Science.gov

Sample records for efficient spectrum utilization

  1. Direct Spectrum Division Transmission for Highly Efficient Frequency Utilization in Satellite Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Jun-Ichi; Yamashita, Fumihiro; Nakahira, Katsuya; Kobayashi, Kiyoshi

    This paper proposes Direct Spectrum Division Transmission with spectrum editing technique. The transmitter divides the single carrier modulated signal into multiple “sub-spectra” in the frequency domain and arranges each sub-spectrum so as to more fully utilize the unused frequency resources. In the receiver, the divided sub-spectra are combined in the frequency domain and demodulated. By editing the divided spectrum in the frequency domain, the total bandwidth occupied by the multiple “sub-spectra” is less than that of the modulated signal. The proposed technique allows the unused frequency resources scattered across the bands to be better utilized. Simulations show that the proposed technique makes the bit error rate negligible.

  2. Improving VHF Spectrum Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andro, Monty; Orr, Richard; Foore, Larry; Sheehe, Charles; Freeman, Mark; Nguyen, Thanh; Bretmersky, Steven; Laberge, Chuck; Buchanan, David

    2004-01-01

    Limited VHF communications system capacity and increasing air traffic results in congestion of the aviation VHF spectrum. The voice communications errors and delayed channel access create system congestion and air traffic delays. Regulatory subdivision of bands for specific functions limits flexibility in the frequency usage. The objective of this viewgraph presentation is to identify near/mid/far term technologies to improve the performance and spectrum efficiency of current and emerging VHF communications systems. Select technologies with the highest potential, perform research and development to bring them to implementation stage.

  3. Utilizing Spectrum Efficiently (USE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-28

    and transmission rates to maximize the expected values of forward progress [3,5,21,33] as well as trans- port capacity [18,27] over a Nakagami -m channel...2009. [27] T. D. Goswami, J. M. Shea, T. F. Wong, M. Rao, and J. Glover, “Maximizing Transport Capacity for Geographic Transmission on Nakagami -m

  4. High efficiency laser spectrum conditioner

    DOEpatents

    Greiner, Norman R.

    1980-01-01

    A high efficiency laser spectrum conditioner for generating a collinear parallel output beam containing a predetermined set of frequencies from a multifrequency laser. A diffraction grating and spherical mirror are used in combination, to disperse the various frequencies of the input laser beam and direct these frequencies along various parallel lines spatially separated from one another to an apertured mask. Selection of the desired frequencies is accomplished by placement of apertures at locations on the mask where the desired frequencies intersect the mask. A recollimated parallel output beam with the desired set of frequencies is subsequently generated utilizing a mirror and grating matched and geometrically aligned in the same manner as the input grating and mirror.

  5. 47 CFR 101.521 - Spectrum utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spectrum utilization. 101.521 Section 101.521 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.521 Spectrum utilization....

  6. 47 CFR 101.521 - Spectrum utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Spectrum utilization. 101.521 Section 101.521 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.521 Spectrum utilization....

  7. 47 CFR 101.521 - Spectrum utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Spectrum utilization. 101.521 Section 101.521 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.521 Spectrum utilization....

  8. 47 CFR 101.521 - Spectrum utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Spectrum utilization. 101.521 Section 101.521 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.521 Spectrum utilization....

  9. 47 CFR 101.521 - Spectrum utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Spectrum utilization. 101.521 Section 101.521 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.521 Spectrum utilization....

  10. 75 FR 70725 - Spectrum Policy Seminar for the Utility Sector

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... Spectrum Policy Seminar for the Utility Sector AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of public... . One recommendation in the report was to provide more information to the utility sector on spectrum... grid technologies. At this spectrum policy seminar, senior officials from the Federal...

  11. Phenomena and Performance of High-Efficiency Split Spectrum Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downs, Chandler

    High-efficiency photovoltaics are one of the most promising technologies for supplying sustainable energy in the near future. These technologies allow for high energy conversion efficiencies and long system lifetimes, which is becoming an increasingly profitable power generation option. One high-efficiency photovoltaic technology gaining increasing attention recent years is that of split-spectrum photovoltaics. This technology divides the incident solar spectrum on the basis of wavelength, directing each portion of the spectrum to a different cell where the light can be utilized most efficiently. In this dissertation, a number of aspects of high-efficiency photovoltaics, most notably split-spectrum photovoltaics, are examined. First, the ideal bandgap placements of the subcells of a split-spectrum photovoltaic system are calculated, specifically determined with an eye towards practical fabrication of the cells. Two viable designs are determined which improve theoretical absolute conversion efficiency by 4-5%. Next, those systems are simulated using the TCAD Sentaurus software package to project conversion efficiencies and determine additional device specifications (doping levels, layer thicknesses, etc.). These cells show comparable conversion efficiencies to high performing, full-spectrum multijunction photovoltaics in fabrication today. In the last section, a theoretical examination of semiconductor performance under high optical concentration is performed, including the prediction and characterization of various phenomena in those devices. This work aims to improve the understanding of the performance of high concentration photovoltaics, most notably split-spectrum photovoltaics. This understanding will aid in the advancement of this technology as a widespread, sustainable energy source for use worldwide, reducing greenhouse emissions and providing cheap, clean energy.

  12. Efficient Multiterminal Spectrum Splitting via a Nanowire Array Solar Cell

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Nanowire-based solar cells opened a new avenue for increasing conversion efficiency and rationalizing material use by growing different III–V materials on silicon substrates. Here, we propose a multiterminal nanowire solar cell design with a theoretical conversion efficiency of 48.3% utilizing an efficient lateral spectrum splitting between three different III–V material nanowire arrays grown on a flat silicon substrate. This allows choosing an ideal material combination to achieve the proper spectrum splitting as well as fabrication feasibility. The high efficiency is possible due to an enhanced absorption cross-section of standing nanowires and optimization of the geometric parameters. Furthermore, we propose a multiterminal contacting scheme that can be fabricated with a technology close to standard CMOS. As an alternative we also consider a single power source with a module level voltage matching. These new concepts open avenues for next-generation solar cells for terrestrial and space applications. PMID:26878027

  13. Efficient Multiterminal Spectrum Splitting via a Nanowire Array Solar Cell.

    PubMed

    Dorodnyy, Alexander; Alarcon-Lladó, Esther; Shklover, Valery; Hafner, Christian; Fontcuberta I Morral, Anna; Leuthold, Juerg

    2015-09-16

    Nanowire-based solar cells opened a new avenue for increasing conversion efficiency and rationalizing material use by growing different III-V materials on silicon substrates. Here, we propose a multiterminal nanowire solar cell design with a theoretical conversion efficiency of 48.3% utilizing an efficient lateral spectrum splitting between three different III-V material nanowire arrays grown on a flat silicon substrate. This allows choosing an ideal material combination to achieve the proper spectrum splitting as well as fabrication feasibility. The high efficiency is possible due to an enhanced absorption cross-section of standing nanowires and optimization of the geometric parameters. Furthermore, we propose a multiterminal contacting scheme that can be fabricated with a technology close to standard CMOS. As an alternative we also consider a single power source with a module level voltage matching. These new concepts open avenues for next-generation solar cells for terrestrial and space applications.

  14. Network Model of Decreased Context Utilization in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beversdorf, David Q.; Narayanan, Ananth; Hillier, Ashleigh; Hughes, John D.

    2007-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) demonstrate impaired utilization of context, which allows for superior performance on the "false memory" task. We report the application of a simplified parallel distributed processing model of context utilization to the false memory task. For individuals without ASD, experiments support a model…

  15. Efficient Wideband Spectrum Sensing with Maximal Spectral Efficiency for LEO Mobile Satellite Systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Feilong; Li, Zhiqiang; Li, Guangxia; Dong, Feihong; Zhang, Wei

    2017-01-21

    The usable satellite spectrum is becoming scarce due to static spectrum allocation policies. Cognitive radio approaches have already demonstrated their potential towards spectral efficiency for providing more spectrum access opportunities to secondary user (SU) with sufficient protection to licensed primary user (PU). Hence, recent scientific literature has been focused on the tradeoff between spectrum reuse and PU protection within narrowband spectrum sensing (SS) in terrestrial wireless sensing networks. However, those narrowband SS techniques investigated in the context of terrestrial CR may not be applicable for detecting wideband satellite signals. In this paper, we mainly investigate the problem of joint designing sensing time and hard fusion scheme to maximize SU spectral efficiency in the scenario of low earth orbit (LEO) mobile satellite services based on wideband spectrum sensing. Compressed detection model is established to prove that there indeed exists one optimal sensing time achieving maximal spectral efficiency. Moreover, we propose novel wideband cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS) framework where each SU reporting duration can be utilized for its following SU sensing. The sensing performance benefits from the novel CSS framework because the equivalent sensing time is extended by making full use of reporting slot. Furthermore, in respect of time-varying channel, the spatiotemporal CSS (ST-CSS) is presented to attain space and time diversity gain simultaneously under hard decision fusion rule. Computer simulations show that the optimal sensing settings algorithm of joint optimization of sensing time, hard fusion rule and scheduling strategy achieves significant improvement in spectral efficiency. Additionally, the novel ST-CSS scheme performs much higher spectral efficiency than that of general CSS framework.

  16. Efficient Wideband Spectrum Sensing with Maximal Spectral Efficiency for LEO Mobile Satellite Systems

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feilong; Li, Zhiqiang; Li, Guangxia; Dong, Feihong; Zhang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The usable satellite spectrum is becoming scarce due to static spectrum allocation policies. Cognitive radio approaches have already demonstrated their potential towards spectral efficiency for providing more spectrum access opportunities to secondary user (SU) with sufficient protection to licensed primary user (PU). Hence, recent scientific literature has been focused on the tradeoff between spectrum reuse and PU protection within narrowband spectrum sensing (SS) in terrestrial wireless sensing networks. However, those narrowband SS techniques investigated in the context of terrestrial CR may not be applicable for detecting wideband satellite signals. In this paper, we mainly investigate the problem of joint designing sensing time and hard fusion scheme to maximize SU spectral efficiency in the scenario of low earth orbit (LEO) mobile satellite services based on wideband spectrum sensing. Compressed detection model is established to prove that there indeed exists one optimal sensing time achieving maximal spectral efficiency. Moreover, we propose novel wideband cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS) framework where each SU reporting duration can be utilized for its following SU sensing. The sensing performance benefits from the novel CSS framework because the equivalent sensing time is extended by making full use of reporting slot. Furthermore, in respect of time-varying channel, the spatiotemporal CSS (ST-CSS) is presented to attain space and time diversity gain simultaneously under hard decision fusion rule. Computer simulations show that the optimal sensing settings algorithm of joint optimization of sensing time, hard fusion rule and scheduling strategy achieves significant improvement in spectral efficiency. Additionally, the novel ST-CSS scheme performs much higher spectral efficiency than that of general CSS framework. PMID:28117712

  17. The effects of geography on spectrum-orbit utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawitz, P. H.

    1979-01-01

    With over forty satellites in geostationary orbit, and many more planned, it is becoming increasingly difficult to find suitable orbit positions for new systems operating at 4 and 6 GHz. Efficient spectrum-orbit utilization can be achieved with frequency-reuse techniques - orthogonal polarization, earth-station antenna discrimination, and satellite antenna discrimination - provided that service-area geography is considered. Service arc - that portion of the orbit which affords useful service to all points in a given area - is a function of the area's climate, terrain, and location as well as its size and shape. Of the three techniques, satellite antenna discrimination is the most sensitive to these factors. According to the BSS (broadcasting-satellite service) antenna reference pattern, the maximum discrimination possible is the on-axis gain, which can be as high as 49 dB for a beamwidth of 0.6 degrees, or as low as 32 dB for a 3.5-degree beamwidth. Unlike the Fixed-Satellite Service (FSS), the BSS will normally have beams that cover no more than one or two time zones.

  18. Concentrating and spectrum splitting optical device in high efficiency CPV module with five bandgaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taudien, Jerker Y.; Kern, Ludwig A.

    2013-09-01

    There is a need for a high efficiency low cost solar energy conversion system. Currently, most concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) systems concentrate the solar spectrum onto triple junction cells to strive for high conversion efficiencies and low cost. Other approaches to high efficiency use spectrum splitting. Triple junction systems are limited in efficiency and spectrum splitting systems are usually too costly for mass production. The objective is to design a spectrum splitting solar concentrator, using reverse ray tracing methods, to overcome the efficiency and cost limitations of current systems by using a single low cost optical device to concentrate and split the solar spectrum onto a large number of target photovoltaic (PV) cells. Dispersive properties of standard optical materials, such as glass or plastic, are utilized to achieve the desired spectral separation. Reverse ray tracing is used to simultaneously optimize the shape of the top and bottom interfaces of the solar concentrator to achieve the desired split spectrum at the target PV cells. Additional strategies to increase system efficiency and minimize optical losses, including draft surface shading and corner rounding losses, are explored. A CPV module, including the spectrum splitting solar concentrator and five PV cells of different bandgaps, is proposed. This spectrum splitting CPV system has a calculated aggregate cell conversion efficiency that exceeds 45%, has the potential to be mass produced, and meets the need for a high efficiency low cost solar energy conversion system.

  19. The Efficient Utilization of Open Source Information

    SciTech Connect

    Baty, Samuel R.

    2016-08-11

    These are a set of slides on the efficient utilization of open source information. Open source information consists of a vast set of information from a variety of sources. Not only does the quantity of open source information pose a problem, the quality of such information can hinder efforts. To show this, two case studies are mentioned: Iran and North Korea, in order to see how open source information can be utilized. The huge breadth and depth of open source information can complicate an analysis, especially because open information has no guarantee of accuracy. Open source information can provide key insights either directly or indirectly: looking at supporting factors (flow of scientists, products and waste from mines, government budgets, etc.); direct factors (statements, tests, deployments). Fundamentally, it is the independent verification of information that allows for a more complete picture to be formed. Overlapping sources allow for more precise bounds on times, weights, temperatures, yields or other issues of interest in order to determine capability. Ultimately, a "good" answer almost never comes from an individual, but rather requires the utilization of a wide range of skill sets held by a team of people.

  20. Efficiency of lysine utilization by growing steers.

    PubMed

    Batista, E D; Hussein, A H; Detmann, E; Miesner, M D; Titgemeyer, E C

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the efficiency of Lys utilization by growing steers. Five ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (165 ± 8 kg) housed in metabolism crates were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design; data from a sixth steer was excluded due to erratic feed intake. All steers were limit fed (2.46 kg DM/d), twice daily, diets low in RUP (81% soybean hulls, 8% wheat straw, 6% cane molasses, and 5% vitamins and minerals). Treatments were 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 g/d of Lys continuously abomasally infused. To prevent AA other than Lys from limiting performance, a mixture providing all essential AA to excess was continuously abomasally infused. Additional continuous infusions included 10 g urea/d, 200 g acetic acid/d, 200 g propionic acid/d, and 50 g butyric acid/d to the rumen and 300 g glucose/d to the abomasum. These infusions provided adequate ruminal ammonia and increased energy supply without increasing microbial protein supply. Each 6-d period included 2 d for adaptation and 4 d for total fecal and urinary collections for measuring N balance. Blood was collected on d 6 (10 h after feeding). Diet OM digestibility was not altered ( ≥ 0.66) by treatment and averaged 73.7%. Urinary N excretion was decreased from 32.3 to 24.3 g/d by increasing Lys supplementation to 9 g/d, with no further reduction when more than 9 g/d of Lys was supplied (linear and quadratic, < 0.01). Changes in total urinary N excretion predominantly were due to changes in urinary urea N. Increasing Lys supply from 0 to 9 g/d increased N retention from 21.4 to 30.7 g/d, with no further increase beyond 9 g/d of Lys (linear and quadratic, < 0.01). Break-point analysis estimated maximal N retention at 9 g/d supplemental Lys. Over the linear response surface of 0 to 9 g/d Lys, the efficiency of Lys utilization for protein deposition was 40%. Plasma urea N tended to be linearly decreased ( = 0.06) by Lys supplementation in agreement with the reduction in urinary urea N excretion. Plasma concentrations

  1. On attaining lower sidelobes and new antenna envelopes for better orbit spectrum utilization in satellite broadcasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janky, J. M.; Zaumen, W. T.; Lee, L.-S.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of using beam-shaping techniques to reduce sidelobe levels at the expense of efficiency is introduced and analyzed with respect to the potential for improving orbit-spectrum utilization. Emphasis is placed on a simple method: improving the antenna patterns used in satellite systems, for both the satellite antennas and the ground station antennas. Only broadcasting applications are considered. The discussion includes how the antenna envelope can be improved, how this improvement can be interpreted in terms of orbit spectrum utilization efficiency, and whether this improved envelope is actually realizable and feasible. It is noted that the magnitude of the improvement with a better spacecraft antenna increases rapidly as the coverage area decreases.

  2. Aligning Utility Incentives with Investment in Energy Efficiency

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This paper describes the financial effects on a utility of its spending on energy efficiency programs, how those effects could constitute barriers to more aggressive and sustained utility investment in energy efficiency.

  3. Automated utilization review is timely, accurate, efficient.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, H H; Schoenhard, W C

    1976-07-01

    Federal utilization review regulations require that hospitals establish admission and extended stay certification processes and conduct medical care evaluation studies. The computerized review system in use at Deaconess Hospital, St. Louis, has satisfied these regulations with minimum expenditure of time, effort, and money while insuring maximum accuracy and timeliness and consistency of reporting.

  4. Maximizing Light Utilization Efficiency and Hydrogen Production in Microalgal Cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Melis, Anastasios

    2014-12-31

    The project addressed the following technical barrier from the Biological Hydrogen Production section of the Fuel Cell Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan: Low Sunlight Utilization Efficiency in Photobiological Hydrogen Production is due to a Large Photosystem Chlorophyll Antenna Size in Photosynthetic Microorganisms (Barrier AN: Light Utilization Efficiency).

  5. Spectrum/orbit utilization program for geostationary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, E. F.

    1984-01-01

    Mutual interferences among geostationary satellite communication systems determine the permitted spacing between satellites and the limits on the capacity of the orbit/spectrum resources available. This paper describes the computer program for analyzing the mutual interferences among communication satellite systems. Capabilities of the program are described. Inputs, models used, program operations, and program outputs are given. To show application of the program, an example scenario is analyzed for fixed satellites providing domestic service to North America.

  6. A Novel Utility Function for Energy-Efficient Power Control Game in Cognitive Radio Networks

    PubMed Central

    Al-Gumaei, Yousef Ali; Noordin, Kamarul Ariffin; Reza, Ahmed Wasif; Dimyati, Kaharudin

    2015-01-01

    Spectrum scarcity is a major challenge in wireless communications systems requiring efficient usage and utilization. Cognitive radio network (CRN) is found as a promising technique to solve this problem of spectrum scarcity. It allows licensed and unlicensed users to share the same licensed spectrum band. Interference resulting from cognitive radios (CRs) has undesirable effects on quality of service (QoS) of both licensed and unlicensed systems where it causes degradation in received signal-to-noise ratio (SIR) of users. Power control is one of the most important techniques that can be used to mitigate interference and guarantee QoS in both systems. In this paper, we develop a new approach of a distributed power control for CRN based on utility and pricing. QoS of CR user is presented as a utility function via pricing and a distributed power control as a non-cooperative game in which users maximize their net utility (utility-price). We define the price as a real function of transmit power to increase pricing charge of the farthest CR users. We prove that the power control game proposed in this study has Nash Equilibrium as well as it is unique. The obtained results show that the proposed power control algorithm based on a new utility function has a significant reduction in transmit power consumption and high improvement in speed of convergence. PMID:26258522

  7. A novel utility function for energy-efficient power control game in cognitive radio networks.

    PubMed

    Al-Gumaei, Yousef Ali; Noordin, Kamarul Ariffin; Reza, Ahmed Wasif; Dimyati, Kaharudin

    2015-01-01

    Spectrum scarcity is a major challenge in wireless communications systems requiring efficient usage and utilization. Cognitive radio network (CRN) is found as a promising technique to solve this problem of spectrum scarcity. It allows licensed and unlicensed users to share the same licensed spectrum band. Interference resulting from cognitive radios (CRs) has undesirable effects on quality of service (QoS) of both licensed and unlicensed systems where it causes degradation in received signal-to-noise ratio (SIR) of users. Power control is one of the most important techniques that can be used to mitigate interference and guarantee QoS in both systems. In this paper, we develop a new approach of a distributed power control for CRN based on utility and pricing. QoS of CR user is presented as a utility function via pricing and a distributed power control as a non-cooperative game in which users maximize their net utility (utility-price). We define the price as a real function of transmit power to increase pricing charge of the farthest CR users. We prove that the power control game proposed in this study has Nash Equilibrium as well as it is unique. The obtained results show that the proposed power control algorithm based on a new utility function has a significant reduction in transmit power consumption and high improvement in speed of convergence.

  8. Broadband high-efficiency dielectric metasurfaces for the visible spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Devlin, Robert C.; Khorasaninejad, Mohammadreza; Chen, Wei Ting; Oh, Jaewon; Capasso, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Metasurfaces are planar optical elements that hold promise for overcoming the limitations of refractive and conventional diffractive optics. Original dielectric metasurfaces are limited to transparency windows at infrared wavelengths because of significant optical absorption and loss at visible wavelengths. Thus, it is critical that new materials and nanofabrication techniques be developed to extend dielectric metasurfaces across the visible spectrum and to enable applications such as high numerical aperture lenses, color holograms, and wearable optics. Here, we demonstrate high performance dielectric metasurfaces in the form of holograms for red, green, and blue wavelengths with record absolute efficiency (>78%). We use atomic layer deposition of amorphous titanium dioxide with surface roughness less than 1 nm and negligible optical loss. We use a process for fabricating dielectric metasurfaces that allows us to produce anisotropic, subwavelength-spaced dielectric nanostructures with shape birefringence. This process is capable of realizing any high-efficiency metasurface optical element, e.g., metalenses and axicons. PMID:27601634

  9. Broadband high-efficiency dielectric metasurfaces for the visible spectrum.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Robert C; Khorasaninejad, Mohammadreza; Chen, Wei Ting; Oh, Jaewon; Capasso, Federico

    2016-09-20

    Metasurfaces are planar optical elements that hold promise for overcoming the limitations of refractive and conventional diffractive optics. Original dielectric metasurfaces are limited to transparency windows at infrared wavelengths because of significant optical absorption and loss at visible wavelengths. Thus, it is critical that new materials and nanofabrication techniques be developed to extend dielectric metasurfaces across the visible spectrum and to enable applications such as high numerical aperture lenses, color holograms, and wearable optics. Here, we demonstrate high performance dielectric metasurfaces in the form of holograms for red, green, and blue wavelengths with record absolute efficiency (>78%). We use atomic layer deposition of amorphous titanium dioxide with surface roughness less than 1 nm and negligible optical loss. We use a process for fabricating dielectric metasurfaces that allows us to produce anisotropic, subwavelength-spaced dielectric nanostructures with shape birefringence. This process is capable of realizing any high-efficiency metasurface optical element, e.g., metalenses and axicons.

  10. 47 CFR 90.535 - Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency... Frequencies in the 763-775 and 793-805 MHz Bands § 90.535 Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency... efficiency of at least one voice path per 6.25 kHz of spectrum bandwidth. (2) Licensees authorized to...

  11. 47 CFR 90.535 - Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency... Frequencies in the 758-775 and 788-805 MHz Bands § 90.535 Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency... efficiency of at least one voice path per 6.25 kHz of spectrum bandwidth. (2) Licensees authorized to...

  12. 47 CFR 90.535 - Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency... Frequencies in the 763-775 and 793-805 MHz Bands § 90.535 Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency... efficiency of at least one voice path per 6.25 kHz of spectrum bandwidth. (2) Licensees authorized to...

  13. 47 CFR 90.535 - Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency... Frequencies in the 763-775 and 793-805 MHz Bands § 90.535 Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency... efficiency of at least one voice path per 6.25 kHz of spectrum bandwidth. (2) Licensees authorized to...

  14. 47 CFR 90.535 - Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency... Frequencies in the 763-775 and 793-805 MHz Bands § 90.535 Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency... efficiency of at least one voice path per 6.25 kHz of spectrum bandwidth. (2) Licensees authorized to...

  15. Predicting Health Utilities for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Payakachat, Nalin; Tilford, J. Mick; Kuhlthau, Karen A.; van Exel, N. Job; Kovacs, Erica; Bellando, Jayne; Pyne, Jeffrey M.; Brouwer, Werner BF

    2014-01-01

    Scientific Abstract Comparative effectiveness of interventions for children with ASDs that incorporates costs is lacking due to the scarcity of information on health utility scores or preference-weighted outcomes typically used for calculating quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). This study created algorithms for mapping clinical and behavioral measures for children with ASDs to health utility scores. The algorithms could be useful for estimating the value of different interventions and treatments used in the care of children with ASDs. Participants were recruited from two Autism Treatment Network sites. Health utility data based on the HUI3 for the child was obtained from the primary caregiver (proxy-reported) through a survey (N=224). During the initial clinic visit, proxy-reported measures of the Child Behavior Checklist, Vineland II Adaptive Behavior Scales, and the PedsQL 4.0 (start measures) were obtained and then merged with the survey data. Nine mapping algorithms were developed using the HUI3 scores as dependent variables in ordinary least squares regressions along with the start measures, the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule to measure severity, child age, and cognitive ability as independent predictors. In-sample cross-validation was conducted to evaluate predictive accuracy. Multiple imputation techniques were used for missing data. The average age for children with ASDs in this study was 8.4 (SD=3.5) years. Almost half of the children (47%) had cognitive impairment (IQ<=70). Total scores for all of the outcome measures were significantly associated with the HUI3 score. The algorithms can be applied to clinical studies containing start measures of children with ASDs to predict QALYs gained from interventions. PMID:25255789

  16. Utility investments in low-income-energy-efficiency programs

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.; Beyer, M.A.; Eisenberg, J.; Power, M.; Lapsa, E.J.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the energy-efficiency programs being operated by utilities for low-income customers. The study focuses, in particular, on programs that install major residential weatherization measures free-of-charge to low-income households. A survey was mailed to a targeted list of 600 utility program managers. Follow-up telephone calls were made to key non- respondents, and a random sample of other non-respondents also was contacted. Completed surveys were received from 180 utilities, 95 of which provided information on one or more of their 1992 low-income energy-efficiency programs for a total of 132 individual programs. These 132 utility programs spent a total of $140.6 million in 1992. This represents 27% of the total program resources available to weatherize the dwellings of low-income households in that year. Both the total funding and the number of programs has grown by 29% since 1989. A majority of the 132 programs are concentrated in a few regions of the country (California, the Pacific Northwest, the Upper Midwest, and the Northeast). Although a majority of the programs are funded by electric utilities, gas utilities have a significantly greater average expenditure per participant ($864 vs. $307 per participant). The most common primary goal of low-income energy-efficiency programs operating in 1992 was {open_quotes}to make energy services more affordable to low-income customers{close_quotes}. Only 44% of the programs were operated primarily to provide a cost-effective energy resource. Based on a review of household and measure selection criteria, equity and not the efficiency of resource acquisition appears to dominate the design of these programs.

  17. 75 FR 81558 - Promoting More Efficient Use of Spectrum Through Dynamic Spectrum Use Technologies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... potential that these technological innovations have for enabling more effective management of spectrum... bands. 2. As a general matter, dynamic spectrum access radios, as well as the new spectrum...

  18. A Profile on Emergency Department Utilization in Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Guodong; Pearl, Amanda M.; Kong, Lan; Leslie, Douglas L.; Murray, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    There has been an increase in utilization of the Emergency Department (ED) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) which may reflect a deficit of services (Green et al., "Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry" 40(3):325-332, 2001; Gurney et al., "Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent…

  19. The Utility of Thin Slice Ratings for Predicting Language Growth in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Katherine M.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.

    2016-01-01

    Literature on "Thin Slice" ratings indicates that a number of personality characteristics and behaviors can be accurately predicted by ratings of very short segments (<5?min) of behavior. This study examined the utility of Thin Slice ratings of young children with autism spectrum disorder for predicting developmental skills and…

  20. Prevalence and Correlates of Educational Intervention Utilization among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilaver, Lucy A.; Cushing, Lisa S.; Cutler, Ann T.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and correlates of educational intervention utilization among U.S. preschool aged children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) prior to recent policy changes. The analysis was based on a nationally representative longitudinal survey of children receiving special education services during the 2003-2004 school year.…

  1. Visible-frequency metasurfaces for broadband anomalous reflection and high-efficiency spectrum splitting.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongyang; Palacios, Edgar; Butun, Serkan; Aydin, Koray

    2015-03-11

    Ultrathin metasurfaces have recently emerged as promising materials that have huge potential to enable novel, flat optical components, and surface-confined, miniature photonic devices. Metasurfaces offer new degrees of freedom in molding the optical wavefronts by introducing abrupt and drastic changes in the amplitude, phase, and/or polarization of electromagnetic radiation at the wavelength scale. By carefully arranging multiple subwavelength anisotropic or gradient optical resonators, metasurfaces have been shown to enable anomalous transmission, anomalous reflection, optical holograms, and spin-orbit interaction. However, experimental realization of high-performance metasurfaces that can operate at visible frequency range has been a significant challenge due to high optical losses of plasmonic materials and difficulties in fabricating several plasmonic resonators of subwavelength size with high uniformity. Here, we propose a highly efficient yet a simple metasurface design comprising of a single, anisotropic silver antenna in its unit cell. We demonstrate broadband (450-850 nm) anomalous reflection and spectrum splitting at visible and near-IR frequencies with high conversion efficiency. Average power ratio of anomalous reflection to the strongest diffraction mode was calculated to be on the order of 10(3) and measured to be on the order of 10. The anomalous reflected photons have been visualized using a charge-coupled device camera, and broadband spectrum splitting performance has been confirmed experimentally using a free space, angle-resolved reflection measurement setup. Metasurface design proposed in this study is a clear departure from conventional metasurfaces utilizing multiple, anisotropic and/or gradient optical resonators and could enable high-efficiency, broadband metasurfaces for achieving flat high signal-to-noise ratio optical spectrometers, polarization beam splitters, directional emitters, and spectrum splitting surfaces for photovoltaics.

  2. Best Practices Implementation for Hydropower Efficiency and Utilization Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Brennan T; Zhang, Qin Fen; March, Patrick; Cones, Marvin; Dham, Rajesh; Spray, Michael

    2012-01-01

    By using best practices to manage unit and plant efficiency, hydro owner/operators can achieve significant improvements in overall plant performance, resulting in increased generation and profitability and, frequently, reduced maintenance costs. The Hydropower Advancement Project (HAP) was initiated by the Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop and implement a systematic process with standard methodology, based on the best practices of operations, maintenance and upgrades; to identify the improvement opportunities at existing hydropower facilities; and to predict and trend the overall condition and improvement opportunity within the U.S. hydropower fleet. The HAP facility assessment includes both quantitative condition ratings and data-based performance analyses. However, this paper, as an overview document for the HAP, addresses the general concepts, project scope and objectives, best practices for unit and plant efficiency, and process and methodology for best practices implementation for hydropower efficiency and utilization improvement.

  3. Inferring Clinical Workflow Efficiency via Electronic Medical Record Utilization.

    PubMed

    Chen, You; Xie, Wei; Gunter, Carl A; Liebovitz, David; Mehrotra, Sanjay; Zhang, He; Malin, Bradley

    Complexity in clinical workflows can lead to inefficiency in making diagnoses, ineffectiveness of treatment plans and uninformed management of healthcare organizations (HCOs). Traditional strategies to manage workflow complexity are based on measuring the gaps between workflows defined by HCO administrators and the actual processes followed by staff in the clinic. However, existing methods tend to neglect the influences of EMR systems on the utilization of workflows, which could be leveraged to optimize workflows facilitated through the EMR. In this paper, we introduce a framework to infer clinical workflows through the utilization of an EMR and show how such workflows roughly partition into four types according to their efficiency. Our framework infers workflows at several levels of granularity through data mining technologies. We study four months of EMR event logs from a large medical center, including 16,569 inpatient stays, and illustrate that over approximately 95% of workflows are efficient and that 80% of patients are on such workflows. At the same time, we show that the remaining 5% of workflows may be inefficient due to a variety of factors, such as complex patients.

  4. Inferring Clinical Workflow Efficiency via Electronic Medical Record Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, You; Xie, Wei; Gunter, Carl A; Liebovitz, David; Mehrotra, Sanjay; Zhang, He; Malin, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    Complexity in clinical workflows can lead to inefficiency in making diagnoses, ineffectiveness of treatment plans and uninformed management of healthcare organizations (HCOs). Traditional strategies to manage workflow complexity are based on measuring the gaps between workflows defined by HCO administrators and the actual processes followed by staff in the clinic. However, existing methods tend to neglect the influences of EMR systems on the utilization of workflows, which could be leveraged to optimize workflows facilitated through the EMR. In this paper, we introduce a framework to infer clinical workflows through the utilization of an EMR and show how such workflows roughly partition into four types according to their efficiency. Our framework infers workflows at several levels of granularity through data mining technologies. We study four months of EMR event logs from a large medical center, including 16,569 inpatient stays, and illustrate that over approximately 95% of workflows are efficient and that 80% of patients are on such workflows. At the same time, we show that the remaining 5% of workflows may be inefficient due to a variety of factors, such as complex patients. PMID:26958173

  5. Comorbidity prevalence, healthcare utilization, and expenditures of Medicaid enrolled adults with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Vohra, Rini; Madhavan, Suresh; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2016-10-20

    A retrospective data analysis using 2000-2008 three state Medicaid Analytic eXtract was conducted to examine the prevalence and association of comorbidities (psychiatric and non-psychiatric) with healthcare utilization and expenditures of fee-for-service enrolled adults (22-64 years) with and without autism spectrum disorders (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision-clinical modification code: 299.xx). Autism spectrum disorder cases were 1:3 matched to no autism spectrum disorder controls by age, gender, and race using propensity scores. Study outcomes were all-cause healthcare utilization (outpatient office visits, inpatient hospitalizations, emergency room, and prescription drug use) and associated healthcare expenditures. Bivariate analyses (chi-square tests and t-tests), multinomial logistic regressions (healthcare utilization), and generalized linear models with gamma distribution (expenditures) were used. Adults with autism spectrum disorders (n = 1772) had significantly higher rates of psychiatric comorbidity (81%), epilepsy (22%), infections (22%), skin disorders (21%), and hearing impairments (18%). Adults with autism spectrum disorders had higher mean annual outpatient office visits (32ASD vs 8noASD) and prescription drug use claims (51ASD vs 24noASD) as well as higher mean annual outpatient office visits (US$4375ASD vs US$824noASD), emergency room (US$15,929ASD vs US$2598noASD), prescription drug use (US$6067ASD vs US$3144noASD), and total expenditures (US$13,700ASD vs US$8560noASD). The presence of a psychiatric and a non-psychiatric comorbidity among adults with autism spectrum disorders increased the annual total expenditures by US$4952 and US$5084, respectively.

  6. Combined Pre-Distortion and Censoring for Bandwidth-Efficient and Energy-Efficient Fusion of Spectrum Sensing Information

    PubMed Central

    Aquino, Guilherme Pedro; Guimarães, Dayan Adionel; Mendes, Luciano Leonel; Pimenta, Tales Cleber

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a novel scheme for the fusion of spectrum sensing information in cooperative spectrum sensing for cognitive radio applications. The scheme combines a spectrum-efficient, pre-distortion-based fusion strategy with an energy-efficient censoring-based fusion strategy to achieve the combined effect of reduction in bandwidth and power consumption during the transmissions of the local decisions to the fusion center. Expressions for computing the key performance metrics of the spectrum sensing of the proposed scheme are derived and validated by means of computer simulations. An extensive analysis of the overall energy efficiency is made, along with comparisons with reference strategies proposed in the literature. It is demonstrated that the proposed fusion scheme can outperform the energy efficiency attained by these reference strategies. Moreover, it attains approximately the same global decision performance of the best among these strategies. PMID:28327517

  7. Combined Pre-Distortion and Censoring for Bandwidth-Efficient and Energy-Efficient Fusion of Spectrum Sensing Information.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Guilherme Pedro; Guimarães, Dayan Adionel; Mendes, Luciano Leonel; Pimenta, Tales Cleber

    2017-03-22

    This paper describes a novel scheme for the fusion of spectrum sensing information in cooperative spectrum sensing for cognitive radio applications. The scheme combines a spectrum-efficient, pre-distortion-based fusion strategy with an energy-efficient censoring-based fusion strategy to achieve the combined effect of reduction in bandwidth and power consumption during the transmissions of the local decisions to the fusion center. Expressions for computing the key performance metrics of the spectrum sensing of the proposed scheme are derived and validated by means of computer simulations. An extensive analysis of the overall energy efficiency is made, along with comparisons with reference strategies proposed in the literature. It is demonstrated that the proposed fusion scheme can outperform the energy efficiency attained by these reference strategies. Moreover, it attains approximately the same global decision performance of the best among these strategies.

  8. Efficient Cooperative Spectrum Sensing with Minimum Sensing Error Probability in Heterogeneous Cognitive Radio Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hang; Li, Ning; Xu, Youyun

    2012-06-01

    To improve the sensing performance, cooperation among secondary users can be utilized to collect space diversity. We focus on the optimization of cooperative spectrum sensing in which multiple secondary users efficiently cooperate to achieve superior detection accuracy with minimum sensing error probability in heterogeneous cognitive radio (CR) networks. Rayleigh fading and Nakagami fading are considered respectively in cognitive network I and cognitive network II. For each cognitive network, we derive the optimal randomized rule for different decision threshold. Then, the optimal decision threshold is derived according to the rule of minimum sensing error (MSE). MSE rule shows better performance on improving the final false alarm and detection probability simultaneously. By simulations, our proposed strategy optimizes the sensing performance for each secondary user which is randomly distributed in the heterogeneous cognitive radio networks.

  9. Efficient utilization of graphics technology for space animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panos, Gregory Peter

    1989-01-01

    Efficient utilization of computer graphics technology has become a major investment in the work of aerospace engineers and mission designers. These new tools are having a significant impact in the development and analysis of complex tasks and procedures which must be prepared prior to actual space flight. Design and implementation of useful methods in applying these tools has evolved into a complex interaction of hardware, software, network, video and various user interfaces. Because few people can understand every aspect of this broad mix of technology, many specialists are required to build, train, maintain and adapt these tools to changing user needs. Researchers have set out to create systems where an engineering designer can easily work to achieve goals with a minimum of technological distraction. This was accomplished with high-performance flight simulation visual systems and supercomputer computational horsepower. Control throughout the creative process is judiciously applied while maintaining generality and ease of use to accommodate a wide variety of engineering needs.

  10. Tag-Split Cache for Efficient GPGPU Cache Utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Lingda; Hayes, Ari; Song, Shuaiwen; Zhang, Eddy

    2016-06-01

    Modern GPUs employ cache to improve memory system efficiency. However, large amount of cache space is underutilized due to irregular memory accesses and poor spatial locality which exhibited commonly in GPU applications. Our experiments show that using smaller cache lines could improve cache space utilization, but it also frequently suffers from significant performance loss by introducing large amount of extra cache requests. In this work, we propose a novel cache design named tag-split cache (TSC) that enables fine-grained cache storage to address the problem of cache space underutilization while keeping memory request number unchanged. TSC divides tag into two parts to reduce storage overhead, and it supports multiple cache line replacement in one cycle.

  11. Fabrication Infrastructure to Enable Efficient Exploration and Utilization of Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Joe T.; Fikes, John C.; McLemore, Carole A.; Manning, Curtis W.; Good, Jim

    2007-01-01

    Unlike past one-at-a-time mission approaches, system-of-systems infrastructures will be needed to enable ambitious scenarios for sustainable future space exploration and utilization. Fabrication infrastructure will be needed to support habitat structure development, tools and mechanical part fabrication, as well as repair and replacement of ground support and space mission hardware such as life support items, vehicle components and crew systems. The fabrication infrastructure will need the In Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) element, which is working in conjunction with the In Situ Resources Utilization (ISRU) element, to live off the land. The ISFR Element supports the entire life cycle of Exploration by: reducing downtime due to failed components; decreasing risk to crew by recovering quickly from degraded operation of equipment; improving system functionality with advanced geometry capabilities; and enhancing mission safety by reducing assembly part counts of original designs where possible. This paper addresses the fabrication infrastructures that support efficient, affordable, reliable infrastructures for both space exploration systems and logistics; these infrastructures allow sustained, affordable and highly effective operations on the Moon, Mars and beyond.

  12. The utility of Thin Slice ratings for predicting language growth in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Walton, Katherine M; Ingersoll, Brooke R

    2016-04-01

    Literature on "Thin Slice" ratings indicates that a number of personality characteristics and behaviors can be accurately predicted by ratings of very short segments (<5 min) of behavior. This study examined the utility of Thin Slice ratings of young children with autism spectrum disorder for predicting developmental skills and language gains over time. A total of 22 preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorder participated in a battery of developmental assessments and a video-taped therapist-child interaction at Time 1. They then participated in follow-up testing of language skills and a second therapist-child interaction 6 months later (Time 2). Groups of approximately 25 naïve undergraduate students provided impression ratings ("Thin Slice ratings") about each child's skills and behaviors during 2-min segments taken from the therapist-child interaction videos at each time point. Thin Slice ratings at Time 1 were highly correlated with child scores on several developmental assessments at Time 1. In addition, Thin Slice ratings at Time 1 predicted gain in parent-reported expressive vocabulary over the course of 6 months, over and above the predictive utility of Time 1 vocabulary size. These findings provide preliminary evidence for the concurrent and predictive validity of Thin Slice ratings in young children with autism spectrum disorder.

  13. Speed over efficiency: locusts select body temperatures that favour growth rate over efficient nutrient utilization

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Gabriel A.; Clissold, Fiona J.; Mayntz, David; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Ectotherms have evolved preferences for particular body temperatures, but the nutritional and life-history consequences of such temperature preferences are not well understood. We measured thermal preferences in Locusta migratoria (migratory locusts) and used a multi-factorial experimental design to investigate relationships between growth/development and macronutrient utilization (conversion of ingesta to body mass) as a function of temperature. A range of macronutrient intake values for insects at 26, 32 and 38°C was achieved by offering individuals high-protein diets, high-carbohydrate diets or a choice between both. Locusts placed in a thermal gradient selected temperatures near 38°C, maximizing rates of weight gain; however, this enhanced growth rate came at the cost of poor protein and carbohydrate utilization. Protein and carbohydrate were equally digested across temperature treatments, but once digested both macronutrients were converted to growth most efficiently at the intermediate temperature (32°C). Body temperature preference thus yielded maximal growth rates at the expense of efficient nutrient utilization. PMID:19625322

  14. Efficient routing and spectrum assignment in elastic optical networks with time scheduled traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yang; Fan, Zheyu; Chan, Chun-Kit

    2016-07-01

    Elastic optical networks (EONs) employ dynamic routing and spectrum assignment (RSA) algorithms to support diverse services and heterogeneous requests. However, these RSA algorithms may possibly induce spectrum fragments when allocating spectrum to accommodate different service requests. Therefore, such induced spectrum fragments should also be regarded as spectrum consumption besides the allocated spectrum by RSA algorithms. In this paper, by additionally considering the holding times of lightpaths and service connections, we first introduce a comprehensive spectrum consumption model to simultaneously investigate both the allocated and the fragmented spectrum consumptions. Then we solve this model in both static and dynamic traffic scenarios, by either formulating the RSA problem with time-scheduled traffic or introducing a time-aware spectrum-efficient heuristics algorithm. Since no defragmentation is executed in spectrum allocation, the proposed RSA algorithm requires no traffic disruption and can be realized more easily in reality. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm reduces the comprehensive spectrum consumption and has lower bandwidth blocking probability than the typical first-fit RSA algorithm.

  15. The Spectrum Orbit Utilization Program (SOUP) used for DBS plan analysis at RARC '83

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, J.; Ottey, H. R.; Sawitz, P.; Zusman, F. S.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the history, functions, and usage of the program that was used to analyze the plans for direct broadcast satellite service developed in the course of the 1983 Regional Administrative Radio Conference for ITU Region 2. Given the requirements for direct broadcast service by the administrations, the conference delegates (1) developed the appropriate technical parameters; (2) made tentative assignments to the orbit locations, frequencies, and polarizations of space stations, (3) calculated the interferences and margins of such assignments through the use of the Spectrum Orbit Utilization Program (SOUP); and (4) iterated this procedure until an acceptable plan was found.

  16. Intermediate band solar cell with extreme broadband spectrum quantum efficiency.

    PubMed

    Datas, A; López, E; Ramiro, I; Antolín, E; Martí, A; Luque, A; Tamaki, R; Shoji, Y; Sogabe, T; Okada, Y

    2015-04-17

    We report, for the first time, about an intermediate band solar cell implemented with InAs/AlGaAs quantum dots whose photoresponse expands from 250 to ∼6000  nm. To our knowledge, this is the broadest quantum efficiency reported to date for a solar cell and demonstrates that the intermediate band solar cell is capable of producing photocurrent when illuminated with photons whose energy equals the energy of the lowest band gap. We show experimental evidence indicating that this result is in agreement with the theory of the intermediate band solar cell, according to which the generation recombination between the intermediate band and the valence band makes this photocurrent detectable.

  17. Assessing global resource utilization efficiency in the industrial sector.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Marc A

    2013-09-01

    Designing efficient energy systems, which also meet economic, environmental and other objectives and constraints, is a significant challenge. In a world with finite natural resources and large energy demands, it is important to understand not just actual efficiencies, but also limits to efficiency, as the latter identify margins for efficiency improvement. Energy analysis alone is inadequate, e.g., it yields energy efficiencies that do not provide limits to efficiency. To obtain meaningful and useful efficiencies for energy systems, and to clarify losses, exergy analysis is a beneficial and useful tool. Here, the global industrial sector and industries within it are assessed by using energy and exergy methods. The objective is to improve the understanding of the efficiency of global resource use in the industrial sector and, with this information, to facilitate the development, prioritization and ultimate implementation of rational improvement options. Global energy and exergy flow diagrams for the industrial sector are developed and overall efficiencies for the global industrial sector evaluated as 51% based on energy and 30% based on exergy. Consequently, exergy analysis indicates a less efficient picture of energy use in the global industrial sector than does energy analysis. A larger margin for improvement exists from an exergy perspective, compared to the overly optimistic margin indicated by energy.

  18. Clinical utility of autism spectrum disorder scoring algorithms for the child symptom inventory-4.

    PubMed

    Gadow, Kenneth D; Schwartz, Joseph; Devincent, Carla; Strong, Greg; Cuva, Simone

    2008-03-01

    Few studies examine the clinical utility of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) rating scales for screening referrals to child psychiatry clinics. Parents/teachers from Long Island, NY, completed the Child Symptom Inventory-4, a DSM-IV-referenced rating scale for 6- to 12-year-old clinical referrals with an ASD (N = 317) or nonASD psychiatric (N = 191) diagnosis. Two separate groups of children attending public school, regular education classes in the same geographic area were also rated by their parents (N = 446) and teachers (N = 464). Stepwise forward regression generated a scoring algorithm based on a subset of all CSI-4 items that best differentiated ASD from nonASD children. ROC analyses indicated high levels of sensitivity/specificity for recommended ASD cutoff scores for parent and teacher ratings.

  19. An Energy-Efficient Game-Theory-Based Spectrum Decision Scheme for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Salim, Shelly; Moh, Sangman

    2016-06-30

    A cognitive radio sensor network (CRSN) is a wireless sensor network in which sensor nodes are equipped with cognitive radio. In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient game-theory-based spectrum decision (EGSD) scheme for CRSNs to prolong the network lifetime. Note that energy efficiency is the most important design consideration in CRSNs because it determines the network lifetime. The central part of the EGSD scheme consists of two spectrum selection algorithms: random selection and game-theory-based selection. The EGSD scheme also includes a clustering algorithm, spectrum characterization with a Markov chain, and cluster member coordination. Our performance study shows that EGSD outperforms the existing popular framework in terms of network lifetime and coordination overhead.

  20. An Energy-Efficient Game-Theory-Based Spectrum Decision Scheme for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Salim, Shelly; Moh, Sangman

    2016-01-01

    A cognitive radio sensor network (CRSN) is a wireless sensor network in which sensor nodes are equipped with cognitive radio. In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient game-theory-based spectrum decision (EGSD) scheme for CRSNs to prolong the network lifetime. Note that energy efficiency is the most important design consideration in CRSNs because it determines the network lifetime. The central part of the EGSD scheme consists of two spectrum selection algorithms: random selection and game-theory-based selection. The EGSD scheme also includes a clustering algorithm, spectrum characterization with a Markov chain, and cluster member coordination. Our performance study shows that EGSD outperforms the existing popular framework in terms of network lifetime and coordination overhead. PMID:27376290

  1. High Efficiency Spectrum Splitting Prototype Submodule Using Commercial CPV Cells (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Keevers, M.; Lau, J.; Green, M.; Thomas, I.; Lasich, J.; King, R.; Emery, K.

    2014-11-01

    This presentation summarizes progress on the design, fabrication and testing of a proof-of-concept, prototype spectrum splitting CPV submodule using commercial CPV cells, aimed at demonstrating an independently confirmed efficiency above 40% at STC (1000 W/m2, AM1.5D ASTM G173-03, 25 degrees C).

  2. Efficiency of Lexical Access in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Does Modality Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper-Hill, Keely; Copland, David; Arnott, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    The provision of visual support to individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is widely recommended. We explored one mechanism underlying the use of visual supports: efficiency of language processing. Two groups of children, one with and one without an ASD, participated. The groups had comparable oral and written language skills and…

  3. Increasing Instructional Efficiency by Presenting Additional Stimuli in Learning Trials for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vladescu, Jason C.; Kodak, Tiffany M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the effectiveness and efficiency of presenting secondary targets within learning trials for 4 children with an autism spectrum disorder. Specifically, we compared 4 instructional conditions using a progressive prompt delay. In 3 conditions, we presented secondary targets in the antecedent or consequence portion of…

  4. Efficient Removal of Retained Intracardiac Air Utilizing Buoyancy.

    PubMed

    Orihashi, Kazumasa

    2016-12-01

    Retained intracardiac air has been an important issue in cardiac surgery. Although echo visualization has allowed detection of air and guided deairing procedures, adequate air removal is not always attained. Actually it has been attempted in each surgeon's manner without solid standard or evidence. Basically buoyancy is responsible for air retention as well as difficult deairing. This paper is aimed to present the author's current measures of deairing, which turn this property of air into efficient removal, as test bed for discussion on this long-standing but pending issue.

  5. Efficiency of utilization of various sources of energy for growth.

    PubMed Central

    Donato, K; Hegsted, D M

    1985-01-01

    The relative efficiency of dietary sucrose, protein sources, and fats in depositing body protein and fat (total energy) was directly estimated in young rats by feeding graded levels of each as supplements to a fixed amount of a basal diet that was presumably adequate in all essential nutrients except for energy. Under these conditions, the net gain in total body energy was a linear function of the amount of supplement added and the data fulfill the criteria of a valid slope-ratio bioassay. The available energy measured by this technique for sucrose and protein were similar, as would be expected. Dietary fat, however, was a more efficient source of energy. Compared to sucrose with 3.94 kcal/g (1 cal = 4.184 J), the average potency of dietary fat was 11.1 kcal/g, or approximately 124% of the expected value of 9 kcal/g. Fat supplements increased the deposition of body fat even when total energy intake was severely limited. The Atwater value of 9 kcal per g of fat is not appropriate under these conditions and probably not under other conditions. PMID:3860827

  6. Electromagnetic Spectrum Analysis and Its Influence on the Photoelectric Conversion Efficiency of Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kexiang; Ding, Enjie; Wangyang, Peihua; Wang, Qingkang

    2016-06-01

    The electromagnetic spectrum and the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the silicon hexagonal nanoconical hole (SiHNH) arrays based solar cells is systematically analyzed according to Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA) and Modal Transmission Line (MTL) theory. An ultimate efficiency of the optimized SiHNH arrays based solar cell is up to 31.92% in consideration of the absorption spectrum, 4.52% higher than that of silicon hexagonal nanoconical frustum (SiHNF) arrays. The absorption enhancement of the SiHNH arrays is due to its lower reflectance and more supported guided-mode resonances, and the enhanced ultimate efficiency is insensitive to bottom diameter (D(bot)) of nanoconical hole and the incident angle. The result provides an additional guideline for the nanostructure surface texturing fabrication design for photovoltaic applications.

  7. Family-Focused Autism Spectrum Disorder Research: A Review of the Utility of Family Systems Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cridland, Elizabeth K.; Jones, Sandra C.; Magee, Christopher A.; Caputi, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A family member with an autism spectrum disorder presents pervasive and bidirectional influences on the entire family system, suggesting a need for family-focused autism spectrum disorder research. While there has been increasing interest in this research area, family-focused autism spectrum disorder research can still be considered relatively…

  8. Financial Analysis of Incentive Mechanisms to Promote Energy Efficiency: Case Study of a Prototypical Southwest Utility

    SciTech Connect

    Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Chait, Michele; Edgar, George; Schlegel, Jeff; Shirley, Wayne

    2009-03-04

    Many state regulatory commissions and policymakers want utilities to aggressively pursue energy efficiency as a strategy to mitigate demand and energy growth, diversify the resource mix, and provide an alternative to building new, costly generation. However, as the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency (NAPEE 2007) points out, many utilities continue to shy away from aggressively expanding their energy efficiency efforts when their shareholder's fundamental financial interests are placed at risk by doing so. Thus, there is increased interest in developing effective ratemaking and policy approaches that address utility disincentives to pursue energy efficiency or lack of incentives for more aggressive energy efficiency efforts. New regulatory initiatives to promote increased utility energy efficiency efforts also affect the interests of consumers. Ratepayers and their advocates are concerned with issues of fairness, impacts on rates, and total consumer costs. From the perspective of energy efficiency advocates, the quid pro quo for utility shareholder incentives is the obligation to acquire all, or nearly all, achievable cost-effective energy efficiency. A key issue for state regulators and policymakers is how to maximize the cost-effective energy efficiency savings attained while achieving an equitable sharing of benefits, costs and risks among the various stakeholders. In this study, we modeled a prototypical vertically-integrated electric investor-owned utility in the southwestern US that is considering implementing several energy efficiency portfolios. We analyze the impact of these energy efficiency portfolios on utility shareholders and ratepayers as well as the incremental effect on each party when lost fixed cost recovery and/or utility shareholder incentive mechanisms are implemented. A primary goal of our quantitative modeling is to provide regulators and policymakers with an analytic framework and tools that assess the financial impacts of

  9. The Remle Project: A Study Utilizing the iPad with Families of Individuals Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez-Terry, Teresa LaDoan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of The REMLE Project was to develop a best practices model for using the iPad as an assistive technology device with families of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Implementation of a double-blind, randomized control trial during a six-week intervention utilizing the iPad was measured for effectiveness in empowerment, social…

  10. Utilization and Expenditure of Hospital Admission in Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder: National Health Insurance Claims Database Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Hung, Wen-Jiu; Lin, Lan-Ping; Lai, Chia-Im

    2011-01-01

    There were not many studies to provide information on health access and health utilization of people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The present study describes a general profile of hospital admission and the medical cost among people with ASD, and to analyze the determinants of medical cost. A retrospective study was employed to analyze…

  11. Assessment of Global Functioning in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Utility of the Developmental Disability-Child Global Assessment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan W.; Smith, Laura A.; Schry, Amie R.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of global functioning is an important consideration in treatment outcome research; yet, there is little guidance on its evidence-based assessment for children with autism spectrum disorders. This study investigated the utility and validity of clinician-rated global functioning using the Developmental Disability-Child Global Assessment…

  12. Bacterial proteostasis balances energy and chaperone utilization efficiently.

    PubMed

    Santra, Mantu; Farrell, Daniel W; Dill, Ken A

    2017-03-28

    Chaperones are protein complexes that help to fold and disaggregate a cell's proteins. It is not understood how four major chaperone systems of Escherichia coli work together in proteostasis: the recognition, sorting, folding, and disaggregating of the cell's many different proteins. Here, we model this machine. We combine extensive data on chaperoning, folding, and aggregation rates with expression levels of proteins and chaperones measured at different growth rates. We find that the proteostasis machine recognizes and sorts a client protein based on two biophysical properties of the client's misfolded state (M state): its stability and its kinetic accessibility from its unfolded state (U state). The machine is energy-efficient (the sickest proteins use the most ATP-expensive chaperones), comprehensive (it can handle any type of protein), and economical (the chaperone concentrations are just high enough to keep the whole proteome folded and disaggregated but no higher). The cell needs higher chaperone levels in two situations: fast growth (when protein production rates are high) and very slow growth (to mitigate the effects of protein degradation). This type of model complements experimental knowledge by showing how the various chaperones work together to achieve the broad folding and disaggregation needs of the cell.

  13. Bacterial proteostasis balances energy and chaperone utilization efficiently

    PubMed Central

    Santra, Mantu; Farrell, Daniel W.; Dill, Ken A.

    2017-01-01

    Chaperones are protein complexes that help to fold and disaggregate a cell’s proteins. It is not understood how four major chaperone systems of Escherichia coli work together in proteostasis: the recognition, sorting, folding, and disaggregating of the cell’s many different proteins. Here, we model this machine. We combine extensive data on chaperoning, folding, and aggregation rates with expression levels of proteins and chaperones measured at different growth rates. We find that the proteostasis machine recognizes and sorts a client protein based on two biophysical properties of the client’s misfolded state (M state): its stability and its kinetic accessibility from its unfolded state (U state). The machine is energy-efficient (the sickest proteins use the most ATP-expensive chaperones), comprehensive (it can handle any type of protein), and economical (the chaperone concentrations are just high enough to keep the whole proteome folded and disaggregated but no higher). The cell needs higher chaperone levels in two situations: fast growth (when protein production rates are high) and very slow growth (to mitigate the effects of protein degradation). This type of model complements experimental knowledge by showing how the various chaperones work together to achieve the broad folding and disaggregation needs of the cell. PMID:28292901

  14. An Efficient Elastic Net with Regression Coefficients Method for Variable Selection of Spectrum Data

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenya; Li, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Using the spectrum data for quality prediction always suffers from noise and colinearity, so variable selection method plays an important role to deal with spectrum data. An efficient elastic net with regression coefficients method (Enet-BETA) is proposed to select the significant variables of the spectrum data in this paper. The proposed Enet-BETA method can not only select important variables to make the quality easy to interpret, but also can improve the stability and feasibility of the built model. Enet-BETA method is not prone to overfitting because of the reduction of redundant variables realized by elastic net method. Hypothesis testing is used to further simplify the model and provide a better insight into the nature of process. The experimental results prove that the proposed Enet-BETA method outperforms the other methods in terms of prediction performance and model interpretation. PMID:28152003

  15. An Efficient Moving Target Detection Algorithm Based on Sparsity-Aware Spectrum Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Mingwei; Wang, Jie; Wu, Di; Zhu, Daiyin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an efficient direct data domain space-time adaptive processing (STAP) algorithm for moving targets detection is proposed, which is achieved based on the distinct spectrum features of clutter and target signals in the angle-Doppler domain. To reduce the computational complexity, the high-resolution angle-Doppler spectrum is obtained by finding the sparsest coefficients in the angle domain using the reduced-dimension data within each Doppler bin. Moreover, we will then present a knowledge-aided block-size detection algorithm that can discriminate between the moving targets and the clutter based on the extracted spectrum features. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are validated through both numerical simulations and raw data processing results. PMID:25222035

  16. An Efficient Elastic Net with Regression Coefficients Method for Variable Selection of Spectrum Data.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenya; Li, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Using the spectrum data for quality prediction always suffers from noise and colinearity, so variable selection method plays an important role to deal with spectrum data. An efficient elastic net with regression coefficients method (Enet-BETA) is proposed to select the significant variables of the spectrum data in this paper. The proposed Enet-BETA method can not only select important variables to make the quality easy to interpret, but also can improve the stability and feasibility of the built model. Enet-BETA method is not prone to overfitting because of the reduction of redundant variables realized by elastic net method. Hypothesis testing is used to further simplify the model and provide a better insight into the nature of process. The experimental results prove that the proposed Enet-BETA method outperforms the other methods in terms of prediction performance and model interpretation.

  17. Family-focused autism spectrum disorder research: a review of the utility of family systems approaches.

    PubMed

    Cridland, Elizabeth K; Jones, Sandra C; Magee, Christopher A; Caputi, Peter

    2014-04-01

    A family member with an autism spectrum disorder presents pervasive and bidirectional influences on the entire family system, suggesting a need for family-focused autism spectrum disorder research. While there has been increasing interest in this research area, family-focused autism spectrum disorder research can still be considered relatively recent, and there are limitations to the existing literature. The purpose of this article is to provide theoretical and methodological directions for future family-focused autism spectrum disorder research. In particular, this article proposes Family Systems approaches as a common theoretical framework for future family-focused autism spectrum disorder research by considering theoretical concepts such as Boundaries, Ambiguous Loss, Resilience and Traumatic Growth. We discuss reasons why these concepts are important to researching families living with autism spectrum disorder and provide recommendations for future research. The potential for research grounded in Family Systems approaches to influence clinical support services is also discussed.

  18. Efficient utilization of crude glycerol as fermentation substrate in the synthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) biopolymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One refined and 2 crude glycerol samples were utilized to produce poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) by Pseudomonas oleovorans NRRL B-14682. Fermentation conditions were determined to efficiently utilize glycerol while maintaining PHB yields. A batch culture protocol including 1% glycerol and an aerati...

  19. Interactions between Energy Efficiency Programs funded under the Recovery Act and Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, Charles A.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Hoffman, Ian; Fuller, Merrian C.; Billingsley, Megan A.

    2011-02-25

    Since the spring of 2009, billions of federal dollars have been allocated to state and local governments as grants for energy efficiency and renewable energy projects and programs. The scale of this American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) funding, focused on 'shovel-ready' projects to create and retain jobs, is unprecedented. Thousands of newly funded players - cities, counties, states, and tribes - and thousands of programs and projects are entering the existing landscape of energy efficiency programs for the first time or expanding their reach. The nation's experience base with energy efficiency is growing enormously, fed by federal dollars and driven by broader objectives than saving energy alone. State and local officials made countless choices in developing portfolios of ARRA-funded energy efficiency programs and deciding how their programs would relate to existing efficiency programs funded by utility customers. Those choices are worth examining as bellwethers of a future world where there may be multiple program administrators and funding sources in many states. What are the opportunities and challenges of this new environment? What short- and long-term impacts will this large, infusion of funds have on utility customer-funded programs; for example, on infrastructure for delivering energy efficiency services or on customer willingness to invest in energy efficiency? To what extent has the attribution of energy savings been a critical issue, especially where administrators of utility customer-funded energy efficiency programs have performance or shareholder incentives? Do the new ARRA-funded energy efficiency programs provide insights on roles or activities that are particularly well-suited to state and local program administrators vs. administrators or implementers of utility customer-funded programs? The answers could have important implications for the future of U.S. energy efficiency. This report focuses on a selected set of ARRA-funded energy

  20. Enhancing Photon Utilization Efficiency for Astaxanthin Production from Haematococcus lacustris Using a Split-Column Photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Z-Hun; Park, Hanwool; Lee, Ho-Sang; Lee, Choul-Gyun

    2016-07-28

    A split-column photobioreactor (SC-PBR), consisting of two bubble columns with different sizes, was developed to enhance the photon utilization efficiency in an astaxanthin production process from Haematococcus lacustris. Among the two columns, only the smaller column of SC-PBR was illuminated. Astaxanthin productivities and photon efficiencies of the SC-PBRs were compared with a standard bubble-column PBR (BC-PBR). Astaxanthin productivity of SC-PBR was improved by 28%, and the photon utilization efficiencies were 28-366% higher than the original BC-PBR. The results clearly show that the effective light regime of SC-PBR could enhance the production of astaxanthin.

  1. Approaches to Electric Utility Energy Efficiency for Low Income Customers in a Changing Regulatory Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Brockway, N.

    2001-05-21

    As the electric industry goes through a transformation to a more market-driven model, traditional grounds for utility energy efficiency have come under fire, undermining the existing mechanisms to fund and deliver such services. The challenge, then, is to understand why the electric industry should sustain investments in helping low-income Americans use electricity efficiently, how such investments should be made, and how these policies can become part of the new electric industry structure. This report analyzes the opportunities and barriers to leveraging electric utility energy efficiency assistance to low-income customers during the transition of the electric industry to greater competition.

  2. Integration of Semiconducting Sulfides for Full-Spectrum Solar Energy Absorption and Efficient Charge Separation.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Tao-Tao; Liu, Yan; Li, Yi; Zhao, Yuan; Wu, Liang; Jiang, Jun; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2016-05-23

    The full harvest of solar energy by semiconductors requires a material that simultaneously absorbs across the whole solar spectrum and collects photogenerated electrons and holes separately. The stepwise integration of three semiconducting sulfides, namely ZnS, CdS, and Cu2-x S, into a single nanocrystal, led to a unique ternary multi-node sheath ZnS-CdS-Cu2-x S heteronanorod for full-spectrum solar energy absorption. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in the nonstoichiometric copper sulfide nanostructures enables effective NIR absorption. More significantly, the construction of pn heterojunctions between Cu2-x S and CdS leads to staggered gaps, as confirmed by first-principles simulations. This band alignment causes effective electron-hole separation in the ternary system and hence enables efficient solar energy conversion.

  3. High-efficiency solar energy conversion with spectrum splitting prismatic lens (and other configurations)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostoleris, Harry; Maragliano, Carlo; Chiesa, Matteo; Stefancich, Marco

    2016-09-01

    Optical spectrum splitting systems that divide light between independent solar cells of different band gaps have received increasing attention in recent years as an alternative to expensive multijunction cells for high-efficiency PV. Most research, however, has focused on dichroic filters and other photonic structures that are expensive to manufacture. This has the effect of transferring the cost of the system from the PV cells to the optics. As a low-cost spectrum splitting approach we designed a prismatic lens that simultaneously splits and concentrates light and can be fabricated by injection molding. We present experimental results of a two-cell demonstration system, and calculations for low-cost configurations of commercial solar cells, enabled by the removal of lattice-matching requirements.

  4. Adipic acid increases plasma lysine but does not improve the efficiency of lysine utilization in swine.

    PubMed

    van Kempen, T A; van Heugten, E; Trottier, N L

    2001-09-01

    Adipic acid, upon catabolism, results in intermediates that bear a structural similarity to lysine degradation products. The objectives of this research were to determine whether adipic acid affects lysine concentrations in plasma and to evaluate whether adipic acid improves the efficiency of lysine utilization in pigs. In Exp. 1, nursery pigs (n = 14) were fed (for a period of 7 d) either a standard nursery diet or the same diet supplemented with 1% adipic acid to assess effects on plasma amino acid concentrations (plasma collected on d 7). In Exp. 2, nursery pigs (n = 56) were fed (for a period of 15 d) either a control diet or the same diet but deficient in either lysine, threonine, or tryptophan with or without supplemental adipic acid to assess the effects of adipic acid on the efficiency of amino acid utilization. The results from Exp. 1 showed that adipic acid increased plasma lysine (by 18%) but not alpha-amino adipic acid, an intermediate in lysine degradation. Experiment 2 demonstrated that adipic acid did not increase the efficiency of utilization of lysine, threonine, or tryptophan. The lack of effects on alpha-amino adipic acid in Exp. 1 and the lack of a positive effect on the efficiency of utilization of lysine, threonine, and tryptophan suggest that adipic acid does not inhibit the mitochondrial uptake of lysine and(or) its degradation in the mitochondrion. It is concluded that feeding adipic acid increases plasma lysine but does not improve the efficiency of lysine utilization.

  5. Identifying Cost-Effective Residential Energy Efficiency Opportunities for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, S.; Hockett, S.

    2010-06-01

    This analysis is an update to the 2005 Energy Efficiency Potential Study completed by KEMA for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative (KIUC) and identifies potential energy efficiency opportunities in the residential sector on Kauai (KEMA 2005). The Total Resource Cost (TRC) test is used to determine which of the energy efficiency measures analyzed in the KEMA report are cost effective for KIUC to include in a residential energy efficiency program. This report finds that there remains potential energy efficiency savings that could be cost-effectively incentivized through a utility residential demand-side management program on Kauai if implemented in such a way that the program costs per measure are consistent with the current residential program costs.

  6. Efficient Algorithms for Estimating the Absorption Spectrum within Linear Response TDDFT

    SciTech Connect

    Brabec, Jiri; Lin, Lin; Shao, Meiyue; Govind, Niranjan; Yang, Chao; Saad, Yousef; Ng, Esmond

    2015-10-06

    We present two iterative algorithms for approximating the absorption spectrum of molecules within linear response of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) framework. These methods do not attempt to compute eigenvalues or eigenvectors of the linear response matrix. They are designed to approximate the absorption spectrum as a function directly. They take advantage of the special structure of the linear response matrix. Neither method requires the linear response matrix to be constructed explicitly. They only require a procedure that performs the multiplication of the linear response matrix with a vector. These methods can also be easily modified to efficiently estimate the density of states (DOS) of the linear response matrix without computing the eigenvalues of this matrix. We show by computational experiments that the methods proposed in this paper can be much more efficient than methods that are based on the exact diagonalization of the linear response matrix. We show that they can also be more efficient than real-time TDDFT simulations. We compare the pros and cons of these methods in terms of their accuracy as well as their computational and storage cost.

  7. Spectrum splitting using multi-layer dielectric meta-surfaces for efficient solar energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yuhan; Liu, He; Wu, Wei

    2014-06-01

    We designed a high-efficiency dispersive mirror based on multi-layer dielectric meta-surfaces. By replacing the secondary mirror of a dome solar concentrator with this dispersive mirror, the solar concentrator can be converted into a spectrum-splitting photovoltaic system with higher energy harvesting efficiency and potentially lower cost. The meta-surfaces are consisted of high-index contrast gratings (HCG). The structures and parameters of the dispersive mirror (i.e. stacked HCG) are optimized based on finite-difference time-domain and rigorous coupled-wave analysis method. Our numerical study shows that the dispersive mirror can direct light with different wavelengths into different angles in the entire solar spectrum, maintaining very low energy loss. Our approach will not only improve the energy harvesting efficiency, but also lower the cost by using single junction cells instead of multi-layer tandem solar cells. Moreover, this approach has the minimal disruption to the existing solar concentrator infrastructures.

  8. Data-Driven Benchmarking of Building Energy Efficiency Utilizing Statistical Frontier Models

    SciTech Connect

    Kavousian, A; Rajagopal, R

    2014-01-01

    Frontier methods quantify the energy efficiency of buildings by forming an efficient frontier (best-practice technology) and by comparing all buildings against that frontier. Because energy consumption fluctuates over time, the efficiency scores are stochastic random variables. Existing applications of frontier methods in energy efficiency either treat efficiency scores as deterministic values or estimate their uncertainty by resampling from one set of measurements. Availability of smart meter data (repeated measurements of energy consumption of buildings) enables using actual data to estimate the uncertainty in efficiency scores. Additionally, existing applications assume a linear form for an efficient frontier; i.e.,they assume that the best-practice technology scales up and down proportionally with building characteristics. However, previous research shows that buildings are nonlinear systems. This paper proposes a statistical method called stochastic energy efficiency frontier (SEEF) to estimate a bias-corrected efficiency score and its confidence intervals from measured data. The paper proposes an algorithm to specify the functional form of the frontier, identify the probability distribution of the efficiency score of each building using measured data, and rank buildings based on their energy efficiency. To illustrate the power of SEEF, this paper presents the results from applying SEEF on a smart meter data set of 307 residential buildings in the United States. SEEF efficiency scores are used to rank individual buildings based on energy efficiency, to compare subpopulations of buildings, and to identify irregular behavior of buildings across different time-of-use periods. SEEF is an improvement to the energy-intensity method (comparing kWh/sq.ft.): whereas SEEF identifies efficient buildings across the entire spectrum of building sizes, the energy-intensity method showed bias toward smaller buildings. The results of this research are expected to assist

  9. Efficiency and Spectrum Enhancement in a Tapered Free-Electron Laser Amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X. J.; Harder, D.; Murphy, J. B.; Qian, H.; Shen, Y.; Yang, X.; Freund, H. P.; Miner, W. H. Jr.

    2009-10-09

    We report the first experimental characterization of efficiency and spectrum enhancement in a laser-seeded free-electron laser using a tapered undulator. Output and spectra in the fundamental and third harmonic were measured versus distance for uniform and tapered undulators. With a 4% field taper over 3 m, a 300% (50%) increase in the fundamental (third harmonic) output was observed. A significant improvement in the spectra with the elimination of sidebands was observed using a tapered undulator. The experiment is in good agreement with predictions using the MEDUSA simulation code.

  10. The Efficiency of Peer Teaching of Developing Non Verbal Communication to Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alshurman, Wael; Alsreaa, Ihsani

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the efficiency of peer teaching of developing non-verbal communication to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The study was carried out on a sample of (10) children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), diagnosed according to basics and criteria adopted at Al-taif qualification center at (2013) in The…

  11. Universal and efficient compressed sensing by spread spectrum and application to realistic Fourier imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puy, Gilles; Vandergheynst, Pierre; Gribonval, Rémi; Wiaux, Yves

    2012-12-01

    We advocate a compressed sensing strategy that consists of multiplying the signal of interest by a wide bandwidth modulation before projection onto randomly selected vectors of an orthonormal basis. First, in a digital setting with random modulation, considering a whole class of sensing bases including the Fourier basis, we prove that the technique is universal in the sense that the required number of measurements for accurate recovery is optimal and independent of the sparsity basis. This universality stems from a drastic decrease of coherence between the sparsity and the sensing bases, which for a Fourier sensing basis relates to a spread of the original signal spectrum by the modulation (hence the name "spread spectrum"). The approach is also efficient as sensing matrices with fast matrix multiplication algorithms can be used, in particular in the case of Fourier measurements. Second, these results are confirmed by a numerical analysis of the phase transition of the ℓ1-minimization problem. Finally, we show that the spread spectrum technique remains effective in an analog setting with chirp modulation for application to realistic Fourier imaging. We illustrate these findings in the context of radio interferometry and magnetic resonance imaging.

  12. Design techniques for modular integrated utility systems. [energy production and conversion efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfer, B. M.

    1977-01-01

    Features basic to the integrated utility system, such as solid waste incineration, heat recovery and usage, and water recycling/treatment, are compared in terms of cost, fuel conservation, and efficiency to conventional utility systems in the same mean-climatic area of Washington, D. C. The larger of the two apartment complexes selected for the test showed the more favorable results in the three areas of comparison. Restrictions concerning the sole use of currently available technology are hypothetically removed to consider the introduction and possible advantages of certain advanced techniques in an integrated utility system; recommendations are made and costs are estimated for each type of system.

  13. UTILITY OF A WIDE SPECTRUM LIGHT METER AS AN UNDERWATER SENSOR OF PHOTOSYNTHETICALLY ACTIVE RADIATION (PAR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The strong attenuation of infra red wavelengths (>700 nm) in coastal waters is suggestive that some instruments with broad spectral responses might be useful, inexpensive substitutes for PAR sensors in studies of estuarine plant dynamics. Wide spectrum (350-1100 nm) light intensi...

  14. Utilization of School Nurses during the Evaluation and Identification of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mcintosh, Constance E.; Thomas, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored school nurses' involvement during the identification and treatment of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The extent of school nurses' collaboration with school psychologists and other educators also was studied. Participants included 100 school nurses, representing 18 states, who completed a survey on ASD. The…

  15. Utility of Formal Preference Assessments for Individuals Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaf, Justin B.; Leaf, Ronald; Alcalay, Aditt; Leaf, Jeremy A.; Ravid, Daniel; Dale, Stephanie; Kassardjian, Alyne; Tsuji, Kathleen; Taubman, Mitchell; McEachin, John; Oppenheim-Leaf, Misty

    2015-01-01

    The systematic use of reinforcers is an essential component of behavioral intervention for individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Today, the use of rigorous formal preference assessments, including paired-preference assessments, are widely conducted to help determine which items to use as reinforcers during intervention. Although…

  16. Target Super-Resolution Compensation for Coherent Airborne Radar Utilizing Spread Spectrum Waveforms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    47 Sampled Signal Theory..............................54 IV. Computer Simulation Development........................58 Approach...Solving Approach In order to determine the feasibility of the narrowband target filter, a computer simulation will be implemented. Signal parameters are...function has a Gaussian frequency spectrum. Various computer runs will be made, testing the waveforms developed in Chapter II and the coherent target

  17. Health Services Utilization among Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Janet R.; Lynch, Frances L.; Rust, Kristal C.; Coleman, Karen J.; Madden, Jeanne M.; Owen-Smith, Ashli A.; Yau, Vincent M.; Qian, Yinge; Pearson, Kathryn A.; Crawford, Phillip M.; Massolo, Maria L.; Quinn, Virginia P.; Croen, Lisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Using data from multiple health systems (2009-2010) and the largest sample to date, this study compares health services use among youth with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD)--including preventive services not previously studied. To examine these differences, we estimated logistic and count data models, controlling for demographic…

  18. Improving the efficiency, safety, and utility of woodburning units. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-15

    Progress is reported on the project to improve the efficiency, safety, and utility of wood burning appliances. Reports that have been prepared on numerical models, on development of a design handbook, on performance testing, on creosote formation and collection in the flues and chimneys, on measuring the efficiency of wood burning furnaces, and on methods for measuring emissions from wood burning appliances are briefly noted. (MCW)

  19. Genome sequence of Bacillus pumilus S-1, an efficient isoeugenol-utilizing producer for natural vanillin.

    PubMed

    Su, Fei; Hua, Dongliang; Zhang, Zhaobin; Wang, Xiaoyu; Tang, Hongzhi; Tao, Fei; Tai, Cui; Wu, Qiulin; Wu, Geng; Xu, Ping

    2011-11-01

    Bacillus pumilus S-1 is an efficient isoeugenol-utilizing producer of natural vanillin. The genome of B. pumilus S-1 contains the epoxide hydrolase and six candidate monooxygenases that make it possible to explore the mechanism involved in conversion of isoenguenol to vanillin in the B. pumilus strain.

  20. The influence of the operational environment on the efficiency of water utilities.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Pedro; Marques, Rui Cunha

    2011-10-01

    Adjusting for the operational environment in studies of performance measurement is very important, otherwise the analysis may lead to unrealistic scores, especially when its influence on costs is high, such as in the water utilities. In this paper, we study the influence of exogenous variables on the water utilities performance by applying conditional efficiency measures based on the order-m method and its probabilistic formulation. We use a sample of 66 water utilities operating between 2002 and 2008, representing about 70% of the Portuguese population. Our research suggests that inefficiency of Portuguese water utilities is substantial for some utilities: several exogenous variables might influence it considerably. For example, regulation has a positive influence on efficiency but when drinking water supply and wastewater services are provided by the same utility or when the wholesale and retail activities are provided together, the performance is lower. The effect of ownership is inconclusive and the variables residential customers, water source, peak factor, and density of customers have a mixed influence on performance which varies according to their scores.

  1. Effects of space flight, clinorotation, and centrifugation on the substrate utilization efficiency of E. coli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert B.; Klaus, D.; Todd, P.

    2002-01-01

    Cultures of Escherichia coli grown in space reached a 25% higher average final cell population than those in comparably matched ground controls (p<0.05). However, both groups consumed the same quantity of glucose, which suggests that space flight not only stimulated bacterial growth as has been previously reported, but also resulted in a 25% more efficient utilization of the available nutrients. Supporting experiments performed in "simulated weightlessness" under clinorotation produced similar trends of increased growth and efficiency, but to a lesser extent in absolute values. These experiments resulted in increases of 12% and 9% in average final cell population (p<0.05), while the efficiency of substrate utilization improved by 6% and 9% relative to static controls (p=0.12 and p<0.05, respectively). In contrast, hypergravity, produced by centrifugation, predictably resulted in the opposite effect--a decrease of 33% to 40% in final cell numbers with corresponding 29% to 40% lower net growth efficiencies (p<0.01). Collectively, these findings support the hypothesis that the increased bacterial growth observed in weightlessness is a result of reduced extracellular mass transport that occurs in the absence of sedimentation and buoyancy-driven convection, which consequently also improves substrate utilization efficiency in suspended cultures.

  2. Stimulating utilities to promote energy efficiency: Process evaluation of Madison Gas and Electric's Competition Pilot Program

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.; De Buen, O.; Goldfman, C.

    1990-12-01

    This report describes the process evaluation of the design and implementation of the Energy Conservation Competition Pilot (hereafter referred to as the Competition), ordered by the Public Service Commission of Wisconsin (PSCW) with a conceptual framework defined by PSCW staff for the Madison Gas and Electric (MGE) Company. This process evaluation documents the history of the Competition, describing the marketing strategies adopted by MGE and its competitors, customer service and satisfaction, administrative issues, the distribution of installed measures, free riders, and the impact of the Competition on MGE, its competitors, and other Wisconsin utilities. We also suggest recommendations for a future Competition, compare the Competition with other approaches that public utility commissions (PUCs) have used to motivate utilities to promote energy efficiency, and discuss its transferability to other utilities. 48 refs., 8 figs., 40 tabs.

  3. Protein requirements of bobwhite chicks for survival, growth and efficiency of feed utilization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nestler, R.B.; Bailey, W.W.; McClure, H.E.

    1942-01-01

    During the summer and fall of 1939 four experiments were conducted at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland, to determine the protein requirements of bobwhite chicks. A total of 816 chicks were used to compare six levels of protein, namely, 22,24,26, 28, 30, and 32 per cent.....From the three standpoints of survival, rate of growth, and efficiency of feed utilization for the first ten weeks of life, the 28 per cent level of protein gave the best results. During the ninth and tenth weeks, the highest efficiency of feed utilization was obtained on the 22 per cent level. The results indicate that after the birds have reached about twothirds of their mature weight, the difference in efficiency between a diet containing 28 per cent of protein and one containing 22 per cent may be small enough to justify, in the interest of economy, the use of a diet containing the lower percentage of protein.

  4. THE EFFECT OF BURNUP AND SEPARATION EFFICIENCY ON URANIUM UTILIZATION AND RADIOTOXICITY

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel Bays; Steven Piet

    2001-11-01

    This paper addresses two fundamental issues of fuel cycle sustainability. The two primary issues of interest are efficient use of the natural uranium resource (cradle), and management of nuclear waste radiotoxicity (grave). Both uranium utilization and radiotoxicity are directly influenced by the burnup achieved during irradiation (transmutation related) and where applicable the separation efficiency (partitioning related). Burnup influences the in-growth of transuranics by breeding them into the fuel cycle. Transuranic breeding is virtually essential to resource sustainability because it increases utilization of naturally abundant fertile U-238. However, the direct consequence of this build-up is the in-growth of transuranic isotopes which generally increase the source of future geologically committed radiotoxicity. For scenarios involving recycle, separation efficiency influences the degree to which this transuranic source term is removed from active service in the fuel stream and made a disposal legacy of human activity.

  5. Effect of Larval Density on Food Utilization Efficiency of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Morales-Ramos, Juan A; Rojas, M Guadalupe

    2015-10-01

    Crowding conditions of larvae may have a significant impact on commercial production efficiency of some insects, such as Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Although larval densities are known to affect developmental time and growth in T. molitor, no reports were found on the effects of crowding on food utilization. The effect of larval density on food utilization efficiency of T. molitor larvae was studied by measuring efficiency of ingested food conversion (ECI), efficiency of digested food conversion (EDC), and mg of larval weight gain per gram of food consumed (LWGpFC) at increasing larval densities (12, 24, 36, 48, 50, 62, 74, and 96 larvae per dm(2)) over four consecutive 3-wk periods. Individual larval weight gain and food consumption were negatively impacted by larval density. Similarly, ECI, ECD, and LWGpFC were negatively impacted by larval density. Larval ageing, measured as four consecutive 3-wk periods, significantly and independently impacted ECI, ECD, and LWGpFC in a negative way. General linear model analysis showed that age had a higher impact than density on food utilization parameters of T. molitor larvae. Larval growth was determined to be responsible for the age effects, as measurements of larval mass density (in grams of larvae per dm(2)) had a significant impact on food utilization parameters across ages and density treatments (in number of larvae per dm(2)). The importance of mass versus numbers per unit of area as measurements of larval density and the implications of negative effects of density on food utilization for insect biomass production are discussed.

  6. A scoping study on energy-efficiency market transformation by California Utility DSM Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, J.; Prahl, R.; Schlegel, J.

    1996-07-01

    Market transformation has emerged as a central policy objective for future publicly-funded energy-efficiency programs in California. California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) Decision 95-12-063 calls for public funding to shift to activities designed to transform the energy-efficiency market. The CPUC envisions that funding {open_quotes}would only be needed for specific and limited periods of time to cause the market to be transformed{close_quotes}. At the same time, the CPUC also acknowledges that {open_quotes}there are many definitions of market transformation{close_quotes} ... and does {open_quotes}not attempt to refine those definitions today{close_quotes}. We argue that a definition of market transformation is essential. The literature is now replete with definitions, and an operational definition is needed for the CPUC to decide on which programs should be supported with public funds. The CPUC decision initially indicated a preference for programs that do not provide financial assistance 4-efficiency programs that rely on financial assistance to customers. However, energy customers have traditionally accounted for a substantial portion of California utility`s DSM programs, so the CPUC`s direction to use ratepayer funds to support programs that will transform the market raises critical questions about how to analyze what has happened in order to plan effectively for the future: Which utility energy-efficiency programs, including those that provide financial assistance to customers, have had market transforming effects? To what extent do current regulatory rules and practices encourage or discourage utilities from running programs that are designed to transform the market? Should the rules and programs be modified, and, if so, how, to promote market transformation?

  7. A Comparison of Health Care Utilization and Costs of Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Large Group-Model Health Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croen, Lisa A.; Najjar, Daniel V.; Ray, G. Thomas; Lotspeich, Linda; Bernal, Pilar

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Data on the current costs of medical services for children with autism spectrum disorders are lacking. Our purpose for this study was to compare health care utilization and costs of children with and without autism spectrum disorders in the same health plan. Patients and Methods: Participants included all 2- to 18-year-old children with…

  8. [Effects of straw mulching and irrigation on solar energy utilization efficiency of winter wheat farmland].

    PubMed

    Li, Quanqi; Chen, Yuhai; Wu, Wei; Yu, Shunzhang; Zhou, Xunbo; Dong, Qingyu; Yu, Songlie

    2006-02-01

    The study showed that straw mulching decreased the basic seedlings and tillers of winter wheat and the leaf area index (LAI) at earlier growth stage, but increased the LAI at latter growth stage. Straw mulching and irrigation reduced the transmittance and reflectance of PAR, resulting in the increase of PAR capture ratio mainly at the height of 40-60 cm. The solar energy utilization ratio of grain was decreased by straw mulching, while that of stem and leaf was increased. The total solar energy utilization efficiency of winter wheat could also be increased by straw mulching.

  9. Efficient-market perspectives on utility rate-of-return adequacy

    SciTech Connect

    Harlow, F.

    1984-03-29

    The article introduces a conceptual framework from assessing utility rate of return adequacy based upon a market-based profitability index called the ''Q-ratio.'' Reviewing the theory of financial market efficiency, the author explores potential application in a regulated industry environment. The rationale for Q-ratio analysis is presented, and the implication for investment in a ''typical'' utility are highlighted. (A second article by this author, to follow in another issue, will discuss the techniques of comparing Q-ratios and deriving target rates of return on equity.)

  10. Detecting Primary Signals for Efficient Utilization of Spectrum Using Q-Learning (POSTPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply. 1 • failure to detect the presence of PU • false detection of PU when user does not exist (enter into the domain...Downloaded on June 23,2010 at 12:31:47 UTC from IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply. 2 dynamic programming methods. Reinforcement learning (RL) helps in...limited to: AFRL Technical Library. Downloaded on June 23,2010 at 12:31:47 UTC from IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply. 3 In the second example, we

  11. Efficiency of utilization of nitrogen coated with urease inhibitor in maize.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Ricardo S; Mariano, Daiane de C; Zaccheo, Paulo V C; de Albuquerque, Amanda N; Giebelmeier, Carmo G; da S Lobato, Allan K; Franco, Antônio A N; de Oliveira, Neto Cândido F; Saldanha, Eduardo C M; da Conceição, Heráclito E O; da Silva, Raimundo T L

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate under field conditions the efficiency in the use ofN coated with urease inhibitor in maize. The experiment was conducted in the year of 2007/2008. The experimental design was a randomized block design in a factorial 2 x 6, with five repetitions, constituted the N sources (common and coated with urease inhibitor) and levels (0, 40, 80, 120, 160 and 200 kg ha-1 of N) sidedressing nitrogen application in the growth stage V4. Based on the data obtained were determined recovery efficiencies, utilization, agronomic and physiological N applied. In all cases, the efficiency levels for maize were influenced by levels of sidedressing nitrogen application, in which increasing levels of N resulted in a decrease of the efficiencies, regardless of the source being common urea or coated with urease inhibitor.

  12. Clinical Utility and Lifespan Profiling of Neurological Soft Signs in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Chan, Raymond C K; Xie, Weizhen; Geng, Fu-lei; Wang, Ya; Lui, Simon S Y; Wang, Chuan-yue; Yu, Xin; Cheung, Eric F C; Rosenthal, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Neurological soft signs (NSSs) bear the promise for early detection of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Nonetheless, the sensitivity and specificity of NSSs in the psychosis continuum remains a topic of controversy. It is also unknown how NSSs reveal neurodevelopmental abnormality in schizophrenia. We investigated the effect sizes of NSSs in differentiating individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders from individuals with other psychiatric conditions and from covariate-matched healthy subjects. We also investigated the partitioned age-related variations of NSSs in both schizophrenia and healthy individuals. NSSs were assessed by the abridged version of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory (CNI) in 3105 participants, consisting of healthy individuals (n=1577), unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients (n= 155), individuals with schizotypal personality disorder (n= 256), schizophrenia patients (n= 738), and other psychiatric patients (n= 379). Exact matching and propensity score matching procedures were performed to control for covariates. Multiple regression was used to partition age-related variations. Individuals along the schizophrenia continuum showed elevated levels of NSSs, with moderate effect sizes, in contrast to other psychiatric patients who had minimal NSSs, as well as matched healthy controls. Furthermore, the age-and-NSS relationship in schizophrenia patients was represented by a flat but overall elevated pattern, in contrast to a U-shaped pattern in healthy individuals. In sum, NSSs capture a moderate portion of psychosis proneness with reasonable specificity. Lifespan profiling reveals an abnormal developmental trajectory of NSSs in schizophrenia patients, which supports the endophenotype hypothesis of NSSs by associating it with the neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia.

  13. The total cost and measured performance of utility-sponsored energy efficiency programs

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, J.; Vine, E.; Shown, L.

    1996-06-01

    By examining the actual performance of conservation or demand-side management (DSM) programs for ten utilities, Joskow and Marron (1992) have made an important contribution to policy discussions about the wisdom of relying on utilities to improve customer energy efficiency. We use Joskow and Marron`s method to analyze twenty utility commercial lighting programs and, like Joskow and Marron, find wide variations in industry reporting practices and savings evaluation methods. We extend the method by systematically accounting for several of the most important sources of variation and comment on how they influence total program costs. Our accounting also allows us to relate remaining program cost variations to the program sizes and the electric supply costs avoided by the programs. We draw qualified, yet affirmative, conclusions regarding the cost effectiveness of the programs.

  14. Spread Spectrum Based Energy Efficient Collaborative Communication in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks consist of resource limited devices. Most crucial of these resources is battery life, as in most applications like battle field or volcanic area monitoring, it is often impossible to replace or recharge the power source. This article presents an energy efficient collaborative communication system based on spread spectrum to achieve energy efficiency as well as immunity against jamming, natural interference, noise suppression and universal frequency reuse. Performance of the proposed system is evaluated using the received signal power, bit error rate (BER) and energy consumption. The results show a direct proportionality between the power gain and the number of collaborative nodes as well as BER and signal-to-noise ratio (Eb/N0). The analytical and simulation results of the proposed system are compared with SISO system. The comparison reveals that SISO perform better than collaborative communication in case of small distances whereas collaborative communication performs better than SISO in case of long distances. On the basis of these results it is safe to conclude that collaborative communication in wireless sensor networks using wideband systems improves the life time of nodes in the networks thereby prolonging the network’s life time. PMID:27447489

  15. Spread Spectrum Based Energy Efficient Collaborative Communication in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Ghani, Anwar; Naqvi, Husnain; Sher, Muhammad; Khan, Muazzam Ali; Khan, Imran; Irshad, Azeem

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks consist of resource limited devices. Most crucial of these resources is battery life, as in most applications like battle field or volcanic area monitoring, it is often impossible to replace or recharge the power source. This article presents an energy efficient collaborative communication system based on spread spectrum to achieve energy efficiency as well as immunity against jamming, natural interference, noise suppression and universal frequency reuse. Performance of the proposed system is evaluated using the received signal power, bit error rate (BER) and energy consumption. The results show a direct proportionality between the power gain and the number of collaborative nodes as well as BER and signal-to-noise ratio (Eb/N0). The analytical and simulation results of the proposed system are compared with SISO system. The comparison reveals that SISO perform better than collaborative communication in case of small distances whereas collaborative communication performs better than SISO in case of long distances. On the basis of these results it is safe to conclude that collaborative communication in wireless sensor networks using wideband systems improves the life time of nodes in the networks thereby prolonging the network's life time.

  16. Reduced Efficiency and Capacity of Cognitive Control in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Mackie, Melissa-Ann; Fan, Jin

    2016-03-01

    Cognitive control constrains mental operations to prioritize information that reaches conscious awareness and is essential to flexible, adaptive behavior under conditions of uncertainty. Cognitive control can be compromised by neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which is characterized by the presence of social and communicative deficits, and restricted interests/repetitive behaviors. Although prior investigations have attempted to elucidate the nature of cognitive control in ASD, whether there is an underlying information processing deficit associated with cognitive control remains unclear. This study challenged cognitive control in 15 high-functioning adults with ASD and 15 typically developing (TD) controls using three novel tasks designed to systematically manipulate uncertainty. We aimed to investigate the efficiency of cognitive control in sequential information processing, cognitive control of nonsequential information processing across a range of cognitive loads and cognitive control capacity under time constraint. Results demonstrated that the ASD group performed less efficiently on sequential and nonsequential information processing, and had reduced cognitive control capacity under time constraint relative to the TD group. These findings suggest that inefficient cognitive control of information processing may be a fundamental deficit in ASD.

  17. Root restriction: A tool for improving volume utilization efficiency in bioregenerative life-support systems.

    PubMed

    Graham, Thomas; Wheeler, Raymond

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate root restriction as a tool to increase volume utilization efficiency in spaceflight crop production systems. Bell pepper plants (Capsicum annuum cv. California Wonder) were grown under restricted rooting volume conditions in controlled environment chambers. The rooting volume was restricted to 500ml and 60ml in a preliminary trial, and 1500ml (large), 500ml (medium), and 250ml (small) for a full fruiting trial. To reduce the possible confounding effects of water and nutrient restrictions, care was taken to ensure an even and consistent soil moisture throughout the study, with plants being watered/fertilized several times daily with a low concentration soluble fertilizer solution. Root restriction resulted in a general reduction in biomass production, height, leaf area, and transpiration rate; however, the fruit production was not significantly reduced in the root restricted plants under the employed environmental and horticultural conditions. There was a 21% reduction in total height and a 23% reduction in overall crown diameter between the large and small pot size in the fruiting study. Data from the fruiting trial were used to estimate potential volume utilization efficiency improvements for edible biomass in a fixed production volume. For fixed lighting and rooting hardware situations, the majority of improvement from root restriction was in the reduction of canopy area per plant, while height reductions could also improve volume utilization efficiency in high stacked or vertical agricultural systems.

  18. Root restriction: A tool for improving volume utilization efficiency in bioregenerative life-support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Thomas; Wheeler, Raymond

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate root restriction as a tool to increase volume utilization efficiency in spaceflight crop production systems. Bell pepper plants (Capsicum annuum cv. California Wonder) were grown under restricted rooting volume conditions in controlled environment chambers. The rooting volume was restricted to 500 ml and 60 ml in a preliminary trial, and 1500 ml (large), 500 ml (medium), and 250 ml (small) for a full fruiting trial. To reduce the possible confounding effects of water and nutrient restrictions, care was taken to ensure an even and consistent soil moisture throughout the study, with plants being watered/fertilized several times daily with a low concentration soluble fertilizer solution. Root restriction resulted in a general reduction in biomass production, height, leaf area, and transpiration rate; however, the fruit production was not significantly reduced in the root restricted plants under the employed environmental and horticultural conditions. There was a 21% reduction in total height and a 23% reduction in overall crown diameter between the large and small pot size in the fruiting study. Data from the fruiting trial were used to estimate potential volume utilization efficiency improvements for edible biomass in a fixed production volume. For fixed lighting and rooting hardware situations, the majority of improvement from root restriction was in the reduction of canopy area per plant, while height reductions could also improve volume utilization efficiency in high stacked or vertical agricultural systems.

  19. Walt Disney World`s utility efficiency awards and environmental circles of excellence

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, P.J.; Kivler, W.B.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes an innovative approach to energy conservation that has been started at WALT DISNEY WORLD. The program that was established was designed to heighten the awareness of energy usage in our Management and Cast Members, establish a method for recognizing and rewarding positive energy conservation efforts and, most importantly, keeping the effort simple and fun. Two programs work together to meet this goal: Utility Efficiency Awards and the Environmental Circles of Excellence. The Utility Efficiency Awards are given to the top areas that have demonstrated a reduction in utility consumption relative to the same period in prior years. More importantly, a report is generated that shows a best-to-worst ranking. Relying on the idea that {open_quotes}nobody wants to be on the bottom of the list{close_quotes}, conservation is enhanced by focusing attention on improving efficiency. To encourage direct cast member involvement in our environmental program, the Environmental Circles of Excellence were created. These groups, made up of hourly and salaried cast members, discuss their location`s environmental commitments, set goals and implement programs. This paper describes these initiatives in detail and presents some initial results that have heightened the awareness of energy conservation at WALT DISNEY WORLD.

  20. High-performance Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based dye-sensitized solar cells: rational design of quantum dots for wide solar-spectrum utilization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunwoo; Kim, Chanhoi; Jang, Jyongsik

    2013-07-29

    High-performance Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been successfully fabricated through the optimized design of a CdSe/CdS quantum-dot (QD) donor and a dye acceptor. This simple approach enables quantum dots and dyes to simultaneously utilize the wide solar spectrum, thereby resulting in high conversion efficiency over a wide wavelength range. In addition, major parameters that affect the FRET interaction between donor and acceptor have been investigated including the fluorescent emission spectrum of QD, and the content of deposited QDs into the TiO2 matrix. By judicious control of these parameters, the FRET interaction can be readily optimized for high photovoltaic performance. In addition, the as-synthesized water-soluble quantum dots were highly dispersed in a nanoporous TiO2 matrix, thereby resulting in excellent contact between donors and acceptors. Importantly, high-performance FRET-based DSSCs can be prepared without any infrared (IR) dye synthetic procedures. This novel strategy offers great potential for applications of dye-sensitized solar cells.

  1. Effects of Fe-deficient conditions on Fe uptake and utilization in P-efficient soybean.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Wei; Dai, Jing; Wang, Nanqi; Guo, Xiaotong; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zuo, Yuanmei

    2017-03-01

    Phosphorus (P)-efficient soybean (Glycine max) plants absorb and utilize P with high efficiency. To investigate the effects of iron (Fe)-deficient conditions on the absorption and utilization of Fe in P-efficient soybean plants, two soybean cultivars with different P efficiency, the 03-3 (P-efficient variety) and Bd-2 (P-inefficient variety), were used in this study. The two soybean cultivars were grown in nutrient solution containing Fe concentrations of 0 (Fe0), 20 (Fe20), 40 (Fe40), or 80 (Fe80) μM for 7 days. The Fe reductase activity of roots was higher in 03-3 plants grown under the Fe0, Fe20, and Fe40 treatments than in Bd-2 plants and the total Fe uptake was greater in 03-3 plants under the Fe40 treatment. GmFRD3a was much more highly expressed in the stem of 03-3 than in that of Bd-2, and significantly more iron was transported to 03-3 plant shoots during Fe0 treatment. Chlorosis in young leaves caused by Fe deficiency under the Fe0 and Fe20 treatments was alleviated by increased Fe concentration in shoots. Increased levels of active Fe in young 03-3 leaves under Fe-deprivation conditions (Fe0) and maintenance of stable Fe concentrations in 03-3 shoots subjected to Fe20, Fe40, and Fe80 treatments suggested that the P-efficient 03-3 cultivar is also Fe-efficient. It is suggested that 03-3 soybean cultivar should be a good resource for application to farm field.

  2. Comparative evaluation of mathematical functions to describe growth and efficiency of phosphorus utilization in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Kebreab, E; Schulin-Zeuthen, M; Lopez, S; Soler, J; Dias, R S; de Lange, C F M; France, J

    2007-10-01

    Success of pig production depends on maximizing return over feed costs and addressing potential nutrient pollution to the environment. Mathematical modeling has been used to describe many important aspects of inputs and outputs of pork production. This study was undertaken to compare 4 mathematical functions for the best fit in terms of describing specific data sets on pig growth and, in a separate experiment, to compare these 4 functions for describing of P utilization for growth. Two data sets with growth data were used to conduct growth analysis and another data set was used for P efficiency analysis. All data sets were constructed from independent trials that measured BW, age, and intake. Four growth functions representing diminishing returns (monomolecular), sigmoidal with a fixed point of inflection (Gompertz), and sigmoidal with a variable point of inflection (Richards and von Bertalanffy) were used. Meta-analysis of the data was conducted to identify the most appropriate functions for growth and P utilization. Based on Bayesian information criteria, the Richards equation described the BW vs. age data best. The additional parameter of the Richards equation was necessary because the data required a lower point of inflection (138 d) than the Gompertz, with a fixed point of inflexion at 1/e times the final BW (189 d), could accommodate. Lack of flexibility in the Gompertz equation was a limitation to accurate prediction. The monomolecular equation was best at determining efficiencies of P utilization for BW gain compared with the sigmoidal functions. The parameter estimate for the rate constant in all functions decreased as available P intake increased. Average efficiencies during different stages of growth were calculated and offer insight into targeting stages where high feed (nutrient) input is required and when adjustments are needed to accommodate the loss of efficiency and the reduction of potential pollution problems. It is recommended that the Richards

  3. Carbon spectrum utilization by an indigenous strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIM 5514: Production, characterization and surface active properties of biosurfactant.

    PubMed

    Varjani, Sunita J; Upasani, Vivek N

    2016-12-01

    The present research work was undertaken with a mandate to study carbon spectrum utilization and structural characterization of biosurfactant produced by indigenous Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIM 5514, which showed unique properties to utilize a large number of carbon sources effectively for production of biosurfactant, although glucose was the best carbon substrate. In Bushnell-Hass medium supplemented with glucose (1%, w/v), 3.178±0.071g/l biosurfactant was produced by this isolate in 96h. The biosurfactant produced showed surface tension and emulsification activity values from 29.14±0.05 to 62.29±0.13mN/m and 88.50±1.96 to 15.40±0.91%, respectively. Toluene showed highest emulsification activity followed by kerosene. However, kerosene exhibited emulsion stability for 30days. Biosurfactant was characterized as a mixture of di-rhamnolipid (Rha-Rha-C10-C14:1) and mono-rhamnolipid (Rha-C8-C10) by FTIR, ESI-MS and LC-MS techniques. High biosurfactant yield opens up doors for the isolate to find utility in various industries.

  4. Efficiency of food utilization during body weight gain in dormice (Glis glis).

    PubMed

    Melnyk, R B; Boshes, M

    1980-06-01

    During spontaneous body weight gain in dormice, Glis glis, progressive increases in the efficiency of food utilization as defined by weight gain (g)/food intake (g), and parallel increases in mean daily food intake were observed. Towards the end of the weight gain period, there was an abrupt drop in feeding efficiency with no significant change in food intake even when the latter was expressed relative to an index of each animal's "metabolic mass" (body weightkg0.62). Animals whose body weight increases followed a return to ad lib feeding after prolonged food restriction showed marked decreases in feeding efficiency from initially high values which were independent of changes in food intake. These results are discussed in relation to the sliding set point concept of body weight regulation in hibernators.

  5. The politics of electric utility regulation: Explaining energy efficiency policy in the states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altman, John Arthur

    Even with broad societal pressures to alter the regulatory environment in the states with regard to the efficient use of electricity, many states have not made what some conservation advocates believe are adequate reforms for increasing levels of energy efficiency. While some states have comprehensive policies that require electric utilities to engage in integrated resource planning and demand-side management (DSM), along with providing utilities with a regulatory framework that allows for the recovery of energy efficiency program costs and lost revenues, other states have no such policies. The main purpose of this inquiry is twofold: first, it discusses some of the current regulatory issues being explored at the state level in an attempt to determine how states vary in their development and application of energy efficiency regulations; and second, it attempts to explain why the states differ in their development of energy efficiency regulations. The application of the analytical framework developed in this study proves useful for assessing the various elements that affect state regulatory policy development. Organized interests, state political culture, and various state economic variables tend to exert considerable influence over regulatory policy choice. However, other factors such as government institutions, including state legislatures and regulatory agencies, were not without effect. Though the directions of some of the relationships were unexpected, various logistic regression models show that each of the approaches to the study of regulation is useful in explaining the process of developing and adopting innovative energy efficiency policies. In the area of electric utility regulation, and more specifically energy efficiency regulation, this analysis finds that, in general, the likelihood of a state adopting DSM-related lost revenue recovery and/or sharehoider incentives on DSM programs, as well as stringent cost-effectiveness tests, is greater for states

  6. [Research practices of conversion efficiency of resources utilization model of castoff from Chinese material medica industrialization].

    PubMed

    Duan, Jin-Ao; Su, Shu-Lan; Guo, Sheng; Liu, Pei; Qian, Da-Wei; Jiang, Shu; Zhu, Hua-Xu; Tang, Yu-Ping; Wu, Qi-Nan

    2013-12-01

    The industrialization chains and their products, which were formed from the process of the production of medicinal materials-prepared drug in pieces and deep processed product of Chinese material medica (CMM) resources, have generated large benefits of social and economic. However, The large of herb-medicine castoff of "non-medicinal parts" and "rejected materials" produced inevitably during the process of Chinese medicinal resources produce and process, and the residues, waste water and waste gas were produced during the manufactured and deep processed product of CMM. These lead to the waste of resources and environmental pollution. Our previous researches had proposed the "three utilization strategies" and "three types of resources models" of herb-medicine castoff according to the different physicochemical property of resources constitutes, resources potential and utility value of herb-medicine castoff. This article focus on the conversion efficiency of resources model and analysis the ways, technologies, practices, and application in herb-medicine cast off of the conversion efficiency of resources model based on the recycling economy theory of resources and thoughts of resources chemistry of CMM. These data may be promote and resolve the key problems limited the industrialization of Chinese material medica for long time and promote the realization of herb-medicine castoff resources utilization.

  7. Isolation and characterization of yeasts capable of efficient utilization of hemicellulosic hydrolyzate as the carbon source.

    PubMed

    Cassa-Barbosa, L A; Procópio, R E L; Matos, I T S R; Filho, S A

    2015-09-28

    Few yeasts have shown the potential to efficiently utilize hemicellulosic hydrolyzate as the carbon source. In this study, microorganisms isolated from the Manaus region in Amazonas, Brazil, were characterized based on their utilization of the pentoses, xylose, and arabinose. The yeasts that showed a potential to assimilate these sugars were selected for the better utilization of lignocellulosic biomass. Two hundred and thirty seven colonies of unicellular microorganisms grown on hemicellulosic hydrolyzate, xylose, arabinose, and yeast nitrogen base selective medium were analyzed. Of these, 231 colonies were subjected to sugar assimilation tests. One hundred and twenty five of these were shown to utilize hydrolyzed hemicellulose, xylose, or arabinose as the carbon source for growth. The colonies that showed the best growth (N = 57) were selected, and their internal transcribed spacer-5.8S rDNA was sequenced. The sequenced strains formed four distinct groups in the phylogenetic tree, and showed a high percentage of similarity with Meyerozyma caribbica, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans, Trichosporon loubieri, Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida lignohabitans, and Candida ethanolica. The discovery of these xylose-fermenting yeasts could attract widespread interest, as these can be used in the cost-effective production of liquid fuel from lignocellulosic materials.

  8. Engineered Enterobacter aerogenes for efficient utilization of sugarcane molasses in 2,3-butanediol production.

    PubMed

    Jung, Moo-Young; Park, Bu-Soo; Lee, Jinwon; Oh, Min-Kyu

    2013-07-01

    Sugarcane molasses is considered to be a good carbon source for biorefinery due to its high sugar content and low price. Sucrose occupies more than half of the sugar in the molasses. Enterobacter aerogenes is a good host strain for 2,3-butanediol production, but its utilization of sucrose is not very efficient. To improve sucrose utilization in E. aerogenes, a sucrose regulator (ScrR) was disrupted from the genomic DNA. The deletion mutation increased the sucrose consumption rate significantly when sucrose or sugarcane molasses was used as a carbon source. The 2,3-butanediol production from sugarcane molasses by the mutant was enhanced by 60% in batch fermentation compared to that by the wild type strain. In fed-batch fermentation, 98.69 g/L of 2,3-butanediol production was achieved at 36 h.

  9. Arc View/Avenue: Coding styles and utility scripts for efficient development

    SciTech Connect

    Ganter, J.

    1996-05-07

    Effectiveness and efficiency of software development can be greatly increased by writing modularized code using informal (styles) and formal (standards) work approaches. Software development is about connecting pieces into a coherent whole. Thus consistent work approaches provide a structure that allows individuals and teams to minimize the time and thought put into making these connections. These investments in structure return even more benefits in the maintenance phase when old code has to be examined by new programmers, or after time has passed. We present some examples of coding style for Avenue: a simplified form of Hungarian notation (notationHungarian, stringCustomerName, etc.), script naming prefixes and suffixes, and options in script headers. We demonstrate several modular, object-like utility scripts that can be used alone or combined into other utilities. These include developer tools such as a System.Echo substitute for Windows, a Window inspector, and a script for detecting and dealing with multiple display resolutions.

  10. CFTR mutations spectrum and the efficiency of molecular diagnostics in Polish cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Ziętkiewicz, Ewa; Rutkiewicz, Ewa; Pogorzelski, Andrzej; Klimek, Barbara; Voelkel, Katarzyna; Witt, Michał

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene (CFTR). In light of the strong allelic heterogeneity and regional specificity of the mutation spectrum, the strategy of molecular diagnostics and counseling in CF requires genetic tests to reflect the frequency profile characteristic for a given population. The goal of the study was to provide an updated comprehensive estimation of the distribution of CFTR mutations in Polish CF patients and to assess the effectiveness of INNOLiPA_CFTR tests in Polish population. The analyzed cohort consisted of 738 patients with the clinically confirmed CF diagnosis, prescreened for molecular defects using INNOLiPA_CFTR panels from Innogenetics. A combined efficiency of INNOLiPA CFTR_19 and CFTR_17_TnUpdate tests was 75.5%; both mutations were detected in 68.2%, and one mutation in 14.8% of the affected individuals. The group composed of all the patients with only one or with no mutation detected (109 and 126 individuals, respectively) was analyzed further using a mutation screening approach, i.e. SSCP/HD (single strand conformational polymorphism/heteroduplex) analysis of PCR products followed by sequencing of the coding sequence. As a result, 53 more mutations were found in 97 patients. The overall efficiency of the CF allele detection was 82.5% (7.0% increase compared to INNOLiPA tests alone). The distribution of the most frequent mutations in Poland was assessed. Most of the mutations repetitively found in Polish patients had been previously described in other European populations. The most frequent mutated allele, F508del, represented 54.5% of Polish CF chromosomes. Another eight mutations had frequencies over 1%, 24 had frequencies between 1 and 0.1%; c.2052-2053insA and c.3468+2_3468+3insT were the most frequent non-INNOLiPA mutations. Mutation distribution described herein is also relevant to the Polish diaspora. Our study also demonstrates that the reported efficiency of

  11. CFTR Mutations Spectrum and the Efficiency of Molecular Diagnostics in Polish Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ziętkiewicz, Ewa; Rutkiewicz, Ewa; Pogorzelski, Andrzej; Klimek, Barbara; Voelkel, Katarzyna; Witt, Michał

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene (CFTR). In light of the strong allelic heterogeneity and regional specificity of the mutation spectrum, the strategy of molecular diagnostics and counseling in CF requires genetic tests to reflect the frequency profile characteristic for a given population. The goal of the study was to provide an updated comprehensive estimation of the distribution of CFTR mutations in Polish CF patients and to assess the effectiveness of INNOLiPA_CFTR tests in Polish population. The analyzed cohort consisted of 738 patients with the clinically confirmed CF diagnosis, prescreened for molecular defects using INNOLiPA_CFTR panels from Innogenetics. A combined efficiency of INNOLiPA CFTR_19 and CFTR_17_TnUpdate tests was 75.5%; both mutations were detected in 68.2%, and one mutation in 14.8% of the affected individuals. The group composed of all the patients with only one or with no mutation detected (109 and 126 individuals, respectively) was analyzed further using a mutation screening approach, i.e. SSCP/HD (single strand conformational polymorphism/heteroduplex) analysis of PCR products followed by sequencing of the coding sequence. As a result, 53 more mutations were found in 97 patients. The overall efficiency of the CF allele detection was 82.5% (7.0% increase compared to INNOLiPA tests alone). The distribution of the most frequent mutations in Poland was assessed. Most of the mutations repetitively found in Polish patients had been previously described in other European populations. The most frequent mutated allele, F508del, represented 54.5% of Polish CF chromosomes. Another eight mutations had frequencies over 1%, 24 had frequencies between 1 and 0.1%; c.2052-2053insA and c.3468+2_3468+3insT were the most frequent non-INNOLiPA mutations. Mutation distribution described herein is also relevant to the Polish diaspora. Our study also demonstrates that the reported efficiency of

  12. Utilizing Predictors for Efficient Thermal Management in Multiprocessor SoCs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    CMT SPARC processor,” in Proc. ISSCC, 2008, pp. 82–83. [34] A. Wald and J. Wolfowitz , “Optimum character of the sequential proba- bility ratio test...from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply. COŞKUN et al.: UTILIZING PREDICTORS FOR EFFICIENT THERMAL MANAGEMENT IN MULTIPROCESSOR SoCs 1505 values in...not introduce inaccuracy. yt + p∑ i=1 (ai yt−i) = et + q∑ i=1 (ci et−i). (1) An ARMA(p, q) model is described by (1). In the equation, yt is the value

  13. Federal government, utility, manufacturer: A unique partnership for comprehensive water efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Mayo, K

    1995-10-01

    A partnership among the Federal government, a utility, and water efficient equipment manufacturers was developed in response to the Executive Order 12902, Energy and Efficiency in Federal Facilities, where water conservation is still a fairly undeveloped part of resource conservation in the Federal government. The Department of Energy`s Federal Energy Management Program (with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory) managed the project, bringing together the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration and Bureau of Reclamation with Denver Water and four water use equipment manufacturers to install and test water-saving indoor and outdoor technologies at the Denver Federal Center. This paper will describe the process used to form this partnership and document the results and its potential impact.

  14. Efficient Organic Photovoltaics Utilizing Nanoscale Heterojunctions in Sequentially Deposited Polymer/fullerene Bilayer

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Jeesoo; Shin, Tae Joo; Park, Sungmin; Cho, Changsoon; Lee, Jung-Yong; Yeol Ryu, Du; Kim, Myung Hwa; Kim, Kyungkon

    2015-01-01

    A highly efficient sequentially deposited bilayer (SD-bilayer) of polymer/fullerene organic photovoltaic (OPV) device is developed via the solution process. Herein, we resolve two essential problems regarding the construction of an efficient SD-bilayer OPV. First, the solution process fabrication of the SD-bilayer is resolved by incorporating an ordering agent (OA) to the polymer solution, which improves the ordering of the polymer chain and prevents the bottom-layer from dissolving into the top-layer solution. Second, a non-planar heterojunction with a large surface area is formed by the incorporation of a heterojunction agent (HA) to the top-layer solution. Poly[[9-(1-octylnonyl)-9H-carbazole-2,7-diyl]-2,5-thiophenediyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl-2,5-thiophenediyl] (PCDTBT) is used for the bottom-layer and phenyl-C71-butyric-acid-methyl ester (PC70BM) is used for the top-layer. The SD-bilayer OPV produced utilizing both an OA and HA exhibits a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.12% with a high internal quantum efficiency (IQE). We believe our bilayer system affords a new way of forming OPVs distinct from bulk heterojunction (BHJ) systems and offers a chance to reconsider the polymers that have thus far shown unsatisfactory performance in BHJ systems. PMID:25670623

  15. Switching between filter settings reduces the efficient utilization of visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Jost, Kerstin; Mayr, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    The capacity limitation of working memory requires that only relevant information gains access to the workspace, while irrelevant information is kept out. Thus, the ability to use attention to filter out irrelevant information is an important factor in how efficiently the limited storage space is used. Here, we examined to what degree the requirement to flexibly change filter settings affects filtering efficiency. Participants were presented with visual objects in different colors, and a cue presented in advance indicated which objects had to be stored. The contralateral delay activity, an event-related brain potential that reflects working-memory load was used to assess filtering efficiency during the retention interval. The data of two experiments showed that when filter settings had to be adjusted on a trial-by-trial basis, more irrelevant information passed the gate to working memory. Moreover, this switching-induced filtering deficit was restricted to those items that matched the previous, but currently irrelevant, filter settings. Thus, lingering effects of the selection history seem to counteract goal-directed encoding, and thus constitute an important attentional limitation for the efficient utilization of our limited workspace.

  16. Energy Efficiency as a Preferred Resource: Evidence from Utility Resource Plans in the Western United States and Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, Nichole; Barbose, Galen; Goldman, Charles; Schlegel, Jeff

    2008-09-15

    This article examines the future role of energy efficiency as a resource in the Western United States and Canada, as envisioned in the most recent resource plans issued by 16 utilities, representing about 60percent of the region's load. Utility and third-party administered energy efficiency programs proposed by 15 utilities over a ten-year horizon would save almost 19,000 GWh annually, about 5.2percent of forecast load. There are clear regional trends in the aggressiveness of proposed energy savings. California's investor-owned utilities (IOUs) had the most aggressive savings targets, followed by IOUs in the Pacific Northwest, and the lowest savings were proposed by utilities in Inland West states and by two public utilities on the West coast. The adoption of multiple, aggressive policies targeting energy efficiency and climate change appear to produce sizeable energy efficiency commitments. Certain specific policies, such as mandated energy savings goals for California's IOUs and energy efficiency provisions in Nevada's Renewable Portfolio Standard had a direct impact on the level of energy savings included in the resource plans. Other policies, such as revenue decoupling and shareholder incentives, and voluntary or legislatively mandated greenhouse gas emission reduction policies, may have also impacted utilities' energy efficiency commitments, though the effects of these policies are not easily measured. Despite progress among the utilities in our sample, more aggressive energy efficiency strategies that include high-efficiency standards for additional appliances and equipment, tighter building codes for new construction and renovation, as well as more comprehensive ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs are likely to be necessary to achieve a region-wide goal of meeting 20percent of electricity demand with efficiency in 2020.

  17. Engineering of Escherichia coli to facilitate efficient utilization of isomaltose and panose in industrial glucose feedstock.

    PubMed

    Abe, Kenji; Kuroda, Akio; Takeshita, Ryo

    2017-03-01

    Industrial glucose feedstock prepared by enzymatic digestion of starch typically contains significant amounts of disaccharides such as maltose and isomaltose and trisaccharides such as maltotriose and panose. Maltose and maltosaccharides can be utilized in Escherichia coli fermentation using industrial glucose feedstock because there is an intrinsic assimilation pathway for these sugars. However, saccharides that contain α-1,6 bonds, such as isomaltose and panose, are still present after fermentation because there is no metabolic pathway for these sugars. To facilitate more efficient utilization of glucose feedstock, we introduced glvA, which encodes phospho-α-glucosidase, and glvC, which encodes a subunit of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent maltose phosphotransferase system (PTS) of Bacillus subtilis, into E. coli. The heterologous expression of glvA and glvC conferred upon the recombinant the ability to assimilate isomaltose and panose. The recombinant E. coli assimilated not only other disaccharides but also trisaccharides, including alcohol forms of these saccharides, such as isomaltitol. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to show the involvement of the microbial PTS in the assimilation of trisaccharides. Furthermore, we demonstrated that an L-lysine-producing E. coli harboring glvA and glvC converted isomaltose and panose to L-lysine efficiently. These findings are expected to be beneficial for industrial fermentation.

  18. The difference in medical utilization and associated factors between children and adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ching-Mien; Kung, Pei-Tseng; Li, Chia-Ing; Tsai, Wen-Chen

    2014-10-18

    This study determined differences in health care utilization and health care expenditures between children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and examined possible reasons for these differences. A retrospective longitudinal study of children aged younger than 18 years both with and without ASD was conducted using the 2008 database of the Ministry of the Interior registry of the disabled persons in tandem with the National Health Insurance Research Database. Propensity score matching for the covariates of age, sex, and parental monthly salary was used to match children at a ratio of 1:3 for observing health care utilization among children with and without ASD from 2008 to 2011. Generalized estimating equation analysis was performed to determine factors that affect health care utilization, such as physician visits, emergency room (ER) visits, hospitalizations, and health care expenditures. After matching was completed, the sample size comprised 3280 children with ASD and 9840 children without ASD. Among the children in the sample, most were boys (86.68%) between the ages of 6-11 years, and the average age of both samples was 9.8 years. After relevant factors were controlled for, the children with ASD yielded an average of 14.2 more annual physician visits and were more likely to visit the ER (OR=1.12, P<.05) or be hospitalized (OR=1.48; P<.05) compared with the children without ASD. Compared with the children without ASD, the children with ASD exhibited higher annual physician visit expenditures (NT$26,580 more), higher ER visit expenditures (NT$50 more), higher hospitalization expenditures (NT$5830 more), and NT$32,460 more total health care expenditures (all P<.05). Significant predictors of health care expenditures among the children with ASD were age, parental monthly salary, and severity of comorbidity. The most common reasons for physician visits or hospitalizations among the children with ASD were psychiatric illnesses, respiratory illnesses, and

  19. High-efficiency SO{sub 2} removal in utility FGD systems

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.L.; Gray, S.; Dekraker, D.

    1995-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have contracted with Radian Corporation to conduct full-scale testing, process modeling, and economic evaluations of six existing utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project objective is to evaluate low capital cost upgrades for achieving up to 98% sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal efficiency in a variety of FGD system types. The systems include dual-loop, packed absorbers at Tampa Electric Company`s Big Bend Station; cocurrent, packed absorbers at Hoosier Energy`s Merom Station; dual-loop absorbers with perforated-plate trays at Southwestern Electric Power Company`s Pirkey Station; horizontal spray absorbers at PSI Energy`s Gibson Station; venturi scrubbers at Duquesne Light`s Elrama Station; and open stray absorbers at New york State Electric and Gas Corporations`s (NYSEG`s) Kintigh Station. All operate in an inhibited-oxidation mode except the system at Big Bend (forced oxidation), and all use limestone reagent except the Elrama system (Mg-lime). The program was conducted to demonstrate that upgrades such as performance additives and/or mechanical modifications can increase system SO{sub 2} removal at low cost. The cost effectiveness of each upgrade has been evaluated on the basis of test results and/or process model predictions for upgraded performance and utility-specific operating and maintenance costs. Results from this upgraded performance and utility-specific operating and maintenance costs. Results from this program may lead some utilities to use SO{sub 2} removal upgrades as an approach for compliance with phase 2 of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. This paper summarizes the results of testing, modeling, and economic evaluations that have been completed since July, 1994.

  20. Maximizing coupling-efficiency of high-power diode lasers utilizing hybrid assembly technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zontar, D.; Dogan, M.; Fulghum, S.; Müller, T.; Haag, S.; Brecher, C.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we present hybrid assembly technology to maximize coupling efficiency for spatially combined laser systems. High quality components, such as center-turned focusing units, as well as suitable assembly strategies are necessary to obtain highest possible output ratios. Alignment strategies are challenging tasks due to their complexity and sensitivity. Especially in low-volume production fully automated systems are economically at a disadvantage, as operator experience is often expensive. However reproducibility and quality of automatically assembled systems can be superior. Therefore automated and manual assembly techniques are combined to obtain high coupling efficiency while preserving maximum flexibility. The paper will describe necessary equipment and software to enable hybrid assembly processes. Micromanipulator technology with high step-resolution and six degrees of freedom provide a large number of possible evaluation points. Automated algorithms are necess ary to speed-up data gathering and alignment to efficiently utilize available granularity for manual assembly processes. Furthermore, an engineering environment is presented to enable rapid prototyping of automation tasks with simultaneous data ev aluation. Integration with simulation environments, e.g. Zemax, allows the verification of assembly strategies in advance. Data driven decision making ensures constant high quality, documents the assembly process and is a basis for further improvement. The hybrid assembly technology has been applied on several applications for efficiencies above 80% and will be discussed in this paper. High level coupling efficiency has been achieved with minimized assembly as a result of semi-automated alignment. This paper will focus on hybrid automation for optimizing and attaching turning mirrors and collimation lenses.

  1. The Program Administrator Cost of Saved Energy for Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Billingsley, Megan A.; Hoffman, Ian M.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.; LaCommare, Kristina

    2014-03-19

    End-use energy efficiency is increasingly being relied upon as a resource for meeting electricity and natural gas utility system needs within the United States. There is a direct connection between the maturation of energy efficiency as a resource and the need for consistent, high-quality data and reporting of efficiency program costs and impacts. To support this effort, LBNL initiated the Cost of Saved Energy Project (CSE Project) and created a Demand-Side Management (DSM) Program Impacts Database to provide a resource for policy makers, regulators, and the efficiency industry as a whole. This study is the first technical report of the LBNL CSE Project and provides an overview of the project scope, approach, and initial findings, including: • Providing a proof of concept that the program-level cost and savings data can be collected, organized, and analyzed in a systematic fashion; • Presenting initial program, sector, and portfolio level results for the program administrator CSE for a recent time period (2009-2011); and • Encouraging state and regional entities to establish common reporting definitions and formats that would make the collection and comparison of CSE data more reliable. The LBNL DSM Program Impacts Database includes the program results reported to state regulators by more than 100 program administrators in 31 states, primarily for the years 2009–2011. In total, we have compiled cost and energy savings data on more than 1,700 programs over one or more program-years for a total of more than 4,000 program-years’ worth of data, providing a rich dataset for analyses. We use the information to report costs-per-unit of electricity and natural gas savings for utility customer-funded, end-use energy efficiency programs. The program administrator CSE values are presented at national, state, and regional levels by market sector (e.g., commercial, industrial, residential) and by program type (e.g., residential whole home programs, commercial new

  2. Genetic approaches for improvement of the crop potassium acquisition and utilization efficiency.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Wu, Wei-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Potassium (K) is one of the essential macronutrients for higher plants, not only important for plant growth and development, but also crucial for crop yield and quality. The deficiency in K in large areas of arable land worldwide has become a limitation for sustainable development of agriculture, and threatens the world food security. Along with the increased limitation of K fertilizer supply, the genetic improvement of K utilization efficiency (KUE) of crop plants may become a feasible way to solve the problem. K nutrition depends on an underlying relationship with metabolic regulation which together influence crop yield, quality and responses to environmental stress. Manipulation of root architecture together with K transport and distribution within the plant offer great potential to improve KUE.

  3. Copper catalysis for enhancement of cobalt leaching and acid utilization efficiency in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaxuan; Shen, Jingya; Huang, Liping; Wu, Dan

    2013-11-15

    Enhancement of both cobalt leaching from LiCoO2 and acid utilization efficiency (AUE) in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was successfully achieved by the addition of Cu(II). A dosage of 10mg/L Cu(II) improved both cobalt leaching up to 308% and AUE of 171% compared to the controls with no presence of Cu(II). The apparent activation energy of cobalt leaching catalyzed by Cu(II) in MFCs was only 11.8 kJ/mol. These results demonstrate cobalt leaching in MFCs using Cu(II) as a catalyst may be an effective strategy for cobalt recovery and recycle of spent Li-ion batteries, and the evidence of influence factors including solid/liquid ratio, temperature, and pH and solution conductivity can contribute to improving understanding of and optimizing cobalt leaching catalyzed by Cu(II) in MFCs.

  4. Area utilization efficiency of a sloping heliostat system for solar concentration.

    PubMed

    Wei, L Y

    1983-02-15

    Area utilization efficiency (AUE) is formulated for a sloping heliostat system facing any direction. The effects of slope shading, incidence factor, sun shading, and tower blocking by the mirrors are all taken into account. Our results show that annually averaged AUEs calculated for heliostat systems (1) increase with tower height at low slope angles but less rapidly at high slopes, (2) increase monotonically with slope angle and saturate at large slopes for systems facing due south, (3) reach a maximum at a certain slope for systems facing other directions than due south, and (4) drop sharply at slopes greater than a certain value for systems facing due east or west due to slope shading effect. The results are useful for solar energy collection on nonflat terrains.

  5. Development of a Design Support System that Can Efficiently Utilize Non-dominated Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Shinya; Minato, Ryojiro

    This paper proposes a new design support approach, which efficiently utilizes the information of many non-dominated solutions obtained from evolutionary multi-criterion optimization (EMO). The proposed approach consists of four mechanisms: grouping (clustering), reducing the number of candidates (selecting the representative solutions), dimensionality reduction, and estimation. Non-dominated solutions can be regarded as a beneficial subspace in whole search space, which have the feature of being non-inferior to other solutions. Therefore, we think the proposed approach can be used to estimate the characteristics of a problem through the interaction with the designer. In this paper, we examine the characteristics and effectiveness of the proposed approach through computational experiments on a design problem of a counter rotating axial fan turbojet engine. A counter rotating axial fan turbojet engine with two spools is chosen for the design target of the present study. We handle this task as a seven-objective design problem.

  6. Area utilization efficiency of a sloping heliostat system for solar concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, L. Y.

    1983-02-01

    Area utilization efficiency (AUE) is formulated for a sloping heliostat system facing any direction. The effects of slope shading, incidence factor, sun shading, and tower blocking by the mirrors are all taken into account. The results show that annually averaged AUEs calculated for heliostat systems (1) increase with tower height at low slope angles but less rapidly at high slopes, (2) increase monotonically with slope angle and saturate at large slopes for systems facing due south, (3) reach a maximum at a certain slope for systems facing other directions than due south, and (4) drop sharply at slopes greater than a certain value for systems facing due east or west due to slope shading effect. The results are useful for solar energy collection on non-flat terrains.

  7. On-Site Fabrication Infrastructure to Enable Efficient Exploration and Utilization of Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Joe T.; Fikes, John C.; McLemore, Carole A.; Good, James E.

    2008-01-01

    Unlike past one-at-a-time mission approaches, system-of-systems infrastructures will be needed to enable ambitious scenarios for sustainable future space exploration and utilization. So what do we do when we get to the moon for sustainable exploration. On-site fabrication infrastructure will be needed to support habitat structure development, tools and mechanical part fabrication, as well as repair and replacement of ground support and space mission hardware such as life support items, vehicle components and crew systems. The on-site fabrication infrastructure will need the In Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) element, which is working in conjunction with the In Situ Resources Utilization (ISRU) element, to live off the land. The ISFR element has worked closely with the ISRU element in the past year to assess the ability of using lunar regolith as a viable feedstock for fabrication material. Preliminary work has shown promise and the ISFR Element will continue to concentrate on this activity. Fabrication capabilities have been furthered with the process certification effort that, when completed, will allow for space-qualified hardware to be manufactured. Materials being investigated include titanium and aluminum alloys as well as lunar regolith simulants with binders. This paper addresses the latest advancements made in the fabrication of infrastructures that support efficient, affordable, reliable infrastructures for both space exploration systems and logistics; infrastructures that allow sustained, affordable and highly effective operations on the Moon and beyond.

  8. Review of Prior Commercial Building Energy Efficiency Retrofit Evaluation: A Report to Snohomish Public Utilities District

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Phillip N.

    2014-11-01

    Snohomish County Public Utilities District (the District or Snohomish PUD) provides electricity to about 325,000 customers in Snohomish County, Washington. The District has an incentive programs to encourage commercial customers to improve energy efficiency: the District partially reimburses the cost of approved retrofits if they provide a level of energy performance improvement that is specified by contract. In 2013 the District contracted with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to provide a third-party review of the Monitoring and Verification (M&V) practices the District uses to evaluate whether companies are meeting their contractual obligations. This work helps LBNL understand the challenges faced by real-world practitioners of M&V of energy savings, and builds on a body of related work such as Price et al. (2013). The District selected a typical project for which they had already performed an evaluation. The present report includes the District's original evaluation as well as LBNL's review of their approach. The review is based on the document itself; on investigation of the load data and outdoor air temperature data from the building evaluated in the document; and on phone discussions with Bill Harris of the Snohomish County Public Utilities District. We will call the building studied in the document the subject building, the original Snohomish PUD report will be referred to as the Evaluation, and this discussion by LBNL is called the Review.

  9. Simultaneous boiler optimization of efficiency, emission, and reliability utilizing neural network modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, P.S.; Poston, J.

    1996-07-01

    Boiler performance optimization includes the preservation of efficiency, emission, capacity, and reliability. Competitive pressures require cost reduction and environmental compliance. It is a challenge for utility personnel to balance these requirements and to achieve specific company goals. Unfortunately, these requirements often demand tradeoffs. The Clean Air Act Amendment requires Utilities to reduce NO{sub x} emission. NO{sub x} emission reduction has often been accomplished by installation of new low NO{sub x} burners. Boiler tuning for NO{sub x} control can be used as an alternative to low NO{sub x} burner installation. A PC-based computer software program was developed to assist the tuning process. This software, System Optimization Analysis Program (SOAP), is a neural network based code which uses the self-adaptation learning process, with an adaptive filter added for data noise control. SOAP can use historical data as the knowledge base and it provides a fast optimal solution to adaptive control problems. SOAP was tested at several fossil plants. The tests were primarily for NO{sub x} reduction, but the performance parameters were optimized simultaneously.

  10. A spectrum- and power-efficient EHF mobile satellite system to be integrated with terrestrial cellular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caini, Carlo; Corazza, Giovanni E.; Falciasecca, Gabriele; Ruggieri, Marina; Vatalaro, Francesco

    1992-10-01

    An EHF satellite system for land-mobile applications to be integrated with a terrestrial cellular system is described in the paper. An approach to evaluate the carrier-to-cochannel interference occurring in a multispot satellite coverage adopting frequency reuse is introduced and results from the analysis are shown. Criteria for spectrum efficiency evaluation are also outlined along with traffic and link budget estimates. Possible options for payload implementation and mobile terminal design are presented.

  11. Spectrum efficiency gains resulting from the implementation of adaptive transmit power control in fixed terrestrial links at 38 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callaghan, S. A.; Inglis, I.; Hansell, P.

    2009-06-01

    Adaptive transmit power control (ATPC) can be used to improve the spectrum efficiency of terrestrial point-to-point fixed links by limiting the transmit power to that required to maintain a constant bit error rate regardless of the propagation conditions. This results in a reduced transmit power being used during clear-sky conditions, lowering the interference resulting from the ATPC link. This improves the frequency reuse factor associated with a given band and geographic area, providing a spectrum efficiency gain. The project described in this paper found that implementing ATPC in the 38 GHz terrestrial fixed links band gives significant improvements in spectrum efficiency as measured by the increase in the number of links assigned to channel 1 (from ˜50% to ˜70%) and the decrease in the maximum bandwidth used (from ˜300 MHz to ˜180 MHz). However, a model plan exposed to an exceptionally intense frontal rain event showed a number of additional outages caused by ATPC, amounting to approximately 12% of the number of outages caused directly by rain. In comparison, when exposed to an annualized simulated rain database the number of extra outages in this case falls to 2.6%.

  12. Older adults utilize less efficient postural control when performing pushing task

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun-Ju; Chen, Bing; Aruin, Alexander S.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to maintain balance deteriorates with increasing age. The aim was to investigate the role of age in generation of anticipatory (APA) and compensatory (CPA) postural adjustments during pushing an object. Older (68.8 ± 1.0 years) and young adults (30.1 ± 1.4 years) participated in the experiment involving pushing an object (a pendulum attached to the ceiling) using both hands. Electrical activity of six leg and trunk muscles and displacements of the center of pressure (COP) were recorded and analyzed during the APA and CPA phases. The onset time, integrals of muscle activity, and COP displacements were determined. In addition, the indexes of co-activation and reciprocal activation of muscles for the shank, thigh, and trunk segments were calculated. Older adults, compared to young adults, showed less efficient postural control seen as delayed anticipatory muscle onset times and delayed COP displacements. Moreover, older adults used co-activation of muscles during the CPA phase while younger subjects utilized reciprocal activation of muscles. The observed diminished efficiency of postural control during both anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments observed in older adults might predispose them to falls while performing tasks involving pushing. The outcome provides a background for future studies focused on the optimization of the daily activities of older adults. PMID:26403099

  13. Genome sequence of the thermophilic strain Bacillus coagulans XZL4, an efficient pentose-utilizing producer of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Su, Fei; Xu, Ke; Zhao, Bo; Tai, Cui; Tao, Fei; Tang, Hongzhi; Xu, Ping

    2011-11-01

    Bacillus coagulans XZL4 is an efficient pentose-utilizing producer of important platform compounds, such as l-lactic acid, 2,3-butanediol, and acetoin. Here we present a 2.8-Mb assembly of its genome. Simple and efficient carbohydrate metabolism systems, especially the transketolase/transaldolase pathway, make it possible to convert pentose sugars to products at high levels.

  14. Making It Count: Understanding the Value of Energy Efficiency Financing Programs Funded by Utility Customers

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Chris; Fadrhonc, Emily Martin; Goldman, Charles; Schiller, Steve; Schwartz, Lisa

    2015-12-01

    Utility customer-supported financing programs are receiving increased attention as a strategy for achieving energy saving goals. Rationales for using utility customer funds to support financing initiatives

  15. Optimized 2D array of thin silicon pillars for efficient antireflective coatings in the visible spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Proust, Julien; Fehrembach, Anne-Laure; Bedu, Frédéric; Ozerov, Igor; Bonod, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Light reflection occuring at the surface of silicon wafers is drastically diminished by etching square pillars of height 110 nm and width 140 nm separated by a 100 nm gap distance in a square lattice. The design of the nanostructure is optimized to widen the spectral tolerance of the antireflective coatings over the visible spectrum for both fundamental polarizations. Angle and polarized resolved optical measurements report a light reflection remaining under 5% when averaged in the visible spectrum for both polarizations in a wide angular range. Light reflection remains almost insensitive to the light polarization even in oblique incidence. PMID:27109643

  16. Wolbachia utilize host actin for efficient maternal transmission in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Newton, Irene L G; Savytskyy, Oleksandr; Sheehan, Kathy B

    2015-04-01

    Wolbachia pipientis is a ubiquitous, maternally transmitted bacterium that infects the germline of insect hosts. Estimates are that Wolbachia infect nearly 40% of insect species on the planet, making it the most prevalent infection on Earth. The bacterium, infamous for the reproductive phenotypes it induces in arthropod hosts, has risen to recent prominence due to its use in vector control. Wolbachia infection prevents the colonization of vectors by RNA viruses, including Drosophila C virus and important human pathogens such as Dengue and Chikungunya. Here we present data indicating that Wolbachia utilize the host actin cytoskeleton during oogenesis for persistence within and transmission between Drosophila melanogaster generations. We show that phenotypically wild type flies heterozygous for cytoskeletal mutations in Drosophila profilin (chic(221/+) and chic(1320/+)) or villin (qua(6-396/+)) either clear a Wolbachia infection, or result in significantly reduced infection levels. This reduction of Wolbachia is supported by PCR evidence, Western blot results and cytological examination. This phenotype is unlikely to be the result of maternal loading defects, defects in oocyte polarization, or germline stem cell proliferation, as the flies are phenotypically wild type in egg size, shape, and number. Importantly, however, heterozygous mutant flies exhibit decreased total G-actin in the ovary, compared to control flies and chic(221) heterozygous mutants exhibit decreased expression of profilin. Additionally, RNAi knockdown of profilin during development decreases Wolbachia titers. We analyze evidence in support of alternative theories to explain this Wolbachia phenotype and conclude that our results support the hypothesis that Wolbachia utilize the actin skeleton for efficient transmission and maintenance within Drosophila.

  17. Highly efficient SO₂ absorption and its subsequent utilization by weak base/polyethylene glycol binary system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen-Zhen; He, Liang-Nian; Zhao, Ya-Nan; Yu, Bing

    2013-02-05

    A binary system consisting of polyethylene glycol (PEG, proton donor)/PEG-functionalized base with suitable basicity was developed for efficient gas desulfurization (GDS) and can be regarded as an alternative approach to circumvent the energy penalty problem in the GDS process. High capacity for SO(2) capture up to 4.88 mol of SO(2)/mol of base was achieved even under low partial pressure of SO(2). Furthermore, SO(2) desorption runs smoothly under mild conditions (N(2), 25 °C) and no significant drop in SO(2) absorption was observed after five-successive absorption-desorption cycles. On the other hand, the absorbed SO(2) by PEG(150)MeIm/PEG(150), being considered as the activated form of SO(2), can be directly transformed into value-added chemicals under mild conditions, thus eliminating the energy penalty for SO(2) desorption and simultaneously realizing recycle of the absorbents. Thus, this SO(2) capture and utilization (SCU) process offers an alternative way for GDS and potentially enables the SO(2) conversion from flue gas to useful chemicals as a value-added process.

  18. Utilizing Diffuse Reflection to Increase the Efficiency of Luminescent Solar Concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowser, Seth; Weible, Seth; Solomon, Joel; Schrecengost, Jonathan; Wittmershaus, Bruce

    A luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) consists of a high index solid plate containing a fluorescent material that converts sunlight into fluorescence. Utilizing total internal reflection, the LSC collects and concentrates the fluorescence at the plate's edges where it is converted into electricity via photovoltaic solar cells. The lower production costs of LSCs make them an attractive alternative to photovoltaic solar cells. To optimize an LSC's efficiency, a white diffusive surface (background) is positioned behind it. The background allows sunlight transmitted in the first pass to be reflected back through the LSC providing a second chance for absorption. Our research examines how the LSC's performance is affected by changing the distance between the white background and the LSC. An automated linear motion apparatus was engineered to precisely measure this distance and the LSC's electrical current, simultaneously. LSC plates, with and without the presence of fluorescent material and in an isolated environment, showed a maximum current at a distance greater than zero. Further experimentation has proved that the optimal distance results from the background's optical properties and how the reflected light enters the LSC. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number NSF-ECCS-1306157.

  19. Cooperative adaptive bidirectional control of a train platoon for efficient utility and string stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shi-Gen; Dong, Hai-Rong; Ning, Bin; Roberts, Clive; Chen, Lei; Sun, Xu-Bin

    2015-09-01

    This paper proposes cooperative adaptive control schemes for a train platoon to improve efficient utility and guarantee string stability. The control schemes are developed based on a bidirectional strategy, i.e., the information of proximal (preceding and following) trains is used in the controller design. Based on available proximal information (prox-info) of location, speed, and acceleration, a direct adaptive control is designed to maintain the tracking interval at the minimum safe distance. Based on available prox-info of location, an observer-based adaptive control is designed to achieve the same target, which alleviates the requirements of equipped sensors to measure prox-info of speed and acceleration. The developed schemes are capable of on-line estimating of the unknown system parameters and stabilizing the closed-loop system, the string stability of train platoon is guaranteed on the basis of Lyapunov stability theorem. Numerical simulation results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control laws. Project supported by the Beijing Jiaotong University Research Program, China (Grant No. RCS2014ZT18), the Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities, China (Grant No. 2015JBZ007), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61233001, 61322307, and 61304196).

  20. Establishing an efficient way to utilize the drought resistance germplasm population in wheat.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiancheng; Guan, Yajing; Wang, Yang; Zhu, Liwei; Wang, Qitian; Hu, Qijuan; Hu, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Drought resistance breeding provides a hopeful way to improve yield and quality of wheat in arid and semiarid regions. Constructing core collection is an efficient way to evaluate and utilize drought-resistant germplasm resources in wheat. In the present research, 1,683 wheat varieties were divided into five germplasm groups (high resistant, HR; resistant, R; moderate resistant, MR; susceptible, S; and high susceptible, HS). The least distance stepwise sampling (LDSS) method was adopted to select core accessions. Six commonly used genetic distances (Euclidean distance, Euclid; Standardized Euclidean distance, Seuclid; Mahalanobis distance, Mahal; Manhattan distance, Manhat; Cosine distance, Cosine; and Correlation distance, Correlation) were used to assess genetic distances among accessions. Unweighted pair-group average (UPGMA) method was used to perform hierarchical cluster analysis. Coincidence rate of range (CR) and variable rate of coefficient of variation (VR) were adopted to evaluate the representativeness of the core collection. A method for selecting the ideal constructing strategy was suggested in the present research. A wheat core collection for the drought resistance breeding programs was constructed by the strategy selected in the present research. The principal component analysis showed that the genetic diversity was well preserved in that core collection.

  1. Attempts to improve nitrogen utilization efficiency of aquaponics through nitrifies addition and filler gradation.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yina; Hu, Zhen; Zhang, Jian; Xie, Huijun; Liang, Shuang; Wang, Jinhe; Yan, Runxin

    2016-04-01

    Aquaponics has attracted worldwide attention in recent years and is considered as an alternative technology for conventional aquaculture. In this study, common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and pakchoi (Brassica chinensis) were cultured in lab-scale aquaponics, and attempts were conducted to enhance its nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUE) through two optimization methods, i.e., nitrifies addition (NA) and filler gradation (FG). Results showed that NA and FG could improve the NUE of aquaponics by 8.8 and 16.0%, respectively, compared with control. The total ammonia (TAN) and nitrite (NO2(-)) concentrations in NA and FG systems were maintained at relatively low level (TAN < 0.5 mg/L, NO2(-) < 0.1 mg/L), which demonstrated that both the NA and FG could provide non-toxic water environment for fish culture. Nitrous oxide conversion ratio of the control, NA, and FG were 0.8, 1.2, and 1.7%, respectively, indicating that media-based aquaponics also contributed to global warming. Although the two proposed attempts in this study caused more N2O emission, they made new breakthrough in improving the NUE of aquaponics.

  2. Fast analytical approach of application specific dose efficient spectrum selection for diagnostic CT imaging and PET attenuation correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, Xue; Jin, Yannan; FitzGerald, Paul F.; Wu, Mingye; Alessio, Adam M.; Kinahan, Paul E.; De Man, Bruno

    2016-11-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has been used for a variety of applications, two of which include diagnostic imaging and attenuation correction for PET or SPECT imaging. Ideally, the x-ray tube spectrum should be optimized for the specific application to minimize the patient radiation dose while still providing the necessary information. In this study, we proposed a projection-based analytic approach for the analysis of contrast, noise, and bias. Dose normalized contrast to noise ratio (CNRD), inverse noise normalized by dose (IND) and bias are used as evaluation metrics to determine the optimal x-ray spectrum. Our simulation investigated the dose efficiency of the x-ray spectrum ranging from 40 kVp to 200 kVp. Water cylinders with diameters of 15 cm, 24 cm, and 35 cm were used in the simulation to cover a variety of patient sizes. The effects of electronic noise and pre-patient copper filtration were also evaluated. A customized 24 cm CTDI-like phantom with 13 mm diameter inserts filled with iodine (10 mg ml-1), tantalum (10 mg ml-1), water, and PMMA was measured with both standard (1.5 mGy) and ultra-low (0.2 mGy) dose to verify the simulation results at tube voltages of 80, 100, 120, and 140 kVp. For contrast-enhanced diagnostic imaging, the simulation results indicated that for high dose without filtration, the optimal kVp for water contrast is approximately 100 kVp for a 15 cm water cylinder. However, the 60 kVp spectrum produces the highest CNRD for bone and iodine. The optimal kVp for tantalum has two selections: approximately 50 and 100 kVp. The kVp that maximizes CNRD increases when the object size increases. The trend in the CTDI phantom measurements agrees with the simulation results, which also agrees with previous studies. Copper filtration improved the dose efficiency for water and tantalum, but reduced the iodine and bone dose efficiency in a clinically-relevant range (70-140 kVp). Our study also shows that for CT-based attenuation

  3. Improvement of energy efficiency via spectrum optimization of excitation sequence for multichannel simultaneously triggered airborne sonar system.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qing-Hao; Yao, Zhen-Jing; Peng, Han-Yang

    2009-12-01

    Both the energy efficiency and correlation characteristics are important in airborne sonar systems to realize multichannel ultrasonic transducers working together. High energy efficiency can increase echo energy and measurement range, and sharp autocorrelation and flat cross correlation can help eliminate cross-talk among multichannel transducers. This paper addresses energy efficiency optimization under the premise that cross-talk between different sonar transducers can be avoided. The nondominated sorting genetic algorithm-II is applied to optimize both the spectrum and correlation characteristics of the excitation sequence. The central idea of the spectrum optimization is to distribute most of the energy of the excitation sequence within the frequency band of the sonar transducer; thus, less energy is filtered out by the transducers. Real experiments show that a sonar system consisting of eight-channel Polaroid 600 series electrostatic transducers excited with 2 ms optimized pulse-position-modulation sequences can work together without cross-talk and can measure distances up to 650 cm with maximal 1% relative error.

  4. Study of EHD flow generator's efficiencies utilizing pin to single ring and multi-concentric rings electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumariyah; Kusminart; Hermanto, A.; Nuswantoro, P.

    2016-11-01

    EHD flow or ionic wind yield corona discharge is a stream coming from the ionized gas. EHD is generated by a strong electric field and its direction follows the electric field lines. In this study, the efficiency of the EHD flow generators utilizing pin-multi concentric rings electrodes (P-MRE) and the EHD pin-single ring electrode (P-SRE) have been measured. The comparison of efficiencies two types of the generator has been done. EHD flow was generated by using a high-voltage DC 0-10 KV on the electrode pin with a positive polarity and electrode ring/ multi-concentric rings of negative polarity. The efficiency was calculated by comparison between the mechanical power of flow to the electrical power that consumed. We obtained that the maximum efficiency of EHD flow generator utilizing pin-multi concentric rings electrodes was 0.54% and the maximum efficiency of EHD flow generator utilizing a pin-single ring electrode was 0.23%. Efficiency of EHD with P-MRE 2.34 times Efficiency of EHD with P-SRE

  5. Axicons for power conversion efficiency enhancement in solar cells for the visible spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podlipnov, V. V.; Porfirev, A. P.; Khonina, S. N.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the possibility of using diffractive microaxicons with different periods for power conversion efficiency enhancement in solar cells. The microaxicons were manufactured by using electron beam lithography. The parameters of the manufactured microaxicons were measured using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For imitation of solar light, we utilised a tunable laser (the used wavelength range is from 400 nm to 800 nm). Experimentally measured dependence of solar cell efficiency for the case of a combination of a solar cell and microaxicons of various types demonstrates a power conversion efficiency enhancement in the case of using such structures.

  6. Instantaneous Shoreline Extraction Utilizing Integrated Spectrum and Shadow Analysis From LiDAR Data and High-resolution Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, I.-Chieh

    manually connected, for its length was less than 3% of the total shoreline length in our dataset. Secondly, the parameters for satellite image classification needed to be manually determined. The need for manpower was significantly less compared to the ground surveying or aerial photogrammetry. The first phase of shoreline extraction was to utilize Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Mean-Shift segmentation on the coordinate (X, Y, Z), and attributes (multispectral bands from satellite images) of the LiDAR points to classify each LiDAR point into land or water surface. Boundary of the land points were then traced to create the shoreline. The second phase of shoreline extraction solely from satellite images utilized spectrum, NDVI, and shadow analysis to classify the satellite images into classes. These classes were then refined by mean-shift segmentation on the panchromatic band. By tracing the boundary of the water surface, the shoreline can be created. Since these two shorelines may represent different shoreline instances in time, evaluating the changes of shoreline was the first to be done. Then an independent scenario analysis and a procedure are performed for the shoreline of each of the three conditions: in the process of erosion, in the process of accession, and remaining the same. With these three conditions, we could analysis the actual terrain type and correct the classification errors to obtain a more accurate shoreline. Meanwhile, methods of evaluating the quality of shorelines had also been discussed. The experiment showed that there were three indicators could best represent the quality of the shoreline. These indicators were: (1) shoreline accuracy, (2) land area difference between extracted shoreline and ground truth shoreline, and (3) bias factor from shoreline quality metrics.

  7. U.S. utilities' experiences with the implementation of energy efficiency programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goss, Courtney

    In the U.S., many electric utility companies are offering demand-side management (DSM) programs to their customers as ways to save money and energy. However, it is challenging to compare these programs between utility companies throughout the U.S. because of the variability of state energy policies. For example, some states in the U.S. have deregulated electricity markets and others do not. In addition, utility companies within a state differ depending on ownership and size. This study examines 12 utilities' experiences with DSM programs and compares the programs' annual energy savings results that the selected utilities reported to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The 2009 EIA data suggests that DSM program effectiveness is not significantly affected by electricity market deregulation or utility ownership. However, DSM programs seem to generally be more effective when administered by utilities located in states with energy savings requirements and DSM program mandates.

  8. Optical spectrum of bottom-up graphene nanoribbons: towards efficient atom-thick excitonic solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Cesar E. P.; Mendonça, P. B.; Rocha, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, atomically well-defined cove-shaped graphene nanoribbons have been obtained using bottom-up synthesis. These nanoribbons have an optical gap in the visible range of the spectrum which make them candidates for donor materials in photovoltaic devices. From the atomistic point of view, their electronic and optical properties are not clearly understood. Therefore, in this work we carry out ab-initio density functional theory calculations combine with many-body perturbation formalism to study their electronic and optical properties. Through the comparison with experimental measurements, we show that an accurate description of the nanoribbon's optical properties requires the inclusion of electron-hole correlation effects. The energy, binding energy and the corresponding excitonic transitions involved are analyzed. We found that in contrast to zigzag graphene nanoribbons, the excitonic peaks in the absorption spectrum are a consequence of a group of transitions involving the first and second conduction and valence bands. Finally, we estimate some relevant optical properties that strengthen the potential of these nanoribbons for acting as a donor materials in photovoltaic. PMID:25301001

  9. Optical spectrum of bottom-up graphene nanoribbons: towards efficient atom-thick excitonic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Villegas, Cesar E P; Mendonça, P B; Rocha, A R

    2014-10-10

    Recently, atomically well-defined cove-shaped graphene nanoribbons have been obtained using bottom-up synthesis. These nanoribbons have an optical gap in the visible range of the spectrum which make them candidates for donor materials in photovoltaic devices. From the atomistic point of view, their electronic and optical properties are not clearly understood. Therefore, in this work we carry out ab-initio density functional theory calculations combine with many-body perturbation formalism to study their electronic and optical properties. Through the comparison with experimental measurements, we show that an accurate description of the nanoribbon's optical properties requires the inclusion of electron-hole correlation effects. The energy, binding energy and the corresponding excitonic transitions involved are analyzed. We found that in contrast to zigzag graphene nanoribbons, the excitonic peaks in the absorption spectrum are a consequence of a group of transitions involving the first and second conduction and valence bands. Finally, we estimate some relevant optical properties that strengthen the potential of these nanoribbons for acting as a donor materials in photovoltaic.

  10. Efficient Algorithms for Estimating the Absorption Spectrum within Linear Response TDDFT.

    PubMed

    Brabec, Jiri; Lin, Lin; Shao, Meiyue; Govind, Niranjan; Yang, Chao; Saad, Yousef; Ng, Esmond G

    2015-11-10

    We present a special symmetric Lanczos algorithm and a kernel polynomial method (KPM) for approximating the absorption spectrum of molecules within the linear response time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) framework in the product form. In contrast to existing algorithms, the new algorithms are based on reformulating the original non-Hermitian eigenvalue problem as a product eigenvalue problem and the observation that the product eigenvalue problem is self-adjoint with respect to an appropriately chosen inner product. This allows a simple symmetric Lanczos algorithm to be used to compute the desired absorption spectrum. The use of a symmetric Lanczos algorithm only requires half of the memory compared with the nonsymmetric variant of the Lanczos algorithm. The symmetric Lanczos algorithm is also numerically more stable than the nonsymmetric version. The KPM algorithm is also presented as a low-memory alternative to the Lanczos approach, but the algorithm may require more matrix-vector multiplications in practice. We discuss the pros and cons of these methods in terms of their accuracy as well as their computational and storage cost. Applications to a set of small and medium-sized molecules are also presented.

  11. Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatesan, Krishna

    2011-11-30

    The purpose of this program was to develop low-emissions, efficient fuel-flexible combustion technology which enables operation of a given gas turbine on a wider range of opportunity fuels that lie outside of current natural gas-centered fuel specifications. The program encompasses a selection of important, representative fuels of opportunity for gas turbines with widely varying fundamental properties of combustion. The research program covers conceptual and detailed combustor design, fabrication, and testing of retrofitable and/or novel fuel-flexible gas turbine combustor hardware, specifically advanced fuel nozzle technology, at full-scale gas turbine combustor conditions. This project was performed over the period of October 2008 through September 2011 under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-08NT05868 for the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled "Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines". The overall objective of this program was met with great success. GE was able to successfully demonstrate the operability of two fuel-flexible combustion nozzles over a wide range of opportunity fuels at heavy-duty gas turbine conditions while meeting emissions goals. The GE MS6000B ("6B") gas turbine engine was chosen as the target platform for new fuel-flexible premixer development. Comprehensive conceptual design and analysis of new fuel-flexible premixing nozzles were undertaken. Gas turbine cycle models and detailed flow network models of the combustor provide the premixer conditions (temperature, pressure, pressure drops, velocities, and air flow splits) and illustrate the impact of widely varying fuel flow rates on the combustor. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were employed to compare some fundamental combustion characteristics of the target fuels, including flame speeds and lean blow-out behavior. Perfectly premixed combustion experiments were conducted to

  12. Genome Sequence of the Thermophilic Strain Bacillus coagulans XZL4, an Efficient Pentose-Utilizing Producer of Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Su, Fei; Xu, Ke; Zhao, Bo; Tai, Cui; Tao, Fei; Tang, Hongzhi; Xu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans XZL4 is an efficient pentose-utilizing producer of important platform compounds, such as l-lactic acid, 2,3-butanediol, and acetoin. Here we present a 2.8-Mb assembly of its genome. Simple and efficient carbohydrate metabolism systems, especially the transketolase/transaldolase pathway, make it possible to convert pentose sugars to products at high levels. PMID:22038963

  13. Efficient management and promotion of utilization of the video information acquired by observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitayama, T.; Tanaka, K.; Shimabukuro, R.; Hase, H.; Ogido, M.; Nakamura, M.; Saito, H.; Hanafusa, Y.; Sonoda, A.

    2012-12-01

    In Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), the deep sea videos are made from the research by JAMSTEC submersibles in 1982, and the information on the huge deep-sea that will reach more 4,000 dives (ca. 24,700 tapes) by the present are opened to public via the Internet since 2002. The deep-sea videos is important because the time variation of deep-sea environment with difficult investigation and collection and growth of the living thing in extreme environment can be checked. Moreover, with development of video technique, the advanced analysis of an investigation image is attained. For grasp of deep sea environment, especially the utility value of the image is high. In JAMSTEC's Data Research Center for Marine-Earth Sciences (DrC), collection of the video are obtained by dive investigation of JAMSTEC, preservation, quality control, and open to public are performed. It is our big subject that the huge video information which utility value has expanded managed efficiently and promotion of use. In this announcement, the present measure is introduced about these subjects . The videos recorded on a tape or various media onboard are collected, and the backup and encoding for preventing the loss and degradation are performed. The video inside of a hard disk has the large file size. Then, we use the Linear Tape File System (LTFS) which attracts attention with image management engineering these days. Cost does not start compared with the usual disk backup, but correspondence years can also save the video data for a long time, and the operatively of a file is not different from a disk. The video that carried out the transcode to offer is archived by disk storage, and offer according to a use is possible for it. For the promotion of utilization of the video, the video public presentation system was reformed completely from November, 2011 to "JAMSTEC E-library of Deep Sea Images (http:// www.godac.jamstec.go.jp/jedi/)" This new system has preparing

  14. Kinetic mechanism of Toxoplasma gondii adenosine kinase and the highly efficient utilization of adenosine.

    PubMed

    Naguib, Fardos N M; Rais, Reem H; Al Safarjalani, Omar N; el Kouni, Mahmoud H

    2015-10-01

    Initial velocity and product inhibition studies of Toxoplasma gondii adenosine kinase (TgAK, EC 2.7.1.20) demonstrated that the basic mechanism of this enzyme is a hybrid random bi-uni ping-pong uni-bi. Initial velocity studies showed an intersecting pattern, consistent with substrate-enzyme-co-substrate complex formation and a binding pattern indicating that binding of the substrate interferes with the binding of the co-substrate and vice versa. Estimated kinetic parameters were KAdo=0.002±0.0002 mM, KATP=0.05±0.008 mM, and Vmax=920±35 μmol/min/mg protein. Ado exhibited substrate inhibition suggesting the presence of more than one binding site for Ado on the enzyme. ATP relieved substrate inhibition by Ado. Thus, Ado also binds to the ATP binding site. AMP was competitive with ATP, inferring that AMP binds to the same site as ATP. AMP, ADP and ATP were non-competitive with Ado, therefore, none of these nucleotides binds to the Ado binding site. Combining ATP with ADP was additive. Therefore, the binding of either ATP or ADP does not interfere with the binding of the other. It is concluded that for every ATP consumed, TgAK generates three new AMPs. These findings along with the fact that a wide range of nucleoside 5'-mono, di, and triphosphates could substitute for ATP as phosphate donors in this reaction may explain the efficient and central role played by TgAK in the utilization of Ado as the major source from which all other purines can be synthesized in T. gondii.

  15. Analysis of Phosphorus Use Efficiency Traits in Coffea Genotypes Reveals Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora Have Contrasting Phosphorus Uptake and Utilization Efficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Ana P.; Favarin, José L.; Hammond, John P.; Tezotto, Tiago; Couto, Hilton T. Z.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Phosphate (Pi) is one of the most limiting nutrients for agricultural production in Brazilian soils due to low soil Pi concentrations and rapid fixation of fertilizer Pi by adsorption to oxidic minerals and/or precipitation by iron and aluminum ions. The objectives of this study were to quantify phosphorus (P) uptake and use efficiency in cultivars of the species Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora L., and group them in terms of efficiency and response to Pi availability. Methods: Plants of 21 cultivars of C. arabica and four cultivars of C. canephora were grown under contrasting soil Pi availabilities. Biomass accumulation, tissue P concentration and accumulation and efficiency indices for P use were measured. Key Results: Coffee plant growth was significantly reduced under low Pi availability, and P concentration was higher in cultivars of C. canephora. The young leaves accumulated more P than any other tissue. The cultivars of C. canephora had a higher root/shoot ratio and were significantly more efficient in P uptake, while the cultivars of C. arabica were more efficient in P utilization. Agronomic P use efficiency varied among coffee cultivars and E16 Shoa, E22 Sidamo, Iêmen and Acaiá cultivars were classified as the most efficient and responsive to Pi supply. A positive correlation between P uptake efficiency and root to shoot ratio was observed across all cultivars at low Pi supply. These data identify Coffea genotypes better adapted to low soil Pi availabilities, and the traits that contribute to improved P uptake and use efficiency. These data could be used to select current genotypes with improved P uptake or utilization efficiencies for use on soils with low Pi availability and also provide potential breeding material and targets for breeding new cultivars better adapted to the low Pi status of Brazilian soils. This could ultimately reduce the use of Pi fertilizers in tropical soils, and contribute to more sustainable coffee

  16. Bilayer Polymer Solar Cells with Improved Power Conversion Efficiency and Enhanced Spectrum Coverage

    SciTech Connect

    Kekuda, Dhananjaya; Chu, Chih-Wei

    2011-10-20

    We demonstrate the construction of an efficient bilayer polymer solar cell comprising of Poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT) as a p-type semiconductor and asymmetric fullerene (C{sub 70}) as n-type counterparts. The bilayer configuration was very efficient compared to the individual layer performance and it behaved like a regular p-n junction device. The photovoltaic characteristic of the bilayers were studied under AM 1.5 solar radiation and the optimized device parameters are the following: Voc = 0.5V, Jsc = 10.1 mA/cm{sup 2}, FF = 0.60 and power conversion efficiency of 3.6 %. A high fill factor of {approx}0.6 was achieved, which is only slightly reduced at very intense illumination. Balanced mobility between p-and n-layers is achieved which is essential for achieving high device performance. Correlation between the crystallinity, morphology and the transport properties of the active layers is established. The External quantum efficiency (EQE) spectral distribution of the bilayer devices with different processing solvents correlates well with the trends of short circuit current densities (J{sub sc}) measured under illumination. Efficiency of the bilayer devices with rough P3HT layer was found to be about 3 times higher than those with a planar P3HT surface. Hence it is desirable to have a larger grains with a rough surface of P3HT layer for providing larger interfacial area for the exciton dissociation.

  17. Efficiently Measuring Dimensions of the Externalizing Spectrum Model: Development of the Externalizing Spectrum Inventory-Computerized Adaptive Test (ESI-CAT).

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Matthew; Slade, Tim; Krueger, Robert F; Markon, Kristian E; Patrick, Christopher J; Kramer, Mark D

    2016-11-14

    The development of the Externalizing Spectrum Inventory (ESI) was motivated by the need to comprehensively assess the interrelated nature of externalizing psychopathology and personality using an empirically driven framework. The ESI measures 23 theoretically distinct yet related unidimensional facets of externalizing, which are structured under 3 superordinate factors representing general externalizing, callous aggression, and substance abuse. One limitation of the ESI is its length at 415 items. To facilitate the use of the ESI in busy clinical and research settings, the current study sought to examine the efficiency and accuracy of a computerized adaptive version of the ESI. Data were collected over 3 waves and totaled 1,787 participants recruited from undergraduate psychology courses as well as male and female state prisons. A series of 6 algorithms with different termination rules were simulated to determine the efficiency and accuracy of each test under 3 different assumed distributions. Scores generated using an optimal adaptive algorithm evidenced high correlations (r > .9) with scores generated using the full ESI, brief ESI item-based factor scales, and the 23 facet scales. The adaptive algorithms for each facet administered a combined average of 115 items, a 72% decrease in comparison to the full ESI. Similarly, scores on the item-based factor scales of the ESI-brief form (57 items) were generated using on average of 17 items, a 70% decrease. The current study successfully demonstrates that an adaptive algorithm can generate similar scores for the ESI and the 3 item-based factor scales using a fraction of the total item pool. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. An Energy-Efficient Spectrum-Aware Reinforcement Learning-Based Clustering Algorithm for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Mustapha, Ibrahim; Mohd Ali, Borhanuddin; Rasid, Mohd Fadlee A; Sali, Aduwati; Mohamad, Hafizal

    2015-08-13

    It is well-known that clustering partitions network into logical groups of nodes in order to achieve energy efficiency and to enhance dynamic channel access in cognitive radio through cooperative sensing. While the topic of energy efficiency has been well investigated in conventional wireless sensor networks, the latter has not been extensively explored. In this paper, we propose a reinforcement learning-based spectrum-aware clustering algorithm that allows a member node to learn the energy and cooperative sensing costs for neighboring clusters to achieve an optimal solution. Each member node selects an optimal cluster that satisfies pairwise constraints, minimizes network energy consumption and enhances channel sensing performance through an exploration technique. We first model the network energy consumption and then determine the optimal number of clusters for the network. The problem of selecting an optimal cluster is formulated as a Markov Decision Process (MDP) in the algorithm and the obtained simulation results show convergence, learning and adaptability of the algorithm to dynamic environment towards achieving an optimal solution. Performance comparisons of our algorithm with the Groupwise Spectrum Aware (GWSA)-based algorithm in terms of Sum of Square Error (SSE), complexity, network energy consumption and probability of detection indicate improved performance from the proposed approach. The results further reveal that an energy savings of 9% and a significant Primary User (PU) detection improvement can be achieved with the proposed approach.

  19. An Energy-Efficient Spectrum-Aware Reinforcement Learning-Based Clustering Algorithm for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Mustapha, Ibrahim; Ali, Borhanuddin Mohd; Rasid, Mohd Fadlee A.; Sali, Aduwati; Mohamad, Hafizal

    2015-01-01

    It is well-known that clustering partitions network into logical groups of nodes in order to achieve energy efficiency and to enhance dynamic channel access in cognitive radio through cooperative sensing. While the topic of energy efficiency has been well investigated in conventional wireless sensor networks, the latter has not been extensively explored. In this paper, we propose a reinforcement learning-based spectrum-aware clustering algorithm that allows a member node to learn the energy and cooperative sensing costs for neighboring clusters to achieve an optimal solution. Each member node selects an optimal cluster that satisfies pairwise constraints, minimizes network energy consumption and enhances channel sensing performance through an exploration technique. We first model the network energy consumption and then determine the optimal number of clusters for the network. The problem of selecting an optimal cluster is formulated as a Markov Decision Process (MDP) in the algorithm and the obtained simulation results show convergence, learning and adaptability of the algorithm to dynamic environment towards achieving an optimal solution. Performance comparisons of our algorithm with the Groupwise Spectrum Aware (GWSA)-based algorithm in terms of Sum of Square Error (SSE), complexity, network energy consumption and probability of detection indicate improved performance from the proposed approach. The results further reveal that an energy savings of 9% and a significant Primary User (PU) detection improvement can be achieved with the proposed approach. PMID:26287191

  20. You say banana[hor ellipsis]. [Is there a difference between consumer and utility discount rates for energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Cater, J.C. )

    1992-12-15

    In the debate over the efficacy of utility sponsored demand-side management (DSM) programs, some argue that vigorous efforts by utilities are not required. After all, the argument goes, DSM measures that are truly cost-effective from a consumer's point of view will be adopted through normal, relatively efficient free-market mechanisms. Others argue that active utility participation is necessary. They contend that, among other reasons, market barriers exist causing consumers to make decisions contrary to their own, or society's, best interests. One of these alleged market barriers is the discrepancy between the respective discount rates used by consumers and utilities to evaluate the life-cycle benefits of DSM measures. The apparent discrepancy is due, in large part, to an inappropriate comparison of discount rates measured on an inconsistent basis. When measured against a consistent frame of reference, the discrepancy is not nearly as large as some would suggest.

  1. Efficient, full-spectrum, long-lived, non-toxic microwave lamp for plant growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maclennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Dolan, James T.; Ury, Michael G.; Gustafson, Paul

    1994-01-01

    Fusion Systems Corporation has developed a mercury-free, low infrared, efficient microwave lamp using a benign sulfur based fill optimized for visible light. Our literature search and discussions with researchers directed us to enhance the bulbs red output. We have demonstrated a photosynthetic efficacy of over 2 micro-moles per microwave joule which corresponds to over 1.3 micro-moles per joule at the power main. Recent work has shown we can make additional increases in overall system efficiency. During the next two years, we expect to demonstrate a system capable of producing more than 1.5 micro-moles/joule measured at the power main with significantly less IR than alternative lamp systems. We determined optimal plant growth light requirements via a literature search and researcher input. We surveyed candidate lamp fill materials to be used in combination with sulfur and explored several methods of increasing photosynthetic efficacy.

  2. Plasticity of rhizosphere hydraulic properties as a key for efficient utilization of scarce resources

    PubMed Central

    Carminati, Andrea; Vetterlein, Doris

    2013-01-01

    experimental methods need to be developed and applied to different plant species and soil types, in order to understand whether such dualism in rhizosphere properties is an important mechanism for efficient utilization of scarce resources and drought tolerance. PMID:23235697

  3. Utilization of macrominerals and trace elements in pregnant heifers with distinct feed efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Dias, R S; Montanholi, Y R; Lopez, S; Smith, B; Miller, S P; France, J

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate utilization of dietary minerals and trace elements in pregnant heifers with distinct residual feed intakes (RFI). Feed intake, body weight (BW), and body composition traits were recorded in 36 crossbred heifers over a period of 37 wk, starting shortly after weaning at 8.3 (0.10; standard deviation) mo of age with an average BW of 276 (7.8) kg. Both BW and body composition were monitored regularly throughout the study, whereas individual feed intake was assessed during the last 84 d of the trial. Data recorded were used to calculate RFI for each heifer. Heifers were ranked based on RFI and assigned to high (n=14) or low (n=10) RFI groups. After the RFI study, 24 selected heifers [age 18.2 (0.14) mo; 87.5 (4.74) d in gestation; 497 (8.5) kg of BW] were used in an indirect digestibility trial (lignin as internal marker). Heifers were fed a ration containing corn silage, haylage, and a mineral premix in which Ca, P, K, Na, Mg, S, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se, Zn, and Co were provided in the diet according to National Research Council requirements of pregnant replacement heifers. The digestibility trial lasted 1 wk, during which samples of feces were gathered twice daily, and blood and liver biopsy samples were collected on the last day. We noted no significant differences between low- and high-RFI heifers in dry matter digestibility. Apparent absorption of Cu, Zn, and Mn was increased in heifers with low RFI, and apparent absorption of Co tended to be greater for these animals. Concentrations of macrominerals and trace elements in serum of pregnant heifers were similar for both groups except for Se, which was increased in the serum of low-RFI heifers. Liver concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se, and Zn did not differ between low- and high-RFI heifers. In conclusion, whereas improved absorption of some trace elements (Cu, Zn, Mn, and Co) and increased Se serum concentration appear to be associated with superior feed efficiency in pregnant

  4. Resource-efficient fusion with pre-compensated transmissions for cooperative spectrum sensing.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Dayan Adionel; Aquino, Guilherme Pedro; Cattaneo, Marco E G V

    2015-05-08

    Recently, a novel fusion scheme for cooperative spectrum sensing was proposed for saving resources in the control channel. Secondary users (SUs) simultaneously report their decisions using binary modulations with the same carrier frequencies. The transmitted symbols add incoherently at the fusion centre (FC), leading to a larger set of symbols in which a subset is associated with the presence of the primary user (PU) signal, and another subset is associated with the absence of such a signal. The decision criterion applied for discriminating these subsets works under the assumption that the channel gains are known at the FC. In this paper, we propose a new simultaneous transmission and decision scheme in which the task of channel estimation is shifted from the FC to the SUs, without the need for feeding-back of the estimates to the FC. The estimates are used at the SUs to pre-compensate for the reporting channel phase rotations and to partially compensate for the channel gains. This partial compensation is the result of signal clipping for peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) control. We show, analytically and with simulations, that this new scheme can produce large performance improvements, yet reduces the implementation complexity when compared with the original one.

  5. Resource-Efficient Fusion with Pre-Compensated Transmissions for Cooperative Spectrum Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Dayan Adionel; Aquino, Guilherme Pedro; Cattaneo, Marco E. G. V.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a novel fusion scheme for cooperative spectrum sensing was proposed for saving resources in the control channel. Secondary users (SUs) simultaneously report their decisions using binary modulations with the same carrier frequencies. The transmitted symbols add incoherently at the fusion centre (FC), leading to a larger set of symbols in which a subset is associated with the presence of the primary user (PU) signal, and another subset is associated with the absence of such a signal. The decision criterion applied for discriminating these subsets works under the assumption that the channel gains are known at the FC. In this paper, we propose a new simultaneous transmission and decision scheme in which the task of channel estimation is shifted from the FC to the SUs, without the need for feeding-back of the estimates to the FC. The estimates are used at the SUs to pre-compensate for the reporting channel phase rotations and to partially compensate for the channel gains. This partial compensation is the result of signal clipping for peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) control. We show, analytically and with simulations, that this new scheme can produce large performance improvements, yet reduces the implementation complexity when compared with the original one. PMID:26007712

  6. Efficiency of photosynthesis in a Chl d-utilizing cyanobacterium is comparable to or higher than that in Chl a-utilizing oxygenic species.

    PubMed

    Mielke, S P; Kiang, N Y; Blankenship, R E; Gunner, M R; Mauzerall, D

    2011-09-01

    The cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina uses chlorophyll d to carry out oxygenic photosynthesis in environments depleted in visible and enhanced in lower-energy, far-red light. However, the extent to which low photon energies limit the efficiency of oxygenic photochemistry in A. marina is not known. Here, we report the first direct measurements of the energy-storage efficiency of the photosynthetic light reactions in A. marina whole cells, and find it is comparable to or higher than that in typical, chlorophyll a-utilizing oxygenic species. This finding indicates that oxygenic photosynthesis is not fundamentally limited at the photon energies employed by A. marina, and therefore is potentially viable in even longer-wavelength light environments.

  7. Efficiency of Photosynthesis in a Chl d-Utilizing Cyanobacterium is Comparable to or Higher than that in Chl a-Utilizing Oxygenic Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mielke, S. P.; Kiang, N. Y.; Blankenship, R. E.; Gunner, M. R.; Mauzerall, D.

    2011-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina uses chlorophyll d to carry out oxygenic photosynthesis in environments depleted in visible and enhanced in lower-energy, far-red light. However, the extent to which low photon energies limit the efficiency of oxygenic photochemistry in A. marina is not known. Here, we report the first direct measurements of the energy-storage efficiency of the photosynthetic light reactions in A. marina whole cells,and find it is comparable to or higher than that in typical, chlorophyll a-utilizing oxygenic species. This finding indicates that oxygenic photosynthesis is not fundamentally limited at the photon energies employed by A. marina, and therefore is potentially viable in even longer-wavelength light environments.

  8. Utility of the 3Di Short Version for the Diagnostic Assessment of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Compatibility with DSM-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slappendel, Geerte; Mandy, William; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C.; van der Sijde, Ad; Duvekot, Jorieke; Skuse, David; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin

    2016-01-01

    The Developmental Diagnostic Dimensional Interview-short version (3Di-sv) provides a brief standardized parental interview for diagnosing autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study explored its validity, and compatibility with DSM-5 ASD. 3Di-sv classifications showed good sensitivity but low specificity when compared to ADOS-2-confirmed clinical…

  9. The cost and performance of utility commercial lighting programs. A report from the Database on Energy Efficiency Programs (DEEP) project

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, J.; Vine, E.; Shown, L.; Sonnenblick, R.; Payne, C.

    1994-05-01

    The objective of the Database on Energy Efficiency Programs (DEEP) is to document the measured cost and performance of utility-sponsored, energy-efficiency, demand-side management (DSM) programs. Consistent documentation of DSM programs is a challenging goal because of problems with data consistency, evaluation methodologies, and data reporting formats that continue to limit the usefulness and comparability of individual program results. This first DEEP report investigates the results of 20 recent commercial lighting DSM programs. The report, unlike previous reports of its kind, compares the DSM definitions and methodologies that each utility uses to compute costs and energy savings and then makes adjustments to standardize reported program results. All 20 programs were judged cost-effective when compared to avoided costs in their local areas. At an average cost of 3.9{cents}/kWh, however, utility-sponsored energy efficiency programs are not ``too cheap to meter.`` While it is generally agreed upon that utilities must take active measures to minimize the costs and rate impacts of DSM programs, the authors believe that these activities will be facilitated by industry adoption of standard definitions and reporting formats, so that the best program designs can be readily identified and adopted.

  10. Associated petroleum gas utilization in Tomsk Oblast: energy efficiency and tax advantages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazim, A.; Romanyuk, V.; Ahmadeev, K.; Matveenko, I.

    2015-11-01

    This article deals with oil production companies activities in increasing the utilization volume of associated petroleum gas (APG) in Tomsk Oblast. Cost-effectiveness analysis of associated petroleum gas utilization was carried out using the example of gas engine power station AGP-350 implementation at Yuzhno-Cheremshanskoye field, Tomsk Oblast. Authors calculated the effectiveness taking into account the tax advantages of 2012. The implementation of this facility shows high profitability, the payback period being less than 2 years.

  11. Deregulation strategies for local governments and the role/opportunities for energy efficiency services in the utility industry deregulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, P.C.

    1998-07-01

    As the future shape of the electric utility industry continues to unfold and as retail competition becomes a reality, local governments are faced with balancing the need for: (1) economic development; (2) and to avoid the potential impact of cost-shifting among residents and businesses, while ensuring reliable and universal energy services. Furthermore, local governments need to find ways to recoup potential loss of franchise and tax revenues, to ensure fair and adequate energy-efficiency programs, and to continue other social programs for low income families. This paper will address two important issues every local government in the US are facing: (1) the development of viable deregulation strategies before, during and after the promulgation of utility deregulation; (2) opportunities for energy efficiency services in the competitive markets to serve local governments, which typically constitutes the largest market segment in utility's service territory. This paper presents issues and challenges common to all local governments. It documents strategies that several local governments are utilizing to embrace the coming electric utility restructuring and competition challenge to the benefits of their respective communities. This paper presents the results on deregulation work by the City of Portland, Oregon, Barnstable County, Massachusetts, and Montgomery County, Maryland. The research by these local governments was sponsored by the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force and Public Technology, Inc.

  12. Weak network efficiency in young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Evidence from a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanwei; Yu, Dongchuan

    2016-10-01

    Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is particularly suited for the young population and ecological measurement. However, thus far, not enough effort has been given to the clinical diagnosis of young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) by using fNIRS. The current study provided some insights into the quantitative analysis of functional networks in young children (ages 4.8-8.0years old) with and without ASD and, in particular, investigated the network efficiency and lobe-level connectivity of their functional networks while watching a cartoon. The main results included that: (i) Weak network efficiency was observed in young children with ASD, even for a wide range of threshold for the binarization of functional networks; (ii) A maximum classification accuracy rate of 83.3% was obtained for all participants by using the k-means clustering method with network efficiencies as the feature parameters; and (iii) Weak lobe-level inter-region connections were uncovered in the right prefrontal cortex, including its linkages with the left prefrontal cortex and the bilateral temporal cortex. Such results indicate that the right prefrontal cortex might make a major contribution to the psychopathology of young children with ASD at the functional network architecture level, and at the functional lobe-connectivity level, respectively.

  13. Financial Impact of Energy Efficiency under a Federal Renewable Electricity Standard: Case Study of a Kansas"super-utility"

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, Charles A.; Cappers, Peter

    2009-12-01

    Local, state and federal policies that jointly promote the generation of electricity from renewable technologies and the pursuit of energy efficiency are expected to help mitigate the detrimental effects of global climate change and foster energy independence. We examine the financial impacts on various stakeholders from alternative compliance strategies with a Combined Efficiency and Renewable Electricity Standard (CERES) using a case study approach for utilities in Kansas. If only supply-side options are considered, our analysis suggests that a Kansas"super-utility" would prefer to build its own renewable energy resources, while ratepayers would favor a procurement strategy that relies on long-term renewable power purchase agreements. Introducing energy efficiency under varying levels as a CERES resource will, under our analysis, reduce ratepayer bills by ~;;$400M to ~;;$1.0B between 2009 and 2028, but commensurately erode shareholder returns by ~;;10 to ~;;100 basis points. If a business model for energy efficiency inclusive of both a lost fixed cost recovery mechanism and a shareholder incentive mechanism is implemented, our results illustrate how shareholder returns can be improved through the pursuit of energy efficiency, by at most ~;;20 basis points if certain conditions apply, while ratepayers continue to save between $10M and ~;;$840M over 20 years.

  14. The Future of Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs in the United States: Projected Spending and Savings to 2025

    SciTech Connect

    Barbose, Galen; Goldman, Charles; Hoffman, Ian; Billingsley, Megan

    2012-09-11

    We develop projections of future spending on, and savings from, energy efficiency programs funded by electric and gas utility customers in the United States, under three scenarios through 2025. Our analysis, which updates a previous LBNL study, relies on detailed bottom-up modeling of current state energy efficiency policies, regulatory decisions, and demand-side management and utility resource plans. The three scenarios are intended to represent a range of potential outcomes under the current policy environment (i.e., without considering possible major new policy developments). By 2025, spending on electric and gas efficiency programs (excluding load management programs) is projected to double from 2010 levels to $9.5 billion in the medium case, compared to $15.6 billion in the high case and $6.5 billion in the low case. Compliance with statewide legislative or regulatory savings or spending targets is the primary driver for the increase in electric program spending through 2025, though a significant share of the increase is also driven by utility DSM planning activity and integrated resource planning. Our analysis suggests that electric efficiency program spending may approach a more even geographic distribution over time in terms of absolute dollars spent, with the Northeastern and Western states declining from over 70% of total U.S. spending in 2010 to slightly more than 50% in 2025, with the South and Midwest splitting the remainder roughly evenly. Under our medium case scenario, annual incremental savings from customer-funded electric energy efficiency programs increase from 18.4 TWh in 2010 in the U.S. (which is about 0.5% of electric utility retail sales) to 28.8 TWh in 2025 (0.8% of retail sales). These savings would offset the majority of load growth in the Energy Information Administration’s most recent reference case forecast, given specific assumptions about the extent to which future energy efficiency program savings are captured in that forecast

  15. Remediation of mould damaged building materials--efficiency of a broad spectrum of treatments.

    PubMed

    Peitzsch, Mirko; Bloom, Erica; Haase, Rocco; Must, Aime; Larsson, Lennart

    2012-03-01

    We compared the efficiency of some commercially available products and methods used for remediation of mould-contaminated building materials. Samples of gypsum board and pinewood were artificially contaminated with toxin-producing isolates of Stachybotrys chartarum and Aspergillus versicolor, respectively, then, ten different remediation treatments were applied according to the manufacturers' instructions. Microbial and chemical analyses of the infested materials were carried out both immediately before and after treatment, after six weeks of drying at room temperature, and after another six weeks of remoistening. The aim of the study was to determine whether the investigated methods could inhibit the mould growth and destroy some selected mycotoxins produced by the moulds. None of the decontamination methods tested could completely eliminate viable moulds. Some methods, especially boron based chemicals, ammonium based chemicals, and oxidation reduced the contents of mycotoxins produced by S. chartarum (satratoxin G and H, verrucarol), whereas the one which uses an ammonium based chemical reduced the amount of sterigmatocystin produced by A. versicolor with statistical significance. No remediation treatment eliminated all the toxins from the damaged materials. These results emphasize the importance to work preventively with moisture safety throughout the construction processes and management to prevent mould growth on building materials.

  16. Impact of Large Scale Energy Efficiency Programs On Consumer Tariffs and Utility Finances in India

    SciTech Connect

    Abhyankar, Nikit; Phadke, Amol

    2011-01-20

    Large-scale EE programs would modestly increase tariffs but reduce consumers' electricity bills significantly. However, the primary benefit of EE programs is a significant reduction in power shortages, which might make these programs politically acceptable even if tariffs increase. To increase political support, utilities could pursue programs that would result in minimal tariff increases. This can be achieved in four ways: (a) focus only on low-cost programs (such as replacing electric water heaters with gas water heaters); (b) sell power conserved through the EE program to the market at a price higher than the cost of peak power purchase; (c) focus on programs where a partial utility subsidy of incremental capital cost might work and (d) increase the number of participant consumers by offering a basket of EE programs to fit all consumer subcategories and tariff tiers. Large scale EE programs can result in consistently negative cash flows and significantly erode the utility's overall profitability. In case the utility is facing shortages, the cash flow is very sensitive to the marginal tariff of the unmet demand. This will have an important bearing on the choice of EE programs in Indian states where low-paying rural and agricultural consumers form the majority of the unmet demand. These findings clearly call for a flexible, sustainable solution to the cash-flow management issue. One option is to include a mechanism like FAC in the utility incentive mechanism. Another sustainable solution might be to have the net program cost and revenue loss built into utility's revenue requirement and thus into consumer tariffs up front. However, the latter approach requires institutionalization of EE as a resource. The utility incentive mechanisms would be able to address the utility disincentive of forgone long-run return but have a minor impact on consumer benefits. Fundamentally, providing incentives for EE programs to make them comparable to supply-side investments is a way

  17. (Energy efficiency of the computerized utilities energy monitor and control system)

    SciTech Connect

    Broders, M.A.; McConnell, B.W.

    1990-12-17

    The travelers, representing the ORNL Energy Division, Efficiency and Renewables Research Section, conducted an in-depth evaluation of the CUMACS/EMCS installed at the 26th Support Group, USAREUR. This endeavor included an evaluation of the overall performance of this system including operations maintenance and end-user impact. System energy efficiency in terms of projected and actual energy and cost savings were analyzed. Conclusions and preliminary recommendations based on this evaluation were also formulated.

  18. LightForce Photon-Pressure Collision Avoidance: Updated Efficiency Analysis Utilizing a Highly Parallel Simulation Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stupl, J.; Faber, N.; Foster, C.; Yang, F.; Nelson, B.; Aziz, J.; Nuttall, A.; Henze, C.; Levit, C.

    2014-09-01

    This paper provides an updated efficiency analysis of the LightForce space debris collision avoidance scheme. LightForce aims to prevent collisions on warning by utilizing photon pressure from ground based, commercial off the shelf lasers. Past research has proven that a few ground-based systems consisting of 10 kW class lasers directed by 1.5 m telescopes with adaptive optics could lower the expected number of collisions in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by an order of magnitude. Our simulation approach utilizes the entire Two Line Element (TLE) catalogue in LEO for a given day as initial input. Least-squares fitting of a TLE time series is used for an improved orbit estimate. We then calculate the probability of collision for all LEO objects in the catalogue for a time step of the simulation. The conjunctions that exceed a threshold probability of collision are then engaged by a simulated network of laser ground stations. After those engagements, the perturbed orbits are used to re-assess the probability of collision and evaluate the efficiency. This paper describes new simulations with three updated aspects: 1) By utilizing a highly parallel simulation approach employing hundreds of processors, we have extended our analysis to a much broader dataset. The simulation time is extended to one year. 2) We analyze not only the efficiency of LightForce on conjunctions that naturally occur, but also take into account conjunctions caused by orbit perturbations due to LightForce engagements. 3) We use a new simulation approach that is regularly updating the LightForce engagement strategy, as it would be during actual operations. In this paper we present both our simulation approach to parallelize the efficiency analysis, its computational performance and the resulting expected efficiency of the LightForce collision avoidance system.

  19. Mapping quantitative trait loci for nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency in rice (Oryza sativa L.) at different nitrogen fertilizer levels.

    PubMed

    Dai, G J; Cheng, S H; Hua, Z T; Zhang, M L; Jiang, H B; Feng, Y; Shen, X H; Su, Y A; He, N; Ma, Z B; Ma, X Q; Hou, S G; Wang, Y R

    2015-09-08

    Genetic improvement is the fundamental basis for improving nitrogen-use efficiency. A better understanding of genetic factors controlling nitrogen uptake and utilization is required for crop genetic improvement. In this study, we identified the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with traits of nitrogen uptake and utilization by using the single-sequence repeat marker method and a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a super hybrid Xieyou9308. All the traits investigated were inherited quantitatively by continuous variation and showed normal distribution in phenotype with transgressive segregation in the RIL population. Most of the traits were significantly correlated with each other except for nitrogen absorption ability (NAA) with nitrogen harvest index (NHI) and NHI with agricultural nitrogen-absorption efficiency (ANAE). At logarithmic odds value of 2.3, total 13 candidate QTLs, including 4 for NAA, 2 for NHI, 2 for physiological nitrogen-use efficiency, 1 for agricultural nitrogen-use efficiency (ANUE), and 4 for ANAE, were detected and mapped on chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, and 12. Significant pleiotropic effect or neighboring expression of QTLs was observed among traits. At position 64.8 cM on chromosome 4 near the marker RM5757, there was a QTL cluster of NAA, ANUE, and ANAE, and at chromosome 5 near the marker RM5968, there was a QTL cluster of NAA and ANUE. The QTL clusters might provide partial explanation and genetic mechanism for the observed correlations between nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency traits and might form a basis for future breeding programs.

  20. Design of a photostabilizer having built-in antioxidant functionality and its utility in obtaining broad-spectrum sunscreen formulations.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Ratan K; Lascu, Zoia; Puccetti, Germain; Deshpande, Anant A; Paknikar, Sashikumar K

    2006-01-01

    Di-2,2'-diethylhexyl-3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy-benzylidenemalonate (INCI name diethylhexyl syringylidene malonate, DESM), the target photostabilizer, was synthesized in one step by condensation of 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy benzaldehyde (Syringaldehyde) with di-2,2'-diethylhexyl malonate. Photostability data in sunscreen formulations showed that DESM is photostable and improves the photostability of avobenzone significantly when compared to control (without a photostabilizer). Photostable broad-spectrum sunscreen formulations with high SPF (>30) have been achieved by combining avobenzone, DESM and UV-B sunscreens, such as homosalate, octisalate or other UV-B sunscreens. It seems that (a) triplet-state energy transfer from avobenzone to DESM and (b) scavenging of reactive species are responsible for the observed stabilization of avobenzone. In vitro study of the two formulations containing DESM clearly showed critical wavelength of well over 370 nm and can thus be categorized as broad-spectrum sunscreens. DESM does not have any contribution to in vivo SPF; instead it boosts SPF by about 5 units in high-SPF products. DESM was found to be an excellent singlet-oxygen quencher, thereby reducing photodegradation of avobenzone caused by singlet oxygen. In short, the multiplicity of effects and formulation benefits seen with DESM makes it an ideal choice as a unique antioxidant photostabilizer for a variety of cosmetic products targeting young and mature skin alike.

  1. Jicarilla Apache Utility Authority Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Strategic Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Rabago, K.R.

    2008-06-28

    The purpose of this Strategic Plan Report is to provide an introduction and in-depth analysis of the issues and opportunities, resources, and technologies of energy efficiency and renewable energy that have potential beneficial application for the people of the Jicarilla Apache Nation and surrounding communities. The Report seeks to draw on the best available information that existed at the time of writing, and where necessary, draws on new research to assess this potential. This study provides a strategic assessment of opportunities for maximizing the potential for electrical energy efficiency and renewable energy development by the Jicarilla Apache Nation. The report analyzes electricity use on the Jicarilla Apache Reservation in buildings. The report also assesses particular resources and technologies in detail, including energy efficiency, solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, and small hydropower. The closing sections set out the elements of a multi-year, multi-phase strategy for development of resources to the maximum benefit of the Nation.

  2. Preparation of multiband structure with Cu2Se/Ga3Se2/In3Se2 thin films by thermal evaporation technique for maximal solar spectrum utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, A.; Rajesh, S.; Gopalakrishnan, M.

    2016-10-01

    The paper investigates and discusses the formation of multiband structure through the Cu2Se-Ga3Se-In3Se2 thin films for maximal solar spectrum utilization. Stacking different semiconductor materials with various band gaps were done by successive evaporation method. Based on the band gap values the layers are arranged (low to high bandgap from the substrate). The XRD results exhibits the formation of CIGS composites through this successive evaporation of Cu2Se/Ga3Se/In3Se2 and treating then with temperature. Scanning Electron Microscope images shows improved crystallinity with the reduction in the larger grain boundary scattering after annealing. Optical spectra shows the stronger absorption in an UV-Visible region and higher transmission in the infrared and near infrared region. The optical band gap values calculated for as prepared films is 2.20 eV and the band gap was split into 1.62, 1.92 eV and 2.27eV for annealed samples. This multiband structures are much needed to utilize the full solar spectrum.

  3. Analysis of power sector efficiency improvements for an integrated utility planning process in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Waddle, D.B.; MacDonald, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    In an effort to analyze and document the potential for power sector efficiency improvements from generation to end-use, the Agency for International Development and the Government of Costa Rica are jointly conducting an integrated power sector efficiency analysis. Potential for energy and cost savings in power plants, transmission and distribution, and demand-side management programs are being evaluated. The product of this study will be an integrated investment plan for the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad, incorporating both supply and demand side investment options. This paper presents the methodology employed in the study, as well as preliminary estimates of the results of the study. 14 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Reduced TiO2-Graphene Oxide Heterostructure As Broad Spectrum-Driven Efficient Water-Splitting Photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Li, Lihua; Yu, Lili; Lin, Zhaoyong; Yang, Guowei

    2016-04-06

    The reduced TiO2-graphene oxide heterostructure as an alternative broad spectrum-driven efficient water splitting photocatalyst has become a really interesting topic, however, its syntheses has many flaws, e.g., tedious experimental steps, time-consuming, small scale production, and requirement of various additives, for example, hydrazine hydrate is widely used as reductant to the reduction of graphene oxide, which is high toxicity and easy to cause the second pollution. For these issues, herein, we reported the synthesis of the reduced TiO2-graphene oxide heterostructure by a facile chemical reduction agent-free one-step laser ablation in liquid (LAL) method, which achieves extended optical response range from ultraviolet to visible and composites TiO(2-x) (reduced TiO2) nanoparticle and graphene oxide for promoting charge conducting. 30.64% Ti(3+) content in the reduced TiO2 nanoparticles induces the electronic reconstruction of TiO2, which results in 0.87 eV decrease of the band gap for the visible light absorption. TiO(2-x)-graphene oxide heterostructure achieved drastically increased photocatalytic H2 production rate, up to 23 times with respect to the blank experiment. Furthermore, a maximum H2 production rate was measured to be 16 mmol/h/g using Pt as a cocatalyst under the simulated sunlight irradiation (AM 1.5G, 135 mW/cm(2)), the quantum efficiencies were measured to be 5.15% for wavelength λ = 365 ± 10 nm and 1.84% for λ = 405 ± 10 nm, and overall solar energy conversion efficiency was measured to be 14.3%. These findings provided new insights into the broad applicability of this methodology for accessing fascinate photocatalysts.

  5. Utility of the 3Di Short Version for the Diagnostic Assessment of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Compatibility with DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Slappendel, Geerte; Mandy, William; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C; van der Sijde, Ad; Duvekot, Jorieke; Skuse, David; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin

    2016-05-01

    The Developmental Diagnostic Dimensional Interview-short version (3Di-sv) provides a brief standardized parental interview for diagnosing autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study explored its validity, and compatibility with DSM-5 ASD. 3Di-sv classifications showed good sensitivity but low specificity when compared to ADOS-2-confirmed clinical diagnosis. Confirmatory factor analyses found a better fit against a DSM-5 model than a DSM-IV-TR model of ASD. Exploration of the content validity of the 3Di-sv for the DSM-5 revealed some construct underrepresentation, therefore we obtained data from a panel of 3Di-trained clinicians from ASD-specialized centers to recommend items to fill these gaps. Taken together, the 3Di-sv provides a solid basis to create a similar instrument suitable for DSM-5. Concrete recommendations are provided to improve DSM-5 compatibility.

  6. Utilizing fast multipole expansions for efficient and accurate quantum-classical molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwörer, Magnus; Lorenzen, Konstantin; Mathias, Gerald; Tavan, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Recently, a novel approach to hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations has been suggested [Schwörer et al., J. Chem. Phys. 138, 244103 (2013)]. Here, the forces acting on the atoms are calculated by grid-based density functional theory (DFT) for a solute molecule and by a polarizable molecular mechanics (PMM) force field for a large solvent environment composed of several 103-105 molecules as negative gradients of a DFT/PMM hybrid Hamiltonian. The electrostatic interactions are efficiently described by a hierarchical fast multipole method (FMM). Adopting recent progress of this FMM technique [Lorenzen et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 3244 (2014)], which particularly entails a strictly linear scaling of the computational effort with the system size, and adapting this revised FMM approach to the computation of the interactions between the DFT and PMM fragments of a simulation system, here, we show how one can further enhance the efficiency and accuracy of such DFT/PMM-MD simulations. The resulting gain of total performance, as measured for alanine dipeptide (DFT) embedded in water (PMM) by the product of the gains in efficiency and accuracy, amounts to about one order of magnitude. We also demonstrate that the jointly parallelized implementation of the DFT and PMM-MD parts of the computation enables the efficient use of high-performance computing systems. The associated software is available online.

  7. Utilizing fast multipole expansions for efficient and accurate quantum-classical molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Schwörer, Magnus; Lorenzen, Konstantin; Mathias, Gerald; Tavan, Paul

    2015-03-14

    Recently, a novel approach to hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations has been suggested [Schwörer et al., J. Chem. Phys. 138, 244103 (2013)]. Here, the forces acting on the atoms are calculated by grid-based density functional theory (DFT) for a solute molecule and by a polarizable molecular mechanics (PMM) force field for a large solvent environment composed of several 10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} molecules as negative gradients of a DFT/PMM hybrid Hamiltonian. The electrostatic interactions are efficiently described by a hierarchical fast multipole method (FMM). Adopting recent progress of this FMM technique [Lorenzen et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 3244 (2014)], which particularly entails a strictly linear scaling of the computational effort with the system size, and adapting this revised FMM approach to the computation of the interactions between the DFT and PMM fragments of a simulation system, here, we show how one can further enhance the efficiency and accuracy of such DFT/PMM-MD simulations. The resulting gain of total performance, as measured for alanine dipeptide (DFT) embedded in water (PMM) by the product of the gains in efficiency and accuracy, amounts to about one order of magnitude. We also demonstrate that the jointly parallelized implementation of the DFT and PMM-MD parts of the computation enables the efficient use of high-performance computing systems. The associated software is available online.

  8. The Utility of an Efficient Outcomes Assessment System at University Counseling Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopta, S. Mark; Petrik, Megan L.; Saunders, Stephen M.; Mond, Michael; Hirsch, Glenn; Kadison, Richard; Raymond, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Due to increased demands placed on university counseling centers (UCCs) in recent years, there is a need for these centers to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of their psychological services. Regularly monitoring client progress is one approach to increase the likelihood of positive clinical outcomes. This article describes the use of the…

  9. Effect of larval density on food utilization efficiency of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rearing conditions, particularly the crowding of larvae, may have a significant impact on production efficiency of some insects produced commercially, such as Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Although larval densities are known to affect developmental time and growth in T. molitor, n...

  10. Efficient Discovery of De-identification Policies Through a Risk-Utility Frontier.

    PubMed

    Xia, Weiyi; Heatherly, Raymond; Ding, Xiaofeng; Li, Jiuyong; Malin, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    Modern information technologies enable organizations to capture large quantities of person-specific data while providing routine services. Many organizations hope, or are legally required, to share such data for secondary purposes (e.g., validation of research findings) in a de-identified manner. In previous work, it was shown de-identification policy alternatives could be modeled on a lattice, which could be searched for policies that met a prespecified risk threshold (e.g., likelihood of re-identification). However, the search was limited in several ways. First, its definition of utility was syntactic - based on the level of the lattice - and not semantic - based on the actual changes induced in the resulting data. Second, the threshold may not be known in advance. The goal of this work is to build the optimal set of policies that trade-off between privacy risk (R) and utility (U), which we refer to as a R-U frontier. To model this problem, we introduce a semantic definition of utility, based on information theory, that is compatible with the lattice representation of policies. To solve the problem, we initially build a set of policies that define a frontier. We then use a probability-guided heuristic to search the lattice for policies likely to update the frontier. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, we perform an empirical analysis with the Adult dataset of the UCI Machine Learning Repository. We show that our approach can construct a frontier closer to optimal than competitive approaches by searching a smaller number of policies. In addition, we show that a frequently followed de-identification policy (i.e., the Safe Harbor standard of the HIPAA Privacy Rule) is suboptimal in comparison to the frontier discovered by our approach.

  11. Efficient Discovery of De-identification Policies Through a Risk-Utility Frontier

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Weiyi; Heatherly, Raymond; Ding, Xiaofeng; Li, Jiuyong; Malin, Bradley

    2014-01-01

    Modern information technologies enable organizations to capture large quantities of person-specific data while providing routine services. Many organizations hope, or are legally required, to share such data for secondary purposes (e.g., validation of research findings) in a de-identified manner. In previous work, it was shown de-identification policy alternatives could be modeled on a lattice, which could be searched for policies that met a prespecified risk threshold (e.g., likelihood of re-identification). However, the search was limited in several ways. First, its definition of utility was syntactic - based on the level of the lattice - and not semantic - based on the actual changes induced in the resulting data. Second, the threshold may not be known in advance. The goal of this work is to build the optimal set of policies that trade-off between privacy risk (R) and utility (U), which we refer to as a R-U frontier. To model this problem, we introduce a semantic definition of utility, based on information theory, that is compatible with the lattice representation of policies. To solve the problem, we initially build a set of policies that define a frontier. We then use a probability-guided heuristic to search the lattice for policies likely to update the frontier. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, we perform an empirical analysis with the Adult dataset of the UCI Machine Learning Repository. We show that our approach can construct a frontier closer to optimal than competitive approaches by searching a smaller number of policies. In addition, we show that a frequently followed de-identification policy (i.e., the Safe Harbor standard of the HIPAA Privacy Rule) is suboptimal in comparison to the frontier discovered by our approach. PMID:25520961

  12. Thermochemical characterization of pigeon pea stalk for its efficient utilization as an energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Katyal, S.K.; Iyer, P.V.R.

    2000-05-01

    Pigeon pea stalk is a widely available biomass species in India. In this article the potential use of pigeon pea stalk as a fuel source through thermochemical conversion methods such as combustion, gasification, and pyrolysis has been investigated through experimentation using a thermogravimetric analyzer and pilot-plant-scale equipment. It has been proposed that pigeon pea stalks can be effectively utilized in two ways. The first is to pyrolyze the material to produce value-added products such as char, tar, and fuel gas. The second alternative is to partially pyrolyze the material to remove tar-forming volatiles, followed by gasification of reactive char to generate producer gas.

  13. Efficient utilization of red maple lumber in glued-laminated timber beams. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Janowiak, J.J.; Manbeck, H.B.; Hernandez, R.; Moody, R.C.; Blankenhorn, P.R.

    1995-09-01

    The feasibility of utilizing cant-sawn hardwood lumber, which would not usually be desired for furniture manufacture, was studied for the manufacture of structural glue-laminated (glulam) timber. Two red maple beam combinations were evaluated. Test results of 42 red maple glulam beams showed that it was feasible to develop structural glulam timber from cant-swan lumber. The glulam combinations made from E-rated lumber exceeded the target design bending stress of 2,400 lb/in 2 and met the target modulus of elasticity (MOE) of 1.8 x 106 lb/in 2.

  14. Development of a highly efficient brushless dc motor utilizing both radial and axial air gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, K. J.; Jang, G. H.; Sung, S. J.; Chang, J. H.

    2012-04-01

    This research proposes an effective structure for a brushless dc motor utilizing both radial and axial air gaps. The proposed motor generates torque in both the radial and axial air gaps, while the conventional motor generates torque only in the radial air gap. The proposed motor was optimized to minimize the electromagnetic loss of the motor to increase the effective air gap length and fill-factor of the coil while decreasing the saturation of the core at the same time. The electromagnetic loss was reduced by 35% in comparison with a conventional motor.

  15. LightForce Photon-Pressure Collision Avoidance: Updated Efficiency Analysis Utilizing a Highly Parallel Simulation Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stupl, Jan; Faber, Nicolas; Foster, Cyrus; Yang, Fan Yang; Nelson, Bron; Aziz, Jonathan; Nuttall, Andrew; Henze, Chris; Levit, Creon

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an updated efficiency analysis of the LightForce space debris collision avoidance scheme. LightForce aims to prevent collisions on warning by utilizing photon pressure from ground based, commercial off the shelf lasers. Past research has shown that a few ground-based systems consisting of 10 kilowatt class lasers directed by 1.5 meter telescopes with adaptive optics could lower the expected number of collisions in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by an order of magnitude. Our simulation approach utilizes the entire Two Line Element (TLE) catalogue in LEO for a given day as initial input. Least-squares fitting of a TLE time series is used for an improved orbit estimate. We then calculate the probability of collision for all LEO objects in the catalogue for a time step of the simulation. The conjunctions that exceed a threshold probability of collision are then engaged by a simulated network of laser ground stations. After those engagements, the perturbed orbits are used to re-assess the probability of collision and evaluate the efficiency of the system. This paper describes new simulations with three updated aspects: 1) By utilizing a highly parallel simulation approach employing hundreds of processors, we have extended our analysis to a much broader dataset. The simulation time is extended to one year. 2) We analyze not only the efficiency of LightForce on conjunctions that naturally occur, but also take into account conjunctions caused by orbit perturbations due to LightForce engagements. 3) We use a new simulation approach that is regularly updating the LightForce engagement strategy, as it would be during actual operations. In this paper we present our simulation approach to parallelize the efficiency analysis, its computational performance and the resulting expected efficiency of the LightForce collision avoidance system. Results indicate that utilizing a network of four LightForce stations with 20 kilowatt lasers, 85% of all conjunctions with a

  16. Efficient utilization of ectoine by halophilic Brevibacterium species and Escherichia coli subjected to osmotic downshock.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Shinichi; Wang, Chenxiang

    2005-01-01

    Halophilic and non-halophilic bacteria subjected to osmotic downshock, from 0.7 M NaCl to deionized water, were examined for their survival, with the uptake and utilization of the cyclic amino acid ectoine, one of the representative compatible solutes, being taken into account. The uptake of ectoine added externally and survival of the cells were monitored as a function of incubation time in the presence and absence of NaCl. The halophilic Brevibacterium sp. JCM 6894 and B. epidermidis JCM 2593 actively accumulated ectoine regardless of the presence of NaCl, which led to cell survival. Brevibacterium casei JCM 2594 belonging to the same Brevibacterium species, however, revealed Na+-dependence of its uptake activity of ectoine. Non-halophilic Escherichia coli K-12 did not accumulate ectoine, and thereby this strain failed to survive irrespective of whether NaCl was present. The physiological meanings of the downshock procedure are discussed in connection with the uptake and the subsequent utilization of ectoine.

  17. Improving derivatization efficiency of BMAA utilizing AccQ-Tag in a complex cyanobacterial matrix.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Johan; Jonasson, Sara; Papaefthimiou, Dimitra; Rasmussen, Ulla; Bergman, Birgitta

    2009-01-01

    Two different assays have been developed and used in order to investigate the optimal conditions for derivatization and detection of acid beta-N-methyl-amino-L-alanine (BMAA) in a cyanobacterial sample. BMAA was extracted from cyanobacterial cultures both from the cytosolic ("free") fraction and in the precipitated ("protein") fraction using a newly developed extraction scheme and the sample matrix was standardized according to protein concentration to ensure the highest possible derivative yield. A rapid and sensitive HPLC method for fluorescence detection of the non-protein amino acid BMAA in cyanobacteria, utilizing the Waters AccQ-Tag chemistry and Chromolith Performance RP-18e columns was developed. Using this new method and utilizing a different buffer system and column than that recommended by Waters, we decreased the time between injections by 75%. The limit of quantification was determined to be 12 nmol and limit of detection as 120 fmol. The linear range was in the range of 8.5 nmol-84 pmol. Accuracy and precision were well within FDA guidelines for bioanalysis.

  18. Increased efficiency of rf-induced evaporative cooling by utilizing gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinner, Julian; Wolke, Matthias; Hemmerich, Andreas

    2010-04-01

    We report on an efficient rf-induced forced evaporative cooling of an ensemble of Rb87 atoms in state |F=2,mF=2> magnetically trapped in a quadrupole-Ioffe configuration trap. The cigar-shaped trap is oriented with its weak confining axis along the direction of gravity leading to, first, a significant separation of the trapping positions for low-field-seeking atoms with different mF value and, second, a reduced resonance volume for rf-induced evaporation confined to a small region around the lower tip of the cigar-shaped ensemble. This results in an enhancement of the evaporation efficiency α≡dlnT/(dlnN) due to either reduced or completely vanishing scattering events between cooled and evaporated atoms. We present data illustrating this effect.

  19. Energy-Efficient, Utility Accrual Scheduling under Resource Constraints for Mobile Embedded Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    scaling (DVS) is a common mecha- nism studied in the past to save CPU energy [5, 12, 14, 15, 25, 30, 31, 37]. DVS addresses the trade-off between...hence enables a lower voltage and yields a quadratic energy reduction, at the expense of roughly lin- 2004 ACM International Conference on Embedded...Consumption 2004 ACM International Conference on Embedded Software Most of the past work on energy-efficient real-time schedul- ing using DVS only considers the

  20. Combining total energy and energy industrial center concepts to increase utilization efficiency of geothermal energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayliss, B. P.

    1974-01-01

    Integrating energy production and energy consumption to produce a total energy system within an energy industrial center which would result in more power production from a given energy source and less pollution of the environment is discussed. Strong governmental support would be required for the crash drilling program necessary to implement these concepts. Cooperation among the federal agencies, power producers, and private industry would be essential in avoiding redundant and fruitless projects, and in exploiting most efficiently our geothermal resources.

  1. Efficient utilization of short rotation tree biomass for cooking in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, R.; Chauhan, S. K.

    2012-04-01

    The human as well as livestock population increase is phenomenal in developing world including India. The survival of this huge population certainly depends on the carrying capacity of the natural systems, which is essentially determined by the nature itself. Present state of the forests can satisfy the needs of certain population and the demand for wood has rapidly outstripped the sustainability of forests. The fuelwood requirements in the developing world is approximately 80 per cent of total wood requirements and is the major cause of forest degradation. Therefore, there is need to maximize the productivity on one hand and protection/extention of the area on another hand. Wood substitution is an option including shifting from fuelwood for cooking to fossil fuels but in the changing climatic situation, this option is short term alternative. There is need to produce more and use the same efficiently to reduce the demands. Millions of households across the country are using crude cooking stoves for their daily needs which are not only energy inefficient but detrimental to women health also. It has been the policy of Government to encourage trees outside forests to minimize the pressure from forests through meeting requirements outside forests, which is possible through intensively managed short rotation forestry and also some initiatives have been taken to increase the fuelwood efficiency through improved cooking stove, which are working successfully. Woodfuel remained the most important source of household energy in India but regular attempts have not been made to improve the efficiency in its use. This paper will focus on potential of short rotation forestry plantations for energy consumption and its efficient use at domestic scale. This has three fold interrelated economic, environmental and social impact. Key words: Short Rotation Forestry, trees outside forests, wood energy, cooking stove

  2. Pumping iron to keep fit: modulation of siderophore secretion helps efficient aromatic utilization in Pseudomonas putida KT2440.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Hiren; Dave, Rachna; Venugopalan, V P

    2014-07-01

    Studies of biotechnology applications of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 have been predominantly focused on regulation and expression of the toluene degradation (TOL) pathway. Unfortunately, there is limited information on the role of other physiological factors influencing aromatic utilization. In this report, we demonstrate that P. putida KT2440 increases its siderophore secretion in response to the availability of benzyl alcohol, a model aromatic substrate. It is argued that accelerated siderophore secretion in response to aromatic substrates provides an iron 'boost' which is required for the effective functioning of the iron-dependent oxygenases responsible for ring opening. Direct evidence for the cardinal role of siderophores in aromatic utilization is provided by evaluation of per capita siderophore secretion and comparative growth assessments of wild-type and siderophore-negative mutant strains grown on an alternative carbon source. Accelerated siderophore secretion can be viewed as a compensatory mechanism in P. putida in the context of its inability to secrete more than one type of siderophore (pyoverdine) or to utilize heterologous siderophores. Stimulated siderophore secretion might be a key factor in successful integration and proliferation of this organism as a bio-augmentation agent for aromatic degradation. It not only facilitates efficient aromatic utilization, but also provides better opportunities for iron assimilation amongst diverse microbial communities, thereby ensuring better survival and proliferation.

  3. Internal efficiency of nutrient utilization: what is it and how to measure it during vegetative plant growth?

    PubMed

    Santa-María, Guillermo E; Moriconi, Jorge I; Oliferuk, Sonia

    2015-06-01

    Efficient use of the resources required by plants to sustain crop production is considered an important objective in agriculture. In this context, the idea of developing crops with an enhanced ability to utilize mineral nutrients already taken up by roots has been proposed. In recent years powerful tools that allow the association of phenotypic variation with high-resolution genetic maps of crop plants have also emerged. To take advantage of these tools, accurate methods are needed to estimate the internal efficiency of nutrient utilization (ENU) at the whole-plant level, which requires using suitable conceptual and experimental approaches. Here we highlight some inconsistencies in the definitions of ENU commonly used for ENU 'phenotyping' at the vegetative stage and suggest that it would be convenient to adopt a dynamic definition. The idea that ENU should provide information about the relationship between carbon and mineral nutrient economies mainly during the period under which growth is actually affected by low internal nutrient concentration is here advocated as a guide for the selection of adequate operational ENU formulae for the vegetative stage. The desirability of using experimental approaches that allow removal of the influence of nutrient acquisition efficiency on ENU estimations is highlighted. It is proposed that the use of simulation models could help refine the conclusions obtained through these experimental procedures. Some potential limitations in breeding for high ENU are also considered.

  4. Observation of nue appearance from an off-axis nu mu beam utilizing the neutrino energy spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hignight, Joshua

    T2K (Tokai to Kamiokande) is a long baseline neutrino experiment located in Japan. It uses a 30 GeV proton beam at the J-PARC accelerator in Tokai to produce an intense off-axis muon neutrino beam that travels 295 km through the Earth to Super-Kamiokande. One of its primary goals is to measure neutrino oscillation parameters by directly detecting nue at Super-Kamiokande that have oscillated from the numu beam. The measurement of numu → nue oscillations are of a particular interest because this mode is sensitive to both mixing angle theta 13 and CP phase deltaCP of the PMNS matrix. Precise measurement of numu → nue allows us to explore the possibility of CP violation in the lepton sector. This dissertation will describe the recent 2013 nue appearance oscillation analysis using the reconstructed neutrino energy spectrum by means of a maximum likelihood fit. The data used for this analysis corresponds to 6.57 x 1020 POT. A total of 28 nu e candidate events were observed, corresponding to a 7.2 sigma significance of nue appearance by non-zero theta13. These results are then combined with the world average value of theta13 from reactor experiments and some values of deltaCP are disfavored at the 90% CL.

  5. Efficiently and Effectively Evaluating Public Service Announcements: Additional Evidence for the Utility of Perceived Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Bigsby, Elisabeth; Cappella, Joseph N; Seitz, Holli H

    2013-03-01

    Recent research has made significant progress identifying measures of the perceived effectiveness (PE) of persuasive messages and providing evidence of a causal link from PE to actual effectiveness (AE). This article provides additional evidence of the utility of PE through unique analysis and consideration of another dimension of PE important to understanding the PE-AE association. Current smokers (N =1,139) watched four randomly selected anti-smoking Public Service Announcements (PSAs). PE scores aggregated by message were used instead of individual PE scores to create a summed total, minimizing the likelihood that PE perceptions are consequences of an individual's intention to quit, supporting instead the PE→AE order. Linear regression analyses provide evidence of PE's positive and significant influence on smoking cessation-related behavioral intentions.

  6. Efficiently and Effectively Evaluating Public Service Announcements: Additional Evidence for the Utility of Perceived Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Bigsby, Elisabeth; Cappella, Joseph N.; Seitz, Holli H.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has made significant progress identifying measures of the perceived effectiveness (PE) of persuasive messages and providing evidence of a causal link from PE to actual effectiveness (AE). This article provides additional evidence of the utility of PE through unique analysis and consideration of another dimension of PE important to understanding the PE-AE association. Current smokers (N =1,139) watched four randomly selected anti-smoking Public Service Announcements (PSAs). PE scores aggregated by message were used instead of individual PE scores to create a summed total, minimizing the likelihood that PE perceptions are consequences of an individual’s intention to quit, supporting instead the PE→AE order. Linear regression analyses provide evidence of PE’s positive and significant influence on smoking cessation-related behavioral intentions. PMID:25568588

  7. Utilization of Portable Radios to Improve Ophthalmology Clinic Efficiency in an Academic Setting.

    PubMed

    Davis, Alexander S; Elkeeb, Ahmed M; Vizzeri, Gianmarco; Godley, Bernard F

    2016-03-01

    Improvement in clinic efficiency in the ambulatory setting is often looked at as an area for development of lean management strategies to deliver a higher quality of healthcare while reducing errors, costs, and delays. To examine the benefits of improving team communication and its impact on clinic flow and efficiency, we describe a time-motion study performed in an academic outpatient Ophthalmology clinic and its objective and subjective results. Compared to clinic encounters without the use of the portable radios, objective data demonstrated an overall significant decreases in mean workup time (15.18 vs. 13.10), room wait (13.10 vs. 10.47), and decreased the total time needed with an MD per encounter (9.45 vs. 6.63). Subjectively, significant improvements were seen in careprovider scores for patient flow (60.78 vs. 84.29), getting assistance (61.89 vs. 88.57), moving patient charts (54.44 vs. 85.71), teamwork (69.56 vs. 91.0), communications (62.33 vs. 90.43), providing quality patient care (76.22 vs. 89.57), and receiving input on the ability to see walk-in patients (80.11 vs. 90.43). For academic purposes, an improvement in engagement in patient care and learning opportunities was noted by the clinic resident-in-training during the pilot study. Portable radios in our pilot study were preferred over the previous method of communication and demonstrates significant improvements in certain areas of clinical efficiency, subjective perception of teamwork and communications, and academic learning.

  8. Phase III Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Utilized in Energy Efficient Aluminum Production Cells

    SciTech Connect

    R.A. Christini; R.K. Dawless; S.P. Ray; D.A. Weirauch, Jr.

    2001-11-05

    During Phase I of the present program, Alcoa developed a commercial cell concept that has been estimated to save 30% of the energy required for aluminum smelting. Phase ii involved the construction of a pilot facility and operation of two pilots. Phase iii of the Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Program was aimed at bench experiments to permit the resolution of certain questions to be followed by three pilot cells. All of the milestones related to materials, in particular metal purity, were attained with distinct improvements over work in previous phases of the program. NiO additions to the ceramic phase and Ag additions to the Cu metal phase of the cermet improved corrosion resistance sufficiently that the bench scale pencil anodes met the purity milestones. Some excellent metal purity results have been obtained with anodes of the following composition: Further improvements in anode material composition appear to be dependent on a better understanding of oxide solubilities in molten cryolite. For that reason, work was commissioned with an outside consultant to model the MeO - cryolite systems. That work has led to a better understanding of which oxides can be used to substitute into the NiO-Fe2O3 ceramic phase to stabilize the ferrites and reduce their solubility in molten cryolite. An extensive number of vertical plate bench electrolysis cells were run to try to find conditions where high current efficiencies could be attained. TiB2-G plates were very inconsistent and led to poor wetting and drainage. Pure TiB2 did produce good current efficiencies at small overlaps (shadowing) between the anodes and cathodes. This bench work with vertical plate anodes and cathodes reinforced the importance of good cathode wetting to attain high current efficiencies. Because of those conclusions, new wetting work was commissioned and became a major component of the research during the third year of Phase III. While significant progress was made in several areas, much work needs to be

  9. An International Approach to Re-Allocating Spectrum and Seeking New Efficiencies for Future Satellite Communications Frequency Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelton, Joseph N.; International Study Team

    2000-07-01

    This paper repons on an internationally funded study supported by the Canadian Communications Research Centre (CRC), the Japanese Communications Research Lab (CRL), the European Space Agency (ESA) and the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Funding of this study and provision of certain information to the international researchers should not be construed as explicit support for the results of this study. The study sponsors have, however, asked that the ITU explore new longer-term approaches to frequency allocation and to use the full report of the study team as an input to this study process. The objective of this study was to identify possible new ways to solve the problem of how to increase the throughput and quality of 21 st Century communications satellite systems while reducing the cost of service and aiding system availability To achieve this objective it is important to find a way to allocate frequencies to global users through a more effective process and to devise new ways to use spectrum more efficiently in both the technical and economic sense The various findings and recommendations of the study team with regard to accomplishing this objective are reported in the full report.

  10. Optimizing efficiency of psychopathology assessment through quantitative modeling: development of a brief form of the Externalizing Spectrum Inventory.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Christopher J; Kramer, Mark D; Krueger, Robert F; Markon, Kristian E

    2013-12-01

    The Externalizing Spectrum Inventory (ESI; Krueger, Markon, Patrick, Benning, & Kramer, 2007) provides for integrated, hierarchical assessment of a broad range of problem behaviors and traits in the domain of deficient impulse control. The ESI assesses traits and problems in this domain through 23 lower order facet scales organized around 3 higher order dimensions, reflecting general disinhibition, callous aggression, and substance abuse. The full-form ESI contains 415 items, and a shorter form would be useful for questionnaire screening studies or multimethod research protocols. In the current work, we employed item response theory and structural modeling methods to create a 160-item brief form (ESI-BF) that provides for efficient measurement of the ESI's lower order facets and quantification of its higher order dimensions either as scale-based factors or as item-based composites. The ESI-BF is recommended for use in research on psychological or neurobiological correlates of problems such as risk-taking, delinquency, aggression, and substance abuse, and studies of general and specific mechanisms that give rise to problems of these kinds.

  11. Effects of feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay on neutral detergent fiber digestion, nitrogen utilization efficiency, and lactational performance by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Christensen, R G; Yang, S Y; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Hall, J O; MacAdam, J W

    2015-11-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine effects of feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diets in comparison with an alfalfa hay-based diet on N utilization efficiency, ruminal fermentation, and lactational performance by mid-lactation dairy cows. Nine multiparous lactating Holstein cows (131 ± 22.6 d in milk), 3 of which were rumen fistulated, were fed 3 experimental diets in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 periods of 14 d of adaptation and 7 d of data and sample collection. Within squares, cows were randomly assigned to diets as follows: alfalfa hay-based diet (AHT), alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diet (ABT), and birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diet (BT). Intakes of dry matter and crude protein were similar across treatments, whereas ABT and BT diets resulted in decreased fiber intake compared with AHT. Feeding BT tended to increase neutral detergent fiber digestibility compared with AHT and ABT. Milk yield tended to increase for cows consuming ABT or BT diets. Milk true protein concentration and yield were greater for cows consuming ABT relative to those fed AHT. Concentration of total volatile fatty acids tended to increase by cows fed BT compared with those fed AHT and ABT. Feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay in a total mixed ration resulted in a tendency to decrease acetate proportion, but it tended to increase propionate proportion, leading to a tendency to decrease acetate-to-propionate ratio. Whereas concentration of ammonia-N was similar across treatments, cows offered BT exhibited greater microbial protein yield relative to those fed AHT and ABT. Cows offered birdsfoot trefoil hay diets secreted more milk N than AHT, resulting in improved N utilization efficiency for milk N. The positive effects due to feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay were attributed to enhanced neutral detergent fiber digestion, and thus it could replace alfalfa hay in high-forage dairy diets while improving N utilization efficiencies and maintaining lactational performance

  12. Photosystem Trap Energies and Spectrally-Dependent Energy-Storage Efficiencies in the Chl d-Utilizing Cyanobacterium, Acaryochloris Marina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mielke, Steven P.; Kiang, Nancy Y.; Blankenship, Robert E.; Mauzerall, David

    2012-01-01

    Acaryochloris marina is the only species known to utilize chlorophyll (Chl) d as a principal photopigment. The peak absorption wavelength of Chl d is redshifted approx. 40 nm in vivo relative to Chl a, enabling this cyanobacterium to perform oxygenic phototrophy in niche environments enhanced in far-red light. We present measurements of the in vivo energy-storage (E-S) efficiency of photosynthesis in A. marina, obtained using pulsed photoacoustics (PA) over a 90-nm range of excitation wavelengths in the red and far-red. Together with modeling results, these measurements provide the first direct observation of the trap energies of PSI and PSII, and also the photosystem-specific contributions to the total E-S efficiency. We find the maximum observed efficiency in A. marina (40+/-1% at 735 nm) is higher than in the Chl a cyanobacterium Synechococcus leopoliensis (35+/-1% at 690 nm). The efficiency at peak absorption wavelength is also higher in A. marina (36+/-1% at 710 nm vs. 31+/-1% at 670 nm). In both species, the trap efficiencies are approx. 40% (PSI) and approx. 30% (PSII). The PSI trap in A. marina is found to lie at 740+/-5 nm, in agreement with the value inferred from spectroscopic methods. The best fit of the model to the PA data identifies the PSII trap at 723+/-3 nm, supporting the view that the primary electron-donor is Chl d, probably at the accessory (ChlD1) site. A decrease in efficiency beyond the trap wavelength, consistent with uphill energy transfer, is clearly observed and fit by the model. These results demonstrate that the E-S efficiency in A. marina is not thermodynamically limited, suggesting that oxygenic photosynthesis is viable in even redder light environments.

  13. Highly carbonylated cellulose nanofibrous membranes utilizing maleic anhydride grafting for efficient lysozyme adsorption.

    PubMed

    Ma, Juncheng; Wang, Xueqin; Fu, Qiuxia; Si, Yang; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2015-07-22

    Construction of adsorptive materials for simple, efficient, and high-throughput adsorption of proteins is critical to meet the great demands of highly purified proteins in biotechnological and biopharmaceutical industry; however, it has proven extremely challenging. Here, we report a cost-effective strategy to create carbonyl groups surface-functionalized nanofibrous membranes under mild conditions for positively charged protein adsorption. Our approach allows maleic anhydride to in situ graft on cellulose nanofibrous membranes (CMA) to construct adsorptive membranes with large surface area and tortuous porous structure. Thereby, the resultant CMA membranes exhibited high adsorption capacity of 160 mg g(-1), fast equilibrium within 12 h, and good reversibility to lysozyme. Moreover, the dynamic adsorption was performed under low pressure-drops (750 Pa), with a relatively high saturation adsorption amount of 118 mg g(-1), which matched well with the requirements for proteins purification. Considering the excellent adsorption performance of the as-prepared adsorptive membranes, this simple and intriguing approach may pave a way for the design and development of robust and cost-effective adsorption membranes to meet the great demands for fast and efficient adsorption of positively charged proteins.

  14. [Preliminary analysis on spectrum-efficient correlation model for anti-influenza virus of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos by partial least squares method].

    PubMed

    Mi, Hui-juan; Wang, Young-xiang; Meng, Jin; Wang, Xiu-hai; Tao, Yong-hua; Wang, Zhen-zhon

    2015-12-01

    Forty batches of Lonicerae Japonica Fse i collected extensively and prepared as the test solution. Their chromatographic fingerprints and anti-influenza virus IC50 value (half maximal inhibitory concentration) were determined respectively. Then Unscrambler software was used, and spectrum-efficient correlation analysis was done for chromatographic fingerprints data and IC50 data by partial least squares regression method, to establish spectrum-efficient correlation model for anti-influenza virus of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos. Then the other 10 batches of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos were used to verify the model and explore the adaptability of this spectrum-efficient correlation model based on partial least squares regression method. The mathematical model obtained R2 of 0.969489 and RM-SEC of 0.070691 for calibration set; R2 of 0.959042 and RMSECV of 0.084005 for cross validation set. The verification experiment results showed that the relative error between the predicted values and measured values was within 10% in all 10 hatches, and within 5% in 80% of them. The results showed that the established spectrum-efficient correlation model could be used to evaluate the biological activity of anti-influenza virus of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos by determining its HPLC fingerprints.

  15. Evaluating nitrogen utilization efficiency of nonpregnant dry cows offered solely fresh cut grass at maintenance levels.

    PubMed

    Stergiadis, S; Chen, X J; Allen, M; Wills, D; Yan, T

    2015-02-01

    The present study aimed to identify key parameters influencing N utilization and develop prediction equations for manure N output (MN), feces N output (FN), and urine N output (UN). Data were obtained under a series of digestibility trials with nonpregnant dry cows fed fresh grass at maintenance level. Grass was cut from 8 different ryegrass swards measured from early to late maturity in 2007 and 2008 (2 primary growth, 3 first regrowth, and 3 second regrowth) and from 2 primary growth early maturity swards in 2009. Each grass was offered to a group of 4 cows and 2 groups were used in each of the 8 swards in 2007 and 2008 for daily measurements over 6 wk; the first group (first 3 wk) and the second group (last 3 wk) assessed early and late maturity grass, respectively. Average values of continuous 3-d data of N intake (NI) and output for individual cows ( = 464) and grass nutrient contents ( = 116) were used in the statistical analysis. Grass N content was positively related to GE and ME contents but negatively related to grass water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), NDF, and ADF contents ( < 0.01), indicating that accounting for nutrient interrelations is a crucial aspect of N mitigation. Significantly greater ratios of UN:FN, UN:MN, and UN:NI were found with increased grass WSC contents and ratios of N:WSC, N:digestible OM in total DM (DOMD), and N:ME ( < 0.01). Greater NI, animal BW, and grass N contents and lower grass WSC, NDF, ADF, DOMD, and ME concentrations were significantly associated with greater MN, FN, and UN ( < 0.05). The present study highlighted that using grass lower in N and greater in fermentable energy in animals fed solely fresh grass at maintenance level can improve N utilization, reduce N outputs, and shift part of N excretion toward feces rather than urine. These outcomes are highly desirable in mitigation strategies to reduce nitrous oxide emissions from livestock. Equations predicting N output from BW and grass N content explained a similar

  16. Utilization of a whole genome SNP panel for efficient genetic mapping in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Jennifer L.; Bolton, Andrew D.; Tran, Pamela V.; Brown, Alison; Dwyer, Noelle D.; Manning, Danielle K.; Bjork, Bryan C.; Li, Cheng; Montgomery, Kate; Siepka, Sandra M.; Vitaterna, Martha Hotz; Takahashi, Joseph S.; Wiltshire, Tim; Kwiatkowski, David J.; Kucherlapati, Raju; Beier, David R.

    2006-01-01

    Phenotype-driven genetics can be used to create mouse models of human disease and birth defects. However, the utility of these mutant models is limited without identification of the causal gene. To facilitate genetic mapping, we developed a fixed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel of 394 SNPs as an alternative to analyses using simple sequence length polymorphism (SSLP) marker mapping. With the SNP panel, chromosomal locations for 22 monogenic mutants were identified. The average number of affected progeny genotyped for mapped monogenic mutations is nine. Map locations for several mutants have been obtained with as few as four affected progeny. The average size of genetic intervals obtained for these mutants is 43 Mb, with a range of 17–83 Mb. Thus, our SNP panel allows for identification of moderate resolution map position with small numbers of mice in a high-throughput manner. Importantly, the panel is suitable for mapping crosses from many inbred and wild-derived inbred strain combinations. The chromosomal localizations obtained with the SNP panel allow one to quickly distinguish between potentially novel loci or remutations in known genes, and facilitates fine mapping and positional cloning. By using this approach, we identified DNA sequence changes in two ethylnitrosourea-induced mutants. PMID:16461637

  17. Nitrogen Utilization and Environmental Losses from Organic Farming and Biochar's Potential to Improve N Efficiency.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, E. I.; SIX, J. W. U. A.

    2014-12-01

    The response of plant performance and nitrogen (N) dynamics to biochar amendments were studied across various levels of N input for two growing seasons in mesocosms representing an organic lettuce production systems. A silt loam soil was amended with pine chip (PC) and walnut shell (WS) biochar (10 t ha-1) in combination with five organic N fertilization rates 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of 225 kg N ha-1. N output through harvest, leachate, and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions were determined to assess N utilization and environmental losses of biochar-amended soils. Analysis of plant performance indicate that PC and WS biochar did not provide any increases in plant biomass in soils that received less than business-as-usual fertilization rates. At 100% N fertilization rate, biochar amendments (both PC and WS) improved lettuce biomass production, which resulted in significant increases in NUE with no effects on N2O emissions. Furthermore, N losses via leaching were decreased by PC biochar at 100% N fertilization rates. Thus, due to increases in plant biomass and decreases in N losses via leachate, PC biochar significantly decreased the ratio of N lost over N exported in biomass. Findings from this study suggest that biochar can provide some beneficial effects to organic farming systems, however, not in all circumstances, given the effects seem to vary with biochar type and fertilization level.

  18. Utilization of spent activated carbon to enhance the combustion efficiency of organic sludge derived fuel.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Lin, Chang-Wen; Chang, Fang-Chih; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Wu, Jhong-Lin

    2012-06-01

    This study examines the heating value and combustion efficiency of organic sludge derived fuel, spent activated carbon derived fuel, and derived fuel from a mixture of organic sludge and spent activated carbon. Spent activated carbon was sampled from an air pollution control device of an incinerator and characterized by XRD, XRF, TG/DTA, and SEM. The spent activated carbon was washed with deionized water and solvent (1N sulfuric acid) and then processed by the organic sludge derived fuel manufacturing process. After washing, the salt (chloride) and sulfide content could be reduced to 99% and 97%, respectively; in addition the carbon content and heating value were increased. Different ratios of spent activated carbon have been applied to the organic sludge derived fuel to reduce the NO(x) emission of the combustion.

  19. Efficient Power Converters for PV Arrays : Scalable Submodule Power Conversion for Utility-Scale Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    2012-02-23

    Solar ADEPT Project: SolarBridge is developing a new power conversion technique to improve the energy output of PV power plants. This new technique is specifically aimed at large plants where many solar panels are connected together. SolarBridge is correcting for the inefficiencies that occur when two solar panels that encounter different amounts of sun are connected together. In most conventional PV system, the weakest panel limits the energy production of the entire system. That’s because all of the energy collected by the PV system feeds into a single collection point where a central inverter then converts it into useable energy for the grid. SolarBridge has found a more efficient and cost-effective way to convert solar energy, correcting these power differences before they reach the grid.

  20. Energy-efficient utilization of bipolar optical forces in nano-optomechanical cavities.

    PubMed

    Tian, Feng; Zhou, Guangya; Du, Yu; Chau, Fook Siong; Deng, Jie; Tang, Xiaosong; Akkipeddi, Ramam

    2013-07-29

    Nanoscale all-optical circuits driven by optical forces have broad applications in future communication, computation, and sensing systems. Because human society faces huge challenges of energy saving and emission reduction, it is very important to develop energy-efficient nano-optomechanical devices. Due to their high quality (Q) factors, resonance modes of cavities are capable of generating much larger forces than waveguide modes. Here we experimentally demonstrate the use of resonance modes of double-coupled one-dimensional photonic crystal cavities to generate bipolar optical forces. Attractive and repulsive forces of -6.2 nN and 1.9 nN were obtained with respective launching powers of 0.81 mW and 0.87 mW in the waveguide just before cavities. Supported by flexible nanosprings (spring constant 0.166 N/m), one cavity is pulled to (pushed away from) the other cavity by 37.1 nm (11.4 nm). The shifts of the selected resonance modes of the device are mechanically and thermally calibrated with an integrated nanoelectromechanical system actuator and a temperature-controlled testing platform respectively. Based on these experimentally-obtained relations, probe mode shifts due to the optomechanical effect are decoupled from those due to the thermo-optic effect. Actuated by the third-order even pump mode, the optomechanical shift of the second-order even probe mode is found to be about 2.5 times its thermal shift, indicating a highly efficient conversion of light energy to mechanical energy.

  1. The Utilization of HOPG based Graphene for a less costly and efficient replacement of platinum in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSC's)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusko, Matthew P.

    2012-10-01

    Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSC) are also known as Graetzel cells after their inventor, Michael Graetzel, who invented them in 1991. DSCs are potential alternatives to the more conventional and expensive semiconductor p-n junction solar cells like silicon solar cells. In a Graetzel cell, light is absorbed by a sensitizing dye which is coupled to a wide band gap semiconductor (TiO2). Electric charges are liberated by the photon induced electron injection from the dye molecules into the conduction band of the semiconductor. The use of sensitizers in conjunction with the semiconductor oxide permits the absorption of a large portion of the terrestrial solar spectrum with near 10% conversion efficiency. In the ``traditional'' DSC, platinum metal is used as one of the counter electrode materials. In our research, graphene of various forms (from HOPG in specific) is utilized instead of costly platinum to replace the counter-electrode in the DSC's. HOPG also known as Higly Oriented Pyrolitic Graphite is being used to dry deposit graphene layers onto glass or FTO.

  2. Meta-analysis of factors that affect the utilization efficiency of phosphorus in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Klop, G; Ellis, J L; Bannink, A; Kebreab, E; France, J; Dijkstra, J

    2013-06-01

    A meta-analysis investigation based on literature data was conducted to estimate the effect size of nutritional and animal factors on phosphorus (P) excretion in feces and concentrations of P in milk. Two data sets were created for statistical analysis: One to derive prediction equations for P in feces (25 studies; 130 treatments) and another for P in milk (19 studies; 94 treatments). Prediction equations were derived using mixed model regression analysis with a random effect for study, and equations were evaluated based on values for Bayesian information criterion (BIC), root mean square prediction error (RMSPE), and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) statistics. In terms of RMSPE and CCC values, fecal P excretion was best predicted by P intake, where P in feces (g/d)=-3.8(±3.45) + 0.64(±0.038) × P intake (g/d) (RMSPE: 18.3%, CCC: 0.869). However, significant effects of crude protein [g/kg of dry matter (DM)], neutral detergent fiber (g/kg of DM), and milk yield (kg/d) on fecal P excretion were also found. Despite a lack of improvement in terms of RMSPE and CCC values, these parameters may still explain part of the variation in fecal P excretion. For milk P, expressed as a fraction of P intake, the following equation had the highest CCC and the lowest RMSPE value: P in milk as a fraction of P intake (g/g)=0.42(±0.065) + 0.23(±0.018) × feed efficiency (i.e., fat- and protein-corrected milk yield/dry matter intake) - 0.11(±0.0199) × P in feed (g/kg of DM) (RMSPE: 19.7%; CCC: 0.761). Equations derived to predict fecal P as a fraction of P intake (g/g) or milk P content (g/kg) could not adequately explain the observed variation and did not perform well in terms of RMSPE and CCC values. Examination of the residuals showed that P balance was a seemingly confounding factor in some of the models. The results presented here can be used to estimate P in feces and milk based on commonly measured dietary and milk variables, but could also be used to guide

  3. Perspectives on the utilization of aquaculture coproduct in Europe and Asia: prospects for value addition and improved resource efficiency.

    PubMed

    Newton, Richard; Telfer, Trevor; Little, Dave

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture has often been criticized for its environmental impacts, especially efficiencies concerning global fisheries resources for use in aquafeeds among others. However, little attention has been paid to the contribution of coproducts from aquaculture, which can vary between 40% and 70% of the production. These have often been underutilized and could be redirected to maximize the efficient use of resource inputs including reducing the burden on fisheries resources. In this review, we identify strategies to enhance the overall value of the harvested yield including noneffluent processing coproducts for three of the most important global aquaculture species, and discuss the current and prospective utilization of these resources for value addition and environmental impact reduction. The review concludes that in Europe coproducts are often underutilized because of logistical reasons such as the disconnected nature of the value chain, and perceived legislative barriers. However, in Asia, most coproducts are used, often innovatively but not to their full economic potential and sometimes with possible human health and biosecurity risks. These include possible spread of diseased material and low traceability in some circumstances. Full economic and environmental appraisal is long overdue for the current and potential strategies available for coproduct utilization.

  4. Severe situation of rural nonpoint source pollution and efficient utilization of agricultural wastes in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2015-11-01

    Rural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution caused by agricultural wastes has become increasingly serious in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA), significantly affecting the reservoir water quality. The grim situation of rural NPS pollution in the TGRA indicated that agrochemicals (chemical fertilizer and pesticide) were currently the highest contributor of rural NPS pollution (50.38%). The harmless disposal rates of livestock excrement, crop straws, rural domestic refuse, and sewage also cause severe water pollution. More importantly, the backward agricultural economy and the poor environmental awareness of farmers in the hinterland of the TGRA contribute to high levels of rural NPS pollution. Over the past decade, researchers and the local people have carried out various successful studies and practices to realize the effective control of rural NPS pollution by efficiently utilizing agricultural wastes in the TGRA, including agricultural waste biogas-oriented utilization, crop straw gasification, decentralized land treatment of livestock excrement technology, and crop straw modification. These technologies have greatly increased the renewable resource utilization of agricultural wastes and improved water quality and ecological environment in the TGRA.

  5. Adapting wave-front algorithms to efficiently utilize systems with deep communication hierarchies

    SciTech Connect

    Kerbyson, Darren J; Lang, Michael; Pakin, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Large-scale systems increasingly exhibit a differential between intra-chip and inter-chip communication performance. Processor-cores on the same socket are able to communicate at lower latencies, and with higher bandwidths, than cores on different sockets either within the same node or between nodes. A key challenge is to efficiently use this communication hierarchy and hence optimize performance. We consider here the class of applications that contain wave-front processing. In these applications data can only be processed after their upstream neighbors have been processed. Similar dependencies result between processors in which communication is required to pass boundary data downstream and whose cost is typically impacted by the slowest communication channel in use. In this work we develop a novel hierarchical wave-front approach that reduces the use of slower communications in the hierarchy but at the cost of additional computation and higher use of on-chip communications. This tradeoff is explored using a performance model and an implementation on the Petascale Roadrunner system demonstrates a 27% performance improvement at full system-scale on a kernel application. The approach is generally applicable to large-scale multi-core and accelerated systems where a differential in system communication performance exists.

  6. Development of Phase-Stable Photon Upconverters for Efficient Solar Energy Utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Yoichi

    Photon upconversion based on triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) of excited triplet molecules is drawing attention due to its applicability for weak incident light, possessing a potential for improving efficiencies of solar energy conversion devices. Since energy transfer between triplet levels of different molecules and TTA are based on the Dexter mechanism, inter-molecular collision is necessary and hence the majority of previous studies have been done with organic solvents, which are volatile and flammable. This paper presents the development and characterization of phase-stable photon upconverters fabricated with ionic liquids, which are room temperature molten salts with negligible vapor pressure and high thermal stability. The employed aromatic molecules, which are carrier of photo-created energies and are non-polar (or weakly polar) molecules, are found to be stable in the polar environment of ionic liquids, contrary to expectation. The mechanism of the stable solvation is proposed. The upconversion quantum yields are found to rapidly saturate as the excitation light power increases. An analytical model was developed and compared with the experimental data. It is shown that ionic liquids are not viscous media for the purpose of TTA-based upconversion.

  7. Enhanced conversion efficiency in perovskite solar cells by effectively utilizing near infrared light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Que, Meidan; Que, Wenxiu; Yin, Xingtian; Chen, Peng; Yang, Yawei; Hu, Jiaxing; Yu, Boyan; Du, Yaping

    2016-07-01

    Up-conversion β-NaYF4:Yb3+,Tm3+/NaYF4 core-shell nanoparticles (NYF NPs) with a high luminous intensity in the visible light region were synthesized by a hydrothermal reaction process. Photocurrent densities of the mesoscopic perovskite solar cells fabricated by incorporating up-conversion NYF NPs into the electron transporting layer are effectively enhanced. The effects of the thicknesses of the electron transporting layer and the weight ratio of up-conversion NYF NPs/TiO2 on the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the as-fabricated devices were also investigated. The results indicate that the PCE of the optimized device achieves 16.9%, which is 20% higher than that of the device without introducing NYF NPs, and the steady-state PCE of the as-fabricated devices is close to its transient-state PCE. The up-conversion effect of NYF NPs is conducive to higher device performance rather than the nanoparticles as scattering centers to increase possible light absorption of the perovskite film or the electronic effect of the NaYF4 shell surface. These results can be further confirmed by finite-difference time-domain simulation. Photoluminescence results suggest that the multiphonon-assistance can accelerate the nonradiative recombination process at a lower temperature. Incorporating NYF NPs into the electron transporting layer opens a new approach to a promising family of electron transporting materials for mesoscopic perovskite solar cells.Up-conversion β-NaYF4:Yb3+,Tm3+/NaYF4 core-shell nanoparticles (NYF NPs) with a high luminous intensity in the visible light region were synthesized by a hydrothermal reaction process. Photocurrent densities of the mesoscopic perovskite solar cells fabricated by incorporating up-conversion NYF NPs into the electron transporting layer are effectively enhanced. The effects of the thicknesses of the electron transporting layer and the weight ratio of up-conversion NYF NPs/TiO2 on the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the as

  8. Numerical processing efficiency improved in children using mental abacus: ERP evidence utilizing a numerical Stroop task

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yuan; Du, Fenglei; Wang, Chunjie; Liu, Yuqiu; Weng, Jian; Chen, Feiyan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether long-term abacus-based mental calculation (AMC) training improved numerical processing efficiency and at what stage of information processing the effect appeard. Thirty-three children participated in the study and were randomly assigned to two groups at primary school entry, matched for age, gender and IQ. All children went through the same curriculum except that the abacus group received a 2-h/per week AMC training, while the control group did traditional numerical practice for a similar amount of time. After a 2-year training, they were tested with a numerical Stroop task. Electroencephalographic (EEG) and event related potential (ERP) recording techniques were used to monitor the temporal dynamics during the task. Children were required to determine the numerical magnitude (NC) (NC task) or the physical size (PC task) of two numbers presented simultaneously. In the NC task, the AMC group showed faster response times but similar accuracy compared to the control group. In the PC task, the two groups exhibited the same speed and accuracy. The saliency of numerical information relative to physical information was greater in AMC group. With regards to ERP results, the AMC group displayed congruity effects both in the earlier (N1) and later (N2 and LPC (late positive component) time domain, while the control group only displayed congruity effects for LPC. In the left parietal region, LPC amplitudes were larger for the AMC than the control group. Individual differences for LPC amplitudes over left parietal area showed a positive correlation with RTs in the NC task in both congruent and neutral conditions. After controlling for the N2 amplitude, this correlation also became significant in the incongruent condition. Our results suggest that AMC training can strengthen the relationship between symbolic representation and numerical magnitude so that numerical information processing becomes quicker and automatic in AMC children. PMID:26042012

  9. Inference of Super-exponential Human Population Growth via Efficient Computation of the Site Frequency Spectrum for Generalized Models.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Keinan, Alon

    2016-01-01

    The site frequency spectrum (SFS) and other genetic summary statistics are at the heart of many population genetic studies. Previous studies have shown that human populations have undergone a recent epoch of fast growth in effective population size. These studies assumed that growth is exponential, and the ensuing models leave an excess amount of extremely rare variants. This suggests that human populations might have experienced a recent growth with speed faster than exponential. Recent studies have introduced a generalized growth model where the growth speed can be faster or slower than exponential. However, only simulation approaches were available for obtaining summary statistics under such generalized models. In this study, we provide expressions to accurately and efficiently evaluate the SFS and other summary statistics under generalized models, which we further implement in a publicly available software. Investigating the power to infer deviation of growth from being exponential, we observed that adequate sample sizes facilitate accurate inference; e.g., a sample of 3000 individuals with the amount of data expected from exome sequencing allows observing and accurately estimating growth with speed deviating by ≥10% from that of exponential. Applying our inference framework to data from the NHLBI Exome Sequencing Project, we found that a model with a generalized growth epoch fits the observed SFS significantly better than the equivalent model with exponential growth (P-value [Formula: see text]). The estimated growth speed significantly deviates from exponential (P-value [Formula: see text]), with the best-fit estimate being of growth speed 12% faster than exponential.

  10. Full solar spectrum light driven thermocatalysis with extremely high efficiency on nanostructured Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst for VOCs purification.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jingtao; Li, Yuanzhi; Mao, Mingyang; Yue, Yuanzheng; Greaves, G Neville; Zhao, Xiujian

    2015-02-14

    The nanostructured Ce ion substituted cryptomelane-type octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) catalyst exhibits strong absorption in the entire solar spectrum region. The Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst can efficiently transform the absorbed solar energy to thermal energy, resulting in a considerable increase of temperature. By combining the efficient photothermal conversion and thermocatalytic activity of the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst, we carried out full solar spectrum, visible-infrared, and infrared light driven catalysis with extremely high efficiency. Under the irradiation of full solar spectrum, visible-infrared, and infrared light, the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst exhibits extremely high catalytic activity and excellent durability for the oxidation of volatile organic pollutants such as benzene, toluene, and acetone. Based on the experimental evidence, we propose a novel mechanism of solar light driven thermocatalysis for the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst. The reason why the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst exhibits much higher catalytic activity than pure OMS-2 and CeO2/OMS-2 nano composite under the full solar spectrum irradiation is discussed.

  11. Efficient 2,3-Butanediol Production from Cassava Powder by a Crop-Biomass-Utilizer, Enterobacter cloacae subsp. dissolvens SDM

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Cuiqing; Gao, Chao; Li, Lixiang; Wang, Yu; Tao, Fei; Xu, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Background 2,3-Butanediol (BD) is considered as one of the key platform chemicals used in a variety of industrial applications. It is crucial to find an efficient sugar-utilizing strain and feasible carbon source for the economical production of BD. Methodology/Principal Findings Efficient BD production by a newly isolated Enterobacter cloacae subsp. dissolvens SDM was studied using crop-biomass cassava powder as substrate. The culture conditions and fermentation medium for BD production were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, 78.3 g l−1 of BD was produced after 24 h in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), with a yield of 0.42 g BD g−1 cassava powder and a specific productivity of 3.3 g l−1 h−1. A higher BD concentration (93.9 g l−1) was produced after 47 h in fed-batch SSF. Conclusions/Significance The results suggest that strain SDM is a good candidate for the BD production, and cassava powder could be used as an alternative substrate for the efficient production of BD. PMID:22792324

  12. A High-Density, High-Efficiency, Isolated On-Board Vehicle Battery Charger Utilizing Silicon Carbide Power Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, B; Barkley, A; Cole, Z; Passmore, B; Martin, D; McNutt, TR; Lostetter, AB; Lee, JS; Shiozaki, K

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents an isolated on-board vehicular battery charger that utilizes silicon carbide (SiC) power devices to achieve high density and high efficiency for application in electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid EVs (PHEVs). The proposed level 2 charger has a two-stage architecture where the first stage is a bridgeless boost ac-dc converter and the second stage is a phase-shifted full-bridge isolated dc-dc converter. The operation of both topologies is presented and the specific advantages gained through the use of SiC power devices are discussed. The design of power stage components, the packaging of the multichip power module, and the system-level packaging is presented with a primary focus on system density and a secondary focus on system efficiency. In this work, a hardware prototype is developed and a peak system efficiency of 95% is measured while operating both power stages with a switching frequency of 200 kHz. A maximum output power of 6.1 kW results in a volumetric power density of 5.0 kW/L and a gravimetric power density of 3.8 kW/kg when considering the volume and mass of the system including a case.

  13. Utilization Patterns of Conventional and Complementary/Alternative Treatments in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Developmental Disabilities in a Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Akins, CDR Roger Scott; Krakowiak, Paula; Angkustsiri, Kathleen; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Hansen, Robin L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study compared the utilization of conventional treatments to utilization of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other developmental disabilities (DD). Methods Participants were 578 children who were part of an ongoing population-based, case-control study of 2 to 5 year-olds with ASD, DD, and the general population. Parents completed an interview on past and current services. Results Four hundred fifty-three children with ASD and 125 DD children were included. ASD families received more hours of conventional services compared to DD (17.8 vs. 11; p<0.001). The use of psychotropic medications was low in both groups (~3%). CAM use overall was not significantly different in ASD (39%) versus DD (30%). Hispanic families in both groups used CAM less often than non-Hispanics. Variables such as level of function, immunization status, and presence of an identified neurogenetic disorder were not predictive of CAM use. A higher level of parental education was associated with increased CAM use in ASD and DD. Families who utilized >20 hours per week of conventional services were more likely to use CAM, including potentially unsafe or disproven CAM. Under-immunized children were marginally more likely to use CAM, but not more likely to have received potentially unsafe or disproven CAM. Conclusion CAM use is common in families of young children with neurodevelopmental disorders and is predicted by higher parental education and non-Hispanic ethnicity but not developmental characteristics. Further research should address how healthcare providers can support families in making decisions about CAM use. PMID:24399100

  14. The multi-year cumulative effects of alternative stocking rate and grazing management practices on pasture productivity and utilization efficiency.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, B; Delaby, L; Pierce, K M; McCarthy, J; Fleming, C; Brennan, A; Horan, B

    2016-05-01

    The production and utilization of increased quantities of high quality pasture is of paramount importance in pasture-based milk production systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cumulative effects of alternative integrated grazing strategies, incorporating alternative stocking rate (SR) and grazing severities, on pasture productivity and grazing efficiency over multiple years within farm systems using perennial ryegrass dominant pastures. Three whole-farm SR treatments were compared over 4 complete grazing seasons (2009 to 2012 inclusive): low (2.51 cows/ha; LSR), medium (2.92 cows/ha; MSR), and high (3.28 cows/ha; HSR). Each system had its own farmlet containing 18 paddocks and remained on the same treatment for the duration of the study. Stocking rate had a significant effect on all grazing variables with the exception of soil fertility status and sward density. Increased SR resulted in increased total annual net pasture accumulation, improved sward nutritive value, and increased grazed pasture utilization. Total annual net pasture accumulation was greatest in HSR [15,410kg of dry matter (DM)/ha], intermediate for MSR (14,992kg of DM/ha), and least for LSR (14,479kg of DM/ha) during the 4-yr study period. A linear effect of SR on net pasture accumulation was detected with an increase in net pasture accumulation of 1,164.4 (SE=432.7) kg of DM/ha for each 1 cow/ha increase in SR. Pregrazing pasture mass and height and postgrazing residual pasture mass and height were greatest for LSR, intermediate for the MSR, and lowest for the HSR. In comparison with the LSR, the imposition of a consistently increased grazing severity coupled with increased whole farm SR in MSR and HSR treatments arrested the decline in sward nutritive value, typically observed during mid-season. Incorporating the individual beneficial effects of SR on pasture accumulation, nutritive value, and utilization efficiency, total proportional energy (unité fourragère lait

  15. Highly efficient rice straw utilization for poly-(γ-glutamic acid) production by Bacillus subtilis NX-2.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bao; Lei, Peng; Xu, Zongqi; Jiang, Yongxiang; Xu, Zheng; Liang, Jinfeng; Feng, Xiaohai; Xu, Hong

    2015-10-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass has been identified as an economic and environmental feedstock for future biotechnological production. Here, for the first time, poly-(γ-glutamic acid) (PGA) production by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 using rice straw is investigated. Based on two-stage hydrolysis and characteristic consumption of xylose and glucose by B. subtilis NX-2, a co-fermentation strategy was designed to better accumulate PGA in a 7.5L fermentor by two feeding methods. The maximum cumulative respective PGA production and PGA productivity were 73.0 ± 0.5 g L(-1) and 0.81 g L(-1) h(-1) by the continuous feeding method, with carbon source cost was saved by 84.2% and 42.5% compared with glucose and cane molasse, respectively. These results suggest that rice straw, a type of abundant, low-cost, non-food lignocellulosic feedstock, may be feasibly and efficiently utilized for industrial-scale production of PGA.

  16. Promoting emerging energy-efficiency technologies and practices by utilities in a restructured energy industry: A report from California

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, Edward L.

    2000-07-01

    The potential energy savings from emerging technologies (i.e., those technologies emerging from research and development) represent a significant resource to California and the US This paper describes how California's investor-owned utilities (IOUs) have been promoting emerging technologies over the last three years to increase energy efficiency in the buildings sector. During these years, the IOUs have experienced significant changes in their regulatory environment as part of the restructuring of the energy industry in California. These regulatory changes have impacted the way emerging technologies are treated by the regulatory community and the IOUs. After reviewing these changes, the paper concludes by discussing potential opportunities to improve the market penetration of emerging technologies.

  17. Relationship between efficiency of nitrogen utilization and isotopic nitrogen fractionation in dairy cows: contribution of digestion v. metabolism?

    PubMed

    Cantalapiedra-Hijar, G; Fouillet, H; Huneau, J F; Fanchone, A; Doreau, M; Nozière, P; Ortigues-Marty, I

    2016-02-01

    Animal tissues are naturally 15N enriched relative to their diet and the extent of this difference (Δ15Nanimal-diet) has been correlated to the efficiency of N assimilation in different species. The rationale is that transamination and deamination enzymes, involved in amino acid metabolism are likely to preferentially convert amino groups containing 14N over 15N. However, in ruminants the contribution of rumen bacterial metabolism relative to animal tissues metabolism to naturally enrich animal proteins in terms of 15N has been not assessed yet. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of rumen and digestion processes on the relationship between Δ15Nanimal-diet and efficiency of N utilization for milk protein yield (milk N efficiency (MNE); milk N yield/N intake) as well as the relationship between the 15N natural abundance of rumen bacteria and the efficiency of N use at the rumen level. Solid- and liquid-associated rumen bacteria, duodenal digesta, feces and plasma proteins were obtained (n=16) from four lactating Holstein cows fed four different diets formulated at two metabolizable protein supplies (80% v. 110% of protein requirements) crossed by two different dietary energy source (diets rich in starch v. fiber). We measured the isotopic N fractionation between animal and diet (Δ15Nanimal-diet) in these different body pools. The Δ15Nanimal-diet was negatively correlated with MNE when measured in solid-associated rumen bacteria, duodenal digesta, feces and plasma proteins, with the strongest correlation found for the latter. However, our results showed a very weak 15N enrichment of duodenal digesta (Δ15Nduodenal digesta-diet mean value=0.42) compared with that observed in plasma proteins (Δ15Nplasma protein-diet mean value=2.41). These data support the idea that most of the isotopic N fractionation observed in ruminant proteins (Δ15Nplasma protein-diet) has a metabolic origin with very little direct impact of the overall digestion process on

  18. Control of a wind-driven self-excited induction generator water-pumping system for maximum utilization efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Alghuwainem, S.M.

    1998-07-01

    This paper analyzes a stand-alone water-pumping system consisting of a motor-pump set supplied by a wind-driven self-excited induction generator. In order to achieve maximum utilization efficiency, the system designer is interested in optimally matching the system components together so that maximum energy available from the wind is absorbed and utilized all the time. Unfortunately, this optimal matching is speed-dependent and hence no single matching is valid for all wind speeds. Therefore the operating point of the system must vary with wind speed. In this paper, a control strategy is formulated which properly adjust the operating point of the system to coincide with the maximum power operating condition. The self-excited induction generator (SEIG) is basically an induction machine which is driven by a prime mover such as a wind turbine while a capacitor is connected across its stator terminals. The SEIG supplies an induction motor which is coupled to a water pump. The system need not operate continuously and water can be used directly for drinking and irrigation or it can be collected in a storage tank for later use. Due to the high cost of the wind turbine and equipment, the system designer is interested in maximizing the amount of pumped water per day. This can be achieved by proper selection and matching of the system components. However, proper matching of the system components together is not sufficient to guarantee maximum utilization since matching is dependent on wind speed. Therefore, certain system components must be controlled according to wind speed, such that matching is achieved all the time. This paper presents a control strategy to control the excitation capacitance of the induction generator such that its generated terminal voltage, which is applied to the induction motor, is kept constant as the rotor speed varies with wind speed.

  19. Partitioning of heat production in growing pigs as a tool to improve the determination of efficiency of energy utilization

    PubMed Central

    Labussière, Etienne; Dubois, Serge; van Milgen, Jaap; Noblet, Jean

    2013-01-01

    In growing pigs, the feed cost accounts for more than 60% of total production costs. The determination of efficiency of energy utilization through calorimetry measurements is of importance to sustain suitable feeding practice. The objective of this paper is to describe a methodology to correct daily heat production (HP) obtained from measurements in respiration chamber for the difference in energy expenditure related to physical activity between animals. The calculation is based on a preliminary published approach for partitioning HP between HP due to physical activity (AHP), thermic effect of feeding (TEF) and basal metabolic rate (fasting HP; FHP). Measurements with male growing pigs [mean body weight (BW): 115 kg] which were surgically castrated (SC), castrated through immunization against GnRH (IC), or kept as entire male (EM) were used as an example. Animals were fed the same diet ad-libitum and were housed individually in two 12-m3 open-circuit respiration chambers during 6 days when fed ad-libitum and one supplementary day when fasted. Physical activity was recorded through interruption of an infrared beam to detect standing and lying positions and with force transducers that recorded the mechanical force the animal exerted on the floor of the cage. Corrected AHP (AHPc), TEF (TEFc), and HP (HPc) were calculated to standardize the level of AHP between animals, assuming that the ratio between AHPc and ME intake should be constant. Inefficiency of energy utilization (sum of AHPc and TEFc) was lower than the inefficiency estimated from the slope of the classical relationship between HPc and ME intake but was associated with higher requirements for maintenance. Results indicate that EM pigs had higher FHP but lower TEFc than IC and SC pigs. These results agree with the higher contents in viscera of EM pigs that stimulate their basal metabolic rate and with the reduced utilization of dietary protein to provide energy for maintenance energy requirements and fat

  20. The Ustilago maydis Nit2 Homolog Regulates Nitrogen Utilization and Is Required for Efficient Induction of Filamentous Growth

    PubMed Central

    Horst, Robin J.; Zeh, Christine; Saur, Alexandra; Sonnewald, Sophia; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR) is a regulatory strategy found in microorganisms that restricts the utilization of complex and unfavored nitrogen sources in the presence of favored nitrogen sources. In fungi, this concept has been best studied in yeasts and filamentous ascomycetes, where the GATA transcription factors Gln3p and Gat1p (in yeasts) and Nit2/AreA (in ascomycetes) constitute the main positive regulators of NCR. The reason why functional Nit2 homologs of some phytopathogenic fungi are required for full virulence in their hosts has remained elusive. We have identified the Nit2 homolog in the basidiomycetous phytopathogen Ustilago maydis and show that it is a major, but not the exclusive, positive regulator of nitrogen utilization. By transcriptome analysis of sporidia grown on artificial media devoid of favored nitrogen sources, we show that only a subset of nitrogen-responsive genes are regulated by Nit2, including the Gal4-like transcription factor Ton1 (a target of Nit2). Ustilagic acid biosynthesis is not under the control of Nit2, while nitrogen starvation-induced filamentous growth is largely dependent on functional Nit2. nit2 deletion mutants show the delayed initiation of filamentous growth on maize leaves and exhibit strongly compromised virulence, demonstrating that Nit2 is required to efficiently initiate the pathogenicity program of U. maydis. PMID:22247264

  1. Construction of a modular dihydrofolate reductase cDNA gene: Analysis of signals utilized for efficient expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, J.; Sharp, P.A.

    1982-11-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) modular genes have been constructed with segments containing the adenovirus major late promoter, a 3' splice site from a variable region immunoglobulin gene, a DHFR cDNA, and portions of the simian virus 40 (SV40) genome, DNA-mediated transfer of these genes transformed Chinese hamster ovary DHFR/sup -/ cells to the DHFR/sup +/ phenotype. Transformants contained one to several copies of the transfected DNA integrated into the host genome. Clones subjected to growth in increasing concentrations of methotrexate eventually gave rise to lines containing several hundred copies of the transforming DNA. Analysis of the DHFr mRNA produced in amplified lines indicated the following: (i) All clones utilize the adenovirus major late promoter for transcription initiation. (ii) A hybrid intron formed by the 5' splice site of the adenovirus major late leader and a 3' splice site from a variable-region immunoglobulin gene is properly excised. (iii) The mRNA is not efficiently polyadenylated at sequences in the 3' end of the DHFR cDNA but rather uses polyadenylation signals downstream from the DHFR cDNA. Three independent clones produce a DHFR mRNA containing SV40 or pBR322 and SV40 sequences, and the RNA is polyadenylated at the SV40 late polyadenylation site. Another clone has recombined into cellular DNA and apparently uses a cellular sequence for polyadenylation. Introduction of a segment containing the SV40 early polyadenylation signal into the 3' end of the DHFR cDNA generated a recombinant capable of transforming cells to the DHFR/sup +/ phenotype with at least a 10-fold increase in efficiency, demonstrating the necessity for an efficient polyadenylation signal. Attachment of a DNA segment containing the transcription enhancer 72-base pair repeat) of SV40 further increased the biological activity of the modular DHFR gene 50- to 100-fold.

  2. Highly efficient SO2 absorption/activation and subsequent utilization by polyethylene glycol-functionalized Lewis basic ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen-Zhen; He, Liang-Nian; Song, Qing-Wen; Chen, Kai-Hong; Liu, An-Hua; Liu, Xiang-Ming

    2012-12-05

    Up to now, flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) is one of the most effective techniques to control SO(2) emission from the combustion of fossil fuels. The conventional technology for FGD poses serious inherent drawbacks such as formation of byproducts and volatilization of solvents. In this work, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-functionalized Lewis basic ionic liquids (ILs) derived from DABCO were proved to be highly efficient absorbents for FGD due to its specific features such as high thermal stability, negligible vapor pressure, high loading capacity. Notably, PEG(150)MeDABCONTf(2) gave an extremely high SO(2) capacity (4.38 mol mol(-1) IL), even under 0.1 bar SO(2) partial pressure (1.01 mol mol(-1) IL), presumably owing to the strong SO(2)-philic characterization of the PEG chain. Furthermore, the absorbed SO(2) could be easy to release by just bubbling N(2) at room temperature, greatly reducing energy requirement for SO(2) desorption. In addition, SO(2)/CO(2) selectivity (110) of PEG(150)MeDABCONTf(2) is two times larger than the non-functionalized imidazolium IL (45). On the other hand, through activation of SO(2) with the tertiary nitrogen in the cation, Lewis basic ILs such as PEG(150)MeDABCOBr proved to be efficient catalysts for the conversion of SO(2) to some value-added chemicals such as cyclic sulfites without utilization of any organic solvent or additive. Thus, this protocol would pave the way for the development of technological innovation towards efficient and low energy demanded practical process for SO(2) absorption and subsequent transformation.

  3. Examination of efficacious, efficient, and socially valid error-correction procedures to teach sight words and prepositions to children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Kodak, Tiffany; Campbell, Vincent; Bergmann, Samantha; LeBlanc, Brittany; Kurtz-Nelson, Eva; Cariveau, Tom; Haq, Shaji; Zemantic, Patricia; Mahon, Jacob

    2016-09-01

    Prior research shows that learners have idiosyncratic responses to error-correction procedures during instruction. Thus, assessments that identify error-correction strategies to include in instruction can aid practitioners in selecting individualized, efficacious, and efficient interventions. The current investigation conducted an assessment to compare 5 error-correction procedures that have been evaluated in the extant literature and are common in instructional practice for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Results showed that the assessment identified efficacious and efficient error-correction procedures for all participants, and 1 procedure was efficient for 4 of the 5 participants. To examine the social validity of error-correction procedures, participants selected among efficacious and efficient interventions in a concurrent-chains assessment. We discuss the results in relation to prior research on error-correction procedures and current instructional practices for learners with ASD.

  4. A mechanistic dissection of polyethylenimine mediated transfection of CHO cells: to enhance the efficiency of recombinant DNA utilization.

    PubMed

    Mozley, Olivia L; Thompson, Ben C; Fernandez-Martell, Alejandro; James, David C

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examine the molecular and cellular interactions that underpin efficient internalization and utilization of polyethylenimine (PEI):DNA complexes (polyplexes) by Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. Cell surface polyplex binding and internalization was a biphasic process, consisting of an initial rapid Phase (I), lasting approximately 15 min, followed by a slower second Phase (II), saturating at approximately 240 min post transfection. The second Phase accounted for the majority (60-70%) of polyplex internalization. While cell surface heparan sulphate proteoglycans (HSPGs) were rapidly cointernalized with polyplexes during Phase I, cell surface polyplex binding was not dependent on HSPGs. However, Phase II polyplex internalization and HSPG regeneration onto the surface of trypsinized cells occurred at similar rates, suggesting that the rate of recycling of HSPG-containing membrane to the plasma membrane limits Phase II internalization rate. Under optimal transfection conditions, polyplexes had a near neutral surface charge (zeta potential) and cell surface binding was dependent on hydrophobic interactions, being significantly inhibited by both chemical sequestration of cholesterol from the plasma membrane and addition of nonionic surfactant. Induced alterations in polyplex zeta potential, using ferric (III) citrate to decrease surface charge and varying PEI:DNA ratio to increase surface charge, served to inhibit polyplex binding or reduce secreted alkaline phosphatase reporter expression and cell viability, respectively. To increase polyplex hydrophobicity and internalization an alkylated derivative of PEI, propyl-PEI, was chemically synthesized. Using Design of Experiments-Response Surface Modeling to optimize the transfection process, the function of propyl-PEI was compared to that of unmodified PEI in both parental CHO-S cells and a subclone (Clone 4), which exhibited superior transgene expression via an increased resistance to polyplex

  5. Estimation of low-potential heat recuperation efficiency of smoke fumes in a condensation heat utilizer under various operation conditions of a boiler and a heating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionkin, I. L.; Ragutkin, A. V.; Luning, B.; Zaichenko, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    For enhancement of the natural gas utilization efficiency in boilers, condensation heat utilizers of low-potential heat, which are constructed based on a contact heat exchanger, can be applied. A schematic of the contact heat exchanger with a humidifier for preheating and humidifying of air supplied in the boiler for combustion is given. Additional low-potential heat in this scheme is utilized for heating of the return delivery water supplied from a heating system. Preheating and humidifying of air supplied for combustion make it possible to use the condensation utilizer for heating of a heat-transfer agent to temperature exceeding the dewpoint temperature of water vapors contained in combustion products. The decision to mount the condensation heat utilizer on the boiler was taken based on the preliminary estimation of the additionally obtained heat. The operation efficiency of the condensation heat utilizer is determined by its structure and operation conditions of the boiler and the heating system. The software was developed for the thermal design of the condensation heat utilizer equipped by the humidifier. Computation investigations of its operation are carried out as a function of various operation parameters of the boiler and the heating system (temperature of the return delivery water and smoke fumes, air excess, air temperature at the inlet and outlet of the condensation heat utilizer, heating and humidifying of air in the humidifier, and portion of the circulating water). The heat recuperation efficiency is estimated for various operation conditions of the boiler and the condensation heat utilizer. Recommendations on the most effective application of the condensation heat utilizer are developed.

  6. Efficient immobilization of mushroom tyrosinase utilizing whole cells from Agaricus bisporus and its application for degradation of bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Kampmann, Markus; Boll, Stefan; Kossuch, Jan; Bielecki, Julia; Uhl, Stefan; Kleiner, Beatrice; Wichmann, Rolf

    2014-06-15

    A simple and efficient procedure for preparation and immobilization of tyrosinase enzyme was developed utilizing whole cells from the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus, without the need for enzyme purification. Tyrosinase activity in the cell preparation remained constant during storage at 21 °C for at least six months. The cells were entrapped in chitosan and alginate matrix capsules and characterized with respect to their resulting tyrosinase activity. A modification of the alginate with colloidal silica enhanced the activity due to retention of both cells and tyrosinase from fractured cells, which otherwise leached from matrix capsules. The observed activity was similar to the activity that was obtained with immobilized isolated tyrosinase in the same material. Mushroom cells in water were susceptible to rapid inactivation, whereas the immobilized cells maintained 73% of their initial activity after 30 days of storage in water. Application in repeated batch experiments resulted in almost 100% conversion of endocrine disrupting bisphenol A (BPA) for 11 days, under stirring conditions, and 50-60% conversion after 20 days, without stirring under continuous usage. The results represent the longest yet reported application of immobilized tyrosinase for degradation of BPA in environmental water samples.

  7. Translational efficiency of polycistronic mRNAs and their utilization to express heterologous genes in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, R J; Murtha, P; Davies, M V

    1987-01-01

    The translation of polycistronic mRNAs in mammalian cells was studied. Transcription units, constructed to contain one, two or three open reading frames (ORFs), were introduced stably into Chinese hamster ovary cells and transiently into COS monkey cells. The analysis of mRNA levels and protein synthesis in these cells demonstrated that the mRNAs transcribed were translated to generate multiple proteins. The efficiency of translation was reduced approximately 40- to 300-fold by the insertion of an upstream ORF. The results support a modified 'scanning' model for translation initiation which allows for translation initiation at internal AUG codons. High-level expression of human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor was achieved utilizing a vector that contains a polycistronic transcription unit encoding an amplifiable dihydrofolate reductase marker gene in its 3' end. Thus, polycistronic expression vectors can be exploited to obtain high-level expression of foreign genes in mammalian cells. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:3582359

  8. Efficient utilization of pentoses for bioproduction of the renewable two-carbon compounds ethylene glycol and glycolate.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Brian; Li, Zheng-Jun; De Mey, Marjan; Lim, Chin Giaw; Zhang, Haoran; Hoeltgen, Claude; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2016-03-01

    The development of lignocellulose as a sustainable resource for the production of fuels and chemicals will rely on technology capable of converting the raw materials into useful compounds; some such transformations can be achieved by biological processes employing engineered microorganisms. Towards the goal of valorizing the hemicellulose fraction of lignocellulose, we designed and validated a set of pathways that enable efficient utilization of pentoses for the biosynthesis of notable two-carbon products. These pathways were incorporated into Escherichia coli, and engineered strains produced ethylene glycol from various pentoses, including simultaneously from D-xylose and L-arabinose; one strain achieved the greatest reported titer of ethylene glycol, 40 g/L, from D-xylose at a yield of 0.35 g/g. The strategy was then extended to another compound, glycolate. Using D-xylose as the substrate, an engineered strain produced 40 g/L glycolate at a yield of 0.63 g/g, which is the greatest reported yield to date.

  9. Nutritive value of mixed proteins. 2. As determined by net protein utilization and protein efficiency ratio tests.

    PubMed

    Woodham, A A; Clarke, E M

    1977-05-01

    1. A fish meal, meat meal, soya-bean meal, groundnut meal and sunflower-seed meal of known amino acid composition were evaluated individually, and combined in all possible pairs, by the estimation of net protein utilization (NPU) and protein efficiency ratio (body-weight gain: crude protein intake; PER) using rats. Each pair provided a total of 100 g protein/kg diet made up so that the amounts of the constituents were (w/w) 100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 20:80, and 0:100. 2. Marked synergistic effects were noted only for mixtures of sunflower-seed meal with soya-bean, fish and meat meals. 3. Chemical score ([amount of limiting amino acid/the rat's requirement for the same amino acid] X100; CS), but not essential amino acid index; geometric mean for the ratio, amount of essential amino acid: the rat's requirement for that amino acid, for all ten essential amino acids; EAAI), successfully predicted the rankings of all mixtures except groundnut meal-meat meal and groundnut meal-soya-bean meal, by both PER and NPU tests. 4. Although there is broad agreement linking results of PER and NPU tests with results obtained by a more practical feeding trial in which the mixtures were evaluated as supplements to cereals, neither of these two standard tests is capable of predicting in every instance the advantages to be gained by mixing protein concentrates.

  10. Structural and Functional Analysis of a Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenase Important for Efficient Utilization of Chitin in Cellvibrio japonicus.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, Zarah; Nelson, Cassandra E; Dalhus, Bjørn; Mekasha, Sophanit; Loose, Jennifer S M; Crouch, Lucy I; Røhr, Åsmund K; Gardner, Jeffrey G; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Vaaje-Kolstad, Gustav

    2016-04-01

    Cellvibrio japonicusis a Gram-negative soil bacterium that is primarily known for its ability to degrade plant cell wall polysaccharides through utilization of an extensive repertoire of carbohydrate-active enzymes. Several putative chitin-degrading enzymes are also found among these carbohydrate-active enzymes, such as chitinases, chitobiases, and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs). In this study, we have characterized the chitin-active LPMO,CjLPMO10A, a tri-modular enzyme containing a catalytic family AA10 LPMO module, a family 5 chitin-binding module, and a C-terminal unclassified module of unknown function. Characterization of the latter module revealed tight and specific binding to chitin, thereby unraveling a new family of chitin-binding modules (classified as CBM73). X-ray crystallographic elucidation of theCjLPMO10A catalytic module revealed that the active site of the enzyme combines structural features previously only observed in either cellulose or chitin-active LPMO10s. Analysis of the copper-binding site by EPR showed a signal signature more similar to those observed for cellulose-cleaving LPMOs. The full-length LPMO shows no activity toward cellulose but is able to bind and cleave both α- and β-chitin. Removal of the chitin-binding modules reduced LPMO activity toward α-chitin compared with the full-length enzyme. Interestingly, the full-length enzyme and the individual catalytic LPMO module boosted the activity of an endochitinase equally well, also yielding similar amounts of oxidized products. Finally, gene deletion studies show thatCjLPMO10A is needed byC. japonicusto obtain efficient growth on both purified chitin and crab shell particles.

  11. Construction and utility of 10-kb libraries for efficient clone-gap closure for rice genome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tae-Jin; Yu, Yeisoo; Nah, Gyoungju; Atkins, Michael; Lee, Seunghee; Frisch, David A; Wing, Rod A

    2003-08-01

    Rice is an important crop and a model system for monocot genomics, and is a target for whole genome sequencing by the International Rice Genome Sequencing Project (IRGSP). The IRGSP is using a clone by clone approach to sequence rice based on minimum tiles of BAC or PAC clones. For chromosomes 10 and 3 we are using an integrated physical map based on two fingerprinted and end-sequenced BAC libraries to identifying a minimum tiling path of clones. In this study we constructed and tested two rice genomic libraries with an average insert size of 10 kb (10-kb library) to support the gap closure and finishing phases of the rice genome sequencing project. The HaeIII library contains 166,752 clones covering approximately 4.6x rice genome equivalents with an average insert size of 10.5 kb. The Sau3AI library contains 138,960 clones covering 4.2x genome equivalents with an average insert size of 11.6 kb. Both libraries were gridded in duplicate onto 11 high-density filters in a 5 x 5 pattern to facilitate screening by hybridization. The libraries contain an unbiased coverage of the rice genome with less than 5% contamination by clones containing organelle DNA or no insert. An efficient method was developed, consisting of pooled overgo hybridization, the selection of 10-kb gap spanning clones using end sequences, transposon sequencing and utilization of in silico draft sequence, to close relatively small gaps between sequenced BAC clones. Using this method we were able to close a majority of the gaps (up to approximately 50 kb) identified during the finishing phase of chromosome-10 sequencing. This method represents a useful way to close clone gaps and thus to complete the entire rice genome.

  12. Carbon dioxide utilization in a microalga-based biorefinery: Efficiency of carbon removal and economic performance under carbon taxation.

    PubMed

    Wiesberg, Igor Lapenda; Brigagão, George Victor; de Medeiros, José Luiz; de Queiroz Fernandes Araújo, Ofélia

    2017-03-08

    Coal-fired power plants are major stationary sources of carbon dioxide and environmental constraints demand technologies for abatement. Although Carbon Capture and Storage is the most mature route, it poses severe economic penalty to power generation. Alternatively, this penalty is potentially reduced by Carbon Capture and Utilization, which converts carbon dioxide to valuable products, monetizing it. This work evaluates a route consisting of carbon dioxide bio-capture by Chlorella pyrenoidosa and use of the resulting biomass as feedstock to a microalgae-based biorefinery; Carbon Capture and Storage route is evaluated as a reference technology. The integrated arrangement comprises: (a) carbon dioxide biocapture in a photobioreactor, (b) oil extraction from part of the produced biomass, (b) gasification of remaining biomass to obtain bio-syngas, and (c) conversion of bio-syngas to methanol. Calculation of capital and operational expenditures are estimated based on mass and energy balances obtained by process simulation for both routes (Carbon Capture and Storage and the biorefinery). Capital expenditure for the biorefinery is higher by a factor of 6.7, while operational expenditure is lower by a factor of 0.45 and revenues occur only for this route, with a ratio revenue/operational expenditure of 1.6. The photobioreactor is responsible for one fifth of the biorefinery capital expenditure, with footprint of about 1000 ha, posing the most significant barrier for technical and economic feasibility of the proposed biorefinery. The Biorefinery and Carbon Capture and Storage routes show carbon dioxide capture efficiency of 73% and 48%, respectively, with capture cost of 139$/t and 304$/t. Additionally, the biorefinery has superior performance in all evaluated metrics of environmental impacts.

  13. Estimation of the maintenance energy requirements, methane emissions and nitrogen utilization efficiency of two suckler cow genotypes.

    PubMed

    Zou, C X; Lively, F O; Wylie, A R G; Yan, T

    2016-04-01

    Seventeen non-lactating dairy-bred suckler cows (LF; Limousin×Holstein-Friesian) and 17 non-lactating beef composite breed suckler cows (ST; Stabiliser) were used to study enteric methane emissions and energy and nitrogen (N) utilization from grass silage diets. Cows were housed in cubicle accommodation for 17 days, and then moved to individual tie-stalls for an 8-day digestibility balance including a 2-day adaption followed by immediate transfer to an indirect, open-circuit, respiration calorimeters for 3 days with gaseous exchange recorded over the last two of these days. Grass silage was offered ad libitum once daily at 0900 h throughout the study. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between the genotypes for energy intakes, energy outputs or energy use efficiency, or for methane emission rates (methane emissions per unit of dry matter intake or energy intake), or for N metabolism characteristics (N intake or N output in faeces or urine). Accordingly, the data for both cow genotypes were pooled and used to develop relationships between inputs and outputs. Regression of energy retention against ME intake (r 2=0.52; P<0.001) indicated values for net energy requirements for maintenance of 0.386, 0.392 and 0.375 MJ/kg0.75 for LF+ST, LF and ST respectively. Methane energy output was 0.066 of gross energy intake when the intercept was omitted from the linear equation (r 2=0.59; P<0.001). There were positive linear relationships between N intake and N outputs in manure, and manure N accounted for 0.923 of the N intake. The present results provide approaches to predict maintenance energy requirement, methane emission and manure N output for suckler cows and further information is required to evaluate their application in a wide range of suckler production systems.

  14. Structural and Functional Analysis of a Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenase Important for Efficient Utilization of Chitin in Cellvibrio japonicus*

    PubMed Central

    Forsberg, Zarah; Nelson, Cassandra E.; Dalhus, Bjørn; Mekasha, Sophanit; Loose, Jennifer S. M.; Crouch, Lucy I.; Røhr, Åsmund K.; Gardner, Jeffrey G.; Eijsink, Vincent G. H.; Vaaje-Kolstad, Gustav

    2016-01-01

    Cellvibrio japonicus is a Gram-negative soil bacterium that is primarily known for its ability to degrade plant cell wall polysaccharides through utilization of an extensive repertoire of carbohydrate-active enzymes. Several putative chitin-degrading enzymes are also found among these carbohydrate-active enzymes, such as chitinases, chitobiases, and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs). In this study, we have characterized the chitin-active LPMO, CjLPMO10A, a tri-modular enzyme containing a catalytic family AA10 LPMO module, a family 5 chitin-binding module, and a C-terminal unclassified module of unknown function. Characterization of the latter module revealed tight and specific binding to chitin, thereby unraveling a new family of chitin-binding modules (classified as CBM73). X-ray crystallographic elucidation of the CjLPMO10A catalytic module revealed that the active site of the enzyme combines structural features previously only observed in either cellulose or chitin-active LPMO10s. Analysis of the copper-binding site by EPR showed a signal signature more similar to those observed for cellulose-cleaving LPMOs. The full-length LPMO shows no activity toward cellulose but is able to bind and cleave both α- and β-chitin. Removal of the chitin-binding modules reduced LPMO activity toward α-chitin compared with the full-length enzyme. Interestingly, the full-length enzyme and the individual catalytic LPMO module boosted the activity of an endochitinase equally well, also yielding similar amounts of oxidized products. Finally, gene deletion studies show that CjLPMO10A is needed by C. japonicus to obtain efficient growth on both purified chitin and crab shell particles. PMID:26858252

  15. An Assessment Model for Energy Efficiency Program Planning in Electric Utilities: Case of the Pacific of Northwest U.S.A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iskin, Ibrahim

    Energy efficiency stands out with its potential to address a number of challenges that today's electric utilities face, including increasing and changing electricity demand, shrinking operating capacity, and decreasing system reliability and flexibility. Being the least cost and least risky alternative, the share of energy efficiency programs in utilities' energy portfolios has been on the rise since the 1980s, and their increasing importance is expected to continue in the future. Despite holding great promise, the ability to determine and invest in only the most promising program alternatives plays a key role in the successful use of energy efficiency as a utility-wide resource. This issue becomes even more significant considering the availability of a vast number of potential energy efficiency programs, the rapidly changing business environment, and the existence of multiple stakeholders. This dissertation introduces hierarchical decision modeling as the framework for energy efficiency program planning in electric utilities. The model focuses on the assessment of emerging energy efficiency programs and proposes to bridge the gap between technology screening and cost/benefit evaluation practices. This approach is expected to identify emerging technology alternatives which have the highest potential to pass cost/benefit ratio testing procedures and contribute to the effectiveness of decision practices in energy efficiency program planning. The model also incorporates rank order analysis and sensitivity analysis for testing the robustness of results from different stakeholder perspectives and future uncertainties in an attempt to enable more informed decision-making practices. The model was applied to the case of 13 high priority emerging energy efficiency program alternatives identified in the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A. The results of this study reveal that energy savings potential is the most important program management consideration in selecting emerging energy

  16. Gait efficiency on an uneven surface is associated with falls and injury in older subjects with a spectrum of lower limb neuromuscular function: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Zurales, Katie; DeMott, Trina K.; Kim, Hogene; Allet, Lara; Ashton-Miller, James A.; Richardson, James K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine which gait measures on smooth and uneven surfaces predict falls and fall-related injuries in older subjects with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Design Twenty-seven subjects (12 women) with a spectrum of peripheral nerve function ranging from normal to moderately severe DPN walked on smooth and uneven surfaces, with gait parameters determined by optoelectronic kinematic techniques. Falls and injuries were then determined prospectively over the following year. Results Seventeen subjects (62.9%) fell and 12 (44.4%) sustained a fall-related injury. As compared to non-fallers, the subject group reporting any fall, as well as the subject group reporting fall-related injury, demonstrated decreased speed, greater step width (SW), shorter step length (SL) and greater step-width-to-step-length ratio (SW:SL) on both surfaces. Uneven surface SW:SL was the strongest predictor of falls (pseudo-R2 = 0.65; p = .012) and remained so with inclusion of other relevant variables into the model. Post-hoc analysis comparing injured with non-injured fallers showed no difference in any gait parameter. Conclusion SW:SL on an uneven surface is the strongest predictor of falls and injuries in older subjects with a spectrum of peripheral neurologic function. Given the relationship between SW:SL and efficiency, older neuropathic patients at increased fall risk appear to sacrifice efficiency for stability on uneven surfaces. PMID:26053187

  17. Development of Technologies for a High Efficiency, Very Low Emission, Diesel Engine for Light Trucks and Sport Utility Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Stang, John H.

    1997-12-01

    Cummins Inc., in partnership with the Department of Energy, has developed technology for a new highly efficient, very low emission, diesel engine for light trucks and sport utility vehicles. This work began in April 1997, and started with very aggressive goals for vehicles in the 5751 to 8500 pound GCW weight class. The primary program goals were as follows: (1) EMISSIONS NOx = 0.50 g/mi PM = 0.05 g/mi CO = 2.8 g/mi NMHC = 0.07 g/mi California decided to issue new and even tougher LEV II light truck regulations late in 1999. EPA also issued its lower Tier 2 regulations late in 2000. The net result was that the targets for this diesel engine project were lowered, and these goals were eventually modified by the publication of Federal Tier 2 emission standards early in 2000 to the following: NOx = 0.07 g/mi PM = 0.01 g/mi (2) FUEL ECONOMY The fuel economy goal was 50 percent MPG improvement (combined city/highway) over the 1997 gasoline powered light truck or sport utility vehicle in the vehicle class for which this diesel engine is being designed to replace. The goal for fuel economy remained at 50 percent MPG improvement, even with the emissions goal revisions. (3) COOPERATIVE DEVELOPMENT Regular design reviews of the engine program will be conducted with a vehicle manufacturer to insure that the concepts and design specifics are commercially feasible. (DaimlerChrysler has provided Cummins with this design review input.) Cummins has essentially completed a demonstration of proof-of-principle for a diesel engine platform using advanced combustion and fuel system technologies. Cummins reported very early progress in this project, evidence that new diesel engine technology had been developed that demonstrated the feasibility of the above emissions goals. Emissions levels of NOx = 0.4 g/mi and PM = 0.06 g/mi were demonstrated for a 5250 lb. test weight vehicle with passive aftertreatment only. These results were achieved using the full chassis dynamometer FTP-75 test

  18. Development of Technologies for a High Efficiency, Very Low Emission, Diesel Engine for Light Trucks and Sport Utility Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Stang

    2005-12-31

    Cummins Inc., in partnership with the Department of Energy, has developed technology for a new highly efficient, very low emission, diesel engine for light trucks and sport utility vehicles. This work began in April 1997, and started with very aggressive goals for vehicles in the 5751 to 8500 pound GCW weight class. The primary program goals were as follows: (1) EMISSIONS--NO{sub x} = 0.50 g/mi; PM = 0.05 g/mi; CO = 2.8 g/mi; and NMHC = 0.07 g/mi. California decided to issue new and even tougher LEV II light truck regulations late in 1999. EPA also issued its lower Tier 2 regulations late in 2000. The net result was that the targets for this diesel engine project were lowered, and these goals were eventually modified by the publication of Federal Tier 2 emission standards early in 2000 to the following: NO{sub x} = 0.07 g/mi; and PM = 0.01 g/mi. (2) FUEL ECONOMY--The fuel economy goal was 50 percent MPG improvement (combined city/highway) over the 1997 gasoline powered light truck or sport utility vehicle in the vehicle class for which this diesel engine is being designed to replace. The goal for fuel economy remained at 50 percent MPG improvement, even with the emissions goal revisions. (3) COOPERATIVE DEVELOPMENT--Regular design reviews of the engine program will be conducted with a vehicle manufacturer to insure that the concepts and design specifics are commercially feasible. (DaimlerChrysler has provided Cummins with this design review input.) Cummins has essentially completed a demonstration of proof-of-principle for a diesel engine platform using advanced combustion and fuel system technologies. Cummins reported very early progress in this project, evidence that new diesel engine technology had been developed that demonstrated the feasibility of the above emissions goals. Emissions levels of NOx = 0.4 g/mi and PM = 0.06 g/mi were demonstrated for a 5250 lb. test weight vehicle with passive aftertreatment only. These results were achieved using the full

  19. Development of Technologies for a High Efficiency, Very Low Emission, Diesel Engine for Light Trucks and Sport Utility Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Stang, John H.

    2005-12-19

    Cummins Inc., in partnership with the Department of Energy, has developed technology for a new highly efficient, very low emission, diesel engine for light trucks and sport utility vehicles. This work began in April 1997, and started with very aggressive goals for vehicles in the 5751 to 8500 pound GCW weight class. The primary program goals were as follows: (1) EMISSIONS -- NOx = 0.50 g/mi; PM = 0.05 g/mi; CO = 2.8 g/mi; and NMHC = 0.07 g/mi. California decided to issue new and even tougher LEV II light truck regulations late in 1999. EPA also issued its lower Tier 2 regulations late in 2000. The net result was that the targets for this diesel engine project were lowered, and these goals were eventually modified by the publication of Federal Tier 2 emission standards early in 2000 to the following: NOx = 0.07 g/mi; and PM = 0.01 g/mi. (2) FUEL ECONOMY -- The fuel economy goal was 50 percent MPG improvement (combined city/highway) over the 1997 gasoline powered light truck or sport utility vehicle in the vehicle class for which this diesel engine is being designed to replace. The goal for fuel economy remained at 50 percent MPG improvement, even with the emissions goal revisions. (3) COOPERATIVE DEVELOPMENT -- Regular design reviews of the engine program will be conducted with a vehicle manufacturer to insure that the concepts and design specifics are commercially feasible. (DaimlerChrysler has provided Cummins with this design review input.) Cummins has essentially completed a demonstration of proof-of-principle for a diesel engine platform using advanced combustion and fuel system technologies. Cummins reported very early progress in this project, evidence that new diesel engine technology had been developed that demonstrated the feasibility of the above emissions goals. Emissions levels of NOx = 0.4 g/mi and PM = 0.06 g/mi were demonstrated for a 5250 lb. test weight vehicle with passive aftertreatment only. These results were achieved using the full chassis

  20. Utility residential new construction programs: Going beyond the code. A report from the Database on Energy Efficiency Programs (DEEP) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.

    1995-08-01

    Based on an evaluation of 10 residential new construction programs, primarily sponsored by investor-owned utilities in the United States, we find that many of these programs are in dire straits and are in danger of being discontinued because current inclusion of only direct program effects leads to the conclusion that they are not cost-effective. We believe that the cost-effectiveness of residential new construction programs can be improved by: (1) promoting technologies and advanced building design practices that significantly exceed state and federal standards; (2) reducing program marketing costs and developing more effective marketing strategies; (3) recognizing the role of these programs in increasing compliance with existing state building codes; and (4) allowing utilities to obtain an ``energy-savings credit`` from utility regulators for program spillover (market transformation) impacts. Utilities can also leverage their resources in seizing these opportunities by forming strong and trusting partnerships with the building community and with local and state government.

  1. An exploration of an alternative rate structure as a means of integrating equity and efficiency in a municipally owned natural gas distribution utility

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    After two decades of a somewhat golden age for gas utilities and regulators, the 1970's saw a changing energy market characterized by curtailments and allocations in the natural gas industry. The Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 provided incentives for new supplies but at increased prices. During a period of rapidly calculating natural gas prices (1979-1984), municipal owned public utility operators were criticized for not meeting the needs of the poor and other deprived members of society. The thesis of this paper is that this criticism of operators of municipal owned natural gas utilities stemmed from the observer conceiving of the utility as a social agency of government. This paper investigates the background of the problem and public utilities' obligations because of their status as regulated monopolies. The municipal owned natural gas utility's responsibility in meeting the social functions of government are considered. This paper argues that such a utility should be viewed as a business not a societal agency. Use of a utility's rate structure for satisfying the dictates of a system of distributive justice is investigated. The attempts made by state and local governments (moratoriums on delinquent shutoffs, lifeline rates, etc.) have been ineffective and counter productive. The utility's duty to offer service to all who request it; without discrimination among people similarly situated; to the limit of its capacity is considered with consumers duty to pay just bills. Arguments show that the rate structure, not quantity delivered, is the crucial factor in assuring distributive justice. Pricing is viewed from a philosophical perspective also an economic perspective. The only need identified for equity and economic efficiency is in rate structures.

  2. Assessment and comparison of three high-aluminum fly ash utilization scenarios in Inner Mongolia, China using an eco-efficiency indicator.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuo; Lin, Ling; Li, Shao Peng; Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiu Teng; Sun, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Utilization of fly ash is of great importance in China in the context of resource and environmental crises. Different fly ash utilization processes are proposed, and some have been practically applied. However, none of these fly ash utilization pathways has been evaluated comprehensively by integrating both environmental and economic perspectives. In this study, three high-aluminum fly ash utilization methods in Mongolia were assessed and compared based on the concept of eco-efficiency. The environmental assessment was conducted in accordance with life-cycle assessment principles, and a monetization-weighting approach was applied to obtain social willingness-to-pay as a reflection of environmental impact. The environmental assessment results revealed that the reuse of fly ash had significant advantage for saving primary resource, while solid waste, depletion of water, and global warming were the three highest environmental impacts from the life cycle perspective. The economic performance assessment showed positive net profits for fly ash utilization, but high value-added products were not necessarily indicative of better economic performance due to the relatively high operation cost. Comparison of the eco-efficiency indicators (EEIs) implied that the process of scenario 1#, which produced mullite ceramic and active calcium silicate, was the most recommended out of the three scenarios on the present scale. This judgment was consistent with the evaluation of the resource utilization rate. The present study showed that the EEI could be used to compare different fly ash utilization processes in a comprehensive and objective manner, thus providing definitive and insightful suggestions for decision-making and technical improvement.

  3. CO2 utilization: an enabling element to move to a resource- and energy-efficient chemical and fuel production.

    PubMed

    Ampelli, Claudio; Perathoner, Siglinda; Centi, Gabriele

    2015-03-13

    CO(2) conversion will be at the core of the future of low-carbon chemical and energy industry. This review gives a glimpse into the possibilities in this field by discussing (i) CO(2) circular economy and its impact on the chemical and energy value chain, (ii) the role of CO(2) in a future scenario of chemical industry, (iii) new routes for CO(2) utilization, including emerging biotechnology routes, (iv) the technology roadmap for CO(2) chemical utilization, (v) the introduction of renewable energy in the chemical production chain through CO(2) utilization, and (vi) CO(2) as a suitable C-source to move to a low-carbon chemical industry, discussing in particular syngas and light olefin production from CO(2). There are thus many stimulating possibilities offered by using CO(2) and this review shows this new perspective on CO(2) at the industrial, societal and scientific levels.

  4. Evaluation of the PharmGKB knowledge base as a resource for efficiently assessing the clinical validity and utility of pharmacogenetic assays.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Kensaku; Orlando, Lori A; Voora, Deepak; Lobach, David F; Joy, Scott; Cho, Alex; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S

    2009-11-14

    Prior to clinical use, pharmacogenetic tests should be systematically evaluated for their clinical validity and utility. Here, we evaluated whether the publicly available, online Pharmacogenomics Knowledge Base (PharmGKB) could facilitate such assessments by efficiently identifying relevant peer-reviewed manuscripts. The search targets were 55 manuscripts regarding clinical validity and utility included in systematic reviews of warfarin, antidepressant, and irinotecan pharmacogenetics. When direct inclusion in PharmGKB was the search criterion, recall was 33% and precision was 16%. However, recall increased to 78% when citation within a PharmGKB-identified manuscript was added as a search criterion. These recalled manuscripts accounted for 87% of the study subjects, and domain experts determined that the omission of the remaining manuscripts was unlikely to have changed the conclusions of the reviews. Thus, we conclude that PharmGKB can facilitate the systematic assessment of pharmacogenetic assays through the efficient identification of relevant peer-reviewed manuscripts.

  5. Evaluation of the PharmGKB Knowledge Base as a Resource for Efficiently Assessing the Clinical Validity and Utility of Pharmacogenetic Assays

    PubMed Central

    Kawamoto, Kensaku; Orlando, Lori A.; Voora, Deepak; Lobach, David F.; Joy, Scott; Cho, Alex; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Prior to clinical use, pharmacogenetic tests should be systematically evaluated for their clinical validity and utility. Here, we evaluated whether the publicly available, online Pharmacogenomics Knowledge Base (PharmGKB) could facilitate such assessments by efficiently identifying relevant peer-reviewed manuscripts. The search targets were 55 manuscripts regarding clinical validity and utility included in systematic reviews of warfarin, antidepressant, and irinotecan pharmacogenetics. When direct inclusion in PharmGKB was the search criterion, recall was 33% and precision was 16%. However, recall increased to 78% when citation within a PharmGKB-identified manuscript was added as a search criterion. These recalled manuscripts accounted for 87% of the study subjects, and domain experts determined that the omission of the remaining manuscripts was unlikely to have changed the conclusions of the reviews. Thus, we conclude that PharmGKB can facilitate the systematic assessment of pharmacogenetic assays through the efficient identification of relevant peer-reviewed manuscripts. PMID:20351870

  6. [Comparison of potential yield and resource utilization efficiency of main food crops in three provinces of Northeast China under climate change].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-yu; Yang, Xiao-guang; Sun, Shuang; Xie, Wen-juan

    2015-10-01

    Based on the daily data of 65 meteorological stations from 1961 to 2010 and the crop phenology data in the potential cultivation zones of thermophilic and chimonophilous crops in Northeast China, the crop potential yields were calculated through step-by-step correction method. The spatio-temporal distribution of the crop potential yields at different levels was analyzed. And then we quantified the limitations of temperature and precipitation on the crop potential yields and compared the differences in the climatic resource utilization efficiency. The results showed that the thermal potential yields of six crops (including maize, rice, spring wheat, sorghum, millet and soybean) during the period 1961-2010 deceased from west to east. The climatic potential yields of the five crops (spring wheat not included) were higher in the south than in the north. The potential yield loss rate due to temperature limitations of the six crops presented a spatial distribution pattern and was higher in the east than in the west. Among the six main crops, the yield potential loss rate due to temperature limitation of the soybean was the highest (51%), and those of the other crops fluctuated within the range of 33%-41%. The potential yield loss rate due to water limitation had an obvious regional difference, and was high in Songnen Plain and Changbai Mountains. The potential yield loss rate of spring wheat was the highest (50%), and those of the other four rainfed crops fluctuated within the range of 8%-10%. The solar energy utilization efficiency of the six main crops ranged from 0.9% to 2.7%, in the order of maize> sorghum>rice>millet>spring wheat>soybean. The precipitation utilization efficiency of the maize, sorghum, spring wheat, millet and soybean under rainfed conditions ranged from 8 to 35 kg . hm-2 . mm-1, in the order of maize>sorghum>spring wheat>millet>soybean. In those areas with lower efficiency of solar energy utilization and precipitation utilization, such as Changbai

  7. Non-streaming high-efficiency perforated semiconductor neutron detectors, methods of making same and measuring wand and detector modules utilizing same

    DOEpatents

    McGregor, Douglas S.; Shultis, John K.; Rice, Blake B.; McNeil, Walter J.; Solomon, Clell J.; Patterson, Eric L.; Bellinger, Steven L.

    2010-12-21

    Non-streaming high-efficiency perforated semiconductor neutron detectors, method of making same and measuring wands and detector modules utilizing same are disclosed. The detectors have improved mechanical structure, flattened angular detector responses, and reduced leakage current. A plurality of such detectors can be assembled into imaging arrays, and can be used for neutron radiography, remote neutron sensing, cold neutron imaging, SNM monitoring, and various other applications.

  8. Relationship between proteolysis in the silo and efficiency of utilization of dietary protein by lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ensiling is used widely to conserve forages for feeding to dairy cows. However, the protein in hay-crop silages is particularly susceptible to microbial breakdown in the rumen, and utilization of protein in alfalfa and grass silages by dairy cows is particularly poor. Dependent on maturity, hay-crop...

  9. The design and development of a high concentration and high efficiency photovoltaic concentrator utilizing a curved Fresnel lens

    SciTech Connect

    Moffat, A.L.; Scharlack, R.S.

    1982-09-01

    The design and development of an innovative photovoltaic concentrator which utilizes a low cost molded Fresnel lens is described. The lens design and fabrication are discussed, as well as the design of the collector module and tracking structure. A description of instrumentation developed to aid in the testing of lenses and solar cells is presented, and includes the test results.

  10. A High Efficiency DC-DC Converter Topology Suitable for Distributed Large Commercial and Utility Scale PV Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Agamy, Mohammed S; Harfman-Todorovic, Maja; Elasser, Ahmed; Steigerwald, Robert L; Sabate, Juan A; Chi, Song; McCann, Adam J; Zhang, Li; Mueller, Frank

    2012-09-01

    In this paper a DC-DC power converter for distributed photovoltaic plant architectures is presented. The proposed converter has the advantages of simplicity, high efficiency, and low cost. High efficiency is achieved by having a portion of the input PV power directly fed forward to the output without being processed by the converter. The operation of this converter also allows for a simplified maximum power point tracker design using fewer measurements

  11. Development of an Advanced Deshaling Technology to Improve the Energy Efficiency of Coal Handling, Processing, and Utilization Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Rick Honaker; Gerald Luttrell

    2007-09-30

    The concept of using a dry, density-based separator to achieve efficient, near-face rock removal, commonly referred to as deshaling, was evaluated in several applications across the U.S.. Varying amounts of high-density rock exist in most run-of-mine feed. In the central Appalachian coalfields, a rock content exceeding 50% in the feed to a preparation plant is commonplace due to high amounts of out-of-seam dilution made necessary by extracting coal from thin seams. In the western U.S, an increase in out-of-seam dilution and environmental regulations associated with combustion emissions have resulted in a need to clean low rank coals and dry cleaning may be the only option. A 5 ton/hr mobile deshaling unit incorporating a density-based, air-table technology commercially known as the FGX Separator has been evaluated at mine sites located within the states of Utah, Wyoming, Texas, West Virginia, Virginia, Pennsylvania and Kentucky. The FGX technology utilizes table riffling principles with air as the medium. Air enters through the table and creates a fluidized bed of particles comprised of mostly fine, high density particles. The high density particle bed lifts the low-density coal particles to the top of the bed. The low-density coal moves toward the front of the table due to mass action and the downward slope of the table. The high-density particles settle through the fluidized particle bed and, upon making contact with the table, moves toward the back of the table with the assistance of table vibration. As a result, the low-density coal particles exit the front of the table closest to the feed whereas the high-density, high-ash content particles leave on the side and front of the table located at the farthest from the feed entry. At each test site, the run-of-mine feed was either directly fed to the FGX unit or pre-screened to remove the majority of the -6mm material. The surface moisture of the feed must be maintained below 9%. Pre-screening is required when the

  12. Impact of improving dietary amino acid balance for lactating sows on efficiency of dietary amino acid utilization and transcript abundance of genes encoding lysine transporters in mammary tissue.

    PubMed

    Huber, L; de Lange, C F M; Ernst, C W; Krogh, U; Trottier, N L

    2016-11-01

    Lactating multiparous Yorkshire sows ( = 64) were used in 2 experiments to test the hypothesis that reducing dietary CP intake and improving AA balance through crystalline AA (CAA) supplementation improves apparent dietary AA utilization efficiency for milk production and increases transcript abundance of genes encoding Lys transporter proteins in mammary tissue. In Exp. 1, 40 sows were assigned to 1 of 4 diets: 1) high CP (HCP; 16.0% CP, as-fed basis; analyzed concentration), 2) medium-high CP (MHCP; 15.7% CP), 3) medium-low CP (MLCP; 14.3% CP), and 4) low CP (LCP; 13.2% CP). The HCP diet was formulated using soybean meal and corn as the only Lys sources. The reduced-CP diets contained CAA to meet estimated requirements for essential AA that became progressively limiting with reduction in CP concentration, that is, Lys, Ile, Met + Cys, Thr, Trp, and Val. Dietary standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys concentration was 80% of the estimated requirement. In Exp. 2, 24 sows were assigned to the HCP or LCP diets. In Exp. 1, blood samples were postprandially collected 15 h on d 3, 7, 14, and 18 of lactation and utilization efficiency of dietary AA for milk production was calculated during early (d 3 to 7) and peak (d 14 to 18) lactation. Efficiency values were estimated from daily SID AA intakes and milk AA yield, with corrections for maternal AA requirement for maintenance and AA contribution from body protein losses. In Exp. 2, mammary tissue was biopsied on d 4 and 14 of lactation to determine the mRNA abundance of genes encoding Lys transporter proteins. In peak lactation, Lys, Thr, Trp, and Val utilization efficiency increased with decreasing dietary CP (linear for Trp and Val, < 0.05; in sows fed the MHCP diet vs. sows fed the HCP diet for Lys and Thr, < 0.05). Total essential and nonessential 15-h postprandial serum AA concentrations increased with decreasing dietary CP (linear, = 0.09 and < 0.05, respectively), suggesting increased maternal body protein

  13. The efficiency of utilization of metabolizable energy and apparent absorption of amino acids in sheep given spring- and autumn-harvested dried grass.

    PubMed

    Macrae, J C; Smith, J S; Dewey, P J; Brewer, A C; Brown, D S; Walker, A

    1985-07-01

    Three experiments were conducted with sheep given spring-harvested dried grass (SHG) and autumn-harvested dried grass (AHG). The first was a calorimetric trial to determine the metabolizable energy (ME) content of each grass and the efficiency with which sheep utilize their extra ME intakes above the maintenance level of intake. The second examined the relative amounts of extra non-ammonia-nitrogen (NAN) and individual amino acids absorbed from the small intestine per unit extra ME intake as the level of feeding was raised from energy equilibrium (M) to approximately 1.5 M. The third was a further calorimetric trial to investigate the effect of an abomasal infusion of 30 g casein/d on the efficiency of utilization of AHG. The ME content of the SHG (11.8 MJ/kg dry matter (DM] was higher than that of AHG (10.0 MJ/kg DM). The efficiency of utilization of ME for productive purposes (i.e. above the M level of intake; kf) was higher when given SHG (kf 0.54 between M and 2 M) than when given AHG (kf 0.43 between M and 2 M). As the level of intake of each grass was raised from M to 1.5 M there was a greater increment in the amounts of NAN (P less than 0.001) and the total amino acid (P less than 0.05) absorbed from the small intestines when sheep were given the SHG (NAN absorption, SHG 5.4 g/d, AHG 1.5 g/d, SED 0.54; total amino acid absorption SHG 31.5 g/d, AHG 14.3 g/d, SED 5.24). Infusion of 30 g casein/d per abomasum of sheep given AHG at M and 1.5 M levels of intake increased (P less than 0.05) the efficiency of utilization of the herbage from kf 0.45 to kf 0.57. Consideration is given to the possibility that the higher efficiency of utilization of ME in sheep given SHG may be related to the amounts of extra glucogenic amino acids absorbed from the small intestine which provide extra reducing equivalents (NADPH) and glycerol phosphate necessary for the conversion of acetate into fatty acids.

  14. Wrinkled silica/titania nanoparticles with tunable interwrinkle distances for efficient utilization of photons in dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jin Soo; Lim, Joohyun; Rho, Won-Yeop; Kim, Jin; Moon, Doo-Sik; Jeong, Juwon; Jung, Dongwook; Choi, Jung-Woo; Lee, Jin-Kyu; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Efficient light harvesting is essential for the realization of high energy conversion efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). State-of-the-art mesoporous TiO2 photoanodes fall short for collection of long-wavelength visible light photons, and thus there have been efforts on introduction of scattering nanoparticles. Herein, we report the synthesis of wrinkled silica/titania nanoparticles with tunable interwrinkle distances as scattering materials for enhanced light harvesting in DSCs. These particles with more than 20 times larger specific surface area (>400 m2/g) compared to the spherical scattering particles (<20 m2/g) of the similar sizes gave rise to the dye-loading amounts, causing significant improvements in photocurrent density and efficiency. Moreover, dependence of spectral scattering properties of wrinkled particles on interwrinkle distances, which was originated from difference in overall refractive indices, was observed. PMID:27488465

  15. High efficient unidirectional surface plasmon excitation utilizing coupling between metal-insulator-metal waveguide and metal-insulator interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhixiang; Xu, Ke; Pan, Deng

    2017-04-01

    A new structure is proposed, which can realize parallel coupling between metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide and plasmon on metal-insulator (MI) interface. An example for wavelength of 680 nm shows the coupling efficiency can be high as 82%, with short coupling length of 1.2 μm. By using MIM waveguide with proper length, a unidirectional plasmon generator is realized. The generator shows excitation efficiency as high as 78%, with high extinction ratio as 1:170. It also shows a good tolerance for the wavelength. The results are of vital importance for optical integration and unidirectional plasmon excitation.

  16. Cationic Oligo(thiophene ethynylene) with Broad-Spectrum and High Antibacterial Efficiency under White Light and Specific Biocidal Activity against S. aureus in Dark.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qi; Li, Junting; Zhang, Xiaoqian; Li, Zhengping; Tang, Yanli

    2016-01-13

    We designed and synthesized a novel oligo(thiophene ethynylene) (OTE) to investigate the antibacterial activities against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis) and Gram-negative (Ralstonia solanacearum and Escherichia coli) bacteria in vitro by photodynamic therapy (PDT). Notably, OTE presents broad-spectrum and greatly high antibacterial activities after white light irradiation at nanogram per milliliter concentrations. The half inhibitory concentrations (IC50) values obtained for S. aureus, S. epidermidis, E. coli, and R. solanacearum are 8, 13, 24, and 52 ng/mL after illumination for 30 min, respectively, which are lower than that of other PDT agents. Interestingly, OTE shows the specific and very strong dark killing capability against S. aureus at the concentration of 180 ng/mL for 30 min, which is the highest efficiency biocide against S. aureus without the need of irradiation to date. The antibacterial mechanism investigated demonstrated that reactive oxygen species or singlet-oxygen generated by OTE kills bacteria irreversibly upon white light irradiation, and OTE as a v-type oligomer exerts its toxicity directly on destroying bacterial cytoplasmic membrane in the dark. Importantly, the OTE shows no cell cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility. The results indicate that it is potential to provide versatile applications in the efficient control of pathogenic organisms and specific application for killing S. aureus.

  17. Spectrum management considerations of adaptive power control in satellite networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawitz, P.; Sullivan, T.

    1983-01-01

    Adaptive power control concepts for the compensation of rain attenuation are considered for uplinks and downlinks. The performance of example power-controlled and fixed-EIRP uplinks is compared in terms of C/Ns and C/Is. Provisional conclusions are drawn with regard to the efficacy of uplink and downlink power control orbit/spectrum utilization efficiency.

  18. Improving the efficiency of feed utilization in poultry by selection. 1. Genetic parameters of anatomy of the gastro-intestinal tract and digestive efficiency

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Feed costs represent about 70% of the costs of raising broilers. The main way to decrease these costs is to improve feed efficiency by modification of diet formulation, but one other possibility would be to use genetic selection. Understanding the genetic architecture of the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) and the impact of the selection criterion on the GIT would be of particular interest. We therefore studied the genetic parameters of AMEn (Apparent metabolisable energy corrected for zero nitrogen balance), feed efficiency, and GIT traits in chickens. Genetic parameters were estimated for 630 broiler chickens of the eighth generation of a divergent selection experiment on AMEn. Birds were reared until 23 d of age and fed a wheat-based diet. The traits measured were body weight (BW), feed conversion ratio (FCR), AMEn, weights of crop, liver, gizzard and proventriculus, and weight, length and density of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Results The heritability estimates of BW, FCR and AMEn were moderate. The heritability estimates were higher for the GIT characteristics except for the weights of the proventriculus and liver. Gizzard weight was negatively correlated with density (weight to length ratio) of duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Proventriculus and gizzard weights were more strongly correlated with AMEn than with FCR, which was not the case for intestine weight and density. Conclusions GIT traits were largely dependent on genetics and that selecting on AMEn or FCR would modify them. Phenotypic observations carried out in the divergent lines selected on AMEn were consistent with estimated genetic correlations between AMEn and GIT traits. PMID:21733156

  19. Implementation of health information technology to maximize efficiency of resource utilization in a geographically dispersed prenatal care delivery system.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Marlo Baker; Snyder, Russell R; Thomas, Elizabeth; Freeman, Daniel H; Hankins, Gary D V

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated the utilization of health information technology (HIT) to enhance resource utilization in a geographically dispersed tertiary care system with extensive outpatient and delivery services. It was initiated as a result of a systems change implemented after Hurricane Ike devastated southeast Texas. A retrospective database and electronic medical record review was performed, which included data collection from all patients evaluated 18 months prior (epoch I) and 18 months following (epoch II) the landfall of Hurricane Ike. The months immediately following the storm were omitted from the analysis, allowing time to establish a new baseline. We analyzed a total of 21,201 patients evaluated in triage at the University of Texas Medical Branch. Epoch I consisted of 11,280 patients and epoch II consisted of 9922 patients. Using HIT, we were able to decrease the number of visits to triage while simultaneously managing more complex patients in the outpatient setting with no clinically significant change in maternal or fetal outcome. This study developed an innovated model of care using constrained resources while providing quality and safety to our patients without additional cost to the health care delivery system.

  20. Hybrid organic-inorganic heterojunction solar cells with 12% efficiency by utilizing flexible film-silicon with a hierarchical surface.

    PubMed

    Thiyagu, Subramani; Hsueh, Chen-Chih; Liu, Chien-Ting; Syu, Hong-Jhang; Lin, Tzu-Ching; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2014-03-21

    This paper reports an organic-inorganic hybrid solar cell with a hierarchical surface composed of high density silicon nanoholes and micro-desert textures. High-efficiency organic-inorganic hybrid solar cell Si/PEDOT-PSS with a hierarchical surface, showing a power conversion efficiency of 12%. The structure provides excellent light absorption over 97% for the spectral range of 300 to 1100 nm with a thickness of 60 μm due to internal multiple reflections caused by subwavelength features of high density silicon nanoholes and micro-desert textures. In addition, from the angle of incidence (AOI) observed, even at the large angle of 75°, the reflectance value still exhibits less than 1%. With the advantage of very thin silicon material and inexpensive processing, hybrid silicon/polymer solar cells are promising for various applications and thus could be an economically feasible alternative energy solution in the future.

  1. Hybrid organic-inorganic heterojunction solar cells with 12% efficiency by utilizing flexible film-silicon with a hierarchical surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiyagu, Subramani; Hsueh, Chen-Chih; Liu, Chien-Ting; Syu, Hong-Jhang; Lin, Tzu-Ching; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2014-02-01

    This paper reports an organic-inorganic hybrid solar cell with a hierarchical surface composed of high density silicon nanoholes and micro-desert textures. High-efficiency organic-inorganic hybrid solar cell Si/PEDOT-PSS with a hierarchical surface, showing a power conversion efficiency of 12%. The structure provides excellent light absorption over 97% for the spectral range of 300 to 1100 nm with a thickness of 60 μm due to internal multiple reflections caused by subwavelength features of high density silicon nanoholes and micro-desert textures. In addition, from the angle of incidence (AOI) observed, even at the large angle of 75°, the reflectance value still exhibits less than 1%. With the advantage of very thin silicon material and inexpensive processing, hybrid silicon/polymer solar cells are promising for various applications and thus could be an economically feasible alternative energy solution in the future.This paper reports an organic-inorganic hybrid solar cell with a hierarchical surface composed of high density silicon nanoholes and micro-desert textures. High-efficiency organic-inorganic hybrid solar cell Si/PEDOT-PSS with a hierarchical surface, showing a power conversion efficiency of 12%. The structure provides excellent light absorption over 97% for the spectral range of 300 to 1100 nm with a thickness of 60 μm due to internal multiple reflections caused by subwavelength features of high density silicon nanoholes and micro-desert textures. In addition, from the angle of incidence (AOI) observed, even at the large angle of 75°, the reflectance value still exhibits less than 1%. With the advantage of very thin silicon material and inexpensive processing, hybrid silicon/polymer solar cells are promising for various applications and thus could be an economically feasible alternative energy solution in the future. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr06323b

  2. Efficient utilization of greenhouse gas in a gas-to-liquids process combined with carbon dioxide reforming of methane.

    PubMed

    Ha, Kyoung-Su; Bae, Jong Wook; Woo, Kwang-Jae; Jun, Ki-Won

    2010-02-15

    A process model for a gas-to-liquids (GTL) process mainly producing Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic oils has been developed to assess the effects of reforming methods, recycle ratio of unreacted syngas mixture on the process efficiency and the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. The reforming unit of our study is composed of both steam reforming of methane (SRM) and carbon dioxide reforming of methane (CDR) to form syngas, which gives composition flexibility, reduction in GHG emission, and higher cost-competitiveness. With recycling, it is found that zero emission of CO(2) from the process can be realized and the required amount of natural gas (NG) can be significantly reduced. This GTL process model has been built by using Aspen Plus software, and it is mainly composed of a feeding unit, a reforming unit, an FT synthesis unit, several separation units and a recycling unit. The composition flexibility of the syngas mixture due to the two different types of reforming reactions raises an issue that in order to attain the optimized feed composition of FT synthesis the amount of flow rate of each component in the fresh feed mixture should be determined considering the effects of the recycle and its split ratio. In the FT synthesis unit, the 15 representative reactions for the chain growth and water gas shift on the cobalt-based catalyst are considered. After FT synthesis, the unreacted syngas mixture is recycled to the reforming unit or the FT synthesis unit or both to enhance process efficiency. The effect of the split ratio, the recycle flow rate to the FT reactor over the recycle flow rate to the reforming unit, on the efficiency of the process was also investigated. This work shows that greater recycle to the reforming unit is less effective than that to the FT synthesis unit from the standpoint of the net heat efficiency of the process, since the reforming reactions are greatly endothermic and greater recycle to the reformer requires more energy.

  3. Efficient utilization of greenhouse gases in a gas-to-liquids process combined with CO2/steam-mixed reforming and Fe-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chundong; Jun, Ki-Won; Ha, Kyoung-Su; Lee, Yun-Jo; Kang, Seok Chang

    2014-07-15

    Two process models for carbon dioxide utilized gas-to-liquids (GTL) process (CUGP) mainly producing light olefins and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthetic oils were developed by Aspen Plus software. Both models are mainly composed of a reforming unit, an F-T synthesis unit and a recycle unit, while the main difference is the feeding point of fresh CO2. In the reforming unit, CO2 reforming and steam reforming of methane are combined together to produce syngas in flexible composition. Meanwhile, CO2 hydrogenation is conducted via reverse water gas shift on the Fe-based catalysts in the F-T synthesis unit to produce hydrocarbons. After F-T synthesis, the unreacted syngas is recycled to F-T synthesis and reforming units to enhance process efficiency. From the simulation results, it was found that the carbon efficiencies of both CUGP options were successfully improved, and total CO2 emissions were significantly reduced, compared with the conventional GTL processes. The process efficiency was sensitive to recycle ratio and more recycle seemed to be beneficial for improving process efficiency and reducing CO2 emission. However, the process efficiency was rather insensitive to split ratio (recycle to reforming unit/total recycle), and the optimum split ratio was determined to be zero.

  4. Evaluation of higher distribution and/or utilization voltages. Third interim report (October 1979): analysis of individual component cost and/or energy efficiencies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    This interim report provides documentation on the third task, Analysis of Individual Component Cost and/or Energy Efficiencies, of DOE Contract No. ET-78-C-01-2866, Evaluation of Higher Distribution and/or Utilization Voltages. The work performed under this task includes the development of both cost and energy loss models for the distribution and customer utilization system elements as well as the analysis of critical performance variables for the types of motors in end use elements, as a function of voltage level. The purpose of this task is to provide individual component cost and energy models which will be incorporated in the global system optimization program under Task 4. A major output of this task is a mathematical model for each component's cost and/or energy losses and a graphical representation of each model.

  5. Evaluation of Characteristics of High Efficiency Power Generation Systems Utilizing Fermentation Gas of Simply Sorted Municipal Refuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, Pyong Sik

    This paper evaluates characteristics of two kinds of power generation systems utilizing fermentation gas of municipal refuse which is generated with use of a fermentation equipment of sorted refuse from ordinary collected garbage. In evaluation, a garbage incineration plant treating refuse of 100 t/d was adopted. The two systems investigated are the following systems: (a) gas engine power generation system (Sys-GE) and (b) steam turbine power generation system with super heater of steam (Sys-SH). The characteristics of two systems have been estimated together with the conventional steam turbine power generation system (Sys-C). It has been estimated that Sys-GE and Sys-SH has 2.11 and 2.55 times greater energy saving and CO2 reduction effect compared with Sys-C, respectively.

  6. (n-3) Long chain PUFA dose-dependently increase oxygen utilization efficiency and inhibit arrhythmias after saturated fat feeding in rats.

    PubMed

    Pepe, Salvatore; McLennan, Peter L

    2007-11-01

    Fish oil (FO) modifies cardiac membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition to confer increased efficiency of oxygen utilization and antiarrhythmic effects. We tested the capacity of low-dose increments of FO, rich in (n-3) PUFA, to reverse the detrimental pro-arrhythmic and inefficient oxygen usage effects of dietary saturated fat (SAT) [including high ratio of (n-6) PUFA:(n-3) PUFA] during ischemia and reperfusion. Wistar rats were fed an SAT-enriched diet (15.3% fat, including 12% SAT, added by weight) for 6 wk and were then divided into 4 groups (n = 10/group) fed that diet or a 12% fat diet containing 3, 6, or 12% FO in place of SAT for 6 wk. Paced (300/min), erythrocyte-perfused isolated working hearts were subjected to low coronary flow ischemia (15 min) and were then reperfused. At normoxic baseline, external work capacity increased marginally at 6 and 12% FO; however, marked dose-related reductions in oxygen consumption were evident due to FO-dependent reduction in oxygen-energy utilization efficiency and associated reductions in coronary flow and oxygen extraction. Postischemic recovery resulted in lower oxygen consumption, greater oxygen-energy utilization efficiency, reduced coronary release of creatine kinase, and reduced incidence of arrhythmias in all FO groups compared with the SAT group. FO at a dose as low as 3% of total fat dietary supplement effectively reversed the high oxygen requirements and pro-arrhythmic effects of a SAT-rich diet even with continued consumption of SAT (9%) in this ex vivo animal model.

  7. High efficiency, quasi-instantaneous steam expansion device utilizing fossil or nuclear fuel as the heat source

    SciTech Connect

    Claudio Filippone, Ph.D.

    1999-06-01

    Thermal-hydraulic analysis of a specially designed steam expansion device (heat cavity) was performed to prove the feasibility of steam expansions at elevated rates for power generation with higher efficiency. The steam expansion process inside the heat cavity greatly depends on the gap within which the steam expands and accelerates. This system can be seen as a miniaturized boiler integrated inside the expander where steam (or the proper fluid) is generated almost instantaneously prior to its expansion in the work-producing unit. Relatively cold water is pulsed inside the heat cavity, where the heat transferred causes the water to flash to steam, thereby increasing its specific volume by a large factor. The gap inside the heat cavity forms a special nozzle-shaped system in which the fluid expands rapidly, accelerating toward the system outlet. The expansion phenomenon is the cause of ever-increasing fluid speed inside the cavity system, eliminating the need for moving parts (pumps, valves, etc.). In fact, the subsequent velocity induced by the sudden fluid expansion causes turbulent conditions, forcing accelerating Reynolds and Nusselt numbers which, in turn, increase the convective heat transfer coefficient. When the combustion of fossil fuels constitutes the heat source, the heat cavity concept can be applied directly inside the stator of conventional turbines, thereby greatly increasing the overall system efficiency.

  8. HIGH EFFICIENCY, QUASI-INSTANTANEOUS STEAM EXPANSION DEVICE UTILIZING FOSSIL OR NUCLEAR FUEL AS THE HEAT SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Claudio Filippone, Ph.D.

    1999-06-01

    Thermal-hydraulic analysis of a specially designed steam expansion device (heat cavity) was performed to prove the feasibility of steam expansions at elevated rates for power generation with higher efficiency. The steam expansion process inside the heat cavity greatly depends on the gap within which the steam expands and accelerates. This system can be seen as a miniaturized boiler integrated inside the expander where steam (or the proper fluid) is generated almost instantaneously prior to its expansion in the work-producing unit. Relatively cold water is pulsed inside the heat cavity, where the heat transferred causes the water to flash to steam, thereby increasing its specific volume by a large factor. The gap inside the heat cavity forms a special nozzle-shaped system in which the fluid expands rapidly, accelerating toward the system outlet. The expansion phenomenon is the cause of ever-increasing fluid speed inside the cavity system, eliminating the need for moving parts (pumps, valves, etc.). In fact, the subsequent velocity induced by the sudden fluid expansion causes turbulent conditions, forcing accelerating Reynolds and Nusselt numbers which, in turn, increase the convective heat transfer coefficient. When the combustion of fossil fuels constitutes the heat source, the heat cavity concept can be applied directly inside the stator of conventional turbines, thereby greatly increasing the overall system efficiency.

  9. The enhancement of 21.2%-power conversion efficiency in polymer photovoltaic cells by using mixed Au nanoparticles with a wide absorption spectrum of 400 nm-1000 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Jing-Yu; Xu, Ying; Zhang, Yu-Pei; Chen, Shu-Fen; Li, Xing-Ao; Wang, Lian-Hui; Huang, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Au nanoparticles (NPs) mixed with a majority of bone-like, rod, and cube shapes and a minority of irregular spheres, which can generate a wide absorption spectrum of 400 nm-1000 nm and three localized surface plasmon resonance peaks, respectively, at 525, 575, and 775 nm, are introduced into the hole extraction layer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) to improve optical-to-electrical conversion performances in polymer photovoltaic cells. With the doping concentration of Au NPs optimized, the cell performance is significantly improved: the short-circuit current density and power conversion efficiency of the poly(3-hexylthiophene): [6,6]-phenyl-C60-butyric acid methyl ester cell are increased by 20.54% and 21.2%, reaching 11.15 mA·cm-2 and 4.23%. The variations of optical, electrical, and morphology with the incorporation of Au NPs in the cells are analyzed in detail, and our results demonstrate that the cell performance improvement can be attributed to a synergistic reaction, including: 1) both the localized surface plasmon resonance- and scattering-induced absorption enhancement of the active layer, 2) Au doping-induced hole transport/extraction ability enhancement, and 3) large interface roughness-induced efficient exciton dissociation and hole collection. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2015CB932202 and 2012CB933301), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61274065, 51173081, 61136003, BZ2010043, 51372119, and 51172110), the Science Fund from the Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. IRT1148), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20113223110005), the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Provincial Higher Education Institutions (Grant No. YX03001), and the National Synergistic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials and the Synergetic Innovation Center for Organic Electronics and

  10. Feeding protein supplements in alfalfa hay-based lactation diets improves nutrient utilization, lactational performance, and feed efficiency of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Neal, K; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Mjoun, K; Hall, J O

    2014-12-01

    Due to the increasing cost of soybean meal and concerns of excess N being excreted into the environment, new protein supplements have been developed. Two products that have shown potential in increasing N utilization efficiency are slow-release urea (SRU; Optigen; Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) and ruminal-escape protein derived from yeast (YMP; DEMP; Alltech Inc.). The objective of this study was to assess the effects of feeding these 2 supplements in alfalfa hay-based [45.7% of forage dietary dry matter (DM)] dairy diets on nutrient utilization, feed efficiency, and lactational performance of dairy cows. Twelve multiparous dairy cows were used in a triple 4 × 4 Latin square design with one square consisting of ruminally cannulated cows. Treatments included (1) control, (2) SRU-supplemented total mixed ration (SRUT), (3) YMP-supplemented total mixed ration (YMPT), and (4) SRU- and YMP-supplemented total mixed ration (SYT). The control consisted only of a mixture of soybean meal and canola meal in a 50:50 ratio. The SRU and the YMP were supplemented at 0.49 and 1.15% DM, respectively. The experiment consisted of 4 periods lasting 28 d each (21 d of adaptation and 7 d of sampling). Cows fed YMPT and SYT had decreased intake of DM, and all supplemented treatments had lower crude protein intake compared with those fed the control. Milk yield tended to have the greatest increase in YMPT compared with the control (41.1 vs. 39.7 kg/d) as well as a tendency for increased milk fat and protein yields. Feed efficiencies based on yields of milk, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, and energy-corrected milk increased at 10 to 16% due to protein supplementation. Cows fed protein supplements partitioned less energy toward body weight gain, but tended to partition more energy toward milk production. Efficiency of use of feed N to milk N increased by feeding SRUT and YMPT, and milk N-to-manure N ratio increased with YMPT. Overall results from this experiment indicate that replacing the

  11. Aerobic and heterotrophic nitrogen removal by Enterobacter cloacae CF-S27 with efficient utilization of hydroxylamine.

    PubMed

    Padhi, Soumesh Kumar; Tripathy, Swetaleena; Mohanty, Sriprakash; Maiti, Nikhil Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Heterotrophic bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae CF-S27 exhibited simultaneous nitrification and aerobic denitrification in presence of high concentration of hydroxylamine. With the initial nitrogen concentration of 100mgL(-1)h(-1), ammonium, nitrate and nitrite removal efficiencies were 81%, 99.9% and 92.8%, while the corresponding maximum removal rates reached as high as 11.6, 15.1 and 11.2mgL(-1)h(-1) respectively. Quantitative amplification by real time PCR and enzyme assay demonstrated that hydroxylamine reductase gene (hao) is actively involved in hetrotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification process of Enterobacter cloacae CF-S27. PCR primers were designed targeting amplification of hao gene from diversified environmental soil DNA. The strain Enterobacter cloacae CF-S27 significantly maintained the undetectable amount of dissolved nitrogen throughout 60days of zero water exchange fish culture experiment in domestic wastewater.

  12. New, efficient and viable system for ethanol fuel utilization on combined electric/internal combustion engine vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, André G.; Silva, Gabriel C. D.; Paganin, Valdecir A.; Biancolli, Ana L. G.; Ticianelli, Edson A.

    2015-10-01

    Although ethanol can be directly employed as fuel on polymer-electrolyte fuel cells (PEMFC), its low oxidation kinetics in the anode and the crossover to the cathode lead to a substantial reduction of energy conversion efficiency. However, when fuel cell driven vehicles are considered, the system may include an on board steam reformer for converting ethanol into hydrogen, but the hydrogen produced contains carbon monoxide, which limits applications in PEMFCs. Here, we present a system consisting of an ethanol dehydrogenation catalytic reactor for producing hydrogen, which is supplied to a PEMFC to generate electricity for electric motors. A liquid by-product effluent from the reactor can be used as fuel for an integrated internal combustion engine, or catalytically recycled to extract more hydrogen molecules. Power densities comparable to those of a PEMFC operating with pure hydrogen are attained by using the hydrogen rich stream produced by the ethanol dehydrogenation reactor.

  13. Efficient Photocurrent Enhancement from Porphyrin Molecules on Plasmonic Copper Arrays: Beneficial Utilization of Copper Nanoanntenae on Plasmonic Photoelectric Conversion Systems.

    PubMed

    Sugawa, Kosuke; Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Tsunenari, Natsumi; Uchida, Koji; Tahara, Hironobu; Takeda, Hideyuki; Tokuda, Kyo; Jin, Shota; Kusaka, Yasuyuki; Fukuda, Nobuko; Ushijima, Hirobumi; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Watanuki, Yasuhiro; Nishimiya, Nobuyuki; Otsuki, Joe; Yamada, Sunao

    2017-01-11

    We demonstrated the usefulness of Cu light-harvesting plasmonic nanoantennae for the development of inexpensive and efficient artificial organic photoelectric conversion systems. The systems consisted of the stacked structures of layers of porphyrin as a dye molecule, oxidation-suppressing layers, and plasmonic Cu arrayed electrodes. To accurately evaluate the effect of Cu nanoantenna on the porphyrin photocurrent, the production of Cu2O by the spontaneous oxidation of the electrode surfaces, which can act as a photoexcited species under visible light irradiation, was effectively suppressed by inserting the ultrathin linking layers consisting of 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid, titanium oxide, and poly(vinyl alcohol) between the electrode surface and porphyrin molecules. The reflection spectra in an aqueous environment of the arrayed electrodes, which were prepared by thermally depositing Cu on two-dimensional colloidal crystals of silica with diameters of 160, 260, and 330 nm, showed clear reflection dips at 596, 703, and 762 nm, respectively, which are attributed to the excitation of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). While the first dip lies within the wavelengths where the imaginary part of the Cu dielectric function is moderately large, the latter two dips lie within a region of a quite small imaginary part. Consequently, the LSPR excited at the red region provided a particularly large enhancement of porphyrin photocurrent at the Q-band (ca. 59-fold), compared to that on a Cu planar electrode. These results strongly suggest that the plasmonic Cu nanoantennae contribute to the substantial improvement of photoelectric conversion efficiency at the wavelengths, where the imaginary part of the dielectric function is small.

  14. Utility of adsorbents in the purification of drinking water: a review of characterization, efficiency and safety evaluation of various adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Shashi Prabha; Gopal, Krishna; Bersillon, J L

    2009-05-01

    Clean drinking water is one of the implicit requisites fora healthy human population. However the growing industrialization and extensive use of chemicals for various concerns, has increased the burden of unwanted pollutants in the drinking water of developing countries like India. The entry of potentially hazardous substances into the biota has been magnifying day by day. In the absence of a possible stoppage of these, otherwise, useful chemicals, the only way to maintain safer water bodies is to develop efficient purifying technologies. One such immensely beneficial procedure that has been in use is that of purification of water using 'adsorbents'. Indigenous minerals and natural plants products have potential for removing many pollutants viz. fluoride, arsenic, nitrate, heavy metals, pesticides as well as trihalomethanes. Adsorbents which are derived from carbon, alumina, zeolite, clay minerals, iron ores, industrial by products, and natural products viz. parts of the plants, herbs and algal biomass offer promising potential of removal. In the recent years attention has been paid to develop process involving screening/pretreatment/activation/impregnation using alkalies, acids, alum, lime, manganese dioxide, ferric chloride and other chemicals which are found to enhance their adsorbing efficiency. Chemical characterization of these adsorbents recapitulates the mechanism of the process. It is imperative to observe that capacities of the adsorbents may vary depending on the characteristics, chemical modifications and concentration of the individual adsorbent. Removal kinetics is found to be based on the experimental conditions viz. pH, concentration of the adsorbate, quantity of the adsorbent and temperature. It is suggested that isotherm model is suitable tool to assess the adsorption capacities in batch and column modes. Safety evaluation and risk assessment of the process/products may be useful to provide guidelines for its sustainable disposal.

  15. Module greenhouse with high efficiency of transformation of solar energy, utilizing active and passive glass optical rasters

    SciTech Connect

    Korecko, J.; Jirka, V.; Sourek, B.; Cerveny, J.

    2010-10-15

    Since the eighties of the 20th century, various types of linear glass rasters for architectural usage have been developed in the Czech Republic made by the continuous melting technology. The development was focused on two main groups of rasters - active rasters with linear Fresnel lenses in fixed installation and with movable photo-thermal and/or photo-thermal/photo-voltaic absorbers. The second group are passive rasters based on total reflection of rays on an optical prism. During the last years we have been working on their standardization, exact measuring of their optical and thermal-technical characteristics and on creation of a final product that could be applied in solar architecture. With the project supported by the Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic we were able to build an experimental greenhouse using these active and passive optical glass rasters. The project followed the growing number of technical objectives. The concept of the greenhouse consisted of interdependence construction - structural design of the greenhouse with its technological equipment securing the required temperature and humidity conditions in the interior of the greenhouse. This article aims to show the merits of the proposed scheme and presents the results of the mathematical model in the TRNSYS environment through which we could predict the future energy balance carried out similar works, thus optimizing the investment and operating costs. In this article description of various technology applications for passive and active utilization of solar radiation is presented, as well as some results of short-term and long-term experiments, including evaluation of 1-year operation of the greenhouse from the energy and interior temperature viewpoints. A comparison of the calculated energy flows in the greenhouse to real measured values, for verification of the installed model is also involved. (author)

  16. Highly Avid Magnetic Bead Capture: An Efficient Selection Method for de novo Protein Engineering Utilizing Yeast Surface Display

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Margaret; Levary, David; Tobon, Gabriel; Hackel, Benjamin; Davis Orcutt, Kelly; Wittrup, K. Dane

    2010-01-01

    Protein engineering relies on the selective capture of members of a protein library with desired properties. Yeast surface display technology routinely enables as much as million-fold improvements in binding affinity by alternating rounds of diversification and flow cytometry-based selection. However, flow cytometry is not well suited for isolating de novo binding clones from naïve libraries due to limitations in the size of the population that can be analyzed, the minimum binding affinity of clones that can be reliably captured, the amount of target antigen required, and the likelihood of capturing artifactual binders to the reagents. Here, we demonstrate a method for capturing rare clones that maintains the advantages of yeast as the expression host, while avoiding the disadvantages of FACS in isolating de novo binders from naïve libraries. The multivalency of yeast surface display is intentionally coupled with multivalent target presentation on magnetic beads—allowing isolation of extremely weak binders from billions of non-binding clones, and requiring far less target antigen for each selection, while minimizing the likelihood of isolating undesirable alternative solutions to the selective pressure. Multivalent surface selection allows 30,000-fold enrichment and almost quantitative capture of micromolar binders in a single pass using less than one microgram of target antigen. We further validate the robust nature of this selection method by isolation of de novo binders against lysozyme as well as its utility in negative selections by isolating binders to streptavidin-biotin that do not cross-react to streptavidin alone. PMID:19363813

  17. Utilization of the graded universal testing system to increase the efficiency for assessing aerobic and anaerobic capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, Sandra L.

    1992-01-01

    The in-flight exercise test performed by cosmonauts as part of the Russian Exercise Countermeasure Program is limited to 5 minutes due to communication restrictions. During a recent graded exercise test on a U.S. Shuttle flight, the test was terminated early due to an upcoming loss of signal (LOS) with the ground. This exercise test was a traditional test where the subject's exercise capacity dictates the length of the test. For example, one crew member may take 15 minutes to complete the test, while another may take 18 minutes. The traditional exercise test limits the flight schedulers to large blocks of space flight time in order to provide medical and research personnel information on the fitness capacity (maximal oxygen uptake: VO2max) of crew members during flight. A graded exercise test that would take a finite amount of time and a set preparation and recovery time would ease this problem by allowing flight schedulers to plan exercise tests in advance of LOS. The Graded Universal Testing System (GUTS) was designed to meet this goal. Fitness testing of astronauts before and after flight provides pertinent data on many variables. The Detailed Supplemental Objective (DSO608) protocol (6) is one of the graded exercise tests (GXT) currently used in astronaut testing before and after flight. Test times for this protocol have lasted from 11 to 18 minutes. Anaerobic capacity is an important variable that is currently not being evaluated before and after flight. Recent reports (1,2,5) from the literature have suggested that the oxygen deficit at supramaximal exercise is a measure of anaerobic capacity. We postulated that the oxygen deficit at maximal exercise would be an indication of anaerobic capacity. If this postulate can be accepted, then the efficiency of acquiring data from a graded exercise test would increase at least twofold. To examine this hypothesis anaerobic capacity was measured using a modified treadmill test (3,4) designed to exhaust the anaerobic

  18. Efficient utilization of hemicellulose and cellulose in alkali liquor-pretreated corncob for bioethanol production at high solid loading by Spathaspora passalidarum U1-58.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hai; Guo, Jian; Chen, Yefu; Fu, Gengxin; Li, Baozhong; Guo, Xuewu; Xiao, Dongguang

    2017-02-11

    The bioethanol fermentation of pretreated corncob was investigated using Spathaspora passalidarum U1-58, which simultaneously utilizes glucose and xylose for high-efficiency ethanol production. Two approaches, namely, separate hydrolysis and co-fermentation (SHCF) and simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF), were optimized to test the ethanol fermentation potential of U1-58. The highest ethanol titer of 42.46g/L and yield of 72.12% were acquired in SHCF, whereas 53.24g/L ethanol and yield of 75.35% were obtained in SSCF at solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:5 (w/v). Approximately 86.20% of cellulose and 82.99% of hemicellulose were consumed in SSCF after 96h, and at least 10.49g/L ethanol was produced from hemicellulose, which corresponded to 37.59% of the theoretical yield. Compared with the published cellulosic ethanol fermentation cases, the present work presented high ethanol titer and yield, and cellulose and hemicellulose could be efficiently utilized for ethanol production.

  19. Improvement of efficiency and stability utilizing a wide band gap material as the host for red organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Hao; Li, Ying; Wang, Xiuru; Wang, Wengen; Sun, Runguang

    2007-03-01

    We present red organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with high efficiency and stability based on a wide band gap host material 9,10-di (2-naphthyl) anthracene (ADN). In these diodes, N,N'-bis(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-1, 1'-biphenyl-4,4'diamine(NPB) and tris-(8- ydroxy-quinoline) aluminium (Alq) are used as hole and electron transport layers, respectively. 2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1,1,7,7,-tetramethyl- 1H,5H,11H-10-(2-benzothiazolyl) quinolizino-[9,9a,1gh] coumarin (C545T) and 4-(dicyano-methylene)-2- t-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyl-julolidyl-9-enyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB) are co-doped into the ADN emitting layer. Utilizing the two-step energy transfer from ADN to C545T and then from C545T to DCJTB, we achieved pure red organic light-emitting devices, which showed improved optical and electrical characteristics. Compared with devices where the emitting layer is made of Alq and DCJTB, the emission efficiency and stability of the ADN-based devices are greatly improved and the turn-on voltage is also decreased. The co-doping technique provides a promising way of utilizing wide band gap materials as the host to make red OLEDs, which will be useful in improving the electroluminesent performance of devices and simplifying the process of fabricating full colour OLEDs.

  20. Silver free III-nitride flip chip light-emitting-diode with wall plug efficiency over 70% utilizing a GaN tunnel junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonkee, B. P.; Young, E. C.; DenBaars, S. P.; Nakamura, S.; Speck, J. S.

    2016-11-01

    A molecular beam epitaxy regrowth technique was demonstrated on standard industrial patterned sapphire substrate light-emitting diode (LED) epitaxial wafers emitting at 455 nm to form a GaN tunnel junction. By using an HF pretreatment on the wafers before regrowth, a voltage of 3.08 V at 20 A/cm2 was achieved on small area devices. A high extraction package was developed for comparison with flip chip devices which utilize an LED floating in silicone over a BaSO4 coated header and produced a peak external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 78%. A high reflectivity mirror was designed using a seven-layer dielectric coating backed by aluminum which has a calculated angular averaged reflectivity over 98% between 400 and 500 nm. This was utilized to fabricate a flip chip LED which had a peak EQE and wall plug efficiency of 76% and 73%, respectively. This flip chip could increase light extraction over a traditional flip chip LED due to the increased reflectivity of the dielectric based mirror.

  1. [Efficient use and problems associated with "home remote medical support system"--utilization of videophones for homecare patients].

    PubMed

    Sugihara, Sachiko; Sekene, Mika; Kanatsu, Hiroko; Kitamikado, Hatsue; Kikukawa, Fumie; Hasegawa, Kazuko; Mori, Hiromichi; Isobe, Katsumi

    2005-12-01

    "Home Remote Medical Support System" (the support system) is an interactive real time communication system, consisting of a vital health measuring device and a near-television quality home digital videophone installed at a residence, to connect a primary medical care institution and a homecare patient by information communication lines. Exclusive use of a telephone, vital health measuring device, TV monitor and camera are installed as home devices to communicate with a primary personal computer at the medical institution to manage patient's data and to have video phone health consultations. We employed and conducted the support system with a help from "the remote medical assistant task" operated by the local government since April 2004. Two patients actually used the support system in the first year although we initially planned to have three. In conclusion, the support system appears to have been useful for the health management of patients with stable conditions. Meanwhile, we have to reassess the application of the support system and to balance its accountability among the user efficiency, the content of the support provider and user expenses.

  2. Efficient utilization of Eucheuma denticulatum hydrolysates using an activated carbon adsorption process for ethanol production in a 5-L fermentor.

    PubMed

    Ra, Chae Hun; Kim, Min Ji; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Kim, Sung-Koo

    2017-03-01

    A total monosaccharide concentration of 37.8 g/L and 85.9% conversion from total fermentable monosaccharides of 44.0 g/L from 110 g dw/L Eucheuma denticulatum slurry were obtained by thermal acid hydrolysis and enzymatic saccharification. Subsequent adsorption treatment to remove 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) using 5% activated carbon and an adsorption time of 10 min were used to prevent a prolonged lag phase, reduced cell growth, and low ethanol production. The equilibrium adsorption capacity (q e) of HMF (58.183 mg/g) showed high affinity to activated carbon comparing to those of galactose (2.466 mg/g) and glucose (2.474 mg/g). The efficiency of cell growth and ethanol production with activated carbon treatment was higher than that without activated carbon treatment. Fermentation using S. stipitis KCTC7228 produced a cell concentration of 3.58 g dw/L with Y X/S of 0.107, and an ethanol concentration of 15.8 g/L with Y P/S of 0.48 in 96 h.

  3. Enhancing the efficiency of flexible dye-sensitized solar cells utilizing natural dye extracted from Azadirachta indica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahare, Sanjay; Veldurthi, Naresh; Singh, Ranbir; Swarnkar, A. K.; Salunkhe, Manauti; Bhave, Tejashree

    2015-10-01

    The natural dye extracted from Azadirechta indica (neem) was used as a sensitizer in flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The fabricated DSSC exhibited open circuit voltage of 0.538 V with 2.81% power conversion efficiency (η) in back-illuminated mode which is higher than that reported in the literature. In order to understand the characteristics of DSSC, systematic study of solar cell component materials was carried out. Anatase TiO2 (30-40 nm) nanoparticles were synthesized by DC arc plasma method and deposited electrophoretically on a flexible titanium (Ti) substrate. A platinum-coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate was used as a counter electrode to construct flexible DSSC. The structural and optical behavior of neem-dye sensitized TiO2 thin film has been studied using x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and UV-visible spectroscopy. We have observed that the neem dye gives a very good sensitization effect. In addition, the dye has good prospects as a low-cost and environmental friendly alternative to ruthenium-based sensitizers which are normally used in DSSCs.

  4. Engineered Osmosis for Energy Efficient Separations: Optimizing Waste Heat Utilization FINAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT DOE F 241.3

    SciTech Connect

    NATHAN HANCOCK

    2013-01-13

    The purpose of this study is to design (i) a stripper system where heat is used to strip ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from a diluted draw solution; and (ii) a condensation or absorption system where the stripped NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} are captured in condensed water to form a re-concentrated draw solution. This study supports the Industrial Technologies Program of the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and their Industrial Energy Efficiency Grand Challenge award solicitation. Results from this study show that stimulated Oasys draw solutions composed of a complex electrolyte solution associated with the dissolution of NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} gas in water can successfully be stripped and fully condensed under standard atmospheric pressure. Stripper bottoms NH{sub 3} concentration can reliably be reduced to < 1 mg/L, even when starting with liquids that have an NH{sub 3} mass fraction exceeding 6% to stimulate diluted draw solution from the forward osmosis membrane component of the process. Concentrated draw solution produced by fully condensing the stripper tops was show to exceed 6 M-C with nitrogen-to-carbon (N:C) molar ratios on the order of two. Reducing the operating pressure of the stripper column serves to reduce the partial vapor pressure of both NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} in solution and enables lower temperature operation towards integration of industrial low-grade of waste heat. Effective stripping of solutes was observed with operating pressures as low as 100 mbar (3-inHg). Systems operating at reduced pressure and temperature require additional design considerations to fully condense and absorb these constituents for reuse within the Oasys EO system context. Comparing empirical data with process stimulation models confirmed that several key parameters related to vapor-liquid equilibrium and intrinsic material properties were not accurate. Additional experiments and refinement of material property databases within the

  5. A novel fermentation strategy for removing the key inhibitor acetic acid and efficiently utilizing the mixed sugars from lignocellulosic hydrolysates

    SciTech Connect

    Mark A. Eiteman PHD; Elliot Altman Phd

    2009-02-11

    As part of preliminary research efforts, we have completed several experiments which demonstrate 'proof of concept.' These experiments addressed the following three questions: (1) Can a synthetic mixed sugar solution of glucose and xylose be efficiently consumed using the multi-organism approach? (2) Can this approach be used to accumulate a model product? (3) Can this approach be applied to the removal of an inhibitor, acetate, selectively from mixtures of xylose and glucose? To answer the question of whether this multi-organism approach can effectively consume synthetic mixed sugar solutions, we first tested substrate-selective uptake using two strains, one unable to consume glucose and one unable to consume xylose. The xylose-selective strain ALS998 has mutations in the three genes involved in glucose uptake, rendering it unable to consume glucose: ptsG codes for the Enzyme IICB{sup Glc} of the phosphotransferase system (PTS) for carbohydrate transport (Postma et al., 1993), manZ codes for the IID{sup Man} domain of the mannose PTS permease (Huber, 1996), glk codes for glucokinase (Curtis and Epstein 1975) We also constructed strain ALS1008 which has a knockout in the xylA gene encoding for xylose isomerase, rendering ALS1008 unable to consume xylose. Two batch experiments and one continuous bioprocess were completed. In the first experiment, each strain was grown separately in a defined medium of 8 g/L xylose and 15 g/L glucose which represented xylose and glucose concentrations that can be generated by actual biomass. In the second experiment, the two strains were grown together in batch in the same defined, mixed-sugar medium. In a third experiment, we grew the strains continuously in a 'chemostat', except that we shifted the concentrations of glucose and xylose periodically to observe how the system would respond. (For example, we shifted the glucose concentration suddenly from 15 g/L to 30 g/L in the feed).

  6. Development of a floating photobioreactor with internal partitions for efficient utilization of ocean wave into improved mass transfer and algal culture mixing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Z-Hun; Park, Hanwool; Hong, Seong-Joo; Lim, Sang-Min; Lee, Choul-Gyun

    2016-05-01

    Culturing microalgae in the ocean has potentials that may reduce the production cost and provide an option for an economic biofuel production from microalgae. The ocean holds great potentials for mass microalgal cultivation with its high specific heat, mixing energy from waves, and large cultivable area. Suitable photobioreactors (PBRs) that are capable of integrating marine energy into the culture systems need to be developed for the successful ocean cultivation. In this study, prototype floating PBRs were designed and constructed using transparent low-density polyethylene film for microalgal culture in the ocean. To improve the mixing efficiency, various types of internal partitions were introduced within PBRs. Three different types of internal partitions were evaluated for their effects on the mixing efficiency in terms of mass transfer (k(L)a) and mixing time in the PBRs. The partition type with the best mixing efficiency was selected, and the number of partitions was varied from one to three for investigation of its effect on mixing efficiency. When the number of partitions is increased, mass transfer increased in proportion to the number of partitions. However, mixing time was not directly related to the number of partitions. When a green microalga, Tetraselmis sp. was cultivated using PBRs with the selected partition under semi-continuous mode in the ocean, biomass and fatty acid productivities in the PBRs were increased by up to 50 % and 44% at high initial cell density, respectively, compared to non-partitioned ones. The results of internally partitioned PBRs demonstrated potentials for culturing microalgae by efficiently utilizing ocean wave energy into culture mixing in the ocean.

  7. Efficient biological conversion of carbon monoxide (CO) to carbon dioxide (CO2) and for utilization in bioplastic production by Ralstonia eutropha through the display of an enzyme complex on the cell surface.

    PubMed

    Hyeon, Jeong Eun; Kim, Seung Wook; Park, Chulhwan; Han, Sung Ok

    2015-06-25

    An enzyme complex for biological conversion of CO to CO2 was anchored on the cell surface of the CO2-utilizing Ralstonia eutropha and successfully resulted in a 3.3-fold increase in conversion efficiency. These results suggest that this complexed system may be a promising strategy for CO2 utilization as a biological tool for the production of bioplastics.

  8. Achieving spectrum conservation for the minimum-span and minimum-order frequency assignment problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyward, Ann O.

    1992-01-01

    Effective and efficient solutions of frequency assignment problems assumes increasing importance as the radiofrequency spectrum experiences ever increasing utilization by diverse communications services, requiring that the most efficient use of this resource be achieved. The research presented explores a general approach to the frequency assignment problem, in which such problems are categorized by the appropriate spectrum conserving objective function, and are each treated as an N-job, M-machine scheduling problem appropriate for the objective. Results obtained and presented illustrate that such an approach presents an effective means of achieving spectrum conserving frequency assignments for communications systems in a variety of environments.

  9. The effect of high and low levels of supplementation on milk production, nitrogen utilization efficiency, and milk protein fractions in late-lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Reid, M; O'Donovan, M; Murphy, J P; Fleming, C; Kennedy, E; Lewis, E

    2015-08-01

    To fill the feed deficit in the autumn/late lactation period in a seasonal grazing system, supplementation is required. This study aimed to investigate the use of baled grass silage or concentrate as supplementation to grazing dairy cows in late lactation. Eighty-four grass-based spring-calving dairy cows, averaging 212d in milk, were allocated to 1 of 6 treatments [high grass allowance (HG), low grass allowance (LG), grass with a low concentrate allocation (GCL), grass with a low grass silage allocation (GSL), grass with a high concentrate allocation (GCH), and grass with a high grass silage allocation (GSH)] to measure the effects of using baled grass silage or concentrate as supplements to grazed grass. Effects on intake, milk yield, milk composition and N fractions, and N utilization efficiency were measured. Treatments HG and LG received 17 and 14kg of dry matter (DM) grass/cow per d, respectively. Treatments GCL and GSL were offered 14kg of DM grass/cow per d and 3kg of DM of supplementation/cow per d. Treatments GCH and GSH were offered 11kg of DM grass/cow per d and 6kg of DM of supplementation/cow per d. Milk yield was greatest in the GCH treatment and milk solids yield was greatest in both concentrate-supplemented treatments. The HG and LG treatments excreted a greater quantity of N as a proportion of N intake than the supplemented treatments. The HG treatment also excreted the greatest total quantity of N. This indicates an improvement in N utilization efficiency when supplementation is offered compared with grazing only. Offering 6kg of DM of either grass silage or concentrate as supplementation decreased milk true protein concentration compared with offering a grass-only diet. This suggests that increasing the proportion of supplementation relative to grass may negatively affect milk processability, which is associated with milk true protein concentration.

  10. Effects of anaerobic growth conditions on biomass accumulation, root morphology, and efficiencies of nutrient uptake and utilization in seedlings of some southern coastal plain

    SciTech Connect

    Topa, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Seedlings of pond, and loblolly pines were grown in a non-circulating, continuously-flowing solution culture under anaerobic (0.75 mg/1 O/sub 2/) conditions to determine the effects of anaerobiosis on overall growth, root morphology and efficiencies of nutrient uptake and utilization. Although shoot growth of the 11-week old loblolly and pond was not affected by anaerobic treatment, it did significantly reduce root biomass. Sand pine suffered the largest biomass reduction. Flooding tolerance was positively correlated with morphological changes which enhanced root internal aeration. Oxygen transport from shoot to the root was demonstrated via rhizosphere oxidation experiments using indigo-carmine dye solutions and polarography. Stem and root collar lenticels were found to be the major sites of atmospheric O/sub 2/ entry for submerged roots. Longitudinal and radial pathways for gas diffusion via intercellular spaces in the pericycle and ray parenchyma, respectively, were elucidated histologically. Lenticel and aerenchyma development, and rhizosphere oxidation in roots of anaerobically-grown sand pine seedlings were minimal. Elemental analyses showed that anaerobic conditions interfered with nutrient absorption and utilization. Short-term /sup 32/P uptake experiments with intact seedlings indicated that net absorption decreased because of the reduction in root biomass. Phosphorus absorption rates were negatively correlated with internal tissue phosphorus concentrations, and root and shoot biomass. 315 refs., 25 figs., 14 tabs.

  11. Co-fermentation of hemicellulose and starch from barley straw and grain for efficient pentoses utilization in acetone-butanol-ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Kuittinen, Suvi; Zhang, Junhua; Vepsäläinen, Jouko; Keinänen, Markku; Pappinen, Ari

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to efficiently use hemicellulose-based biomass for ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) production by co-fermentation with starch-based biomass. Two processes were investigated: (I) co-fermentation of sugars derived from hemicellulose and starch in a mixture of barley straw and grain that was pretreated with dilute acid; (II) co-fermentation of straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate and gelatinized grain slurry in which the straw was pretreated with dilute acid. The two processes produced 11.3 and 13.5 g/L ABE that contains 7.4 and 7.8 g/L butanol, respectively. In process I, pretreatment with 1.0% H2SO4 resulted in better ABE fermentability than with 1.5% H2SO4, but only 19% of pentoses were consumed. In process II, 95% of pentoses were utilized even in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate pretreated with more severe condition (1.5% H2SO4). The results suggest that process II is more favorable for hemicellulosic biomass utilization, and it is also attractive for sustainable biofuel production due to great biomass availability.

  12. Zellweger Spectrum

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Conference News Contact Us Donate The Zellweger Spectrum Zellweger Syndrome, Neonatal Adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD), and Infantile Refsum’s ... of severity of disease. What causes the Zellweger spectrum of diseases? As we mentioned, disorders of the ...

  13. The Min System and Nucleoid Occlusion Are Not Required for Identifying the Division Site in Bacillus subtilis but Ensure Its Efficient Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Christopher D. A.; Harry, Elizabeth J.

    2012-01-01

    Precise temporal and spatial control of cell division is essential for progeny survival. The current general view is that precise positioning of the division site at midcell in rod-shaped bacteria is a result of the combined action of the Min system and nucleoid (chromosome) occlusion. Both systems prevent assembly of the cytokinetic Z ring at inappropriate places in the cell, restricting Z rings to the correct site at midcell. Here we show that in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis Z rings are positioned precisely at midcell in the complete absence of both these systems, revealing the existence of a mechanism independent of Min and nucleoid occlusion that identifies midcell in this organism. We further show that Z ring assembly at midcell is delayed in the absence of Min and Noc proteins, while at the same time FtsZ accumulates at other potential division sites. This suggests that a major role for Min and Noc is to ensure efficient utilization of the midcell division site by preventing Z ring assembly at potential division sites, including the cell poles. Our data lead us to propose a model in which spatial regulation of division in B. subtilis involves identification of the division site at midcell that requires Min and nucleoid occlusion to ensure efficient Z ring assembly there and only there, at the right time in the cell cycle. PMID:22457634

  14. Power Generation Efficiency of Photovoltaics and a SOFC-PEFC Combined Micro-grid with Time Shift Utilization of the SOFC Exhaust Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sayed, Abeer Galal; Obara, Shin'ya

    In this study, the combined system of a solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEFC) is developed. The proposed system consists of a SOFC-PEFC combined system and a photovoltaic system (PV) as the energy supply to a micro-grid. The exhaust heat of the SOFC is used for the steam reforming of the bio-ethanol gas with time shift utilization of the exhaust heat of the SOFC in optional time. The SOFC-PEFC combined system with the PV was introduced in a micro-grid of 30 residences in Sapporo, Japan. The operation plan of the system has three cases: without solar power, with 50% and with 100% of solar output power. Moreover, three types of system operation of using the SOFC independent operation, PEFC independent operation and SOFC-PEFC combined system are used to supply the demand side. A comparative study between the types of system operation is presented. The power generation efficiency is investigated for different load patterns: average load pattern, compressed load pattern and extended load pattern. This paper reported that the power generation efficiencies of the proposedsystem in consideration of these load patterns are 27% to 48%.

  15. A novel stepwise pretreatment on corn stalk by alkali deacetylation and liquid hot water for enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis and energy utilization efficiency.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Xu, Jian

    2016-06-01

    A novel stepwise pretreatment on corn stalk (CS) by alkali deacetylation combined with liquid hot water (LHW) was investigated to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis. After deacetylated treatment, strength of alkali deacetylation of CS was from 1.79% to 91.34% which was subsequently pretreated by LHW with severity from 3.27 to 4.27. It was found that higher strength of alkali deacetylation could reduce both the degradation of hemicellulose and inhibitors formation in liquid hot water pretreatment (LHWP). Enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency was confirmed to be affected by LHW pretreatment severity (PS) and strength of alkali treatment. This combined pretreatment of alkali deacetylation and LHW could not only increase glucose yield, but also enhance energy utilization efficiency. The maximum enzymatic hydrolysis of 87.55%±3.64 with the ratio of glucose yield to energy input at 50.39gglucosekJ(-1) was obtained when strength of alkali deacetylation at 84.96% with PS at 3.97 were used.

  16. Optimization of multi-grating volume holographic spectrum splitters for photovoltaic applications.

    PubMed

    Ingersoll, G B; Leger, J R

    2016-07-10

    Recent research has shown that using multiple diverse-bandgap photovoltaic (PV) cells in conjunction with a spectrum splitting optical system can significantly improve PV power generation efficiency. Although volume Bragg gratings (VBGs) can serve as effective spectrum splitters, the inherent dispersion of a VBG can be detrimental given a broad-spectrum input. The performance of a single holographic spectrum splitter element can be improved by utilizing multiple single volume gratings, each operating in a slightly different spectral band. However, care must be taken to avoid inter-grating coupling effects that limit the ultimate performance. This work explores broadband two-grating holographic optical elements (HOEs) in multiplexed (single element) and sandwiched-grating arrangements. Particle swarm optimization is used to tailor these systems to the solar spectrum, taking into account both efficiency and dispersion. Both multiplexed and sandwiched two-grating systems exhibit performance improvements over single-grating solutions, especially when reduced dispersion is required. Under a ±2° constraint on output angular spread from wavelength dispersion, sandwiched-, multiplexed-, and single-grating systems exhibit power conversion efficiencies of 82.1%, 80.9%, and 77.5%, respectively, compared to an ideal bandpass spectrum splitter. Dispersion performance can be further improved by employing more than two VBGs in the spectrum splitter, but efficiency is compromised by additional cross-coupling effects. Multiplexed-grating systems are especially susceptible to these effects, but have the advantage of utilizing only a single HOE.

  17. Temperature and food quality effects on growth, consumption and post-ingestive utilization efficiencies of the forest tent caterpillar Malacosoma disstria (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae).

    PubMed

    Levesque, K R; Levesque, K R; Fortin, M; Mauffette, Y

    2002-04-01

    Temperature and food quality can both influence growth rates, consumption rates, utilization efficiencies and developmental time of herbivorous insects. Gravimetric analyses were conducted during two consecutive years to assess the effects of temperature and food quality on fourth instar larvae of the forest tent caterpillar Malacosoma disstria Hübner. Larvae were reared in the laboratory at three different temperatures (18, 24 and 30 degrees C) and on two types of diet; leaves of sugar maple trees Acer saccharum Marsh. located at the forest edge (sun-exposed leaves) or within the forest interior (shade-exposed leaves). In general, larvae reared at 18 degrees C had lower growth rates and lower consumption rates than larvae reared at the warmer temperatures (24 and 30 degrees C). Moreover, the duration of the instar decreased significantly with increasing temperatures. Type of diet also affected the growth rates and amount of food ingested by larvae but did not affect the duration of the instar. Larvae fed sun-exposed leaves consumed more food and gained higher biomasses. Values of approximate digestibility and efficiency of conversion of ingested food were also higher when larvae were fed sun-exposed leaves. Higher growth rates with increasing temperatures were primarily the result of the shorter stadium duration. The higher growth rates of larvae fed sun-exposed leaves were possibly the result of stimulatory feeding and consequently greater food intake and also a more efficient use of food ingested. This study suggests that the performance of M. disstria caterpillars could be enhanced by warmer temperatures and higher leaf quality.

  18. Effects of dietary forage level and monensin on lactation performance, digestibility and fecal excretion of nutrients, and efficiency of feed nitrogen utilization of Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Martinez, C M; Chung, Y-H; Ishler, V A; Bailey, K W; Varga, G A

    2009-07-01

    Two experiments (Exp. 1 and 2) were conducted using a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 2 replications (n = 8) to evaluate effects of feeding Holstein dairy cows a total mixed ration containing 50 or 60% of ration dry matter (DM) from forages with or without supplementation of monensin. In Exp. 1, alfalfa silage (AS) was used as the major forage (55% forage DM), and corn silage (CS; 45% forage DM) was used to make up the rest of the forage portion of diets (55AS:45CS). In Exp. 2, CS was used as the major forage (70% forage DM) and alfalfa hay (AH; 30% forage DM) was used to make up the rest of the forage portion of diets (70CS:30AH). Experimental diets were arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial with 50 or 60% ration DM from forages and monensin supplemented at 0 or 300 mg/cow daily. In Exp. 1 (55AS:45CS), feeding 60% forage diets decreased DM intake (DMI; 27.3 vs. 29.6 kg/d) but maintained the same levels of milk (45.8 vs. 47.0 kg/d) compared with 50% forage diets. The efficiency of converting feed to milk or 3.5% fat-corrected milk was greater for cows fed 60% compared with 50% forage diets (1.7 vs. 1.6 kg milk or 3.5% fat-corrected milk/kg of DMI, respectively). Increasing dietary forage level from 50 to 60% of ration DM increased milk fat percentage (3.4 to 3.5%); however, adding monensin to the 60% forage diet inhibited the increase in milk fat percentage. Feeding 60% forage diets decreased feed cost, but this decrease ($0.5/head per day) in feed cost did not affect income over feed cost. Feeding 60% forage diets decreased fecal excretion of DM (10.6 to 9.6 kg/d) and nitrogen (N; 354 to 324 g/d) and improved apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber from 43 to 49% and apparent efficiency of feed N utilization from 32.3 to 35.9% compared with 50% forage diets. In Exp. 2 (70CS:30AH), feeding 60% forage diets decreased DMI from 29.6 to 28.2 kg but maintained the same level of milk (41.1 vs. 40.8 kg/d) and therefore increased the efficiency of converting feed to milk

  19. Roll-to-roll cohesive, coated, flexible, high-efficiency polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing ITO-free polymer anodes.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seongbeom; Yang, Minyang; Guo, L Jay; Youn, Hongseok

    2013-12-09

    This paper reports solution-processed, high-efficiency polymer light-emitting diodes fabricated by a new type of roll-to-roll coating method under ambient air conditions. A noble roll-to-roll cohesive coating system utilizes only natural gravity and the surface tension of the solution to flow out from the capillary to the surface of the substrate. Because this mechanism uses a minimally cohesive solution, the roll-to-roll cohesive coating can effectively realize an ultra-thin film thickness for the electron injection layer. In addition, the roll-to-roll cohesive coating enables the fabrication of a thicker polymer anode film more than 250 nm at one time by modification of the surface energy and without wasting the solution. It is observed that the standard sheet resistance deviation of the polymer anode is only 2.32 Ω/□ over 50 000 bending cycles. The standard sheet resistance deviation of the polymer anode in the different bending angles (0 to 180°) is 0.313 Ω/□, but the case of the ITO-PET is 104.93 Ω/□. The average surface roughness of the polymer anode measured by atomic force microscopy is only 1.06 nm. Because the surface of the polymer anode has a better quality, the leakage current of the polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) using the polymer anode is much lower than that using the ITO-PET substrate. The luminous power efficiency of the two devices is 4.13 lm/W for the polymer anode and 3.21 lm/W for the ITO-PET. Consequently, the PLEDs made by using the polymer anode exhibited 28% enhanced performance because the polymer anode represents not only a higher transparency than the ITO-PET in the wavelength of 560 nm but also greatly reduced roughness. The optimized the maximum current efficiency and power efficiency of the device show around 6.1 cd/A and 5.1 lm/W, respectively, which is comparable to the case of using the ITO-glass.

  20. Resonant Nanophotonic Spectrum Splitting for Ultrathin Multijunction Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Mann, Sander A; Garnett, Erik C

    2015-07-15

    We present an approach to spectrum splitting for photovoltaics that utilizes the resonant optical properties of nanostructures for simultaneous voltage enhancement and spatial separation of different colors of light. Using metal-insulator-metal resonators commonly used in broadband metamaterial absorbers we show theoretically that output voltages can be enhanced significantly compared to single-junction devices. However, the approach is general and works for any type of resonator with a large absorption cross section. Due to its resonant nature, the spectrum splitting occurs within only a fraction of the wavelength, as opposed to traditional spectrum splitting methods, where many wavelengths are required. Combining nanophotonic spectrum splitting with other nanophotonic approaches to voltage enhancements, such as angle restriction and concentration, may lead to highly efficient but deeply subwavelength photovoltaic devices.

  1. Resonant Nanophotonic Spectrum Splitting for Ultrathin Multijunction Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We present an approach to spectrum splitting for photovoltaics that utilizes the resonant optical properties of nanostructures for simultaneous voltage enhancement and spatial separation of different colors of light. Using metal–insulator–metal resonators commonly used in broadband metamaterial absorbers we show theoretically that output voltages can be enhanced significantly compared to single-junction devices. However, the approach is general and works for any type of resonator with a large absorption cross section. Due to its resonant nature, the spectrum splitting occurs within only a fraction of the wavelength, as opposed to traditional spectrum splitting methods, where many wavelengths are required. Combining nanophotonic spectrum splitting with other nanophotonic approaches to voltage enhancements, such as angle restriction and concentration, may lead to highly efficient but deeply subwavelength photovoltaic devices. PMID:26322319

  2. ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS CROSS-CUTTING R&D ON ADAPTIVE FULL SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MORE EFFICIENT AND AFFORDABLE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY IN BUILDINGS AND HYBRID PHOTOBIOREACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Byard D. Wood; Jeff D. Muhs

    2003-10-01

    This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports day light from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a large core polymer fiber optic. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of day lighting and fluorescent lighting for office lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. The secondary mirror consists of eight planar-segmented mirrors that direct the visible part of the spectrum to eight fibers (receiver) and subsequently to eight luminaires. This results in about 8,200 lumens incident at each fiber tip. Each fiber can illuminate about 16.7 m{sup 2} (180 ft{sup 2}) of office space. The IR spectrum is directed to a thermophotovoltaic array to produce electricity. This report emphasizes the design of the thermophotovoltaic receiver and the whole system simulation model.

  3. ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS CROSS-CUTTING R&D ON ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MORE EFFICIENT AND AFFORDABLE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY IN BUILDINGS AND HYBRID PHOTOBIOREACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Byard D. Wood; Jeff D. Muhs

    2002-09-01

    This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports day light from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a large core polymer fiber optic. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of day lighting and fluorescent lighting for office lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. The secondary mirror consists of eight planar-segmented mirrors that direct the visible part of the spectrum to eight fibers (receiver) and subsequently to eight luminaires. This results in about 8,200 lumens incident at each fiber tip. Each fiber can illuminate about 16.7 m{sup 2} (180 ft{sup 2}) of office space. The IR spectrum is directed to a thermophotovoltaic array to produce electricity. This report describes eleven investigations on various aspects of the system. Taken as a whole, they confirm the technical feasibility of this technology.

  4. ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS CROSS-CUTTING R&D ON ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MORE EFFICIENT AND AFFORDABLE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY IN BUILDINGS AND HYBRID PHOTOBIOREACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Byard D. Wood; Jeff D. Muhs

    2003-01-01

    This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports day light from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a large core polymer fiber optic. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of day lighting and fluorescent lighting for office lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. The secondary mirror consists of eight planar-segmented mirrors that direct the visible part of the spectrum to eight fibers (receiver) and subsequently to eight luminaires. This results in about 8,200 lumens incident at each fiber tip. Each fiber can illuminate about 16.7 m{sup 2} (180 ft{sup 2}) of office space. The IR spectrum is directed to a thermophotovoltaic array to produce electricity. This report describes several investigations of various aspects of the system. Taken as a whole, they confirm significant progress towards the technical feasibility of this technology.

  5. Optimization of the Energy Level Alignment between the Photoactive Layer and the Cathode Contact Utilizing Solution-Processed Hafnium Acetylacetonate as Buffer Layer for Efficient Polymer Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lu; Li, Qiuxiang; Shi, Zhenzhen; Liu, Hao; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Fuzhi; Zhang, Bing; Dai, Songyuan; Lin, Jun; Tan, Zhan'ao

    2016-01-13

    The insertion of an appropriate interfacial buffer layer between the photoactive layer and the contact electrodes makes a great impact on the performance of polymer solar cells (PSCs). Ideal interfacial buffer layers could minimize the interfacial traps and the interfacial barriers caused by the incompatibility between the photoactive layer and the electrodes. In this work, we utilized solution-processed hafnium(IV) acetylacetonate (Hf(acac)4) as an effective cathode buffer layer (CBL) in PSCs to optimize the energy level alignment between the photoactive layer and the cathode contact, with the short-circuit current density (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (Voc), and fill factor (FF) all simultaneously improved with Hf(acac)4 CBL, leading to enhanced power conversion efficiencies (PCEs). Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) and scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) were performed to confirm that the interfacial dipoles were formed with the same orientation direction as the built-in potential between the photoactive layer and Hf(acac)4 CBL, benefiting the exciton separation and electron transport/extraction. In addition, the optical characteristics and surface morphology of the Hf(acac)4 CBL were also investigated.

  6. Adaptive Full-Spectrum Solar Energy Systems Cross-Cutting R&D on adaptive full-spectrum solar energy systems for more efficient and affordable use of solar energy in buildings and hybrid photobioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Byard; Kim, Kwang

    2006-03-30

    This RD&D project is a multi-institutional effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports daylight from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a bundle of polymer fiber optics. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae for CO{sub 2} sequestration or it can be a device that is a combination of daylighting and electric lighting for space/task lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. For the third generation (beta) system, the secondary mirror is an ellipsoidal mirror that directs the visible light into a bundle of 3 mm diameter fibers. The IR spectrum is filtered out to minimize unnecessary heating at the fiber entrance region. This report describes the major achievements from this research that began in August 2001.

  7. ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS Cross-Cutting R & D on adaptive full-spectrum solar energy systems for more efficient and affordable use of solar energy in buildings and hybrid photobioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Byard D. Wood; David L. Beshears

    2006-02-01

    This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports daylight from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a bundle of polymer fiber optics. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of daylighting and electric lighting for space/task lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. For the third generation (beta) system, the secondary mirror is an ellipsoidal mirror that directs the visible light into a bundle of 3 mm diameter fibers. The IR spectrum is filtered out to minimize unnecessary heating at the fiber entrance region. This report describes the following investigations: Niche applications for HSL technology, Luminaire design characteristics for linear and point lighting fixtures, and Daylight affects on productivity.

  8. Spectrum Recombination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Describes several methods of executing lecture demonstrations involving the recombination of the spectrum. Groups the techniques into two general classes: bringing selected portions of the spectrum together using lenses or mirrors and blurring the colors by rapid movement or foreshortening. (JM)

  9. Evaluation of Efficiency of Screening Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Hospitals Where the Bacteria Are Increasingly Prevalent

    PubMed Central

    Lee, K.; Lim, J. K.; Yong, D.; Yum, J.; Chong, Y.; Okamoto, R.; Inoue, M.

    2001-01-01

    The disk screening methods for extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing strains were evaluated. The confirmatory work is reduced significantly in settings such as those in this study, by changing the cefpodoxime breakpoint to ≤20 mm and by not testing cefoxitin-resistant isolates. Cefotaxime and ceftazidime disk screening is reliable, and the laboratory-prepared cefotaxime- and ceftazidime-clavulanic acid disks are stable at −20°C for 12 weeks. PMID:11574594

  10. Plant functional types are more efficient than climate in predicting spectrums of trait variation in evergreen angiosperm trees of tropical Australia and China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togashi, H. F.; Prentice, I. C. C.; Atkin, O. K.; Bloomfield, K. J.; Bradford, M.; Weerasinghe, L. K.; Harrison, S. P.; Evans, B. J.; Liddell, M. J.; Wang, H.; Cao, K. F.; Fan, Z.

    2015-12-01

    The representation of Plant Functional Types (PFTs) in current generation of Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) is excessively simplistically. Key ecophysiological properties, such as photosynthesis biochemistry, are most times merely averaged and trade-off with other plant traits is often neglected. Validation of a PFT framework based in photosynthetic process is crucial to improve reliability of DGVMs. We present 431 leaf-biochemical and wood level measurements in evergreen angiosperm trees of tropical forests in Australia and China that were divided in four spectrums of plant trait variation: metabolic, structural, hydraulic and height dimensions. Plant traits divided in each of these dimensions adopt survival strategies reflected more clearly by trade-off within each spectrum, and in some extent across spectrums. Co-ordination theory (that Rubisco- and electron-transport limited rates of photosynthesis are co-limiting) and least-coast theory (that intercellular to ambient CO2 concentration minimizes the combined costs per unit carbon assimilation, regulating maximum height and wood density) expectations matched PFT (which takes in account canopy position and light access, and life spam) variation. Our findings suggest that climate (air moisture, air temperature, light) has lower power representing these dimensions, in comparison to the PFT framework.

  11. Effects of breed, sex, and concentrate supplementation on digestibility, enteric methane emissions, and nitrogen utilization efficiency in growing lambs offered fresh grass.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y G; Aubry, A; O'Connell, N E; Annett, R; Yan, T

    2015-12-01

    Forty-eight lowland lambs were used in a completely randomized design (23-d period) with a factorial arrangement of treatments: 2 breeds (Highlander vs. Texel) × 3 sexes (female vs. intact male vs. wether) × 2 diets (fresh grass vs. fresh grass plus 0.5 kg/d pelleted concentrate). Animals ( = 48) were approximately 5 mo old and 36 ± 5.0 kg BW at the commencement of the study with 4 lambs for each breed-sex-diet combination. Fresh grass was harvested daily from the first regrowth of perennial ryegrass sward and offered ad libitum with a similar growth stage throughout the experiment. The animals were individually housed in pens and fed experimental diets for 19 d before being transferred to individual calorimeter chambers for a further 4 d with feed intake, fecal and urine outputs, and methane (CH) emissions measured. Lambs offered 0.5 kg/d concentrate had greater DM and energy (i.e., GE, DE and ME) intake, BW, and CH production (g/d) and greater N intake, fecal and manure N outputs, and fecal N per N intake than those given only fresh grass ( < 0.05). However, diets had no effect on CH emission rates (i.e., CH/DMI [ = 0.408] and CH energy/GE intake [ = 0.821]). Texels produced more CH/DMI (g/kg) than Highlanders ( = 0.044), and sex had no effect on CH/DMI (g/kg; = 0.101). Neither breed nor sex had an effect on N utilization efficiency ( > 0.05). The results reflected that high-quality forages may play a role similar to concentrate in mitigation of enteric CH emissions. The effects of sex and breed on rumen function require further investigation to understand relationships with CH emissions and N excretion in sheep.

  12. Decline in topsoil microbial quotient, fungal abundance and C utilization efficiency of rice paddies under heavy metal pollution across South China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongzhuo; Zhou, Tong; Crowley, David; Li, Lianqing; Liu, Dawen; Zheng, Jinwei; Yu, Xinyan; Pan, Genxing; Hussain, Qaiser; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jufeng

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural soils have been increasingly subject to heavy metal pollution worldwide. However, the impacts on soil microbial community structure and activity of field soils have been not yet well characterized. Topsoil samples were collected from heavy metal polluted (PS) and their background (BGS) fields of rice paddies in four sites across South China in 2009. Changes with metal pollution relative to the BGS in the size and community structure of soil microorganisms were examined with multiple microbiological assays of biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN) measurement, plate counting of culturable colonies and phospholipids fatty acids (PLFAs) analysis along with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profile of 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA gene and real-time PCR assay. In addition, a 7-day lab incubation under constantly 25°C was conducted to further track the changes in metabolic activity. While the decrease under metal pollution in MBC and MBN, as well as in culturable population size, total PLFA contents and DGGE band numbers of bacteria were not significantly and consistently seen, a significant reduction was indeed observed under metal pollution in microbial quotient, in culturable fungal population size and in ratio of fungal to bacterial PLFAs consistently across the sites by an extent ranging from 6% to 74%. Moreover, a consistently significant increase in metabolic quotient was observed by up to 68% under pollution across the sites. These observations supported a shift of microbial community with decline in its abundance, decrease in fungal proportion and thus in C utilization efficiency under pollution in the soils. In addition, ratios of microbial quotient, of fungal to bacterial and qCO(2) are proved better indicative of heavy metal impacts on microbial community structure and activity. The potential effects of these changes on C cycling and CO(2) production in the polluted rice paddies deserve further field studies.

  13. ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS CROSS-CUTTING R&D ON ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MORE EFFICIENT AND AFFORDABLE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY IN BUILDINGS AND HYBRID PHOTOBIOREACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Byard D. Wood; Jeff D. Muhs

    2004-08-01

    This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports daylight from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a bundle of small core or a large core polymer fiber optics. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of daylighting and electric lighting for space/task lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. For the second generation (alpha) system, the secondary mirror is an ellipsoidal mirror that directs the visible light into a bundle of small-core fibers. The IR spectrum is filtered out to minimize unnecessary heating at the fiber entrance region. This report describes the following investigations of various aspects of the system. Taken as a whole, they confirm significant progress towards the technical feasibility and commercial viability of this technology. (1) TRNSYS Modeling of a Hybrid Lighting System: Building Energy Loads and Chromaticity Analysis; (2) High Lumens Screening Test Setup for Optical Fibers; (3) Photo-Induced Heating in Plastic Optical Fiber Bundles; (4) Low-Cost Primary Mirror Development; (5) Potential Applications for Hybrid Solar Lighting; (6) Photobioreactor Population Experiments and Productivity Measurements; and (7) Development of a Microalgal CO2-Biofixation Photobioreactor.

  14. ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS CROSS-CUTTING R&D ON ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MORE EFFICIENT AND AFFORDABLE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY IN BUILDINGS AND HYBRID PHOTOBIOREACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Byard D. Wood; Jeff D. Muhs

    2005-02-01

    This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports daylight from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a bundle of small core or a large core polymer fiber optics. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of daylighting and electric lighting for space/task lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. For the second generation (alpha) system, the secondary mirror is an ellipsoidal mirror that directs the visible light into a bundle of small-core fibers. The IR spectrum is filtered out to minimize unnecessary heating at the fiber entrance region. This report describes the following investigations of various aspects of the system: (1) Performance specifications were developed for the tracking subsystem and collector optics, (2) Thermal management experiments for the fiber optic bundle entrance region, and (3) Bioreactor testing, cost-modeling, and redesign. Much of the planned work has been slowed due to significant procurement delays of the primary mirror. However, taken as a whole, they do confirm progress towards the technical feasibility and commercial viability of this technology. Due to this procurement delay, a no-cost extension of the project completion date has been requested and approved.

  15. Kinetics of blood lipoprotein spectrum indices in patients with angina pectoris during and after low-intensity laser therapy as a paraclinical criterion for treatment efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babushkina, G. V.; Kartelishev, A. V.

    2001-04-01

    An investigation was made of applying (lambda) equals 0.63 micrometers laser radiation in treating 403 patients affected by angina pectoris. The patients were administered a course of combined laser therapy consisting of the intravenous laser irradiation of blood combined with laser acupuncture. Apart from that, the patients took the maintenance doses of antianginal preparations and therapeutic doses of vitamins A and E. The blood lipoprotein spectrum revealed that this combined laser therapy was capable of producing an antiatherogenic effect. It was also found that the most effective exposure time of laser radiation was in the range of 10 to 15 min.

  16. Weatherization Partnerships Project, Grant No. DE FG 0299EE27594, October 1, 1999 - December 31, 2000. Final Technical Report and FY 1999 version of 'Lessons learned the long way: Integrating utility, energy efficiency tasks with weatherization'

    SciTech Connect

    Power, Meg

    2002-11-01

    Includes reports on (1) the results of focus groups on managing utility residential efficiency [attitudes?] for low-income housing, and (2) low-income household energy consumption and expenditures patterns and weatherization opportunities 1987-1997, intensive analysis of R.E.C.S. data.

  17. Broad spectrum solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw; Yu, Kin Man; Wu, Junqiao; Schaff, William J.

    2007-05-15

    An alloy having a large band gap range is used in a multijunction solar cell to enhance utilization of the solar energy spectrum. In one embodiment, the alloy is In.sub.1-xGa.sub.xN having an energy bandgap range of approximately 0.7 eV to 3.4 eV, providing a good match to the solar energy spectrum. Multiple junctions having different bandgaps are stacked to form a solar cell. Each junction may have different bandgaps (realized by varying the alloy composition), and therefore be responsive to different parts of the spectrum. The junctions are stacked in such a manner that some bands of light pass through upper junctions to lower junctions that are responsive to such bands.

  18. Measuring Academic Library Efficiency and Alignment with Institutional Resource Utilization Priorities Using Data Envelopment Analysis: An Analysis of Institutions of Higher Education in Texas and Their Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shupala, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Academic and library administrators are increasingly required to demonstrate efficiency in programs, services, and operations as well as effectiveness. An important component of efficiency measurement is identification of a relevant peer group against which to compare the administrative unit to determine relative efficiency. The two-fold purpose…

  19. Hybrid nanocone forests with high absorption in full-solar spectrum for solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yudong; Mao, Haiyang; Xiong, Jijun; Ming, Anjie; Wang, Weibing

    2016-11-01

    In this work, hybrid nanocone forests (HNFs) with high absorption in full-solar-spectrum are fabricated based on a plasma repolymerization technique. The HNFs combine light trapping effect of the nanocone forests with surface plasmon resonance effect of the metallic nanoparticles, thus can achieve an optimized absorption larger than 80% in the full-solar spectrum (i.e. 200-2500nm). Besides, with the hybrid nanostructures, the absorption decrease around the Si bandgap width can be narrowed greatly, while the normalized utilization efficiency of solar radiation can be increased. Therefore, usage of the HNFs as a texture structure in solar cells to obtain higher conversion efficiencies is foreseeable.

  20. Split spectrum: a multi-channel approach to elastic optical networking.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ming; Proietti, R; Dahlfort, Stefan; Yoo, S J B

    2012-12-31

    This paper introduces Split Spectrum, which enhances elastic optical networking by splitting a bulk traffic demand into multiple channels, when a single-channel transmission is prohibited by distance or spectrum availability. We performed transmission simulations to determine the maximum reach as a function of modulation format (dual polarization BPSK, QPSK, 16QAM), baud-rate (from 5 to 28 GBd), and number of ROADMs, for a Nyquist WDM super-channel with subcarrier spacing equal to 1.2 × baud-rate. Performance evaluation on two representative topologies shows that, compared to the previously proposed elastic optical networking, Split Spectrum doubles the zero-blocking load and achieves 100% higher network spectral efficiency at zero-blocking loads as a result of extended transmission distance and efficient utilization of spectrum fragments.

  1. Examination of Efficacious, Efficient, and Socially Valid Error-Correction Procedures to Teach Sight Words and Prepositions to Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodak, Tiffany; Campbell, Vincent; Bergmann, Samantha; LeBlanc, Brittany; Kurtz-Nelson, Eva; Cariveau, Tom; Haq, Shaji; Zemantic, Patricia; Mahon, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Prior research shows that learners have idiosyncratic responses to error-correction procedures during instruction. Thus, assessments that identify error-correction strategies to include in instruction can aid practitioners in selecting individualized, efficacious, and efficient interventions. The current investigation conducted an assessment to…

  2. Effectiveness and Efficiency of Peer and Adult Models Used in Video Modeling in Teaching Pretend Play Skills to Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sani-Bozkurt, Sunagul; Ozen, Arzu

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether or not there was any difference in the effectiveness and efficiency of the presentation of video modeling interventions using peer and adult models in teaching pretend play skills to children with ASD and to examine the views of parents about the study. Participants were two boys and one girl, aged 5-6 years…

  3. Dynamic Spectrum Access to the Combined Resource of Commercial and Public Safety Bands Based on a WCDMA Shared Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Hyoungsuk; Im, Sooyeol; Kim, Youmin; Kim, Seunghee; Kim, Jinup; Lee, Hyuckjae

    The public safety spectrum is generally under-utilized due to the unique traffic characteristics of bursty and mission critical. This letter considers the application of dynamic spectrum access (DSA) to the combined spectrum of public safety (PS) and commercial (CMR) users in a common shared network that can provide both PS and CMR services. Our scenario includes the 700MHz Public/Private Partnership which was recently issued by the Federal Communications Commission. We first propose an efficient DSA mechanism to coordinate the combined spectrum, and then establish a call admission control that reflects the proposed DSA in a wideband code division multiple access based network. The essentials of our proposed DSA are opportunistic access to the public safety spectrum and priority access to the commercial spectrum. Simulation results show that these schemes are well harmonized in various network environments.

  4. Spectrum handoff algorithm with imperfect spectrum sensing incognitive radio networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Bin; Bao, Xiao-min; Xie, Xian-zhong

    2016-10-01

    To guarantee the quality of service of licensed users, the unlicensed users must vacate the occupied channel by spectrum handoff if licensed users appear in the licensed spectrum. However, spectrum sensing with false alarm and missed detection may lead to more inaccuracy problems when unlicensed users perform spectrum handoff. To improve the problems mentioned before, we utilize PRP M/G/1 queuing network model to propose a spectrum handoff algorithm with error data retransmission mechanism and analyze its performance by transmission delay and extended data delivery time. In addition, we discuss the relationship between false alarm probability, extended data delivery time and user traffic load and verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  5. Growth performance, nutrient utilization, and feed efficiency in broilers fed Tithonia diversifolia leaf meal as substitute of conventional feed ingredients in Mizoram

    PubMed Central

    Buragohain, Rajat

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was for assessment of growth performance, nutrient utilization, and feed efficiency in broilers fed rations with varying levels of Tithonia diversifolia leaf meal (TDLM) as a substitute of conventional feed ingredients in Mizoram. Materials and Methods: A total of 180, 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into six homogeneous groups and fed rations incorporated with TDLM (TDLM at 0% [TDLM-0], 2% [TDLM-2], 4% [TDLM-4], 6% [TDLM-6], 8% [TDLM-8], and 10% [TDLM-10] level as substitute of conventional feed ingredients) for 6 weeks. The chicks were reared in battery brooders for the first 2 weeks, and thereafter, in well-ventilated deep litter house following standard management protocols. Feed and drinking water were provided ad libitum to all the groups throughout the experiment. The daily feed intake and weekly body weight gain were recorded, and a metabolic trial for 3 days was conducted at the end of the 6th week. Results: Feed consumption decreased for inclusion of TDLM but without any significant differences, except during the 3rd week where it reduced significantly (p<0.05) at and above 6% TDLM in the ration. The average body weight gain decreased significantly (p<0.05) above 6% TDLM inclusion. The average body weights at 7th, 14th, and 21st day of age reduced significantly (p<0.05) from 4% to 10% TDLM inclusion level but was statistically non-significant up to 4% TDLM at 28th, 35th, and 42nd day of age. Body weight at 42nd day of age was 1624.72±30.52, 1616.66±17.84, 1592.60±19.24, 1404.61±17.76, 1188.29±17.67, and 1054.33±18.81 gin TDLM-0, TDLM-2, TDLM-4, TDLM-6, TDLM-8, and TDLM-10, respectively. The digestibility of nutrients decreased with increased inclusion level of TDLM. The digestibility coefficient of dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, and nitrogen free extract were significantly higher in TDLM-0, but crude fiber digestibility was comparable without any significant difference among the groups. Feed conversion ratio

  6. Social Communication Questionnaire Scoring Procedures for Autism Spectrum Disorder and the Prevalence of Potential Social Communication Disorder in ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Richman, David M.; Chesnut, Steven Randall; Little, Todd D.

    2016-01-01

    In analyzing data from the National Database for Autism Research, we utilized Mokken scaling techniques as a means of creating a more effective and efficient screening procedure for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) via the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ). With a sample of 1,040, approximately 80% (n = 827) of the sample were males while…

  7. Highly Efficient LiYF4:Yb(3+), Er(3+) Upconversion Single Crystal under Solar Cell Spectrum Excitation and Photovoltaic Application.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu; Xu, Wen; Song, Hongwei; Chen, Cong; Xia, Haiping; Zhu, Yongsheng; Zhou, Donglei; Cui, Shaobo; Dai, Qilin; Zhang, Jiazhong

    2016-04-13

    Luminescent upconversion is a promising way to harvest near-infrared (NIR) sunlight and transforms it into visible light that can be directly absorbed by active materials of solar cells and improve their power conversion efficiency (PCE). However, it is still a great challenge to effectively improve the PCE of solar cells with the assistance of upconversion. In this work, we demonstrate the application of the transparent LiYF4:Yb(3+), Er(3+) single crystal as an independent luminescent upconverter to improve the PCE of perovskite solar cells. The LiYF4:Yb(3+), Er(3+) single crystal is prepared by an improved Bridgman method, and its internal quantum efficiency approached to 5.72% under 6.2 W cm(-2) 980 nm excitation. The power-dependent upconversion luminescence indicated that under the excitation of simulated sunlight the (4)F(9/2)-(4)I(15/2) red emission originally results from the cooperation of a 1540 nm photon and a 980 nm photon. Furthermore, when the single crystal is placed in front of the perovskite solar cells, the PCE is enhanced by 7.9% under the irradiation of simulated sunlight by 7-8 solar constants. This work implies the upconverter not only can serve as proof of principle for improving PCE of solar cells but also is helpful to practical application.

  8. Final Report for DE-FG36-08GO18007 "All-Inorganic, Efficient Photovoltaic Solid State Devices Utilizing Semiconducting Colloidal Nanocrystal Quantum Dots"

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir Bulovic and Moungi Bawendi

    2011-09-30

    We demonstrated robust colloidal quantum dot (QD) photovoltaics with high internal quantum efficiencies. In our structures, device durability is derived from use of all-inorganic atmospherically-stable semiconducting metal-oxide films together with QD photoreceptors. We have shown that both QD and metal-oxide semiconducting films and contacts are amenable to room temperature processing under minimal vacuum conditions, enabling large area processing of PV structures of high internal efficiency. We generated the state of the art devices with power conversion efficiency of more than 4%, and have shown that efficiencies as high as 9% are achievable in the near-term, and as high as 17% in the long-term.

  9. An applicable method for efficiency estimation of operating tray distillation columns and its comparison with the methods utilized in HYSYS and Aspen Plus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghifar, Hamidreza

    2015-10-01

    Developing general methods that rely on column data for the efficiency estimation of operating (existing) distillation columns has been overlooked in the literature. Most of the available methods are based on empirical mass transfer and hydraulic relations correlated to laboratory data. Therefore, these methods may not be sufficiently accurate when applied to industrial columns. In this paper, an applicable and accurate method was developed for the efficiency estimation of distillation columns filled with trays. This method can calculate efficiency as well as mass and heat transfer coefficients without using any empirical mass transfer or hydraulic correlations and without the need to estimate operational or hydraulic parameters of the column. E.g., the method does not need to estimate tray interfacial area, which can be its most important advantage over all the available methods. The method can be used for the efficiency prediction of any trays in distillation columns. For the efficiency calculation, the method employs the column data and uses the true rates of the mass and heat transfers occurring inside the operating column. It is highly emphasized that estimating efficiency of an operating column has to be distinguished from that of a column being designed.

  10. Spectrum sensing and resource allocation for multicarrier cognitive radio systems under interference and power constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikmese, Sener; Srinivasan, Sudharsan; Shaat, Musbah; Bader, Faouzi; Renfors, Markku

    2014-12-01

    Multicarrier waveforms have been commonly recognized as strong candidates for cognitive radio. In this paper, we study the dynamics of spectrum sensing and spectrum allocation functions in cognitive radio context using very practical signal models for the primary users (PUs), including the effects of power amplifier nonlinearities. We start by sensing the spectrum with energy detection-based wideband multichannel spectrum sensing algorithm and continue by investigating optimal resource allocation methods. Along the way, we examine the effects of spectral regrowth due to the inevitable power amplifier nonlinearities of the PU transmitters. The signal model includes frequency selective block-fading channel models for both secondary and primary transmissions. Filter bank-based wideband spectrum sensing techniques are applied for detecting spectral holes and filter bank-based multicarrier (FBMC) modulation is selected for transmission as an alternative multicarrier waveform to avoid the disadvantage of limited spectral containment of orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM)-based multicarrier systems. The optimization technique used for the resource allocation approach considered in this study utilizes the information obtained through spectrum sensing and knowledge of spectrum leakage effects of the underlying waveforms, including a practical power amplifier model for the PU transmitter. This study utilizes a computationally efficient algorithm to maximize the SU link capacity with power and interference constraints. It is seen that the SU transmission capacity depends critically on the spectral containment of the PU waveform, and these effects are quantified in a case study using an 802.11-g WLAN scenario.

  11. Design and implementation of priority and time-window based traffic scheduling and routing-spectrum allocation mechanism in elastic optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Honghuan; Xing, Fangyuan; Yin, Hongxi; Zhao, Nan; Lian, Bizhan

    2016-02-01

    With the explosive growth of network services, the reasonable traffic scheduling and efficient configuration of network resources have an important significance to increase the efficiency of the network. In this paper, an adaptive traffic scheduling policy based on the priority and time window is proposed and the performance of this algorithm is evaluated in terms of scheduling ratio. The routing and spectrum allocation are achieved by using the Floyd shortest path algorithm and establishing a node spectrum resource allocation model based on greedy algorithm, which is proposed by us. The fairness index is introduced to improve the capability of spectrum configuration. The results show that the designed traffic scheduling strategy can be applied to networks with multicast and broadcast functionalities, and makes them get real-time and efficient response. The scheme of node spectrum configuration improves the frequency resource utilization and gives play to the efficiency of the network.

  12. A discharge flow-photoionization mass spectrometric study of the FO(X 2 Pi i) radical. Photoionization efficiency spectrum and ionization energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Zhengyu; Kuo, Szu-Cherng; Klemm, R. Bruce; Monks, Paul S.; Stief, Louis J.

    1994-01-01

    Photoionization efficiency spectra of FO were measured over the wavelength range 80.0-100.0 nm and in the ionization threshold region, 94.0-100.0 nm, using a discharge flow-photoionization mass spectrometer apparatus coupled to a synchrotron radiation source. FO was generated by the reaction of F2P atoms with NO3 and via a F2O2 discharge. A value of 12.78 +/- 0.03 eV was obtained for the adiabatic ionization energy of FO from photoion thresholds which corresponds to FO(+)(X 3 Sigma -) from FO(X 2 Pi i). These results, which are the first to be obtained by direct Photo-ionization mass spectrometry (PIMS) measurements, corroborate those of a photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) study; however, the ionization energy determined here is free from interferences due to other species which complicated the PES measurement. A value of 109.5 +/- 8.0 kJ/mol for Delta f H 0 298(FO) is computed from the present value of IE(FO) and a previous appearance energy measurement, and a value for the proton affinity of FO is calculated to be 511.5 +/- 10.0 kJ/mol.

  13. Spectrum Efficiency Through Dynamic Spectrum Access Techniques (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Prototype System Key Future Events • May 14 Support MSU visit to Edwards • Jun 14 Design Deep Dive • Oct 14 Presenting technical papers, ITC , San...SW; Digital Radio; MBFE Board • Oct 14 Presenting technical papers ITC , San Diego Description – SDR develops a tri-band (L,S,C) transceiver, with...report Key Future Events • Design capacity allocation algorithms • Oct 14 Presenting a technical paper at ITC , San Diego Description – ACS, with

  14. NASA technology utilization house

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Following systems and features, which are predicted to save approximately $20,000 in utility costs over twenty year period, are incorporated into single-level, contemporarily designed, energy efficient residential structure: solar heating and cooling; energy efficient appliances; water recycling; security, smoke, and tornado detectors; and flat conductor electrical wiring.

  15. Improved efficiency and stability of polymer solar cells utilizing two-dimensional reduced graphene oxide: graphene oxide nanocomposites as hole-collection material.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Du, Donghe; Sun, Kuan; Hou, Jianhui; Ouyang, Jianyong

    2014-12-24

    Improving device efficiency and stability of polymer solar cells (PSCs) is crucial for their practical application. Although graphene oxide (GO) could replace the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as the hole-collection material and improve the photovoltaic stability of PSCs, the power conversion efficiency is moderate because of its insulating nature. In this article, nanocomposites of two-dimensional reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and GO are used to replace the acidic PEDOT:PSS as the hole-collection material of PSCs. The nanocomposites are formed by dispersing rGO into aqueous solution of GO. GO serves as a surfactant, and it can stabilize rGO. The presence of rGO can quench the photoluminescence of GO in water. The nanocomposite films exhibit higher conductivity than GO films without rGO. They are used as the hole-collection material of PSCs. The optimal PSCs with poly(3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester exhibit such photovoltaic performances: short-circuit current density of 10.37 mA cm(-2), open-circuit voltage of 0.60 V, fill factor of 67.66%, and power conversion efficiency of 4.21%. The photovoltaic efficiency is much higher than that of the control devices with GO only (3.36%) as the hole-collection material. In addition, the presence of rGO in GO gives rise to better stability for the PSCs in air than that of the devices with GO only. The devices with rGO:GO composites as the hole-collection materials exhibit much better stability in power conversion efficiency than the control devices with PEDOT:PSS.

  16. Effect of Out-of-Plane Alkyl Group's Position in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Efficiency: A Structure-Property Relationship Utilizing Indoline-Based Unsymmetrical Squaraine Dyes.

    PubMed

    Alagumalai, Ananthan; M K, Munavvar Fairoos; Vellimalai, Punitharasu; Sil, Manik Chandra; Nithyanandhan, Jayaraj

    2016-12-28

    Squaraine dyes are promising chromophores to harvest visible and near-infrared (NIR) photons. A series of indoline-based unsymmetrical squaraine (SQ) dyes that contain alkyl chains at sp(3) C- and N- atoms of indoline moieties with a carboxylic acid anchoring group were synthesized. The optical and electrochemical properties of the SQ dyes in solution were nearly identical as there was no change in the D-A-D SQ framework; however, remarkable changes with respect to the power conversion efficiencies (PCE) were observed depending upon the position of alkyl groups in the dye. Introduction of alkyl groups to the indoline unit that was away from anchoring unit were helped in more dye loading with controlled organization of dyes on surface, increased charge transfer resistance, long electron lifetime, and hence higher PCE than that of the corresponding isomer in which the alkyl groups funtionalized indoline unit contains the carboxylic acid anchoring group. Careful analysis of incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) profiles indicated the presence of aggregated structure on the TiO2 surface that contributes to the charge injection in the presence of a coadsorbent. A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) device made out of SQ5 was achieved an efficiency of 9.0%, with an open-circuit potential (Voc) of 660 mV and short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 19.82 mA/cm(2), under simulated AM 1.5G illumination (100 mW/cm(2)). The IPCE profile of SQ5 shows an onset near to 750 nm with a good quantum efficiency (>80%) in the range of 550-700 nm, indicating the importance of self-organization of dyes on the TiO2 surface for an efficient charge injection. This present investigation revealed the importance of position of alkyl groups in the squaraine-based dyes for the better PCE.

  17. Fission Spectrum

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bloch, F.; Staub, H.

    1943-08-18

    Measurements of the spectrum of the fission neutrons of 25 are described, in which the energy of the neutrons is determined from the ionization produced by individual hydrogen recoils. The slow neutrons producing fission are obtained by slowing down the fast neutrons from the Be-D reaction of the Stanford cyclotron. In order to distinguish between fission neutrons and the remaining fast cyclotron neutrons both the cyclotron current and the pusle amplifier are modulated. A hollow neutron container, in which slow neutrons have a lifetime of about 2 milliseconds, avoids the use of large distances. This method results in much higher intensities than the usual modulation arrangement. The results show a continuous distribution of neutrons with a rather wide maximum at about 0.8 MV falling off to half of its maximum value at 2.0 MV. The total number of netrons is determined by comparison with the number of fission fragments. The result seems to indicate that only about 30% of the neutrons have energies below .8 MV. Various tests are described which were performed in order to rule out modification of the spectrum by inelastic scattering. Decl. May 4, 1951

  18. High efficiency 2 micrometer laser utilizing wing-pumped Tm{sup 3+} and a laser diode array end-pumping architecture

    DOEpatents

    Beach, R.J.

    1997-11-18

    Wing pumping a Tm{sup 3+} doped, end pumped solid state laser generates 2 {micro}m laser radiation at high average powers with high efficiency. Using laser diode arrays to end-pump the laser rod or slab in the wing of the Tm{sup 3+} absorption band near 785 nm results in 2-for-1 quantum efficiency in Tm{sup 3+} because high Tm{sup 3+} concentrations can be used. Wing pumping allows the thermal power generated in the rod or slab to be distributed over a large enough volume to make thermal management practical in the laser gain medium even at high average power operation. The approach is applicable to CW, Q-switched, and rep-pulsed free-laser operation. 7 figs.

  19. High efficiency 2 micrometer laser utilizing wing-pumped Tm.sup.3+ and a laser diode array end-pumping architecture

    DOEpatents

    Beach, Raymond J.

    1997-01-01

    Wing pumping a Tm.sup.3+ doped, end pumped solid state laser generates 2 .mu.m laser radiation at high average powers with high efficiency. Using laser diode arrays to end-pump the laser rod or slab in the wing of the Tm.sup.3+ absorption band near 785 nm results in 2-for-1 quantum efficiency in Tm.sup.3+ because high Tm.sup.3+ concentrations can be used. Wing pumping allows the thermal power generated in the rod or slab to be distributed over a large enough volume to make thermal management practical in the laser gain medium even at high average power operation. The approach is applicable to CW, Q-switched, and rep-pulsed free-laser operation.

  20. Efficiency Enhancement in Polymer Light-Emitting Devices Fabricated Utilizing a MoO3 Hole Injection Layer Coated with Different Solvents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Gyu; Choo, Dong Chul; Bang, Yo Han; Li, Fushan; Kim, Tae Whan

    2016-02-01

    Polymer light-emitting devices (PLEDs) with a MoO3 hole injection layer (HIL) were fabricated to enhance their luminance efficiency. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy spectra showed that the valence band maximum level of the MoO3 layer was located between the work function of the the indium-tin-oxide anode and the highest occupied molecular orbital level of the poly[N,N'-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl)benzidine] hole transport layer. The surface of the MoO3 layer formed by using an ethanol solvent was smoother than that of the MoO layer formed by using a deionized water solvent due to a decrease in the aggregation of the MoO3 resolved in ethanol. The MO3 HIL decreased the operating voltage of the PLED and increased the luminance and the luminance efficiency of the PLED due to a decrease in the hole injection barrier. The operating voltage, the luminance, and the luminance efficiency of the PLEDs with the MoO3 HIL formed by using an ethanol solvent were enhanced in comparison with those of the PLEDs with a MoO3 HIL formed by using a deionized water solvent due to a decrease in the surface roughness of the HIL.

  1. Highly Efficient p-i-n Perovskite Solar Cells Utilizing Novel Low-Temperature Solution-Processed Hole Transport Materials with Linear π-Conjugated Structure.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Xu, Zheng; Zhao, Suling; Qiao, Bo; Huang, Di; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, Jiao; Wang, Peng; Zhu, Youqin; Li, Xianggao; Liu, Xicheng; Xu, Xurong

    2016-09-01

    Alternative low-temperature solution-processed hole-transporting materials (HTMs) without dopant are critical for highly efficient perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Here, two novel small molecule HTMs with linear π-conjugated structure, 4,4'-bis(4-(di-p-toyl)aminostyryl)biphenyl (TPASBP) and 1,4'-bis(4-(di-p-toyl)aminostyryl)benzene (TPASB), are applied as hole-transporting layer (HTL) by low-temperature (sub-100 °C) solution-processed method in p-i-n PSCs. Compared with standard poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) HTL, both TPASBP and TPASB HTLs can promote the growth of perovskite (CH3 NH3 PbI3 ) film consisting of large grains and less grain boundaries. Furthermore, the hole extraction at HTL/CH3 NH3 PbI3 interface and the hole transport in HTL are also more efficient under the conditions of using TPASBP or TPASB as HTL. Hence, the photovoltaic performance of the PSCs is dramatically enhanced, leading to the high efficiencies of 17.4% and 17.6% for the PSCs using TPASBP and TPASB as HTL, respectively, which are ≈40% higher than that of the standard PSC using PEDOT:PSS HTL.

  2. Labview utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Persaud, Arun

    2011-09-30

    The software package provides several utilities written in LabView. These utilities don't form independent programs, but rather can be used as a library or controls in other labview programs. The utilities include several new controls (xcontrols), VIs for input and output routines, as well as other 'helper'-functions not provided in the standard LabView environment.

  3. Enhancing phosphorus and zinc acquisition efficiency in rice: a critical review of root traits and their potential utility in rice breeding

    PubMed Central

    Rose, T. J.; Impa, S. M.; Rose, M. T.; Pariasca-Tanaka, J.; Mori, A.; Heuer, S.; Johnson-Beebout, S. E.; Wissuwa, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Rice is the world's most important cereal crop and phosphorus (P) and zinc (Zn) deficiency are major constraints to its production. Where fertilizer is applied to overcome these nutritional constraints it comes at substantial cost to farmers and the efficiency of fertilizer use is low. Breeding crops that are efficient at acquiring P and Zn from native soil reserves or fertilizer sources has been advocated as a cost-effective solution, but would benefit from knowledge of genes and mechanisms that confer enhanced uptake of these nutrients by roots. Scope This review discusses root traits that have been linked to P and Zn uptake in rice, including traits that increase mobilization of P/Zn from soils, increase the volume of soil explored by roots or root surface area to recapture solubilized nutrients, enhance the rate of P/Zn uptake across the root membrane, and whole-plant traits that affect root growth and nutrient capture. In particular, this review focuses on the potential for these traits to be exploited through breeding programmes to produce nutrient-efficient crop cultivars. Conclusions Few root traits have so far been used successfully in plant breeding for enhanced P and Zn uptake in rice or any other crop. Insufficient genotypic variation for traits or the failure to enhance nutrient uptake under realistic field conditions are likely reasons for the limited success. More emphasis is needed on field studies in mapping populations or association panels to identify those traits and underlying genes that are able to enhance nutrient acquisition beyond the level already present in most cultivars. PMID:23071218

  4. Utilization of H-bond interaction of nucleobase Uralic with antitumor methotrexate to design drug carrier with ultrahigh loading efficiency and pH-responsive drug release

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Teng-Teng; Lei, Qi; Yang, Bin; Jia, Hui-Zhen; Cheng, Hong; Liu, Li-Han; Zeng, Xuan; Feng, Jun; Zhuo, Ren-Xi; Zhang, Xian-Zheng

    2014-01-01

    A novel Uralic (U)-rich linear-hyperbranched mono-methoxy poly (ethylene glycol)-hyperbranched polyglycerol-graft-Uralic (mPEG-HPG-g-U) nanoparticle (NP) was prepared as drug carrier for antitumor methotrexate (MTX). Due to the H-bond interaction of U with MTX and hydrophobic interaction, this NP exhibited high drug loading efficiency of up to 40%, which was significantly higher than that of traditional NPs based on U-absent copolymers (<15%). In addition, MTX-loaded mPEG-HPG-g-U NPs also demonstrated an acidity-accelerated drug release behavior. PMID:26816622

  5. Error correction coding for frequency-hopping multiple-access spread spectrum communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Healy, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    A communication system which would effect channel coding for frequency-hopped multiple-access is described. It is shown that in theory coding can increase the spectrum utilization efficiency of a system with mutual interference to 100 percent. Various coding strategies are discussed and some initial comparisons are given. Some of the problems associated with implementing the type of system described here are discussed.

  6. Transcriptomic analysis of the highly efficient oil-degrading bacterium Acinetobacter venetianus RAG-1 reveals genes important in dodecane uptake and utilization

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Ankita; Charrier, Marimikel; Wu, Yu-Wei; Malfatti, Stephanie; Zhou, Carol E.; Singer, Steven W.; Dugan, Larry; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2016-01-01

    The hydrocarbonoclastic bacterium Acinetobacter venetianus RAG-1 has attracted substantial attention due to its powerful oil-degrading capabilities and its potential to play an important ecological role in the cleanup of alkanes. In this study, we compare the transcriptome of the strain RAG-1 grown in dodecane, the corresponding alkanol (dodecanol), and sodium acetate for the characterization of genes involved in dodecane uptake and utilization. Comparison of the transcriptional responses of RAG-1 grown on dodecane led to the identification of 1074 genes that were differentially expressed relative to sodium acetate. Of these, 622 genes were upregulated when grown in dodecane. The highly upregulated genes were involved in alkane catabolism, along with stress response. Our data suggest AlkMb to be primarily involved in dodecane oxidation. Transcriptional response of RAG-1 grown on dodecane relative to dodecanol also led to the identification of permease, outer membrane protein and thin fimbriae coding genes potentially involved in dodecane uptake. This study provides the first model for key genes involved in alkane uptake and metabolism in A. venetianus RAG-1. PMID:27664055

  7. Utilizing metal tolerance potential of soil fungus for efficient synthesis of gold nanoparticles with superior catalytic activity for degradation of rhodamine B.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Arpit; Jain, Navin; Khan, Mohd Azeem; Pareek, Vikram; Dilip, R Venkataramana; Panwar, Jitendra

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, the surging demand of nanomaterials has boosted unprecedented expansion of research for the development of high yielding and sustainable synthesis methods which can deliver nanomaterials with desired characteristics. Unlike the well-established physico-chemical methods which have various limitations, biological methods inspired by mimicking natural biomineralization processes have great potential for nanoparticle synthesis. An eco-friendly and sustainable biological method that deliver particles with well-defined shape, size and compositions can be developed by selecting a proficient organism followed by fine tuning of various process parameter. The present study revealed high metal tolerance ability of a soil fungus Cladosporium oxysporum AJP03 and its potential for extracellular synthesis of gold nanoparticles. The morphology, composition and crystallinity of nanoparticles were confirmed using standard techniques. The synthesized particles were quasi-spherical in shape with fcc packing and an average particle size of 72.32 ± 21.80 nm. A series of experiments were conducted to study the effect of different process parameters on particle size and yield. Biomass: water ratio of 1:5 and 1 mM precursor salt concentration at physiological pH (7.0) favoured the synthesis of well-defined gold nanoparticles with maximum yield. The as-synthesized nanoparticles showed excellent catalytic efficiency towards sodium borohydride mediated reduction of rhodamine B (2.5 × 10(-5) M) within 7 min of reaction time under experimental conditions. Presence of proteins as capping material on the nanoparticle surface was found to be responsible for this remarkable catalytic efficiency. The present approach can be extrapolated to develop controlled and up-scalable process for mycosynthesis of nanoparticles for diverse applications.

  8. Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira, Robin; Sonne, Jeffrey; Withers, Charles; Cummings, James; Verdict, Malcolm; Roberts, Sydney

    2009-09-30

    The Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC) builds collaborative partnerships with: state and local governments and their program support offices, the building delivery industry (designers, contractors, realtors and commissioning agents), product manufacturers and their supply chains, utilities and their program implementers, consumers and other stakeholders in order to forge a strong regional network of building energy efficiency allies. Through a project Steering Committee composed of the state energy offices and building industry stakeholders, the SEEC works to establish consensus-based goals, priorities and strategies at the regional, state and local levels that will materially advance the deployment of high-performance “beyond code” buildings. In its first Phase, SEEC will provide limited technical and policy support assistance, training, certification and education to a wide spectrum of the building construction, codes and standards, and the consumer marketplace.

  9. Improvement of Carbon Dioxide Sweep Efficiency by Utilization of Microbial Permeability Profile Modification to Reduce the Amount of Oil Bypassed During Carbon Dioxide Flood

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, Darrel; Brown, Lewis; Lynch, F. Leo; Kirkland, Brenda L.; Collins, Krystal M.; Funderburk, William K.

    2010-12-31

    The objective of this project was to couple microbial permeability profile modification (MPPM), with carbon dioxide flooding to improve oil recovery from the Upper Cretaceous Little Creek Oil Field situated in Lincoln and Pike counties, MS. This study determined that MPPM technology, which improves production by utilizing environmentally friendly nutrient solutions to simulate the growth of the indigenous microflora in the most permeable zones of the reservoir thus diverting production to less permeable, previously unswept zones, increased oil production without interfering with the carbon dioxide flooding operation. Laboratory tests determined that no microorganisms were produced in formation waters, but were present in cores. Perhaps the single most significant contribution of this study is the demonstration that microorganisms are active at a formation temperature of 115°C (239°F) by using a specially designed culturing device. Laboratory tests were employed to simulate the MPPM process by demonstrating that microorganisms could be activated with the resulting production of oil in coreflood tests performed in the presence of carbon dioxide at 66°C (the highest temperature that could be employed in the coreflood facility). Geological assessment determined significant heterogeneity in the Eutaw Formation, and documented relatively thin, variably-lithified, well-laminated sandstone interbedded with heavily-bioturbated, clay-rich sandstone and shale. Live core samples of the Upper Cretaceous Eutaw Formation from the Heidelberg Field, MS were quantitatively assessed using SEM, and showed that during MPPM permeability modification occurs ubiquitously within pore and throat spaces of 10-20 μm diameter. Testing of the MPPM procedure in the Little Creek Field showed a significant increase in production occurred in two of the five production test wells; furthermore, the decline curve in each of the production wells became noticeably less steep. This project greatly

  10. E240V substitution increases catalytic efficiency toward ceftazidime in a new natural TEM-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, TEM-149, from Enterobacter aerogenes and Serratia marcescens clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Perilli, Mariagrazia; Celenza, Giuseppe; De Santis, Francesca; Pellegrini, Cristina; Forcella, Chiara; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Stefani, Stefania; Amicosante, Gianfranco

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize a novel extended-spectrum beta-lactamase that belongs to the TEM family, the TEM-149 enzyme, and that was isolated from the urine of two hospitalized patients from different hospitals in southern Italy. The peculiarity of this enzyme was the finding of a valine residue at position 240. The array of amino acid substitutions found in TEM-149 was as follows: E104K, R164S, M182T, and E240V. A reversion of a threonine residue at position 182 was also performed to create a new mutant, TEM-149 T182M, in order to assess the contribution of this substitution on the kinetic profile and the stability of TEM-149. The bla TEM-149 and bla TEM-149/T182M genes were cloned into pBC-SK, and the corresponding enzymes were purified from recombinant Escherichia coli HB101 by the same procedure. Both enzymes hydrolyzed all beta-lactams tested, with a preference for ceftazidime, which was found to be the best substrate. By comparison of the kinetic parameters of the TEM-149 and the TEM-149 T182M enzymes, a reduction of the catalytic efficiency for the TEM-149 T182M mutant was observed against all substrates tested except benzylpenicillin, cefotaxime, and aztreonam. Tazobactam, clavulanic acid, and sulbactam were good inhibitors of the TEM-149 beta-lactamase.

  11. Visible Spectrum Incandescent Selective Emitter

    SciTech Connect

    Sonsight Inc.

    2004-04-30

    The purpose of the work performed was to demonstrate the feasibility of a novel bi-layer selective emitter. Selective emitters are incandescent radiant bodies with emissivities that are substantially larger in a selected part of the radiation spectrum, thereby significantly shifting their radiated spectral distribution from that of a blackbody radiating at the same temperature. The major research objectives involved answering the following questions: (1) What maximum VIS/NIR radiant power and emissivity ratios can be attained at 2650 K? (2) What is the observed emitter body life and how does its performance vary with time? (3) What are the design tradeoffs for a dual heating approach in which both an internally mounted heating coil and electrical resistance self-heating are used? (4) What are the quantitative improvements to be had from utilizing a bi-layer emitter body with a low emissivity inner layer and a partially transmissive outer layer? Two approaches to obtaining selective emissivity were investigated. The first was to utilize large optical scattering within an emitter material with a spectral optical absorption that is much greater within the visible spectrum than that within the NIR. With this approach, an optically thick emitter can radiate almost as if optically thin because essentially, scattering limits the distance below the surface from which significant amounts of internally generated radiation can emerge. The performance of thin emitters was also investigated (for optically thin emitters, spectral emissivity is proportional to spectral absorptivity). These emitters were fabricated from thin mono-layer emitter rods as well as from bi-layer rods with a thin emitter layer mounted on a substrate core. With an initially estimated energy efficiency of almost three times that of standard incandescent bulbs, a number of energy, economic and environmental benefits such as less energy use and cost, reduced CO{sub 2} emissions, and no mercury contamination

  12. Jerusalem artichoke powder: a useful material in producing high-optical-purity l-lactate using an efficient sugar-utilizing thermophilic Bacillus coagulans strain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Limin; Xue, Zhangwei; Zhao, Bo; Yu, Bo; Xu, Ping; Ma, Yanhe

    2013-02-01

    Jerusalem artichoke is a low-requirement crop, which does not interfere with food chain, and is a promising carbon source for industrial fermentation. Microbial conversion of such a renewable raw material to useful products, such as lactic acid, is an important objective in industrial biotechnology. In this study, high-optical-purity l-lactate was efficiently produced from the hydrolysates of Jerusalem artichoke powder by a thermophilic bacterium, Bacillus coagulans XZL4. High l-lactate production (134gl(-1)) was obtained using 267gl(-1) Jerusalem artichoke powder (total reducing sugars of 140gl(-1)) and 10gl(-1) of corn steep powder in fed-batch fermentation, with an average productivity of 2.5gl(-1)h(-1) and a yield of 0.96gg(-1) reducing sugars. The final product optical purity is 99%, which meets the requirement of lactic acid polymerization. Our study represents a cost-effective and promising method for polymer-grade l-lactate production using a cheap raw bio-resource.

  13. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVagm Efficiently Utilizes Non-CCR5 Entry Pathways in African Green Monkey Lymphocytes: Potential Role for GPR15 and CXCR6 as Viral Coreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Riddick, Nadeene E.; Wu, Fan; Matsuda, Kenta; Whitted, Sonya; Ourmanov, Ilnour; Goldstein, Simoy; Goeken, Robert M.; Plishka, Ronald J.; Buckler-White, Alicia; Brenchley, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT African green monkeys (AGM) are natural hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and infection in these animals is generally nonpathogenic, whereas infection of nonnatural hosts, such as rhesus macaques (RM), is commonly pathogenic. CCR5 has been described as the primary entry coreceptor for SIV in vivo, while human-derived CXCR6 and GPR15 also appear to be used in vitro. However, sooty mangabeys that are genetically deficient in CCR5 due to an out-of-frame deletion are infectible with SIVsmm, indicating that SIVsmm can use alternative coreceptors in vivo. In this study, we examined the CCR5 dependence of SIV strains derived from vervet AGM (SIVagmVer) and the ability of AGM-derived GPR15 and CXCR6 to serve as potential entry coreceptors. We found that SIVagmVer replicated efficiently in AGM and RM peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in the presence of the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc, despite the fact that maraviroc was capable of blocking the CCR5-tropic strains SIVmac239, SIVsmE543-3, and simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIV-AD8 in RM PBMC. We also found that AGM CXCR6 and AGM GPR15, to a lesser extent, supported entry of pseudotype viruses bearing SIVagm envelopes, including SIVagm transmitted/founder envelopes. Lastly, we found that CCR5, GPR15, and CXCR6 mRNAs were detected in AGM and RM memory CD4+ T cells. These results suggest that GPR15 and CXCR6 are expressed on AGM CD4+ T cells and are potential alternative coreceptors for SIVagm use in vivo. These data suggest that the use of non-CCR5 entry pathways may be a common feature of SIV replication in natural host species, with the potential to contribute to nonpathogenicity in these animals. IMPORTANCE African green monkeys (AGM) are natural hosts of SIV, and infection in these animals generally does not cause AIDS, whereas SIV-infected rhesus macaques (RM) typically develop AIDS. Although it has been reported that SIV generally uses CD4 and CCR5 to enter target cells in vivo, other

  14. Residual feed intake as a feed efficiency selection tool and its relationship with feed intake, performance and nutrient utilization in Murrah buffalo calves.

    PubMed

    Subhashchandra Bose, Bisitha Kattiparambil; Kundu, Shivlal Singh; Tho, Nguyen Thi Be; Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Sontakke, Umesh Balaji

    2014-04-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between the actual and expected feed intake of an animal based on its body weight and growth rate over a specific period. The objective of this study was to determine the RFI of buffalo calves using residuals from appropriate linear regression models involving dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body weight. Eighteen male Murrah buffalo calves of 5-7 months were selected and fed individually. A feeding trial using ad libitum feeding of total mixed ration (TMR, concentrate/roughage = 40:60) was conducted for 52 days in which the daily DMI, weekly body weight (BW) and growth rate of the calves were monitored. RFI of calves ranged from -0.20 to +0.23 kg/day. Mean DMI (in grams per kilogram of BW(0.75)) during the feeding trial period was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in low RFI group (79.66 g/kg BW(0.75)) compared to high RFI (87.74 g/kg BW(0.75)). Average initial BW, final BW and mid-test BW(0.75) did not differ (P > 0.05) between low and high RFI groups. Over the course of a trial period, low RFI group animals consumed 10% less feed compared to high RFI group of animals, yet performed in a comparable manner in terms of growth rate. Metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm) was found to be significantly (P < 0.05) lower in low RFI group (13.54 MJ/100 kg BW) as compared to that of high RFI group (15.56 MJ/100 kg BW). The present study indicates that RFI is a promising selection tool for the selection of buffaloes for increased feed efficiency.

  15. Enhancement of light harvesting efficiency of silicon solar cell utilizing arrays of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) nano-spheres and nano-spheres with embedded silver nano-particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chee-Leong; Goh, Wee-Sheng; Chee, Swee-Yong; Yik, Lai-Kuan

    2017-02-01

    An array of uniformly distributed monolayer of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) nano-spheres were deposited onto an amorphous silicon photovoltaic cell utilizing dip coating technique. The electrical characteristics of the coated photovoltaic cell reveal that the nano-spheres with an average diameter size of 101 nm exhibits excellent light harvesting characteristics if compared to the nano-spheres of other sizes. The power conversion efficiency from such integration of the nano-structures (i.e. 3.14% per PV cell) indicates that at least 1.6 times of improvement (or relative enhancement of 57%) can be achieved comparatively to the uncoated photovoltaic cell (i.e. 2% per PV cell). Further increment of the power conversion efficiency of the solar cell has been attained with the incorporation of the silver nano-particles into the nano-spheres of similar average size. With the inclusion of the silver nano-particles into such nano-spheres, the power conversion efficiency of the solar cell has attained 5.57% per PV cell, which is about 2.8 times (or relative enhancement of 179%) if compared to the uncoated samples. Hence, this novel and controllable technique of fabricating omnidirectional light-harvesting nano-spheres with embedded silver nano-particles will indubitably be beneficial to various types of optoelectronic devices.

  16. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    cofiring coal with waste paper, sunflower hulls, and wood waste showed a broad spectrum of chemical and physical characteristics, according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C618 procedures. Higher-than-normal levels of magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxide were observed for the biomass-coal fly ash, which may impact utilization in cement replacement in concrete under ASTM requirements. Other niche markets for biomass-derived fly ash were explored. Research was conducted to develop/optimize a catalytic partial oxidation-based concept for a simple, low-cost fuel processor (reformer). Work progressed to evaluate the effects of temperature and denaturant on ethanol catalytic partial oxidation. A catalyst was isolated that had a yield of 24 mole percent, with catalyst coking limited to less than 15% over a period of 2 hours. In biodiesel research, conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using an alternative alkaline catalyst was demonstrated without the need for subsequent water washing. In work related to biorefinery technologies, a continuous-flow reactor was used to react ethanol with lactic acid prepared from an ammonium lactate concentrate produced in fermentations conducted at the EERC. Good yields of ester were obtained even though the concentration of lactic acid in the feed was low with respect to the amount of water present. Esterification gave lower yields of ester, owing to the lowered lactic acid content of the feed. All lactic acid fermentation from amylose hydrolysate test trials was completed. Management activities included a decision to extend several projects to December 31, 2003, because of delays in receiving biomass feedstocks for testing and acquisition of commercial matching funds. In strategic studies, methods for producing acetate esters for high-value fibers, fuel additives, solvents, and chemical intermediates were discussed with several commercial entities. Commercial industries have an interest in efficient biomass

  17. Adaptive threshold determination for efficient channel sensing in cognitive radio network using mobile sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morshed, M. N.; Khatun, S.; Kamarudin, L. M.; Aljunid, S. A.; Ahmad, R. B.; Zakaria, A.; Fakir, M. M.

    2017-03-01

    Spectrum saturation problem is a major issue in wireless communication systems all over the world. Huge number of users is joining each day to the existing fixed band frequency but the bandwidth is not increasing. These requirements demand for efficient and intelligent use of spectrum. To solve this issue, the Cognitive Radio (CR) is the best choice. Spectrum sensing of a wireless heterogeneous network is a fundamental issue to detect the presence of primary users' signals in CR networks. In order to protect primary users (PUs) from harmful interference, the spectrum sensing scheme is required to perform well even in low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) environments. Meanwhile, the sensing period is usually required to be short enough so that secondary (unlicensed) users (SUs) can fully utilize the available spectrum. CR networks can be designed to manage the radio spectrum more efficiently by utilizing the spectrum holes in primary user's licensed frequency bands. In this paper, we have proposed an adaptive threshold detection method to detect presence of PU signal using free space path loss (FSPL) model in 2.4 GHz WLAN network. The model is designed for mobile sensors embedded in smartphones. The mobile sensors acts as SU while the existing WLAN network (channels) works as PU. The theoretical results show that the desired threshold range detection of mobile sensors mainly depends on the noise floor level of the location in consideration.

  18. Technology utilization program report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The application of aerospace technology to the solution of public health and industrial problems is reported. Data cover: (1) development of an externally rechargeable cardiac pacemaker, (2) utilization of ferrofluids-colloidal suspensions of ferrite particles - in the efficient separation of nonferrous metals as Ni, Zn, Cu, and Al from shredded automobile scrap, and (3) development of a breathing system for fire fighters.

  19. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Stephen F.; Dress, William B.

    2010-02-02

    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method includes modulating a signal by utilizing a subset of bits from a pseudo-random code generator to control an amplification circuit that provides a gain to the signal. Another method includes: modulating a signal by utilizing a subset of bits from a pseudo-random code generator to control a fast hopping frequency synthesizer; and fast frequency hopping the signal with the fast hopping frequency synthesizer, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time.

  20. Spectra: Time series power spectrum calculator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, Tabaré

    2017-01-01

    Spectra calculates the power spectrum of a time series equally spaced or not based on the Spectral Correlation Coefficient (Ferraz-Mello 1981, Astron. Journal 86 (4), 619). It is very efficient for detection of low frequencies.

  1. Spectrum Sharing Based on a Bertrand Game in Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Biqing; Zhang, Chi; Hu, Pianpian; Wang, Shengyu

    2017-01-07

    In the study of power control and allocation based on pricing, the utility of secondary users is usually studied from the perspective of the signal to noise ratio. The study of secondary user utility from the perspective of communication demand can not only promote the secondary users to meet the maximum communication needs, but also to maximize the utilization of spectrum resources, however, research in this area is lacking, so from the viewpoint of meeting the demand of network communication, this paper designs a two stage model to solve spectrum leasing and allocation problem in cognitive radio sensor networks (CRSNs). In the first stage, the secondary base station collects the secondary network communication requirements, and rents spectrum resources from several primary base stations using the Bertrand game to model the transaction behavior of the primary base station and secondary base station. The second stage, the subcarriers and power allocation problem of secondary base stations is defined as a nonlinear programming problem to be solved based on Nash bargaining. The simulation results show that the proposed model can satisfy the communication requirements of each user in a fair and efficient way compared to other spectrum sharing schemes.

  2. Spectrum Sharing Based on a Bertrand Game in Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Biqing; Zhang, Chi; Hu, Pianpian; Wang, Shengyu

    2017-01-01

    In the study of power control and allocation based on pricing, the utility of secondary users is usually studied from the perspective of the signal to noise ratio. The study of secondary user utility from the perspective of communication demand can not only promote the secondary users to meet the maximum communication needs, but also to maximize the utilization of spectrum resources, however, research in this area is lacking, so from the viewpoint of meeting the demand of network communication, this paper designs a two stage model to solve spectrum leasing and allocation problem in cognitive radio sensor networks (CRSNs). In the first stage, the secondary base station collects the secondary network communication requirements, and rents spectrum resources from several primary base stations using the Bertrand game to model the transaction behavior of the primary base station and secondary base station. The second stage, the subcarriers and power allocation problem of secondary base stations is defined as a nonlinear programming problem to be solved based on Nash bargaining. The simulation results show that the proposed model can satisfy the communication requirements of each user in a fair and efficient way compared to other spectrum sharing schemes. PMID:28067850

  3. Design Spectrum Analysis in NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, T. G.

    1984-01-01

    The utility of Design Spectrum Analysis is to give a mode by mode characterization of the behavior of a design under a given loading. The theory of design spectrum is discussed after operations are explained. User instructions are taken up here in three parts: Transient Preface, Maximum Envelope Spectrum, and RMS Average Spectrum followed by a Summary Table. A single DMAP ALTER packet will provide for all parts of the design spectrum operations. The starting point for getting a modal break-down of the response to acceleration loading is the Modal Transient rigid format. After eigenvalue extraction, modal vectors need to be isolated in the full set of physical coordinates (P-sized as opposed to the D-sized vectors in RF 12). After integration for transient response the results are scanned over the solution time interval for the peak values and for the times that they occur. A module called SCAN was written to do this job, that organizes these maxima into a diagonal output matrix. The maximum amplifier in each mode is applied to the eigenvector of each mode which then reveals the maximum displacements, stresses, forces and boundary reactions that the structure will experience for a load history, mode by mode. The standard NASTRAN output processors have been modified for this task. It is required that modes be normalized to mass.

  4. The Biokinetic Spectrum for Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Corkrey, Ross; McMeekin, Tom A.; Bowman, John P.; Ratkowsky, David A.; Olley, June; Ross, Tom

    2016-01-01

    We identify and describe the distribution of temperature-dependent specific growth rates for life on Earth, which we term the biokinetic spectrum for temperature. The spectrum has the potential to provide for more robust modeling in thermal ecology since any conclusions derived from it will be based on observed data rather than using theoretical assumptions. It may also provide constraints for systems biology model predictions and provide insights in physiology. The spectrum has a Δ-shape with a sharp peak at around 42°C. At higher temperatures up to 60°C there was a gap of attenuated growth rates. We found another peak at 67°C and a steady decline in maximum rates thereafter. By using Bayesian quantile regression to summarise and explore the data we were able to conclude that the gap represented an actual biological transition between mesophiles and thermophiles that we term the Mesophile-Thermophile Gap (MTG). We have not identified any organism that grows above the maximum rate of the spectrum. We used a thermodynamic model to recover the Δ-shape, suggesting that the growth rate limits arise from a trade-off between activity and stability of proteins. The spectrum provides underpinning principles that will find utility in models concerned with the thermal responses of biological processes. PMID:27088362

  5. The Biokinetic Spectrum for Temperature.

    PubMed

    Corkrey, Ross; McMeekin, Tom A; Bowman, John P; Ratkowsky, David A; Olley, June; Ross, Tom

    2016-01-01

    We identify and describe the distribution of temperature-dependent specific growth rates for life on Earth, which we term the biokinetic spectrum for temperature. The spectrum has the potential to provide for more robust modeling in thermal ecology since any conclusions derived from it will be based on observed data rather than using theoretical assumptions. It may also provide constraints for systems biology model predictions and provide insights in physiology. The spectrum has a Δ-shape with a sharp peak at around 42°C. At higher temperatures up to 60°C there was a gap of attenuated growth rates. We found another peak at 67°C and a steady decline in maximum rates thereafter. By using Bayesian quantile regression to summarise and explore the data we were able to conclude that the gap represented an actual biological transition between mesophiles and thermophiles that we term the Mesophile-Thermophile Gap (MTG). We have not identified any organism that grows above the maximum rate of the spectrum. We used a thermodynamic model to recover the Δ-shape, suggesting that the growth rate limits arise from a trade-off between activity and stability of proteins. The spectrum provides underpinning principles that will find utility in models concerned with the thermal responses of biological processes.

  6. Efficient Utilization of the Drama Service Channel.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    rate, which is 192 kb/s for the DRAMA service channel. A voice interface module has been proposed for the LSTDM. This module would use CVSD encoding...The LSTDM does not support a PCM analog interface. A CVSD voice interface has been proposed. A service channel he:work can be implemented for the...digital interface or the CVSD voice interface . The CVSD interface will require an analog bridge for interconnection at each site. The degradation 38 Lp o

  7. Utility of a novel multiplex TaqMan PCR assay for metallo-β-lactamase genes plus other TaqMan assays in detecting genes encoding serine carbapenemases and clinically significant extended-spectrum β-lactamases.

    PubMed

    Swayne, Rosemary; Ellington, Matthew J; Curran, Martin D; Woodford, Neil; Aliyu, Sani H

    2013-10-01

    Prompt detection of infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae that produce therapeutically important β-lactamases [metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs), serine carbapenemases, acquired AmpC and CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs)] is crucial for infection prevention and control and surveillance purposes, and, more contentiously, also for effective patient management. A novel TaqMan PCR assay was developed to detect genes encoding IMP, VIM, NDM, SPM, SIM and GIM MBLs. Published PCR assays for acquired genes encoding CTX-M ESBLs and AmpC β-lactamases were updated and adapted to the TaqMan format, respectively. A published TaqMan assay for serine carbapenemase genes was used. Assay specificity was tested using a panel of 59 isolates with known acquired genes from the four different β-lactamase groupings. The four TaqMan assays correctly identified the most clinically relevant acquired β-lactamase genes in the panel of 59 resistant Enterobacteriaceae, which included 3 VIM-, 7 NDM- and 12 IMP-producers. Consecutive, non-duplicate isolates of Enterobacteriaceae from 965 urinary and 343 blood cultures during 2010 were then screened for β-lactamase genes using these TaqMan assays. Amongst the urinary and blood culture isolates tested, 69 CTX-M-producers and 21 acquired AmpC β-lactamase-producers were identified; the CTX-M rate amongst blood culture isolates (9.3%) broadly reflects the UK national average. During the study period, one Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate producing an NDM carbapenemase was identified from a wound sample. The assays developed and/or used will enable the future surveillance and the rapid detection and appropriate early treatment of infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria producing clinically important β-lactamases, including carbapenemases.

  8. Efficient Direct Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Detection by Multiplex Real-Time PCR: Accurate Assignment of Phenotype by Use of a Limited Set of Genetic Markers ▿

    PubMed Central

    Ellem, Justin; Partridge, Sally R.; Iredell, Jonathan R.

    2011-01-01

    The number and diversity of genes potentially complicate genetic approaches to the rapid detection of transmissible extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes. We developed a robust multiplexed real-time PCR assay based on targets identified in a prior survey and used this to detect relevant genes in 617 consecutive clinical isolates of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:21613435

  9. Energy Conservation Through Effective Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Charles A.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses various ways in which the demand for energy could be decreased, focusing not so much on discouraging demand by increasing prices, as on reducing energy consumption by improving efficiency of energy utilization in buildings and in industry. (JR)

  10. Mineralization of soluble P fertilizers and insoluble rock phosphate in response to phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and poultry manure and their effect on the growth and P utilization efficiency of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, M. K.; Musa, N.; Manzoor, M.

    2015-08-01

    The ability of soil microorganisms and organic manure to convert insoluble phosphorus (P) to an accessible form offers a biological rescue system for improving P utilization efficiency in soil-plant systems. Our objective was to examine the P mineralization potential of two soluble P fertilizers (SPF), i.e., single superphosphate (SSP) and diammonium phosphate (DAP), and of insoluble rock phosphate (RP) with and without phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and poultry manure (PM) and their subsequent effect on the growth, yield and P utilization efficiency (PUE) of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.). An incubation study was carried out on a loam (slightly alkaline) soil with 12 treatments: T0 - control; T1 - RP; T2 - SSP; T3 - DAP; T4 - PM; T5 - 1/2 RP+1/2 SSP; T6 - 1/2 RP+1/2 DAP; T7 - 1/2 RP+1/2 PM; T8 - RP+PSB; T9 - 1/2 RP+1/2 SSP+PSB; T10 - 1/2 RP+1/2 DAP+PSB; and T11 - 1/2 RP+1/2 PM+PSB. Phosphorus mineralization was measured by analyzing extractable P from the amended soil incubated under controlled conditions at 25 °C for periods of 0, 5, 15, 25, 35 and 60 days. A complementary greenhouse experiment was conducted in pots with chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) as a test crop. Growth, yield, P uptake and PUE of the chilli was determined during the study. Results indicated that P mineralization in soil amended with RP was 6.0-11.5 mg kg-1, while both soluble P fertilizers resulted in 68-73 mg P kg-1 at day 0, which decreased by 79-82 % at the end of incubation. The integrated use of PSB and PM with RP in T11 stimulated P mineralization by releasing a maximum of 25 mg P kg-1 that was maintained at high levels without any loss. Use of PSB decreased soil pH. In the greenhouse experiment, RP alone or RP+PSB did not have a significant impact on plant growth. However, the combined use of RP, PM and PSB in T11 resulted in similar growth, yield and P uptake of chilli as DAP. The PUE of applied P varied from 4 to 29 % and was higher in the treatments that included PSB. We conclude

  11. Phosphorus release capacity of soluble P fertilizers and insoluble rock phosphate in response to phosphate solubilizing bacteria and poultry manure and their effect on plant growth promotion and P utilization efficiency of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, M. K.; Musa, N.; Manzoor, M.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of soil microorganisms and organic manures to convert insoluble phosphorus (P) to an accessible form offers a biological rescue system for improving P solubilization and utilization in soil-plant systems. Our objective was to examine the P supplying capacity of soluble P fertilizers (SPF) i.e. single super phosphate (SSP) and di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) and insoluble rock phosphate (RP) after adding phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and poultry manure (PM) and their subsequent effect on the growth, yield and P-utilization efficiency (PUE) of chill (Capsicum annuum L.). An incubation study was carried-out on a sandy loam neutral soil with twelve treatments including T0: control; T1: RP; T2: SSP; T3: DAP; T4: PM; T5: 1/2 RP + 1/2 SSP; T6: 1/2 RP + 1/2 DAP; T7: 1/2 RP + 1/2 PM; T8: RP + PSB; T9: 1/2 RP + 1/2 SSP + PSB; T10: 1/2 RP + 1/2 DAP + PSB; T11: 1/2 RP + 1/2 PM + PSB. Phosphorus release capacity of added amendments was measured by analyzing extractable P from the amended soil incubated under controlled condition at 25 °C for 0, 5, 15, 25, 35, 60 days period. To complement the incubation study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted in pots with chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) used as a test crop. Growth, yield, P-uptake and PUE of the chilli was determined during the study. Results indicated that P release capacity of soil amended with RP varied between 6.0 and 11.5 mg kg-1 while the soluble P fertilizers i.e. SSP and DAP displayed a maximum of 73 and 68 mg P kg-1 at the start of the experiment (day 0). However, the P released tendency from SSP and DAP declined during incubation and at the end 82 and 79% of P initially present had been lost from the mineral pool. Integrated use of PSB and PM with RP in 1/2 RP + 1/2 PM + PSB treatment stimulated P mineralization by releasing a maximum of 25 mg P kg-1 that was maintained at high levels without any loss. Application of PSB tended to decrease pH showing an acidifying effect on soil. In the greenhouse

  12. Optimization of rate and efficiency of dietary nitrogen utilization through the use of animal by-products and(or) urea and their effects on nutrient digestion in Holstein steers.

    PubMed

    Knaus, W F; Beermann, D H; Guiroy, P J; Boehm, M L; Fox, D G

    2001-03-01

    The objective of this N balance study was to determine the potential for improving the efficiency and rate of dietary N utilization in Holstein steers by feeding an amino acid-balanced mixture of animal by-product protein sources in combination with urea. The Beef NRC 1996 Model Level 2 was used to formulate a corn-based (86:14 concentrate-hay) control diet with soybean meal as the primary N supplement that would provide ME and metabolizable protein (MP) allowable ADG of 1.4 kg in 250-kg steers with an estrogenic implant and fed an ionophore. A combination of porcine meat and bone meal, fish meal, hydrolyzed feather meal, and blood meal was also formulated as an undegradable intake protein (UIP) blend to complement those amino acids (AA) derived from microbial protein synthesis. Four steers with an average initial BW of 259 kg were assigned in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to treatments consisting of control, two levels of UIP inclusion (2.6 and 5.2%; DM basis) in combination with urea, and a negative control "urea diet" containing no UIP and no SBM. The steers were fed at hourly intervals 95% of ad libitum intake and were injected with 500 microg of estradiol-17beta twice daily. Nitrogen intakes were 155, 160, 162, and 145 g/d, and N balances were 47, 51, 42, and 47 g/d when the 0, 2.6, 5.2% UIP and the urea diets were fed, respectively. Nitrogen balance was reduced with the 5.2% UIP diet (P < 0.05), and was less than the capacity estimate derived from abosmasal casein infusion studies. Apparent N digestibilities averaged 69%, but DM, OM, and nonstructural carbohydrate digestibilities were significantly reduced for the urea diet. Feeding 5.2% UIP in the diet reduced (P < 0.05) the biological value from 46 to 38%, which was accompanied by a significant elevation of plasma urea N. Results indicate that genetic capacity for N retention was approximately 51 g/d. Results demonstrate that use of an AA-balanced blend of animal by-product protein sources did not improve the

  13. Multiresolution modulation for efficient broadcast of information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundstrom, Mika; Renfors, Markku

    1994-09-01

    Methods for reliable transmission of information, especially digital television, are considered. In the broadcast channel, several different receiver configurations and channel conditions make an optimization of the channel coding practically impossible. To efficiently utilize available spectrum and to allow robust reception in adverse channel conditions, joint source- channel coding is applied. This is achieved utilizing multiresolution modulation combined with unequal error protection in the channel coding part and data prioritization in source coder. These design parameters for the joint system are considered. The emphasis of this paper is on the modulation part. Multiresolution 32 QAM is presented. Simulations show good performance in the additive white gaussian noise channel and, moreover, results in multipath fading channel are encouraging as far as high priority level of the data is considered.

  14. Making energy efficiency happen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirst, E.

    1991-04-01

    Improving energy efficiency is the least expensive and most effective way to address simultaneously several national issues. Improving efficiency saves money for consumers, increases economic productivity and international competitiveness, enhances national security by lowering oil imports, and reduces the adverse environmental effects of energy production. This paper discusses some of the many opportunities to improve efficiency, emphasizing the roles of government and utilities.

  15. Identify bipolar spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Mynatt, Sarah; Cunningham, Patricia; Manning, J Sloan

    2002-06-01

    Patients with bipolar spectrum disorders commonly present with depressive symptoms to primary care clinicians. This article details bipolar spectrum disorder assessment, treatment, and treatment response. By intervening early in the course of depressive and hypomanic episodes, you can help decrease the morbidity and suffering associated with bipolar spectrum disorders.

  16. Characterizing and evaluating the expression of the type IIb sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter (slc34a2) gene and its potential influence on phosphorus utilization efficiency in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco).

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei; Tang, Qin; Wang, Chunfang

    2016-02-01

    A sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter gene, NaPi-IIb (slc34a2), was isolated from yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) intestine through homology cloning and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length cDNA of slc34a2 consisted of 2326 bp with an open reading frame encoding 621 amino acids, a 160-bp 5' untranslated region, and a 300-bp 3' untranslated region. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 79.0 and 70.9% sequence identity to Astyanax mexicanus and Pundamilia nyererei, respectively. The membrane-spanning domains based on the hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties of the deduced amino acids were predicted, and results showed that the putative protein had eight transmembrane domains, with the intracellular NH2 and COOH termini. Two functional regions including first intracellular loop and third extracellular loop as well as the six N-glycosylation sites in second extracellular loop were found. The slc34a2 mRNA in the tested tissues was examined through semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and quantitative real-time PCR, with the highest level found in the anterior intestine, followed by the posterior and middle intestines. The slc34a2 mRNA expression in the whole intestine under different dietary phosphorus (P) treatments was detected using qPCR. The results showed that the slc34a2 expression levels in the low-P groups (0.33 and 0.56%) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than levels in the sufficient-P (0.81%) and high-P (1.15, 1.31, and 1.57%) groups. High expression of slc34a2 mRNA in low-P groups stimulated P utilization efficiency, indicating the close relationship between genotype and phenotype in yellow catfish. In contrast with conventional strategies (formula and feeding strategies), this study provided another possible approach by using molecular techniques to increase the P utilization in yellow catfish.

  17. SAW correlator spread spectrum receiver

    DOEpatents

    Brocato, Robert W

    2014-04-01

    A surface acoustic wave (SAW) correlator spread-spectrum (SS) receiver is disclosed which utilizes a first demodulation stage with a chip length n and a second demodulation stage with a chip length m to decode a transmitted SS signal having a code length l=n.times.m which can be very long (e.g. up to 2000 chips or more). The first demodulation stage utilizes a pair of SAW correlators which demodulate the SS signal to generate an appropriate code sequence at an intermediate frequency which can then be fed into the second demodulation stage which can be formed from another SAW correlator, or by a digital correlator. A compound SAW correlator comprising two input transducers and a single output transducer is also disclosed which can be used to form the SAW correlator SS receiver, or for use in processing long code length signals.

  18. The stability of spectrum reproduction by LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hua; Li, Jing; Yao, Ran; Lu, Pengzhi; Pei, Yanrong

    2015-09-01

    Spectral power distribution together with color consistency and constancy of natural light is studied and simulated before the white-light LED systems are fabricated to reproduce the natural light. The model with 3, 4, 6 and more primary LEDs based on the real measured spectrum and theoretical spectrum are analyzed. The spectral power sensitivity relation between the LEDs with different wavelength and color characteristic is analyzed. This research simplifies the approach of visible spectrum reconstruction which is an efficient way to use in the design and realization of LED-based luminaire.

  19. Facial Feedback Mechanisms in Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stel, Marielle; van den Heuvel, Claudia; Smeets, Raymond C.

    2008-01-01

    Facial feedback mechanisms of adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) were investigated utilizing three studies. Facial expressions, which became activated via automatic (Studies 1 and 2) or intentional (Study 2) mimicry, or via holding a pen between the teeth (Study 3), influenced corresponding emotions for controls, while individuals…

  20. SYNTH: A spectrum synthesizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensley, W. K.; McKinnon, A. D.; Miley, H. S.; Panisko, M. E.; Savard, R. M.

    1993-10-01

    A computer code has been written at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to synthesize the results of typical gamma ray spectroscopy experiments. The code, dubbed SYNTH, allows a user to specify physical characteristics of a gamma ray source, the quantity of the nuclides producing the radiation, the source-to-detector distance and the presence of absorbers, the type and size of the detector, and the electronic set up used to gather the data. In the process of specifying the parameters needed to synthesize a spectrum, several interesting intermediate results are produced, including a photopeak transmission function versus energy, a detector efficiency curve, and a weighted list of gamma and x rays produced from a set of nuclides. All of these intermediate results are available for graphical inspection and for printing. SYNTH runs on personal computers. It is menu driven and can be customized to user specifications. SYNTH contains robust support for coaxial germanium detectors and some support for sodium iodide detectors. SYNTH is not a finished product. A number of additional developments are planned. However, the existing code has been compared carefully to spectra obtained from National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) certified standards with very favorable results. Examples of the use of SYNTH and several spectral results are presented.

  1. Recent Progress in Understanding the Baryon Resonance Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crede, Volker

    2017-01-01

    Baryons are complex systems of confined quarks and gluons and exhibit the characteristic spectra of excited states. These states are sensitive to the details of quark confinement, which is only poorly understood with quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the fundamental theory of the strong interaction. To gain insight into this complex dynamics, the baryonic excitation spectrum has been studied for many years. The key question remains what are the relevant degrees of freedom for the resonance physics of QCD. Are the so-called constituent quarks the most efficient way to describe reaction amplitudes and the excitation spectrum of QCD with light quarks? To what extent are diquark correlations, gluonic modes or hadronic degrees of freedom important in this physics? In recent years, lattice-QCD has made significant progress toward understanding the spectra of hadrons, reducing statistical uncertainties and employing robust techniques for spin identication. However, a calculation of the physical excited baryon spectrum is still a tough challenge with present computing power. On the experimental side, high-energy electrons and photons are a remarkably clean probe of hadronic matter, providing a microscope for examining atomic nuclei and the strong nuclear force. Significant progress has been achieved with the recent availability of new polarization data, utilizing polarized beams and/or polarized targets at various laboratories worldwide, e.g. Jefferson Lab in the United States. These are important steps toward so-called complete experiments that will allow us to unambiguously determine the scattering amplitudes in the underlying reactions and to identify resonance contributions. In this presentation, I will give an overview of the excited baryon program and I will discuss the current (experimental) status of the nucleon excitation spectrum. Support is acknowledged from the Department of Energy grant #DE-FG02-92ER40735.

  2. Increased photovoltaic power output via diffractive spectrum separation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ganghun; Dominguez-Caballero, Jose A; Lee, Howard; Friedman, Daniel J; Menon, Rajesh

    2013-03-22

    In this Letter, we report the preliminary demonstration of a new paradigm for photovoltaic power generation that utilizes a broadband diffractive-optical element (BDOE) to efficiently separate sunlight into laterally spaced spectral bands. These bands are then absorbed by single-junction photovoltaic cells, whose band gaps correspond to the incident spectral bands. We designed such BDOEs by utilizing a modified version of the direct-binary-search algorithm. Gray scale lithography was used to fabricate these multilevel optics. They were experimentally characterized with an overall optical efficiency of 70% over a wavelength range of 350-1100 nm, which was in excellent agreement with simulation predictions. Finally, two prototype devices were assembled: one with a pair of copper indium gallium selenide based photovoltaic devices, and another with GaAs and c-Si photovoltaic devices. These devices demonstrated an increase in output peak electrical power of ∼ 42% and ∼ 22%, respectively, under white-light illumination. Because of the optical versatility and manufacturability of the proposed BDOEs, the reported spectrum-splitting approach provides a new approach toward low-cost solar power.

  3. Accelerating Spectrum Sharing Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Juan D. Deaton; Lynda L. Brighton; Rangam Subramanian; Hussein Moradi; Jose Loera

    2013-09-01

    Spectrum sharing potentially holds the promise of solving the emerging spectrum crisis. However, technology innovators face the conundrum of developing spectrum sharing technologies without the ability to experiment and test with real incumbent systems. Interference with operational incumbents can prevent critical services, and the cost of deploying and operating an incumbent system can be prohibitive. Thus, the lack of incumbent systems and frequency authorization for technology incubation and demonstration has stymied spectrum sharing research. To this end, industry, academia, and regulators all require a test facility for validating hypotheses and demonstrating functionality without affecting operational incumbent systems. This article proposes a four-phase program supported by our spectrum accountability architecture. We propose that our comprehensive experimentation and testing approach for technology incubation and demonstration will accelerate the development of spectrum sharing technologies.

  4. Increasing the efficiency of organic solar cells using dielectric spherical nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimirova, Yu. V.; Zadkov, V. N.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we review recent progress in using plasmonic nanoparticles for improving efficiency of the organic photovoltaic (PV) cells with embedded plasmonic nanoparticles. Specifically, we discuss how the plasmonic nanoparticles can be used for guiding and concentrating the light for enhanced absorption, paying attention to both fundamentals and design considerations, as well as to realization of the broadband plasmonic scattering to better utilize the incoming solar spectrum. Plus to that, we discuss potential advantages of using dielectric nanoparticles in PV solar cells.

  5. Statistical linearization based estimation of the peak response of nonlinear systems subject to the EC8 design spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Spanos, Pol D.; Giaralis, Agathoklis

    2008-07-08

    A stochastic approach is proposed to obtain reliable estimates of the peak response of nonlinear systems to excitations specified via a response/design seismic spectrum. This is achieved without resorting to numerical integration of the governing nonlinear equations of motion. First, a numerical scheme is utilized to derive a power spectrum which is compatible in a stochastic sense to a given elastic design spectrum. This spectrum is then treated as the excitation spectrum in the context of the statistical linearization method to determine effective parameters, damping and stiffness, corresponding to an equivalent linear system (ELS). The obtained parameters are used in conjunction with the linear design spectrum, for various values of damping, to estimate the response of certain nonlinear systems. The case of single-degree-of-freedom systems with cubic stiffness nonlinearity and hysteretic systems whose restoring force traces a bilinear law are considered in conjunction with the elastic design spectrum prescribed by the European aseismic code provisions (EC8). Monte Carlo simulations pertaining to an ensemble of non-stationary EC 8 design spectrum compatible accelerograms are conducted to confirm that the average peak response of the nonlinear systems compare reasonably well with that of the ELS. This is true, even in cases where the response of the nonlinear oscillators deviates significantly from the linear one. In this manner, the proposed approach yields ELS which can reliably replace the original nonlinear systems in carrying out computationally efficient analyses in the initial stages of the aseismic design of structures under severe seismic excitations. Furthermore, the potential of this approach for developing inelastic design spectra from a given elastic design spectrum is established.

  6. Use of diabetes data management software reports by health care providers, patients with diabetes, and caregivers improves accuracy and efficiency of data analysis and interpretation compared with traditional logbook data: first results of the Accu-Chek Connect Reports Utility and Efficiency Study (ACCRUES).

    PubMed

    Hinnen, Deborah A; Buskirk, Ann; Lyden, Maureen; Amstutz, Linda; Hunter, Tracy; Parkin, Christopher G; Wagner, Robin

    2015-03-01

    We assessed users' proficiency and efficiency in identifying and interpreting self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG), insulin, and carbohydrate intake data using data management software reports compared with standard logbooks. This prospective, self-controlled, randomized study enrolled insulin-treated patients with diabetes (PWDs) (continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion [CSII] and multiple daily insulin injection [MDI] therapy), patient caregivers [CGVs]) and health care providers (HCPs) who were naïve to diabetes data management computer software. Six paired clinical cases (3 CSII, 3 MDI) and associated multiple-choice questions/answers were reviewed by diabetes specialists and presented to participants via a web portal in both software report (SR) and traditional logbook (TL) formats. Participant response time and accuracy were documented and assessed. Participants completed a preference questionnaire at study completion. All participants (54 PWDs, 24 CGVs, 33 HCPs) completed the cases. Participants achieved greater accuracy (assessed by percentage of accurate answers) using the SR versus TL formats: PWDs, 80.3 (13.2)% versus 63.7 (15.0)%, P < .0001; CGVs, 84.6 (8.9)% versus 63.6 (14.4)%, P < .0001; HCPs, 89.5 (8.0)% versus 66.4 (12.3)%, P < .0001. Participants spent less time (minutes) with each case using the SR versus TL formats: PWDs, 8.6 (4.3) versus 19.9 (12.2), P < .0001; CGVs, 7.0 (3.5) versus 15.5 (11.8), P = .0005; HCPs, 6.7 (2.9) versus 16.0 (12.0), P < .0001. The majority of participants preferred using the software reports versus logbook data. Use of the Accu-Chek Connect Online software reports enabled PWDs, CGVs, and HCPs, naïve to diabetes data management software, to identify and utilize key diabetes information with significantly greater accuracy and efficiency compared with traditional logbook information. Use of SRs was preferred over logbooks.

  7. Spectral splitting optimization for high-efficiency solar photovoltaic and thermal power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierman, David M.; Lenert, Andrej; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2016-12-01

    Utilizing the full solar spectrum is desirable to enhance the conversion efficiency of a solar power generator. In practice, this can be achieved through spectral splitting between multiple converters in parallel. However, it is unclear which wavelength bands should be directed to each converter in order to maximize the efficiency. We developed a model of an ideal hybrid solar converter which utilizes both a single-junction photovoltaic cell and a thermal engine. We determined the limiting efficiencies of this hybrid strategy and the corresponding optimum spectral bandwidth directed to the photovoltaic cell. This optimum width is inversely proportional to the thermal engine efficiency and scales with the bandgap of the photovoltaic cell. This bandwidth was also obtained analytically through an entropy minimization scheme and matches well with our model. We show that the maximum efficiency of the system occurs when it minimizes the spectral entropy generation. This concept can be extended to capture generalized non-idealities to increase the usefulness of this technique for a range of full solar spectrum utilization technologies.

  8. Radiation detector spectrum simulator

    DOEpatents

    Wolf, M.A.; Crowell, J.M.

    1985-04-09

    A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source generates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith to generate several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

  9. Radiation detector spectrum simulator

    DOEpatents

    Wolf, Michael A.; Crowell, John M.

    1987-01-01

    A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source nerates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith generates several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

  10. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  11. The CMBR spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Stebbins, A.

    1997-05-01

    Here we give an introduction to the observed spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) and discuss what can be learned about it. Particular attention will be given to how Compton scattering can distort the spectrum of the CMBR. An incomplete bibliography of relevant papers is also provided.

  12. Evaluating Energy Conversion Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byvik, C. E.; Smith, B. T.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1983-01-01

    Devices that convert solar radiation directly into storable chemical or electrical energy, have characteristic energy absorption spectrum; specifically, each of these devices has energy threshold. The conversion efficiency of generalized system that emcompasses all threshold devices is analyzed, resulting in family of curves for devices of various threshold energies operating at different temperatures.

  13. Synthesis of artificial spectrum-compatible seismic accelerograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrochidou, E.; Alvanitopoulos, P. F.; Andreadis, I.; Elenas, A.; Mallousi, K.

    2014-08-01

    The Hilbert-Huang transform is used to generate artificial seismic signals compatible with the acceleration spectra of natural seismic records. Artificial spectrum-compatible accelerograms are utilized instead of natural earthquake records for the dynamic response analysis of many critical structures such as hospitals, bridges, and power plants. The realistic estimation of the seismic response of structures involves nonlinear dynamic analysis. Moreover, it requires seismic accelerograms representative of the actual ground acceleration time histories expected at the site of interest. Unfortunately, not many actual records of different seismic intensities are available for many regions. In addition, a large number of seismic accelerograms are required to perform a series of nonlinear dynamic analyses for a reliable statistical investigation of the structural behavior under earthquake excitation. These are the main motivations for generating artificial spectrum-compatible seismic accelerograms and could be useful in earthquake engineering for dynamic analysis and design of buildings. According to the proposed method, a single natural earthquake record is deconstructed into amplitude and frequency components using the Hilbert-Huang transform. The proposed method is illustrated by studying 20 natural seismic records with different characteristics such as different frequency content, amplitude, and duration. Experimental results reveal the efficiency of the proposed method in comparison with well-established and industrial methods in the literature.

  14. A Comprehensive Book on Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the book is to serve for clinical, practical, basic and scholarly practices. In twentyfive chapters it covers the most important topics related to Autism Spectrum Disorders in the efficient way and aims to be useful for health professionals in training or clinicians seeking an update. Different people with autism can have very different…

  15. Gender Differences in Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipes, Megan; Matson, Johnny L.; Worley, Julie A.; Kozlowski, Alison M.

    2011-01-01

    Gender differences in symptoms representing the triad of impairments of Autism Spectrum Disorders remain unclear. To date, the majority of research conducted on this topic has utilized samples of older children. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to utilize a sample of toddlers to investigate gender differences in symptom endorsements of…

  16. Optical wireless applications: a solution to ease the wireless airwaves spectrum crunch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavehrad, M.

    2013-01-01

    Demands by the communications industry for greater and greater bandwidth push the capability of conventional wireless technology. Part of the Radio Spectrum that is suitable for mobility is very limited. Higher frequency waves above 30 GHz tend to travel only a few miles or less and generally do not penetrate solid materials very well. This offers a sustainable solution for the current Spectrum Crunch in the lower microwave bands. One mission of this paper is to demonstrate practical and usable networks that can select a self-limiting link distance, allowing spectrum reuse. The motivation for operators of such bands to actually choose to self-limit is that by doing so, they improve the signal-tonoise against competing users at a lower cost than trying to overcome interference. These characteristics of wave propagation are not necessarily disadvantageous as they enable more densely packed communications links. Thus, high frequencies can provide very efficient spectrum utilization through "selective spectrum reuse", and naturally increase the security of transmissions. Optical systems and networks offer a far greater bandwidth. This means new devices and systems have to be developed. Semiconductor Light Emitting Diode (LED) is considered to be the future primary lighting source for buildings, automobiles and aircrafts. LED provides higher energy efficiency compared to incandescent and fluorescent light sources and it will play a major role in the global reduction of carbon dioxide emissions, as a consequence of the significant energy savings. Lasers are also under investigation for similar applications. These core devices have the potential to revolutionize how we use light, including not only for illumination, but as well; for communications, sensing, navigation, positioning, surveillance, and imaging.

  17. Resource utilization during software development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelkowitz, Marvin V.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses resource utilization over the life cycle of software development and discusses the role that the current 'waterfall' model plays in the actual software life cycle. Software production in the NASA environment was analyzed to measure these differences. The data from 13 different projects were collected by the Software Engineering Laboratory at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and analyzed for similarities and differences. The results indicate that the waterfall model is not very realistic in practice, and that as technology introduces further perturbations to this model with concepts like executable specifications, rapid prototyping, and wide-spectrum languages, we need to modify our model of this process.

  18. IRIS Spectrum Line Plot

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows a line plot of the spectrum. The spectra here are shown for various locations on the Sun. The changes in the movie are caused by differing physical conditions in the locations. Cre...

  19. Quantum Spread Spectrum Communication

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, Travis S

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate that spectral teleportation can coherently dilate the spectral probability amplitude of a single photon. In preserving the encoded quantum information, this variant of teleportation subsequently enables a form of quantum spread spectrum communication.

  20. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... essential data on ASD, search for factors that put children at risk for ASD and possible causes, ... United States to help identify factors that may put children at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ...

  1. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): Condition Information Skip sharing on ... Restricted interests and repetitive behaviors Different people with autism can have different symptoms. For this reason, autism ...

  2. Lyapunov spectrum in turbulent combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanaly, Malik; Raman, Venkat

    2016-11-01

    Transient flame evolution is an important flow problem for many practical applications (for example high-altitude relight, ignition in internal combustion engines, unstart in scramjets). Current approaches to combustion modeling utilize assumptions that are valid mainly for statistically stationary processes. In order to understand the transient problem, a dynamic systems approach is followed here. The propagation of a flame in a turbulent channel flow is used as a canonical turbulent combustion system and is analyzed with the Lyapunov theory. In particular, the Lyapunov spectrum for this flow is computed using multiple coordinated simulations. For a range of flow conditions, dimensionality of the state-space is determined. It is shown that the internal structure of the flame plays a critical role in determining the response of the system to perturbations in the flow.

  3. Ion-thruster propellant utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.

    1971-01-01

    The evaluation and understanding of maximum propellant utilization, with mercury used as the propellant are presented. The primary-electron region in the ion chamber of a bombardment thruster is analyzed at maximum utilization. The results of this analysis, as well as experimental data from a range of ion-chamber configurations, show a nearly constant loss rate for unionized propellant at maximum utilization over a wide range of total propellant flow rate. The discharge loss level of 1000 eV/ion was used as a definition of maximum utilization, but the exact level of this definition has no effect on the qualitative results and little effect on the quantitative results. There are obvious design applications for the results of this investigation, but the results are particularly significant whenever efficient throttled operation is required.

  4. 47 CFR 27.1214 - EBS spectrum leasing arrangements and grandfathered leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false EBS spectrum leasing arrangements and... Educational Broadband Service § 27.1214 EBS spectrum leasing arrangements and grandfathered leases. (a) A licensee in the EBS that is solely utilizing analog transmissions may enter into a spectrum...

  5. 47 CFR 27.1214 - EBS spectrum leasing arrangements and grandfathered leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EBS spectrum leasing arrangements and... Educational Broadband Service § 27.1214 EBS spectrum leasing arrangements and grandfathered leases. (a) A licensee in the EBS that is solely utilizing analog transmissions may enter into a spectrum...

  6. 47 CFR 27.1214 - EBS spectrum leasing arrangements and grandfathered leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false EBS spectrum leasing arrangements and... Educational Broadband Service § 27.1214 EBS spectrum leasing arrangements and grandfathered leases. (a) A licensee in the EBS that is solely utilizing analog transmissions may enter into a spectrum...

  7. 47 CFR 27.1214 - EBS spectrum leasing arrangements and grandfathered leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false EBS spectrum leasing arrangements and... Educational Broadband Service § 27.1214 EBS spectrum leasing arrangements and grandfathered leases. (a) A licensee in the EBS that is solely utilizing analog transmissions may enter into a spectrum...

  8. 47 CFR 27.1214 - EBS spectrum leasing arrangements and grandfathered leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false EBS spectrum leasing arrangements and... Educational Broadband Service § 27.1214 EBS spectrum leasing arrangements and grandfathered leases. (a) A licensee in the EBS that is solely utilizing analog transmissions may enter into a spectrum...

  9. Smart radio: spectrum access for first responders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvius, Mark D.; Ge, Feng; Young, Alex; MacKenzie, Allen B.; Bostian, Charles W.

    2008-04-01

    This paper details the Wireless at Virginia Tech Center for Wireless Telecommunications' (CWT) design and implementation of its Smart Radio (SR) communication platform. The CWT SR can identify available spectrum within a pre-defined band, rendezvous with an intended receiver, and transmit voice and data using a selected quality of service (QoS). This system builds upon previous cognitive technologies developed by CWT for the public safety community, with the goal of providing a prototype mobile communications package for military and public safety First Responders. A master control (MC) enables spectrum awareness by characterizing the radio environment with a power spectrum sensor and an innovative signal detection and classification module. The MC also enables spectrum and signal memory by storing sensor results in a knowledge database. By utilizing a family radio service (FRS) waveform database, the CWT SR can create a new communication link on any designated FRS channel frequency using FM, BPSK, QPSK, or 8PSK modulations. With FM, it supports analog voice communications with legacy hand-held FRS radios. With digital modulations, it supports IP data services, including a CWT developed CVSD-based VoIP protocol. The CWT SR coordinates spectrum sharing between analog primary users and digital secondary users by applying a simple but effective channel-change protocol. It also demonstrates a novel rendezvous protocol to facilitate the detection and initialization of communications links with neighboring SR nodes through the transmission of frequency-hopped rendezvous beacons. By leveraging the GNU Radio toolkit, writing key modules entirely in Python, and utilizing the USRP hardware front-end, the CWT SR provides a dynamic spectrum test bed for future smart and cognitive radio research.

  10. High Efficiency Hybrid Solar Cells Using Nanocrystalline Si Quantum Dots and Si Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Mrinal; Thirugnanam, Lavanya; Trinh, Pham Van; Fukata, Naoki

    2015-07-28

    We report on an efficient hybrid Si nanocrystal quantum dot modified radial p-n junction thinner Si solar cell that utilizes the advantages of effective exciton collection by energy transfer from nanocrystal-Si (nc-Si) quantum dots to underlying radial p-n junction Si nanowire arrays with excellent carrier separation and propagation via the built-in electric fields of radial p-n junctions. Minimization of recombination, optical, and spectrum losses in this hybrid structure led to a high cell efficiency of 12.9%.

  11. Enhanced efficiency of single and tandem organic solar cells incorporating a diketopyrrolopyrrole-based low-bandgap polymer by utilizing combined ZnO/polyelectrolyte electron-transport layers.

    PubMed

    Jo, Jang; Pouliot, Jean-Rémi; Wynands, David; Collins, Samuel D; Kim, Jin Young; Nguyen, Thanh Luan; Woo, Han Young; Sun, Yanming; Leclerc, Mario; Heeger, Alan J

    2013-09-14

    Power conversion efficiency up to 8.6% is achieved for a solution-processed tandem solar cell based on a diketopyrrolopyrrole-containing polymer as the low-bandgap material after using a thin polyelectrolyte layer to modify the electron-transport ZnO layers, indicating that interfacial engineering is a useful approach to further enhancing the efficiency of tandem organic solar cells.

  12. Efficient Windows Collaborative

    SciTech Connect

    Nils Petermann

    2010-02-28

    The project goals covered both the residential and commercial windows markets and involved a range of audiences such as window manufacturers, builders, homeowners, design professionals, utilities, and public agencies. Essential goals included: (1) Creation of 'Master Toolkits' of information that integrate diverse tools, rating systems, and incentive programs, customized for key audiences such as window manufacturers, design professionals, and utility programs. (2) Delivery of education and outreach programs to multiple audiences through conference presentations, publication of articles for builders and other industry professionals, and targeted dissemination of efficient window curricula to professionals and students. (3) Design and implementation of mechanisms to encourage and track sales of more efficient products through the existing Window Products Database as an incentive for manufacturers to improve products and participate in programs such as NFRC and ENERGY STAR. (4) Development of utility incentive programs to promote more efficient residential and commercial windows. Partnership with regional and local entities on the development of programs and customized information to move the market toward the highest performing products. An overarching project goal was to ensure that different audiences adopt and use the developed information, design and promotion tools and thus increase the market penetration of energy efficient fenestration products. In particular, a crucial success criterion was to move gas and electric utilities to increase the promotion of energy efficient windows through demand side management programs as an important step toward increasing the market share of energy efficient windows.

  13. Micro acoustic spectrum analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Schubert, W. Kent; Butler, Michael A.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Anderson, Larry F.

    2004-11-23

    A micro acoustic spectrum analyzer for determining the frequency components of a fluctuating sound signal comprises a microphone to pick up the fluctuating sound signal and produce an alternating current electrical signal; at least one microfabricated resonator, each resonator having a different resonant frequency, that vibrate in response to the alternating current electrical signal; and at least one detector to detect the vibration of the microfabricated resonators. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer can further comprise a mixer to mix a reference signal with the alternating current electrical signal from the microphone to shift the frequency spectrum to a frequency range that is a better matched to the resonant frequencies of the microfabricated resonators. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer can be designed specifically for portability, size, cost, accuracy, speed, power requirements, and use in a harsh environment. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer is particularly suited for applications where size, accessibility, and power requirements are limited, such as the monitoring of industrial equipment and processes, detection of security intrusions, or evaluation of military threats.

  14. SUTIL: system utilities routines programmer's reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, D.

    1976-01-01

    A package of FORTRAN callable subroutines which allows efficient communication of data between users and programs is described. Proper utilization of the SUTIL package to reduce program core requirements and expedite program development is emphasized.

  15. An unusual meteor spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, A. F.; Hemenway, C. L.; Millman, P. M.; Swider, A.

    1973-01-01

    An extraordinary spectrum of a meteor at a velocity of about 18.5 + or - 1.0 km/s was observed with an image orthicon camera. The radiant of the meteor was at an altitude of about 49 deg. It was first seen showing a yellow red continuous spectrum alone at a height of 137 + or - 8 km which is ascribed to the first positive group of nitrogen bands. After the meteor had descended to 116 + or - 6 km above sea level it brightened rapidly from its previous threshold brightness into a uniform continuum, the D-line of neutral sodium appeared, and at height 105 + or - 5 km all the other lines of the spectrum also appeared. The continuum remained dominant to the end. Water of hydration and entrained carbon flakes of characteristic dimension about 0.2 micron or less are proposed as constituents of the meteoroid to explain these phenomena.

  16. Tribal Utility Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, R. A.; Zoellick, J. J.

    2007-06-30

    The Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) assisted the Yurok Tribe in investigating the feasibility of creating a permanent energy services program for the Tribe. The original purpose of the DOE grant that funded this project was to determine the feasibility of creating a full-blown Yurok Tribal electric utility to buy and sell electric power and own and maintain all electric power infrastructure on the Reservation. The original project consultant found this opportunity to be infeasible for the Tribe. When SERC took over as project consultant, we took a different approach. We explored opportunities for the Tribe to develop its own renewable energy resources for use on the Reservation and/or off-Reservation sales as a means of generating revenue for the Tribe. We also looked at ways the Tribe can provide energy services to its members and how to fund such efforts. We identified opportunities for the development of renewable energy resources and energy services on the Yurok Reservation that fall into five basic categories: • Demand-side management – This refers to efforts to reduce energy use through energy efficiency and conservation measures. • Off-grid, facility and household scale renewable energy systems – These systems can provide electricity to individual homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not currently have access to the electric utility grid. • Village scale, micro-grid renewable energy systems - These are larger scale systems that can provide electricity to interconnected groups of homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not have access to the conventional electric grid. This will require the development of miniature electric grids to serve these interconnected facilities. • Medium to large scale renewable energy development for sale to the grid – In areas where viable renewable energy resources exist and there is access to the conventional electric utility grid, these resources can be

  17. NREL Spectrum of Innovation

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    There are many voices calling for a future of abundant clean energy. The choices are difficult and the challenges daunting. How will we get there? The National Renewable Energy Laboratory integrates the entire spectrum of innovation including fundamental science, market relevant research, systems integration, testing and validation, commercialization and deployment. The innovation process at NREL is interdependent and iterative. Many scientific breakthroughs begin in our own laboratories, but new ideas and technologies come to NREL at any point along the innovation spectrum to be validated and refined for commercial use.

  18. Spectrum of wormholes

    SciTech Connect

    Hawking, S.W. Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Silver Street, Cambridge CB3 9EW ); Page, D.N. Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA Theoretical Physics Institute, Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB )

    1990-10-15

    Wormholes have been studied mainly in the semiclassical approximation as solutions of the classical Euclidean field equations. However, such solutions are rather special, and exist only for certain kinds of matter. On the other hand, one can represent wormholes in a more general manner as solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation with appropriate boundary conditions. Minisuperspace models with massless minimal or conformal scalar fields have a discrete spectrum of these solutions. The Giddings-Strominger instanton solution corresponds to a sum of an infinite number of these solutions. Minisuperspace models with a massive scalar field also appear to have a discrete spectrum of such solutions, whose asymptotic form is given.

  19. NREL Spectrum of Innovation

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    There are many voices calling for a future of abundant clean energy. The choices are difficult and the challenges daunting. How will we get there? The National Renewable Energy Laboratory integrates the entire spectrum of innovation including fundamental science, market relevant research, systems integration, testing and validation, commercialization and deployment. The innovation process at NREL is interdependent and iterative. Many scientific breakthroughs begin in our own laboratories, but new ideas and technologies come to NREL at any point along the innovation spectrum to be validated and refined for commercial use.

  20. Flat-spectrum speech.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, M R; Strube, H W

    1986-05-01

    Flat-spectrum stimuli, consisting of many equal-amplitude harmonics, produce timbre sensations that can depend strongly on the phase angles of the individual harmonics. For fundamental frequencies in the human pitch range, many realizable timbres have vowel-like perceptual qualities. This observation suggests the possibility of constructing intelligible voiced speech signals that have flat-amplitude spectra. This paper describes a successful experiment of creating several different diphthongs by judicious choice of the phase angles of a flat-spectrum waveform. A possible explanation of the observed vowel timbres lies in the dependence of the short-time amplitude spectra on phase changes.

  1. Zeolitic imidazolate framework-67 (ZIF-67) rhombic dodecahedrons as full-spectrum light harvesting photocatalyst for environmental remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hanbit; Amaranatha Reddy, D.; Kim, Yujin; Ma, Rory; Choi, Jiha; Kim, Tae Kyu; Lee, Kyoung-Seok

    2016-12-01

    The inferior utilization efficiency of light is the main obstacle to the practical application of traditional photocatalysts such as TiO2 and ZnO. In this regard, the development of novel photocatalysts with the capability of harvesting full spectrum light (from ultraviolet (UV) to near-infrared (NIR)) energy is a promising solution for solar energy conversion and environmental remediation. Here, we report the discovery of a single material that can harvest UV, visible (VIS), and NIR radiations to decompose heavy metal contaminants in aqueous solution. Zeolitic imidazolate framework-67 (ZIF-67) rhombic dodecahedrons were synthesized through a facile solution approach and employed in the reduction of Cr(VI) under UV-VIS-NIR pulsed laser irradiation, which was generated from the fundamental, second and third harmonics of Nd:YAG laser, respectively. The nanostructures showed efficient Cr(VI) reduction under UV, VIS and NIR laser irradiation and the measured reduction efficiency (%) was 71.22%, 69.52%, and 40.79%, respectively after 120 min. A possible explanation for the photocatalytic activity in Cr(VI) reduction was proposed. This is the first study of its kind where pulsed laser and ZIF-67 rhombic dodecahedrons capable of harvesting full spectrum light energy have been employed for the removal of Cr(VI) from water. The extraordinary capacity of harvesting full-spectrum light and long-term stability make ZIF-67 a potential photocatalyst for environmental remediation.

  2. The Utility Battery Storage Systems Program Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    Utility battery energy storage allows a utility or customer to store electrical energy for dispatch at a time when its use is more economical, strategic, or efficient. The UBS program sponsors systems analyses, technology development of subsystems and systems integration, laboratory and field evaluation, and industry outreach. Achievements and planned activities in each area are discussed.

  3. Spread Spectrum Frequency Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    theoretically predicted behavior of the new system. Thp experimental program must include field tests in real propagation and interference environments...technological developments and without adequate overall knowledge of propagation characteristics or of other important uses that might require... propagation characteristics at the different frequency levels. The history of major spectrum allocations is then a 7 record of decisions primarily

  4. Stellar Spectrum Synthesizer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landegren, G. F.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a device which employs two diffraction gratings and three or four simple lenses to produce arbitrary absorption or emission spectra that may be doppler shifted and spectroscopically examined by students some distance away. It may be regarded as a sort of artificial star whose spectrum may be analyzed as an undergraduate laboratory…

  5. The Frequency Spectrum Radio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howkins, John, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This journal issue focuses on the frequency spectrum used in radio communication and on the World Administrative Radio Conference, sponsored by the International Telecommunication Union, held in Geneva, Switzerland, in the fall of 1979. Articles describe the World Administrative Radio Conference as the most important radio communication conference…

  6. Battlefield spectrum management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, C.

    1997-06-01

    Modern tactical communications systems rely on radios to support network and user connectivity. One of the challenges for network planners and managers is to make best use of scarce and vulnerable frequency spectrum resources to support the communication needs of war fighters. With the wide variety of Iris radio types typically to be deployed in the battlefield (ranging from high frequency to super high frequency), a comprehensive suite of tools is necessary to ensure that frequency interference is kept minimum. Without a sophisticated frequency spectrum management system, the most advanced tactical communications systems could be rendered useless, jeopardizing human life and national security. For these reasons, it is important to develop an Iris wide battlefield spectrum management capability that takes full advantage of current frequency spectrum management research and development (R&D), related tools, and supporting technology for assigning frequencies. This session briefly describes various assignment strategies being adopted in the Iris BFSM for overcoming cosite/collocated/farsite interferences along with the propagation models [from high frequency (HF) to super high frequency (SHF)] used for the assignment of frequencies. Also a brief thread outlining the process for generating frequency allocation/assignment request and analysis of frequency interference is discussed.

  7. Power Electronics for Distributed Energy Systems and Transmission and Distribution Applications: Assessing the Technical Needs for Utility Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, L.M.

    2005-12-21

    Power electronics can provide utilities the ability to more effectively deliver power to their customers while providing increased reliability to the bulk power system. In general, power electronics is the process of using semiconductor switching devices to control and convert electrical power flow from one form to another to meet a specific need. These conversion techniques have revolutionized modern life by streamlining manufacturing processes, increasing product efficiencies, and increasing the quality of life by enhancing many modern conveniences such as computers, and they can help to improve the delivery of reliable power from utilities. This report summarizes the technical challenges associated with utilizing power electronics devices across the entire spectrum from applications to manufacturing and materials development, and it provides recommendations for research and development (R&D) needs for power electronics systems in which the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) could make a substantial impact toward improving the reliability of the bulk power system.

  8. Purdue Solar Energy Utilization Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Rakesh

    2014-01-21

    The objective of this project is to establish and set-up a laboratory that will facilitate research and development of new low-cost and high-efficiency solar energy utilization technologies at Purdue University. The outcome will help spur the creation of solar energy start-up companies and eventually a solar energy industry in Indiana that can help fulfill the growing national demand for solar energy.

  9. Model and analysis of solar thermal generators to reduce the intermittency of photovoltaic systems with the use of spectrum splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, Silvana; Wu, Yuechen; Vorndran, Shelby; Santiago, Raphael P.; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we introduce an approach to damping intermittency in photovoltaic (PV) system output due to fluctuations in solar illumination generated by use of a hybrid PV-thermal electric (TE) generation system. We describe the necessary constrains of the PV-TE system based on its thermodynamic characteristics. The basis for the approach is that the thermal time constant for the TE device is much longer than that of a PV cell. When used in combination with an optimized thermal storage device short periods of intermittency (several minutes) in PV output due to passing clouds can be compensated. A comparison of different spectrum splitting systems to efficiently utilize the incident solar spectrum between the PV and TE converters are also examined. The time-dependent behavior of a hybrid PV-TE converter with a thermal storage element is computed with SMARTS modeled irradiance data and compared to real weather and irradiation conditions for Tucson, Arizona.

  10. Equity implications of utility energy conservation programs

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, R.J.

    1994-03-15

    This paper uses the Residential Energy Consumption Survey undertaken by the Energy Information Administration in 1990 to estimate the statistical association between household income and participation in electric utility energy conservation programs and the association between participation and the electricity consumption. The results indicate that utility rebates, energy audits, load management programs and other conservation measures tend to be undertaken at greater frequency by high income households than by low income households. Participants in conservation programs tend to occupy relatively new and energy efficient residences and undertake conservation measures other than utility programs, which suggests that utility sponsored programs are substitutes for other conservation investments. Electricity consumption during 1990 is not significantly less for households participating in utility programs than for nonparticipants, which also implies that utility conservation programs are displacing other conservation investments. Apparently, utility programs are not avoiding costs of new construction and instead are transferring wealth, particularly to high income participating households.

  11. Expected Utility Distributions for Flexible, Contingent Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bresina, John L.; Washington, Richard

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a method for using expected utility distributions in the execution of flexible, contingent plans. A utility distribution maps the possible start times of an action to the expected utility of the plan suffix starting with that action. The contingent plan encodes a tree of possible courses of action and includes flexible temporal constraints and resource constraints. When execution reaches a branch point, the eligible option with the highest expected utility at that point in time is selected. The utility distributions make this selection sensitive to the runtime context, yet still efficient. Our approach uses predictions of action duration uncertainty as well as expectations of resource usage and availability to determine when an action can execute and with what probability. Execution windows and probabilities inevitably change as execution proceeds, but such changes do not invalidate the cached utility distributions, thus, dynamic updating of utility information is minimized.

  12. Time delay spectrum conditioner

    DOEpatents

    Greiner, Norman R.

    1980-01-01

    A device for delaying specified frequencies of a multiple frequency laser beam. The device separates the multiple frequency beam into a series of spatially separated single frequency beams. The propagation distance of the single frequency beam is subsequently altered to provide the desired delay for each specific frequency. Focusing reflectors can be utilized to provide a simple but nonadjustable system or, flat reflectors with collimating and focusing optics can be utilized to provide an adjustable system.

  13. Spectrum tailoring of the neutron energy spectrum in the context of delayed neutron detection

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, William E; Tobin, Steve J; Sandoval, Nathan P; Fensin, Mike L

    2010-01-01

    For the purpose of measuring plutonium mass in spent fuel, a delayed neutron instrument is of particular interest since, if properly designed, the delayed neutron signal from {sup 235}U is significantly stronger than the signature from {sup 239}Pu or {sup 241}Pu. A key factor in properly designing a delayed neutron instrument is to minimize the fission of {sup 238}U. This minimization is achieved by keeping the interrogating neutron spectrum below {approx} 1 MeV. In the context of spent fuel measurements it is desirable to use a 14 MeV (deuterium and tritium) neutron generator for economic reasons. Spectrum tailoring is the term used to describe the inclusion of material between the 14 MeV neutrons and the interrogated object that lower the neutron energy through nuclear reactions and moderation. This report quantifies the utility of different material combination for spectrum tailoring.

  14. Efficient organic photovoltaic diodes based on doped pentacene.

    PubMed

    Schon, J H; Kloc, C; Bucher, E; Batlogg, B

    2000-01-27

    Recent work on solar cells based on interpenetrating polymer networks and solid-state dye-sensitized devices shows that efficient solar-energy conversion is possible using organic materials. Further, it has been demonstrated that the performance of photovoltaic devices based on small molecules can be effectively enhanced by doping the organic material with electron-accepting molecules. But as inorganic solar cells show much higher efficiencies, well above 15 per cent, the practical utility of organic-based cells will require their fabrication by lower-cost techniques, ideally on flexible substrates. Here we demonstrate efficiency enhancement by molecular doping in Schottky-type photovoltaic diodes based on pentacene--an organic semiconductor that has received much attention as a promising material for organic thin-film transistors, but relatively little attention for use in photovoltaic devices. The incorporation of the dopant improves the internal quantum efficiency by more than five orders of magnitude and yields an external energy conversion efficiency as high as 2.4 per cent for a standard solar spectrum. Thin-film devices based on doped pentacene therefore appear promising for the production of efficient 'plastic' solar cells.

  15. A geomagnetic field spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langel, R. A.; Estes, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    A spherical harmonic model of the earth's internal magnetic field of degree and order 23 is derived from selected Magsat data, and its power spectrum, computed with terms developed by Mauersberger (1956) and Lowes (1974), is found to exhibit a change of a slope at n = 14 which is interpreted as an indication that the core field dominates at values lower than 13 while the crust field dominates above a value of 15. The representations of the two portions of the spectrum obtained can be used to establish order-of-magnitude inaccuracies due to both crustal fields and the inability to observe core field wavelengths beyond n = 13, at which point they are obscured by the crustal field, in core field models.

  16. Spread spectrum image steganography.

    PubMed

    Marvel, L M; Boncelet, C R; Retter, C T

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new method of digital steganography, entitled spread spectrum image steganography (SSIS). Steganography, which means "covered writing" in Greek, is the science of communicating in a hidden manner. Following a discussion of steganographic communication theory and review of existing techniques, the new method, SSIS, is introduced. This system hides and recovers a message of substantial length within digital imagery while maintaining the original image size and dynamic range. The hidden message can be recovered using appropriate keys without any knowledge of the original image. Image restoration, error-control coding, and techniques similar to spread spectrum are described, and the performance of the system is illustrated. A message embedded by this method can be in the form of text, imagery, or any other digital signal. Applications for such a data-hiding scheme include in-band captioning, covert communication, image tamperproofing, authentication, embedded control, and revision tracking.

  17. Radio frequency spectrum management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujdak, E. J., Jr.

    1980-03-01

    This thesis is a study of radio frequency spectrum management as practiced by agencies and departments of the Federal Government. After a brief introduction to the international agency involved in radio frequency spectrum management, the author concentrates on Federal agencies engaged in frequency management. These agencies include the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), the Interdepartment Radio Advisory Committee (IRAC), and the Department of Defense (DoD). Based on an analysis of Department of Defense frequency assignment procedures, recommendations are given concerning decentralizing military frequency assignment by delegating broader authority to unified commanders. This proposal includes a recommendation to colocate the individual Service frequency management offices at the Washington level. This would result in reduced travel costs, lower manpower requirements, and a common tri-Service frequency management data base.

  18. Multitaper Spectrum Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fodor, I. K.; Stark, P. B.

    Multitapering is a statistical technique developed to improve on the notorious periodogram estimate of the power spectrum (Thomson, 1982; Percival, Walden 1993). We show how to obtain orthogonal tapers for time series observed with gaps, and how to use statistical resampling techniques (Efron, Tibshirani 1993) to calculate realistic uncertainty estimates for multitaper estimates. We introduce multisegment multitapering. Multitapering can also be extended to the 2D case. We indicate how to construct tapers that minimize the spatial leakage in estimates of the spherical harmonic decomposition of the velocity images. Spatial multitapering followed by the temporal tapering of the estimated spherical harmonic time series is expected to result in improved spectrum and subsequent solar oscillation mode parameter estimates.

  19. The marine diversity spectrum.

    PubMed

    Reuman, Daniel C; Gislason, Henrik; Barnes, Carolyn; Mélin, Frédéric; Jennings, Simon

    2014-07-01

    Distributions of species body sizes within a taxonomic group, for example, mammals, are widely studied and important because they help illuminate the evolutionary processes that produced these distributions. Distributions of the sizes of species within an assemblage delineated by geography instead of taxonomy (all the species in a region regardless of clade) are much less studied but are equally important and will illuminate a different set of ecological and evolutionary processes. We develop and test a mechanistic model of how diversity varies with body mass in marine ecosystems. The model predicts the form of the 'diversity spectrum', which quantifies the distribution of species' asymptotic body masses, is a species analogue of the classic size spectrum of individuals, and which we have found to be a new and widely applicable description of diversity patterns. The marine diversity spectrum is predicted to be approximately linear across an asymptotic mass range spanning seven orders of magnitude. Slope -0.5 is predicted for the global marine diversity spectrum for all combined pelagic zones of continental shelf seas, and slopes for large regions are predicted to lie between -0.5 and -0.1. Slopes of -0.5 and -0.1 represent markedly different communities: a slope of -0.5 depicts a 10-fold reduction in diversity for every 100-fold increase in asymptotic mass; a slope of -0.1 depicts a 1.6-fold reduction. Steeper slopes are predicted for larger or colder regions, meaning fewer large species per small species for such regions. Predictions were largely validated by a global empirical analysis. Results explain for the first time a new and widespread phenomenon of biodiversity. Results have implications for estimating numbers of species of small asymptotic mass, where taxonomic inventories are far from complete. Results show that the relationship between diversity and body mass can be explained from the dependence of predation behaviour, dispersal, and life history on

  20. Radio spectrum surveillance station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hersey, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents a general and functional description of a low-cost surveillance station designed as the first phase of NASA's program to develop a radio spectrum surveillance capability for deep space stations for identifying radio frequency interference sources. The station described has identified several particular interferences and is yielding spectral signature data which, after cataloging, will serve as a library for rapid identification of frequently observed interference. Findings from the use of the station are discussed.

  1. The influence of campus experiences on the level of outness among trans-spectrum and queer-spectrum students.

    PubMed

    Garvey, Jason C; Rankin, Susan R

    2015-01-01

    This study utilized MANOVA and hierarchical multiple regression to examine the relationships between campus experiences and coming-out decisions among trans- and queer-spectrum undergraduates. Findings revealed higher levels of outness/disclosure for cisgender LGBQ women, and more negative perceptions of campus climate, classroom climate, and curriculum inclusivity and higher use of campus resources for trans-spectrum students. Results also revealed that higher levels of outness significantly related to poorer perceptions of campus responses and campus resources. Implications address the need to foster an encouraging and supportive campus and classroom climate and to improve the relationships with LGBTQ resource centers for trans- and queer-spectrum students.

  2. The Experienced Utility of Expected Utility Approaches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    than one using unit weights. Similarly, goods obtained with high probability should be valued more than those obtained with low probability. Therefore...consequences are added, low or negative utility associated with one conse- quence can, in principle, be compensated for by sufficiently high utility on...calibrated probability assessor should have more true statements associated with high than with low probabilities. Specifically, XX% of the statements

  3. Gas utilization technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Biljetina, R.

    1994-09-01

    One of the constant challenges facing the research community is the identification of technology needs 5 to 15 years from now. A look back into history indicates that the forces driving natural gas research have changed from decade to decade. In the 1970s research was driven by concerns for adequate supply; in the 1980s research was aimed at creating new markets for natural gas. What then are the driving forces for the 1990s? Recent reports from the natural gas industry have helped define a new direction driven primarily by market demand for natural gas. A study prepared by the Interstate Natural Gas Association of America Foundation entitled ``Survey of Natural Research, Development, and Demonstration RD&D Priorities`` indicated that in the 1990s the highest research priority should be for natural gas utilization and that technology development efforts should not only address efficiency and cost, but environmental and regulatory issues as well. This study and others, such as the report by the American Gas Association (A.G.A.) entitled ``Strategic Vision for Natural Gas Through the Year 2000,`` clearly identify the market sectors driving today`s technology development needs. The biggest driver is the power generation market followed by the industrial, transportation, appliance, and gas cooling markets. This is best illustrated by the GRI 1994 Baseline Projection on market growth in various sectors between the year 1992 and 2010. This paper highlights some of the recent technology developments in each one of these sectors.

  4. Utilization and utility of immunohistochemistry in dermatopathology.

    PubMed

    Naert, Karen A; Trotter, Martin J

    2013-02-01

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is considered a valuable ancillary tool for dermatopathology diagnosis, but few studies have measured IHC utilization by dermatopathologists or assessed its diagnostic utility. In a regionalized, community-based dermatopathology practice, we measured IHC utilization (total requests, specific antibodies requested, and final diagnosis) over a 12-month period. Next, we assessed diagnostic utility by comparing a preliminary "pre-IHC" diagnosis based on routine histochemical staining with the final diagnosis rendered after consideration of IHC results. The dermatopathology IHC utilization rate was 1.2%, averaging 3.6 stains requested per case. Melanocytic, hematolymphoid, and fibrohistiocytic lesions made up 23%, 18%, and 16%, respectively, of the total cases requiring IHC. S100 and Melan A were the most frequently requested stains, ordered on 50% and 34% of IHC cases, respectively. The utility study revealed that IHC changed the diagnosis in 11%, confirmed a diagnosis, or excluded a differential diagnosis in 77%, and was noncontributory in 4% of cases. Where IHC results prompted a change in diagnosis, 14% were a change from a benign to malignant lesion, whereas 32% changed from one malignant entity to another. IHC is most commonly used in cutaneous melanocytic and hematolymphoid lesions. In 11% of dermatopathology cases in which IHC is used, information is provided that changes the H&E diagnosis. Such changes may have significant treatment implications. IHC is noncontributory in only a small percentage of cases.

  5. 77 FR 54839 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of... assistance in support of energy efficiency programs (EE Programs) sponsored and implemented by...

  6. Utilities Expense Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Deborah P.

    2001-01-01

    Examines how deregulation has affected school district utility costs. Offers ideas that can help school districts save money and energy. Provides several examples of state-wide initiatives intended to help school districts control utility costs. (GR)

  7. Computationally Efficient Power Allocation Algorithm in Multicarrier-Based Cognitive Radio Networks: OFDM and FBMC Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaat, Musbah; Bader, Faouzi

    2010-12-01

    Cognitive Radio (CR) systems have been proposed to increase the spectrum utilization by opportunistically access the unused spectrum. Multicarrier communication systems are promising candidates for CR systems. Due to its high spectral efficiency, filter bank multicarrier (FBMC) can be considered as an alternative to conventional orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) for transmission over the CR networks. This paper addresses the problem of resource allocation in multicarrier-based CR networks. The objective is to maximize the downlink capacity of the network under both total power and interference introduced to the primary users (PUs) constraints. The optimal solution has high computational complexity which makes it unsuitable for practical applications and hence a low complexity suboptimal solution is proposed. The proposed algorithm utilizes the spectrum holes in PUs bands as well as active PU bands. The performance of the proposed algorithm is investigated for OFDM and FBMC based CR systems. Simulation results illustrate that the proposed resource allocation algorithm with low computational complexity achieves near optimal performance and proves the efficiency of using FBMC in CR context.

  8. Real-time demonstration of 128-QAM-encoded optical OFDM transmission with a 5.25bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency in simple IMDD systems utilizing directly modulated DFB lasers.

    PubMed

    Jin, X Q; Giddings, R P; Hugues-Salas, E; Tang, J M

    2009-10-26

    The feasibility of implementing 128-QAM in off-the-shelf component-based real-time optical OFDM (OOFDM) transceivers incorporating advanced channel estimation, on-line performance monitoring and live parameter optimisation, is experimentally investigated, for the first time, in intensity-modulation and direct-detection (IMDD) single-mode fibre (SMF) and multi-mode fibre (MMF) transmission systems involving directly modulated DFB lasers. The highest ever spectral efficiency of 5.25bit/s/Hz is demonstrated successfully in the aforementioned simple systems. Experimental investigations show that, it is feasible to transmit 5.25 Gb/s 128-QAM-encoded OOFDM real-time signals over 25 km MetroCor(TM) SMFs and 500 m 62.5/125 microm OM1 MMFs. The impact of key parameters on the transmission performance of the real-time OOFDM transceivers with 128-QAM encoding are explored, based on which optimum signal clipping ratios are identified.

  9. Psychotropic Medication Use among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders within the Simons Simplex Collection: Are Core Features of Autism Spectrum Disorder Related?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mire, Sarah S.; Nowell, Kerri P.; Kubiszyn, Thomas; Goin-Kochel, Robin P.

    2014-01-01

    Psychotropic medication use and its relationship to autism spectrum core features were examined in a well-characterized but nonstratified North American sample (N = 1605) of children/adolescents diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders utilizing the "Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule" and the "Autism Diagnostic…

  10. National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency Report

    SciTech Connect

    National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency

    2006-07-01

    Summarizes recommendations, key barriers, and methods for energy efficiency in utility ratemaking as well as revenue requirements, resource planning processes, rate design, and program best practices.

  11. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Stephen F [London, TN; Dress, William B [Camas, WA

    2010-02-09

    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method, includes receiving a hybrid spread spectrum signal including: fast frequency hopping demodulating and direct sequence demodulating a direct sequence spread spectrum signal, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time and each bit is represented by chip transmissions at multiple frequencies.

  12. Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Management Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-20

    synchronizing, and deconflicting JEMSMO actions (p. IV-7) Doctrine Update for JP 6-01, Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Management Operations...communications system directorate of a joint staff (J-6), to support joint planning, coordination, and control of the spectrum for assigned forces. Executive...in the respective Service or joint publications. Interference Resolution To ensure critical frequencies and spectrum-dependent systems are

  13. A Global Information Utility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Robert S.

    1984-01-01

    High-powered satellites, along with other existing technologies, make possible a world information utility that could distribute virtually limitless information to every point on earth. The utility could distribute information for business, government, education, and entertainment. How the utility would work is discussed. (RM)

  14. Sourcebook on Research Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Allen, Ed.; Rosenblatt, Aaron, Ed.

    Major papers presented at the Conference on Research Utilization in Social Work Education are compiled in this sourcebook. The conference focused on six topics that reviewed the state of the art of research utilization and suggested directions for the future. The papers included are: Understanding Research Utilization in Social Work (Stuart A.…

  15. Efficient conversion of solar energy to biomass and electricity.

    PubMed

    Parlevliet, David; Moheimani, Navid Reza

    2014-01-01

    The Earth receives around 1000 W.m(-2) of power from the Sun and only a fraction of this light energy is able to be converted to biomass (chemical energy) via the process of photosynthesis. Out of all photosynthetic organisms, microalgae, due to their fast growth rates and their ability to grow on non-arable land using saline water, have been identified as potential source of raw material for chemical energy production. Electrical energy can also be produced from this same solar resource via the use of photovoltaic modules. In this work we propose a novel method of combining both of these energy production processes to make full utilisation of the solar spectrum and increase the productivity of light-limited microalgae systems. These two methods of energy production would appear to compete for use of the same energy resource (sunlight) to produce either chemical or electrical energy. However, some groups of microalgae (i.e. Chlorophyta) only require the blue and red portions of the spectrum whereas photovoltaic devices can absorb strongly over the full range of visible light. This suggests that a combination of the two energy production systems would allow for a full utilization of the solar spectrum allowing both the production of chemical and electrical energy from the one facility making efficient use of available land and solar energy. In this work we propose to introduce a filter above the algae culture to modify the spectrum of light received by the algae and redirect parts of the spectrum to generate electricity. The electrical energy generated by this approach can then be directed to running ancillary systems or producing extra illumination for the growth of microalgae. We have modelled an approach whereby the productivity of light-limited microalgae systems can be improved by at least 4% through using an LED array to increase the total amount of illumination on the microalgae culture.

  16. Efficient conversion of solar energy to biomass and electricity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Earth receives around 1000 W.m−2 of power from the Sun and only a fraction of this light energy is able to be converted to biomass (chemical energy) via the process of photosynthesis. Out of all photosynthetic organisms, microalgae, due to their fast growth rates and their ability to grow on non-arable land using saline water, have been identified as potential source of raw material for chemical energy production. Electrical energy can also be produced from this same solar resource via the use of photovoltaic modules. In this work we propose a novel method of combining both of these energy production processes to make full utilisation of the solar spectrum and increase the productivity of light-limited microalgae systems. These two methods of energy production would appear to compete for use of the same energy resource (sunlight) to produce either chemical or electrical energy. However, some groups of microalgae (i.e. Chlorophyta) only require the blue and red portions of the spectrum whereas photovoltaic devices can absorb strongly over the full range of visible light. This suggests that a combination of the two energy production systems would allow for a full utilization of the solar spectrum allowing both the production of chemical and electrical energy from the one facility making efficient use of available land and solar energy. In this work we propose to introduce a filter above the algae culture to modify the spectrum of light received by the algae and redirect parts of the spectrum to generate electricity. The electrical energy generated by this approach can then be directed to running ancillary systems or producing extra illumination for the growth of microalgae. We have modelled an approach whereby the productivity of light-limited microalgae systems can be improved by at least 4% through using an LED array to increase the total amount of illumination on the microalgae culture. PMID:24976951

  17. The laboratory test utilization management toolbox

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Efficiently managing laboratory test utilization requires both ensuring adequate utilization of needed tests in some patients and discouraging superfluous tests in other patients. After the difficult clinical decision is made to define the patients that do and do not need a test, a wealth of interventions are available to the clinician and laboratorian to help guide appropriate utilization. These interventions are collectively referred to here as the utilization management toolbox. Experience has shown that some tools in the toolbox are weak and other are strong, and that tools are most effective when many are used simultaneously. While the outcomes of utilization management studies are not always as concrete as may be desired, what data is available in the literature indicate that strong utilization management interventions are safe and effective measures to improve patient health and reduce waste in an era of increasing financial pressure. PMID:24969916

  18. The ways of SOFC systems efficiency increasing

    SciTech Connect

    Demin, A.K.; Timofeyeva, N.

    1996-04-01

    The efficiency of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is described. This paper considers methods to lift the fuel utilization and/or the average cell voltage with the goal of increasing the cell efficiency by improved cell designs.

  19. Facial Feedback Mechanisms in Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    van den Heuvel, Claudia; Smeets, Raymond C.

    2008-01-01

    Facial feedback mechanisms of adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) were investigated utilizing three studies. Facial expressions, which became activated via automatic (Studies 1 and 2) or intentional (Study 2) mimicry, or via holding a pen between the teeth (Study 3), influenced corresponding emotions for controls, while individuals with ASD remained emotionally unaffected. Thus, individuals with ASD do not experience feedback from activated facial expressions as controls do. This facial feedback-impairment enhances our understanding of the social and emotional lives of individuals with ASD. PMID:18293075

  20. Spectrum of Fascicular Arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Sung, Raphael; Scheinman, Melvin

    2016-09-01

    Fascicular arrhythmias encompass a wide spectrum of ventricular arrhythmias that depend on the specialized conduction system of the right and left ventricles. These arrhythmias include premature ventricular complexes, monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation. These arrhythmias may be organized by mechanism, including intrafascicular reentry, interfascicular reentry, and focal. Mapping and ablation of the fascicular system can result in high cure rates of debilitating and potentially life-threatening arrhythmias. When approaching these arrhythmias, careful consideration of the structure of the His Purkinje system as well as their electrophysiologic properties may help guide even the most complex of arrhythmias.