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Sample records for efficient stereoselective synthesis

  1. Efficient asymmetric synthesis of novel gastrin receptor antagonist AG-041R via highly stereoselective alkylation of oxindole enolates.

    PubMed

    Emura, Takashi; Esaki, Toru; Tachibana, Kazutaka; Shimizu, Makoto

    2006-10-27

    An efficient method for asymmetric synthesis of the potent Gastrin/CCK-B receptor antagonist AG-041R was developed. Core oxindole stereochemistry was established by asymmetric alkylation of oxindole enolates with bromoacetic acid esters, using l-menthol as a chiral auxiliary. The key alkylation reaction of the oxindole enolates generated tetrasubstituted chiral intermediates with high diastereoselectivity. The stereoselective alkylation reactions are described in detail.

  2. Total stereoselective synthesis of (+)-goniothalesdiol.

    PubMed

    Carreño, M Carmen; Hernández-Torres, Gloria; Urbano, Antonio; Colobert, Françoise

    2005-11-24

    [reaction: see text] The stereoselective synthesis of (+)-goniothalesdiol (1) was accomplished in nine steps starting from commercially available (-)-(2S,3S)-dimethyl D-tartrate (3). The key features were a completely diastereoselective reduction of a beta-ketosulfoxide to generate the stereogenic center at C-5 in 7 and formation of the 2,5-cis-substituted tetrahydrofuran ring in 10 from a stereoselective Et(3)SiH/TMSOTf-promoted reductive cyclization/deoxygenation.

  3. An efficient and highly stereoselective synthesis of new P-chiral 1,5-diphosphanylferrocene ligands and their use in enantioselective hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiping; Roberts, J Stanley M; Whittall, John; Steiner, Alexander

    2006-07-21

    An efficient and highly stereoselective synthesis of P-chiral 1,5-diphosphanylferrocene ligands has been developed, and the introduction of P-chirality in ferrocene-based phosphine ligands enhances the enantioselective discrimination produced by the corresponding catalyst when matching of the planar chirality, the chirality at carbon and the chirality at phosphorus occurs.

  4. Stereoselective Synthesis of Tilivalline(1).

    PubMed

    Nagasaka, Tatsuo; Koseki, Yuji

    1998-10-02

    Tilivalline 1, a metabolite from Klebsiella pneumoniae var. ocytoca, was easily synthesized in five steps from (S)-proline and 3-(benzyloxy)isatoic anhydride 4g. This synthesis is based on modified Curtius reactions of 3-substituted phthalic anhydrides 11 to 3-substituted isatoic anhydrides 4, conversion of lactams 6 to the acyliminium precursors 7 and stereoselective introduction of indole from the less hindered side of 7.

  5. Organoselenium-catalyzed, hydroxy-controlled regio- and stereoselective amination of terminal alkenes: efficient synthesis of 3-amino allylic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhimin; Wei, Jialiang; Liao, Lihao; Huang, Haiyan; Zhao, Xiaodan

    2015-04-17

    An efficient route to prepare 3-amino allylic alcohols in excellent regio- and stereoselectivity in the presence of bases by orangoselenium catalysis has been developed. In the absence of bases α,β-unsaturated aldehydes were formed in up to 97% yield. Control experiments reveal that the hydroxy group is crucial for the direct amination.

  6. Unusual pyrimidine participation: efficient stereoselective synthesis of potent dual orexin receptor antagonist MK-6096.

    PubMed

    Chung, John Y L; Zhong, Yong-Li; Maloney, Kevin M; Reamer, Robert A; Moore, Jeffrey C; Strotman, Hallena; Kalinin, Alexei; Feng, Ronnie; Strotman, Neil A; Xiang, Bangping; Yasuda, Nobuyoshi

    2014-11-21

    An asymmetric synthesis of dual orexin receptor antagonist MK-6096 (1) is described. Key steps for the trans-2,5-disubstituted piperidinyl ether fragment include a biocatalytic transamination, a trans-selective Mukaiyama aldol, and a regioselective pyridyl SNAr process. The pyrimidyl benzoic acid was synthesized via a Negishi coupling and a nitrile hydrolysis. Coupling of the two fragments via a catalytic T3P-mediated amidation completed the synthesis. Unusual behaviors in the hydrolysis of pyrimidyl benzonitrile and the amide coupling of the pyrimidyl benzoic acid are also described.

  7. Stereoselective synthesis of Z-alpha-aryl-alpha,beta-unsaturated esters.

    PubMed

    Mani, Neelakandha S; Mapes, Christopher M; Wu, Jiejun; Deng, Xiaohu; Jones, Todd K

    2006-06-23

    An efficient method for the stereoselective synthesis of (Z)-alpha-arylacrylates is described. Treatment of alpha-hydroxyesters with triflic anhydride and pyridine at 0 degrees C followed by warming to room temperature afforded the corresponding (Z)-alpha-aryl-alpha,beta-unsaturated esters in very good yields and excellent stereoselectivity.

  8. Stereoselective Halogenation in Natural Product Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Won-jin; Vanderwal, Christopher D

    2016-03-24

    At last count, nearly 5000 halogenated natural products have been discovered. In approximately half of these compounds, the carbon atom to which the halogen is bound is sp(3) -hybridized; therefore, there are an enormous number of natural products for which stereocontrolled halogenation must be a critical component of any synthesis strategy. In this Review, we critically discuss the methods and strategies used for stereoselective introduction of halogen atoms in the context of natural product synthesis. Using the successes of the past, we also attempt to identify gaps in our synthesis technology that would aid the synthesis of halogenated natural products, as well as existing methods that have not yet seen application in complex molecule synthesis. The chemistry described herein demonstrates yet again how natural products continue to provide the inspiration for critical advances in chemical synthesis.

  9. Witting Reaction Using a Stabilized Phosphorus Ylid: An Efficient and Stereoselective Synthesis of Ethyl Trans-Cinnamate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speed, Traci J.; Mclntyre, Jean P.; Thamattoor, Dasan M.

    2004-01-01

    An instructive experiment for the synthesis of ethyl trans-cinnamate, a pleasant smelling ester used in perfumery and flavoring by the reaction of benzaldehyde with the stable ylid triphenylphosphorane is described. The synthesis, workup and characterization of trans-cinnamate may be accomplished in a single laboratory session with commonly…

  10. Witting Reaction Using a Stabilized Phosphorus Ylid: An Efficient and Stereoselective Synthesis of Ethyl Trans-Cinnamate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speed, Traci J.; Mclntyre, Jean P.; Thamattoor, Dasan M.

    2004-01-01

    An instructive experiment for the synthesis of ethyl trans-cinnamate, a pleasant smelling ester used in perfumery and flavoring by the reaction of benzaldehyde with the stable ylid triphenylphosphorane is described. The synthesis, workup and characterization of trans-cinnamate may be accomplished in a single laboratory session with commonly…

  11. Stereoselective synthesis of indolines via organocatalytic thioester enolate addition reactions.

    PubMed

    Kolarovic, Andrej; Käslin, Alexander; Wennemers, Helma

    2014-08-15

    A straightforward stereoselective synthesis route to indolin-3-yl acetates has been developed using organocatalytic addition reactions of monothiomalonates to ortho-bromo nitrostyrenes as the key step. The addition products of this highly stereoselective one-pot addition-deprotection-decarboxylation sequence were easily further converted to the target indolin-3-yl acetates, via an intramolecular Buchwald-Hartwig coupling reaction. The route provided indolin-3-yl acetates bearing tertiary and exocyclic quarternary stereogenic centers in excellent stereoselectivities and overall yields of 34-83%.

  12. Stereoselective synthesis of enantiomerically pure nupharamine alkaloids from castoreum.

    PubMed

    Stoye, Alexander; Quandt, Gabriele; Brunnhöfer, Björn; Kapatsina, Elissavet; Baron, Julia; Fischer, André; Weymann, Markus; Kunz, Horst

    2009-01-01

    An animalic note: The first total synthesis of the all-cis nupharamine 2, an alkaloid from beaver castoreum, is based on the stereoselective domino Mannich-Michael reaction of N-galactosylfurylaldimine to give 1 (Piv = pivaloyl), subsequent conjugate cuprate addition, and stereoselective protonation of the enolate. These reactions are all controlled by the carbohydrate. Protonation of the enolate after cleavage of the auxiliary leads to epimer 3.

  13. Stereoselective Total Synthesis of Bioactive Marine Natural Product Biselyngbyolide B.

    PubMed

    Das, Sayantan; Paul, Debobrata; Goswami, Rajib Kumar

    2016-04-15

    A convergent strategy for the stereoselective total synthesis of biologically active marine natural product biselyngbyolide B has been developed. Key strategies of this synthesis include Jamison protocol of trans-hydroalumination/allylation for installation of C18-C23 olefin moiety and intramolecular Heck coupling for macrocyclization.

  14. Stereoselective synthesis of nicotinamide beta-riboside and nucleoside analogs.

    PubMed

    Franchetti, Palmarisa; Pasqualini, Michela; Petrelli, Riccardo; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Vita, Patrizia; Cappellacci, Loredana

    2004-09-20

    The beta-anomers of N-ribofuranosylnicotine-3-carboxamide (beta-NAR) and its nicotinic acid analog (beta-NaR) were obtained by stereoselective synthesis via glycosylation of the presilylated bases under Vorbruggen's protocol. A NAR analog, methylated in position 3 of the ribosylic moiety, is also reported.

  15. Convergent stereoselective synthesis of the visual pigment A2E.

    PubMed

    Sicre, Cristina; Cid, M Magdalena

    2005-12-08

    [chemical reaction: see text]. A stereoselective total synthesis of the visual pigment A2E has been achieved with use of palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions in all key steps: a regioselective Suzuki or Negishi coupling of 2,4-dibromopyridine, a Sonogashira reaction, and a double Stille cross-coupling to complete the bispolyenyl skeleton.

  16. Stereoselective synthesis of uridine-derived nucleosyl amino acids.

    PubMed

    Spork, Anatol P; Wiegmann, Daniel; Granitzka, Markus; Stalke, Dietmar; Ducho, Christian

    2011-12-16

    Novel hybrid structures of 5'-deoxyuridine and glycine were conceived and synthesized. Such nucleosyl amino acids (NAAs) represent simplified analogues of the core structure of muraymycin nucleoside antibiotics, making them useful synthetic building blocks for structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies. The key step of the developed synthetic route was the efficient and highly diastereoselective asymmetric hydrogenation of didehydro amino acid precursors toward protected NAAs. It was anticipated that the synthesis of unprotected muraymycin derivatives via this route would require a suitable intermediate protecting group at the N-3 of the uracil base. After initial attempts using PMB- and BOM-N-3 protection, both of which resulted in problematic deprotection steps, an N-3 protecting group-free route was envisaged. In spite of the pronounced acidity of the uracil-3-NH, this route worked equally efficient and with identical stereoselectivities as the initial strategies involving N-3 protection. The obtained NAA building blocks were employed for the synthesis of truncated 5'-deoxymuraymycin analogues.

  17. Stereoselective synthesis of pentacyclic steroids functionalized at C-11.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim-Ouali, Malika; Romero, Eugénie; Hamze, Khalil

    2012-09-01

    We set out to describe an efficient and versatile method for preparing pentacyclic steroids diversely substituted at C-11 from cholic acid, via a stereoselective epoxidation and the epoxide opening as the key steps. The characteristic (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic features of the synthesized compounds are reported.

  18. Aldolase-catalysed stereoselective synthesis of fluorinated small molecules.

    PubMed

    Windle, Claire L; Berry, Alan; Nelson, Adam

    2017-04-01

    The introduction of fluorine has been widely exploited to tune the biological functions of small molecules. Indeed, around 20% of leading drugs contain at least one fluorine atom. Yet, despite profound effects of fluorination on conformation, there is only a limited toolkit of reactions that enable stereoselective synthesis of fluorinated compounds. Aldolases are useful catalysts for the stereoselective synthesis of bioactive small molecules; however, despite fluoropyruvate being a viable nucleophile for some aldolases, the potential of aldolases to control the formation of fluorine-bearing stereocentres has largely been untapped. Very recently, it has been shown that aldolase-catalysed stereoselective carboncarbon bond formation with fluoropyruvate as nucleophile enable the synthesis of many α-fluoro β-hydroxy carboxyl derivatives. Furthermore, an understanding of the structural basis for the stereocontrol observed in these reactions is beginning to emerge. Here, we review the application of aldolase catalysis in the stereocontrolled synthesis of chiral fluorinated small molecules, and highlight likely areas for future developments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Stereoselective synthesis of the bicyclic guanidine alkaloid (+)-monanchorin.

    PubMed

    Zaed, Ahmed M; Sutherland, Andrew

    2010-10-07

    A new approach for the stereoselective synthesis of the bicyclic guanidine alkaloid (+)-monanchorin has been developed using a palladium(ii)-catalysed MOM-ether directed Overman rearrangement to establish the second stereogenic centre and a cross metathesis reaction to generate the carbon backbone. In the final stage, a one-pot acid mediated deprotection of aldehyde, guanidine and hydroxyl groups gave an intermediate that underwent facile cyclisation to (+)-monanchorin.

  20. Stereoselective synthesis of carbocyclic analogues of the nucleoside Q precursor (PreQ0)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Summary A convergent and stereoselective synthesis of chiral cyclopentyl- and cyclohexylamine derivatives of nucleoside Q precursor (PreQ0) has been accomplished. This synthetic route allows for an efficient preparation of 4-substituted analogues with interesting three-dimensional character, including chiral cyclopentane-1,2-diol and -1,2,3-triol derivatives. This unusual substitution pattern provides a useful starting point for the discovery of novel bioactive molecules. PMID:24991286

  1. Total Synthesis of Bryostatins. Development of Methodology for Atom-Economic and Stereoselective Synthesis of the C-ring Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Trost, Barry M.; Frontier, Alison J.; Thiel, Oliver R.; Yang, Hanbiao; Dong, Guangbin

    2012-01-01

    Bryostatins, a family of structurally complicated macrolides, exhibit an exceptional range of biological activities. The limited availability and structural complexity of these molecules makes development of an efficient total synthesis particularly important. This article describes our initial efforts towards the total synthesis of bryostatins, in which chemoselective and atom-economical methods for stereoselective assembly of the C-ring subunit were developed. A Pd-catalyzed tandem alkyne-alkyne coupling/6-endo-dig cyclization sequence was explored and successfully pursued in the synthesis of a dihydropyran ring system. Elaboration of this methodology ultimately led to a concise synthesis of the C-ring subunit of bryostatins. PMID:21793057

  2. Regio- and stereoselective synthesis of new diaminocyclopentanols

    PubMed Central

    Kochubei, Valeri S; Atroshchenko, Yuri M

    2014-01-01

    Summary The optimal conditions for regio- and stereoselective epoxide ring opening of N,N-disubstituted 1,2-epoxy-3-aminocyclopentanes by different nucleophilic reagents have been developed. The substituents on the nitrogen atom in the epoxide precursor and the orientation of the oxirane ring are crucial for the reaction outcome. Thus, treatment of (1RS,2SR,3SR)-1,2-epoxy-3-(N,N-dibenzylamino)cyclopentane (3b) with amines gave a mixture of C1 and C2 regioadducts, while the use of (1RS,2SR,3SR)-1,2-epoxy-3-(N-benzyl-N-methylamino)cyclopentane (3a) led ultimately to C1 adducts. Base-catalyzed aminolysis of epoxides 6a,b afforded mainly C1 adducts 13a,b arising from trans-diaxal opening of the epoxide ring. Using a Lewis acid catalyst, epoxides 6a,b were transformed into diaminocyclopentanols 14a,b via an alternative pathway involving the formation of aziridinium intermediate 17. PMID:25383122

  3. Stereoselective synthesis of (S)-3-(methylamino)-3-((R)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)propanenitrile.

    PubMed

    Lall, Manjinder S; Hoge, Garrett; Tran, Tuan P; Kissel, William; Murphy, Sean T; Taylor, Clarke; Hutchings, Kim; Samas, Brian; Ellsworth, Edmund L; Curran, Timothy; Showalter, H D Hollis

    2012-05-18

    (S)-3-(methylamino)-3-((R)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)propanenitrile (1) is a key intermediate in the preparation of PF-00951966, (1) a fluoroquinolone antibiotic for use against key pathogens causing community-acquired respiratory tract infections including multidrug resistant (MDR) organisms. The current work describes the development of a highly efficient and stereoselective synthesis of 1 in 10 steps with an overall yield of 24% from readily available benzyloxyacetyl chloride. Two key transformations in the synthetic sequence involve (a) catalytic asymmetric hydrogenation with chiral DM-SEGPHOS-Ru(II) complex to afford β-hydroxy amide 11b in good yield (73%) and high stereoselectivity (de 98%, ee >99%) after recrystallization and (b) S(N)2 substitution reaction with methylamine to provide diamine 14 with inversion of configuration at the 1'-position in high yield (80%), after efficient purification using a simple acid/base extraction protocol.

  4. Stereoselective Synthesis of Quaternary Proline Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Calaza, M. Isabel

    2009-01-01

    This review describes available methods for the diastereoselective and asymmetric synthesis of quaternary prolines. The focus is on the preparation of α-functionalized prolines with the pyrrolidine moiety not embedded in a polycyclic frame. The diverse synthetic approaches are classified according to the bond which is formed to complete the quaternary skeleton. PMID:19655047

  5. Stereoselective Synthesis of β-manno-Glycosides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiwata, Akihiro; Ito, Yukishige

    Among the various types of O-glycosides with biological relevance, the β-glycoside of D-mannose (β-manno-glycoside) has been considered as one of the most challenging targets from a synthetic point of view. The majority of synthetic approaches to β-manno-glycoside can be put into two categories (the direct glycosylation and the glycosylation-inversion approaches). Additionally, a variety of intriguing approaches have been investigated with substantial success (alkylative glycosylation of 1,2-stannylene acetal, reductive manipulation of orthoester, intramolecular aglycon delivery, and enzymatic glycosylation). In this chapter, progress in the conceptually demanding β-mannosylation technology will be discussed, including current state of the art, with particular focus upon applications related to the synthesis of glycoprotein-related oligosaccharides.

  6. Efficient stereoselective synthesis of 2-acetamido-1,2-dideoxyallonojirimycin (DAJNAc) and sp(2)-iminosugar conjugates: Novel hexosaminidase inhibitors with discrimination capabilities between the mature and precursor forms of the enzyme.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, Alex; Rísquez-Cuadro, Rocío; Verdaguer, Xavier; García Fernández, José M; Nanba, Eiji; Higaki, Katsumi; Ortiz Mellet, Carmen; Riera, Antoni

    2016-10-04

    Due to their capacity to inhibit hexosaminidases, 2-acetamido-1,2-dideoxy-iminosugars have been widely studied as potential therapeutic agents for various diseases. An efficient stereoselective synthesis of 2-acetamido-1,2-dideoxyallonojirimycin (DAJNAc), the most potent inhibitor of human placenta β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (β-hexosaminidase) among the epimeric series, is here described. This novel procedure can be easily scaled up, providing enough material for structural modifications and further biological tests. Thus, two series of sp(2)-iminosugar conjugates derived from DAJNAc have been prepared, namely monocyclic DAJNAc-thioureas and bicyclic 2-iminothiazolidines, and their glycosidase inhibitory activity evaluated. The data evidence the utmost importance of developing diversity-oriented synthetic strategies allowing optimization of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions to achieve high inhibitory potencies and selectivities among isoenzymes. Notably, strong differences in the inhibition potency of the compounds towards β-hexosaminidase from human placenta (mature) or cultured fibroblasts (precursor form) were encountered. The ensemble of data suggests that the ratio between them, and not the inhibition potency towards the placenta enzyme, is a good indication of the chaperoning potential of TaySachs disease-associated mutant hexosaminidase.

  7. Stereoselective Arene-Forming Aldol Condensation: Synthesis of Configurationally Stable Oligo-1,2-naphthylenes.

    PubMed

    Lotter, Dominik; Neuburger, Markus; Rickhaus, Michel; Häussinger, Daniel; Sparr, Christof

    2016-02-18

    Structurally well-defined oligomers are fundamental for the functionality of natural molecular systems and key for the design of synthetic counterparts. Herein, we describe a strategy for the efficient synthesis of individual stereoisomers of 1,2-naphthylene oligomers by iterative building block additions and consecutive stereoselective arene-forming aldol condensation reactions. The catalyst-controlled atropoenantioselective and the substrate-controlled atropodiastereoselective aldol condensation reaction provide structurally distinct ter- and quaternaphthalene stereoisomers, which represent configurationally stable analogues of otherwise stereodynamic, helically shaped ortho-phenylenes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Stereoselective Arene-Forming Aldol Condensation: Synthesis of Axially Chiral Aromatic Amides.

    PubMed

    Fäseke, Vincent C; Sparr, Christof

    2016-06-13

    The increasing awareness of the importance of amide atropisomers prompts the development of novel strategies for their selective preparation. Described herein is a method for the enantioselective synthesis of atropisomeric aromatic amides by an amine-catalyzed arene-forming aldol condensation. The high reactivity of the glyoxylic amide substrates enables a remarkably efficient construction of a new aromatic ring, which proceeds within minutes at ambient temperature to afford products with excellent stereoselectivity. The high rotational barriers of the reduced products highlight the utility of this stable, spatially organized chiral scaffold. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Iminium Ion Cascade Reactions: Stereoselective Synthesis of Quinolizidines and Indolizidines

    PubMed Central

    Amorde, Shawn M.; Jewett, Ivan T.; Martin, Stephen F.

    2009-01-01

    A novel iminium ion cascade reaction has been developed that allows for the stereoselective synthesis of a variety of substituted aza-fused bicycles. The combination of amino allylsilanes and aldehydes (or ketones) was used to synthesize a number of quinolizidines and indolizidines in an one-pot reaction sequence. This technology has been used to effect the facile syntheses of several indolizidine and quinolizidine natural products including, (±)-epilupinine, (±)-tashiromine, and (−)-epimyrtine. Substrate scope has been examined varying the type of amino allylsilanes (primary, secondary and conjugated) and carbonyl compounds (aldehydes and ketones) to give a variety of fused ring structures. Varying the components chosen allows for the inclusion of synthetically useful functional groups at different positions on the core structure. The methodology has been used to construct the tricyclic core structures present in the cylindricine family and halichlorine. PMID:20890382

  10. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the stereoselective synthesis of p-stereogenic phosphine oxides.

    PubMed

    Copey, Laurent; Jean-Gérard, Ludivine; Framery, Eric; Pilet, Guillaume; Robert, Vincent; Andrioletti, Bruno

    2015-06-15

    An efficient enantioselective strategy for the synthesis of variously substituted phosphine oxides has been developed, incorporating the use of (1S,2S)-2-aminocyclohexanol as the chiral auxiliary. The method relies on three key steps: 1) Highly diastereoselective formation of P(V) oxazaphospholidine, rationalized by a theoretical study; 2) highly diastereoselective ring-opening of the oxazaphospholidine oxide with organometallic reagents that takes place with inversion of configuration at the P atom; 3) enantioselective synthesis of phosphine oxides by cleavage of the remaining P-O bond. Interestingly, the use of a P(III) phosphine precursor afforded a P-epimer oxazaphospholidine. Hence, the two enantiomeric phosphine oxides can be synthesized starting from either a P(V) or a P(III) phosphine precursor, which constitutes a clear advantage for the stereoselective synthesis of sterically hindered phosphine oxides.

  11. Efficient and Stereoselective Dimerization of Pyrroloindolizine Derivatives Inspired by a Hypothesis for the Biosynthesis of Complex Myrmicarin Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Movassaghi, Mohammad; Ondrus, Alison E.; Chen, Bin

    2010-01-01

    Pyrroloindolizine derivatives participate in efficient and stereoselective homo- and heterodimerization reactions upon treatment with Brønsted or Lewis acids. The distinctive ability of pyrroloindolizines to act as azafulvenium ion precursors provides direct access to both heptacyclic and hexacyclic dimeric products. The inherent reactivity of these structures suggests a concise synthesis of complex myrmicarin alkaloids via dimerization of pyrroloindolizines, and may have implications for the biosynthesis of these intriguing alkaloids. PMID:18020368

  12. Stereoselective synthesis of UDP-2-(2-ketopropyl)galactose aided by di-tert-butylsilylene protecting group.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yasuharu; Ohta, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Yukishige

    2015-10-01

    UDP-2-(2-ketopropyl)galactose (1) has been utilized as a valuable probe for profiling proteins modified by O-GlcNAc. In this work, we developed a protocol for efficient synthesis of 1. Thus, 2-methallylgalactose derivative 11, a synthetic intermediate for the compound 1, was prepared by stereoselective iodination and methallylation at C-2 position, through exploitation of 4,6-O-di-tert-butylsilylene protecting group.

  13. Iron(III) chloride as an efficient catalyst for stereoselective synthesis of glycosyl azides and a cocatalyst with Cu(0) for the subsequent click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Salunke, Santosh B; Babu, N Seshu; Chen, Chien-Tien

    2011-10-07

    A highly efficient and mild method for azido glycosylation of glycosyl β-peracetates to 1,2-trans glycosyl azides was developed by using inexpensive FeCl(3) as the catalyst. In addition, we demonstrated, for the first time, that FeCl(3) in combination with copper powder can promote 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (click chemistry) of azido glycosides with terminal alkynes. Good to excellent yields were obtained with exclusive formation of a single isomer in both glycosyl azidation and subsequent cycloaddition processes. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  14. Stereoselective synthesis of hernandulcin, peroxylippidulcine A, lippidulcines A, B and C and taste evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Rigamonti, Marco Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Summary The first stereoselective synthesis of lippidulcines A, B and C has been accomplished starting from (+)-hernandulcin, which has been prepared on a multigram scale. The previously assigned absolute configurations have been confirmed. The key steps of this synthesis are based on a modified version of the Kornblum–DeLaMare rearrangement, and on a highly regioselective and stereoselective ketone reduction with the MeCBS reagent. The taste evaluations indicate that none of these sesquiterpenes are sweet, instead the lippidulcine A is a cooling agent with a mint after taste. PMID:26664632

  15. Stereoselective Organocatalytic Synthesis of Oxindoles with Adjacent Tetrasubstituted Stereocenters.

    PubMed

    Engl, Oliver D; Fritz, Sven P; Wennemers, Helma

    2015-07-06

    Oxindoles with adjacent tetrasubstituted stereocenters were obtained in high yields and stereoselectivities by organocatalyzed conjugate addition reactions of monothiomalonates (MTMs) to isatin-derived N-Cbz ketimines. The method requires only a low catalyst loading (2 mol %) and proceeds under mild reaction conditions. Both enantiomers are accessible in good yields and excellent stereoselectivities by using either Takemoto's catalyst or a cinchona alkaloid derivative. The synthetic methodology allowed establishment of a straightforward route to derivatives of the gastrin/cholecystokinin-B receptor antagonist AG-041R.

  16. An Overview of Stereoselective Synthesis of α-Aminophosphonic Acids and Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Ordóñez, Mario; Rojas-Cabrera, Haydée; Cativiela, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    An overview of all methodologies published during the last few years focused to the stereoselective (diastereoselective or enantioselective) synthesis of α-aminophosphonic acids and derivatives is reported. The procedures have been classified according a retrosynthetic strategy and taking into account the formation of each one of the bonds connected to the chiral centre. PMID:20871799

  17. Recent Progress on the Stereoselective Synthesis of Cyclic Quaternary α-Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Cativiela, Carlos; Ordóñez, Mario

    2010-01-01

    The most recent papers describing the stereoselective synthesis of cyclic quaternary α-amino acids are collected in this review. The diverse synthetic approaches are classified according to the size of the ring and taking into account the bond that is formed to complete the quaternary skeleton. PMID:20300486

  18. The Enterococcal Cytolysin Synthetase Coevolves with Substrate for Stereoselective Lanthionine Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Weixin; Thibodeaux, Gabrielle N; van der Donk, Wilfred A

    2016-09-16

    Stereochemical control is critical in natural product biosynthesis. For ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs), the mechanism(s) by which stereoselectivity is achieved is still poorly understood. In this work, we focused on the stereoselective lanthionine synthesis in lanthipeptides, a major class of RiPPs formed by the addition of Cys residues to dehydroalanine (Dha) or dehydrobutyrine (Dhb). Nonenzymatic cyclization of the small subunit of a virulence lanthipeptide, the enterococcal cytolysin, resulted in the native modified peptide as the major product, suggesting that both regioselectivity and stereoselectivity are inherent to the dehydrated peptide sequence. These results support previous computational studies that a Dhx-Dhx-Xxx-Xxx-Cys motif (Dhx = Dha or Dhb; Xxx = any amino acid except Dha, Dhb, and Cys) preferentially cyclizes by attack on the Re face of Dha or Dhb. Characterization of the stereochemistry of the products formed enzymatically with substrate mutants revealed that the lanthionine synthetase actively reinforces Re face attack. These findings support the hypothesis of substrate-controlled selectivity in lanthionine synthesis but also reveal likely coevolution of substrates and lanthionine synthetases to ensure the stereoselective synthesis of lanthipeptides with defined biological activities.

  19. The Enterococcal Cytolysin Synthetase Coevolves with Substrate for Stereoselective Lanthionine Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Weixin; Thibodeaux, Gabrielle N.; van der Donk, Wilfred A.

    2017-01-01

    Stereochemical control is critical in natural product biosynthesis. For ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs), the mechanism(s) by which stereoselectivity is achieved is still poorly understood. In this work, we focused on the stereoselective lanthionine synthesis in lanthipeptides, a major class of RiPPS formed by addition of Cys residues to dehydroalanine (Dha) or dehydrobutyrine (Dhb). Non-enzymatic cyclization of the small subunit of a virulent lanthipeptide, the enterococcal cytolysin, resulted in the native modified peptide as the major product, suggesting that both regioselectivity and stereoselectivity are inherent to the dehydrated peptide sequence. These results support previous computational studies that a DhxDhxXxxXxxCys motif (Dhx = Dha or Dhb; Xxx = any amino acid except Dha, Dhb, and Cys) preferentially cyclizes by attack on the Re face of Dha or Dhb. Characterization of the stereochemistry of the products formed enzymatically with substrate mutants revealed that the lanthionine synthetase actively reinforces Re face attack. These findings support the hypothesis of substrate-controlled selectivity in lanthionine synthesis but also reveal likely coevolution of substrates and lanthionine synthetases to ensure the stereoselective synthesis of lanthipeptides with defined biological activities. PMID:27348535

  20. Seven-Membered Ring Nucleoside Analogues: Stereoselective Synthesis and Studies on Their Conformational Properties.

    PubMed

    Habibian, Maryam; Martínez-Montero, Saúl; Portella, Guillem; Chua, Zhijie; Bohle, D Scott; Orozco, Modesto; Damha, Masad J

    2015-11-06

    The synthesis of a novel series of seven-membered ring nucleoside analogues as candidates for biological screening and gene silencing applications is described. The key step in the synthetic approach is a stereoselective synthesis of an epoxide that is used as a common synthetic intermediate to prepare functionalized oxepane nucleoside derivatives. The conformational landscape and preferred ring-puckering of selected oxepane nucleosides was also studied by NMR, X-ray crystallography, and quantum mechanical calculations.

  1. A stereoselective synthesis of (+)-physoperuvine using a tandem aza-Claisen rearrangement and ring closing metathesis reaction.

    PubMed

    Zaed, Ahmed M; Swift, Michael D; Sutherland, Andrew

    2009-07-07

    A stereoselective synthesis of (+)-physoperuvine, a tropane alkaloid from Physalis peruviana Linne has been developed using a one-pot tandem aza-Claisen rearrangement and ring closing metathesis reaction to form the key amino-substituted cycloheptene ring.

  2. [Development of highly stereoselective reactions utilizing heteroatoms--asymmetric synthesis of alpha-substituted serines].

    PubMed

    Sano, S

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews the efficient methods for diastereoselective and enantioselective syntheses of alpha-substituted serines. A newly designed bislactim ether, ethyl (5S)- or (5R)-3,6-diethoxy-2,5-dihydro-5-isopropyl-2-pyrazinecarboxylate, was treated with base or Lewis acid-tertiary amine to generate an enolate or enaminate (imine anion, metalloenamine). Alkylation or aldol-type reaction with the resultant enolate or enaminate proceeded in a highly diastereoselective manner to give the corresponding alkylated or aldol products, respectively. Reduction of these products with diisobutylaluminum hydride (DIBAL) followed by hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid afforded the desirable alpha-substituted serines. The enantioselective aldol-type reaction of an achiral bislactim ether, ethyl 3,6-diethoxy-2,5-dihydro-2-pyrazinecarboxylate, was also investigated by employing Sn(OSO2CF3)2-triethylamine in the presence of an external chiral ligand, (--)-sparteine. Not only a stoichiometric amount, but also a catalytic amount of (--)-sparteine promoted the highly enantioselective aldol-type reactions. Interestingly, the stereoselective outcome of the Sn(II)-mediated reaction differed from that of the Mg(II)-mediated one in the aldol-type reaction of the bislactim ethers with aliphatic aldehydes. On the other hand, chemoenzymatic synthesis of enantiomerically pure alpha-substituted serines must also be a convenient and useful procedure. Porcine liver esterase (PLE) or rabbit liver esterase (RLE) catalyzed hydrolysis of the pro-S ester group of diethyl alpha-alkyl-alpha-(benzyloxycarbonylamino)malonates to afford (R)-ethyl alpha-alkyl-alpha-(benzyloxycarbonylamino)malonates each in excellent enantiomeric excess. Enantiodivergent reductions of these acid esters readily proceeded to furnish both the corresponding enantiomeric alpha-substituted serines. Finally, the application of these methodologies mentioned above to a total synthesis of ISP-I (a potent immunosuppressive principle in

  3. Stereoselective synthesis of heterocyclic cage compounds by domino conjugate additions.

    PubMed

    Carreño, M Carmen; Luzón, Carmen García; Ribagorda, María

    2002-01-04

    Heterocyclic cage compounds have been stereoselectively synthesized from enantiopure [(S)R]-[(p-tolylsulfinyl)methyl]-p-quinols or their amine analogues and 2-(trimethylsilyloxy)furan in the presence of Bu4NF. The method is particularly valuable not only because of the stereochemical control but also because the reactions occur in an experimentally simple one-pot procedure through a domino sequence of three consecutive conjugate additions. The intermediate 1,4-adducts could be isolated when the reaction was carried out in the presence of BF3 x OEt2.

  4. Stereoselective synthesis of 2,5-disubstituted morpholines using a palladium-catalyzed hydroamination reaction.

    PubMed

    McGhee, Alicia; Cochran, Brian M; Stenmark, Torrey A; Michael, Forrest E

    2013-08-04

    A palladium-catalyzed hydroamination reaction is the key step in a stereoselective synthesis of 2,5-disubstituted and 2,3,5-trisubsituted morpholines from carbamate-protected aziridines. Aziridines are selectively attacked at the more substituted position by unsaturated alcohol nucleophiles using Lewis acid catalysts. Palladium-catalyzed hydroamination of the resulting aminoalkenes gives morpholines as a single diastereomer in excellent yield.

  5. Total synthesis of bryostatins: the development of methodology for the atom-economic and stereoselective synthesis of the ring C subunit.

    PubMed

    Trost, Barry M; Frontier, Alison J; Thiel, Oliver R; Yang, Hanbiao; Dong, Guangbin

    2011-08-22

    Bryostatins, a family of structurally complicated macrolides, exhibit an exceptional range of biological activities. The limited availability and structural complexity of these molecules makes development of an efficient total synthesis particularly important. This article describes our initial efforts towards the total synthesis of bryostatins, in which chemoselective and atom-economical methods for the stereoselective assembly of the ring C subunit were developed. A Pd-catalyzed tandem alkyne-alkyne coupling/6-endo-dig cyclization sequence was explored and successfully pursued in the synthesis of a dihydropyran ring system. Elaboration of this methodology ultimately led to a concise synthesis of the ring C subunit of bryostatins. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Stereoselective Synthesis of Isochromanones by an Asymmetric Ortho-Lithiation Strategy: Synthetic Access to the Isochromanone Core of the Ajudazols.

    PubMed

    Essig, Sebastian; Menche, Dirk

    2016-03-04

    Full details on the design, development, and application of a highly stereoselective strategy for the synthesis of isochromanones are reported. The method is based on an asymmetric ortho lithiation with aldehyde electrophiles and utilizes the chiral memory of a preoriented atropisomeric amide axis for stereocontrol. For direct transformation of sterically hindered amides to isochromanones, efficient and mild one-pot protocols involving either O-alkylation or acidic microwave activation were developed. The procedures may be applied also to highly functionalized as well as stereochemically complex and sensitive substrates and demonstrate a high protective group tolerance. Furthermore, asymmetric crotylborations of axially chiral amides were studied in detail. These methodologies enable a general access to all possible stereoisomers of hydroxyl-isochromanones with up to three contiguous stereocenters. The true applicability of our approach was finally demonstrated by synthesis of the authentic anti,anti-configured isochromanone core of the ajudazols, highly potent inhibitors of the mitochondrial respiratory chain from myxobacteria.

  7. Regio- and stereoselective synthesis of benzothiazolo-pyrimidinones via an NHC-catalyzed Mannich/lactamization domino reaction.

    PubMed

    Ni, Qijian; Song, Xiaoxiao; Xiong, Jiawen; Raabe, Gerhard; Enders, Dieter

    2015-01-25

    An NHC-catalyzed regio- and stereoselective Mannich/lactamization domino reaction of N-(benzothiazolyl)imines with α-chloroaldehydes has been developed. This new protocol provides a facile approach for the asymmetric synthesis of benzothiazolo-pyrimidinones and a pyrrolo[1,2-a]indolone in moderate to good yields (34-78%) and excellent stereoselectivities (87-99% ee, up to >20 : 1 d.r.).

  8. Highly Efficient and Stereoselective Construction of Bispirooxindole Derivatives via a Three-Component 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition Reaction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qin; Wang, De; Wei, Yin; Shi, Min

    2014-06-01

    A highly regio- and stereoselective synthesis of bispirooxindoles by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of in situ generated azomethine ylides from isatin and proline to different electron-deficient alkenes has been developed. The synthesis affords the desired bispiro scaffold compounds in excellent yields with high regioselectivity under mild conditions. The stereochemistry was determined by single-crystal X-ray analysis.

  9. Cooperative Brønsted Acid-Type Organocatalysis for the Stereoselective Synthesis of Deoxyglycosides

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A practical approach for the α-stereoselective synthesis of deoxyglycosides using cooperative Brønsted acid-type organocatalysis has been developed. The method is tolerant of a wide range of glycoside donors and acceptors, and its versatility is exemplified in the one-pot synthesis of a trisaccharide. Mechanistic studies suggest that thiourea-induced acid amplification of the chiral acid via H-bonding is key for the enhancement in reaction rate and yield, while stereocontrol is dependent on the chirality of the acid. PMID:28004941

  10. Reactions between Grignard reagents and heterocyclic N-oxides: stereoselective synthesis of substituted pyridines, piperidines, and piperazines.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Hans; Olsson, Roger; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2011-01-21

    In this perspective we discuss the recent developments of stereoselective synthesis of substituted pyridines, piperidines, and piperazines from cheap and commercially readily available starting materials. Pyridine N-oxides and pyrazine N-oxides are reacted with alkyl, aryl, alkynyl and vinyl Grignard reagents to give a diverse set of heterocycles in high yields. Optically active substituted piperazines are obtained by an asymmetric reaction from pyrazine N-oxides using sparteine as chiral ligand. In addition, a stereoselective synthesis of dienal-oximes from the reaction between pyridine N-oxides and Grignard reagents is presented, which results in a useful intermediate for the synthesis of a diverse set of compounds.

  11. Exploitation of a Multienzymatic Stereoselective Cascade Process in the Synthesis of 2-Methyl-3-Substituted Tetrahydrofuran Precursors.

    PubMed

    Brenna, Elisabetta; Crotti, Michele; Gatti, Francesco G; Marinoni, Ludovico; Monti, Daniela; Quaiato, Sara

    2017-02-17

    Enantiopure 2-methyl-3-substituted tetrahydrofurans are key precursors of several biologically active products (drugs, flavors, and agrochemicals). Thus, a stereocontrolled and efficient methodology for the obtainment of these synthons is highly desirable. We exploited a two-step multienzymatic stereoselective cascade reduction of α-bromo-α,β-unsaturated ketones to give the corresponding bromohydrins in good yields, with high ee and de values. The cascade process is catalyzed by an ene-reductase and an alcohol dehydrogenase. Further manipulations of these bromohydrins, by two diastereodivergent routes, allowed the preparation of the tetrahydrofuran synthons. One route is based on a lipase catalyzed cleavage of the protecting group. The second route is characterized by a camphor sulfonic acid mediated isomerization of a β-hydroxyepoxide to give the tetrahydrofuran-2-ol. Finally, the synthesis of the most odorous and pleasant stereoisomer of the roasted meat aroma, i.e., (2S,3R)-2-methyl-3-thioacetate tetrahydrofuran, is reported as well.

  12. Highly Stereoselective Total Synthesis of Fully Hydroxy-Protected Mycolactones A and B and Their Stereoisomerization upon Deprotection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guangwei; Yin, Ning

    2013-01-01

    Unprecedentedly efficient and highly (≥98%) stereoselective syntheses of mycolactones A and B sidechains relied heavily on Pd-catalyzed alkenylation (Negishi version) and were completed in 11 longest linear steps from ethyl (S)-3-hydroxybutyrate in 12% and 11% overall yields, respectively, roughly corresponding to an average of 82% yield per step. The synthesis of mycolactone core was realized by using Pd-catalyzed alkenyl–allyl coupling and an epoxide-opening reaction with a trialkylalkenylaluminate as key steps. Fully hydroxy-protected mycolactones A and B of ≥98% isomerical purity were synthesized successfully for the first time. However, unexpected 4/3-5/4 inseparable mixtures of mycolactones A and B were obtained upon deprotection. PMID:21412860

  13. Total synthesis of fostriecin: via a regio- and stereoselective polyene hydration, oxidation, and hydroboration sequence.

    PubMed

    Gao, Dong; O'Doherty, George A

    2010-09-03

    A total synthesis of the fostriecin has been achieved in 24 steps from enyne 11. The lactone moiety was installed by a Leighton allylation and Grubbs ring-closing metathesis reaction. The highly reactive Z,Z,E-triene moiety was installed via a late-stage Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of a remarkably stable Z-vinyl boronate. The relative and absolute stereocenters of the C-8,9,11 triol were generated with a regio- and stereoselective asymmetric hydration/oxidation sequence.

  14. Samarium(II) promoted stereoselective synthesis of antiproliferative cis-beta-alkoxy-gamma-alkyl-gamma-lactones.

    PubMed

    Donadel, Osvaldo J; Martín, Tomás; Martín, Víctor S; Padrón, José M

    2007-01-01

    Samarium(II) iodide promotes the stereoselective synthesis of cis-beta-alkoxy-gamma-alkyl-gamma-lactones under mild conditions starting from linear precursors. The in vitro antiproliferative activities were examined in the human solid tumor cell lines from diverse origin A2780, SW1573, and WiDr. From the growth inhibition data a structure-activity relationship was obtained. Overall the results point to the relevant role of cis-beta-alkoxy-gamma-alkyl-gamma-lactones as novel scaffolds for the development of new anticancer drugs.

  15. Stereoselective synthesis of protectin D1: A potent anti-inflammatory and proresolving lipid mediator

    PubMed Central

    Aursnes, M.; Tungen, J. E.; Vik, A.; Dalli, J.; Hansen, T. V.

    2014-01-01

    A convergent stereoselective synthesis of the potent anti-inflammatory, proresolving and neuroprotective lipid mediator protectin D1 (2) has been achieved in 15% yield over eight steps. The key features were a stereocontrolled Evans-aldol reaction with Nagao’s chiral auxiliary and a highly selective Lindlar reduction of internal alkyne 23, allowing the sensitive conjugated E,E,Z-triene to be introduced late in the preparation of 2. The UV and LC/MS-MS data of synthetic protectin D1 (2) matched those obtained from endogenously produced material PMID:24253202

  16. Stereoselective synthesis of stable-isotope-labeled amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Unkefer, C.J.; Martinez, R.A.; Silks, L.A. III; Lodwig, S.N.

    1994-12-01

    For magnetic resonance and vibrational spectroscopies to reach their full potential, they must be used in combination with sophisticated site-specific stable isotope labeling of biological macromolecules. Labeled amino acids are required for the study of the structure and function of enzymes and proteins. Because there are 20 common amino acids, each with its own distinguishing chemistry, they remain a synthetic challenge. The Oppolzer chiral auxiliary provides a general tool with which to approach the synthesis of labeled amino acids. By using the Oppolzer auxiliary, amino acids can be constructed from several small molecules, which is ideal for stable isotope labeling. In addition to directing the stereochemistry at the {alpha}-carbon, the camphorsultam can be used for stereo-specific isotope labeling at prochiral centers in amino acids. By using the camphorsultam auxiliary we have the potential to synthesize virtually any isotopomer of all of the common amino acids.

  17. A new, efficient and stereoselective synthesis of tricyclic and tetracyclic compounds by samarium diiodide induced cyclisations of naphthyl-substituted arylketones--an easy access to steroid-like skeletons.

    PubMed

    Aulenta, Francesca; Berndt, Mathias; Brüdgam, Irene; Hartl, Hans; Sörgel, Sebastian; Reissig, Hans-Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    In this report, we present the application of samarium diiodide induced cyclisations of naphthyl-substituted ketones towards an easy and stereoselective access to tri- and tetracyclic-functionalised compounds. Typical naphthalene derivatives were studied to investigate the scope and limitations of this novel cyclisation process. The model substrates studied demonstrate that the samarium ketyl cyclisations are essentially restricted to the formation of six-membered rings. The diastereoselectivity of these reactions is strongly influenced by the connection of the alkyl side chain to the naphthalene core. Gamma-naphth-1-yl-substituted ketones furnished cyclisation products, such as 17 or 22-26, as single diastereomers, whereas gamma-naphth-2-yl-substituted precursors gave mixtures of diastereomers--as demonstrated by the conversion of model compound 10 into tricyclic products 18 a/18 b, or that of cyclohexanone derivative 33 into tetracyclic diastereomers 34 a/34 b. Cyclic ketones as ketyl precursors furnished steroid-like tetracyclic skeletons; however, due to the cis/cis fusion of rings B/C and C/D these products have an "unnatural" bowl-like shape. Several of the cyclisation products have been identified by X-ray analyses, which not only proved the constitutions, but also the relative configurations and the preferred conformations. Steroid analogue 23 was subjected to subsequent transformations, which demonstrate that the styrene-like double bond of such compounds can be used for further structural diversification. First attempts to synthesise related azasteroids by incorporating nitrogen atoms into the ketone moiety are also reported. Thus, pyrrolidine derivatives 44 and 47 as well as piperidine derivatives 50 and 52 were subjected to samarium diiodide induced cyclisations. The expected tetracyclic products 48, 49 a/49 b, 51 and 53 a/53 b were obtained in moderate to good yields. The stereoselectivities observed follow the rules already established for the all

  18. Stereoselective Synthesis of α-Amino-C-phosphinic Acids and Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Viveros-Ceballos, José Luis; Ordóñez, Mario; Sayago, Francisco J; Cativiela, Carlos

    2016-08-29

    α-Amino-C-phosphinic acids and derivatives are an important group of compounds of synthetic and medicinal interest and particular attention has been dedicated to their stereoselective synthesis in recent years. Among these, phosphinic pseudopeptides have acquired pharmacological importance in influencing physiologic and pathologic processes, primarily acting as inhibitors for proteolytic enzymes where molecular stereochemistry has proven to be critical. This review summarizes the latest developments in the asymmetric synthesis of acyclic and phosphacyclic α-amino-C-phosphinic acids and derivatives, following in the first case an order according to the strategy used, whereas for cyclic compounds the nitrogen embedding in the heterocyclic core is considered. In addition selected examples of pharmacological implications of title compounds are also disclosed.

  19. Stereoselective Alkylation of the Vinylketene Silyl N,O-Acetal and Its Application to the Synthesis of Mycocerosic Acid.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tatsuya; Kubota, Kei; Ieki, Takanori; Hosokawa, Seijiro

    2016-01-04

    Stereoselective alkylation of the vinylketene silyl N,O-acetal possessing a chiral auxiliary has been achieved by using activated alkyl halides including allyl iodides, benzyl iodides, and propargyl iodide with Ag(I) ion in the presence of BF3·OEt2. The reaction proceeded to give reduced polyketides in high stereoselectivity. The synthesis of mycocerosic acid, a component of the cell envelope of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has been accomplished by this methodology. During the synthetic studies, 2-methylbenzimidazole was found to be a bulky proton source which worked in the presence of liquid ammonia.

  20. A new method for the stereoselective synthesis of alpha- and beta-glycosylamines using the Burgess reagent.

    PubMed

    Nicolaou, K C; Snyder, Scott A; Nalbandian, Annie Z; Longbottom, Deborah A

    2004-05-26

    Although glycosylamines constitute an important group of carbohydrates from the standpoint of biology and medicine, methods for their synthesis typically lack substrate generality and/or result in variable stereoselectivity, especially in complex contexts. In this communication, we report an operationally simple method for the synthesis of both alpha- and beta-glycosylamines using the Burgess reagent that overcomes many of these limitations in a bare minimum of synthetic steps.

  1. Stereoselective synthesis of (all-Z)-hentriaconta-3,6,9,12,15,19,22,25,28-nonaene.

    PubMed

    Filippova, Liudmila; Aarum, Ida; Ringdal, Martine; Dahl, Martin Kirkhus; Hansen, Trond Vidar; Stenstrøm, Yngve

    2015-04-28

    Several microorganisms produce small quantities of polyunsaturated hydrocarbons and such natural products are of interest. Starting from the ethyl ester of eicosapentaenoic acid, the total synthesis of the natural product (all-Z)-hentriaconta-3,6,9,12,15,19,22,25,28-nonaene has been achieved in eight steps and 15% overall yield. The synthesis is based on a stereoselective Wittig reaction and confirms the all-Z-configuration of the nine double bonds in this highly unsaturated natural product.

  2. Stereoselective, nitro-Mannich/lactamisation cascades for the direct synthesis of heavily decorated 5-nitropiperidin-2-ones and related heterocycles

    PubMed Central

    Jakubec, Pavol; Cockfield, Dane M; Helliwell, Madeleine; Raftery, James

    2012-01-01

    Summary A versatile nitro-Mannich/lactamisation cascade for the direct stereoselective synthesis of heavily decorated 5-nitropiperidin-2-ones and related heterocycles has been developed. A highly enantioenriched substituted 5-nitropiperidin-2-one was synthesised in a four component one-pot reaction combining an enantioselective organocatalytic Michael addition with the diastereoselective nitro-Mannich/lactamisation cascade. Protodenitration and chemoselective reductive manipulation of the heterocycles was used to install contiguous and fully substituted stereocentres in the synthesis of substituted piperidines. PMID:22563355

  3. A Maitland-Japp inspired synthesis of dihydropyran-4-ones and their stereoselective conversion to functionalised tetrahydropyran-4-ones.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Paul A; Sellars, Philip B; Nasir, Nadiah Mad

    2015-04-28

    The Maitland-Japp reaction has been extended to the synthesis of highly functionalised dihydropyran-4-ones. These dihydropyran-4-ones can in turn be converted stereoselectively into tetrahydropyran-4-ones with tertiary and quaternary stereocentres via the one-pot addition of hydride or carbon nucleophiles and trapping with carbon electrophiles. The utility of this method is demonstrated by providing access to the functionalised tetrahydropyran units present in a component of the Civet fragrance and the anticancer polyketide lasonolide A.

  4. Stereoselective Construction of all-anti Polypropionate Modules: Synthesis of the C5-C10 Fragment of Streptovaricin U

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Wildeliz; Rodríguez, Raúl R.; Prieto, José A.

    2009-01-01

    A concise non-aldol approach for the stereoselective construction of all-anti polypropionate fragments was developed. The iterative epoxide-based methodology consists of the syn-selective epoxidation of cis homoallylic alcohols using the VO(acac)2 catalyzed conditions followed by epoxide cleavage with a propynyl aluminum reagent as key steps. The methodology was applied to the synthesis of the all-anti C6-C10 fragment of streptovaricin U. PMID:19236033

  5. Concise formal synthesis of (-)-salinosporamide A (marizomib) using a regio- and stereoselective epoxidation and reductive oxirane ring-opening strategy.

    PubMed

    Ling, Taotao; Potts, Barbara C; Macherla, Venkat R

    2010-06-04

    Expedient access to a highly functionalized 2-pyrrolidinone (8), the gamma-lactam core of 20S proteasome inhibitor (-)-salinosporamide A (marizomib; NPI-0052; 1), using a regio- and stereoselective epoxide formation/reductive oxirane ring-opening strategy is presented. Notably, the sequential construction of the C-4, C-3, and C-2 stereocenters of 1 in a completely stereocontrolled fashion is a key feature of streamlining the synthesis of intermediate 12. A related strategy is also discussed.

  6. Stereoselective Synthesis of 1-Fluoro-exo,exo-2,6-diaryl-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octanes: Synthesis of (±)-1-Fluoromembrine.

    PubMed

    Punirun, Teerachai; Soorukram, Darunee; Kuhakarn, Chutima; Reutrakul, Vichai; Pohmakotr, Manat

    2015-08-21

    Stereoselective synthesis of 1-fluoro-exo,exo-2,6-diaryl-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octanes is described. The synthetic strategy involves stereoselective fluorination of 3,4-trans-4,5-cis-3-aroyl-5-arylparaconic esters using Selectfluor to afford the corresponding fluorinated paraconic esters in good yields as a single isomer, which are subjected to reduction employing LiAlH4 or DIBALH followed by furofuran formation under acidic or Lewis acid conditions to afford a series of 1-fluoro-exo,exo-furofurans in moderate yields. The synthetic protocol also provides an access to (±)-1-fluoromembrine.

  7. Stereoselective synthesis of MLN4924, an inhibitor of NEDD8-activating enzyme.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyuk Woo; Nam, Soo Kyung; Choi, Won Jun; Kim, Hea Ok; Jeong, Lak Shin

    2011-05-06

    MLN4924 (1), which is in clinical trials as an anticancer agent, was stereoselectively synthesized from d-ribose via a route involving stereoselective reduction, regioselective cleavage of an isopropylidene moiety, and selective displacement of a cyclic sulfate moiety as key steps.

  8. General, stereoselective synthesis of (Z)-beta,gamma-unsaturated nitriles promoted by samarium diiodide.

    PubMed

    Concellón, José M; Rodríguez-Solla, Humberto; Simal, Carmen; Santos, David; Paz, Nieves R

    2008-10-16

    A method to obtain (Z)-beta,gamma-unsaturated nitriles in high or good yields and with moderate or high stereoselectivity is described. The products were achieved through the photoinduced metalation of 3-acetoxy-4-chloronitriles with SmI2. The starting compounds were readily prepared, and a mechanism is proposed to explain this stereoselective beta-elimination reaction.

  9. Nucleophilic addition of organozinc reagents to 2-sulfonyl cyclic ethers: stereoselective synthesis of manassantins A and B.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoungsu; Kasper, Amanda C; Moon, Eui Jung; Park, Yongho; Wooten, Ceshea M; Dewhirst, Mark W; Hong, Jiyong

    2009-01-01

    A convergent route to the synthesis of manassantins A and B, potent inhibitors of HIF-1, is described. Central to the synthesis is a stereoselective addition of an organozinc reagent to a 2-benzenesulfonyl cyclic ether to achieve the 2,3-cis-3,4-trans-4,5-cis-tetrahydrofuran of the natural products. Preliminary structure-activity relationships suggested that the (R)-configuration at C-7 and C-7''' is not critical for HIF-1 inhibition. In addition, the hydroxyl group at C-7 and C-7''' can be replaced with a carbonyl group without loss of activity.

  10. Gram-Scale Synthesis of Chiral Cyclopropane-Containing Drugs and Drug Precursors with Engineered Myoglobin Catalysts Featuring Complementary Stereoselectivity.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Priyanka; Sreenilayam, Gopeekrishnan; Tyagi, Vikas; Fasan, Rudi

    2016-12-23

    Engineered hemoproteins have recently emerged as promising systems for promoting asymmetric cyclopropanations, but variants featuring predictable, complementary stereoselectivity in these reactions have remained elusive. In this study, a rationally driven strategy was implemented and applied to engineer myoglobin variants capable of providing access to 1-carboxy-2-aryl-cyclopropanes with high trans-(1R,2R) selectivity and catalytic activity. The stereoselectivity of these cyclopropanation biocatalysts complements that of trans-(1S,2S)-selective variants developed here and previously. In combination with whole-cell biotransformations, these stereocomplementary biocatalysts enabled the multigram synthesis of the chiral cyclopropane core of four drugs (Tranylcypromine, Tasimelteon, Ticagrelor, and a TRPV1 inhibitor) in high yield and with excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivity (98-99.9% de; 96-99.9% ee). These biocatalytic strategies outperform currently available methods to produce these drugs. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The generation of concentration gradients using electroosmotic flow in micro reactors allowing stereoselective chemical synthesis.

    PubMed

    Skelton, V; Greenway, G M; Haswell, S J; Styring, P; Morgan, D O; Warrington, B H; Wong, S Y

    2001-01-01

    The stereoselective control of chemical reactions has been achieved by applying electrical fields in a micro reactor generating controlled concentration gradients of the reagent streams. The chemistry based upon well-established Wittig synthesis was carried out in a micro reactor device fabricated in borosilicate glass using photolithographic and wet etching techniques. The selectivity of the cis (Z) to trans (E) isomeric ratio in the product synthesised was controlled by varying the applied voltages to the reagent reservoirs within the micro reactor. This subsequently altered the relative reagent concentrations within the device resulting in Z/E ratios in the range 0.57-5.21. By comparison, a traditional batch method based on the same reaction length, concentration, solvent and stoichiometry (i.e., 1.0:1.5:1.0 reagent ratios) gave a Z/E in the range 2.8-3.0. However, when the stoichiometric ratios were varied up to ten times as much, the Z/E ratios varied in accordance to the micro reactor i.e., when the aldehyde is in excess, the Z isomer predominates whereas when the aldehyde is in low concentrations, the E isomer is the more favourable form. Thus indicating that localised concentration gradients generated by careful flow control due to the diffusion limited non-turbulent mixing regime within a micro reactor, leads to the observed stereo selectivity for the cis and trans isomers.

  12. Synthesis, stereoselective enzymatic hydrolysis, and skin permeation of diastereomeric propranolol ester prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Udata, C; Tirucherai, G; Mitra, A K

    1999-05-01

    Four diastereomeric propranolol ester prodrugs (1S2S, 1S2R, 1R2S, 1R2R) were synthesized by treating pure R- and S-propranolol hydrochloride with pure enantiomers R- and S-phenylbutyryl chloride. A HPLC technique using alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (chiral AGP) column was developed to study the racemization of propranolol enantiomers during synthesis and hydrolysis studies. A reversed phase HPLC method was also developed to simultaneously analyze propranolol and the ester prodrug. Hydrolysis of these esters was studied in different rat tissue homogenates, i.e., liver, intestine, plasma, skin, brain, and pure plasma cholinesterases, i.e., butyryl cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8) and acetyl cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.7). In vitro percutaneous permeation studies across full thickness shaved rat skin were performed using standard side-by-side diffusion cells at 37 degrees C. The disappearance of the diastereomeric ester prodrugs in rat tissue homogenates followed apparent first-order kinetics and was stereoselective. The ratio of brain to plasma hydrolytic rate constants are 27.8, 5.58, 6.07, and 2.97 for 1S2S, 1R2R, 1R2S, and 1S2R esters, respectively. Hydrolysis of all four diastereomeric ester prodrugs was faster by acetyl cholinesterase than butyryl cholinesterase and is stereoselective. The permeability coefficients [Kp x 10(3) (cm h-1)] are 1.40 +/- 0.30, 1.41 +/- 0.27, 42.20 +/- 1.24, 29.26 +/- 3.41, 16.27 +/- 3.12, 12.99 +/- 2.84 for (R)-propranolol, (S)-propranolol, 1S2S, 1R2S, 1S2R, and 1R2R ester prodrugs, respectively. The results indicate that the 1R2S diastereomeric ester prodrug of propranolol shows greatest stability in liver and intestinal tissues while it exhibits fairly rapid conversion in plasma. The results also suggest the configuration on the second chiral carbon atom to be the determinant in the rate of hydrolysis of all the diastereomeric prodrugs in all biological media examined. The Kp of all four prodrugs markedly increased compared to that of the

  13. Tunable Approach for the Stereoselective Synthesis of 1-C-Diethylphosphono(difluoromethyl) Iminosugars as Glycosyl Phosphate Mimics.

    PubMed

    Cocaud, Chloé; Nicolas, Cyril; Poisson, Thomas; Pannecoucke, Xavier; Legault, Claude Y; Martin, Olivier R

    2017-03-03

    An efficient methodology for the stereoselective and tunable addition of LiCF2P(O)(OEt)2 and BrMgCF2P(O)(OEt)2 reagents to N-t-butanesulfinyl glycosylamines is described with details on the stereochemical effects at play in this process. It provides a practical route to various 1-C-diethylphosphono(difluoromethyl) iminosugars as glycosyl phosphate and sugar nucleotide mimics.

  14. Stereoselective synthesis of C18-guggultetrol and C18-phytosphingosine analogues from D-fructose.

    PubMed

    Ramu Sridhar, Perali; Suresh, Mandava; Venu Kumar, Patteti; Seshadri, Kalapati; Venkata Rao, Chunduri

    2012-10-01

    A series of C(18)-guggultetrol stereo isomers and C(18)-phytosphingosine regio/stereo isomers were synthesised in a stereoselective fashion involving metal mediated fragmentation, stereoselective reduction, 1,4 O → O silyl migration, and Grubbs' cross metathesis as key steps. d-Fructose was used as a raw material for the preparation of all the analogues. The isophytosphingosine derivatives were evaluated against their 5-LOX (5-lipoxigenase) inhibitory activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The stereoselective construction of E- and Z-Δ-Ile from E-dehydroamino acid ester: the synthesis of the phomopsin A tripeptide side chain.

    PubMed

    Yasuno, Yoko; Nishimura, Akito; Yasukawa, Yoshifumi; Karita, Yuma; Ohfune, Yasufumi; Shinada, Tetsuro

    2016-01-25

    The stereoselective synthesis of the phomopsin A tripeptide side chain was achieved by using methyl 2-(((benzyloxy)carbonyl)amino)-2-(diphenoxyphosphoryl)acetate as a common synthetic precursor for the synthesis of E-Δ-dehydroisoleucine and E-Δ-aspartate.

  16. Dihydroxylation of 2-vinylaziridine: efficient synthesis of D-ribo-phytosphingosine.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyo Jae; Kim, Yong-Woo; Lee, Baeck Kyoung; Lee, Won Koo; Kim, Yongeun; Ha, Hyun-Joon

    2007-01-07

    An efficient and highly stereoselective synthesis of D-ribo-(2S,3S,4R)-phytosphingosine was accomplished in 62% overall yield starting from commercially available (2S)-hydroxymethylaziridine via osmium-catalyzed asymmetric dihydroxylation as a key step.

  17. Stereoselective Synthesis of Dienyl-Carboxylate Building Blocks: Formal Synthesis of Inthomycin C

    PubMed Central

    Souris, Caroline; Frébault, Frédéric; Patel, Ashay; Audisio, Davide; Houk, K. N.; Maulide, Nuno

    2013-01-01

    A direct synthesis of stereodefined halodienes is reported. Those key building blocks enable a concise access to polyenic products, as demonstrated in a modular synthesis of Inthomycin C. PMID:23763296

  18. Tuning the stereoelectronic properties of 1-sulfanylhex-1-enitols for the sequential stereoselective synthesis of 2-deoxy-2-iodo-β-D-allopyranosides.

    PubMed

    Kövér, Andrea; Boutureira, Omar; Matheu, M Isabel; Díaz, Yolanda; Castillón, Sergio

    2014-04-04

    The preparation of challenging 2-deoxy-2-iodo-β-D-allo precursors of 2-deoxy-β-D-ribo-hexopyranosyl units and other analogues is reported using a robust olefination-cyclization-glycosylation sequence. Here, we particularly focus on tuning the stereoelectronic properties of the alkenyl sulfides intermediates in order to improve the diastereoselectivity of the cyclization step and, hence, the efficiency of the overall transformation. Phosphine oxides with the general formula Ph2P(O)CH2SR (R = t-Bu, Cy, p-MeOPh, 2,6-di-ClPh, and 2,6-di-MePh) were easily synthesized and subsequently used in the olefination reaction with 2,3,5-tri-O-benzyl-D-ribose and -D-arabinose. The corresponding sugar-derived alkenyl sulfides were submitted to a 6-endo [I(+)]-induced cyclization, and the resulting 2-deoxy-2-iodohexopyranosyl-1-thioglycosides were used as glycosyl donors for the stereoselective synthesis of 2-deoxy-2-iodohexopyranosyl glycosides. Among the different S-groups studied, t-Bu derivative was the best performer for the synthesis of cholesteryl 2-deoxy-2-iodomannopyranosides, whereas for the synthesis of 2-deoxy-2-iodoallopyranosides none of the derivatives here studied proved superior to the phenyl analogue previously described. Glycosylation of cholesterol with different d-allo and d-manno derivatives produced 2-deoxy-2-iodoglycosides with stereoselectivities in the same order in each case, reinforcing the involvement of an oxocarbenium ion as the common intermediate of this crucial glycosylation step.

  19. Stereoselective Synthesis of 1,3-Diaminotruxillic Acid Derivatives: An Advantageous Combination of C-H-ortho-Palladation and On-Flow [2+2]-Photocycloaddition in Microreactors.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Elena; Juan, Alberto; García-Montero, Angel; Soler, Tatiana; Jiménez-Márquez, Francisco; Cativiela, Carlos; Gomez, M Victoria; Urriolabeitia, Esteban P

    2016-01-04

    The stereoselective synthesis of ε-isomers of dimethyl esters of 1,3-diaminotruxillic acid in three steps is reported. The first step is the ortho-palladation of (Z)-2-aryl-4-aryliden-5(4H)-oxazolones 1 to give dinuclear complexes 2 with bridging carboxylates. The reaction occurs through regioselective activation of the ortho-CH bond of the 4-arylidene ring in carboxylic acids. The second step is the [2+2]-photocycloaddition of the CC exocyclic bonds of the oxazolone skeleton in 2 to afford the corresponding dinuclear ortho-palladated cyclobutanes 3. This key step was performed very efficiently by using LED light sources with different wavelengths (465, 525 or 625 nm) in flow microreactors. The final step involved the depalladation of 3 by hydrogenation in methanol to afford the ε-1,3-diaminotruxillic acid derivatives as single isomers.

  20. Stereoselective Synthesis of Functionalized Bicyclic Scaffolds by Passerini 3‐Center‐2‐Component Reactions of Cyclic Ketoacids

    PubMed Central

    Cioc, Răzvan C.; Estévez, Verónica; van der Niet, Daan J.; Vande Velde, Christophe M. L.; Turrini, Nikolaus G.; Hall, Mélanie; Faber, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    We report the use of bifunctional starting materials (ketoacids) in a diastereoselective Passerini three‐center‐two‐component reaction. Study of the reaction scope revealed the required structural features for stereoselectivity in the isocyanide addition. In this system, an interesting isomerization of the primary Passerini product – the α‐carboxamido lactone – into an atypical product, an α‐hydroxy imide, was found to occur under acidic conditions. Furthermore, enantioenriched Passerini products can be generated from an enantioenriched ketoacid obtained by chemoenzymatic synthesis. PMID:28344504

  1. A very simple, highly stereoselective and modular synthesis of ferrocene-based P-chiral phosphine ligands.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiping; Mbafor, William; Roberts, Stanley M; Whittall, John

    2006-03-29

    A very simple, highly stereoselective and modular synthesis of ferrocene-based P-chiral phosphine ligands has been developed. On the basis of this new methodology, several new families of ferrocene-based phosphine ligands have been prepared coupling chirality at phosphorus with other, more standard stereogenic features. The introduction of P-chirality into ferrocene-based phosphine ligands enhances the enantioselective discrimination produced by the corresponding Rh catalyst when a matching among the planar chirality, carbon chirality, and the chirality of phosphorus is achieved.

  2. On the Stereoselective Synthesis of (+)-Pinoresinol in Forsythia Suspensa from its Achiral Precursor, Coniferyl Alcohol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davin, Laurence B.; Bedgar, Diana L.; Katayama, Takeshi; Lewis, Norman G.

    1992-01-01

    The residue from Forsythia suspensa stems, upon removal of soluble enzymes, has provided the first evidence for a stereoselective coupling enzyme in lignan biosynthesis. This preparation catalyses the preferred formation (ca 65%) of (+)-[8,8'- C-14] pinoresinol from [8-C-14]coniferyl alcohol in the absence of exogenously provided cofactors; addition of H2O2 had little effect on enantiomeric composition. However, when NAD and malate were supplied, the stereoselectivity of the coupling reaction was significantly enhanced and pinoresinol consisting of ca 80% of the (+)-antipode was obtained. Clearly, the insoluble residue contains a specific coupling enzyme which catalyses (+)-pinoresinol formation from coniferyl alcohol. By contrast, when [8- C-14] sinapyl alcohol was employed as substrate, only racemic syringaresinols were formed: this non-stereoselective peroxidase-catalysed coupling reaction presumably accounts for the low levels of (-)-pinoresinol encountered in this system when coniferyl alcohol is used as a substrate.

  3. Stereoselective synthesis of 3,3-diarylacrylonitriles as tubulin polymerization inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhenglai; Song, Yunlong; Sarkar, Taradas; Hamel, Ernest; Fogler, William E; Agoston, Gregory E; Fanwick, Phillip E; Cushman, Mark

    2008-06-06

    A series of 3,3-diarylacrylonitriles were synthesized stereoselectively as tubulin polymerization inhibitors for potential use in cancer chemotherapy. This synthetic route features stannylcupration and palladium-catalyzed Stille cross-coupling chemistry, allowing both E and Z isomers of 3,3-diarylacrylonitriles to be prepared in a very short sequence of reactions.

  4. 1-(Triethoxysilyl)buta-1,3-dienes—New Building Blocks for Stereoselective Synthesis of Unsymmetrical (E,E)-1,4-Disubstituted 1,3-dienes

    PubMed Central

    Szudkowska-Frątczak, Justyna; Taczała, Mariusz; Pawluć, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    A convenient methodology for the highly stereoselective synthesis of unsymmetrical (1E,3E)-1,4-disubstituted 1,3-dienes based on palladium-catalyzed Hiyama cross-coupling reaction of 1-(triethoxysilyl)-substituted buta-1,3-dienes with aryl iodides is reported. PMID:28793635

  5. An easy stereoselective synthesis of 5(10)-estrene-3β,17α-diol, a biological marker of pregnancy in the mare.

    PubMed

    Balssa, Frédéric; Fischer, Michael; Bonnaire, Yves

    2014-08-01

    5(10)-Estrene-3β,17α-diol is an essential reference material for doping analysis in horse-racing laboratories. It is used to detect misuse, for doping purpose, of the pregnancy status in the mare. Its stereoselective synthesis from 17β-estradiol-3-methyl ether (prepared from estrone or 17β-estradiol) was performed in four steps: (1) Mitsunobu inversion of the 17β-alcohol; (2) Birch reduction of the aromatic ring; (3) stereoselective reduction of the 3-ketone via Noyori asymmetric transfer hydrogenation; (4) chemoenzymatic purification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Stereoselective Arene-Forming Aldol Condensation: Catalyst-Controlled Synthesis of Axially Chiral Compounds.

    PubMed

    Witzig, Reto M; Lotter, Dominik; Fäseke, Vincent C; Sparr, Christof

    2017-09-21

    The fundamental role that aldol chemistry adopts in various disciplines, such as stereoselective catalysis or the biosynthesis of aromatic polyketides, illustrates its exceptional versatility. On the one hand, numerous aldol addition reactions reliably transfer the stereochemical information from catalysts into various valuable products. On the other hand, countless aromatic polyketide natural products are produced by an ingenious biosynthetic machinery based on arene-forming aldol condensations. With the aim of complementing aldol methodology that controls stereocenter configuration, we recently combined these two tenets by investigating small-molecule-catalyzed aldol condensation reactions that stereoselectively form diverse axially chiral compounds through the construction of a new aromatic ring. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Synthesis of 6'-branched locked nucleic acid by a radical TEMPO-scavanged stereoselective mercury cyclization.

    PubMed

    Enderlin, Gerald; Nielsen, Poul

    2008-09-05

    A 6'(R)-hydroxymethyl derivative of the locked nucleic acid (LNA)-thymidine monomer has been synthesized by a stereoselective mercury cyclization and subsequent use of TEMPO as a radical scavenger. This compound was converted to an azide derivative, which in a Huisgen-type [3 + 2] cycloaddition afforded a double-headed nucleoside with a triazole linking an additional thymine to the 6'-position of the LNA-nucleoside monomer.

  8. Stereoselective synthesis and anti-inflammatory activities of 6- and 7-membered dioxacycloalkanes.

    PubMed

    Gu, Keli; Bi, Lanrong; Zhao, Ming; Wang, Chao; Dolan, Cheryl; Kao, Michael C; Tok, Jeffrey B-H; Peng, Shiqi

    2006-03-01

    A class of 5-trifluoroacetylamino-1,3-dioxacycloalkanes, 5-benzoylamino-1,3-dioxacycloalkanes, and 5-amino-1,3-dioxacycloalkane compounds were stereoselectively synthesized as potential anti-inflammatory drug candidates. The anti-inflammatory activities of these compounds were tested using the xylene-induced mouse ear edema model, from which multiple compounds possessing anti-inflammatory properties which surpass aspirin were identified; these compounds were then compared to establish structure-activity relationships.

  9. Directed functionalization of 1,2-dihydropyridines: stereoselective synthesis of 2,6-disubstituted piperidines.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Guillaume; Constantineau-Forget, Léa; Charette, André B

    2014-07-04

    A practical and highly stereoselective approach to access 2,6-disubstituted piperidines using an amidine auxiliary is reported. Following the diastereoselective addition of Grignard reagents at the 2-position of an activated pyridinium salt, the amidine group directs a regioselective metalation at the 6-position, enabling further functionalization. A subsequent electrophilic quench or a Negishi cross-coupling could be performed, resulting in 2,6-disubstituted dihydropyridines. These were reduced to the saturated piperidine rings with high diastereoselectivity.

  10. Total syntheses of (-)-alpha-kainic acid and (+)-alpha-allokainic acid via stereoselective C-H insertion and efficient 3,4-stereocontrol.

    PubMed

    Jung, Young Chun; Yoon, Cheol Hwan; Turos, Edward; Yoo, Kyung Soo; Jung, Kyung Woon

    2007-12-21

    Reported herein is a novel approach to the total syntheses of (-)-alpha-kainic acid and (+)-alpha-allokainic acid, where the stereochemistries on C(2), C(3), and C(4) of the pyrrolidine core were introduced efficiently and selectively. A regio- and stereoselective C-H insertion reaction was utilized to prepare the gamma-lactam as an intermediate. A Michael-type cyclization of phenylsulfone with a conjugated acetylenic ketone was developed to prepare the tricyclic ketone as a key intermediate for (-)-alpha-kainic acid. Subsequently, a stereoselective dephenylsulfonylation was carried out successfully to secure the cis relationship at C(3) and C(4) centers. An unprecedented acetylation on the phenylsulfone, followed by a stereoselective dephenylsulfonylation, secured the trans relationship at C(3) and C(4) centers in (+)-alpha-allokainic acid.

  11. Organocatalytic enantioselective cascade Michael-alkylation reactions: synthesis of chiral cyclopropanes and investigation of unexpected organocatalyzed stereoselective ring opening of cyclopropanes.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hexin; Zu, Liansuo; Li, Hao; Wang, Jian; Wang, Wei

    2007-09-05

    The development of efficient methods for the facile construction of important molecular architectures is a central goal in organic synthesis. An unprecedented organocatalytic asymmetric cascade Michael-alkylation reaction of alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes with bromomalonates has been developed. The process, efficiently catalyzed by chiral diphenylprolinol TMS ether in the presence of base 2,6-lutidine, serves as a powerful approach to the preparation of synthetically and biologically important cyclopropanes in high levels of enantio- and diastereoselectivities. Remarkably, the power of the cascade process is fueled by its high efficiency of the production of two new C-C bonds, two new stereogenic centers, and one quaternary carbon center in one single operation, which otherwise is difficult to achieve by traditional strategies. Moreover, the beauty of the cascade process is further underscored by the nature of the product formation depending on the reaction conditions. With the alternation of base from 2,6-lutidine (1.1 equiv), which is effective for the cyclopropanations, to NaOAc (4.0 equiv), the spontaneous ring-opening of cyclopropanes takes place to lead to stereoselective (E) alpha-substituted malonate alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes. A possible reaction mechanism, which involves a Michael-alkylation-retro-Michael pathway, is proposed and verified by experimental studies. This investigation represents the first example of an organocatalyst-promoted ring opening of the cyclopropanes, whereas such reactions have been intensively explored by Lewis acid-based catalysis.

  12. Stereoselective synthesis of norephedrine and norpseudoephedrine by using asymmetric transfer hydrogenation accompanied by dynamic kinetic resolution.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeon-Kyu; Kang, Soyeong; Choi, Eun Bok

    2012-06-15

    Each of the enantiomers of both norephedrine and norpseudoephedrine were stereoselectively prepared from the common, prochiral cyclic sulfamidate imine of racemic 1-hydroxy-1-phenyl-propan-2-one by employing asymmetric transfer hydrogenation (ATH) catalyzed by the well-defined chiral Rh-complexes, (S,S)- or (R,R)-Cp*RhCl(TsDPEN), and HCO(2)H/Et(3)N as the hydrogen source. The ATH processes are carried out under mild conditions (rt, 15 min) and are accompanied by dynamic kinetic resolution.

  13. Stereoselective Synthesis of Saturated Heterocycles via Pd-Catalyzed Alkene Carboetherification and Carboamination Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, John P.

    2009-01-01

    The development of Pd-catalyzed carboetherification and carboamination reactions between aryl/alkenyl halides and alkenes bearing pendant heteroatoms is described. These transformations effect the stereoselective construction of useful heterocycles such as tetrahydrofurans, pyrrolidines, imidazolidin-2-ones, isoxazolidines, and piperazines. The scope, limitations, and applications of these reactions are presented, and current stereochemical models are described. The mechanism of product formation, which involves an unusual intramolecular syn-insertion of an alkene into a Pd-Heteroatom bond is also discussed in detail. PMID:19183704

  14. Stereoselective Synthesis of Z Fluoroalkenes through Copper-Catalyzed Hydrodefluorination of gem-Difluoroalkenes with Water.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiefeng; Han, Xiaowei; Yuan, Yu; Shi, Zhuangzhi

    2017-08-30

    A copper catalytic system was established for the stereoselective hydrodefluorination of gem-difluoroalkenes through C-F activation to synthesize various Z fluoroalkenes. H2 O is used as the hydrogen source for the fluorine acceptor moiety. This mild catalytic system shows good-functional group compatibility, accepting a range of carbonyls as precursors to the gem-difluoroalkenes, including aliphatic, aromatic, and α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and even ketones. It serves as a powerful synthetic method for the late-stage modification of complex compounds. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Wittig Reaction: Domino Olefination and Stereoselectivity DFT Study. Synthesis of the Miharamycins' Bicyclic Sugar Moiety.

    PubMed

    Cachatra, Vasco; Almeida, Andreia; Sardinha, João; Lucas, Susana D; Gomes, Ana; Vaz, Pedro D; Florêncio, M Helena; Nunes, Rafael; Vila-Viçosa, Diogo; Calhorda, Maria José; Rauter, Amélia P

    2015-11-20

    2-O-Acyl protected-d-ribo-3-uloses reacted with [(ethoxycarbonyl)methylene]triphenylphosphorane in acetonitrile to afford regio- and stereoselectively 2-(Z)-alkenes in 10-60 min under microwave irradiation. This domino reaction is proposed to proceed via tautomerization of 3-ulose to enol, acyl migration, tautomerization to the 3-O-acyl-2-ulose, and Wittig reaction. Alternatively, in chloroform, regioselective 3-olefination of 2-O-pivaloyl-3-uloses gave (E)-alkenes, key precursors for the miharamycins' bicyclic sugar moiety.

  16. Protein-engineering of an amine transaminase for the stereoselective synthesis of a pharmaceutically relevant bicyclic amine.

    PubMed

    Weiß, Martin S; Pavlidis, Ioannis V; Spurr, Paul; Hanlon, Steven P; Wirz, Beat; Iding, Hans; Bornscheuer, Uwe T

    2016-11-02

    Application of amine transaminases (ATAs) for stereoselective amination of prochiral ketones represents an environmentally benign and economically attractive alternative to transition metal catalyzed asymmetric synthesis. However, the restrictive substrate scope has limited the conversion typically to non-sterically demanding scaffolds. Recently, we reported on the identification and design of fold class I ATAs that effect a highly selective asymmetric synthesis of a set of chiral aromatic bulky amines from the corresponding ketone precursors in high yield. However, for the specific amine synthetic approach extension targeted here, the selective formation of an exo- vs. endo-isomer, these biocatalysts required additional refinement. The chosen substrate (exo-3-amino-8-aza-bicyclo[3.2.1]oct-8-yl-phenyl-methanone), apart from its pharmacological relevance, is a demanding target for ATAs as the bridged bicyclic ring provides substantial steric challenges. Protein engineering combining rational design and directed evolution enabled the identification of an ATA variant which catalyzes the specific synthesis of the target exo-amine with >99.5% selectivity.

  17. Stereoselectivity in Polyphenol Biosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Norman G.; Davin, Laurence B.

    1992-01-01

    Stereoselectivity plays an important role in the late stages of phenyl-propanoid metabolism, affording lignins, lignans, and neolignans. Stereoselectivity is manifested during monolignol (glucoside) synthesis, e.g., where the geometry (E or Z) of the pendant double bond affects the specificity of UDPG:coniferyl alcohol glucosyltransferases in different species. Such findings are viewed to have important ramifications in monolignol transport and storage processes, with roles for both E- and Z-monolignols and their glucosides in lignin/lignan biosynthesis being envisaged. Stereoselectivity is also of great importance in enantiose-lective enzymatic processes affording optically active lignans. Thus, cell-free extracts from Forsythia species were demonstrated to synthesize the enantiomerically pure lignans, (-)-secoisolariciresinol, and (-)-pinoresinol, when NAD(P)H, H2O2 and E-coniferyl alcohol were added. Progress toward elucidating the enzymatic steps involved in such highly stereoselective processes is discussed. Also described are preliminary studies aimed at developing methodologies to determine the subcellular location of late-stage phenylpropanoid metabolites (e.g., coniferyl alcohol) and key enzymes thereof, in intact tissue or cells. This knowledge is essential if questions regarding lignin and lignan tissue specificity and regulation of these processes are to be deciphered.

  18. Stereoselective synthesis of macrocyclic peptides via a dual olefin metathesis and ethenolysis approach.

    PubMed

    Mangold, Shane L; Grubbs, Robert H

    2015-08-01

    Macrocyclic compounds occupy an important chemical space between small molecules and biologics and are prevalent in many natural products and pharmaceuticals. The growing interest in macrocycles has been fueled, in part, by the design of novel synthetic methods to these compounds. One appealing strategy is ring-closing metathesis (RCM) that seeks to construct macrocycles from acyclic diene precursors using defined transition-metal alkylidene catalysts. Despite its broad utility, RCM generally gives rise to a mixture of E- and Z-olefin isomers that can hinder efforts for the large-scale production and isolation of such complex molecules. To address this issue, we aimed to develop methods that can selectively enrich macrocycles in E- or Z-olefin isomers using an RCM/ethenolysis strategy. The utility of this methodology was demonstrated in the stereoselective formation of macrocyclic peptides, a class of compounds that have gained prominence as therapeutics in drug discovery. Herein, we report an assessment of various factors that promote catalyst-directed RCM and ethenolysis on a variety of peptide substrates by varying the olefin type, peptide sequence, and placement of the olefin in macrocycle formation. These methods allow for control over olefin geometry in peptides, facilitating their isolation and characterization. The studies outlined in this report seek to expand the scope of stereoselective olefin metathesis in general RCM.

  19. Stereoselective synthesis of macrocyclic peptides via a dual olefin metathesis and ethenolysis approach

    PubMed Central

    Mangold, Shane L.

    2015-01-01

    Macrocyclic compounds occupy an important chemical space between small molecules and biologics and are prevalent in many natural products and pharmaceuticals. The growing interest in macrocycles has been fueled, in part, by the design of novel synthetic methods to these compounds. One appealing strategy is ring-closing metathesis (RCM) that seeks to construct macrocycles from acyclic diene precursors using defined transition-metal alkylidene catalysts. Despite its broad utility, RCM generally gives rise to a mixture of E- and Z-olefin isomers that can hinder efforts for the large-scale production and isolation of such complex molecules. To address this issue, we aimed to develop methods that can selectively enrich macrocycles in E- or Z-olefin isomers using an RCM/ethenolysis strategy. The utility of this methodology was demonstrated in the stereoselective formation of macrocyclic peptides, a class of compounds that have gained prominence as therapeutics in drug discovery. Herein, we report an assessment of various factors that promote catalyst-directed RCM and ethenolysis on a variety of peptide substrates by varying the olefin type, peptide sequence, and placement of the olefin in macrocycle formation. These methods allow for control over olefin geometry in peptides, facilitating their isolation and characterization. The studies outlined in this report seek to expand the scope of stereoselective olefin metathesis in general RCM. PMID:26509000

  20. Stereoselective synthesis of 1,3-disubstituted isoindolines via Rh(III)-catalyzed tandem oxidative olefination-cyclization of 4-aryl cyclic sulfamidates.

    PubMed

    Son, Se-Mi; Seo, Yeon Ji; Lee, Hyeon-Kyu

    2016-03-21

    Rh(III)-catalyzed tandem ortho C-H olefination of cyclic 4-aryl sulfamidates (1) and subsequent intramolecular cyclization are described. This reaction serves as a method for the direct and stereoselective synthesis of 1,3-disubstituted isoindolines (3) starting with enantiomerically enriched 4-aryl cyclic sulfamidates. In this process, the configurational integrity of the stereogenic center in the starting cyclic sulfamidate is completely retained. In addition, the process generates trans-1,3-disubstituted isoindolines exclusively.

  1. Stereoselective addition of 2-phenyloxazol-4-yl trifluoromethanesulfonate to N-sulfinyl imines: application to the synthesis of the HCV protease inhibitor boceprevir.

    PubMed

    Morris, William J; Muppalla, Kiran K; Cowden, Cameron; Ball, Richard G

    2013-01-18

    The stereoselective addition of 2-phenyloxazol-4-yl trifluoromethanesulfonate to N-sulfinylimines is described. Vinyl anions derived from enol triflate 2 undergo 1,2-addition with a variety of aldimines to afford the corresponding secondary sulfonamides as single diastereomers. The absolute stereochemistry was confirmed by X-ray crystallography which provides support that the reaction proceeds through an open, nonchelate transition state. This methodology has been applied to the synthesis of the ketoamide fragment of the protease inhibitor boceprevir.

  2. Synthesis of novel long wavelength cationic chlorins via stereoselective aldol-like condensation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia Zhu; Wang, Jin Jun; Yoon, Il; Cui, Bing Cun; Shim, Young Key

    2012-03-01

    Using stereoselective aldol-like condensation as a key methodology, a series of chlorophyll a-based long wavelength cationic chlorins were synthesized using methyl pyropheophorbide a (MPPa) and purpurin-18-N-methoxylimide methyl ester as starting materials. Such long wavelength cationic chlorins possess covalently linked cationic moieties (pyridinium or quinolinium) on the peripheral of their tetrapyrrole macrocycles. It was found that all long wavelength cationic chlorins showed their longest absorption maxima in the range of 712-763nm, making them potential photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy. The results of preliminary experiments probing in vitro photodynamic effects showed that the purpurinimide derivatives exhibit relatively high phototoxicity in HeLa cells as compared to MPPa derivatives. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Structural investigation of heteroyohimbine alkaloid synthesis reveals active site elements that control stereoselectivity

    PubMed Central

    Stavrinides, Anna; Tatsis, Evangelos C.; Caputi, Lorenzo; Foureau, Emilien; Stevenson, Clare E. M.; Lawson, David M.; Courdavault, Vincent; O'Connor, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce an enormous array of biologically active metabolites, often with stereochemical variations on the same molecular scaffold. These changes in stereochemistry dramatically impact biological activity. Notably, the stereoisomers of the heteroyohimbine alkaloids show diverse pharmacological activities. We reported a medium chain dehydrogenase/reductase (MDR) from Catharanthus roseus that catalyses formation of a heteroyohimbine isomer. Here we report the discovery of additional heteroyohimbine synthases (HYSs), one of which produces a mixture of diastereomers. The crystal structures for three HYSs have been solved, providing insight into the mechanism of reactivity and stereoselectivity, with mutation of one loop transforming product specificity. Localization and gene silencing experiments provide a basis for understanding the function of these enzymes in vivo. This work sets the stage to explore how MDRs evolved to generate structural and biological diversity in specialized plant metabolism and opens the possibility for metabolic engineering of new compounds based on this scaffold. PMID:27418042

  4. Catalytic Stereoselective 1,4-Addition Reactions Using CsF on Alumina as a Solid Base: Continuous-Flow Synthesis of Glutamic Acid Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Borah, Parijat; Yamashita, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Shū

    2017-08-21

    A novel methodology using CsF⋅Al2 O3 as a highly efficient, environmentally benign, and reusable solid-base catalyst was developed to synthesize glutamic acid derivatives by stereoselective 1,4-addition of glycine derivatives to α,β-unsaturated esters. CsF⋅Al2 O3 showed not only great selectivity toward 1,4-addtion reactions by suppressing the undesired formation of pyrrolidine derivations by [3+2] cycloadditions, but also offered high yields for the 1,4-adduct with excellent anti diastereoselectivities. The catalyst was well characterized by using XRD, (19) F MAS-NMR and (19) F NMR spectroscopy, FT-IR, CO2 -TPD, and XPS. And highly basic F from Cs3 AlF6 was identified as the most probable active basic site for the 1,4-addition reactions. Continuous-flow synthesis of 3-methyl glutamic acid derivative was successfully demonstrated by using this solid-base catalysis. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Stereoselective synthesis of 2α-Chloropicropodophyllotoxins and insecticidal activity of their esters against oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata walker.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lingling; Guo, Yong; Zhi, Xiaoyan; Yu, Xiang; Xu, Hui

    2014-04-30

    As part of ongoing efforts to discover new natural-product-based insecticidal agents, in the present study, an efficient method for the stereoselective α-chlorination at the C-2 position of 2'(2',6')-(di)halogenopodophyllotoxin derivatives was first developed. Subsequently, a series of novel esters of 2α-chloro-2'(2',6')-(di)halogenopicropodophyllotoxin with modified C, D, and E rings of podophyllotoxin were smoothly obtained. Finally, all of the title compounds were tested against the pre-third-instar larvae of oriental armyworm (Mythimna separata Walker) at 1 mg/mL. It was found that besides their 2'-halogen-substituted E ring, the stereoselective α-chlorination at the C-2 position of 2'(2',6')-(di)halogenopodophyllotoxins was also related to the chlorination reagents. Especially 2α-chloro-4α-(benzoyl)oxy-2'-chloropicropodophyllotoxin (6e) and 2α-chloro-4α-(2-chlorophenylacyl)oxy-2'-bromopicropodophyllotoxin (8f) showed the most potent insecticidal activities, with final mortality rates of >60%. For 4α-(alkylacyl)oxy derivatives of 2α-chloro-2'(2',6')-(di)halogenopicropodophyllotoxin, the effect of the length of their side chain at the C-4 position of podophyllotoxin skeleton on the insecticidal activity was not very obvious. For 4α-(arylacyl)oxy derivatives of 2α-chloro-2'-chloro/bromopicropodophyllotoxin, an electronic effect of the substituents on their phenyl ring at the C-4 position of podophyllotoxin skeleton on the insecticidal activity was observed.

  6. Stereoselective Synthesis of α- and β-l-Ara4N Glycosyl H-Phosphonates and a Neoglycoconjugate Comprising Glycosyl Phosphodiester Linked β-l-Ara4N

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Stereoselective synthesis of variably protected α- and β-l-Ara4N glycosyl H-phosphonates as key intermediates in the syntheses of β-l-Ara4N-modified LPS structures and α-l-Ara4N-containing biosynthetic precursors is reported. A facile one-pot approach toward β-l-Ara4N glycosyl H-phosphonates includes anomeric deallylation of protected 4-azido β-l-Ara4N via terminal olefin isomerization followed by ozonolysis and methanolysis of formyl groups to furnish exclusively β-configured lactols that are phosphitylated with retention of configuration. The carbohydrate epitope of β-l-Ara4N-modified Lipid A, βGlcN(1→6)αGlcN(1→P←1)β-l-Ara4N, was stereoselectively synthesized and linked to maleimide-activated bovine serum albumin. PMID:28009171

  7. Regio- and Stereoselective Synthesis of Spiropyrrolizidines and Piperazines through Azomethine Ylide Cycloaddition Reaction.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Saoussen; Boudriga, Sarra; Porzio, François; Soldera, Armand; Askri, Moheddine; Knorr, Michael; Rousselin, Yoann; Kubicki, Marek M; Golz, Christopher; Strohmann, Carsten

    2015-09-18

    A series of original spiropyrrolizidine derivatives has been prepared by a one-pot three-component [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction of (E)-3-arylidene-1-phenyl-pyrrolidine-2,5-diones, l-proline, and the cyclic ketones 1H-indole-2,3-dione (isatin), indenoquinoxaline-11-one and acenaphthenequinone. We disclose an unprecedented isomerization of some spiroadducts leading to a new family of spirooxindolepyrrolizidines. Furthermore, these cycloadducts underwent retro-1,3-dipolar cycloaddition yielding unexpected regioisomers. Upon treatment of the dipolarophiles with in situ generated azomethine ylides from l-proline or acenaphthenequinone, formation of spiroadducts and unusual polycyclic fused piperazines through a stepwise [3 + 3] cycloaddition pathway is observed. The stereochemistry of these N-heterocycles has been confirmed by several X-ray diffraction studies. Some of these compounds exhibit extensive hydrogen bonding in the crystalline state. To enlighten the observed regio- and stereoselectivity of the [3 + 2] cycloaddition, calculations using the DFT approach at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level were carried out. It was found that this reaction is under kinetic control.

  8. Lactones 42. Stereoselective enzymatic/microbial synthesis of optically active isomers of whisky lactone.

    PubMed

    Boratyński, Filip; Smuga, Małgorzata; Wawrzeńczyk, Czesław

    2013-11-01

    Two different methods, enzyme-mediated reactions and biotrasformations with microorganisms, were applied to obtain optically pure cis- and trans-isomers of whisky lactone 4a and 4b. In the first method, eight alcohol dehydrogenases were investigated as biocatalysts to enantioselective oxidation of racemic erythro- and threo-3-methyloctane-1,4-diols (1a and 1b). Oxidation processes with three of them, alcohol dehydrogenases isolated from horse liver (HLADH) as well as recombinant from Escherichia coli and primary alcohol dehydrogenase (PADH I), were characterized by the highest degree of conversion with moderate enantioselectivity (ee=27-82%) of the reaction. In all enzymatic reactions enantiomerically enriched not naturally occurring isomers of trans-(-)-(4R,5S)-4b or cis-(+)-(4R,5R)-4a were formed preferentially. In the second strategy, based on microbial lactonization of γ-oxoacids, naturally occurring opposite isomers of whisky lactones were obtained. Trans-(+)-(4S,5R)-isomer (ee=99%) of whisky lactone 4b was stereoselectively formed as the only product of biotransformations of 3-methyl-4-oxooctanoic acid (5) catalyzed by Didimospheria igniaria KCH6651, Laetiporus sulphurens AM525, Chaetomium sp.1 KCH6670 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae AM464. Biotransformation of γ-oxoacid 5, in the culture of Beauveria bassiana AM278 and Pycnidiella resinae KCH50 afforded a mixtures of trans-(+)-(4S,5R)-4b with enantiomeric excess ee=99% and cis-(-)-(4S,5S)-4a with enantiomeric excesses ee=77% and ee=45% respectively.

  9. Synthesis of robalzotan, ebalzotan, and rotigotine precursors via the stereoselective multienzymatic cascade reduction of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Brenna, Elisabetta; Gatti, Francesco G; Malpezzi, Luciana; Monti, Daniela; Parmeggiani, Fabio; Sacchetti, Alessandro

    2013-05-17

    A stereoselective synthesis of bicyclic primary or secondary amines, based on tetralin or chroman structural moieties, is reported. These amines are precursors of important active pharmaceutical ingredients such as rotigotine (Neupro), robalzotan, and ebalzotan. The key step is based on a multienzymatic reduction of an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde or ketone to give the saturated primary or secondary alcohol, in a high yield and with a high ee. The catalytic system consists of the combination of an ene-reductase (ER; i.e., OYE2 or OYE3 belonging to the Old Yellow Enzyme family) with an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), applying the in situ substrate feeding product removal technology. By this system the formation of the allylic alcohol side product and the racemization of the chirally unstable α-substituted aldehyde intermediate are minimized. The primary alcohols were elaborated via a Curtius rearrangement. The combination of OYE2 with a Prelog or an anti-Prelog ADH allowed the preparation of the secondary alcohols with ee > 99% and de > 87%. The absolute configuration of the primary amines was unambiguously assigned by comparison with authentic samples. The stereochemistry of secondary alcohols was assigned by X-ray crystal structure and NMR analysis of Mosher esters.

  10. Stereoselective synthesis of perillaldehyde-based chiral β-amino acid derivatives through conjugate addition of lithium amides

    PubMed Central

    Szakonyi, Zsolt; Sillanpää, Reijo

    2014-01-01

    Summary The Michael addition of dibenzylamine to (+)-tert-butyl perillate (3) and to (+)-tert-butyl phellandrate (6), derived from (S)-(−)-perillaldehyde (1), resulted in diastereomeric β-amino esters 7A–D in a moderately stereospecific reaction in a ratio of 76:17:6:1. After separation of the diastereoisomers, the major product, cis isomer 7A, was quantitatively isomerized to the minor component, trans-amino ester 7D. All four isomers were transformed to the corresponding β-amino acids 10A–D, which are promising building blocks for the synthesis of β-peptides and 1,3-heterocycles in three steps. The steric effects of the isopropyl group at position 4 and of the α-methyl substituent of (R)-N-benzyl-N-α-methylbenzylamine on the reactivity were also studied and, upon application of a chiral amine, excellent stereoselectivity of the conjugate addition was observed. Amino ester 11 was obtained as a single product and transformed to the corresponding amino acids 10A and 10D in good yields on the gram scale. PMID:25550738

  11. Stereoselective synthesis of chiral sulfilimines from N-mesyloxycarbamates: metal-nitrenes versus metal-nitrenoids species.

    PubMed

    Lebel, Hélène; Piras, Henri

    2015-04-03

    The synthesis of a variety of chiral sulfilimines and sulfoximines is described. The amination of thioethers with a chiral N-mesyloxycarbamate was achieved in high yields and stereoselectivities using Rh2[(S)-nttl]4 as catalyst in the presence of 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) and a pyridinium salt, such as bis(DMAP)CH2Cl2 or a viologen salt. These additives proved instrumental to enhance both the yield and the stereochemical discrimination of the reaction. Mechanistic studies and control experiments have elucidated the role of these additives. DMAP served as an apical ligand for the rhodium catalyst: an X-ray crystal structure of the (DMAP)2·[Rh2{(S)-nttl}4] complex was obtained. This complex displayed a lower and irreversible redox potential. Control experiments with preformed Rh(II)-Rh(III) complex suggested such a catalytically active species in the thioether amination process. Diastereoselectivities were influenced by the sulfonyloxy leaving group, ruling out the possibility of a common metal nitrene species and instead suggesting a rhodium-nitrenoid complex. It is believed that the bispyridinium salt played the role of a phase transfer catalyst, influencing both the yield and the diastereoselectivity of the reaction.

  12. Ru-catalyzed stereoselective addition of imides to alkynes.

    PubMed

    Goossen, Lukas J; Blanchot, Mathieu; Brinkmann, Claus; Goossen, Käthe; Karch, Ralph; Rivas-Nass, Andreas

    2006-12-08

    A catalyst system formed in situ from bis(2-methylallyl)cycloocta-1,5-dieneruthenium(II) ((cod)Ru[met]2), a phosphine, and scandium(III) trifluoromethanesulfonate (Sc(OTf)3) was found to efficiently catalyze the anti-Markovnikov addition of imides to terminal alkynes, allowing mild and atom-economic synthesis of enimides. Depending on the phosphine employed, both the (E)- and the (Z)-isomer can be accessed stereoselectively.

  13. Stereoselective synthesis of D- and L-carbocyclic nucleosides by enzymatically catalyzed kinetic resolution.

    PubMed

    Mahler, Miriam; Reichardt, Bastian; Hartjen, Philip; van Lunzen, Jan; Meier, Chris

    2012-08-27

    An efficient synthesis of (S)- or (R)-3-(benzyloxy-methyl)-cyclopent-3-enol was developed by appling an enzyme-catalyzed kinetic-resolution approach. This procedure allowed the syntheses of the enantiomeric building blocks (S)- and (R)-cyclopentenol with high optical purity (>98 % ee). In contrast to previous approaches, the key advantage of this procedure is that the resolution is done on the level of enantiomers that only contain one stereogenic center. Owing to this feature, it was possible to chemically convert the enantiomers into each other. By using this route, the starting materials for the syntheses of carbocyclic D- and L-nucleoside analogues were readily accessible. 3',4'-Unsaturated D- or L-carbocyclic nucleosides were obtained from the condensation of various nucleobases with (S)- or (R)-cyclopentenol. Functionalization of the double bond in 3'-deoxy-3',4'-didehydro-carba-D-thymidine led to a variety of new nucleoside analogues. By using the cycloSal approach, their corresponding phosphorylated metabolites were readily accessable. Moreover, a new synthetic route to carbocyclic 2'-deoxy-nucleosides was developed, thereby leading to D- and L-carba-dT. D-Carba-dT was tested for antiviral activity against multidrug-resistance HIV-1 strain E2-2 and compared to the known antiviral agent d4T, as well as L-carba-dT. Whilst L-carba-dT was found to be inactive, its D-analogue showed remarkably high activity against the resistant virus and significantly better than that of d4T. However, against the wild-type virus strain NL4/3, d4T was found to be more-active than D-carba-dT. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Stereoselective synthesis of a highly oxygenated decahydrocyclopenta[g]chromene derivative: the common tricyclic framework of leucosceptrine and leucosesterterpenone.

    PubMed

    Abe, Hideki; Horii, Yuri; Hagiwara, Megumi; Kobayashi, Toyoharu; Ito, Hisanaka

    2015-04-11

    Stereoselective construction of the highly oxygenated decahydrocyclopenta[g]chromene skeleton, which is the tricyclic core of leucosceptrine, which possesses prolylendopeptidase inhibitory activity, and leucosesterterpenone, which exhibits anti-angiogenic activity, from Leucosceptrum canum, was achieved.

  15. Enzymatic synthesis of D-sorbose and D-psicose with aldolase RhaD: effect of acceptor configuration on enzyme stereoselectivity.

    PubMed

    Li, Zijie; Cai, Li; Qi, Qingsheng; Wang, Peng George

    2011-12-01

    It was previously reported that DHAP-dependent aldolase RhaD selectively chooses L-glyceraldehyde from racemic glyceraldehyde to produce l-fructose exclusively. Contrastingly, we discovered that D-glyceraldehyde is also tolerated as an acceptor and the stereoselectivity of the enzyme is lost in the corresponding aldol addition. Furthermore, we applied this property to efficiently synthesize two rare sugars D-sorbose and D-psicose.

  16. An efficient synthesis of loline alkaloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakmak, Mesut; Mayer, Peter; Trauner, Dirk

    2011-07-01

    Loline (1) is a small alkaloid that, in spite of its simple-looking structure, has posed surprising challenges to synthetic chemists. It has been known for more than a century and has been the subject of extensive biological investigations, but only two total syntheses have been achieved to date. Here, we report an asymmetric total synthesis of loline that, with less then ten steps, is remarkably short. Our synthesis incorporates a Sharpless epoxidation, a Grubbs olefin metathesis and an unprecedented transannular aminobromination, which converts an eight-membered cyclic carbamate into a bromopyrrolizidine. The synthesis is marked by a high degree of chemo- and stereoselectivity and gives access to several members of the loline alkaloid family. It delivers sufficient material to support a programme aimed at studying the complex interactions between plants, fungi, insects and bacteria brokered by loline alkaloids.

  17. Regioselective reductive cleavage of bis-benzylidene acetal: stereoselective synthesis of anticancer agent OGT2378 and glycosidase inhibitor 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-l-xylitol.

    PubMed

    Aravind, Appu; Sankar, Muthukumar Gomathi; Varghese, Babu; Baskaran, Sundarababu

    2009-04-03

    A highly regioselective reductive cleavage of the bis-benzylidene acetal of D-mannitol was performed using a BF(3) x Et(2)O/Et(3)SiH reagent system. A chiral intermediate 6 thus obtained was efficiently utilized in the stereoselective synthesis of the anticancer agent OGT2378 (3) and glycosidase inhibitor derivative N-tosyl 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-L-xylitol (22). Chemoselective reduction of azido epoxide 10 followed by regioselective intramolecular cyclization of amino epoxide 11 resulted in the exclusive formation of deoxyidonojirimycin derivative 12. By changing the order of deprotection, the chiral intermediate 6 was readily transformed to glycosidase inhibitor derivative 22.

  18. Stereoselective synthesis of the C31-C40/C43-C52 unit of amphidinol 3.

    PubMed

    Kanemoto, Mitsunori; Murata, Michio; Oishi, Tohru

    2009-11-20

    A concise synthesis of a tetrahydropyran ring system corresponding to the C31-C40 and C43-C52 units of amphidinol 3 is described. Successive chemoselective reactions, i.e., cross-metathesis to differentiate the iodoolefin from the terminal olefin and Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation on the resulting E-olefin, resulted in expeditious synthesis of an intermediate that was then cross-coupled to afford an E,E-diene system. Four contiguous stereogenic centers were installed via construction of the tetrahydropyran ring by means of Katsuki-Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation, 6-endo-tet cyclization, and Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation.

  19. Highly Stereoselective Synthesis of Saccharin-Substituted β-Lactams via in Situ Generation of a Heterosubstituted Ketene and a Zwitterionic Intermediate as Potential Antibacterial Agents.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Zahra F A; Islami, Mohammad R; Khaleghi, Moj

    2015-06-19

    Highly stereoselective synthesis of saccharin derivatives containing functionalized 2-azetidinone moiety was achieved starting from saccharin as an available precursor. The approach to these valuable heterocyclic scaffolds involves a formal [2π + 2π] cycloaddition between Schiff bases and the saccharinylketene as a novel ketene which was generated in situ and an electrocyclic reaction of a zwitterionic intermediate. The identification of the ketene was confirmed by reaction with the stable free radical TEMPO (TO•). Also, the antimicrobial activities of some new substituted saccharin against nine standard bacteria, four bacteria which were isolated from clinical samples and one yeast, were evaluated.

  20. Easy stereoselective synthesis of 5α-estrane-3β,17α-diol, the major metabolite of nandrolone in the horse.

    PubMed

    Balssa, Frédéric; Fischer, Michael; Bonnaire, Yves

    2011-06-01

    5α-Estrane-3β,17α-diol is the major metabolite of nandrolone in horse urine. The presence of 5α-estrane-3β,17α-diol in female and gelding urines is prohibited by Racing Rules and its natural presence in male urine led regulation authorities to establish a concentration threshold of 45 ng/mL. This paper describes a rapid, simple and stereoselective synthesis of 5α-estrane-3β,17α-diol, providing horseracing laboratories with an essential reference material for their antidoping performance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Stereoselective synthesis of substituted 1,3-oxazolidines via Pd-catalyzed carboamination reactions of O-vinyl-1,2-amino alcohols.

    PubMed

    Ward, Amanda F; Wolfe, John P

    2011-09-02

    The stereoselective synthesis of 2,4- and 2,5-disubstituted 1,3-oxazolidines is accomplished via Pd-catalyzed carboamination of O-vinyl-1,2-amino alcohol derivatives. The transformations generate cis-disubstituted products with good to excellent diastereoselectivity, and enantiomerically enriched substrates are converted without loss of optical purity. In addition to yielding synthetically useful products that are difficult to generate with existing methods, these transformations illustrate that electron-rich enol ethers are viable substrates for alkene carboamination processes.

  2. Stereoselective Synthesis of Quaternary Carbons via the Dianionic Ireland–Claisen Rearrangement

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A dianionic Ireland–Claisen rearrangement of chiral, nonracemic α-methyl-β-hydroxy allylic esters has been developed that proceeds with high diastereoselectivity and provides products containing three contiguous stereogenic carbons, including a quaternary center. The potential utility of the rearrangement for complex molecule synthesis is also demonstrated. PMID:24735235

  3. Stereoselective total synthesis of Oxylipin from open chain gluco-configured building block.

    PubMed

    Borkar, Santosh Ramdas; Aidhen, Indrapal Singh

    2017-04-18

    Total synthesis of naturally occurring Oxylipin has been achieved from open chain gluco-configured building block which is readily assembled from inexpensive and commercially available D-(+)-gluconolactone. Grignard reaction and Wittig olefination reactions are key steps for the requisite CC bond formation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. An atom-economical and stereoselective domino synthesis of functionalised dienes.

    PubMed

    Souris, Caroline; Luparia, Marco; Frébault, Frédéric; Audisio, Davide; Farès, Christophe; Goddard, Richard; Maulide, Nuno

    2013-05-17

    Open sesame: A direct synthesis of functionalised and stereodefined dienes, relying on a domino allylic alkylation/electrocyclic ring-opening sequence, is reported. This method allows concise access to doubly vinylogous esters. A further systematic study of ring-opening rates of carbon-substituted cyclobutenes allowed the design of substrates amenable to sequential pericyclic reactions (see scheme). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Highly Stereoselective Synthesis of a Compound Collection Based on the Bicyclic Scaffolds of Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Annamalai, Murali; Hristeva, Stanimira; Bielska, Martyna; Ortega, Raquel; Kumar, Kamal

    2017-05-18

    Despite the great contribution of natural products in the history of successful drug discovery, there are significant limitations that persuade the pharmaceutical industry to evade natural products in drug discovery research. The extreme scarcity as well as structural complexity of natural products renders their practical synthetic access and further modifications extremely challenging. Although other alternative technologies, particularly combinatorial chemistry, were embraced by the pharmaceutical industry to get quick access to a large number of small molecules with simple frameworks that often lack three-dimensional complexity, hardly any success was achieved in the discovery of lead molecules. To acquire chemotypes beholding structural features of natural products, for instance high sp³ character, the synthesis of compound collections based on core-scaffolds of natural products presents a promising strategy. Here, we report a natural product inspired synthesis of six different chemotypes and their derivatives for drug discovery research. These bicyclic hetero- and carbocyclic scaffolds are highly novel, rich in sp³ features and with ideal physicochemical properties to display drug likeness. The functional groups on the scaffolds were exploited further to generate corresponding compound collections. Synthesis of two of these collections exemplified with ca. 350 compounds are each also presented. The whole compound library is being exposed to various biological screenings within the European Lead Factory consortium.

  6. A highly stereoselective approach to the synthesis of functionalized pyran derivatives by Lewis acid assisted ketal reduction and allylation.

    PubMed

    Bogaczyk, S; Brescia, M R; Shimshock, Y C; DeShong, P

    2001-06-15

    Reduction of bicyclic ketal 1 gave functionalized pyran derivatives 7a or 7b in a highly stereoselective manner, depending upon the reduction conditions utilized. For example, treatment of ketal 1 with TiCl4/Et3SiH produced exclusively diol 7b with the 2,5-syn relationship in good yield. Alternatively, reduction of ketal 1 by DIBALH gave 2,5-anti-diol 7a stereoselectively. Alane reductions of ketal 1 were highly stereoselective also; however, the syn/anti selectivity observed was strongly dependent on the ratio of reagents employed for in situ generation of the alane. Lewis acid catalyzed allylation of ketal 1 gave pyran 10 in a stereospecific alkylation reaction.

  7. Stereoselection in Intramolecular Diels-Alder Reactions of 2-Cyano-1-azadienes: Indolizidine and Quinolizidine Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Tay, Gidget C; Sizemore, Nicholas; Rychnovsky, Scott D

    2016-07-01

    Progress toward understanding the scope and diastereoselectivity of intramolecular Diels-Alder reactions using 2-cyano-1-azadienes is described herein. The resulting cyanoenamine products are underutilized intermediates in organic synthesis. Assembly of the Diels-Alder precursors was achieved using an improved imine condensation/oxidative cyanation protocol. By this method, several highly substituted indolizidine and quinolizidine architectures were constructed. Quantum mechanical DFT calculations at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d) level of theory were performed for these cyclizations and provide insights into the origins of the observed diastereoselectivities.

  8. Stereoselective synthesis of imidazolidin-2-ones via Pd-catalyzed alkene carboamination. Scope and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Jonathan A.; Wolfe, John P.

    2008-01-01

    A method for the synthesis of imidazolidin-2-ones from N-allylureas and aryl or alkenyl bromides via Pd-catalyzed carboamination reactions is described. The N-allylurea precursors are prepared in one step from readily available allylic amines and isocyanates, and the Pd-catalyzed reactions effect the formation of a C–C bond, a C–N bond, and up to two stereocenters in a single step. Good diastereoselectivities are obtained for the conversion of substrates bearing allylic substituents to 4,5-disubstituted imidazolidin-2-ones, and excellent selectivity for the generation of products resulting from syn-addition across the alkene is observed when substrates derived from cyclic alkenes or E-1,2-disubstituted alkenes are employed. A brief discussion of reaction mechanism and product stereochemistry is presented. PMID:19122758

  9. Stereoselective synthesis and structure-affinity relationships of bicyclic kappa receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Kracht, Daniel; Rack, Elisabeth; Schepmann, Dirk; Fröhlich, Roland; Wünsch, Bernhard

    2010-01-07

    Reductive amination of the bicyclic ketone 4 led diastereoselectively to endo-configured amines, which were transformed into the amides 7-10. The synthesis of the diastereomers 25 with an exo-configured amino moiety at position 6 was only successful after deactivation of both N-atoms of the 1,4-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane system. The N-1-oxide 19 with an N-4-tosyl moiety was the crucial intermediate, which allows SN2 substitution with NaN3 under inversion of the configuration at position 6. Whereas the endo-configured pyrrolidine 7a (WMS-1302) revealed a kappa receptor affinity of 73 nM, the exo-configured diastereomer 25a was almost inactive at the kappa receptor (Ki > 1 microM). Replacement of the 3,4-dichlorophenylacetyl residue by other acyl and sulfonyl residues showed that it is essential for high kappa affinity. The kappa receptor affinities of the conformationally constrained pyrrolidines 7a and 25a were correlated with the dihedral angle N(pyrrolidine)-C-C-N(acetamide). A systematic conformational analysis of the potent but flexible kappa agonist 2 showed that a dihedral angle of 168 degrees (as in 25a) is energetically more disfavored than a dihedral angle of 58 degrees (7a). However, even the conformation with a dihedral angle of 58 degrees does not represent an energy minimum, which might explain the reduced kappa affinity of 7a.

  10. Stereoselective synthesis of 3-methyleneisoindolin-1-ones via base-catalyzed intermolecular reactions of electron-deficient alkynes with N-hydroxyphthalimides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Ge, Fei-Fei; Lu, Tao; Zhou, Qing-Fa

    2015-03-20

    Highly stereoselective intermolecular reactions of electron-deficient alkynes with N-hydroxyphthalimides for efficient construction of N-unprotected 3-methyleneisoindolin-1-ones have been developed through base catalytic strategies. The reaction of alkynoates with N-hydroxyphthalimides catalyzed by Bu3P in DMF at 150 °C gave the corresponding 3-methyleneisoindolin-1-ones with a (Z)-configuration, while the reaction of alkynoates with N-hydroxyphthalimides catalyzed by K2CO3 in DMF at 60 °C gave the corresponding 3-methyleneisoindolin-1-ones with an (E)-configuration, and (Z)-3-methyleneisoindolin-1-ones were obtained when alkyne ketones reacted with N-hydroxyphthalimide.

  11. High 1,3-trans stereoselectivity in nucleophilic substitution at the anomeric position and β-fragmentation of the primary alkoxyl radical in 3-amino-3-deoxy-ribofuranose derivatives: application to the synthesis of 2-epi-(-)-jaspine B.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Eleuterio, Alma; Quintero, Leticia; Sartillo-Piscil, Fernando

    2011-07-01

    The high inverse stereoselectivity in the nucleophilic substitution at the anomeric position of 3-amino-3-deoxy-ribofuranose derivatives is reported. This unprecedented stereoselectivity is explained in terms of preferential nucleophilic attack on the "inside face" of the respective five-membered ring oxocarbenium ion that orients pseudoequatorially to the benzylamine group placed at the C-3 position. In addition, an unusual β-fragmentation of a primary alkoxyl radical generated from its corresponding N-phthalimide derivative was achieved, and thus taking advantages of both reactions, the total synthesis of 2-epi-(-)-jaspine B was completed.

  12. Stereoselective synthesis of 4-substituted-cyclic sulfamidate-5-carboxylates by asymmetric transfer hydrogenation accompanied by dynamic kinetic resolution and applications to concise stereoselective syntheses of (-)-epi-cytoxazone and the taxotere side-chain.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-ah; Seo, Yeon Ji; Kang, Soyeong; Han, Juae; Lee, Hyeon-Kyu

    2014-11-18

    Dynamic kinetic resolution driven, asymmetric transfer hydrogenation reactions of cyclic sulfamidate imine-5-carboxylate esters were developed. Applications of the new methodology to stereoselective syntheses of the taxotere side-chain and (-)-epi-cytoxazone are described.

  13. Supported and Unsupported Chiral Squaramides as Organocatalysts for Stereoselective Michael Additions: Synthesis of Enantiopure Chromenes and Spirochromanes.

    PubMed

    Andrés, José M; Losada, Jorge; Maestro, Alicia; Rodríguez-Ferrer, Patricia; Pedrosa, Rafael

    2017-08-18

    Novel supported chiral bifunctional squaramides have been easily prepared starting from diamines derived from natural amino acids and commercially available aminoalkyl polystyrene resins. These squaramides behave as excellent stereoselective recoverable organocatalysts in different Michael additions, in neat conditions at room temperature. The reaction on 2-(2-nitrovinyl) phenol as electrophile lead, in excellent yields and enantioselectivities, to intermediates that can be easily transformed into 4H-chromenes, and spirochromanones.

  14. Stereoselective synthesis, spectral and antimicrobial studies of some cyanoacetyl hydrazones of 3-alkyl-2,6-diarylpiperidin-4-ones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velayutham Pillai, M.; Rajeswari, K.; Vidhyasagar, T.

    2014-11-01

    A series of novel cyanoacetyl hydrazones of 3-alkyl-2,6-diarylpiperidin-4-ones were synthesized stereoselectively and characterized by IR, Mass, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 1H-1H COSY and 1H-13C COSY spectra. The stereochemistry of the synthesized compounds was established using NMR spectra. Antimicrobial screening of the synthesized compounds revealed their antibacterial and antifungal potencies. Growth inhibition of Enterobacter Aerogenes by compound 15 was found to be superior to the standard drug.

  15. An Improved Helferich Method for the α/β-Stereoselective Synthesis of 4-Methylumbelliferyl Glycosides for the Detection of Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xianhu; Ma, Yanxia; Wu, Qingping; Zhang, Jumei; Cai, Zhihe; Lu, Mianfei

    2015-12-04

    An improved Helferich method is presented. It involves the glycosylation of 4-methyl-umbelliferone with glycosyl acetates in the presence of boron trifluoride etherate combined with triethylamine, pyridine, or 4-dimethylaminopyridine under mild conditions, followed by deprotection to give fluorogenic 4-methylumbelliferyl glycoside substrates. Due to the use of base, the glycosylation reaction proceeds more easily, is uncommonly α- or β-stereoselective, and affords the corresponding products in moderate to excellent yields (51%-94%) under appropriate conditions.

  16. Controlled synthesis of biodegradable lactide polymers and copolymers using novel in situ generated or single-site stereoselective polymerization initiators.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhiyuan; Dijkstra, Pieter J; Feijen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Polylactides and their copolymers are key biodegradable polymers used widely in biomedical, pharmaceutical and ecological applications. The development of synthetic pathways and catalyst/initiator systems to produce pre-designed polylactides, as well as the fundamental understanding of the polymerization reactions, has continuously been an important topic. Here, we will address the recent advances in the ring-opening polymerization of lactides, with an emphasis on the highly versatile in situ generated initiator systems and single-site stereoselective initiators. The in situ generated initiators including in situ formed yttrium, calcium and zinc alkoxides all have been shown to bring about a rapid and living polymerization of lactides under mild conditions, which facilitated the preparation of a variety of advanced lactide-based biomaterials. For example, well-defined di- and tri-block copolymers consisting of hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) blocks and hydrophobic polyester blocks, which form novel biodegradable polymersomes or biodegradable thermosensitive hydrogels, have been prepared. In the past few years, significant progress has also been made in the area of stereoselective polymerization of lactides. This new generation of initiators has enabled the production of polylactide materials with novel microstructures and/or properties, such as heterotactic (--RRSSRRSSRRSS--) polylactide, crystalline syndiotactic (--RSRSRSRSRSRS--) polylactide and isotactic stereoblock (--Rn Sn Rn Sn--) polylactide, exhibiting a high melting temperature. The recently developed polymerizations using in situ generated initiators and stereoselective polymerizations have no doubt opened a brand-new avenue for the design and exploration of polylactides and their copolymers.

  17. Stereoselective synthesis of light-activatable perfluorophenylazide-conjugated carbohydrates for glycoarray fabrication and evaluation of structural effects on protein binding by SPR imaging†

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Lingquan; Norberg, Oscar; Uppalapati, Suji; Yan, Mingdi; Ramström, Olof

    2014-01-01

    A series of light-activatable perfluorophenylazide (PFPA)-conjugated carbohydrate structures have been synthesized and applied to glycoarray fabrication. The glycoconjugates were structurally varied with respect to anomeric attachment, S-, and O-linked carbohydrates, respectively, as well as linker structure and length. Efficient stereoselective synthetic routes were developed, leading to the formation of the PFPA-conjugated structures in good yields over few steps. The use of glycosyl thiols as donors proved especially efficient and provided the final compounds in up to 70% total yield with high anomeric purities. PFPA-based photochemistry was subsequently used to generate carbohydrate arrays on a polymeric surface, and surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) was applied for evaluation of carbohydrate-protein interactions using the plant lectin Concanavalin A (Con A) as a probe. The results indicate better performance and equal efficiency of S- and O-linked structures with intermediate linker length. PMID:21423935

  18. Stereoselective synthesis of light-activatable perfluorophenylazide-conjugated carbohydrates for glycoarray fabrication and evaluation of structural effects on protein binding by SPR imaging.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lingquan; Norberg, Oscar; Uppalapati, Suji; Yan, Mingdi; Ramström, Olof

    2011-05-07

    A series of light-activatable perfluorophenylazide (PFPA)-conjugated carbohydrate structures have been synthesized and applied to glycoarray fabrication. The glycoconjugates were structurally varied with respect to anomeric attachment, S-, and O-linked carbohydrates, respectively, as well as linker structure and length. Efficient stereoselective synthetic routes were developed, leading to the formation of the PFPA-conjugated structures in good yields over few steps. The use of glycosyl thiols as donors proved especially efficient and provided the final compounds in up to 70% total yield with high anomeric purities. PFPA-based photochemistry was subsequently used to generate carbohydrate arrays on a polymeric surface, and surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) was applied for evaluation of carbohydrate-protein interactions using the plant lectin Concanavalin A (Con A) as a probe. The results indicate better performance and equal efficiency of S- and O-linked structures with intermediate linker length.

  19. A facile chemo-, regio- and stereoselective synthesis and cholinesterase inhibitory activity of spirooxindole-pyrrolizine-piperidine hybrids.

    PubMed

    Kia, Yalda; Osman, Hasnah; Kumar, Raju Suresh; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Basiri, Alireza; Perumal, Subbu; Razak, Ibrahim Abdul

    2013-05-15

    A series of novel hybrid spiro heterocycles comprising pyrrolizine, spiroxindole and piperidine moieties was synthesized chemo-, regio- and stereoselectively in good yields from 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of a series of 1-acryloyl-3,5-bisarylmethylidenepiperidin-4-ones with azomethine ylides generated in situ from 5-choloroisatin and l-proline in methanol. These cycloadducts displayed significant cholinesterase inhibitory activity. Among the compounds screened, 8g and 8e, showed maximum inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinestrase (BChE) with IC50 values of 3.33 and 3.13μM, respectively.

  20. Completely OH-selective FeCl3-catalyzed Prins cyclization: highly stereoselective synthesis of 4-OH-tetrahydropyrans.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ke; Liu, Xiaohua; Qin, Song; Xie, Mingsheng; Lin, Lili; Hu, Changwei; Feng, Xiaoming

    2012-10-24

    The completely OH-selective Prins cyclization has been realized from the enantioselective ene reaction product. A variety of 4-hydroxyl-tetrahydropyrans were exclusively generated via FeCl(3)-catalyzed Prins reaction. Excellent stereoselectivities (up to >99:1 dr and >99.5:0.5 er) were obtained for a remarkably broad range of substrates under mild reaction conditions. The control experiments, including NOE effects and (18)O-labeling studies, as well as DFT calculations were conducted to provide fundamental insights into the mechanism of the reaction. A different [2 + 2] cycloaddition process was suggested to rationalize the observed OH-selectivity.

  1. Lewis acid-promoted cyclization reactions of alkenyl ethenetricarboxylates: stereoselective synthesis of 2-oxotetrahydrofurans and 2-oxopyrrolidines.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Shoko; Fujinami, Ken; Maitoko, Yuki; Ueda, Khota; Kakiuchi, Kiyomi

    2013-09-06

    Lewis acid-promoted intramolecular reactions of alkenyl ethenetricarboxylates and the corresponding amides have been examined. Reaction of allyl ethenetricarboxylates and the amides with Lewis acids (1-2 equiv) such as TiCl4, TiBr4, AlCl3, and AlBr3 gave 3,4-trans-halogenomethyl 2-oxotetrahydrofuran and pyrrolidine derivatives stereoselectively in high yields. The stereochemistries were determined by NOE experiments. Reaction of alkyl-substituted allylic ethenetricarboxylates with Lewis acids gave chloro 2-oxotetrahydrofurans and pyrans. For some alkyl-substituted substrates, cationic intermediates may be formed under the reaction conditions, and rearranged products have been obtained.

  2. Divergent Regio- and Stereoselective Gold-catalyzed Synthesis of α-Fluorosulfones and β-Fluorovinylsulfones from Alkynylsulfones.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiaojun; Liu, Shiwen; Hammond, Gerald B; Xu, Bo

    2017-09-04

    We developed a widely applicable, highly efficient synthesis of α-fluorosulfone and β-fluorovinylsulfone catalyzed by gold. Starting with alkynyl sulfone 1, an [Au]/HF/N-oxide system gives α-fluorosulfone 3 via a gold carbene intermediate, and, if no N-oxide is used, direct addition of HF to 1 gives vinyl sulfone 4 via a vinylfluoro gold intermediate. Both methods have good functional group tolerance and the reactions can be conducted in ambient atmosphere. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Towards the synthesis of massadine: a unified strategy for the stereoselective synthesis of the carbocyclic C,D-ring subunit.

    PubMed

    Breder, Alexander; Chinigo, Gary M; Waltman, Andrew W; Carreira, Erick M

    2011-10-24

    Massadine is a hexacyclic marine natural product, which belongs to the family of pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids. Herein, we describe a unified approach to the C,D-ring subunit of this sponge metabolite based on the exploitation of a norbornene scaffold for the stereocontrolled construction of massadine's carbon skeleton. Highlights of the sequence presented include the application of a stereospecific norbornyl rearrangement for facile introduction of an oxygen at the C7-position within the norbornene nucleus, a highly regioselective and end group differentiating ozonolytic scission of a C-C double bond, and an oxidative decarboxylation reaction for the installation of the hindered secondary C2-alcohol function. Furthermore, the iterative assembly of the two guanidine entities as well as the implementation of the spirocyclic junction between the C- and the D-rings are described. Collectively, these key transformations permit an entry to an appropriately functionalized carbon framework, which will serve as a starting point for our efforts toward the completion of the synthesis of massadine. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Stereoselective Synthesis of 8,12-Furanoeudesmanes from Santonin. Absolute Stereochemistry of Natural Furanoeudesma-1,3-diene and Tubipofurane.

    PubMed

    Blay, Gonzalo; Cardona, Luz; García, Begoña; Pedro, José R.; Sánchez, Juan J.

    1996-05-31

    Ketobutenolide 3, easily obtained from santonin (1), has been transformed into two natural furanoeudesmanes 4 and 5, isolated from Commiphora molmol and Tubipora musica, respectively. trans- And cis-decalin systems were obtained by stereoselective reduction of the C(4)-C(5) double bond in 3 in the following way: hydrogenation of 3 over Pd/C followed by acidic treatment gave the cis isomer 10 as the major product; selective hydrogenation of the C(1)-C(2) double bond with the Wilkinson's catalyst followed by reduction with NaTeH yielded mainly the trans isomer 9. Compounds 9 and 10 were transformed into 4 and 5 in parallel sequences. Optical rotation and CD measurements of the synthetic products revealed that the stereochemistry of both natural products should be revised to their enantiomeric form.

  5. Stereoselective synthesis of tricyclic compounds by intramolecular palladium-catalyzed addition of aryl iodides to carbonyl groups

    PubMed Central

    Saadi, Jakub; Bentz, Christoph; Redies, Kai; Lentz, Dieter; Zimmer, Reinhold

    2016-01-01

    Summary Starting from γ-ketoesters with an o-iodobenzyl group we studied a palladium-catalyzed cyclization process that stereoselectively led to bi- and tricyclic compounds in moderate to excellent yields. Four X-ray crystal structure analyses unequivocally defined the structure of crucial cyclization products. The relative configuration of the precursor compounds is essentially transferred to that of the products and the formed hydroxy group in the newly generated cyclohexane ring is consistently in trans-arrangement with respect to the methoxycarbonyl group. A transition-state model is proposed to explain the observed stereochemical outcome. This palladium-catalyzed Barbier-type reaction requires a reduction of palladium(II) back to palladium(0) which is apparently achieved by the present triethylamine. PMID:27559374

  6. Chemical synthesis of two series of nerve agent model compounds and their stereoselective interaction with human acetylcholinesterase and human butyrylcholinesterase.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Nora H; Zheng, Xueying; Gilley, Cynthia B; MacDonald, Mary; Okolotowicz, Karl; Cashman, John R; Vyas, Shubham; Beck, Jeremy M; Hadad, Christopher M; Zhang, Jun

    2009-10-01

    Both G and V type nerve agents possess a center of chirality about phosphorus. The S(p) enantiomers are generally more potent inhibitors than their R(p) counterparts toward acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). To develop model compounds with defined centers of chirality that mimic the target nerve agent structures, we synthesized both the S(p) and the R(p) stereoisomers of two series of G type nerve agent model compounds in enantiomerically enriched form. The two series of model compounds contained identical substituents on the phosphorus as the G type agents, except that thiomethyl (CH(3)-S-) and thiocholine [(CH(3))(3)NCH(2)CH(2)-S-] groups were used to replace the traditional nerve agent leaving groups (i.e., fluoro for GB, GF, and GD and cyano for GA). Inhibition kinetic studies of the thiomethyl- and thiocholine-substituted series of nerve agent model compounds revealed that the S(p) enantiomers of both series of compounds showed greater inhibition potency toward AChE and BChE. The level of stereoselectivity, as indicated by the ratio of the bimolecular inhibition rate constants between S(p) and R(p) enantiomers, was greatest for the GF model compounds in both series. The thiocholine analogues were much more potent than the corresponding thiomethyl analogues. With the exception of the GA model compounds, both series showed greater potency against AChE than BChE. The stereoselectivity (i.e., S(p) > R(p)), enzyme selectivity, and dynamic range of inhibition potency contributed from these two series of compounds suggest that the combined application of these model compounds will provide useful research tools for understanding interactions of nerve agents with cholinesterase and other enzymes involved in nerve agent and organophosphate pharmacology. The potential of and limitations for using these model compounds in the development of biological therapeutics against nerve agent toxicity are also discussed.

  7. Nucleoside analogues with a 1,3-diene-Fe(CO)3 substructure: stereoselective synthesis, configurational assignment, and apoptosis-inducing activity.

    PubMed

    Hirschhäuser, Christoph; Velcicky, Juraj; Schlawe, Daniel; Hessler, Erik; Majdalani, André; Neudörfl, Jörg-Martin; Prokop, Aram; Wieder, Thomas; Schmalz, Hans-Günther

    2013-09-23

    The synthesis and stereochemical assignment of two classes of iron-containing nucleoside analogues, both of which contain a butadiene-Fe(CO)3 substructure, is described. The first type of compounds are Fe(CO)3-complexed 3'-alkenyl-2',3'-dideoxy-2',3'-dehydro nucleosides (2,5-dihydrofuran derivatives), from which the second class of compounds is derived by formal replacement of the ring oxygen atom by a CH2 group (carbocyclic nucleoside analogues). These compounds were prepared in a stereoselective manner through the metal-assisted introduction of the nucleobase. Whilst the furanoid intermediates were prepared from carbohydrates (such as methyl-glucopyranoside), the carbocyclic compounds were obtained by using an intramolecular Pauson-Khand reaction. Stereochemical assignments based on NMR and CD spectroscopy were confirmed by X-ray structural analysis. Biological investigations revealed that several of the complexes exhibited pronounced apoptosis-inducing properties (through an unusual caspase 3-independent but ROS-dependent pathway). Furthermore, some structure-activity relationships were identified, also as a precondition for the design and synthesis of fluorescent and biotin-labeled conjugates. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Large-scale synthesis of tert-butyl (3R,5S)-6-chloro-3,5-dihydroxyhexanoate by a stereoselective carbonyl reductase with high substrate concentration and product yield.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Hu, Zhong-Liang; Zhang, Xiao-Jian; Tang, Xiao-Ling; Cheng, Feng; Xue, Ya-Ping; Wang, Ya-Jun; Wu, Lin; Yao, Dan-Kai; Zhou, Yi-Teng; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2017-05-01

    To biosynthesize the (3R,5S)-CDHH in an industrial scale, a newly synthesized stereoselective short chain carbonyl reductase (SCR) was successfully cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The fermentation of recombinant E. coli harboring SCR was carried out in 500 L and 5000 L fermenters, with biomass and specific activity of 9.7 g DCW/L, 15749.95 U/g DCW, and 10.97 g DCW/L, 19210.12 U/g DCW, respectively. The recombinant SCR was successfully applied for efficient production of (3R,5S)-CDHH. The scale-up synthesis of (3R,5S)-CDHH was performed in 5000 L bioreactor with 400 g/L of (S)-CHOH at 30°C, resulting in a space-time yield of 13.7 mM/h/g DCW, which was the highest ever reported. After isolation and purification, the yield and d.e. of (3R,5S)-CDHH reached 97.5% and 99.5%, respectively. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:612-620, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  9. Regio- and stereoselective synthesis of benzothiazolo-pyrimidinones via an NHC-catalyzed Mannich/lactamization domino reaction† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. CCDC 1029497. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c4cc08594a

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Qijian; Song, Xiaoxiao; Xiong, Jiawen; Raabe, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    An NHC-catalyzed regio- and stereoselective Mannich/lactamization domino reaction of N-(benzothiazolyl)imines with α-chloroaldehydes has been developed. This new protocol provides a facile approach for the asymmetric synthesis of benzothiazolo-pyrimidinones and a pyrrolo[1,2-a]indolone in moderate to good yields (34–78%) and excellent stereoselectivities (87–99% ee, up to >20 : 1 d.r.). PMID:25476422

  10. Highly efficient and stereoselective biosynthesis of (2S,5S)-hexanediol with a dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Müller, Marion; Katzberg, Michael; Bertau, Martin; Hummel, Werner

    2010-04-07

    The enantiopure (2S,5S)-hexanediol serves as a versatile building block for the production of various fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals. For industrial and commercial scale, the diol is currently obtained through bakers' yeast-mediated reduction of 2,5-hexanedione. However, this process suffers from its insufficient space-time yield of about 4 g L(-1) d(-1) (2S,5S)-hexanediol. Thus, a new synthesis route is required that allows for higher volumetric productivity. For this reason, the enzyme which is responsible for 2,5-hexanedione reduction in bakers' yeast was identified after purification to homogeneity and subsequent MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy analysis. As a result, the dehydrogenase Gre2p was shown to be responsible for the majority of the diketone reduction, by comparison to a Gre2p deletion strain lacking activity towards 2,5-hexanedione. Bioreduction using the recombinant enzyme afforded the (2S,5S)-hexanediol with >99% conversion yield and in >99.9% de and ee. Moreover, the diol was obtained with an unsurpassed high volumetric productivity of 70 g L(-1) d(-1) (2S,5S)-hexanediol. Michaelis-Menten kinetic studies have shown that Gre2p is capable of catalysing both the reduction of 2,5-hexanedione as well as the oxidation of (2S,5S)-hexanediol, but the catalytic efficiency of the reduction is three times higher. Furthermore, the enzyme's ability to reduce other keto-compounds, including further diketones, was studied, revealing that the application can be extended to alpha-diketones and aldehydes.

  11. Design, stereoselective synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel tri-cyclic compounds as inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAP) antagonists.

    PubMed

    Asano, Moriteru; Hashimoto, Kentaro; Saito, Bunnai; Shiokawa, Zenyu; Sumi, Hiroyuki; Yabuki, Masato; Yoshimatsu, Mie; Aoyama, Kazunobu; Hamada, Teruki; Morishita, Nao; Dougan, Douglas R; Mol, Clifford D; Yoshida, Sei; Ishikawa, Tomoyasu

    2013-09-15

    We recently reported the discovery of octahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine A as a lead compound for an inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAP) antagonist. To develop IAP antagonists with favorable PK profiles, we designed novel tri-cyclic compounds, octahydro-1H-cyclopropa[4,5]pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazines 1 and 2 based on co-crystal structural analysis of A with cellular IAP-1 (cIAP-1). The additional cyclopropane moiety was used to block the predicted metabolic site of compound A without detriment to the binding affinity for cIAP. Compounds 1 and 2 were stereoselectively synthesized via intermediates 4a and 5b', which were obtained by Simmons-Smith cyclopropanation of ethylester 3a and silyl ether 3b'. Compounds 1 and 2 showed strong growth inhibition in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and improved metabolic stability in comparison to A. Compound 2 exhibited significant in vivo PD effects to increase tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA in a dose dependent manner. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A facile stereoselective synthesis of dispiro-indeno pyrrolidine/pyrrolothiazole-thiochroman hybrids and evaluation of their antimycobacterial, anticancer and AchE inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Bharkavi, Chelliah; Vivek Kumar, Sundaravel; Ashraf Ali, Mohamed; Osman, Hasnah; Muthusubramanian, Shanmugam; Perumal, Subbu

    2016-11-15

    A facile stereoselective synthesis of novel dispiro indeno pyrrolidine/pyrrolothiazole-thiochroman hybrids has been achieved by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides, generated in situ from ninhydrin and sarcosine/thiaproline, on a series of 3-benzylidenethiochroman-4-ones. The synthesised compounds were screened for their antimycobacterial, anticancer and AchE inhibition activities. Compound 4l (IC50 1.07μM) has been found to exhibit the most potent antimycobacterial activity compared to cycloserine (12 times), pyrimethamine (37 times) and ethambutol (IC50 <1.56μM) and 6l (IC50=2.87μM) is more active than both cycloserine (4 times) and pyrimethamine (12 times). Three compounds, 4a, 6b and 6i, display good anticancer activity against CCRF-CEM cell lines. Compounds 6g and 4g display maximum AchE inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 1.10 and 1.16μmol/L respectively.

  13. Lithium chloride-mediated stereoselective synthesis of cyclopropanecarboxamides from γ,δ-epoxy malonates through a domino cyclopropanation/lactonization/aminolysis process.

    PubMed

    Marques, Marcelo V; Sá, Marcus M

    2014-05-16

    The stereoselective synthesis of novel multifunctionalized cyclopropanes from γ,δ-epoxy malonates and amines mediated by LiCl under mild conditions was carried out. This domino reaction involves the initial cyclopropanation via intramolecular ring-opening of γ,δ-epoxy malonates through the cooperative catalysis of LiCl (acting as a Lewis acid) and a Brønsted base (a primary or, in selected cases, a secondary amine). The sequential events consisted of lactonization and aminolysis of the lactone ring, which ultimately furnished cyclopropanecarboxamides with different substitution patterns in good isolated yields. In all cases, a quaternary stereogenic center could be perfectly assembled, with a single diastereoisomer being obtained. This method proceeds with high atom economy, is remarkably modular and operationally simple, and tolerates a variety of functional groups. The involvement of readily available starting materials, the broad scope, and the use of a sustainable solvent (methanol or ethanol) at ambient temperature make this domino process highly effective. A reaction mechanism is proposed on the basis of the experimental observations involving the preparation and reactivity of cyclopropylidene lactones as possible intermediates of the domino process.

  14. Stereoselectivity in drug metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hong

    2007-04-01

    Many chiral drugs are used as their racemic mixtures in clinical practice. Two enantiomers of a chiral drug generally differ in pharmacodynamic and/or pharmacokinetic properties as a consequence of the stereoselective interaction with optically active biological macromolecules. Thus, a stereospecific assay to discriminate between enantiomers is required in order to relate plasma concentrations to pharmacological effect of a chiral drug. Stereoselective metabolism of drugs is most commonly the major contributing factor to stereoselectivity in pharmacokinetics. Metabolizing enzymes often display a preference for one enantiomer of a chiral drug over the other, resulting in enantioselectivity. The structural characteristics of enzymes dictate the enantiomeric discrimination associated with the metabolism of chiral drugs. The stereoselectivity can, therefore, be viewed as the physical property characteristic that phenotypes the enzyme. This review provides a comprehensive appraisal of stereochemical aspects of drug metabolism (i.e., enantioselective metabolism and first-pass effect, enzyme-selective inhibition or induction and drug interaction, species differences and polymorphic metabolism).

  15. Indium-Mediated Stereoselective Allylation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dinesh; Vemula, Sandeep R; Balasubramanian, Narayanaganesh; Cook, Gregory R

    2016-10-04

    Stereoselective indium-mediated organic reactions have enjoyed tremendous growth in the last 25 years. This is in part due to the insensitivity of allylindium to moisture, affording facile and practical reaction conditions coupled with outstanding functional group tolerance and minimal side reactions. Despite the plethora of articles about allylindium, there is much yet to be discovered and exploited for efficient and sustainable synthesis. In this Account, we describe indium-mediated synthetic methods for the preparation of chiral amines with the aim to present a balance of practical method development, novel asymmetric chemistry, and mechanistic understanding that impact multiple chemical and materials science disciplines. In 2005, we demonstrated the indium-mediated allylation of chiral hydrazones with complete diastereoselectivity (>99:1) and quantitative yields. Further, we revealed the first example of enantioselective indium-mediated allylation of hydrazones using catalytic (R)-3,3'-bis(trifluoromethyl)-BINOL ligands to afford homoallylic amines with high enantioselectivity. The use of enantiopure perfluoroalkylsulfonate BINOLs greatly improved the indium-mediated allylation of N-acylhydrazones with exquisite enantiocontrol (99% yield, 99% ee). This laboratory has also investigated indium-mediated asymmetric intramolecular cyclization in the presence of amino acid additives to deliver biologically relevant chromanes with excellent diastereoselectivity (dr >99:1). The effect of amino acid additives (N-Boc-glycine) was further investigated during the indium-mediated allylation of isatins with allyl bromide to yield homoallylic alcohols in excellent yields in a short time with a wide range of functional group tolerance. Critical mechanistic insight was gained, and evidence suggests that the additive plays two roles: (1) to increase the rate of formation of allylindium from allyl bromide and In(0) and (2) to increase the nucleophilicity of the allylindium

  16. Iron halide-mediated regio- and stereoselective halosulfonylation of terminal alkynes with sulfonylhydrazides: synthesis of (E)-β-chloro and bromo vinylsulfones.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoqing; Shi, Xinhua; Fang, Mingwu; Xu, Xiangsheng

    2013-09-20

    Halosulfonylation of terminal alkynes was achieved with sulfonylhydrazides as the sulfonyl precursor and inexpensive iron halide as halide source in the presence of TBHP, allowing the regio- and stereoselective generation of (E)-β-chloro and bromo vinylsulfones.

  17. Highly stereoselective synthesis of (Z,E)-1-halo-1,3-dienol esters via rearrangement of Fischer chromium chloro-carbenes using microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kashinath, Dhurke; Mioskowski, Charles; Falck, J R; Goli, Mohan; Meunier, Stéphane; Baati, Rachid; Wagner, Alain

    2009-05-07

    Functionalized (Z,E)-1-halo-1,3-dienol esters are synthesized in a highly stereoselective manner via CrCl2-mediated rearrangement of allylic trihalomethylcarbinol esters induced by microwave irradiation.

  18. The Evans Aldol-Prins cyclization: a general and stereoselective method for the synthesis of 2,3,4,5,6-pentasubstituted tetrahydropyrans.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Méndez, Sergio J; García, Celina; Martín, Víctor S

    2016-02-25

    A general and stereoselective method to synthesize 2,3,4,5,6-pentasubstituted tetrahydropyrans in three steps starting from three different aldehydes is described. Key substrates β,γ-unsaturated N-acyloxazolidin-2-ones were subjected to an "Evans Aldol-Prins" protocol to generate five σ-bonds and five stereocenters in only a one-pot process with yields up to 60% and excellent stereoselectivities.

  19. Towards the development of continuous, organocatalytic, and stereoselective reactions in deep eutectic solvents

    PubMed Central

    Brenna, Davide; Massolo, Elisabetta; Puglisi, Alessandra; Rossi, Sergio; Celentano, Giuseppe; Capriati, Vito

    2016-01-01

    Different deep eutectic solvent (DES) mixtures were studied as reaction media for the continuous synthesis of enantiomerically enriched products by testing different experimental set-ups. L-Proline-catalysed cross-aldol reactions were efficiently performed in continuo, with high yield (99%), anti-stereoselectivity, and enantioselectivity (up to 97% ee). Moreover, using two different DES mixtures, the diastereoselectivity of the process could be tuned, thereby leading to the formation, under different experimental conditions, to both the syn- and the anti-isomer with very high enantioselectivity. The excess of cyclohexanone was recovered and reused, and the reaction could be run and the product isolated without the use of any organic solvent by a proper choice of DES components. The dramatic influence of the reaction media on the reaction rate and stereoselectivity of the process suggests that the intimate architecture of DESs deeply influences the reactivity of different species involved in the catalytic cycle. PMID:28144332

  20. Tactical Synthesis Of Efficient Global Search Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nedunuri, Srinivas; Smith, Douglas R.; Cook, William R.

    2009-01-01

    Algorithm synthesis transforms a formal specification into an efficient algorithm to solve a problem. Algorithm synthesis in Specware combines the formal specification of a problem with a high-level algorithm strategy. To derive an efficient algorithm, a developer must define operators that refine the algorithm by combining the generic operators in the algorithm with the details of the problem specification. This derivation requires skill and a deep understanding of the problem and the algorithmic strategy. In this paper we introduce two tactics to ease this process. The tactics serve a similar purpose to tactics used for determining indefinite integrals in calculus, that is suggesting possible ways to attack the problem.

  1. Organocatalytic Synthesis of Higher‐Carbon Sugars: Efficient Protocol for the Synthesis of Natural Sedoheptulose and d‐Glycero‐l‐galacto‐oct‐2‐ulose†

    PubMed Central

    Popik, Oskar; Pasternak‐Suder, Monika; Baś, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Herein we report a short and efficient protocol for the synthesis of naturally occurring higher‐carbon sugars—sedoheptulose (d‐altro‐hept‐2‐ulose) and d‐glycero‐l‐galacto‐oct‐2‐ulose—from readily available sugar aldehydes and dihydroxyacetone (DHA). The key step includes a diastereoselective organocatalytic syn‐selective aldol reaction of DHA with d‐erythrose and d‐xylose, respectively. The methodology presented can be expanded to the synthesis of various higher sugars by means of syn‐selective carbon–carbon‐bond‐forming aldol reactions promoted by primary‐based organocatalysts. For example, this methodology provided useful access to d‐glycero‐d‐galacto‐oct‐2‐ulose and 1‐deoxy‐d‐glycero‐d‐galacto‐oct‐2‐ulose from d‐arabinose in high yield (85 and 74 %, respectively) and high stereoselectivity (99:1). PMID:27308197

  2. Stereoselective synthesis of 1,3-anti diols by an Ipc-mediated domino aldol-coupling/reduction sequence.

    PubMed

    Dieckmann, Michael; Menche, Dirk

    2013-01-04

    A novel domino process for 1,3-anti diol synthesis by the union of a methyl ketone with an aldehyde is described. The operationally simple procedure is based on an Ipc-boron-aldol coupling and subsequent Ipc-mediated reduction of the intermediate β-hydroxy-ketone. The sequence proceeds with excellent anti-selectivities and enables the rapid construction of complex polyketide fragments.

  3. Organocatalytic azomethine imine-olefin click reaction: high-yielding stereoselective synthesis of spiroindane-1,3-dione-pyrazolidinones.

    PubMed

    Ramachary, Dhevalapally B; Prabhakar Reddy, T; Suresh Kumar, A

    2016-07-06

    In search of developing new useful "click reactions", herein we report the organocatalytic azomethine imine-olefin [3 + 2]-cycloaddition as a new click reaction for the synthesis of drug-like spiroindane-1,3-dione-pyrazolidinones from indane-1,3-diones, aldehydes and N,N-cyclic azomethine imines through amino acid-catalysis. The scope of this new click reaction is demonstrated using many examples with high reactivity, selectivity and yields.

  4. [Development of highly stereoselective reactions utilizing heteroatoms--new approach to the stereoselective Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reaction].

    PubMed

    Sano, S

    2000-05-01

    This article reviews a new approach to stereoselective Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons (HWE) reactions. The HWE reaction is one of the most efficient methods for the preparation of alpha,beta-unsaturated esters, which play an important role in the synthesis of biologically active compounds. The reactions of aldehydes with phosphonates bearing alpha-substituents which stabilize the carbanion, preferentially furnish the corresponding E-alkenes. However, the stereoselectivity of the HWE reactions with ketones has never been investigated in detail because of their low reactivity and low stereoselectivity. The conventional HWE reactions of aryl alkyl ketones with ethyl diethylphosphonoacetate in the presence of sodium hydride gave the corresponding alpha,beta-unsaturated esters with modest E-selectivity. On the other hand, the treatment of aryl alkyl ketones with ethyl diethylphosphonoacetate in the presence of Sn(OSO2CF3)2 and N-ethylpiperidine afforded alpha,beta-unsaturated esters in a highly Z-selective fashion. A significant improvement in the selectivity and yield was found when the Still's reagent, methyl bis(trifluoroethyl)phosphonoacetate, was used under Sn(II)-mediated conditions. On the basis of the experimental results, the high Z-selectivity in the Sn(II)-mediated HWE reactions of aryl alkyl ketones with these phosphonates can be rationalized in terms of six-membered transition state involving Sn(II) chelation. Similarly, the HWE reactions of aryl alkyl ketones with ethyl 2-fluoro-2-diethylphosphonoacetate in the presence of Sn(OSO2CF3)2 and N-ethylpiperidine gave the corresponding alpha-fluoro-alpha,beta-unsaturated esters in a highly E-selective manner. Finally, the Sn(II)-mediated asymmetric HWE reactions of isopropyl 2-fluoro-2-diethylphosphonoacetate with 4-tert-butylcyclohexanone in the presence of a chiral diamine is described.

  5. Efficient synthesis of highly substituted tetrahydroindazolone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Scala, Angela; Piperno, Anna; Risitano, Francesco; Cirmi, Santa; Navarra, Michele; Grassi, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    A straightforward and efficient method for the synthesis of novel highly substituted and diversely functionalized indazolone derivatives has been developed. The transformation consists of a cyclocondensation of selected 1,3,3'-tricarbonyls with monosubstituted hydrazines. The starting β-triketones were prepared by an efficient chemo- and regioselective method under MW irradiation, exploiting the oxazolone chemistry. The reaction is easily accomplished under mild conditions and appears versatile, providing a synthetic diversification method with potential for drug-like compounds preparation.

  6. An efficient catalytic method for fulvene synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Coşkun, Necdet; Erden, Ihsan

    2011-01-01

    The effects of the nature and amount of base, substrate structure, amount of added water and solvent on the condensation of carbonyl compounds with cyclopentadiene in the presence of secondary amines were investigated. Based on these studies, a new efficient and green synthesis of fulvenes was developed. PMID:22021940

  7. Stereoselective synthesis of the head group of archaeal phospholipid PGP-Me to investigate bacteriorhodopsin-lipid interactions.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jin; Kawatake, Satoshi; Umegawa, Yuichi; Lethu, Sébastien; Yamagami, Masaki; Matsuoka, Shigeru; Sato, Fuminori; Matsumori, Nobuaki; Murata, Michio

    2015-11-07

    Phosphatidylglycerophosphate methyl ester (PGP-Me), a major constituent of the archaeal purple membrane, is essential for the proper proton-pump activity of bacteriorhodopsin (bR). We carried out the first synthesis of the bisphosphate head group of PGP-Me using H-phosphonate chemistry that led to the production of a simplified PGP-Me analogue with straight alkyl chains. To investigate the role of this head group in the structural and functional integrity of bR, the analogue was used to reconstitute bR into liposomes, in which bR retained the original trimeric structure and light-induced photocycle activity. Enhanced ordering of an alkyl chain of the (2)H-labelled analogue was observed in (2)H NMR spectra upon interaction with bR. These results together suggest that the bisphosphate moiety plays a role in the proper functioning of bR through the lipid-protein interaction.

  8. Synthesis of the enantiomers of the bioreductively-activated cytotoxin RSU-1069 and its prodrug RB6145 and lack of stereoselectivity in their cytotoxicity and radiosensitization in vitro.

    PubMed

    Naylor, M A; Threadgill, M D; Showalter, H D; Stratford, I J; Stephens, M A; Fielden, E M; Adams, G E

    1993-01-01

    The R(+)- and S(-)-enantiomers of the radiosensitizer and bioreductively-activated cytotoxin RSU-1069 and their prodrugs have been synthesised. The parent drugs were evaluated as radiosensitizers and bioreductively-activated cytotoxins in vitro. No stereoselectivity in the activities in vitro of the two enantiomers was evident and both compounds were potent hypoxia-selective agents.

  9. Stereocontrolled generation of nucleophilic (Z)- or (E)-α-fluoroalkenylchromium reagents via carbon-fluorine bond activation: highly stereoselective synthesis of (E)- or (Z)-β-fluoroallylic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Nihei, Takashi; Yokotani, Saya; Ishihara, Takashi; Konno, Tsutomu

    2014-02-14

    Highly nucleophilic (Z)- or (E)-α-fluoroalkenylchromium species could be generated in a stereoselective manner via C-F bond activation of CBrF2-containing molecules, and they reacted smoothly with various aldehydes to give (E)- or (Z)-β-fluoroallylic alcohol derivatives in high yields, respectively.

  10. Regioselective SN2' Mitsunobu reaction of Morita-Baylis-Hillman alcohols: A facile and stereoselective synthesis of α-alkylidene-β-hydrazino acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Xu, Silong; Shang, Jian; Zhang, Junjie; Tang, Yuhai

    2014-01-01

    A highly regioselective SN2' Mitsunobu reaction between Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) alcohols, azodicarboxylates, and triphenylphosphine is developed, which provides an easy access to α-alkylidene-β-hydrazino acid derivatives in high yields and good stereoselectivity. This reaction represents the first direct transformation of MBH alcohols into hydrazines.

  11. Cobalt(II)-catalyzed 1,4-addition of organoboronic acids to activated alkenes: an application to highly cis-stereoselective synthesis of aminoindane carboxylic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min-Hsien; Mannathan, Subramaniyan; Lin, Pao-Shun; Cheng, Chien-Hong

    2012-11-19

    It all adds up: The 1,4-addition of organoboronic acids to activated alkenes catalyzed by [Co(dppe)Cl(2)] is described. A [3+2]-annulation reaction of ortho-iminoarylboronic acids with acrylates to give various aminoindane carboxylic acid derivatives with cis-stereoselectivity is also demonstrated (see scheme; dppe = 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane).

  12. Synthesis of Differentially Protected myo- and chiro-Inositols from D-Xylose; Stereoselectivity in Intramolecular SmI2-Promoted Pinacol Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Luchetti, Giovanni; Ding, Kejia

    2009-01-01

    Methods for the enantioselective conversion of D-xylose to differentially protected myo-inositol and L-chiro-inositol have been developed. The key transformation is a highly diastereoselective intramolecular SmI2-promoted pinacol coupling. The stereoselectivity was extremely dependent on the conditions, suggesting a change in mechanism. Preliminary mechanistic experiments and possible explanations for this behavior are discussed. PMID:20622936

  13. Controllable stereoselective synthesis of trisubstituted alkenes by a catalytic three-component reaction of terminal alkynes, benzylic alcohols, and simple arenes.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Hua; Jin, Yin-Huan; Wang, Jie-Qi; Tian, Shi-Kai

    2009-08-21

    The acid-catalyzed three-component reaction of terminal alkynes, benzylic alcohols, and simple arenes provides convenient and atom-economic access to an array of both Z- and E-isomers of trisubstituted alkenes with excellent stereoselectivity by switching reaction temperature and acidic catalysts.

  14. Synthesis of 9-amino(9-deoxy)epi cinchona alkaloids, general chiral organocatalysts for the stereoselective functionalization of carbonyl compounds.

    PubMed

    Cassani, Carlo; Martín-Rapún, Rafael; Arceo, Elena; Bravo, Fernando; Melchiorre, Paolo

    2013-02-01

    We describe two procedures for the synthesis of primary amines derived from 9-amino(9-deoxy)epi cinchona alkaloids, valuable catalysts used in the asymmetric functionalization of carbonyl compounds. The first approach allows the one-pot 5-g-scale syntheses of four cinchona-based analogs (1, 3, 5 and 7) from the alkaloids quinine (QN), quinidine (QD), dihydroquinine (DHQN) and dihydroquinidine (DHQD), respectively, performed by means of a Mitsunobu reaction to introduce an azide group, followed by reduction and hydrolysis. Demethylation of 1, 3, 5 and 7 with BBr(3) provided direct access to the bifunctional aminocatalysts 2, 4, 6 and 8. A second approach, more convenient for scale-up (tested to a 20-g scale), is also provided. In this second procedure, the azides, formed from the O-mesylated derivatives of QN and QD, are selectively reduced with LiAlH(4) to afford catalysts 1 and 3, whereas hydrogenation (Pd/C) provides 5 and 7. Demethylation of 1, 3, 5 and 7 using an alkylthiolate affords 2, 4, 6 and 8 in a process in which the less-expensive QN and QD are the only starting materials used.

  15. Stereoselective synthesis of optically active bicyclic beta-lactam carboxylic acids that target pilus biogenesis in pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Emtenäs, Hans; Carlsson, Marcus; Pinkner, Jerome S; Hultgren, Scott J; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2003-04-21

    Optically active bicyclic beta-lactams were synthesized, starting from 2-H-delta 2-thiazolines and Meldrum's acid derivatives. Several methods to accomplish an ester hydrolysis without damaging the beta-lactam framework were investigated. A rapid CsOH saponification of the beta-lactam methyl esters was developed and protonation of the Cs-carboxylates by Amberlite (IR-120 H+) afforded a series of bicyclic beta-lactam carboxylic acids. Moreover, a convenient method for the synthesis of 2-H-delta 2-thiazolinecarboxylic acid methyl ester 2 was developed. Bicyclic beta-lactam carboxylic acids 7a-g and aldehydes 4a-d were screened for their affinity to the bacterial periplasmic chaperone PapD using a surface plasmon resonance technique. beta-Lactams substituted with large acyl substitutents showed better binding to the chaperone than the native C-terminal peptide PapG 8, demonstrating that bicyclic beta-lactams constitute a new class of potential bacterial chaperone inhibitors.

  16. [Stereoselective Synthesis of Multi-substituted Fluoro-β-lactams and Their Conversion to Fluorinated β-Amino Acid Core].

    PubMed

    Tarui, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Multi-substituted β-lactam compounds have not only attracted considerable interest as core structures of pharmaceutical compounds such as antibiotics but also have been used as building blocks for the construction of β-amino acids. Electrophilic β-lactams can be used to enhance essential biological activities. Furthermore, the ring-opening reactions of electrophilic β-lactams can be used to provide facile access to β-amino acids. The introduction of an electronegative fluorine atom to a β-lactam ring to give the corresponding fluoro-β-lactam can be used as an effective strategy for the preparation of electrophilic β-lactams. In this review, we provide a summary of our recent research towards the direct functionalization of fluoro-β-lactams. This review has been divided into four topics, including: 1) the alkylation and hydroxyalkylation of α-bromo-α-fluoro-β-lactams (1); 2) the nickel-catalyzed cross coupling reaction of 1; 3) the asymmetric synthesis of fluoro-β-lactams using chiral ligands; and 4) the utilization of fluoro-β-lactams as highly electrophilic building blocks.

  17. Redesigning Aldolase Stereoselectivity by Homologous Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Henßen, Birgit; Metz, Alexander; Gohlke, Holger; Pietruszka, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    The 2-deoxy-d-ribose-5-phosphate aldolase (DERA) offers access to highly desirable building blocks for organic synthesis by catalyzing a stereoselective C-C bond formation between acetaldehyde and certain electrophilic aldehydes. DERA´s potential is particularly highlighted by the ability to catalyze sequential, highly enantioselective aldol reactions. However, its synthetic use is limited by the absence of an enantiocomplementary enzyme. Here, we introduce the concept of homologous grafting to identify stereoselectivity-determining amino acid positions in DERA. We identified such positions by structural analysis of the homologous aldolases 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate aldolase (KDPG) and the enantiocomplementary enzyme 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogalactonate aldolase (KDPGal). Mutation of these positions led to a slightly inversed enantiopreference of both aldolases to the same extent. By transferring these sequence motifs onto DERA we achieved the intended change in enantioselectivity. PMID:27327271

  18. Efficient Biocatalytic Synthesis of Chiral Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Pan, Jiang; Ma, Bao-Di; Xu, Jian-He

    2016-01-01

    Chiral chemicals are a group of important chiral synthons for the synthesis of a series of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and fine chemicals. In past decades, a number of biocatalytic approaches have been developed for the green and effective synthesis of various chiral chemicals. However, the practical application of these biocatalytic processes is still hindered by the lack of highly efficient and robust biocatalysts, which usually results in the low volumetric productivity and high cost of the bioprocesses. Further step forward of biocatalysis in industrial application strongly requires the development of versatile and highly efficient biocatalysts, aiming to increase the process efficiency and facilitate the downstream processing. Recently, the fast growth of genome sequences in the database in post-genomic era offers great opportunities for accessing numerous biocatalysts with practical application potential, and the so-called genome mining approach provides time-effective and highly specific strategy for the fast identification of target enzymes with desired properties and outperforms the traditional screening of soil samples for microbial enzyme producers of interest. A number of biocatalytic processes with industrial application potential were developed thereafter. Further development of protein engineering strategies, process optimization, and cooperative work between biologists, organic chemists, and engineers is expected to make biocatalysis technology the first choice approach for the eco-friendly, highly efficient, and cost-effective synthesis of chiral chemicals in the near future.

  19. Concise, stereodivergent and highly stereoselective synthesis of cis- and trans-2-substituted 3-hydroxypiperidines – development of a phosphite-driven cyclodehydration

    PubMed Central

    Westphal, Julia C

    2014-01-01

    Summary A concise (5 to 6 steps), stereodivergent, highly diastereoselective (dr up to >19:1 for both stereoisomers) and scalable synthesis (up to 14 g) of cis- and trans-2-substituted 3-piperidinols, a core motif in numerous bioactive compounds, is presented. This sequence allowed an efficient synthesis of the NK-1 inhibitor L-733,060 in 8 steps. Additionally, a cyclodehydration-realizing simple triethylphosphite as a substitute for triphenylphosphine is developed. Here the stoichiometric oxidized P(V)-byproduct (triethylphosphate) is easily removed during the work up through saponification overcoming separation difficulties usually associated to triphenylphosphine oxide. PMID:24605158

  20. Approximation concepts for efficient structural synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmit, L. A., Jr.; Miura, H.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that efficient structural synthesis capabilities can be created by using approximation concepts to mesh finite element structural analysis methods with nonlinear mathematical programming techniques. The history of the application of mathematical programming techniques to structural design optimization problems is reviewed. Several rather general approximation concepts are described along with the technical foundations of the ACCESS 1 computer program, which implements several approximation concepts. A substantial collection of structural design problems involving truss and idealized wing structures is presented. It is concluded that since the basic ideas employed in creating the ACCESS 1 program are rather general, its successful development supports the contention that the introduction of approximation concepts will lead to the emergence of a new generation of practical and efficient, large scale, structural synthesis capabilities in which finite element analysis methods and mathematical programming algorithms will play a central role.

  1. Stereoselective synthesis of eight-membered cyclic ethers by tandem Nicholas reaction/ring-closing metathesis: a short synthesis of (+)-cis-Lauthisan.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Nuria; Martín, Tomás; Martín, Víctor S

    2006-03-02

    Cis-2,8-disubstituted oxocanes and the parent unsaturated precursors were prepared from the corresponding Co2(CO)6-cycloalkynic ethers. Key steps in such synthesis were the ether linkage formation by intermolecular Nicholas reaction, RCM of the suitable acyclic dienyl ether and montmorillonite K-10 induced isomerization of the complexed cycloalkyne. A short synthesis of (+)-cis-lauthisan taking advantage of the developed methodology is described.

  2. Stereoselective Synthesis of 4-Substituted Cyclic Sulfamidate-5-Phosphonates by Using Rh-Catalyzed, Asymmetric Transfer Hydrogenation with Accompanying Dynamic Kinetic Resolution.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yeon Ji; Kim, Jin-ah; Lee, Hyeon-Kyu

    2015-09-04

    Dynamic kinetic resolution driven, asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of 4-substituted cyclic sulfamidate imine-5-phosphonates produces the corresponding cyclic sulfamidate-5-phosphonates. The process employs a HCO2H/Et3N mixture as the hydrogen source and the chiral Rh catalysts, (R,R)- or (S,S)-Cp*RhCl(TsDPEN), and it takes place at room temperature within 1 h with high yields and high levels of stereoselectivity.

  3. Rh-Catalyzed Conjugate Addition of Aryl and Alkenyl Boronic Acids to α-Methylene-β-lactones: Stereoselective Synthesis of trans-3,4-Disubstituted β-Lactones.

    PubMed

    Malapit, Christian A; Luvaga, Irungu K; Caldwell, Donald R; Schipper, Nicholas K; Howell, Amy R

    2017-09-01

    A one-step preparation of 3,4-disubstituted β-lactones through Rh-catalyzed conjugate addition of aryl or alkenyl boronic acids to α-methylene-β-lactones is described. The operationally simple, stereoselective transformation provides a broad range of β-lactones from individual α-methylene-β-lactone templates. This methodology allowed for a direct, final-step C-3 diversification of nocardiolactone, an antimicrobial natural product.

  4. One-pot stereoselective synthesis of α,β-differentiated diamino esters via the sequence of aminochlorination, aziridination and intermolecular SN2 reaction.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yiwen; Qian, Ping; Cao, Chenhui; Mei, Haibo; Han, Jianlin; Li, Guigen; Pan, Yi

    2014-01-01

    We report here an efficient one-pot method for the synthesis of α,β-differentiated diamino esters directly from cinnamate esters using N,N-dichloro-p-toluenesulfonamide and benzylamine as nitrogen sources. The key transformations include a Cu-catalyzed aminohalogenation and aziridination, followed by an intermolecular SN2 nucleophilic ring opening by benzylamine. The reactions feature a wide scope of substrates and proceed with excellent stereo- and regioselectivity (anti:syn >99:1) .

  5. On-chip integration of organic synthesis and HPLC/MS analysis for monitoring stereoselective transformations at the micro-scale.

    PubMed

    Heiland, Josef J; Warias, Rico; Lotter, Carsten; Mauritz, Laura; Fuchs, Patrick J W; Ohla, Stefan; Zeitler, Kirsten; Belder, Detlev

    2016-12-20

    We present a microfluidic system, seamlessly integrating microflow and microbatch synthesis with a HPLC/nano-ESI-MS functionality on a single glass chip. The microfluidic approach allows to efficiently steer and dispense sample streams down to the nanoliter-range for studying reactions in quasi real-time. In a proof-of-concept study, the system was applied to explore amino-catalyzed reactions, including asymmetric iminium-catalyzed Friedel-Crafts alkylations in microflow and micro confined reaction vessels.

  6. The magnesium-ene cyclization stereochemically directed by an allylic oxyanionic group and its application to a highly stereoselective synthesis of (+/-)-matatabiether. Allylmagnesium compounds by reductive magnesiation of allyl phenyl sulfides.

    PubMed

    Cheng, D; Zhu, S; Yu, Z; Cohen, T

    2001-01-10

    The first example of a magnesium-ene cyclization stereochemically directed by an allylic oxyanionic group is demonstrated by a highly stereoselective synthesis of the bicyclic terpene matatabiether 10. The synthetic method is particularly valuable, not only because of the stereochemical control and the utility of the versatile hydroxyl group introduced into the product, but also because the precursor of the allylmagnesium is an allyl phenyl sulfide, which is more stable and more easily prepared in a connective fashion than the usual allyl halide precursor. Since the presence of lithium ions encourages undesirable proton transfer to the cyclized organometallic and is detrimental to the stereochemical control, the conversion of the allylic thioether to the allylmagnesium utilizes a lithium-free method involving direct reductive magnesiation in the presence of the magnesium-anthracene complex.

  7. Mechanistic studies on the Heck-Mizoroki cross-coupling reaction of a hindered vinylboronate ester as a key approach to developing a highly stereoselective synthesis of a C1-C7 Z,Z,E-triene synthon for viridenomycin.

    PubMed

    Batsanov, Andrei S; Knowles, Jonathan P; Whiting, Andrew

    2007-03-30

    Mechanistic studies of the Heck-Mizoroki reaction of a vinylboronate ester with electronically different (four-substituted) aryl iodides shows that electron donors accelerate the cross-coupling, demonstrating that the oxidative addition step is not rate determining and that there is development of some degree of positive charge in the rate determining step. These results were used as a basis to allow the development of reaction conditions for the Heck-Mizoroki coupling of a hindered vinylboronate ester with electron deficient methyl cis-2-iodoacrylate. The resulting dienylboronate ester was converted through a series of highly stereoselective iodo-deboronations and Heck-Mizoroki reactions into a trienyl iodide precursor for further application in the total synthesis of viridenomycin.

  8. Stereospecific and highly stereoselective cyclopropanation reactions promoted by samarium.

    PubMed

    Concellón, José M; Rodríguez-Solla, Humberto; Concellón, Carmen; del Amo, Vicente

    2010-11-01

    Samarium metal and samarium diiodide have become important tools as selective cyclopropanating agents in organic synthesis due to their high chemo- and stereoselectivity. Therefore, Sm and SmI(2) are the ideal reagents to prepare cyclopropane derivatives. This tutorial review highlights C-C multiple bond cyclopropanation processes promoted by samarium or samarium diiodide.

  9. Asymmetric reduction of ketopantolactone using a strictly (R)-stereoselective carbonyl reductase through efficient NADPH regeneration and the substrate constant-feeding strategy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Man; Gao, Liang; Zhang, Li; Bai, Yanbin; Chen, Liang; Yu, Meilan; Cheng, Feng; Sun, Jie; Wang, Zhao; Ying, Xiangxian

    2017-08-21

    To characterize a recombinant carbonyl reductase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SceCPR1) and explore its use in asymmetric synthesis of (R)-pantolactone [(R)-PL]. The NADPH-dependent SceCPR1 exhibited strict (R)-enantioselectivity and high activity in the asymmetric reduction of ketopantolactone (KPL) to (R)-PL. Escherichia coli, coexpressing SceCPR1 and glucose dehydrogenase from Exiguobacterium sibiricum (EsGDH), was constructed to fulfill efficient NADPH regeneration. During the whole-cell catalyzed asymmetric reduction of KPL, the spontaneous hydrolysis of KPL significantly affected the yield of (R)-PL, which was effectively alleviated by the employment of the substrate constant-feeding strategy. The established whole-cell bioreduction for 6 h afforded 458 mM (R)-PL with the enantiomeric excess value of >99.9% and the yield of 91.6%. Escherichia coli coexpressing SceCPR1 and EsGDH efficiently catalyzed the asymmetric synthesis of (R)-PL through the substrate constant-feeding strategy.

  10. Efficient synthesis of benzamide riboside, a potential anticancer agent.

    PubMed

    Bonnac, Laurent F; Gao, Guang-Yao; Chen, Liqiang; Patterson, Steven E; Jayaram, Hiremagalur N; Pankiewicz, Krzysztof W

    2007-01-01

    An efficient five step synthesis of benzamide riboside (BR) amenable for a large scale synthesis has been developed. It allows for extensive pre-clinical studies of BR as a potential anticancer agent.

  11. A highly stereoselective and flexible strategy for the convergent synthesis of long-chain polydeoxypropionates: application towards the synthesis of the glycolipid membrane components hydroxyphthioceranic and phthioceranic acid.

    PubMed

    Pischl, Matthias C; Weise, Christian F; Haseloff, Stefan; Müller, Marc-André; Pfaltz, Andreas; Schneider, Christoph

    2014-12-22

    A highly stereocontrolled and flexible access to biologically relevant polydeoxypropionates in optically pure form has been developed. Taking advantage of our previously established strategy for the asymmetric and stereodivergent synthesis of trideoxypropionate building blocks, we have now been able to assemble large polydeoxypropionate chains with defined configuration in a highly convergent manner. Central steps of this approach include two Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions with subsequent highly diastereoselective hydrogenations to join three advanced synthetic intermediates in excellent yield and with full stereochemical control. We have applied this strategy successfully towards the asymmetric synthesis of glycolipid membrane components phthioceranic acid and hydroxyphthioceranic acid, the latter of which was synthesized on a half-gram scale.

  12. Stereoselectively fluorinated N-heterocycles: a brief survey.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiang-Guo; Hunter, Luke

    2013-11-29

    The stereoselective incorporation of fluorine atoms into N-heterocycles can lead to dramatic changes in the molecules' physical and chemical properties. These changes can be rationally exploited for the benefit of diverse fields such as medicinal chemistry and organocatalysis. This brief review will examine some of the effects that fluorine substitution can have in N-heterocycles, including changes to the molecules' stability, their conformational behaviour, their hydrogen bonding ability, and their basicity. Finally, some methods for the synthesis of stereoselectively fluorinated N-heterocycles will also be reviewed.

  13. Efficient synthesis of phosphatidylserine in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran.

    PubMed

    Duan, Zhang-Qun; Hu, Fei

    2013-01-10

    2-Methyltetrahydrofuran has recently been described as a promising and green solvent. Herein, it was successfully used as the reaction medium for enzyme-mediated transphosphatidylation of phosphatidylcholine with L-serine with the aim of phosphatidylserine synthesis for the first time. Our results indicated that as high as 90% yield of phosphatidylserine could be achieved after 12 h combined with no byproduct (phosphatidic acid) forming. The present work accommodated a facilely and efficiently enzymatic strategy for preparing phosphatidylserine, which possessed obvious advantages over the reported processes in terms of high efficiency and environmental friendliness. This work is also a proof-of-concept opening the use of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran in biosynthesis as well.

  14. Stereoselective Synthesis of Spiro Bis-C,C-α-arylglycosides by Tandem Heck Type C-Glycosylation and Friedel-Crafts Cyclization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Bo; Liu, Shi-Hao; Hsieh, Min-Tsang; Chang, Chih-Shiang; Lin, Chun-Hung; Chen, Chen-Yin; Chen, Po-Yen; Lin, Hui-Chang

    2016-04-01

    Spiro bis-C,C-α-arylglycosides were synthesized in three steps in 78-85% overall yields starting from exo-glycals. The initial Heck type C-aryl addition of exo-glycals with arylboronic acids afforded α-aryl-β-substituted C-glycosides with exclusive α-stereoselectivity. Among the products, β-ethanal α-aryl C-glycosides further reacted with alkylthiol in the presence of InCl3, followed by in situ Friedel-Crafts cyclization to yield the desirable final products. We proposed a mechanism to explain how the α-aryl group serves as a main determinant of the cyclization.

  15. Palladium(II)-Catalyzed Cross-Dehydrogenative Coupling (CDC) of N-Phthaloyl Dehydroalanine Esters with Simple Arenes: Stereoselective Synthesis of Z-Dehydrophenylalanine Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Bartoccini, Francesca; Cannas, Diego Maria; Fini, Francesco; Piersanti, Giovanni

    2016-06-03

    Pd(II)-catalyzed cross-dehydrogenative coupling (CDC) of methyl N-phthaloyl dehydroalanine esters with simple aromatic hydrocarbons is reported. The reaction, which involves the cleavage of two sp(2) C-H bonds followed by C-C bond formation, stereoselectively generates highly valuable Z-dehydrophenylalanine skeletons in a practical, versatile, and atom economical manner. In addition, a perfluorinated product was expediently converted into important nonproteinogenic amino acid building blocks through copper-catalyzed conjugate additions of boron, silicon, and hydride moieties.

  16. Stereoselective synthesis of 2-C-branched (acetylmethyl) oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates: Lewis acid-catalyzed glycosylation from 1,2-cyclopropaneacetylated sugars.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qiang; Dong, Liang; Ma, Xiaofeng; Xu, Liyan; Hu, Changwei; Zou, Wei; Shao, Huawu

    2011-02-18

    1,2-Cyclopropaneacetylated sugars as glycosyl donors reacted with a series of glycosyl acceptors (monosaccharides, amino acids, and other alcohols) in the presence of Lewis acid to produce oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates containing 2-C-acetylmethylsugars. Galactosyl donor gave good to excellent α-selectivities with TMSOTf as a catalyst, whereas galactosyl donor offered moderate to good β-selectivities when BF(3)·Et(2)O was used as a catalyst. However, glucosyl donors produced β-exclusive selectivity under both conditions. The stereoselectivities of glycosylation depend on the reactivity of donor sugars and Lewis acid catalyst, which effectively dictated the glycosylation pathways. The evidence suggests that galactosyl donors (e.g., 7) can undergo S(N)1 pathway with a strong Lewis acid (TMSOTf) and S(N)2 pathway under BF(3)·Et(2)O, whereas the glucosyl donors (e.g., 8 and 10) followed S(N)2 pathway. The stereoselectivity was also consequential to the formation of a C2'-acetal intermediate formed via the 2-C-acetylmethyl group and the anomeric carbonium intermediate in glycosylation.

  17. Regio- and stereoselective synthesis of pregnane-fused isoxazolines by nitril-oxide/alkene 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition and an evaluation of their cell-growth inhibitory effect in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mótyán, Gergő; Baji, Ádám; Zupkó, István; Frank, Éva

    2016-04-01

    Efficient syntheses of some pregnane-fused isoxazolines from 16-dehydropregnenolone acetate with different arylnitrile oxides were carried out by 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions. The intermolecular ring-closures occurred in a highly regio- and stereoselective manner permitting the formation of a single 16α,17α-condensed diastereomer in which the O terminus of the nitrile oxide dipole is attached to C-17 of the sterane core. The conversions were found to be affected significantly by the electronic character of the substituents on the aromatic moiety of the 1,3-dipoles. Deacetylation of the primary products resulted in the corresponding 3β-OH analogs. All of the synthesized compounds were subjected to in vitro pharmacological studies for the determination of their antiproliferative effects on four breast cancer cell lines (MCF7, T47D, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-361).

  18. Azomethine Ylides from Nitrones: Using Catalytic nBuLi for the Totally Stereoselective Synthesis of trans-2-Alkyl-3-oxazolines.

    PubMed

    Juste-Navarro, Veronica; Delso, Ignacio; Tejero, Tomás; Merino, Pedro

    2016-08-08

    The cycloaddition of azomethine ylide N-oxides (nitrone ylides) with aldehydes provides 3-oxazolines in a completely stereoselective manner in the presence of a catalytic amount of n-butyllithium. The process involves an initial nucleophilic attack on the aldehyde, followed by intramolecular oxygen addition to the nitrone moiety and lithium-assisted elimination of water, regenerating the catalytic species. Various Li-based catalytic systems are possible and the in situ generated water is required for continuing the catalytic cycle. The best results are observed with 20 mol % of n-butyllithium, whereas the use of stoichiometric amounts inhibit the rate of catalysis. Experimental, spectroscopic, and computational mechanistic studies have provided evidence of lithium-ion catalysis and rationalized several competing catalytic pathways. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. New chiral phosphinephosphinite ligands: Application to stereoselective synthesis of a key intermediate of 1{beta}-methyl carbapenems by Rh(I)-catalyzed asymmetric hydroformylation

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Takao; Yoshida, Akifumi; Matsumura, Kazuhiko

    1995-12-31

    Transition metal catalyzed asymmetric hydroformylation is an attractive and highly useful homologation process for organic synthesis. Recently, the authors reported that the Rh(I) complexes of phosphinephosphite BINAPHOS are highly efficient catalysts for enantioselective hydroformylation of a variety of olefins. This time, the authors have designed and synthesized new chiral phosphinephosphinite ligands having binaphthyl backbone, (R)-2-diarylphosphino-2{prime}-diarylphosphinoxy-1,1{prime}-binaphthy1 (hereafter abbreviated (R)-BIPNITE). The Rh(I) complexes of these ligands are effective catalysts for the asymmetric hydroformylation of 4-vinylazetidin-2-one to give the corresponding oxo-aldehyde 3{beta} as the major product in very high diastereoselectivities and in good regioselectivities. Interestingly, modifications of the aryl substituents in phosphine and phosphinite moieties afforded higher selectivities. Aldehyde 3{beta} was easily oxidized with NaClO{sub 2} to 4, a key intermediate of 1{beta}-methyl carbapenems. Thus, the present method provides a new practical route to a versatile key intermediate for the synthesis of carbapenem antibiotics.

  20. Directed Evolution of Carbonyl Reductase from Rhodosporidium toruloides and Its Application in Stereoselective Synthesis of tert-Butyl (3R,5S)-6-Chloro-3,5-dihydroxyhexanoate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Wu, Lin; Zhang, Xiao-Jian; Xue, Ya-Ping; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2017-05-10

    tert-Butyl (3R,5S)-6-chloro-3,5-dihydroxyhexanoate ((3R,5S)-CDHH) is a key intermediate of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin synthesis. Carbonyl reductase RtSCR9 from Rhodosporidium toruloides exhibited excellent activity toward tert-butyl (S)-6-chloro-5-hydroxy-3-oxohexanoate ((S)-CHOH). For the activity of RtSCR9 to be improved, random mutagenesis and site-saturation mutagenesis were performed. Three positive mutants were obtained (mut-Gln95Asp, mut-Ile144Lys, and mut-Phe156Gln). These mutants exhibited 1.94-, 3.03-, and 1.61-fold and 1.93-, 3.15-, and 1.97-fold improvement in the specific activity and kcat/Km, respectively. Asymmetric reduction of (S)-CHOH by mut-Ile144Lys coupled with glucose dehydrogenase was conducted. The yield and enantiomeric excess of (3R,5S)-CDHH reached 98 and 99%, respectively, after 8 h bioconversion in a single batch reaction with 1 M (S)-CHOH, and the space-time yield reached 542.83 mmol L(-1) h(-1) g(-1) wet cell weight. This study presents a new carbonyl reductase for efficient synthesis of (3R,5S)-CDHH.

  1. Enzymatic resolution of racemates with a 'remote' stereogenic center as an efficient tool in drug, flavor and vitamin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Alfaro Blasco, Maria; Gröger, Harald

    2014-10-15

    The enantioselective recognition of 'remote' stereogenic centers represents a scientific task in organic chemistry being also of current interest in the pharmaceutical industry. This is due to a range of pharmaceutically relevant molecules or intermediates thereof bearing a stereogenic center, which is separated from the functional group by a larger non-chiral moiety such as, for example, a longer sequence of bonds of at least three carbon or hetero-atoms or by a planar aromatic moiety. Notably, biocatalysis turned out to provide an excellent solution for a range of challenging syntheses in this field. For example, efficient enzymatic resolution processes of racemates with such a 'remote' stereogenic center were developed for the synthesis of pelitrexol, lasofoxifene and (S)-monastrol. In general, good yields accompanied by high enantioselectivities were obtained, thus underlining the tremendous potential of enzymes to recognize and enantioselectively transform enantiomers of racemates with 'remote' stereogenic centers. Such or similar types of stereoselective recognitions of 'remote' stereogenic centers by means of enzymes have been also reported in the field of flavor and vitamin synthesis. Thus, biocatalysis represents a promising solution for the efficient approach to enantiomerically pure complex chiral molecules with stereogenic centers being located apart from the functional group, and it can be expected that enzymatic resolution will be increasingly applied when searching for an efficient and also technically feasible process for also novel complex chiral molecules bearing a 'remote' stereogenic center.

  2. Regio- and Stereoselective Modification of Chiral α-Amino Ketones by Pd-Catalyzed Allylic Alkylation.

    PubMed

    Huwig, Kai; Schultz, Katharina; Kazmaier, Uli

    2015-07-27

    Chiral α-amino ketones are excellent nucleophiles for stereoselective palladium-catalyzed allylic alkylations. Both chiral as well as achiral allylic substrates can be applied, while the stereochemical outcome of the reaction is controlled by the chiral ketone enolate. The substituted amino ketones formed can be reduced stereoselectively, and up to five consecutive stereogenic centers can be obtained. This approach can be used for the synthesis of highly substituted piperidine derivatives.

  3. A new route to the synthesis of (E)- and (Z)-2-alkene-4-ynoates and nitriles from vic-iiodo-(E)-alkenes catalyzed by Pd(0) nanoparticles in water.

    PubMed

    Ranu, Brindaban C; Chattopadhyay, Kalicharan

    2007-06-07

    An efficient procedure for the stereoselective synthesis of (E)- and (Z)-2-alkene-4-ynoates and -nitriles by a simple reaction of vic-diiodo-(E)-alkenes with acrylic esters and nitriles catalyzed by in situ prepared Pd(0) nanoparticles in water has been developed. Addition of acrylic esters leads to (E)-isomers exclusively, whereas (Z)-isomers are obtained in high stereoselectivity from reactions of acrylonitrile. The aqueous slurry of Pd nanoparticles is recycled. A probable mechanism has been suggested.

  4. Enhanced Stereoselectivity of a Cu(II) Complex Chiral Auxiliary in the Synthesis of Fmoc-L-γ-carboxyglutamic Acid | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Bridging bioinorganic chemistry with asymmetric synthesis: a naturally occurring metalloprotein is used for the structure-based evolution of chiral auxiliaries that prove to be effective in the synthesis of Fmoc-L-γ-carboxyglutamic acid.

  5. Synthesis of cyclic sulfones by ring-closing metathesis.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qingwei

    2002-02-07

    A general and highly efficient synthesis of cyclic sulfones based on ring-closing metathesis has been developed. The synthetic utility of the resulting cyclic sulfones was demonstrated by their participation in stereoselective Diels-Alder reactions and transformation to cyclic dienes by the Ramberg-Bäcklund reaction.

  6. Total synthesis of (±)-maistemonine and (±)-stemonamide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Hua; Zhang, Yong-Qiang; Chen, Zhi-Min; Tu, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Fu-Min

    2011-02-14

    The first total synthesis of polycyclic Stemona alkaloid maistemonine has been achieved. The efficient approach features a stereoselective intramolecular Schmidt reaction, a ketone-ester condensation, and a Reformatsky reaction. Additionally, another Stemona alkaloid stemonamide was divergently synthesized from a common intermediate.

  7. Stereoselective aminoacylation of RNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usher, D. A.; Needels, M. C.; Brenner, T.

    1986-01-01

    Prebiotic chemistry is faced with a major problem: how could a controlled and selective reaction occur, when there is present in the same solution a large number of alternative possible coreactants? This problem is solved in the modern cell by the presence of enzymes, which are not only highly efficient and controllable catalysts, but which also can impose on their substrates a precise structural requirement. However, enzymes are the result of billions of years of evolution, and we cannot invoke them as prebiotic catalysts. One approach to solving this problem in the prebiotic context is to make use of template-directed reactions. These reactions increase the number of structural requirements that must be simultaneously present in a molecule for it to be able to react, and thereby increase the selectivity of the reaction. They also can give a large increase in the rate of a reaction, if the template constrains two potential coreactants to lie close together. A third benefit is that information that is present in the template molecule can be passed on to the product molecules. If the earliest organisms were based on proteins and nucleic acids, then the investigation of peptide synthesis on an oligonucleotide template is highly relevant to the study of the origin of life.

  8. Stereoselective Synthesis and Modelling-Driven Optimisation of Carane-Based Aminodiols and 1,3-Oxazines as Catalysts for the Enantioselective Addition of Diethylzinc to Benzaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Szakonyi, Zsolt; Csőr, Árpád; Csámpai, Antal; Fülöp, Ferenc

    2016-05-17

    The reductive amination of (-)-2-carene-3-aldehyde, prepared in two steps from (-)-perillaldehyde, furnished 2-carene-based allylamines. tert-Butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) or carbobenzyloxy (Cbz) protection of the resulting amines, followed by stereoselective dihydroxylation in highly stereospecific reactions with OsO4 and subsequent deprotection, resulted in N-benzylaminodiols, which were transformed to primary and tertiary aminodiols. The reactions of the N-benzyl- and N-(1-phenylethyl)-substituted derivatives with formaldehyde led to highly regioselective ring closure, resulting in carane-fused 1,3-oxazines. The aminodiols and their 1,3-oxazine derivatives were applied as chiral catalysts in the enantioselective addition of diethylzinc to aldehydes. The best (R) enantioselectivity was observed in the case of the N-((R)-1-phenylethyl)-substituted aminodiol, whereas the opposite chiral direction was preferred when the 1,3-oxazines were applied. Through the use of molecular modelling at an ab initio level, this phenomenon was interpreted in terms of competing reaction pathways. Molecular modelling at the RHF/LANL2DZ level of theory was successfully applied for a mechanism-based interpretation of the stereochemical outcome of the reactions leading to the development of further 1,3-oxazine-based ligands, which display excellent (S) enantioselectivity (95 and 98 % ee) in the examined transformation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Ureidopeptide-based Brønsted bases: design, synthesis and application to the catalytic enantioselective synthesis of β-amino nitriles from (arylsulfonyl)acetonitriles.

    PubMed

    Diosdado, Saioa; López, Rosa; Palomo, Claudio

    2014-05-19

    The addition of cyanoalkyl moieties to imines is a very attractive method for the preparation of β-amino nitriles. We present a highly efficient organocatalytic methodology for the stereoselective synthesis of β-amino nitriles, in which the key to success is the use of ureidopeptide-based Brønsted base catalysts in combination with (arylsulfonyl)acetonitriles as synthetic equivalents of the acetonitrile anion. The method gives access to a variety of β-amino nitriles with good yields and excellent enantioselectivities, and broadens the stereoselective Mannich-type methodologies available for their synthesis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. endo/exo stereoselectivity in Diels-Alder reactions of α,β-dialkylated conjugated enals to cyclic 1,3-dienes: intermediates in the synthesis of (-)-β-santalol and its analogs.

    PubMed

    Chapuis, Christian; Skuy, David; de Saint Laumer, Jean-Yves; Brauchli, Robert

    2014-10-01

    Highly exo-selective [4+2] cycloadditions of cyclopenta-1,3-diene 2a to α,β-dialkyl conjugated enals 5 are compared with the analogous endo-favored Diels-Alder reaction of cyclohexa-1,3-diene 7. The exo-stereoselectivity is lower in the homologous case of methylcyclopenta-1,3-diene 9. This diastereoselectivity is discussed either in terms of a retro-homo-Diels-Alder reaction, associated with thermodynamic control, or with respect to either a competing hetero-Diels-Alder/Claisen or Cope domino pathway, or retro-Claisen/retro-hetero-Diels-Alder of the endo-homo-cycloadducts. These hypothetical mechanisms have been examined by DFT calculations at the MPW1K(CH2 Cl2 )/6-31+G** level of theory for the AlCl3 -mediated cycloadditions of 5d to 2a and 7. Application of Corey's methodology to the γ-halogeno-α-methyl-substituted dienophiles 5a and 5b allowed an enantioselective preparation of known and useful intermediates for the synthesis of either the naturally occurring (-)-β-santalol or its potentially olfactive structural analogs. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  11. Regiodivergent and Stereoselective Hydrosilylation of 1,3-Disubstituted Allenes.

    PubMed

    Miller, Zachary D; Dorel, Ruth; Montgomery, John

    2015-07-27

    Methods for the highly stereoselective and regiodivergent hydrosilylation of 1,3-disubstituted allenes have been developed. The synthesis of E allylsilanes is accomplished with palladium NHC catalysts, and trisubstituted Z alkenylsilanes are accessed with nickel NHC catalysts. Unsymmetrically substituted allenes are well tolerated with nickel catalysis and afford Z alkenylsilanes. Evidence for a plausible mechanism was obtained through an isotopic double-labeling crossover study.

  12. Stereoselective Glycosylation of 2-Nitrogalactals Catalyzed by a Bifunctional Organocatalyst

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The use of a bifunctional cinchona/thiourea organocatalyst for the direct and α-stereoselective glycosylation of 2-nitrogalactals is demonstrated for the first time. The conditions are mild, practical, and applicable to a wide range of glycoside acceptors with products being isolated in good to excellent yields. The method is exemplified in the synthesis of mucin type Core 6 and 7 glycopeptides. PMID:27529800

  13. An efficient chemical synthesis of nicotinamide riboside (NAR) and analogues.

    PubMed

    Tanimori, Shinji; Ohta, Takeshi; Kirihata, Mitsunori

    2002-04-22

    A simple and efficient synthesis of nicotinamide riboside (NAR) 1 and derivatives 4 and 5 via trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (TMSOTf)-mediated N-glycosilation followed by spontaneous deacetylation by treating with methanol is reported.

  14. Short and efficient synthesis of fluorinated δ-lactams.

    PubMed

    Cogswell, Thomas J; Donald, Craig S; Long, De-Liang; Marquez, Rodolfo

    2015-01-21

    The diastereoselective synthesis of fluorinated δ-lactams has been achieved through an efficient five step process. The route can tolerate a range of functionalities, and provides a quick route for the generation of new fluorinated medicinal building blocks.

  15. One-Pot Synthesis of Hydrophobically Modified Iminosugar C-Alkynylglycosides: Facile Synthesis of Polyhydroxy Tetrahydroindolizines.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, Soundararasu; Prasad, Sure Siva; Das, Amrita; Baskaran, Sundarababu

    2015-11-02

    A mild and efficient one-pot method has been developed for the stereoselective synthesis of structurally diverse novel iminosugar C-alkynylglycosides. The generality of this methodology has been demonstrated with a wide variety of amines and copper acetylides. This one-pot method has been exploited in the synthesis of new class of DNA cross-linking agents, polyhydroxy 1-vinyl-tetrahydroindolizine derivatives. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Chemoenzymatic collective synthesis of optically active hydroxyl(methyl)tetrahydronaphthalene-based bioactive terpenoids.

    PubMed

    Batwal, Ramesh U; Argade, Narshinha P

    2015-12-14

    Starting from succinic anhydride and 2-methylanisole, a chemoenzymatic collective formal/total synthesis of several optically active tetrahydronaphthalene based bioactive natural products has been presented via advanced level common precursors; the natural product and antipode (-)/(+)-aristelegone B. Regioselective benzylic oxidations, stereoselective introduction of hydroxyl groups at the α-position of ketone moiety in syn-orientation, efficient enzymatic resolutions with high enantiomeric purity, stereoselective reductions, samarium iodide induced deoxygenations and tandem acylation-Wittig reactions without racemization and/or eliminative aromatization were the key features. An attempted diastereoselective synthesis of (±)-vallapin has also been described.

  17. Highly engineered biocatalysts for efficient small molecule pharmaceutical synthesis.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, Jim

    2016-12-01

    Technologies for the engineering of biocatalysts for efficient synthesis of pharmaceutical targets have advanced dramatically over the last few years. Integration of computational methods for structural modeling, combined with high through put methods for expression and screening of biocatalysts and algorithms for mining experimental data, have allowed the creation of highly engineered biocatalysts for the efficient synthesis of pharmaceuticals. Methods for the synthesis of chiral alcohols and amines have been particularly successful, along with the creation of non-natural activities for such desirable reactions as cyclopropanation and esterification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An Efficient Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of Dihydroartemisinic Aldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Demiray, Melodi; Tang, Xiaoping; Wirth, Thomas; Faraldos, Juan A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Artemisinin from the plant Artemisia annua is the most potent pharmaceutical for the treatment of malaria. In the plant, the sesquiterpene cyclase amorphadiene synthase, a cytochrome‐dependent CYP450, and an aldehyde reductase convert farnesyl diphosphate (FDP) into dihydroartemisinic aldehyde (DHAAl), which is a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of artemisinin and a semisynthetic precursor for its chemical synthesis. Here, we report a chemoenzymatic process that is able to deliver DHAAl using only the sesquiterpene synthase from a carefully designed hydroxylated FDP derivative. This process, which reverses the natural order of cyclization of FDP and oxidation of the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon, provides a significant improvement in the synthesis of DHAAl and demonstrates the potential of substrate engineering in the terpene synthase mediated synthesis of high‐value natural products. PMID:28294491

  19. Samarium iodide-mediated Reformatsky reactions for the stereoselective preparation of β-hydroxy-γ-amino acids: synthesis of isostatine and dolaisoleucine.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Christopher G; Burke, Terrence R

    2012-01-06

    The synthesis of β-hydroxy-γ-amino acids via SmI(2)-mediated Reformatsky reactions of α-chloroacetyloxazolidinones with aminoaldehydes is reported. Diastereoselective coupling is demonstrated to depend on the absolute configuration of the Evans chiral auxiliary employed in the reaction, allowing erythro or threo products to be obtained selectively. The potential utility of the methodology is exemplified by the facile synthesis of biologically relevant N-Boc-isostatine (2b) and N-Boc-dolaisoleucine (3c).

  20. Samarium Iodide-Mediated Reformatsky Reactions for the Stereoselective Preparation of β-hydroxy-γ-amino Acids: Synthesis of Isostatine and Dolaisoleucine

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Christopher G.; Burke, Terrence R.

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of β-hydroxy-γ-amino acids via SmI2-mediated Reformatsky reactions of α-chloroacetyloxazolidinones with aminoaldehydes is reported. Diastereoselective coupling is demonstrated to depend on the absolute configuration of the Evans chiral auxiliary employed in the reaction, allowing erythro or threo products to be obtained selectively. The potential utility of the methodology is exemplified by the facile synthesis of biologically relevant N-Boc-isostatine (2b) and N-Boc-dolaisoleucine (3c). PMID:22136325

  1. Protecting groups in carbohydrate chemistry: influence on stereoselectivity of glycosylations.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jian; Ye, Xin-Shan

    2010-10-20

    Saccharides are polyhydroxy compounds, and their synthesis requires complex protecting group manipulations. Protecting groups are usually used to temporarily mask a functional group which may interfere with a certain reaction, but protecting groups in carbohydrate chemistry do more than protecting groups usually do. Particularly, protecting groups can participate in reactions directly or indirectly, thus affecting the stereochemical outcomes, which is important for synthesis of oligosaccharides. Herein we present an overview of recent advances in protecting groups influencing stereoselectivity in glycosylation reactions, including participating protecting groups, and conformation-constraining protecting groups in general.

  2. Total Synthesis of Mycolactones A and B

    PubMed Central

    Song, Fengbin; Fidanze, Steve; Benowitz, Andrew B.; Kishi, Yoshito

    2007-01-01

    First and second generation total syntheses of mycolactones A and B are reported. The first generation total synthesis unambiguously confirmed our earlier assignment of the relative and absolute stereochemistry of mycolactones A and B. Knowledge of the chemical properties of the mycolactones accumulated through the first generation total synthesis allowed us to implement several major improvements to the original synthesis, including: (1) optimizing the choice of protecting groups, (2) eliminating the unnecessary adjustment of protecting groups, and (3) improving the overall stereoselectivity and synthetic efficiency. The second generation total synthesis consists of 21 longest linear steps, with 8.8% overall yield. PMID:17940589

  3. An Efficient Microscale Procedure for the Synthesis of Aspirin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandita, Sangeeta; Goyal, Samta

    1998-06-01

    The synthesis of aspirin is a part of many undergraduate organic synthesis labs and is frequently used in qualitative organic analysis laboratory for the identification of salicylic acid. We have found that aspirin can be synthesized on microscale by a simple and efficient procedure that eliminates the heating step employed in literature procedures and gives a pure, ferric-negative product (no purple color with alcoholic ferric chloride solution).

  4. Highly Stereoselective Synthesis of Anti, Anti-Dipropionate Stereotriads: A Solution to the Long-Standing Problem of Challenging Mismatched Double Asymmetric Crotylboration Reactions#

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming; Roush, William R.

    2012-01-01

    The stereocontrolled synthesis of the β-branched anti, anti-dipropionate stereotriad 4 via aldol or crotylmetal chemistry represents a historical challenge to the organic synthesis community. Here we describe a general solution to the long-standing problem associated with the synthesis of 4 by utilizing mismatched double asymmetric crotylboration reactions of enantioenriched α-methyl substituted aldehydes with the chiral, nonracemic crotylborane reagent (S)-(E)-22 (or its enantiomer). This method not only provides direct access to anti, anti-dipropionate stereotriads 24 [a synthetic equivalent of 4] with very good (5-8:1) if not excellent (≥15:1) diastereoselectivity from β-branched chiral aldehydes with ≤50:1 intrinsic diastereofacial selectivity preferences, but also provides a vinylstannane unit in the products that is properly functionalized for use in subsequent C-C bond forming events. We anticipate that this method will be widely applicable and will lead to substantial simplification of strategies for synthesis of polyketide natural products. PMID:22332989

  5. Efficient preparation of terminal conjugated dienes by coupling of dienol phosphates with grignard reagents under iron catalysis.

    PubMed

    Cahiez, Gérard; Habiak, Vanessa; Gager, Olivier

    2008-06-19

    An efficient new route to prepare stereoselectively terminal conjugated dienes by coupling Grignard reagents and dienol phosphates in the presence of Fe(acac)3 is described. The synthetic utility of this new iron-catalyzed procedure is illustrated by the synthesis of the pheromone of Diparopsis castanea according to a very expeditious strategy.

  6. Kinetic separation methodology for the stereoselective synthesis of (E)- and (Z)-alpha-fluoro-alpha,beta-unsaturated esters via the palladium-catalyzed carboalkoxylation of 1-bromo-1-fluoroalkenes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianjun; Burton, Donald J

    2002-03-07

    [reaction: see text] Methodology for the stereoselective preparation of both (E)- and (Z)-alpha-fluoro-alpha,beta-unsaturated esters is described. 1-Bromo-1-fluoroalkenes (E/Z approximate 1:1) can be isomerized to high E/Z ratio mixtures, which participate in palladium-catalyzed carboalkoxylation and lead to (Z)-alpha-fluoro-alpha,beta-unsaturated esters in high stereoselectivity. The same starting material can also be kinetically reduced to get an E/Z ratio of 0:100; similar carboalkoxylation reaction at 70 degrees C affords (E)-alpha-fluoro-alpha,beta-unsaturated esters stereospecifically.

  7. Facile and efficient synthesis of isolongifolenone

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An efficient method for preparation of isolongifolenone by oxidation of isolongifolene in high yield with a short reaction time is described. Highly allylic oxidation selectivity was achieved by using tert-butyl hydroperoxide as the oxidant and chromium hexacarbonyl as the catalyst. The oxidative ...

  8. Efficient asymmetric synthesis of [7]helicene bisquinones.

    PubMed

    Carreño, M Carmen; González-López, Marcos; Urbano, Antonio

    2005-02-07

    The efficient one-pot six-step domino process which occurs when (SS)-2-(p-tolylsulfinyl)-1,4-benzoquinone (1) reacts with 3,6-divinyl-1,2,7,8-tetrahydrophenanthrenes 2a-c allowed enantioselective access to [7]helicene bisquinones 3a-c with excellent optical purities (96 to > 99% ee).

  9. An Expedient Formal Total Synthesis of (-)-Diazonamide A via a Powerful, Stereoselective O-Aryl to C-Aryl Migration to form the C10 Quaternary Center

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Chi-Ming; Goldberg, Frederick W.; Magnus, Philip; Russell, Claire J.; Turnbull, Rachel; Lynch, Vince

    2008-01-01

    During the course of studies on the synthesis of diazonamide A 1 an unusual O-aryl into C-aryl rearrangement was discovered that allows partial control of the absolute stereochemistry of the C-10 quaternary stereogenic center. Treatment of 30 with TBAF/THF gave the O-tyrosine ethers 31 and 32 (1:1), which on heating each separately in chloroform at reflux rearranged to 33 and 34 in ratios of (84:16) and (56:44) respectively. This corresponds to a 70% yield of the correct C-10 stereoisomer 33 and a 30% yield of the wrong C-10 stereoisomer 34. Attempts to convert 34 into 33 by ipso-protonation and equilibriation were unsuccessful. Confirmation of the stereochemical outcome of the rearrangement was obtained by converting 33 into 37, an advanced intermediate in the first synthesis of diazonamide A by Nicolaou et al. It was also found that the success of the above rearrangement is sensitive to the protecting group on both the tryptophan nitrogen atom and the tyrosine nitrogen atom. PMID:17880079

  10. Hydroxyl-directed stereoselective diboration of alkenes.

    PubMed

    Blaisdell, Thomas P; Caya, Thomas C; Zhang, Liang; Sanz-Marco, Amparo; Morken, James P

    2014-07-02

    An alkoxide-catalyzed directed diboration of alkenyl alcohols is described. This reaction occurs in a stereoselective fashion and is demonstrated with cyclic and acyclic homoallylic and bishomoallylic alcohol substrates. After oxidation, the reaction generates 1,2-diols such that the process represents a method for the stereoselective directed dihydroxylation of alkenes.

  11. Efficient view synthesis from uncalibrated stereo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braspenning, Ralph; Op de Beeck, Marc

    2006-02-01

    For multiview auto-stereoscopic 3D displays, available stereo content needs to be converted to multiview content. In this paper we present a method to efficiently synthesize new views based on the two existing views from the stereo input. This method can be implemented in real-time and is also capable of handling uncalibrated stereo input. Good performance is shown compared to state-of-the-art disparity estimation algorithms and view rendering methods.

  12. Efficient chemoenzymatic synthesis of sialyl Tn-antigens and derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ding, Li; Yu, Hai; Lau, Kam; Li, Yanhong; Muthana, Saddam; Wang, Junru; Chen, Xi

    2011-08-14

    An N-terminal and C-terminal truncated recombinant α2-6-sialyltransferase cloned from Photobacterium sp. JH-ISH-224, Psp2,6ST(15-501)-His(6), was shown to be an efficient catalyst for one-pot three-enzyme synthesis of sialyl Tn (STn) antigens and derivatives containing natural and non-natural sialic acid forms.

  13. New uses for the Burgess reagent in chemical synthesis: methods for the facile and stereoselective formation of sulfamidates, glycosylamines, and sulfamides.

    PubMed

    Nicolaou, K C; Snyder, Scott A; Longbottom, Deborah A; Nalbandian, Annie Z; Huang, Xianhai

    2004-11-05

    Although the Burgess reagent (methoxycarbonylsulfamoyltriethylammonium hydroxide, inner salt) has found significant use in chemical synthesis as a dehydrating agent, almost no work has been directed towards its potential in other synthetic applications. As this article will detail, we have found that the Burgess reagent is remarkably effective at accomplishing a number of non-dehydrative synthetic tasks when applied to appropriate substrates, such as the formation of sulfamidates from 1,2-diols or epoxyalcohols, alpha- and beta-glycosylamines from carbohydrates, and cyclic sulfamides from 1,2-aminoalcohols. Beyond delineating the power of these new reaction manifolds, we also describe the construction of a group of alternative Burgess-type reagents that extends the scope of these new reactions even further.

  14. Photophysics of a new photosensitizer with high quantum yield of singlet oxygen generation and its application to stereo-selective synthesis of (+)-deoxoartemisinin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kang-Kyun; Choi, Kyoung-Hoon; Shin, Hee-Won; Kim, Bong-Jin; Im, Ji-Eun; Oh, Seung-Lim; Park, Nam-Soo; Jung, Mankil; Oh, Jae-Buem; Lee, Myung-Jun; Kim, Hwan-Kyu; Kim, Yong-Rok

    2009-11-01

    A new photo-catalyst of [5,10,15-triphenyl-20-(4-methoxycarbonylphenyl)-porphyrin] platinum was synthesized and its photophysical study revealed that it had a high quantum yield of singlet oxygen generation. As an application study, a stereo-specific synthesis of (+)-deoxoartemisinin was performed. The induced high triplet quantum yield (0.96 ± 0.03) of [5,10,15-triphenyl-20-(4-methoxycarbonylphenyl)-porphyrin] resulted the high singlet oxygen quantum yield of 0.90 ± 0.04. The photo-catalytic effect was compared with that of methylene blue (MB) which was generally used as a photo-catalyst for these types of stereo-specific syntheses of organic compounds. The yield of synthesized (+)-deoxoartemisinin was correlated with singlet oxygen quantum yield.

  15. Practical asymmetric synthesis of a potent PDE4 inhibitor via stereoselective enolate alkylation of a chiral aryl-heteroaryl secondary tosylate.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Paul D; Chen, Cheng-yi; Chen, Weirong; Dagneau, Philippe; Frey, Lisa F; Grabowski, Edward J J; Marcantonio, Karen M; Reamer, Robert A; Tan, Lushi; Tillyer, Richard D; Roy, Amélie; Wang, Xin; Zhao, Dalian

    2005-04-15

    A practical, chromatography-free catalytic asymmetric synthesis of a potent and selective PDE4 inhibitor (L-869,298, 1) is described. Catalytic asymmetric hydrogenation of thiazole ketone 5a afforded the corresponding alcohol 3b in excellent enantioselectivity (up to 99.4% ee). Activation of alcohol 3b via formation of the corresponding p-toluenesulfonate followed by an unprecedented displacement with the lithium enolate of ethyl 3-pyridylacetate N-oxide 4a generated the required chiral trisubstituted methane. The displacement reaction proceeded with inversion of configuration and without loss of optical purity. Conversion of esters 2b to 1 was accomplished via a one-pot deprotection, saponification, and decarboxylation sequence in excellent overall yield.

  16. Regio‐ and Stereoselective Homologation of 1,2‐Bis(Boronic Esters): Stereocontrolled Synthesis of 1,3‐Diols and Sch 725674

    PubMed Central

    Fawcett, Alexander; Nitsch, Dominik; Ali, Muhammad; Bateman, Joseph M.; Myers, Eddie L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract 1,2‐Bis(boronic esters), derived from the enantioselective diboration of terminal alkenes, can be selectively homologated at the primary boronic ester by using enantioenriched primary/secondary lithiated carbamates or benzoates to give 1,3‐bis(boronic esters), which can be subsequently oxidized to the corresponding secondary‐secondary and secondary‐tertiary 1,3‐diols with full stereocontrol. The transformation was applied to a concise total synthesis of the 14‐membered macrolactone, Sch 725674. The nine‐step synthetic route also features a novel desymmetrizing enantioselective diboration of a divinyl carbinol derivative and high‐yielding late‐stage cross‐metathesis and Yamaguchi macrolactonization reactions. PMID:27781356

  17. Efficient and selective synthesis of D-arabino-, D-lyxo-, and D-xylo-phytosphingosine from D-ribo-phytosphingosine.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghee; Lee, Nakyong; Lee, Sukjin; Lee, Taeho; Lee, Yun Mi

    2008-02-15

    A new high-yield approach to the regio- and stereoselective synthesis of d-arabino-, D-lyxo-, and D-xylo-phytosphingosines from inexpensive D-ribo-phytosphingosine is described. The synthetic methodologies mainly rely on the selective configurational inversion of the stereocenter through a neighboring group participation mechanism.

  18. Palladium-catalyzed stereoselective intramolecular oxidative amidation of alkenes in the synthesis of 1,3- and 1,4-amino alcohols and 1,3-diamines.

    PubMed

    Malkov, Andrei V; Lee, Darren S; Barłóg, Maciej; Elsegood, Mark R J; Kočovský, Pavel

    2014-04-22

    An efficient and practical Pd-catalyzed intramolecular oxidative allylic amidation provides facile access to derivatives of 1,3- and 1,4-amino alcohols and 1,3-diamines. The method operates under mild reaction conditions (RT) with molecular oxygen (1 atm) as the sole reoxidant of Pd. Excellent diastereoselectivities were attained with substrates bearing a secondary stereogenic center.

  19. Rapid and Stereoselective Conversion of a "trans"-Cinnamic Acid to a beta-Bromostyrene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Thomas A.

    2006-01-01

    The stereoselective synthesis of an aryl vinyl bromide is accomplished in a rapid microscale reaction of "trans"-4-methoxycinnamic acid with N-bromosuccinimide in dichloromethane. The product is purified by dry column vacuum chromatography and its stereochemistry is determined by [superscript 1]H NMR. TLC, GC and GC-MSD can also be used. This…

  20. Rapid and Stereoselective Conversion of a "trans"-Cinnamic Acid to a beta-Bromostyrene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Thomas A.

    2006-01-01

    The stereoselective synthesis of an aryl vinyl bromide is accomplished in a rapid microscale reaction of "trans"-4-methoxycinnamic acid with N-bromosuccinimide in dichloromethane. The product is purified by dry column vacuum chromatography and its stereochemistry is determined by [superscript 1]H NMR. TLC, GC and GC-MSD can also be used. This…

  1. Iridium-Catalyzed Anti-Stereoselective Asymmetric Ring-Opening Reactions of Azabenzonorbornadienes with Carboxylic Acids.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Meina; Chen, Jingchao; He, Xiaobo; Gu, Cuiping; Xu, Jianbin; Fan, Baomin

    2017-03-17

    The first anti-stereoselective asymmetric ring-opening reactions of azabenzonorbornadienes with carboxylic acids have been realized with an iridium catalyst assisted by (n)Bu4NBr. The reaction features broad substrate scope and good functional group tolerance and allows the synthesis of chiral dihydronaphthalene derivatives with high optical purities.

  2. Types of stereoselectivity in drug metabolism: a heuristic approach.

    PubMed

    Testa, Bernard

    2015-05-01

    Stereochemical factors are known to play a significant role in the metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics. Following Prelog's lead, types of metabolic stereoselectivity can be categorized as (i) substrate stereoselectivity (the differential metabolism of two or more stereoisomeric substrates) and (ii) product stereoselectivity (the differential formation of two or more stereoisomeric metabolites from a single substrate). Combinations of the two categories exist as (iii) substrate-product stereoselectivities, meaning that product stereoselectivity itself is substrate stereoselective. Here, published examples of metabolic stereoselectivities are examined in the light of these concepts. In parallel, a graphical scheme is presented with a view to facilitate learning and help researchers to solve classification problems.

  3. Magnesium-mediated intramolecular reductive coupling: a stereoselective synthesis of C(2)-symmetric 3,4-bis-silyl-substituted adipic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Pintu K; Ghosh, Sunil K

    2009-11-21

    Chiral C(2)-symmetric 3,4-bis-silyl-substituted adipic acid derivatives have been synthesised by a Mg/trimethylsilyl chloride-mediated intramolecular reductive coupling of symmetrical disiloxanes of beta-silylacrylic acid N-oxazolidinone derivatives. Efficient and short syntheses of enantiomerically pure enantiomers of 2,6-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane-3,7-dione have been achieved from the bis-silylated adipic acid derivatives using Fleming-Tamao oxidation as the key step.

  4. Efficient synthesis of eudistomin U and evaluation of its cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Roggero, Chad M; Giulietti, Jennifer M; Mulcahy, Seann P

    2014-08-01

    Eudistomin U is a member of a subclass of naturally occurring indole alkaloids known as β-carbolines. These molecules are reported to have diverse biological activity and high binding affinity to DNA, which make them attractive targets for total synthesis. We describe an efficient, five-step synthesis of eudistomin U by employing two key reactions: a Bischler-Napieralski cyclization and a Suzuki cross coupling. We also describe the cytotoxicity of eudistomin U against various cancer cell lines and human pathogens, in which we observed potent antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria.

  5. Computational design of an enzyme catalyst for a stereoselective bimolecular Diels-Alder reaction.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Justin B; Zanghellini, Alexandre; Lovick, Helena M; Kiss, Gert; Lambert, Abigail R; St Clair, Jennifer L; Gallaher, Jasmine L; Hilvert, Donald; Gelb, Michael H; Stoddard, Barry L; Houk, Kendall N; Michael, Forrest E; Baker, David

    2010-07-16

    The Diels-Alder reaction is a cornerstone in organic synthesis, forming two carbon-carbon bonds and up to four new stereogenic centers in one step. No naturally occurring enzymes have been shown to catalyze bimolecular Diels-Alder reactions. We describe the de novo computational design and experimental characterization of enzymes catalyzing a bimolecular Diels-Alder reaction with high stereoselectivity and substrate specificity. X-ray crystallography confirms that the structure matches the design for the most active of the enzymes, and binding site substitutions reprogram the substrate specificity. Designed stereoselective catalysts for carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions should be broadly useful in synthetic chemistry.

  6. Total synthesis of a new cytotoxic acetogenin, jimenezin, and the revised structure.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, S; Maeda, K; Hirota, S; Nakata, T

    1999-12-16

    The first total synthesis of jimenezin was achieved by using carbohydrates as chiral building blocks, thus revising the proposed structure 1 to 2. The key steps in this synthesis include an efficient construction of the THP-THF fragments 3 and 16 through a stereoselective condensation between the pyranyl aldehyde 5 and the acetylene derivative 6, and a palladium-catalyzed coupling reaction of 3 or 16 with a terminal butenolide 4.

  7. Facile synthesis of fluoroalkenes by palladium-catalyzed reductive defluorination of allylic gem-difluorides.

    PubMed

    Narumi, Tetsuo; Tomita, Kenji; Inokuchi, Eriko; Kobayashi, Kazuya; Oishi, Shinya; Ohno, Hiroaki; Fujii, Nobutaka

    2007-08-16

    Chemo- and stereoselective synthesis of fluoroalkenes was achieved in excellent yields via Pd-catalyzed C-F bond activation. In this transformation, Et3N plays a crucial role to produce reactive hydride species such as Ph(EtO)SiH2 and Ph(EtO)2SiH by promoting dehydrogenative coupling. The reaction proceeds efficiently at 50 degrees C with a variety of substrates and is also useful for the synthesis of fluoroalkene peptidomimetics.

  8. Stereoselective microbial dehalorespiration with vicinal dichlorinated alkanes.

    PubMed

    De Wildeman, Stefaan; Diekert, Gabriele; Van Langenhove, Herman; Verstraete, Willy

    2003-09-01

    The suspected carcinogen 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) is the most abundant chlorinated C(2) groundwater pollutant on earth. However, a reductive in situ detoxification technology for this compound does not exist. Although anaerobic dehalorespiring bacteria are known to catalyze several dechlorination steps in the reductive-degradation pathway of chlorinated ethenes and ethanes, no appropriate isolates that selectively and metabolically convert them into completely dechlorinated end products in defined growth media have been reported. Here we report on the isolation of Desulfitobacterium dichloroeliminans strain DCA1, a nutritionally defined anaerobic dehalorespiring bacterium that selectively converts 1,2-dichloroethane and all possible vicinal dichloropropanes and -butanes into completely dechlorinated end products. Menaquinone was identified as an essential cofactor for growth of strain DCA1 in pure culture. Strain DCA1 converts chiral chlorosubstrates, revealing the presence of a stereoselective dehalogenase that exclusively catalyzes an energy-conserving anti mechanistic dichloroelimination. Unlike any known dehalorespiring isolate, strain DCA1 does not carry out reductive hydrogenolysis reactions but rather exclusively dichloroeliminates its substrates. This unique dehalorespiratory biochemistry has shown promising application possibilities for bioremediation purposes and fine-chemical synthesis.

  9. Stereocontrolled total synthesis of (+)-vincristine

    PubMed Central

    Kuboyama, Takeshi; Yokoshima, Satoshi; Tokuyama, Hidetoshi; Fukuyama, Tohru

    2004-01-01

    An efficient total synthesis of (+)-vincristine has been accomplished through a stereoselective coupling of demethylvindoline and the eleven-membered carbomethoxyverbanamine presursor. Demethylvindoline was prepared by oxidation of 17-hydroxy-11-methoxytabersonine, followed by regioselective acetylation with mixed anhydride method. Although an initial attempt of coupling by using demethylvindoline formamide was not successful and resulted in recovery of the starting compounds, the reaction using demethylvindoline took place smoothly to furnish the desired bisindole product with the correct stereochemistry at C18′. After formation of the piperidine ring by sequential removal of the protective groups and intramolecular nucleophilic cyclization, the total synthesis of vincristine was completed by formylation of N1. PMID:15141084

  10. Efficient chemoenzymatic synthesis of sialyl Tn-antigen and derivatives†

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Li; Yu, Hai; Lau, Kam; Li, Yanhong; Muthana, Saddam; Wang, Junru; Chen, Xi

    2011-01-01

    An N-terminal and C-terminal truncated recombinant α2–6-sialyltransferase cloned from Photobacterium sp. JH-ISH-224, Psp2,6ST(15–501)-His6, was shown to be an efficient catalyst for one-pot three-enzyme synthesis of sialyl Tn (STn) antigens and derivatives containing natural and non-natural sialic acid forms. PMID:21725542

  11. An efficient and sustainable synthesis of NHC gold complexes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Alice; Gimeno, M Concepción

    2016-08-11

    A simple, efficient and sustainable method for the general synthesis of NHC gold(i) complexes is described. The reaction of imidazolium salts, of different electronic and steric requirements, with [AuX(tht)] (tht = tetrahydrothiophene) derivatives, in the presence of NBu4(acac), in air and at room temperature leads to the NHC gold species in good yields and with very short reaction times.

  12. Mechanistic Investigations into the Application of Sulfoxides in Carbohydrate Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Brabham, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The utility of sulfoxides in a diverse range of transformations in the field of carbohydrate chemistry has seen rapid growth since the first introduction of a sulfoxide as a glycosyl donor in 1989. Sulfoxides have since developed into more than just anomeric leaving groups, and today have multiple roles in glycosylation reactions. These include as activators for thioglycosides, hemiacetals, and glycals, and as precursors to glycosyl triflates, which are essential for stereoselective β‐mannoside synthesis, and bicyclic sulfonium ions that facilitate the stereoselective synthesis of α‐glycosides. In this review we highlight the mechanistic investigations undertaken in this area, often outlining strategies employed to differentiate between multiple proposed reaction pathways, and how the conclusions of these investigations have and continue to inform upon the development of more efficient transformations in sulfoxide‐based carbohydrate synthesis. PMID:26744250

  13. Selenide-Catalyzed Stereoselective Construction of Tetrasubstituted Trifluoromethylthiolated Alkenes with Alkynes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jin-Ji; Xu, Jia; Zhao, Xiaodan

    2016-10-17

    The efficient regio- and stereoselective construction of tetrasubstituted alkenes is challenging and very important. For this purpose, we have developed an efficient approach to synthesize tetrasubstituted trifluoromethylthiolated alkenes from simple alkynes in excellent regio- and stereoselectivities by selenide-catalyzed multicomponent coupling. Using this method, trifluoromethylthiolated alkenyl triflates and arenes were achieved. In particular, the triflates could be further converted into carbofunctionalized alkenes by palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. Our method provides a new pathway for the construction of trifluoromethylthiolated tricarboalkenes. This work presents the first example of selenide-catalyzed trifluoromethylthiolation of alkynes and enables the challenging functionalizations of alkynes.

  14. Solid-Phase Synthesis of ɤ-Lactone and 1,2-Oxazine Derivatives and Their Efficient Chiral Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Krupkova, Sona; Aguete, Gonzalo Pazos; Kocmanova, Leona; Volna, Tereza; Grepl, Martin; Novakova, Lucie; Miller, Marvin John; Hlavac, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Derivatives of 3-methyl-3,6-dihydro-2H-1,2-oxazine-6-carboxylic acid prepared by regioselective hetero Diels-Alder reaction of arylnitroso compounds with sorbic acid were used for solid-phase synthesis of a library of derivatives that included modification of carboxylic group, dihydroxylation of double bond and cleavage of N-O bond. Derivatives of 2,3,4-trihydroxyhexanoic acid obtained from 3,6-dihydro-2H-1,2-oxazines after double bond dihydroxylation and N-O cleavage were used for simple and stereoselective formation of chiral lactones derived from 3,4-dihydroxydihydrofuran-2(3H)-one. The final compounds obtained as a mixture of stereoisomers were analyzed with use of chiral HPLC and SFC. HPLC analyses were not successful for all derivatives or required lengthy chromatography. On the other hand SFC afforded much shorter analyses and was effective for all studied derivatives. The method of synthesis and analysis is thus suitable for future study of stereoselective synthesis of lactones and other derivatives from single oxazine derivatives and application of high-throughput synthesis on solid-support and combinatorial chemistry. PMID:27893812

  15. Energy efficiency in nanoscale synthesis using nanosecond plasmas

    PubMed Central

    Pai, David Z.; (Ken) Ostrikov, Kostya; Kumar, Shailesh; Lacoste, Deanna A.; Levchenko, Igor; Laux, Christophe O.

    2013-01-01

    We report a nanoscale synthesis technique using nanosecond-duration plasma discharges. Voltage pulses 12.5 kV in amplitude and 40 ns in duration were applied repetitively at 30 kHz across molybdenum electrodes in open ambient air, generating a nanosecond spark discharge that synthesized well-defined MoO3 nanoscale architectures (i.e. flakes, dots, walls, porous networks) upon polyamide and copper substrates. No nitrides were formed. The energy cost was as low as 75 eV per atom incorporated into a nanostructure, suggesting a dramatic reduction compared to other techniques using atmospheric pressure plasmas. These findings show that highly efficient synthesis at atmospheric pressure without catalysts or external substrate heating can be achieved in a simple fashion using nanosecond discharges. PMID:23386976

  16. Stereoselective synthesis of (+)-euphococcinine and (-)-adaline.

    PubMed

    Arbour, Mélissa; Roy, Stéphanie; Godbout, Cédrickx; Spino, Claude

    2009-05-15

    We describe the syntheses of (+)-euphococcinine and (-)-adaline, two naturally occurring alkaloids containing a quaternary carbon bearing a nitrogen atom. Key features of the syntheses are a 3,3-sigmatropic rearrangement to give an all-carbon quaternary center, a ring-closing alkene metathesis to give an 8-membered ring, and the use of a single enantiomer of p-menthane-3-carboxaldehyde to make two natural alkaloids of opposite configuration.

  17. Synthesis of a Precursor to Sacubitril Using Enabling Technologies.

    PubMed

    Lau, Shing-Hing; Bourne, Samuel L; Martin, Benjamin; Schenkel, Berthold; Penn, Gerhard; Ley, Steven V

    2015-11-06

    An efficient preparation of a precursor to the neprilysin inhibitor sacubitril is described. The convergent synthesis features a diastereoselective Reformatsky-type carbethoxyallylation and a rhodium-catalyzed stereoselective hydrogenation for installation of the two key stereocenters. Moreover, by integrating machine-assisted methods with batch processes, this procedure allows a safe and rapid production of the key intermediates which are promptly transformed to the target molecule (3·HCl) over 7 steps in 54% overall yield.

  18. Chemo- and Stereoselective Crotylation of Aldehydes and Cyclic Aldimines with Allylic gem-Diboronate Ester.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinyoung; Choi, Seoyoung; Lee, Yeosan; Cho, Seung Hwan

    2017-08-04

    We report a highly chemo- and stereoselective crotylation of aldehydes and cyclic aldimines with allylic-gem-diboronate ester as a new type of organoboron reagent. The allylic-gem-diboronate ester undergoes the crotylation with aldehydes and cyclic aldimines in excellent stereoselectivity, forming anti-5,6-disubstituted oxaborinin-2-ols or (E)-δ-boryl-anti-homoallylic amines in high efficiency. The reaction shows a wide range of substrate scope and excellent functional group tolerance. The synthetic applications of the obtained products, including stereospecific C-C, C-O, and C-Cl bond formation, are also demonstrated.

  19. High Efficient Synthesis of Iron-based Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Ai-Hua; Huang, Fu-Qiang; Xie, Xiao-Ming; Jiang, Mian-Heng

    We have performed systematic investigations aimed at high efficient synthesis of the 1111 family iron-based superconductors. By using meta-stable reactive starting materials of LnAs and FeO, assisted by mechanical alloying and fast heating, high purity samples with Tconset greater than 50K can be made with sintering temperatures between 1433K-1073K, and sintering time from 20 min to 40 h. High purity phase with sintering temperature as low as 973K was demonstrated successfully although Tconset fall below 50K and weak grain boundary suppressed greatly the zero resistance temperature. Ultra fast microwave sintering brings the sintering time further down to 5 min. Samples prepared by the above high efficient methods typically posses submicron grain and very high upper critical field, indicating very high pinning power. Besides offering cost advantages, the developed methods may play important roles in the exploit of novel superconductors.

  20. Total Synthesis of (±)-Englerin A Using An Intermolecular [3+2] Cycloaddition Reaction of Platinum-Containing Carbonyl Ylide.

    PubMed

    Kusama, Hiroyuki; Tazawa, Aoi; Ishida, Kento; Iwasawa, Nobuharu

    2016-01-01

    Total synthesis of (±)-Englerin A has been achieved starting from γ,δ-ynone 5 in 14 steps. The key feature of this synthesis is the highly efficient and stereoselective preparation of 8-oxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane derivative 6, a core skeleton of Englerin A, based on an inverse electron-demand [3+2] cycloaddition reaction of the platinum-containing carbonyl ylide, which was developed in our laboratory.

  1. Stereoselective ring oxidation of propranolol in man.

    PubMed Central

    Walle, T; Walle, U K; Wilson, M J; Fagan, T C; Gaffney, T E

    1984-01-01

    The objective of this study was to elucidate stereoselective mechanisms of propranolol metabolism in man. Five normal subjects were given single 80 mg oral doses of deuterium-labeled pseudoracemates of propranolol, and the stereochemical composition of propranolol and its major metabolites in urine was determined by GC/MS. The (-)/(+)-enantiomer ratios for unchanged propranolol, 1.50 +/- 0.10 (mean +/- s.e. mean), and propranolol glucuronide, 1.76 +/- 0.10, were similar to previous findings in plasma. All products of side-chain oxidation also consisted mainly of the (-)-enantiomer, with an overall (-)/(+) ratio of 1.61 +/- 0.11. A (-)/(+) ratio of 1.04 +/- 0.17 for 4-hydroxypropranolol did not indicate stereoselectivity in ring oxidation. However, the ratio for its glucuronic acid conjugate of 1.78 +/- 0.19 and for its sulphate conjugate of 0.27 +/- 0.03 suggested stereoselectivity in either the glucuronidation or sulphation of 4-hydroxypropranolol, or both. When the stereoselectivity in these secondary pathways was taken into consideration, the overall ring oxidation strongly favoured (+)-propranolol with a (-)/(+)-enantiomer ratio of 0.59 +/- 0.09. The composite observations of the stereochemistry of propranolol metabolism in man are consistent with stereoselective ring oxidation of (+)-propranolol, leading to a greater bioavailability of the pharmacologically more active (-)-propranolol and subsequent preferential side-chain oxidation and glucuronidation of this enantiomer. PMID:6508983

  2. First application of tunable alkyl or aryl sulfinamides to the stereoselective synthesis of a chiral amine: asymmetric synthesis of (R)-didesmethylsibutramine ((R)-DDMS) using (R)-triethylmethylsulfinamide ((R)-TESA).

    PubMed

    Han, Zhengxu; Krishnamurthy, Dhileepkumar; Pflum, Derek; Grover, Paul; Wald, Stephen A; Senanayake, Chris H

    2002-11-14

    A highly diastereoselective addition of i-BuLi to a triethylmethylsulfinamide derived aldimine was used as the key step in the first asymmetric synthesis of (R)-didesmethylsibutramine, a metabolite of sibutramine for the potential treatment of CNS disorders. [reaction: see text

  3. Highly Stereoselective Synthesis of 1,6-Ketoesters Mediated by Ionic Liquids: A Three-component Reaction Enabling Rapid Access to a New Class of Low Molecular Weight Gelators.

    PubMed

    Sundén, Henrik; Ta, Linda; Axelsson, Anton

    2015-11-27

    In organic chemistry ionic liquids (ILs) have emerged as safe and recyclable reaction solvents. In the presence of a base ILs can be deprotonated to form catalytically active N-Heterocyclic Carbenes (NHCs). Here we have used ILs as precatalysts in the addition of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes to chalcones to form 1,6-ketoesters, incorporating an anti-diphenyl moiety in a highly stereoselective fashion. The reaction has a broad substrate scope and several functional groups and heteroaromatics can be integrated into the ketoester backbone in generally good yields with maintained stereoselectivity. The reaction protocol is robust and scalable. The starting materials are inexpensive and the products can be obtained after simple filtration, avoiding solvent-demanding chromatography. Furthermore, the IL can be recycled up to 5 times without any loss of reactivity. Moreover, the 1,6-ketoester end product is a potent gelator in several hydrocarbon based solvents. The method enables rapid access to and evaluation of a new class of low molecular weight gelators (LMWGs) from recyclable and inexpensive starting materials.

  4. Neuroleptic receptors: stereoselectivity for neuroleptic enantiomers.

    PubMed

    Seeman, P; Westman, K; Protiva, M; Jílek, J; Jain, P C; Saxena, A K; Anand, N; Humber, L; Philipp, A

    1979-06-15

    In order to identify a pair of neuroleptic enantiomers with the highest stereoselective interaction with neuroleptic/dopamine receptors, the effects of eight pairs of neuroleptic enantiomers were tested on the specific binding of 3H-spiperone to crude homogenates of calf caudate nucleus. The ratios of the Ki values were: (+)-butaclamol/(-)-butaclamol = 3000; dexclamol/(-)-analogue = 151; (+)-isobutaclamol/(-)-isobutaclamol = 146; (-)-CTC/(+)-CTC= 109; (-)-centbutindole/(+)-centbutindole = 20; S(+)-octoclothepin/R(-)-octoclothepin = 11. Thus, the neuroleptic receptor is highly stereoselective for the rigid butaclamol derivatives, but much less so for the flexible neuroleptics. The 3H-apomorphine binding site, however, had a stereoselectivity ratio of only 7 for isobutaclamol, further suggesting that the high affinity sites (i.e. nM) for 3H-neuroleptic binding and for 3H-apomorphine binding are different.

  5. Photoredox-Catalyzed Stereoselective Conversion of Alkynes into Tetrasubstituted Trifluoromethylated Alkenes.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Ren; Koike, Takashi; Akita, Munetaka

    2015-10-26

    A regio- and stereoselective synthesis of trifluoromethylated alkenes bearing four different substituents has been developed. Stereocontrolled sulfonyloxytrifluoromethylation of unsymmetric internal alkynes with an electrophilic CF3 reagent, namely the triflate salt of the Yagupol'skii-Umemoto reagent, in the presence of an Ir photoredox catalyst under visible-light irradiation afforded trifluoromethylalkenyl triflates with well-predictable stereochemistry resulting from anti addition of the trifluoromethyl and triflate groups. Subsequent palladium-catalyzed cross-couplings led to tetrasubstituted trifluoromethylated alkenes in a highly stereoselective manner. The present method is the first example of a facile one-pot synthesis of tetrasubstituted trifluoromethylated alkenes from simple alkynes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. A Multi-Enzymatic Cascade Reaction for the Stereoselective Production of γ-Oxyfunctionalyzed Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Enoki, Junichi; Meisborn, Jaqueline; Müller, Ann-Christin; Kourist, Robert

    2016-01-01

    A stereoselective three-enzyme cascade for synthesis of diasteromerically pure γ-oxyfunctionalized α-amino acids was developed. By coupling a dynamic kinetic resolution (DKR) using an N-acylamino acid racemase (NAAAR) and an L-selective aminoacylase from Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius with a stereoselective isoleucine dioxygenase from Bacillus thuringiensis, diastereomerically pure oxidized amino acids were produced from racemic N-acetylamino acids. The three enzymes differed in their optimal temperature and pH-spectra. Their different metal cofactor dependencies led to inhibitory effects. Under optimized conditions, racemic N-acetylmethionine was quantitatively converted into L-methionine-(S)-sulfoxide with 97% yield and 95% de. The combination of these three different biocatalysts allowed the direct synthesis of diastereopure oxyfunctionalized amino acids from inexpensive racemic starting material. PMID:27092111

  7. Efficient conversion of carbohydrates into 1-C-alditols: application to the synthesis of chiral gamma-substituted butenolides and bicyclic alkaloid analogues.

    PubMed

    Boto, Alicia; Hernández, Dácil; Hernández, Rosendo

    2008-07-18

    Readily available sugar derivatives were transformed in a few steps into valuable, more complex products. The tandem radical scission of carbohydrates-oxidation reaction gave acetoxy acetals, which were converted into a variety of chiral C-alditols in good global yields and excellent 1,2-trans stereoselectivity. The reaction was the key step in the synthesis of hydroxylated gamma-substituted butenolides and bicyclic alkaloid analogues.

  8. Engineering the elongation factor Tu for efficient selenoprotein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Haruna, Ken-ichi; Alkazemi, Muhammad H; Liu, Yuchen; Söll, Dieter; Englert, Markus

    2014-09-01

    Selenocysteine (Sec) is naturally co-translationally incorporated into proteins by recoding the UGA opal codon with a specialized elongation factor (SelB in bacteria) and an RNA structural signal (SECIS element). We have recently developed a SECIS-free selenoprotein synthesis system that site-specifically--using the UAG amber codon--inserts Sec depending on the elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu). Here, we describe the engineering of EF-Tu for improved selenoprotein synthesis. A Sec-specific selection system was established by expression of human protein O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (hAGT), in which the active site cysteine codon has been replaced by the UAG amber codon. The formed hAGT selenoprotein repairs the DNA damage caused by the methylating agent N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, and thereby enables Escherichia coli to grow in the presence of this mutagen. An EF-Tu library was created in which codons specifying the amino acid binding pocket were randomized. Selection was carried out for enhanced Sec incorporation into hAGT; the resulting EF-Tu variants contained highly conserved amino acid changes within members of the library. The improved UTu-system with EF-Sel1 raises the efficiency of UAG-specific Sec incorporation to >90%, and also doubles the yield of selenoprotein production. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Framework for efficient synthesis of spatially embedded morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanherpe, Liesbeth; Kanari, Lida; Atenekeng, Guy; Palacios, Juan; Shillcock, Julian

    2016-08-01

    Many problems in science and engineering require the ability to grow tubular or polymeric structures up to large volume fractions within a bounded region of three-dimensional space. Examples range from the construction of fibrous materials and biological cells such as neurons, to the creation of initial configurations for molecular simulations. A common feature of these problems is the need for the growing structures to wind throughout space without intersecting. At any time, the growth of a morphology depends on the current state of all the others, as well as the environment it is growing in, which makes the problem computationally intensive. Neuron synthesis has the additional constraint that the morphologies should reliably resemble biological cells, which possess nonlocal structural correlations, exhibit high packing fractions, and whose growth responds to anatomical boundaries in the synthesis volume. We present a spatial framework for simultaneous growth of an arbitrary number of nonintersecting morphologies that presents the growing structures with information on anisotropic and inhomogeneous properties of the space. The framework is computationally efficient because intersection detection is linear in the mass of growing elements up to high volume fractions and versatile because it provides functionality for environmental growth cues to be accessed by the growing morphologies. We demonstrate the framework by growing morphologies of various complexity.

  10. Electrocarboxylation: towards sustainable and efficient synthesis of valuable carboxylic acids

    PubMed Central

    Matthessen, Roman; Fransaer, Jan; Binnemans, Koen

    2014-01-01

    Summary The near-unlimited availability of CO2 has stimulated a growing research effort in creating value-added products from this greenhouse gas. This paper presents the trends on the most important methods used in the electrochemical synthesis of carboxylic acids from carbon dioxide. An overview is given of different substrate groups which form carboxylic acids upon CO2 fixation, including mechanistic considerations. While most work focuses on the electrocarboxylation of substrates with sacrificial anodes, this review considers the possibilities and challenges of implementing other synthetic methodologies. In view of potential industrial application, the choice of reactor setup, electrode type and reaction pathway has a large influence on the sustainability and efficiency of the process. PMID:25383120

  11. A stereoselective approach to peptidomimetic BACE1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Butini, Stefania; Gabellieri, Emanuele; Brindisi, Margherita; Giovani, Simone; Maramai, Samuele; Kshirsagar, Giridhar; Guarino, Egeria; Brogi, Simone; La Pietra, Valeria; Giustiniano, Mariateresa; Marinelli, Luciana; Novellino, Ettore; Campiani, Giuseppe; Cappelli, Andrea; Gemma, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at identifying new scaffolds to generate beta-secretase (BACE1) inhibitors we developed peptidomimetics based on a 1,4-benzodiazepine core (3a-d), their seco-analogs (4a-b), and linear analogs (5a-h), by stereoselective approaches. We herein discuss the synthesis, molecular modeling and in vitro studies for the newly developed ligands. Compounds 5c and 5h behaved as BACE1 inhibitors on the isolated enzyme and in cellular studies. Particularly, for its low molecular weight, inhibitor 5h is a prototypic hit to develop a series of BACE1 inhibitors more potent and active on whole-cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Regio- and stereoselectivities in plant cell biotransformation

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, H.

    1995-12-01

    The ability of plant cultured cells to convert foreign substrates into more useful substances is of considerable interest. Therefore I have studied biotransformation of foreign substrate by plant cell suspension cultures. In this presentation, I report regio- and stereoselectivities in biotransformation of steroids and indole alkaloids and taxol by plant (tobacco, periwinkle, moss, orchid) cell suspension cultures.

  13. A Stereoselective Arylative-Cyclopropanation Process.

    PubMed

    Coulibali, Siomenan; Deruer, Elsa; Godin, Elizabeth; Canesi, Sylvain

    2017-03-03

    A new stereoselective arylative cyclopropanation process involving treatment of halogenated dienone systems in the presence of a Michael donor containing a nitro-aryl-sulfone has been developed. This transformation enables production of an arylated cyclopropane under mild conditions and occurs via a Michael-Smiles ring closure cascade process, reflecting the concepts of green chemistry and atom economy.

  14. Carbohydrates as enantioinduction components in stereoselective catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate derivatives are readily available chiral molecules, yet they are infrequently employed as enantioinduction components in stereoselective catalysis. In this review, synthetic approaches to carbohydrate-based ligands and catalysts are outlined, along with example applications in enantioselective catalysis. A wide range of carbohydrate-based functionality is covered, and key trends and future opportunities are identified. PMID:27064817

  15. Stereoselective Borylative Ketone-Diene Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hee Yeon; Yu, Zhiyong; Morken, James P.

    2011-01-01

    In the presence of catalytic Ni(cod)2 and P(t-Bu)3, ketones, dienes, and B2(pin)2 undergo a stereoselective multicomponent coupling reaction. Upon oxidation, the reaction furnishes 1,3-diols as the major reaction product. PMID:21905748

  16. Stereoselective borylative ketone-diene coupling.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hee Yeon; Yu, Zhiyong; Morken, James P

    2011-10-07

    In the presence of catalytic Ni(cod)(2) and P(t-Bu)(3), ketones, dienes, and B(2)(pin)(2) undergo a stereoselective multicomponent coupling reaction. Upon oxidation, the reaction furnishes 1,3-diols as the major reaction product. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  17. Controlled oxidation of remote sp3 C—H bonds in artemisinin via P450 catalysts with fine tuned regio and stereoselectivity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kaidong; Shafer, Brian M.; Demars, Matthew D.; Stern, Harry A.; Fasan, Rudi

    2012-01-01

    The selective oxyfunctionalization of isolated sp3 C—H bonds in complex molecules represents a formidable challenge in organic chemistry. Here, we describe a rational, systematic strategy to expedite the development of P450 oxidation catalysts with refined regio and stereoselectivity for the hydroxylation of remote, unactivated C—H sites in a complex scaffold. Using artemisinin as model substrate, we demonstrate how a three tier strategy involving first sphere active site mutagenesis, high throughput P450 fingerprinting, and fingerprint driven P450 reactivity predictions enabled the rapid evolution of three efficient biocatalysts for the selective hydroxylation of a primary and a secondary C—H site (with both S and R stereoselectivity) in a relevant yet previously inaccessible region of this complex natural product. The evolved P450 variants could be applied to provide direct access to the desired hydroxylated derivatives at preparative scales (0.4 g) and in high isolated yields (>90%), thereby enabling further elaboration of this molecule. As an example, enantiopure C7 fluorinated derivatives of the clinical antimalarial drugs artesunate and artemether, in which a major metabolically sensitive site is protected by means of a C—H to C—F substitution, were afforded via P450 mediated chemoenzymatic synthesis. PMID:23121379

  18. Enantioselective palladium-catalyzed dearomative cyclization for the efficient synthesis of terpenes and steroids.

    PubMed

    Du, Kang; Guo, Pan; Chen, Yuan; Cao, Zhen; Wang, Zheng; Tang, Wenjun

    2015-03-02

    A novel enantioselective palladium-catalyzed dearomative cyclization has been developed for the efficient construction of a series of chiral phenanthrenone derivatives bearing an all-carbon quaternary center. The effectiveness of this method in the synthesis of terpenes and steroids was demonstrated by a highly efficient synthesis of a kaurene intermediate, the facile construction of the skeleton of the anabolic steroid boldenone, and the enantioselective total synthesis of the antimicrobial diterpene natural product (-)-totaradiol.

  19. Asymmetric Synthesis of Fully Substituted Cyclopentane-Oxindoles through an Organocatalytic Triple Michael Domino Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Liang-Hua; Philipps, Arne R; Raabe, Gerhard; Enders, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    An efficient, highly stereoselective asymmetric synthesis of fully functionalized cyclopentanes bearing an oxindole moiety and several other functional groups in one pot has been developed. Key step is an organocatalytic triple Michael domino reaction forming three C–C bonds and six stereocenters, including a quaternary one. Starting from equimolar amounts of simple substrates, a high molecular complexity can be reached after a Wittig olefination in one pot. The new protocol can easily be scaled up to gram amounts. PMID:25470781

  20. Linchpin dienes: key building-blocks in the synthesis of polyenic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Cornil, J; Guérinot, A; Cossy, J

    2015-04-14

    A myriad of biologically active products incorporates polyenic frameworks. Among the syntheses developed to access these moieties, metal-catalyzed cross-couplings emerged as reactions of choice especially due to their high stereoselectivity. Particularly, the use of bifunctionalized compounds (linchpin reagents) allows a fast, modular and efficient access to polyenic chains. In this review, we will focus on the preparation of bifunctionalized dienes and on their utilization in the synthesis of polyenes.

  1. Synthesis of Functionalized Alkylidene Indanes and Indanones through Tandem Phosphine–Palladium Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yi Chiao

    2015-01-01

    Densely functionalized alkylidene indanes and indanones can be prepared efficiently in one pot, in high yields with good stereoselectivities (in some cases exclusively the Z-isomer), through a route involving phosphine-catalyzed Michael addition followed by palladium-catalyzed Heck cyclization. These transformations tolerate substrates bearing various substituents around the indane/indanone motif. Employing this technology, a concise formal synthesis of sulindac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, has been established. PMID:25871577

  2. Chemo- and Stereoselective Transition-Metal-Free Amination of Amides with Azides

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of α-amino carbonyl/carboxyl compounds is a contemporary challenge in organic synthesis. Herein, we present a stereoselective α-amination of amides employing simple azides that proceeds under mild conditions with release of nitrogen gas. The amide is used as the limiting reagent, and through simple variation of the azide pattern, various differently substituted aminated products can be obtained. The reaction is fully chemoselective for amides even in the presence of esters or ketones and lends itself to preparation of optically enriched products. PMID:27350334

  3. Improving the stereoselectivity of bakers' yeast reductions by genetic engineering.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, S; Kayser, M; Stewart, J D

    1999-10-21

    [formula: see text] The stereoselectivities of bakers' yeast catalyzed reductions of beta-keto esters can be manipulated by genetic design. Strains in which two major beta-keto ester reductases are either knocked out or overexpressed have been constructed. The former approach results in whole cell biocatalysts with reversed stereoselectivity from unmodified bakers' yeast while the latter shows useful improvements in stereoselectivity. These results indicate that the "designer yeast" approach can provide useful biocatalysts for these transformations.

  4. Substrate Control in Stereoselective Lanthionine Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Weixin; Jiménez-Osés, Gonzalo; Houk, K. N.; van der Donk, Wilfred A.

    2014-01-01

    Enzymes are typically highly stereoselective catalysts that enforce a reactive conformation on their native substrates. We report here a rare example where the substrate controls the stereoselectivity of an enzyme-catalyzed Michael-type addition during the biosynthesis of lanthipeptides. These natural products contain thioether crosslinks formed by cysteine attack on dehydrated Ser and Thr residues. We demonstrate that several lanthionine synthetases catalyze highly selective anti additions in which the substrate (and not the enzyme) determines whether the addition occurs from the Re or Si face. A single point mutation in the peptide substrate completely inverted the stereochemical outcome of the enzymatic modification. Quantum mechanical calculations reproduced the experimentally observed selectivity and suggest that conformational restraints imposed by the amino acid sequence on the transition states determine the face selectivity of the Michael-type cyclization. PMID:25515891

  5. Substrate control in stereoselective lanthionine biosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Weixin; Jiménez-Osés, Gonzalo; Houk, K. N.; van der Donk, Wilfred A.

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes are typically highly stereoselective catalysts that enforce a reactive conformation on their native substrates. We report here a rare example in which the substrate controls the stereoselectivity of an enzyme-catalysed Michael-type addition during the biosynthesis of lanthipeptides. These natural products contain thioether crosslinks formed by a cysteine attack on dehydrated Ser and Thr residues. We demonstrate that several lanthionine synthetases catalyse highly selective anti-additions in which the substrate (and not the enzyme) determines whether the addition occurs from the re or si face. A single point mutation in the peptide substrate completely inverted the stereochemical outcome of the enzymatic modification. Quantum mechanical calculations reproduced the experimentally observed selectivity and suggest that conformational restraints imposed by the amino-acid sequence on the transition states determine the face selectivity of the Michael-type cyclization.

  6. Total synthesis of (R,R,R)-α-tocopherol through asymmetric Cu-catalyzed 1,4-addition.

    PubMed

    Termath, Andreas Ole; Sebode, Hanna; Schlundt, Waldemar; Stemmler, René T; Netscher, Thomas; Bonrath, Werner; Schmalz, Hans-Günther

    2014-09-15

    By introducing a disposable activating substituent at C-3, the asymmetric 1,4-addition to a notoriously unreactive 2-substituted chromenone was achieved with high levels of (2R)-stereoselectivity in the presence of a chiral Cu(I)-phosphoramidite complex as a catalyst. This paved the way for an efficient and conceptually novel synthesis of (R,R,R)-α-tocopherol from readily available starting materials.

  7. Synthesis of Chiral Aminocyclopropanes by Rare-Earth-Metal-Catalyzed Cyclopropene Hydroamination.

    PubMed

    Teng, Huai-Long; Luo, Yong; Wang, Baoli; Zhang, Liang; Nishiura, Masayoshi; Hou, Zhaomin

    2016-12-05

    The search for efficient and selective routes for the synthesis of chiral aminocyclopropane derivatives is of great interest and importance as these structures are important components of biologically active natural products and pharmaceuticals. We herein report the enantioselective intermolecular hydroamination of substituted cyclopropenes with various amines catalyzed by chiral half-sandwich rare-earth-metal complexes. This method constitutes a 100 % atom-efficient route for the synthesis of a variety of chiral α-aminocyclopropane derivatives in high yields (up to 96 %) and excellent stereoselectivity (up to >20:1 d.r. and 99 % ee) under mild reaction conditions (25 °C).

  8. Utilization of N,N-dialkylcarbamic acid derived from secondary amines and supercritical carbon dioxide: stereoselective synthesis of Z alkenyl carbamates with a CO2-soluble ruthenium-P(OC2H5)3 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Kayaki, Yoshihito; Suzuki, Tomoyuki; Ikariya, Takao

    2008-10-06

    Reversible transformation of diethylamine (1) and supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2)) into N,N-diethylcarbamic acid (2) was confirmed by direct acquisition of (1)H and (13)C{(1)H} NMR spectra. The equilibrium between 1+CO(2) and 2 is strongly influenced by conditions of the supercritical state. Low temperature favors formation of carbamic acid, whereas high temperature causes decarboxylation. On the basis of the spectroscopic results of carbamic acid formation under scCO(2) conditions, the ruthenium-catalyzed formation of alkenyl carbamates from terminal alkynes, 1, and carbon dioxide was investigated to demonstrate the useful transformation of elusive carbamic acids. Selectivity toward the CO(2)-fixation products over enynes obtained by dimerization of the alkyne substrates was improved by the use of scCO(2) as a reaction medium. In particular, a CO(2)-soluble ruthenium complex, trans-[RuCl(2){P(OC(2)H(5))(3)}(4)], was found to be effective in affording Z alkenyl carbamates with high stereoselectivity.

  9. Stereoselective synthesis of ( E)-4-(imidazo[1,2- a]pyrid-2-yl)-3-(4-methylphenylsulfonyl)but-3-en-2-one. X-ray crystal structure and conformational analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, D.; Force, L.; Carpy, A.; Gardette, D.; Madesclaire, M.

    1998-06-01

    The title compound, gem-ketovinylsulfone 3, was obtained stereoselectively (de > 98%) by the action of the α-anion from p-tolylsulfonylacetone 1 on imidazol[1,2- a]pyridine-2-carbaldehyde 2 in chelation-controlled conditions in the presence of a Lewis acid (ZnCl 2). The X-ray crystal structure of 3 [C 18H 16N 2O 3S: Mt = 340.4, orthorhombic, Pbca, a = 12.208(3) Å, b = 18.848(4) Å, c = 14.566(11) Å, V = 3.351(3) Å3, Z = 8, Dcalc = 1.349 g cm -3, λ( CuKα) = 1.54178 Å, μ = 1.83 mm -1, F(000) = 1424, T = 293 K, R = 0.061 for 2.046 observed reflections] was determined, and confirmed the ( E) configuration. Despite the conjugate position of the vinyl double bond, quasi-coplanar with the imidazopyridine heterocycle, there is no evidence of p-electron delocalization. The crystal cohesion is ensured by a dense network of van der Waals contacts. The conformational analysis of the ( E) and ( Z) stereoisomers was performed by molecular dynamics simulation, and showed the ( E) isomer to be 9.1 kJ mol -1 more stable than the ( Z) isomer.

  10. Synthesis of natural product inspired compound collections.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kamal; Waldmann, Herbert

    2009-01-01

    Natural products, their derivatives, and their analogues are among the most important sources for new drug candidates and tools for chemical biology and medicinal chemistry research. Therefore, there is a need for the development of efficient synthesis methods which give access to natural product derived and inspired compound collections. To meet this challenge, the requirements of multistep stereoselective syntheses, and the logic and methodology of natural product total synthesis need to be translated and adapted to the methods and formats for the synthesis of compound collections. Recent developments in the synthesis of natural product inspired compound collections having carbocyclic and heterocyclic scaffolds highlight the fact that this goal can be successfully attained. The progress made has paved the way for the integration of natural product inspired compound collections into medicinal chemistry and chemical biology research.

  11. Cyclic sulfamidates as lactam precursors. An efficient asymmetric synthesis of (-)-aphanorphine.

    PubMed

    Bower, John F; Szeto, Peter; Gallagher, Timothy

    2005-12-14

    A short and efficient enantioselective synthesis of (-)-aphanorphine is described based on the use of a cyclic sulfamidate to provide a suitably functionalised lactam that allows for construction of the tricyclic 3-benzazepine scaffold.

  12. A new and efficient procedure for the synthesis of hexahydropyrimidine-fused 1,4-naphthoquinones

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Marcelo Isidoro P; Campos, Vinícius R; Resende, Jackson A L C; Silva, Fernando C

    2015-01-01

    Summary A new and efficient method for the synthesis of hexahydropyrimidine-fused 1,4-naphthoquinones in one step with high yields from the reaction of lawsone with 1,3,5-triazinanes was developed. PMID:26425181

  13. Palladium-copper catalyzed synthesis of benzofused heterocycles with two heteroatoms: novel and highly regio- and stereoselective syntheses of (E)-2-(2-arylvinyl)-3-tosyl-2,3-dihydro-1,3-benzothiazoles and (E)-2-alkyl(aryl)idene-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzothiazines.

    PubMed

    Kundu, N G; Nandi, B

    2001-06-29

    A highly novel, general, and convenient palladium and copper-catalyzed procedure has been developed for the synthesis of (E)-2-(2-arylvinyl)-3-tosyl-2,3-dihydro-1,3-benzothiazoles 28-40. 3-(2-Aminophenylthio)prop-1-yne 1 reacts with aryl iodides 2-14 under palladium-copper catalysis to yield the disubstituted alkynes 15-27 which after tosylation undergo a novel cyclization with CuI in the presence of triethylamine in THF to (E)-2-(2-arylvinyl)-3-tosyl-2,3-dihydro-1,3-benzothiazoles 28-40 rather than to the expected 3-alkylidene-4-tosyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzothiazines 41. The reaction is highly regio- and stereoselective. The synthesis of 2-(2-arylethyl)-3-tosylbenzothiazolines 42-47, 2-(2-arylvinyl)benzothiazoles 48-54, and a novel 5-substituted uracil derivative 55 of potential biological importance is also being reported. Similarly, the palladium-copper-catalyzed arylation of S-[2-(N-prop-2'-ynyl)aminophenyl]-N,N-dimethylthiocarbamate 58 with aryl iodides yields the disubstituted alkynes 59 which on cyclization with KOH in methanol leads to (E)-2-(2-aryl)methylidene-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzothiazines 61. The reaction of the diiodo compounds 12-14a, however, with 58 under palladium-copper-catalyzed reactions involves the participation of only one of the iodo groups in the heteroannulation process giving compounds 61i and 61j. These are amenable to further palladium-catalyzed reactions and afford polyunsaturated heteroaromatic compounds 62 and 63.

  14. Concise Total Synthesis of (+)-Gliocladins B and C

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Nicolas; Movassaghi, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    The first total synthesis of (+)-gliocladin B is described. Our concise and enantioselective synthesis takes advantage of a new regioselective Friedel–Crafts-based strategy to provide an efficient multigram-scale access to the C3-(3′-indolyl)hexahydropyrroloindole substructure, a molecular foundation present in a significant subset of epipolythiodiketopiperazine natural alkaloids. Our first-generation solution to (+)-gliocladin B involved the stereoselective formation of (+)-12-deoxybionectin A, a plausible biosynthetic precursor. Our synthesis clarified the C15 stereochemistry of (+)-gliocladin B and allowed its full structure confirmation. Further studies of a versatile dihydroxylated diketopiperazine provided a concise and efficient synthesis of (+)-gliocladin B as well as access to (+)-gliocladin C. PMID:22844577

  15. Asymmetric total synthesis of (+)-bermudenynol, a C15 Laurencia metabolite with a vinyl chloride containing oxocene skeleton, through intramolecular amide enolate alkylation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gyudong; Sohn, Te-Ik; Kim, Deukjoon; Paton, Robert S

    2014-01-03

    A substrate-controlled asymmetric total synthesis of (+)-bermudenynol, a compact and synthetically challenging C15 Laurencia metabolite that contains several halogen atoms, is reported. The oxocene core, which contains a vinyl chloride, was constructed by an efficient and highly stereoselective intramolecular amide enolate alkylation (IAEA). This result showcases the broad utility of the IAEA methodology as a useful alternative for cases in which the ring-closing metathesis is inefficient.

  16. Palladium-catalyzed heteroannulation leading to heterocyclic structures with two heteroatoms: a highly regio- and stereoselective synthesis of (Z)-4-alkyl-2-alkyl(aryl)idene-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzoxazines and (Z)-3-alkyl(aryl)idene-4-tosyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzoxazines.

    PubMed

    Kundu, N G; Chaudhuri, G; Upadhyay, A

    2001-01-12

    A highly convenient method has been developed for the synthesis of (Z)-4-alkyl-2-alkyl(aryl)idene-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzoxazines 9 and (Z)-3-alkyl(aryl)idene-4-tosyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzoxazines 34-38 through palladium-copper-catalyzed reactions. Aryl halides 7 reacted with 2-[N-alkyl(benzyl)-N-prop-2'-ynyl]aminophenyl tosylate 6 in the presence of (PPh3)2PdCl2 (3 mol %), CuI(5 mol %) in triethylamine at room temperature to yield 2-[N-alkyl(benzyl)-N-(3-aryl-prop-2'-ynyl)]-aminophenyl tosylates 8 in extremely good yields (72-96%). The latter could then be cyclized with KOH in ethanol-water to Z-9 in a highly regio- and stereoselective manner. Similarly, palladium-copper-catalyzed reaction of 2-(prop-2'-ynyloxy)aniline (21) with aryl iodides 7 led to 22-26 which after tosylation and cyclization with cuprous iodide in CH3CN in the presence of K2CO3 and Bu4-NBr led to the (Z)-3-alkyl(aryl)idene-4-tosyl 3,4-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzoxazines 34-38 in good overall yields. The Z-stereochemistry of the products was established from 1H NMR spectra, 3JCH values (between vinylic proton and methylenic carbon of the heterocyclic ring), NOE experiments, and X-ray analysis. The method was also found to be suitable for the synthesis of bis(benzoxazinylated) derivatives 17, 39, and 2-alkyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzoxazines 18. Our method for the synthesis of 3,4-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzoxazines is highly efficacious, using easily available starting materials under very mild conditions. Also the synthesis of some novel 5-substituted uracil derivatives 40 and 41 containing the benzoxazinyl moiety and of potential biological interest is being reported.

  17. Efficient and Regioselective Synthesis of β-GalNAc/GlcNAc-Lactose by a Bifunctional Transglycosylating β-N-Acetylhexosaminidase from Bifidobacterium bifidum

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaodi; Xu, Li; Jin, Lan; Sun, Bin; Gu, Guofeng

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT β-N-Acetylhexosaminidases have attracted interest particularly for oligosaccharide synthesis, but their use remains limited by the rarity of enzyme sources , low efficiency, and relaxed regioselectivity of transglycosylation. In this work, genes of 13 β-N-acetylhexosaminidases, including 5 from Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 25285, 5 from Clostridium perfringens ATCC 13124, and 3 from Bifidobacterium bifidum JCM 1254, were cloned and heterogeneously expressed in Escherichia coli. The resulting recombinant enzymes were purified and screened for transglycosylation activity. A β-N-acetylhexosaminidase named BbhI, which belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 20 and was obtained from B. bifidum JCM 1254, possesses the bifunctional property of efficiently transferring both GalNAc and GlcNAc residues through β1-3 linkage to the Gal residue of lactose. The effects of initial substrate concentration, pH, temperature, and reaction time on transglycosylation activities of BbhI were studied in detail. With the use of 10 mM pNP-β-GalNAc or 20 mM pNP-β-GlcNAc as the donor and 400 mM lactose as the acceptor in phosphate buffer (pH 5.8), BbhI synthesized GalNAcβ1-3Galβ1-4Glc and GlcNAcβ1-3Galβ1-4Glc at maximal yields of 55.4% at 45°C and 4 h and 44.9% at 55°C and 1.5 h, respectively. The model docking of BbhI with lactose showed the possible molecular basis of strict regioselectivity of β1-3 linkage in β-N-acetylhexosaminyl lactose synthesis. IMPORTANCE Oligosaccharides play a crucial role in many biological events and therefore are promising potential therapeutic agents. However, their use is limited because large-scale production of oligosaccharides is difficult. The chemical synthesis requires multiple protecting group manipulations to control the regio- and stereoselectivity of glycosidic bonds. In comparison, enzymatic synthesis can produce oligosaccharides in one step by using glycosyltransferases and glycosidases. Given the lower price of their glycosyl

  18. Heterogeneous Diastereoselective Catalysis--A Powerful Strategy Toward C(15) Stereoselectivity from PGF2α Analogues Structure.

    PubMed

    Coman, Simona M; Parvulescu, Vasile I

    2015-01-01

    A major trend in fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals is the synthesis of molecules with increased complexity. This trend translates the aim of organic syntheses to conditions in which high degrees of chemo-, regio- and stereoselectivity can be provided. In this context, the chemoselective hydrogenation of one functional group in the presence of other reactive groups is a frequently encountered problem in fine chemicals manufacture. This study provides a critical analysis including elegant examples of reactions in which high chemo- and diastereoselectivities were achieved in the hydrogenation of a C=O group in the presence of C=C double bond. A particular emphasis is addressed to the stereoselective C(15) synthesis from Cloprostenol--a PGF2α structural analogue.

  19. Theory and modeling of stereoselective organic reactions.

    PubMed

    Houk, K N; Paddon-Row, M N; Rondan, N G; Wu, Y D; Brown, F K; Spellmeyer, D C; Metz, J T; Li, Y; Loncharich, R J

    1986-03-07

    Theoretical investigations of the transition structures of additions and cycloadditions reveal details about the geometries of bond-forming processes that are not directly accessible by experiment. The conformational analysis of transition states has been developed from theoretical generalizations about the preferred angle of attack by reagents on multiple bonds and predictions of conformations with respect to partially formed bonds. Qualitative rules for the prediction of the stereochemistries of organic reactions have been devised, and semi-empirical computational models have also been developed to predict the stereoselectivities of reactions of large organic molecules, such as nucleophilic additions to carbonyls, electrophilic hydroborations and cycloadditions, and intramolecular radical additions and cycloadditions.

  20. The ligand influence in stereoselective carbene transfer reactions promoted by chiral metal porphyrin catalysts.

    PubMed

    Intrieri, Daniela; Carminati, Daniela Maria; Gallo, Emma

    2016-10-12

    The use of diazo reagents of the general formula N2C(R)(R(1)) as carbene sources to create new C-C bonds is of broad scientific interest due to the intrinsic sustainability of this class of reagents. In the presence of a suitable catalyst, diazo reagents react with several organic substrates with excellent stereo-control and form N2 as the only by-product. In the present report the catalytic efficiency of metal porphyrins in promoting carbene transfer reactions is reviewed with emphasis on the active role of the porphyrin skeleton in stereoselectively driving the carbene moiety to the target substrate. The catalytic performances of different metal porphyrins are discussed and have been related to the structural features of the ligand with the final aim of rationalizing the strict correlation between the three-dimensional structure of the porphyrin ligand and the stereoselectivity of carbene transfer reactions.

  1. Total synthesis of haliclamide.

    PubMed

    Gahalawat, Suraksha; Pandey, Satyendra Kumar

    2016-10-04

    A stereoselective approach for the synthesis of haliclamide 1, a marine natural product, has been developed. The notable features of our synthesis include MacMillan cross aldol, Mitsunobu inversion, Yamaguchi-Hirao alkylation, Steglich esterification and macrolactamization reactions and the Corey-Fuchs protocol as the key steps.

  2. Total synthesis of alkyl citrate natural products.

    PubMed

    Rizzacasa, Mark A; Sturgess, Dayna

    2014-03-07

    This review highlights the synthesis of members of the alkyl citrate family of natural products. The focus is on the stereoselective construction of the alkyl citrate moiety common to these compounds.

  3. A stereoselective, Sm(II)-mediated approach to decorated cis-hydrindanes: synthetic studies on faurinone and pleuromutilin.

    PubMed

    Findley, Thomas J K; Sucunza, David; Miller, Laura C; Helm, Matthew D; Helliwell, Madeleine; Davies, David T; Procter, David J

    2011-04-07

    The cis-hydrindane motif is found in a number of natural products that display important biological activity. A flexible, stereoselective approach to the framework has been developed that features highly diastereoselective, SmI(2)-mediated cyclisations. The strategy has been exploited in the first synthesis of the proposed structure of faurinone and an approach to the skeleton of the antibacterial natural product, pleuromutilin.

  4. [Efficient synthesis of multisubstituted aromatic compounds from phenol derivatives].

    PubMed

    Ikawa, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Phenols are abundant in nature and diverse phenols are readily available commercially at low cost. Thus, phenols can be used as the raw materials for the synthesis of valuable multisubstituted aromatic compounds by the direct activation of phenolic hydroxyl groups (C-O bond activation), followed by substitutions with other substituents. Although the derivatization of phenolic hydroxyl groups to sulfonates, such as triflates, nonaflates, tosylates and mesylates, followed by the transition-metal-catalyzed coupling reactions has been extensively investigated for this purpose, the direct C-O bond activation of phenols for subsequent functional group transformation has been a long-standing challenge in modern organic synthesis. In this review, I have summarized my recent studies on the formal direct C-O bond activation of phenols using nonafluorobutanesulfonyl fluoride (NfF) for the synthesis of multisubstituted aromatics. I have focused on the dual use of NfF, a less expensive commercially available reagent, including the tentative formation of highly reactive nonaflates from phenols and the use of the liberated fluoride ion as a nucleophile to promote the reactions of nonaflates. The following four topics are discussed: 1) palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions of phenols, 2) novel preparation of benzynes from 2-silylphenols, 3) synthesis of fluorinated aromatic compounds via the formation of benzynes, and 4) Hiyama coupling of (tert-butyldimethylsilyl)arenes activated by internal phenolic hydroxyl groups.

  5. Sulfur-assisted propargyl-allenyl isomerizations and electrocyclizations for the convenient and efficient synthesis of polyfunctionalized benzenes and naphthalenes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hongwei; Xing, Yanpeng; Yao, Jinzhong; Chen, Junhui

    2010-08-20

    A facile and efficient electrocyclization for the synthesis of polyfunctionalized benzene and naphthalene derivatives was reported. As a result of the ready availability of starting materials and simple operation, this type of reaction has potential utility in organic synthesis.

  6. Highly regio- and diastereoselective, acidic clay supported intramolecular nitrile oxide-alkene cycloaddition on D-ribose derived nitriles: an efficient synthetic route to isoxazoline fused five and six membered carbocycles.

    PubMed

    Panda, Amarendra; Das, Sulagna; Pal, Shantanu

    2014-10-29

    An efficient synthetic route to isoxazoline fused carbocycles from carbohydrate scaffolds that comprise of free hydroxyl group(s) is described with high regio- and stereoselectivity. Montmorillonite K-10/chloramine T oxidation and in situ intramolecular nitrile oxide-alkene cycloaddition (INOC) of D-ribose derived oximes have been developed for the diversity oriented synthesis of isoxazoline fused five and six membered carbocycles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Regio- and stereoselective carbometallation reactions of N-alkynylamides and sulfonamides

    PubMed Central

    Minko, Yury; Pasco, Morgane; Chechik, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Summary The carbocupration reactions of heterosubstituted alkynes allow the regio- and stereoselective formation of vinyl organometallic species. N-Alkynylamides (ynamides) are particularly useful substrates for the highly regioselective carbocupration reaction, as they lead to the stereodefined formation of vinylcopper species geminated to the amide moiety. The latter species are involved in numerous synthetically useful transformations leading to valuable building blocks in organic synthesis. Here we describe in full the results of our studies related to the carbometallation reactions of N-alkynylamides. PMID:23616793

  8. Diastereoselective Intramolecular Heck Reaction Assisted by an Acetate Group: Synthesis of the Decahydrobenzofluorene Derivative Dasyscyphin E.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Fermín; Fernández, Antonio; Boulifa, Ettahir; Mansour, Ahmed Ibn; Alvarez-Manzaneda, Ramón; Chahboun, Rachid; Alvarez-Manzaneda, Enrique

    2017-09-15

    The first synthesis of antifungal sesquiterpene quinol dasyscyphin E was achieved starting from trans-communic acid. The process described involves the first diastereoselective synthesis of this type of compound by cyclization of an aryl bicyclosesquiterpene. The acid was efficiently transformed into a sesquiterpene synthon, which was converted into the corresponding bromoaryl sesquiterpene. The key step of synthetic sequence was the cyclization of the latter under Heck reaction conditions, which yielded the tetracyclic skeleton of the target compound with complete diastereoselectivity. The participation of an acetate group is decisive, both for the course of the Heck reaction and for the stereoselectivity of the process.

  9. Stereoselectivity of Conformationally Restricted Glucosazide Donors

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Glycosylations of 4,6-tethered glucosazide donors with a panel of model acceptors revealed the effect of acceptor nucleophilicity on the stereoselectivity of these donors. The differences in reactivity among the donors were evaluated in competitive glycosylation reactions, and their relative reactivities were found to be reflected in the stereoselectivity in glycosylations with a set of fluorinated alcohols as well as carbohydrate acceptors. We found that the 2-azido-2-deoxy moiety is more β-directing than its C-2-O-benzyl counterpart, as a consequence of increased destabilization of anomeric charge development by the electron-withdrawing azide. Additional disarming groups further decreased the α-selectivity of the studied donors, whereas substitution of the 4,6-benzylidene acetal with a 4,6-di-tert-butyl silylidene led to a slight increase in α-selectivity. The C-2-dinitropyridone group was also explored as an alternative for the nonparticipating azide group, but this protecting group significantly increased β-selectivity. All studied donors exhibited the same acceptor-dependent selectivity trend, and good α-selectivity could be obtained with the weakest acceptors and most reactive donors. PMID:28401764

  10. On the stereoselective aminoacylation of RNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usher, D. A.; Needels, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    Gabbay and Kleinman (1970) have found that stereospecific complex formation (noncovalent) occurs between nucleic acids and a number of derivatives of amino acids. However, until recently, chiral selection in any nonenzymatic RNA-aminoacylation reaction was unknown. Profy and Usher (1984) reported that aminoacylation of the 'internal' 2-prime-ester occurred with a significant amount of stereoselection. Profy and Usher (1984) have also observed that aminoacylation of the 'internal' 2-prime-hydroxyl groups of polyribonucleotides by the imidazolide of N-3,5-dinitrobenzoylalanine occurs with chiral selection. In order to obtain further information regarding the considered phenomena, a systematic investigation was initiated of the factors which contribute to the observed stereoselectivity of the aminoacylation reaction. In the present paper, the effect of a change in the amino acid from alanine to leucine is considered along with an investigation of the D- and L-alanyl internal' 2-prime esters of the dinucleoside monophosphate of 3-prime,5-prime-ApA.

  11. On the stereoselective aminoacylation of RNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usher, D. A.; Needels, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    Gabbay and Kleinman (1970) have found that stereospecific complex formation (noncovalent) occurs between nucleic acids and a number of derivatives of amino acids. However, until recently, chiral selection in any nonenzymatic RNA-aminoacylation reaction was unknown. Profy and Usher (1984) reported that aminoacylation of the 'internal' 2-prime-ester occurred with a significant amount of stereoselection. Profy and Usher (1984) have also observed that aminoacylation of the 'internal' 2-prime-hydroxyl groups of polyribonucleotides by the imidazolide of N-3,5-dinitrobenzoylalanine occurs with chiral selection. In order to obtain further information regarding the considered phenomena, a systematic investigation was initiated of the factors which contribute to the observed stereoselectivity of the aminoacylation reaction. In the present paper, the effect of a change in the amino acid from alanine to leucine is considered along with an investigation of the D- and L-alanyl internal' 2-prime esters of the dinucleoside monophosphate of 3-prime,5-prime-ApA.

  12. A Novel Implementation of Efficient Algorithms for Quantum Circuit Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeller, Luke

    In this project, we design and develop a computer program to effectively approximate arbitrary quantum gates using the discrete set of Clifford Gates together with the T gate (π/8 gate). Employing recent results from Mosca et. al. and Giles and Selinger, we implement a decomposition scheme that outputs a sequence of Clifford, T, and Tt gates that approximate the input to within a specified error range ɛ. Specifically, the given gate is first rounded to an element of Z[1/2, i] with a precision determined by ɛ, and then exact synthesis is employed to produce the resulting gate. It is known that this procedure is optimal in approximating an arbitrary single qubit gate. Our program, written in Matlab and Python, can complete both approximate and exact synthesis of qubits. It can be used to assist in the experimental implementation of an arbitrary fault-tolerant single qubit gate, for which direct implementation isn't feasible.

  13. Efficient synthesis of deuterium labeled hydroxyzine and aripiprazole.

    PubMed

    Vohra, Mohit; Sandbhor, Mahendra; Wozniak, Andrew

    2015-06-15

    Hydroxyzine and aripiprazole are active pharmaceutical ingredients that have been largely acknowledged for their antipsychotic properties. Deuterium labeled isotopes of hydroxyzine and aripiprazole are internal standards that can aid in the further research of non-isotopic forms via quantification analysis using HPLC-MS/MS. The synthesis of hydroxyzine-d8 was accomplished by coupling piperazine-d8 with 4-chlorobenzhydryl chloride followed by the reaction of the first intermediate with 2-(2-chloroethoxy) ethanol to afford 11.7% of hydroxyzine-d8 with 99.5% purity. The synthesis of aripiprazole-d8 was also achieved in two steps. 1,4-Dibromobutane-d8 reacted with 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydro-2(1H)-quinolinone. The first intermediate was then coupled with 1-(2, 3-dichlorophenyl)piperazine hydrochloride to produce 33.4% of aripiprazole-d8 with 99.93% purity.

  14. Novel and Efficient Synthesis of the Promising Drug Candidate Discodermolide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    stereotriad building blocks for discodermolide and related polyketide antibiotics could be obtained from variations on a short, scalable scheme that did...chains required for the chemical synthesis of the nonaromatic polyketides is usually based on the iterative lengthening of an acyclic substituted chain...burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense

  15. Efficient Extracellular Expression of Metalloprotease for Z-Aspartame Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fucheng; Liu, Feng; Wu, Bin; He, Bingfang

    2016-12-28

    Metalloprotease PT121 and its mutant Y114S (Tyr114 was substituted to Ser) are effective catalysts for the synthesis of Z-aspartame (Z-APM). This study presents the selection of a suitable signal peptide for improving expression and extracellular secretion of proteases PT121 and Y114S by Escherichia coli. Co-inducers containing IPTG and arabinose were used to promote protease production and cell growth. Under optimal conditions, the expression levels of PT121 and Y114S reached >500 mg/L, and the extracellular activity of PT121/Y114S accounted for 87/82% of the total activity of proteases. Surprisingly, purer protein was obtained in the supernatant, because arabinose reduced cell membrane permeability, avoiding cell lysis. Comparison of Z-APM synthesis and caseinolysis between proteases PT121 and Y114S showed that mutant Y114S presented remarkably higher activity of Z-APM synthesis and considerably lower activity of caseinolysis. The significant difference in substrate specificity renders these enzymes promising biocatalysts.

  16. Knowledge Based Synthesis of Efficient Structures for Concurrent Computation Using Fat-Trees and Pipelining.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-31

    based on the proof is feasible. KES.U.86.11 AFO -Th, 87-0 791 Kestrel Institute Knowledge Based Synthesis of Efficient Structures for Concurrent...manner similar to an assembly line. The proof is a constructive one; a synthesis method based on the proof is feasible. 2 Chapter 2 Introduction This...These techniques are based on the use of closures as a device to schedule commu- nication, resulting from divide and conquer, between halves of a tree

  17. Efficient enantio- and diastereodivergent synthesis of poison-frog alkaloids 251O and trans-223B.

    PubMed

    Toyooka, Naoki; Zhou, Dejun; Nemoto, Hideo; Tezuka, Yasuhiro; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Andriamaharavo, Nirina R; Garraffo, H Martin; Spande, Thomas F; Daly, John W

    2009-09-04

    An efficient and flexible synthesis of poison-frog alkaloids 251O and trans-223B has been achieved by using for both alkaloids an enantiodivergent process starting from the common lactam 1. The relative stereochemistry of 251O and trans-223B was determined to be 7 (R = n-C(7)H(15), R' = n-Pr) and 14 by the present enantioselective synthesis.

  18. Efficient ytterbium triflate catalyzed microwave-assisted synthesis of 3-acylacrylic acid building blocks.

    PubMed

    Tolstoluzhsky, Nikita V; Gorobets, Nikolay Yu; Kolos, Nadezhda N; Desenko, Sergey M

    2008-01-01

    The derivatives of 4-(hetero)aryl-4-oxobut-2-enoic acid are useful as building blocks in the synthesis of biologically active compounds. An efficient general protocol for the synthesis of these building blocks was developed. This method combines microwave assistance and ytterbium triflate catalyst and allows the fast preparation of the target acids starting from different (hetero)aromatic ketones and glyoxylic acid monohydrate giving pure products in 52-75% isolated yields.

  19. Evolution of an Efficient and Scalable Nine-Step (LLS) Synthesis of Zincophorin Methyl Ester.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang-An; Ashley, Melissa A; Leighton, James L

    2017-03-07

    Due both to their synthetically challenging and stereochemically complex structures and their wide range of often clinically relevant biological activities, non-aromatic polyketide natural products have for decades attracted an enormous amount of attention from synthetic chemists and played an important role in the development of modern asymmetric synthesis. Often, such compounds are not available in quantity from natural sources, rendering analog synthesis and drug development efforts extremely resource-intensive and time-consuming. In this arena, the quest for ever more step-economical and efficient methods and strategies - useful and important goals in their own right - takes on added importance and the most useful syntheses will combine high levels of step-economy with efficiency and scalability. The non-aromatic polyketide natural product zincophorin methyl ester has attracted significant attention from synthetic chemists due primarily to the historically synthetically challenging C(8)-C(12) all-anti stere-opentad. While great progress has been made in the development of new methodologies to more directly address this problem and as a result in the development of more highly step-economical syntheses, a synthesis that combines high levels of step economy with high levels of efficiency and scalability has remained elusive. To address this problem, we have devised a new synthesis of zincophorin methyl ester that proceeds in just nine steps in the longest linear sequence and proceeds in 10% overall yield. Addition-ally, the scalability and practicability of the route have been demonstrated by performing all of the steps on a meaningful scale. This synthesis thus represents by a significant margin the most step-economical, efficient, and practicable synthesis of this stereochemi-cally complex natural product reported to date, and is well suited to facilitate the synthesis of analogs and medicinal chemistry de-velopment efforts in a time- and resource-efficient

  20. Bicyclic proline analogues as organocatalysts for stereoselective aldol reactions: an in silico DFT study.

    PubMed

    Shinisha, C B; Sunoj, Raghavan B

    2007-04-21

    Density functional theory has been employed in investigating the efficiency of a series of bicyclic analogues of proline as stereoselective organocatalysts for the aldol reaction. Three classes of conformationally restricted proline analogues, as part of either a [2.2.1] or [2.1.1] bicyclic framework, have been studied. Transition states for the stereoselective C-C bond formation between enamines derived from [2.2.1] and [2.1.1] bicyclic amino acids and p-nitrobenzaldehyde, leading to enantiomeric products, have been identified. Analysis of the transition state geometries revealed that the structural rigidity of catalysts, improved transition state organization as well as other weak interactions influence the relative stabilities of diastereomeric transition states and help contribute to the overall stereoselectivity in the aldol reaction. These bicyclic catalysts are predicted to be substantially more effective in improving the enantiomeric excess than the widely used organocatalyst proline. Enantiomeric excesses in the range 82-95% are predicted for these bicyclic catalysts when a sterically unbiased substrate such as p-nitrobenzaldehyde is employed for the asymmetric aldol reaction. More interestingly, introduction of substituents, as simple as a methyl group, at the ortho position of the aryl aldehyde bring about an increase in the enantiomeric excess to values greater than 98%. The reasons behind the vital energy separation between diastereomeric transition states has been rationalized with the help of a number of weak interactions such as intramolecular hydrogen bonding and Coulombic interactions operating on the transition states. These predictions could have wider implications for the rational design of improved organocatalysts for stereoselective carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions.

  1. An efficient one-pot four-segment condensation method for protein chemical synthesis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shan; Si, Yan-Yan; Wang, Zhi-Peng; Mei, Kun-Rong; Chen, Xin; Cheng, Jing-Yuan; Zheng, Ji-Shen; Liu, Lei

    2015-05-04

    Successive peptide ligation using a one-pot method can improve the efficiency of protein chemical synthesis. Although one-pot three-segment ligation has enjoyed widespread application, a robust method for one-pot four-segment ligation had to date remained undeveloped. Herein we report a new one-pot multisegment peptide ligation method that can be used to condense up to four segments with operational simplicity and high efficiency. Its practicality is demonstrated by the one-pot four-segment synthesis of a plant protein, crambin, and a human chemokine, hCCL21. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Theory and modeling of stereoselective organic reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Houk, K.N.; Paddon-Row, M.N.; Rondan, N.G.; Wu, Y.D.; Brown, F.K.; Spellmeyer, D.C.; Metz, J.T.; Li, Y.; Loncharich, R.J.

    1986-03-07

    Theoretical investigations of the transition structures of additions and cycloadditions reveal details about the geometrics of bond-forming processes that are not directly accessible by experiment. The conformational analysis of transition states has been developed from theoretical generalizations about the preferred angle of attack by reagents on multiple bonds and predictions of conformations with respect to partially formed bonds. Qualitative rules for the prediction of the stereochemistries of organic reactions have been devised, and semi-empirical computational models have also been developed to predict the stereoselectivities of reactions of large organic molecules, such as nucleophilic additions to carbonyls, electrophilic hydroborations and cycloadditions, and intramolecular radical additions and cycloadditions. 52 references, 7 figures.

  3. Efficient discovery of bioactive scaffolds by activity-directed synthesis.

    PubMed

    Karageorgis, George; Warriner, Stuart; Nelson, Adam

    2014-10-01

    The structures and biological activities of natural products have often provided inspiration in drug discovery. The functional benefits of natural products to the host organism steers the evolution of their biosynthetic pathways. Here, we describe a discovery approach--which we term activity-directed synthesis--in which reactions with alternative outcomes are steered towards functional products. Arrays of catalysed reactions of α-diazo amides, whose outcome was critically dependent on the specific conditions used, were performed. The products were assayed at increasingly low concentration, with the results informing the design of a subsequent reaction array. Finally, promising reactions were scaled up and, after purification, submicromolar ligands based on two scaffolds with no previous annotated activity against the androgen receptor were discovered. The approach enables the discovery, in tandem, of both bioactive small molecules and associated synthetic routes, analogous to the evolution of biosynthetic pathways to yield natural products.

  4. Improvement of efficiency in the enzymatic synthesis of lactulose palmitate.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Claudia; Illanes, Andres; Wilson, Lorena

    2015-04-15

    Sugar esters are considered as surfactants due to its amphiphilic balance that can lower the surface tension in oil/water mixtures. Enzymatic syntheses of these compounds are interesting both from economic and environmental considerations. A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of four solvents, temperature, substrate molar ratio, biocatalyst source, and immobilization methodology on the yield and specific productivity of lactulose palmitate monoester synthesis. Lipases from Pseudomonas stutzeri (PsL) and Alcaligenes sp. (AsL), immobilized in porous silica functionalized with octyl groups (adsorption immobilization, OS) and with glyoxyl-octyl groups (both adsorption and covalent immobilization, OGS), were used. The highest lactulose palmitate yields were obtained at 47 °C in acetone, for all biocatalysts, while the best lactulose:palmitic acid molar ratio differed according to the immobilization methodology, being 1:1 for AsL-OGS biocatalyst (20.7 ± 3%) and 1:3 for the others (30-50%).

  5. Rapid and efficient synthesis of α(1-2)mannobiosides.

    PubMed

    Reina, José J; Di Maio, Antonio; Ramos-Soriano, Javier; Figueiredo, Rute C; Rojo, Javier

    2016-03-14

    α(1,2)mannobiosides with different substituents at the reducing end have been synthesized by a common strategy using benzoyls as the permanent protecting groups and an acetyl as the orthogonal protecting group at position C2 of the glycosyl acceptor. The new synthetic strategy has been performed remarkably reducing the number of purification steps, the time of synthesis (less than 72 hours) and improving the overall yield at least three times with respect to the best procedure described in the literature at the moment. Additionally, this protecting group strategy is compatible with the presence of azido groups and the use of Cu catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) also called "click chemistry" for conjugating the α(1-2)mannobiosides to different scaffolds for the preparation of mannosyl multivalent systems.

  6. Efficiency, error and yield in light-directed maskless synthesis of DNA microarrays

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Light-directed in situ synthesis of DNA microarrays using computer-controlled projection from a digital micromirror device--maskless array synthesis (MAS)--has proved to be successful at both commercial and laboratory scales. The chemical synthetic cycle in MAS is quite similar to that of conventional solid-phase synthesis of oligonucleotides, but the complexity of microarrays and unique synthesis kinetics on the glass substrate require a careful tuning of parameters and unique modifications to the synthesis cycle to obtain optimal deprotection and phosphoramidite coupling. In addition, unintended deprotection due to scattering and diffraction introduce insertion errors that contribute significantly to the overall error rate. Results Stepwise phosphoramidite coupling yields have been greatly improved and are now comparable to those obtained in solid phase synthesis of oligonucleotides. Extended chemical exposure in the synthesis of complex, long oligonucleotide arrays result in lower--but still high--final average yields which approach 99%. The new synthesis chemistry includes elimination of the standard oxidation until the final step, and improved coupling and light deprotection. Coupling Insertions due to stray light are the limiting factor in sequence quality for oligonucleotide synthesis for gene assembly. Diffraction and local flare are by far the largest contributors to loss of optical contrast. Conclusions Maskless array synthesis is an efficient and versatile method for synthesizing high density arrays of long oligonucleotides for hybridization- and other molecular binding-based experiments. For applications requiring high sequence purity, such as gene assembly, diffraction and flare remain significant obstacles, but can be significantly reduced with straightforward experimental strategies. PMID:22152062

  7. Efficient synthesis of triarylamine-based dyes for p-type dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Martin; Griebel, Jan; Hajduk, Anna; Friedrich, Dirk; Stark, Annegret; Abel, Bernd; Siefermann, Katrin R.

    2016-05-01

    The class of triarylamine-based dyes has proven great potential as efficient light absorbers in inverse (p-type) dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). However, detailed investigation and further improvement of p-type DSSCs is strongly hindered by the fact that available synthesis routes of triarylamine-based dyes are inefficient and particularly demanding with regard to time and costs. Here, we report on an efficient synthesis strategy for triarylamine-based dyes for p-type DSSCs. A protocol for the synthesis of the dye-precursor (4-(bis(4-bromophenyl)amino)benzoic acid) is presented along with its X-ray crystal structure. The dye precursor is obtained from the commercially available 4(diphenylamino)benzaldehyde in a yield of 87% and serves as a starting point for the synthesis of various triarylamine-based dyes. Starting from the precursor we further describe a synthesis protocol for the dye 4-{bis[4‧-(2,2-dicyanovinyl)-[1,1‧-biphenyl]-4-yl]amino}benzoic acid (also known as dye P4) in a yield of 74%. All synthesis steps are characterized by high yields and high purities without the need for laborious purification steps and thus fulfill essential requirements for scale-up.

  8. Efficient synthesis of triarylamine-based dyes for p-type dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Martin; Griebel, Jan; Hajduk, Anna; Friedrich, Dirk; Stark, Annegret; Abel, Bernd; Siefermann, Katrin R.

    2016-01-01

    The class of triarylamine-based dyes has proven great potential as efficient light absorbers in inverse (p-type) dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). However, detailed investigation and further improvement of p-type DSSCs is strongly hindered by the fact that available synthesis routes of triarylamine-based dyes are inefficient and particularly demanding with regard to time and costs. Here, we report on an efficient synthesis strategy for triarylamine-based dyes for p-type DSSCs. A protocol for the synthesis of the dye-precursor (4-(bis(4-bromophenyl)amino)benzoic acid) is presented along with its X-ray crystal structure. The dye precursor is obtained from the commercially available 4(diphenylamino)benzaldehyde in a yield of 87% and serves as a starting point for the synthesis of various triarylamine-based dyes. Starting from the precursor we further describe a synthesis protocol for the dye 4-{bis[4′-(2,2-dicyanovinyl)-[1,1′-biphenyl]-4-yl]amino}benzoic acid (also known as dye P4) in a yield of 74%. All synthesis steps are characterized by high yields and high purities without the need for laborious purification steps and thus fulfill essential requirements for scale-up. PMID:27196877

  9. An alkene-promoted borane-catalyzed highly stereoselective hydrogenation of alkynes to give Z- and E-alkenes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongbing; Hu, Lianrui; Chen, Hui; Du, Haifeng

    2015-02-16

    The stereoselective hydrogenation of alkynes to alkenes is an extremely useful transformation in synthetic chemistry. Despite numerous reports for the synthesis of Z-alkenes, the hydrogenation of alkynes to give E-alkenes is still not well resolved. In particular, selective preparation of both Z- and E-alkenes by the same catalytic hydrogenation system using molecular H2 has rarely been reported. In this paper, a novel strategy of using simple alkenes as promoters for the HB(C6 F5 )2 -catalyzed metal-free hydrogenation of alkynes was adopted. Significantly, both Z- and E-alkenes can be furnished by hydrogenation with molecular H2 in high yields with excellent stereoselectivities. Further experimental and theoretical mechanistic studies suggest that interactions between H and F atoms of the alkene promoter, borane intermediate, and H2 play an essential role in promoting the hydrogenolysis reaction. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Bimetallic Nanoparticles as Efficient Catalysts: Facile and Green Microwave Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Blosi, Magda; Ortelli, Simona; Costa, Anna Luisa; Dondi, Michele; Lolli, Alice; Andreoli, Sara; Benito, Patricia; Albonetti, Stefania

    2016-07-08

    This work deals with the development of a green and versatile synthesis of stable mono- and bi-metallic colloids by means of microwave heating and exploiting ecofriendly reagents: water as the solvent, glucose as a mild and non-toxic reducer and polyvinylpirrolidone (PVP) as the chelating agent. Particle size-control, total reaction yield and long-term stability of colloids were achieved with this method of preparation. All of the materials were tested as effective catalysts in the reduction of p-nitrophenol in the presence of NaBH₄ as the probe reaction. A synergistic positive effect of the bimetallic phase was assessed for Au/Cu and Pd/Au alloy nanoparticles, the latter showing the highest catalytic performance. Moreover, monoand bi-metallic colloids were used to prepare TiO₂- and CeO₂-supported catalysts for the liquid phase oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfufural (HMF) to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA). The use of Au/Cu and Au/Pd bimetallic catalysts led to an increase in FDCA selectivity. Finally, preformed Pd/Cu nanoparticles were incorporated into the structure of MCM-41-silica. The resulting Pd/Cu MCM-41 catalysts were tested in the hydrodechlorination of CF₃OCFClCF₂Cl to CF₃OCF=CF₂. The effect of Cu on the hydrogenating properties of Pd was demonstrated.

  11. Bimetallic Nanoparticles as Efficient Catalysts: Facile and Green Microwave Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Blosi, Magda; Ortelli, Simona; Costa, Anna Luisa; Dondi, Michele; Lolli, Alice; Andreoli, Sara; Benito, Patricia; Albonetti, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    This work deals with the development of a green and versatile synthesis of stable mono- and bi-metallic colloids by means of microwave heating and exploiting ecofriendly reagents: water as the solvent, glucose as a mild and non-toxic reducer and polyvinylpirrolidone (PVP) as the chelating agent. Particle size-control, total reaction yield and long-term stability of colloids were achieved with this method of preparation. All of the materials were tested as effective catalysts in the reduction of p-nitrophenol in the presence of NaBH4 as the probe reaction. A synergistic positive effect of the bimetallic phase was assessed for Au/Cu and Pd/Au alloy nanoparticles, the latter showing the highest catalytic performance. Moreover, monoand bi-metallic colloids were used to prepare TiO2- and CeO2-supported catalysts for the liquid phase oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfufural (HMF) to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA). The use of Au/Cu and Au/Pd bimetallic catalysts led to an increase in FDCA selectivity. Finally, preformed Pd/Cu nanoparticles were incorporated into the structure of MCM-41-silica. The resulting Pd/Cu MCM-41 catalysts were tested in the hydrodechlorination of CF3OCFClCF2Cl to CF3OCF=CF2. The effect of Cu on the hydrogenating properties of Pd was demonstrated. PMID:28773672

  12. An efficient prebiotic synthesis of cytosine and uracil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, M. P.; Miller, S. L.

    1995-01-01

    In contrast to the purines, the routes that have been proposed for the prebiotic synthesis of pyrimidines from simple precursors give only low yields. Cytosine can be synthesized from cyanoacetylene and cyanate; the former precursor is produced from a spark discharge in a CH4/N2 mixture and is an abundant interstellar molecule. But this reaction requires relatively high concentrations of cyanate (> 0.1 M), which are unlikely to occur in aqueous media as cyanate is hydrolysed rapidly to CO2 and NH3. An alternative route that has been explored is the reaction of cyanoacetaldehyde (formed by hydrolysis of cyanoacetylene) with urea. But at low concentrations of urea, this reaction produces no detectable quantities of cytosine. Here we show that in concentrated urea solution--such as might have been found in an evaporating lagoon or in pools on drying beaches on the early Earth--cyanoacetaldehyde reacts to form cytosine in yields of 30-50%, from which uracil can be formed by hydrolysis. These reactions provide a plausible route to the pyrimidine bases required in the RNA world.

  13. An efficient prebiotic synthesis of cytosine and uracil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, M. P.; Miller, S. L.

    1995-01-01

    In contrast to the purines, the routes that have been proposed for the prebiotic synthesis of pyrimidines from simple precursors give only low yields. Cytosine can be synthesized from cyanoacetylene and cyanate; the former precursor is produced from a spark discharge in a CH4/N2 mixture and is an abundant interstellar molecule. But this reaction requires relatively high concentrations of cyanate (> 0.1 M), which are unlikely to occur in aqueous media as cyanate is hydrolysed rapidly to CO2 and NH3. An alternative route that has been explored is the reaction of cyanoacetaldehyde (formed by hydrolysis of cyanoacetylene) with urea. But at low concentrations of urea, this reaction produces no detectable quantities of cytosine. Here we show that in concentrated urea solution--such as might have been found in an evaporating lagoon or in pools on drying beaches on the early Earth--cyanoacetaldehyde reacts to form cytosine in yields of 30-50%, from which uracil can be formed by hydrolysis. These reactions provide a plausible route to the pyrimidine bases required in the RNA world.

  14. ACCESS-2: Approximation Concepts Code for Efficient Structural Synthesis, user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miura, H.; Schmit, L. A., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A user's guide is presented for the ACCESS-2 computer program. ACCESS-2 is a research oriented program which implements a collection of approximation concepts to achieve excellent efficiency in structural synthesis. The finite element method is used for structural analysis and general mathematical programming algorithms are applied in the design optimization procedure.

  15. An efficient and general enantioselective synthesis of sphingosine, phythosphingosine, and 4-substituted derivatives.

    PubMed

    Llaveria, Josep; Díaz, Yolanda; Matheu, M Isabel; Castillón, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    A general and efficient protocol for the enantioselective synthesis of sphingosine, phythosphingosine, and 4-substituted derivatives was established. These compounds were obtained from a common intermediate prepared from butadiene monoepoxide by a synthetic sequence involving enantioselective allylic substitution, cross-metathesis, and dihydroxylation.

  16. Stereoselective synthesis of cis-p-menth-8-ene-1,7-diol, cis-p-menthane-1,7-diol, and cis-p-menthane-1,7,8-triol.

    PubMed

    Kobler, Christoph; Effenberger, Franz

    2005-04-22

    The natural products cis-p-menthane-1,7-diol (cis-IV), cis-p-menth-8-ene-1,7-diol (cis-I) and cis-p-menthane-1,7,8-triol (cis-II) are obtained starting from the corresponding cis-cyanohydrins, cis-2 and cis-7, respectively, by chemical transformation of the cyano into the hydroxymethyl group. The key step of the synthesis is the very high cis-selectivity (> or = 96 %) of the MeHNL-catalyzed HCN addition to 4-alkylcyclohexanones. From 4-isopropylcyclohexanone (1) the cyanohydrin cis-2 and from 4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexanone (6) the cyanohydrin cis-7 result almost quantitatively. Regioselective hydroxylation of cis-I affords the triol cis-II. X-ray crystal structure determinations of the final products confirm their cis-configuration.

  17. An Efficient, Optimized Synthesis of Fentanyl and Related Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Carlos A.; Leif, Roald N.; Mayer, Brian P.

    2014-01-01

    The alternate and optimized syntheses of the parent opioid fentanyl and its analogs are described. The routes presented exhibit high-yielding transformations leading to these powerful analgesics after optimization studies were carried out for each synthetic step. The general three-step strategy produced a panel of four fentanyls in excellent yields (73–78%) along with their more commonly encountered hydrochloride and citric acid salts. The following strategy offers the opportunity for the gram-scale, efficient production of this interesting class of opioid alkaloids. PMID:25233364

  18. Stereoselective disposition of proton pump inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Tommy; Weidolf, Lars

    2008-01-01

    It is estimated that about half of all therapeutic agents are chiral, but most of these drugs are administered in the form of the racemic mixture, i.e. a 50/50 mixture of its enantiomers. However, chirality is one of the main features of biology, and many of the processes essential for life are stereoselective, implying that two enantiomers may work differently from each other in a physiological environment. Thus, receptors or metabolizing enzymes would recognize one of the ligand enantiomers in favour of the other. With one exception, all presently marketed proton pump inhibitors (PPIs)--omeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole and rabeprazole--used for the treatment of gastric acid-related diseases are racemic mixtures. The exception is esomeprazole, the S-enantiomer of omeprazole, which is the only PPI developed as a single enantiomer drug. The development of esomeprazole (an alkaline salt thereof, e.g. magnesium or sodium) was based on unique metabolic properties that clearly differentiated esomeprazole from omeprazole, the racemate. At comparable doses, these properties led to several clinical advantages, for example higher bioavailability in the majority of patients, i.e. the extensive metabolizers (EMs; 97% in Caucasian and 80-85% in Asian populations), lower exposure in poor metabolizers (PMs; 3% in Caucasian and 15-20% in Asian populations) and lower interindividual variation. For the other, i.e. racemic, PPIs there are some data available on the characteristics of the individual enantiomers, and we have therefore undertaken to analyse the current literature with the purpose of evaluating the potential benefits of developing single enantiomer drugs from lansoprazole, pantoprazole and rabeprazole. For lansoprazole, the plasma concentrations of the S-enantiomer are lower than those of the R-enantiomer in both EMs and PMs, and, consequently, the variability in the population or between EMs and PMs is not likely to decrease with either of the lansoprazole

  19. Energetic efficiency of milk synthesis in dual-purpose cows grazing tropical pastures.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Pérez, Carlos Fernando; Ku-Vera, Juan Carlos; Magaña-Monforte, Juan Gabriel

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the energetic efficiency of milk synthesis by grazing dual-purpose cows with or without a starch-based supplement in tropical South Mexico. Forty-six Holstein × Zebu cows were used in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design. Factors analysed were diet (supplemented, unsupplemented), age (young: 1-2 calvings, mature: >3 calvings) and day of lactation (21 and 84 days post-calving). The supplement represented about 30% of estimated dry matter (DM) intake. Grass intake was measured using the n-alkane technique at 21 and 84 days post-calving when calculations of efficiency were performed. Efficiency for milk synthesis was reported as feed conversion efficiency (FCE, kilograms of milk per kilogram of DM intake), gross energetic efficiency (GEE, milk energy output/metabolisable energy (ME) intake) and efficiency of ME use for lactation (k(l), adjusted to zero energy balance). There were no interactions between factors. FCE and GEE were not different between diets, but supplemented cows had a lower (p < 0.01) k(l) value (0.62) than unsupplemented cows (0.67), suggesting a diverted partition of nutrients towards body tissue. Mature cows were more efficient (p < 0.001) than young cows in terms of FCE (1.13 vs 0.87) and GEE (0.34 vs 0.26), but equal in terms of k(l) (0.65). FCE (1.10 vs 0.90) and GEE (0.34 vs 0.27) were both higher on day 21 compared with day 84 post-calving, with a trend for a higher k(l) in early lactation. Dual-purpose cows used tropical grasses efficiently for milk synthesis, and higher milk yield observed in supplemented cows was due to a higher intake of nutrients rather than a higher energetic efficiency.

  20. Synthesis of energy-efficient counters implemented in PLD circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulisz, Józef; Nawrot, Radosław; Kania, Dariusz

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents a comparison of four methods of implementing sequential circuits in Programmable Logic Devices in respect of dissipated power. Objective of the research was to investigate influence of different methods of "disabling" the clock signal on the dynamic power consumed by the circuit. The comparison is carried out using simple counter circuits, i. e. circuits the algorithm of which is described by linear graphs. However, the presented considerations are general, and can be applied to any sequential circuit. Results of simulation tests show that the method based on clock gating is the most efficient one, and it leads to significant reduction of the dissipated dynamic power. The authors also propose a simple modification of global clock network structures, to facilitate clock gating.

  1. Two-dimensional perfect reconstruction analysis/synthesis filter bank system with very high computational efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C. P.

    1997-07-01

    An effective design structure for 2-D analysis/synthesis filter banks with high computational efficiency are proposed. The system involves a 2-D single-sideband (SSB) system, which is developed in terms of a 2-D separable weighted overlap-add (OLA) method of analysis/synthesis and enables overlap between adjacent spatial domain windows. This implies that spatial domain aliasing introduced in the analysis is canceled in the synthesis process and provides perfect reconstruction. Achieving perfect reconstruction, each individual analysis/synthesis filter bank with SSB modulation is satisfied to be a cosine modulated version of a common baseband filter. Since a cosine-modulated structure is imposed in the design procedure, the system can reduce the number of parameters required to achieve the best computational efficiency. It can be shown that the resulting cosine- modulated filters are very efficient in terms of computational complexity and are relatively easy to design. Moreover, the design approach can be imposed on the system with relatively low reconstruction delays.

  2. Stereoselective organocatalytic oxidation of alcohols to enals: a homologation method to prepare polyenes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaobei; Zhang, Yinan; Wan, Huixin; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Shilei

    2016-02-28

    A novel method for organocatalytic oxidation through oxidative enamine catalysis was developed with excellent compatibility for the direct syntheses of enals from simple saturated alcohols. By using this amine-catalyzed IBX-oxidation, a wide range of aromatic and aliphatic substituted enals were successfully generated in high yields and exclusively stereoselective E-geometry. Moreover, varying the solvents and/or the loading amounts of IBX allowed for the selective oxidation of alcohols and aldehydes. Importantly, the homologous application of this method provided a selective and efficient way of preparing various highly sensitive conjugated polyene frameworks, which are enriched in natural products.

  3. Ruthenium-catalyzed stereoselective anti-Markovnikov-addition of thioamides to alkynes.

    PubMed

    Goossen, Lukas J; Blanchot, Mathieu; Salih, Kifah S M; Karch, Ralf; Rivas-Nass, Andreas

    2008-10-16

    A catalyst system generated in situ from bis(2-methallyl)-cycloocta-1,5-diene-ruthenium(II) and a phosphine was found to efficiently catalyze the addition of thioamides to terminal alkynes with exclusive formation of the anti-Markovnikov thioenamide products. The stereoselectivity of the addition is usually high and controlled by the choice of the phosphine ligand, whereas the (E)-isomers are predominantly formed in the presence of tri(n-octyl)phosphine, the use of bis(dicyclohexylphosphino)methane preferentially leads to the formation of the (Z)-configured thioenamides.

  4. Stereoselective cross aldol condensation of bicyclo[3.2.0]alkanones.

    PubMed

    Miesch, Laurence; Welsch, Tania; Miesch, Michel

    2013-06-28

    A cross aldol reaction between [(S)-(-)] or [(R)-(+)]-benzyloxypropanal and silyl enol ethers derived from bicyclo[3.2.0]alkanones was carried out in the presence of TiCl4, leading with total stereoselectivity to a 1 : 1 mixture of enantiomerically pure diastereomers isolated in 81% overall yield. Thus, 5 stereogenic centers could be created starting from one. Furthermore, an efficient access to an enantiomerically pure tricyclo[5.3.0.0(2,6)]decane scaffold was possible via a 4 step reaction sequence.

  5. Efficient chemoenzymatic synthesis of pelitrexol via enzymic differentiation of a remote stereocenter.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shanghui; Kelly, Sean; Lee, Steve; Tao, Junhua; Flahive, Erik

    2006-04-13

    [structure: see text] An efficient chemoenzymatic process is described for the synthesis of pelitrexol, a novel GARFT inhibitor. The remoteness of this molecule's stereocenter in the tetrahydropterin moiety from the terminal carbonyl group provided a significant challenge in synthesis. The introduction of an oxalamic ester adjacent to the stereocenter dramatically enhanced an enzyme's enantioselectivity for hydrolysis at the terminal ester, producing the desired S-acid with high optical purity and yield. The recycling of the "wrong" enantiomer is achieved via a dehydrogenation/hydrogenation strategy.

  6. Robust and efficient inverse mask synthesis with basis function representation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaofei; Liu, Shiyuan; Lv, Wen; Lam, Edmund Y

    2014-12-01

    Mask optimization is essential in the resolution scaling of optical lithography due to its strong ability to overcome the optical proximity effect. However, it often demands extensive computation in solving the nonlinear optimization problem with a large number of variables. In this paper, we use a set of basis functions to represent the mask patterns, and incorporate this representation into the mask optimization at both the nominal plane and various defocus conditions. The representation coefficients are updated according to the gradient to the coefficients, which can be easily obtained from the gradient to the pixel variables. To ease the computation of the gradient, we use an adaptive method that divides the optimization into two steps, in which a small number of kernels is used as the first step, and more kernels are used for fine optimization. Simulations performed on two test patterns demonstrate that this method can improve the optimization efficiency by several times, and the optimized patterns have better manufacturability compared with regular pixel-based representation.

  7. Hangman corroles: efficient synthesis and oxygen reaction chemistry.

    PubMed

    Dogutan, Dilek K; Stoian, Sebastian A; McGuire, Robert; Schwalbe, Matthias; Teets, Thomas S; Nocera, Daniel G

    2011-01-12

    The construction of a new class of compounds--the hangman corroles--is provided efficiently by the modification of macrocyclic forming reactions from bilanes. Hangman cobalt corroles are furnished in good yields from a one-pot condensation of dipyrromethane with the aldehyde of a xanthene spacer followed by metal insertion using microwave irradiation. In high oxidation states, X-band EPR spectra and DFT calculations of cobalt corrole axially ligated by chloride are consistent with the description of a Co(III) center residing in the one-electron oxidized corrole macrocycle. These high oxidation states are likely accessed in the activation of O-O bonds. Along these lines, we show that the proton-donating group of the hangman platform works in concert with the redox properties of the corrole to enhance the catalytic activity of O-O bond activation. The hangman corroles show enhanced activity for the selective reduction of oxygen to water as compared to their unmodified counterparts. The oxygen adduct, prior to oxygen reduction, is characterized by EPR and absorption spectroscopy.

  8. Information and Efficiency in the Nervous System—A Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Biswa; Stemmler, Martin B.; Friston, Karl J.

    2013-01-01

    In systems biology, questions concerning the molecular and cellular makeup of an organism are of utmost importance, especially when trying to understand how unreliable components—like genetic circuits, biochemical cascades, and ion channels, among others—enable reliable and adaptive behaviour. The repertoire and speed of biological computations are limited by thermodynamic or metabolic constraints: an example can be found in neurons, where fluctuations in biophysical states limit the information they can encode—with almost 20–60% of the total energy allocated for the brain used for signalling purposes, either via action potentials or by synaptic transmission. Here, we consider the imperatives for neurons to optimise computational and metabolic efficiency, wherein benefits and costs trade-off against each other in the context of self-organised and adaptive behaviour. In particular, we try to link information theoretic (variational) and thermodynamic (Helmholtz) free-energy formulations of neuronal processing and show how they are related in a fundamental way through a complexity minimisation lemma. PMID:23935475

  9. FeCl3-catalyzed stereoselective construction of spirooxindole tetrahydroquinolines via tandem 1,5-hydride transfer/ring closure.

    PubMed

    Han, Yan-Yan; Han, Wen-Yong; Hou, Xue; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Yuan, Wei-Cheng

    2012-08-17

    An efficient FeCl(3)-catalyzed stereoselective intramolecular tandem 1,5-hydride transfer/ring closure reaction was developed. The method allows for the formation of structurally diverse spirooxindole tetrahydroquinolines in high yields (up to 98%) with good to excellent levels of diastereoselectivity (up to 99:1 dr). The catalytic enantioselective variant of this process was also investigated preliminarily with a chiral BINOL-derived phosphoric acid.

  10. Stereoselectivity of presynaptic autoreceptors modulating dopamine release.

    PubMed

    Arbilla, S; Langer, S Z

    1981-12-17

    The effects of the (R)- and (S)-enantiomers of sulpiride and butaclamol were studied on the spontaneous and field stimulation-evoked release of total radioactivity from slices of rabbit caudate nucleus prelabelled with [3H]dopamine. (S)-Sulpiride in concentrations ranging from 0.01--1 microM enhanced the electrically evoked release of [3H]dopamine while (R)-sulpiride was 10 times less potent than (S)-sulpiride. Exposure to (S)-butaclamol (0.01--1 microM) but not to (R)-butaclamol (0.1--10 microM) enhanced the field-stimulated release of [3H]dopamine. The facilitatory effects of (S)- and (R)-sulpiride and (S)-butaclamol on the stimulated release of the labelled neurotransmitter were observed under conditions in which these drugs did not modify the spontaneous outflow of radioactivity. Only the active enantiomers of sulpiride and butaclamol antagonized the inhibition by apomorphine (1 microM) of the stimulated release of [3H]dopamine. Our results indicate that the presynaptic inhibitory dopamine autoreceptors modulating the stimulation-evoked release of [3H]dopamine in the caudate nucleus are, like the classical postsynaptic dopamine receptors, chemically stereoselective.

  11. Domino-hydroformylation/aldol condensation catalysis: highly selective synthesis of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes from olefins.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xianjie; Jackstell, Ralf; Franke, Robert; Beller, Matthias

    2014-10-06

    A general and highly chemo-, regio-, and stereoselective synthesis of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes by a domino hydroformylation/aldol condensation reaction has been developed. A variety of olefins and aromatic aldehydes were efficiently converted into various substituted α,β-unsaturated aldehydes in good to excellent yields in the presence of a rhodium phosphine/acid-base catalyst system. In view of the easy availability of the substrates, the high atom-efficiency, the excellent selectivity, and the mild conditions, this method is expected to complement current methodologies for the preparation of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Synergy, compatibility, and innovation: merging Lewis acids with stereoselective enamine catalysis.

    PubMed

    Gualandi, Andrea; Mengozzi, Luca; Wilson, Claire M; Cozzi, Pier Giorgio

    2014-04-01

    In recent years there has been an accelerated rate of development in the field of organocatalysis, with asymmetric organocatalysis now reaching full maturity. The invention of new organocatalytic reactions and the exploration of new concepts now appear in tandem with the application of organocatalytic techniques in the synthesis of natural products and active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). After a "golden rush" in organocatalysis, researchers are now starting to combine different methods, thereby taking advantage of the significant benefits of synergy. Metals are used in combination with organocatalytic processes, thus reaching complexity that is found in nature, where enzymes take advantage of the presence of certain metals to increase the arsenal of organic transformations available. In this Focus review, we illustrate the possibility of a "happy marriage" between Lewis acids and organocatalytic stereoselective processes. Questions have been raised about the combination of Lewis acids and organocatalysis owing to the presence of water and/or strong bases in these processes. Some Lewis acids have been shown to be compatible with organocatalysis and concepts relating to their use will be illustrated herein. To summarize the fruitful use of Lewis acids in stereoselective organocatalytic processes, we will draw attention to the advantages and selectivity achieved using this method.

  13. Stereoselective inhibition of thromboxane-induced coronary vasoconstriction by 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Eltze, M.; Boer, R.; Sanders, K.H.; Boss, H.; Ulrich, W.R.; Flockerzi, D. )

    1990-01-01

    The biological activity of the (+)-S- and (-)-R-enantiomers of niguldipine, of the (-)-S- and (+)-R-enantiomers of felodipine and nitrendipine, and of rac-nisoldipine and rac-nimodipine was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of coronary vasoconstriction due to the thromboxane A2 (TxA2)-mimetic U-46619 in guinea pig Langendorff hearts, displacement of (+)-({sup 3}H)isradipine from calcium channel binding sites of guinea pig skeletal muscle T-tubule membranes, and blood pressure reduction in spontaneously hypertensive rats were determined. The enantiomers were obtained by stereoselective synthesis. Cross-contamination was less than 0.5% for both S- and R-enantiomers of niguldipine and nitrendipine and less than 1% for those of felodipine. From the doses necessary for a 50% inhibition of coronary vasoconstriction, stereoselectivity ratios for (+)-(S)-/(-)-(R)-niguldipine, (-)-(S)-/(+)-(R)-felodipine, and (-)-(S)-/(+)-(R)-nitrendipine of 28, 13, and 7, respectively, were calculated. The potency ratio rac-nisoldipine/rac-nimodipine was 3.5. Ratios obtained from binding experiments and antihypertensive activity were (+)-(S)-/(-)-(R)-niguldipine = 45 and 35, (-)-(S)-/(+)-(R)-felodipine = 12 and 13, (-)-(S)-/(+)-(R)-nitrendipine = 8 and 8, and rac-nisoldipine/rac-nimodipine = 8 and 7, respectively. Highly significant correlations were found between the in vitro potency of the substances to prevent U-46619-induced coronary vasoconstriction and their affinity for calcium channel binding sites as well as their antihypertensive activity.

  14. Efficient enzymatic synthesis of ampicillin by mutant Alcaligenes faecalis penicillin G acylase.

    PubMed

    Deng, Senwen; Su, Erzheng; Ma, Xiaoqiang; Yang, Shengli; Wei, Dongzhi

    2015-04-10

    Semi-synthetic β-lactam antibiotics (SSBAs) are one of the most important antibiotic families in the world market. Their enzymatic synthesis can be catalyzed by penicillin G acylases (PGAs). In this study, to improve enzymatic synthesis of ampicillin, site-saturating mutagenesis was performed on three conserved amino acid residues: βF24, αR146, and αF147 of thermo-stable penicillin G acylase from Alcaligenes faecalis (Af PGA). Four mutants βF24G, βF24A, βF24S, and βF24P were recovered by screening the mutant bank. Kinetic analysis of them showed up to 800-fold increased kcat/Km value for activated acyl donor D-phenylglycine methyl ester (D-PGME). When βF24G was used for ampicillin synthesis under kinetic control at industrially relevant conditions, 95% of nucleophile 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) was converted to ampicillin in aqueous medium at room temperature while 12% process time is needed to reach maximum product accumulation at 25% enzyme concentration compared with the wild-type Af PGA. Consequently, process productivity of enzymatic synthesis of ampicillin catalyzed by Af PGA was improved by more than 130 times, which indicated an enzyme viable for efficient SSBAs synthesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Tandem Chain Walking Polymerization and ATRP for Efficient Synthesis of Dendritic Nanoparticles for Bioconjugation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guanghui; Huynh, Devan; Felgner, Phil L.; Guan, Zhibin

    2012-01-01

    A tandem chain walking polymerization (CWP) and ATRP was developed for efficient synthesis of nanoparticles for bioconjugation. Using the chain walking palladium-α-diimine catalyst (catalyst 1), dendritic polymers bearing multiple initiation sites were synthesized and used as macro-initiators for subsequent Cu(I)-mediated ATRP. Control of molecular weight and size of the water soluble core-shell polymeric nanoparticles was achieved by tuning reaction conditions. Addition of N-acryloyloxysuccinamide (NAS) monomer at the end of the ATRP afforded NHS activated polymer nanoparticles. Conjugation with both small dye molecule and protein (ovalbumin) yielded nanoparticle conjugates with relatively high dye or protein per particle ratio. With the efficient synthesis and good biocompatibility, these nanoparticles may find many potential applications in bioconjugation. PMID:16569005

  16. A coenzyme-independent decarboxylase/oxygenase cascade for the efficient synthesis of vanillin.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Toshiki; Miura, Misa; Kino, Kuniki

    2014-10-13

    Vanillin is one of the most widely used flavor compounds in the world as well as a promising versatile building block. The biotechnological production of vanillin from plant-derived ferulic acid has attracted much attention as a new alternative to chemical synthesis. One limitation of the known metabolic pathway to vanillin is its requirement for expensive coenzymes. Here, we developed a novel route to vanillin from ferulic acid that does not require any coenzymes. This artificial pathway consists of a coenzyme-independent decarboxylase and a coenzyme-independent oxygenase. When Escherichia coli cells harboring the decarboxylase/oxygenase cascade were incubated with ferulic acid, the cells efficiently synthesized vanillin (8.0 mM, 1.2 g L(-1) ) via 4-vinylguaiacol in one pot, without the generation of any detectable aromatic by-products. The efficient method described here might be applicable to the synthesis of other high-value chemicals from plant-derived aromatics.

  17. Origins of Stereoselectivity in the trans-Diels-Alder Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Paton, Robert S.; Mackey, Joel L.; Kim, Woo Han; Lee, Jun Hee; Danishefsky, Samuel J.; Houk, K. N.

    2010-01-01

    The regioselectivity and stereoselectivity aspects of the Diels-Alder/radical hydrodenitration reaction sequence leading to trans-fused ring systems have been investigated with density functional calculations. A continuum of transition structures representing Diels-Alder and hetero-Diels-Alder cycloadditions as well as a sigmatropic rearrangement have been located, and they all lie very close in energy on the potential energy surface. All three pathways are found to be important in the formation of the Diels-Alder adduct. Reported regioselectivities are reproduced by the calculations. The stereoselectivity of radical hydrodenitration of the cis-Diels-Alder adduct is found to be related to the relative conformational stabilities of bicyclic radical intermediates. Overall, the computations provide understanding of the regioselectivities and stereoselectivities of the trans-Diels-Alder paradigm. PMID:20557046

  18. Origins of stereoselectivity in the trans Diels-Alder paradigm.

    PubMed

    Paton, Robert S; Mackey, Joel L; Kim, Woo Han; Lee, Jun Hee; Danishefsky, Samuel J; Houk, K N

    2010-07-14

    The regioselectivity and stereoselectivity aspects of the Diels-Alder/radical hydrodenitration reaction sequence leading to trans-fused ring systems have been investigated with density functional calculations. A continuum of transition structures representing Diels-Alder and hetero-Diels-Alder cycloadditions as well as a sigmatropic rearrangement have been located, and they all lie very close in energy on the potential energy surface. All three pathways are found to be important in the formation of the Diels-Alder adduct. Reported regioselectivities are reproduced by the calculations. The stereoselectivity of radical hydrodenitration of the cis-Diels-Alder adduct is found to be related to the relative conformational stabilities of bicyclic radical intermediates. Overall, the computations provide understanding of the regioselectivities and stereoselectivities of the trans-Diels-Alder paradigm.

  19. Stereoselective binding of chiral drugs to plasma proteins.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qi; Wang, Lu; Zhou, Hui; Jiang, Hui-di; Yu, Lu-shan; Zeng, Su

    2013-08-01

    Chiral drugs show distinct biochemical and pharmacological behaviors in the human body. The binding of chiral drugs to plasma proteins usually exhibits stereoselectivity, which has a far-reaching influence on their pharmacological activities and pharmacokinetic profiles. In this review, the stereoselective binding of chiral drugs to human serum albumin (HSA), α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and lipoprotein, three most important proteins in human plasma, are detailed. Furthermore, the application of AGP variants and recombinant fragments of HSA for studying enantiomer binding properties is also discussed. Apart from the stereoselectivity of enantiomer-protein binding, enantiomer-enantiomer interactions that may induce allosteric effects are also described. Additionally, the techniques and methods used to determine drug-protein binding parameters are briefly reviewed.

  20. Stereoselective binding of chiral drugs to plasma proteins

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Qi; Wang, Lu; Zhou, Hui; Jiang, Hui-di; Yu, Lu-shan; Zeng, Su

    2013-01-01

    Chiral drugs show distinct biochemical and pharmacological behaviors in the human body. The binding of chiral drugs to plasma proteins usually exhibits stereoselectivity, which has a far-reaching influence on their pharmacological activities and pharmacokinetic profiles. In this review, the stereoselective binding of chiral drugs to human serum albumin (HSA), α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and lipoprotein, three most important proteins in human plasma, are detailed. Furthermore, the application of AGP variants and recombinant fragments of HSA for studying enantiomer binding properties is also discussed. Apart from the stereoselectivity of enantiomer-protein binding, enantiomer-enantiomer interactions that may induce allosteric effects are also described. Additionally, the techniques and methods used to determine drug-protein binding parameters are briefly reviewed. PMID:23852086

  1. Ultrasound mediation for efficient synthesis of monoarylidene derivatives of homo- and heterocyclic ketones.

    PubMed

    Mojtahedi, Mohammad M; Abaee, M Saeed; Samianifard, Mehdieh; Shamloo, Akram; Padyab, Masoomeh; Mesbah, A Wahid; Harms, Klaus

    2013-05-01

    Ultrasonic irradiation was efficiently used for high yield synthesis of monoarylidene derivatives of cyclic systems directly from the reaction of ketone with various aldehydes under solvent-free conditions. Reactions took place rapidly in the presence of catalytic amounts of pyrrolidine, while no significant formation of the undesired bis by-products was observed. Moreover, the procedure was applicable to both homo- and heterocyclic ketones. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis of Novel C-Pivot Lariat 18-Crown-6 Ethers and their Efficient Purification

    PubMed Central

    Jana, Susovan; Suresh, Vallabh

    2015-01-01

    The syntheses of various lariat ethers including several not previously reported and their efficient purification are presented. The synthesis route brings together reactions from a variety of previous works leading to a robust and generalized approach to these C-pivot lariats. The main steps are condensation of functionalized diols with pentaethylene glycol ditosylate in the presence of potassium as a templating cation. Purification of the final products was achieved without chromatography by extracting from an aqueous potassium hydroxide solution. PMID:26900260

  3. Nano Clinoptilolite: Highly Efficient Catalyst for the Synthesis of Chromene Derivatives Under Solvent-Free Conditions.

    PubMed

    Hallajian, Sara; Khalilzadeh, Mohammad A; Tajbakhsh, Mahgol; Alipour, Eskandar; Safaei, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    An efficient and selective synthesis of substituted chromene derivatives via three-component reaction of 4-hydroxycoumarin or 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, activated acetylenic compounds and N-nucleophiles is described. The reaction was conducted under solvent-free conditions at 70°C using potassium fluoride impregnated on natural zeolite as a cheap and available solid base. The procedure has several advantages involving selectivity, excellent yields and a convenient work-up method.

  4. ACCESS 1: Approximation Concepts Code for Efficient Structural Synthesis program documentation and user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miura, H.; Schmit, L. A., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The program documentation and user's guide for the ACCESS-1 computer program is presented. ACCESS-1 is a research oriented program which implements a collection of approximation concepts to achieve excellent efficiency in structural synthesis. The finite element method is used for structural analysis and general mathematical programming algorithms are applied in the design optimization procedure. Implementation of the computer program, preparation of input data and basic program structure are described, and three illustrative examples are given.

  5. Efficient and convenient synthesis of indazol-3(2H)-ones and 2-aminobenzonitriles.

    PubMed

    Dou, Guolan; Shi, Daqing

    2009-01-01

    A mild, efficient, one-pot protocol for the synthesis of indazole-3(2H)-ones via cyclization of nitro-aryl substrates through low-valent titanium reagent has been described. The method used Triethylamine (TEA) to control pH. Particularly, 2-aminobenzonitriles were synthesized by one step easily. The mechanistic course of the reaction suggests the involvement of an anion leading to an intramolecular cyclization via N-N bond formation.

  6. An efficient and convenient palladium catalyst system for the synthesis of amines from allylic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Debasis; Jagadeesh, Rajenahally V; Junge, Kathrin; Junge, Henrik; Beller, Matthias

    2012-10-01

    A novel catalyst system for efficient amination of allylic alcohols with aryl and alkyl amines is presented. By applying a convenient combination consisting of Pd(OAc)(2)/1,10-phenanthroline, a variety of allylic alcohols reacted smoothly to give the corresponding secondary and tertiary amines in good to excellent yields with high regioselectivity. The usefulness of our protocol is demonstrated in the one-step synthesis of the antifungal drug naftifine and the calcium channel blocker flunarizine.

  7. Directed evolution of leucine dehydrogenase for improved efficiency of L-tert-leucine synthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Wu, Zhe; Jin, Jian-Ming; Tang, Shuang-Yan

    2016-07-01

    L-tert-Leucine and its derivatives are used as synthetic building blocks for pharmaceutical active ingredients, chiral auxiliaries, and ligands. Leucine dehydrogenase (LeuDH) is frequently used to prepare L-tert-leucine from the α-keto acid precursor trimethylpyruvate (TMP). In this study, a high-throughput screening method for the L-tert-leucine synthesis reaction based on a spectrophotometric approach was developed. Directed evolution strategy was applied to engineer LeuDH from Lysinibacillus sphaericus for improved efficiency of L-tert-leucine synthesis. After two rounds of random mutagenesis, the specific activity of LeuDH on the substrate TMP was enhanced by more than two-fold, compared with that of the wild-type enzyme, while the activity towards its natural substrate, leucine, decreased. The catalytic efficiencies (k cat/K m) of the best mutant enzyme, H6, on substrates TMP and NADH were all enhanced by more than five-fold as compared with that of the wild-type enzyme. The efficiency of L-tert-leucine synthesis by mutant H6 was significantly improved. A productivity of 1170 g/l/day was achieved for the mutant enzyme H6, compared with 666 g/l/day for the wild-type enzyme.

  8. Calorimetrically obtained information about the efficiency of ectoine synthesis from glucose in Halomonas elongata.

    PubMed

    Maskow, T; Babel, W

    2001-07-02

    Compatible solutes are becoming more and more attractive commercially. Thus, knowledge of the efficiency of synthesis of compatible solutes from different carbon substrates is very important. As the growth rate and rates of formation of compatible solutes correspond to the heat flux, calorimetric measurements are particularly suitable for providing this information. By growing microorganisms continuously in a calorimeter, and generating a feeding stream with gradually increasing salinity without changing any other growth conditions, we were able to determine the efficiency of growth-associated synthesis of compatible solutes. This was shown for Halomonas elongata DMSZ 2581(T) growing on glucose, which synthesizes (at 25 degrees C) 1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2-methyl-4-pyrimidinecarboxylic acid (ectoine) as its main osmotic counterweight. The requirement of biologically usable energy for its growth-associated synthesis was found to be very low: a 100% efficiency of the conversion of the substrate-carbon into ectoine is both theoretically possible and was reached approximately in practice. The growth rate and yield coefficient were essentially independent of the ectoine formation rate, and the rate of substrate-carbon assimilation was far greater than the rate of dissimilation. The specific maximum growth rate was limited by the rate of formation of ectoine.

  9. A new structural analysis/synthesis capability - ACCESS. [Approximation Concepts Code for Efficient Structural Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmit, L. A.; Miura, H.

    1975-01-01

    The creation of an efficient automated capability for minimum weight design of structures is reported. The ACCESS 1 computer program combines finite element analysis techniques and mathematical programming algorithms using an innovative collection of approximation concepts. Design variable linking, constraint deletion techniques and approximate analysis methods are used to generate a sequence of small explicit mathematical programming problems which retain the essential features of the design problem. Organization of the finite element analysis is carefully matched to the design optimization task. The efficiency of the ACCESS 1 program is demonstrated by giving results for several example problems.

  10. Stereoselective cyclotetramerization of a 3-(Hydroxymethyl)salicylaldehyde

    PubMed

    Butler; Brown; Boger; Ferfolia; Fitzgibbons; Jongeling; Kelleher; Malec; Malerich; Weltner

    2000-12-28

    Both 3-(hydroxymethyl)-5-methylsalicylaldehyde and its acetonide condense in the presence of hydrogen chloride in ether to form macrocyclic S(4)-symmetric tetraacetal 2. The reaction is completely oligo- and stereoselective, forming only the tetramer and only the achiral (R,S,R,S)-stereoisomer. Acid-catalyzed equilibration studies and molecular mechanics calculations indicate that the stereoselectivity is thermodynamic in origin. In the crystal the saddle-shaped molecules of 2 form coaxial stacks reminiscent of the packing of Pringles potato chips.

  11. Conjugate additions to phenylglycinol-derived unsaturated delta-lactams. Enantioselective synthesis of uleine alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Amat, Mercedes; Pérez, Maria; Llor, Núria; Escolano, Carmen; Luque, F Javier; Molins, Elies; Bosch, Joan

    2004-12-10

    The stereochemical outcome of the conjugate addition of a variety of stabilized nucleophiles (2-indoleacetic enolates and sulfur-stabilized anions) to the phenylglycinol-derived unsaturated lactams trans-2, cis-2, and its 8-ethyl-substituted analogue 10 is studied. The factors governing the exo or endo facial stereoselectivity are discussed. This methodology provides short synthetic routes to either cis- or trans-3,4-disubstituted enantiopure piperidines as well as efficient routes for the enantioselective construction of the tetracyclic ring system of uleine alkaloids, both in the normal and 20-epi series. The formal total synthesis of several alkaloids of this group is reported.

  12. Asymmetric synthesis of fully substituted cyclopentane-oxindoles through an organocatalytic triple Michael domino reaction.

    PubMed

    Zou, Liang-Hua; Philipps, Arne R; Raabe, Gerhard; Enders, Dieter

    2015-01-12

    An efficient, highly stereoselective asymmetric synthesis of fully functionalized cyclopentanes bearing an oxindole moiety and several other functional groups in one pot has been developed. Key step is an organocatalytic triple Michael domino reaction forming three C-C bonds and six stereocenters, including a quaternary one. Starting from equimolar amounts of simple substrates, a high molecular complexity can be reached after a Wittig olefination in one pot. The new protocol can easily be scaled up to gram amounts. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Simplified Application of Material Efficiency Green Metrics to Synthesis Plans: Pedagogical Case Studies Selected from "Organic Syntheses"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andraos, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a simplified approach for the application of material efficiency metrics to linear and convergent synthesis plans encountered in organic synthesis courses. Computations are facilitated and automated using intuitively designed Microsoft Excel spreadsheets without invoking abstract mathematical formulas. The merits of this…

  14. Simplified Application of Material Efficiency Green Metrics to Synthesis Plans: Pedagogical Case Studies Selected from "Organic Syntheses"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andraos, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a simplified approach for the application of material efficiency metrics to linear and convergent synthesis plans encountered in organic synthesis courses. Computations are facilitated and automated using intuitively designed Microsoft Excel spreadsheets without invoking abstract mathematical formulas. The merits of this…

  15. Steric stabilization of Pickering emulsions for the efficient synthesis of polymeric microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Salari, Joris W O; van Heck, Jeroen; Klumperman, Bert

    2010-09-21

    It is commonly known that Pickering emulsions are extremely stable against coalescence and are, therefore, potentially interesting for the synthesis of new materials, such as colloidosomes, microcapsules, composite particles, foams, and so on. However, for the efficient synthesis of such materials, one also has to consider the colloidal stability against aggregation, which is often neglected. In this study, it is demonstrated that steric stabilization is provided to Pickering emulsion droplets by the adsorption of poly(styrene-block-ethylene-co-propylene) (pS-b-EP) and that it is a requirement for the efficient synthesis of polymeric microcapsules. Monodisperse polystyrene particles of 648 nm are synthesized by soap-free emulsion polymerization. A model Pickering emulsion is then formed by the addition of sodium chloride at a critical concentration of 325 mM and mixing it with either heptane or decane. Subsequently, pS-b-EP is added to the Pickering emulsion to provide steric stabilization. Size exclusion chromatography is used to prove and quantify the adsorption of pS-b-EP onto the Pickering emulsion droplets. A maximum surface coverage of 1.3 mg/m(2) is obtained after 2 h, which is approximately one-third of the adsorption on a pure pS surface. We believe that the presence of polar sulfate groups on the particle, which initially stabilized the particle in water, reduces the adsorption of pS-b-EP. Microcapsules are formed by heating the Pickering emulsion above the glass-transition temperature of the particles. Significant aggregation is observed, if no pS-b-EP is used. The adsorption of pS-b-EP provides steric stabilization to the Pickering emulsion droplets, reduces aggregation significantly, and ultimately leads to the successful and efficient synthesis of pS microcapsules.

  16. Stereoselective formation of a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer by using N4-acetyl protection of the cytosine base.

    PubMed

    Nishiguchi, Kosuke; Yamamoto, Junpei; Iwai, Shigenori

    2008-01-01

    The cytosine base in DNA undergoes hydrolytic deamination at a considerable rate when UV radiation induces formation of a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) with an adjacent pyrimidine base. As a part of our study on the synthesis of CPD-containing oligonucleotides, we have prepared properly-protected thymidylyl-(3' 5')-N(4)-acetyl-2'-deoxycytidine, and the solution of this compound was UV-irradiated using acetophenone as a sensitizer. In this reaction, hydrolysis of the acetylamino group occurred, and a trans-syn cyclobutane thymine-uracil dimer with the syn-anti conformation around the glycosidic bonds was formed stereoselectively.

  17. Collective total synthesis of englerin A and B, orientalol E and F, and oxyphyllol: application of the organocatalytic [4+3] cycloaddition reaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Chen, Shu-Guang; Sun, Bing-Feng; Lin, Guo-Qiang; Shang, Yong-Jia

    2013-02-11

    The concise collective total synthesis of englerin A and B, orientalol E and F, and oxyphyllol has been accomplished in 10-15 steps, with the total synthesis of orientalol E and oxyphyllol being achieved for the first time. The success obtained was enabled by the realization of the [4+3] cycloaddition reaction of 9 and 10. Other features of the synthesis include 1) the intramolecular Heck reaction to access the azulene core, 2) the epoxidation-S(N)2' reduction sequence to access the allylic alcohol, 3) the efficient regioselective and stereoselective formal hydration of the bridging C=C bond in the synthesis of englerins, and 4) the late-stage chemo- and stereoselective C-H oxidation in the synthesis of orientalol E. The total synthesis of these natural products has enabled the structural revision of oxyphyllol and established the absolute stereochemical features of the organocatalytic [4+3] cycloaddition reaction. The identification of 5 as the natural product oxyphyllol, the success in converting 5 to orientalol E, along with the fact that englerins and oxyphyllol were isolated from plants of the same genus Phyllanthus gives support to our proposed biosynthetic pathways. This work may enable detailed biological evaluations of these natural products and their analogues and derivatives, especially of their potential in the fight against renal cell carcinoma (RCC).

  18. Stereoselective formation of a 2 prime (3 prime)- aminoacyl ester of a nucleotide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, A. L.

    1986-01-01

    Reaction of DL-series and adenosine-5-phosphorimidazolide in the presence of adenosine-5'-(0-methylphosphate) and imidazole resulted in the stereoselective synthesis of the aminoacyl nucleotide ester, 2'(3')-0-seryl-adenosine-5'-(0-methylphosphate). The enantiomeric excess of D-serine incorporated into 2'(3')-0-seryl-adenosine-5'-(0-methylphosphate) was about 9%. Adenylyl-(5->N)-serine and an unknown product also incorporated an excess of D-serine, however, seryl-serine showed an excess of L-serine. The relationship of these results to the origin of the biological pairing of L-amino acids and nucleotides containing D-ribose is discussed.

  19. Z-Stereoselective Aza-Peterson Olefinations with Bis(trimethylsilane) Reagents and Sulfinyl Imines.

    PubMed

    Das, Manas; O'Shea, Donal F

    2016-01-15

    Highly stereoselective aza-Peterson olefinations from bench-stable α,α-bis(trimethylsilyl)toluene reagents and N-substituted imines have been achieved using TMSO(-)/Bu4N(+) as Lewis base activator in THF. Remarkably, and for the first time, N-t-butanesulfinyl imines were utilized for the synthesis of Z-stilbenes with excellent selectivities, while N-aryl imines generated E-stilbenes under identical reaction conditions. The protocol proved general for numerous examples with low molecular weight byproducts formed. The origin of the Z-selectivity is proposed to be a result of diastereoselective addition to N-t-butanesulfinyl imines followed by syn-elimination of an in situ formed hypervalent silicate.

  20. N-triazinylammonium tetrafluoroborates. A new generation of efficient coupling reagents useful for peptide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kamiński, Zbigniew J; Kolesińska, Beata; Kolesińska, Justyna; Sabatino, Giuseppina; Chelli, Mario; Rovero, Paolo; Błaszczyk, Michał; Główka, Marek L; Papini, Anna Maria

    2005-12-07

    A new generation of triazine-based coupling reagents (TBCRs), designed according to the concept of "superactive esters", was obtained by treatment of 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium (DMTMM) chloride with lithium or silver tetrafluoroborate. The structure of 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium tetrafluoroborate was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Activation of carboxylic acids by using this reagent proceeds via triazine "superactive ester". The coupling reagent was successfully used for the synthesis of Z-, Boc-, and Fmoc-protected dipeptides derived from natural and unnatural sterically hindered amino acids and for fragment condensation, in 80-100% yield and with high enantiomeric purity. The manual SPPS of the ACP(65-74) peptide fragment (H-Val-Gln-Ala-Ala-Ile-Asp-Tyr-Ile-Asn-Gly-OH) proceeded significantly faster than with TBTU or HATU, as well as the automated SPPS of the same fragment gave a purer product than by using TBTU or PyBOP. The reagent was also demonstrated to be efficient in on-resin head-to-tail cyclization of constrained cyclopeptides, in SPPS synthesis of Aib peptides, and in the synthesis of esters from appropriate acids, alcohols, and phenols. The high efficiency and versatility of this new generation of TBCRs confirm, for the first time, the usefulness of the concept of "superactive esters" in rational design of the structure of coupling reagents.

  1. Studies on a urea-directed Stork-Crabtree hydrogenation. Synthesis of the C1-C9 subunit of (+)-zincophorin.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhenlei; Hsung, Richard P; Lu, Ting; Lohse, Andrew G

    2007-12-07

    A detailed account on the stereoselective synthesis of the C1-C9 subunit of (+)-zincophorin is described here. This approach features the first application of a stereoselective inverse electron demand hetero-[4 + 2] cycloaddition of chiral allenamides in natural product synthesis. The C1-C9 subunit matches Cossy's intermediate, thereby constituting a formal total synthesis. In addition, details of an unusual urea-directed Stork-Crabtree hydrogenation observed during these efforts are also disclosed here.

  2. Dynamic Origin of the Stereoselectivity of a Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Bogle, Xavier S.; Singleton, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    A nucleophilic substitution on a dichlorovinyl ketone was studied experimentally and computationally. A mixture of products is observed experimentally, but a conventional computational analysis does not account for the formation of the minor stereoisomer. Instead, the product mixture is predicted accurately from a dynamic trajectory study on a bifurcating energy surface. The dynamic origin of the stereoselectivity of the reaction is discussed. PMID:22540965

  3. High stereoselectivity on low temperature Diels-Alder reactions

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Filho, Luiz Carlos; Lacerda Júnior, Valdemar; Constantino, Mauricio Gomes; da Silva, Gil Valdo José; Invernize, Paulo Roberto

    2005-01-01

    We have found that some of the usually poor dienophiles (2-cycloenones) can undergo Diels-Alder reaction at -78°C with unusually high stereoselectivity in the presence of niobium pentachloride as a Lewis acid catalyst. A remarkable difference in reaction rates for unsubstituted and α- or β-methyl substituted 2-cycloenones was also observed. PMID:16542029

  4. Stereoselective Synthesis of Spirooxindole Amides through Nitrile Hydrozirconation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chunliang; Xiao, Qing; Floreancig, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    Spirooxindole amides can be prepared by the intramolecular addition of functionalized indoles into acyliminium ions that are accessed from nitriles by hydrozirconation and acylation. The stereochemical outcome at the quaternary center was controlled by the steric bulk of the substituent at the 2-position of the indole unit. The products are well-suited for diversification to prepare libraries. PMID:20961073

  5. Stereoselective synthesis and molecular modeling of chiral cyclopentanes.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Jalil, Raid J; Steinbrecher, Thomas; Al-Harthy, Thuraya; Mahal, Ahmed; Abou-Zied, Osama K; Voelter, Wolfgang

    2015-10-13

    The reaction of 3-methyseleno-2-methylselenomethyl-propene with benzyl 2,3-anhydro-4-O-triflyl-β-L-ribopyranoside provides a major convenient enantiomeric product of 1-methylene-(benzyl3,4-dideoxy-α-D-arabinopyranoso)-[3,4-c]-cyclopentane, with benzyl-2,3-anhydro-4-deoxy-4-C-(2-methyl- propen-3-yl)-α-D-lyxopyranoside as a minor product. While the reaction of 3-methyseleno-2-[methylselenomethyl]-propene with benzyl 2,3-anhydro-4-O-triflyl-α-D-ribopyranoside produces a good yield of benzyl-2,3-anhydro-4-deoxy-4-C-(2-methylpropen-3-yl)-α-D-lyxo-pyranoside. Molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the intermediate in the reaction of the β-L sugar frequently occupies an optimal conformation that leads to the formation of cyclopentane, while the intermediate in the reaction of the α-D sugar has a very small probability. The results point to the dominant role of the β-L sugar intermediate in controlling the cyclopentane formation.

  6. A SHORT, STEREOSELECTIVE SYNTHESIS OF NEO-INOSITOL. (R826113)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  7. High-efficient Synthesis of Graphene Oxide Based on Improved Hummers Method

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Huitao; Zhang, Bangwen; Bulin, Chaoke; Li, Ruihong; Xing, Ruiguang

    2016-01-01

    As an important precursor and derivate of graphene, graphene oxide (GO) has received wide attention in recent years. However, the synthesis of GO in an economical and efficient way remains a great challenge. Here we reported an improved NaNO3-free Hummers method by partly replacing KMnO4 with K2FeO4 and controlling the amount of concentrated sulfuric acid. As compared to the existing NaNO3-free Hummers methods, this improved routine greatly reduces the reactant consumption while keeps a high yield. The obtained GO was characterized by various techniques, and its derived graphene aerogel was demonstrated as high-performance supercapacitor electrodes. This improved synthesis shows good prospects for scalable production and applications of GO and its derivatives. PMID:27808164

  8. Efficient synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Prosopis juliflora leaf extract and its antimicrobial activity using sewage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, K.; Saravanakumar, A.; Vijayakumar, R.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Prosopis juliflora was used for the synthesis of silver (Ag) nanoparticles. UV-Vis spectroscopy studies were carried out to asses silver nanoparticles formation within 5 min, scanning electron microscopic was used to characterize shape of the Ag nanoparticles, X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the nanoparticles as crystalline silver and facecentered cubic type and Fourier transform infra-red assed that shows biomolecule compounds which are responsible for reduction and capping material of silver nanoparticles. The anti microbial activity of silver nanoparticle was performed using sewage. The approach of plant-mediated synthesis appears to be cost efficient, eco-friendly and easy methods.

  9. Efficient synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Prosopis juliflora leaf extract and its antimicrobial activity using sewage.

    PubMed

    Raja, K; Saravanakumar, A; Vijayakumar, R

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Prosopis juliflora was used for the synthesis of silver (Ag) nanoparticles. UV-Vis spectroscopy studies were carried out to asses silver nanoparticles formation within 5 min, scanning electron microscopic was used to characterize shape of the Ag nanoparticles, X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the nanoparticles as crystalline silver and facecentered cubic type and Fourier transform infra-red assed that shows biomolecule compounds which are responsible for reduction and capping material of silver nanoparticles. The anti microbial activity of silver nanoparticle was performed using sewage. The approach of plant-mediated synthesis appears to be cost efficient, eco-friendly and easy methods.

  10. High-efficient Synthesis of Graphene Oxide Based on Improved Hummers Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Huitao; Zhang, Bangwen; Bulin, Chaoke; Li, Ruihong; Xing, Ruiguang

    2016-11-01

    As an important precursor and derivate of graphene, graphene oxide (GO) has received wide attention in recent years. However, the synthesis of GO in an economical and efficient way remains a great challenge. Here we reported an improved NaNO3-free Hummers method by partly replacing KMnO4 with K2FeO4 and controlling the amount of concentrated sulfuric acid. As compared to the existing NaNO3-free Hummers methods, this improved routine greatly reduces the reactant consumption while keeps a high yield. The obtained GO was characterized by various techniques, and its derived graphene aerogel was demonstrated as high-performance supercapacitor electrodes. This improved synthesis shows good prospects for scalable production and applications of GO and its derivatives.

  11. Rational design and synthesis of freestanding photoelectric nanodevices as highly efficient photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yongquan; Liao, Lei; Cheng, Rui; Wang, Yue; Lin, Yung-Chen; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2010-05-12

    Photocatalysts are of significant interest in solar energy harvesting and conversion into chemical energy. However, the photocatalysts available to date are limited by either poor efficiency in the visible light range or insufficient photoelectrochemical stability. Here we report the rational design of a new generation of freestanding photoelectric nanodevices as highly efficient and stable photocatalysts by integrating a nanoscale photodiode with two redox catalysts in a single nanowire heterostructure. We show that a platinum-silicon-silver nanowire heterostructure can be synthesized to integrate a nanoscale metal-semiconductor Schottky diode encased in a protective insulating shell with two exposed metal catalysts. We further demonstrated that the Schottky diodes exhibited a pronounced photovoltaic effect with nearly unity internal quantum efficiency and that the integrated nanowire heterostructures could be used as highly efficient photocatalysts for a wide range of thermodynamically downhill and uphill reactions including the photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes and the reduction of metal ions and carbon dioxide using visible light. Our studies for the first time demonstrated the integration of multiple distinct functional components into a single nanostructure to form a standalone active nanosystem and for the first time successfully realized a photoelectric nanodevice that is both highly efficient and highly stable throughout the entire solar spectrum. It thus opens a rational avenue to the design and synthesis of a new generation of photoelectric nanosystems with unprecedented efficiency and stability and will have a broad impact in areas including environmental remediation, artificial photosynthesis and solar fuel production.

  12. High efficiency 3D video coding using new tools based on view synthesis.

    PubMed

    Dománski, Marek; Stankiewicz, Olgierd; Wegner, Krzysztof; Kurc, Maciej; Konieczny, Jacek; Siast, Jakub; Stankowski, Jakub; Ratajczak, Robert; Grajek, Tomasz

    2013-09-01

    We propose a new coding technology for 3D video represented by multiple views and the respective depth maps. The proposed technology is demonstrated as an extension of the recently developed high efficiency video coding (HEVC). One base views are compressed into a standard bitstream (like in HEVC). The remaining views and the depth maps are compressed using new coding tools that mostly rely on view synthesis. In the decoder, those views and the depth maps are derived via synthesis in the 3D space from the decoded baseview and from data corresponding to small disoccluded regions. The shapes and locations of those disoccluded regions can be derived by the decoder without any side information transmitted. To achieve high compression efficiency, we propose several new tools such as depth-based motion prediction, joint high frequency layer coding, consistent depth representation, and nonlinear depth representation. The experiments show high compression efficiency of the proposed technology. The bitrate needed for transmission of two side views with depth maps is mostly less than 50% than that of the bitrate for a single-view video.

  13. An efficient synthesis method targeted to marine alkaloids marinacarbolines A-D and their antitumor activities.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Tang, Yang; Jin, Hui-Juan; Cui, Yi-Di; Zhang, Li-Juan; Jiang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Marinacarbolines A-D are a series of marine β-carboline alkaloids isolated from actinomycete Marinactinospora thermotolerans of the deep South China Sea with antiplasmodial activities. In inhibition assays of in vitro growth of Plasmodium falciparum, marinacarbolines exhibited antiplasmodial activity against drug-sensitive line 3D7 and drug-resistant line Dd2 of P. falciparum. However, approaches for the synthesis of such useful compounds are very limited. In this work, we reported a simple, efficient, and versatile process to synthesize marinacarbolines A-D (1-4). On the basis of that, the antitumor activities of marinacarbolines in a structure-dependent manner were allowed to be unveiled.

  14. ZnO Catalyzed Efficient Synthesis of Some New 2-Substituted-4,6-diarylpyrimidines

    PubMed Central

    Ameta, K. L.; Kumar, Biresh; Rathore, Nitu S.

    2012-01-01

    A simple and efficient protocol is developed for the synthesis of 2-substituted-4,6-diarylpyrimidines from one-pot three-component reaction of 4′-hydroxy-3′,5′-dinitro substituted chalcones, S-benzylthiouronium chloride (SBT), and heterocyclic secondary amines (morpholine/pyrrolidine/piperidine) in the presence of 15 mol% of ZnO as a heterogeneous catalyst. The present methodology offers several advantages such as being a simple procedure as well as providing excellent yields, and short reaction time. The catalyst is inexpensive, stable, and can be easily recycled and reused for several cycles with consistent activity. PMID:24052838

  15. A Sustainable and Efficient Synthesis of Benzyl Phosphonates Using PEG/KI Catalytic System

    PubMed Central

    Disale, Shamrao; Kale, Sandip; Abraham, George; Kahandal, Sandeep; Sawarkar, Ashish N.; Gawande, Manoj B.

    2016-01-01

    An efficient and expedient protocol for the synthesis of benzyl phosphonates using KI/K2CO3 as a catalytic system and PEG-400 as benign solvent has been developed. The reaction proceeds smoothly at room temperature achieving excellent selectivity and yield of the corresponding products. The combination of PEG-400, KI, and K2CO3 in this reaction avoids the need of volatile/toxic organic solvents and reactive alkali metals or metal nanoparticles/hydrides. We believe that this benign combination (PEG-400 and KI) could be used for other related organic transformations. PMID:27579301

  16. A sustainable and efficient synthesis of benzyl phosphonates using PEG/KI catalytic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawande, Manoj; Disale, Shamrao; Kale, Sandip; Abraham, George; Kahandal, Sandeep; Sawarkar, Ashish

    2016-08-01

    An efficient and expedient protocol for the synthesis of benzyl phosphonates using KI/K2CO3 as a catalytic system and PEG-400 as benign solvent has been developed. The reaction proceeds smoothly at room temperature achieving excellent selectivity and yield of the corresponding products. The combination of PEG-400, KI and K2CO3 in this reaction avoids the need of volatile/toxic organic solvents and reactive alkali metals or metal nanoparticles/hydrides. We believe that this benign combination (PEG-400 and KI) could be used for other related organic transformations.

  17. An efficient protocol for the solid-phase synthesis of glycopeptides under microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Martin, Fayna; Hinou, Hiroshi; Matsushita, Takahiko; Hayakawa, Shun; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro

    2012-02-28

    A standardized and smooth protocol for solid-phase glycopeptides synthesis under microwave irradiation was developed. Double activation system was proved to allow for highly efficient coupling of Tn-Ser/Thr and bulky core 2-Ser/Thr derivatives. Versatility and robustness of the present strategy was demonstrated by constructing a Mucine-1 (MUC1) fragment and glycosylated fragments of tau protein. The success of this approach relies on the combination of microwave energy, a resin consisting totally of polyethylene glycol, a low excess of sugar amino acid and the "double activation" method.

  18. An Efficient Synthesis of 2-Substituted Benzimidazoles via Photocatalytic Condensation of o-Phenylenediamines and Aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Kovvuri, Jeshma; Nagaraju, Burri; Kamal, Ahmed; Srivastava, Ajay K

    2016-10-10

    A photocatalytic method has been developed for the efficient synthesis of functionalized benzimidazoles. This protocol involves photocatalytic condensation of o-phenylenediamines with various aldehydes using the Rose Bengal as photocatalyst. The method was found to be general and was successfully employed for accessing pharmaceutically important benzimidazoles by the condensation of aromatic, heteroaromatic and aliphatic aldehydes with o-phenylenediamines, in good-to-excellent yields. Notably, the method was found to be effective for the condensation of less reactive heterocyclic aldehydes with o-phenylenediamines.

  19. A highly efficient green synthesis of 1, 8-dioxo-octahydroxanthenes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    SmCl3 (20 mol%) has been used as an efficient catalyst for reaction between aromatic aldehydes and 5,5-dimethyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione at 120°C to give 1,8-dioxo-octahydroxanthene derivatives in high yield. The same reaction in water, at room temperature gave only the open chain analogue of 1,8-dioxo-octahydroxanthene. Use of eco-friendly green Lewis acid, readily available catalyst and easy isolation of the product makes this a convenient method for the synthesis of either of the products. PMID:22152051

  20. Total synthesis of racemic and (R) and (S)-4-methoxyalkanoic acids and their antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Das, Biswanath; Shinde, Digambar Balaji; Kanth, Boddu Shashi; Kamle, Avijeet; Kumar, C Ganesh

    2011-07-01

    The total synthesis of 4-methoxydecanoic acid and 4-methoxyundecanoic acid in racemic and stereoselective [(R) and (S)] forms has been accomplished. For stereoselective synthesis of the compounds (S) and (R)-BINOL complexes have been used to generate the required chiral centres. The antifungal activity of these compounds has been studied against different organisms and the results were found to be impressive. The activity of the compounds in racemic and in stereoselective forms was compared. (R)-4-Methoxydecanoic acid was found to be most potent (MIC: 0.019 mg/mL against Candida albicans MTCC 227, C. albicans MTCC 4748, Aspergillus brasiliensis (niger) MTCC 281 and Issatchenkia orientalis MTCC 3020).

  1. Enantioselective synthesis of PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors) agonists and antagonists.

    PubMed

    Goya, Pilar; Perez-Fernandez, Ruth; Gonzalez-Muniz, Rosario; Elguero, Jose

    2014-01-01

    This review deals with stereoselective issues in PPAR ligands some of which are in clinical use for treating certain metabolic disorders. After a short introduction of these nuclear receptor and their agonists, some cases of enantioselective separations are reported. The main part concerns stereoselective synthesis first starting with asymmetric synthesis from chiral precursors followed by what we refer to as "true" enantioselective methods. Some examples are discussed in detail for each particular heading.

  2. A broadly applicable NHC-Cu-catalyzed approach for efficient, site-, and enantioselective coupling of readily accessible (pinacolato)alkenylboron compounds to allylic phosphates and applications to natural product synthesis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fang; Carr, James L; Hoveyda, Amir H

    2014-02-05

    A set of protocols for catalytic enantioselective allylic substitution (EAS) reactions that allow for additions of alkenyl units to readily accessible allylic electrophiles is disclosed. Transformations afford 1,4-dienes that contain a tertiary carbon stereogenic site and are promoted by 1.0-5.0 mol % of a copper complex of an N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC). Aryl- as well as alkyl-substituted electrophiles bearing a di- or trisubstituted alkene may be employed. Reactions can involve a variety of robust alkenyl-(pinacolatoboron) [alkenyl-B(pin)] compounds that can be either purchased or prepared by various efficient, site-, and/or stereoselective catalytic reactions, such as cross-metathesis or proto-boryl additions to terminal alkynes. Vinyl-, E-, or Z-disubstituted alkenyl-, 1,1-disubstituted alkenyl-, acyclic, or heterocyclic trisubstituted alkenyl groups may be added in up to >98% yield, >98:2 SN2':SN2, and 99:1 enantiomeric ratio (er). NHC-Cu-catalyzed EAS with alkenyl-B(pin) reagents containing a conjugated carboxylic ester or aldehyde group proceed to provide the desired 1,4-diene products in good yield and with high enantioselectivity despite the presence of a sensitive stereogenic tertiary carbon center that could be considered prone to epimerization. In most instances, the alternative approach of utilizing an alkenylmetal reagent (e.g., an Al-based species) represents an incompatible option. The utility of the approach is illustrated through applications to enantioselective synthesis of natural products such as santolina alcohol, semburin, nyasol, heliespirone A, and heliannuol E.

  3. Discovery, application and protein engineering of Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases for organic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Balke, Kathleen; Kadow, Maria; Mallin, Hendrik; Sass, Stefan; Bornscheuer, Uwe T

    2012-08-21

    Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs) are useful enzymes for organic synthesis as they enable the direct and highly regio- and stereoselective oxidation of ketones to esters or lactones simply with molecular oxygen. This contribution covers novel concepts such as searching in protein sequence databases using distinct motifs to discover new Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases as well as high-throughput assays to facilitate protein engineering in order to improve BVMOs with respect to substrate range, enantioselectivity, thermostability and other properties. Recent examples for the application of BVMOs in synthetic organic synthesis illustrate the broad potential of these biocatalysts. Furthermore, methods to facilitate the more efficient use of BVMOs in organic synthesis by applying e.g. improved cofactor regeneration, substrate feed and in situ product removal or immobilization are covered in this perspective.

  4. Efficient Synthesis of Eriodictyol from l-Tyrosine in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Saijie; Wu, Junjun; Du, Guocheng

    2014-01-01

    The health benefits of flavonoids for humans are increasingly attracting attention. Because the extraction of high-purity flavonoids from plants presents a major obstacle, interest has emerged in biosynthesizing them using microbial hosts. Eriodictyol is a flavonoid with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Its efficient synthesis has been hampered by two factors: the poor expression of cytochrome P450 and the low intracellular malonyl coenzyme A (malonyl-CoA) concentration in Escherichia coli. To address these issues, a truncated plant P450 flavonoid, flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase (tF3′H), was functionally expressed as a fusion protein with a truncated P450 reductase (tCPR) in E. coli. This allowed the engineered E. coli to produce eriodictyol from l-tyrosine by simultaneously coexpressing the fusion protein with tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL), 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL), chalcone synthase (CHS), and chalcone isomerase (CHI). In addition, metabolic engineering was employed to enhance the availability of malonyl-CoA so as to achieve a new metabolic balance and rebalance the relative expression of genes to enhance eriodictyol accumulation. This approach made the production of eriodictyol 203% higher than that in the control strain. By using these strategies, the production of eriodictyol from l-tyrosine reached 107 mg/liter. The present work offers an approach to the efficient synthesis of other hydroxylated flavonoids from l-tyrosine or even glucose in E. coli. PMID:24610848

  5. Reduced Left Ventricular Compliance and Mechanical Efficiency after Prolonged Inhibition of NO Synthesis in Conscious Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Post, Heiner; d'Agostino, Chiara; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Castellari, Michele; Kang, Elaine Y; Altarejos, Martin; Xu, Xiaobin; Hintze, Thomas H; Recchia, Fabio A

    2003-01-01

    Acute inhibition of NO synthesis decreases left ventricular (LV) work and external efficiency, but it is unknown whether compensatory mechanisms can limit the alterations in LV mechanoenergetics after prolonged NO deficiency. Eight chronically instrumented male mongrel dogs received 35 mg kg−1 day−1 of Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester orally for 10 days to inhibit NO synthesis. At spontaneous beating frequency, heart rate, coronary blood flow, peak LV pressure, end-diastolic LV pressure and the maximum derivative of LV pressure (dP/dtmax) were not significantly different vs. baseline, whereas LV end-diastolic diameter (32.5 ± 1.0 vs. 37.6 ± 1.4 mm) and LV stroke work (515 ± 38 vs. 650 ± 44 mmHg mm), were reduced (all P < 0.05). The slope of the LV end-systolic pressure-diameter relationship was increased at 10 days vs. baseline (13.9 ± 1.0 vs. 9.6 ± 0.9 mmHg mm−1, P < 0.05), while the end-diastolic LV diameter was smaller at matched LV end-diastolic pressures. At fixed heart rate (130 beats min−1), cardiac oxygen consumption was increased (12.2 ± 1.5 vs. 9.9 ± 1.0 ml min−1), and the ratio between stroke work and oxygen consumption was decreased by 33 ±7 % (all P < 0.05) after NO inhibition. We conclude that sustained inhibition of NO synthesis in dogs causes a decrease in LV work despite an increased contractility, which is most probably due to reduced diastolic compliance and a decrease in external efficiency. Thus, prolonged NO deficiency is not compensated for on the level of LV mechanoenergetics in vivo. PMID:12878761

  6. Carbon dioxide mediated stereoselective copper-catalyzed reductive coupling of alkynes and thiols.

    PubMed

    Riduan, Siti Nurhanna; Ying, Jackie Y; Zhang, Yugen

    2012-04-06

    A simple protocol for the stereoselective copper-catalyzed hydrothiolation of alkynes under a CO(2) atmosphere has been developed. The stereoselectivity is determined by the presence/absence of a CO(2) atmosphere. The reaction system is robust and utilizes inexpensive, readily available substrates. A cyclic alkene/carboxylate copper complex intermediate is proposed as the key step in determining the stereoselectivity, and an equivalent amount of water is found to play an active role as a proton donor.

  7. A concise and efficient total synthesis of α-mangostin and β-mangostin from Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dandan; Nie, Ying; Liang, Xizhou; Ji, Ling; Hu, Songyuan; You, Qidong; Wang, Fan; Ye, Hongchun; Wang, Jinxin

    2013-08-01

    The concise, efficient synthesis of alpha-mangostin is described in eight simple steps with 8.3% overall yield. Highlights include a practical approach to construct the isopentene groups and other diverse groups at C-2 and C-8 of the xanthene skeleton through Claisen rearrangement and Wittig reaction. Meanwhile the first total synthesis of beta-mangostin is presented with a similar approach.

  8. Stereoselective propranolol metabolism in two drug induced rat hepatic microsomes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Zeng, Su

    2000-02-01

    AIM:To study the influence of inducers BNF and PB on the stereoselective metabolism of propranolol in rat hepatic microsomes.METHODS:Phase I metabolism of propranolol was studied by using the microsomes induced by BNF and PB and the non induced microsome as the control.The enzymatic kinetic parameters of propranolol enantiomers were calculated by regression analysis of Lineweaver-Burk plots. Propranolol concentrations were assayed by HPLC.RESULTS:A RP-HPLC method was developed to determine propranolol concentration in rat hepatic microsomes. The linearity equations for R(+)propranolol and S(-) propranolol were A = 705.7C+311.2C (R = 0.9987) and a = 697.2C+311.4C (R = 0.9970) respectively. Recoveries of each enantiomer were 98.9%, 99.5%, 101.0% at 60&mgr;mol/L, 120&mgr;mol/L, 240&mgr;mol/L respectively. At the concentration level of 120&mgr;mol/L, propranolol enantiomers were metabolized at different rates in different microsomes. The concentration ratio R(+)/S(-) of control and PB induced microsomes increased with time, whereas that of microsome induced by BNF decreased. The assayed enzyme parameters were: 1. Km. Control group: R(+)30 plus minus 8, S(-)18 plus minus 5; BNF group: R(+)34 plus minus 3, S(-)39 plus minus 7; PB group: R(+)38 plus minus 17, S(-)36 plus minus 10. 2. Vmax. Control group: R(+)1.5 plus minus 0.2, S(-)2.9 plus minus 0.3; BNF group: R(+)3.8 plus minus 0.3, S(-)3.3 plus minus 0.5; PB group: R(+)0.07 plus minus 0.03, S(-)1.94 plus minus 0.07. 3. Clint. Control group: R(+)60 plus minus 3, S(-)170 plus minus 30; BNF group: R(+)111.0 plus minus 1, S(-) 84 plus minus 5; PB group: R(+)2.0 plus minus 2, S(-)56.0 plus minus 1. The enzyme parameters compared with unpaired t tests showed that no stereoselectivity was observed in enzymatic affinity of three microsomes to enantiomers and their catalytic abilities were quite different and had stereoselectivities.Compared with the control, microsome induced by BNF enhanced enzyme activity to propranolol R

  9. Stereoselective silylcupration of conjugated alkynes in water at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Linstadt, Roscoe T H; Peterson, Carl A; Lippincott, Daniel J; Jette, Carina I; Lipshutz, Bruce H

    2014-04-14

    Micellar catalysis enables copper-catalyzed silylcupration of a variety of electron-deficient alkynes, thereby providing access to isomerically pure E- or Z-β-silyl-substituted carbonyl derivatives. These reactions take place in minutes, afford high yields and stereoselectivity, and are especially tolerant of functional groups present in the substrates. The aqueous reaction medium has been successfully recycled several times, and a substrate/catalyst ratio of 10,000:1 has been documented for this methodology.

  10. Molecular basis for the substrate stereoselectivity in Tryptophan Dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Capece, Luciana; Lewis-Ballester, Ariel; Marti, Marcelo A.; Estrin, Dario A.; Yeh, Syun-Ru

    2011-01-01

    Tryptophan dioxygenase (TDO) and Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) are the only two heme-proteins that catalyze the oxidation reaction of tryptophan (Trp) to N-formylkynurenine (NFK). While human IDO (hIDO) is able to oxidize both L and D-Trp, human TDO (hTDO) displays a major specificity towards L-Trp. In this work we aim to interrogate the molecular basis for the substrate stereoselectivity of hTDO. Our previous molecular dynamics simulation studies of Xanthomonas campestris TDO (xcTDO) showed that an H-bond between T254 (T342 in hTDO) and the ammonium group of the substrate is present in the L-Trp-bound enzyme, but not in the D-Trp bound enzyme. The fact that this is the only notable structural alteration induced by the change in the stereo structure of the substrate prompted us to produce and characterize the T342A mutant of hTDO to evaluate the structural role of T342 in controlling the substrate stereoselectivity of the enzyme. The experimental results indicate that the mutation only slightly perturbs the global structural properties of the enzyme, but it totally abolishes the substrate stereoselectivity. Molecular Dynamics simulations of xcTDO show that T254 controls the substrate stereoselectivity of the enzyme by (i) modulating the H-bonding interaction between the NH3+ group and epoxide oxygen of the ferryl/indole 2,3-epoxide intermediate of the enzyme, and (ii) regulating the dynamics of two active site loops, loop250–260 and loop117–130, critical for substrate-binding. PMID:22082147

  11. A Stereoselective Approach toward (-)-Lepadins A-C.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiong; Hu, Lingling; Jia, Junhao; Gu, He; Jia, Yuanliang; Chen, Xiaochuan

    2017-09-19

    A new short approach to (-)-lepadins A-C has been developed based on a stereocontrolled Diels-Alder reaction employing a chiral dienophile. With this approach, (-)-lepadin B is synthesized from 5-deoxy-d-ribose in 13 steps with 14.8% overall yield. The cis-decahydroquinoline core containing five stereocenters could be rapidly constructed via stereoselective cycloaddition and subsequent five-step one-pot hydrogenation-cyclization.

  12. Stereoselective Alkane Oxidation with meta-Chloroperoxybenzoic Acid (MCPBA) Catalyzed by Organometallic Cobalt Complexes.

    PubMed

    Shul'pin, Georgiy B; Loginov, Dmitriy A; Shul'pina, Lidia S; Ikonnikov, Nikolay S; Idrisov, Vladislav O; Vinogradov, Mikhail M; Osipov, Sergey N; Nelyubina, Yulia V; Tyubaeva, Polina M

    2016-11-22

    Cobalt pi-complexes, previously described in the literature and specially synthesized and characterized in this work, were used as catalysts in homogeneous oxidation of organic compounds with peroxides. These complexes contain pi-butadienyl and pi-cyclopentadienyl ligands: [(tetramethylcyclobutadiene)(benzene)cobalt] hexafluorophosphate, [(C₄Me₄)Co(C₆H₆)]PF₆ (1); diiodo(carbonyl)(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)cobalt, Cp*Co(CO)I₂ (2); diiodo(carbonyl)(cyclopentadienyl)cobalt, CpCo(CO)I₂ (3); (tetramethylcyclobutadiene)(dicarbonyl)(iodo)cobalt, (C₄Me₄)Co(CO)₂I (4); [(tetramethylcyclobutadiene)(acetonitrile)(2,2'-bipyridyl)cobalt] hexafluorophosphate, [(C₄Me₄)Co(bipy)(MeCN)]PF₆ (5); bis[dicarbonyl(B-cyclohexylborole)]cobalt, [(C₄H₄BCy)Co(CO)₂]₂ (6); [(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)(iodo)(1,10-phenanthroline)cobalt] hexafluorophosphate, [Cp*Co(phen)I]PF₆ (7); diiodo(cyclopentadienyl)cobalt, [CpCoI₂]₂ (8); [(cyclopentadienyl)(iodo)(2,2'-bipyridyl)cobalt] hexafluorophosphate, [CpCo(bipy)I]PF₆ (9); and [(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)(iodo)(2,2'-bipyridyl)cobalt] hexafluorophosphate, [Cp*Co(bipy)I]PF₆ (10). Complexes 1 and 2 catalyze very efficient and stereoselective oxygenation of tertiary C-H bonds in isomeric dimethylcyclohexanes with MCBA: cyclohexanols are produced in 39 and 53% yields and with the trans/cis ratio (of isomers with mutual trans- or cis-configuration of two methyl groups) 0.05 and 0.06, respectively. Addition of nitric acid as co-catalyst dramatically enhances both the yield of oxygenates and stereoselectivity parameter. In contrast to compounds 1 and 2, complexes 9 and 10 turned out to be very poor catalysts (the yields of oxygenates in the reaction with cis-1,2-dimethylcyclohexane were only 5%-7% and trans/cis ratio 0.8 indicated that the oxidation is not stereoselective). The chromatograms of the reaction mixture obtained before and after reduction with PPh₃ are very similar, which testifies that alkyl

  13. Stereoselective biotransformation of ketamine in equine liver and lung microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, A.; Portier, C. J.; Thormann, W.; Theurillat, R.; Mevissen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Stereoselectivity has to be considered for pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic features of ketamine. Stereoselective biotransformation of ketamine was investigated in equine microsomes in vitro. Concentration curves were constructed over time, and enzyme activity was determined for different substrate concentrations using equine liver and lung microsomes. The concentrations of R/S-ketamine and R/S-norketamine were determined by enantioselective capillary electrophoresis. A two-phase model based on Hill kinetics was used to analyze the biotransformation of R/S-ketamine into R/S-norketamine and, in a second step, into R/S-downstream metabolites. In liver and lung microsomes, levels of R-ketamine exceeded those of S-ketamine at all time points and S-norketamine exceeded R-norketamine at time points below the maximum concentration. In liver and lung microsomes, significant differences in the enzyme velocity (Vmax) were observed between Sand R-norketamine formation and between Vmax of S-norketamine formation when S-ketamine was compared to S-ketamine of the racemate. Our investigations in microsomal reactions in vitro suggest that stereoselective ketamine biotransformation in horses occurs in the liver and the lung with a slower elimination of S-ketamine in the presence of R-ketamine. Scaling of the in vitro parameters to liver and lung organ clearances provided an excellent fit with previously published in vivo data and confirmed a lung first-pass effect. PMID:19000264

  14. Stereoselective effects of MDMA on inhibition of monoamine uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, T.D.; Nichols, D.E.; Yim, G.K.W.

    1986-03-05

    The R(-)-isomers of hallucinogenic phenylisopropylamines are most active, whereas the S(+)-enantiomers of amphetamine (AMPH) and methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) are more potent centrally. To determine if MDMA exhibits stereoselective effects at the biochemical level that resemble either those of amphetamine or the potent hallucinogen 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM), the ability of the isomers of MDMA, AMPH and DOM to inhibit uptake of radiolabelled monoamines into synaptosomes was measured. AMPH was more potent than MDMA in inhibiting uptake of /sup 3/H-norepinephrine (NE) into hypothalamic synaptosomes and /sup 3/H-dopamine (DA) into striatal synaptosomes. The S(+)-isomer was more active in each case. MDMA was more potent than AMPH in inhibiting uptake of /sup 3/H-serotonin (5-HT) into hippocampal synaptosomes and exhibited a high degree of stereoselectivity, in favor of the S(+)-isomer. DOM showed only minimal activity in inhibiting uptake of any monoamine (IC/sub 50/ > 10/sup -5/M). These results suggest that MDMA exhibits stereoselective effects similar to those of amphetamine on monoamine uptake inhibition, a parameter that is unrelated to the mechanism of action of the hallucinogen DOM.

  15. Kinetics of stereoselective enrichment of Dechlorane Plus in Ulva Pertusa.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Gong, Ning; Mi, Dong; Luan, Chundi; Shao, Kuishuang; Jia, Hongliang; Sun, Yeqing

    2014-09-01

    Dechlorane Plus (DP) has been detected extensively in both biotic and abiotic matrices, and stereoselective enrichment of Dechlorane Plus isomers has also been observed in organisms. In this laboratory study, Ulva pertusa were firstly exposed to known Dechlorane Plus concentrations for 21d (uptake period), and then transferred to clean seawater for 14d (depuration period) to investigate the kinetics of Dechlorane Plus isomers in U. pertusa. Dechlorane Plus isomers reached steady-state after 21d of exposure. The mean fractional abundance of syn-DP (fsyn) exceeded than that of 0d (0.23±0.02) during uptake, but decreased during depuration. This study is the first to define the kinetics of stereoselective enrichment of Dechlorane Plus isomers in U. pertusa using two-box kinetic model. The uptake rate constants of the syn- and anti-DP were 0.164±0.056d(-1) and 0.083±0.071d(-1), respectively. The depuration rate constants were 0.337±0.057d(-1) (syn-DP) and 0.236±0.095d(-1) (anti-DP), suggesting that syn-DP is eliminated quicker than anti-DP by U. pertusa. These results are consistent with observation of fsyn and stereoselective enrichment of Dechlorane Plus isomers in U. pertusa. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthesis of (−)‐Cannabimovone and Structural Reassignment of Anhydrocannabimovone through Gold(I)‐Catalyzed Cycloisomerization

    PubMed Central

    Carreras, Javier; Kirillova, Mariia S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The first total synthesis of cannabimovone from Cannabis sativa and anhydrocannabimovone was achieved by means of a highly stereoselective gold(I)‐catalyzed cycloisomerization. The results led to reassignment of the structure of anhydrocannabimovone. PMID:27119910

  17. Enantioselective cascade Michael addition/cyclization reactions of 3-nitro-2H-chromenes with 3-isothiocyanato oxindoles: efficient synthesis of functionalized polycyclic spirooxindoles.

    PubMed

    Tan, Fen; Lu, Liang-Qiu; Yang, Qing-Qing; Guo, Wei; Bian, Qiao; Chen, Jia-Rong; Xiao, Wen-Jing

    2014-03-17

    An unprecedented Zn(OTf)2-catalyzed asymmetric Michael addition/cyclization cascade of 3-nitro-2H-chromenes with 3-isothiocyanato oxindoles has been disclosed. This transformation provides an efficient access to various synthetically important polycyclic spirooxindoles in a highly stereoselective manner under mild conditions (72–99% yields, up to >95:5 d.r. and >99% ee). The reaction leads to the formation of three consecutive stereocenters, including 1,3-nonadjacent tetrasubstituted carbon stereocenters, in a single operation. A bifunctional activation model of the chiral Zn(OTf)2/bis(oxazoline) complex was proposed based on control experiments, wherein the ZnII moiety serves as a Lewis acid and the N atom of the free NH group acts as a Lewis base by a hydrogen-bonding interaction.

  18. Stereoselective Formation of Fully Substituted Ketone Enolates.

    PubMed

    Haimov, Elvira; Nairoukh, Zackaria; Shterenberg, Alexander; Berkovitz, Tiran; Jamison, Timothy F; Marek, Ilan

    2016-04-25

    The application of stereochemically defined acyclic fully substituted enolates of ketones to the enantioselective synthesis of quaternary carbon stereocenters would be highly valuable. Herein, we describe an approach leading to the formation of several new stereogenic centers through a combined metalation-addition of a carbonyl-carbamoyl transfer to reveal in situ stereodefined α,α-disubstituted enolates of ketone as a single stereoisomer. This approach could produce a series of aldol and Mannich products from enol carbamate with excellent diastereomeric ratios.

  19. Synthesis of stereotetrads by regioselective cleavage of diastereomeric MEM-protected 2-methyl-3,4-epoxy alcohols with diethylpropynyl aluminum

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Wildeliz; Torres, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    The regioselectivity of the epoxide ring opening of 2-methyl-3,4-epoxy alcohols with diethylpropynylalane has been studied as a function of the C1 alcohol protecting group. An efficient selective method was developed using MEM as the protecting group. The reaction proceeded in a highly regioselective manner providing the useful 1,3-diol motif. The undesired 1,4-diol product produced by some free alcohol diastereomers was not observed. This highly stereoselective method provides access to termini-differentiated stereotetrads, which are essential building bocks for polypropionate synthesis. PMID:24163500

  20. Asymmetric synthesis and biological evaluations of (+)- and (-)-6-dimethoxymethyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-3-carboxylic acid derivatives blocking N-type calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Ohno, Seiji; Niwa, Seiji; Tokumasu, Munetaka; Hagihara, Masako; Koganei, Hajime; Fujita, Shin-ichi; Takeda, Tomoko; Saitou, Yuki; Iwayama, Satoshi; Takahara, Akira; Iwata, Seinosuke; Shoji, Masataka

    2011-06-01

    An efficient asymmetric synthesis of 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives is described. The key step is the stereoselective Michael addition using t-butyl ester of L-valine as a chiral auxiliary to achieve good ee (>95% for all the tested experiments) and moderate yield. With this method, (+)-4-(3-chlorophenyl)-6-dimethoxymethyl-2-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylic acid cinnamyl ester was obtained and was characterized as a promising N-type calcium channel blocker with improved selectivity over L-type compared to its (-)- and racemic isomers.

  1. Ternary Cd(Se,Te) alloy semiconductors - Synthesis, material characterization, and high-efficiency photoelectrochemical cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy-Clement, C.; Triboulet, R.; Rioux, J.; Etcheberry, A.; Licht, S.

    1985-12-01

    High-quality Cd(Se,Te) in two compositions was synthesized using the modified Bridgman technique. The Se-rich crystals had the hexagonal structure, while the Te-rich phase consisted of crystals with cubic packing. Their quality could be gauged from high-electron mobility and low resistivity, which suited the purpose of their synthesis, i.e., for high-efficiency photoelectrochemical cells. Photoelectrochemical etching was employed, which resulted in a heavily pitted surface with the density of the etch pits exceeding 10 to the 9th/sq cm. Quantum efficiency of the semiconductor/aqueous polysulfide interface increased considerably after photoetching. Solar-to-electrical conversion efficiencies in excess of 12 percent were obtained. Photoluminenscence spectrum was measured for the two crystals prior to and after photoetching. The emission maximum is near the calculated band gap. The decline in the luminescence intensity, after photoetching, is attributed to the corrugation of the surface and the reduced density of the donor state near the semiconductor surface, which increases the thickness of the space-charge layer (dead layer model).

  2. Design and Synthesis of Novel Block Copolymers for Efficient Opto-Electronic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Sam-Shajing; Fan, Zhen; Wang, Yiqing; Taft, Charles; Haliburton, James; Maaref, Shahin

    2002-01-01

    It has been predicted that nano-phase separated block copolymer systems containing electron rich donor blocks and electron deficient acceptor blocks may facilitate the charge carrier separation and migration in organic photovoltaic devices due to improved morphology in comparison to polymer blend system. This paper presents preliminary data describing the design and synthesis of a novel Donor-Bridge-Acceptor (D-B-A) block copolymer system for potential high efficient organic optoelectronic applications. Specifically, the donor block contains an electron donating alkyloxy derivatized polyphenylenevinylene (PPV), the acceptor block contains an electron withdrawing alkyl-sulfone derivatized polyphenylenevinylene (PPV), and the bridge block contains an electronically neutral non-conjugated aliphatic hydrocarbon chain. The key synthetic strategy includes the synthesis of each individual block first, then couple the blocks together. While the donor block stabilizes and facilitates the transport of the holes, the acceptor block stabilizes and facilitates the transport of the electrons, the bridge block is designed to hinder the probability of electron-hole recombination. Thus, improved charge separation and stability are expected with this system. In addition, charge migration toward electrodes may also be facilitated due to the potential nano-phase separated and highly ordered block copolymer ultra-structure.

  3. Self-templated synthesis of novel carbon nanoarchitectures for efficient electrocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xi-Lin; Wen, Tao; Guo, Hong-Li; Liu, Shoujie; Wang, Xiangke; Xu, An-Wu; Mezger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The cost-efficient large-scale production of novel carbon nanostructure with high performance is still a challenge, restricting their applications in catalysis. Herein, we present a low-cost one-pot and one-step approach for the synthesis of both N-doped graphene (NG) and N-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) from self-templated organic nanoplates. By varying the FeCl3 concentration in the precursor, we can control the formation of graphene or CNTs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example for the controllable synthesis of graphene or CNTs by varying the precursors’ compositions. This provides a simple and cost-effective route for the large-scale production of both NG and NCNTs for applications in catalysis. By example, we show how these unique structured nanocarbons can be applied in electrocatalysis for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The obtained NG and NCNTs show excellent ORR activities with long-term stability under alkaline conditions. The unique porous nanostructure, abundant defects, homogeneous N-doping and high N-content in the NG and NCNTs can provide abundant active sites, leading to the excellent ORR performance. This research not only displayed a simple and cost-effective approach for the large-scale production of novel carbon nanoarchitectures, but also revealed the exceptional application potential of these nanocarbons for electrocatalysis. PMID:27301537

  4. Self-templated synthesis of novel carbon nanoarchitectures for efficient electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xi-Lin; Wen, Tao; Guo, Hong-Li; Liu, Shoujie; Wang, Xiangke; Xu, An-Wu; Mezger, Markus

    2016-06-15

    The cost-efficient large-scale production of novel carbon nanostructure with high performance is still a challenge, restricting their applications in catalysis. Herein, we present a low-cost one-pot and one-step approach for the synthesis of both N-doped graphene (NG) and N-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) from self-templated organic nanoplates. By varying the FeCl3 concentration in the precursor, we can control the formation of graphene or CNTs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example for the controllable synthesis of graphene or CNTs by varying the precursors' compositions. This provides a simple and cost-effective route for the large-scale production of both NG and NCNTs for applications in catalysis. By example, we show how these unique structured nanocarbons can be applied in electrocatalysis for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The obtained NG and NCNTs show excellent ORR activities with long-term stability under alkaline conditions. The unique porous nanostructure, abundant defects, homogeneous N-doping and high N-content in the NG and NCNTs can provide abundant active sites, leading to the excellent ORR performance. This research not only displayed a simple and cost-effective approach for the large-scale production of novel carbon nanoarchitectures, but also revealed the exceptional application potential of these nanocarbons for electrocatalysis.

  5. Self-templated synthesis of novel carbon nanoarchitectures for efficient electrocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xi-Lin; Wen, Tao; Guo, Hong-Li; Liu, Shoujie; Wang, Xiangke; Xu, An-Wu; Mezger, Markus

    2016-06-01

    The cost-efficient large-scale production of novel carbon nanostructure with high performance is still a challenge, restricting their applications in catalysis. Herein, we present a low-cost one-pot and one-step approach for the synthesis of both N-doped graphene (NG) and N-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) from self-templated organic nanoplates. By varying the FeCl3 concentration in the precursor, we can control the formation of graphene or CNTs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example for the controllable synthesis of graphene or CNTs by varying the precursors’ compositions. This provides a simple and cost-effective route for the large-scale production of both NG and NCNTs for applications in catalysis. By example, we show how these unique structured nanocarbons can be applied in electrocatalysis for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The obtained NG and NCNTs show excellent ORR activities with long-term stability under alkaline conditions. The unique porous nanostructure, abundant defects, homogeneous N-doping and high N-content in the NG and NCNTs can provide abundant active sites, leading to the excellent ORR performance. This research not only displayed a simple and cost-effective approach for the large-scale production of novel carbon nanoarchitectures, but also revealed the exceptional application potential of these nanocarbons for electrocatalysis.

  6. Bioreaction Engineering Leading to Efficient Synthesis of L-Glyceraldehyd-3-Phosphate.

    PubMed

    Molla, Getachew S; Kinfu, Birhanu M; Chow, Jennifer; Streit, Wolfgang; Wohlgemuth, Roland; Liese, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Enantiopure L-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (L-GAP) is a useful building block in natural biological and synthetic processes. A biocatalytic process using glycerol kinase from Cellulomonas sp. (EC 2.7.1.30) catalyzed phosphorylation of L-glyceraldehyde (L-GA) by ATP is used for the synthesis of L-GAP. L-GAP has a half-life of 6.86 h under reaction conditions. The activity of this enzyme depends on the Mg(2+) to ATP molar ratio showing maximum activity at the optimum molar ratio of 0.7. A kinetic model is developed and validated showing a 2D correlation of 99.9% between experimental and numerical data matrices. The enzyme exhibits inhibition by ADP, AMP, methylglyoxal and Ca(2+) , but not by L-GAP and inorganic orthophosphate. Moreover, equal amount of Ca(2+) exerts a different degree of inhibition relative to the activity without the addition of Ca(2+) depending on the Mg(2+) to ATP molar ratio. If the Mg(2+) to ATP molar ratio is set to be at the optimum value or less, inorganic hexametaphosphate (PPi6) suppresses the enzyme activity; otherwise PPi6 enhances the enzyme activity. Based on reaction engineering parameters such as conversion, selectivity and specific productivity, evaluation of different reactor types reveals that batchwise operation via stirred-tank reactor is the most efficient process for the synthesis of L-GAP.

  7. Improving the time efficiency of the Fourier synthesis method for slice selection in magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Tahayori, B; Khaneja, N; Johnston, L A; Farrell, P M; Mareels, I M Y

    2016-01-01

    The design of slice selective pulses for magnetic resonance imaging can be cast as an optimal control problem. The Fourier synthesis method is an existing approach to solve these optimal control problems. In this method the gradient field as well as the excitation field are switched rapidly and their amplitudes are calculated based on a Fourier series expansion. Here, we provide a novel insight into the Fourier synthesis method via representing the Bloch equation in spherical coordinates. Based on the spherical Bloch equation, we propose an alternative sequence of pulses that can be used for slice selection which is more time efficient compared to the original method. Simulation results demonstrate that while the performance of both methods is approximately the same, the required time for the proposed sequence of pulses is half of the original sequence of pulses. Furthermore, the slice selectivity of both sequences of pulses changes with radio frequency field inhomogeneities in a similar way. We also introduce a measure, referred to as gradient complexity, to compare the performance of both sequences of pulses. This measure indicates that for a desired level of uniformity in the excited slice, the gradient complexity for the proposed sequence of pulses is less than the original sequence. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Efficient assembly of threaded molecular machines for sequence-specific synthesis.

    PubMed

    De Bo, Guillaume; Kuschel, Sonja; Leigh, David A; Lewandowski, Bartosz; Papmeyer, Marcus; Ward, John W

    2014-04-16

    We report on an improved strategy for the preparation of artificial molecular machines that can pick up and assemble reactive groups in sequence by traveling along a track. In the new approach a preformed rotaxane synthon is attached to the end of an otherwise fully formed strand of building blocks. This "rotaxane-capping" protocol is significantly more efficient than the "final-step-threading" method employed previously and enables the synthesis of threaded molecular machines that operate on extended oligomer, and potentially polymer, tracks. The methodology is exemplified through the preparation of a machine that adds four amino acid building blocks from a strand in sequence, featuring up to 20-membered ring native chemical ligation transition states.

  9. ACCESS 3. Approximation concepts code for efficient structural synthesis: User's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleury, C.; Schmit, L. A., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A user's guide is presented for ACCESS-3, a research oriented program which combines dual methods and a collection of approximation concepts to achieve excellent efficiency in structural synthesis. The finite element method is used for structural analysis and dual algorithms of mathematical programming are applied in the design optimization procedure. This program retains all of the ACCESS-2 capabilities and the data preparation formats are fully compatible. Four distinct optimizer options were added: interior point penalty function method (NEWSUMT); second order primal projection method (PRIMAL2); second order Newton-type dual method (DUAL2); and first order gradient projection-type dual method (DUAL1). A pure discrete and mixed continuous-discrete design variable capability, and zero order approximation of the stress constraints are also included.

  10. Rearrangement of 5-trimethylsilylthebaine on treatment with L-selectride: an efficient synthesis of (+)-bractazonine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weibin; Wu, Huifang; Bernard, Denzil; Metcalf, Matthew D; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Flippen-Anderson, Judith L; MacKerell, Alexander D; Coop, Andrew

    2003-03-07

    Treatment of 5-trimethylsilylthebaine with L-Selectride gave rise to a rearrangement to 10-trimethylsilylbractazonine through migration of the phenyl group, whereas treatment of thebaine with strong Lewis acids is known to lead to a similar rearrangement through migration of the alkyl bridge to give, after reduction, (+)-neodihydrothebaine. It is suggested that the rearrangement of the alkyl group of thebaine is favored due to the formation of a tertiary benzylic cation. However, for 5-trimethylsilylthebaine, the lithium ion of L-Selectride acts as the Lewis acid and the beta-silyl effect dominates in the stabilization of any positive charge. This rearrangement provides a clear example of the greater relative migratory aptitude of phenyl groups over alkyl groups, and provides an efficient synthesis of (+)-bractazonine from thebaine.

  11. An efficient one-pot synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of novel chromeno-pyrimidine derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, Lingala; Kumar, P. Sagar Vijay; Chandramouli, G. V. P.

    2017-04-01

    A simple and efficient one-pot three component, green protocol was established for the synthesis of chromenopyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives starting from 3-amino-pyrano[2,3-c]chromene-2-carbonitrile, N,N-dimethylformamide dimethylacetal and aromatic amines in the presence of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulphate[Bmim]HSO4 ionic liquid. The present procedure offers a domino reaction strategy, cleaner conversion, short reaction times and high yields. Among the screened derivatives, the compounds 4g and 4h were identified as lead molecules which established promising antimicrobial towards Gram-positive bacterial strains such as Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96, Staphylococcus aureus MLS16 MTCC 2940 and Bacillus subtilis MTCC 121.

  12. Amino acid assisted templating synthesis of hierarchical zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 for efficient arsenate removal.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-nan; Zhou, Meimei; Zhang, Bingru; Wu, Baozhen; Li, Jie; Qiao, Junlian; Guan, Xiaohong; Li, Fengting

    2014-01-21

    We report the strategy of using the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and amino acid L-histidine (His) as co-templates to produce hierarchical ZIF-8 in an aqueous system at room temperature. The hierarchical ZIF-8 had both meso- and microporous structure, resulting in a high mesopore volume as well as specific surface area which can be controlled by the synthesis conditions. We put forward the hypothesis for the formation of a mesoporous structure and the enhancement of the porosity of ZIF-8 that the histidine plays a key role on the stabilization of CTAB micelles and avoiding the production of unexpected by-products therefore promotes the fabrication of pure phase ZIF-8 containing the mesopores interconnected with micropores. The prepared hierarchical ZIF-8 exhibited an excellent performance as a new kind of porous absorbent for efficient removal of the toxic arsenate.

  13. Synthesis and Cross-Coupling of Secondary Ammoniomethyltrifluoroborates: Rapid and Efficient Access to Secondary Arylmethylamines

    PubMed Central

    Fleury-Brégeot, Nicolas; Raushel, Jessica; Sandrock, Deidre L.

    2012-01-01

    Ammoniomethyl trifluoroborates are very powerful reagents that can be used to access biologically relevant aryl- and heteroaryl-methylamine motifs via Suzuki-Miyaura cross-couplings. Until now, this method was limited to the production of tertiary and primary amines. The synthesis of a large array of secondary ammoniomethyltrifluoroborates has been achieved via a one step nucleophilic substitution reaction on the potassium bromomethyltrifluoroborate. Smooth cross-coupling conditions have been designed, based on the use of an aminobiphenyl palladium precatalyst, to couple these trifluoroborates efficiently with aryl bromides. This strategy offers a new way to access biologically relevant motifs and allows, with the previously developed methods, access to all three classes of aminomethylarenes. PMID:22767518

  14. Efficient synthesis of L-lactic acid from glycerol by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Mazumdar, Suman; Blankschien, Matthew D; Clomburg, James M; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2013-01-25

    Due to its abundance and low-price, glycerol has become an attractive carbon source for the industrial production of value-added fuels and chemicals. This work reports the engineering of E. coli for the efficient conversion of glycerol into L-lactic acid (L-lactate). Escherichia coli strains have previously been metabolically engineered for the microaerobic production of D-lactic acid from glycerol in defined media by disrupting genes that minimize the synthesis of succinate, acetate, and ethanol, and also overexpressing the respiratory route of glycerol dissimilation (GlpK/GlpD). Here, further rounds of rationale design were performed on these strains for the homofermentative production of L-lactate, not normally produced in E. coli. Specifically, L-lactate production was enabled by: 1), replacing the native D-lactate specific dehydrogenase with Streptococcus bovis L-lactate dehydrogenase (L-LDH), 2) blocking the methylglyoxal bypass pathways to avoid the synthesis of a racemic mixture of D- and L-lactate and prevent the accumulation of toxic intermediate, methylglyoxal, and 3) the native aerobic L-lactate dehydrogenase was blocked to prevent the undesired utilization of L-lactate. The engineered strain produced 50 g/L of L-lactate from 56 g/L of crude glycerol at a yield 93% of the theoretical maximum and with high optical (99.9%) and chemical (97%) purity. This study demonstrates the efficient conversion of glycerol to L-lactate, a microbial process that had not been reported in the literature prior to our work. The engineered biocatalysts produced L-lactate from crude glycerol in defined minimal salts medium at high chemical and optical purity.

  15. Efficient synthesis of L-lactic acid from glycerol by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to its abundance and low-price, glycerol has become an attractive carbon source for the industrial production of value-added fuels and chemicals. This work reports the engineering of E. coli for the efficient conversion of glycerol into L-lactic acid (L-lactate). Results Escherichia coli strains have previously been metabolically engineered for the microaerobic production of D-lactic acid from glycerol in defined media by disrupting genes that minimize the synthesis of succinate, acetate, and ethanol, and also overexpressing the respiratory route of glycerol dissimilation (GlpK/GlpD). Here, further rounds of rationale design were performed on these strains for the homofermentative production of L-lactate, not normally produced in E. coli. Specifically, L-lactate production was enabled by: 1), replacing the native D-lactate specific dehydrogenase with Streptococcus bovis L-lactate dehydrogenase (L-LDH), 2) blocking the methylglyoxal bypass pathways to avoid the synthesis of a racemic mixture of D- and L-lactate and prevent the accumulation of toxic intermediate, methylglyoxal, and 3) the native aerobic L-lactate dehydrogenase was blocked to prevent the undesired utilization of L-lactate. The engineered strain produced 50 g/L of L-lactate from 56 g/L of crude glycerol at a yield 93% of the theoretical maximum and with high optical (99.9%) and chemical (97%) purity. Conclusions This study demonstrates the efficient conversion of glycerol to L-lactate, a microbial process that had not been reported in the literature prior to our work. The engineered biocatalysts produced L-lactate from crude glycerol in defined minimal salts medium at high chemical and optical purity. PMID:23347598

  16. A Stereoselective Route to Tetrahydrobenzoxazepines and Tetrahydrobenzodiazepines via Ring-Opening and Aza-Michael Addition of Activated Aziridines with 2-Hydroxyphenyl and 2-Aminophenyl Acrylates.

    PubMed

    Shahi, Chandan Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Aditya; Nanaji, Yerramsetti; Ghorai, Manas K

    2017-01-06

    A simple and efficient synthetic route to 2,3,4,5-tetrahydrobenzoxazepines and -benzodiazepines bearing easily functionalizable appendages has been developed by ring-opening of activated aziridines with 2-hydroxyphenyl acrylates and 2-aminophenyl acrylate, respectively, and subsequent intramolecular C-N bond formation through palladium-catalyzed aza-Michael reaction. The straightforward synthetic approach delivers the desired molecular scaffolds in high yields (up to 82%) with excellent stereoselectivity (ee up to 94%).

  17. Photosensitized [2 + 2] cycloaddition of N-acetylated cytosine affords stereoselective formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Junpei; Nishiguchi, Kosuke; Manabe, Koichiro; Masutani, Chikahide; Hanaoka, Fumio; Iwai, Shigenori

    2011-02-01

    Photocycloaddition between two adjacent bases in DNA produces a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD), which is one of the major UV-induced DNA lesions, with either the cis-syn or trans-syn structure. In this study, we investigated the photosensitized intramolecular cycloaddition of partially-protected thymidylyl-(3'→5')-N(4)-acetyl-2'-deoxy-5-methylcytidine, to clarify the effect of the base modification on the cycloaddition reaction. The reaction resulted in the stereoselective formation of the trans-syn CPD, followed by hydrolysis of the acetylamino group. The same result was obtained for the photocycloaddition of thymidylyl-(3'→5')-N(4)-acetyl-2'-deoxycytidine, whereas both the cis-syn and trans-syn CPDs were formed from thymidylyl-(3'→5')-thymidine. Kinetic analyses revealed that the activation energy of the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis is comparable to that reported for the thymine-cytosine CPD. These findings provided a new strategy for the synthesis of oligonucleotides containing the trans-syn CPD. Using the synthesized oligonucleotide, translesion synthesis by human DNA polymerase η was analyzed.

  18. Photosensitized [2 + 2] cycloaddition of N-acetylated cytosine affords stereoselective formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Junpei; Nishiguchi, Kosuke; Manabe, Koichiro; Masutani, Chikahide; Hanaoka, Fumio; Iwai, Shigenori

    2011-01-01

    Photocycloaddition between two adjacent bases in DNA produces a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD), which is one of the major UV-induced DNA lesions, with either the cis-syn or trans-syn structure. In this study, we investigated the photosensitized intramolecular cycloaddition of partially-protected thymidylyl-(3′→5′)-N4-acetyl-2′-deoxy-5-methylcytidine, to clarify the effect of the base modification on the cycloaddition reaction. The reaction resulted in the stereoselective formation of the trans-syn CPD, followed by hydrolysis of the acetylamino group. The same result was obtained for the photocycloaddition of thymidylyl-(3′→5′)-N4-acetyl-2′-deoxycytidine, whereas both the cis-syn and trans-syn CPDs were formed from thymidylyl-(3′→5′)-thymidine. Kinetic analyses revealed that the activation energy of the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis is comparable to that reported for the thymine-cytosine CPD. These findings provided a new strategy for the synthesis of oligonucleotides containing the trans-syn CPD. Using the synthesized oligonucleotide, translesion synthesis by human DNA polymerase η was analyzed. PMID:20880992

  19. Chemo-, Regio- and Stereoselective N-alkenylation of Pyrazoles/Benzpyrazoles using Activated and Unactivated Alkynes.

    PubMed

    Garg, Vineeta; Kumar, Pradeep; Verma, Akhilesh K

    2017-09-01

    Transition-metal-free chemo-, regio- and stereoselective synthesis of (Z) and (E) styryl pyrazoles and benzpyrazoles by the addition of N-heterocycles onto functionalized terminal and internal alkynes using a super basic solution of KOH/DMSO has been described. The stereochemical outcome of the reaction was governed by time and quantity of the base. The reaction of pyrazoles and benzpyrazoles onto alkynes takes place chemoselectively without affecting the free -NH2 group of pyrazoles and -OH group of alkynes. The designed protocol was well implemented on alkynes bearing long alkyl chain, an alicyclic ring, hydroxy, ether, and ester functionality; offer the N-alkenylated products in good yields. This developed methodology also provides easy access for the synthesis of bis-vinylated heterocycles. The presence of free -NH2, -OH, -COOR and halo group in styryl pyrazoles, could be further utilized for synthetic elaboration, which is advantageous for biological evaluation. For the first time, we have disclosed the base-mediated conversion of (Z)-styryl pyrazoles to (E) styryl pyrazoles in KOH/DMSO system. The cis-trans isomerization was supported by the control experiments and deuterium labeling studies.

  20. Stereoselective virtual screening of the ZINC database using atom pair 3D-fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Awale, Mahendra; Jin, Xian; Reymond, Jean-Louis

    2015-01-01

    Tools to explore large compound databases in search for analogs of query molecules provide a strategically important support in drug discovery to help identify available analogs of any given reference or hit compound by ligand based virtual screening (LBVS). We recently showed that large databases can be formatted for very fast searching with various 2D-fingerprints using the city-block distance as similarity measure, in particular a 2D-atom pair fingerprint (APfp) and the related category extended atom pair fingerprint (Xfp) which efficiently encode molecular shape and pharmacophores, but do not perceive stereochemistry. Here we investigated related 3D-atom pair fingerprints to enable rapid stereoselective searches in the ZINC database (23.2 million 3D structures). Molecular fingerprints counting atom pairs at increasing through-space distance intervals were designed using either all atoms (16-bit 3DAPfp) or different atom categories (80-bit 3DXfp). These 3D-fingerprints retrieved molecular shape and pharmacophore analogs (defined by OpenEye ROCS scoring functions) of 110,000 compounds from the Cambridge Structural Database with equal or better accuracy than the 2D-fingerprints APfp and Xfp, and showed comparable performance in recovering actives from decoys in the DUD database. LBVS by 3DXfp or 3DAPfp similarity was stereoselective and gave very different analogs when starting from different diastereomers of the same chiral drug. Results were also different from LBVS with the parent 2D-fingerprints Xfp or APfp. 3D- and 2D-fingerprints also gave very different results in LBVS of folded molecules where through-space distances between atom pairs are much shorter than topological distances. 3DAPfp and 3DXfp are suitable for stereoselective searches for shape and pharmacophore analogs of query molecules in large databases. Web-browsers for searching ZINC by 3DAPfp and 3DXfp similarity are accessible at www.gdb.unibe.ch and should provide useful assistance to drug

  1. The Yeast Mitochondrial RNA Polymerase and Transcription Factor Complex Catalyzes Efficient Priming of DNA Synthesis on Single-stranded DNA.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Aparna; Nandakumar, Divya; Deshpande, Aishwarya P; Lucas, Thomas P; R-Bhojappa, Ramanagouda; Tang, Guo-Qing; Raney, Kevin; Yin, Y Whitney; Patel, Smita S

    2016-08-05

    Primases use single-stranded (ss) DNAs as templates to synthesize short oligoribonucleotide primers that initiate lagging strand DNA synthesis or reprime DNA synthesis after replication fork collapse, but the origin of this activity in the mitochondria remains unclear. Herein, we show that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial RNA polymerase (Rpo41) and its transcription factor (Mtf1) is an efficient primase that initiates DNA synthesis on ssDNA coated with the yeast mitochondrial ssDNA-binding protein, Rim1. Both Rpo41 and Rpo41-Mtf1 can synthesize short and long RNAs on ssDNA template and prime DNA synthesis by the yeast mitochondrial DNA polymerase Mip1. However, the ssDNA-binding protein Rim1 severely inhibits the RNA synthesis activity of Rpo41, but not the Rpo41-Mtf1 complex, which continues to prime DNA synthesis efficiently in the presence of Rim1. We show that RNAs as short as 10-12 nt serve as primers for DNA synthesis. Characterization of the RNA-DNA products shows that Rpo41 and Rpo41-Mtf1 have slightly different priming specificity. However, both prefer to initiate with ATP from short priming sequences such as 3'-TCC, TTC, and TTT, and the consensus sequence is 3'-Pu(Py)2-3 Based on our studies, we propose that Rpo41-Mtf1 is an attractive candidate for serving as the primase to initiate lagging strand DNA synthesis during normal replication and/or to restart stalled replication from downstream ssDNA.

  2. Micelle-Template Synthesis of Nitrogen-Doped Mesoporous Graphene as an Efficient Metal-Free Electrocatalyst for Hydrogen Production

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaodan; Zhao, Yufei; Ao, Zhimin; Wang, Guoxiu

    2014-01-01

    Synthesis of mesoporous graphene materials by soft-template methods remains a great challenge, owing to the poor self-assembly capability of precursors and the severe agglomeration of graphene nanosheets. Herein, a micelle-template strategy to prepare porous graphene materials with controllable mesopores, high specific surface areas and large pore volumes is reported. By fine-tuning the synthesis parameters, the pore sizes of mesoporous graphene can be rationally controlled. Nitrogen heteroatom doping is found to remarkably render electrocatalytic properties towards hydrogen evolution reactions as a highly efficient metal-free catalyst. The synthesis strategy and the demonstration of highly efficient catalytic effect provide benchmarks for preparing well-defined mesoporous graphene materials for energy production applications. PMID:25523276

  3. Micelle-Template Synthesis of Nitrogen-Doped Mesoporous Graphene as an Efficient Metal-Free Electrocatalyst for Hydrogen Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaodan; Zhao, Yufei; Ao, Zhimin; Wang, Guoxiu

    2014-12-01

    Synthesis of mesoporous graphene materials by soft-template methods remains a great challenge, owing to the poor self-assembly capability of precursors and the severe agglomeration of graphene nanosheets. Herein, a micelle-template strategy to prepare porous graphene materials with controllable mesopores, high specific surface areas and large pore volumes is reported. By fine-tuning the synthesis parameters, the pore sizes of mesoporous graphene can be rationally controlled. Nitrogen heteroatom doping is found to remarkably render electrocatalytic properties towards hydrogen evolution reactions as a highly efficient metal-free catalyst. The synthesis strategy and the demonstration of highly efficient catalytic effect provide benchmarks for preparing well-defined mesoporous graphene materials for energy production applications.

  4. Torsional Control of Stereoselectivities in Electrophilic Additions and Cycloadditions to Alkenes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Houk, K. N.

    2013-01-01

    Torsional effects control the π-facial stereoselectivities of a variety of synthetically important organic reactions. This review surveys theoretical calculations that have led to the understanding of the influence of the torsional effects on several types of stereoselective organic reactions, especially electrophilic additions and cycloadditions to alkenes. PMID:24409340

  5. A general and efficient palladium-catalyzed carbonylative synthesis of 2-aryloxazolines and 2-aryloxazines from aryl bromides.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Feng; Neumann, Helfried; Neumann, Stephan; Beller, Matthias

    2012-10-22

    Oxazoline is OK! A general and efficient method for the synthesis of oxazolines has been developed. This allowed the preparation of 27 five-membered-ring heterocycles and 11 six-membered-ring heterocycles in moderate to good yields. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Highly efficient one-pot three-component synthesis of naphthopyran derivatives in water catalyzed by hydroxyapatite

    EPA Science Inventory

    An expeditious and efficient protocol for the synthesis of naphthopyrans has been developed that proceeds via one-pot three-component sequential reaction in water catalyzed by hydroxyapatite or sodium-modified-hydroxyapatite. The title compounds have been obtained in high yield a...

  7. Aqueous hydrotrope: an efficient and reusable medium for a green one-pot, diversity-oriented synthesis of quinazolinone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Patil, Amol; Barge, Madhuri; Rashinkar, Gajanan; Salunkhe, Rajashri

    2015-08-01

    A library of quinazolinones was prepared by the one-pot three-component reaction of isatoic anhydride, ammonium salts/amines, and various electrophiles using aqueous hydrotropic solution as an efficient, economical, reusable, and green medium giving good to excellent yields of products in very short time. The method offers a versatile way for the development of diversity-oriented synthesis of quinazolinones.

  8. Efficient one-pot three-component synthesis of N-(4-arylthiazol-2-yl) hydrazones in water under ultrasound irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong-Nuan; Li, Ji-Tai; Song, Ya-Li; Liu, Hui-Min; Li, Hong-Ya

    2012-05-01

    A highly efficient and facile one-pot three-component synthesis of N-(4-arylthiazol-2-yl) hydrazones was carried out in excellent yield without any catalyst in water under ultrasound irradiation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A Novel and Efficient One-Step Parallel Synthesis of Dibenzopyranones via Suzuki-Miyaura Cross Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Vishnumurthy, Kodumuru; Makriyannis, Alexandros

    2010-01-01

    Microwave promoted novel and efficient one-step parallel synthesis of dibenzopyranones and heterocyclic analogues from bromo arylcarboxylates and o-hydroxyarylboronic acids via Suzuki-Miyaura cross coupling reaction is described. Spontaneous lactonization gave dibenzopyranones and heterocyclic analogues bearing electron donating and withdrawing groups on both aromatic rings in good to excellent yields. PMID:20831265

  10. AN EFFICIENT AND SIMPLE AQUEOUS N-HETEROCYCLIZATION OF ANILINE DERIVATIVES: MICROWAVE-ASSISTED SYNTHESIS OF N-ARYL AZACYCLOALKANES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An efficient and clean synthesis of N-aryl azacycloalkanes from alkyl dihalides and aniline derivatives has been achieved using microwave irradiation in an aqueous potassium carbonate medium. The phase separation can simplify the product isolation and reduce usage of vol...

  11. Highly efficient one-pot three-component synthesis of naphthopyran derivatives in water catalyzed by hydroxyapatite

    EPA Science Inventory

    An expeditious and efficient protocol for the synthesis of naphthopyrans has been developed that proceeds via one-pot three-component sequential reaction in water catalyzed by hydroxyapatite or sodium-modified-hydroxyapatite. The title compounds have been obtained in high yield a...

  12. Efficient Nazarov cyclization/Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement terminated by a Cu(II)-promoted oxidation: synthesis of 4-alkylidene cyclopentenones.

    PubMed

    Lebœuf, David; Theiste, Eric; Gandon, Vincent; Daifuku, Stephanie L; Neidig, Michael L; Frontier, Alison J

    2013-04-08

    The discovery and elucidation of a new Nazarov cyclization/Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement/oxidation sequence is described that constitutes an efficient strategy for the synthesis of 4-alkylidene cyclopentenones. DFT computations and EPR experiments were conducted to gain further mechanistic insight into the reaction pathways. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Efficient Nazarov Cyclization/Wagner-Meerwein Rearrangement Terminated by a Cu(II)-Promoted Oxidation: Synthesis of 4-Alkylidene Cyclopentenones

    PubMed Central

    Lebœuf, David; Theiste, Eric; Gandon, Vincent; Daifuku, Stephanie L.; Neidig, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery and elucidation of a novel Nazarov cyclization/Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement/oxidation sequence is described, which constitutes an efficient strategy for the synthesis of 4-alkylidene cyclopentenones. DFT computations and EPR experiments were conducted to gain further mechanistic insight into the reaction pathways. PMID:23436470

  14. Highly efficient heterogeneous gold-catalyzed direct synthesis of tertiary and secondary amines from alcohols and urea.

    PubMed

    He, Lin; Qian, Yue; Ding, Ran-Sheng; Liu, Yong-Mei; He, He-Yong; Fan, Kang-Nian; Cao, Yong

    2012-04-01

    Urea, the white gold: The efficient synthesis of tertiary and secondary amines is achieved by heterogeneous gold-catalyzed direct amination of stoichiometric alcohols with urea in good to excellent yields. Via a hydrogen autotransfer pathway, the reactions of primary alcohols with urea give tertiary amines exclusively, while secondary alcohols selectively afford secondary amines.

  15. AN EFFICIENT AND SIMPLE AQUEOUS N-HETEROCYCLIZATION OF ANILINE DERIVATIVES: MICROWAVE-ASSISTED SYNTHESIS OF N-ARYL AZACYCLOALKANES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An efficient and clean synthesis of N-aryl azacycloalkanes from alkyl dihalides and aniline derivatives has been achieved using microwave irradiation in an aqueous potassium carbonate medium. The phase separation can simplify the product isolation and reduce usage of vol...

  16. An efficient one-pot three-component synthesis of fused 1,4-dihydropyridines using HY-zeolite.

    PubMed

    Nikpassand, Mohammad; Mamaghani, Manouchehr; Tabatabaeian, Khalil

    2009-04-08

    A facile and convenient protocol was developed for the fast (2.5-3.5 h) and high yielding (70-90%) synthesis of fused 1,4-dihydropyridines from dimedone in the presence of HY-zeolite as an efficient recyclable heterogeneous catalyst.

  17. Efficient Synthesis of Peptide and Protein Functionalized Pyrrole-Imidazole Polyamides Using Native Chemical Ligation.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Brian M G; van Ommeren, Sven P F I; Merkx, Maarten

    2015-06-04

    The advancement of DNA-based bionanotechnology requires efficient strategies to functionalize DNA nanostructures in a specific manner with other biomolecules, most importantly peptides and proteins. Common DNA-functionalization methods rely on laborious and covalent conjugation between DNA and proteins or peptides. Pyrrole-imidazole (Py-Im) polyamides, based on natural minor groove DNA-binding small molecules, can bind to DNA in a sequence specific fashion. In this study, we explore the use of Py-Im polyamides for addressing proteins and peptides to DNA in a sequence specific and non-covalent manner. A generic synthetic approach based on native chemical ligation was established that allows efficient conjugation of both peptides and recombinant proteins to Py-Im polyamides. The effect of Py-Im polyamide conjugation on DNA binding was investigated by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). Although the synthesis of different protein-Py-Im-polyamide conjugates was successful, attenuation of DNA affinity was observed, in particular for the protein-Py-Im-polyamide conjugates. The practical use of protein-Py-Im-polyamide conjugates for addressing DNA structures in an orthogonal but non-covalent manner, therefore, remains to be established.

  18. A Facile Synthesis of Nitrogen-Doped Highly Porous Carbon Nanoplatelets: Efficient Catalysts for Oxygen Electroreduction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yaqing; Zhang, Xianlei; Ma, Xiuxiu; Guo, Wenhui; Wang, Chunchi; Asefa, Tewodros; He, Xingquan

    2017-01-01

    The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is of great importance for various renewable energy conversion technologies such as fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Heteroatom-doped carbon nanomaterials have proven to be robust metal-free electrocatalysts for ORR in the above-mentioned energy devices. Herein, we demonstrate the synthesis of novel highly porous N-doped carbon nanoplatelets (N-HPCNPs) derived from oatmeal (or a biological material) and we show the materials’ high-efficiency as electrocatalyst for ORR. The obtained N-HPCNPs hybrid materials exhibit superior electrocatalytic activities towards ORR, besides excellent stability and good methanol tolerance in both basic and acidic electrolytes. The unique nanoarchitectures with rich micropores and mesopores, as well as the high surface area-to-volume ratios, present in the materials significantly increase the density of accessible catalytically active sites in them and facilitate the transport of electrons and electrolyte within the materials. Consequently, the N-HPCNPs catalysts hold a great potential to serve as low-cost and highly efficient cathode materials in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). PMID:28240234

  19. Nonlinear inverse synthesis for high spectral efficiency transmission in optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Le, Son Thai; Prilepsky, Jaroslaw E; Turitsyn, Sergei K

    2014-11-03

    In linear communication channels, spectral components (modes) defined by the Fourier transform of the signal propagate without interactions with each other. In certain nonlinear channels, such as the one modelled by the classical nonlinear Schrödinger equation, there are nonlinear modes (nonlinear signal spectrum) that also propagate without interacting with each other and without corresponding nonlinear cross talk, effectively, in a linear manner. Here, we describe in a constructive way how to introduce such nonlinear modes for a given input signal. We investigate the performance of the nonlinear inverse synthesis (NIS) method, in which the information is encoded directly onto the continuous part of the nonlinear signal spectrum. This transmission technique, combined with the appropriate distributed Raman amplification, can provide an effective eigenvalue division multiplexing with high spectral efficiency, thanks to highly suppressed channel cross talk. The proposed NIS approach can be integrated with any modulation formats. Here, we demonstrate numerically the feasibility of merging the NIS technique in a burst mode with high spectral efficiency methods, such as orthogonal frequency division multiplexing and Nyquist pulse shaping with advanced modulation formats (e.g., QPSK, 16QAM, and 64QAM), showing a performance improvement up to 4.5 dB, which is comparable to results achievable with multi-step per span digital back propagation.

  20. Efficient synthesis and evaluation of bis-pyridinium/bis-quinolinium metallosalophens as antibiotic and antitumor candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elshaarawy, Reda F. M.; Eldeen, Ibrahim M.; Hassan, Eman M.

    2017-01-01

    Inspired with the pharmacological diversity of salophens and in our endeavor to explore a new strategy which may conflict the invasion of drug resistance, we report herein efficient synthetic routes for the synthesis of new RO-salophen(Cl), pyridinium/quinolinium-based salophens (3a-e) and metallosalophens (4a-j). These new architectures have been structurally characterized by elemental and spectral analysis as well pharmacologically evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial, against a common panel of pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains, and anticancer activities against human colon carcinoma (HCT-116) cell lines. Antimicrobial assay results revealed that all tested compounds exhibited moderate to superb broad-spectrum efficacy in comparison to the standard antibiotic with a preferential ability to perform as a fungicides than to act as bactericides. Noteworthy, VO(II)-salophens are more effective in reduction HCT-116 cell viability than Cu(II)-salophens. For example, VO(II)-salophen3 (4f) (IC50 = 2.13 μg/mL) was ca. 10-fold more efficient than Cu(II)-salophen3 (4e) (IC50 = 20.30 μg/mL).

  1. Efficient Rhodium-Catalyzed Multicomponent Reaction for the Synthesis of Novel Propargylamines.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Pérez, Laura; Iglesias, Manuel; Munárriz, Julen; Polo, Victor; Pérez-Torrente, Jesús J; Oro, Luis A

    2015-12-01

    [{Rh(μ-Cl)(H)2 (IPr)}2 ] (IPr = 1,3-bis-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazole-2-ylidene) was found to be an efficient catalyst for the synthesis of novel propargylamines by a one-pot three-component reaction between primary arylamines, aliphatic aldehydes, and triisopropylsilylacetylene. This methodology offers an efficient synthetic pathway for the preparation of secondary propargylamines derived from aliphatic aldehydes. The reactivity of [{Rh(μ-Cl)(H)2 (IPr)}2 ] with amines and aldehydes was studied, leading to the identification of complexes [RhCl(CO)IPr(MesNH2 )] (MesNH2 = 2,4,6-trimethylaniline) and [RhCl(CO)2 IPr]. The latter shows a very low catalytic activity while the former brought about reaction rates similar to those obtained with [{Rh(μ-Cl)(H)2 (IPr)}2 ]. Besides, complex [RhCl(CO)IPr(MesNH2 )] reacts with an excess of amine and aldehyde to give [RhCl(CO)IPr{MesNCHCH2 CH(CH3 )2 }], which was postulated as the active species. A mechanism that clarifies the scarcely studied catalytic cycle of A3 -coupling reactions is proposed based on reactivity studies and DFT calculations.

  2. A Facile Synthesis of Nitrogen-Doped Highly Porous Carbon Nanoplatelets: Efficient Catalysts for Oxygen Electroreduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yaqing; Zhang, Xianlei; Ma, Xiuxiu; Guo, Wenhui; Wang, Chunchi; Asefa, Tewodros; He, Xingquan

    2017-02-01

    The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is of great importance for various renewable energy conversion technologies such as fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Heteroatom-doped carbon nanomaterials have proven to be robust metal-free electrocatalysts for ORR in the above-mentioned energy devices. Herein, we demonstrate the synthesis of novel highly porous N-doped carbon nanoplatelets (N-HPCNPs) derived from oatmeal (or a biological material) and we show the materials’ high-efficiency as electrocatalyst for ORR. The obtained N-HPCNPs hybrid materials exhibit superior electrocatalytic activities towards ORR, besides excellent stability and good methanol tolerance in both basic and acidic electrolytes. The unique nanoarchitectures with rich micropores and mesopores, as well as the high surface area-to-volume ratios, present in the materials significantly increase the density of accessible catalytically active sites in them and facilitate the transport of electrons and electrolyte within the materials. Consequently, the N-HPCNPs catalysts hold a great potential to serve as low-cost and highly efficient cathode materials in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs).

  3. Efficient Catalytic Activity BiFeO3 Nanoparticles Prepared by Novel Microwave-Assisted Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jing; Gong, Wanyun; Ma, Jinai; Li, Lu; Jiang, Jizhou

    2015-02-01

    A novel microwave-assisted sol-gel method was applied to the synthesis of the single-phase perovskite bismuth ferrite nanoparticles (BFO NPs) with the mean diameter ca. 73.7 nm. The morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the rhombohedral phase with R3c space group. The weak ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature was affirmed by the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). According to the UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (UV-DSR), the band gap energy of BFO NPs was determined to be 2.18 eV. The electrochemical activity was evaluated by BFO NPs-chitosan-glassy carbon electrode (BFO-CS-GCE) sensor for detection of p-nitrophenol contaminants. The material showed an efficient oxidation catalytic activity by degrading methylene blue (MB). It was found that the degradation efficiency of 10 mg L-1 MB at pH 6.0 was above 90.9% after ultrasound- and microwave-combined-assisted (US-MW) irradiation for 15 min with BFO NPs as catalyst and H202 as oxidant. A possible reaction mechanism of degradation of MB was also proposed.

  4. A Facile Synthesis of Nitrogen-Doped Highly Porous Carbon Nanoplatelets: Efficient Catalysts for Oxygen Electroreduction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaqing; Zhang, Xianlei; Ma, Xiuxiu; Guo, Wenhui; Wang, Chunchi; Asefa, Tewodros; He, Xingquan

    2017-02-27

    The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is of great importance for various renewable energy conversion technologies such as fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Heteroatom-doped carbon nanomaterials have proven to be robust metal-free electrocatalysts for ORR in the above-mentioned energy devices. Herein, we demonstrate the synthesis of novel highly porous N-doped carbon nanoplatelets (N-HPCNPs) derived from oatmeal (or a biological material) and we show the materials' high-efficiency as electrocatalyst for ORR. The obtained N-HPCNPs hybrid materials exhibit superior electrocatalytic activities towards ORR, besides excellent stability and good methanol tolerance in both basic and acidic electrolytes. The unique nanoarchitectures with rich micropores and mesopores, as well as the high surface area-to-volume ratios, present in the materials significantly increase the density of accessible catalytically active sites in them and facilitate the transport of electrons and electrolyte within the materials. Consequently, the N-HPCNPs catalysts hold a great potential to serve as low-cost and highly efficient cathode materials in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs).

  5. Efficient Synthesis of Peptide and Protein Functionalized Pyrrole-Imidazole Polyamides Using Native Chemical Ligation

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Brian M. G.; van Ommeren, Sven P. F. I.; Merkx, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    The advancement of DNA-based bionanotechnology requires efficient strategies to functionalize DNA nanostructures in a specific manner with other biomolecules, most importantly peptides and proteins. Common DNA-functionalization methods rely on laborious and covalent conjugation between DNA and proteins or peptides. Pyrrole-imidazole (Py–Im) polyamides, based on natural minor groove DNA-binding small molecules, can bind to DNA in a sequence specific fashion. In this study, we explore the use of Py–Im polyamides for addressing proteins and peptides to DNA in a sequence specific and non-covalent manner. A generic synthetic approach based on native chemical ligation was established that allows efficient conjugation of both peptides and recombinant proteins to Py–Im polyamides. The effect of Py–Im polyamide conjugation on DNA binding was investigated by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). Although the synthesis of different protein-Py–Im-polyamide conjugates was successful, attenuation of DNA affinity was observed, in particular for the protein-Py–Im-polyamide conjugates. The practical use of protein-Py–Im-polyamide conjugates for addressing DNA structures in an orthogonal but non-covalent manner, therefore, remains to be established. PMID:26053396

  6. Development of efficient, small particle size luminescent oxides using combustion synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, Lauren Elizabeth

    Luminescent materials (phosphors) find application in cathode-ray tubes (CRTs), medical and industrial equipment monitors, fluorescent lamps, xerography, and many types of flat panel displays. Many commercially available phosphors were optimized in the 1960s for high voltage (>10 kV) CRT applications. Recently, a great deal of emphasis has been placed on the development and improvement of phosphors for flat panel displays that operate at low voltages (<5 kV). In addition to high efficiency at low voltages, these displays demand high resolution phosphor screens which can only be realized using phosphors with smaller particle size (<3 mum). Conventional methods of preparing phosphors (e.g., high temperature solid-state reaction) cannot easily produce a homogeneous product with uniform, small particle size. In this work, a novel ceramic synthesis technique, combustion synthesis, was used for the first time to produce submicron-sized oxide phosphors more efficiently for use in flat panel displays. This technique exploits the exothermic redox reaction of metal nitrates (oxidizers) with an organic fuel (reducing agent). Typical fuels include urea (CHsb4Nsb2O), carbohydrazide (CHsb6Nsb4O), or glycine (Csb2Hsb5NOsb2). Resulting powders were well-crystallized, with a large surface area and small particle size. Phosphor powders were exposed to photoluminescence excitation by high energy (254 nm, E = 4.88 eV) and low energy photons (365 nm, E = 3.4 eV and 435 nm, E = 2.85 eV) and cathodoluminescence excitation by a low-voltage (100-1000 V) electron beam. Photoluminescence (PL) techniques resulted in the measurement of spectral energy distribution and relative intensities. Phosphor efficiencies in lumens per watt (lm/W) were obtained by low-voltage cathodoluminescence measurements. The effects of processing parameters such as type of fuel, fuel to oxidizer ratio, and heating rate were studied. The combustion process was optimized based on these processing parameters in order

  7. Iodine catalyzed one-pot diamination of glycals with chloramine-T: a new approach to 2-amino-beta-glycosylamines for applications in N-glycopeptide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vipin; Ramesh, Namakkal G

    2006-12-21

    Iodine catalyzes a facile one-pot direct diamination of glycals with chloramine-T to afford stereoselectively 2-amino-beta-glycosylamine derivatives that serve as convenient precursors for the synthesis of N-linked glycopeptides.

  8. An Efficient Synthesis Strategy for Metal-Organic Frameworks: Dry-Gel Synthesis of MOF-74 Framework with High Yield and Improved Performance

    PubMed Central

    Das, Atanu Kumar; Vemuri, Rama Sesha; Kutnyakov, Igor; McGrail, B. Peter; Motkuri, Radha Kishan

    2016-01-01

    Vapor-assisted dry-gel synthesis of the metal-organic framework-74 (MOF-74) structure, specifically Ni-MOF-74 produced from synthetic precursors using an organic-water hybrid solvent system, showed a very high yield (>90% with respect to 2,5-dihydroxyterepthalic acid) and enhanced performance. The Ni-MOF-74 obtained showed improved sorption characteristics towards CO2 and the refrigerant fluorocarbon dichlorodifluoromethane. Unlike conventional synthesis, which takes 72 hours using the tetrahydrofuran-water system, this kinetic study showed that Ni-MOF-74 forms within 12 hours under dry-gel conditions with similar performance characteristics, and exhibits its best performance characteristics even after 24 hours of heating. In the dry-gel conversion method, the physical separation of the solvent and precursor mixture allows for recycling of the solvent. We demonstrated efficient solvent recycling (up to three times) that resulted in significant cost benefits. The scaled-up manufacturing cost of Ni-MOF-74 synthesized via our dry-gel method is 45% of conventional synthesis cost. Thus, for bulk production of the MOFs, the proposed vapor-assisted, dry-gel method is efficient, simple, and inexpensive when compared to the conventional synthesis method. PMID:27306598

  9. An Efficient Synthesis Strategy for Metal-Organic Frameworks: Dry-Gel Synthesis of MOF-74 Framework with High Yield and Improved Performance.

    PubMed

    Das, Atanu Kumar; Vemuri, Rama Sesha; Kutnyakov, Igor; McGrail, B Peter; Motkuri, Radha Kishan

    2016-06-16

    Vapor-assisted dry-gel synthesis of the metal-organic framework-74 (MOF-74) structure, specifically Ni-MOF-74 produced from synthetic precursors using an organic-water hybrid solvent system, showed a very high yield (>90% with respect to 2,5-dihydroxyterepthalic acid) and enhanced performance. The Ni-MOF-74 obtained showed improved sorption characteristics towards CO2 and the refrigerant fluorocarbon dichlorodifluoromethane. Unlike conventional synthesis, which takes 72 hours using the tetrahydrofuran-water system, this kinetic study showed that Ni-MOF-74 forms within 12 hours under dry-gel conditions with similar performance characteristics, and exhibits its best performance characteristics even after 24 hours of heating. In the dry-gel conversion method, the physical separation of the solvent and precursor mixture allows for recycling of the solvent. We demonstrated efficient solvent recycling (up to three times) that resulted in significant cost benefits. The scaled-up manufacturing cost of Ni-MOF-74 synthesized via our dry-gel method is 45% of conventional synthesis cost. Thus, for bulk production of the MOFs, the proposed vapor-assisted, dry-gel method is efficient, simple, and inexpensive when compared to the conventional synthesis method.

  10. An Efficient Synthesis Strategy for Metal-Organic Frameworks: Dry-Gel Synthesis of MOF-74 Framework with High Yield and Improved Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Atanu Kumar; Vemuri, Rama Sesha; Kutnyakov, Igor; McGrail, B. Peter; Motkuri, Radha Kishan

    2016-06-01

    Vapor-assisted dry-gel synthesis of the metal-organic framework-74 (MOF-74) structure, specifically Ni-MOF-74 produced from synthetic precursors using an organic-water hybrid solvent system, showed a very high yield (>90% with respect to 2,5-dihydroxyterepthalic acid) and enhanced performance. The Ni-MOF-74 obtained showed improved sorption characteristics towards CO2 and the refrigerant fluorocarbon dichlorodifluoromethane. Unlike conventional synthesis, which takes 72 hours using the tetrahydrofuran-water system, this kinetic study showed that Ni-MOF-74 forms within 12 hours under dry-gel conditions with similar performance characteristics, and exhibits its best performance characteristics even after 24 hours of heating. In the dry-gel conversion method, the physical separation of the solvent and precursor mixture allows for recycling of the solvent. We demonstrated efficient solvent recycling (up to three times) that resulted in significant cost benefits. The scaled-up manufacturing cost of Ni-MOF-74 synthesized via our dry-gel method is 45% of conventional synthesis cost. Thus, for bulk production of the MOFs, the proposed vapor-assisted, dry-gel method is efficient, simple, and inexpensive when compared to the conventional synthesis method.

  11. Tuning the Synthesis of Manganese Oxides Nanoparticles for Efficient Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Jingyuan; Sun, Lixian; Zhou, Cuifeng; Ling, Huajuan; Yan, Feng; Zhong, Xia; Lu, Yuxiang; Shi, Jeffrey; Huang, Jun; Liu, Zongwen

    2017-01-01

    The liquid phase oxidation of benzyl alcohol is an important reaction for generating benzaldehyde and benzoic acid that are largely required in the perfumery and pharmaceutical industries. The current production systems suffer from either low conversion or over oxidation. From the viewpoint of economy efficiency and environmental demand, we are aiming to develop new high-performance and cost-effective catalysts based on manganese oxides that can allow the green aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol under mild conditions. It was found that the composition of the precursors has significant influence on the structure formation and surface property of the manganese oxide nanoparticles. In addition, the crystallinity of the resulting manganese nanoparticles was gradually improved upon increasing the calcination temperature; however, the specific surface area decreased obviously due to pore structure damage at higher calcination temperature. The sample calcined at the optimal temperature of 600 °C from the precursors without porogen was a Mn3O4-rich material with a small amount of Mn2O3, which could generate a significant amount of {O}_2- species on the surface that contributed to the high catalytic activity in the oxidation. Adding porogen with precursors during the synthesis, the obtained catalysts were mainly Mn2O3 crystalline, which showed relatively low activity in the oxidation. All prepared samples showed high selectivity for benzaldehyde and benzoic acid. The obtained catalysts are comparable to the commercial OMS-2 catalyst. The synthesis-structure-catalysis interaction has been addressed, which will help for the design of new high-performance selective oxidation catalysts.

  12. Tuning the Synthesis of Manganese Oxides Nanoparticles for Efficient Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol.

    PubMed

    Fei, Jingyuan; Sun, Lixian; Zhou, Cuifeng; Ling, Huajuan; Yan, Feng; Zhong, Xia; Lu, Yuxiang; Shi, Jeffrey; Huang, Jun; Liu, Zongwen

    2017-12-01

    The liquid phase oxidation of benzyl alcohol is an important reaction for generating benzaldehyde and benzoic acid that are largely required in the perfumery and pharmaceutical industries. The current production systems suffer from either low conversion or over oxidation. From the viewpoint of economy efficiency and environmental demand, we are aiming to develop new high-performance and cost-effective catalysts based on manganese oxides that can allow the green aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol under mild conditions. It was found that the composition of the precursors has significant influence on the structure formation and surface property of the manganese oxide nanoparticles. In addition, the crystallinity of the resulting manganese nanoparticles was gradually improved upon increasing the calcination temperature; however, the specific surface area decreased obviously due to pore structure damage at higher calcination temperature. The sample calcined at the optimal temperature of 600 °C from the precursors without porogen was a Mn3O4-rich material with a small amount of Mn2O3, which could generate a significant amount of [Formula: see text] species on the surface that contributed to the high catalytic activity in the oxidation. Adding porogen with precursors during the synthesis, the obtained catalysts were mainly Mn2O3 crystalline, which showed relatively low activity in the oxidation. All prepared samples showed high selectivity for benzaldehyde and benzoic acid. The obtained catalysts are comparable to the commercial OMS-2 catalyst. The synthesis-structure-catalysis interaction has been addressed, which will help for the design of new high-performance selective oxidation catalysts.

  13. Different stereoselectivity in the reduction of pulegone by Mentha species.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, S; Beck, T; Mosandl, A

    2001-04-01

    Aqueous solutions of [2H]-labeled pulegone enantiomers were fed to Mentha spicata ssp. spicata L. and Mentha spicata ssp. crispata L. shoot tip and first leaf pair. After solid phase microextraction the essential oil was analysed with enantioselective multidimensional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Both Mentha spicata species were able to convert labelled (1R)- and (1S)-pulegone at the same rate into the corresponding menthone and isomenthone, indicating an unspecific process. The reduction of both pulegone enantiomers preferably led to the cis-stereoisomers. The observed stereoselectivity is completely different from those of pulegone reduction by Mentha x piperita L.

  14. Investigation of a stereoselective co-mediated rearrangement reaction.

    PubMed

    Carbery, David R; Reignier, Serge; Miller, Neil D; Adams, Harry; Harrity, Joseph P A

    2003-05-30

    A stereocontrolled approach to alpha-alkyl beta-alkynyl cyclohexanones is reported through a Lewis acid mediated rearrangement reaction of enol ethers bearing an Co-alkyne moiety. The reaction proceeds with high levels of stereoselectivity in the presence of Ti- and B-Lewis acids to provide a range of alpha,beta-disubstituted cyclohexanones in high yield although the products are prone to epimerization at the alpha-position in the presence of the B-promoter system. The potential for an enantioselective variant of this process is outlined, and a rationale for the observed stereochemical trends and detailed structural analyses of the ketone products are described.

  15. Aromatic interactions as control elements in stereoselective organic reactions.

    PubMed

    Krenske, Elizabeth H; Houk, K N

    2013-04-16

    This Account describes how attractive interactions of aromatic rings with other groups can influence and control the stereoselectivity of many reactions. Recent developments in theory have improved the accuracy in the modeling of aromatic interactions. Quantum mechanical modeling can now provide insights into the roles of these interactions at a level of detail not previously accessible, both for ground-state species and for transition states of chemical reactions. In this Account, we show how transition-state modeling led to the discovery of the influence of aryl groups on the stereoselectivities of several types of organic reactions, including asymmetric dihydroxylations, transfer hydrogenations, hetero-Diels-Alder reactions, acyl transfers, and Claisen rearrangements. Our recent studies have also led to a novel mechanistic picture for two classes of (4 + 3) cycloadditions, both of which involve reactions of furans with oxyallyl intermediates. The first class of cycloadditions, developed by Hsung, features neutral oxyallyl intermediates that contain a chiral oxazolidinone auxiliary. Originally, it was thought that these cycloadditions relied on differential steric crowding of the two faces of a planar intermediate. Computations reveal a different picture and show that cycloaddition with furan takes place preferentially through the more crowded transition state: the furan adds on the same side as the Ph substituent of the oxazolidinone. The crowded transition state is stabilized by a CH-π interaction between furan and Ph worth approximately 2 kcal/mol. Attractive interactions with aromatic rings also control the stereoselectivity in a second class of (4+3) cycloadditions involving chiral alkoxy siloxyallyl cations. Alkoxy groups derived from chiral α-methylbenzyl alcohols favor crowded transition states, where a stabilizing CH-π interaction is present between the furan and the Ar group. The cationic cycloadditions are stepwise, while the Hsung cycloadditions

  16. Computing organic stereoselectivity - from concepts to quantitative calculations and predictions.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qian; Duarte, Fernanda; Paton, Robert S

    2016-11-07

    Advances in theory and processing power have established computation as a valuable interpretative and predictive tool in the discovery of new asymmetric catalysts. This tutorial review outlines the theory and practice of modeling stereoselective reactions. Recent examples illustrate how an understanding of the fundamental principles and the application of state-of-the-art computational methods may be used to gain mechanistic insight into organic and organometallic reactions. We highlight the emerging potential of this computational tool-box in providing meaningful predictions for the rational design of asymmetric catalysts. We present an accessible account of the field to encourage future synergy between computation and experiment.

  17. Theoretical elucidation on the functional role of pyrrolidine-type ionic liquids in inducing stereoselectivity of the Michael addition of cyclohexanone with trans-β-nitrostyrene.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hui; Zhang, Dongju

    2011-03-01

    Density functional theory calculations have been carried out to elucidate the stereoselectivity of the Michael addition of cyclohexanone with trans-β-nitrostyrene, induced by a chiral ionic liquid (CIL) pyrrolidine-imidazolium bromide. By comparison of the C-C bond forming processes in the absence and presence of Br(-) anion, we found that intermolecular H-bonds between the imidazolium cation and the nitro group of trans-β-nitrostyrene and the steric hindrance of the imidazolium cation moiety on the Si-face of enamine dominate the stereoselectivity of the Michael addition. The presence of Br(-) anion obviously reduces the barrier by increasing the polarity of the C4=C5 bond of enamine. The theoretical results rationalize well the early experimental finding, and reveal a valuable clue for the further CIL design with high catalytic efficiency.

  18. Highly efficient molybdenum-based catalysts for enantioselective alkene metathesis

    PubMed Central

    Malcolmson, Steven J.; Meek, Simon J.; Sattely, Elizabeth S.; Schrock, Richard R.; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2009-01-01

    Discovery of efficient catalysts is one of the most compelling objectives of modern chemistry. Chiral catalysts are in particularly high demand, as they facilitate synthesis of enantiomerically enriched small molecules that are critical to developments in medicine, biology and materials science1. Especially noteworthy are catalysts that promote—with otherwise inaccessible efficiency and selectivity levels—reactions demonstrated to be of great utility in chemical synthesis. Here we report a class of chiral catalysts that initiate alkene metathesis1 with very high efficiency and enantioselectivity. Such attributes arise from structural fluxionality of the chiral catalysts and the central role that enhanced electronic factors have in the catalytic cycle. The new catalysts have a stereogenic metal centre and carry only monodentate ligands; the molybdenum-based complexes are prepared stereoselectively by a ligand exchange process involving an enantiomerically pure aryloxide, a class of ligands scarcely used in enantioselective catalysis2,3. We demonstrate the application of the new catalysts in an enantioselective synthesis of the Aspidosperma alkaloid, quebrachamine, through an alkene metathesis reaction that cannot be promoted by any of the previously reported chiral catalysts. PMID:19011612

  19. Palladium(0)-Catalyzed Heteroarylation of 2- and 3-Indolylzinc Derivatives. An Efficient General Method for the Preparation of (2-Pyridyl)indoles and Their Application to Indole Alkaloid Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Amat, Mercedes; Hadida, Sabine; Pshenichnyi, Grigorii; Bosch, Joan

    1997-05-16

    Palladium(0)-catalyzed coupling of (1-(benzenesulfonyl)-2-indolyl)zinc chloride (1) and (1-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-3-indolyl)zinc chloride (6) with diversely substituted (alkyl, methoxy, methoxycarbonyl, nitro, hydroxy) 2-halopyridines gives the corresponding 2- and 3-(2-pyridyl)indoles [4 and 7 (or 8), respectively] in excellent yields. A series of other 3-(heteroaryl)indoles (pyrazinyl, furyl, thienyl, indolyl) have been similarly prepared from 6. The potential of some of these (2-pyridyl)indoles in alkaloid synthesis is demonstrated. Thus, from 2-(2-pyridyl)indole 4b, a new synthetic entry to the indolo[2,3-a]quinolizidine system, involving stereoselective hydrogenation of the pyridine ring with subsequent electrophilic cyclization upon the indole 3-position from an appropriately N(b)-substituted 2-(2-piperidyl)indole, is reported. For this purpose, Pummerer cyclizations have been extensively studied. Whereas the indole-unprotected sulfoxide 17 gives the corresponding indoloquinolizidine 19 in low yield and mainly undergoes an abnormal Pummerer cyclization that ultimately leads to sulfide 18, the N(a)-protected sulfoxides 24a and 24b afford the respective indoloquinolizidines 25a,b in 70% yield. On the other hand, the conversion of 3-(2-pyridyl)indole 8k into tetracyclic ketone 35 by stereoselective hydrogenation, followed by cyclization of the resulting all-cis-3-(2-piperidyl)indole 34, represents a formal synthesis of Strychnos alkaloids with the strychnan skeletal type (tubifoline, tubifolidine, 19,20-dihydroakuammicine). A similar conversion of 8j into nordasycarpidone constitutes a formal synthesis of the alkaloids of the uleine group. Reduction of nordasycarpidone leads to tetracycle 37, an advanced intermediate in a previous synthesis of tubotaiwine, a Strychnos alkaloid with the aspidospermatan skeletal type. Finally, piperidylindole 34 was transformed into tetracycle 41, an ABDE substructure of akuammiline alkaloids, by a sequence involving the

  20. Efficient cascade synthesis of ampicillin from penicillin G potassium salt using wild and mutant penicillin G acylase from Alcaligenes faecalis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Senwen; Ma, Xiaoqiang; Su, Erzheng; Wei, Dongzhi

    2016-02-10

    To avoid isolation and purification of the intermediate 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA), a two-enzyme two-step cascade synthesis of ampicillin from penicillin G was established. In purely aqueous medium, penicillin G hydrolysis and ampicillin synthesis were catalyzed by immobilized wild-type and mutagenized penicillin G acylases from Alcaligenes faecalis (Af PGA), respectively (Fig. 1). The βF24 G mutant Af PGA (the 24th Phenylalanine of the β-subunit was replaced by Glycine) was employed for its superior performance in enzymatic synthesis of ampicillin. By optimizing the reaction conditions, including enzyme loading, temperature, initial pH and D-PGME/6-APA ratio, the conversion of the second step of ampicillin synthesis reached approximately 90% in 240 min and less than 1.7 mole D-PGME were required to produce 1 mole ampicillin. Overall, in a 285 min continuous two-step procedure, an ampicillin yield of 87% was achieved, demonstrating the possibility of improving the cascade synthesis of ampicillin by mutagenized PGA, providing an economically efficient and environmentally benign procedure for semi-synthetic penicillins antibiotics synthesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of a gene synthesis platform for the efficient large scale production of small genes encoding animal toxins.

    PubMed

    Sequeira, Ana Filipa; Brás, Joana L A; Guerreiro, Catarina I P D; Vincentelli, Renaud; Fontes, Carlos M G A

    2016-12-01

    Gene synthesis is becoming an important tool in many fields of recombinant DNA technology, including recombinant protein production. De novo gene synthesis is quickly replacing the classical cloning and mutagenesis procedures and allows generating nucleic acids for which no template is available. In addition, when coupled with efficient gene design algorithms that optimize codon usage, it leads to high levels of recombinant protein expression. Here, we describe the development of an optimized gene synthesis platform that was applied to the large scale production of small genes encoding venom peptides. This improved gene synthesis method uses a PCR-based protocol to assemble synthetic DNA from pools of overlapping oligonucleotides and was developed to synthesise multiples genes simultaneously. This technology incorporates an accurate, automated and cost effective ligation independent cloning step to directly integrate the synthetic genes into an effective Escherichia coli expression vector. The robustness of this technology to generate large libraries of dozens to thousands of synthetic nucleic acids was demonstrated through the parallel and simultaneous synthesis of 96 genes encoding animal toxins. An automated platform was developed for the large-scale synthesis of small genes encoding eukaryotic toxins. Large scale recombinant expression of synthetic genes encoding eukaryotic toxins will allow exploring the extraordinary potency and pharmacological diversity of animal venoms, an increasingly valuable but unexplored source of lead molecules for drug discovery.

  2. Can oriented-attachment be an efficient growth mechanism for the synthesis of 1D nanocrystals via atomic layer deposition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Kechun; He, Weidong

    2015-09-01

    One-dimensional (1D) nanocrystals, such as nanorods and nanowires, have received extensive attention in the nanomaterials field due to their large surface areas and 1D confined transport properties. Oriented attachment (OA) is now recognized as a major growth mechanism for efficiently synthesizing 1D nanocrystals. Recently, atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been modified to be a powerful vapor-phase technique with which to synthesize 1D OA nanorods/nanowires with high efficiency and quality by increasing the temperature and purging time. In this invited mini-review, we look into the advantages of OA and high-temperature ALD, and investigate the potential of employing the OA growth mechanism for the synthesis of 1D nanocrystals via modified ALD, aiming to provide guidance to researchers in the fields of both OA and ALD for efficient synthesis of 1D nanocrystals.

  3. Assessing translational efficiency by a reporter protein co-expressed in a cell-free synthesis system.

    PubMed

    Park, Yu Jin; Lee, Kyung-Ho; Kim, Dong-Myung

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate the use of a cell-free protein synthesis system as a convenient tool for assessing the relative translational efficiencies of genes. When sfGFP was used as a common reporter gene and co-expressed with a series of target genes, the intensities of sfGFP fluorescence from the co-expression reactions were highly correlated with the individual expression levels of the co-expressed genes. The relative translational efficiencies of genes estimated by this method were reproducible when the same genes were expressed in transformed Escherichia coli, suggesting that this method could be used as a universal tool for prognostic assessment of translational efficiency.

  4. The affinity of EBNA1 for its origin of DNA synthesis is a determinant of the origin's replicative efficiency.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Scott E; Zeller, Krisztina; Schepers, Aloys; Sugden, Bill

    2008-06-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) replicates its genome as a licensed plasmid in latently infected cells. Although replication of this plasmid is essential for EBV latent infection, its synthesis still fails for 16% of the templates in S phase. In order to understand these failures, we sought to determine whether the affinity of the initiator protein (EBNA1) for its binding sites in the origin affects the efficiency of plasmid replication. We have answered this question by using several engineered origins modeled upon the arrangement of EBNA1-binding sites found in DS, the major plasmid origin of EBV. The human TRF2 protein also binds to half-sites in DS and increases EBNA1's affinity for its own sites; we therefore also tested origin efficiency in the presence or absence of these sites. We have found that if TRF2-half-binding sites are present, the efficiency of supporting the initiation of DNA synthesis and of establishing a plasmid bearing that origin directly correlates with the affinity of EBNA1 for that origin. Moreover, the presence of TRF2-half-binding sites also increases the average level of EBNA1 and ORC2 bound to those origins in vivo, as measured by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Lastly, we have created an origin of DNA synthesis from high-affinity EBNA1-binding sites and TRF2-half-binding sites that functions severalfold more efficiently than does DS. This finding indicates that EBV has selected a submaximally efficient origin of DNA synthesis for the latent phase of its life cycle. This enhanced origin could be used practically in human gene vectors to improve their efficiency in therapy and basic research.

  5. Chemical Synthesis of the ODM-201's Diastereomers through an Efficient Intramolecular 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition.

    PubMed

    Pan, Tingting; Xia, Chunguang; Jiang, Huijuan; Zhang, Zhongtang; Zhu, Xueyan; Yang, Yulei

    2017-06-01

    An efficient synthesis of ODM-201's diastereomers has been developed from (R)-methyl 3-hydroxybutanoate or (S)-methyl 3-hydroxybutanoate, respectively, with high overall yield and excellent diastereomeric purity. The key step in this synthesis is the preparation of the key intermediate (R)-5-(1-((tert-butyldimethylsilyl)oxy)ethyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid or (S)-5-(1-((tert-butyldimethylsilyl)oxy)ethyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid through intramolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of the vinyl diazo carbonyl compounds.

  6. An efficient synthesis of iminoquinones by a chemoselective domino ortho-hydroxylation/oxidation/imidation sequence of 2-aminoaryl ketones.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekar, Selvaraj; Sekar, Govidasamy

    2016-03-21

    An efficient chemoselective domino oxidative homocoupling of 2-aminoaryl ketones in the presence of 2-iodoxybenzoic acid (IBX) for the synthesis of iminoquinone has been developed. The domino reaction proceeds via three consecutive steps, such as domino ortho-hydroxylation of 2-aminoaryl ketones, oxidation of a phenol derivative to benzoquinone and dimerization through imine formation to yield iminoquinone. Importantly, this reaction allows the recycling of the oxidant IBX by recovering the by-product iodosobenzoic acid (IBA) and oxidizing it back to IBX. A four step domino strategy for the synthesis of iminoquinone through in situ generation of 2-amino benzophenone from (2-amino phenyl)(phenyl)methanol was also developed.

  7. [Total synthesis of marine cyclic guanidine compounds and development of novel guanidine type asymmetric organocatalysts].

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Kazuo

    2003-06-01

    Crambescidins and batzelladines, novel marine guanidine alkaloids, have unique pentacyclic and tricyclic guanidine core structures, respectively. They display a considerable array of biological activity and not surprisingly have attracted considerable synthetic interest. The first total synthesis of crambescidin 359 (7) and stereoselective total synthesis of batzelladine D (11) were accomplished based on a successive 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction strategy. During synthetic studies of 7, the absolute stereochemistry was revealed. Based on the structure of 7, the novel C2-symmetric pentacyclic guanidine compounds 69a-d were designed and synthesized as guanidine organocatalysts. The catalyst 69b works efficiently as an asymmetric catalyst of the alkylation reaction of the glycynate-benzophenone Schiff base 73, which gives 74 with 80-90% ee.

  8. Catalytic asymmetric synthesis of enantioenriched heterocycles bearing a C-CF3 stereogenic center.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Yong; Yang, Xing; Chen, Zhuo; Verpoort, Francis; Shibata, Norio

    2015-06-08

    Given the important agricultural and medicinal application of optically pure heterocycles bearing a trifluoromethyl group at the stereogenic carbon center in the heterocyclic framework, the exploration of efficient and practical synthetic strategies to such types of molecules remains highly desirable. Catalytic enantioselective synthesis has one clear advantage that it is more cost-effective than other synthetic methods, but remains limited by challenges in achieving excellent yield and stereoselectivities with a low catalyst loading. Thus far, numerous models of organo- and organometal-catalyzed asymmetric reactions have been exploited to achieve this elusive goal over the past decade. This review article describes recent progress on this research topic, and focuses on an understanding of the catalytic asymmetric protocols exemplified in the catalytic enantioselective synthesis of a wide range of complex enantioenriched trifluoromethylated heterocycles.

  9. Controlling stereoselectivity by enzymatic and chemical means to access enantiomerically pure (1S,3R)-1-benzyl-2,3-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives☆

    PubMed Central

    Orden, Alejandro A.; Schrittwieser, Joerg H.; Resch, Verena; Mutti, Francesco G.; Kroutil, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    A chemoenzymatic strategy for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure novel alkaloids (1S,3R)-1-benzyl-2,3-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines is presented. The key steps are the biocatalytic stereoselective reductive amination of substituted 1-phenylpropan-2-one derivatives to yield chiral amines employing microbial ω-transaminases, and the diastereoselective reduction of a Bischler–Napieralski imine intermediate by catalytic hydrogenation in the presence of palladium on charcoal, leading exclusively to the desired cis-isomer. PMID:24503964

  10. Origins of stereoselectivity in evolved ketoreductases.

    PubMed

    Noey, Elizabeth L; Tibrewal, Nidhi; Jiménez-Osés, Gonzalo; Osuna, Sílvia; Park, Jiyong; Bond, Carly M; Cascio, Duilio; Liang, Jack; Zhang, Xiyun; Huisman, Gjalt W; Tang, Yi; Houk, Kendall N

    2015-12-22

    Mutants of Lactobacillus kefir short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase, used here as ketoreductases (KREDs), enantioselectively reduce the pharmaceutically relevant substrates 3-thiacyclopentanone and 3-oxacyclopentanone. These substrates differ by only the heteroatom (S or O) in the ring, but the KRED mutants reduce them with different enantioselectivities. Kinetic studies show that these enzymes are more efficient with 3-thiacyclopentanone than with 3-oxacyclopentanone. X-ray crystal structures of apo- and NADP(+)-bound selected mutants show that the substrate-binding loop conformational preferences are modified by these mutations. Quantum mechanical calculations and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to investigate the mechanism of reduction by the enzyme. We have developed an MD-based method for studying the diastereomeric transition state complexes and rationalize different enantiomeric ratios. This method, which probes the stability of the catalytic arrangement within the theozyme, shows a correlation between the relative fractions of catalytically competent poses for the enantiomeric reductions and the experimental enantiomeric ratio. Some mutations, such as A94F and Y190F, induce conformational changes in the active site that enlarge the small binding pocket, facilitating accommodation of the larger S atom in this region and enhancing S-selectivity with 3-thiacyclopentanone. In contrast, in the E145S mutant and the final variant evolved for large-scale production of the intermediate for the antibiotic sulopenem, R-selectivity is promoted by shrinking the small binding pocket, thereby destabilizing the pro-S orientation.

  11. Origins of stereoselectivity in evolved ketoreductases

    PubMed Central

    Noey, Elizabeth L.; Tibrewal, Nidhi; Jiménez-Osés, Gonzalo; Osuna, Sílvia; Park, Jiyong; Bond, Carly M.; Cascio, Duilio; Liang, Jack; Zhang, Xiyun; Huisman, Gjalt W.; Tang, Yi; Houk, Kendall N.

    2015-01-01

    Mutants of Lactobacillus kefir short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase, used here as ketoreductases (KREDs), enantioselectively reduce the pharmaceutically relevant substrates 3-thiacyclopentanone and 3-oxacyclopentanone. These substrates differ by only the heteroatom (S or O) in the ring, but the KRED mutants reduce them with different enantioselectivities. Kinetic studies show that these enzymes are more efficient with 3-thiacyclopentanone than with 3-oxacyclopentanone. X-ray crystal structures of apo- and NADP+-bound selected mutants show that the substrate-binding loop conformational preferences are modified by these mutations. Quantum mechanical calculations and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to investigate the mechanism of reduction by the enzyme. We have developed an MD-based method for studying the diastereomeric transition state complexes and rationalize different enantiomeric ratios. This method, which probes the stability of the catalytic arrangement within the theozyme, shows a correlation between the relative fractions of catalytically competent poses for the enantiomeric reductions and the experimental enantiomeric ratio. Some mutations, such as A94F and Y190F, induce conformational changes in the active site that enlarge the small binding pocket, facilitating accommodation of the larger S atom in this region and enhancing S-selectivity with 3-thiacyclopentanone. In contrast, in the E145S mutant and the final variant evolved for large-scale production of the intermediate for the antibiotic sulopenem, R-selectivity is promoted by shrinking the small binding pocket, thereby destabilizing the pro-S orientation. PMID:26644568

  12. Stereoselective biodegradation of amphetamine and methamphetamine in river microcosms.

    PubMed

    Bagnall, John; Malia, Louis; Lubben, Anneke; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2013-10-01

    Here presented for the first time is the enantioselective biodegradation of amphetamine and methamphetamine in river microcosm bioreactors. The aim of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that mechanisms governing the fate of amphetamine and methamphetamine in the environment are mostly stereoselective and biological in nature. Several bioreactors were studied over the duration of 15 days (i) in both biotic and abiotic conditions, (ii) in the dark or exposed to light and (iii) in the presence or absence of suspended particulate matter. Bioreactor samples were analysed using SPE-chiral-LC-(QTOF)MS methodology. This investigation has elucidated the fundamental mechanism for degradation of amphetamine and methamphetamine as being predominantly biological in origin. Furthermore, stereoselectivity and changes in enantiomeric fraction (EF) were only observed under biotic conditions. Neither amphetamine nor methamphetamine appeared to demonstrate adsorption to suspended particulate matter. Our experiments also demonstrated that amphetamine and methamphetamine were photo-stable. Illicit drugs are present in the environment at low concentrations but due to their pseudo-persistence and non-racemic behaviour, with two enantiomers revealing significantly different potency (and potentially different toxicity towards aquatic organisms) the risk posed by illicit drugs in the environment should not be under- or over-estimated. The above results demonstrate the need for re-evaluation of the procedures utilised in environmental risk assessment, which currently do not recognise the importance of the phenomenon of chirality in pharmacologically active compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Opposite Stereoselectivities of Dirigent Proteins in Arabidopsis and Schizandra Species*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kye-Won; Moinuddin, Syed G. A.; Atwell, Kathleen M.; Costa, Michael A.; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.

    2012-01-01

    How stereoselective monolignol-derived phenoxy radical-radical coupling reactions are differentially biochemically orchestrated in planta, whereby for example they afford (+)- and (−)-pinoresinols, respectively, is both a fascinating mechanistic and evolutionary question. In earlier work, biochemical control of (+)-pinoresinol formation had been established to be engendered by a (+)-pinoresinol-forming dirigent protein in Forsythia intermedia, whereas the presence of a (−)-pinoresinol-forming dirigent protein was indirectly deduced based on the enantiospecificity of downstream pinoresinol reductases (AtPrRs) in Arabidopsis thaliana root tissue. In this study of 16 putative dirigent protein homologs in Arabidopsis, AtDIR6, AtDIR10, and AtDIR13 were established to be root-specific using a β-glucuronidase reporter gene strategy. Of these three, in vitro analyses established that only recombinant AtDIR6 was a (−)-pinoresinol-forming dirigent protein, whose physiological role was further confirmed using overexpression and RNAi strategies in vivo. Interestingly, its closest homolog, AtDIR5, was also established to be a (−)-pinoresinol-forming dirigent protein based on in vitro biochemical analyses. Both of these were compared in terms of properties with a (+)-pinoresinol-forming dirigent protein from Schizandra chinensis. In this context, sequence analyses, site-directed mutagenesis, and region swapping resulted in identification of putative substrate binding sites/regions and candidate residues controlling distinct stereoselectivities of coupling modes. PMID:22854967

  14. Synthesis of pterostilbene by Julie Olefination

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A simple, stereoselective route for the synthesis of the biologically active compounds trans-pterostilbene and tetramethoxy stilbene from the readily available starting materials 3,5-dimethoxy benzyl alcohol and 4-hydroxy benzaldehyde was developed using Julia olefination as a key reaction....

  15. Phase and composition controllable synthesis of cobalt manganese spinel nanoparticles towards efficient oxygen electrocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun; Han, Xiaopeng; Cheng, Fangyi; Hu, Yuxiang; Chen, Chengcheng; Chen, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Spinel-type oxides are technologically important in many fields, including electronics, magnetism, catalysis and electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Typically, these materials are prepared by conventional ceramic routes that are energy consuming and offer limited control over shape and size. Moreover, for mixed-metal oxide spinels (for example, CoxMn3-xO4), the crystallographic phase sensitively correlates with the metal ratio, posing great challenges to synthesize active product with simultaneously tuned phase and composition. Here we report a general synthesis of ultrasmall cobalt manganese spinels with tailored structural symmetry and composition through facile solution-based oxidation-precipitation and insertion-crystallization process at modest condition. As an example application, the nanocrystalline spinels catalyse the oxygen reduction/evolution reactions, showing phase and composition co-dependent performance. Furthermore, the mild synthetic strategy allows the formation of homogeneous and strongly coupled spinel/carbon nanocomposites, which exhibit comparable activity but superior durability to Pt/C and serve as efficient catalysts to build rechargeable Zn-air and Li-air batteries.

  16. Efficient, chemoselective synthesis of immunomicelles using single-domain antibodies with a C-terminal thioester

    PubMed Central

    Reulen, Sanne WA; van Baal, Ingrid; Raats, Jos MH; Merkx, Maarten

    2009-01-01

    Background Classical bioconjugation strategies for generating antibody-functionalized nanoparticles are non-specific and typically result in heterogeneous compounds that can be compromised in activity. Expression systems based on self-cleavable intein domains allow the generation of recombinant proteins with a C-terminal thioester, providing a unique handle for site-specific conjugation using native chemical ligation (NCL). However, current methods to generate antibody fragments with C-terminal thioesters require cumbersome refolding procedures, effectively preventing application of NCL for antibody-mediated targeting and molecular imaging. Results Targeting to the periplasm of E. coli allowed efficient production of correctly-folded single-domain antibody (sdAb)-intein fusions proteins. On column purification and 2-mercapthoethanesulfonic acid (MESNA)-induced cleavage yielded single-domain antibodies with a reactive C-terminal MESNA thioester in good yields. These thioester-functionalized single-domain antibodies allowed synthesis of immunomicelles via native chemical ligation in a single step. Conclusion A novel procedure was developed to obtain soluble, well-folded single-domain antibodies with reactive C-terminal thioesters in good yields. These proteins are promising building blocks for the chemoselective functionalization via NCL of a broad range of nanoparticle scaffolds, including micelles, liposomes and dendrimers. PMID:19619333

  17. Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles for the efficient removal (degradation) of dye from aqueous phase.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Tanur; Ahmaruzzaman, M

    2015-12-01

    The present work reports the utilization of a common household waste material (fish scales of Labeo rohita) for the synthesis of copper nanoparticles. The method so developed was found to be green, environment-friendly, and economic. The fish scale extracts were acting as a stabilizing and reducing agents. This method avoids the use of external reducing and stabilizing agents, templates, and solvents. The compositional abundance of gelatin may be envisaged for the effective reductive as well as stabilizing potency. The mechanisms for the formation of nanoparticles have also been presented. The synthesized copper nanoparticles formed were predominantly spherical in nature with an average size of nanoparticles in the range of 25-37 nm. The copper nanoparticles showed characteristic Bragg's reflection planes of fcc which was supported by both selected area electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction pattern and showed surface plasmon resonance at 580 nm. Moreover, the energy dispersive spectroscopy pattern also revealed the presence of only elemental copper in the copper nanoparticles. The prepared nanoparticles were used for the remediation of a carcinogenic and noxious textile dye, Methylene blue, from aqueous solution. Approximately, 96 % degradation of Methylene blue dye was observed within 135 min using copper nanoparticles. The probable mechanism for the degradation of the dye has been presented, and the degraded intermediates have been identified using the liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy technique. The high efficiency of nanoparticles as photocatalysts has opened a promising application for the removal of hazardous dye from industrial effluents contributing indirectly to environmental cleanup process.

  18. Efficient synthesis of tension modulation in strings and membranes based on energy estimation.

    PubMed

    Avanzini, Federico; Marogna, Riccardo; Bank, Balázs

    2012-01-01

    String and membrane vibrations cannot be considered as linear above a certain amplitude due to the variation in string or membrane tension. A relevant special case is when the tension is spatially constant and varies in time only in dependence of the overall string length or membrane surface. The most apparent perceptual effect of this tension modulation phenomenon is the exponential decay of pitch in time. Pitch glides due to tension modulation are an important timbral characteristic of several musical instruments, including the electric guitar and tom-tom drum, and many ethnic instruments. This paper presents a unified formulation to the tension modulation problem for one-dimensional (1-D) (string) and two-dimensional (2-D) (membrane) cases. In addition, it shows that the short-time average of the tension variation, which is responsible for pitch glides, is approximately proportional to the system energy. This proportionality allows the efficient physics-based sound synthesis of pitch glides. The proposed models require only slightly more computational resources than linear models as opposed to earlier tension-modulated models of higher complexity.

  19. Phase and composition controllable synthesis of cobalt manganese spinel nanoparticles towards efficient oxygen electrocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun; Han, Xiaopeng; Cheng, Fangyi; Hu, Yuxiang; Chen, Chengcheng; Chen, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Spinel-type oxides are technologically important in many fields, including electronics, magnetism, catalysis and electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Typically, these materials are prepared by conventional ceramic routes that are energy consuming and offer limited control over shape and size. Moreover, for mixed-metal oxide spinels (for example, CoxMn3−xO4), the crystallographic phase sensitively correlates with the metal ratio, posing great challenges to synthesize active product with simultaneously tuned phase and composition. Here we report a general synthesis of ultrasmall cobalt manganese spinels with tailored structural symmetry and composition through facile solution-based oxidation–precipitation and insertion–crystallization process at modest condition. As an example application, the nanocrystalline spinels catalyse the oxygen reduction/evolution reactions, showing phase and composition co-dependent performance. Furthermore, the mild synthetic strategy allows the formation of homogeneous and strongly coupled spinel/carbon nanocomposites, which exhibit comparable activity but superior durability to Pt/C and serve as efficient catalysts to build rechargeable Zn–air and Li–air batteries. PMID:26040417

  20. Facile and Efficient Synthesis of Carbosiloxane Dendrimers via Orthogonal Click Chemistry Between Thiol and Ene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhida; Feng, Shengyu; Zhang, Jie

    2016-02-01

    A combination of a thiol-Michael addition reaction and a free radical mediated thiol-ene reaction is employed as a facile and efficient approach to carbosiloxane dendrimer synthesis. For the first time, carbosiloxane dendrimers are constructed rapidly by an orthogonal click strategy without protection/deprotection procedures. The chemoselectivity of these two thiol-ene click reactions leads to a design of a new monomer containing both electron-deficient carbon-carbon double bonds and unconjugated carbon-carbon double bonds. Siloxane bonds are introduced as the linker between these two kinds of carbon-carbon double bonds. Starting from a bifunctional thiol core, the dendrimers are constructed by iterative thiol-ene click reactions under different but both mild reaction conditions. After simple purification steps the fifth dendrimer with 54 peripheral functional groups is obtained with an excellent overall yield in a single day. Furthermore, a strong blue glow is observed when the dendrimer is excited by a UV lamp.