from scattering data. The inverse problem is formulated as an optimization problem with a regularization term. We devise an efficient finite element method (FEM) and employ a quasi-Newton method to solve it. For the direct problems, the FEM stiff and mass matrices are assembled once at the beginning of the numerical procedure. Then only minor changes are made to the mass matrix at each iteration, which significantly saves the computation cost. Numerical examples show that the method is effective and robust.
An Efficient Vector Finite Element Method for Nonlinear Electromagnetic Modeling
Fisher, A C; White, D A; Rodrigue, G H
2006-06-27
We have developed a mixed Vector Finite Element Method (VFEM) for Maxwell's equations with a nonlinear polarization term. The method allows for discretization of complicated geometries with arbitrary order representations of the B and E fields. In this paper we will describe the method and a series of optimizations that significantly reduce the computational cost. Additionally, a series of test simulations will be presented to validate the method. Finally, a nonlinear waveguide mode mixing example is presented and discussed.
Efficient algorithms for use in probabilistic finite element analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dias, J. B.; Nagtegaal, J. C.
1985-01-01
This paper investigates the use of Fast Probability Integration (FPI) algorithms in a Finite Element environment. A method allowing the representation of correlated fields in terms of a vector of uncorrelated transformed variables, based on the spectral decomposition of the variance-covariance matrix is developed. The response of the deterministic model corresponding to selected perturbations of these uncorrelated variables is then obtained via a Newton-type iterative scheme. The results of the perturbed problems are used to construct a local representation of the model's behavior in the neighborhood of the deterministic state, which the FPI algorithm will use to estimate the reliability of the system. Although the proposed strategy has thus far only been applied to linear elastostatics, the extension of the method to a broader class of problems appears to be feasible.
Efficient finite element simulation of slot spirals, slot radomes and microwave structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gong, J.; Volakis, J. L.
1995-01-01
This progress report contains the following two documents: (1) 'Efficient Finite Element Simulation of Slot Antennas using Prismatic Elements' - A hybrid finite element-boundary integral (FE-BI) simulation technique is discussed to treat narrow slot antennas etched on a planar platform. Specifically, the prismatic elements are used to reduce the redundant sampling rates and ease the mesh generation process. Numerical results for an antenna slot and frequency selective surfaces are presented to demonstrate the validity and capability of the technique; and (2) 'Application and Design Guidelines of the PML Absorber for Finite Element Simulations of Microwave Packages' - The recently introduced perfectly matched layer (PML) uniaxial absorber for frequency domain finite element simulations has several advantages. In this paper we present the application of PML for microwave circuit simulations along with design guidelines to obtain a desired level of absorption. Different feeding techniques are also investigated for improved accuracy.
Fuzzy logic to improve efficiency of finite element and finite difference schemes
Garcia, M.D.; Heger, A.S.
1994-05-01
This paper explores possible applications of logic in the areas of finite element and finite difference methods applied to engineering design problems. The application of fuzzy logic to both front-end selection of computational options and within the numerical computation itself are proposed. Further, possible methods of overcoming these limitations through the application of methods are explored. Decision strategy is a fundamental limitation in performing finite element calculations, such as selecting the optimum coarseness of the grid, numerical integration algorithm, element type, implicit versus explicit schemes, and the like. This is particularly true of novice analysts who are confronted with a myriad of choices in performing a calculation. The advantage of having the myriad of options available to the analyst is, however, that it improves and optimizes the design process if the appropriate ones are selected. Unfortunately, the optimum choices are not always apparent and only through the process of elimination or prior extensive experience can the optimum choices or combination of choices be selected. The knowledge of expert analysts could be integrated into a fuzzy ``front-end`` rule-based package to optimize the design process. The use of logic to capture the heuristic and human knowledge for selecting optimum solution strategies sets the framework for these proposed strategies.
Efficient beam-column finite element including application to thermoelastic deformation
Ju, F.D.
1980-02-01
During the study of the structural design of the core of the Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR), there is evidence of undue frictional interaction between fuel rod claddings and their spacer grids. In cases for which thermal bowing of the rods is sufficient to cause two-sided contact between the rods and their supporting grids (and thus a tendency to lock up), subsequent rod deformation caused by the axial thermal expansion would result in excessive buckling of the rods between locked supports. The numerical solution is best served by the finite element method. Yet there is a large number of fuel rods in the reactor, of which each is multiply-supported by spacers. Hence, an efficient finite element is needed that would model each section between supports with not more than three elements. The new efficient finite element is developed, beginning with the principle of virtual work.
A numerically efficient finite element hydroelastic analysis. Volume 1: Theory and results
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coppolino, R. N.
1976-01-01
Symmetric finite element matrix formulations for compressible and incompressible hydroelasticity are developed on the basis of Toupin's complementary formulation of classical mechanics. Results of implementation of the new technique in the NASTRAN structural analysis program are presented which demonstrate accuracy and efficiency.
Automatic finite element generators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, P. S.
1984-01-01
The design and implementation of a software system for generating finite elements and related computations are described. Exact symbolic computational techniques are employed to derive strain-displacement matrices and element stiffness matrices. Methods for dealing with the excessive growth of symbolic expressions are discussed. Automatic FORTRAN code generation is described with emphasis on improving the efficiency of the resultant code.
Efficient simulation of cardiac electrical propagation using high order finite elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arthurs, Christopher J.; Bishop, Martin J.; Kay, David
2012-05-01
We present an application of high order hierarchical finite elements for the efficient approximation of solutions to the cardiac monodomain problem. We detail the hurdles which must be overcome in order to achieve theoretically-optimal errors in the approximations generated, including the choice of method for approximating the solution to the cardiac cell model component. We place our work on a solid theoretical foundation and show that it can greatly improve the accuracy in the approximation which can be achieved in a given amount of processor time. Our results demonstrate superior accuracy over linear finite elements at a cheaper computational cost and thus indicate the potential indispensability of our approach for large-scale cardiac simulation.
Finite element strategies for the efficient analysis and evaluation of solar collector structures
Koteras, J. R.
1980-01-01
Concentrating or reflecting structures for solar energy systems must be evaluated as to their structural integrity and optical performance. Computer studies can be used as an integral part of these evaluations. The computer studies make use of finite element structural codes coupled with post-processors that calculate optical data. If the analysis of a solar structure is to be carried out in an efficient manner, these computer codes must have certain capabilities. A number of solar energy projects at Sandia National Laboratories have made extensive use of finite element analyses. The analyses have been useful in evaluating design concepts which hold promise for large scale use in solar energy projects. Analysis procedures have been developed for some structures so that evaluations can be carried out in a straightforward manner.
An efficient Mindlin finite strip plate element based on assumed strain distribution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chulya, Abhisak; Thompson, Robert L.
1988-01-01
A simple two node, linear, finite strip plate bending element based on Mindlin-Reissner plate theory for the analysis of very thin to thick bridges, plates, and axisymmetric shells is presented. The new transverse shear strains are assumed for constant distribution in the two node linear strip. The important aspect is the choice of the points that relate the nodal displacements and rotations through the locking transverse shear strains. The element stiffness matrix is explicitly formulated for efficient computation and ease in computer implementation. Numerical results showing the efficiency and predictive capability of the element for analyzing plates with different supports, loading conditions, and a wide range of thicknesses are given. The results show no sign of the shear locking phenomenon.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alimonti, L.; Atalla, N.
2016-04-01
This paper is concerned with the development of a simplified model for noise control treatments to speed up finite element analysis in vibroacoustic applications. The methodology relies on the assumption that the acoustic treatment is flat and homogeneous. Moreover, its finite lateral extent is neglected. This hypothesis is justified by short wavelength and large dissipation, which suggest that the reflected field emanating from the acoustic treatment lateral boundaries does not substantially affect its dynamic response. Under these circumstances, the response of the noise control treatment can be formally obtained by means of convolution integrals involving simple analytical kernels (i.e. Green functions). Such fundamental solutions can be computed efficiently by the transfer matrix method. However, some arbitrariness arises in the formulation of the mathematical model, resulting in different baffling conditions at the two ends of the treatment to be considered. Thus, the paper investigates the possibility of different formulations (i.e. baffling conditions) within the same hybrid finite element-transfer matrix framework, seeking for the best strategy in terms of tradeoff between efficiency and accuracy. Numerical examples are provided to show strengths and limitations of the proposed methodology.
Efficient evaluation of the Coulomb force in the Gaussian and finite-element Coulomb method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurashige, Yuki; Nakajima, Takahito; Sato, Takeshi; Hirao, Kimihiko
2010-06-01
We propose an efficient method for evaluating the Coulomb force in the Gaussian and finite-element Coulomb (GFC) method, which is a linear-scaling approach for evaluating the Coulomb matrix and energy in large molecular systems. The efficient evaluation of the analytical gradient in the GFC is not straightforward as well as the evaluation of the energy because the SCF procedure with the Coulomb matrix does not give a variational solution for the Coulomb energy. Thus, an efficient approximate method is alternatively proposed, in which the Coulomb potential is expanded in the Gaussian and finite-element auxiliary functions as done in the GFC. To minimize the error in the gradient not just in the energy, the derived functions of the original auxiliary functions of the GFC are used additionally for the evaluation of the Coulomb gradient. In fact, the use of the derived functions significantly improves the accuracy of this approach. Although these additional auxiliary functions enlarge the size of the discretized Poisson equation and thereby increase the computational cost, it maintains the near linear scaling as the GFC and does not affects the overall efficiency of the GFC approach.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bing, Zhou; Greenhalgh, S. A.
2001-06-01
The finite element method is a powerful tool for 3-D DC resistivity modelling and inversion. The solution accuracy and computational efficiency are critical factors in using the method in 3-D resistivity imaging. This paper investigates the solution accuracy and the computational efficiency of two common element-type schemes: trilinear interpolation within a regular 8-node solid parallelepiped, and linear interpolations within six tetrahedral bricks within the same 8-node solid block. Four iterative solvers based on the pre-conditioned conjugate gradient method (SCG, TRIDCG, SORCG and ICCG), and one elimination solver called the banded Choleski factorization are employed for the solutions. The comparisons of the element schemes and solvers were made by means of numerical experiments using three synthetic models. The results show that the tetrahedron element scheme is far superior to the parallelepiped element scheme, both in accuracy and computational efficiency. The tetrahedron element scheme may save 43 per cent storage for an iterative solver, and achieve an accuracy of the maximum relative error of <1 per cent with an appropriate element size. The two iterative solvers, SORCG and ICCG, are suitable options for 3-D resistivity computations on a PC, and both perform comparably in terms of convergence speed in the two element schemes. ICCG achieves the best convergence rate, but nearly doubles the total storage size of the computation. Simple programming codes for the two iterative solvers are presented. We also show that a fine grid, which doubles the density of a coarse grid, will require at least 27=128 times as much computing time when using the banded Choleski factorization. Such an increase, especially for 3-D resistivity inversion, should be compared with SORCG and ICCG solvers in order to find the computationally most efficient method when dealing with a large number of electrodes.
Felice, Maria V.; Velichko, Alexander; Wilcox, Paul D.; Barden, Tim J.; Dunhill, Tony K.
2014-02-18
A hybrid model to simulate the ultrasonic array response from stress corrosion cracks is presented. These cracks are branched and difficult to detect so the model is required to enable optimization of an array design. An efficient frequency-domain finite element method is described and selected to simulate the ultrasonic scattering. Experimental validation results are presented, followed by an example of the simulated ultrasonic array response from a real stress corrosion crack whose geometry is obtained from an X-ray Computed Tomography image. A simulation-assisted array design methodology, which includes the model and use of real crack geometries, is proposed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yasin, M. Yaqoob; Kapuria, S.
2014-01-01
In this work, we present a new efficient four-node finite element for shallow multilayered piezoelectric shells, considering layerwise mechanics and electromechanical coupling. The laminate mechanics is based on the zigzag theory that has only seven kinematic degrees of freedom per node. The normal deformation of the piezoelectric layers under the electric field is accounted for without introducing any additional deflection variables. A consistent quadratic variation of the electric potential across the piezoelectric layers with the provision of satisfying the equipotential condition of electroded surfaces is adopted. The performance of the new element is demonstrated for the static response under mechanical and electric potential loads, and for free vibration response of smart shells under different boundary conditions. The predictions are found to be very close to the three dimensional piezoelasticity solutions for hybrid shells made of not only single-material composite substrates, but also sandwich substrates with a soft core for which the equivalent single layer (ESL) theories perform very badly.
General purpose software for efficient uncertainty management of large finite element models
Patelli, Edoardo; Murat Panayirci, H.; Broggi, Matteo; Goller, Barbara; Beaurepaire, Pierre; Pradlwarter, Helmut J.; Schuëller, Gerhart I.
2012-01-01
The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that stochastic analyses can be performed on large and complex models within affordable costs. Stochastic analyses offer a much more realistic approach for analysis and design of components and systems although generally computationally demanding. Hence, resorting to efficient approaches and high performance computing is required in order to reduce the execution time. A general purpose software that provides an integration between deterministic solvers (i.e. finite element solvers), efficient algorithms for uncertainty management and high performance computing is presented. The software is intended for a wide range of applications, which includes optimization analysis, life-cycle management, reliability and risk analysis, fatigue and fractures simulation, robust design. The applicability of the proposed tools for practical applications is demonstrated by means of a number of case studies of industrial interest involving detailed models. PMID:22474398
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walston, W. H., Jr.
1986-01-01
The comparative computational efficiencies of the finite element (FEM), boundary element (BEM), and hybrid boundary element-finite element (HVFEM) analysis techniques are evaluated for representative bounded domain interior and unbounded domain exterior problems in elastostatics. Computational efficiency is carefully defined in this study as the computer time required to attain a specified level of solution accuracy. The study found the FEM superior to the BEM for the interior problem, while the reverse was true for the exterior problem. The hybrid analysis technique was found to be comparable or superior to both the FEM and BEM for both the interior and exterior problems.
On the Relationship Between Tooth Shape and Masticatory Efficiency: A Finite Element Study.
Berthaume, Michael A
2016-05-01
Dental topography has successfully linked disparate tooth shapes to distinct dietary categories, but not to masticatory efficiency. Here, the relationship between four dental topographic metrics and brittle food item breakdown efficiency during compressive biting was investigated using a parametric finite element model of a bunodont molar. Food item breakdown efficiency was chosen to represent masticatory efficiency as it isolated tooth-food item interactions, where most other categories of masticatory efficiency include several aspects of the masticatory process. As relative food item size may affect the presence/absence of any relationship, four isometrically scaled, hemispherical, proxy food items were considered. Topographic metrics were uncorrelated to food item breakdown efficiency irrespective of relative food item size, and dental topographic metrics were largely uncorrelated to one another. The lack of a correlation between topographic metrics and food item breakdown efficiency is not unexpected as not all food items break down in the same manner (e.g., nuts are crushed, leaves are sheared), and only one food item shape was considered. In addition, food item breakdown efficiency describes tooth-food item interactions and requires location and shape specific information, which are absent from dental topographic metrics. This makes it unlikely any one efficiency metric will be correlated to all topographic metrics. These results emphasize the need to take into account how food items break down during biting, ingestion, and mastication when investigating the mechanical relationship between food item shape, size, mechanical properties, and breakdown, and tooth shape. Anat Rec, 299:679-687, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26910570
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bianchini, Ilaria; Argiento, Raffaele; Auricchio, Ferdinando; Lanzarone, Ettore
2015-09-01
The great influence of uncertainties on the behavior of physical systems has always drawn attention to the importance of a stochastic approach to engineering problems. Accordingly, in this paper, we address the problem of solving a Finite Element analysis in the presence of uncertain parameters. We consider an approach in which several solutions of the problem are obtained in correspondence of parameters samples, and propose a novel non-intrusive method, which exploits the functional principal component analysis, to get acceptable computational efforts. Indeed, the proposed approach allows constructing an optimal basis of the solutions space and projecting the full Finite Element problem into a smaller space spanned by this basis. Even if solving the problem in this reduced space is computationally convenient, very good approximations are obtained by upper bounding the error between the full Finite Element solution and the reduced one. Finally, we assess the applicability of the proposed approach through different test cases, obtaining satisfactory results.
An Efficient Finite Element Approach for Modeling Fibrotic Clefts in the Heart
Costa, Caroline Mendonca; Campos, Fernando O.; Prassl, Anton J.; dos Santos, Rodrigo Weber; Sánchez-Quintana, Damián; Ahammer, Helmut; Hofer, Ernst; Plank, Gernot
2014-01-01
Advanced medical imaging technologies provide a wealth of information on cardiac anatomy and structure at a paracellular resolution, allowing to identify micro-structural discontinuities which disrupt the intracellular matrix. Current state-of-the-art computer models built upon such datasets account for increasingly finer anatomical details, however, structural discontinuities at the paracellular level are typically discarded in the model generation process, owing to the significant costs which incur when using high resolutions for explicit representation. In this study, a novel discontinuous finite element (dFE) approach for discretizing the bidomain equations is presented, which accounts for fine-scale structures in a computer model without the need to increase spatial resolution. In the dFE method this is achieved by imposing infinitely thin lines of electrical insulation along edges of finite elements which approximate the geometry of discontinuities in the intracellular matrix. Simulation results demonstrate that the dFE approach accounts for effects induced by microscopic size scale discontinuities, such as the formation of microscopic virtual electrodes, with vast computational savings as compared to high resolution continuous finite element models. Moreover, the method can be implemented in any standard continuous finite element code with minor effort. PMID:24557691
Development of a Computationally Efficient, High Fidelity, Finite Element Based Hall Thruster Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacobson, David (Technical Monitor); Roy, Subrata
2004-01-01
This report documents the development of a two dimensional finite element based numerical model for efficient characterization of the Hall thruster plasma dynamics in the framework of multi-fluid model. Effect of the ionization and the recombination has been included in the present model. Based on the experimental data, a third order polynomial in electron temperature is used to calculate the ionization rate. The neutral dynamics is included only through the neutral continuity equation in the presence of a uniform neutral flow. The electrons are modeled as magnetized and hot, whereas ions are assumed magnetized and cold. The dynamics of Hall thruster is also investigated in the presence of plasma-wall interaction. The plasma-wall interaction is a function of wall potential, which in turn is determined by the secondary electron emission and sputtering yield. The effect of secondary electron emission and sputter yield has been considered simultaneously, Simulation results are interpreted in the light of experimental observations and available numerical solutions in the literature.
Inzana, Jason A; Varga, Peter; Windolf, Markus
2016-06-14
Finite element analysis is commonly used to assist in the development and evaluation of orthopedic devices. The physics of these models are simplified through approximations that enable more efficient simulations, without compromising the accuracy of the relative comparisons between implant designs or configurations. This study developed and evaluated a technique to approximate the behavior of a finely threaded screw using a smooth cylinder with the threads implicitly represented through interfacial contact conditions. This pseudo-threaded model was calibrated by comparing to simulations that explicitly modeled the thread geometry with frictional contact. A parametric analysis was performed with a single screw-in-bone system, five loading directions, and three Young׳s moduli that span the range of cancellous bone (200, 600, and 1,000MPa). Considering that screw cut-out from cancellous bone is a critical clinical issue in the osteoporotic proximal humerus, the pseudo-threaded model was compared with a bonded interface to examine three different screw configurations in a 3-part proximal humerus fracture across 10 patients. In the single screw-in-bone system, the pseudo-threaded model predicted the screw displacement of the explicitly threaded model with 1-5% difference and estimated the strain distributions and magnitudes more accurately than a bonded interface. Yet, the relative comparisons of implant stability across the three different screw configurations in the proximal humerus were not affected by the modeling choice for the bone-screw interface. Therefore, the bonded interface could serve as a more efficient methodology for making relative comparisons between implants that utilize the same thread profile. PMID:27157243
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fuh, Jon-Shen; Panda, Brahmananda; Peters, David A.
1988-01-01
A finite element approach is presented for the modeling of rotorcraft undergoing elastic deformation in addition to large rigid body motion with respect to inertial space, with particular attention given to the coupling of the rotor and fuselage subsystems subject to large relative rotations. The component synthesis technique used here allows the coupling of rotors to the fuselage for different rotorcraft configurations. The formulation is general and applicable to any rotorcraft vibration, aeroelasticity, and dynamics problem.
Probabilistic Finite Element: Variational Theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Belytschko, T.; Liu, W. K.
1985-01-01
The goal of this research is to provide techniques which are cost-effective and enable the engineer to evaluate the effect of uncertainties in complex finite element models. Embedding the probabilistic aspects in a variational formulation is a natural approach. In addition, a variational approach to probabilistic finite elements enables it to be incorporated within standard finite element methodologies. Therefore, once the procedures are developed, they can easily be adapted to existing general purpose programs. Furthermore, the variational basis for these methods enables them to be adapted to a wide variety of structural elements and to provide a consistent basis for incorporating probabilistic features in many aspects of the structural problem. Tasks concluded include the theoretical development of probabilistic variational equations for structural dynamics, the development of efficient numerical algorithms for probabilistic sensitivity displacement and stress analysis, and integration of methodologies into a pilot computer code.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noor, Ahmed K.; Peters, Jeanne M.
1989-01-01
A computational procedure is presented for the nonlinear dynamic analysis of unsymmetric structures on vector multiprocessor systems. The procedure is based on a novel hierarchical partitioning strategy in which the response of the unsymmetric and antisymmetric response vectors (modes), each obtained by using only a fraction of the degrees of freedom of the original finite element model. The three key elements of the procedure which result in high degree of concurrency throughout the solution process are: (1) mixed (or primitive variable) formulation with independent shape functions for the different fields; (2) operator splitting or restructuring of the discrete equations at each time step to delineate the symmetric and antisymmetric vectors constituting the response; and (3) two level iterative process for generating the response of the structure. An assessment is made of the effectiveness of the procedure on the CRAY X-MP/4 computers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noor, Ahmed K.; Peters, Jeanne M.
1989-01-01
A computational procedure is presented for the nonlinear dynamic analysis of unsymmetric structures on vector multiprocessor systems. The procedure is based on a novel hierarchical partitioning strategy in which the response of the unsymmetric and antisymmetric response vectors (modes), each obtained by using only a fraction of the degrees of freedom of the original finite element model. The three key elements of the procedure which result in high degree of concurrency throughout the solution process are: (1) mixed (or primitive variable) formulation with independent shape functions for the different fields; (2) operator splitting or restructuring of the discrete equations at each time step to delineate the symmetric and antisymmetric vectors constituting the response; and (3) two level iterative process for generating the response of the structure. An assessment is made of the effectiveness of the procedure on the CRAY X-MP/4 computers.
Li, Mao; Wittek, Adam; Miller, Karol
2014-01-01
Biomechanical modeling methods can be used to predict deformations for medical image registration and particularly, they are very effective for whole-body computed tomography (CT) image registration because differences between the source and target images caused by complex articulated motions and soft tissues deformations are very large. The biomechanics-based image registration method needs to deform the source images using the deformation field predicted by finite element models (FEMs). In practice, the global and local coordinate systems are used in finite element analysis. This involves the transformation of coordinates from the global coordinate system to the local coordinate system when calculating the global coordinates of image voxels for warping images. In this paper, we present an efficient numerical inverse isoparametric mapping algorithm to calculate the local coordinates of arbitrary points within the eight-noded hexahedral finite element. Verification of the algorithm for a nonparallelepiped hexahedral element confirms its accuracy, fast convergence, and efficiency. The algorithm's application in warping of the whole-body CT using the deformation field predicted by means of a biomechanical FEM confirms its reliability in the context of whole-body CT registration. PMID:24828796
Efficient Computation of Info-Gap Robustness for Finite Element Models
Stull, Christopher J.; Hemez, Francois M.; Williams, Brian J.
2012-07-05
A recent research effort at LANL proposed info-gap decision theory as a framework by which to measure the predictive maturity of numerical models. Info-gap theory explores the trade-offs between accuracy, that is, the extent to which predictions reproduce the physical measurements, and robustness, that is, the extent to which predictions are insensitive to modeling assumptions. Both accuracy and robustness are necessary to demonstrate predictive maturity. However, conducting an info-gap analysis can present a formidable challenge, from the standpoint of the required computational resources. This is because a robustness function requires the resolution of multiple optimization problems. This report offers an alternative, adjoint methodology to assess the info-gap robustness of Ax = b-like numerical models solved for a solution x. Two situations that can arise in structural analysis and design are briefly described and contextualized within the info-gap decision theory framework. The treatments of the info-gap problems, using the adjoint methodology are outlined in detail, and the latter problem is solved for four separate finite element models. As compared to statistical sampling, the proposed methodology offers highly accurate approximations of info-gap robustness functions for the finite element models considered in the report, at a small fraction of the computational cost. It is noted that this report considers only linear systems; a natural follow-on study would extend the methodologies described herein to include nonlinear systems.
2006-03-08
MAPVAR-KD is designed to transfer solution results from one finite element mesh to another. MAPVAR-KD draws heavily from the structure and coding of MERLIN II, but it employs a new finite element data base, EXODUS II, and offers enhanced speed and new capabilities not available in MERLIN II. In keeping with the MERLIN II documentation, the computational algorithms used in MAPVAR-KD are described. User instructions are presented. Example problems are included to demonstrate the operationmore » of the code and the effects of various input options. MAPVAR-KD is a modification of MAPVAR in which the search algorithm was replaced by a kd-tree-based search for better performance on large problems.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sizov, Gennadi Y.
In this dissertation, a model-based multi-objective optimal design of permanent magnet ac machines, supplied by sine-wave current regulated drives, is developed and implemented. The design procedure uses an efficient electromagnetic finite element-based solver to accurately model nonlinear material properties and complex geometric shapes associated with magnetic circuit design. Application of an electromagnetic finite element-based solver allows for accurate computation of intricate performance parameters and characteristics. The first contribution of this dissertation is the development of a rapid computational method that allows accurate and efficient exploration of large multi-dimensional design spaces in search of optimum design(s). The computationally efficient finite element-based approach developed in this work provides a framework of tools that allow rapid analysis of synchronous electric machines operating under steady-state conditions. In the developed modeling approach, major steady-state performance parameters such as, winding flux linkages and voltages, average, cogging and ripple torques, stator core flux densities, core losses, efficiencies and saturated machine winding inductances, are calculated with minimum computational effort. In addition, the method includes means for rapid estimation of distributed stator forces and three-dimensional effects of stator and/or rotor skew on the performance of the machine. The second contribution of this dissertation is the development of the design synthesis and optimization method based on a differential evolution algorithm. The approach relies on the developed finite element-based modeling method for electromagnetic analysis and is able to tackle large-scale multi-objective design problems using modest computational resources. Overall, computational time savings of up to two orders of magnitude are achievable, when compared to current and prevalent state-of-the-art methods. These computational savings allow
Efficient finite element modeling of laminated composite plates based on higher-order theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tessler, Alexander; Saether, Erik
1990-01-01
A simple and efficient three-node plate bending element for the analysis of composite laminates is developed from a variational principle. The deformations due to transverse shear and transverse normal effects are accounted for, allowing accurate predictions in the range of thin to thick plates. The methodology incorporates C(exp 0) and C(exp 1) continuous displacement approximations and yields accurate ply-by-ply predictions of all displacement, strain, and stress variables.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cwik, T.; Jamnejad, V.; Zuffada, C.
1993-01-01
It is often desirable to calculate the electromagnetic fields inside and about a complicated system of scattering bodies, as well as in their far-field region. The finite element method (FE) is well suited to solving the interior problem, but the domain has to be limited to a manageable size. At the truncation of the FE mesh one can either impose approximate (absorbing) boundary conditions or set up an integral equation (IE) for the fields scattered from the bodies. The latter approach is preferable since it results in higher accuracy. Hence, the two techniques can be successfully combined by introducing a surface that encloses the scatterers, applying a FE model to the inner volume and setting up an IE for the tangential fields components on the surface. Here the continuity of the tangential fields is used bo obtain a consistent solution. A few coupled FE-IE methods have recently appeared in the literature. The approach presented here has the advantage of using edge-based finite elements, a type of finite elements with degrees of freedom associated with edges of the mesh. Because of their properties, they are better suited than the conventional node based elements to represent electromagnetic fields, particularly when inhomogeneous regions are modeled, since the node based elements impose an unnatural continuity of all field components across boundaries of mesh elements. Additionally, our approach is well suited to handle large size problems and lends itself to code parallelization. We will discuss the salient features that make our approach very efficient from the standpoint of numerical computation, and the fields and RCS of a few objects are illustrated as examples.
Dynamic finite-element model for efficient modelling of electric currents in electroporated tissue
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Langus, J.; Kranjc, M.; Kos, B.; Šuštar, T.; Miklavčič, D.
2016-05-01
In silico experiments (numerical simulations) are a valuable tool for non-invasive research of the influences of tissue properties, electrode placement and electric pulse delivery scenarios in the process of electroporation. The work described in this article was aimed at introducing time dependent effects into a finite element model developed specifically for electroporation. Reference measurements were made ex vivo on beef liver samples and experimental data were used both as an initial condition for simulation (applied pulse voltage) and as a reference value for numerical model calibration (measured pulse current). The developed numerical model is able to predict the time evolution of an electric pulse current within a 5% error over a broad range of applied pulse voltages, pulse durations and pulse repetition frequencies. Given the good agreement of the current flowing between the electrodes, we are confident that the results of our numerical model can be used both for detailed in silico research of electroporation mechanisms (giving researchers insight into time domain effects) and better treatment planning algorithms, which predict the outcome of treatment based on both spatial and temporal distributions of applied electric pulses.
Dynamic finite-element model for efficient modelling of electric currents in electroporated tissue
Langus, J.; Kranjc, M.; Kos, B.; Šuštar, T.; Miklavčič, D.
2016-01-01
In silico experiments (numerical simulations) are a valuable tool for non-invasive research of the influences of tissue properties, electrode placement and electric pulse delivery scenarios in the process of electroporation. The work described in this article was aimed at introducing time dependent effects into a finite element model developed specifically for electroporation. Reference measurements were made ex vivo on beef liver samples and experimental data were used both as an initial condition for simulation (applied pulse voltage) and as a reference value for numerical model calibration (measured pulse current). The developed numerical model is able to predict the time evolution of an electric pulse current within a 5% error over a broad range of applied pulse voltages, pulse durations and pulse repetition frequencies. Given the good agreement of the current flowing between the electrodes, we are confident that the results of our numerical model can be used both for detailed in silico research of electroporation mechanisms (giving researchers insight into time domain effects) and better treatment planning algorithms, which predict the outcome of treatment based on both spatial and temporal distributions of applied electric pulses. PMID:27211822
Dynamic finite-element model for efficient modelling of electric currents in electroporated tissue.
Langus, J; Kranjc, M; Kos, B; Šuštar, T; Miklavčič, D
2016-01-01
In silico experiments (numerical simulations) are a valuable tool for non-invasive research of the influences of tissue properties, electrode placement and electric pulse delivery scenarios in the process of electroporation. The work described in this article was aimed at introducing time dependent effects into a finite element model developed specifically for electroporation. Reference measurements were made ex vivo on beef liver samples and experimental data were used both as an initial condition for simulation (applied pulse voltage) and as a reference value for numerical model calibration (measured pulse current). The developed numerical model is able to predict the time evolution of an electric pulse current within a 5% error over a broad range of applied pulse voltages, pulse durations and pulse repetition frequencies. Given the good agreement of the current flowing between the electrodes, we are confident that the results of our numerical model can be used both for detailed in silico research of electroporation mechanisms (giving researchers insight into time domain effects) and better treatment planning algorithms, which predict the outcome of treatment based on both spatial and temporal distributions of applied electric pulses. PMID:27211822
2005-05-07
CONEX is a code for joining sequentially in time multiple exodusll database files which all represent the same base mesh topology and geometry. It is used to create a single results or restart file from multiple results or restart files which typically arise as the result of multiple restarted analyses. CONEX is used to postprocess the results from a series of finite element analyses. It can join sequentially the data from multiple results databases intomore » a single database which makes it easier to postprocess the results data.« less
2005-06-26
Exotxt is an analysis code that reads finite element results data stored in an exodusII file and generates a file in a structured text format. The text file can be edited or modified via a number of text formatting tools. Exotxt is used by analysis to translate data from the binary exodusII format into a structured text format which can then be edited or modified and then either translated back to exodusII format or tomore » another format.« less
Probabilistic fracture finite elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, W. K.; Belytschko, T.; Lua, Y. J.
1991-01-01
The Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics (PFM) is a promising method for estimating the fatigue life and inspection cycles for mechanical and structural components. The Probability Finite Element Method (PFEM), which is based on second moment analysis, has proved to be a promising, practical approach to handle problems with uncertainties. As the PFEM provides a powerful computational tool to determine first and second moment of random parameters, the second moment reliability method can be easily combined with PFEM to obtain measures of the reliability of the structural system. The method is also being applied to fatigue crack growth. Uncertainties in the material properties of advanced materials such as polycrystalline alloys, ceramics, and composites are commonly observed from experimental tests. This is mainly attributed to intrinsic microcracks, which are randomly distributed as a result of the applied load and the residual stress.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grenier, M.; Ibarra-Castanedo, C.; Luneau, F.; Bendada, H.; Maldague, X.
2010-02-01
Eddy current thermography is a relatively new inspection technique that takes advantage of the electromagnetic induction phenomenon to generate heat in electro conductive materials during inspection. An interesting advantage of eddy current heating compared to classical optical or ultrasonic heating is that the excitation source is smaller and can be conveniently shaped in order to provide energy efficient localized heating. Such excitation source is more suitable for the development of portable instruments and to perform field inspections. In this paper, finite element modeling (FEM) is used to optimize the eddy current coil configuration in terms of heating power efficiency. The performances of air-core coils, normally used in eddy current thermography, and a new field concentrator coil are compared and discussed. FEM results demonstrate that the proposed field concentrator coil improves the magnetic coupling with the inspected material and requires less energy than air-core coils to generate the same temperature variation.
Space-time finite-element objects: Efficiently modeling physically complex flows
Dilts, G.A.
1996-03-28
Accurate modeling of high-explosive systems requires detailed consideration of many different physical properties and processes: These diverse processes generally occur in localized regions of the problem. Thus the very partial differential equations used to mathematically model the problem change from one region of space and time to another. The numerical algorithms generally used to solve these equations are frequently conceived in terms of data values for physical field variables u{sup i} defined at a number of spatial points indexed by multi-integer subscripts x{sub J}, resulting in a number of discrete state variables u{sup i}{sub J}. Instead of using as the fundamental object a physical field, which naturally maps to an array, the authors imagine a small piece of space modeled for a small amount of time, a space-time ``element``. Within it, various physical processes occur at various times. Self-contained, it gives account of what happens within its borders. It cooperates with a set of neighbors that organize into meshes, which organize into problems. The authors achieve in the software model a decoupling between the where and the how and the what, lack of which historically has been the source of a great deal of the software overhead of modelling continuum systems, and which is a necessary consequence of writing down u{sup i}{sub J}. An efficient implementation of this idea requires a reformulation of the discretization and solution of systems of conservation laws, and careful class design. A working prototype for systems in one space dimension using Mathematica and C++ is provided.
Pettit, J R; Walker, A; Cawley, P; Lowe, M J S
2014-09-01
Commercially available Finite Element packages are being used increasingly for modelling elastic wave propagation problems. Demand for improved capability has resulted in a drive to maximise the efficiency of the solver whilst maintaining a reliable solution. Modelling waves in unbound elastic media to high levels of accuracy presents a challenge for commercial packages, requiring the removal of unwanted reflections from model boundaries. For time domain explicit solvers, Absorbing Layers by Increasing Damping (ALID) have proven successful because they offer flexible application to modellers and, unlike the Perfectly Matched Layers (PMLs) approach, they are readily implemented in most commercial Finite Element software without requiring access to the source code. However, despite good overall performance, this technique requires the spatial model to extend significantly outside the domain of interest. Here, a Stiffness Reduction Method (SRM) has been developed that operates within a significantly reduced spatial domain. The technique is applied by altering the damping and stiffness matrices of the system, inducing decay of any incident wave. Absorbing region variables are expressed as a function of known model constants, helping to apply the technique to generic elastodynamic problems. The SRM has been shown to perform significantly better than ALID, with results confirmed by both numerical and analytical means. PMID:24359871
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cwik, Tom; Zuffada, Cinzia; Jamnejad, Vahraz
1996-01-01
Finite element modeling has proven useful for accurtely simulating scattered or radiated fields from complex three-dimensional objects whose geometry varies on the scale of a fraction of a wavelength.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nanda, Namita; Kapuria, S.; Gopalakrishnan, S.
2014-07-01
In this paper, we present a spectral finite element model (SFEM) using an efficient and accurate layerwise (zigzag) theory, which is applicable for wave propagation analysis of highly inhomogeneous laminated composite and sandwich beams. The theory assumes a layerwise linear variation superimposed with a global third-order variation across the thickness for the axial displacement. The conditions of zero transverse shear stress at the top and bottom and its continuity at the layer interfaces are subsequently enforced to make the number of primary unknowns independent of the number of layers, thereby making the theory as efficient as the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT). The spectral element developed is validated by comparing the present results with those available in the literature. A comparison of the natural frequencies of simply supported composite and sandwich beams obtained by the present spectral element with the exact two-dimensional elasticity and FSDT solutions reveals that the FSDT yields highly inaccurate results for the inhomogeneous sandwich beams and thick composite beams, whereas the present element based on the zigzag theory agrees very well with the exact elasticity solution for both thick and thin, composite and sandwich beams. A significant deviation in the dispersion relations obtained using the accurate zigzag theory and the FSDT is also observed for composite beams at high frequencies. It is shown that the pure shear rotation mode remains always evanescent, contrary to what has been reported earlier. The SFEM is subsequently used to study wavenumber dispersion, free vibration and wave propagation time history in soft-core sandwich beams with composite faces for the first time in the literature.
Efficiency of group implicit concurrent algorithms for transient finite element analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ortiz, M.; Sotelino, E. D.; Nour-Omid, B.
1989-01-01
The performance of group implicit algorithms is assessed on actual concurrent computers. It is shown that, as the number of subdomains is increased, performance enhancements are derived from two sources: the increased parallelism in the computations; and a reduction in equation solving effort. Moreover, these two performance enhancements are synergistic, in the sense that the corresponding speed-ups are multiplied, rather than merely added. Simulations on a 32-node hypercube are presented for which the interprocessor communications efficiencies obtained are consistently in excess of 90 percent.
Liu, Haofei; Sun, Wei
2016-01-01
In this study, we evaluated computational efficiency of finite element (FE) simulations when a numerical approximation method was used to obtain the tangent moduli. A fiber-reinforced hyperelastic material model for nearly incompressible soft tissues was implemented for 3D solid elements using both the approximation method and the closed-form analytical method, and validated by comparing the components of the tangent modulus tensor (also referred to as the material Jacobian) between the two methods. The computational efficiency of the approximation method was evaluated with different perturbation parameters and approximation schemes, and quantified by the number of iteration steps and CPU time required to complete these simulations. From the simulation results, it can be seen that the overall accuracy of the approximation method is improved by adopting the central difference approximation scheme compared to the forward Euler approximation scheme. For small-scale simulations with about 10,000 DOFs, the approximation schemes could reduce the CPU time substantially compared to the closed-form solution, due to the fact that fewer calculation steps are needed at each integration point. However, for a large-scale simulation with about 300,000 DOFs, the advantages of the approximation schemes diminish because the factorization of the stiffness matrix will dominate the solution time. Overall, as it is material model independent, the approximation method simplifies the FE implementation of a complex constitutive model with comparable accuracy and computational efficiency to the closed-form solution, which makes it attractive in FE simulations with complex material models. PMID:26692168
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Kan
With the modern trend of transportation electrification, electric machines are a key component of electric/hybrid electric vehicle (EV/HEV) powertrains. It is therefore important that vehicle powertrain-level and system-level designers and control engineers have access to accurate yet computationally-efficient (CE), physics-based modeling tools of the thermal and electromagnetic (EM) behavior of electric machines. In this dissertation, CE yet sufficiently-accurate thermal and EM models for electric machines, which are suitable for use in vehicle powertrain design, optimization, and control, are developed. This includes not only creating fast and accurate thermal and EM models for specific machine designs, but also the ability to quickly generate and determine the performance of new machine designs through the application of scaling techniques to existing designs. With the developed techniques, the thermal and EM performance can be accurately and efficiently estimated. Furthermore, powertrain or system designers can easily and quickly adjust the characteristics and the performance of the machine in ways that are favorable to the overall vehicle performance.
The finite element method in thermomechanics
Hsu, T.
1986-01-01
Thermal stress analysis is critical in the design and operation of energy-efficient power plant components and engines as well as in nuclear and aerospace systems. The Finite Element Method in Thermomechanics attempts to embrace a wide range of topics in the nonlinear thermomechanical analysis. The book covers the basic principles of the finite element method: the formulations for the base thermomechanical analysis, including thermoelastic-plastic-creep stress analysis; the use of Fourier series for nonaxisymmetric loadings, and stress waves in solids in thermal environments; and the base finite element code called TEPSAC.
The Efficiency of Various Computers and Optimizations in Performing Finite Element Computations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marcus, Martin H.; Broduer, Steve (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
With the advent of computers with many processors, it becomes unclear how to best exploit this advantage. For example, matrices can be inverted by applying several processors to each vector operation, or one processor can be applied to each matrix. The former approach has diminishing returns beyond a handful of processors, but how many processors depends on the computer architecture. Applying one processor to each matrix is feasible with enough ram memory and scratch disk space, but the speed at which this is done is found to vary by a factor of three depending on how it is done. The cost of the computer must also be taken into account. A computer with many processors and fast interprocessor communication is much more expensive than the same computer and processors with slow interprocessor communication. Consequently, for problems that require several matrices to be inverted, the best speed per dollar for computers is found to be several small workstations that are networked together, such as in a Beowulf cluster. Since these machines typically have two processors per node, each matrix is most efficiently inverted with no more than two processors assigned to it.
Finite element computational fluid mechanics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, A. J.
1983-01-01
Finite element analysis as applied to the broad spectrum of computational fluid mechanics is analyzed. The finite element solution methodology is derived, developed, and applied directly to the differential equation systems governing classes of problems in fluid mechanics. The heat conduction equation is used to reveal the essence and elegance of finite element theory, including higher order accuracy and convergence. The algorithm is extended to the pervasive nonlinearity of the Navier-Stokes equations. A specific fluid mechanics problem class is analyzed with an even mix of theory and applications, including turbulence closure and the solution of turbulent flows.
Toward automatic finite element analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kela, Ajay; Perucchio, Renato; Voelcker, Herbert
1987-01-01
Two problems must be solved if the finite element method is to become a reliable and affordable blackbox engineering tool. Finite element meshes must be generated automatically from computer aided design databases and mesh analysis must be made self-adaptive. The experimental system described solves both problems in 2-D through spatial and analytical substructuring techniques that are now being extended into 3-D.
Second order tensor finite element
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oden, J. Tinsley; Fly, J.; Berry, C.; Tworzydlo, W.; Vadaketh, S.; Bass, J.
1990-01-01
The results of a research and software development effort are presented for the finite element modeling of the static and dynamic behavior of anisotropic materials, with emphasis on single crystal alloys. Various versions of two dimensional and three dimensional hybrid finite elements were implemented and compared with displacement-based elements. Both static and dynamic cases are considered. The hybrid elements developed in the project were incorporated into the SPAR finite element code. In an extension of the first phase of the project, optimization of experimental tests for anisotropic materials was addressed. In particular, the problem of calculating material properties from tensile tests and of calculating stresses from strain measurements were considered. For both cases, numerical procedures and software for the optimization of strain gauge and material axes orientation were developed.
The NESSUS finite element code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dias, J. B.; Nagiegaal, J. C.; Nakazawa, S.
1987-01-01
The objective of this development is to provide a new analysis tool which integrates the structural modeling versatility of a modern finite element code with the latest advances in the area of probabilistic modeling and structural reliability. Version 2.0 of the NESSUS finite element code was released last February, and is currently being exercised on a set of problems which are representative of typical Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) applications. NESSUS 2.0 allows linear elastostatic and eigenvalue analysis of structures with uncertain geometry, material properties and boundary conditions, which are subjected to a random mechanical and thermal loading environment. The NESSUS finite element code is a key component in a broader software system consisting of five major modules. NESSUS/EXPERT is an expert system under development at Southwest Research Institute, with the objective of centralizing all component-specific knowledge useful for conducting probabilistic analysis of typical Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) components. NESSUS/FEM contains the finite element code used for the structural analysis and parameter sensitivity evaluation of these components. The task of parametrizing a finite element mesh in terms of the random variables present is facilitated with the use of the probabilistic data preprocessor in NESSUS/PRE. An external database file is used for managing the bulk of the data generated by NESSUS/FEM.
Finite elements: Theory and application
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dwoyer, D. L. (Editor); Hussaini, M. Y. (Editor); Voigt, R. G. (Editor)
1988-01-01
Recent advances in FEM techniques and applications are discussed in reviews and reports presented at the ICASE/LaRC workshop held in Hampton, VA in July 1986. Topics addressed include FEM approaches for partial differential equations, mixed FEMs, singular FEMs, FEMs for hyperbolic systems, iterative methods for elliptic finite-element equations on general meshes, mathematical aspects of FEMS for incompressible viscous flows, and gradient weighted moving finite elements in two dimensions. Consideration is given to adaptive flux-corrected FEM transport techniques for CFD, mixed and singular finite elements and the field BEM, p and h-p versions of the FEM, transient analysis methods in computational dynamics, and FEMs for integrated flow/thermal/structural analysis.
Improved finite element methodology for integrated thermal structural analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dechaumphai, P.; Thornton, E. A.
1982-01-01
An integrated thermal-structural finite element approach for efficient coupling of thermal and structural analyses is presented. New thermal finite elements which yield exact nodal and element temperature for one dimensional linear steady state heat transfer problems are developed. A nodeless variable formulation is used to establish improved thermal finite elements for one dimensional nonlinear transient and two dimensional linear transient heat transfer problems. The thermal finite elements provide detailed temperature distributions without using additional element nodes and permit a common discretization with lower order congruent structural finite elements. The accuracy of the integrated approach is evaluated by comparisons with analytical solutions and conventional finite element thermal-structural analyses for a number of academic and more realistic problems. Results indicate that the approach provides a significant improvement in the accuracy and efficiency of thermal stress analysis for structures with complex temperature distributions.
Nonlinear, finite deformation, finite element analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Nhung; Waas, Anthony M.
2016-06-01
The roles of the consistent Jacobian matrix and the material tangent moduli, which are used in nonlinear incremental finite deformation mechanics problems solved using the finite element method, are emphasized in this paper, and demonstrated using the commercial software ABAQUS standard. In doing so, the necessity for correctly employing user material subroutines to solve nonlinear problems involving large deformation and/or large rotation is clarified. Starting with the rate form of the principle of virtual work, the derivations of the material tangent moduli, the consistent Jacobian matrix, the stress/strain measures, and the objective stress rates are discussed and clarified. The difference between the consistent Jacobian matrix (which, in the ABAQUS UMAT user material subroutine is referred to as DDSDDE) and the material tangent moduli ( C e ) needed for the stress update is pointed out and emphasized in this paper. While the former is derived based on the Jaumann rate of the Kirchhoff stress, the latter is derived using the Jaumann rate of the Cauchy stress. Understanding the difference between these two objective stress rates is crucial for correctly implementing a constitutive model, especially a rate form constitutive relation, and for ensuring fast convergence. Specifically, the implementation requires the stresses to be updated correctly. For this, the strains must be computed directly from the deformation gradient and corresponding strain measure (for a total form model). Alternatively, the material tangent moduli derived from the corresponding Jaumann rate of the Cauchy stress of the constitutive relation (for a rate form model) should be used. Given that this requirement is satisfied, the consistent Jacobian matrix only influences the rate of convergence. Its derivation should be based on the Jaumann rate of the Kirchhoff stress to ensure fast convergence; however, the use of a different objective stress rate may also be possible. The error associated
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rempler, H.-U.; Wieners, C.; Ehlers, W.
2011-11-01
The numerical simulation of elastic-inelastic material behaviour is reviewed and an alternative method, i. e., an augmented Finite Element (FE) formulation is presented. For the augmented FE formulation, the history variables, which provide the information of inelastic deformations from previous time-steps, are represented as FE functions. The discretisation of the augmented system results in additional degrees of freedom (DOF). As a result, generally accepted standard formulations for evaluating inelastic deformations in a numeric sub-step can now be replaced by a fully coupled Newton method. Then, it is not required to solve additional local systems. Both numerical methods are exemplarily applied to a viscoplastic Perzyna-type regularisation of softening material behaviour within a geometrically linear approach in order to simulate the development of shear bands occurring in a tensile bar. Numerical studies prove comparative results, while exhibiting a computational speed-up for the augmented FE formulation.
Ferraro, Mauro; Auricchio, Ferdinando; Boatti, Elisa; Scalet, Giulia; Conti, Michele; Morganti, Simone; Reali, Alessandro
2015-01-01
Computer-based simulations are nowadays widely exploited for the prediction of the mechanical behavior of different biomedical devices. In this aspect, structural finite element analyses (FEA) are currently the preferred computational tool to evaluate the stent response under bending. This work aims at developing a computational framework based on linear and higher order FEA to evaluate the flexibility of self-expandable carotid artery stents. In particular, numerical simulations involving large deformations and inelastic shape memory alloy constitutive modeling are performed, and the results suggest that the employment of higher order FEA allows accurately representing the computational domain and getting a better approximation of the solution with a widely-reduced number of degrees of freedom with respect to linear FEA. Moreover, when buckling phenomena occur, higher order FEA presents a superior capability of reproducing the nonlinear local effects related to buckling phenomena. PMID:26184329
A multigrid solution method for mixed hybrid finite elements
Schmid, W.
1996-12-31
We consider the multigrid solution of linear equations arising within the discretization of elliptic second order boundary value problems of the form by mixed hybrid finite elements. Using the equivalence of mixed hybrid finite elements and non-conforming nodal finite elements, we construct a multigrid scheme for the corresponding non-conforming finite elements, and, by this equivalence, for the mixed hybrid finite elements, following guidelines from Arbogast/Chen. For a rectangular triangulation of the computational domain, this non-conforming schemes are the so-called nodal finite elements. We explicitly construct prolongation and restriction operators for this type of non-conforming finite elements. We discuss the use of plain multigrid and the multilevel-preconditioned cg-method and compare their efficiency in numerical tests.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beilina, Larisa
2016-08-01
We present domain decomposition finite element/finite difference method for the solution of hyperbolic equation. The domain decomposition is performed such that finite elements and finite differences are used in different subdomains of the computational domain: finite difference method is used on the structured part of the computational domain and finite elements on the unstructured part of the domain. Explicit discretizations for both methods are constructed such that the finite element and the finite difference schemes coincide on the common structured overlapping layer between computational subdomains. Then the resulting approach can be considered as a pure finite element scheme which avoids instabilities at the interfaces. We derive an energy estimate for the underlying hyperbolic equation with absorbing boundary conditions and illustrate efficiency of the domain decomposition method on the reconstruction of the conductivity function in three dimensions.
ANSYS duplicate finite-element checker routine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ortega, R.
1995-01-01
An ANSYS finite-element code routine to check for duplicated elements within the volume of a three-dimensional (3D) finite-element mesh was developed. The routine developed is used for checking floating elements within a mesh, identically duplicated elements, and intersecting elements with a common face. A space shuttle main engine alternate turbopump development high pressure oxidizer turbopump finite-element model check using the developed subroutine is discussed. Finally, recommendations are provided for duplicate element checking of 3D finite-element models.
Infinite Possibilities for the Finite Element.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Finlayson, Bruce A.
1981-01-01
Describes the uses of finite element methods in solving problems of heat transfer, fluid flow, etc. Suggests that engineers should know the general concepts and be able to apply the principles of finite element methods. (Author/WB)
Peridynamic Multiscale Finite Element Methods
Costa, Timothy; Bond, Stephen D.; Littlewood, David John; Moore, Stan Gerald
2015-12-01
The problem of computing quantum-accurate design-scale solutions to mechanics problems is rich with applications and serves as the background to modern multiscale science research. The prob- lem can be broken into component problems comprised of communicating across adjacent scales, which when strung together create a pipeline for information to travel from quantum scales to design scales. Traditionally, this involves connections between a) quantum electronic structure calculations and molecular dynamics and between b) molecular dynamics and local partial differ- ential equation models at the design scale. The second step, b), is particularly challenging since the appropriate scales of molecular dynamic and local partial differential equation models do not overlap. The peridynamic model for continuum mechanics provides an advantage in this endeavor, as the basic equations of peridynamics are valid at a wide range of scales limiting from the classical partial differential equation models valid at the design scale to the scale of molecular dynamics. In this work we focus on the development of multiscale finite element methods for the peridynamic model, in an effort to create a mathematically consistent channel for microscale information to travel from the upper limits of the molecular dynamics scale to the design scale. In particular, we first develop a Nonlocal Multiscale Finite Element Method which solves the peridynamic model at multiple scales to include microscale information at the coarse-scale. We then consider a method that solves a fine-scale peridynamic model to build element-support basis functions for a coarse- scale local partial differential equation model, called the Mixed Locality Multiscale Finite Element Method. Given decades of research and development into finite element codes for the local partial differential equation models of continuum mechanics there is a strong desire to couple local and nonlocal models to leverage the speed and state of the
Kim, S.
1994-12-31
Parallel iterative procedures based on domain decomposition techniques are defined and analyzed for the numerical solution of wave propagation by finite element and finite difference methods. For finite element methods, in a Lagrangian framework, an efficient way for choosing the algorithm parameter as well as the algorithm convergence are indicated. Some heuristic arguments for finding the algorithm parameter for finite difference schemes are addressed. Numerical results are presented to indicate the effectiveness of the methods.
Zampolli, Mario; Tesei, Alessandra; Jensen, Finn B; Malm, Nils; Blottman, John B
2007-09-01
A frequency-domain finite-element (FE) technique for computing the radiation and scattering from axially symmetric fluid-loaded structures subject to a nonsymmetric forcing field is presented. The Berenger perfectly matched layer (PML), applied directly at the fluid-structure interface, makes it possible to emulate the Sommerfeld radiation condition using FE meshes of minimal size. For those cases where the acoustic field is computed over a band of frequencies, the meshing process is simplified by the use of a wavelength-dependent rescaling of the PML coordinates. Quantitative geometry discretization guidelines are obtained from a priori estimates of small-scale structural wavelengths, which dominate the acoustic field at low to mid frequencies. One particularly useful feature of the PML is that it can be applied across the interface between different fluids. This makes it possible to use the present tool to solve problems where the radiating or scattering objects are located inside a layered fluid medium. The proposed technique is verified by comparison with analytical solutions and with validated numerical models. The solutions presented show close agreement for a set of test problems ranging from scattering to underwater propagation. PMID:17927408
Finite element methods in numerical relativity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mann, P. J.
The finite element method is very successful in Newtonian fluid simulations, and can be extended to relativitstic fluid flows. This paper describes the general method, and then outlines some preliminary results for spherically symmetric geometries. The mixed finite element - finite difference scheme is introduced, and used for the description of spherically symmetric collapse. Baker's (Newtonian) shock modelling method and Miller's moving finite element method are also mentioned. Collapse in double-null coordinates requires non-constant time slicing, so the full finite element method in space and time is described.
Finite element and finite difference methods in electromagnetic scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morgan, Michael A.
Finite-difference and finite-element methods for the computational analysis of EM scattering phenomena are examined in chapters contributed by leading experts. Topics addressed include an FEM for composite scatterers, coupled finite- and boundary-element methods for EM scattering, absorbing boundary conditions for the direct solution PDEs arising in EM scattering problems, application of the control-region approximation to two-dimensional EM scattering, coupled potentials for EM fields in inhomogeneous media, the method of conforming boundary elements for transient electromagnetics, and the finite-difference time-domain method for numerical modeling of EM wave interactions with arbitrary structures. Extensive diagrams and graphs of typical results are provided.
Probabilistic finite element analysis of a craniofacial finite element model.
Berthaume, Michael A; Dechow, Paul C; Iriarte-Diaz, Jose; Ross, Callum F; Strait, David S; Wang, Qian; Grosse, Ian R
2012-05-01
We employed a probabilistic finite element analysis (FEA) method to determine how variability in material property values affects stress and strain values in a finite model of a Macaca fascicularis cranium. The material behavior of cortical bone varied in three ways: isotropic homogeneous, isotropic non-homogeneous, and orthotropic non-homogeneous. The material behavior of the trabecular bone and teeth was always treated as isotropic and homogeneous. All material property values for the cranium were randomized with a Gaussian distribution with either coefficients of variation (CVs) of 0.2 or with CVs calculated from empirical data. Latin hypercube sampling was used to determine the values of the material properties used in the finite element models. In total, four hundred and twenty six separate deterministic FE simulations were executed. We tested four hypotheses in this study: (1) uncertainty in material property values will have an insignificant effect on high stresses and a significant effect on high strains for homogeneous isotropic models; (2) the effect of variability in material property values on the stress state will increase as non-homogeneity and anisotropy increase; (3) variation in the in vivo shear strain values reported by Strait et al. (2005) and Ross et al. (2011) is not only due to variations in muscle forces and cranial morphology, but also due to variation in material property values; (4) the assumption of a uniform coefficient of variation for the material property values will result in the same trend in how moderate-to-high stresses and moderate-to-high strains vary with respect to the degree of non-homogeneity and anisotropy as the trend found when the coefficients of variation for material property values are calculated from empirical data. Our results supported the first three hypotheses and falsified the fourth. When material properties were varied with a constant CV, as non-homogeneity and anisotropy increased the level of variability in
FESDIF -- Finite Element Scalar Diffraction theory code
Kraus, H.G.
1992-09-01
This document describes the theory and use of a powerful scalar diffraction theory based computer code for calculation of intensity fields due to diffraction of optical waves by two-dimensional planar apertures and lenses. This code is called FESDIF (Finite Element Scalar Diffraction). It is based upon both Fraunhofer and Kirchhoff scalar diffraction theories. Simplified routines for circular apertures are included. However, the real power of the code comes from its basis in finite element methods. These methods allow the diffracting aperture to be virtually any geometric shape, including the various secondary aperture obstructions present in telescope systems. Aperture functions, with virtually any phase and amplitude variations, are allowed in the aperture openings. Step change aperture functions are accommodated. The incident waves are considered to be monochromatic. Plane waves, spherical waves, or Gaussian laser beams may be incident upon the apertures. Both area and line integral transformations were developed for the finite element based diffraction transformations. There is some loss of aperture function generality in the line integral transformations which are typically many times more computationally efficient than the area integral transformations when applicable to a particular problem.
Variational approach to probabilistic finite elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Belytschko, T.; Liu, W. K.; Mani, A.; Besterfield, G.
1987-01-01
Probabilistic finite element method (PFEM), synthesizing the power of finite element methods with second-moment techniques, are formulated for various classes of problems in structural and solid mechanics. Time-invariant random materials, geometric properties, and loads are incorporated in terms of their fundamental statistics viz. second-moments. Analogous to the discretization of the displacement field in finite element methods, the random fields are also discretized. Preserving the conceptual simplicity, the response moments are calculated with minimal computations. By incorporating certain computational techniques, these methods are shown to be capable of handling large systems with many sources of uncertainties. By construction, these methods are applicable when the scale of randomness is not very large and when the probabilistic density functions have decaying tails. The accuracy and efficiency of these methods, along with their limitations, are demonstrated by various applications. Results obtained are compared with those of Monte Carlo simulation and it is shown that good accuracy can be obtained for both linear and nonlinear problems. The methods are amenable to implementation in deterministic FEM based computer codes.
Variational approach to probabilistic finite elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Belytschko, T.; Liu, W. K.; Mani, A.; Besterfield, G.
1991-01-01
Probabilistic finite element methods (PFEM), synthesizing the power of finite element methods with second-moment techniques, are formulated for various classes of problems in structural and solid mechanics. Time-invariant random materials, geometric properties and loads are incorporated in terms of their fundamental statistics viz. second-moments. Analogous to the discretization of the displacement field in finite element methods, the random fields are also discretized. Preserving the conceptual simplicity, the response moments are calculated with minimal computations. By incorporating certain computational techniques, these methods are shown to be capable of handling large systems with many sources of uncertainties. By construction, these methods are applicable when the scale of randomness is not very large and when the probabilistic density functions have decaying tails. The accuracy and efficiency of these methods, along with their limitations, are demonstrated by various applications. Results obtained are compared with those of Monte Carlo simulation and it is shown that good accuracy can be obtained for both linear and nonlinear problems. The methods are amenable to implementation in deterministic FEM based computer codes.
Domain decomposition methods for mortar finite elements
Widlund, O.
1996-12-31
In the last few years, domain decomposition methods, previously developed and tested for standard finite element methods and elliptic problems, have been extended and modified to work for mortar and other nonconforming finite element methods. A survey will be given of work carried out jointly with Yves Achdou, Mario Casarin, Maksymilian Dryja and Yvon Maday. Results on the p- and h-p-version finite elements will also be discussed.
Finite Element Analysis of Reverberation Chambers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bunting, Charles F.; Nguyen, Duc T.
2000-01-01
The primary motivating factor behind the initiation of this work was to provide a deterministic means of establishing the validity of the statistical methods that are recommended for the determination of fields that interact in -an avionics system. The application of finite element analysis to reverberation chambers is the initial step required to establish a reasonable course of inquiry in this particularly data-intensive study. The use of computational electromagnetics provides a high degree of control of the "experimental" parameters that can be utilized in a simulation of reverberating structures. As the work evolved there were four primary focus areas they are: 1. The eigenvalue problem for the source free problem. 2. The development of a complex efficient eigensolver. 3. The application of a source for the TE and TM fields for statistical characterization. 4. The examination of shielding effectiveness in a reverberating environment. One early purpose of this work was to establish the utility of finite element techniques in the development of an extended low frequency statistical model for reverberation phenomena. By employing finite element techniques, structures of arbitrary complexity can be analyzed due to the use of triangular shape functions in the spatial discretization. The effects of both frequency stirring and mechanical stirring are presented. It is suggested that for the low frequency operation the typical tuner size is inadequate to provide a sufficiently random field and that frequency stirring should be used. The results of the finite element analysis of the reverberation chamber illustrate io-W the potential utility of a 2D representation for enhancing the basic statistical characteristics of the chamber when operating in a low frequency regime. The basic field statistics are verified for frequency stirring over a wide range of frequencies. Mechanical stirring is shown to provide an effective frequency deviation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Voznyuk, I.; Litman, A.; Tortel, H.
2015-08-01
A Quasi-Newton method for reconstructing the constitutive parameters of three-dimensional (3D) penetrable scatterers from scattered field measurements is presented. This method is adapted for handling large-scale electromagnetic problems while keeping the memory requirement and the time flexibility as low as possible. The forward scattering problem is solved by applying the finite-element tearing and interconnecting full-dual-primal (FETI-FDP2) method which shares the same spirit as the domain decomposition methods for finite element methods. The idea is to split the computational domain into smaller non-overlapping sub-domains in order to simultaneously solve local sub-problems. Various strategies are proposed in order to efficiently couple the inversion algorithm with the FETI-FDP2 method: a separation into permanent and non-permanent subdomains is performed, iterative solvers are favorized for resolving the interface problem and a marching-on-in-anything initial guess selection further accelerates the process. The computational burden is also reduced by applying the adjoint state vector methodology. Finally, the inversion algorithm is confronted to measurements extracted from the 3D Fresnel database.
Adaptive Finite Element Methods in Geodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davies, R.; Davies, H.; Hassan, O.; Morgan, K.; Nithiarasu, P.
2006-12-01
Adaptive finite element methods are presented for improving the quality of solutions to two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) convection dominated problems in geodynamics. The methods demonstrate the application of existing technology in the engineering community to problems within the `solid' Earth sciences. Two-Dimensional `Adaptive Remeshing': The `remeshing' strategy introduced in 2D adapts the mesh automatically around regions of high solution gradient, yielding enhanced resolution of the associated flow features. The approach requires the coupling of an automatic mesh generator, a finite element flow solver and an error estimator. In this study, the procedure is implemented in conjunction with the well-known geodynamical finite element code `ConMan'. An unstructured quadrilateral mesh generator is utilised, with mesh adaptation accomplished through regeneration. This regeneration employs information provided by an interpolation based local error estimator, obtained from the computed solution on an existing mesh. The technique is validated by solving thermal and thermo-chemical problems with known benchmark solutions. In a purely thermal context, results illustrate that the method is highly successful, improving solution accuracy whilst increasing computational efficiency. For thermo-chemical simulations the same conclusions can be drawn. However, results also demonstrate that the grid based methods employed for simulating the compositional field are not competitive with the other methods (tracer particle and marker chain) currently employed in this field, even at the higher spatial resolutions allowed by the adaptive grid strategies. Three-Dimensional Adaptive Multigrid: We extend the ideas from our 2D work into the 3D realm in the context of a pre-existing 3D-spherical mantle dynamics code, `TERRA'. In its original format, `TERRA' is computationally highly efficient since it employs a multigrid solver that depends upon a grid utilizing a clever
FEBio: finite elements for biomechanics.
Maas, Steve A; Ellis, Benjamin J; Ateshian, Gerard A; Weiss, Jeffrey A
2012-01-01
In the field of computational biomechanics, investigators have primarily used commercial software that is neither geared toward biological applications nor sufficiently flexible to follow the latest developments in the field. This lack of a tailored software environment has hampered research progress, as well as dissemination of models and results. To address these issues, we developed the FEBio software suite (http://mrl.sci.utah.edu/software/febio), a nonlinear implicit finite element (FE) framework, designed specifically for analysis in computational solid biomechanics. This paper provides an overview of the theoretical basis of FEBio and its main features. FEBio offers modeling scenarios, constitutive models, and boundary conditions, which are relevant to numerous applications in biomechanics. The open-source FEBio software is written in C++, with particular attention to scalar and parallel performance on modern computer architectures. Software verification is a large part of the development and maintenance of FEBio, and to demonstrate the general approach, the description and results of several problems from the FEBio Verification Suite are presented and compared to analytical solutions or results from other established and verified FE codes. An additional simulation is described that illustrates the application of FEBio to a research problem in biomechanics. Together with the pre- and postprocessing software PREVIEW and POSTVIEW, FEBio provides a tailored solution for research and development in computational biomechanics. PMID:22482660
Finite element coiled cochlea model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isailovic, Velibor; Nikolic, Milica; Milosevic, Zarko; Saveljic, Igor; Nikolic, Dalibor; Radovic, Milos; Filipović, Nenad
2015-12-01
Cochlea is important part of the hearing system, and thanks to special structure converts external sound waves into neural impulses which go to the brain. Shape of the cochlea is like snail, so geometry of the cochlea model is complex. The simplified cochlea coiled model was developed using finite element method inside SIFEM FP7 project. Software application is created on the way that user can prescribe set of the parameters for spiral cochlea, as well as material properties and boundary conditions to the model. Several mathematical models were tested. The acoustic wave equation for describing fluid in the cochlea chambers - scala vestibuli and scala timpani, and Newtonian dynamics for describing vibrations of the basilar membrane are used. The mechanical behavior of the coiled cochlea was analyzed and the third chamber, scala media, was not modeled because it does not have a significant impact on the mechanical vibrations of the basilar membrane. The obtained results are in good agreement with experimental measurements. Future work is needed for more realistic geometry model. Coiled model of the cochlea was created and results are compared with initial simplified coiled model of the cochlea.
Element-topology-independent preconditioners for parallel finite element computations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Park, K. C.; Alexander, Scott
1992-01-01
A family of preconditioners for the solution of finite element equations are presented, which are element-topology independent and thus can be applicable to element order-free parallel computations. A key feature of the present preconditioners is the repeated use of element connectivity matrices and their left and right inverses. The properties and performance of the present preconditioners are demonstrated via beam and two-dimensional finite element matrices for implicit time integration computations.
Graphics for Finite-Element Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thornton, E. A.; Sawyer, L. M.
1982-01-01
ELPLOT program is a passive computer graphics system that could be utilized for display of models and responses of general finite-element analyses. Program includes: Wide range of view-orientation selections, number of alternative data-input formats, extensive family of finite-element types, and capabilities for both static and dynamic-response displays.
Finite element analysis of helicopter structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rich, M. J.
1978-01-01
Application of the finite element analysis is now being expanded to three dimensional analysis of mechanical components. Examples are presented for airframe, mechanical components, and composite structure calculations. Data are detailed on the increase of model size, computer usage, and the effect on reducing stress analysis costs. Future applications for use of finite element analysis for helicopter structures are projected.
Finite-Element Composite-Analysis Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bowles, David E.
1990-01-01
Finite Element Composite Analysis Program, FECAP, special-purpose finite-element program for analyzing behavior of composite material with microcomputer. Procedure leads to set of linear simultaneous equations relating unknown nodal displacement to applied loads. Written in HP BASIC 3.0.
3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor
1996-07-15
TAURUS is an interactive post-processing application supporting visualization of finite element analysis results on unstructured grids. TAURUS provides the ability to display deformed geometries and contours or fringes of a large number of derived results on meshes consisting of beam, plate, shell, and solid type finite elements. Time history plotting is also available.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zolotareva, N. D.; Nikolaev, E. S.
2016-05-01
An iterative process implementing an adaptive hp-version of the finite element method (FEM) previously proposed by the authors for the approximate solution of boundary value problems for the stationary reaction-diffusion equation is described. The method relies on piecewise polynomial basis functions and makes use of an adaptive strategy for constructing a sequence of finite-dimensional subspaces based on the computation of correction indicators. Singularly perturbed boundary value test problems with smooth and not very smooth solutions are used to analyze the efficiency of the method in the situation when an approximate solution has to be found with high accuracy. The convergence of the approximate solution to the exact one is investigated depending on the value of the small parameter multiplying the highest derivative, on the family of basis functions and the quadrature formulas used, and on the internal parameters of the method. The method is compared with an adaptive h-version of FEM that also relies on correction indicators and with its nonadaptive variant based on the bisection of grid intervals.
Fuzzy finite element analysis of smart structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akpan, Unyime O.; Koko, Tamunoiyala S.; Orisamolu, Irewole R.; Gallant, B. Keith
2000-06-01
A fuzzy finite element based approach is developed for modelling smart structures with vague or imprecise uncertainties. Fuzzy sets are used to represent the uncertainties present in the piezoelectric, mechanical, thermal, and physical properties of the smart structure. In order to facilitate efficient computation, a sensitivity analysis procedure is used to streamline the number of input fuzzy variables, and the vertex fuzzy analysis technique is then used to compute the possibility distributions of the responses of the smart structural system. The methodology has been developed within the framework of the SMARTCOM computational tool for the design/analysis of smart composite structures. The methodology developed is found to be accurate and computationally efficient for solution of practical problems.
Will Finite Elements Replace Structural Mechanics?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ojalvo, I. U.
1984-01-01
This paper presents a personal view regarding the need for a continued interest and activity in structural methods in general, while viewing finite elements and the computer as simply two specific tools for assisting in this endeavor. An attempt is made to provide some insight as to why finite element methods seem to have "won the war," and to give examples of their more (and less) intelligent use. Items addressed include a highlight of unnecessary limitations of many existing standard finite element codes and where it is felt that further development work is needed.
Quantum algorithms and the finite element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Montanaro, Ashley; Pallister, Sam
2016-03-01
The finite element method is used to approximately solve boundary value problems for differential equations. The method discretizes the parameter space and finds an approximate solution by solving a large system of linear equations. Here we investigate the extent to which the finite element method can be accelerated using an efficient quantum algorithm for solving linear equations. We consider the representative general question of approximately computing a linear functional of the solution to a boundary value problem and compare the quantum algorithm's theoretical performance with that of a standard classical algorithm—the conjugate gradient method. Prior work claimed that the quantum algorithm could be exponentially faster but did not determine the overall classical and quantum run times required to achieve a predetermined solution accuracy. Taking this into account, we find that the quantum algorithm can achieve a polynomial speedup, the extent of which grows with the dimension of the partial differential equation. In addition, we give evidence that no improvement of the quantum algorithm can lead to a superpolynomial speedup when the dimension is fixed and the solution satisfies certain smoothness properties.
Assignment Of Finite Elements To Parallel Processors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salama, Moktar A.; Flower, Jon W.; Otto, Steve W.
1990-01-01
Elements assigned approximately optimally to subdomains. Mapping algorithm based on simulated-annealing concept used to minimize approximate time required to perform finite-element computation on hypercube computer or other network of parallel data processors. Mapping algorithm needed when shape of domain complicated or otherwise not obvious what allocation of elements to subdomains minimizes cost of computation.
Seong, Dae-Yong; Jung, Chang Gyun; Yang, Dong-Yol
2007-05-17
Metallic sandwich panels composed of two face sheets and cores with low relative density have lightweight characteristics and various static and dynamic load bearing functions. To predict the forming characteristics, performance, and formability of these structured materials, full 3D modeling and analysis involving tremendous computational time and memory are required. Some constitutive continuum models including homogenization approaches to solve these problems have limitations with respect to the prediction of local buckling of face sheets and inner structures. In this work, a computationally efficient FE-analysis method incorporating a virtual equivalent projected model that enables the simulation of local buckling modes is newly introduced for analysis of metallic sandwich panels. Two-dimensional models using the projected shapes of 3D structures have the same equivalent elastic-plastic properties with original geometries that have anisotropic stiffness, yield strength, and hardening function. The sizes and isotropic properties of the virtual equivalent projected model have been estimated analytically with the same equivalent properties and face buckling strength of the full model. The 3-point bending processes with quasi-two-dimensional loads and boundary conditions are simulated to establish the validity of the proposed method. The deformed shapes and load-displacement curves of the virtual equivalent projected model are found to be almost the same as those of a full three-dimensional FE-analysis while reducing computational time drastically.
Visualization of higher order finite elements.
Thompson, David C.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre; Crawford, Richard H.; Khardekar, Rahul Vinay
2004-04-01
Finite element meshes are used to approximate the solution to some differential equation when no exact solution exists. A finite element mesh consists of many small (but finite, not infinitesimal or differential) regions of space that partition the problem domain, {Omega}. Each region, or element, or cell has an associated polynomial map, {Phi}, that converts the coordinates of any point, x = ( x y z ), in the element into another value, f(x), that is an approximate solution to the differential equation, as in Figure 1(a). This representation works quite well for axis-aligned regions of space, but when there are curved boundaries on the problem domain, {Omega}, it becomes algorithmically much more difficult to define {Phi} in terms of x. Rather, we define an archetypal element in a new coordinate space, r = ( r s t ), which has a simple, axis-aligned boundary (see Figure 1(b)) and place two maps onto our archetypal element:
A survey of mixed finite element methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brezzi, F.
1987-01-01
This paper is an introduction to and an overview of mixed finite element methods. It discusses the mixed formulation of certain basic problems in elasticity and hydrodynamics. It also discusses special techniques for solving the discrete problem.
Johnson, Joshua E; Lee, Phil; McIff, Terence E; Toby, E Bruce; Fischer, Kenneth J
2014-04-01
Joint injuries and the resulting posttraumatic osteoarthritis (OA) are a significant problem. There is still a need for tools to evaluate joint injuries, their effect on joint mechanics, and the relationship between altered mechanics and OA. Better understanding of injuries and their relationship to OA may aid in the development or refinement of treatment methods. This may be partially achieved by monitoring changes in joint mechanics that are a direct consequence of injury. Techniques such as image-based finite element modeling can provide in vivo joint mechanics data but can also be laborious and computationally expensive. Alternate modeling techniques that can provide similar results in a computationally efficient manner are an attractive prospect. It is likely possible to estimate risk of OA due to injury from surface contact mechanics data alone. The objective of this study was to compare joint contact mechanics from image-based surface contact modeling (SCM) and finite element modeling (FEM) in normal, injured (scapholunate ligament tear), and surgically repaired radiocarpal joints. Since FEM is accepted as the gold standard to evaluate joint contact stresses, our assumption was that results obtained using this method would accurately represent the true value. Magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the normal, injured, and postoperative wrists of three subjects were acquired when relaxed and during functional grasp. Surface and volumetric models of the radiolunate and radioscaphoid articulations were constructed from the relaxed images for SCM and FEM analyses, respectively. Kinematic boundary conditions were acquired from image registration between the relaxed and grasp images. For the SCM technique, a linear contact relationship was used to estimate contact outcomes based on interactions of the rigid articular surfaces in contact. For FEM, a pressure-overclosure relationship was used to estimate outcomes based on deformable body contact interactions. The SCM
Finite element modeling of the human pelvis
Carlson, B.
1995-11-01
A finite element model of the human pelvis was created using a commercial wire frame image as a template. To test the final mesh, the model`s mechanical behavior was analyzed through finite element analysis and the results were displayed graphically as stress concentrations. In the future, this grid of the pelvis will be integrated with a full leg model and used in side-impact car collision simulations.
Finite-Element Modeling For Structural Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Min, J. B.; Androlake, S. G.
1995-01-01
Report presents study of finite-element mathematical modeling as used in analyzing stresses and strains at joints between thin, shell-like components (e.g., ducts) and thicker components (e.g., flanges or engine blocks). First approach uses global/local model to evaluate system. Provides correct total response and correct representation of stresses away from any discontinuities. Second approach involves development of special transition finite elements to model transitions between shells and thicker structural components.
Finite element analysis of flexible, rotating blades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcgee, Oliver G.
1987-01-01
A reference guide that can be used when using the finite element method to approximate the static and dynamic behavior of flexible, rotating blades is given. Important parameters such as twist, sweep, camber, co-planar shell elements, centrifugal loads, and inertia properties are studied. Comparisons are made between NASTRAN elements through published benchmark tests. The main purpose is to summarize blade modeling strategies and to document capabilities and limitations (for flexible, rotating blades) of various NASTRAN elements.
Finite Element Interface to Linear Solvers
Williams, Alan
2005-03-18
Sparse systems of linear equations arise in many engineering applications, including finite elements, finite volumes, and others. The solution of linear systems is often the most computationally intensive portion of the application. Depending on the complexity of problems addressed by the application, there may be no single solver capable of solving all of the linear systems that arise. This motivates the desire to switch an application from one solver librwy to another, depending on the problem being solved. The interfaces provided by solver libraries differ greatly, making it difficult to switch an application code from one library to another. The amount of library-specific code in an application Can be greatly reduced by having an abstraction layer between solver libraries and the application, putting a common "face" on various solver libraries. One such abstraction layer is the Finite Element Interface to Linear Solvers (EEl), which has seen significant use by finite element applications at Sandia National Laboratories and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.
Quadrilateral finite element mesh coarsening
Staten, Matthew L; Dewey, Mark W; Benzley, Steven E
2012-10-16
Techniques for coarsening a quadrilateral mesh are described. These techniques include identifying a coarsening region within the quadrilateral mesh to be coarsened. Quadrilateral elements along a path through the coarsening region are removed. Node pairs along opposite sides of the path are identified. The node pairs along the path are then merged to collapse the path.
Finite-element models of continental extension
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lynch, H. David; Morgan, Paul
1990-01-01
Numerical models of the initial deformation of extending continental lithosphere, computed to investigate the control of preexisting thermal and mechanical heterogeneities on the style of deformation, are presented. The finite element method is used to calculate deformation with a viscoelastic-plastic model for the lithosphere. Comparisons of the results of analytic models and finite-element models using this method show that good results may be obtained by the numerical technique, even with elements containing both brittle and viscoelastic sampling points. It is shown that the gross style of initial extensional deformation is controlled by the depth and width of the initial heterogeneity which localizes deformation.
Higher-Order Finite Elements for Computing Thermal Radiation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gould, Dana C.
2004-01-01
unrealistic physical conditions are assumed. Instead, the equations of radiative heat transfer are integrated numerically over the parent finite elements by use of a computationally efficient Gaussian integration scheme.
Finite element thermal analysis of convectively-cooled aircraft structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wieting, A. R.; Thornton, E. A.
1981-01-01
The design complexity and size of convectively-cooled engine and airframe structures for hypersonic transports necessitate the use of large general purpose computer programs for both thermal and structural analyses. Generally thermal analyses are based on the lumped-parameter finite difference technique, and structural analyses are based on the finite element technique. Differences in these techniques make it difficult to achieve an efficient interface. It appears, therefore, desirable to conduct an integrated analysis based on a common technique. A summary is provided of efforts by NASA concerned with the development of an integrated thermal structural analysis capability using the finite element method. Particular attention is given to the development of conduction/forced-convection finite element methodology and applications which illustrate the capabilities of the developed concepts.
Verification of Orthogrid Finite Element Modeling Techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Steeve, B. E.
1996-01-01
The stress analysis of orthogrid structures, specifically with I-beam sections, is regularly performed using finite elements. Various modeling techniques are often used to simplify the modeling process but still adequately capture the actual hardware behavior. The accuracy of such 'Oshort cutso' is sometimes in question. This report compares three modeling techniques to actual test results from a loaded orthogrid panel. The finite element models include a beam, shell, and mixed beam and shell element model. Results show that the shell element model performs the best, but that the simpler beam and beam and shell element models provide reasonable to conservative results for a stress analysis. When deflection and stiffness is critical, it is important to capture the effect of the orthogrid nodes in the model.
Visualizing higher order finite elements. Final report
Thompson, David C; Pebay, Philippe Pierre
2005-11-01
This report contains an algorithm for decomposing higher-order finite elements into regions appropriate for isosurfacing and proves the conditions under which the algorithm will terminate. Finite elements are used to create piecewise polynomial approximants to the solution of partial differential equations for which no analytical solution exists. These polynomials represent fields such as pressure, stress, and momentum. In the past, these polynomials have been linear in each parametric coordinate. Each polynomial coefficient must be uniquely determined by a simulation, and these coefficients are called degrees of freedom. When there are not enough degrees of freedom, simulations will typically fail to produce a valid approximation to the solution. Recent work has shown that increasing the number of degrees of freedom by increasing the order of the polynomial approximation (instead of increasing the number of finite elements, each of which has its own set of coefficients) can allow some types of simulations to produce a valid approximation with many fewer degrees of freedom than increasing the number of finite elements alone. However, once the simulation has determined the values of all the coefficients in a higher-order approximant, tools do not exist for visual inspection of the solution. This report focuses on a technique for the visual inspection of higher-order finite element simulation results based on decomposing each finite element into simplicial regions where existing visualization algorithms such as isosurfacing will work. The requirements of the isosurfacing algorithm are enumerated and related to the places where the partial derivatives of the polynomial become zero. The original isosurfacing algorithm is then applied to each of these regions in turn.
Finite element radiation transport in one dimension
Painter, J.F.
1997-05-09
A new physics package solves radiation transport equations in one space dimension, multiple energy groups and directions. A discontinuous finite element method discretizes radiation intensity with respect to space and angle, and a continuous finite element method discretizes electron temperature `in space. A splitting method solves the resulting linear equations. This is a one-dimensional analog of Kershaw and Harte`s two-dimensional package. This package has been installed in a two-dimensional inertial confinement fusion code, and has given excellent results for both thermal waves and highly directional radiation. In contrast, the traditional discrete ordinate and spherical harmonic methods show less accurate results in both cases.
Studies of finite element analysis of composite material structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Douglas, D. O.; Holzmacher, D. E.; Lane, Z. C.; Thornton, E. A.
1975-01-01
Research in the area of finite element analysis is summarized. Topics discussed include finite element analysis of a picture frame shear test, BANSAP (a bandwidth reduction program for SAP IV), FEMESH (a finite element mesh generation program based on isoparametric zones), and finite element analysis of a composite bolted joint specimens.
Slave finite elements: The temporal element approach to nonlinear analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gellin, S.
1984-01-01
A formulation method for finite elements in space and time incorporating nonlinear geometric and material behavior is presented. The method uses interpolation polynomials for approximating the behavior of various quantities over the element domain, and only explicit integration over space and time. While applications are general, the plate and shell elements that are currently being programmed are appropriate to model turbine blades, vanes, and combustor liners.
Numerical computation of transonic flows by finite-element and finite-difference methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hafez, M. M.; Wellford, L. C.; Merkle, C. L.; Murman, E. M.
1978-01-01
Studies on applications of the finite element approach to transonic flow calculations are reported. Different discretization techniques of the differential equations and boundary conditions are compared. Finite element analogs of Murman's mixed type finite difference operators for small disturbance formulations were constructed and the time dependent approach (using finite differences in time and finite elements in space) was examined.
Finite element modeling of nonisothermal polymer flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roylance, D.
1981-01-01
A finite element formulation designed to simulate polymer melt flows in which both conductive and convective heat transfer are important is described, and the numerical model is illustrated by means of computer experiments using extruder drag flow and entry flow as trial problems. Fluid incompressibility is enforced by a penalty treatment of the element pressures, and the thermal convective transport is modeled by conventional Galerkin and optimal upwind treatments.
Evolution of assumed stress hybrid finite element
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pian, T. H. H.
1984-01-01
Early versions of the assumed stress hybrid finite elements were based on the a priori satisifaction of stress equilibrium conditions. In the new version such conditions are relaxed but are introduced through additional internal displacement functions as Lagrange multipliers. A rational procedure is to choose the displacement terms such that the resulting strains are now of complete polynomials up to the same degree as that of the assumed stresses. Several example problems indicate that optimal element properties are resulted by this method.
A multidimensional finite element method for CFD
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pepper, Darrell W.; Humphrey, Joseph W.
1991-01-01
A finite element method is used to solve the equations of motion for 2- and 3-D fluid flow. The time-dependent equations are solved explicitly using quadrilateral (2-D) and hexahedral (3-D) elements, mass lumping, and reduced integration. A Petrov-Galerkin technique is applied to the advection terms. The method requires a minimum of computational storage, executes quickly, and is scalable for execution on computer systems ranging from PCs to supercomputers.
Quadrilateral/hexahedral finite element mesh coarsening
Staten, Matthew L; Dewey, Mark W; Scott, Michael A; Benzley, Steven E
2012-10-16
A technique for coarsening a finite element mesh ("FEM") is described. This technique includes identifying a coarsening region within the FEM to be coarsened. Perimeter chords running along perimeter boundaries of the coarsening region are identified. The perimeter chords are redirected to create an adaptive chord separating the coarsening region from a remainder of the FEM. The adaptive chord runs through mesh elements residing along the perimeter boundaries of the coarsening region. The adaptive chord is then extracted to coarsen the FEM.
Finite Element Simulation of Smart Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cui, Y. Lawrence; Panahandeh, M.
1996-01-01
Finite element equations representing the behavior of piezoelectric materials when bounded to a typical structure and used as sensors and actuators were developed. Emphasis was placed on generating sensor output equations of piezoelectric sensors and responses of a typical structure bonded with piezoelectric sensors and actuators on the basis of finite element formulation. The model can predict not only structural responses due to both mechanical and electrical loading but also electrical potential due to mechanical or thermal effects. The resulted finite element equations were then used for simple control design and performance evaluation. In the control algorithm, voltages coming out from piezoelectric sensors, which are proportional to strains at sensing locations, are taken as input. The voltages applied to the piezoelectric actuators are used as output. The feasibility of integrating control algorithm with the element routine developed herein and FEAP was demonstrated. In particular, optimal independent modal space control was implemented in a software package on the basis of finite element formulation. A rudimentary finite element-control algorithm package was also developed to evaluate the performance of candidate control laws. A few numerical simulations using the software package developed herein were given. The integrated software package will provide a design tool to address issues such as how adaptive smart systems will scale to a full size aircraft, the amount of piezoelectric materials and the powers needed to actuate it for desired performance. It will also provide a viable new structural control design concept for practical applications in large flexible structures such as aerospace vehicles and aircraft.
Finite element displacement analysis of a lung.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Matthews, F. L.; West, J. B.
1972-01-01
A method is given based on the technique of finite elements which determines theoretically the mechanical behavior of a lung-shaped body loaded by its own weight. The results of this theoretical analysis have been compared with actual measurements of alveolar size and pleural pressures in animal lungs.
Animation of finite element models and results
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lipman, Robert R.
1992-01-01
This is not intended as a complete review of computer hardware and software that can be used for animation of finite element models and results, but is instead a demonstration of the benefits of visualization using selected hardware and software. The role of raw computational power, graphics speed, and the use of videotape are discussed.
Finite Element Modelling and Analysis of Conventional Pultrusion Processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akishin, P.; Barkanov, E.; Bondarchuk, A.
2015-11-01
Pultrusion is one of many composite manufacturing techniques and one of the most efficient methods for producing fiber reinforced polymer composite parts with a constant cross-section. Numerical simulation is helpful for understanding the manufacturing process and developing scientific means for the pultrusion tooling design. Numerical technique based on the finite element method has been developed for the simulation of pultrusion processes. It uses the general purpose finite element software ANSYS Mechanical. It is shown that the developed technique predicts the temperature and cure profiles, which are in good agreement with those published in the open literature.
Adaptive finite-element method for diffraction gratings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bao, Gang; Chen, Zhiming; Wu, Haijun
2005-06-01
A second-order finite-element adaptive strategy with error control for one-dimensional grating problems is developed. The unbounded computational domain is truncated to a bounded one by a perfectly-matched-layer (PML) technique. The PML parameters, such as the thickness of the layer and the medium properties, are determined through sharp a posteriori error estimates. The adaptive finite-element method is expected to increase significantly the accuracy and efficiency of the discretization as well as reduce the computation cost. Numerical experiments are included to illustrate the competitiveness of the proposed adaptive method.
Fourier analysis of finite element preconditioned collocation schemes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deville, Michel O.; Mund, Ernest H.
1990-01-01
The spectrum of the iteration operator of some finite element preconditioned Fourier collocation schemes is investigated. The first part of the paper analyses one-dimensional elliptic and hyperbolic model problems and the advection-diffusion equation. Analytical expressions of the eigenvalues are obtained with use of symbolic computation. The second part of the paper considers the set of one-dimensional differential equations resulting from Fourier analysis (in the tranverse direction) of the 2-D Stokes problem. All results agree with previous conclusions on the numerical efficiency of finite element preconditioning schemes.
On Hybrid and mixed finite element methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pian, T. H. H.
1981-01-01
Three versions of the assumed stress hybrid model in finite element methods and the corresponding variational principles for the formulation are presented. Examples of rank deficiency for stiffness matrices by the hybrid stress model are given and their corresponding kinematic deformation modes are identified. A discussion of the derivation of general semi-Loof elements for plates and shells by the hybrid stress method is given. It is shown that the equilibrium model by Fraeijs de Veubeke can be derived by the approach of the hybrid stress model as a special case of semi-Loof elements.
Finite element computation with parallel VLSI
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcgregor, J.; Salama, M.
1983-01-01
This paper describes a parallel processing computer consisting of a 16-bit microcomputer as a master processor which controls and coordinates the activities of 8086/8087 VLSI chip set slave processors working in parallel. The hardware is inexpensive and can be flexibly configured and programmed to perform various functions. This makes it a useful research tool for the development of, and experimentation with parallel mathematical algorithms. Application of the hardware to computational tasks involved in the finite element analysis method is demonstrated by the generation and assembly of beam finite element stiffness matrices. A number of possible schemes for the implementation of N-elements on N- or n-processors (N is greater than n) are described, and the speedup factors of their time consumption are determined as a function of the number of available parallel processors.
Revolution in Orthodontics: Finite element analysis
Singh, Johar Rajvinder; Kambalyal, Prabhuraj; Jain, Megha; Khandelwal, Piyush
2016-01-01
Engineering has not only developed in the field of medicine but has also become quite established in the field of dentistry, especially Orthodontics. Finite element analysis (FEA) is a computational procedure to calculate the stress in an element, which performs a model solution. This structural analysis allows the determination of stress resulting from external force, pressure, thermal change, and other factors. This method is extremely useful for indicating mechanical aspects of biomaterials and human tissues that can hardly be measured in vivo. The results obtained can then be studied using visualization software within the finite element method (FEM) to view a variety of parameters, and to fully identify implications of the analysis. This is a review to show the applications of FEM in Orthodontics. It is extremely important to verify what the purpose of the study is in order to correctly apply FEM. PMID:27114948
Optimal mapping of irregular finite element domains to parallel processors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Flower, J.; Otto, S.; Salama, M.
1987-01-01
Mapping the solution domain of n-finite elements into N-subdomains that may be processed in parallel by N-processors is an optimal one if the subdomain decomposition results in a well-balanced workload distribution among the processors. The problem is discussed in the context of irregular finite element domains as an important aspect of the efficient utilization of the capabilities of emerging multiprocessor computers. Finding the optimal mapping is an intractable combinatorial optimization problem, for which a satisfactory approximate solution is obtained here by analogy to a method used in statistical mechanics for simulating the annealing process in solids. The simulated annealing analogy and algorithm are described, and numerical results are given for mapping an irregular two-dimensional finite element domain containing a singularity onto the Hypercube computer.
Finite Element Interface to Linear Solvers
2005-03-18
Sparse systems of linear equations arise in many engineering applications, including finite elements, finite volumes, and others. The solution of linear systems is often the most computationally intensive portion of the application. Depending on the complexity of problems addressed by the application, there may be no single solver capable of solving all of the linear systems that arise. This motivates the desire to switch an application from one solver librwy to another, depending on themore » problem being solved. The interfaces provided by solver libraries differ greatly, making it difficult to switch an application code from one library to another. The amount of library-specific code in an application Can be greatly reduced by having an abstraction layer between solver libraries and the application, putting a common "face" on various solver libraries. One such abstraction layer is the Finite Element Interface to Linear Solvers (EEl), which has seen significant use by finite element applications at Sandia National Laboratories and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.« less
Non-conforming finite element methods for transmission eigenvalue problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yidu; Han, Jiayu; Bi, Hai
2016-08-01
The transmission eigenvalue problem is an important and challenging topic arising in the inverse scattering theory. In this paper, for the Helmholtz transmission eigenvalue problem, we give a weak formulation which is a nonselfadjoint linear eigenvalue problem. Based on the weak formulation, we first discuss the non-conforming finite element approximation, and prove the error estimates of the discrete eigenvalues obtained by the Adini element, Morley-Zienkiewicz element, modified-Zienkiewicz element et. al. And we report some numerical examples to validate the efficiency of our approach for solving transmission eigenvalue problem.
Finite Element Heat & Mass Transfer Code
1996-10-10
FEHM is a numerical simulation code for subsurface transport processes. It models 3-D, time-dependent, multiphase, multicomponent, non-isothermal, reactive flow through porous and fractured media. It can accurately represent complex 3-D geologic media and structures and their effects on subsurface flow and transport. Its capabilities include flow of gas, water, and heat; flow of air, water, and heat; multiple chemically reactive and sorbing tracers; finite element/finite volume formulation; coupled stress module; saturated and unsaturated media; andmore » double porosity and double porosity/double permeability capabilities.« less
Modal Substructuring of Geometrically Nonlinear Finite-Element Models
Kuether, Robert J.; Allen, Matthew S.; Hollkamp, Joseph J.
2016-02-01
The efficiency of a modal substructuring method depends on the component modes used to reduce each subcomponent model. Methods such as Craig–Bampton have been used extensively to reduce linear finite-element models with thousands or even millions of degrees of freedom down orders of magnitude while maintaining acceptable accuracy. A novel reduction method is proposed here for geometrically nonlinear finite-element models using the fixed-interface and constraint modes of the linearized system to reduce each subcomponent model. The geometric nonlinearity requires an additional cubic and quadratic polynomial function in the modal equations, and the nonlinear stiffness coefficients are determined by applying amore » series of static loads and using the finite-element code to compute the response. The geometrically nonlinear, reduced modal equations for each subcomponent are then coupled by satisfying compatibility and force equilibrium. This modal substructuring approach is an extension of the Craig–Bampton method and is readily applied to geometrically nonlinear models built directly within commercial finite-element packages. The efficiency of this new approach is demonstrated on two example problems: one that couples two geometrically nonlinear beams at a shared rotational degree of freedom, and another that couples an axial spring element to the axial degree of freedom of a geometrically nonlinear beam. The nonlinear normal modes of the assembled models are compared with those of a truth model to assess the accuracy of the novel modal substructuring approach.« less
Diagonal multisoliton matrix elements in finite volume
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pálmai, T.; Takács, G.
2013-02-01
We consider diagonal matrix elements of local operators between multisoliton states in finite volume in the sine-Gordon model and formulate a conjecture regarding their finite size dependence which is valid up to corrections exponential in the volume. This conjecture extends the results of Pozsgay and Takács which were only valid for diagonal scattering. In order to test the conjecture, we implement a numerical renormalization group improved truncated conformal space approach. The numerical comparisons confirm the conjecture, which is expected to be valid for general integrable field theories. The conjectured formula can be used to evaluate finite temperature one-point and two-point functions using recently developed methods.
Hybrid finite element-finite difference method for thermal analysis of blood vessels.
Blanchard, C H; Gutierrez, G; White, J A; Roemer, R B
2000-01-01
A hybrid finite-difference/finite-element technique for the thermal analysis of blood vessels embedded in perfused tissue has been developed and evaluated. This method provides efficient and accurate solutions to the conjugated heat transfer problem of convection by blood coupled to conduction in the tissue. The technique uses a previously developed 3D automatic meshing method for creating a finite element mesh in the tissue surrounding the vessels, coupled iteratively with a 1-D marching finite difference method for the interior of the vessels. This hybrid technique retains the flexibility and ease of automated finite-element meshing techniques for modelling the complex geometry of blood vessels and irregularly shaped tissues, and speeds the solution time by using a simple finite-difference method to calculate the bulk mean temperatures within all blood vessels. The use of the 1D finite-difference technique in the blood vessels also eliminates the large computer memory requirements needed to accurately solve large vessel network problems when fine FE meshes are used in the interior of vessels. The accuracy of the hybrid technique has been verified against previously verified numerical solutions. In summary, the hybrid technique combines the accuracy and flexibility found in automated finite-element techniques, with the speed and reduction of computational memory requirements associated with the 1D finite-difference technique, something which has not been done before. This method, thus, has the potential to provide accurate, flexible and relatively fast solutions for the thermal analysis of coupled perfusion/blood vessel problems, and large vessel network problems. PMID:10949130
Plasticity - Theory and finite element applications.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Armen, H., Jr.; Levine, H. S.
1972-01-01
A unified presentation is given of the development and distinctions associated with various incremental solution procedures used to solve the equations governing the nonlinear behavior of structures, and this is discussed within the framework of the finite-element method. Although the primary emphasis here is on material nonlinearities, consideration is also given to geometric nonlinearities acting separately or in combination with nonlinear material behavior. The methods discussed here are applicable to a broad spectrum of structures, ranging from simple beams to general three-dimensional bodies. The finite-element analysis methods for material nonlinearity are general in the sense that any of the available plasticity theories can be incorporated to treat strain hardening or ideally plastic behavior.
Finite element analysis of human joints
Bossart, P.L.; Hollerbach, K.
1996-09-01
Our work focuses on the development of finite element models (FEMs) that describe the biomechanics of human joints. Finite element modeling is becoming a standard tool in industrial applications. In highly complex problems such as those found in biomechanics research, however, the full potential of FEMs is just beginning to be explored, due to the absence of precise, high resolution medical data and the difficulties encountered in converting these enormous datasets into a form that is usable in FEMs. With increasing computing speed and memory available, it is now feasible to address these challenges. We address the first by acquiring data with a high resolution C-ray CT scanner and the latter by developing semi-automated method for generating the volumetric meshes used in the FEM. Issues related to tomographic reconstruction, volume segmentation, the use of extracted surfaces to generate volumetric hexahedral meshes, and applications of the FEM are described.
2-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor
1996-07-15
ORION is an interactive program that serves as a postprocessor for the analysis programs NIKE2D, DYNA2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. ORION reads binary plot files generated by the two-dimensional finite element codes currently used by the Methods Development Group at LLNL. Contour and color fringe plots of a large number of quantities may be displayed on meshes consisting of triangular and quadrilateral elements. ORION can compute strain measures, interface pressures along slide lines, reaction forcesmore » along constrained boundaries, and momentum. ORION has been applied to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.« less
Finite Element Analysis of Honeycomb Impact Attenuator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Seung-Yong; Choi, Seung-Kyu; Kim, Nohyu
To participate in Student Formula Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) competitions, it is necessary to build an impact attenuator that would give an average deceleration not to exceed 20g when it runs into a rigid wall. Students can use numerical simulations or experimental test data to show that their car satisfies this safety requirement. A student group to study formula cars at the Korea University of Technology and Education has designed a vehicle to take part in a SAE competition, and a honeycomb structure was adopted as the impact attenuator. In this paper, finite element calculations were carried out to investigate the dynamic behavior of the honeycomb attenuator. Deceleration and deformation behaviors were studied. Effect of the yield strength was checked by comparing the numerical results. ABAQUS/Explicit finite element code was used.
Finite element analysis of wrinkling membranes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, R. K.; Hedgepeth, J. M.; Weingarten, V. I.; Das, P.; Kahyai, S.
1984-01-01
The development of a nonlinear numerical algorithm for the analysis of stresses and displacements in partly wrinkled flat membranes, and its implementation on the SAP VII finite-element code are described. A comparison of numerical results with exact solutions of two benchmark problems reveals excellent agreement, with good convergence of the required iterative procedure. An exact solution of a problem involving axisymmetric deformations of a partly wrinkled shallow curved membrane is also reported.
ExodusII Finite Element Data Model
2005-05-14
EXODUS II is a model developed to store and retrieve data for finite element analyses. It is used for preprocessing (problem definition), postprocessing (results visualization), as well as code to code data transfer. An EXODUS II data file is a random access, machine independent, binary file that is written and read via C, C++, or Fortran library routines which comprise the Application Programming Interface. (exodus II is based on netcdf)
Finite element based electric motor design optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Campbell, C. Warren
1993-01-01
The purpose of this effort was to develop a finite element code for the analysis and design of permanent magnet electric motors. These motors would drive electromechanical actuators in advanced rocket engines. The actuators would control fuel valves and thrust vector control systems. Refurbishing the hydraulic systems of the Space Shuttle after each flight is costly and time consuming. Electromechanical actuators could replace hydraulics, improve system reliability, and reduce down time.
Finite Element Results Visualization for Unstructured Grids
Speck, Douglas E.; Dovey, Donald J.
1996-07-15
GRIZ is a general-purpose post-processing application supporting interactive visualization of finite element analysis results on unstructured grids. In addition to basic pseudocolor renderings of state variables over the mesh surface, GRIZ provides modern visualization techniques such as isocontours and isosurfaces, cutting planes, vector field display, and particle traces. GRIZ accepts both command-line and mouse-driven input, and is portable to virtually any UNIX platform which provides Motif and OpenGl libraries.
Finite element model of needle electrode sensitivity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Høyum, P.; Kalvøy, H.; Martinsen, Ø. G.; Grimnes, S.
2010-04-01
We used the Finite Element (FE) Method to estimate the sensitivity of a needle electrode for bioimpedance measurement. This current conducting needle with insulated shaft was inserted in a saline solution and current was measured at the neutral electrode. FE model resistance and reactance were calculated and successfully compared with measurements on a laboratory model. The sensitivity field was described graphically based on these FE simulations.
Enhancements to modal testing using finite elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jarvis, Brian
In calculating the natural frequencies and mode shapes from a finite element analysis, there are generally many more degrees of freedom than can be handled for the eigensolution. A reduction process is employed to reduce the number to a master set and chosen so that the modes of interest are well defined. By choosing those freedoms where the inertia terms are high or the stiffness terms are low then an automatic procedure for selecting the best freedoms can be defined. For modal testing, these master freedoms also indicate the best transducer locations for optimum low order mode identification. Having carried out the modal test, the mode shapes obtained can be forced onto the finite element model giving greatly enhanced results. By examining terms in all mode shapes from the finite element model in the frequency range of interest, the best reference or excitation position can be found. An example of the use of this technique to study the modal properties of an aero-engine compressor blade is given.
Nondestructive Evaluation Correlated with Finite Element Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abdul-Azid, Ali; Baaklini, George Y.
1999-01-01
Advanced materials are being developed for use in high-temperature gas turbine applications. For these new materials to be fully utilized, their deformation properties, their nondestructive evaluation (NDE) quality and material durability, and their creep and fatigue fracture characteristics need to be determined by suitable experiments. The experimental findings must be analyzed, characterized, modeled and translated into constitutive equations for stress analysis and life prediction. Only when these ingredients - together with the appropriate computational tools - are available, can durability analysis be performed in the design stage, long before the component is built. One of the many structural components being evaluated by the NDE group at the NASA Lewis Research Center is the flywheel system. It is being considered as an energy storage device for advanced space vehicles. Such devices offer advantages over electrochemical batteries in situations demanding high power delivery and high energy storage per unit weight. In addition, flywheels have potentially higher efficiency and longer lifetimes with proper motor-generator and rotor design. Flywheels made of fiber-reinforced polymer composite material show great promise for energy applications because of the high energy and power densities that they can achieve along with a burst failure mode that is relatively benign in comparison to those of flywheels made of metallic materials Therefore, to help improve durability and reduce structural uncertainties, we are developing a comprehensive analytical approach to predict the reliability and life of these components under these harsh loading conditions. The combination of NDE and two- and three-dimensional finite element analyses (e.g., stress analyses and fracture mechanics) is expected to set a standardized procedure to accurately assess the applicability of using various composite materials to design a suitable rotor/flywheel assembly.
Visualization of transient finite element analyses on large unstructured grids
Dovey, D.
1995-03-22
Three-dimensional transient finite element analysis is performed on unstructured grids. A trend toward running larger analysis problems, combined with a desire for interactive animation of analysis results, demands efficient visualization techniques. This paper discusses a set of data structures and algorithms for visualizing transient analysis results on unstructured grids and introduces some modifications in order to better support large grids. In particular, an element grouping approach is used to reduce the amount of memory needed for external surface determination and to speed up ``point in element`` tests. The techniques described lend themselves to visualization of analyses carried out in parallel on a massively parallel computer (MPC).
Finite element analysis of inviscid subsonic boattail flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chima, R. V.; Gerhart, P. M.
1981-01-01
A finite element code for analysis of inviscid subsonic flows over arbitrary nonlifting planar or axisymmetric bodies is described. The code solves a novel primitive variable formulation of the coupled irrotationality and compressible continuity equations. Results for flow over a cylinder, a sphere, and a NACA 0012 airfoil verify the code. Computed subcritical flows over an axisymmetric boattailed afterbody compare well with finite difference results and experimental data. Interative coupling with an integral turbulent boundary layer code shows strong viscous effects on the inviscid flow. Improvements in code efficiency and extensions to transonic flows are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Jiahao; Shahba, Ahmad; Ghosh, Somnath
2016-05-01
Image-based CPFE modeling involves computer generation of virtual polycrystalline microstructures from experimental data, followed by discretization into finite element meshes. Discretization is commonly accomplished using three-dimensional four-node tetrahedral or TET4 elements, which conform to the complex geometries. It has been commonly observed that TET4 elements suffer from severe volumetric locking when simulating deformation of incompressible or nearly incompressible materials. This paper develops and examines three locking-free stabilized finite element formulations in the context of crystal plasticity finite element analysis. They include a node-based uniform strain (NUS) element, a locally integrated B-bar (LIB) based element and a F-bar patch (FP) based element. All three formulations are based on the partitioning of TET4 element meshes and integrating over patches to obtain favorable incompressibility constraint ratios without adding large degrees of freedom. The results show that NUS formulation introduces unstable spurious energy modes, while the LIB and FP elements stabilize the solutions and are preferred for reliable CPFE analysis. The FP element is found to be computationally efficient over the LIB element.
Mixed Finite Element Method for Melt Migration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taicher, A. L.; Hesse, M. A.; Arbogast, T.
2012-12-01
Multi-phase flow arises during partial melting in the earth mantle, where the porosity is small and material has the characteristics of a compacting porous medium. The equations governing multi-phase flow have been specialized to partially molten materials by McKenzie and Fowler. Their model, also called a Darcy-Stokes system, is highly coupled and non-linear. Melt flow is governed by Darcy's Law while the high temperature, ductile creep of the solid matrix is modeled using viscous non-Newtonian Stokes rheology. In addition, the melt and solid pressures are related through a compaction relation. This nearly elliptic mechanical problem is then coupled with both solute transport and thermal evolution according to the enthalpy method developed by Katz. A suitable numerical method must solve the Darcy-Stokes problem in a manner compatible with the transport problem. Moreover, unlike most porous media problems, partially molten materials transition dynamically from non-porous solid to porous medium. Therefore, a numerical method must also carefully account for the limit of zero porosity. The Darcy-Stokes system for modeling partial melting in the mantle is a novel problem. As far as we know, there currently does not exist a finite element solution in the literature solving these coupled equations. The finite element framework provides support for additional analysis of error and convergence. Moreover, both mesh refinement and anisotropy are naturally incorporated into finite elements. In particular, the mixed finite element method presents a good candidate because it works in both limiting cases: Darcy and incompressible Stokes flow. Mixed methods also produce discretely conservative fluxes that are required for the transport problem to remains stable without violating conservation of mass. Based preliminary investigations in 1D and derived energy estimates, we present a mixed formulation for the Darcy-Stokes system. Next, using novel elements of lowest order and
Modelling bucket excavation by finite element
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pecingina, O. M.
2015-11-01
Changes in geological components of the layers from lignite pits have an impact on the sustainability of the cup path elements and under the action of excavation force appear efforts leading to deformation of the entire assembly. Application of finite element method in the optimization of components leads to economic growth, to increase the reliability and durability of the studied machine parts thus the machine. It is obvious usefulness of knowledge the state of mechanical tensions that the designed piece or the assembly not to break under the action of tensions that must cope during operation. In the course of excavation work on all bucket cutting force components, the first coming into contact with the material being excavated cutting edge. Therefore in the study with finite element analysis is retained only cutting edge. To study the field of stress and strain on the cutting edge will be created geometric patterns for each type of cup this will be subject to static analysis. The geometric design retains the cutting edge shape and on this on the tooth cassette location will apply an areal force on the abutment tooth. The cutting edge real pattern is subjected to finite element study for the worst case of rock cutting by symmetrical and asymmetrical cups whose profile is different. The purpose of this paper is to determine the displacement and tensions field for both profiles considering the maximum force applied on the cutting edge and the depth of the cutting is equal with the width of the cutting edge of the tooth. It will consider the worst case when on the structure will act both the tangential force and radial force on the bucket profile. For determination of stress and strain field on the form design of cutting edge profile will apply maximum force assuming uniform distribution and on the edge surface force will apply a radial force. After geometric patterns discretization on the cutting knives and determining stress field, can be seen that at the
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Strong, Stuart L.; Meade, Andrew J., Jr.
1992-01-01
Preliminary results are presented of a finite element/finite difference method (semidiscrete Galerkin method) used to calculate compressible boundary layer flow about airfoils, in which the group finite element scheme is applied to the Dorodnitsyn formulation of the boundary layer equations. The semidiscrete Galerkin (SDG) method promises to be fast, accurate and computationally efficient. The SDG method can also be applied to any smoothly connected airfoil shape without modification and possesses the potential capability of calculating boundary layer solutions beyond flow separation. Results are presented for low speed laminar flow past a circular cylinder and past a NACA 0012 airfoil at zero angle of attack at a Mach number of 0.5. Also shown are results for compressible flow past a flat plate for a Mach number range of 0 to 10 and results for incompressible turbulent flow past a flat plate. All numerical solutions assume an attached boundary layer.
Traction free finite elements with the assumed stress hybrid model. M.S. Thesis, 1981
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kafie, Kurosh
1991-01-01
An effective approach in the finite element analysis of the stress field at the traction free boundary of a solid continuum was studied. Conventional displacement and assumed stress finite elements were used in the determination of stress concentrations around circular and elliptical holes. Specialized hybrid elements were then developed to improve the satisfaction of prescribed traction boundary conditions. Results of the stress analysis indicated that finite elements which exactly satisfy the free stress boundary conditions are the most accurate and efficient in such problems. A general approach for hybrid finite elements which incorporate traction free boundaries of arbitrary geometry was formulated.
Parallel, adaptive finite element methods for conservation laws
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biswas, Rupak; Devine, Karen D.; Flaherty, Joseph E.
1994-01-01
We construct parallel finite element methods for the solution of hyperbolic conservation laws in one and two dimensions. Spatial discretization is performed by a discontinuous Galerkin finite element method using a basis of piecewise Legendre polynomials. Temporal discretization utilizes a Runge-Kutta method. Dissipative fluxes and projection limiting prevent oscillations near solution discontinuities. A posteriori estimates of spatial errors are obtained by a p-refinement technique using superconvergence at Radau points. The resulting method is of high order and may be parallelized efficiently on MIMD computers. We compare results using different limiting schemes and demonstrate parallel efficiency through computations on an NCUBE/2 hypercube. We also present results using adaptive h- and p-refinement to reduce the computational cost of the method.
Implicit extrapolation methods for multilevel finite element computations
Jung, M.; Ruede, U.
1994-12-31
The finite element package FEMGP has been developed to solve elliptic and parabolic problems arising in the computation of magnetic and thermomechanical fields. FEMGP implements various methods for the construction of hierarchical finite element meshes, a variety of efficient multilevel solvers, including multigrid and preconditioned conjugate gradient iterations, as well as pre- and post-processing software. Within FEMGP, multigrid {tau}-extrapolation can be employed to improve the finite element solution iteratively to higher order. This algorithm is based on an implicit extrapolation, so that the algorithm differs from a regular multigrid algorithm only by a slightly modified computation of the residuals on the finest mesh. Another advantage of this technique is, that in contrast to explicit extrapolation methods, it does not rely on the existence of global error expansions, and therefore neither requires uniform meshes nor global regularity assumptions. In the paper the authors will analyse the {tau}-extrapolation algorithm and present experimental results in the context of the FEMGP package. Furthermore, the {tau}-extrapolation results will be compared to higher order finite element solutions.
Computerized symbolic manipulation in nonlinear finite element analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noor, A. K.; Andersen, C. M.
1981-01-01
The potential of using computerized symbolic manipulation in the development of nonlinear finite elements is discussed. Three tasks which can be efficiently performed using computerized symbolic manipulation are identified: (1) generation of algebraic expressions for the stiffness coefficients of nonlinear finite elements, (2) generation of FORTRAN source code for numerical evaluation of stiffness coefficients, and (3) checking the correctness of the FORTRAN statements for the arrays of coefficients. The symbolic and algebraic manipulation system MACSYMA is used in the present study. Two sample MACSYMA programs are presented for the development of the nonlinear stiffness coefficients of two-dimensional, shear-flexible, doubly-curved deep shell elements. The first program is for displacement models and the second program is for mixed models with discontinuous stress-resultant fields at interelement boundaries.
PWSCC Assessment by Using Extended Finite Element Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Sung-Jun; Lee, Sang-Hwan; Chang, Yoon-Suk
2015-12-01
The head penetration nozzle of control rod driving mechanism (CRDM) is known to be susceptible to primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) due to the welding-induced residual stress. Especially, the J-groove dissimilar metal weld regions have received many attentions in the previous studies. However, even though several advanced techniques such as weight function and finite element alternating methods have been introduced to predict the occurrence of PWSCC, there are still difficulties in respect of applicability and efficiency. In this study, the extended finite element method (XFEM), which allows convenient crack element modeling by enriching degree of freedom (DOF) with special displacement function, was employed to evaluate structural integrity of the CRDM head penetration nozzle. The resulting stress intensity factors of surface cracks were verified for the reliability of proposed method through the comparison with those suggested in the American Society of Mechanical Engineering (ASME) code. The detailed results from the FE analyses are fully discussed in the manuscript.
Finite element modelling for materials with size effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Swaddiwudhipong, S.; Hua, J.; Tho, K. K.; Liu, Z. S.
2006-10-01
This paper involves the formulation of the C0 finite elements incorporating the conventional mechanism-based strain gradient plasticity theory. Higher-order variables and consequently higher-order continuity conditions are not required allowing the direct applications of conventional plasticity algorithms in the existing finite element package. Implementation of the model whether analytically or computationally is efficient and straightforward as the strain gradient effect is confined in the material constitutive relation. The accuracy of the proposed elements in simulating the response of materials with strong size effect is verified through several numerical examples. The approach is applicable and valid to any materials with non-uniform plastic deformation larger than about 100 nm onwards. The proposed model becomes imperative when the deformation is less than 10 µm as classical plasticity is unable to describe the phenomenon comprehensively at this low level of deformation.
X-ray casting finite-element-modeling data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Feng; Cai, Wenli; Shi, Jiaoying
1996-03-01
An efficient technique is described for rendering Finite Element Modeling (FEM) volume data. The data are not a regular 3D grid. This algorithm can deal with most kinds of FEM data, such as hexahedron 8 nodes, hexahedron 20 nodes etc. Two methods to visualize the FEM data have been presented in the rendering stage. The comparison of these two methods have also been discussed later in this paper.
Algebraic surface design and finite element meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bajaj, Chandrajit L.
1992-01-01
Some of the techniques are summarized which are used in constructing C sup 0 and C sup 1 continuous meshes of low degree, implicitly defined, algebraic surface patches in three dimensional space. These meshes of low degree algebraic surface patches are used to construct accurate computer models of physical objects. These meshes are also used in the finite element simulation of physical phenomena (e.g., heat dissipation, stress/strain distributions, fluid flow characteristics) required in the computer prototyping of both the manufacturability and functionality of the geometric design.
Finite element methods in probabilistic mechanics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Wing Kam; Mani, A.; Belytschko, Ted
1987-01-01
Probabilistic methods, synthesizing the power of finite element methods with second-order perturbation techniques, are formulated for linear and nonlinear problems. Random material, geometric properties and loads can be incorporated in these methods, in terms of their fundamental statistics. By construction, these methods are applicable when the scale of randomness is not too large and when the probabilistic density functions have decaying tails. By incorporating certain computational techniques, these methods are shown to be capable of handling large systems with many sources of uncertainties. Applications showing the effects of combined random fields and cyclic loading/stress reversal are studied and compared with Monte Carlo simulation results.
Shape optimization including finite element grid adaptation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kikuchi, N.; Taylor, J. E.
1984-01-01
The prediction of optimal shape design for structures depends on having a sufficient level of precision in the computation of structural response. These requirements become critical in situations where the region to be designed includes stress concentrations or unilateral contact surfaces, for example. In the approach to shape optimization discussed here, a means to obtain grid adaptation is incorporated into the finite element procedures. This facility makes it possible to maintain a level of quality in the computational estimate of response that is surely adequate for the shape design problem.
Chemorheology of reactive systems: Finite element analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Douglas, C.; Roylance, D.
1982-01-01
The equations which govern the nonisothermal flow of reactive fluids are outlined, and the means by which finite element analysis is used to solve these equations for the sort of arbitrary boundary conditions encountered in industrial practice are described. The performance of the computer code is illustrated by several trial problems, selected more for their value in providing insight to polymer processing flows than as practical production problems. Although a good deal remains to be learned as to the performance and proper use of this numerical technique, it is undeniably useful in providing better understanding of today's complicated polymer processing problems.
Finite element solutions of free surface flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zarda, P. R.; Marcus, M. S.
1977-01-01
A procedure is presented for using NASTRAN to determine the flow field about arbitrarily shaped bodies in the presence of a free surface. The fundamental unknown of the problem is the velocity potential which must satisfy Laplace's equation in the fluid region. Boundary conditions on the free surface may involve second order derivatives in space and time. In cases involving infinite domains either a tractable radiation condition is applied at a truncated boundary or a series expansion is used and matched to the local finite elements. Solutions are presented for harmonic, transient, and steady state problems and compared to either exact solutions or other numerical solutions.
System software for the finite element machine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crockett, T. W.; Knott, J. D.
1985-01-01
The Finite Element Machine is an experimental parallel computer developed at Langley Research Center to investigate the application of concurrent processing to structural engineering analysis. This report describes system-level software which has been developed to facilitate use of the machine by applications researchers. The overall software design is outlined, and several important parallel processing issues are discussed in detail, including processor management, communication, synchronization, and input/output. Based on experience using the system, the hardware architecture and software design are critiqued, and areas for further work are suggested.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gelinas, R. J.; Doss, S. K.; Vajk, J. P.; Djomehri, J.; Miller, K.
1983-01-01
The mathematical background regarding the moving finite element (MFE) method of Miller and Miller (1981) is discussed, taking into account a general system of partial differential equations (PDE) and the amenability of the MFE method in two dimensions to code modularization and to semiautomatic user-construction of numerous PDE systems for both Dirichlet and zero-Neumann boundary conditions. A description of test problem results is presented, giving attention to aspects of single square wave propagation, and a solution of the heat equation.
2-D Finite Element Heat Conduction
1989-10-30
AYER is a finite element program which implicitly solves the general two-dimensional equation of thermal conduction for plane or axisymmetric bodies. AYER takes into account the effects of time (transient problems), in-plane anisotropic thermal conductivity, a three-dimensional velocity distribution, and interface thermal contact resistance. Geometry and material distributions are arbitrary, and input is via subroutines provided by the user. As a result, boundary conditions, material properties, velocity distributions, and internal power generation may be mademore » functions of, e.g., time, temperature, location, and heat flux.« less
Iterative methods for mixed finite element equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nakazawa, S.; Nagtegaal, J. C.; Zienkiewicz, O. C.
1985-01-01
Iterative strategies for the solution of indefinite system of equations arising from the mixed finite element method are investigated in this paper with application to linear and nonlinear problems in solid and structural mechanics. The augmented Hu-Washizu form is derived, which is then utilized to construct a family of iterative algorithms using the displacement method as the preconditioner. Two types of iterative algorithms are implemented. Those are: constant metric iterations which does not involve the update of preconditioner; variable metric iterations, in which the inverse of the preconditioning matrix is updated. A series of numerical experiments is conducted to evaluate the numerical performance with application to linear and nonlinear model problems.
Dynamic analysis of mechanisms by finite elements
Botsali, F.M.; Uenuevar, A.
1996-11-01
The need to increase productivity in order to decrease manufacturing costs lead to an increase in the working speeds of machines and mechanical systems used in manufacturing. A method is presented for investigating the dynamics of mechanisms with elastic links. Finite element method is used in the formulation of the dynamic problem. Modal transformation is used in order to reduce the number of equations of motion. Using the presented technique, elastic and rigid body motions of mechanism links are solved simultaneously. The presented method may be applied to spatial and open loop mechanisms including robot manipulators as well.
Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston
2011-06-01
We develop a new formulation of the Control Volume Finite Element Method (CVFEM) with a multidimensional Scharfetter-Gummel (SG) upwinding for the drift-diffusion equations. The formulation uses standard nodal elements for the concentrations and expands the flux in terms of the lowest-order Nedelec H(curl; {Omega})-compatible finite element basis. The SG formula is applied to the edges of the elements to express the Nedelec element degree of freedom on this edge in terms of the nodal degrees of freedom associated with the endpoints of the edge. The resulting upwind flux incorporates the upwind effects from all edges and is defined at the interior of the element. This allows for accurate evaluation of integrals on the boundaries of the control volumes for arbitrary quadrilateral elements. The new formulation admits efficient implementation through a standard loop over the elements in the mesh followed by loops over the element nodes (associated with control volume fractions in the element) and element edges (associated with flux degrees of freedom). The quantities required for the SG formula can be precomputed and stored for each edge in the mesh for additional efficiency gains. For clarity the details are presented for two-dimensional quadrilateral grids. Extension to other element shapes and three dimensions is straightforward.
Finite-element calculations on alliant FX/80
Watson, B.C.; Kamat, M.P.
1994-10-01
The finite-element method has proven to be an invaluable tool for analysis and design of complex, high-performance systems, such as those typically encountered in the aerospace or automotive industries. However, as the size of the finite-element models of such systems increases, analysis computation time using conventional computers can become prohibitively high. Parallel processing computers provide the means to overcome these computation-time limits, provided the algorithms used in the analysis can take advantage of multiple processors. The writers have examined several algorithms for linear and nonlinear static analysis, as well as dynamic finite-element analysis. The performance of these algorithms on an Alliant FX/80 parallel supercomputer has been investigated. For single load-case linear static analysis, the optimal solution algorithm is strongly problem dependent. For multiple load cases or nonlinear static analysis through a modified Newton-Raphson method, decomposition algorithms are shown to have a decided advantage over element-by-element preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithms. For eigenvalue/eigenvector analysis, the subspace iteration algorithm with a parallel decomposition is shown to achieve a relatively high parallel efficiency. 12 refs.
Modelling the core convection using finite element and finite difference methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chan, K. H.; Li, Ligang; Liao, Xinhao
2006-08-01
Applications of both parallel finite element and finite difference methods to thermal convection in a rotating spherical shell modelling the fluid dynamics of the Earth's outer core are presented. The numerical schemes are verified by reproducing the convection benchmark test by Christensen et al. [Christensen, U.R., Aubert, J., Cardin, P., Dormy, E., Gibbons, S., Glatzmaier, G.A., Grote, E., Honkura, Y., Jones, C., Kono, M., Matsushima, M., Sakuraba, A., Takahashi, F., Tilgner, A., Wilcht, J., Zhang, K., 2001. A numerical dynamo benchmark. Phys. Earth Planet. Interiors 128, 25-34.]. Both global average and local characteristics agree satisfactorily with the benchmark solution. With the element-by-element (EBE) parallelization technique, the finite element code demonstrates nearly optimal linear scalability in computational speed. The finite difference code is also efficient and scalable by utilizing a parallel library Aztec [Tuminaro, R.S., Heroux, M., Hutchinson, S.A., Shadid, J.N., 1999. Official AZTEC User's Guide: Version 2.1.].
Finite element modeling of piezoelectric elements with complex electrode configuration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paradies, R.; Schläpfer, B.
2009-02-01
It is well known that the material properties of piezoelectric materials strongly depend on the state of polarization of the individual element. While an unpolarized material exhibits mechanically isotropic material properties in the absence of global piezoelectric capabilities, the piezoelectric material properties become transversally isotropic with respect to the polarization direction after polarization. Therefore, for evaluating piezoelectric elements the material properties, including the coupling between the mechanical and the electromechanical behavior, should be addressed correctly. This is of special importance for the micromechanical description of piezoelectric elements with interdigitated electrodes (IDEs). The best known representatives of this group are active fiber composites (AFCs), macro fiber composites (MFCs) and the radial field diaphragm (RFD), respectively. While the material properties are available for a piezoelectric wafer with a homogeneous polarization perpendicular to its plane as postulated in the so-called uniform field model (UFM), the same information is missing for piezoelectric elements with more complex electrode configurations like the above-mentioned ones with IDEs. This is due to the inhomogeneous field distribution which does not automatically allow for the correct assignment of the material, i.e. orientation and property. A variation of the material orientation as well as the material properties can be accomplished by including the polarization process of the piezoelectric transducer in the finite element (FE) simulation prior to the actual load case to be investigated. A corresponding procedure is presented which automatically assigns the piezoelectric material properties, e.g. elasticity matrix, permittivity, and charge vector, for finite element models (FEMs) describing piezoelectric transducers according to the electric field distribution (field orientation and strength) in the structure. A corresponding code has been
Finite element analysis of multilayer coextrusion.
Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Schunk, Peter Randall; Baer, Thomas A.; Mrozek, Randy A.; Lenhart, Joseph Ludlow; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Collins, Robert; Mondy, Lisa Ann
2011-09-01
Multilayer coextrusion has become a popular commercial process for producing complex polymeric products from soda bottles to reflective coatings. A numerical model of a multilayer coextrusion process is developed based on a finite element discretization and two different free-surface methods, an arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) moving mesh implementation and an Eulerian level set method, to understand the moving boundary problem associated with the polymer-polymer interface. The goal of this work is to have a numerical capability suitable for optimizing and troubleshooting the coextrusion process, circumventing flow instabilities such as ribbing and barring, and reducing variability in layer thickness. Though these instabilities can be both viscous and elastic in nature, for this work a generalized Newtonian description of the fluid is used. Models of varying degrees of complexity are investigated including stability analysis and direct three-dimensional finite element free surface approaches. The results of this work show how critical modeling can be to reduce build test cycles, improve material choices, and guide mold design.
Impeller deflection and modal finite element analysis.
Spencer, Nathan A.
2013-10-01
Deflections of an impeller due to centripetal forces are calculated using finite element analysis. The lateral, or out of plane, deflections are an important design consideration for this particular impeller because it incorporates an air bearing with critical gap tolerances. The target gap distance is approximately 10 microns at a rotational velocity of 2500 rpm. The centripetal forces acting on the impeller cause it deflect in a concave fashion, decreasing the initial gap distance as a function of radial position. This deflection is characterized for a previous and updated impeller design for comparative purposes. The impact of design options such as material selection, geometry dimensions, and operating rotational velocity are also explored, followed by a sensitivity study with these parameters bounded by specific design values. A modal analysis is also performed to calculate the impeller's natural frequencies which are desired to be avoided during operation. The finite element modeling techniques continue to be exercised by the impeller design team to address specific questions and evaluate conceptual designs, some of which are included in the Appendix.
A finite element model for ultrasonic cutting.
Lucas, Margaret; MacBeath, Alan; McCulloch, Euan; Cardoni, Andrea
2006-12-22
Using a single-blade ultrasonic cutting device, a study of ultrasonic cutting of three very different materials is conducted using specimens of cheese, polyurethane foam and epoxy resin. Initial finite element models are created, based on the assumption that the ultrasonic blade causes a crack to propagate in a controlled mode 1 opening, and these are validated against experimental data from three point bend fracture tests and ultrasonic cutting experiments on the materials. Subsequently, the finite element model is developed to represent ultrasonic cutting of a multi-layered material. Materials are chosen whose properties allow a model to be developed that could represent a multi-layer food product or biological structure, to enable ultrasonic cutting systems to be designed for applications both in the field of food processing and surgical procedures. The model incorporates an estimation of the friction condition between the cutting blade and the material to be cut and allows adjustment of the frequency, cutting amplitude and cutting speed. PMID:16814351
Overcoming element erosion limitations within Lagrangian finite element codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vignjevic, Rade; Hughes, Kevin; Walker, Andrew; Taylor, Emma A.
2001-10-01
Lagrangian finite element methods have been used extensively in the past to study the non-linear transient behaviour of materials, ranging from crash test of cars to simulating bird strikes on planes.... However, as this type of space discretization does not allow for motion of the material through the mesh when modelling extremely large deformations, the mesh becomes highly distorted. This paper describes some limitations and applicability of this type of analysis for high velocity impacts. A method for dealing with this problem is by the erosion of elements is proposed where the main issue is the deformation of element failure strains. Results were compared with empirical perforation results and were found to be in good agreement. The results were then used to simulate high velocity impacts upon a multi-layered aluminium target, in order to predict a ballistic limit curve. LS-DYNA3D was used as the FE solver for all simulations. Meshes were generated with Truegrid.
A suitable low-order, eight-node tetrahedral finite element for solids
Key, S.W.; Heinstein, M.S.; Stone, C.M.; Mello, F.J.; Blanford, M.L.; Budge, K.G.
1998-03-01
To use the all-tetrahedral mesh generation existing today, the authors have explored the creation of a computationally efficient eight-node tetrahedral finite element (a four-node tetrahedral finite element enriched with four mid-face nodal points). The derivation of the element`s gradient operator, studies in obtaining a suitable mass lumping, and the element`s performance in applications are presented. In particular they examine the eight-node tetrahedral finite element`s behavior in longitudinal plane wave propagation, in transverse cylindrical wave propagation, and in simulating Taylor bar impacts. The element samples only constant strain states and, therefore, has 12 hour-glass modes. In this regard it bears similarities to the eight-node, mean-quadrature hexahedral finite element. Comparisons with the results obtained from the mean-quadrature eight-node hexahedral finite element and the four-node tetrahedral finite element are included. Given automatic all-tetrahedral meshing, the eight-node, constant-strain tetrahedral finite element is a suitable replacement for the eight-node hexahedral finite element in those cases where mesh generation requires an inordinate amount of user intervention and direction to obtain acceptable mesh properties.
Recent advances in hybrid/mixed finite elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pian, T. H. H.
1985-01-01
In formulations of Hybrid/Mixed finite element methods respectively by the Hellinger-Reissner principle and the Hu-Washizu principle, the stress equilibrium equations are brought in as conditions of constraint through the introduction of additional internal displacement parameters. These two approaches are more flexible and have better computing efficiencies. A procedure for the choice of assumed stress terms for 3-D solids is suggested. Example solutions are given for plates and shells using the present formulations and the idea of semiloof elements.
Finite element analysis enhancement of cryogenic testing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thiem, Clare D.; Norton, Douglas A.
1991-12-01
Finite element analysis (FEA) of large space optics enhances cryogenic testing by providing an analytical method by which to ensure that a test article survives proposed testing. The analyses presented in this paper were concerned with determining the reliability of a half meter mirror in an environment where the exact environmental profile was unknown. FEA allows the interaction between the test object and the environment to be simulated to detect potential problems prior to actual testing. These analyses examined worse case scenerios related to cooling the mirror, its structural integrity for the proposed test environment, and deformation of the reflective surface. The FEA was conducted in-house on the System's Reliability Division's VAX 11-750 and Decstation 3100 using Engineering Mechanics Research Corporation's numerically integrated elements for systems analysis finite element software. The results of the analyses showed that it would take at least 48 hours to cool the mirror to its desired testing temperature. It was also determined that the proposed mirror mount would not cause critical concentrated thermal stresses that would fracture the mirror. FEA and actual measurements of the front reflective face were compared and good agreement between computer simulation and physical tests were seen. Space deployment of large optics requires lightweight mirrors which can perform under the harsh conditions of space. The physical characteristics of these mirrors must be well understood in order that their deployment and operation are successful. Evaluating design approaches by analytical simulation, like FEA, verifies the reliability and structural integrity of a space optic during design prior to prototyping and testing. Eliminating an optic's poor design early in its life saves money, materials, and human resources while ensuring performance.
Elbow stress indices using finite element analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Lixin
Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code) specifies rules for the design of nuclear power plant components. NB-3600 of the Code presents a simplified design method using stress indices---Scalar Coefficients used the modify straight pipe stress equations so that they can be applied to elbows, tees and other piping components. The stress indices of piping components are allowed to be determined both analytically and experimentally. This study concentrates on the determination of B2 stress indices for elbow components using finite element analysis (FEA). First, the previous theoretical, numerical and experimental investigations on elbow behavior were comprehensively reviewed, as was the philosophy behind the use of stress indices. The areas of further research was defined. Then, a comprehensive investigation was carried out to determine how the finite element method should be used to correctly simulate an elbow's structural behavior. This investigation included choice of element type, convergence of mesh density, use of boundary restraint and a reconciliation study between FEA and laboratory experiments or other theoretical formulations in both elastic and elasto-plastic domain. Results from different computer programs were also compared. Reasonably good reconciliation was obtained. Appendix II of the Code describes the experimental method to determine B2 stress indices based on load-deflection curves. This procedure was used to compute the B2 stress indices for various loading modes on one particular elbow configuration. The B2 stress indices thus determined were found to be about half of the value calculated from the Code equation. Then the effect on B2 stress indices of those factors such as internal pressure and flange attachments were studied. Finally, the investigation was extended to other configurations of elbow components. A parametric study was conducted on different elbow sizes and schedules. Regression analysis was then used to
Mixed Finite Element Methods for Melt Migration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taicher, A. L.
2013-12-01
Multi-phase flow arises during partial melting in the earth mantle, where the porosity is small and material has the characteristics of a compacting porous medium. The equations governing multi-phase flow have been specialized to partially molten materials by McKenzie and Fowler. Their model, also called a Darcy-Stokes system, is highly coupled and non-linear. Melt flow is governed by Darcy's Law while the high temperature, ductile creep of the solid matrix is modeled using viscous non-Newtonian Stokes rheology. In addition, the melt and solid pressures are related through a compaction relation. This nearly elliptic mechanical problem is then coupled with both solute transport and thermal evolution according to the enthalpy method developed by Katz. A suitable numerical method must solve the Darcy-Stokes problem in a manner compatible with the transport problem. Moreover, unlike most porous media problems, partially molten materials transition dynamically from non-porous solid to porous medium so must carefully account for the limit of zero porosity. The Darcy-Stokes system for modeling partial melting in the mantle is a novel problem. As far as we know, there currently does not exist a finite element solution in the literature solving these coupled equations. In particular, the mixed finite element method presents a good candidate because it works in both limiting cases: Darcy and incompressible Stokes flow. We present a mixed formulation for the Darcy-Stokes system. Next, we present novel elements of lowest order and compatible with both Darcy and Stokes flow Finally, we present our 2D mixed FEM code result for solving Stokes and Darcy flow as well as the coupled Darcy-Stokes system the mid-ocean ridge or corner flow problem.
An emulator for minimizing finite element analysis implementation resources
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melosh, R. J.; Utku, S.; Salama, M.; Islam, M.
1982-01-01
A finite element analysis emulator providing a basis for efficiently establishing an optimum computer implementation strategy when many calculations are involved is described. The SCOPE emulator determines computer resources required as a function of the structural model, structural load-deflection equation characteristics, the storage allocation plan, and computer hardware capabilities. Thereby, it provides data for trading analysis implementation options to arrive at a best strategy. The models contained in SCOPE lead to micro-operation computer counts of each finite element operation as well as overall computer resource cost estimates. Application of SCOPE to the Memphis-Arkansas bridge analysis provides measures of the accuracy of resource assessments. Data indicate that predictions are within 17.3 percent for calculation times and within 3.2 percent for peripheral storage resources for the ELAS code.
A comparison of the capabilities of three finite element programs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Loendorf, D. D.
1972-01-01
Three finite element programs are compared to assess their capabilities as an analysis tool in a structural design process. Because of the need for repetitive analyses as an integral part of a design loop, a candidate program must be capable of handling large problems, operate efficiently, and be readily adaptable for use in computer-aided design. The three programs considered in the study, ELAS,SNAP, and NASTRAN, range from a relatively small finite element program limited to static structural analysis (ELAS) to a large complex general analysis system (NASTRAN). Results are given for comparative speeds and computer resources required for each program in the analysis of sample fuselage problems representative of practical aircraft design.
A Viscoelastic Hybrid Shell Finite Element
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Arthur
1999-01-01
An elastic large displacement thick-shell hybrid finite element is modified to allow for the calculation of viscoelastic stresses. Internal strain variables are introduced at he element's stress nodes and are employed to construct a viscous material model. First order ordinary differential equations relate the internal strain variables to the corresponding elastic strains at the stress nodes. The viscous stresses are computed from the internal strain variables using viscous moduli which are a fraction of the elastic moduli. The energy dissipated by the action of the viscous stresses in included in the mixed variational functional. Nonlinear quasi-static viscous equilibrium equations are then obtained. Previously developed Taylor expansions of the equilibrium equations are modified to include the viscous terms. A predictor-corrector time marching solution algorithm is employed to solve the algebraic-differential equations. The viscous shell element is employed to numerically simulate a stair-step loading and unloading of an aircraft tire in contact with a frictionless surface.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ying, Jinyong; Xie, Dexuan
2015-10-01
The Poisson-Boltzmann equation (PBE) is one widely-used implicit solvent continuum model for calculating electrostatics of ionic solvated biomolecule. In this paper, a new finite element and finite difference hybrid method is presented to solve PBE efficiently based on a special seven-overlapped box partition with one central box containing the solute region and surrounded by six neighboring boxes. In particular, an efficient finite element solver is applied to the central box while a fast preconditioned conjugate gradient method using a multigrid V-cycle preconditioning is constructed for solving a system of finite difference equations defined on a uniform mesh of each neighboring box. Moreover, the PBE domain, the box partition, and an interface fitted tetrahedral mesh of the central box can be generated adaptively for a given PQR file of a biomolecule. This new hybrid PBE solver is programmed in C, Fortran, and Python as a software tool for predicting electrostatics of a biomolecule in a symmetric 1:1 ionic solvent. Numerical results on two test models with analytical solutions and 12 proteins validate this new software tool, and demonstrate its high performance in terms of CPU time and memory usage.
Finite element structural redesign by large admissible perturbations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bernitsas, Michael M.; Beyko, E.; Rim, C. W.; Alzahabi, B.
1991-01-01
In structural redesign, two structural states are involved; the baseline (known) State S1 with unacceptable performance, and the objective (unknown) State S2 with given performance specifications. The difference between the two states in performance and design variables may be as high as 100 percent or more depending on the scale of the structure. A Perturbation Approach to Redesign (PAR) is presented to relate any two structural states S1 and S2 that are modeled by the same finite element model and represented by different values of the design variables. General perturbation equations are derived expressing implicitly the natural frequencies, dynamic modes, static deflections, static stresses, Euler buckling loads, and buckling modes of the objective S2 in terms of its performance specifications, and S1 data and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) results. Large Admissible Perturbation (LEAP) algorithms are implemented in code RESTRUCT to define the objective S2 incrementally without trial and error by postprocessing FEA results of S1 with no additional FEAs. Systematic numerical applications in redesign of a 10 element 48 degree of freedom (dof) beam, a 104 element 192 dof offshore tower, a 64 element 216 dof plate, and a 144 element 896 dof cylindrical shell show the accuracy, efficiency, and potential of PAR to find an objective state that may differ 100 percent from the baseline design.
Asymmetric quadrilateral shell elements for finite strains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Areias, P.; Dias-da-Costa, D.; Pires, E. B.; Van Goethem, N.
2013-07-01
Very good results in infinitesimal and finite strain analysis of shells are achieved by combining either the enhanced-metric technique or the selective-reduced integration for the in-plane shear energy and an assumed natural strain technique (ANS) in a non-symmetric Petrov-Galerkin arrangement which complies with the patch-test. A recovery of the original Wilson incompatible mode element is shown for the trial functions in the in-plane components. As a beneficial side-effect, Newton-Raphson convergence behavior for non-linear problems is improved with respect to symmetric formulations. Transverse-shear and in-plane patch tests are satisfied while distorted-mesh accuracy is higher than with symmetric formulations. Classical test functions with assumed-metric components are required for compatibility reasons. Verification tests are performed with advantageous comparisons being observed in all of them. Applications to large displacement elasticity and finite strain plasticity are shown with both low sensitivity to mesh distortion and (relatively) high accuracy. A equilibrium-consistent (and consistently linearized) updated-Lagrangian algorithm is proposed and tested. Concerning the time-step dependency, it was found that the consistent updated-Lagrangian algorithm is nearly time-step independent and can replace the multiplicative plasticity approach if only moderate elastic strains are present, as is the case of most metals.
Continuation finite element analysis of viscoelastic fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chow, Tai-Whang
A finite element procedure using a mixed formulation and a predictor-corrector type continuation algorithm for the analysis of two dimensional steady state flows of viscoelastic fluids is described. As a simple but nontrivial test example, radial flow immenating from a line by the numerical discretization and believed to be the cause for previous numerical failures, are shown and branch solution paths are followed by step length adjustment and by convergent tolerance relaxation. A technique for jumping over bifurcation points is presented and used to increase the Weissenberg number with no apparent limit for the radial flow problem. A second example related to extrusion of viscoelastic material is also analyzed. Steady state velocity fields, deviatoric stress distributions and pressure distributions for several different Weissenberg numbers are presented with bifurcation points and turning points noted.
Quality management of finite element analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barlow, John
1991-09-01
A quality management system covering the use of finite element analysis is described. The main topics are as follows: acquisition, development and verification of software (including the software suppliers software quality control system), support, documentation, error control, internal software, software acceptance and release; development and qualification of analysis methods, including software evaluation, analysis procedure qualification and documentation, procedure quality checks, control of analysis procedure errors; product design and integrity analysis, including project quality assurance and analysis planning, task specification and allocation, analysis, execution, results checking and analysis records. Other issues include the commercial and business advantages of quality systems, project and technical management and the training and experience of personnel. The items are correlated with the requirements of International Standard Organization 9001.
Finite-element modeling of nanoindentation
Knapp, J.A.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Myers, S.M.; Barbour, J.C.; Friedmann, T.A.
1999-02-01
Procedures have been developed based on finite-element modeling of nanoindentation data to obtain the mechanical properties of thin films and ion-beam-modified layers independently of the properties of the underlying substrates. These procedures accurately deduce the yield strength, Young{close_quote}s elastic modulus, and layer hardness from indentations as deep as 50{percent} of the layer thickness or more. We have used these procedures to evaluate materials ranging from ion implanted metals to deposited, diamond-like carbon layers. The technique increases the applicability of indentation testing to very thin layers, composite layers, and modulated compositions. This article presents an overview of the procedures involved and illustrates them with selected examples. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}
3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer
1992-02-01
TOPAZ3D is a three-dimensional implicit finite element computer code for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ3D can be used to solve for the steady-state or transient temperature field on three-dimensional geometries. Material properties may be temperature-dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. By implementing the user subroutine feature, users can model chemical reaction kinetics and allow for any type of functionalmore » representation of boundary conditions and internal heat generation. TOPAZ3D can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in the material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluids, phase change, and energy balances.« less
Finite element analysis: A boon to dentistry
Trivedi, Shilpa
2014-01-01
The finite element analysis (FEA) is an upcoming and significant research tool for biomechanical analyses in biological research. It is an ultimate method for modeling complex structures and analyzing their mechanical properties. In Implantology, FEA has been used to study the stress patterns in various implant components and also in the peri-implant bone. It is also useful for studying the biomechanical properties of implants as well as for predicting the success of implants in clinical condition. FEA of simulated traumatic loads can be used to understand the biomechanics of fracture. FEA has various advantages compared with studies on real models. The experiments are repeatable, there are no ethical considerations and the study designs may be modified and changed as per the requirement. There are certain limitations of FEA too. It is a computerized in vitro study in which clinical condition may not be completely replicated. So, further FEA research should be supplemented with clinical evaluation. PMID:25737944
Finite element simulation of pipe dynamic response
Slagis, G.C.; Litton, R.W.
1996-12-01
Nonlinear finite element dynamic analyses of the response of a pipe span to controlled-displacement, sinusoidal vibration have been performed. The objective of this preliminary study is to compare strain and acceleration response data to those generated by Beaney in the Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories experiments. Results for an unpressurized, 5 Hz, carbon steel pipe are in good agreement with the experiments. Hence, it appears that analytical simulation will be useful to assess seismic margins. Recommendations for additional studies are provided. The analyses confirm the test results--dynamic response is greatly attenuated by material plasticity. Analytical strains and accelerations are about 30% higher than test data. There are several possible explanations for the differences. To assess the effect of frequency on response, the length of the pipe span was increased. Analysis of the longer, 2 Hz, pipe span shows significantly greater cyclic strains than the 5 Hz span at the same input excitation levels.
Finite-element solutions for geothermal systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, J. C.; Conel, J. E.
1977-01-01
Vector potential and scalar potential are used to formulate the governing equations for a single-component and single-phase geothermal system. By assuming an initial temperature field, the fluid velocity can be determined which, in turn, is used to calculate the convective heat transfer. The energy equation is then solved by considering convected heat as a distributed source. Using the resulting temperature to compute new source terms, the final results are obtained by iterations of the procedure. Finite-element methods are proposed for modeling of realistic geothermal systems; the advantages of such methods are discussed. The developed methodology is then applied to a sample problem. Favorable agreement is obtained by comparisons with a previous study.
Optimizing electroslag cladding with finite element modeling
Li, M.V.; Atteridge, D.G.; Meekisho, L.
1996-12-31
Electroslag cladding of nickel alloys onto carbon steel propeller shafts was optimized in terms of interpass temperatures. A two dimensional finite element model was used in this study to analyze the heat transfer induced by multipass electroslag cladding. Changes of interpass temperatures during a cladding experiment with uniform initial temperature distribution on a section of shaft were first simulated. It was concluded that uniform initial temperature distribution would lead to interpass temperatures out of the optimal range if continuous cladding is expected. The difference in the cooling conditions among experimental and full size shafts and its impact on interpass temperatures during the cladding were discussed. Electroslag cladding onto a much longer shaft, virtually an semi infinite long shaft, was analyzed with specific reference to the practical applications of electroslag cladding. Optimal initial preheating temperature distribution was obtained for continuous cladding on full size shafts which would keep the interpass temperatures within the required range.
Finite element or Galerkin type semidiscrete schemes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Durgun, K.
1983-01-01
A finite element of Galerkin type semidiscrete method is proposed for numerical solution of a linear hyperbolic partial differential equation. The question of stability is reduced to the stability of a system of ordinary differential equations for which Dahlquist theory applied. Results of separating the part of numerical solution which causes the spurious oscillation near shock-like response of semidiscrete scheme to a step function initial condition are presented. In general all methods produce such oscillatory overshoots on either side of shocks. This overshoot pathology, which displays a behavior similar to Gibb's phenomena of Fourier series, is explained on the basis of dispersion of separated Fourier components which relies on linearized theory to be satisfactory. Expository results represented.
Boundary element and finite element coupling for aeroacoustics simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balin, Nolwenn; Casenave, Fabien; Dubois, François; Duceau, Eric; Duprey, Stefan; Terrasse, Isabelle
2015-08-01
We consider the scattering of acoustic perturbations in the presence of a flow. We suppose that the space can be split into a zone where the flow is uniform and a zone where the flow is potential. In the first zone, we apply a Prandtl-Glauert transformation to recover the Helmholtz equation. The well-known setting of boundary element method for the Helmholtz equation is available. In the second zone, the flow quantities are space dependent, we have to consider a local resolution, namely the finite element method. Herein, we carry out the coupling of these two methods and present various applications and validation test cases. The source term is given through the decomposition of an incident acoustic field on a section of the computational domain's boundary. Validations against analytic, another numerical method and measurements on different test cases are presented.
Finite element analyses of CCAT preliminary design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarawit, Andrew T.; Kan, Frank W.
2014-07-01
This paper describes the development of the CCAT telescope finite element model (FEM) and the analyses performed to support the preliminary design work. CCAT will be a 25 m diameter telescope operating in the 0.2 to 2 mm wavelength range. It will be located at an elevation of 5600 m on Cerro Chajnantor in Northern Chile, near ALMA. The telescope will be equipped with wide-field cameras and spectrometers mounted at the two Nasmyth foci. The telescope will be inside an enclosure to protect it from wind buffeting, direct solar heating, and bad weather. The main structures of the telescope include a steel Mount and a carbon-fiber-reinforced-plastic (CFRP) primary truss. The finite element model developed in this study was used to perform modal, frequency response, seismic response spectrum, stress, and deflection analyses of telescope. Modal analyses of telescope were performed to compute the structure natural frequencies and mode shapes and to obtain reduced order modal output at selected locations in the telescope structure to support the design of the Mount control system. Modal frequency response analyses were also performed to compute transfer functions at these selected locations. Seismic response spectrum analyses of the telescope subject to the Maximum Likely Earthquake were performed to compute peak accelerations and seismic demand stresses. Stress analyses were performed for gravity load to obtain gravity demand stresses. Deflection analyses for gravity load, thermal load, and differential elevation drive torque were performed so that the CCAT Observatory can verify that the structures meet the stringent telescope surface and pointing error requirements.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Padovan, J.; Adams, M.; Fertis, J.; Zeid, I.; Lam, P.
1982-01-01
Finite element codes are used in modelling rotor-bearing-stator structure common to the turbine industry. Engine dynamic simulation is used by developing strategies which enable the use of available finite element codes. benchmarking the elements developed are benchmarked by incorporation into a general purpose code (ADINA); the numerical characteristics of finite element type rotor-bearing-stator simulations are evaluated through the use of various types of explicit/implicit numerical integration operators. Improving the overall numerical efficiency of the procedure is improved.
A sweeping preconditioner for time-harmonic Maxwell's equations with finite elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsuji, Paul; Engquist, Bjorn; Ying, Lexing
2012-05-01
This paper is concerned with preconditioning the stiffness matrix resulting from finite element discretizations of Maxwell's equations in the high frequency regime. The moving PML sweeping preconditioner, first introduced for the Helmholtz equation on a Cartesian finite difference grid, is generalized to an unstructured mesh with finite elements. The method dramatically reduces the number of GMRES iterations necessary for convergence, resulting in an almost linear complexity solver. Numerical examples including electromagnetic cloaking simulations are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.
Huang, Huajun; Xiang, Chunling; Zeng, Canjun; Ouyang, Hanbin; Wong, Kelvin Kian Loong; Huang, Wenhua
2015-12-01
We improved the geometrical modeling procedure for fast and accurate reconstruction of orthopedic structures. This procedure consists of medical image segmentation, three-dimensional geometrical reconstruction, and assignment of material properties. The patient-specific orthopedic structures reconstructed by this improved procedure can be used in the virtual surgical planning, 3D printing of real orthopedic structures and finite element analysis. A conventional modeling consists of: image segmentation, geometrical reconstruction, mesh generation, and assignment of material properties. The present study modified the conventional method to enhance software operating procedures. Patient's CT images of different bones were acquired and subsequently reconstructed to give models. The reconstruction procedures were three-dimensional image segmentation, modification of the edge length and quantity of meshes, and the assignment of material properties according to the intensity of gravy value. We compared the performance of our procedures to the conventional procedures modeling in terms of software operating time, success rate and mesh quality. Our proposed framework has the following improvements in the geometrical modeling: (1) processing time: (femur: 87.16 ± 5.90 %; pelvis: 80.16 ± 7.67 %; thoracic vertebra: 17.81 ± 4.36 %; P < 0.05); (2) least volume reduction (femur: 0.26 ± 0.06 %; pelvis: 0.70 ± 0.47, thoracic vertebra: 3.70 ± 1.75 %; P < 0.01) and (3) mesh quality in terms of aspect ratio (femur: 8.00 ± 7.38 %; pelvis: 17.70 ± 9.82 %; thoracic vertebra: 13.93 ± 9.79 %; P < 0.05) and maximum angle (femur: 4.90 ± 5.28 %; pelvis: 17.20 ± 19.29 %; thoracic vertebra: 3.86 ± 3.82 %; P < 0.05). Our proposed patient-specific geometrical modeling requires less operating time and workload, but the orthopedic structures were generated at a higher rate of success as compared with the conventional method. It is expected to benefit the surgical planning of orthopedic
Finite element analysis of SMA beam bending using COMSOL
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Shibin; Seelecke, Stefan S.; Li, Qifu
2009-03-01
Shape memory alloys (SMAs) represent a class of smart materials that has been extensively used in many engineering applications due to their unique material properties. To facilitate these new developments, an efficient computational tool like the finite element method has to be used in order to simulate the highly nonlinear, load-history and temperature dependent responses of SMA materials. The particular focus of this paper is on the aspects of modeling and simulation of the inhomogeneous beam bending problem. Based on small deformation Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, the SMA beam is treated as consisting of several layers. Each governed by a 1-D free energy SMA model. The SMA beam is implemented in the finite element software COMSOL using its general PDE form. The ordinary differential equations describing the kinetics of the phase transformations are treated as degenerated PDEs without a flux term and coupled with the mechanical equilibrium equation and the heat transfer equation. In this paper, we study the quasiplastic and superelastic isothermal behavior of an SMA cantilever beam at constant low and high temperature, respectively. Keywords: finite element analysis, shape memory alloy, COMSOL
A finite element solver for 3-D compressible viscous flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reddy, K. C.; Reddy, J. N.; Nayani, S.
1990-01-01
Computation of the flow field inside a space shuttle main engine (SSME) requires the application of state of the art computational fluid dynamic (CFD) technology. Several computer codes are under development to solve 3-D flow through the hot gas manifold. Some algorithms were designed to solve the unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations, either by implicit or explicit factorization methods, using several hundred or thousands of time steps to reach a steady state solution. A new iterative algorithm is being developed for the solution of the implicit finite element equations without assembling global matrices. It is an efficient iteration scheme based on a modified nonlinear Gauss-Seidel iteration with symmetric sweeps. The algorithm is analyzed for a model equation and is shown to be unconditionally stable. Results from a series of test problems are presented. The finite element code was tested for couette flow, which is flow under a pressure gradient between two parallel plates in relative motion. Another problem that was solved is viscous laminar flow over a flat plate. The general 3-D finite element code was used to compute the flow in an axisymmetric turnaround duct at low Mach numbers.
Finite element solver for 3-D compressible viscous flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reddy, K. C.; Reddy, J. N.
1986-01-01
The space shuttle main engine (SSME) has extremely complex internal flow structure. The geometry of the flow domain is three-dimensional with complicated topology. The flow is compressible, viscous, and turbulent with large gradients in flow quantities and regions of recirculations. The analysis of the flow field in SSME involves several tedious steps. One is the geometrical modeling of the particular zone of the SSME being studied. Accessing the geometry definition, digitalizing it, and developing surface interpolations suitable for an interior grid generator require considerable amount of manual labor. There are several types of grid generators available with some general-purpose finite element programs. An efficient and robust computational scheme for solving 3D Navier-Stokes equations has to be implemented. Post processing software has to be adapted to visualize and analyze the computed 3D flow field. The progress made in a project to develop software for the analysis of the flow is discussed. The technical approach to the development of the finite element scheme and the relaxation procedure are discussed. The three dimensional finite element code for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations is listed.
Accelerated finite element elastodynamic simulations using the GPU
Huthwaite, Peter
2014-01-15
An approach is developed to perform explicit time domain finite element simulations of elastodynamic problems on the graphical processing unit, using Nvidia's CUDA. Of critical importance for this problem is the arrangement of nodes in memory, allowing data to be loaded efficiently and minimising communication between the independently executed blocks of threads. The initial stage of memory arrangement is partitioning the mesh; both a well established ‘greedy’ partitioner and a new, more efficient ‘aligned’ partitioner are investigated. A method is then developed to efficiently arrange the memory within each partition. The software is applied to three models from the fields of non-destructive testing, vibrations and geophysics, demonstrating a memory bandwidth of very close to the card's maximum, reflecting the bandwidth-limited nature of the algorithm. Comparison with Abaqus, a widely used commercial CPU equivalent, validated the accuracy of the results and demonstrated a speed improvement of around two orders of magnitude. A software package, Pogo, incorporating these developments, is released open source, downloadable from (http://www.pogo-fea.com/) to benefit the community. -- Highlights: •A novel memory arrangement approach is discussed for finite elements on the GPU. •The mesh is partitioned then nodes are arranged efficiently within each partition. •Models from ultrasonics, vibrations and geophysics are run. •The code is significantly faster than an equivalent commercial CPU package. •Pogo, the new software package, is released open source.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1976-01-01
The development of two new shell finite elements for applications to large deflection problems is considered. The elements in question are doubly curved and of triangular and quadrilateral planform. They are restricted to small strains of elastic materials, and can accommodate large rotations. The elements described, which are based on relatively simple linear elements, make use of a new displacement function approach specifically designed for strongly nonlinear problems. The displacement function development for nonlinear applications is based on certain beam element formulations, and the strain-displacement equations are of a shallow shell type. Additional terms were included in these equations in an attempt to avoid the large errors characteristic of shallow shell elements in certain types of problems. An incremental nonlinear solution procedure specifically adopted to the element formulation was developed. The solution procedure is of combined incremental and total Lagrangian type, and uses a new updating scheme. A computer program was written to evaluate the developed formulations. This program can accommodate small element groups in arbitrary arrangements. Two simple programs were successfully solved. The results indicate that this new type of element has definite promise and should be a fruitful area for further research.
Impact of new computing systems on finite element computations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noor, A. K.; Storassili, O. O.; Fulton, R. E.
1983-01-01
Recent advances in computer technology that are likely to impact finite element computations are reviewed. The characteristics of supersystems, highly parallel systems, and small systems (mini and microcomputers) are summarized. The interrelations of numerical algorithms and software with parallel architectures are discussed. A scenario is presented for future hardware/software environment and finite element systems. A number of research areas which have high potential for improving the effectiveness of finite element analysis in the new environment are identified.
Improved finite-element methods for rotorcraft structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hinnant, Howard E.
1991-01-01
An overview of the research directed at improving finite-element methods for rotorcraft airframes is presented. The development of a modification to the finite element method which eliminates interelement discontinuities is covered. The following subject areas are discussed: geometric entities, interelement continuity, dependent rotational degrees of freedom, and adaptive numerical integration. This new methodology is being implemented as an anisotropic, curvilinear, p-version, beam, shell, and brick finite element program.
Finite element model calibration using frequency responses with damping equalization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abrahamsson, T. J. S.; Kammer, D. C.
2015-10-01
Model calibration is a cornerstone of the finite element verification and validation procedure, in which the credibility of the model is substantiated by positive comparison with test data. The calibration problem, in which the minimum deviation between finite element model data and experimental data is searched for, is normally characterized as being a large scale optimization problem with many model parameters to solve for and with deviation metrics that are nonlinear in these parameters. The calibrated parameters need to be found by iterative procedures, starting from initial estimates. Sometimes these procedures get trapped in local deviation function minima and do not converge to the globally optimal calibration solution that is searched for. The reason for such traps is often the multi-modality of the problem which causes eigenmode crossover problems in the iterative variation of parameter settings. This work presents a calibration formulation which gives a smooth deviation metric with a large radius of convergence to the global minimum. A damping equalization method is suggested to avoid the mode correlation and mode pairing problems that need to be solved in many other model updating procedures. By this method, the modal damping of a test data model and the finite element model is set to be the same fraction of critical modal damping. Mode pairing for mapping of experimentally found damping to the finite element model is thus not needed. The method is combined with model reduction for efficiency and employs the Levenberg-Marquardt minimizer with randomized starts to achieve the calibration solution. The performance of the calibration procedure, including a study of parameter bias and variance under noisy data conditions, is demonstrated by two numerical examples.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fix, G. J.; Rose, M. E.
1983-01-01
A least squares formulation of the system divu = rho, curlu = zeta is surveyed from the viewpoint of both finite element and finite difference methods. Closely related arguments are shown to establish convergence estimates.
Beam and Truss Finite Element Verification for DYNA3D
Rathbun, H J
2007-07-16
The explicit finite element (FE) software program DYNA3D has been developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to simulate the dynamic behavior of structures, systems, and components. This report focuses on verification of beam and truss element formulations in DYNA3D. An efficient protocol has been developed to verify the accuracy of these structural elements by generating a set of representative problems for which closed-form quasi-static steady-state analytical reference solutions exist. To provide as complete coverage as practically achievable, problem sets are developed for each beam and truss element formulation (and their variants) in all modes of loading and physical orientation. Analyses with loading in the elastic and elastic-plastic regimes are performed. For elastic loading, the FE results are within 1% of the reference solutions for all cases. For beam element bending and torsion loading in the plastic regime, the response is heavily dependent on the numerical integration rule chosen, with higher refinement yielding greater accuracy (agreement to within 1%). Axial loading in the plastic regime produces accurate results (agreement to within 0.01%) for all integration rules and element formulations. Truss elements are also verified to provide accurate results (within 0.01%) for elastic and elastic-plastic loading. A sample problem to verify beam element response in ParaDyn, the parallel version DYNA3D, is also presented.
Finite element analysis in a minicomputer/mainframe environment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Storaasli, O. O.; Murphy, R. C.
1978-01-01
Design considerations were evaluated for general purpose finite element systems to maximize performance when installed on distributed computer hardware/software systems. It is shown how the features of current minicomputers complement those of a modular implementation of the finite element method for increasing the control, speed, and visibility (interactive graphics) in solving structural problems at reduced cost. The approach used is to implement a finite element system in a distributed computer environment to solve structural problems and to explore alternatives in distributing finite element computations.
A multi-microprocessor system for finite element structural analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jordan, H. F.; Sawyer, P. L.
1978-01-01
During the last few years, advances in microprocessor technology have spurred a renewed interest in special-purpose computers. The microprocessor has become small, inexpensive, and powerful enough to be considered as a building block for special-purpose hardware. A description is presented of the architecture of a prototype 'finite element machine' currently being built. Attention is given to details regarding the finite element analysis problem, the arrangement of the processors as finite element nodes in the structural model, the influence of the architecture on the solution algorithm, interprocessor communication primitives, and the performance of the finite element machine.
Ablative Thermal Response Analysis Using the Finite Element Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dec John A.; Braun, Robert D.
2009-01-01
A review of the classic techniques used to solve ablative thermal response problems is presented. The advantages and disadvantages of both the finite element and finite difference methods are described. As a first step in developing a three dimensional finite element based ablative thermal response capability, a one dimensional computer tool has been developed. The finite element method is used to discretize the governing differential equations and Galerkin's method of weighted residuals is used to derive the element equations. A code to code comparison between the current 1-D tool and the 1-D Fully Implicit Ablation and Thermal Response Program (FIAT) has been performed.
Galerkin finite-element simulation of a geothermal reservoir
Mercer, J.W., Jr.; Pinder, G.F.
1973-01-01
The equations describing fluid flow and energy transport in a porous medium can be used to formulate a mathematical model capable of simulating the transient response of a hot-water geothermal reservoir. The resulting equations can be solved accurately and efficiently using a numerical scheme which combines the finite element approach with the Galerkin method of approximation. Application of this numerical model to the Wairakei geothermal field demonstrates that hot-water geothermal fields can be simulated using numerical techniques currently available and under development. ?? 1973.
Finite-element simulation of thermoemission electron guns
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greenfield, D.
2006-05-01
The peculiarity of the numeric simulation of the thermoemission electron guns consists in the principal necessity of taking into account the contribution of the electrons' charge into the potential distribution in the beam formation region. Ths fact makes the mathematical model essentially nonlinear especially in the high-perveance operation mode. Moreover, the charge density is extremely high in the vicinity of emitting surfaces, rising infinitely in the limit of zero initial velocities. A special semi-analytical approach has been applied to deal with the charge singularity. Being combined with traditional finite-element numerical techniques, this approach provides an efficient way to simulate thermoemission electron guns.
Finite element analysis of laminated plates and shells, volume 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seide, P.; Chang, P. N. H.
1978-01-01
The finite element method is used to investigate the static behavior of laminated composite flat plates and cylindrical shells. The analysis incorporates the effects of transverse shear deformation in each layer through the assumption that the normals to the undeformed layer midsurface remain straight but need not be normal to the mid-surface after deformation. A digital computer program was developed to perform the required computations. The program includes a very efficient equation solution code which permits the analysis of large size problems. The method is applied to the problem of stretching and bending of a perforated curved plate.
Symbolic derivation of material property matrices in finite element analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tan, H. Q.
1988-01-01
The principles and operation of MMAX, a symbolic-computation program which automates the process of generating property matrices for structural materials, are briefly described and illustrated with sample analyses of a rubberlike material and an elastoplastic material. MMAX is written in LISP under the symbolic finite-element generator FINGER and the general symbolic manipulator MACSYMA; it first derives the formulas required by mathematical manipulation, and then translates the formulas into FORTRAN code, adapted to the particular type of machine to be used for the numerical calculations. This approach is shown to combine efficiently the advantages of symbolic and numerical computation for engineering applications.
Vector algorithms for geometrically nonlinear 3D finite element analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whitcomb, John D.
1989-01-01
Algorithms for geometrically nonlinear finite element analysis are presented which exploit the vector processing capability of the VPS-32, which is closely related to the CYBER 205. By manipulating vectors (which are long lists of numbers) rather than individual numbers, very high processing speeds are obtained. Long vector lengths are obtained without extensive replication or reordering by storage of intermediate results in strategic patterns at all stages of the computations. Comparisons of execution times with those from programs using either scalar or other vector programming techniques indicate that the algorithms presented are quite efficient.
Turbomachinery flow calculation on unstructured grids using finite element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koschel, W.; Vornberger, A.
An explicit finite-element scheme based on a two-step Taylor-Galerkin algorithm allows the solution of the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured grids. Mesh generation methods for unstructured grids are described which lead to efficient flow calculations. Turbulent flow is calculated by using an algebraic turbulence model. To test the numerical accuracy, a laminar and turbulent flow over a flat plate and the supersonic flow in a corner has been calculated. For validation the method is applied to the simulation of the inviscid flow through a transonic turbine cascade and the viscous flow through a subsonic turbine cascade.
Integrated finite element model of composite materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teply, Jan L.; Herbein, William C.
1989-05-01
Two problems traditionally addressed in the area of micromechanics of composite materials can be briefly summarized as follows: (1) for a macroscopically uniform volume of composite material, which is subjected to macroscopically uniform boundary tractions, displacements or heat influx, find overall thermomechanical properties in terms of the thermomechanical properties of the individual constituents; and (2) for the same material volume and boundary conditions as above, find the local stress, strain, and temperature fields in the constituents and on the interfaces. Two different types of micromechanical models are usually applied to the solutions of these two types of problems. For linear elastic materials, the micromechanical models to solve problem (1) offer simple solutions of overall thermomechanical properties either in terms of bound which are derived from periodic or random microstructures, or in terms of single estimates, which are derived from a solution of an isolated inclusion. The finite element variational approaches are applied to integrate the solutions of problems (1) and (2) into one model. The application of displacement and equilibrium variational approaches to the calculation of overall elastic-plastic properties, are extended to the solution of the second problem. The integrated model is then applied to calculate the overall properties and local stress and strain fields of boron-aluminum composites subjected to transverse tension, in-plane shear and bending.
Laterally displaced pipelines: Finite element analysis
Altaee, A.; Boivin, R.
1995-12-31
The rate effect of lateral soil movement against buried pipes in clay soils is investigated in finite element analyzes using two different computer programs, AGAC and CRISP. Rapid and slow ground movements are considered in ideal undrained and ideal drained analysis, respectively, which represent the two extreme boundaries with respect to rate of loading (rate of ground movement). The analyses address a typical full-scale buried pipe as described by Rizkalla et al. (1992). The pipe considered for the analysis has a diameter of 0.914 m and is placed in a backfilled 2.0 m wide and 1.8 m deep excavation. Results from both AGAC and CRISP analyzes are similar in terms of total lateral force versus lateral pipe movement. For example, both programs indicate the same clear difference in the resulting pipe movement for cases of rapid and slow ground movement, especially at large movement. When the ground movement is rapid, the pipe moves both laterally and upward. One the other hand, when the ground movement is slow, the pipe experiences only lateral movement and no noticeable vertical movement. The total force acting on the pipe (and stresses and strains within the pipe) is larger for the slow rate of loading. The results of analyzes presented herein agree with results of tests on a 5.5 m beam centrifuge performed by the Center for Cold Oceans Resources Engineering.
Finite element modeling of retinal prosthesis mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Basinger, B. C.; Rowley, A. P.; Chen, K.; Humayun, M. S.; Weiland, J. D.
2009-10-01
Epiretinal prostheses used to treat degenerative retina diseases apply stimulus via an electrode array fixed to the ganglion cell side of the retina. Mechanical pressure applied by these arrays to the retina, both during initial insertion and throughout chronic use, could cause sufficient retinal damage to reduce the device's effectiveness. In order to understand and minimize potential mechanical damage, we have used finite element analysis to model mechanical interactions between an electrode array and the retina in both acute and chronic loading configurations. Modeling indicates that an acute tacking force distributes stress primarily underneath the tack site and heel edge of the array, while more moderate chronic stresses are distributed more evenly underneath the array. Retinal damage in a canine model chronically implanted with a similar array occurred in correlating locations, and model predictions correlate well with benchtop eyewall compression tests. This model provides retinal prosthesis researchers with a tool to optimize the mechanical electrode array design, but the techniques used here represent a unique effort to combine a modifiable device and soft biological tissues in the same model and those techniques could be extended to other devices that come into mechanical contact with soft neural tissues.
Finite Element Modeling of Human Placental Tissue
Yu, Mao; Manoogian, Sarah; Duma, Stefan M.; Stitzel, Joel D.
2009-01-01
Motor vehicle crashes account for a large portion of placental abruption and fetal losses. To better understand the material properties of the human placenta, a Finite Element (FE) model of human placenta tissue was created and verified using data from uniaxial tension tests. Sixty-four tensile tests at three different strain rates of 7% strain/s, 70% strain/s, and 700% strain/s from six whole human placentas were used for model development. Nominal stresses were calculated by dividing forces at the grips by the original cross-sectional area. Nominal strains were calculated by dividing cross-head displacement by the original gauge length. A detailed methodology for interpreting experimental data for application to material model development is presented. A model of the tension coupon was created in LS-DYNA and stretched in the same manner as the uniaxial tension tests. The behavior of the material was optimized to the uniaxial tension test using a multi-island genetic algorithm. The results demonstrate good correlation between experiments and the model, with an average difference of 2% between the optimized FE and experimental first principal stress at the termination state. The material parameters found in this study can be utilized in FE models of placental tissues for behavior under dynamic loading. PMID:20184849
TACO: a finite element heat transfer code
Mason, W.E. Jr.
1980-02-01
TACO is a two-dimensional implicit finite element code for heat transfer analysis. It can perform both linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady state problems. Either plane or axisymmetric geometries can be analyzed. TACO has the capability to handle time or temperature dependent material properties and materials may be either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time and temperature dependent loadings and boundary conditions are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additionally, TACO has some specialized features such as internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance), bulk nodes, enclosure radiation with view factor calculations, and chemical reactive kinetics. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A bandwidth and profile minimization option is also available in the code. Graphical representation of data generated by TACO is provided by a companion post-processor named POSTACO. The theory on which TACO is based is outlined, the capabilities of the code are explained, the input data required to perform an analysis with TACO are described. Some simple examples are provided to illustrate the use of the code.
Higher-order adaptive finite-element methods for Kohn–Sham density functional theory
Motamarri, P.; Nowak, M.R.; Leiter, K.; Knap, J.; Gavini, V.
2013-11-15
We present an efficient computational approach to perform real-space electronic structure calculations using an adaptive higher-order finite-element discretization of Kohn–Sham density-functional theory (DFT). To this end, we develop an a priori mesh-adaption technique to construct a close to optimal finite-element discretization of the problem. We further propose an efficient solution strategy for solving the discrete eigenvalue problem by using spectral finite-elements in conjunction with Gauss–Lobatto quadrature, and a Chebyshev acceleration technique for computing the occupied eigenspace. The proposed approach has been observed to provide a staggering 100–200-fold computational advantage over the solution of a generalized eigenvalue problem. Using the proposed solution procedure, we investigate the computational efficiency afforded by higher-order finite-element discretizations of the Kohn–Sham DFT problem. Our studies suggest that staggering computational savings—of the order of 1000-fold—relative to linear finite-elements can be realized, for both all-electron and local pseudopotential calculations, by using higher-order finite-element discretizations. On all the benchmark systems studied, we observe diminishing returns in computational savings beyond the sixth-order for accuracies commensurate with chemical accuracy, suggesting that the hexic spectral-element may be an optimal choice for the finite-element discretization of the Kohn–Sham DFT problem. A comparative study of the computational efficiency of the proposed higher-order finite-element discretizations suggests that the performance of finite-element basis is competing with the plane-wave discretization for non-periodic local pseudopotential calculations, and compares to the Gaussian basis for all-electron calculations to within an order of magnitude. Further, we demonstrate the capability of the proposed approach to compute the electronic structure of a metallic system containing 1688
Higher-order adaptive finite-element methods for Kohn-Sham density functional theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Motamarri, P.; Nowak, M. R.; Leiter, K.; Knap, J.; Gavini, V.
2013-11-01
We present an efficient computational approach to perform real-space electronic structure calculations using an adaptive higher-order finite-element discretization of Kohn-Sham density-functional theory (DFT). To this end, we develop an a priori mesh-adaption technique to construct a close to optimal finite-element discretization of the problem. We further propose an efficient solution strategy for solving the discrete eigenvalue problem by using spectral finite-elements in conjunction with Gauss-Lobatto quadrature, and a Chebyshev acceleration technique for computing the occupied eigenspace. The proposed approach has been observed to provide a staggering 100-200-fold computational advantage over the solution of a generalized eigenvalue problem. Using the proposed solution procedure, we investigate the computational efficiency afforded by higher-order finite-element discretizations of the Kohn-Sham DFT problem. Our studies suggest that staggering computational savings-of the order of 1000-fold-relative to linear finite-elements can be realized, for both all-electron and local pseudopotential calculations, by using higher-order finite-element discretizations. On all the benchmark systems studied, we observe diminishing returns in computational savings beyond the sixth-order for accuracies commensurate with chemical accuracy, suggesting that the hexic spectral-element may be an optimal choice for the finite-element discretization of the Kohn-Sham DFT problem. A comparative study of the computational efficiency of the proposed higher-order finite-element discretizations suggests that the performance of finite-element basis is competing with the plane-wave discretization for non-periodic local pseudopotential calculations, and compares to the Gaussian basis for all-electron calculations to within an order of magnitude. Further, we demonstrate the capability of the proposed approach to compute the electronic structure of a metallic system containing 1688 atoms using
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) in Design and Production.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Waggoner, Todd C.; And Others
1995-01-01
Finite element analysis (FEA) enables industrial designers to analyze complex components by dividing them into smaller elements, then assessing stress and strain characteristics. Traditionally mainframe based, FEA is being increasingly used in microcomputers. (SK)
High speed finite element simulations on the graphics card
Huthwaite, P.; Lowe, M. J. S.
2014-02-18
A software package is developed to perform explicit time domain finite element simulations of ultrasonic propagation on the graphical processing unit, using Nvidia’s CUDA. Of critical importance for this problem is the arrangement of nodes in memory, allowing data to be loaded efficiently and minimising communication between the independently executed blocks of threads. The initial stage of memory arrangement is partitioning the mesh; both a well established ‘greedy’ partitioner and a new, more efficient ‘aligned’ partitioner are investigated. A method is then developed to efficiently arrange the memory within each partition. The technique is compared to a commercial CPU equivalent, demonstrating an overall speedup of at least 100 for a non-destructive testing weld model.
High speed finite element simulations on the graphics card
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huthwaite, P.; Lowe, M. J. S.
2014-02-01
A software package is developed to perform explicit time domain finite element simulations of ultrasonic propagation on the graphical processing unit, using Nvidia's CUDA. Of critical importance for this problem is the arrangement of nodes in memory, allowing data to be loaded efficiently and minimising communication between the independently executed blocks of threads. The initial stage of memory arrangement is partitioning the mesh; both a well established `greedy' partitioner and a new, more efficient `aligned' partitioner are investigated. A method is then developed to efficiently arrange the memory within each partition. The technique is compared to a commercial CPU equivalent, demonstrating an overall speedup of at least 100 for a non-destructive testing weld model.
Coupling finite element and integral equation solutions using decoupled boundary meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cwik, Tom
1992-01-01
A method is outlined for calculating scattered fields from inhomogeneous penetrable objects using a coupled finite element-integral equation solution. The finite element equation can efficiently model fields in penetrable and inhomogeneous regions, while the integral equation exactly models fields on the finite element mesh boundary and in the exterior region. By decoupling the interior finite element and exterior integral equation meshes, considerable flexibility is found in both the number of field expansion points as well as their density. Only the nonmetal portions of the object need be modeled using a finite element expansion; exterior perfect conducting surfaces are modeled using an integral equation with a single unknown field since E(tan) is identically zero on these surfaces. Numerical convergence, accuracy, and stability at interior resonant frequencies are studied in detail.
FINITE-ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF MULTIPHASE IMMISCIBLE FLOW THROUGH SOILS
A finite-element model is developed for multiphase flow through soil involving three immiscible fluids: namely, air, water, and a nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL). A variational method is employed for the finite-element formulation corresponding to the coupled differential equation...
A computer graphics program for general finite element analyses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thornton, E. A.; Sawyer, L. M.
1978-01-01
Documentation for a computer graphics program for displays from general finite element analyses is presented. A general description of display options and detailed user instructions are given. Several plots made in structural, thermal and fluid finite element analyses are included to illustrate program options. Sample data files are given to illustrate use of the program.
Solution-adaptive finite element method in computational fracture mechanics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Min, J. B.; Bass, J. M.; Spradley, L. W.
1993-01-01
Some recent results obtained using solution-adaptive finite element method in linear elastic two-dimensional fracture mechanics problems are presented. The focus is on the basic issue of adaptive finite element method for validating the applications of new methodology to fracture mechanics problems by computing demonstration problems and comparing the stress intensity factors to analytical results.
Finite element meshing of ANSYS (trademark) solid models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelley, F. S.
1987-01-01
A large scale, general purpose finite element computer program, ANSYS, developed and marketed by Swanson Analysis Systems, Inc. is discussed. ANSYS was perhaps the first commercially available program to offer truly interactive finite element model generation. ANSYS's purpose is for solid modeling. This application is briefly discussed and illustrated.
Modular Finite Element Methods Library Version: 1.0
2010-06-22
MFEM is a general, modular library for finite element methods. It provides a variety of finite element spaces and bilinear/linear forms in 2D and 3D. MFEM also includes classes for dealing with various types of meshes and their refinement.
Finite element simulation of articular contact mechanics with quadratic tetrahedral elements.
Maas, Steve A; Ellis, Benjamin J; Rawlins, David S; Weiss, Jeffrey A
2016-03-21
Although it is easier to generate finite element discretizations with tetrahedral elements, trilinear hexahedral (HEX8) elements are more often used in simulations of articular contact mechanics. This is due to numerical shortcomings of linear tetrahedral (TET4) elements, limited availability of quadratic tetrahedron elements in combination with effective contact algorithms, and the perceived increased computational expense of quadratic finite elements. In this study we implemented both ten-node (TET10) and fifteen-node (TET15) quadratic tetrahedral elements in FEBio (www.febio.org) and compared their accuracy, robustness in terms of convergence behavior and computational cost for simulations relevant to articular contact mechanics. Suitable volume integration and surface integration rules were determined by comparing the results of several benchmark contact problems. The results demonstrated that the surface integration rule used to evaluate the contact integrals for quadratic elements affected both convergence behavior and accuracy of predicted stresses. The computational expense and robustness of both quadratic tetrahedral formulations compared favorably to the HEX8 models. Of note, the TET15 element demonstrated superior convergence behavior and lower computational cost than both the TET10 and HEX8 elements for meshes with similar numbers of degrees of freedom in the contact problems that we examined. Finally, the excellent accuracy and relative efficiency of these quadratic tetrahedral elements was illustrated by comparing their predictions with those for a HEX8 mesh for simulation of articular contact in a fully validated model of the hip. These results demonstrate that TET10 and TET15 elements provide viable alternatives to HEX8 elements for simulation of articular contact mechanics. PMID:26900037
A mixed finite element/finite volume approach for solving biodegradation transport in groundwater
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gallo, Claudio; Manzini, Gianmarco
1998-03-01
A numerical model for the simulation of flow and transport of organic compounds undergoing bacterial oxygen- and nitrate-based respiration is presented. General assumptions regarding microbial population, bacteria metabolism and effects of oxygen, nitrogen and nutrient concentration on organic substrate rate of consumption are briefly described. The numerical solution techniques for solving both the flow and the transport are presented. The saturated flow equation is discretized using a high-order mixed finite element scheme, which provides a highly accurate estimation of the velocity field. The transport equation for a sorbing porous medium is approximated using a finite volume scheme enclosing an upwind TVD shock-capturing technique for capturing concentration-unsteady steep fronts. The performance and capabilities of the present approach in a bio-remediation context are assessed by considering a set of test problems. The reliability of the numerical results concerning solution accuracy and the computational efficiency in terms of cost and memory requirements are also estimated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arbatani, Siamak; Callejo, Alfonso; Kövecses, József; Kalantari, Masoud; Marchand, Nick R.; Dargahi, Javad
2016-03-01
Directional drilling is a popular technique for oil well drilling. Accurate prediction of the directional performance is critical in order to achieve the desired well profile. Simplified geometry methods are, to date, the industry standard for predicting directional performance. A comprehensive, high-fidelity method for the simulation of directional drilling is presented here. It consists of a detailed discretization of the actual geometry and a rigorous application of two modeling techniques: the finite element and the finite segment methods. By doing so, the dynamic problem is addressed from two different yet complementary perspectives: structural mechanics and rigid-body motion. Collision detection and contact dynamics algorithms are also presented. Results show that both methods agree in terms of the dynamic response, and that the build rate estimations are consistent with available experimental data. Owing to the framework efficiency and physics-based nature, the presented tools are very well-suited for design engineering and real-time simulation.
Finite element-finite difference thermal/structural analysis of large space truss structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Warren, Andrew H.; Arelt, Joseph E.; Eskew, William F.; Rogers, Karen M.
1992-01-01
A technique of automated and efficient thermal-structural processing of truss structures that interfaces the finite element and finite difference method was developed. The thermal-structural analysis tasks include development of the thermal and structural math models, thermal analysis, development of an interface and data transfer between the models, and finally an evaluation of the thermal stresses and displacements in the structure. Consequently, the objective of the developed technique was to minimize the model development time, in order to assure an automatic transfer of data between the thermal and structural models as well as to minimize the computer resources needed for the analysis itself. The method and techniques described are illustrated on the thermal/structural analysis of the Space Station Freedom main truss.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arbatani, Siamak; Callejo, Alfonso; Kövecses, József; Kalantari, Masoud; Marchand, Nick R.; Dargahi, Javad
2016-06-01
Directional drilling is a popular technique for oil well drilling. Accurate prediction of the directional performance is critical in order to achieve the desired well profile. Simplified geometry methods are, to date, the industry standard for predicting directional performance. A comprehensive, high-fidelity method for the simulation of directional drilling is presented here. It consists of a detailed discretization of the actual geometry and a rigorous application of two modeling techniques: the finite element and the finite segment methods. By doing so, the dynamic problem is addressed from two different yet complementary perspectives: structural mechanics and rigid-body motion. Collision detection and contact dynamics algorithms are also presented. Results show that both methods agree in terms of the dynamic response, and that the build rate estimations are consistent with available experimental data. Owing to the framework efficiency and physics-based nature, the presented tools are very well-suited for design engineering and real-time simulation.
Finite Element analyses of soil bioengineered slopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamagnini, Roberto; Switala, Barbara Maria; Sudan Acharya, Madhu; Wu, Wei; Graf, Frank; Auer, Michael; te Kamp, Lothar
2014-05-01
Soil Bioengineering methods are not only effective from an economical point of view, but they are also interesting as fully ecological solutions. The presented project is aimed to define a numerical model which includes the impact of vegetation on slope stability, considering both mechanical and hydrological effects. In this project, a constitutive model has been developed that accounts for the multi-phase nature of the soil, namely the partly saturated condition and it also includes the effects of a biological component. The constitutive equation is implemented in the Finite Element (FE) software Comes-Geo with an implicit integration scheme that accounts for the collapse of the soils structure due to wetting. The mathematical formulation of the constitutive equations is introduced by means of thermodynamics and it simulates the growth of the biological system during the time. The numerical code is then applied in the analysis of an ideal rainfall induced landslide. The slope is analyzed for vegetated and non-vegetated conditions. The final results allow to quantitatively assessing the impact of vegetation on slope stability. This allows drawing conclusions and choosing whenever it is worthful to use soil bioengineering methods in slope stabilization instead of traditional approaches. The application of the FE methods show some advantages with respect to the commonly used limit equilibrium analyses, because it can account for the real coupled strain-diffusion nature of the problem. The mechanical strength of roots is in fact influenced by the stress evolution into the slope. Moreover, FE method does not need a pre-definition of any failure surface. FE method can also be used in monitoring the progressive failure of the soil bio-engineered system as it calculates the amount of displacements and strains of the model slope. The preliminary study results show that the formulated equations can be useful for analysis and evaluation of different soil bio
A robust, finite element model for hydrostatic surface water flows
Walters, R.A.; Casulli, V.
1998-01-01
A finite element scheme is introduced for the 2-dimensional shallow water equations using semi-implicit methods in time. A semi-Lagrangian method is used to approximate the effects of advection. A wave equation is formed at the discrete level such that the equations decouple into an equation for surface elevation and a momentum equation for the horizontal velocity. The convergence rates and relative computational efficiency are examined with the use of three test cases representing various degrees of difficulty. A test with a polar-quadrant grid investigates the response to local grid-scale forcing and the presence of spurious modes, a channel test case establishes convergence rates, and a field-scale test case examines problems with highly irregular grids.A finite element scheme is introduced for the 2-dimensional shallow water equations using semi-implicit methods in time. A semi-Lagrangian method is used to approximate the effects of advection. A wave equation is formed at the discrete level such that the equations decouple into an equation for surface elevation and a momentum equation for the horizontal velocity. The convergence rates and relative computational efficiency are examined with the use of three test cases representing various degrees of difficulty. A test with a polar-quadrant grid investigates the response to local grid-scale forcing and the presence of spurious modes, a channel test case establishes convergence rates, and a field-scale test case examines problems with highly irregular grids.
The mixed finite element multigrid method for stokes equations.
Muzhinji, K; Shateyi, S; Motsa, S S
2015-01-01
The stable finite element discretization of the Stokes problem produces a symmetric indefinite system of linear algebraic equations. A variety of iterative solvers have been proposed for such systems in an attempt to construct efficient, fast, and robust solution techniques. This paper investigates one of such iterative solvers, the geometric multigrid solver, to find the approximate solution of the indefinite systems. The main ingredient of the multigrid method is the choice of an appropriate smoothing strategy. This study considers the application of different smoothers and compares their effects in the overall performance of the multigrid solver. We study the multigrid method with the following smoothers: distributed Gauss Seidel, inexact Uzawa, preconditioned MINRES, and Braess-Sarazin type smoothers. A comparative study of the smoothers shows that the Braess-Sarazin smoothers enhance good performance of the multigrid method. We study the problem in a two-dimensional domain using stable Hood-Taylor Q2-Q1 pair of finite rectangular elements. We also give the main theoretical convergence results. We present the numerical results to demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the multigrid method and confirm the theoretical results. PMID:25945361
The Mixed Finite Element Multigrid Method for Stokes Equations
Muzhinji, K.; Shateyi, S.; Motsa, S. S.
2015-01-01
The stable finite element discretization of the Stokes problem produces a symmetric indefinite system of linear algebraic equations. A variety of iterative solvers have been proposed for such systems in an attempt to construct efficient, fast, and robust solution techniques. This paper investigates one of such iterative solvers, the geometric multigrid solver, to find the approximate solution of the indefinite systems. The main ingredient of the multigrid method is the choice of an appropriate smoothing strategy. This study considers the application of different smoothers and compares their effects in the overall performance of the multigrid solver. We study the multigrid method with the following smoothers: distributed Gauss Seidel, inexact Uzawa, preconditioned MINRES, and Braess-Sarazin type smoothers. A comparative study of the smoothers shows that the Braess-Sarazin smoothers enhance good performance of the multigrid method. We study the problem in a two-dimensional domain using stable Hood-Taylor Q2-Q1 pair of finite rectangular elements. We also give the main theoretical convergence results. We present the numerical results to demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the multigrid method and confirm the theoretical results. PMID:25945361
Numerical algorithms for finite element computations on arrays of microprocessors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ortega, J. M.
1981-01-01
The development of a multicolored successive over relaxation (SOR) program for the finite element machine is discussed. The multicolored SOR method uses a generalization of the classical Red/Black grid point ordering for the SOR method. These multicolored orderings have the advantage of allowing the SOR method to be implemented as a Jacobi method, which is ideal for arrays of processors, but still enjoy the greater rate of convergence of the SOR method. The program solves a general second order self adjoint elliptic problem on a square region with Dirichlet boundary conditions, discretized by quadratic elements on triangular regions. For this general problem and discretization, six colors are necessary for the multicolored method to operate efficiently. The specific problem that was solved using the six color program was Poisson's equation; for Poisson's equation, three colors are necessary but six may be used. In general, the number of colors needed is a function of the differential equation, the region and boundary conditions, and the particular finite element used for the discretization.
Curved Thermopiezoelectric Shell Structures Modeled by Finite Element Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Ho-Jun
2000-01-01
"Smart" structures composed of piezoelectric materials may significantly improve the performance of aeropropulsion systems through a variety of vibration, noise, and shape-control applications. The development of analytical models for piezoelectric smart structures is an ongoing, in-house activity at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field focused toward the experimental characterization of these materials. Research efforts have been directed toward developing analytical models that account for the coupled mechanical, electrical, and thermal response of piezoelectric composite materials. Current work revolves around implementing thermal effects into a curvilinear-shell finite element code. This enhances capabilities to analyze curved structures and to account for coupling effects arising from thermal effects and the curved geometry. The current analytical model implements a unique mixed multi-field laminate theory to improve computational efficiency without sacrificing accuracy. The mechanics can model both the sensory and active behavior of piezoelectric composite shell structures. Finite element equations are being implemented for an eight-node curvilinear shell element, and numerical studies are being conducted to demonstrate capabilities to model the response of curved piezoelectric composite structures (see the figure).
Segment-to-segment contact elements for modelling joint interfaces in finite element analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayer, M. H.; Gaul, L.
2007-02-01
This paper presents an efficient approach to model contact interfaces of joints in finite element analysis (FEA) with segment-to-segment contact elements like thin layer or zero thickness elements. These elements originate from geomechanics and have been applied recently in modal analysis as an efficient way to define the contact stiffness of fixed joints for model updating. A big advantage of these elements is that no global contact search algorithm is employed as used in master-slave contacts. Contact search algorithms are not necessary for modelling contact interfaces of fixed joints since the interfaces are always in contact and restricted to small relative movements, which saves much computing time. We first give an introduction into the theory of segment-to-segment contact elements leading to zero thickness and thin layer elements. As a new application of zero thickness elements, we demonstrate the implementation of a structural contact damping model, derived from a Masing model, as non-linear constitutive laws for the contact element. This damping model takes into account the non-linear influence of frictional microslip in the contact interface of fixed joints. With this model we simulate the non-linear response of a bolted structure. This approach constitutes a new way to simulate multi-degree-of-freedom systems with structural joints and predict modal damping properties.
Finite element solution of optimal control problems with inequality constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bless, Robert R.; Hodges, Dewey H.
1990-01-01
A finite-element method based on a weak Hamiltonian form of the necessary conditions is summarized for optimal control problems. Very crude shape functions (so simple that element numerical quadrature is not necessary) can be used to develop an efficient procedure for obtaining candidate solutions (i.e., those which satisfy all the necessary conditions) even for highly nonlinear problems. An extension of the formulation allowing for discontinuities in the states and derivatives of the states is given. A theory that includes control inequality constraints is fully developed. An advanced launch vehicle (ALV) model is presented. The model involves staging and control constraints, thus demonstrating the full power of the weak formulation to date. Numerical results are presented along with total elapsed computer time required to obtain the results. The speed and accuracy in obtaining the results make this method a strong candidate for a real-time guidance algorithm.
Advances in 3D electromagnetic finite element modeling
Nelson, E.M.
1997-08-01
Numerous advances in electromagnetic finite element analysis (FEA) have been made in recent years. The maturity of frequency domain and eigenmode calculations, and the growth of time domain applications is briefly reviewed. A high accuracy 3D electromagnetic finite element field solver employing quadratic hexahedral elements and quadratic mixed-order one-form basis functions will also be described. The solver is based on an object-oriented C++ class library. Test cases demonstrate that frequency errors less than 10 ppm can be achieved using modest workstations, and that the solutions have no contamination from spurious modes. The role of differential geometry and geometrical physics in finite element analysis is also discussed.
Interpolation functions in the immersed boundary and finite element methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xingshi; Zhang, Lucy T.
2010-03-01
In this paper, we review the existing interpolation functions and introduce a finite element interpolation function to be used in the immersed boundary and finite element methods. This straightforward finite element interpolation function for unstructured grids enables us to obtain a sharper interface that yields more accurate interfacial solutions. The solution accuracy is compared with the existing interpolation functions such as the discretized Dirac delta function and the reproducing kernel interpolation function. The finite element shape function is easy to implement and it naturally satisfies the reproducing condition. They are interpolated through only one element layer instead of smearing to several elements. A pressure jump is clearly captured at the fluid-solid interface. Two example problems are studied and results are compared with other numerical methods. A convergence test is thoroughly conducted for the independent fluid and solid meshes in a fluid-structure interaction system. The required mesh size ratio between the fluid and solid domains is obtained.
Phase-space finite elements in a least-squares solution of the transport equation
Drumm, C.; Fan, W.; Pautz, S.
2013-07-01
The linear Boltzmann transport equation is solved using a least-squares finite element approximation in the space, angular and energy phase-space variables. The method is applied to both neutral particle transport and also to charged particle transport in the presence of an electric field, where the angular and energy derivative terms are handled with the energy/angular finite elements approximation, in a manner analogous to the way the spatial streaming term is handled. For multi-dimensional problems, a novel approach is used for the angular finite elements: mapping the surface of a unit sphere to a two-dimensional planar region and using a meshing tool to generate a mesh. In this manner, much of the spatial finite-elements machinery can be easily adapted to handle the angular variable. The energy variable and the angular variable for one-dimensional problems make use of edge/beam elements, also building upon the spatial finite elements capabilities. The methods described here can make use of either continuous or discontinuous finite elements in space, angle and/or energy, with the use of continuous finite elements resulting in a smaller problem size and the use of discontinuous finite elements resulting in more accurate solutions for certain types of problems. The work described in this paper makes use of continuous finite elements, so that the resulting linear system is symmetric positive definite and can be solved with a highly efficient parallel preconditioned conjugate gradients algorithm. The phase-space finite elements capability has been built into the Sceptre code and applied to several test problems, including a simple one-dimensional problem with an analytic solution available, a two-dimensional problem with an isolated source term, showing how the method essentially eliminates ray effects encountered with discrete ordinates, and a simple one-dimensional charged-particle transport problem in the presence of an electric field. (authors)
Fuzzy finite-element analysis of smart structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akpan, U. O.; Koko, T. S.; Orisamolu, I. R.; Gallant, B. K.
2001-04-01
A fuzzy finite element based approach is developed for modelling smart structures with vague or imprecise uncertainties. Fuzzy sets are used to represent the uncertainties present in the piezoelectric, mechanical, thermal, and physical properties of the smart structure. In order to facilitate efficient computation, a sensitivity analysis procedure is used to streamline the number of input fuzzy variables, and the vertex fuzzy analysis technique is then used to compute the possibility distributions of the responses of the smart structural system. The methodology has been developed within the framework of the SMARTCOM computational tool for the design/analysis of smart composite structures. The methodology developed is found to be accurate and computationally efficient for the solution of practical problems.
A modified finite element procedure for underwater shock analysis
Chan, S.K.
1990-12-31
Using the regular finite element method for analyzing wave propagation problems presents difficulties: (a) The finite element mesh gives spurious reflection of the traveling wave and (b) Since a finite element model has to have a finite boundary, the wave is reflected by the outside boundary. However, for underwater shock problems, only the response of the structure is of major interest, not the behavior of the wave itself, and the shock wave can be assumed to be spherical. By taking advantage of the limited scope of the underwater shock problem, a finite element procedure can be developed that eliminates the above difficulties. This procedure not only can give very accurate solutions but it may also include structural nonlinearities and effect of cavitation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Atluri, S. N.; Nakagaki, M.; Kathiresan, K.
1980-01-01
In this paper, efficient numerical methods for the analysis of crack-closure effects on fatigue-crack-growth-rates, in plane stress situations, and for the solution of stress-intensity factors for arbitrary shaped surface flaws in pressure vessels, are presented. For the former problem, an elastic-plastic finite element procedure valid for the case of finite deformation gradients is developed and crack growth is simulated by the translation of near-crack-tip elements with embedded plastic singularities. For the latter problem, an embedded-elastic-singularity hybrid finite element method, which leads to a direct evaluation of K-factors, is employed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hashemi-Kia, M.; Toossi, M.
1990-01-01
As a result of this work, a reduction procedure has been developed which can be applied to large finite element model of airframe type structures. This procedure, which is tailored to be used with MSC/NASTRAN finite element code, is applied to the full airframe dynamic finite element model of AH-64A Attack Helicopter. The applicability of the resulting reduced model to parametric and optimization studies is examined. Through application of the design sensitivity analysis, the viability and efficiency of this reduction technique has been demonstrated in a vibration reduction study.
Application of the Finite Element Method to Rotary Wing Aeroelasticity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Straub, F. K.; Friedmann, P. P.
1982-01-01
A finite element method for the spatial discretization of the dynamic equations of equilibrium governing rotary-wing aeroelastic problems is presented. Formulation of the finite element equations is based on weighted Galerkin residuals. This Galerkin finite element method reduces algebraic manipulative labor significantly, when compared to the application of the global Galerkin method in similar problems. The coupled flap-lag aeroelastic stability boundaries of hingeless helicopter rotor blades in hover are calculated. The linearized dynamic equations are reduced to the standard eigenvalue problem from which the aeroelastic stability boundaries are obtained. The convergence properties of the Galerkin finite element method are studied numerically by refining the discretization process. Results indicate that four or five elements suffice to capture the dynamics of the blade with the same accuracy as the global Galerkin method.
Modeling Progressive Failure of Bonded Joints Using a Single Joint Finite Element
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stapleton, Scott E.; Waas, Anthony M.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.
2010-01-01
Enhanced finite elements are elements with an embedded analytical solution which can capture detailed local fields, enabling more efficient, mesh-independent finite element analysis. In the present study, an enhanced finite element is applied to generate a general framework capable of modeling an array of joint types. The joint field equations are derived using the principle of minimum potential energy, and the resulting solutions for the displacement fields are used to generate shape functions and a stiffness matrix for a single joint finite element. This single finite element thus captures the detailed stress and strain fields within the bonded joint, but it can function within a broader structural finite element model. The costs associated with a fine mesh of the joint can thus be avoided while still obtaining a detailed solution for the joint. Additionally, the capability to model non-linear adhesive constitutive behavior has been included within the method, and progressive failure of the adhesive can be modeled by using a strain-based failure criteria and re-sizing the joint as the adhesive fails. Results of the model compare favorably with experimental and finite element results.
Nonlinear finite element modeling of THUNDER piezoelectric actuators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taleghani, Barmac K.; Campbell, Joel F.
1999-06-01
A NASTRAN non-linear finite element model has been developed for predicting the dome heights of THUNDER (Thin Layer Unimorph Ferroelectric Driver) piezoelectric actuators. To analytically validate the finite element model, a comparison was made with a non-linear plate solution using Von Karmen's approximation. A 500 volt input was used to examine the actuator deformation. The NASTRAN finite element model was also compared with experimental results. Four groups of specimens were fabricated and tested. Four different input voltages, which included 120, 160, 200, and 240 Vp-p with a 0 volts offset, were used for this comparison.
Quality assessment and control of finite element solutions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noor, Ahmed K.; Babuska, Ivo
1987-01-01
Status and some recent developments in the techniques for assessing the reliability of finite element solutions are summarized. Discussion focuses on a number of aspects including: the major types of errors in the finite element solutions; techniques used for a posteriori error estimation and the reliability of these estimators; the feedback and adaptive strategies for improving the finite element solutions; and postprocessing approaches used for improving the accuracy of stresses and other important engineering data. Also, future directions for research needed to make error estimation and adaptive movement practical are identified.
P-Finite-Element Program For Analysis Of Plates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, James P.
1995-01-01
BUCKY is p-finite-element computer program for highly accurate analysis of structures. Used to analyze buckling, bending, and in-plane stress-and-strain behaviors of plates. Provides elastic-plastic solutions for isotropic plates in states of plane stress, and axisymmetric solution sequence used to treat three-dimensional problems. Computes response of plate to variety of loading and boundary conditions by use of higher-order displacement function in p-finite-element method. Enables user to obtain results more accurate than obtained by use of traditional h-finite elements. Written in FORTRAN 77.
Non-Linear Finite Element Modeling of THUNDER Piezoelectric Actuators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taleghani, Barmac K.; Campbell, Joel F.
1999-01-01
A NASTRAN non-linear finite element model has been developed for predicting the dome heights of THUNDER (THin Layer UNimorph Ferroelectric DrivER) piezoelectric actuators. To analytically validate the finite element model, a comparison was made with a non-linear plate solution using Von Karmen's approximation. A 500 volt input was used to examine the actuator deformation. The NASTRAN finite element model was also compared with experimental results. Four groups of specimens were fabricated and tested. Four different input voltages, which included 120, 160, 200, and 240 Vp-p with a 0 volts offset, were used for this comparison.
Wavelet and Multiresolution Analysis for Finite Element Networking Paradigms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kurdila, Andrew J.; Sharpley, Robert C.
1999-01-01
This paper presents a final report on Wavelet and Multiresolution Analysis for Finite Element Networking Paradigms. The focus of this research is to derive and implement: 1) Wavelet based methodologies for the compression, transmission, decoding, and visualization of three dimensional finite element geometry and simulation data in a network environment; 2) methodologies for interactive algorithm monitoring and tracking in computational mechanics; and 3) Methodologies for interactive algorithm steering for the acceleration of large scale finite element simulations. Also included in this report are appendices describing the derivation of wavelet based Particle Image Velocity algorithms and reduced order input-output models for nonlinear systems by utilizing wavelet approximations.
A finite element conjugate gradient FFT method for scattering
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Collins, Jeffery D.; Ross, Dan; Jin, J.-M.; Chatterjee, A.; Volakis, John L.
1991-01-01
Validated results are presented for the new 3D body of revolution finite element boundary integral code. A Fourier series expansion of the vector electric and mangnetic fields is employed to reduce the dimensionality of the system, and the exact boundary condition is employed to terminate the finite element mesh. The mesh termination boundary is chosen such that is leads to convolutional boundary operatores of low O(n) memory demand. Improvements of this code are discussed along with the proposed formulation for a full 3D implementation of the finite element boundary integral method in conjunction with a conjugate gradiant fast Fourier transformation (CGFFT) solution.
A Discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element Method for Hamilton-Jacobi Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hu, Changqing; Shu, Chi-Wang
1998-01-01
In this paper, we present a discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for solving the nonlinear Hamilton-Jacobi equations. This method is based on the Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for solving conservation laws. The method has the flexibility of treating complicated geometry by using arbitrary triangulation, can achieve high order accuracy with a local, compact stencil, and are suited for efficient parallel implementation. One and two dimensional numerical examples are given to illustrate the capability of the method.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lewis, Robert Michael; Patera, Anthony T.; Peraire, Jaume
1998-01-01
We present a Neumann-subproblem a posteriori finite element procedure for the efficient and accurate calculation of rigorous, 'constant-free' upper and lower bounds for sensitivity derivatives of functionals of the solutions of partial differential equations. The design motivation for sensitivity derivative error control is discussed; the a posteriori finite element procedure is described; the asymptotic bounding properties and computational complexity of the method are summarized; and illustrative numerical results are presented.
Finite element formulation of biphasic poroviscoelastic model for articular cartilage.
Suh, J K; Bai, S
1998-04-01
The purpose of the present study was to develop a computationally efficient finite element model that could be useful for parametric analysis of the biphasic poroviscoelastic (BPVE) behavior of articular cartilage under various loading conditions. The articular cartilage was modeled as the BPVE mixture of a porous, linear viscoelastic, and incompressible solid and an inviscid and incompressible fluid. A finite element (FE) formulation of the BPVE model was developed using two different algorithms, the continuous and discrete spectrum relaxation functions for the viscoelasticity of the solid matrix. These algorithms were applied to the creep and stress relaxation responses to the confined compression of articular cartilage, and a comparison of their performances was made. It was found that the discrete spectrum algorithm significantly saved CPU time and memory, as compared to the continuous spectrum algorithm. The consistency analysis for the present FE formulation was performed in comparison with the IMSL, a commercially available numerical software package. It was found that the present FE formulation yielded consistent results in predicting model behavior, whereas the IMSL subroutine produced inconsistent results in the velocity field, and thereby in the strain calculation. PMID:10412380
A finite element method for analysis of vibration induced by maglev trains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ju, S. H.; Ho, Y. S.; Leong, C. C.
2012-07-01
This paper developed a finite element method to perform the maglev train-bridge-soil interaction analysis with rail irregularities. An efficient proportional integral (PI) scheme with only a simple equation is used to control the force of the maglev wheel, which is modeled as a contact node moving along a number of target nodes. The moving maglev vehicles are modeled as a combination of spring-damper elements, lumped mass and rigid links. The Newmark method with the Newton-Raphson method is then used to solve the nonlinear dynamic equation. The major advantage is that all the proposed procedures are standard in the finite element method. The analytic solution of maglev vehicles passing a Timoshenko beam was used to validate the current finite element method with good agreements. Moreover, a very large-scale finite element analysis using the proposed scheme was also tested in this paper.
Updating finite element dynamic models using an element-by-element sensitivity methodology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farhat, Charbel; Hemez, Francois M.
1993-09-01
A sensitivity-based methodology for improving the finite element model of a given structure using test modal data and a few sensors is presented. The proposed method searches for both the location and sources of the mass and stiffness errors and does not interfere with the theory behind the finite element model while correcting these errors. The updating algorithm is derived from the unconstrained minimization of the squared L sub 2 norms of the modal dynamic residuals via an iterative two-step staggered procedure. At each iteration, the measured mode shapes are first expanded assuming that the model is error free, then the model parameters are corrected assuming that the expanded mode shapes are exact. The numerical algorithm is implemented in an element-by-element fashion and is capable of 'zooming' on the detected error locations. Several simulation examples which demonstate the potential of the proposed methodology are discussed.
North Atlantic Finite Element Ocean Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Veluthedathekuzhiyil, Praveen
This thesis presents a modified version of the Finite Element Ocean Model (FEOM) developed at Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) for the North Atlantic Ocean. A reasonable North Atlantic Ocean simulation is obtained against the observational data sets in a Control simulation (CS) where the surface boundary conditions are relaxed to a climatology. The vertical mixing in the model was tuned to represent convection in the model, also the horizontal mixing and diffusion coefficients to represent the changes in the resolution of the model’s unstructured grid. In addition, the open boundaries in the model are treated with a sponge layer where tracers are relaxed to climatology. The model is then further modified to accept the atmospheric flux forcing at the surface boundary with an added net heat flux correction and freshwater forcing from major rivers that are flowing into the North Atlantic Ocean. The impact of this boundary condition on the simulation results is then analyzed and shows many improvements albeit the drift in tracer properties around the Gulf Stream region remains as that of the CS case. However a comparison of the vertical sections at Cape Desolation and Cape Farewell with the available observational data sets shows many improvements in this simulation compared to that of the CS case. But the freshwater content in the Labrador Sea interior shows a continued drift as that of the CS case with an improvement towards the 10th model year. A detailed analysis of the boundary currents around the Labrador Sea shows the weak offshore transport of freshwater from the West Greenland Current (WGC) as one of the causes. To further improve the model and reasonably represent the boundary currents and associated sub-grid scale eddies in the model, a modified sub-grid scale parameterization based on Gent and McWilliams, (1990) is adopted. The sensitivity of using various approaches in the thickness diffusion parameter ( Kgm) for this
Architecting the Finite Element Method Pipeline for the GPU.
Fu, Zhisong; Lewis, T James; Kirby, Robert M; Whitaker, Ross T
2014-02-01
The finite element method (FEM) is a widely employed numerical technique for approximating the solution of partial differential equations (PDEs) in various science and engineering applications. Many of these applications benefit from fast execution of the FEM pipeline. One way to accelerate the FEM pipeline is by exploiting advances in modern computational hardware, such as the many-core streaming processors like the graphical processing unit (GPU). In this paper, we present the algorithms and data-structures necessary to move the entire FEM pipeline to the GPU. First we propose an efficient GPU-based algorithm to generate local element information and to assemble the global linear system associated with the FEM discretization of an elliptic PDE. To solve the corresponding linear system efficiently on the GPU, we implement a conjugate gradient method preconditioned with a geometry-informed algebraic multi-grid (AMG) method preconditioner. We propose a new fine-grained parallelism strategy, a corresponding multigrid cycling stage and efficient data mapping to the many-core architecture of GPU. Comparison of our on-GPU assembly versus a traditional serial implementation on the CPU achieves up to an 87 × speedup. Focusing on the linear system solver alone, we achieve a speedup of up to 51 × versus use of a comparable state-of-the-art serial CPU linear system solver. Furthermore, the method compares favorably with other GPU-based, sparse, linear solvers. PMID:25202164
Architecting the Finite Element Method Pipeline for the GPU
Fu, Zhisong; Lewis, T. James; Kirby, Robert M.
2014-01-01
The finite element method (FEM) is a widely employed numerical technique for approximating the solution of partial differential equations (PDEs) in various science and engineering applications. Many of these applications benefit from fast execution of the FEM pipeline. One way to accelerate the FEM pipeline is by exploiting advances in modern computational hardware, such as the many-core streaming processors like the graphical processing unit (GPU). In this paper, we present the algorithms and data-structures necessary to move the entire FEM pipeline to the GPU. First we propose an efficient GPU-based algorithm to generate local element information and to assemble the global linear system associated with the FEM discretization of an elliptic PDE. To solve the corresponding linear system efficiently on the GPU, we implement a conjugate gradient method preconditioned with a geometry-informed algebraic multi-grid (AMG) method preconditioner. We propose a new fine-grained parallelism strategy, a corresponding multigrid cycling stage and efficient data mapping to the many-core architecture of GPU. Comparison of our on-GPU assembly versus a traditional serial implementation on the CPU achieves up to an 87 × speedup. Focusing on the linear system solver alone, we achieve a speedup of up to 51 × versus use of a comparable state-of-the-art serial CPU linear system solver. Furthermore, the method compares favorably with other GPU-based, sparse, linear solvers. PMID:25202164
Application of Mass Lumped Higher Order Finite Elements
Chen, J.; Strauss, H. R.; Jardin, S. C.; Park, W.; Sugiyama, L. E.; G. Fu; Breslau, J.
2005-11-01
There are many interesting phenomena in extended-MHD such as anisotropic transport, mhd, 2-fluid effects stellarator and hot particles. Any one of them challenges numerical analysts, and researchers are seeking for higher order methods, such as higher order finite difference, higher order finite elements and hp/spectral elements. It is true that these methods give more accurate solution than their linear counterparts. However, numerically they are prohibitively expensive. Here we give a successful solution of this conflict by applying mass lumped higher order finite elements. This type of elements not only keep second/third order accuracy but also scale closely to linear elements by doing mass lumping. This is especially true for second order lump elements. Full M3D and anisotropic transport models are studied.
An enhanced finite element technique for diffuse phase transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Münch, I.; Krauß, M.
2015-10-01
We propose a finite element technique to enhance phase-field simulations. As adaptive p-method it and can be generally applied to finite element formulations. However, diffuse interfaces have non-linear gradients within regions typically smaller compared to the size of the overall model. Thus, enhanced field interpolation with higher polynomial functions on demand allows for coarser meshing or lower regularization length for the phase transition. Our method preserves continuity of finite elements and is particularly advantageous in the context of parallelized computing. An analytical solution for the evolution of a phase-field variable governed by the Allen-Cahn equation is used to define an error measure and to investigate the proposed method. Several examples demonstrate the capability of this finite element technique.
Validation of high displacement piezoelectric actuator finite element models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taleghani, Barmac K.
2000-08-01
The paper presents the results obtained by using NASTRAN and ANSYS finite element codes to predict doming of the THUNDER piezoelectric actuators during the manufacturing process and subsequent straining due to an applied input voltage. To effectively use such devices in engineering applications, modeling and characterization are essential. Length, width, dome height, and thickness and important parameters for users of such devices. Therefore, finite element models were used to assess the effects of these parameters. NASTRAN and ANSYS used different methods for modeling piezoelectric effects. In NASTRAN, a thermal analogy was used to represent voltage at nodes as equivalent temperatures, while ANSYS processed the voltage directly using piezoelectric finite elements. The results of finite element models were validated by using the experimental results.
Error analysis of finite element solutions for postbuckled cylinders
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sistla, Rajaram; Thurston, Gaylen A.
1989-01-01
A general method of error analysis and correction is investigated for the discrete finite-element results for cylindrical shell structures. The method for error analysis is an adaptation of the method of successive approximation. When applied to the equilibrium equations of shell theory, successive approximations derive an approximate continuous solution from the discrete finite-element results. The advantage of this continuous solution is that it contains continuous partial derivatives of an order higher than the basis functions of the finite-element solution. Preliminary numerical results are presented in this paper for the error analysis of finite-element results for a postbuckled stiffened cylindrical panel modeled by a general purpose shell code. Numerical results from the method have previously been reported for postbuckled stiffened plates. A procedure for correcting the continuous approximate solution by Newton's method is outlined.
Generalized multiscale finite element method. Symmetric interior penalty coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Efendiev, Y.; Galvis, J.; Lazarov, R.; Moon, M.; Sarkis, M.
2013-12-01
Motivated by applications to numerical simulations of flows in highly heterogeneous porous media, we develop multiscale finite element methods for second order elliptic equations. We discuss a multiscale model reduction technique in the framework of the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method. We propose two different finite element spaces on the coarse mesh. The first space is based on a local eigenvalue problem that uses an interior weighted L2-norm and a boundary weighted L2-norm for computing the “mass” matrix. The second choice is based on generation of a snapshot space and subsequent selection of a subspace of a reduced dimension. The approximation with these multiscale spaces is based on the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method framework. We investigate the stability and derive error estimates for the methods and further experimentally study their performance on a representative number of numerical examples.
The finite element machine: An experiment in parallel processing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Storaasli, O. O.; Peebles, S. W.; Crockett, T. W.; Knott, J. D.; Adams, L.
1982-01-01
The finite element machine is a prototype computer designed to support parallel solutions to structural analysis problems. The hardware architecture and support software for the machine, initial solution algorithms and test applications, and preliminary results are described.
Validation of High Displacement Piezoelectric Actuator Finite Element Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taleghani, B. K.
2000-01-01
The paper presents the results obtained by using NASTRAN(Registered Trademark) and ANSYS(Regitered Trademark) finite element codes to predict doming of the THUNDER piezoelectric actuators during the manufacturing process and subsequent straining due to an applied input voltage. To effectively use such devices in engineering applications, modeling and characterization are essential. Length, width, dome height, and thickness are important parameters for users of such devices. Therefore, finite element models were used to assess the effects of these parameters. NASTRAN(Registered Trademark) and ANSYS(Registered Trademark) used different methods for modeling piezoelectric effects. In NASTRAN(Registered Trademark), a thermal analogy was used to represent voltage at nodes as equivalent temperatures, while ANSYS(Registered Trademark) processed the voltage directly using piezoelectric finite elements. The results of finite element models were validated by using the experimental results.
Comparison of different precondtioners for nonsymmtric finite volume element methods
Mishev, I.D.
1996-12-31
We consider a few different preconditioners for the linear systems arising from the discretization of 3-D convection-diffusion problems with the finite volume element method. Their theoretical and computational convergence rates are compared and discussed.
Adaptive Finite-Element Computation In Fracture Mechanics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Min, J. B.; Bass, J. M.; Spradley, L. W.
1995-01-01
Report discusses recent progress in use of solution-adaptive finite-element computational methods to solve two-dimensional problems in linear elastic fracture mechanics. Method also shown extensible to three-dimensional problems.
Scalable, Finite Element Analysis of Electromagnetic Scattering and Radiation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cwik, T.; Lou, J.; Katz, D.
1997-01-01
In this paper a method for simulating electromagnetic fields scattered from complex objects is reviewed; namely, an unstructured finite element code that does not use traditional mesh partitioning algorithms.
The use of Galerkin finite-element methods to solve mass-transport equations
Grove, David B.
1977-01-01
The partial differential equation that describes the transport and reaction of chemical solutes in porous media was solved using the Galerkin finite-element technique. These finite elements were superimposed over finite-difference cells used to solve the flow equation. Both convection and flow due to hydraulic dispersion were considered. Linear and Hermite cubic approximations (basis functions) provided satisfactory results: however, the linear functions were computationally more efficient for two-dimensional problems. Successive over relaxation (SOR) and iteration techniques using Tchebyschef polynomials were used to solve the sparce matrices generated using the linear and Hermite cubic functions, respectively. Comparisons of the finite-element methods to the finite-difference methods, and to analytical results, indicated that a high degree of accuracy may be obtained using the method outlined. The technique was applied to a field problem involving an aquifer contaminated with chloride, tritium, and strontium-90. (Woodard-USGS)
Application of the Finite-Element Z-Matrix Method to e-H2 Collisions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huo, Winifred M.; Brown, David; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)
1997-01-01
The present study adapts the Z-matrix formulation using a mixed basis of finite elements and Gaussians. This is a energy-independent basis which allows flexible boundary conditions and is amenable to efficient algorithms for evaluating the necessary matrix elements with molecular targets.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vos, R. G.; Straayer, J. W.
1975-01-01
The BOPACE 3-D is a finite element computer program, which provides a general family of three-dimensional isoparametric solid elements, and includes a new algorithm for improving the efficiency of the elastic-plastic-creep solution procedure. Theoretical, user, and programmer oriented sections are presented to describe the program.
Mixed finite elements for the Richards' equation: linearization procedure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pop, I. S.; Radu, F.; Knabner, P.
2004-07-01
We consider mixed finite element discretization for a class of degenerate parabolic problems including the Richards' equation. After regularization, time discretization is achieved by an Euler implicit scheme, while mixed finite elements are employed for the discretization in space. Based on the results obtained in (Radu et al. RANA Preprint 02-06, Eindhoven University of Technology, 2002), this paper considers a simple iterative scheme to solve the emerging nonlinear elliptic problems.
Finite element analysis of a composite wheelchair wheel design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ortega, Rene
1994-01-01
The finite element analysis of a composite wheelchair wheel design is presented. The design is the result of a technology utilization request. The designer's intent is to soften the riding feeling by incorporating a mechanism attaching the wheel rim to the spokes that would allow considerable deflection upon compressive loads. A finite element analysis was conducted to verify proper structural function. Displacement and stress results are presented and conclusions are provided.
Examples of finite element mesh generation using SDRC IDEAS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zapp, John; Volakis, John L.
1990-01-01
IDEAS (Integrated Design Engineering Analysis Software) offers a comprehensive package for mechanical design engineers. Due to its multifaceted capabilities, however, it can be manipulated to serve the needs of electrical engineers, also. IDEAS can be used to perform the following tasks: system modeling, system assembly, kinematics, finite element pre/post processing, finite element solution, system dynamics, drafting, test data analysis, and project relational database.
Finite element analysis of vibration and damping of laminated composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rikards, Rolands
Simple finite elements are used to form a special laminated beam and plate superelements excluding all degrees of freedom in the nodes of the middle layer, and the finite element analysis of this structure is performed. To estimate damping of structures, modal loss factors are calculated, using two methods: the 'exact' method of complex eigenvalues and the approximate energy method. It was found that both methods give satisfactory results. However, the energy method needs less computer time than the exact method.
Mathematical aspects of finite element methods for incompressible viscous flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gunzburger, M. D.
1986-01-01
Mathematical aspects of finite element methods are surveyed for incompressible viscous flows, concentrating on the steady primitive variable formulation. The discretization of a weak formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations are addressed, then the stability condition is considered, the satisfaction of which insures the stability of the approximation. Specific choices of finite element spaces for the velocity and pressure are then discussed. Finally, the connection between different weak formulations and a variety of boundary conditions is explored.
Evaluation of a hybrid, anisotropic, multilayered, quadrilateral finite element
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robinson, J. C.; Blackburn, C. L.
1978-01-01
A multilayered finite element with bending-extensional coupling is evaluated for: (1) buckling of general laminated plates; (2) thermal stresses of laminated plates cured at elevated temperatures; (3) displacements of a bimetallic beam; and (4) displacement and stresses of a single-cell box beam with warped cover panels. Also, displacements and stresses for flat and spherical orthotropic and anisotropic segments are compared with results from higher order plate and shell finite-element analyses.
Integration of geometric modeling and advanced finite element preprocessing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shephard, Mark S.; Finnigan, Peter M.
1987-01-01
The structure to a geometry based finite element preprocessing system is presented. The key features of the system are the use of geometric operators to support all geometric calculations required for analysis model generation, and the use of a hierarchic boundary based data structure for the major data sets within the system. The approach presented can support the finite element modeling procedures used today as well as the fully automated procedures under development.
Simulation of two-dimensional waterflooding using mixed finite elements
Chavent, G.; Jaffre, J.; Cohen, G.; Dupuy, M.; Dieste, I.
1982-01-01
A new method for the simulation of incompressible diphasic flows in two dimensions is presented, the distinctive features of which are: (1) reformation of the basic equation and specific choices of the finite element approximation of the same; (11) use of a mixed finite elements method, approximating both scalar and vector functions. Several test examples are shown, including gravity and capillary effects. The use of discontinuous basis functions proved successful for an accurate representation of sharp fronts. 16 refs.
Azimuthally-dependent Finite Element Solution to the Cylindrical Resonator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Osegueda, R.; Pierluissi, J.; Gil, L.; Revilla, A.; Villalva, G.; Dick, G.; Wang, D. SantiagoR.
1994-01-01
The cylindrical cavity resonator loaded with an anisotropic dielectric is analyzed as a two-dimensional problem using a finite element approach that assumes sinusoidal dependence in azimuth. This methodology allows the first finite element treatment of the technically important case of a resonator containing a sapphire element with a cylindrically aligned c axis. Second order trial functions together with quadrilateral elements are adopted in the calculations. The method was validated through comparisons with the analytical solutions for the hollow metal cavity and a coaxial cavity, as well as through measurements on a shielded sapphire resonator.
FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR TIDES AND CURRENTS WITH FIELD APPLICATIONS.
Walters, Roy A.
1988-01-01
A finite element model, based upon the shallow water equations, is used to calculate tidal amplitudes and currents for two field-scale test problems. Because tides are characterized by line spectra, the governing equations are subjected to harmonic decomposition. Thus the solution variables are the real and imaginary parts of the amplitude of sea level and velocity rather than a time series of these variables. The time series is recovered through synthesis. This scheme, coupled with a modified form of the governing equations, leads to high computational efficiency and freedom from excessive numerical noise. Two test-cases are presented. The first is a solution for eleven tidal constituents in the English Channel and southern North Sea, and three constituents are discussed. The second is an analysis of the frequency response and tidal harmonics for south San Francisco Bay.
Two-dimensional finite element model of the pultrusion process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hackett, Robert M.; Zhu, Si-Ze
1992-12-01
Composite materials used in the fabrication of industrial products/components are under constant development. Applications vary widely from consumer products to high-performance aerospace components. The pultrusion process is one of the important methods of production of composite materials. In order to develop a fundamental understanding of this process, a computational model employing the finite element method is developed which enables a prediction of the material temperature and degree-of-cure at any time during the process. The model is comprehensive; it can readily be employed to perform parametric studies of the process and to aid in the development of efficient design procedures for this type of material system. Comparisons are made between model predictions and experimental results and good agreement is observed.
Two-dimensional finite element model of the pultrusion process
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hackett, Robert M.; Zhu, Si-Ze
1992-01-01
Composite materials used in the fabrication of industrial products/components are under constant development. Applications vary widely from consumer products to high-performance aerospace components. The pultrusion process is one of the important methods of production of composite materials. In order to develop a fundamental understanding of this process, a computational model employing the finite element method is developed which enables a prediction of the material temperature and degree-of-cure at any time during the process. The model is comprehensive; it can readily be employed to perform parametric studies of the process and to aid in the development of efficient design procedures for this type of material system. Comparisons are made between model predictions and experimental results and good agreement is observed.
Scalable Implementation of Finite Elements by NASA _ Implicit (ScIFEi)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Warner, James E.; Bomarito, Geoffrey F.; Heber, Gerd; Hochhalter, Jacob D.
2016-01-01
Scalable Implementation of Finite Elements by NASA (ScIFEN) is a parallel finite element analysis code written in C++. ScIFEN is designed to provide scalable solutions to computational mechanics problems. It supports a variety of finite element types, nonlinear material models, and boundary conditions. This report provides an overview of ScIFEi (\\Sci-Fi"), the implicit solid mechanics driver within ScIFEN. A description of ScIFEi's capabilities is provided, including an overview of the tools and features that accompany the software as well as a description of the input and output le formats. Results from several problems are included, demonstrating the efficiency and scalability of ScIFEi by comparing to finite element analysis using a commercial code.
A new parallel-vector finite element analysis software on distributed-memory computers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Qin, Jiangning; Nguyen, Duc T.
1993-01-01
A new parallel-vector finite element analysis software package MPFEA (Massively Parallel-vector Finite Element Analysis) is developed for large-scale structural analysis on massively parallel computers with distributed-memory. MPFEA is designed for parallel generation and assembly of the global finite element stiffness matrices as well as parallel solution of the simultaneous linear equations, since these are often the major time-consuming parts of a finite element analysis. Block-skyline storage scheme along with vector-unrolling techniques are used to enhance the vector performance. Communications among processors are carried out concurrently with arithmetic operations to reduce the total execution time. Numerical results on the Intel iPSC/860 computers (such as the Intel Gamma with 128 processors and the Intel Touchstone Delta with 512 processors) are presented, including an aircraft structure and some very large truss structures, to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of MPFEA.
Bailey, T S; Adams, M L; Yang, B; Zika, M R
2005-07-15
We develop a piecewise linear (PWL) Galerkin finite element spatial discretization for the multi-dimensional radiation diffusion equation. It uses piecewise linear weight and basis functions in the finite element approximation, and it can be applied on arbitrary polygonal (2D) or polyhedral (3D) grids. We show that this new PWL method gives solutions comparable to those from Palmer's finite-volume method. However, since the PWL method produces a symmetric positive definite coefficient matrix, it should be substantially more computationally efficient than Palmer's method, which produces an asymmetric matrix. We conclude that the Galerkin PWL method is an attractive option for solving diffusion equations on unstructured grids.
Finite-element implementation for electron transport in nanostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Havu, P.; Havu, V.; Puska, M. J.; Hakala, M. H.; Foster, A. S.; Nieminen, R. M.
2006-02-01
We have modeled transport properties of nanostructures using Green's-function method within the framework of the density-functional theory. The scheme is computationally demanding, so numerical methods have to be chosen carefully. A typical solution to the numerical burden is to use a special basis-function set, which is tailored to the problem in question, for example, the atomic-orbital basis. In this paper we present our solution to the problem. We have used the finite-element method with a hierarchical high-order polynomial basis, the so-called p elements. This method allows the discretation error to be controlled in a systematic way. The p elements work so efficiently that they can be used to solve interesting nanosystems described by nonlocal pseudopotentials. We demonstrate the potential of the implementation with two different systems. As a test system a simple Na-atom chain between two leads is modeled and the results are compared with several previous calculations. Secondly, we consider a thin hafnium dioxide (HfO2) layer on a silicon surface as a model for a gate structure of the next generation of microelectronics.
Dynamical observer for a flexible beam via finite element approximations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Manitius, Andre; Xia, Hong-Xing
1994-01-01
The purpose of this view-graph presentation is a computational investigation of the closed-loop output feedback control of a Euler-Bernoulli beam based on finite element approximation. The observer is part of the classical observer plus state feedback control, but it is finite-dimensional. In the theoretical work on the subject it is assumed (and sometimes proved) that increasing the number of finite elements will improve accuracy of the control. In applications, this may be difficult to achieve because of numerical problems. The main difficulty in computing the observer and simulating its work is the presence of high frequency eigenvalues in the finite-element model and poor numerical conditioning of some of the system matrices (e.g. poor observability properties) when the dimension of the approximating system increases. This work dealt with some of these difficulties.
Recent developments in finite element analysis for transonic airfoils
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hafez, M. M.; Murman, E. M.
1979-01-01
The prediction of aerodynamic forces in the transonic regime generally requires a flow field calculation to solve the governing non-linear mixed elliptic-hyperbolic partial differential equations. Finite difference techniques were developed to the point that design and analysis application are routine, and continual improvements are being made by various research groups. The principal limitation in extending finite difference methods to complex three-dimensional geometries is the construction of a suitable mesh system. Finite element techniques are attractive since their application to other problems have permitted irregular mesh elements to be employed. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent developments in the application of finite element methods to transonic flow problems and to report some recent results.
Finite element analysis of partly wrinkled reinforced prestressed membranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gil, Antonio J.; Bonet, Javier
2007-08-01
Wrinkling is a well known phenomenon experimented by tension membranes in Civil Engineering applications. This paper will present an efficient numerical technique for the computational simulation of such wrinkles in a prestressed membrane. In particular, the relaxed energy approach (Pipkin in IMA J Appl Math 36:85-99, 1986) is particularized for prestressed membranes (Gil in Textile composites and inflatable structures, CIMNE, 2003) undergoing moderate strains. Wrinkling conditions in terms of the Euler-Lagrange finite deformation tensor along principal directions will be obtained. This will provide a framework to describe properly the initial instant when wrinkles start to be encountered in a prestressed Saint Venant-Kirchhoff hyperelastic membrane. Subsequently, a modified Helmholtz’s free energy functional will be introduced with the purpose of describing the modified constitutive behaviour of the continuum after the onset of wrinkling. Consistent derivations of the stress tensor as well as the constitutive tensor will de depicted. The results will be particularized for membranes and cables in a Finite Element discretization basis. Some numerical examples will prove the accuracy and robustness of the described algorithm.
Finite elements based on consistently assumed stresses and displacements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pian, T. H. H.
1985-01-01
Finite element stiffness matrices are derived using an extended Hellinger-Reissner principle in which internal displacements are added to serve as Lagrange multipliers to introduce the equilibrium constraint in each element. In a consistent formulation the assumed stresses are initially unconstrained and complete polynomials and the total displacements are also complete such that the corresponding strains are complete in the same order as the stresses. Several examples indicate that resulting properties for elements constructed by this consistent formulation are ideal and are less sensitive to distortions of element geometries. The method has been used to find the optimal stress terms for plane elements, 3-D solids, axisymmetric solids, and plate bending elements.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saleeb, A. F.; Chang, T. Y. P.; Wilt, T.; Iskovitz, I.
1989-01-01
The research work performed during the past year on finite element implementation and computational techniques pertaining to high temperature composites is outlined. In the present research, two main issues are addressed: efficient geometric modeling of composite structures and expedient numerical integration techniques dealing with constitutive rate equations. In the first issue, mixed finite elements for modeling laminated plates and shells were examined in terms of numerical accuracy, locking property and computational efficiency. Element applications include (currently available) linearly elastic analysis and future extension to material nonlinearity for damage predictions and large deformations. On the material level, various integration methods to integrate nonlinear constitutive rate equations for finite element implementation were studied. These include explicit, implicit and automatic subincrementing schemes. In all cases, examples are included to illustrate the numerical characteristics of various methods that were considered.
Efficiency analysis of betavoltaic elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sachenko, A. V.; Shkrebtii, A. I.; Korkishko, R. M.; Kostylyov, V. P.; Kulish, M. R.; Sokolovskyi, I. O.
2015-09-01
The conversion of energy of electrons produced by a radioactive β-source into electricity in a Si and SiC p-n junctions is modeled. The features of the generation function that describes the electron-hole pair production by an electron flux and the emergence of a "dead layer" are discussed. The collection efficiency Q that describes the rate of electron-hole pair production by incident beta particles, is calculated taking into account the presence of the dead layer. It is shown that in the case of high-grade Si p-n junctions, the collection efficiency of electron-hole pairs created by a high-energy electrons flux (such as, e.g., Pm-147 beta flux) is close or equal to unity in a wide range of electron energies. For SiC p-n junctions, Q is near unity only for electrons with relatively low energies of about 5 keV (produced, e.g., by a tritium source) and decreases rapidly with further increase of electron energy. The conditions, under which the influence of the dead layer on the collection efficiency is negligible, are determined. The open-circuit voltage is calculated for realistic values of the minority carriers' diffusion coefficients and lifetimes in Si and SiC p-n junctions, irradiated by a high-energy electrons flux. Our calculations allow to estimate the attainable efficiency of betavoltaic elements.
Probabilistic finite elements for fatigue and fracture analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Belytschko, Ted; Liu, Wing Kam
1992-01-01
Attenuation is focused on the development of Probabilistic Finite Element Method (PFEM), which combines the finite element method with statistics and reliability methods, and its application to linear, nonlinear structural mechanics problems and fracture mechanics problems. The computational tool based on the Stochastic Boundary Element Method is also given for the reliability analysis of a curvilinear fatigue crack growth. The existing PFEM's have been applied to solve for two types of problems: (1) determination of the response uncertainty in terms of the means, variance and correlation coefficients; and (2) determination the probability of failure associated with prescribed limit states.
Finite element analysis of two disk rotor system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dixit, Harsh Kumar
2016-05-01
A finite element model of simple horizontal rotor system is developed for evaluating its dynamic behaviour. The model is based on Timoshenko beam element and accounts for the effect of gyroscopic couple and other rotational forces. Present rotor system consists of single shaft which is supported by bearings at both ends and two disks are mounted at different locations. The natural frequencies, mode shapes and orbits of rotating system for a specific range of rotation speed are obtained by developing a MATLAB code for solving the finite element equations of rotary system. Consequently, Campbell diagram is plotted for finding a relationship between natural whirl frequencies and rotation of the rotor.
Finite Element Model Development For Aircraft Fuselage Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buehrle, Ralph D.; Fleming, Gary A.; Pappa, Richard S.; Grosveld, Ferdinand W.
2000-01-01
The ability to extend the valid frequency range for finite element based structural dynamic predictions using detailed models of the structural components and attachment interfaces is examined for several stiffened aircraft fuselage structures. This extended dynamic prediction capability is needed for the integration of mid-frequency noise control technology. Beam, plate and solid element models of the stiffener components are evaluated. Attachment models between the stiffener and panel skin range from a line along the rivets of the physical structure to a constraint over the entire contact surface. The finite element models are validated using experimental modal analysis results.
Preconditioned CG-solvers and finite element grids
Bauer, R.; Selberherr, S.
1994-12-31
To extract parasitic capacitances in wiring structures of integrated circuits the authors developed the two- and three-dimensional finite element program SCAP (Smart Capacitance Analysis Program). The program computes the task of the electrostatic field from a solution of Poisson`s equation via finite elements and calculates the energies from which the capacitance matrix is extracted. The unknown potential vector, which has for three-dimensional applications 5000-50000 unknowns, is computed by a ICCG solver. Currently three- and six-node triangular, four- and ten-node tetrahedronal elements are supported.
Adaptive grid finite element model of the tokamak scrapeoff layer
Kuprat, A.P.; Glasser, A.H.
1995-07-01
The authors discuss unstructured grids for application to transport in the tokamak edge SOL. They have developed a new metric with which to judge element elongation and resolution requirements. Using this method, the authors apply a standard moving finite element technique to advance the SOL equations while inserting/deleting dynamically nodes that violate an elongation criterion. In a tokamak plasma, this method achieves a more uniform accuracy, and results in highly stretched triangular finite elements, except near separatrix X-point where transport is more isotropic.
Radiosity algorithms using higher order finite element methods
Troutman, R.; Max, N.
1993-08-01
Many of the current radiosity algorithms create a piecewise constant approximation to the actual radiosity. Through interpolation and extrapolation, a continuous solution is obtained. An accurate solution is found by increasing the number of patches which describe the scene. This has the effect of increasing the computation time as well as the memory requirements. By using techniques found in the finite element method, we can incorporate an interpolation function directly into our form factor computation. We can then use less elements to achieve a more accurate solution. Two algorithms, derived from the finite element method, are described and analyzed.
Accelerated finite element elastodynamic simulations using the GPU
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huthwaite, Peter
2014-01-01
An approach is developed to perform explicit time domain finite element simulations of elastodynamic problems on the graphical processing unit, using Nvidia's CUDA. Of critical importance for this problem is the arrangement of nodes in memory, allowing data to be loaded efficiently and minimising communication between the independently executed blocks of threads. The initial stage of memory arrangement is partitioning the mesh; both a well established ‘greedy' partitioner and a new, more efficient ‘aligned' partitioner are investigated. A method is then developed to efficiently arrange the memory within each partition. The software is applied to three models from the fields of non-destructive testing, vibrations and geophysics, demonstrating a memory bandwidth of very close to the card's maximum, reflecting the bandwidth-limited nature of the algorithm. Comparison with Abaqus, a widely used commercial CPU equivalent, validated the accuracy of the results and demonstrated a speed improvement of around two orders of magnitude. A software package, Pogo, incorporating these developments, is released open source, downloadable from http://www.pogo-fea.com/ to benefit the community.
A Successive Selection Method for finite element model updating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gou, Baiyong; Zhang, Weijie; Lu, Qiuhai; Wang, Bo
2016-03-01
Finite Element (FE) model can be updated effectively and efficiently by using the Response Surface Method (RSM). However, it often involves performance trade-offs such as high computational cost for better accuracy or loss of efficiency for lots of design parameter updates. This paper proposes a Successive Selection Method (SSM), which is based on the linear Response Surface (RS) function and orthogonal design. SSM rewrites the linear RS function into a number of linear equations to adjust the Design of Experiment (DOE) after every FE calculation. SSM aims to interpret the implicit information provided by the FE analysis, to locate the Design of Experiment (DOE) points more quickly and accurately, and thereby to alleviate the computational burden. This paper introduces the SSM and its application, describes the solution steps of point selection for DOE in detail, and analyzes SSM's high efficiency and accuracy in the FE model updating. A numerical example of a simply supported beam and a practical example of a vehicle brake disc show that the SSM can provide higher speed and precision in FE model updating for engineering problems than traditional RSM.
Design and finite element analysis of oval man way
Hari, Y.; Gryder, B.
1996-12-01
This paper presents the design of an oval man way in the side wall of a cylindrical pressure vessel. ASME Code Section 8 is used to obtain the design parameters of the oval man way, man way cover and bolts. The code calculations require some assumptions which may not be valid. A typical design example is taken. STAAD III finite element code with plate elements is used to model the oval man way, man way cover and bolts. The stresses calculated using ASME Code Section 8 and other analytical formulas for plate and shells are compared with the stresses obtained by Finite Element Modeling. This paper gives the designer of oval man way the ability to perform a finite element analysis and compare it with the analytical calculations and assumptions made. This gives added confidence to the designer as to the validity of his calculations and assumptions.
User's Guide for ENSAERO_FE Parallel Finite Element Solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eldred, Lloyd B.; Guruswamy, Guru P.
1999-01-01
A high fidelity parallel static structural analysis capability is created and interfaced to the multidisciplinary analysis package ENSAERO-MPI of Ames Research Center. This new module replaces ENSAERO's lower fidelity simple finite element and modal modules. Full aircraft structures may be more accurately modeled using the new finite element capability. Parallel computation is performed by breaking the full structure into multiple substructures. This approach is conceptually similar to ENSAERO's multizonal fluid analysis capability. The new substructure code is used to solve the structural finite element equations for each substructure in parallel. NASTRANKOSMIC is utilized as a front end for this code. Its full library of elements can be used to create an accurate and realistic aircraft model. It is used to create the stiffness matrices for each substructure. The new parallel code then uses an iterative preconditioned conjugate gradient method to solve the global structural equations for the substructure boundary nodes.
Guo, Hongqiang; Shah, Mitul; Spilker, Robert L.
2014-01-01
The study of biphasic soft tissues contact is fundamental to understanding the biomechanical behavior of human diarthrodial joints. However, to date, few biphasic finite element contact analysis for 3D physiological geometries under finite deformation has been developed. The objective of this paper is to develop a hyperelastic biphasic contact implementation for finite deformation and sliding problem. An augmented Lagrangian method was used to enforce the continuity of contact traction and fluid pressure across the contact interface. The finite element implementation was based on a general purpose software, COMSOL Multiphysics. The accuracy of the implementation is verified using example problems, for which solutions are available by alternative analyses. The implementation was proven to be robust and able to handle finite deformation and sliding. PMID:24496915
Coupled finite-difference/finite-element approach for wing-body aeroelasticity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guruswamy, Guru P.
1992-01-01
Computational methods using finite-difference approaches for fluids and finite-element approaches for structures have individually advanced to solve almost full-aircraft configurations. However, coupled approaches to solve fluid/structural interaction problems are still in their early stages of development, particularly for complex geometries using complete equations such as the Euler/Navier-Stokes equations. Earlier work demonstrated the success of coupling finite-difference and finite-element methods for simple wing configurations using the Euler/Navier-Stokes equations. In this paper, the same approach is extended for general wing-body configurations. The structural properties are represented by beam-type finite elements. The flow is modeled using the Euler/Navier-Stokes equations. A general procedure to fully couple structural finite-element boundary conditions with fluid finite-difference boundary conditions is developed for wing-body configurations. Computations are made using moving grids that adapt to wing-body structural deformations. Results are illustrated for a typical wing-body configuration.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ecer, A.; Akay, H. U.
1981-01-01
The finite element method is applied for the solution of transonic potential flows through a cascade of airfoils. Convergence characteristics of the solution scheme are discussed. Accuracy of the numerical solutions is investigated for various flow regions in the transonic flow configuration. The design of an efficient finite element computational grid is discussed for improving accuracy and convergence.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Knott, J. D.
1983-01-01
The Finite Element Machine is an experimental array processor designed to support research in parallel algorithms and architectures. This report presents a case study of communications using the SENDa and RECV system software routines on the Finite Element Machine, followed by a discussion of the effect of I/O performance on the efficiency of parallel algorithms.
Variational formulation of high performance finite elements: Parametrized variational principles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Felippa, Carlos A.; Militello, Carmello
1991-01-01
High performance elements are simple finite elements constructed to deliver engineering accuracy with coarse arbitrary grids. This is part of a series on the variational basis of high-performance elements, with emphasis on those constructed with the free formulation (FF) and assumed natural strain (ANS) methods. Parametrized variational principles that provide a foundation for the FF and ANS methods, as well as for a combination of both are presented.
New triangular and quadrilateral plate-bending finite elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Narayanaswami, R.
1974-01-01
A nonconforming plate-bending finite element of triangular shape and associated quadrilateral elements are developed. The transverse displacement is approximated within the element by a quintic polynomial. The formulation takes into account the effects of transverse shear deformation. Results of the static and dynamic analysis of a square plate, with edges simply supported or clamped, are compared with exact solutions. Good accuracy is obtained in all calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kouhi, Mohammad; Oñate, Eugenio
2015-07-01
A new implicit stabilized formulation for the numerical solution of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations is presented. The method is based on the finite calculus (FIC) scheme using the Galerkin finite element method (FEM) on triangular grids. Via the FIC formulation, two stabilization terms, called streamline term and transverse term, are added to the original conservation equations in the space-time domain. The non-linear system of equations resulting from the spatial discretization is solved implicitly using a damped Newton method benefiting from the exact Jacobian matrix. The matrix system is solved at each iteration with a preconditioned GMRES method. The efficiency of the proposed stabilization technique is checked out in the solution of 2D inviscid and laminar viscous flow problems where appropriate solutions are obtained especially near the boundary layer and shock waves. The work presented here can be considered as a follow up of a previous work of the authors Kouhi, Oñate (Int J Numer Methods Fluids 74:872-897, 2014). In that paper, the stabilized Galerkin FEM based on the FIC formulation was derived for the Euler equations together with an explicit scheme. In the present paper, the extension of this work to the Navier-Stokes equations using an implicit scheme is presented.
Spectral finite-element methods for parametric constrained optimization problems.
Anitescu, M.; Mathematics and Computer Science
2009-01-01
We present a method to approximate the solution mapping of parametric constrained optimization problems. The approximation, which is of the spectral finite element type, is represented as a linear combination of orthogonal polynomials. Its coefficients are determined by solving an appropriate finite-dimensional constrained optimization problem. We show that, under certain conditions, the latter problem is solvable because it is feasible for a sufficiently large degree of the polynomial approximation and has an objective function with bounded level sets. In addition, the solutions of the finite-dimensional problems converge for an increasing degree of the polynomials considered, provided that the solutions exhibit a sufficiently large and uniform degree of smoothness. Our approach solves, in the case of optimization problems with uncertain parameters, the most computationally intensive part of stochastic finite-element approaches. We demonstrate that our framework is applicable to parametric eigenvalue problems.
Nonlinear Legendre Spectral Finite Elements for Wind Turbine Blade Dynamics: Preprint
Wang, Q.; Sprague, M. A.; Jonkman, J.; Johnson, N.
2014-01-01
This paper presents a numerical implementation and examination of new wind turbine blade finite element model based on Geometrically Exact Beam Theory (GEBT) and a high-order spectral finite element method. The displacement-based GEBT is presented, which includes the coupling effects that exist in composite structures and geometric nonlinearity. Legendre spectral finite elements (LSFEs) are high-order finite elements with nodes located at the Gauss-Legendre-Lobatto points. LSFEs can be an order of magnitude more efficient that low-order finite elements for a given accuracy level. Interpolation of the three-dimensional rotation, a major technical barrier in large-deformation simulation, is discussed in the context of LSFEs. It is shown, by numerical example, that the high-order LSFEs, where weak forms are evaluated with nodal quadrature, do not suffer from a drawback that exists in low-order finite elements where the tangent-stiffness matrix is calculated at the Gauss points. Finally, the new LSFE code is implemented in the new FAST Modularization Framework for dynamic simulation of highly flexible composite-material wind turbine blades. The framework allows for fully interactive simulations of turbine blades in operating conditions. Numerical examples showing validation and LSFE performance will be provided in the final paper.
Thermal Analysis of a High-Speed Aircraft Wing Using p-Version Finite Elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gould, Dana C.
2001-01-01
This paper presents the results of conceptual level thermal analyses of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) wing using p-version finite elements. The work was motivated by a thermal analysis of a HSCT wing structure which showed the importance of radiation heat transfer throughout the structure. The analysis also showed that refining a traditional finite element mesh to accurately capture the temperature distribution on the internal structure led to very large meshes with unacceptably long execution times. Further study indicated using p-version finite elements might improve computation performance for this class of problem. Methods for determining internal radiation heat transfer were then developed and demonstrated on test problems representative of the geometry found in an aircraft wing structure. This paper presents the results of the application of these new methods to the analysis of a high speed aircraft wing. Results for both a wing box model as well as a full wing model are presented. 'Me reduced wing box model allows for a comparison of the traditional finite element method with mesh refinement (h-refinement) to the new p-version finite elements while the full wing model demonstrates the applicability and efficiency of p-version finite elements for large models.
Bailey, Teresa S. Adams, Marvin L. Yang, Brian Zika, Michael R.
2008-04-01
We develop a piecewise linear (PWL) Galerkin finite element spatial discretization for the multi-dimensional radiation diffusion equation. It uses recently introduced piecewise linear weight and basis functions in the finite element approximation and it can be applied on arbitrary polygonal (2D) or polyhedral (3D) grids. We first demonstrate some analytical properties of the PWL method and perform a simple mode analysis to compare the PWL method with Palmer's vertex-centered finite-volume method and with a bilinear continuous finite element method. We then show that this new PWL method gives solutions comparable to those from Palmer's. However, since the PWL method produces a symmetric positive-definite coefficient matrix, it should be substantially more computationally efficient than Palmer's method, which produces an asymmetric matrix. We conclude that the Galerkin PWL method is an attractive option for solving diffusion equations on unstructured grids.
Finite Element Method for Capturing Ultra-relativistic Shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Richardson, G. A.; Chung, T. J.
2003-01-01
While finite element methods are used extensively by researchers solving computational fluid dynamics in fields other than astrophysics, their use in astrophysical fluid simulations has been predominantly overlooked. Current simulations using other methods such as finite difference and finite volume (based on finite difference) have shown remarkable results, but these methods are limited by their fundamental properties in aspects that are important for simulations with complex geometries and widely varying spatial and temporal scale differences. We have explored the use of finite element methods for astrophysical fluids in order to establish the validity of using such methods in astrophysical environments. We present our numerical technique applied to solving ultra-relativistic (Lorentz Factor Gamma >> 1) shocks which are prevalent in astrophysical studies including relativistic jets and gamma-ray burst studies. We show our finite element formulation applied to simulations where the Lorentz factor ranges up to 2236 and demonstrate its stability in solving ultra-relativistic flows. Our numerical method is based on the Flowfield Dependent Variation (FDV) Method, unique in that numerical diffusion is derived from physical parameters rather than traditional artificial viscosity methods. Numerical instabilities account for most of the difficulties when capturing shocks in this regime. Our method results in stable solutions and accurate results as compared with other methods.
Improved finite strip Mindlin plate bending element using assumed shear strain distributions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chulya, Abhisak; Thompson, Robert L.
1988-01-01
A linear finite strip plate element based on Mindlin/Reissner plate theory is developed. The analysis is suitable for both thin and thick plates. In the formulation new transverse shear strains are introduced and assumed constant in each two-code linear strip. The element stiffness matrix is explicitly formulated for efficient computation and computer implementation. Numerical results showing the efficiency and predictive capability of the element for the analysis of plates are presented for different support and loading conditions and a wide range of thicknesses. No sign of shear locking phenomenon was observed with the newly developed element.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chulya, Abhisak; Mullen, Robert L.
1989-01-01
A linear finite strip plate element based on Mindlin-Reissner plate theory is developed. The analysis is suitable for both thin and thick plates. In the formulation, new transverse shear strains are introduced and assumed constant in each two-node linear strip. The element stiffness matrix is explicitly formulated for efficient computation and computer implementation. Numerical results showing the efficiency and predictive capability of the element for the analysis of plates are presented for different support and loading conditions and a wide range of thicknesses. No sign of shear locking is observed with the newly developed element.
Finite element method for eigenvalue problems in electromagnetics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reddy, C. J.; Deshpande, Manohar D.; Cockrell, C. R.; Beck, Fred B.
1994-01-01
Finite element method (FEM) has been a very powerful tool to solve many complex problems in electromagnetics. The goal of the current research at the Langley Research Center is to develop a combined FEM/method of moments approach to three-dimensional scattering/radiation problem for objects with arbitrary shape and filled with complex materials. As a first step toward that goal, an exercise is taken to establish the power of FEM, through closed boundary problems. This paper demonstrates the developed of FEM tools for two- and three-dimensional eigenvalue problems in electromagnetics. In section 2, both the scalar and vector finite elements have been used for various waveguide problems to demonstrate the flexibility of FEM. In section 3, vector finite element method has been extended to three-dimensional eigenvalue problems.
Flow Applications of the Least Squares Finite Element Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jiang, Bo-Nan
1998-01-01
The main thrust of the effort has been towards the development, analysis and implementation of the least-squares finite element method (LSFEM) for fluid dynamics and electromagnetics applications. In the past year, there were four major accomplishments: 1) special treatments in computational fluid dynamics and computational electromagnetics, such as upwinding, numerical dissipation, staggered grid, non-equal order elements, operator splitting and preconditioning, edge elements, and vector potential are unnecessary; 2) the analysis of the LSFEM for most partial differential equations can be based on the bounded inverse theorem; 3) the finite difference and finite volume algorithms solve only two Maxwell equations and ignore the divergence equations; and 4) the first numerical simulation of three-dimensional Marangoni-Benard convection was performed using the LSFEM.
An Object Oriented, Finite Element Framework for Linear Wave Equations
Koning, J M
2004-08-12
This dissertation documents an object oriented framework which can be used to solve any linear wave equation. The linear wave equations are expressed in the differential forms language. This differential forms expression allows a strict discrete interpretation of the system. The framework is implemented using the Galerkin Finite Element Method to define the discrete differential forms and operators. Finite element basis functions including standard scalar Nodal and vector Nedelec basis functions are used to implement the discrete differential forms resulting in a mixed finite element system. Discretizations of scalar and vector wave equations in the time and frequency domains will be demonstrated in both differential forms and vector calculi. This framework conserves energy, maintains physical continuity, is valid on unstructured grids, conditionally stable and second order accurate. Examples including linear electrodynamics, acoustics, elasticity and magnetohydrodynamics are demonstrated.
Electrical and Joule heating relationship investigation using Finite Element Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thangaraju, S. K.; Munisamy, K. M.
2015-09-01
The finite element method is vastly used in material strength analysis. The nature of the finite element solver, which solves the Fourier equation of stress and strain analysis, made it possible to apply for conduction heat transfer Fourier Equation. Similarly the Current and voltage equation is also liner Fourier equation. The nature of the governing equation makes it possible to numerical investigate the electrical joule heating phenomena in electronic component. This paper highlights the Finite Element Method (FEM) application onto semiconductor interconnects to determine the specific contact resistance (SCR). Metal and semiconductor interconnects is used as model. The result confirms the possibility and validity of FEM utilization to investigate the Joule heating due electrical resistance.
Parallel performance of a preconditioned CG solver for unstructured finite element applications
Shadid, J.N.; Hutchinson, S.A.; Moffat, H.K.
1994-12-31
A parallel unstructured finite element (FE) implementation designed for message passing MIMD machines is described. This implementation employs automated problem partitioning algorithms for load balancing unstructured grids, a distributed sparse matrix representation of the global finite element equations and a parallel conjugate gradient (CG) solver. In this paper a number of issues related to the efficient implementation of parallel unstructured mesh applications are presented. These include the differences between structured and unstructured mesh parallel applications, major communication kernels for unstructured CG solvers, automatic mesh partitioning algorithms, and the influence of mesh partitioning metrics on parallel performance. Initial results are presented for example finite element (FE) heat transfer analysis applications on a 1024 processor nCUBE 2 hypercube. Results indicate over 95% scaled efficiencies are obtained for some large problems despite the required unstructured data communication.
Brigham, John C.; Aquino, Wilkins; Aguilo, Miguel A.; Diamessis, Peter J.
2010-01-01
An approach for efficient and accurate finite element analysis of harmonically excited soft solids using high-order spectral finite elements is presented and evaluated. The Helmholtz-type equations used to model such systems suffer from additional numerical error known as pollution when excitation frequency becomes high relative to stiffness (i.e. high wave number), which is the case, for example, for soft tissues subject to ultrasound excitations. The use of high-order polynomial elements allows for a reduction in this pollution error, but requires additional consideration to counteract Runge's phenomenon and/or poor linear system conditioning, which has led to the use of spectral element approaches. This work examines in detail the computational benefits and practical applicability of high-order spectral elements for such problems. The spectral elements examined are tensor product elements (i.e. quad or brick elements) of high-order Lagrangian polynomials with non-uniformly distributed Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre nodal points. A shear plane wave example is presented to show the dependence of the accuracy and computational expense of high-order elements on wave number. Then, a convergence study for a viscoelastic acoustic-structure interaction finite element model of an actual ultrasound driven vibroacoustic experiment is shown. The number of degrees of freedom required for a given accuracy level was found to consistently decrease with increasing element order. However, the computationally optimal element order was found to strongly depend on the wave number. PMID:21461402
Brigham, John C; Aquino, Wilkins; Aguilo, Miguel A; Diamessis, Peter J
2011-01-15
An approach for efficient and accurate finite element analysis of harmonically excited soft solids using high-order spectral finite elements is presented and evaluated. The Helmholtz-type equations used to model such systems suffer from additional numerical error known as pollution when excitation frequency becomes high relative to stiffness (i.e. high wave number), which is the case, for example, for soft tissues subject to ultrasound excitations. The use of high-order polynomial elements allows for a reduction in this pollution error, but requires additional consideration to counteract Runge's phenomenon and/or poor linear system conditioning, which has led to the use of spectral element approaches. This work examines in detail the computational benefits and practical applicability of high-order spectral elements for such problems. The spectral elements examined are tensor product elements (i.e. quad or brick elements) of high-order Lagrangian polynomials with non-uniformly distributed Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre nodal points. A shear plane wave example is presented to show the dependence of the accuracy and computational expense of high-order elements on wave number. Then, a convergence study for a viscoelastic acoustic-structure interaction finite element model of an actual ultrasound driven vibroacoustic experiment is shown. The number of degrees of freedom required for a given accuracy level was found to consistently decrease with increasing element order. However, the computationally optimal element order was found to strongly depend on the wave number. PMID:21461402
Development of non-linear finite element computer code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Becker, E. B.; Miller, T.
1985-01-01
Recent work has shown that the use of separable symmetric functions of the principal stretches can adequately describe the response of certain propellant materials and, further, that a data reduction scheme gives a convenient way of obtaining the values of the functions from experimental data. Based on representation of the energy, a computational scheme was developed that allows finite element analysis of boundary value problems of arbitrary shape and loading. The computational procedure was implemental in a three-dimensional finite element code, TEXLESP-S, which is documented herein.
Substructure System Identification for Finite Element Model Updating
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Craig, Roy R., Jr.; Blades, Eric L.
1997-01-01
This report summarizes research conducted under a NASA grant on the topic 'Substructure System Identification for Finite Element Model Updating.' The research concerns ongoing development of the Substructure System Identification Algorithm (SSID Algorithm), a system identification algorithm that can be used to obtain mathematical models of substructures, like Space Shuttle payloads. In the present study, particular attention was given to the following topics: making the algorithm robust to noisy test data, extending the algorithm to accept experimental FRF data that covers a broad frequency bandwidth, and developing a test analytical model (TAM) for use in relating test data to reduced-order finite element models.
Adaptive multiscale model reduction with Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, Eric; Efendiev, Yalchin; Hou, Thomas Y.
2016-09-01
In this paper, we discuss a general multiscale model reduction framework based on multiscale finite element methods. We give a brief overview of related multiscale methods. Due to page limitations, the overview focuses on a few related methods and is not intended to be comprehensive. We present a general adaptive multiscale model reduction framework, the Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Method. Besides the method's basic outline, we discuss some important ingredients needed for the method's success. We also discuss several applications. The proposed method allows performing local model reduction in the presence of high contrast and no scale separation.
Finite element microscopic stress analysis of cracked composite systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ko, W. L.
1978-01-01
This paper considers the stress concentration problems of two types of cracked composite systems: (1) a composite system with a broken fiber (a penny-shaped crack problem), and (2) a composite system with a cracked matrix (an annular crack problem). The cracked composite systems are modeled with triangular and trapezoidal ring finite elements. Using NASTRAN (NASA Structural Analysis) finite element computer program, the stress and deformation fields in the cracked composite systems are calculated. The effect of fiber-matrix material combination on the stress concentrations and on the crack opening displacements is studied.
Global-local finite element analysis of composite structures
Deibler, J.E.
1992-06-01
The development of layered finite elements has facilitated analysis of laminated composite structures. However, the analysis of a structure containing both isotropic and composite materials remains a difficult problem. A methodology has been developed to conduct a ``global-local`` finite element analysis. A ``global`` analysis of the entire structure is conducted at the appropriate loads with the composite portions replaced with an orthotropic material of equivalent materials properties. A ``local`` layered composite analysis is then conducted on the region of interest. The displacement results from the ``global`` analysis are used as loads to the ``local`` analysis. the laminate stresses and strains can then be examined and failure criteria evaluated.
Global-local finite element analysis of composite structures
Deibler, J.E.
1992-06-01
The development of layered finite elements has facilitated analysis of laminated composite structures. However, the analysis of a structure containing both isotropic and composite materials remains a difficult problem. A methodology has been developed to conduct a global-local'' finite element analysis. A global'' analysis of the entire structure is conducted at the appropriate loads with the composite portions replaced with an orthotropic material of equivalent materials properties. A local'' layered composite analysis is then conducted on the region of interest. The displacement results from the global'' analysis are used as loads to the local'' analysis. the laminate stresses and strains can then be examined and failure criteria evaluated.
Error analysis of finite element solutions for postbuckled plates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sistla, Rajaram; Thurston, Gaylen A.
1988-01-01
An error analysis of results from finite-element solutions of problems in shell structures is further developed, incorporating the results of an additional numerical analysis by which oscillatory behavior is eliminated. The theory is extended to plates with initial geometric imperfections, and this novel analysis is programmed as a postprocessor for a general-purpose finite-element code. Numerical results are given for the case of a stiffened panel in compression and a plate loaded in shear by a 'picture-frame' test fixture.
Discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods for gradient plasticity.
Garikipati, Krishna.; Ostien, Jakob T.
2010-10-01
In this report we apply discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods to the equations of an incompatibility based formulation of gradient plasticity. The presentation is motivated with a brief overview of the description of dislocations within a crystal lattice. A tensor representing a measure of the incompatibility with the lattice is used in the formulation of a gradient plasticity model. This model is cast in a variational formulation, and discontinuous Galerkin machinery is employed to implement the formulation into a finite element code. Finally numerical examples of the model are shown.
Diffusive mesh relaxation in ALE finite element numerical simulations
Dube, E.I.
1996-06-01
The theory for a diffusive mesh relaxation algorithm is developed for use in three-dimensional Arbitary Lagrange/Eulerian (ALE) finite element simulation techniques. This mesh relaxer is derived by a variational principle for an unstructured 3D grid using finite elements, and incorporates hourglass controls in the numerical implementation. The diffusive coefficients are based on the geometric properties of the existing mesh, and are chosen so as to allow for a smooth grid that retains the general shape of the original mesh. The diffusive mesh relaxation algorithm is then applied to an ALE code system, and results from several test cases are discussed.
Experimentally validated finite element model of electrocaloric multilayer ceramic structures
Smith, N. A. S. E-mail: maciej.rokosz@npl.co.uk Correia, T. M. E-mail: maciej.rokosz@npl.co.uk; Rokosz, M. K. E-mail: maciej.rokosz@npl.co.uk
2014-07-28
A novel finite element model to simulate the electrocaloric response of a multilayer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) under real environment and operational conditions has been developed. The two-dimensional transient conductive heat transfer model presented includes the electrocaloric effect as a source term, as well as accounting for radiative and convective effects. The model has been validated with experimental data obtained from the direct imaging of MLCC transient temperature variation under application of an electric field. The good agreement between simulated and experimental data, suggests that the novel experimental direct measurement methodology and the finite element model could be used to support the design of optimised electrocaloric units and operating conditions.
Two-dimensional finite-element temperature variance analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heuser, J. S.
1972-01-01
The finite element method is extended to thermal analysis by forming a variance analysis of temperature results so that the sensitivity of predicted temperatures to uncertainties in input variables is determined. The temperature fields within a finite number of elements are described in terms of the temperatures of vertices and the variational principle is used to minimize the integral equation describing thermal potential energy. A computer calculation yields the desired solution matrix of predicted temperatures and provides information about initial thermal parameters and their associated errors. Sample calculations show that all predicted temperatures are most effected by temperature values along fixed boundaries; more accurate specifications of these temperatures reduce errors in thermal calculations.
Experimentally validated finite element model of electrocaloric multilayer ceramic structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, N. A. S.; Rokosz, M. K.; Correia, T. M.
2014-07-01
A novel finite element model to simulate the electrocaloric response of a multilayer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) under real environment and operational conditions has been developed. The two-dimensional transient conductive heat transfer model presented includes the electrocaloric effect as a source term, as well as accounting for radiative and convective effects. The model has been validated with experimental data obtained from the direct imaging of MLCC transient temperature variation under application of an electric field. The good agreement between simulated and experimental data, suggests that the novel experimental direct measurement methodology and the finite element model could be used to support the design of optimised electrocaloric units and operating conditions.
A weak Galerkin generalized multiscale finite element method
Mu, Lin; Wang, Junping; Ye, Xiu
2016-03-31
In this study, we propose a general framework for weak Galerkin generalized multiscale (WG-GMS) finite element method for the elliptic problems with rapidly oscillating or high contrast coefficients. This general WG-GMS method features in high order accuracy on general meshes and can work with multiscale basis derived by different numerical schemes. A special case is studied under this WG-GMS framework in which the multiscale basis functions are obtained by solving local problem with the weak Galerkin finite element method. Convergence analysis and numerical experiments are obtained for the special case.
Finite element methods for nonlinear elastostatic problems in rubber elasticity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oden, J. T.; Becker, E. B.; Miller, T. H.; Endo, T.; Pires, E. B.
1983-01-01
A number of finite element methods for the analysis of nonlinear problems in rubber elasticity are outlined. Several different finite element schemes are discussed. These include the augmented Lagrangian method, continuation or incremental loading methods, and associated Riks-type methods which have the capability of incorporating limit point behavior and bifurcations. Algorithms for the analysis of limit point behavior and bifurcations are described and the results of several numerical experiments are presented. In addition, a brief survey of some recent work on modelling contact and friction in elasticity problems is given. These results pertain to the use of new nonlocal and nonlinear friction laws.
Finite element methodology for integrated flow-thermal-structural analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thornton, Earl A.; Ramakrishnan, R.; Vemaganti, G. R.
1988-01-01
Papers entitled, An Adaptive Finite Element Procedure for Compressible Flows and Strong Viscous-Inviscid Interactions, and An Adaptive Remeshing Method for Finite Element Thermal Analysis, were presented at the June 27 to 29, 1988, meeting of the AIAA Thermophysics, Plasma Dynamics and Lasers Conference, San Antonio, Texas. The papers describe research work supported under NASA/Langley Research Grant NsG-1321, and are submitted in fulfillment of the progress report requirement on the grant for the period ending February 29, 1988.
Finite element models of the space shuttle main engine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Muller, G. R.
1980-01-01
Finite element models were developed as input to dynamic simulations of the high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP), the high pressure oxidizer turbopump (HPOTP), and the space shuttle main engine (SSME). Descriptions are provided for the five basic finite element models: HPFTP rotor, HPFTP case, HPOTP rotor, HPOTP case, and SSME (excluding turbopumps). Modal results are presented for the HPFTP rotor, HPFTP case, HPOTP rotor, coupled HPFTP rotor and case, HPOTP case, coupled HPOTP rotor and case, SSME (excluding turbopumps), and SSME (including turbopumps). Results for the SSME (including turbopumps) model are compared to data from a SSME HPOTP modal survey.
Robust Hybrid Finite Element Methods for Antennas and Microwave Circuits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gong, J.; Volakis, John L.
1996-01-01
One of the primary goals in this dissertation is concerned with the development of robust hybrid finite element-boundary integral (FE-BI) techniques for modeling and design of conformal antennas of arbitrary shape. Both the finite element and integral equation methods will be first overviewed in this chapter with an emphasis on recently developed hybrid FE-BI methodologies for antennas, microwave and millimeter wave applications. The structure of the dissertation is then outlined. We conclude the chapter with discussions of certain fundamental concepts and methods in electromagnetics, which are important to this study.
Considerations of crack growth and plasticity in finite element analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, J. D.; Liebowitz, H.
1978-01-01
A finite-element analysis was made of crack growth in a center-cracked specimen subjected to monotonically increasing load until the point of fast fracture. Since part of the specimen experienced unloading, the boundary value problem which was formulated was based upon incremental theory of plasticity. Experimental load and crack size records were utilized. Linear relations between plastic energy and crack growth were observed. Fracture toughness parameters, which were evaluated at the onset of unstable crack propagation from finite-element analysis, were in good agreement with those determined experimentally.
Finite Element Aircraft Simulation of Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McFarland, R. E.
1997-01-01
A turbulence model has been developed for realtime aircraft simulation that accommodates stochastic turbulence and distributed discrete gusts as a function of the terrain. This model is applicable to conventional aircraft, V/STOL aircraft, and disc rotor model helicopter simulations. Vehicle angular activity in response to turbulence is computed from geometrical and temporal relationships rather than by using the conventional continuum approximations that assume uniform gust immersion and low frequency responses. By using techniques similar to those recently developed for blade-element rotor models, the angular-rate filters of conventional turbulence models are not required. The model produces rotational rates as well as air mass translational velocities in response to both stochastic and deterministic disturbances, where the discrete gusts and turbulence magnitudes may be correlated with significant terrain features or ship models. Assuming isotropy, a two-dimensional vertical turbulence field is created. A novel Gaussian interpolation technique is used to distribute vertical turbulence on the wing span or lateral rotor disc, and this distribution is used to compute roll responses. Air mass velocities are applied at significant centers of pressure in the computation of the aircraft's pitch and roll responses.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1976-01-01
A survey of research efforts in the area of geometrically nonlinear finite elements is presented. The survey is intended to serve as a guide in the choice of nonlinear elements for specific problems, and as background to provide directions for new element developments. The elements are presented in a handbook format and are separated by type as beams, plates (or shallow shells), shells, and other elements. Within a given type, the elements are identified by the assumed displacement shapes and the forms of the nonlinear strain equations. Solution procedures are not discussed except when a particular element formulation poses special problems or capabilities in this regard. The main goal of the format is to provide quick access to a wide variety of element types, in a consistent presentation format, and to facilitate comparison and evaluation of different elements with regard to features, probable accuracy, and complexity.
Nonlocal theory and finite element modeling of nano-composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alvinasab, Ali
This research is concerned with fundamentals of modeling nano-composites. The study contains two major parts, namely, numerical modeling of nanocomposites and nonlocal theory based approach for predicting behavior of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs). Computational modeling of glass (silica) fibers having micro-scale outer dimensions and nano-scale internal structures was performed to assess its mechanical behavior. Self-assembly technique was used to synthesize the individual fibers of approximately 5 mum in length with a hexagonal cross-section (2mum between two opposite sides) and honeycomb-like internal nano-structures. These fibers have several potential applications including synthesis of multifunctional composite materials. Numerical modeling of the individual fibers was performed using continuum mechanics based approach wherein linear elastic elements were utilized within a commercial finite element (FE) analysis software. A representative volume element approach was adopted for computational efficiency. Appropriate loads and boundary conditions were used to derive stress-strain relationship (stiffness matrix) which has six independent constants for the individual fiber. Force-displacement relationships under simulated nanoindentation were obtained for the actual fiber (with six independent constants) and under transversely isotropic approximation. The contact problem was solved for the transversely isotropic case, which indicated a much stiffer fiber compared to the FE predictions. This difference is likely due to the geometric nonlinearity considered in FE analysis yielding accurate results for large displacements. The effective mechanical properties of randomly oriented nano-structured glass fiber composite are evaluated by using a continuum mechanics based FE model. The longitudinal and transverse properties of aligned fiber are calculated. Then the equivalent material properties for tilted fiber with different fiber orientations are obtained. Based on equivalent
A comparative study of an ABC and an artificial absorber for truncating finite element meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oezdemir, T.; Volakis, John L.
1993-01-01
The type of mesh termination used in the context of finite element formulations plays a major role on the efficiency and accuracy of the field solution. The performance of an absorbing boundary condition (ABC) and an artificial absorber (a new concept) for terminating the finite element mesh was evaluated. This analysis is done in connection with the problem of scattering by a finite slot array in a thick ground plane. The two approximate mesh truncation schemes are compared with the exact finite element-boundary integral (FEM-BI) method in terms of accuracy and efficiency. It is demonstrated that both approximate truncation schemes yield reasonably accurate results even when the mesh is extended only 0.3 wavelengths away from the array aperture. However, the artificial absorber termination method leads to a substantially more efficient solution. Moreover, it is shown that the FEM-BI method remains quite competitive with the FEM-artificial absorber method when the FFT is used for computing the matrix-vector products in the iterative solution algorithm. These conclusions are indeed surprising and of major importance in electromagnetic simulations based on the finite element method.
Finite element method for optimal guidance of an advanced launch vehicle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hodges, Dewey H.; Bless, Robert R.; Calise, Anthony J.; Leung, Martin
1992-01-01
A temporal finite element based on a mixed form of Hamilton's weak principle is summarized for optimal control problems. The resulting weak Hamiltonian finite element method is extended to allow for discontinuities in the states and/or discontinuities in the system equations. An extension of the formulation to allow for control inequality constraints is also presented. The formulation does not require element quadrature, and it produces a sparse system of nonlinear algebraic equations. To evaluate its feasibility for real-time guidance applications, this approach is applied to the trajectory optimization of a four-state, two-stage model with inequality constraints for an advanced launch vehicle. Numerical results for this model are presented and compared to results from a multiple-shooting code. The results show the accuracy and computational efficiency of the finite element method.
Rapid mesh generation for finite element analysis of investment castings
Lober, R.R.; Bohnhoff, W.J.; Meyers, R.J.
1992-11-01
FASTCAST is a Sandia National Laboratories program to produce investment cast prototypical hardware faster by integrating experimental and computational technologies into the casting process. FASTCAST uses the finite element method to characterize the metal flow and solidification processes to reduce uncertainty in the mold design. For the casting process to benefit from finite element analysis, analysis results must be available in a very short time frame. By focusing on the bottleneck of finite element model creation, automated mesh generation can drastically reduce the time span between geometry definition (design) and accurate analysis results. The increased availability of analysis results will diminish the need for trial and error approaches to acquiring production worthy mold and gating systems for investment casting. The CUBIT meshing tool kit is being developed to address the need for rapid mesh generation. CUBIT is being designed to effectively automate the generation of quadrilateral and hexahedral elements. It is a solid-modeler based, two- and three-dimensional preprocessor that prepares solid models for finite element analysis. CUBIT contains several meshing algorithms including two- and three-dimensional mapping, two- and three-dimensional paving (patented), and a general two and one-half dimensional sweeper based upon the plastering algorithm. This paper describes progress in the development of the CUBIT meshing toolkit.
Rapid mesh generation for finite element analysis of investment castings
Lober, R.R.; Bohnhoff, W.J.; Meyers, R.J.
1992-01-01
FASTCAST is a Sandia National Laboratories program to produce investment cast prototypical hardware faster by integrating experimental and computational technologies into the casting process. FASTCAST uses the finite element method to characterize the metal flow and solidification processes to reduce uncertainty in the mold design. For the casting process to benefit from finite element analysis, analysis results must be available in a very short time frame. By focusing on the bottleneck of finite element model creation, automated mesh generation can drastically reduce the time span between geometry definition (design) and accurate analysis results. The increased availability of analysis results will diminish the need for trial and error approaches to acquiring production worthy mold and gating systems for investment casting. The CUBIT meshing tool kit is being developed to address the need for rapid mesh generation. CUBIT is being designed to effectively automate the generation of quadrilateral and hexahedral elements. It is a solid-modeler based, two- and three-dimensional preprocessor that prepares solid models for finite element analysis. CUBIT contains several meshing algorithms including two- and three-dimensional mapping, two- and three-dimensional paving (patented), and a general two and one-half dimensional sweeper based upon the plastering algorithm. This paper describes progress in the development of the CUBIT meshing toolkit.
Finite-element-based design tool for smart composite structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koko, Tamunoiyala S.; Orisamolu, Irewole R.; Smith, Malcolm J.; Akpan, Unyime O.
1997-06-01
This paper presents an integrated finite element-control methodology for the design/analysis of smart composite structures. The method forms part of an effort to develop an integrated computational tool that includes finite element modeling; control algorithms; and deterministic, fuzzy and probabilistic optimization and integrity assessment of the structures and control systems. The finite element analysis is based on a 20 node thermopiezoelectric composite element for modeling the composite structure with surface bonded piezoelectric sensors and actuators; and control is based on the linear quadratic regulator and the independent modal space control methods. The method has been implemented in a computer code called SMARTCOM. Several example problems have been used to verify various aspects of the formulations and the analysis results from the present study compare well against other numerical or experimental results. Being based on the finite element method, the present formation can be conveniently used for the analysis and design of smart composite structures with complex geometrical configurations and loadings.
Probabilistic nonlinear finite element analysis of composite structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Engelstad, S. P.; Reddy, J. N.
1993-01-01
A probabilistic finite element analysis procedure for laminated composite shells is developed. A total Lagrangian finite element formulation, employing a degenerated three-dimensional laminated composite shell element with the full Green-Lagrange strains and first-order shear deformable kinematics, is used. The first-order second-moment technique for probabilistic finite element analysis of random fields is employed, and results are presented in the form of mean and variance of the structural response. Reliability calculations are made by using the first-order reliability method combined with sensitivity derivatives from the finite element analysis. Both ply-level and micromechanics-level random variables are incorporated, the latter by means of the Aboudi micromechanics model. Two sample problems are solved to verify the accuracy of the procedures developed and to quantify the variability of certain material type/structure combinations. In general, the procedure is quite effective in determining the response statistics and reliability for linear and geometric nonlinear behavior of laminated composite shells.
Finite Element Model Development and Validation for Aircraft Fuselage Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buehrle, Ralph D.; Fleming, Gary A.; Pappa, Richard S.; Grosveld, Ferdinand W.
2000-01-01
The ability to extend the valid frequency range for finite element based structural dynamic predictions using detailed models of the structural components and attachment interfaces is examined for several stiffened aircraft fuselage structures. This extended dynamic prediction capability is needed for the integration of mid-frequency noise control technology. Beam, plate and solid element models of the stiffener components are evaluated. Attachment models between the stiffener and panel skin range from a line along the rivets of the physical structure to a constraint over the entire contact surface. The finite element models are validated using experimental modal analysis results. The increased frequency range results in a corresponding increase in the number of modes, modal density and spatial resolution requirements. In this study, conventional modal tests using accelerometers are complemented with Scanning Laser Doppler Velocimetry and Electro-Optic Holography measurements to further resolve the spatial response characteristics. Whenever possible, component and subassembly modal tests are used to validate the finite element models at lower levels of assembly. Normal mode predictions for different finite element representations of components and assemblies are compared with experimental results to assess the most accurate techniques for modeling aircraft fuselage type structures.
FEWA: a Finite Element model of Water flow through Aquifers
Yeh, G.T.; Huff, D.D.
1983-11-01
This report documents the implementation and demonstration of a Finite Element model of Water flow through Aquifers (FEWA). The particular features of FEWA are its versatility and flexibility to deal with as many real-world problems as possible. Point as well as distributed sources/sinks are included to represent recharges/pumpings and rainfall infiltrations. All sources/sinks can be transient or steady state. Prescribed hydraulic head on the Dirichlet boundaries and fluxes on Neumann or Cauchy boundaries can be time-dependent or constant. Source/sink strength over each element and node, hydraulic head at each Dirichlet boundary node, and flux at each boundary segment can vary independently of each other. Either completely confined or completely unconfined aquifers, or partially confined and partially unconfined aquifers can be dealt with effectively. Discretization of a compound region with very irregular curved boundaries is made easy by including both quadrilateral and triangular elements in the formulation. Large-field problems can be solved efficiently by including a pointwise iterative solution strategy as an optional alternative to the direct elimination solution method for the matrix equation approximating the partial differential equation of groundwater flow. FEWA also includes transient flow through confining leaky aquifers lying above and/or below the aquifer of interest. The model is verified against three simple cases to which analytical solutions are available. It is then demonstrated by two examples of how the model can be applied to heterogeneous and anisotropic aquifers with transient boundary conditions, time-dependent sources/sinks, and confining aquitards for a confined aquifer of variable thickness and for a free surface problem in an unconfined aquifer, respectively. 20 references, 25 figures, 8 tables.
The Elastic Behaviour of Sintered Metallic Fibre Networks: A Finite Element Study by Beam Theory
Bosbach, Wolfram A.
2015-01-01
Background The finite element method has complimented research in the field of network mechanics in the past years in numerous studies about various materials. Numerical predictions and the planning efficiency of experimental procedures are two of the motivational aspects for these numerical studies. The widespread availability of high performance computing facilities has been the enabler for the simulation of sufficiently large systems. Objectives and Motivation In the present study, finite element models were built for sintered, metallic fibre networks and validated by previously published experimental stiffness measurements. The validated models were the basis for predictions about so far unknown properties. Materials and Methods The finite element models were built by transferring previously published skeletons of fibre networks into finite element models. Beam theory was applied as simplification method. Results and Conclusions The obtained material stiffness isn’t a constant but rather a function of variables such as sample size and boundary conditions. Beam theory offers an efficient finite element method for the simulated fibre networks. The experimental results can be approximated by the simulated systems. Two worthwhile aspects for future work will be the influence of size and shape and the mechanical interaction with matrix materials. PMID:26569603
Numerical techniques in linear duct acoustics. [finite difference and finite element analyses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baumeister, K. J.
1980-01-01
Both finite difference and finite element analyses of small amplitude (linear) sound propagation in straight and variable area ducts with flow, as might be found in a typical turboject engine duct, muffler, or industrial ventilation system, are reviewed. Both steady state and transient theories are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the advantages and limitations associated with the various numerical techniques. Examples of practical problems are given for which the numerical techniques have been applied.
Finite element modeling of frictionally restrained composite interfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ballarini, Roberto; Ahmed, Shamim
1989-01-01
The use of special interface finite elements to model frictional restraint in composite interfaces is described. These elements simulate Coulomb friction at the interface, and are incorporated into a standard finite element analysis of a two-dimensional isolated fiber pullout test. Various interfacial characteristics, such as the distribution of stresses at the interface, the extent of slip and delamination, load diffusion from fiber to matrix, and the amount of fiber extraction or depression are studied for different friction coefficients. The results are compared to those obtained analytically using a singular integral equation approach, and those obtained by assuming a constant interface shear strength. The usefulness of these elements in micromechanical modeling of fiber-reinforced composite materials is highlighted.
Fluid structure interaction in electrohydraulic servovalve: a finite element approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hiremath, Somashekhar S.; Singaperumal, M.
2010-01-01
Electrohydraulic servovalves (EHSV) promise unique application opportunities and high performance, unmatched by other drive technologies. Typical applications include aerospace, robotic manipulators, motion simulators, injection molding, CNC machines and material testing machines. EHSV available are either a flapper/nozzle type or a jet pipe type. In the present paper an attempt has been made to study the dynamics of jet pipe EHSV with built-in mechanical feedback using Finite Element Method (FEM). In jet pipe EHSV, the dynamics of spool greatly depends on pressure recovery and hence the fluid flow at spool ends. The effect of pressure recovery on spool dynamics is studied using FEM by creating the fluid-structure-interaction. The mechanical parts were created using general purpose finite elements like shell, beam, and solid elements while fluid cavities were created using hydrostatic fluid elements. The analysis was carried out using the commercially available FE code ABAQUS. The jet pipe and spool dynamics are presented in the paper.
Fluid structure interaction in electrohydraulic servovalve: a finite element approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hiremath, Somashekhar S.; Singaperumal, M.
2009-12-01
Electrohydraulic servovalves (EHSV) promise unique application opportunities and high performance, unmatched by other drive technologies. Typical applications include aerospace, robotic manipulators, motion simulators, injection molding, CNC machines and material testing machines. EHSV available are either a flapper/nozzle type or a jet pipe type. In the present paper an attempt has been made to study the dynamics of jet pipe EHSV with built-in mechanical feedback using Finite Element Method (FEM). In jet pipe EHSV, the dynamics of spool greatly depends on pressure recovery and hence the fluid flow at spool ends. The effect of pressure recovery on spool dynamics is studied using FEM by creating the fluid-structure-interaction. The mechanical parts were created using general purpose finite elements like shell, beam, and solid elements while fluid cavities were created using hydrostatic fluid elements. The analysis was carried out using the commercially available FE code ABAQUS. The jet pipe and spool dynamics are presented in the paper.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seybert, A. F.; Wu, T. W.; Wu, X. F.
1994-01-01
This research report is presented in three parts. In the first part, acoustical analyses were performed on modes of vibration of the housing of a transmission of a gear test rig developed by NASA. The modes of vibration of the transmission housing were measured using experimental modal analysis. The boundary element method (BEM) was used to calculate the sound pressure and sound intensity on the surface of the housing and the radiation efficiency of each mode. The radiation efficiency of each of the transmission housing modes was then compared to theoretical results for a finite baffled plate. In the second part, analytical and experimental validation of methods to predict structural vibration and radiated noise are presented. A rectangular box excited by a mechanical shaker was used as a vibrating structure. Combined finite element method (FEM) and boundary element method (BEM) models of the apparatus were used to predict the noise level radiated from the box. The FEM was used to predict the vibration, while the BEM was used to predict the sound intensity and total radiated sound power using surface vibration as the input data. Vibration predicted by the FEM model was validated by experimental modal analysis; noise predicted by the BEM was validated by measurements of sound intensity. Three types of results are presented for the total radiated sound power: sound power predicted by the BEM model using vibration data measured on the surface of the box; sound power predicted by the FEM/BEM model; and sound power measured by an acoustic intensity scan. In the third part, the structure used in part two was modified. A rib was attached to the top plate of the structure. The FEM and BEM were then used to predict structural vibration and radiated noise respectively. The predicted vibration and radiated noise were then validated through experimentation.
ATESHIAN, GERARD A.; ALBRO, MICHAEL B.; MAAS, STEVE; WEISS, JEFFREY A.
2012-01-01
Biological soft tissues and cells may be subjected to mechanical as well as chemical (osmotic) loading under their natural physiological environment or various experimental conditions. The interaction of mechanical and chemical effects may be very significant under some of these conditions, yet the highly nonlinear nature of the set of governing equations describing these mechanisms poses a challenge for the modeling of such phenomena. This study formulated and implemented a finite element algorithm for analyzing mechano-chemical events in neutral deformable porous media under finite deformation. The algorithm employed the framework of mixture theory to model the porous permeable solid matrix and interstitial fluid, where the fluid consists of a mixture of solvent and solute. A special emphasis was placed on solute-solid matrix interactions, such as solute exclusion from a fraction of the matrix pore space (solubility) and frictional momentum exchange that produces solute hindrance and pumping under certain dynamic loading conditions. The finite element formulation implemented full coupling of mechanical and chemical effects, providing a framework where material properties and response functions may depend on solid matrix strain as well as solute concentration. The implementation was validated using selected canonical problems for which analytical or alternative numerical solutions exist. This finite element code includes a number of unique features that enhance the modeling of mechano-chemical phenomena in biological tissues. The code is available in the public domain, open source finite element program FEBio (http://mrl.sci.utah.edu/software). PMID:21950898
Ateshian, Gerard A; Albro, Michael B; Maas, Steve; Weiss, Jeffrey A
2011-08-01
Biological soft tissues and cells may be subjected to mechanical as well as chemical (osmotic) loading under their natural physiological environment or various experimental conditions. The interaction of mechanical and chemical effects may be very significant under some of these conditions, yet the highly nonlinear nature of the set of governing equations describing these mechanisms poses a challenge for the modeling of such phenomena. This study formulated and implemented a finite element algorithm for analyzing mechanochemical events in neutral deformable porous media under finite deformation. The algorithm employed the framework of mixture theory to model the porous permeable solid matrix and interstitial fluid, where the fluid consists of a mixture of solvent and solute. A special emphasis was placed on solute-solid matrix interactions, such as solute exclusion from a fraction of the matrix pore space (solubility) and frictional momentum exchange that produces solute hindrance and pumping under certain dynamic loading conditions. The finite element formulation implemented full coupling of mechanical and chemical effects, providing a framework where material properties and response functions may depend on solid matrix strain as well as solute concentration. The implementation was validated using selected canonical problems for which analytical or alternative numerical solutions exist. This finite element code includes a number of unique features that enhance the modeling of mechanochemical phenomena in biological tissues. The code is available in the public domain, open source finite element program FEBio (http:∕∕mrl.sci.utah.edu∕software). PMID:21950898
A finite element code for electric motor design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Campbell, C. Warren
1994-01-01
FEMOT is a finite element program for solving the nonlinear magnetostatic problem. This version uses nonlinear, Newton first order elements. The code can be used for electric motor design and analysis. FEMOT can be embedded within an optimization code that will vary nodal coordinates to optimize the motor design. The output from FEMOT can be used to determine motor back EMF, torque, cogging, and magnet saturation. It will run on a PC and will be available to anyone who wants to use it.
Finite element error estimation and adaptivity based on projected stresses
Jung, J.
1990-08-01
This report investigates the behavior of a family of finite element error estimators based on projected stresses, i.e., continuous stresses that are a least squared error fit to the conventional Gauss point stresses. An error estimate based on element force equilibrium appears to be quite effective. Examples of adaptive mesh refinement for a one-dimensional problem are presented. Plans for two-dimensional adaptivity are discussed. 12 refs., 82 figs.
A General-Purpose Mesh Generator for Finite Element Codes.
1984-02-28
Version 00 INGEN is a general-purpose mesh generator for use in conjunction with two and three dimensional finite element programs. The basic components of INGEN are surface and three-dimensional region generators that use linear-blending interpolation formulae. These generators are based on an i, j, k index scheme, which is used to number nodal points, construct elements, and develop displacement and traction boundary conditions.
Finite Element Modeling of the Buckling Response of Sandwich Panels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rose, Cheryl A.; Moore, David F.; Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Rankin, Charles C.
2002-01-01
A comparative study of different modeling approaches for predicting sandwich panel buckling response is described. The study considers sandwich panels with anisotropic face sheets and a very thick core. Results from conventional analytical solutions for sandwich panel overall buckling and face-sheet-wrinkling type modes are compared with solutions obtained using different finite element modeling approaches. Finite element solutions are obtained using layered shell element models, with and without transverse shear flexibility, layered shell/solid element models, with shell elements for the face sheets and solid elements for the core, and sandwich models using a recently developed specialty sandwich element. Convergence characteristics of the shell/solid and sandwich element modeling approaches with respect to in-plane and through-the-thickness discretization, are demonstrated. Results of the study indicate that the specialty sandwich element provides an accurate and effective modeling approach for predicting both overall and localized sandwich panel buckling response. Furthermore, results indicate that anisotropy of the face sheets, along with the ratio of principle elastic moduli, affect the buckling response and these effects may not be represented accurately by analytical solutions. Modeling recommendations are also provided.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fulton, R. E.
1986-01-01
The requirements of complex aerospace vehicles combined with the age of structural analysis systems enhance the need to advance technology toward a new generation of structural analysis capability. Recent and impeding advances in parallel and supercomputers provide the opportunity to significantly improve these structural analysis capabilities for large order finite element problems. Long-term research in parallel computing, associated with the NASA Finite Element Machine project, is discussed. The results show the potential of parallel computers to provide substantial increases in computation speed over sequential computers. Results are given for sample problems in the areas of eigenvalue analysis and transient response.
Dedicated finite elements for electrode thin films on quartz resonators.
Srivastava, Sonal A; Yong, Yook-Kong; Tanaka, Masako; Imai, Tsutomu
2008-08-01
The accuracy of the finite element analysis for thickness shear quartz resonators is a function of the mesh resolution; the finer the mesh resolution, the more accurate the finite element solution. A certain minimum number of elements are required in each direction for the solution to converge. This places a high demand on memory for computation, and often the available memory is insufficient. Typically the thickness of the electrode films is very small compared with the thickness of the resonator itself; as a result, electrode elements have very poor aspect ratios, and this is detrimental to the accuracy of the result. In this paper, we propose special methods to model the electrodes at the crystal interface of an AT cut crystal. This reduces the overall problem size and eliminates electrode elements having poor aspect ratios. First, experimental data are presented to demonstrate the effects of electrode film boundary conditions on the frequency-temperature curves of an AT cut plate. Finite element analysis is performed on a mesh representing the resonator, and the results are compared for testing the accuracy of the analysis itself and thus validating the results of analysis. Approximations such as lumping and Guyan reduction are then used to model the electrode thin films at the electrode interface and their results are studied. In addition, a new approximation called merging is proposed to model electrodes at the electrode interface. PMID:18986913
A Stimulating Approach To Teaching, Learning and Assessing Finite Element Methods: A Case Study.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Karadelis, J. N.
1998-01-01
Examines the benefits of introducing finite element methods into the curriculum of undergraduate courses. Analyzes the structure of the computer-assisted-design module and the extent to which it fulfills its main objectives. Discusses the efficiency of modern teaching and learning techniques used to develop skills for solving engineering problems;…
A finite element approach for prediction of aerothermal loads
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thornton, E. A.; Dechaumphai, P.; Vemaganti, G.
1986-01-01
A Taylor-Galerkin finite element approach is presented for analysis of high speed viscous flows with an emphasis on predicting heating rates. Five computational issues relevant to the computation of steady flows are examined. Numerical results for supersonic and hypersonic problems address the computational issues and demonstrate the validity for the approach for analysis of high speed flows.
Finite-Element Analysis of Multiphase Immiscible Flow Through Soils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuppusamy, T.; Sheng, J.; Parker, J. C.; Lenhard, R. J.
1987-04-01
A finite-element model is developed for multiphase flow through soil involving three immiscible fluids: namely, air, water, and a nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL). A variational method is employed for the finite-element formulation corresponding to the coupled differential equations governing flow in a three-fluid phase porous medium system with constant air phase pressure. Constitutive relationships for fluid conductivities and saturations as functions of fluid pressures, which are derived in a companion paper by J. C. Parker et al. (this issue) and which may be calibrated from two-phase laboratory measurements, are employed in the finite-element program. The solution procedure uses backward time integration with iteration by a modified Picard method to handle the nonlinear properties. Laboratory experiments involving water displacement from soil columns by p cymene (a benzene-derivative hydrocarbon) under constant pressure were simulated by the finite-element program to validate the numerical model and formulation for constitutive properties. Transient water outflow predicted using independently measured saturation-capillary head data agreed with observed outflow data within the limits of precision of the predictions as estimated by a first-order Taylor series approximation considering parameter uncertainty due to experimental reproducability and constitutive model accuracy. Two-dimensional simulations are presented for a hypothetical field case involving introduction of NAPL near the soil surface due to leakage from an underground storage tank. Subsequent transport of NAPL in the variably saturated vadose and groundwater zones is analyzed.
SUPG Finite Element Simulations of Compressible Flows for Aerothermodynamic Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kirk, Benjamin S.
2007-01-01
This viewgraph presentation reviews the Streamline-Upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) Finite Element Simulation. It covers the background, governing equations, weak formulation, shock capturing, inviscid flux discretization, time discretization, linearization, and implicit solution strategies. It also reviews some applications such as Type IV Shock Interaction, Forward-Facing Cavity and AEDC Sharp Double Cone.
Towards parallel I/O in finite element simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Farhat, Charbel; Pramono, Eddy; Felippa, Carlos
1989-01-01
I/O issues in finite element analysis on parallel processors are addressed. Viable solutions for both local and shared memory multiprocessors are presented. The approach is simple but limited by currently available hardware and software systems. Implementation is carried out on a CRAY-2 system. Performance results are reported.
the finite element machine: An experiment in parallel processing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Storaasli, O. O.; Peebles, S. W.; Crockett, T. W.; Knott, J. D.; Adams, L.
1982-01-01
The Finite Element Machine at the NASA Langley Research Center is a prototype computer designed to support parallel solutions to structural analysis problems. The hardware architecture and support software for the machine, initial solution algorithms and test applications, and preliminary results are described. Directions for future work are presented.
Experiences in interfacing NASTRAN with another finite element program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwerzler, D. D.; Leverenz, R. K.
1972-01-01
The coupling of NASTRAN to another finite element program developed for the static analysis of automotive structures is discussed. The two programs were coupled together to use the substructuring capability of the in-house program and the normal mode analysis capability of NASTRAN. Modifications were made to the NASTRAN program in order to make the coupling feasible.
Spanwise variation of potential form drag. [finite element method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clever, W. C.
1977-01-01
The finite element method is used to calculate the spanwise variation of potential form drag of a wing at subsonic and supersonic speeds using linearly varying panels. The wing may be of arbitrary planform and nonplanar provided the wing panels are parallel to the aircraft axis.
Boundary control of parabolic systems - Finite-element approximation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lasiecka, I.
1980-01-01
The finite element approximation of a Dirichlet type boundary control problem for parabolic systems is considered. An approach based on the direct approximation of an input-output semigroup formula is applied. Error estimates are derived for optimal state and optimal control, and it is noted that these estimates are actually optimal with respect to the approximation theoretic properties.
Design, development and use of the finite element machine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adams, L. M.; Voigt, R. C.
1983-01-01
Some of the considerations that went into the design of the Finite Element Machine, a research asynchronous parallel computer are described. The present status of the system is also discussed along with some indication of the type of results that were obtained.
Incorporation of Hysteresis Effects into Magnetc Finite Element Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, J. Y.; Lee, S. J.; Melikhov, Y.; Jiles, D. C.; Garton, M.; Lopez, R.; Brasche, L.
2004-02-01
Hysteresis effects have usually been ignored in magnetic modeling due to the multi-valued property causing difficulty in its incorporation into numerical calculations such as those based on finite elements. A linear approximation of magnetic permeability or a nonlinear B-H curve formed by connecting the tips of the hysteresis loops has been widely used in magnetic modeling for these types of calculations. We have employed the Jiles-Atherton (J-A) hysteresis model for development of a finite element method algorithm incorporating hysteresis effects. J-A model is suited for numerical analysis such as finite element modeling because of the small number of degrees of freedom and its simple form of equation. A finite element method algorithm for hysteretic materials has been developed for estimation of the volume and the distribution of retained magnetic particles around a defect site. The volume of retained magnetic particles was found to depend not only on the existing current source strength but also on the remaining magnetization of a hysteretic material. Detailed algorithm and simulation results are presented.
Finite element forced vibration analysis of rotating cyclic structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elchuri, V.; Smith, G. C. C.
1981-01-01
A capability was added to the general purpose finite element program NASTRAN Level 17.7 to conduct forced vibration analysis of tuned cyclic structures rotating about their axes of symmetry. The effects of Coriolis and centripetal accelerations together with those due to linear acceleration of the axis of rotation were included. The theoretical development of this capability is presented.
Taylor, G.; Dong, C.; Sun, S.
2010-03-18
A mathematical model for contaminant species passing through fractured porous media is presented. In the numerical model, we combine two locally conservative methods, i.e. mixed finite element (MFE) and the finite volume methods. Adaptive triangle mesh is used for effective treatment of the fractures. A hybrid MFE method is employed to provide an accurate approximation of velocities field for both the fractures and matrix which are crucial to the convection part of the transport equation. The finite volume method and the standard MFE method are used to approximate the convection and dispersion terms respectively. The model is used to investigate the interaction of adsorption with transport and to extract information on effective adsorption distribution coefficients. Numerical examples in different fractured media illustrate the robustness and efficiency of the proposed numerical model.
ELLIPT2D: A Flexible Finite Element Code Written Python
Pletzer, A.; Mollis, J.C.
2001-03-22
The use of the Python scripting language for scientific applications and in particular to solve partial differential equations is explored. It is shown that Python's rich data structure and object-oriented features can be exploited to write programs that are not only significantly more concise than their counter parts written in Fortran, C or C++, but are also numerically efficient. To illustrate this, a two-dimensional finite element code (ELLIPT2D) has been written. ELLIPT2D provides a flexible and easy-to-use framework for solving a large class of second-order elliptic problems. The program allows for structured or unstructured meshes. All functions defining the elliptic operator are user supplied and so are the boundary conditions, which can be of Dirichlet, Neumann or Robbins type. ELLIPT2D makes extensive use of dictionaries (hash tables) as a way to represent sparse matrices.Other key features of the Python language that have been widely used include: operator over loading, error handling, array slicing, and the Tkinter module for building graphical use interfaces. As an example of the utility of ELLIPT2D, a nonlinear solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation is computed using a Newton iterative scheme. A second application focuses on a solution of the toroidal Laplace equation coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic stability code, a problem arising in the context of magnetic fusion research.
Beyond first-order finite element schemes in micromagnetics
Kritsikis, E.; Vaysset, A.; Buda-Prejbeanu, L.D.; Toussaint, J.-C.
2014-01-01
Magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic materials is ruled by the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation (LLG). Reliable schemes must conserve the magnetization norm, which is a nonconvex constraint, and be energy-decreasing unless there is pumping. Some of the authors previously devised a convergent finite element scheme that, by choice of an appropriate test space – the tangent plane to the magnetization – reduces to a linear problem at each time step. The scheme was however first-order in time. We claim it is not an intrinsic limitation, and the same approach can lead to efficient micromagnetic simulation. We show how the scheme order can be increased, and the nonlocal (magnetostatic) interactions be tackled in logarithmic time, by the fast multipole method or the non-uniform fast Fourier transform. Our implementation is called feeLLGood. A test-case of the National Institute of Standards and Technology is presented, then another one relevant to spin-transfer effects (the spin-torque oscillator)
Beyond first-order finite element schemes in micromagnetics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kritsikis, E.; Vaysset, A.; Buda-Prejbeanu, L. D.; Alouges, F.; Toussaint, J.-C.
2014-01-01
Magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic materials is ruled by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation (LLG). Reliable schemes must conserve the magnetization norm, which is a nonconvex constraint, and be energy-decreasing unless there is pumping. Some of the authors previously devised a convergent finite element scheme that, by choice of an appropriate test space - the tangent plane to the magnetization - reduces to a linear problem at each time step. The scheme was however first-order in time. We claim it is not an intrinsic limitation, and the same approach can lead to efficient micromagnetic simulation. We show how the scheme order can be increased, and the nonlocal (magnetostatic) interactions be tackled in logarithmic time, by the fast multipole method or the non-uniform fast Fourier transform. Our implementation is called feeLLGood. A test-case of the National Institute of Standards and Technology is presented, then another one relevant to spin-transfer effects (the spin-torque oscillator).
Numerical performance of projection methods in finite element consolidation models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gambolati, Giuseppe; Pini, Giorgio; Ferronato, Massimiliano
2001-12-01
Projection, or conjugate gradient like, methods are becoming increasingly popular for the efficient solution of large sparse sets of unsymmetric indefinite equations arising from the numerical integration of (initial) boundary value problems. One such problem is soil consolidation coupling a flow and a structural model, typically solved by finite elements (FE) in space and a marching scheme in time (e.g. the Crank-Nicolson scheme). The attraction of a projection method stems from a number of factors, including the ease of implementation, the requirement of limited core memory and the low computational cost if a cheap and effective matrix preconditioner is available. In the present paper, biconjugate gradient stabilized (Bi- CGSTAB) is used to solve FE consolidation equations in 2-D and 3-D settings with variable time integration steps. Three different nodal orderings are selected along with the preconditioner ILUT based on incomplete triangular factorization and variable fill-in. The overall cost of the solver is made up of the preconditioning cost plus the cost to converge which is in turn related to the number of iterations and the elementary operations required by each iteration. The results show that nodal ordering affects the perfor mance of Bi-CGSTAB. For normally conditioned consolidation problems Bi-CGSTAB with the best ILUT preconditioner may converge in a number of iterations up to two order of magnitude smaller than the size of the FE model and proves an accurate, cost-effective and robust alternative to direct methods.
Estimation of Thermoelectric Generator Performance by Finite Element Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ziolkowski, P.; Poinas, P.; Leszczynski, J.; Karpinski, G.; Müller, E.
2010-09-01
Prediction of thermoelectric performance parameters by numerical methods is an inherent part of thermoelectric generator (TEG) development and allows for time- and cost-saving assessment of material combinations and variations of crucial design parameters (e.g., shape, pellet length, and thermal coupling). Considering the complexity of a TEG system and its numerous affecting factors, the clarity and the flexibility of a mathematical treatment comes to the fore. Comfortable tools are provided by commercial finite element modeling (FEM) software offering powerful geometry interfaces, mesh generators, solvers, and postprocessing options. We describe the level of development and the simulation results of a three dimensional (3D) TEG FEM. Using ANSYS 11.0, we implemented and simulated a TEG module geometry under various conditions. Comparative analytical one dimensional (1D) results and a direct comparison with inhouse-developed TEG simulation software show the consistency of results. Several pellet aspect ratios and contact property configurations (thermal/electrical interface resistance) were evaluated for their impact on the TEG performance as well as parasitic effects such as convection, radiation, and conductive heat bypass. The scenarios considered revealed the highest efficiency decay for convectionally loaded setups (up to 4.8%pts), followed by the impacts of contact resistances (up to 4.8%pts), by radiation (up to 0.56%pts), and by thermal conduction of a solid filling material within the voids of the module construction (up to 0.14%pts).
Finite element-wavelet hybrid algorithm for atmospheric tomography.
Yudytskiy, Mykhaylo; Helin, Tapio; Ramlau, Ronny
2014-03-01
Reconstruction of the refractive index fluctuations in the atmosphere, or atmospheric tomography, is an underlying problem of many next generation adaptive optics (AO) systems, such as the multiconjugate adaptive optics or multiobject adaptive optics (MOAO). The dimension of the problem for the extremely large telescopes, such as the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), suggests the use of iterative schemes as an alternative to the matrix-vector multiply (MVM) methods. Recently, an algorithm based on the wavelet representation of the turbulence has been introduced in [Inverse Probl.29, 085003 (2013)] by the authors to solve the atmospheric tomography using the conjugate gradient iteration. The authors also developed an efficient frequency-dependent preconditioner for the wavelet method in a later work. In this paper we study the computational aspects of the wavelet algorithm. We introduce three new techniques, the dual domain discretization strategy, a scale-dependent preconditioner, and a ground layer multiscale method, to derive a method that is globally O(n), parallelizable, and compact with respect to memory. We present the computational cost estimates and compare the theoretical numerical performance of the resulting finite element-wavelet hybrid algorithm with the MVM. The quality of the method is evaluated in terms of an MOAO simulation for the E-ELT on the European Southern Observatory (ESO) end-to-end simulation system OCTOPUS. The method is compared to the ESO version of the Fractal Iterative Method [Proc. SPIE7736, 77360X (2010)] in terms of quality. PMID:24690653
Finite element code development for modeling detonation of HMX composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duran, Adam; Sundararaghavan, Veera
2015-06-01
In this talk, we present a hydrodynamics code for modeling shock and detonation waves in HMX. A stable efficient solution strategy based on a Taylor-Galerkin finite element (FE) discretization was developed to solve the reactive Euler equations. In our code, well calibrated equations of state for the solid unreacted material and gaseous reaction products have been implemented, along with a chemical reaction scheme and a mixing rule to define the properties of partially reacted states. A linear Gruneisen equation of state was employed for the unreacted HMX calibrated from experiments. The JWL form was used to model the EOS of gaseous reaction products. It is assumed that the unreacted explosive and reaction products are in both pressure and temperature equilibrium. The overall specific volume and internal energy was computed using the rule of mixtures. Arrhenius kinetics scheme was integrated to model the chemical reactions. A locally controlled dissipation was introduced that induces a non-oscillatory stabilized scheme for the shock front. The FE model was validated using analytical solutions for sod shock and ZND strong detonation models and then used to perform 2D and 3D shock simulations. We will present benchmark problems for geometries in which a single HMX crystal is subjected to a shock condition. Our current progress towards developing microstructural models of HMX/binder composite will also be discussed.
Parallel Finite Element Domain Decomposition for Structural/Acoustic Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, Duc T.; Tungkahotara, Siroj; Watson, Willie R.; Rajan, Subramaniam D.
2005-01-01
A domain decomposition (DD) formulation for solving sparse linear systems of equations resulting from finite element analysis is presented. The formulation incorporates mixed direct and iterative equation solving strategics and other novel algorithmic ideas that are optimized to take advantage of sparsity and exploit modern computer architecture, such as memory and parallel computing. The most time consuming part of the formulation is identified and the critical roles of direct sparse and iterative solvers within the framework of the formulation are discussed. Experiments on several computer platforms using several complex test matrices are conducted using software based on the formulation. Small-scale structural examples are used to validate thc steps in the formulation and large-scale (l,000,000+ unknowns) duct acoustic examples are used to evaluate the ORIGIN 2000 processors, and a duster of 6 PCs (running under the Windows environment). Statistics show that the formulation is efficient in both sequential and parallel computing environmental and that the formulation is significantly faster and consumes less memory than that based on one of the best available commercialized parallel sparse solvers.
Thermal conduction in particle packs via finite elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lechman, Jeremy B.; Yarrington, Cole; Erikson, William; Noble, David R.
2013-06-01
Conductive transport in heterogeneous materials composed of discrete particles is a fundamental problem for a number of applications. While analytical results and rigorous bounds on effective conductivity in mono-sized particle dispersions are well established in the literature, the methods used to arrive at these results often fail when the average size of particle clusters becomes large (i.e., near the percolation transition where particle contact networks dominate the bulk conductivity). Our aim is to develop general, efficient numerical methods that would allow us to explore this behavior and compare to a recent microstructural description of conduction in this regime. To this end, we present a finite element analysis approach to modeling heat transfer in granular media with the goal of predicting effective bulk thermal conductivities of particle-based heterogeneous composites. Our approach is verified against theoretical predictions for random isotropic dispersions of mono-disperse particles at various volume fractions up to close packing. Finally, we present results for the probability distribution of the effective conductivity in particle dispersions generated by Brownian dynamics, and suggest how this might be useful in developing stochastic models of effective properties based on the dynamical process involved in creating heterogeneous dispersions.
Structural characteristic responses for finite element model updating of structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Linren; Wang, Lei; Ou, Jinping
2014-04-01
The field measurements of structures are very important to the structural finite element (FE) model updating because the errors and uncertainties of a FE model are corrected directly through closing the discrepancies between the analytical responses from FE model and the measurements from field testing of a structure. Usually, the accurate and reliable field measurements are very limited. Therefore, it is very important to make full use of the limited and valuable field measurements in structural model updating to achieve a best result with the lowest cost. In this paper, structural FE model updating is investigated in the point of view of solving a mathematical problem, and different amount and category of structural dynamic responses and static responses are considered as constraints to explore their effects on the updated results of different degree and types of structural damages. The numerical studies are carried out on a space truss. Accounting for the numerical results, some inherent phenomena and connections taking account of the updating parameters, output responses and the updated results are revealed and discussed. Some useful and practicable suggestions about using the field measurements for FE model updating are provided to achieve efficient and reliable results.
A 2-D Interface Element for Coupled Analysis of Independently Modeled 3-D Finite Element Subdomains
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kandil, Osama A.
1998-01-01
Over the past few years, the development of the interface technology has provided an analysis framework for embedding detailed finite element models within finite element models which are less refined. This development has enabled the use of cascading substructure domains without the constraint of coincident nodes along substructure boundaries. The approach used for the interface element is based on an alternate variational principle often used in deriving hybrid finite elements. The resulting system of equations exhibits a high degree of sparsity but gives rise to a non-positive definite system which causes difficulties with many of the equation solvers in general-purpose finite element codes. Hence the global system of equations is generally solved using, a decomposition procedure with pivoting. The research reported to-date for the interface element includes the one-dimensional line interface element and two-dimensional surface interface element. Several large-scale simulations, including geometrically nonlinear problems, have been reported using the one-dimensional interface element technology; however, only limited applications are available for the surface interface element. In the applications reported to-date, the geometry of the interfaced domains exactly match each other even though the spatial discretization within each domain may be different. As such, the spatial modeling of each domain, the interface elements and the assembled system is still laborious. The present research is focused on developing a rapid modeling procedure based on a parametric interface representation of independently defined subdomains which are also independently discretized.
The finite element method: Is weighted volume integration essential?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narasimhan, T. N.
In developing finite element equations for steady state and transient diffusion-type processes, weighted volume integration is generally assumed to be an intrinsic requirement. It is shown that such finite element equations can be developed directly and with ease on the basis of the elementary notion of a surface integral. Although weighted volume integration is mathematically correct, the algebraic equations stemming from it are no more informative than those derived directly on the basis of a surface integral. An interesting upshot is that the derivation based on surface integration does not require knowledge of a partial differential equation but yet is logically rigorous. It is commonly stated that weighted volume integration of the differential equation helps one carry out analyses of errors, convergence and existence, and therefore, weighted volume integration is preferable. It is suggested that because the direct derivation is logically consistent, numerical solutions emanating from it must be testable for accuracy and internal consistency in ways that the style of which may differ from the classical procedures of error- and convergence-analysis. In addition to simplifying the teaching of the finite element method, the thoughts presented in this paper may lead to establishing the finite element method independently in its own right, rather than it being a surrogate of the differential equation. The purpose of this paper is not to espouse any one particular way of formulating the finite element equations. Rather, it is one of introspection. The desire is to critically examine our traditional way of doing things and inquire whether alternate approaches may reveal to us new and interesting insights.
Inversion of Robin coefficient by a spectral stochastic finite element approach
Jin Bangti Zou Jun
2008-03-01
This paper investigates a variational approach to the nonlinear stochastic inverse problem of probabilistically calibrating the Robin coefficient from boundary measurements for the steady-state heat conduction. The problem is formulated into an optimization problem, and mathematical properties relevant to its numerical computations are investigated. The spectral stochastic finite element method using polynomial chaos is utilized for the discretization of the optimization problem, and its convergence is analyzed. The nonlinear conjugate gradient method is derived for the optimization system. Numerical results for several two-dimensional problems are presented to illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of the stochastic finite element method.
A finite element method for active vibration control of uncertain structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morales, A. L.; Rongong, J. A.; Sims, N. D.
2012-10-01
This work introduces a fuzzy design method using the finite element procedure to simulate and analyze active vibration control of structures subjected to uncertain parameters. The purpose of this work is to provide a tool for studying the influence of uncertainty propagation on both stability and performance of a vibration control system, whilst avoiding the need for computationally expensive probabilistic methods or complex robust control techniques. The proposed procedure applies a general and efficient strategy for computing fuzzy results to a sequence of finite element calculations. Finally, the applicability of the methodology is illustrated through some realistic case studies related to structural control where spillover instability may arise.
An approach to probabilistic finite element analysis using a mixed-iterative formulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dias, J. B.; Nakazawa, S.
1988-01-01
An efficient algorithm for computing the response sensitivity of finite element problems based on a mixed-iterative formulation is proposed. This method does not involve explicit differentiation of the tangent stiffness array and can be used with formulations for which a consistent tangent stiffness is not readily available. The method has been successfully applied to probabilistic finite element analysis of problems using the proposed mixed formulation, and this exercise has provided valuable insights regarding the extension of the method to a more general class of problems to include material and geometric nonlinearities.
Finite-element implementation of reverse-time migration for anisotropic media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Meigen; Li, Xiaofan; Wang, Miaoyue
2004-06-01
Reverse-time migration for post-stack seismic data in anisotropic media is implemented using the finite-element method. As an accurate digital method, the finite-element method is flexible for dealing with complicated geological structures, inner and man-made boundaries despite its intensive computation. Applying it in reverse-time migration may produce accurate images for anisotropic media. To eliminate man-made boundary reflections, the absorbing boundary condition for anisotropic elastic waves is also studied. An efficient and stable absorbing boundary scheme is presented combining a discrete transparent boundary condition with an attenuation boundary condition.
Advance finite element modeling of rotor blade aeroelasticity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Straub, F. K.; Sangha, K. B.; Panda, B.
1994-01-01
An advanced beam finite element has been developed for modeling rotor blade dynamics and aeroelasticity. This element is part of the Element Library of the Second Generation Comprehensive Helicopter Analysis System (2GCHAS). The element allows modeling of arbitrary rotor systems, including bearingless rotors. It accounts for moderately large elastic deflections, anisotropic properties, large frame motion for maneuver simulation, and allows for variable order shape functions. The effects of gravity, mechanically applied and aerodynamic loads are included. All kinematic quantities required to compute airloads are provided. In this paper, the fundamental assumptions and derivation of the element matrices are presented. Numerical results are shown to verify the formulation and illustrate several features of the element.
Finite element meshing approached as a global minimization process
WITKOWSKI,WALTER R.; JUNG,JOSEPH; DOHRMANN,CLARK R.; LEUNG,VITUS J.
2000-03-01
The ability to generate a suitable finite element mesh in an automatic fashion is becoming the key to being able to automate the entire engineering analysis process. However, placing an all-hexahedron mesh in a general three-dimensional body continues to be an elusive goal. The approach investigated in this research is fundamentally different from any other that is known of by the authors. A physical analogy viewpoint is used to formulate the actual meshing problem which constructs a global mathematical description of the problem. The analogy used was that of minimizing the electrical potential of a system charged particles within a charged domain. The particles in the presented analogy represent duals to mesh elements (i.e., quads or hexes). Particle movement is governed by a mathematical functional which accounts for inter-particles repulsive, attractive and alignment forces. This functional is minimized to find the optimal location and orientation of each particle. After the particles are connected a mesh can be easily resolved. The mathematical description for this problem is as easy to formulate in three-dimensions as it is in two- or one-dimensions. The meshing algorithm was developed within CoMeT. It can solve the two-dimensional meshing problem for convex and concave geometries in a purely automated fashion. Investigation of the robustness of the technique has shown a success rate of approximately 99% for the two-dimensional geometries tested. Run times to mesh a 100 element complex geometry were typically in the 10 minute range. Efficiency of the technique is still an issue that needs to be addressed. Performance is an issue that is critical for most engineers generating meshes. It was not for this project. The primary focus of this work was to investigate and evaluate a meshing algorithm/philosophy with efficiency issues being secondary. The algorithm was also extended to mesh three-dimensional geometries. Unfortunately, only simple geometries were tested
A fast method of numerical quadrature for p-version finite element matrices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hinnant, Howard E.
1993-01-01
A new technique of numerical quadrature especially suited for p-version finite element matrices is presented. This new technique separates the integrand into two parts, and numerically operates on each part separately. The objective of this scheme is to minimize the computational cost of integrating the entire element matrix as opposed to minimizing the cost of integrating a single function. The efficiency of the new technique is compared with Gaussian quadrature and found to take a small fraction of the computational effort.
Adaptive implicit-explicit finite element algorithms for fluid mechanics problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tezduyar, T. E.; Liou, J.
1988-01-01
The adaptive implicit-explicit (AIE) approach is presented for the finite-element solution of various problems in computational fluid mechanics. In the AIE approach, the elements are dynamically (adaptively) arranged into differently treated groups. The differences in treatment could be based on considerations such as the cost efficiency, the type of spatial or temporal discretization employed, the choice of field equations, etc. Several numerical tests are performed to demonstrate that this approach can achieve substantial savings in CPU time and memory.
Discontinuous dual-primal mixed finite elements for elliptic problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bottasso, Carlo L.; Micheletti, Stefano; Sacco, Riccardo
2000-01-01
We propose a novel discontinuous mixed finite element formulation for the solution of second-order elliptic problems. Fully discontinuous piecewise polynomial finite element spaces are used for the trial and test functions. The discontinuous nature of the test functions at the element interfaces allows to introduce new boundary unknowns that, on the one hand enforce the weak continuity of the trial functions, and on the other avoid the need to define a priori algorithmic fluxes as in standard discontinuous Galerkin methods. Static condensation is performed at the element level, leading to a solution procedure based on the sole interface unknowns. The resulting family of discontinuous dual-primal mixed finite element methods is presented in the one and two-dimensional cases. In the one-dimensional case, we show the equivalence of the method with implicit Runge-Kutta schemes of the collocation type exhibiting optimal behavior. Numerical experiments in one and two dimensions demonstrate the order accuracy of the new method, confirming the results of the analysis.
Finite Element Modeling of the NASA Langley Aluminum Testbed Cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Pritchard, Joselyn I.; Buehrle, Ralph D.; Pappa, Richard S.
2002-01-01
The NASA Langley Aluminum Testbed Cylinder (ATC) was designed to serve as a universal structure for evaluating structural acoustic codes, modeling techniques and optimization methods used in the prediction of aircraft interior noise. Finite element models were developed for the components of the ATC based on the geometric, structural and material properties of the physical test structure. Numerically predicted modal frequencies for the longitudinal stringer, ring frame and dome component models, and six assembled ATC configurations were compared with experimental modal survey data. The finite element models were updated and refined, using physical parameters, to increase correlation with the measured modal data. Excellent agreement, within an average 1.5% to 2.9%, was obtained between the predicted and measured modal frequencies of the stringer, frame and dome components. The predictions for the modal frequencies of the assembled component Configurations I through V were within an average 2.9% and 9.1%. Finite element modal analyses were performed for comparison with 3 psi and 6 psi internal pressurization conditions in Configuration VI. The modal frequencies were predicted by applying differential stiffness to the elements with pressure loading and creating reduced matrices for beam elements with offsets inside external superelements. The average disagreement between the measured and predicted differences for the 0 psi and 6 psi internal pressure conditions was less than 0.5%. Comparably good agreement was obtained for the differences between the 0 psi and 3 psi measured and predicted internal pressure conditions.
Efficient Controls for Finitely Convergent Sequential Algorithms
Chen, Wei; Herman, Gabor T.
2010-01-01
Finding a feasible point that satisfies a set of constraints is a common task in scientific computing: examples are the linear feasibility problem and the convex feasibility problem. Finitely convergent sequential algorithms can be used for solving such problems; an example of such an algorithm is ART3, which is defined in such a way that its control is cyclic in the sense that during its execution it repeatedly cycles through the given constraints. Previously we found a variant of ART3 whose control is no longer cyclic, but which is still finitely convergent and in practice it usually converges faster than ART3 does. In this paper we propose a general methodology for automatic transformation of finitely convergent sequential algorithms in such a way that (i) finite convergence is retained and (ii) the speed of convergence is improved. The first of these two properties is proven by mathematical theorems, the second is illustrated by applying the algorithms to a practical problem. PMID:20953327
The finite element method for calculating the marine structural design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ion, A.; Ticu, I.
2015-11-01
The aim of this paper is to optimally design and dimension marine structures in order for them to fulfil both functional and safety requirements. A master level of structural mechanics is vital in order to check tests and analysis and to develop new structures. This study can improve the calculation and estimation of the effects of hydrodynamics and of other loads; movements, strains and internal forces in fixed and floating platforms and ships. The finite element method (FEM) ensures basic understanding of the finite element model as applied on static cases including beam and plate elements, experience with static analysis of marine structures like platforms and ships, along with the basic understanding of dynamic response of systems with one degree of freedom and simple continuous beams, and also how analysis models can be established for real structures by the use of generalized coordinates and superposition.
Finite element dynamic analysis on CDC STAR-100 computer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noor, A. K.; Lambiotte, J. J., Jr.
1978-01-01
Computational algorithms are presented for the finite element dynamic analysis of structures on the CDC STAR-100 computer. The spatial behavior is described using higher-order finite elements. The temporal behavior is approximated by using either the central difference explicit scheme or Newmark's implicit scheme. In each case the analysis is broken up into a number of basic macro-operations. Discussion is focused on the organization of the computation and the mode of storage of different arrays to take advantage of the STAR pipeline capability. The potential of the proposed algorithms is discussed and CPU times are given for performing the different macro-operations for a shell modeled by higher order composite shallow shell elements having 80 degrees of freedom.
EXODUS: A finite element file format for pre- and postprocessing
Mills-Curran, W.C.; Gilkey, A.P.; Flanagan, D.P.
1988-09-01
The EXODUS format defines a binary file which is used for finite element analysis pre- and postprocessing. It includes data to define the finite element mesh and label both boundary condition and load application points. EXODUS accommodates multiple element types and is sufficiently general format for analysis results. A benefit of combining the mesh definition data and the results data in the same file is that the user is assured that the results data are consistent with the model. EXODUS is currently in use by the entire range of Department 1520 codes (including preprocessors, translators, linear and nonlinear analyses, and postprocessors) and is finding applications in codes outside Department 1520. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
Finite Element Modelling of Fluid Coupling in the Coiled Cochlea
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ni, Guangjian; Elliott, S. J.; Lineton, B.; Saba, R.
2011-11-01
A finite element model is first used to calculate the modal pressure difference for a box model of the cochlea, which shows that the number of fluid elements across the width of the cochlea determines the accuracy with which the near field, or short wavenumber, component of the fluid coupling is reproduced. Then results are compared with the analytic results to validate the accuracy of the FE model. It is, however, the far field, or long wavelength, component of the fluid coupling that is most affected by the geometry. A finite element model of the coiled cochlea is then used to calculate fluid coupling in this case, which has similar characteristics to the uncoiled model.
Nitsche Extended Finite Element Methods for Earthquake Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coon, Ethan T.
Modeling earthquakes and geologically short-time-scale events on fault networks is a difficult problem with important implications for human safety and design. These problems demonstrate a. rich physical behavior, in which distributed loading localizes both spatially and temporally into earthquakes on fault systems. This localization is governed by two aspects: friction and fault geometry. Computationally, these problems provide a stern challenge for modelers --- static and dynamic equations must be solved on domains with discontinuities on complex fault systems, and frictional boundary conditions must be applied on these discontinuities. The most difficult aspect of modeling physics on complicated domains is the mesh. Most numerical methods involve meshing the geometry; nodes are placed on the discontinuities, and edges are chosen to coincide with faults. The resulting mesh is highly unstructured, making the derivation of finite difference discretizations difficult. Therefore, most models use the finite element method. Standard finite element methods place requirements on the mesh for the sake of stability, accuracy, and efficiency. The formation of a mesh which both conforms to fault geometry and satisfies these requirements is an open problem, especially for three dimensional, physically realistic fault. geometries. In addition, if the fault system evolves over the course of a dynamic simulation (i.e. in the case of growing cracks or breaking new faults), the geometry must he re-meshed at each time step. This can be expensive computationally. The fault-conforming approach is undesirable when complicated meshes are required, and impossible to implement when the geometry is evolving. Therefore, meshless and hybrid finite element methods that handle discontinuities without placing them on element boundaries are a desirable and natural way to discretize these problems. Several such methods are being actively developed for use in engineering mechanics involving crack
Wu, H.W.; Shii, Sheng Hwa . Dept. of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering)
1994-06-01
A new method, involving the combined use of analysis and the finite-element method, is applicable to the heat conduction problem with isolated heat sources. Unlike the finite-element method the analysis/finite-element combined method is able to discretize the distributed sources with discontinuities into course elements, and the solution is still calculated accurately. The results are compared in tables with exact solutions and other numerical data, and the agreement is found to be good.
Linear and nonlinear finite-element analysis of laminated composite structures at high temperatures
Wilt, T.E.
1992-01-01
A simple robust finite element which can effectively model the multilayer composite material is developed. This will include thermal gradient capabilities necessary for a complete thermomechanical analysis. In order to integrate the numerically stiff rate-dependent viscoplastic equations, efficient, stable numerical algorithms are developed. In addition, consistent viscoplastic/plastic tangent matrices are also formulated. The finite element is formulated based upon a generalized mixed variational principle with independently assumed displacements and layer-number independent strains. A unique scheme utilizing nodal temperatures is used to model a linear thermal gradient through the thickness of the composite. The numerical-integration algorithms are formulated in the context of a fully implicit backward Euler scheme. The consistent tangent matrices arise directly from the formulation. The multi-layer composite finite element demonstrates good performance in terms of static displacement and stress predictions, and dynamic response.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casadei, F.; Ruzzene, M.
2011-04-01
This work illustrates the possibility to extend the field of application of the Multi-Scale Finite Element Method (MsFEM) to structural mechanics problems that involve localized geometrical discontinuities like cracks or notches. The main idea is to construct finite elements with an arbitrary number of edge nodes that describe the actual geometry of the damage with shape functions that are defined as local solutions of the differential operator of the specific problem according to the MsFEM approach. The small scale information are then brought to the large scale model through the coupling of the global system matrices that are assembled using classical finite element procedures. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated through selected numerical examples that constitute classical problems of great interest to the structural health monitoring community.
A tensor artificial viscosity using a finite element approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolev, Tz. V.; Rieben, R. N.
2009-12-01
We derive a tensor artificial viscosity suitable for use in a 2D or 3D unstructured arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) hydrodynamics code. This work is similar in nature to that of Campbell and Shashkov [1]; however, our approach is based on a finite element discretization that is fundamentally different from the mimetic finite difference framework. The finite element point of view leads to novel insights as well as improved numerical results. We begin with a generalized tensor version of the Von Neumann-Richtmyer artificial viscosity, then convert it to a variational formulation and apply a Galerkin discretization process using high order Gaussian quadrature to obtain a generalized nodal force term and corresponding zonal heating (or shock entropy) term. This technique is modular and is therefore suitable for coupling to a traditional staggered grid discretization of the momentum and energy conservation laws; however, we motivate the use of such finite element approaches for discretizing each term in the Euler equations. We review the key properties that any artificial viscosity must possess and use these to formulate specific constraints on the total artificial viscosity force term as well as the artificial viscosity coefficient. We also show, that under certain simplifying assumptions, the two-dimensional scheme from [1] can be viewed as an under-integrated version of our finite element method. This equivalence holds on general distorted quadrilateral grids. Finally, we present computational results on some standard shock hydro test problems, as well as some more challenging problems, indicating the advantages of the new approach with respect to symmetry preservation for shock wave propagation over general grids.
Finite-size scaling for quantum criticality using the finite-element method.
Antillon, Edwin; Wehefritz-Kaufmann, Birgit; Kais, Sabre
2012-03-01
Finite size scaling for the Schrödinger equation is a systematic approach to calculate the quantum critical parameters for a given Hamiltonian. This approach has been shown to give very accurate results for critical parameters by using a systematic expansion with global basis-type functions. Recently, the finite-element method was shown to be a powerful numerical method for ab initio electronic-structure calculations with a variable real-space resolution. In this work, we demonstrate how to obtain quantum critical parameters by combining the finite-element method (FEM) with finite size scaling (FSS) using different ab initio approximations and exact formulations. The critical parameters could be atomic nuclear charges, internuclear distances, electron density, disorder, lattice structure, and external fields for stability of atomic, molecular systems and quantum phase transitions of extended systems. To illustrate the effectiveness of this approach we provide detailed calculations of applying FEM to approximate solutions for the two-electron atom with varying nuclear charge; these include Hartree-Fock, local density approximation, and an "exact" formulation using FEM. We then use the FSS approach to determine its critical nuclear charge for stability; here, the size of the system is related to the number of elements used in the calculations. Results prove to be in good agreement with previous Slater-basis set calculations and demonstrate that it is possible to combine finite size scaling with the finite-element method by using ab initio calculations to obtain quantum critical parameters. The combined approach provides a promising first-principles approach to describe quantum phase transitions for materials and extended systems. PMID:22587208
Finite-size scaling for quantum criticality using the finite-element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antillon, Edwin; Wehefritz-Kaufmann, Birgit; Kais, Sabre
2012-03-01
Finite size scaling for the Schrödinger equation is a systematic approach to calculate the quantum critical parameters for a given Hamiltonian. This approach has been shown to give very accurate results for critical parameters by using a systematic expansion with global basis-type functions. Recently, the finite-element method was shown to be a powerful numerical method for ab initio electronic-structure calculations with a variable real-space resolution. In this work, we demonstrate how to obtain quantum critical parameters by combining the finite-element method (FEM) with finite size scaling (FSS) using different ab initio approximations and exact formulations. The critical parameters could be atomic nuclear charges, internuclear distances, electron density, disorder, lattice structure, and external fields for stability of atomic, molecular systems and quantum phase transitions of extended systems. To illustrate the effectiveness of this approach we provide detailed calculations of applying FEM to approximate solutions for the two-electron atom with varying nuclear charge; these include Hartree-Fock, local density approximation, and an “exact” formulation using FEM. We then use the FSS approach to determine its critical nuclear charge for stability; here, the size of the system is related to the number of elements used in the calculations. Results prove to be in good agreement with previous Slater-basis set calculations and demonstrate that it is possible to combine finite size scaling with the finite-element method by using ab initio calculations to obtain quantum critical parameters. The combined approach provides a promising first-principles approach to describe quantum phase transitions for materials and extended systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reitman, L.; Wolfshtein, M.; Adler, D.
1982-11-01
A finite difference method is developed for solving the non-viscous formulation of a three-dimensional compressible flow problem for turbomachinery impellers. The numerical results and the time efficiency of this method are compared to that provided by a finite element method for this problem. The finite difference method utilizes a numerical, curvilinear, and non-orthogonal coordinate transformation and the ADI scheme. The finite difference method is utilized to solve a test problem of a centrifugal compressor impeller. It is shown that the finite difference method produces results in good agreement with the experimentally determined flow fields and is as accurate as the finite element technique. However, the finite difference method only requires about half the time in order to obtain the solution for this problem as that required by the finite element method.
Finite element evaluation of erosion/corrosion affected reducing elbow
Basavaraju, C.
1996-12-01
Erosion/corrosion is a primary source for wall thinning or degradation of carbon steel piping systems in service. A number of piping failures in the power industry have been attributed to erosion/corrosion. Piping elbow is one of such susceptible components for erosion/corrosion because of increased flow turbulence due to its geometry. In this paper, the acceptability of a 12 in. x 8 in. reducing elbow in RHR service water pump discharge piping, which experienced significant degradation due to wall thinning in localized areas, was evaluated using finite element analysis methodology. Since the simplified methods showed very small margin and recommended replacement of the elbow, a detailed 3-D finite element model was built using shell elements and analyzed for internal pressure and moment loadings. The finite element analysis incorporated the U.T. measured wall thickness data at various spots that experienced wall thinning. The results showed that the elbow is acceptable as-is until the next fuel cycle. FEA, though cumbersome, and time consuming is a valuable analytical tool in making critical decisions with regard to component replacement of border line situation cases, eliminating some conservatism while not compromising the safety.
Mohammadi, Hadi; Bahramian, Fereshteh; Wan, Wankei
2009-11-01
Modeling soft tissue using the finite element method is one of the most challenging areas in the field of biomechanical engineering. To date, many models have been developed to describe heart valve leaflet tissue mechanics, which are accurate to some extent. Nevertheless, there is no comprehensive method to modeling soft tissue mechanics, This is because (1) the degree of anisotropy in the heart valve leaflet changes layer by layer due to a variety of collagen fiber densities and orientations that cannot be taken into account in the model and also (2) a constitutive material model fully describing the mechanical properties of the leaflet structure is not available in the literature. In this framework, we develop a new high-order element using p-type finite element formulation to create anisotropic material properties similar to those of the heart valve leaflet tissue in only one single element. This element also takes the nonlinearity of the leaflet tissue into consideration using a bilinear material model. This new element is composed a two-dimensional finite element in the principal directions of leaflet tissue and a p-type finite element in the direction of thickness. The proposed element is easy to implement, much more efficient than standard elements available in commercial finite element packages. This study is one step towards the modeling of soft tissue mechanics using a meshless finite element approach to be applied in real-time haptic feedback of soft-tissue models in virtual reality simulation. PMID:19773193
Effect of geometric shape on two-dimensional finite elements
Cook, W.A.
1981-01-01
Three quadrilateral elements are defined. These are an eight-nodal-point serendipity element (QUAD8s), a nine-nodal-point serendipity element (QUAD9s), and a nine-nodal-point quadrilateral element composed of two six-nodal-point triangular elements (QUAD9t). The effect that the geometric shape of the element has on the approximation function of each element is discussed. Two beam problems demonstrate that when the shape of the elements becomes skewed, the QUAD9t element significantly improves the calculated results. Finally, a recommendation is made for the QUAD8s and QUAD9t to be used together for the most efficient and accurate results.
FECAP - FINITE ELEMENT COMPOSITE ANALYSIS PROGRAM FOR A MICROCOMPUTER
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bowles, D. E.
1994-01-01
Advanced composite materials have gained use in the aerospace industry over the last 20 years because of their high specific strength and stiffness, and low coefficient of thermal expansion. Design of composite structures requires the analysis of composite material behavior. The Finite Element Composite Analysis Program, FECAP, is a special purpose finite element analysis program for analyzing composite material behavior with a microcomputer. Composite materials, in regard to this program, are defined as the combination of at least two distinct materials to form one nonhomogeneous anisotropic material. FECAP assumes a state of generalized plane strain exists in a material consisting of two or more orthotropic phases, subjected to mechanical and/or thermal loading. The finite element formulation used in FECAP is displacement based and requires the minimization of the total potential energy for each element with respect to the unknown variables. This procedure leads to a set of linear simultaneous equations relating the unknown nodal displacements to the applied loads. The equations for each element are assembled into a global system, the boundary conditions are applied, and the system is solved for the nodal displacements. The analysis may be performed using either 4-mode linear or 8-mode quadratic isoparametric elements. Output includes the nodal displacements, and the element stresses and strains. FECAP was written for a Hewlett Packard HP9000 Series 200 Microcomputer with the HP Basic operating system. It was written in HP BASIC 3.0 and requires approximately 0.5 Mbytes of RAM in addition to what is required for the operating system. A math coprocessor card is highly recommended. FECAP was developed in 1988.
Dynamic finite element modeling of poroviscoelastic soft tissue.
Yang, Zhaochun; Smolinski, Patrick
2006-02-01
Clinical evidences relative to biomechanical factors have demonstrated their important contribution to the behaviour of soft tissues. Finite element (FE) analysis is used to study the mechanical behaviour of soft tissue because it can provide numerical solutions to problems that are intractable to analytic solutions. This study focuses on the development of a FE model of a poroelastic biological tissue, which incorporates the viscoelastic material behaviour, finite deformation and inertial effect. The FE formulation is based on the weak form derived from the governing equation, and Newmark-beta method as well as Newton's method is incorporated into the implicit non-linear solutions. One-dimensional analytical solutions were used to verify the theoretical formulation and the numerical implementation of the proposed model. This study was further extended to analyze two-dimensional biomechanical models and the results clearly demonstrate the importance of including finite deformation, viscoelasticity and inertial effects. PMID:16880152
Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of FRP Strengthened Reinforced Concrete Beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sasmal, S.; Kalidoss, S.; Srinivas, V.
2012-12-01
This paper focuses on nonlinear analysis of parent and fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) strengthened reinforced concrete (RC) beam using general purpose finite element software, ANSYS. Further, it is aimed to investigate the suitability of different elements available in ANSYS library to represent FRP, epoxy and interface. 3-D structural RC solid element has been used to model concrete and truss element is employed for modeling the reinforcements. FRP has been modelled using 3-D membrane element and layered element with number of layers, epoxy is modelled using eight node brick element, and eight node layered solid shell is used to mathematically represent the concrete-FRP interface behavior. Initially, the validation of the numerical model for the efficacy of different elements (SOLID65 for concrete and LINK8 for reinforcement) and material models is carried out on the experimental beam reported in literature. The validated model, elements and material properties is used to evaluate the load-displacement and load-strain response behavior and crack patterns of the FRP strengthened RC beams. The numerical results indicated that significant improvement in the displacement in the strengthened RC beams with the advancement of cracks. The study shows that FRP with shell elements is recommended when single layer of FRP is used. When multi layered FRP is used, solid layered element can be a reasonably good choice whereas the epoxy matrix with linear solid element does not need further complicated model. Interfacial element makes the analysis minimally improved at the cost of complicated modeling issues and considerable computation time. Hence, for nonlinear analysis of usual strengthened structures, unless it is specifically required for, interface element may not be required and a full contact can be assumed at interface.
Experience with automatic, dynamic load balancing and adaptive finite element computation
Wheat, S.R.; Devine, K.D.; Maccabe, A.B.
1993-10-01
Distributed memory, Massively Parallel (MP), MIMD technology has enabled the development of applications requiring computational resources previously unobtainable. Structural mechanics and fluid dynamics applications, for example, are often solved by finite element methods (FEMs) requiring, millions of degrees of freedom to accurately simulate physical phenomenon. Adaptive methods, which automatically refine or coarsen meshes and vary the order of accuracy of the numerical solution, offer greater robustness and computational efficiency than traditional FEMs by reducing the amount of computation required away from physical structures such as shock waves and boundary layers. On MP computers, FEMs frequently result in distributed processor load imbalances. To overcome load imbalance, many MP FEMs use static load balancing as a preprocessor to the finite element calculation. Adaptive methods complicate the load imbalance problem since the work per element is not uniform across the solution domain and changes as the computation proceeds. Therefore, dynamic load balancing is required to maintain global load balance. We describe a dynamic, fine-grained, element-based data migration system that maintains global load balance and is effective in the presence of changing work loads. Global load balance is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method utilizes an automatic element management system library to which a programmer integrates the application`s computational description. The library`s flexibility supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications.
Error Analysis In Explicit Finite Element Analysis Of Incremental Sheet Forming
Bambach, M.; Hirt, G.
2007-05-17
Asymmetric incremental sheet forming (AISF) is a relatively new manufacturing process for the production of low volumes of sheet metal parts. Forming is accomplished by the CNC controlled movements of a simple ball-headed tool that follows a 3D trajectory to gradually shape a sheet metal blank. The local plastic deformation under the tool leads to a number of challenges for the Finite Element Modeling. Previous work indicates that implicit finite element methods are at present not efficient enough to allow for the simulation of AISF for industrially relevant parts, mostly due to the fact that the moving contact requires a very small time step. Explicit Finite Element methods can be speeded up by means of mass or load scaling to enable the simulation of large scale sheet metal forming problems, even for AISF. However, it is well known that the methods used to speed up the FE calculations can entail poor results when dynamic effects start to dominate the solution. Typically, the ratio of kinetic to internal energy is used as an assessment of the influence of dynamical effects. It has already been shown in the past that this global criterion can easily be violated locally for a patch of elements of the finite element mesh. This is particularly important for AISF with its highly localised loading and complex tool kinematics. The present paper details an investigation of dynamical effects in explicit Finite Element analysis of AISF. The interplay of mass or time scaling scheme and the smoothness of the tool trajectory is analysed with respect to the resulting errors. Models for tool path generation will be presented allowing for a generation of tool trajectories with predefined maximum speed and acceleration. Based on this, a strategy for error control is proposed which helps reduce the time for setting up reliable explicit finite element models for AISF.
Error Analysis In Explicit Finite Element Analysis Of Incremental Sheet Forming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bambach, M.; Hirt, G.
2007-05-01
Asymmetric incremental sheet forming (AISF) is a relatively new manufacturing process for the production of low volumes of sheet metal parts. Forming is accomplished by the CNC controlled movements of a simple ball-headed tool that follows a 3D trajectory to gradually shape a sheet metal blank. The local plastic deformation under the tool leads to a number of challenges for the Finite Element Modeling. Previous work indicates that implicit finite element methods are at present not efficient enough to allow for the simulation of AISF for industrially relevant parts, mostly due to the fact that the moving contact requires a very small time step. Explicit Finite Element methods can be speeded up by means of mass or load scaling to enable the simulation of large scale sheet metal forming problems, even for AISF. However, it is well known that the methods used to speed up the FE calculations can entail poor results when dynamic effects start to dominate the solution. Typically, the ratio of kinetic to internal energy is used as an assessment of the influence of dynamical effects. It has already been shown in the past that this global criterion can easily be violated locally for a patch of elements of the finite element mesh. This is particularly important for AISF with its highly localised loading and complex tool kinematics. The present paper details an investigation of dynamical effects in explicit Finite Element analysis of AISF. The interplay of mass or time scaling scheme and the smoothness of the tool trajectory is analysed with respect to the resulting errors. Models for tool path generation will be presented allowing for a generation of tool trajectories with predefined maximum speed and acceleration. Based on this, a strategy for error control is proposed which helps reduce the time for setting up reliable explicit finite element models for AISF.
A massively parallel adaptive finite element method with dynamic load balancing
Devine, K.D.; Flaherty, J.E.; Wheat, S.R.; Maccabe, A.B.
1993-05-01
We construct massively parallel, adaptive finite element methods for the solution of hyperbolic conservation laws in one and two dimensions. Spatial discretization is performed by a discontinuous Galerkin finite element method using a basis of piecewise Legendre polynomials. Temporal discretization utilizes a Runge-Kutta method. Dissipative fluxes and projection limiting prevent oscillations near solution discontinuities. The resulting method is of high order and may be parallelized efficiently on MIMD computers. We demonstrate parallel efficiency through computations on a 1024-processor nCUBE/2 hypercube. We also present results using adaptive p-refinement to reduce the computational cost of the method. We describe tiling, a dynamic, element-based data migration system. Tiling dynamically maintains global load balance in the adaptive method by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the dynamic load balancing with adaptive p-refinement examples.
A massively parallel adaptive finite element method with dynamic load balancing
Devine, K.D.; Flaherty, J.E.; Wheat, S.R.; Maccabe, A.B.
1993-12-31
The authors construct massively parallel adaptive finite element methods for the solution of hyperbolic conservation laws. Spatial discretization is performed by a discontinuous Galerkin finite element method using a basis of piecewise Legendre polynomials. Temporal discretization utilizes a Runge-Kutta method. Dissipative fluxes and projection limiting prevent oscillations near solution discontinuities. The resulting method is of high order and may be parallelized efficiently on MIMD computers. They demonstrate parallel efficiency through computations on a 1024-processor nCUBE/2 hypercube. They present results using adaptive p-refinement to reduce the computational cost of the method, and tiling, a dynamic, element-based data migration system that maintains global load balance of the adaptive method by overlapping neighborhoods of processors that each perform local balancing.
Efficient discretization in finite difference method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rozos, Evangelos; Koussis, Antonis; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris
2015-04-01
Finite difference method (FDM) is a plausible and simple method for solving partial differential equations. The standard practice is to use an orthogonal discretization to form algebraic approximate formulations of the derivatives of the unknown function and a grid, much like raster maps, to represent the properties of the function domain. For example, for the solution of the groundwater flow equation, a raster map is required for the characterization of the discretization cells (flow cell, no-flow cell, boundary cell, etc.), and two raster maps are required for the hydraulic conductivity and the storage coefficient. Unfortunately, this simple approach to describe the topology comes along with the known disadvantages of the FDM (rough representation of the geometry of the boundaries, wasted computational resources in the unavoidable expansion of the grid refinement in all cells of the same column and row, etc.). To overcome these disadvantages, Hunt has suggested an alternative approach to describe the topology, the use of an array of neighbours. This limits the need for discretization nodes only for the representation of the boundary conditions and the flow domain. Furthermore, the geometry of the boundaries is described more accurately using a vector representation. Most importantly, graded meshes can be employed, which are capable of restricting grid refinement only in the areas of interest (e.g. regions where hydraulic head varies rapidly, locations of pumping wells, etc.). In this study, we test the Hunt approach against MODFLOW, a well established finite difference model, and the Finite Volume Method with Simplified Integration (FVMSI). The results of this comparison are examined and critically discussed.
Finite element solution of transient fluid-structure interaction problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Everstine, Gordon C.; Cheng, Raymond S.; Hambric, Stephen A.
1991-01-01
A finite element approach using NASTRAN is developed for solving time-dependent fluid-structure interaction problems, with emphasis on the transient scattering of acoustic waves from submerged elastic structures. Finite elements are used for modeling both structure and fluid domains to facilitate the graphical display of the wave motion through both media. For the liquid, the use of velocity potential as the fundamental unknown results in a symmetric matrix equation. The approach is illustrated for the problem of transient scattering from a submerged elastic spherical shell subjected to an incident tone burst. The use of an analogy between the equations of elasticity and the wave equation of acoustics, a necessary ingredient to the procedure, is summarized.
A finite element model of ferroelectric/ferroelastic polycrystals
HWANG,STEPHEN C.; MCMEEKING,ROBERT M.
2000-02-17
A finite element model of polarization switching in a polycrystalline ferroelectric/ferroelastic ceramic is developed. It is assumed that a crystallite switches if the reduction in potential energy of the polycrystal exceeds a critical energy barrier per unit volume of switching material. Each crystallite is represented by a finite element with the possible dipole directions assigned randomly subject to crystallographic constraints. The model accounts for both electric field induced (i.e. ferroelectric) switching and stress induced (i.e. ferroelastic) switching with piezoelectric interactions. Experimentally measured elastic, dielectric, and piezoelectric constants are used consistently, but different effective critical energy barriers are selected phenomenologically. Electric displacement versus electric field, strain versus electric field, stress versus strain, and stress versus electric displacement loops of a ceramic lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) are modeled well below the Curie temperature.
Finite element neural networks for electromagnetic inverse problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramuhalli, P.; Udpa, L.; Udpa, S.
2002-05-01
Iterative approaches using numerical forward models are commonly used for solving inverse problems in nondestructive evaluation. The drawbacks of these approaches include their high computational cost and the difficulty in computing gradients for updating defect profiles. This paper proposes a finite element neural network (FENN) that embeds finite element models into a neural network format. This approach enables fast and accurate solution of the forward problem. The FENN can then be used as the forward model in an iterative approach to solve the inverse problem. Gradient-based optimization methods are easily applied since the FENN provides an explicit functional mapping between the defect profile and the measured signal. Results of applying the FENN to several simple electromagnetic forward and inverse problems are presented.
Finite Element Simulation of Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodetector
Guarino, G.; Donaldson, W.R.; Mikulics, M.; Marso, M.; Kordos, P.; Sobolewski, R.
2009-08-19
The successful application of finite element analysis to ultrafast optoelectronic devices is demonstrated. Finite element models have been developed for both an alloyed- and surface-contact metal–semiconductor–metal photodetectors. The simulation results agree with previously reported experimental data. The alloyed device, despite having a somewhat larger capacitance, has a non-illuminated region of lower resistance with a more-uniform and deeper-penetrating electric field and carrier transport current. The latter explains, in terms of the equivalent lumped parameters, the experimentally observed faster response of the alloyed device. The model is further used to predict improved responsivity, based on electrode spacing and antireflective coating. We project that increasing the depth of the alloyed contact beyond approximately half of the optical penetration depth will not yield significantly improved responsivity.
Experimental validation of a finite-element model updating procedure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanev, S.; Weber, F.; Verhaegen, M.
2007-02-01
This paper validates an approach to damage detection and localization based on finite-element model updating (FEMU). The approach has the advantage over other existing methods to FEMU that it simultaneously updates all three finite-element model matrices at the same time preserving their structure (connectivity), symmetry and positive-definiteness. The approach is tested in this paper on an experimental setup consisting of a steel cable, where local mass changes and global change in the tension of the cable are introduced. The new algorithm is applied to identify the size and location of different changes in the structural parameters (mass, stiffness and damping). The obtained results clearly indicate that even small structural changes can be detected and localized with the new method. Additionally, a comparison with many other FEMU-based methods has been performed to show the superiority of the considered method.
Finite Element Modeling of Micromachined MEMS Photon Devices
Datskos, P.G.; Evans, B.M.; Schonberger, D.
1999-09-20
The technology of microelectronics that has evolved over the past half century is one of great power and sophistication and can now be extended to many applications (MEMS and MOEMS) other than electronics. An interesting application of MEMS quantum devices is the detection of electromagnetic radiation. The operation principle of MEMS quantum devices is based on the photoinduced stress in semiconductors, and the photon detection results from the measurement of the photoinduced bending. These devices can be described as micromechanical photon detectors. In this work, we have developed a technique for simulating electronic stresses using finite element analysis. We have used our technique to model the response of micromechanical photon devices to external stimuli and compared these results with experimental data. Material properties, geometry, and bimaterial design play an important role in the performance of micromechanical photon detectors. We have modeled these effects using finite element analysis and included the effects of bimaterial thickness coating, effective length of the device, width, and thickness.
A weak Hamiltonian finite element method for optimal control problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hodges, Dewey H.; Bless, Robert R.
1989-01-01
A temporal finite element method based on a mixed form of the Hamiltonian weak principle is developed for dynamics and optimal control problems. The mixed form of Hamilton's weak principle contains both displacements and momenta as primary variables that are expanded in terms of nodal values and simple polynomial shape functions. Unlike other forms of Hamilton's principle, however, time derivatives of the momenta and displacements do not appear therein; instead, only the virtual momenta and virtual displacements are differentiated with respect to time. Based on the duality that is observed to exist between the mixed form of Hamilton's weak principle and variational principles governing classical optimal control problems, a temporal finite element formulation of the latter can be developed in a rather straightforward manner. Several well-known problems in dynamics and optimal control are illustrated. The example dynamics problem involves a time-marching problem. As optimal control examples, elementary trajectory optimization problems are treated.
Finite Element Analysis Applied to Dentoalveolar Trauma: Methodology Description
da Silva, B. R.; Moreira Neto, J. J. S.; da Silva, F. I.; de Aguiar, A. S. W.
2011-01-01
Dentoalveolar traumatic injuries are among the clinical conditions most frequently treated in dental practice. However, few studies so far have addressed the biomechanical aspects of these events, probably as a result of difficulties in carrying out satisfactory experimental and clinical studies as well as the unavailability of truly scientific methodologies. The aim of this paper was to describe the use of finite element analysis applied to the biomechanical evaluation of dentoalveolar trauma. For didactic purposes, the methodological process was divided into steps that go from the creation of a geometric model to the evaluation of final results, always with a focus on methodological characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages, so as to allow the reader to customize the methodology according to specific needs. Our description shows that the finite element method can faithfully reproduce dentoalveolar trauma, provided the methodology is closely followed and thoroughly evaluated. PMID:21991463
Compatibility conditions of structural mechanics for finite element analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patnaik, Surya N.; Berke, Laszlo; Gallagher, Richard H.
1990-01-01
The equilibrium equations and the compatibility conditions are fundamental to the analyses of structures. However, anyone who undertakes even a cursory generic study of the compatibility conditions can discover, with little effort, that historically this facet of structural mechanics had not been adequately researched by the profession. Now the compatibility conditions (CC's) have been researched and are understood to a great extent. For finite element discretizations, the CC's are banded and can be divided into three distinct categories: (1) the interface CC's; (2) the cluster or field CC's; and (3) the external CC's. The generation of CC's requires the separating of a local region, then writing the deformation displacement relation (ddr) for the region, and finally, the eliminating of the displacements from the ddr. The procedure to generate all three types of CC's is presented and illustrated through examples of finite element models. The uniqueness of the CC's thus generated is shown.
Finite Element Analysis of Extrusion of Multifilamentary Superconductor Precursor
Peng, X.; Sumption, M.D.; Collings, E.W.
2004-06-28
The extrusion of multifilamentary superconductor precursor billets has been modeled using finite element analysis. The billet configuration was 6 around 1, with the subelement consisting of Nb rods, and the outer can or sleeve was Cu. Two general cases were investigated, those in which the re-stack rods were initially; (i) round, and (ii) hexed. A thermo-mechanical, elasto-plastic, finite-element method was used to analyze the extrusion process. In this 3D FEM model, the initial state of the billet was assumed to be absent of bonding. A typical die angle (2{alpha}=45 deg.) and a series of extrusion ratios were selected to perform the simulation and the corresponding stress and strain distributions of the two billet variants processed were compared. Based on the stress and deformation created at the rod/rod and rod/sleeve interfaces, the bonding conditions generated through the extrusion were investigated.
Exemplifying Quantum Systems in a Finite Element Basis
Young, Toby D.
2009-08-13
This paper presents a description of the abstractions required for the expression and solution of the linear single-particle Schroedinger equation in a finite element basis. This paper consists of two disparate themes: First, to layout and establish the foundations of finite element analysis as an approximate numerical solution to extendable quantum mechanical systems; and second, to promote a high-performance open-source computational model for the approximate numerical solution to quantum mechanical systems. The structural foundation of the one-and two-dimensional time-independent Schroedinger equation describing an infinite potential well is explored and a brief overview of the hierarchal design of the computational library written in C++ is given.
Finite element simulation of temperature dependent free surface flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Engelman, M. S.; Sani, R. L.
1985-01-01
The method of Engelman and Sani (1984) for a finite-element simulation of incompressible surface flows with a free and/or moving fluid interface, such as encountered in crystal growth and coating and polymer technology, is extended to temperature-dependent flows, including the effect of temperature-dependent surface tension. The basic algorithm of Saito and Scriven (1981) and Ruschak (1980) has been generalized and implemented in a robust and versatile finite-element code that can be employed with relative ease for the simulation of free-surface problems in complex geometries. As a result, the costly dependence on the Newton-Raphson algorithm has been eliminated by replacing it with a quasi-Newton iterative method, which nearly retains the superior convergence properties of the Newton-Raphson method.
Finite element solution theory for three-dimensional boundary flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, A. J.
1974-01-01
A finite element algorithm is derived for the numerical solution of a three-dimensional flow field described by a system of initial-valued, elliptic boundary value partial differential equations. The familiar three-dimensional boundary layer equations belong to this description when diffusional processes in only one coordinate direction are important. The finite element algorithm transforms the original description into large order systems of ordinary differential equations written for the dependent variables discretized at node points of an arbitrarily irregular computational lattice. The generalized elliptic boundary conditions is piecewise valid for each dependent variable on boundaries that need not explicitly coincide with coordinate surfaces. Solutions for sample problems in laminar and turbulent boundary flows illustrate favorable solution accuracy, convergence, and versatility.
Surface subsidence prediction by nonlinear finite-element analysis
Najjar, Y. . Dept. of Civil Engineering); Zaman, M. . School of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science)
1993-11-01
An improved two-dimensional plane-strain numerical procedure based on the incremental-iterative nonlinear finite-element is developed to predict ground subsidence caused by underground mining. The procedure emphasizes the use of the following features: (1) an appropriate constitutive model that can accurately describe the nonlinear behavior of geological strata; and (2) an accurate algorithm for simulation of excavation sequences consistent with the actual underground mining process. The computer code is used to analyze a collapse that occurred in the Blue Goose Lease [number sign]1 Mine in northeastern Oklahoma. A parametric study is conducted to investigate the effects of some selected factors on the shape and extent of subsidence profiles. Analyses of the numerical results indicate that the nonlinear finite-element technique can be employed to meaningfully predict and characterize the potential for ground subsidence due to underground mining.
Cyclic creep analysis from elastic finite-element solutions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaufman, A.; Hwang, S. Y.
1986-01-01
A uniaxial approach was developed for calculating cyclic creep and stress relaxation at the critical location of a structure subjected to cyclic thermomechanical loading. This approach was incorporated into a simplified analytical procedure for predicting the stress-strain history at a crack initiation site for life prediction purposes. An elastic finite-element solution for the problem was used as input for the simplified procedure. The creep analysis includes a self-adaptive time incrementing scheme. Cumulative creep is the sum of the initial creep, the recovery from the stress relaxation and the incremental creep. The simplified analysis was exercised for four cases involving a benchmark notched plate problem. Comparisons were made with elastic-plastic-creep solutions for these cases using the MARC nonlinear finite-element computer code.
A finite element model for residual stress in repair welds
Feng, Z.; Wang, X.L.; Spooner, S.; Goodwin, G.M.; Maziasz, P.J.; Hubbard, C.R.; Zacharia, T.
1996-03-28
This paper describes a three-dimensional finite element model for calculation of the residual stress distribution caused by repair welding. Special user subroutines were developed to simulate the continuous deposition of filler metal during welding. The model was then tested by simulating the residual stress/strain field of a FeAl weld overlay clad on a 2{1/4}Cr-1 Mo steel plate, for which neutron diffraction measurement data of the residual strain field were available. It is shown that the calculated residual stress distribution was consistent with that determined with neutron diffraction. High tensile residual stresses in both the longitudinal and transverse directions were observed around the weld toe at the end of the weld. The strong spatial dependency of the residual stresses in the region around the weld demonstrates that the common two-dimensional cross-section finite element models should not be used for repair welding analysis.
Phased array antenna analysis using hybrid finite element methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McGrath, Daniel T.
1993-06-01
This research in computational electromagnetics developed a new method for predicting the near-field mutual coupling effects in phased array antennas, using the finite element method (FEM) in combination with integral equations. Accurate feed modeling is accomplished by enforcing continuity between the FEM solution and an arbitrary number of wave guide models across a ground plane aperture. A periodic integral equation is imposed above the antenna's physical structure in order to enforce the radiation condition and to confine the analysis to an array unit cell. The electric field is expanded in terms of vector finite elements, and Galerkin's method is used to write the problem as a matrix equation. A general-purpose computer code was developed and validated by comparing its results to published data for several array types. Its versatility was demonstrated with predictions of the scanning properties of arrays of printed dipoles and printed flared notches.
An emulator for minimizing computer resources for finite element analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melosh, R.; Utku, S.; Islam, M.; Salama, M.
1984-01-01
A computer code, SCOPE, has been developed for predicting the computer resources required for a given analysis code, computer hardware, and structural problem. The cost of running the code is a small fraction (about 3 percent) of the cost of performing the actual analysis. However, its accuracy in predicting the CPU and I/O resources depends intrinsically on the accuracy of calibration data that must be developed once for the computer hardware and the finite element analysis code of interest. Testing of the SCOPE code on the AMDAHL 470 V/8 computer and the ELAS finite element analysis program indicated small I/O errors (3.2 percent), larger CPU errors (17.8 percent), and negligible total errors (1.5 percent).
Finite-element thermo-viscoplastic analysis of aerospace structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pandey, Ajay; Dechaumphai, Pramote; Thornton, Earl A.
1990-01-01
The time-dependent thermo-viscoplastic response of aerospace structures subjected to intense aerothermal loads is predicted using the finite-element method. The finite-element analysis uses the Bodner-Partom unified viscoplastic constitutive relations to determine rate-dependent nonlinear material behavior. The methodology is verified by comparison with experimental data and other numerical results for a uniaxially-loaded bar. The method is then used (1) to predict the structural response of a rectangular plate subjected to line heating along a centerline, and (2) to predict the thermal-structural response of a convectively-cooled engine cowl leading edge subjected to aerodynamic shock-shock interference heating. Compared to linear elastic analysis, the viscoplastic analysis results in lower peak stresses and regions of plastic deformations.
Finite element thermo-viscoplastic analysis of aerospace structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pandey, Ajay K.; Dechaumphai, Pramote; Thornton, Earl A.
1990-01-01
The time-dependent thermo-viscoplastic response of aerospace structures subjected to intense aerothermal loads is predicted using the finite-element method. The finite-element analysis uses the Bodner-Partom unified viscoplastic constitutive relations to determine rate-dependent nonlinear material behavior. The methodology is verified by comparison with experimental data and other numerical results for a uniaxially-loaded bar. The method is then used (1) to predict the structural response of a rectangular plate subjected to line heating along a centerline, and (2) to predict the thermal-structural response of a convectively-cooled engine cowl leading edge subjected to aerodynamic shock-shock interference heating. Compared to linear elastic analysis, the viscoplastic analysis results in lower peak stresses and regions of plastic deformations.
Finite element calculation of residual stress in dental restorative material
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grassia, Luigi; D'Amore, Alberto
2012-07-01
A finite element methodology for residual stresses calculation in dental restorative materials is proposed. The material under concern is a multifunctional methacrylate-based composite for dental restorations, activated by visible light. Reaction kinetics, curing shrinkage, and viscoelastic relaxation functions were required as input data on a structural finite element solver. Post cure effects were considered in order to quantify the residual stresses coming out from natural contraction with respect to those debited to the chemical shrinkage. The analysis showed for a given test case that residual stresses frozen in the dental restoration at uniform temperature of 37°C are of the same order of magnitude of the strength of the dental composite material per se.
A weak Hamiltonian finite element method for optimal control problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hodges, Dewey H.; Bless, Robert R.
1990-01-01
A temporal finite element method based on a mixed form of the Hamiltonian weak principle is developed for dynamics and optimal control problems. The mixed form of Hamilton's weak principle contains both displacements and momenta as primary variables that are expanded in terms of nodal values and simple polynomial shape functions. Unlike other forms of Hamilton's principle, however, time derivatives of the momenta and displacements do not appear therein; instead, only the virtual momenta and virtual displacements are differentiated with respect to time. Based on the duality that is observed to exist between the mixed form of Hamilton's weak principle and variational principles governing classical optimal control problems, a temporal finite element formulation of the latter can be developed in a rather straightforward manner. Several well-known problems in dynamics and optimal control are illustrated. The example dynamics problem involves a time-marching problem. As optimal control examples, elementary trajectory optimization problems are treated.
Weak Hamiltonian finite element method for optimal control problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hodges, Dewey H.; Bless, Robert R.
1991-01-01
A temporal finite element method based on a mixed form of the Hamiltonian weak principle is developed for dynamics and optimal control problems. The mixed form of Hamilton's weak principle contains both displacements and momenta as primary variables that are expanded in terms of nodal values and simple polynomial shape functions. Unlike other forms of Hamilton's principle, however, time derivatives of the momenta and displacements do not appear therein; instead, only the virtual momenta and virtual displacements are differentiated with respect to time. Based on the duality that is observed to exist between the mixed form of Hamilton's weak principle and variational principles governing classical optimal control problems, a temporal finite element formulation of the latter can be developed in a rather straightforward manner. Several well-known problems in dynamics and optimal control are illustrated. The example dynamics problem involves a time-marching problem. As optimal control examples, elementary trajectory optimization problems are treated.
Finite element dynamic analysis of finite beams on a bilinear foundation under a moving load
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castro Jorge, P.; Pinto da Costa, A.; Simões, F. M. F.
2015-06-01
The present paper is concerned with the behaviour of finite elastic beams, acted by a moving transverse concentrated load, interacting with elastic foundations of different stiffnesses in compression and in tension. Using finite element analyses, the displacement amplitudes and the critical velocities of the load on a UIC-60 rail are computed and their dependence with respect to the difference between the foundation's moduli in compression and in tension is evaluated. The limit case of a tensionless foundation is as well analyzed. The numerical algorithm relies on the internal force vectors and tangent stiffness matrices computed exactly with automatic symbolic manipulation.
A comparison of the finite difference and finite element methods for heat transfer calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Emery, A. F.; Mortazavi, H. R.
1982-01-01
The finite difference method and finite element method for heat transfer calculations are compared by describing their bases and their application to some common heat transfer problems. In general it is noted that neither method is clearly superior, and in many instances, the choice is quite arbitrary and depends more upon the codes available and upon the personal preference of the analyst than upon any well defined advantages of one method. Classes of problems for which one method or the other is better suited are defined.
Crack modeling of rotating blades with cracked hexahedral finite element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Chao; Jiang, Dongxiang
2014-06-01
Dynamic analysis is the basis in investigating vibration features of cracked blades, where the features can be applied to monitor health state of blades, detect cracks in an early stage and prevent failures. This work presents a cracked hexahedral finite element method for dynamic analysis of cracked blades, with the purpose of addressing the contradiction between accuracy and efficiency in crack modeling of blades in rotor system. The cracked hexahedral element is first derived with strain energy release rate method, where correction of stress intensity factors of crack front and formulation of load distribution of crack surface are carried out to improve the modeling accuracy. To consider nonlinear characteristics of time-varying opening and closure effects caused by alternating loads, breathing function is proposed for the cracked hexahedral element. Second, finite element method with contact element is analyzed and used for comparison. Finally, validation of the cracked hexahedral element is carried out in terms of breathing effects of cracked blades and natural frequency in different crack depths. Good consistency is acquired between the results with developed cracked hexahedral element and contact element, while the computation time is significantly reduced in the previous one. Therefore, the developed cracked hexahedral element achieves good accuracy and high efficiency in crack modeling of rotating blades.
Lou, Zheng; Jin, Jian-Ming . E-mail: j-jin1@uiuc.edu
2007-03-01
A novel dual-field time-domain finite-element domain-decomposition method is presented for an efficient and broadband numerical simulation of electromagnetic properties of large finite arrays. Instead of treating the entire array as a single computation domain, the method considers each array element as a smaller subdomain and computes both the electric and magnetic fields inside each subdomain. Adjacent subdomains are related to each other by the equivalent surface currents on the subdomain interfaces in an explicit manner. Furthermore, the method exploits the identical geometry of the array elements and further reduces the memory requirement and CPU time. The proposed method is highly efficient for the simulation of large finite arrays. Numerical stability and computational performance of the method are discussed. Several radiation examples are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the method.
Finite element method - A companion in experimental mechanics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kobayashi, A. S.
1984-01-01
The hybrid experimental-numerical procedure for structural analysis is described by its applications in fracture mechanics. The procedure was first verified by the excellent agreements between the dynamic stress intensity factors obtained directly by dynamic photoelasticity and those generated by the hybrid procedure where a dynamic finite element code was executed in its generation mode. The hybrid procedure was then used to determine the dynamic fracture toughness of reaction bonded silicon nitride.
Finite Element Model for Hydrocephalus and Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension.
Kim, Dong-Joo; Kim, Hakseung; Park, Dae-Hyeon; Lee, Hack-Jin; Czosnyka, Zofia; Sutcliffe, Michael P F; Czosnyka, Marek
2016-01-01
Hydrocephalus and idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) are neuropathies associated with disturbed cerebrospinal fluid dynamics. Several finite element (FE) brain models were suggested to simulate the pathological changes in hydrocephalus, but with overly simplified assumptions regarding the properties of the brain parenchyma. This study proposes a two-dimensional FE brain model, capable of simulating both hydrocephalus and IIH by incorporating poro-hyperelasticity of the brain and detailed structural information (i.e., sulci). PMID:27165898
Finite element analysis of the 2240 MW HTGR PCRV
Fugelso, L.E.
1986-04-01
Three-dimensional finite element calculations for the response of the prestressed concrete reactor vessel for the 2240 MW HTGR which evaluated the stress distributions and concentrations were accomplished. Constitutive equations utilized in this evaluation were linear elastic, Von Mises elastic-plastic and the empirical Kotsovos-Newman concrete fit with and without steel reinforcing. Ultimate values of the internal pressures without initial prestress were obtained. Also stresses in the annular concrete retaining cover over the stream generator were evaluated.
An interactive virtual environment for finite element analysis
Bradshaw, S.; Canfield, T.; Kokinis, J.; Disz, T.
1995-06-01
Virtual environments (VE) provide a powerful human-computer interface that opens the door to exciting new methods of interaction with high-performance computing applications in several areas of research. The authors are interested in the use of virtual environments as a user interface to real-time simulations used in rapid prototyping procedures. Consequently, the authors are developing methods for coupling finite element models of complex mechanical systems with a VE interface for real-time interaction.
Study of the available finite element software packages at KSC
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lu, Chu-Ho
1990-01-01
The interaction among the three finite element software packages, SDRCI/I-DEAS, MSC/NASTRAN, and I/FEM, used at NASA, Kennedy Space Center is addressed. The procedures for using more than one of these application software packages to model and analyze a structure design are discussed. Design and stress analysis of a solid rocket booster fixture is illustrated by using four different combinations of the three software packages. Their results are compared and show small yet acceptable differences.
Least-squares finite element method for fluid dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jiang, Bo-Nan; Povinelli, Louis A.
1989-01-01
An overview is given of new developments of the least squares finite element method (LSFEM) in fluid dynamics. Special emphasis is placed on the universality of LSFEM; the symmetry and positiveness of the algebraic systems obtained from LSFEM; the accommodation of LSFEM to equal order interpolations for incompressible viscous flows; and the natural numerical dissipation of LSFEM for convective transport problems and high speed compressible flows. The performance of LSFEM is illustrated by numerical examples.
A verification procedure for MSC/NASTRAN Finite Element Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stockwell, Alan E.
1995-01-01
Finite Element Models (FEM's) are used in the design and analysis of aircraft to mathematically describe the airframe structure for such diverse tasks as flutter analysis and actively controlled landing gear design. FEM's are used to model the entire airplane as well as airframe components. The purpose of this document is to describe recommended methods for verifying the quality of the FEM's and to specify a step-by-step procedure for implementing the methods.
Finite element analysis of a deployable space structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hutton, D. V.
1982-01-01
To assess the dynamic characteristics of a deployable space truss, a finite element model of the Scientific Applications Space Platform (SASP) truss has been formulated. The model incorporates all additional degrees of freedom associated with the pin-jointed members. Comparison of results with SPAR models of the truss show that the joints of the deployable truss significantly affect the vibrational modes of the structure only if the truss is relatively short.
Parallel finite element simulation of large ram-air parachutes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalro, V.; Aliabadi, S.; Garrard, W.; Tezduyar, T.; Mittal, S.; Stein, K.
1997-06-01
In the near future, large ram-air parachutes are expected to provide the capability of delivering 21 ton payloads from altitudes as high as 25,000 ft. In development and test and evaluation of these parachutes the size of the parachute needed and the deployment stages involved make high-performance computing (HPC) simulations a desirable alternative to costly airdrop tests. Although computational simulations based on realistic, 3D, time-dependent models will continue to be a major computational challenge, advanced finite element simulation techniques recently developed for this purpose and the execution of these techniques on HPC platforms are significant steps in the direction to meet this challenge. In this paper, two approaches for analysis of the inflation and gliding of ram-air parachutes are presented. In one of the approaches the point mass flight mechanics equations are solved with the time-varying drag and lift areas obtained from empirical data. This approach is limited to parachutes with similar configurations to those for which data are available. The other approach is 3D finite element computations based on the Navier-Stokes equations governing the airflow around the parachute canopy and Newtons law of motion governing the 3D dynamics of the canopy, with the forces acting on the canopy calculated from the simulated flow field. At the earlier stages of canopy inflation the parachute is modelled as an expanding box, whereas at the later stages, as it expands, the box transforms to a parafoil and glides. These finite element computations are carried out on the massively parallel supercomputers CRAY T3D and Thinking Machines CM-5, typically with millions of coupled, non-linear finite element equations solved simultaneously at every time step or pseudo-time step of the simulation.
Discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element Method for Parabolic Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaneko, Hideaki; Bey, Kim S.; Hou, Gene J. W.
2004-01-01
In this paper, we develop a time and its corresponding spatial discretization scheme, based upon the assumption of a certain weak singularity of parallel ut(t) parallel Lz(omega) = parallel ut parallel2, for the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for one-dimensional parabolic problems. Optimal convergence rates in both time and spatial variables are obtained. A discussion of automatic time-step control method is also included.
Three-dimensional finite element modeling of liquid crystal devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanbrabant, Pieter J. M.; James, Richard; Beeckman, Jeroen; Neyts, Kristiaan; Willman, Eero; Fernandez, F. Anibal
2011-03-01
A finite element framework is presented to combine advanced three-dimensional liquid crystal director calculations with a full-vector beam propagation analysis. This approach becomes especially valuable to analyze and design structures in which disclinations or diffraction effects play an important role. The wide applicability of the approach is illustrated in our overview from several examples including small pixel LCOS microdisplays with homeotropic alignment.
Stability and Convergence of Underintegrated Finite Element Approximations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oden, J. T.
1984-01-01
The effects of underintegration on the numerical stability and convergence characteristics of certain classes of finite element approximations were analyzed. Particular attention is given to hourglassing instabilities that arise from underintegrating the stiffness matrix entries and checkerboard instabilities that arise from underintegrating constrain terms such as those arising from incompressibility conditions. A fundamental result reported here is the proof that the fully integrated stiffness is restored in some cases through a post-processing operation.
Quantify Resonance Inspection with Finite Element-Based Modal Analyses
Lai, Canhai; Sun, Xin; Dasch, Cameron; Harmon, George; Jones, Martin
2011-06-01
Resonance inspection uses the natural acoustic resonances of a part to identify anomalous parts. Modern instrumentation can measure the many resonant frequencies rapidly and accurately. Sophisticated sorting algorithms trained on sets of good and anomalous parts can rapidly and reliably inspect and sort parts. This paper aims at using finite-element-based modal analysis to put resonance inspection on a more quantitative basis. A production-level automotive steering knuckle is used as the example part for our study. First, the resonance frequency spectra for the knuckle are measured with two different experimental techniques. Next, scanning laser vibrometry is used to determine the mode shape corresponding to each resonance. The material properties including anisotropy are next measured to high accuracy using resonance spectroscopy on cuboids cut from the part. Then, finite element model (FEM) of the knuckle is generated by meshing the actual part geometry obtained with computed tomography (CT). The resonance frequencies and mode shapes are next predicted with a natural frequency extraction analysis after extensive mesh size sensitivity study. The good comparison between the predicted and the experimentally measured resonance spectra indicate that finite-element-based modal analyses have the potential to be a powerful tool in shortening the training process and improving the accuracy of the resonance inspection process for a complex, production level part. The finite element based analysis can also provide a means to computationally test the sensitivity of the frequencies to various possible defects such as porosity or oxide inclusions especially in the high stress regions that the part will experience in service.
Quantify Resonance Inspection with Finite Element-Based Modal Analyses
Sun, Xin; Lai, Canhai; Dasch, Cameron
2010-11-10
Resonance inspection uses the natural acoustic resonances of a part to identify anomalous parts. Modern instrumentation can measure the many resonant frequencies rapidly and accurately. Sophisticated sorting algorithms trained on sets of good and anomalous parts can rapidly and reliably inspect and sort parts. This paper aims at using finite-element-based modal analysis to put resonance inspection on a more quantitative basis. A production-level automotive steering knuckle is used as the example part for our study. First, the resonance frequency spectra for the knuckle are measured with two different experimental techniques. Next, scanning laser vibrometry is used to determine the mode shape corresponding to each resonance. The material properties including anisotropy are next measured to high accuracy using resonance spectroscopy on cuboids cut from the part. Then, finite element model (FEM) of the knuckle is generated by meshing the actual part geometry obtained with computed tomography (CT). The resonance frequencies and mode shapes are next predicted with a natural frequency extraction analysis after extensive mesh size sensitivity study. The good comparison between the predicted and the experimentally measured resonance spectra indicate that finite-element-based modal analyses have the potential to be a powerful tool in shortening the training process and improving the accuracy of the resonance inspection process for a complex, production level part. The finite element based analysis can also provide a means to computationally test the sensitivity of the frequencies to various possible defects such as porosity or oxide inclusions especially in the high stress regions that the part will experience in service.
Enhanced finite element scheme for vibrational and flow induced sound
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaltenbacher, M.; Triebenbacher, S.; Wohlmuth, B.; Zörnre, S.
2010-06-01
The paper presents Finite Element (FE) methods for classical vibroacoustics as well as computational aeroacoustics. Therewith, we can handle different grid sizes in different regions and ensure a correct coupling at the interfaces by applying the Mortar FE method. Furthermore, we can fully take into account free radiation by a new Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) technique, which is stable even for long term computations. The applicability of our developed numerical methods will be demonstrated by simulation results of the human phonation.
Finite Element Composite Analysis Program (FECAP) for a microcomputer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bowles, David E.
1988-01-01
A special purpose finite element composite analysis program for analyzing composite material behavior with a microcomputer is described. The formulation assumes a state of generalized plane strain in a material consisting of two or more orthotropic phases. Loading can be mechanical and/or thermal. The theoretical background, computer implementation, and program users guide are described in detail. A sample program is solved showing the required user input and computer generated output.
[Whiplash injury analysis of cervical vertebra by finite element method].
Wang, Tao; Li, Zheng-Dong; Shao, Yu; Chen, Yi-Jiu
2015-02-01
Finite element method (FEM) is an effective mathematical method for stress analysis, and has been gradually applied in the study of biomechanics of human body structures. This paper reviews the construction, development, materials assignment and verification of FEM model of cervical vertebra, and it also states the research results of injury mechanism of whiplash injury and biomechanical response analysis of the cervical vertebra using FEM by researchers at home and abroad. PMID:26058135
Better Finite-Element Analysis of Composite Shell Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clarke, Gregory
2007-01-01
A computer program implements a finite-element-based method of predicting the deformations of thin aerospace structures made of isotropic materials or anisotropic fiber-reinforced composite materials. The technique and corresponding software are applicable to thin shell structures in general and are particularly useful for analysis of thin beamlike members having open cross-sections (e.g. I-beams and C-channels) in which significant warping can occur.
Piezoelectric theory for finite element analysis of ultrasonic motors
Emery, J.D.; Mentesana, C.P.
1997-06-01
The authors present the fundamental equations of piezoelectricity and references. They show how a second form of the equations and a second set of coefficients can be found, through inversions involving the elasticity tensor. They show how to compute the clamped permittivity matrix from the unclamped matrix. The authors list the program pzansys.ftn and present examples of its use. This program does the conversions and calculations needed by the finite element program ANSYS.
Application of Finite Element Method to Analyze Inflatable Waveguide Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deshpande, M. D.
1998-01-01
A Finite Element Method (FEM) is presented to determine propagation characteristics of deformed inflatable rectangular waveguide. Various deformations that might be present in an inflatable waveguide are analyzed using the FEM. The FEM procedure and the code developed here are so general that they can be used for any other deformations that are not considered in this report. The code is validated by applying the present code to rectangular waveguide without any deformations and comparing the numerical results with earlier published results.
Material nonlinear analysis via mixed-iterative finite element method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sutjahjo, Edhi; Chamis, Christos C.
1992-01-01
The performance of elastic-plastic mixed-iterative analysis is examined through a set of convergence studies. Membrane and bending behaviors are tested using 4-node quadrilateral finite elements. The membrane result is excellent, which indicates the implementation of elastic-plastic mixed-iterative analysis is appropriate. On the other hand, further research to improve bending performance of the method seems to be warranted.
Finite element model for brittle fracture and fragmentation
Li, Wei; Delaney, Tristan J.; Jiao, Xiangmin; Samulyak, Roman; Lu, Cao
2016-06-01
A new computational model for brittle fracture and fragmentation has been developed based on finite element analysis of non-linear elasticity equations. The proposed model propagates the cracks by splitting the mesh nodes alongside the most over-strained edges based on the principal direction of strain tensor. To prevent elements from overlapping and folding under large deformations, robust geometrical constraints using the method of Lagrange multipliers have been incorporated. In conclusion, the model has been applied to 2D simulations of the formation and propagation of cracks in brittle materials, and the fracture and fragmentation of stretched and compressed materials.
Finite element analysis of the contact forces between viscoelastic particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Q. J.; Zhu, H. P.; Yu, A. B.
2013-06-01
The normal and tangential force-displacement (NFD and TFD) relations as well as the rolling friction between viscoelastic particles are investigated by means of finite element method (FEM). A new set of semi-theoretical models are proposed for the NFD, TFD and rolling friction based on the contact mechanics and the FEM results. Compared with previous empirical models (e.g. Linear-Spring-Dashpot model), the new models have an advantage that all parameters can be directly determined from the material properties. Therefore they can eliminate the uncertainty in parameter selection and should be more effective in discrete element method (DEM) simulations of viscoelastic granular materials.
Interactive Finite Elements for General Engine Dynamics Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adams, M. L.; Padovan, J.; Fertis, D. G.
1984-01-01
General nonlinear finite element codes were adapted for the purpose of analyzing the dynamics of gas turbine engines. In particular, this adaptation required the development of a squeeze-film damper element software package and its implantation into a representative current generation code. The ADINA code was selected because of prior use of it and familiarity with its internal structure and logic. This objective was met and the results indicate that such use of general purpose codes is viable alternative to specialized codes for general dynamics analysis of engines.
Periodic Boundary Conditions in the ALEGRA Finite Element Code
AIDUN,JOHN B.; ROBINSON,ALLEN C.; WEATHERBY,JOE R.
1999-11-01
This document describes the implementation of periodic boundary conditions in the ALEGRA finite element code. ALEGRA is an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian multi-physics code with both explicit and implicit numerical algorithms. The periodic boundary implementation requires a consistent set of boundary input sets which are used to describe virtual periodic regions. The implementation is noninvasive to the majority of the ALEGRA coding and is based on the distributed memory parallel framework in ALEGRA. The technique involves extending the ghost element concept for interprocessor boundary communications in ALEGRA to additionally support on- and off-processor periodic boundary communications. The user interface, algorithmic details and sample computations are given.
Finite element vibration analysis of tibia fixed by Ilizarov apparatus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maslov, Leonid B.; Severin, Alexey L.
2002-02-01
Dynamic simulation of the biomechanical system consisting of the human tibia bone and external holding structure as the Ilisarov apparatus is considered. The finite element method implemented as the program code MechanicsFE3D_VEO on the basis of 20-nodal isoparametric elements is utilized. The numerical vibration analysis has allowed defining both the lowest resonance frequencies and forms of oscillations and amplitude-frequency characteristics of the system in the various points on the surface of the bone and holder. The obtained results can be used as theoretical fundament to developing resonance methods for physiological state diagnostics of the regenerating osseous tissue in fracture zone.
FEATURE-BASED MULTIBLOCK FINITE ELEMENT MESH GENERATION
Shivanna, Kiran H.; Tadepalli, Srinivas C.; Grosland, Nicole M.
2010-01-01
Hexahedral finite element mesh development for anatomic structures and biomedical implants can be cumbersome. Moreover, using traditional meshing techniques, detailed features may be inadequately captured. In this paper, we describe methodologies to handle multi-feature datasets (i.e., feature edges and surfaces). Coupling multi-feature information with multiblock meshing techniques has enabled anatomic structures, as well as orthopaedic implants, to be readily meshed. Moreover, the projection process, node and element set creation are automated, thus reducing the user interaction during model development. To improve the mesh quality, Laplacian- and optimization-based mesh improvement algorithms have been adapted to the multi-feature datasets. PMID:21076650
3-D Finite Element Analyses of the Egan Cavern Field
Klamerus, E.W.; Ehgartner, B.L.
1999-02-01
Three-dimensional finite element analyses were performed for the two gas-filled storage caverns at the Egan field, Jennings dome, Louisiana. The effects of cavern enlargement on surface subsidence, storage loss, and cavern stability were investigated. The finite element model simulated the leaching of caverns to 6 and 8 billion cubic feet (BCF) and examined their performance at various operating conditions. Operating pressures varied from 0.15 psi/ft to 0.9 psi/ft at the bottom of the lowest cemented casing. The analysis also examined the stability of the web or pillar of salt between the caverns under differential pressure loadings. The 50-year simulations were performed using JAC3D, a three dimensional finite element analysis code for nonlinear quasistatic solids. A damage criterion based on onset of dilatancy was used to evaluate cavern instability. Dilation results from the development of microfractures in salt and, hence, potential increases in permeability onset occurs well before large scale failure. The analyses predicted stable caverns throughout the 50-year period for the range of pressures investigated. Some localized salt damage was predicted near the bottom walls of the caverns if the caverns are operated at minimum pressure for long periods of time. Volumetric cavern closures over time due to creep were moderate to excessive depending on the salt creep properties and operating pressures. However, subsidence above the cavern field was small and should pose no problem, to surface facilities.
Nonlinear probabilistic finite element models of laminated composite shells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Engelstad, S. P.; Reddy, J. N.
1993-01-01
A probabilistic finite element analysis procedure for laminated composite shells has been developed. A total Lagrangian finite element formulation, employing a degenerated 3-D laminated composite shell with the full Green-Lagrange strains and first-order shear deformable kinematics, forms the modeling foundation. The first-order second-moment technique for probabilistic finite element analysis of random fields is employed and results are presented in the form of mean and variance of the structural response. The effects of material nonlinearity are included through the use of a rate-independent anisotropic plasticity formulation with the macroscopic point of view. Both ply-level and micromechanics-level random variables can be selected, the latter by means of the Aboudi micromechanics model. A number of sample problems are solved to verify the accuracy of the procedures developed and to quantify the variability of certain material type/structure combinations. Experimental data is compared in many cases, and the Monte Carlo simulation method is used to check the probabilistic results. In general, the procedure is quite effective in modeling the mean and variance response of the linear and nonlinear behavior of laminated composite shells.
Crystal level simulations using Eulerian finite element methods
Becker, R; Barton, N R; Benson, D J
2004-02-06
Over the last several years, significant progress has been made in the use of crystal level material models in simulations of forming operations. However, in Lagrangian finite element approaches simulation capabilities are limited in many cases by mesh distortion associated with deformation heterogeneity. Contexts in which such large distortions arise include: bulk deformation to strains approaching or exceeding unity, especially in highly anisotropic or multiphase materials; shear band formation and intersection of shear bands; and indentation with sharp indenters. Investigators have in the past used Eulerian finite element methods with material response determined from crystal aggregates to study steady state forming processes. However, Eulerian and Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) finite element methods have not been widely utilized for simulation of transient deformation processes at the crystal level. The advection schemes used in Eulerian and ALE codes control mesh distortion and allow for simulation of much larger total deformations. We will discuss material state representation issues related to advection and will present results from ALE simulations.
A phenomenological finite element model of stereolithography processing
Chambers, R.S.; Guess, T.R.; Hinnerichs, T.D.
1996-03-01
In the stereolithography process, three dimensional parts are built layer by layer using a laser to selectively cure slices of a photocurable resin, one on top of another. As the laser spot passes over the surface of the resin, the ensuing chemical reaction causes the resin to shrink and stiffen during solidification. When laser paths cross or when new layers are cured on top of existing layers, residual stresses are generated as the cure shrinkage of the freshly gelled resin is constrained by the adjoining previously-cured material. These internal stresses can cause curling in the compliant material. A capability for performing finite element analyses of the stereolithography process has been developed. Although no attempt has been made to incorporate all the physics of the process, a numerical platform suitable for such development has been established. A methodology and code architecture have been structured to allow finite elements to be birthed (activated) according to a prescribed order mimicking the procedure by which a laser is used to cure and build-up surface layers of resin to construct a three dimensional geometry. In its present form, the finite element code incorporates a simple phenomenological viscoelastic material model of solidification that is based on the shrinkage and relaxation observed following isolated, uncoupled laser exposures. The phenomenological material model has been used to analyze the curl in a simple cantilever beam and to make qualitative distinctions between two contrived build styles.
Interpreting finite element results for brittle materials in endodontic restorations
2011-01-01
Background Finite element simulation has been used in last years for analysing the biomechanical performance of post-core restorations in endodontics, but results of these simulations have been interpreted in most of the works using von Mises stress criterion. However, the validity of this failure criterion for brittle materials, which are present in these restorations, is questionable. The objective of the paper is to analyse how finite element results for brittle materials of endodontic restorations should be interpreted to obtain correct conclusions about the possible failure in the restoration. Methods Different failure criteria (Von Mises, Rankine, Coulomb-Mohr, Modified Mohr and Christensen) and material strength data (diametral tensile strength and flexural strength) were considered in the study. Three finite element models (FEM) were developed to simulate an endodontic restoration and two typical material tests: diametral tensile test and flexural test. Results Results showed that the Christensen criterion predicts similar results as the Von Mises criterion for ductile components, while it predicts similar results to all other criteria for brittle components. The different criteria predict different failure points for the diametral tensile test, all of them under multi-axial stress states. All criteria except Von Mises predict failure for flexural test at the same point of the specimen, with this point under uniaxial tensile stress. Conclusions From the results it is concluded that the Christensen criterion is recommended for FEM result interpretation in endodontic restorations and that the flexural test is recommended to estimate tensile strength instead of the diametral tensile test. PMID:21635759
Automated Finite Element Modeling of Wing Structures for Shape Optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harvey, Michael Stephen
1993-01-01
The displacement formulation of the finite element method is the most general and most widely used technique for structural analysis of airplane configurations. Modem structural synthesis techniques based on the finite element method have reached a certain maturity in recent years, and large airplane structures can now be optimized with respect to sizing type design variables for many load cases subject to a rich variety of constraints including stress, buckling, frequency, stiffness and aeroelastic constraints (Refs. 1-3). These structural synthesis capabilities use gradient based nonlinear programming techniques to search for improved designs. For these techniques to be practical a major improvement was required in computational cost of finite element analyses (needed repeatedly in the optimization process). Thus, associated with the progress in structural optimization, a new perspective of structural analysis has emerged, namely, structural analysis specialized for design optimization application, or.what is known as "design oriented structural analysis" (Ref. 4). This discipline includes approximation concepts and methods for obtaining behavior sensitivity information (Ref. 1), all needed to make the optimization of large structural systems (modeled by thousands of degrees of freedom and thousands of design variables) practical and cost effective.
Finite Element Modeling, Simulation, Tools, and Capabilities at Superform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raman, Hari; Barnes, A. J.
2010-06-01
Over the past thirty years Superform has been a pioneer in the SPF arena, having developed a keen understanding of the process and a range of unique forming techniques to meet varying market needs. Superform’s high-profile list of customers includes Boeing, Airbus, Aston Martin, Ford, and Rolls Royce. One of the more recent additions to Superform’s technical know-how is finite element modeling and simulation. Finite element modeling is a powerful numerical technique which when applied to SPF provides a host of benefits including accurate prediction of strain levels in a part, presence of wrinkles and predicting pressure cycles optimized for time and part thickness. This paper outlines a brief history of finite element modeling applied to SPF and then reviews some of the modeling tools and techniques that Superform have applied and continue to do so to successfully superplastically form complex-shaped parts. The advantages of employing modeling at the design stage are discussed and illustrated with real-world examples.
Nonlinear explicit transient finite element analysis on the Intel Delta
Plaskacz, E.J.; Ramirez, M.R.; Gupta, S.
1993-03-01
Many large scale finite element problems are intractable on current generation production supercomputers. High-performance computer architectures offer effective avenues to bridge the gap between computational needs and the power of computational hardware. The biggest challenge lies in the substitution of the key algorithms in an application program with redesigned algorithms which exploit the new architectures and use better or more appropriate numerical techniques. A methodology for implementing nonlinear finite element analysis on a homogeneous distributed processing network is discussed. The method can also be extended to heterogeneous networks comprised of different machine architectures provided that they have a mutual communication interface. This unique feature has greatly facilitated the port of the code to the 8-node Intel Touchstone Gamma and then the 512-node Intel Touchstone Delta. The domain is decomposed serially in a preprocessor. Separate input files are written for each subdomain. These files are read in by local copies of the program executable operating in parallel. Communication between processors is addressed utilizing asynchronous and synchronous message passing. The basic kernel of message passing is the internal force exchange which is analogous to the computed interactions between sections of physical bodies in static stress analysis. Benchmarks for the Intel Delta are presented. Performance exceeding 1 gigaflop was attained. Results for two large-scale finite element meshes are presented.
Nonlinear explicit transient finite element analysis on the Intel Delta
Plaskacz, E.J. ); Ramirez, M.R.; Gupta, S. . Dept. of Civil Engineering)
1993-01-01
Many large scale finite element problems are intractable on current generation production supercomputers. High-performance computer architectures offer effective avenues to bridge the gap between computational needs and the power of computational hardware. The biggest challenge lies in the substitution of the key algorithms in an application program with redesigned algorithms which exploit the new architectures and use better or more appropriate numerical techniques. A methodology for implementing nonlinear finite element analysis on a homogeneous distributed processing network is discussed. The method can also be extended to heterogeneous networks comprised of different machine architectures provided that they have a mutual communication interface. This unique feature has greatly facilitated the port of the code to the 8-node Intel Touchstone Gamma and then the 512-node Intel Touchstone Delta. The domain is decomposed serially in a preprocessor. Separate input files are written for each subdomain. These files are read in by local copies of the program executable operating in parallel. Communication between processors is addressed utilizing asynchronous and synchronous message passing. The basic kernel of message passing is the internal force exchange which is analogous to the computed interactions between sections of physical bodies in static stress analysis. Benchmarks for the Intel Delta are presented. Performance exceeding 1 gigaflop was attained. Results for two large-scale finite element meshes are presented.
Process control of large-scale finite element simulation software
Spence, P.A.; Weingarten, L.I.; Schroder, K.; Tung, D.M.; Sheaffer, D.A.
1996-02-01
We have developed a methodology for coupling large-scale numerical codes with process control algorithms. Closed-loop simulations were demonstrated using the Sandia-developed finite element thermal code TACO and the commercially available finite element thermal-mechanical code ABAQUS. This new capability enables us to use computational simulations for designing and prototyping advanced process-control systems. By testing control algorithms on simulators before building and testing hardware, enormous time and cost savings can be realized. The need for a closed-loop simulation capability was demonstrated in a detailed design study of a rapid-thermal-processing reactor under development by CVC Products Inc. Using a thermal model of the RTP system as a surrogate for the actual hardware, we were able to generate response data needed for controller design. We then evaluated the performance of both the controller design and the hardware design by using the controller to drive the finite element model. The controlled simulations provided data on wafer temperature uniformity as a function of ramp rate, temperature sensor locations, and controller gain. This information, which is critical to reactor design, cannot be obtained from typical open-loop simulations.
Finite element mesh refinement criteria for stress analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kittur, Madan G.; Huston, Ronald L.
1990-01-01
This paper discusses procedures for finite-element mesh selection and refinement. The objective is to improve accuracy. The procedures are based on (1) the minimization of the stiffness matrix race (optimizing node location); (2) the use of h-version refinement (rezoning, element size reduction, and increasing the number of elements); and (3) the use of p-version refinement (increasing the order of polynomial approximation of the elements). A step-by-step procedure of mesh selection, improvement, and refinement is presented. The criteria for 'goodness' of a mesh are based on strain energy, displacement, and stress values at selected critical points of a structure. An analysis of an aircraft lug problem is presented as an example.
Finite-element time evolution operator for the anharmonic oscillator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Milton, Kimball A.
1995-01-01
The finite-element approach to lattice field theory is both highly accurate (relative errors approximately 1/N(exp 2), where N is the number of lattice points) and exactly unitary (in the sense that canonical commutation relations are exactly preserved at the lattice sites). In this talk I construct matrix elements for dynamical variables and for the time evolution operator for the anharmonic oscillator, for which the continuum Hamiltonian is H = p(exp 2)/2 + lambda q(exp 4)/4. Construction of such matrix elements does not require solving the implicit equations of motion. Low order approximations turn out to be extremely accurate. For example, the matrix element of the time evolution operator in the harmonic oscillator ground state gives a results for the anharmonic oscillator ground state energy accurate to better than 1 percent, while a two-state approximation reduces the error to less than 0.1 percent.
A hybrid-stress finite element for linear anisotropic elasticity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fly, Gerald W.; Oden, J. Tinsley; Pearson, Mark L.
1988-01-01
Standard assumed displacement finite elements with anisotropic material properties perform poorly in complex stress fields such as combined bending and shear and combined bending and torsion. A set of three dimensional hybrid-stress brick elements were developed with fully anisotropic material properties. Both eight-node and twenty-node bricks were developed based on the symmetry group theory of Punch and Atluri. An eight-node brick was also developed using complete polynomials and stress basis functions and reducing the order of the resulting stress parameter matrix by applying equilibrium constraints and stress compatibility constraints. Here the stress compatibility constraints must be formulated assuming anisotropic material properties. The performance of these elements was examined in numerical examples covering a broad range of stress distributions. The stress predictions show significant improvement over the assumed displacement elements but the calculation time is increased.
Higher Order Lagrange Finite Elements In M3D
J. Chen; H.R. Strauss; S.C. Jardin; W. Park; L.E. Sugiyama; G. Fu; J. Breslau
2004-12-17
The M3D code has been using linear finite elements to represent multilevel MHD on 2-D poloidal planes. Triangular higher order elements, up to third order, are constructed here in order to provide M3D the capability to solve highly anisotropic transport problems. It is found that higher order elements are essential to resolve the thin transition layer characteristic of the anisotropic transport equation, particularly when the strong anisotropic direction is not aligned with one of the Cartesian coordinates. The transition layer is measured by the profile width, which is zero for infinite anisotropy. It is shown that only higher order schemes have the ability to make this layer converge towards zero when the anisotropy gets stronger and stronger. Two cases are considered. One has the strong transport direction partially aligned with one of the element edges, the other doesn't have any alignment. Both cases have the strong transport direction misaligned with the grid line by some angles.