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Sample records for efficient symbiotic n-2-fixation

  1. A single evolutionary innovation drives the deep evolution of symbiotic N2-fixation in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Werner, Gijsbert D A; Cornwell, William K; Sprent, Janet I; Kattge, Jens; Kiers, E Toby

    2014-06-10

    Symbiotic associations occur in every habitat on earth, but we know very little about their evolutionary histories. Current models of trait evolution cannot adequately reconstruct the deep history of symbiotic innovation, because they assume homogenous evolutionary processes across millions of years. Here we use a recently developed, heterogeneous and quantitative phylogenetic framework to study the origin of the symbiosis between angiosperms and nitrogen-fixing (N2) bacterial symbionts housed in nodules. We compile the largest database of global nodulating plant species and reconstruct the symbiosis' evolution. We identify a single, cryptic evolutionary innovation driving symbiotic N2-fixation evolution, followed by multiple gains and losses of the symbiosis, and the subsequent emergence of 'stable fixers' (clades extremely unlikely to lose the symbiosis). Originating over 100 MYA, this innovation suggests deep homology in symbiotic N2-fixation. Identifying cryptic innovations on the tree of life is key to understanding the evolution of complex traits, including symbiotic partnerships.

  2. A single evolutionary innovation drives the deep evolution of symbiotic N2-fixation in angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Gijsbert D. A.; Cornwell, William K.; Sprent, Janet I.; Kattge, Jens; Kiers, E. Toby

    2014-01-01

    Symbiotic associations occur in every habitat on earth, but we know very little about their evolutionary histories. Current models of trait evolution cannot adequately reconstruct the deep history of symbiotic innovation, because they assume homogenous evolutionary processes across millions of years. Here we use a recently developed, heterogeneous and quantitative phylogenetic framework to study the origin of the symbiosis between angiosperms and nitrogen-fixing (N2) bacterial symbionts housed in nodules. We compile the largest database of global nodulating plant species and reconstruct the symbiosis’ evolution. We identify a single, cryptic evolutionary innovation driving symbiotic N2-fixation evolution, followed by multiple gains and losses of the symbiosis, and the subsequent emergence of ‘stable fixers’ (clades extremely unlikely to lose the symbiosis). Originating over 100 MYA, this innovation suggests deep homology in symbiotic N2-fixation. Identifying cryptic innovations on the tree of life is key to understanding the evolution of complex traits, including symbiotic partnerships. PMID:24912610

  3. NAD(P)+-Malic Enzyme Mutants of Sinorhizobium sp. Strain NGR234, but Not Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS571, Maintain Symbiotic N2 Fixation Capabilities

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ye; Aono, Toshihiro; Poole, Phillip

    2012-01-01

    C4-dicarboxylic acids appear to be metabolized via the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in N2-fixing bacteria (bacteroids) within legume nodules. In Sinorhizobium meliloti bacteroids from alfalfa, NAD+-malic enzyme (DME) is required for N2 fixation, and this activity is thought to be required for the anaplerotic synthesis of pyruvate. In contrast, in the pea symbiont Rhizobium leguminosarum, pyruvate synthesis occurs via either DME or a pathway catalyzed by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK) and pyruvate kinase (PYK). Here we report that dme mutants of the broad-host-range Sinorhizobium sp. strain NGR234 formed nodules whose level of N2 fixation varied from 27 to 83% (plant dry weight) of the wild-type level, depending on the host plant inoculated. NGR234 bacteroids had significant PCK activity, and while single pckA and single dme mutants fixed N2 at reduced rates, a pckA dme double mutant had no N2-fixing activity (Fix−). Thus, NGR234 bacteroids appear to synthesize pyruvate from TCA cycle intermediates via DME or PCK pathways. These NGR234 data, together with other reports, suggested that the completely Fix− phenotype of S. meliloti dme mutants may be specific to the alfalfa-S. meliloti symbiosis. We therefore examined the ME-like genes azc3656 and azc0119 from Azorhizobium caulinodans, as azc3656 mutants were previously shown to form Fix− nodules on the tropical legume Sesbania rostrata. We found that purified AZC3656 protein is an NAD(P)+-malic enzyme whose activity is inhibited by acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) and stimulated by succinate and fumarate. Thus, whereas DME is required for symbiotic N2 fixation in A. caulinodans and S. meliloti, in other rhizobia this activity can be bypassed via another pathway(s). PMID:22307295

  4. Symbiotic N2-Fixation Estimated by the 15N Tracer Technique and Growth of Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth. Inoculated with Bradyrhizobium Strain in Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sarr, Papa Saliou; Okon, Judith Wase; Begoude, Didier Aime Boyogueno; Araki, Shigeru; Ambang, Zachée; Shibata, Makoto; Funakawa, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    This field experiment was established in Eastern Cameroon to examine the effect of selected rhizobial inoculation on N2-fixation and growth of Pueraria phaseoloides. Treatments consisted of noninoculated and Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense S3-4-inoculated Pueraria with three replications each. Ipomoea batatas as a non-N2-fixing reference was interspersed in each Pueraria plot. All the twelve plots received 2 gN/m2 of 15N ammonium sulfate 10% atom excess. At harvest, dry matter yields and the nitrogen derived from atmospheric N2-fixation (%Ndfa) of inoculated Pueraria were significantly (P < 0.05) higher (81% and 10.83%, resp.) than those of noninoculated Pueraria. The inoculation enhanced nodule dry weight 2.44-fold. Consequently, the harvested N significantly (P < 0.05) increased by 83% in inoculated Pueraria, resulting from the increase in N2-fixation and soil N uptake. A loss of 55 to 60% of the N fertilizer was reported, and 36 to 40% of it was immobilized in soil. Here, we demonstrated that both N2-fixing potential of P. phaseoloides and soil N uptake are improved through field inoculations using efficient bradyrhizobial species. In practice, the inoculation contributes to maximize N input in soils by the cover crop's biomass and represent a good strategy to improve soil fertility for subsequent cultivation. PMID:26904363

  5. Symbiotic N 2 -Fixation Estimated by the (15) N Tracer Technique and Growth of Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth. Inoculated with Bradyrhizobium Strain in Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Sarr, Papa Saliou; Okon, Judith Wase; Begoude, Didier Aime Boyogueno; Araki, Shigeru; Ambang, Zachée; Shibata, Makoto; Funakawa, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    This field experiment was established in Eastern Cameroon to examine the effect of selected rhizobial inoculation on N2-fixation and growth of Pueraria phaseoloides. Treatments consisted of noninoculated and Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense S3-4-inoculated Pueraria with three replications each. Ipomoea batatas as a non-N2-fixing reference was interspersed in each Pueraria plot. All the twelve plots received 2 gN/m(2) of (15)N ammonium sulfate 10% atom excess. At harvest, dry matter yields and the nitrogen derived from atmospheric N2-fixation (%Ndfa) of inoculated Pueraria were significantly (P < 0.05) higher (81% and 10.83%, resp.) than those of noninoculated Pueraria. The inoculation enhanced nodule dry weight 2.44-fold. Consequently, the harvested N significantly (P < 0.05) increased by 83% in inoculated Pueraria, resulting from the increase in N2-fixation and soil N uptake. A loss of 55 to 60% of the N fertilizer was reported, and 36 to 40% of it was immobilized in soil. Here, we demonstrated that both N2-fixing potential of P. phaseoloides and soil N uptake are improved through field inoculations using efficient bradyrhizobial species. In practice, the inoculation contributes to maximize N input in soils by the cover crop's biomass and represent a good strategy to improve soil fertility for subsequent cultivation. PMID:26904363

  6. DT2008: A Promising New Genetic Resource for Improved Drought Tolerance in Soybean When Solely Dependent on Symbiotic N2 Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Sulieman, Saad; Ha, Chien Van; Nasr Esfahani, Maryam; Watanabe, Yasuko; Nishiyama, Rie; Pham, Chung Thi Bao; Nguyen, Dong Van; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2015-01-01

    Water deficit is one of the major constraints for soybean production in Vietnam. The soybean breeding research efforts conducted at the Agriculture Genetics Institute (AGI) of Vietnam resulted in the development of promising soybean genotypes, suitable for the drought-stressed areas in Vietnam and other countries. Such a variety, namely, DT2008, was recommended by AGI and widely used throughout the country. The aim of this work was to assess the growth of shoots, roots, and nodules of DT2008 versus Williams 82 (W82) in response to drought and subsequent rehydration in symbiotic association as a means to provide genetic resources for genomic research. Better shoot, root, and nodule growth and development were observed in the cultivar DT2008 under sufficient, water deficit, and recovery conditions. Our results represent a good foundation for further comparison of DT2008 and W82 at molecular levels using high throughput omic technologies, which will provide huge amounts of data, enabling us to understand the genetic network involved in regulation of soybean responses to water deficit and increasing the chances of developing drought-tolerant cultivars. PMID:25685802

  7. Genotypic Variation for N2-FIXATION in Voandzou (vigna Subterranea) Under P Deficiency and P Sufficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andry, A.; Mahamadou, M.; Lilia, R.; Laurie, A.; Hélène, V.; Dominique, M.; Christian, M.; Jean-Jacques, D.

    2011-12-01

    Genetic variation associated with N2 fixation exists in numerous legume species (Graham, 2004). High symbiotic N2 fixation under P deficiency is related closely to nodulation which was used in legume selection for N2 fixation (Herridge and Rose, 2000). Until now, study of genetic potential of neglected crops like Vigna subterranea (bambara groundnut or voandzou) is often limited while its agronomic properties is interesting for the farmers of Africa. In order to assess the genotypic variation of voandzou for tolerance to phosphorus deficiency, a physiological approach of cultivar selection was performed with 54 cultivars from Madagascar, Niger and Mali in hydroponic culture under P deficiency and P sufficiency and inoculated with the reference strain of Bradyrhizobium sp. Vigna CB756. The results of nodulation and plant biomass, which are closely related, showed a large dispersion between cultivars (0.05-0.43 g nodule dry weight per plant and 0.50-5.51 g shoot dry weight per plant). The cultivars which presented the maximum growth during the experiment presented a high efficiency in use of the rhizobial symbiosis calculated as the slope of plant biomass regression as a function of nodulation. A large increase in nodulated-root O2 consumption under P deficiency was observed for the two most tolerant cultivars. The microscopic analysis with in situ RT-PCR of the nodule sections showed an increase of a phytase gene expression with tolerance of cultivars to P deficiency. From two most contrasting cultivars, an isotopic exchange method 32P was carried out on rhizosphere soil in rhizotron culture in order to assess the direct effect induced by the roots in terms of phosphorus mobilization. The rhizospheric effect was observed under P deficiency marked by a strong re-supplying capacity of soil solution in the diffusive phosphate ion between solid phase and soil solution leading to great phosphorus nutrition. These results highlight the genotypic variability among voandzou

  8. Salt-tolerant rhizobia isolated from a Tunisian oasis that are highly effective for symbiotic N2-fixation with Phaseolus vulgaris constitute a novel biovar (bv. mediterranense) of Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    PubMed

    Mnasri, Bacem; Mrabet, Moncef; Laguerre, Gisèle; Aouani, Mohamed Elarbi; Mhamdi, Ridha

    2007-01-01

    Nodulation of common bean was explored in six oases in the south of Tunisia. Nineteen isolates were characterized by PCR-RFLP of 16S rDNA. Three species of rhizobia were identified, Rhizobium etli, Rhizobium gallicum and Sinorhizobium meliloti. The diversity of the symbiotic genes was then assessed by PCR-RFLP of nodC and nifH genes. The majority of the symbiotic genotypes were conserved between oases and other soils of the north of the country. Sinorhizobia isolated from bean were then compared with isolates from Medicago truncatula plants grown in the oases soils. All the nodC types except for nodC type p that was specific to common bean isolates were shared by both hosts. The four isolates with nodC type p induced N(2)-fixing effective nodules on common bean but did not nodulate M. truncatula and Medicago sativa. The phylogenetic analysis of nifH and nodC genes showed that these isolates carry symbiotic genes different from those previously characterized among Medicago and bean symbionts, but closely related to those of S. fredii Spanish and Tunisian isolates effective in symbiosis with common bean but unable to nodulate soybean. The creation of a novel biovar shared by S. meliloti and S. fredii, bv. mediterranense, was proposed.

  9. Benthic N2 fixation in coral reefs and the potential effects of human-induced environmental change.

    PubMed

    Cardini, Ulisse; Bednarz, Vanessa N; Foster, Rachel A; Wild, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Tropical coral reefs are among the most productive and diverse ecosystems, despite being surrounded by ocean waters where nutrients are in short supply. Benthic dinitrogen (N2) fixation is a significant internal source of "new" nitrogen (N) in reef ecosystems, but related information appears to be sparse. Here, we review the current state (and gaps) of knowledge on N2 fixation associated with coral reef organisms and their ecosystems. By summarizing the existing literature, we show that benthic N2 fixation is an omnipresent process in tropical reef environments. Highest N2 fixation rates are detected in reef-associated cyanobacterial mats and sea grass meadows, clearly showing the significance of these functional groups, if present, to the input of new N in reef ecosystems. Nonetheless, key benthic organisms such as hard corals also importantly contribute to benthic N2 fixation in the reef. Given the usually high coral coverage of healthy reef systems, these results indicate that benthic symbiotic associations may be more important than previously thought. In fact, mutualisms between carbon (C) and N2 fixers have likely evolved that may enable reef communities to mitigate N limitation. We then explore the potential effects of the increasing human interferences on the process of benthic reef N2 fixation via changes in diazotrophic populations, enzymatic activities, or availability of benthic substrates favorable to these microorganisms. Current knowledge indicates positive effects of ocean acidification, warming, and deoxygenation and negative effects of increased ultraviolet radiation on the amount of N fixed in coral reefs. Eutrophication may either boost or suppress N2 fixation, depending on the nutrient becoming limiting. As N2 fixation appears to play a fundamental role in nutrient-limited reef ecosystems, these assumptions need to be expanded and confirmed by future research efforts addressing the knowledge gaps identified in this review.

  10. Benthic N2 fixation in coral reefs and the potential effects of human-induced environmental change

    PubMed Central

    Cardini, Ulisse; Bednarz, Vanessa N; Foster, Rachel A; Wild, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Tropical coral reefs are among the most productive and diverse ecosystems, despite being surrounded by ocean waters where nutrients are in short supply. Benthic dinitrogen (N2) fixation is a significant internal source of “new” nitrogen (N) in reef ecosystems, but related information appears to be sparse. Here, we review the current state (and gaps) of knowledge on N2 fixation associated with coral reef organisms and their ecosystems. By summarizing the existing literature, we show that benthic N2 fixation is an omnipresent process in tropical reef environments. Highest N2 fixation rates are detected in reef-associated cyanobacterial mats and sea grass meadows, clearly showing the significance of these functional groups, if present, to the input of new N in reef ecosystems. Nonetheless, key benthic organisms such as hard corals also importantly contribute to benthic N2 fixation in the reef. Given the usually high coral coverage of healthy reef systems, these results indicate that benthic symbiotic associations may be more important than previously thought. In fact, mutualisms between carbon (C) and N2 fixers have likely evolved that may enable reef communities to mitigate N limitation. We then explore the potential effects of the increasing human interferences on the process of benthic reef N2 fixation via changes in diazotrophic populations, enzymatic activities, or availability of benthic substrates favorable to these microorganisms. Current knowledge indicates positive effects of ocean acidification, warming, and deoxygenation and negative effects of increased ultraviolet radiation on the amount of N fixed in coral reefs. Eutrophication may either boost or suppress N2 fixation, depending on the nutrient becoming limiting. As N2 fixation appears to play a fundamental role in nutrient-limited reef ecosystems, these assumptions need to be expanded and confirmed by future research efforts addressing the knowledge gaps identified in this review. PMID:24967086

  11. Legumes, N2 fixation and the H2 cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layzell, D. B.

    2004-12-01

    Legume plants such as soybean or pea can form symbiotic, N2 fixing associations with bacteria that exist in root nodules. For every N2 fixed, 1 to 3 H2 are produced as a by-product of the nitrogenase reaction. Therefore, a typical N2 fixing legume crop produces about 200,000 L H2 gas (at STP) per hectare per crop season. This paper will summarize our current understanding of the processes leading to H2 production in legumes, the magnitude of H2 production associated with global cropping systems, and the implications for its production and oxidation on both the legumes and the soils in which they grow. Specific points may include: ˜ In symbioses lacking uptake hydrogenase (HUP) activity (thought to be the majority of crop legumes), the H2 diffuses into the soil where it is oxidized by soil microbes that grow up around the legume nodules. The kinetic properties of these microbes are very different (higher Km and Vmax) from that of microbes in soils exposed to normal air (ca. 0.5 ppm H2); ˜ Laboratory studies indicate that 60% of the reducing power from H2 is coupled to O2 uptake, whereas 40% is coupled to autotrophic CO2 fixation. The latter process should increase soil carbon stocks by about 25 kg C/ha/yr; ˜ At the site of the nitrogenase enzyme, H2 production is autocatalytic such that the higher the H2 concentration, the more H2 is produced and the less N2 fixed. The variable O2 diffusion barrier in legumes can act to restrict H2 diffusion from the nodule, thereby increasing the relative magnitude of H2 production versus N2 fixation; ˜ Studies to understand why legume symbioses make such an energy investment in H2 production have led to the discovery that H2 treated soils have improved fertility, supporting the growth and yield of legume and non-legume crops. This observation may account for the benefits of legumes when used in rotation with cereal crops, a phenomenon that has been used by farmers for over 2000 years, but which has remained unexplained. An

  12. Isotope evidence for N2-fixation in Sphagnum peat bogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Martin; Jackova, Ivana; Buzek, Frantisek; Stepanova, Marketa; Veselovsky, Frantisek; Curik, Jan; Prechova, Eva

    2016-04-01

    Waterlogged organic soils store as much as 30 % of the world's soil carbon (C), and 15 % of the world's soil nitrogen (N). In the era of climate change, wetlands are vulnerable to increasing temperatures and prolonged periods of low rainfall. Higher rates of microbial processes and/or changing availability of oxygen may lead to peat thinning and elevated emissions of greenhouse gases (mostly CO2, but also CH4 and N2O). Biogeochemical cycling of C and N in peat bogs is coupled. Under low levels of pollution by reactive nitrogen (NO3-, NH4+), increasing N inputs may positively affect C storage in peat. Recent studies in North America and Scandinavia have suggested that pristine bogs are characterized by significant rates of microbial N2 fixation that augments C storage in the peat substrate. We present a nitrogen isotope study aimed at corroborating these findings. We conducted an isotope inventory of N fluxes and pools at two Sphagnum-dominated ombrotrophic peat bogs in the Czech Republic (Central Europe). For the first time, we present a time-series of del15N values of atmospheric input at the same locations as del15N values of living Sphagnum and peat. The mean del15N values systematically increased in the order: input NH4+ (-10.0 ‰) < input NO3- (-7.9 ‰) < peat porewater (-5.6 ‰) < Sphagnum (-5.0 ‰) < shallow peat (-4.2 ‰) < deep peat (-2.2 ‰) < runoff (-1.4 ‰) < porewater N2O (1.4 ‰). Importantly, N of Sphagnum was isotopically heavier than N of the atmospheric input (p < 0.001). If partial incorporation of reactive N from the atmosphere into Sphagnum was isotopically selective, the residual N would have to be isotopically extremely light. Such N, however, was not identified anywhere in the ecosystem. Alternatively, Sphagnum may have contained an admixture of isotopically heavier N from atmospheric N2 (del15N N2 = 0 ‰). We conlude that the N isotope systematics at the two Czech sites is consistent with the concept of significant N2 fixation

  13. N2-Fixation by Freshly Isolated Nostoc from Coralloid Roots of the Cycad Macrozamia riedlei (Fisch. ex Gaud.) Gardn. 1

    PubMed Central

    Lindblad, Peter; Atkins, Craig A.; Pate, John S.

    1991-01-01

    Nitrogenase (EC 1.7.99.2) activity (acetylene reduction) and nitrogen fixation (15N2 fixation) were measured in cyanobacteria freshly isolated from the coralloid roots of Macrozamia riedlei (Fisch. ex Gaud.) Gardn. Light and gas phase oxygen concentration had marked interactive effects on activity, with higher (up to 100-fold) rates of acetylene reduction and 15N2 fixation in light. The relationship between ethylene formation and N2-fixation varied in the freshly isolated cyanobacteria from 4 to 7 nanomoles of C2H4 per nanomole 15N2. Intact coralloid roots, incubated in darkness and ambient air, showed a value of 4.3. Maximum rates of nitrogenase activity occurred at about 0.6% O2 in light, while in darkness there was a broad optimum around 5 to 8% O2. Inhibition of nitrogenase, in light, by pO2 above 0.6% was irreversible. Measurements of light-dependent O2 evolution and 14CO2 fixation indicated negligible photosynthetic electron transport involving photosystem II and, on the basis of inhibitor studies, the stimulatory effect of light was attributed to cyclic photophos-phorylation. Nitrogenase activity of free-living culture of an isolate from Macrozamia (Nostoc PCC 73102) was only slightly inhibited by O2 levels above 6% O2 and the inhibition was reversible. These cells showed rates of light-dependent O2 evolution and 14CO2 fixation which were 100- to 200-fold higher than those by the freshly isolated symbiont. Furthermore, nitrogenase activity was dependent on both photosynthetic electron transport and photophosphorylation. These data indicate that cyanobacteria within cycad coralloid roots are differentiated specifically for symbiotic functioning in a microaerobic environment. Specializations include a high heterocyst frequency, enhanced permeability to O2, and a direct dependence on the cycad for substrates to support nitrogenase activity. PMID:16668050

  14. Phosphorus limitation controls rates of biological N2-fixation in boreal peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dynarski, K. A.; Wieder, R.; Vile, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    N2-fixation, once thought to occur at negligible rates in pristine boreal peatlands, has recently been demonstrated to be the dominant input of nitrogen (N) to these ecosystems. The controls of biological N2-fixation in pristine boreal peatlands are not well understood, but limitation of the nutrients molybdenum (Mo) and phosphorus (P) may play a key role. Because the enzyme nitrogenase requires molybdenum-containing cofactors to function, biological N2-fixation may be limited by the trace metal molybdenum. Recent studies have shown that Mo limits nitrogen fixation rates in tropical soils. P availability may also be important in regulating N2-fixation rates; N2-fixation is a P-intensive process because the nitrogenase enzyme is rich in P, and P is likely to be the most limiting nutrient to boreal peatland productivity, next to N. In this study, we examined the role of Mo and P limitation in controlling rates of biological N2-fixation in boreal peatlands. We applied Mo and P nutrient amendments equivalent to 5 mg m-2 yr-1and 10 kg ha-1 yr-1 respectively, both alone and in combination, to fifteen 0.36 m2 plots in a pristine Alberta fen throughout the summer 2013 growing season. We periodically assessed N2-fixation rates in Sphagnum angustifolium moss samples using the acetylene reduction assay with subsequent calibration using 15N2. We found a significant overall treatment effect (F3,44=15.62, p<0.0001). A posteriori analysis using Tukey's HSD indicates that N2-fixation rates were significantly higher in plots receiving P additions relative to control plots. However, Mo additions had no effect on N2-fixation rates. These results indicate that P, not Mo, availability is dominant in controlling rates of biological N2-fixation in boreal peatland ecosystems.

  15. The sensitivity of marine N2 fixation to dissolved inorganic nitrogen

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Angela N.

    2012-01-01

    The dominant process adding nitrogen (N) to the ocean, di-nitrogen (N2) fixation, is mediated by prokaryotes (diazotrophs) sensitive to a variety of environmental factors. In particular, it is often assumed that consequential rates of marine N2 fixation do not occur where concentrations of nitrate (NO−3) and/or ammonium (NH+4) exceed 1μM because of the additional energetic cost associated with assimilating N2 gas relative to NO−3 or NH+4. However, an examination of culturing studies and in situ N2 fixation rate measurements from marine euphotic, mesopelagic, and benthic environments indicates that while elevated concentrations of NO−3 and/or NH+4 can depress N2 fixation rates, the process can continue at substantial rates in the presence of as much as 30μM NO−3 and/or 200μM NH+4. These findings challenge expectations of the degree to which inorganic N inhibits this process. The high rates of N2 fixation measured in some benthic environments suggest that certain benthic diazotrophs may be less sensitive to prolonged exposure to NO−3 and/or NH+4 than cyanobacterial diazotrophs. Additionally, recent work indicates that cyanobacterial diazotrophs may have mechanisms for mitigating NO−3 inhibition of N2 fixation. In particular, it has been recently shown that increasing phosphorus (P) availability increases diazotroph abundance, thus compensating for lower per-cell rates of N2 fixation that result from NO−3 inhibition. Consequently, low ambient surface ocean N:P ratios such as those generated by the increasing rates of N loss thought to occur during the last glacial to interglacial transition may create conditions favorable for N2 fixation and thus help to stabilize the marine N inventory on relevant time scales. These findings suggest that restricting measurements of marine N2 fixation to oligotrophic surface waters may underestimate global rates of this process and contribute to uncertainties in the marine N budget. PMID:23091472

  16. Inhibition of N2 fixation in soybean is associated with elevated ureides and amino acids.

    PubMed

    King, C Andy; Purcell, Larry C

    2005-04-01

    Decreased N2 fixation in soybean (Glycine max) L. Merr. during water deficits has been associated with increases in ureides and free amino acids in plant tissues, indicating a potential feedback inhibition by these compounds in response to drought. We evaluated concentrations of ureides and amino acids in leaf and nodule tissue and the concurrent change in N2 fixation in response to exogenous ureides and soil-water treatments for the cultivars Jackson and KS4895. Exogenous ureides applied to the soil and water-deficit treatments inhibited N2 fixation by 85% to 90%. Mn fertilization increased the apparent catabolism of ureides in leaves and hastened the recovery of N2 fixation following exogenous ureide application for both cultivars. Ureides and total free amino acids in leaves and nodules increased during water deficits and coincided with a decline in N2 fixation for both cultivars. N2 fixation recovered to 74% to 90% of control levels 2 d after rewatering drought-stressed plants, but leaf ureides and total nodule amino acids remained elevated in KS4895. Asparagine accounted for 82% of the increase in nodule amino acids relative to well-watered plants at 2 d after rewatering. These results indicate that leaf ureides and nodule asparagine do not feedback inhibit N2 fixation. Compounds whose increase and decrease in concentration mirrored the decline and recovery of N2 fixation included nodule ureides, nodule aspartate, and several amino acids in leaves, indicating that these are potential candidate molecules for feedback inhibition of N2 fixation.

  17. Growth, N2 fixation and photosynthesis in a cyanobacterium, Trichodesmium sp., under Fe stress.

    PubMed

    Fu, Fei-xue; Bell, P R

    2003-04-01

    Trichodesmium sp., isolated from the Great Barrier Reef lagoon, was cultured in artificial seawater media containing a range of Fe concentration. Fe additions stimulated growth, N2 fixation, cellular chlorophyll a content, light-saturated chlorophyll a-specific gross photosynthetic capacity (Pmchl a) and the dark respiration rate (Rdchl a). Cell yields only doubled for 9 nM Fe relative to zero added Fe, whereas N2 fixation increased 11-fold considerably for 450 nM Fe. The results suggest that N2 fixation of Trichodesmium is more sensitive to Fe limitation than are the cell yields.

  18. Novel Lipid Biomarkers for Past Oceanic N2 Fixation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bale, N. J.; Hopmans, E. C.; Villareal, T. A.; Zell, C. I.; Sinninghe Damsté, , J.; Schouten, S.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria play important roles in the biogeochemical cycles of aquatic systems. Both heterocystous and non-heterocystous N2-fixing cyanobacteria are symbiotic with marine diatoms and thrive in low nutrient environments. These associations are significant exporters of carbon to the deep-sea, but suitable tracers for reconstructing their importance in past environments are lacking. We recently analyzed the heterocyst glycolipids (HGs) of the heterocystous Richelia intracellularis symbiont of the marine diatoms Hemiaulus hauckii and H. membranaceus and found unique C5 glycolipids with C30-32 carbon chains, a structure different from the C6 glycolipids detected in freshwater heterocystous cyanobacteria. We developed a high performance liquid chromatography/ multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) method specific for trace analysis of long chain C5 HGs and applied it to suspended particulate matter (SPM) and surface sediment from the Amazon plume, a region known to harbor marine diatoms carrying heterocystous cyanobacteria as endosymbionts. C5 HGs were detected in both SPM and sediments demonstrating their biomarker potential. They were not detected in SPM or sediment from freshwater settings in the region. Rather, limnetic SPM and sediments contained C6 HGs which are established biomarkers for free-living heterocystous cyanobacteria. Glycolipids have been found preserved in sediments of up to 49 Ma old. Our development of the C5 biomarkers has the potential to improve our knowledge of the contribution of symbiotic cyanobacteria to the paleo-N-cycle.

  19. N2 fixation in eddies of the eastern tropical South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loscher, Carolin R.; Bourbonnais, Annie; Dekaezemacker, Julien; Charoenpong, Chawalit N.; Altabet, Mark A.; Bange, Hermann W.; Czeschel, Rena; Hoffmann, Chris; Schmitz, Ruth

    2016-05-01

    Mesoscale eddies play a major role in controlling ocean biogeochemistry. By impacting nutrient availability and water column ventilation, they are of critical importance for oceanic primary production. In the eastern tropical South Pacific Ocean off Peru, where a large and persistent oxygen-deficient zone is present, mesoscale processes have been reported to occur frequently. However, investigations into their biological activity are mostly based on model simulations, and direct measurements of carbon and dinitrogen (N2) fixation are scarce.We examined an open-ocean cyclonic eddy and two anticyclonic mode water eddies: a coastal one and an open-ocean one in the waters off Peru along a section at 16° S in austral summer 2012. Molecular data and bioassay incubations point towards a difference between the active diazotrophic communities present in the cyclonic eddy and the anticyclonic mode water eddies.In the cyclonic eddy, highest rates of N2 fixation were measured in surface waters but no N2 fixation signal was detected at intermediate water depths. In contrast, both anticyclonic mode water eddies showed pronounced maxima in N2 fixation below the euphotic zone as evidenced by rate measurements and geochemical data. N2 fixation and carbon (C) fixation were higher in the young coastal mode water eddy compared to the older offshore mode water eddy. A co-occurrence between N2 fixation and biogenic N2, an indicator for N loss, indicated a link between N loss and N2 fixation in the mode water eddies, which was not observed for the cyclonic eddy. The comparison of two consecutive surveys of the coastal mode water eddy in November 2012 and December 2012 also revealed a reduction in N2 and C fixation at intermediate depths along with a reduction in chlorophyll by half, mirroring an aging effect in this eddy. Our data indicate an important role for anticyclonic mode water eddies in stimulating N2 fixation and thus supplying N offshore.

  20. Root exudates drive interspecific facilitation by enhancing nodulation and N2 fixation.

    PubMed

    Li, Bai; Li, Yu-Ying; Wu, Hua-Mao; Zhang, Fang-Fang; Li, Chun-Jie; Li, Xue-Xian; Lambers, Hans; Li, Long

    2016-06-01

    Plant diversity in experimental systems often enhances ecosystem productivity, but the mechanisms causing this overyielding are only partly understood. Intercropping faba beans (Vicia faba L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) result in overyielding and also, enhanced nodulation by faba beans. By using permeable and impermeable root barriers in a 2-y field experiment, we show that root-root interactions between faba bean and maize significantly increase both nodulation and symbiotic N2 fixation in intercropped faba bean. Furthermore, root exudates from maize promote faba bean nodulation, whereas root exudates from wheat and barley do not. Thus, a decline of soil nitrate concentrations caused by intercropped cereals is not the sole mechanism for maize promoting faba bean nodulation. Intercropped maize also caused a twofold increase in exudation of flavonoids (signaling compounds for rhizobia) in the systems. Roots of faba bean treated with maize root exudates exhibited an immediate 11-fold increase in the expression of chalcone-flavanone isomerase (involved in flavonoid synthesis) gene together with a significantly increased expression of genes mediating nodulation and auxin response. After 35 d, faba beans treated with maize root exudate continued to show up-regulation of key nodulation genes, such as early nodulin 93 (ENOD93), and promoted nitrogen fixation. Our results reveal a mechanism for how intercropped maize promotes nitrogen fixation of faba bean, where maize root exudates promote flavonoid synthesis in faba bean, increase nodulation, and stimulate nitrogen fixation after enhanced gene expression. These results indicate facilitative root-root interactions and provide a mechanism for a positive relationship between species diversity and ecosystem productivity. PMID:27217575

  1. Root exudates drive interspecific facilitation by enhancing nodulation and N2 fixation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bai; Li, Yu-Ying; Wu, Hua-Mao; Zhang, Fang-Fang; Li, Chun-Jie; Li, Xue-Xian; Lambers, Hans; Li, Long

    2016-01-01

    Plant diversity in experimental systems often enhances ecosystem productivity, but the mechanisms causing this overyielding are only partly understood. Intercropping faba beans (Vicia faba L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) result in overyielding and also, enhanced nodulation by faba beans. By using permeable and impermeable root barriers in a 2-y field experiment, we show that root–root interactions between faba bean and maize significantly increase both nodulation and symbiotic N2 fixation in intercropped faba bean. Furthermore, root exudates from maize promote faba bean nodulation, whereas root exudates from wheat and barley do not. Thus, a decline of soil nitrate concentrations caused by intercropped cereals is not the sole mechanism for maize promoting faba bean nodulation. Intercropped maize also caused a twofold increase in exudation of flavonoids (signaling compounds for rhizobia) in the systems. Roots of faba bean treated with maize root exudates exhibited an immediate 11-fold increase in the expression of chalcone–flavanone isomerase (involved in flavonoid synthesis) gene together with a significantly increased expression of genes mediating nodulation and auxin response. After 35 d, faba beans treated with maize root exudate continued to show up-regulation of key nodulation genes, such as early nodulin 93 (ENOD93), and promoted nitrogen fixation. Our results reveal a mechanism for how intercropped maize promotes nitrogen fixation of faba bean, where maize root exudates promote flavonoid synthesis in faba bean, increase nodulation, and stimulate nitrogen fixation after enhanced gene expression. These results indicate facilitative root–root interactions and provide a mechanism for a positive relationship between species diversity and ecosystem productivity. PMID:27217575

  2. Effect of Glyphosate on Symbiotic N2 Fixation and Nickel Concentration in Glyphosate-Resistant Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of widespread cultivation of glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybean and the use of one herbicide class on biological processes has received considerable attention. Decreased biological nitrogen fixation in GR soybean has been attributed directly to toxicity of glyphosate or its metabolites to ...

  3. Basin-wide N2 fixation in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benavides, Mar; Bonnet, Sophie; Hernández, Nauzet; Martínez-Pérez, Alba María.; Nieto-Cid, Mar; Álvarez-Salgado, Xosé Antón; Baños, Isabel; Montero, María. F.; Mazuecos, Ignacio P.; Gasol, Josep M.; Osterholz, Helena; Dittmar, Thorsten; Berman-Frank, Ilana; Arístegui, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Recent findings indicate that N2 fixation is significant in aphotic waters, presumably due to heterotrophic diazotrophs depending on organic matter for their nutrition. However, the relationship between organic matter and heterotrophic N2 fixation remains unknown. Here we explore N2 fixation in the deep chlorophyll maximum and underneath deep waters across the whole Mediterranean Sea and relate it to organic matter composition, characterized by optical and molecular methods. Our N2 fixation rates were in the range of those previously reported for the euphotic zone of the Mediterranean Sea (up to 0.43 nmol N L-1 d-1) and were significantly correlated to the presence of relatively labile organic matter with fluorescence and molecular formula properties representative for peptides and unsaturated aliphatics and associated with the presence of more oxygenated ventilated water masses. Finally, and despite that the aphotic N2 fixation contributes largely to total water column diazotrophic activity (>50%), its contribution to overall nitrogen inputs to the basin is negligible (<0.5%).

  4. Does N2 fixation amplify the temperature dependence of ecosystem metabolism?

    PubMed

    Welter, Jill R; Benstead, Jonathan P; Cross, Wyatt F; Hood, James M; Huryn, Alexander D; Johnson, Philip W; Williamson, Tanner J

    2015-03-01

    Variation in resource supply can cause variation in temperature dependences of metabolic processes (e.g., photosynthesis and respiration). Understanding such divergence is particularly important when using metabolic theory to predict ecosystem responses to climate warming. Few studies, however, have assessed the effect of temperature-resource interactions on metabolic processes, particularly in cases where the supply of limiting resources exhibits temperature dependence. We investigated the responses of biomass accrual, gross primary production (GPP), community respiration (CR), and N2 fixation to warming during biofilm development in a streamside channel experiment. Areal rates of GPP, CR, biomass accrual, and N2 fixation scaled positively with temperature, showing a 32- to 71-fold range across the temperature gradient (approximately 7 degrees-24 degrees C). Areal N2-fixation rates exhibited apparent activation energies (1.5-2.0 eV; 1 eV = approximately 1.6 x 10(-19) J) approximating the activation energy of the nitrogenase reaction. In contrast, mean apparent activation energies for areal rates of GPP (2.1-2.2 eV) and CR (1.6-1.9 eV) were 6.5- and 2.7-fold higher than estimates based on metabolic theory predictions (i.e., 0.32 and 0.65 eV, respectively) and did not significantly differ from the apparent activation energy observed for N2 fixation. Mass-specific activation energies for N2 fixation (1.4-1.6 eV), GPP (0.3-0.5 eV), and CR (no observed temperature relationship) were near or lower than theoretical predictions. We attribute the divergence of areal activation energies from those predicted by metabolic theory to increases in N2 fixation with temperature, leading to amplified temperature dependences of biomass accrual and areal rates of GPP and R. Such interactions between temperature dependences must be incorporated into metabolic models to improve predictions of ecosystem responses to climate change.

  5. Bacterial N2-fixation in mangrove ecosystems: insights from a diazotroph-mangrove interaction.

    PubMed

    Alfaro-Espinoza, Gabriela; Ullrich, Matthias S

    2015-01-01

    Mangrove forests are highly productive ecosystems but represent low nutrient environments. Nitrogen availability is one of the main factors limiting mangrove growth. Diazotrophs have been identified as key organisms that provide nitrogen to these environments. N2-fixation by such organisms was found to be higher in the mangrove roots than in surrounding rhizosphere. Moreover, previous studies showed that mangroves grew better in the presence of N2-fixers indicating a potentially mutualistic relationship. However, the molecular signals and mechanisms that govern these interactions are still poorly understood. Here we present novel insights in the interaction of a diazotroph with a mangrove species to improve our understanding of the molecular and ecophysiological relationship between these two organisms under controlled conditions. Our results showed that Marinobacterium mangrovicola is a versatile organism capable of competing with other organisms to survive for long periods in mangrove soils. N2-fixation by this bacterium was up-regulated in the presence of mangrove roots, indicating a possible beneficial interaction. The increase in N2-fixation was limited to cells of the exponential growth phase suggesting that N2-fixation differs over the bacterial growth cycle. Bacterial transformants harboring a transcriptional nifH::gusA fusion showed that M. mangrovicola successfully colonized mangrove roots and simultaneously conducted N2-fixation. The colonization process was stimulated by the lack of an external carbon source suggesting a possible mutualistic relationship. M. mangrovicola represents an interesting genetically accessible diazotroph, which colonize mangrove roots and exhibit higher N2-fixation in the presence of mangrove roots. Consequently, we propose this microorganism as a tool to study molecular interactions between N2-fixers and mangrove plants and to better understand how changes in the environment could impact these important and relatively unknown

  6. Bacterial N2-fixation in mangrove ecosystems: insights from a diazotroph–mangrove interaction

    PubMed Central

    Alfaro-Espinoza, Gabriela; Ullrich, Matthias S.

    2015-01-01

    Mangrove forests are highly productive ecosystems but represent low nutrient environments. Nitrogen availability is one of the main factors limiting mangrove growth. Diazotrophs have been identified as key organisms that provide nitrogen to these environments. N2-fixation by such organisms was found to be higher in the mangrove roots than in surrounding rhizosphere. Moreover, previous studies showed that mangroves grew better in the presence of N2-fixers indicating a potentially mutualistic relationship. However, the molecular signals and mechanisms that govern these interactions are still poorly understood. Here we present novel insights in the interaction of a diazotroph with a mangrove species to improve our understanding of the molecular and ecophysiological relationship between these two organisms under controlled conditions. Our results showed that Marinobacterium mangrovicola is a versatile organism capable of competing with other organisms to survive for long periods in mangrove soils. N2-fixation by this bacterium was up-regulated in the presence of mangrove roots, indicating a possible beneficial interaction. The increase in N2-fixation was limited to cells of the exponential growth phase suggesting that N2-fixation differs over the bacterial growth cycle. Bacterial transformants harboring a transcriptional nifH::gusA fusion showed that M. mangrovicola successfully colonized mangrove roots and simultaneously conducted N2-fixation. The colonization process was stimulated by the lack of an external carbon source suggesting a possible mutualistic relationship. M. mangrovicola represents an interesting genetically accessible diazotroph, which colonize mangrove roots and exhibit higher N2-fixation in the presence of mangrove roots. Consequently, we propose this microorganism as a tool to study molecular interactions between N2-fixers and mangrove plants and to better understand how changes in the environment could impact these important and relatively unknown

  7. Does N2 fixation amplify the temperature dependence of ecosystem metabolism?

    PubMed

    Welter, Jill R; Benstead, Jonathan P; Cross, Wyatt F; Hood, James M; Huryn, Alexander D; Johnson, Philip W; Williamson, Tanner J

    2015-03-01

    Variation in resource supply can cause variation in temperature dependences of metabolic processes (e.g., photosynthesis and respiration). Understanding such divergence is particularly important when using metabolic theory to predict ecosystem responses to climate warming. Few studies, however, have assessed the effect of temperature-resource interactions on metabolic processes, particularly in cases where the supply of limiting resources exhibits temperature dependence. We investigated the responses of biomass accrual, gross primary production (GPP), community respiration (CR), and N2 fixation to warming during biofilm development in a streamside channel experiment. Areal rates of GPP, CR, biomass accrual, and N2 fixation scaled positively with temperature, showing a 32- to 71-fold range across the temperature gradient (approximately 7 degrees-24 degrees C). Areal N2-fixation rates exhibited apparent activation energies (1.5-2.0 eV; 1 eV = approximately 1.6 x 10(-19) J) approximating the activation energy of the nitrogenase reaction. In contrast, mean apparent activation energies for areal rates of GPP (2.1-2.2 eV) and CR (1.6-1.9 eV) were 6.5- and 2.7-fold higher than estimates based on metabolic theory predictions (i.e., 0.32 and 0.65 eV, respectively) and did not significantly differ from the apparent activation energy observed for N2 fixation. Mass-specific activation energies for N2 fixation (1.4-1.6 eV), GPP (0.3-0.5 eV), and CR (no observed temperature relationship) were near or lower than theoretical predictions. We attribute the divergence of areal activation energies from those predicted by metabolic theory to increases in N2 fixation with temperature, leading to amplified temperature dependences of biomass accrual and areal rates of GPP and R. Such interactions between temperature dependences must be incorporated into metabolic models to improve predictions of ecosystem responses to climate change. PMID:26236857

  8. Contribution of mono and polysaccharides to heterotrophic N2 fixation at the eastern Mediterranean coastline.

    PubMed

    Rahav, E; Giannetto, M J; Bar-Zeev, E

    2016-01-01

    N2 fixation should be a critical process in the nitrogen-poor surface water of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Despite favorable conditions, diazotroph abundance and N2 fixation rates remains low for reasons yet explained. The main goal of this study was to investigate the limiting nutrients for diazotrophy in this oligotrophic environment. Hence, we conducted dedicated bottle-microcosms with eastern Mediterranean Sea water that were supplemented with mono and polysaccharides as well as inorganic nitrogen and phosphorous. Our results indicate that the diazotrophic community expressing nifH was primarily represented by heterotrophic Proteobacteria. N2 fixation and heterotrophic bacterial activity increased up-to tenfold following two days of dark incubations, once seawater was supplemented with organic carbon substrate in the form of glucose (monosaccharides) or gum-xanthan (polysaccharide surrogate). Furthermore, our results point that carbon-rich polysaccharides, such as transparent exopolymer particles, enhance heterotrophic N2 fixation, by forming microenvironments of intense metabolic activity, high carbon: nitrogen ratio, and possibly low O2 levels. The conclusions of this study indicate that diazotrophs in the eastern Mediterranean coast are primarily limited by organic carbon substrates, as possibly in many other marine regions.

  9. Growth and N2 fixation in an Alnus hirsuta (Turcz.) var. sibirica stand in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tobita, Hiroyuki; Hasegawa, Shigeaki F; Yazaki, Kenichi; Komatsu, Masabumi; Kitao, Mitsutoshi

    2013-11-01

    To estimate the N2 fixation ability of the alder (Alnus hirsuta (Turcz.) var. sibirica), we examined the seasonal variation in nitrogenase activity of nodules using the acetylene reduction method in an 18-year-old stand naturally regenerated after disturbance by road construction in Japan. To evaluate the contribution of N2 fixation to the nitrogen (N) economy in this alder stand, we also measured the phenology of the alder, the litterfall, the decomposition rate of the leaf litter, and N accumulation in the soil. The acetylene reduction activity per unit nodule mass (ARA) under field conditions appeared after bud break, peaked the maximum in midsummer after full expansion of the leaves, and disappeared after all leaves had fallen. There was no consistent correlation between ARA and tree size (dbh). The amount of N2 fixed in this alder stand was estimated at 56.4 kg ha-1 year-1 when a theoretical molar ratio of 3 was used to convert the amount of reduced acetylene to the amount of fixed N2. This amount of N2 fixation corresponded to the 66.4 percent of N in the leaf litter produced in a year. These results suggested that N2 fixation still contributed to the large portion of N economy in this alder stand. PMID:24287656

  10. Contribution of mono and polysaccharides to heterotrophic N2 fixation at the eastern Mediterranean coastline

    PubMed Central

    Rahav, E.; Giannetto, M. J.; Bar-Zeev, E.

    2016-01-01

    N2 fixation should be a critical process in the nitrogen-poor surface water of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Despite favorable conditions, diazotroph abundance and N2 fixation rates remains low for reasons yet explained. The main goal of this study was to investigate the limiting nutrients for diazotrophy in this oligotrophic environment. Hence, we conducted dedicated bottle-microcosms with eastern Mediterranean Sea water that were supplemented with mono and polysaccharides as well as inorganic nitrogen and phosphorous. Our results indicate that the diazotrophic community expressing nifH was primarily represented by heterotrophic Proteobacteria. N2 fixation and heterotrophic bacterial activity increased up-to tenfold following two days of dark incubations, once seawater was supplemented with organic carbon substrate in the form of glucose (monosaccharides) or gum-xanthan (polysaccharide surrogate). Furthermore, our results point that carbon-rich polysaccharides, such as transparent exopolymer particles, enhance heterotrophic N2 fixation, by forming microenvironments of intense metabolic activity, high carbon: nitrogen ratio, and possibly low O2 levels. The conclusions of this study indicate that diazotrophs in the eastern Mediterranean coast are primarily limited by organic carbon substrates, as possibly in many other marine regions. PMID:27306501

  11. Contribution of mono and polysaccharides to heterotrophic N2 fixation at the eastern Mediterranean coastline.

    PubMed

    Rahav, E; Giannetto, M J; Bar-Zeev, E

    2016-01-01

    N2 fixation should be a critical process in the nitrogen-poor surface water of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Despite favorable conditions, diazotroph abundance and N2 fixation rates remains low for reasons yet explained. The main goal of this study was to investigate the limiting nutrients for diazotrophy in this oligotrophic environment. Hence, we conducted dedicated bottle-microcosms with eastern Mediterranean Sea water that were supplemented with mono and polysaccharides as well as inorganic nitrogen and phosphorous. Our results indicate that the diazotrophic community expressing nifH was primarily represented by heterotrophic Proteobacteria. N2 fixation and heterotrophic bacterial activity increased up-to tenfold following two days of dark incubations, once seawater was supplemented with organic carbon substrate in the form of glucose (monosaccharides) or gum-xanthan (polysaccharide surrogate). Furthermore, our results point that carbon-rich polysaccharides, such as transparent exopolymer particles, enhance heterotrophic N2 fixation, by forming microenvironments of intense metabolic activity, high carbon: nitrogen ratio, and possibly low O2 levels. The conclusions of this study indicate that diazotrophs in the eastern Mediterranean coast are primarily limited by organic carbon substrates, as possibly in many other marine regions. PMID:27306501

  12. Nitrogen fixation in boreal peatlands: the effects of increased N deposition on N2-fixation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popma, J. M.; Wieder, R.; Lamers, L.; Vile, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Boreal peatlands are of great importance to global carbon and nitrogen cycling. While covering only 3-4 % of the terrestrial surface, they account for 25-30 % of the world's soil C and 9-15 % of the world's soil N. In Western Canada atmospheric dry deposition rates are extremely low: approximately 1 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Though these systems have been functioning as net sinks over the past 11,000 years, natural and anthropogenic disturbances might compromise the historical balance of C and N. Biological N2-fixation has recently been shown to represent a very significant input of N into these systems, contributing to 62% of total N in Western Canada. Interactions between N deposition and biological N2-fixation are as yet, unknown, but the impact of elevated deposition of N-compounds from increased industrial expansion of oil sands mining to peatlands, is concerning. Given that nitrogenase, the enzyme responsible for catalyzing N2-fixation, is energetically costly when active, enhanced inputs of atmospheric N deposition could be a major determinant for enzyme activity and rates of biological N input to these bogs. Understanding interactions between N deposition and N2 fixation in boreal peatlands can aid in predicting the consequences of increased N deposition and setting critical loads. We conducted a field-fertilization experiment in a poor fen in Alberta, Canada, to determine the effects of enhanced N deposition on a dominant fen species Sphagnum angustifolium. The experiment consisted of seven N treatments: Control, 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kg N ha-1 y1, n=3. N2-fixation was measured during summer 2012 and 2013 using the acetylene reduction assay (ARA). ARA rates were converted to rates of N2-fixation by calibrating ARA with paired 15N2-incubations. In both 2012 and 2013, with increasing N deposition from 0 kg N ha-1 yr-1 to 25 kg N ha-1 yr-1, rates of N2 fixation decreased, with highest rates in the 0 kg N ha-1 yr-1 treatment mosses (54.2 × 1.40; 48.58 × 7.12 kg N ha

  13. Diazotrophy in the Deep: Measuring Rates and Identifying Biological Mediators of N2 fixation in Deep-Sea Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekas, A. E.; Fike, D. A.; Chadwick, G.; Connon, S. A.; Orphan, V. J.

    2013-12-01

    Biological N2 fixation (the conversion of N2 to NH3) is the largest natural source of bioavailable nitrogen to the biosphere, and dictates the rate of community productivity in many nitrogen-limited environments. Deep-sea sediments are traditionally not thought to host N2 fixation, however evidence from a metagenomics dataset targeting deep-sea methanotrophic archaea (ANME) suggested their ability to fix N2 (Pernthaler, et al., PNAS 2008). Using stable isotope labeling experiments and FISH-NanoSIMS, a technique which allows the visualization of isotopic composition within phylogenetically identified cells on the nanometer scale, we demonstrated that the ANME are capable of N2 fixation (Dekas et al., Science 2009). In the present work, we use FISH-NanoSIMS and bulk Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) to show that the ANME are the most significant source of new nitrogen at a Costa Rican methane seep. This suggests that the ANME may play a significant role in N2 fixation in methane seeps worldwide. We expand our investigation of deep-sea diazotrophy to include diverse habitats, including sulfide- and carbon-rich whalefalls, and observe that N2 fixation is widespread in sediments on the seafloor. Outside of methane seeps, N2 fixation appears to be mediated by a diversity of anaerobic microbes potentially including methanogens and sulfate reducing bacteria. Interestingly, deep-sea N2 fixation often occurs in the presence of high levels of NH4+. Our observations challenge long-held hypotheses about where and when N2 fixation occurs, and suggest a bigger role for N2 fixation on the seafloor - and potentially the deep-biosphere - than previously realized.

  14. Termite symbiotic systems: efficient bio-recycling of lignocellulose.

    PubMed

    Ohkuma, M

    2003-03-01

    Termites thrive in great abundance in terrestrial ecosystems and play important roles in biorecycling of lignocellulose. Together with their microbial symbionts, they efficiently decompose lignocellulose. In so-called lower termites, a dual decomposing system, consisting of the termite's own cellulases and those of its gut protists, was elucidated at the molecular level. Higher termites degrade cellulose apparently using only their own enzymes, because of the absence of symbiotic protists. Termite gut prokaryotes efficiently support lignocellulose degradation. However, culture-independent molecular studies have revealed that the majority of these gut symbionts have not yet been cultivated, and that the gut symbiotic community shows a highly structured spatial organization. In situ localization of individual populations and their functional interactions are important to understand the nature of symbioses in the gut. In contrast to cellulose, lignin degradation does not appear to be important in the gut of wood-feeding termites. Soil-feeding termites decompose humic substances in soil at least partly, but little is known about the decomposition. Fungus-growing termites are successful in the almost complete decomposition of lignocellulose in a sophisticated cooperation with basidiomycete fungi cultivated in their nest. A detailed understanding of efficient biorecycling systems, such as that for lignocellulose, and the symbioses that provide this efficiency will benefit applied microbiology and biotechnology.

  15. N2 fixation in marine heterotrophic bacteria: dynamics of environmental and molecular regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Coyer, J A; Cabello-Pasini, A; Swift, H; Alberte, R S

    1996-01-01

    Molecular and immunological techniques were used to examine N2 fixation in a ubiquitous heterotrophic marine bacterium, the facultative anaerobic Vibrio natriegens. When batch cultures were shifted from aerobic N-replete to anaerobic N-deplete conditions, transcriptional and post-translational regulation of N2 fixation was observed. Levels of nifHDK mRNA encoding the nitrogenase enzyme were highest at 140 min postshift and undetectable between 6 and 9 h later. Immunologically determined levels of nitrogenase enzyme (Fe protein) were highest between 6 and 15 h postshift, and nitrogenase activity peaked between 6 and 9 h postshift, declining by a factor of 2 after 12-15 h. Unlike their regulation in cyanobacteria, Fe protein and nitrogenase activity were present when nifHDK mRNA was absent in V. natriegens, indicating that nitrogenase is stored and stable under anaerobic conditions. Both nifHDK mRNA and Fe protein disappeared within 40 min after cultures were shifted from N2-fixing conditions (anaerobic, N-deplete) to non- N2-fixing conditions (aerobic, N-enriched) but reappeared when shifted to conditions favoring N2 fixation. Thus, unlike other N2-fixing heterotrophic bacteria, nitrogenase must be resynthesized after aerobic exposure in V. natriegens. Immunological detection based on immunoblot (Western) analysis and immunogold labeling correlated positively with nitrogenase activity; no localization of nitrogenase was observed. Because V. natriegens continues to fix N2 for many hours after anaerobic induction, this species may play an important role in providing "new" nitrogen in marine ecosystems. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:11607653

  16. Constraining the origin and prevalence of biological N2 fixation in the Precambrian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stüeken, Eva; Buick, Roger; Guy, Bradley; Koehler, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for all life on Earth; however, atmospheric N2, the largest nitrogen reservoir at the Earth's surface, is chemically inert and only accessible to some prokaryotic microbes that possess a nitrogenase enzyme. Prior to the origin of this metabolism, bioavailable nitrogen may have been derived from hydrothermal activity, lightning or photochemical reactions, but these sources are minor today and probably became limiting with the expansion of the biosphere. The origin of biological N2 fixation was therefore of paramount importance for early evolution. Geochemical and phylogenetic data, however, suggest that this event may have been delayed until the early Proterozoic, possibly by the lack of dissolved Mo, an essential co-factor in nitrogenase. Here we show new nitrogen isotopic data from low-grade sedimentary rocks of the Soanesville Group (~3.2 Ga, Western Australia), the Witwatersrand Supergroup (~2.9 Ga, South Africa), and the lower Fortescue Group (~2.75 Ga, Western Australia), with a total mean of 0.0 ± 1.2 ‰ relative to atmospheric N2. These values are inconsistent with abiotic sources of fixed nitrogen and difficult to reconcile with alternative nitrogenase enzymes that do not depend on Mo. Instead it is most likely that Mo-based nitrogenase had already evolved and was widespread in the mid-Archean. Combined with a literature database of δ15N values through time, our results suggest that other forms of fixed nitrogen became available in the late Archean and persisted throughout the Paleoproterozoic. In the Mesoproterozoic ocean, fixed nitrogen was likely restricted to shallow waters, while offshore environments were dominated by Mo-based N2 fixation. This basinal gradient likely disappeared in the Neoproterozoic. In conclusion, biological N2 fixation is a much more ancient metabolism than previously proposed and Mo has been bioavailable in at least small amounts throughout the Precambrian.

  17. N2-fixation and seedling growth promotion of lodgepole pine by endophytic Paenibacillus polymyxa.

    PubMed

    Anand, Richa; Grayston, Susan; Chanway, Christopher

    2013-08-01

    We inoculated lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia (Dougl.) Engelm.) with Paenibacillus polymyxa P2b-2R, a diazotrophic bacterium previously isolated from internal stem tissue of a naturally regenerating pine seedling to evaluate biological nitrogen fixation and seedling growth promotion by this microorganism. Seedlings generated from pine seed inoculated with strain P2b-2R were grown for up to 13 months in a N-limited soil mix containing 0.7 mM available N labeled as Ca((15)NO3)2 to facilitate detection of N2-fixation. Strain P2b-2R developed a persistent endophytic population comprising 10(2)-10(6) cfu g(-1) plant tissue inside pine roots, stems, and needles during the experiment. At the end of the growth period, P2b-2R had reduced seedling mortality by 14 % and (15)N foliar N abundance 79 % and doubled foliar N concentration and seedling biomass compared to controls. Our results suggest that N2-fixation by P. polymyxa enhanced growth of pine seedlings and support the hypothesis that plant-associated diazotrophs capable of endophytic colonization can satisfy a significant proportion of the N required by tree seedlings growing under N-limited conditions. PMID:23420205

  18. Production of 15N-depleted biomass during cyanobacterial N2-fixation at high Fe concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerkle, Aubrey L.; Junium, Christopher K.; Canfield, Donald E.; House, Christopher H.

    2008-09-01

    In this study we examine the effects of varying Fe, Mo, and P concentrations on δ15N fractionation during N2 fixation in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis. We show that when grown in Fe-enriched media ([Fe] ≥ 50 nM), this organism produces biomass up to 3‰ lower in δ15N than when grown in Fe-limited media ([Fe] < 50 nM). A compilation of our data with previous measurements of δ15N in N2-fixing cyanobacteria reveals a general trend toward the production of more 15N-depleted biomass at higher Fe concentrations. We discuss our results in the context of negative δ15N values preserved in Archean and some Phanerozoic sediments, generally attributed to the production of marine organic matter with low δ15N by N2 fixation (and potentially NH4+ regeneration) during periods of fluctuating nutrient dynamics. We suggest that enhanced Fe availability during periods of widespread ocean anoxia can further stimulate the production of 15N-depleted biomass by N2-fixing organisms, contributing to the isotopic record.

  19. Contribution of airborne microbes to bacterial production and N2 fixation in seawater upon aerosol deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahav, Eyal; Ovadia, Galit; Paytan, Adina; Herut, Barak

    2016-01-01

    Aerosol deposition may supply a high diversity of airborne microbes, which can affect surface microbial composition and biological production. This study reports a diverse microbial community associated with dust and other aerosol particles, which differed significantly according to their geographical air mass origin. Microcosm bioassay experiments, in which aerosols were added to sterile (0.2 µm filtered and autoclaved) SE Mediterranean Sea (SEMS) water, were performed to assess the potential impact of airborne bacteria on bacterial abundance, production, and N2 fixation. Significant increase was observed in all parameters within a few hours, and calculations suggest that airborne microbes can account for one third in bacterial abundance and 50-100% in bacterial production and N2-fixation rates following dust/aerosol amendments in the surface SEMS. We show that dust/aerosol deposition can be a potential source of a wide array of microorganisms, which may impact microbial composition and food web dynamics in oligotrophic marine systems such as the SEMS.

  20. Will rising CO2 influence how nutrients interact to control tropical N2-fixation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trierweiler, A.; Winter, K.; Wright, S. J.; Wurzburger, N.; Hedin, L.

    2013-12-01

    The response of terrestrial tropical carbon sinks to increasing CO2 is a pressing question in biogeochemistry. Limitation of nutrients such as N may constrain these sinks. Biological N2-fixation, an important biogeochemical process that provides new nitrogen to ecosystems, potentially plays an important role in supporting tropical carbon sinks. Despite the importance of N2-fixation to the linked nitrogen and carbon cycles, we know little about how nutrient limitation of the process of biological N2-fixation, itself, will affect tropical fixation and N2-fixing plants. While rising CO2 levels may increase tree growth and N2-fixation when nutrients are abundant, at the same time, the increased growth may force N2-fixing plants into phosphorus (P) and molybdenum (Mo) limitation, both elements that are scarce in tropical forests and critical to N2-fixers. This study improves our understanding on what controls fixation through a series of greenhouse and in situ field experiments. First, we used a greenhouse experiment where we manipulated CO2 levels combined with a field study in forest gaps. In the greenhouse study we grew a N2-fixing seedling and a non-fixing seedling at pre-industrial (280 ppm), current (400 ppm), and double (800 ppm) CO2 concentrations with and without P, Mo, or both. In the year-long field study, we applied the same nutrient treatments to seedlings planting in natural light gaps and ambient CO2. To supplement our year-long seedling experiment, we also examined 11 years of growth data from a long-term N x P x K factorial fertilization experiment also on the Gigante Peninsula. In the greenhouse study, we found nutrient limitation was minimal at pre-industrial CO2 levels, but that limitation appeared with increasing CO2. Phosphorus limitation of tree growth and N2-fixation significantly increased with higher CO2. The additions of Mo and P together allowed for even greater growth and fixation, suggesting Mo-P co-limitation at elevated CO2. Compared to

  1. The importance of nodule CO2 fixation for the efficiency of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in pea at vegetative growth and during pod formation.

    PubMed

    Fischinger, Stephanie Anastasia; Schulze, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    Nodule CO2 fixation is of pivotal importance for N2 fixation. The process provides malate for bacteroids and oxaloacetate for nitrogen assimilation. The hypothesis of the present paper was that grain legume nodules would adapt to higher plant N demand and more restricted carbon availability at pod formation through increased nodule CO2 fixation and a more efficient N2 fixation. Growth, N2 fixation, and nodule composition during vegetative growth and at pod formation were studied in pea plants (Pisum sativum L.). In parallel experiments, 15N2 and 13CO2 uptake, as well as nodule hydrogen and CO2 release, was measured. Plants at pod formation showed higher growth rates and N2 fixation per plant when compared with vegetative growth. The specific activity of active nodules was about 25% higher at pod formation. The higher nodule activity was accompanied by higher amino acid concentration in nodules and xylem sap with a higher share of asparagine. Nodule 13CO2 fixation was increased at pod formation, both per plant and per 15N2 fixed unit. However, malate concentration in nodules was only 40% of that during vegetative growth and succinate was no longer detectable. The data indicate that increased N2 fixation at pod formation is connected with strongly increased nodule CO2 fixation. While the sugar concentration in nodules at pod formation was not altered, the concentration of organic acids, namely malate and succinate, was significantly lower. It is concluded that strategies to improve the capability of nodules to fix CO2 and form organic acids might prolong intensive N2 fixation into the later stages of pod formation and pod filling in grain legumes.

  2. Methanotrophic N2-Fixation in Boreal Peatlands: Master Regulation of Newly Fixed N and Moderation of CH4 Fluxes to the Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlesinger, M.; Fillingim, H. M.; Wieder, R. K.; Vile, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Boreal peatlands are important to global carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling. While they cover only 3-4% of the terrestrial surface, they account for 25-30% and 9-15% of the world's soil C and N, respectively. Globally, peatlands function as a net sink for atmospheric CO2, but also act as a net source of CH4. In peatlands of Alberta, Canada, rates of atmospheric N deposition are low: ~1 kg·ha-1·yr-1, however, NPP of Sphagnum mosses is surprisingly high. Sphagnum mosses are able to maintain high levels of NPP due to their symbiotic relationship with N2-fixing methanotrophs. Annually, rates of N2-fixation typically provide between 10-30 kg of newly fixed N per ha, while also oxidizing CH4. CH4 fluxes from boreal peatlands in Canada are typically quite low, however, fluxes also can be high during rare episodic ebullition events. CH4 accumulation and storage is substantial, especially at depth as CH4 concentrations in peat pore water typically exceed 1000 μM at 1-m below the peat surface. Given that CH4 fluxes are typically low, we wanted to examine the importance of CH4 oxidation in these same peats. We hypothesized that methanotrophic N2-fixation may be important not only in providing inputs of newly fixed N, but also in regulating CH4 emissions from peatlands. We measured concentrations of CH4 in peat porewaters, CH4 flux rates, CH4 oxidation rates, biological N2-fixation rates. Porewater CH4 concentrations were highest at depth and decreased to negligible amounts closer to the surface of the water table. CH4 flux rates were low and ranged from -2.6 to +8.7 μmol·m-2·min-1 (negative values indicate net CH4 consumption). In Sphagnum incubations, rates of CH4 oxidation (0.6-10.2 mmol·m-2·min-1) were ~2-3 orders of magnitude higher than CH4 flux rates. Additionally, N2-fixation rates in paired cores ranged from 11.7-63.3 kg·ha-1·yr-1; CH4 oxidation rates in these same units ranged from ~3.1-622 kg·CH4 oxidized ha-1·yr-1. Additionally, we confirmed that N2

  3. Epiphytic cyanobacteria on Chara vulgaris are the main contributors to N(2) fixation in rice fields.

    PubMed

    Ariosa, Yoanna; Quesada, Antonio; Aburto, Juan; Carrasco, David; Carreres, Ramón; Leganés, Francisco; Fernández Valiente, Eduardo

    2004-09-01

    The distribution of nitrogenase activity in the rice-soil system and the possible contribution of epiphytic cyanobacteria on rice plants and other macrophytes to this activity were studied in two locations in the rice fields of Valencia, Spain, in two consecutive crop seasons. The largest proportion of photodependent N(2) fixation was associated with the macrophyte Chara vulgaris in both years and at both locations. The nitrogen fixation rate associated with Chara always represented more than 45% of the global nitrogenase activity measured in the rice field. The estimated average N(2) fixation rate associated with Chara was 27.53 kg of N ha(-1) crop(-1). The mean estimated N(2) fixation rates for the other parts of the system for all sampling periods were as follows: soil, 4.07 kg of N ha(-1) crop(-1); submerged parts of rice plants, 3.93 kg of N ha(-1) crop(-1); and roots, 0.28 kg of N ha(-1) crop(-1). Micrographic studies revealed the presence of epiphytic cyanobacteria on the surface of Chara. Three-dimensional reconstructions by confocal scanning laser microscopy revealed no cyanobacterial cells inside the Chara structures. Quantification of epiphytic cyanobacteria by image analysis revealed that cyanobacteria were more abundant in nodes than in internodes (on average, cyanobacteria covered 8.4% +/- 4.4% and 6.2% +/- 5.0% of the surface area in the nodes and internodes, respectively). Epiphytic cyanobacteria were also quantified by using a fluorometer. This made it possible to discriminate which algal groups were the source of chlorophyll a. Chlorophyll a measurements confirmed that cyanobacteria were more abundant in nodes than in internodes (on average, the chlorophyll a concentrations were 17.2 +/- 28.0 and 4.0 +/- 3.8 microg mg [dry weight] of Chara(-1) in the nodes and internodes, respectively). These results indicate that this macrophyte, which is usually considered a weed in the context of rice cultivation, may help maintain soil N fertility in the rice

  4. Photosynthesis, N(2) fixation and taproot reserves during the cutting regrowth cycle of alfalfa under elevated CO(2) and temperature.

    PubMed

    Erice, G; Sanz-Sáez, A; Aranjuelo, I; Irigoyen, J J; Aguirreolea, J; Avice, J-C; Sánchez-Díaz, M

    2011-11-15

    Future climatic conditions, including rising atmospheric CO(2) and temperature may increase photosynthesis and, consequently, plant production. A larger knowledge of legume performance under the predicted growth conditions will be crucial for safeguarding crop management and extending the area under cultivation with these plants in the near future. N(2) fixation is a key process conditioning plant responsiveness to varying growth conditions. Moreover, it is likely to increase under future environments, due to the higher photosynthate availability, as a consequence of the higher growth rate under elevated CO(2). However, as described in the literature, photosynthesis performance is frequently down-regulated (acclimated) under long-term exposure to CO(2), especially when affected by stressful temperature and water availability conditions. As growth responses to elevated CO(2) are dependent on sink-source status, it is generally accepted that down-regulation occurs in situations with insufficient plant C sink capacity. Alfalfa management involves the cutting of shoots, which alters the source-sink relationship and thus the photosynthetic behaviour. As the growth rate decreases at the end of the pre-cut vegetative growth period, nodulated alfalfa plants show photosynthetic down-regulation, but during regrowth following defoliation, acclimation to elevated CO(2) disappears. The shoot harvest also leads to a drop in mineral N uptake and C translocation to the roots, resulting in a reduction in N(2) fixation due to the dependence on photosynthate supply to support nodule function. Therefore, the production of new shoots during the first days following cutting requires the utilization of reduced C and N compounds that have been stored previously in reserve organs. The stored reserves are mediated by phytohormones such as methyl jasmonate and abscisic acid and in situations where water stress reduces shoot production this potentially enables the enhancement of taproot

  5. Sphagnum N and P Stoichiometry Indicates P-limitation on N2 Fixation in Ombrotrophic Bogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zivkovic, T.; Moore, T. R.; Disney, K.

    2015-12-01

    Biological N2 fixation is an important N input in ombrotrophic, nutrient poor and Sphagnum dominated bogs. As an energetically costly process, by which each N2 molecule is fixed to a cost of 16ATP molecules, N2 fixation might be P limited process. In this study we tested whether moss P and N concentrations, and N:P ratios could explain N2 fixation in the top 6cm photosynthetically active Sphagnum moss across eight ombrotrophic bogs along south-north geographical gradient in Ontario and Quebec. Under constant environmental conditions, we incubated subsamples of the surface Sphagnum mosses by using both, acetylene reduction assays (ARA) and 15N2 enriched method to measure N2 fixation rates. Same subsamples were later analyzed for N and P concentrations. Our preliminary data show that the increase of P concentration within moss capitula is related to a significant linear increase of ARA rates (R2=0.18, p<0.0001, N=150). N:P ratios showed a significant negative linear relationship with ARA (R2=0.34, p<0.0001, N=150) indicating that P limitation in the photosynthetically active part of mosses in bogs may also indicate P limitation on microbial N2 fixation

  6. Biological N2-Fixation Increases with Peatland Age and Decreases with N Deposition in Bogs of Western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingim, H.; Popma, J. M.; Dynarski, K. A.; Wieder, R.; Vile, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Most terrestrial ecosystems are thought be limited primarily by nitrogen, including boreal peatlands located in pristine regions. Bogs receive nutrients solely from atmospheric deposition. Because of the historically low rates of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Alberta, Canada, the Sphagnum mosses that dominate bog ground cover in this region have formed relationships with diazotrophs in order to meet their nitrogen needs, making biological N2- fixation the dominant input of new nitrogen to these bogs. The process of N2-fixation is highly variable and is governed by a number of environmental factors. In Alberta, one factor is water availability, as these bogs occur in some of the driest climates in which peatlands are known to exist. More recent factors with the potential to greatly alter N2-fixation dynamics include increasing nitrogen deposition associated with the growing oil sands mining operations and wildfires increasing in frequency and severity with global climate change. To determine the potential importance of N2-fixation to the overall peatland nitrogen balance under current and future conditions, we incubated the moss Sphagnum fuscum, using the acetylene reduction assay calibrated with 15N2, from 3 bogs representing ages of 3, 13, and 30 years since fire. Each bog was fertilized 8 times throughout the growing season with 0, 10, and 20 kg N/ha/yr. N2-fixation rates were measured 5 times at each site throughout the summer of 2013 to account for variation due to season and weather. Mean rates of N2-fixation increased with bog age, with higher rates in the 30 year old bog (36.90 × 8.38) and subsequently lower rates in the 13 yr (25.08 × 5.63) and 3 yr (11.58 × 6.33) old bogs. As expected, we saw decreasing rates of N2-fixation in the 10 (16.96 × 5.39) and 20 kg N/ha/yr treatments (3.35 × 1.34), as compared to water-only controls (47.62 × 12.18). These results indicate that N2-fixation supplies abundant N to support net primary productivity for bogs

  7. The effect of acidity on the distribution and symbiotic efficiency of rhizobia in Lithuanian soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapinskas, E. B.

    2007-04-01

    The distribution and symbiotic efficiency of nodule bacteria Rhizobium leguminosarum_bv. trifolii F., Sinorhizobium meliloti D., Rhizobium galegae L., and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae F. in Lithuanian soils as dependent on the soil acidity were studied in the long-term field, pot, and laboratory experiments. The critical and optimal pH values controlling the distribution of rhizobia and the symbiotic nitrogen fixation were determined for every bacterial species. The relationship was found between the soil pH and the nitrogen-fixing capacity of rhizobia. A positive effect of liming of acid soils in combination with inoculation of legumes on the efficiency of symbiotic nitrogen fixation was demonstrated.

  8. SYMBIOTIC N2 FIXATION IN ALPINE TUNDRA: ECOSYSTEM INPUT AND VARIATION IN FIXATION RATES AMONG PLANT COMMUNITIES (R823442)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  9. Heterocystous Cyanobacteria in Microbialites Play an Important Role in N2 Fixation and Carbonate Mineral Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcantara-Hernandez, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Lake Alchichica is a maars type crater-lake located in Central Mexico (pH > 8.9, EC ~13.39 mS cm-1). This limnological system harbors two types of microbialites that can be found around the entire perimeter of the lake (Fig. 1). These structures are representative examples of complex and diverse microbiological assemblages, where microbial activity promotes lithification by trapping, binding and/or precipitating detrital or chemical sediments. Previous studies determined that the microbialites of Lake Alchichica fix N2 to thrive under the N-limiting conditions of the lake, and that these nitrogenase activity peaks are related to heterocystous cyanobacteria that couple photosynthesis to N2 fixation during daylight periods. Heterocystous cyanobacteria (Nostocales) together with Oscillatoriales (non-heterocystous filamentous cyanobacteria) and other cyanobacterial groups have been described as the most abundant cyanobacteria in Alchichica microbialites, and in lithifying mats. Our results suggest that heterocystous cyanobacteria play an important role not only by fixing N2 for biomass construction, but also because their heterocysts host in their external cell membranes main sites for carbonate mineral precipitation including calcium carbonates and siderite. Previous research has shown that the heterocyst is the specialized site for cellular respiration associated to the pH decrease of vegetative/photosynthetic cells, contributing thus to the precipitation of carbonates and the accretion of the organosedimentary structure

  10. Revisiting N2 fixation in Guerrero Negro intertidal microbial mats with a functional single-cell approach

    PubMed Central

    Woebken, Dagmar; Burow, Luke C; Behnam, Faris; Mayali, Xavier; Schintlmeister, Arno; Fleming, Erich D; Prufert-Bebout, Leslie; Singer, Steven W; Cortés, Alejandro López; Hoehler, Tori M; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Spormann, Alfred M; Wagner, Michael; Weber, Peter K; Bebout, Brad M

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthetic microbial mats are complex, stratified ecosystems in which high rates of primary production create a demand for nitrogen, met partially by N2 fixation. Dinitrogenase reductase (nifH) genes and transcripts from Cyanobacteria and heterotrophic bacteria (for example, Deltaproteobacteria) were detected in these mats, yet their contribution to N2 fixation is poorly understood. We used a combined approach of manipulation experiments with inhibitors, nifH sequencing and single-cell isotope analysis to investigate the active diazotrophic community in intertidal microbial mats at Laguna Ojo de Liebre near Guerrero Negro, Mexico. Acetylene reduction assays with specific metabolic inhibitors suggested that both sulfate reducers and members of the Cyanobacteria contributed to N2 fixation, whereas 15N2 tracer experiments at the bulk level only supported a contribution of Cyanobacteria. Cyanobacterial and nifH Cluster III (including deltaproteobacterial sulfate reducers) sequences dominated the nifH gene pool, whereas the nifH transcript pool was dominated by sequences related to Lyngbya spp. Single-cell isotope analysis of 15N2-incubated mat samples via high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) revealed that Cyanobacteria were enriched in 15N, with the highest enrichment being detected in Lyngbya spp. filaments (on average 4.4 at% 15N), whereas the Deltaproteobacteria (identified by CARD-FISH) were not significantly enriched. We investigated the potential dilution effect from CARD-FISH on the isotopic composition and concluded that the dilution bias was not substantial enough to influence our conclusions. Our combined data provide evidence that members of the Cyanobacteria, especially Lyngbya spp., actively contributed to N2 fixation in the intertidal mats, whereas support for significant N2 fixation activity of the targeted deltaproteobacterial sulfate reducers could not be found. PMID:25303712

  11. Revisiting N2 fixation in Guerrero Negro intertidal microbial mats with a functional single-cell approach

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Woebken, Dagmar; Burow, Luke C.; Behnam, Faris; Mayali, Xavier; Schintlmeister, Arno; Fleming, Erich D.; Prufert-Bebout, Leslie; Singer, Steven W.; Cortes, Alehandro Lopez; Hoehler, Tori M.; et al

    2014-10-10

    Photosynthetic microbial mats are complex, stratified ecosystems in which high rates of primary production create a demand for nitrogen, met partially by N2 fixation. Dinitrogenase reductase (nifH) genes and transcripts from Cyanobacteria and heterotrophic bacteria (for example, Deltaproteobacteria) were detected in these mats, yet their contribution to N2 fixation is poorly understood. We used a combined approach of manipulation experiments with inhibitors, nifH sequencing and single-cell isotope analysis to investigate the active diazotrophic community in intertidal microbial mats at Laguna Ojo de Liebre near Guerrero Negro, Mexico. Acetylene reduction assays with specific metabolic inhibitors suggested that both sulfate reducers andmore » members of the Cyanobacteria contributed to N2 fixation, whereas 15N2 tracer experiments at the bulk level only supported a contribution of Cyanobacteria. Cyanobacterial and nifH Cluster III (including deltaproteobacterial sulfate reducers) sequences dominated the nifH gene pool, whereas the nifH transcript pool was dominated by sequences related to Lyngbya spp. Single-cell isotope analysis of 15N2-incubated mat samples via high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) revealed that Cyanobacteria were enriched in 15N, with the highest enrichment being detected in Lyngbya spp. filaments (on average 4.4 at% 15N), whereas the Deltaproteobacteria (identified by CARD-FISH) were not significantly enriched. We investigated the potential dilution effect from CARD-FISH on the isotopic composition and concluded that the dilution bias was not substantial enough to influence our conclusions. As a result, our combined data provide evidence that members of the Cyanobacteria, especially Lyngbya spp., actively contributed to N2 fixation in the intertidal mats, whereas support for significant N2 fixation activity of the targeted deltaproteobacterial sulfate reducers could not be found.« less

  12. Rates and Controls of N2 Fixation in Sphagnum spp. along the Hydrological Gradient - Beaver Pond to Bog Transition at Mer Bleue, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zivkovic, T.; Moore, T. R.

    2014-12-01

    Many northern bogs with low atmospheric N inputs acquire N only via N2-fixation. Little is known about rates and controls on N2-fixation in bogs. The aim of this study was to: 1) test the important ecological drivers for N2-fixation, 2) investigate seasonal and temporal patterns of N2 fixation, and 3) to estimate current N2-fixation rates at Mer Bleue bog. We used acetylene reduction assay (ARA) to measure N2-fixation from June-October 2013 and 2014 (currently ongoing field season) along a hydrological gradient (beaver pond, hollows and hummocks). The highest ARA rates in 2013 growing season occurred in the pond in floating Sphagnum cuspidatum mats (50.3 ± 12.9 μmol m-2 d-1 Mean ± Std Err) which were up to 2.5 times latger than the rates found in the hummock with the lowest water table depth throughout the season. Two rain events during the summer 2013 increased ARA rates in all plots by 1 to 4 times, suggesting that moisture availability may play a crucial role on N2 fixation potential in the field. We are currently investigating the role of moisture, temperature, PAR and nutrient content (N, phosphorous and metals) on ARA along the gradient. In addition, we are using 15N2 enrichment method to estimate N2 fixation rates and compare them to ARA method at Mer Bleue bog.

  13. Molybdenum isotope fractionation by cyanobacterial assimilation during nitrate utilization and N2fixation

    PubMed Central

    Zerkle, A L; Scheiderich, K; Maresca, J A; Liermann, L J; Brantley, S L

    2011-01-01

    We measured the δ98Mo of cells and media from molybdenum (Mo) assimilation experiments with the freshwater cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis, grown with nitrate as a nitrogen (N) source or fixing atmospheric N2. This organism uses a Mo-based nitrate reductase during nitrate utilization and a Mo-based dinitrogenase during N2 fixation under culture conditions here. We also demonstrate that it has a high-affinity Mo uptake system (ModABC) similar to other cyanobacteria, including marine N2-fixing strains. Anabaena variabilis preferentially assimilated light isotopes of Mo in all experiments, resulting in fractionations of −0.2‰ to −1.0‰ ± 0.2‰ between cells and media (εcells–media), extending the range of biological Mo fractionations previously reported. The fractionations were internally consistent within experiments, but varied with the N source utilized and for different growth phases sampled. During growth on nitrate, A. variabilis consistently produced fractionations of −0.3 ± 0.1‰ (mean ± standard deviation between experiments). When fixing N2, A. variabilis produced fractionations of −0.9 ± 0.1‰ during exponential growth, and −0.5 ± 0.1‰ during stationary phase. This pattern is inconsistent with a simple kinetic isotope effect associated with Mo transport, because Mo is likely transported through the ModABC uptake system under all conditions studied. We present a reaction network model for Mo isotope fractionation that demonstrates how Mo transport and storage, coordination changes during enzymatic incorporation, and the distribution of Mo inside the cell could all contribute to the total biological fractionations. Additionally, we discuss the potential importance of biologically incorporated Mo to organic matter-bound Mo in marine sediments. PMID:21092069

  14. Mesopelagic N2 Fixation Related to Organic Matter Composition in the Solomon and Bismarck Seas (Southwest Pacific).

    PubMed

    Benavides, Mar; Moisander, Pia H; Berthelot, Hugo; Dittmar, Thorsten; Grosso, Olivier; Bonnet, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Dinitrogen (N2) fixation was investigated together with organic matter composition in the mesopelagic zone of the Bismarck (Transect 1) and Solomon (Transect 2) Seas (Southwest Pacific). Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) and the presence of compounds sharing molecular formulae with saturated fatty acids and sugars, as well as dissolved organic matter (DOM) compounds containing nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) were higher on Transect 1 than on Transect 2, while oxygen concentrations showed an opposite pattern. N2 fixation rates (up to ~1 nmol N L-1 d-1) were higher in Transect 1 than in Transect 2, and correlated positively with TEP, suggesting a dependence of diazotroph activity on organic matter. The scores of the multivariate ordination of DOM molecular formulae and their relative abundance correlated negatively with bacterial abundances and positively with N2 fixation rates, suggesting an active bacterial exploitation of DOM and its use to sustain diazotrophic activity. Sequences of the nifH gene clustered with Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria, and included representatives from Clusters I, III and IV. A third of the clone library included sequences close to the potentially anaerobic Cluster III, suggesting that N2 fixation was partially supported by presumably particle-attached diazotrophs. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) primer-probe sets were designed for three phylotypes and showed low abundances, with a phylotype within Cluster III at up to 103 nifH gene copies L-1. These results provide new insights into the ecology of non-cyanobacterial diazotrophs and suggest that organic matter sustains their activity in the mesopelagic ocean. PMID:26659074

  15. Mesopelagic N2 Fixation Related to Organic Matter Composition in the Solomon and Bismarck Seas (Southwest Pacific).

    PubMed

    Benavides, Mar; Moisander, Pia H; Berthelot, Hugo; Dittmar, Thorsten; Grosso, Olivier; Bonnet, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Dinitrogen (N2) fixation was investigated together with organic matter composition in the mesopelagic zone of the Bismarck (Transect 1) and Solomon (Transect 2) Seas (Southwest Pacific). Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) and the presence of compounds sharing molecular formulae with saturated fatty acids and sugars, as well as dissolved organic matter (DOM) compounds containing nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) were higher on Transect 1 than on Transect 2, while oxygen concentrations showed an opposite pattern. N2 fixation rates (up to ~1 nmol N L-1 d-1) were higher in Transect 1 than in Transect 2, and correlated positively with TEP, suggesting a dependence of diazotroph activity on organic matter. The scores of the multivariate ordination of DOM molecular formulae and their relative abundance correlated negatively with bacterial abundances and positively with N2 fixation rates, suggesting an active bacterial exploitation of DOM and its use to sustain diazotrophic activity. Sequences of the nifH gene clustered with Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria, and included representatives from Clusters I, III and IV. A third of the clone library included sequences close to the potentially anaerobic Cluster III, suggesting that N2 fixation was partially supported by presumably particle-attached diazotrophs. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) primer-probe sets were designed for three phylotypes and showed low abundances, with a phylotype within Cluster III at up to 103 nifH gene copies L-1. These results provide new insights into the ecology of non-cyanobacterial diazotrophs and suggest that organic matter sustains their activity in the mesopelagic ocean.

  16. Mesopelagic N2 Fixation Related to Organic Matter Composition in the Solomon and Bismarck Seas (Southwest Pacific)

    PubMed Central

    Benavides, Mar; Moisander, Pia H.; Berthelot, Hugo; Dittmar, Thorsten; Grosso, Olivier; Bonnet, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Dinitrogen (N2) fixation was investigated together with organic matter composition in the mesopelagic zone of the Bismarck (Transect 1) and Solomon (Transect 2) Seas (Southwest Pacific). Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) and the presence of compounds sharing molecular formulae with saturated fatty acids and sugars, as well as dissolved organic matter (DOM) compounds containing nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) were higher on Transect 1 than on Transect 2, while oxygen concentrations showed an opposite pattern. N2 fixation rates (up to ~1 nmol N L-1 d-1) were higher in Transect 1 than in Transect 2, and correlated positively with TEP, suggesting a dependence of diazotroph activity on organic matter. The scores of the multivariate ordination of DOM molecular formulae and their relative abundance correlated negatively with bacterial abundances and positively with N2 fixation rates, suggesting an active bacterial exploitation of DOM and its use to sustain diazotrophic activity. Sequences of the nifH gene clustered with Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria, and included representatives from Clusters I, III and IV. A third of the clone library included sequences close to the potentially anaerobic Cluster III, suggesting that N2 fixation was partially supported by presumably particle-attached diazotrophs. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) primer-probe sets were designed for three phylotypes and showed low abundances, with a phylotype within Cluster III at up to 103 nifH gene copies L-1. These results provide new insights into the ecology of non-cyanobacterial diazotrophs and suggest that organic matter sustains their activity in the mesopelagic ocean. PMID:26659074

  17. N2-fixation, ammonium release and N-transfer to the microbial and classical food web within a plankton community.

    PubMed

    Adam, Birgit; Klawonn, Isabell; Svedén, Jennie B; Bergkvist, Johanna; Nahar, Nurun; Walve, Jakob; Littmann, Sten; Whitehouse, Martin J; Lavik, Gaute; Kuypers, Marcel M M; Ploug, Helle

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the role of N2-fixation by the colony-forming cyanobacterium, Aphanizomenon spp., for the plankton community and N-budget of the N-limited Baltic Sea during summer by using stable isotope tracers combined with novel secondary ion mass spectrometry, conventional mass spectrometry and nutrient analysis. When incubated with (15)N2, Aphanizomenon spp. showed a strong (15)N-enrichment implying substantial (15)N2-fixation. Intriguingly, Aphanizomenon did not assimilate tracers of (15)NH4(+) from the surrounding water. These findings are in line with model calculations that confirmed a negligible N-source by diffusion-limited NH4(+) fluxes to Aphanizomenon colonies at low bulk concentrations (<250 nm) as compared with N2-fixation within colonies. No N2-fixation was detected in autotrophic microorganisms <5 μm, which relied on NH4(+) uptake from the surrounding water. Aphanizomenon released about 50% of its newly fixed N2 as NH4(+). However, NH4(+) did not accumulate in the water but was transferred to heterotrophic and autotrophic microorganisms as well as to diatoms (Chaetoceros sp.) and copepods with a turnover time of ~5 h. We provide direct quantitative evidence that colony-forming Aphanizomenon releases about half of its recently fixed N2 as NH4(+), which is transferred to the prokaryotic and eukaryotic plankton forming the basis of the food web in the plankton community. Transfer of newly fixed nitrogen to diatoms and copepods furthermore implies a fast export to shallow sediments via fast-sinking fecal pellets and aggregates. Hence, N2-fixing colony-forming cyanobacteria can have profound impact on ecosystem productivity and biogeochemical processes at shorter time scales (hours to days) than previously thought.

  18. Does N2 Fixation in the Oligotrophic SE Pacific Influence N Isotopic Signals in the Peru-Chile OMZ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altabet, M. A.; Ryabenko, E.; Wallace, D.

    2010-12-01

    Nitrate reduction leading to fixed N loss (‘denitrification’) in open ocean O2 minimum zones (OMZ’s) produces large N isotope enrichments in the residual nitrate. Through upwelling, phytoplankton assimilation, and downward particle flux, this signal is transferred to the underlying sediments and has been used to reconstruct past changes in denitrification and OMZ intensity in relation to climate change. However, there remain a number of impediments to quantitative interpretation of downcore δ15N records from OMZ’s with respect to past magnitude of N loss. One of these is knowledge of initial δ15N for nitrate prior to denitrification which cannot be assumed to be the modern oceanic average. In the case of the Peru-Chile OMZ, δ15N for nitrate in source waters from the Equatorial Undercurrent average 7‰ as compared to the oceanic average of ~5‰. This suggests processes external to the OMZ leading to isotopic enrichment such as partial phytoplankton nitrate utilization in the Subantarctic water mass formation region. In contrast, it has been surmised that initial δ15N for OMZ denitrification could be relatively low as a result of N2 fixation in geographically adjacent oligotrophic regions. High N2 fixation rates in the SE Pacifc Gyre are thought to be stimulated by low N/P waters upwelled from the Peru-Chile OMZ. As seen in the Sargasso Sea, subsurface remineralization of export production influenced by near-surface N2 fixation produces 15N-depleted nitrate in the subtropical mode water and the upper thermocline. Potentially, these SE Pacific gyre waters could mix back into the Peru-Chile OMZ at its southern boundary. We have investigated the relevance of such a phenomenon in the SE Pacific by examining samples collected during two CLIVAR repeat section (P6 and P18) which transected these highly oligotrophic water adjacent to the Peru-Chile OMZ in both the N-S and Ε-W directions. Surprisingly, nutrient data shows no positive subsurface nitrate anomaly

  19. Development of a new biofertilizer with a high capacity for N2 fixation, phosphate and potassium solubilization and auxin production.

    PubMed

    Leaungvutiviroj, Chaveevan; Ruangphisarn, Pimtida; Hansanimitkul, Pikul; Shinkawa, Hidenori; Sasaki, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Biofertilizers that possess a high capacity for N(2) fixation (Azotobacter tropicalis), and consist of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (Burkhoderia unamae), and potassium solubilizing bacteria (Bacillus subtilis) and produce auxin (KJB9/2 strain), have a high potential for growth and yield enhancement of corn and vegetables (Chinese kale). For vegetables, the addition of biofertilizer alone enhanced growth 4 times. Moreover, an enhancement of growth by 7 times was observed due to the addition of rock phosphate and K-feldspar, natural mineral fertilizers, in combination with the biofertilizer.

  20. Soil nutrients, land use history and species composition interact to influence tropical N2 fixation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batterman, S. A.; Hall, J.; Van Breugel, M.; Hedin, L. O.

    2011-12-01

    Symbiotic di-nitrogen fixation plays an important role in terrestrial biogeochemical cycles as it can bring in large quantities of nitrogen into ecosystems and provide the nitrogen required for individual plant growth in nitrogen limited environments. Of particular interest is how fixation interacts with nitrogen and phosphorus cycles in heterogeneous tropical forests. Recent advances on this topic using plants grown in a shadehouse show that the interaction of nitrogen and phosphorus control fixation at the level of individual plants and that plants adjust nutrient acquisition strategies with some successes at overcoming nutrient limitation on biomass growth depending on nutrient availability and the strategy employed (Batterman et al. unpublished). Exactly how these results translate to biodiverse tropical forests with heterogeneous resource availabilities and a history of land use disturbances, however, remains largely unresolved. We surveyed fixation across a chronosequence of forest stands in Panama that were at various stages of recovery from the abandonment of cattle pasture. Stands ranged in age from new secondary regrowth to mature forest. We examined nine common species of putative N2 fixing trees and lianas for nodulation, tree size, and abundance for four stands each of four forest ages to determine if species differ in strategies and function. In addition, we measured light availability to each tree and total and bioavailable phosphorus and nitrogen for each stand to examine the interactions of fixation with these biogeochemical cycles. Results were scaled to estimate stand level fixation. We found unique patterns in fixation that contrasted with predictions based on evidence of how fixation interacts with land use and biogeochemical cycles in extra-tropical forests. Soil nutrients showed unexpected patterns in availability across the chronosequence and interacted with fixation. Finally, species displayed distinct differences in temporal patterns in

  1. Contrasted geographical distribution of N2 fixation rates and nifH phylotypes in the Coral and Solomon Seas (southwestern Pacific) during austral winter conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, Sophie; Rodier, Martine; Turk-Kubo, Kendra A.; Germineaud, Cyril; Menkes, Christophe; Ganachaud, Alexandre; Cravatte, Sophie; Raimbault, Patrick; Campbell, Ellen; Quéroué, Fabien; Sarthou, Géraldine; Desnues, Anne; Maes, Christophe; Eldin, Gerard

    2015-11-01

    Biological dinitrogen (N2) fixation and the distribution of diazotrophic phylotypes were investigated during two cruises in the Coral Sea and the Solomon Sea (southwestern Pacific) during austral winter conditions. N2 fixation rates were measurable at every station, but integrated (0-150 m) rates were an order of magnitude higher in the Solomon Sea (30 to 5449 µmol N m-2 d-1) compared to those measured in the Coral Sea (2 to 109 µmol N m-2 d-1). Rates measured in the Solomon Sea were in the upper range (100-1000 µmol N m-2 d-1) or higher than rates compiled in the global MARine Ecosystem biomass DATa database, indicating that this region has some of the highest N2 fixation rates reported in the global ocean. While unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria from group A (UCYN-A1 and UCYN-A2) and the proteobacteria γ-24774A11 dominated in the Coral Sea and were correlated with N2 fixation rates (p < 0.05), Trichodesmium and UCYN-B dominated in the Solomon Sea and were correlated (p < 0.05) with N2 fixation rates. UCYN-A were totally absent in the Solomon Sea. The biogeographical distribution of diazotrophs is discussed within the context of patterns in measured environmental parameters.

  2. Potential Trace Metal Co-Limitation Controls on N2 Fixation and NO3- Uptake in Lakes with Varying Trophic Status

    PubMed Central

    Romero, I. C.; Klein, N. J.; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, S. A.; Capone, D. G.

    2013-01-01

    The response of N2 fixation and NO3- uptake to environmental conditions and nutrient enrichment experiments in three western U.S. lake systems was studied (eutrophic Clear Lake; mesotrophic Walker Lake; oligotrophic Lake Tahoe). We tested the effect of additions of bioactive trace metals molybdenum as Mo(V) and iron (Fe) as well as phosphate (P), N2 fixation, NO3-, carbon (C) fixation, chlorophyll a (Chla), and bacterial cell counts under both natural conditions and in mesocosm experiments. We found distinct background N2 fixation and NO3- uptake rates: highest at Clear Lake (N2 fixation: 44.7 ± 1.8 nmol N L−1 h−1), intermediate at Walker Lake (N2 fixation: 1.7 ± 1.1 nmol N L−1 h−1; NO3- uptake: 113 ± 37 nmol N L−1 h−1), and lowest at Lake Tahoe (N2 fixation: 0.1 ± 0.07 nmol N L−1 h−1; NO3- uptake: 37.2 ± 10.0 nmol N L−1 h−1). N2 fixation was stimulated above control values with the addition of Fe and Pin Clear Lake (up to 50 and 63%, respectively); with Mo(V), Fe, and P in Walker Lake (up to 121, 990, and 85%, respectively); and with Mo(V) and P in Lake Tahoe (up to 475 and 21%, respectively). NO3- uptake showed the highest stimulation in Lake Tahoe during September 2010, with the addition of P and Mo(V) (∼84% for both). High responses to Mo(V) additions were also observed at some sites for C fixation (Lake Tahoe: 141%), Chla (Walker Lake: 54% and Clear Lake: 102%), and bacterial cell counts (Lake Tahoe: 61%). Overall our results suggest that co-limitation of nutrients is probably a common feature in lakes, and that some trace metals may play a crucial role in limiting N2 fixation and NO3- uptake activity, though primarily in non-eutrophic lakes. PMID:23518617

  3. Biological N2-FIXATION and Mineral N-Fertilization Effects on Soybean (Glicine max L. Merr.) Yield Under Temperate Climate Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    continues to increase) and allewiate world hunger is to increase the intensity of production in those ecosystems that lend themselves to sustainable intensification while decreasing the intensity of production in the more fragile ecologies (Reeves 1998). Most plants depend entirely for growth on fixed nitrogen absorbed from the soil, mainly as nitrate but also as ammonium. Therefore to the methods of crop production now dominant in the agricultural systems of many developed countries strongly depend upon a sustained input of N. Economic and environmental considerations surrounding fertilizer use then empasize the need to increase the efficiency of N- utilization by plants. On the other hand the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is important under all imput conditions to ensure an optimal supply of nitrogen to the farming system. A well-founded understanding of the mechanistic interactions between BNF and N limitations is presently lacking. Synbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes makes a valuable contribution to N-inputs, especially in countries like Hungary where effective rhizobia-inoculation techniques have been developed in the context of the new sustainable agricultural system. It is widely known that soya bean -Glycine max (L.) Merr.-, is an important legume. This plant able to fix the atmospheric nitrogen (N2) it needs for growth through the agency of specific bacteria Rhizobium japonicum. Under field conditions fixation usually accounts for only 25-30% of the total nitrogen accumulated by these plants at harvest. Therefore to marginal yield have to optimalise the nitrogen supply of these legume by N-fertilization. Objectives for our experiments were to (1.) comparisons of the plant nutrition performance of different soil nitrogen supply levels by N- fertilization and N- fixation under Mediterranean climate conditions at Hungary, (2.) evaluates the potential for N2 fixation imputs by grain legume based on the soya bean as a means of improving soil fertility, (3

  4. Drought enhances symbiotic dinitrogen fixation and competitive ability of a temperate forest tree.

    PubMed

    Wurzburger, Nina; Miniat, Chelcy Ford

    2014-04-01

    General circulation models project more intense and frequent droughts over the next century, but many questions remain about how terrestrial ecosystems will respond. Of particular importance, is to understand how drought will alter the species composition of regenerating temperate forests wherein symbiotic dinitrogen (N2)-fixing plants play a critical role. In experimental mesocosms we manipulated soil moisture to study the effect of drought on the physiology, growth and competitive interactions of four co-occurring North American tree species, one of which (Robinia pseudoacacia) is a symbiotic N2-fixer. We hypothesized that drought would reduce growth by decreasing stomatal conductance, hydraulic conductance and increasing the water use efficiency of species with larger diameter xylem vessel elements (Quercus rubra, R. pseudoacacia) relative to those with smaller elements (Acer rubrum and Liriodendron tulipifera). We further hypothesized that N2 fixation by R. pseudoacacia would decline with drought, reducing its competitive ability. Under drought, growth declined across all species; but, growth and physiological responses did not correspond to species' hydraulic architecture. Drought triggered an 80% increase in nodule biomass and N accrual for R. pseudoacacia, improving its growth relative to other species. These results suggest that drought intensified soil N deficiency and that R. pseudoacacia's ability to fix N2 facilitated competition with non-fixing species when both water and N were limiting. Under scenarios of moderate drought, N2 fixation may alleviate the N constraints resulting from low soil moisture and improve competitive ability of N2-fixing species, and as a result, supply more new N to the ecosystem. PMID:24337710

  5. Drought enhances symbiotic dinitrogen fixation and competitive ability of a temperate forest tree.

    PubMed

    Wurzburger, Nina; Miniat, Chelcy Ford

    2014-04-01

    General circulation models project more intense and frequent droughts over the next century, but many questions remain about how terrestrial ecosystems will respond. Of particular importance, is to understand how drought will alter the species composition of regenerating temperate forests wherein symbiotic dinitrogen (N2)-fixing plants play a critical role. In experimental mesocosms we manipulated soil moisture to study the effect of drought on the physiology, growth and competitive interactions of four co-occurring North American tree species, one of which (Robinia pseudoacacia) is a symbiotic N2-fixer. We hypothesized that drought would reduce growth by decreasing stomatal conductance, hydraulic conductance and increasing the water use efficiency of species with larger diameter xylem vessel elements (Quercus rubra, R. pseudoacacia) relative to those with smaller elements (Acer rubrum and Liriodendron tulipifera). We further hypothesized that N2 fixation by R. pseudoacacia would decline with drought, reducing its competitive ability. Under drought, growth declined across all species; but, growth and physiological responses did not correspond to species' hydraulic architecture. Drought triggered an 80% increase in nodule biomass and N accrual for R. pseudoacacia, improving its growth relative to other species. These results suggest that drought intensified soil N deficiency and that R. pseudoacacia's ability to fix N2 facilitated competition with non-fixing species when both water and N were limiting. Under scenarios of moderate drought, N2 fixation may alleviate the N constraints resulting from low soil moisture and improve competitive ability of N2-fixing species, and as a result, supply more new N to the ecosystem.

  6. Symbiotic Efficiency of Native Rhizobia Nodulating Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Soils of Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kawaka, Fanuel; Dida, Mathews M.; Opala, Peter A.; Ombori, Omwoyo; Maingi, John; Osoro, Newton; Muthini, Morris; Amoding, Alice; Mukaminega, Dative; Muoma, John

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the abundance and symbiotic efficiency of native rhizobia nodulating common bean in Kisumu and Kakamega, Kenya. Soil sampling was carried out in three farms that had been used for growing common bean for at least two seasons and one fallow land with no known history of growing common bean or inoculation. Abundance of soil rhizobia and symbiotic efficiency (SE) were determined in a greenhouse experiment. Native rhizobia populations ranged from 3.2 × 101 to 3.5 × 104 cells per gram of soil. Pure bacterial cultures isolated from fresh and healthy root nodules exhibited typical characteristics of Rhizobium sp. on yeast extract mannitol agar media supplemented with Congo red. Bean inoculation with the isolates significantly (p < 0.05) increased the shoot dry weight and nitrogen (N) concentration and content. The SE of all the native rhizobia were higher when compared to a reference strain, CIAT 899 (67%), and ranged from 74% to 170%. Four isolates had SE above a second reference strain, Strain 446 (110%). Our results demonstrate the presence of native rhizobia that are potentially superior to the commercial inoculants. These can be exploited to enhance bean inoculation programmes in the region. PMID:27355005

  7. Overexpression of AhpC enhances stress tolerance and N2-fixation in Anabaena by upregulating stress responsive genes.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Alok Kumar; Pandey, Sarita; Dietz, Karl Josef; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Singh, Shilpi; Rai, Ruchi; Rai, Lal Chand

    2016-11-01

    The study explores the significance of peroxides in regulating the CO2- and N2-fixation capacities in Anabaena sp. PCC7120. To this end Anabaena strains were generated carrying an extra copy of ahpC (An+ahpC) or by deleting from their endogenous functional ahpC (AnΔahpC). AhpC levels were 2.2- to 6.0-fold higher in An+ahpC than in wild type. An+ahpC revealed 1.4- to 2-fold upregulation of photosystems I and II, nitrogenase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities while same activities were 1.3- to 2.5-fold downregulated in the insertional mutant (AnΔahpC) compared to the wild type. Peroxide, superoxide and malondialdehyde contents were low in An+ahpC and high in AnΔahpC. Growth was inhibited in AnΔahpC by approximately 40-60% compared to a 33-40% enhanced growth in An+ahpC under selected stresses. Most interestingly, heterocyst frequency was increased in An+ahpC. In order to address transcriptional and posttranscriptional effects, transcripts of genes including groEL, fld, kat, gor, gst, dps, bfr, tf, sodA, dnaK, prx, uspA, pcs and apx were quantified and found to be increased 1.33- to 7.70-fold in unstressed and 1.76- to 13.80-fold in stressed An+ahpC. In a converse manner, they were downregulated by 1.20- to 7.50-fold in unstressed and 1.23 to 10.20-fold in stressed AnΔahpC. It is concluded that the level of AhpC controls a major set of metabolic and developmental genes in normal and stress conditions and thus likely is in the core of the redox regulatory system of Anabaena. PMID:27487031

  8. Overexpression of AhpC enhances stress tolerance and N2-fixation in Anabaena by upregulating stress responsive genes.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Alok Kumar; Pandey, Sarita; Dietz, Karl Josef; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Singh, Shilpi; Rai, Ruchi; Rai, Lal Chand

    2016-11-01

    The study explores the significance of peroxides in regulating the CO2- and N2-fixation capacities in Anabaena sp. PCC7120. To this end Anabaena strains were generated carrying an extra copy of ahpC (An+ahpC) or by deleting from their endogenous functional ahpC (AnΔahpC). AhpC levels were 2.2- to 6.0-fold higher in An+ahpC than in wild type. An+ahpC revealed 1.4- to 2-fold upregulation of photosystems I and II, nitrogenase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities while same activities were 1.3- to 2.5-fold downregulated in the insertional mutant (AnΔahpC) compared to the wild type. Peroxide, superoxide and malondialdehyde contents were low in An+ahpC and high in AnΔahpC. Growth was inhibited in AnΔahpC by approximately 40-60% compared to a 33-40% enhanced growth in An+ahpC under selected stresses. Most interestingly, heterocyst frequency was increased in An+ahpC. In order to address transcriptional and posttranscriptional effects, transcripts of genes including groEL, fld, kat, gor, gst, dps, bfr, tf, sodA, dnaK, prx, uspA, pcs and apx were quantified and found to be increased 1.33- to 7.70-fold in unstressed and 1.76- to 13.80-fold in stressed An+ahpC. In a converse manner, they were downregulated by 1.20- to 7.50-fold in unstressed and 1.23 to 10.20-fold in stressed AnΔahpC. It is concluded that the level of AhpC controls a major set of metabolic and developmental genes in normal and stress conditions and thus likely is in the core of the redox regulatory system of Anabaena.

  9. Biological N2-fixation in Boreal Peatlands of Alberta Canada Following Acute N-Deposition: Down-Regulation and Subsequent Post-Recovery Projections.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vile, M. A.; Fillingim, H.

    2015-12-01

    Globally, boreal peatlands cover a mere 3-4 % of the Earth's land surface, yet store ~ 30% of the world's soil carbon and ~9-16% of global soil nitrogen. Biological N2-fixation is the primary input of new nitrogen (N) to bogs in Alberta. We have demonstrated that this process is down regulated in the presence of enhanced atmospheric N deposition such as that from the growing Oil Sands Mining Operations in northern Alberta Canada. An important question for understanding the long term function of bogs in Alberta is whether N2-fixation can recover upon cessation of N pollution, and if so, how quickly? Here we present our preliminary findings in pursuit of this question. We measured rates of biological N2-fixation using the acetylene reduction assay (ARA), with subsequent calibration using 15N2 on separate, but paired incubations. Sphagnum fuscum from bogs at two different sites from northern Alberta were incubated over the course of 3 years, in 3 experimentally added treatments in the field; controls, plots receiving no added N and no water, water only treatments (no added N), and plots that were fertilized with N at a rate of 20 kg·ha-1·yr-1, and plots which had been fertilized with 20 kg·ha-1·yr-1in 2012-2013, but not since. In 2014, the rates of N2-fixation in the 20 kg·ha-1·yr-1plots and the recovering 20 kg·ha-1·yr-1plots were not significantly different, but both were significantly lower than the controls (p<0.05). In 2015, control plots had significantly higher rates of N2-fixation than the plots that had previously received 20 kg·ha-1·yr-1 in 2012 and 2013, and the plots that had not received 20 kg·ha-1·yr-1 since 2013 had significantly higher rates of biological N2-fixation. These data suggest that in a low atmospheric N deposition scenario, and over a short time frame, peatlands of northern Alberta may be able to recover from chronic atmospheric N deposition.

  10. AhDMT1, a Fe(2+) transporter, is involved in improving iron nutrition and N2 fixation in nodules of peanut intercropped with maize in calcareous soils.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hongyun; Xiong, Hongchun; Guo, Xiaotong; Wang, Pengfei; Duan, Penggen; Zhang, Lixia; Zhang, Fusuo; Zuo, Yuanmei

    2014-05-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important legume providing edible proteins and N2 fixation. However, iron deficiency severely reduces peanut growth in calcareous soils. The maize/peanut intercropping effectively improves iron nutrition and N2 fixation of peanut under pot and field conditions on calcareous soils. However, little was known of how intercropping regulates iron transporters in peanut. We identified AhDMT1 as a Fe(2+) transporter which was highly expressed in mature nodules with stronger N2 fixation capacity. Promoter expression analysis indicated that AhDMT1 was localized in the vascular tissues of both roots and nodules in peanut. Short-term Fe-deficiency temporarily induced an AhDmt1 expression in mature nodules in contrast to roots. However, analysis of the correlation between the complex regulation pattern of AhDmt1 expression and iron nutrition status indicated that sufficient iron supply for long term was a prerequisite for keeping AhDmt1 at a high expression level in both, peanut roots and mature nodules. The AhDmt1 expression in peanut intercropped with maize under 3 years greenhouse experiments was similar to that of peanut supplied with sufficient iron in laboratory experiments. Thus, the positive interspecific effect of intercropping may supply sufficient iron to enhance the expression of AhDmt1 in peanut roots and mature nodules to improve the iron nutrition and N2 fixation in nodules. This study may also serve as a paradigm in which functionally important genes and their ecological significance in intercropping were characterized using a candidate gene approach.

  11. Importance of N2-Fixation on the Productivity at the North-Western Azores Current/Front System, and the Abundance of Diazotrophic Unicellular Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Riou, Virginie; Fonseca-Batista, Debany; Roukaerts, Arnout; Biegala, Isabelle C.; Prakya, Shree Ram; Magalhães Loureiro, Clara; Santos, Mariana; Muniz-Piniella, Angel E.; Schmiing, Mara; Elskens, Marc; Brion, Natacha; Martins, M. Ana; Dehairs, Frank

    2016-01-01

    To understand the impact of the northwestern Azores Current Front (NW-AzC/AzF) system on HCO3−-and N2-fixation activities and unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria (UCYN) distribution, we combined geochemical and biological approaches from the oligotrophic surface to upper mesopelagic waters. N2-fixation was observed to sustain 45–85% of the HCO3−-fixation in the picoplanktonic fraction performing 47% of the total C-fixation at the deep chlorophyll maximum north and south of the AzF. N2-fixation rates as high as 10.9 μmol N m-3 d-1 and surface nitrate δ15N as low as 2.7‰ were found in the warm (18–24°C), most saline (36.5–37.0) and least productive waters south of the AzF, where UCYN were the least abundant. However, picoplanktonic UCYN abundances up to 55 cells mL-1 were found at 45–200m depths in the coolest nutrient-rich waters north of the AzF. In this area, N2-fixation rates up to 4.5 μmol N m-3 d-1 were detected, associated with depth-integrated H13CO3−-fixation rates at least 50% higher than observed south of the AzF. The numerous eddies generated at the NW-AzC/AzF seem to enhance exchanges of plankton between water masses, as well as vertical and horizontal diapycnal diffusion of nutrients, whose increase probably enhances the growth of diazotrophs and the productivity of C-fixers. PMID:26958844

  12. Importance of N2-Fixation on the Productivity at the North-Western Azores Current/Front System, and the Abundance of Diazotrophic Unicellular Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Riou, Virginie; Fonseca-Batista, Debany; Roukaerts, Arnout; Biegala, Isabelle C; Prakya, Shree Ram; Magalhães Loureiro, Clara; Santos, Mariana; Muniz-Piniella, Angel E; Schmiing, Mara; Elskens, Marc; Brion, Natacha; Martins, M Ana; Dehairs, Frank

    2016-01-01

    To understand the impact of the northwestern Azores Current Front (NW-AzC/AzF) system on HCO3--and N2-fixation activities and unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria (UCYN) distribution, we combined geochemical and biological approaches from the oligotrophic surface to upper mesopelagic waters. N2-fixation was observed to sustain 45-85% of the HCO3--fixation in the picoplanktonic fraction performing 47% of the total C-fixation at the deep chlorophyll maximum north and south of the AzF. N2-fixation rates as high as 10.9 μmol N m-3 d-1 and surface nitrate δ15N as low as 2.7‰ were found in the warm (18-24°C), most saline (36.5-37.0) and least productive waters south of the AzF, where UCYN were the least abundant. However, picoplanktonic UCYN abundances up to 55 cells mL-1 were found at 45-200m depths in the coolest nutrient-rich waters north of the AzF. In this area, N2-fixation rates up to 4.5 μmol N m-3 d-1 were detected, associated with depth-integrated H13CO3--fixation rates at least 50% higher than observed south of the AzF. The numerous eddies generated at the NW-AzC/AzF seem to enhance exchanges of plankton between water masses, as well as vertical and horizontal diapycnal diffusion of nutrients, whose increase probably enhances the growth of diazotrophs and the productivity of C-fixers.

  13. Importance of N2-Fixation on the Productivity at the North-Western Azores Current/Front System, and the Abundance of Diazotrophic Unicellular Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Riou, Virginie; Fonseca-Batista, Debany; Roukaerts, Arnout; Biegala, Isabelle C; Prakya, Shree Ram; Magalhães Loureiro, Clara; Santos, Mariana; Muniz-Piniella, Angel E; Schmiing, Mara; Elskens, Marc; Brion, Natacha; Martins, M Ana; Dehairs, Frank

    2016-01-01

    To understand the impact of the northwestern Azores Current Front (NW-AzC/AzF) system on HCO3--and N2-fixation activities and unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria (UCYN) distribution, we combined geochemical and biological approaches from the oligotrophic surface to upper mesopelagic waters. N2-fixation was observed to sustain 45-85% of the HCO3--fixation in the picoplanktonic fraction performing 47% of the total C-fixation at the deep chlorophyll maximum north and south of the AzF. N2-fixation rates as high as 10.9 μmol N m-3 d-1 and surface nitrate δ15N as low as 2.7‰ were found in the warm (18-24°C), most saline (36.5-37.0) and least productive waters south of the AzF, where UCYN were the least abundant. However, picoplanktonic UCYN abundances up to 55 cells mL-1 were found at 45-200m depths in the coolest nutrient-rich waters north of the AzF. In this area, N2-fixation rates up to 4.5 μmol N m-3 d-1 were detected, associated with depth-integrated H13CO3--fixation rates at least 50% higher than observed south of the AzF. The numerous eddies generated at the NW-AzC/AzF seem to enhance exchanges of plankton between water masses, as well as vertical and horizontal diapycnal diffusion of nutrients, whose increase probably enhances the growth of diazotrophs and the productivity of C-fixers. PMID:26958844

  14. N2 fixation and cycling in Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula and Fagus sylvatica woodland exposed to free air CO2 enrichment.

    PubMed

    Millett, Jonathan; Godbold, Douglas; Smith, Andrew R; Grant, Helen

    2012-06-01

    We measured the effect of elevated atmospheric CO(2) on atmospheric nitrogen (N(2)) fixation in the tree species Alnus glutinosa growing in monoculture or in mixture with the non-N(2)-fixing tree species Betula pendula and Fagus sylvatica. We addressed the hypotheses that (1) N(2) fixation in A. glutinosa will increase in response to increased atmospheric CO(2) concentrations, when growing in monoculture, (2) the impact of elevated CO(2) on N(2) fixation in A. glutinosa is the same in mixture and in monoculture and (3) the impacts of elevated CO(2) on N cycling will be evident by a decrease in leaf δ(15)N and by the soil-leaf enrichment factor (EF), and that these impacts will not differ between mixed and single species stands. Trees were grown in a forest plantation on former agricultural fields for four growing seasons, after which the trees were on average 3.8 m tall and canopy closure had occurred. Atmospheric CO(2) concentrations were maintained at either ambient or elevated (by 200 ppm) concentrations using a free-air CO(2) enrichment (FACE) system. Leaf δ(15)N was measured and used to estimate the amount (N(dfa)) and proportion (%N(dfa)) of N derived from atmospheric fixation. On average, 62% of the N in A. glutinosa leaves was from fixation. The %N(dfa) and N(dfa) for A. glutinosa trees in monoculture did not increase under elevated CO(2), despite higher growth rates. However, N(2) fixation did increase for trees growing in mixture, despite the absence of significant growth stimulation. There was evidence that fixed N(2) was transferred from A. glutinosa to F. sylvatica and B. pendula, but no evidence that this affected their CO(2) response. The results of this study show that N(2) fixation in A. glutinosa may be higher in a future elevated CO(2) world, but that this effect will only occur where the trees are growing in mixed species stands.

  15. RNA-seq transcriptome profiling reveals that Medicago truncatula nodules acclimate N2 fixation before emerging P deficiency reaches the nodules

    PubMed Central

    Cabeza, Ricardo A.; Liese, Rebecca; Lingner, Annika; von Stieglitz, Ilsabe; Neumann, Janice; Salinas-Riester, Gabriela; Pommerenke, Claudia; Dittert, Klaus; Schulze, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Legume nodules are plant tissues with an exceptionally high concentration of phosphorus (P), which, when there is scarcity of P, is preferentially maintained there rather than being allocated to other plant organs. The hypothesis of this study was that nodules are affected before the P concentration in the organ declines during whole-plant P depletion. Nitrogen (N2) fixation and P concentration in various organs were monitored during a whole-plant P-depletion process in Medicago truncatula. Nodule gene expression was profiled through RNA-seq at day 5 of P depletion. Until that point in time P concentration in leaves reached a lower threshold but was maintained in nodules. N2-fixation activity per plant diverged from that of fully nourished plants beginning at day 5 of the P-depletion process, primarily because fewer nodules were being formed, while the activity of the existing nodules was maintained for as long as two weeks into P depletion. RNA-seq revealed nodule acclimation on a molecular level with a total of 1140 differentially expressed genes. Numerous genes for P remobilization from organic structures were increasingly expressed. Various genes involved in nodule malate formation were upregulated, while genes involved in fermentation were downregulated. The fact that nodule formation was strongly repressed with the onset of P deficiency is reflected in the differential expression of various genes involved in nodulation. It is concluded that plants follow a strategy to maintain N2 fixation and viable leaf tissue as long as possible during whole-plant P depletion to maintain their ability to react to emerging new P sources (e.g. through active P acquisition by roots). PMID:25151618

  16. Biological N2-FIXATION and Mineral N-Fertilization Effects on Soybean (Glicine max L. Merr.) Yield Under Temperate Climate Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    continues to increase) and allewiate world hunger is to increase the intensity of production in those ecosystems that lend themselves to sustainable intensification while decreasing the intensity of production in the more fragile ecologies (Reeves 1998). Most plants depend entirely for growth on fixed nitrogen absorbed from the soil, mainly as nitrate but also as ammonium. Therefore to the methods of crop production now dominant in the agricultural systems of many developed countries strongly depend upon a sustained input of N. Economic and environmental considerations surrounding fertilizer use then empasize the need to increase the efficiency of N- utilization by plants. On the other hand the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is important under all imput conditions to ensure an optimal supply of nitrogen to the farming system. A well-founded understanding of the mechanistic interactions between BNF and N limitations is presently lacking. Synbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes makes a valuable contribution to N-inputs, especially in countries like Hungary where effective rhizobia-inoculation techniques have been developed in the context of the new sustainable agricultural system. It is widely known that soya bean -Glycine max (L.) Merr.-, is an important legume. This plant able to fix the atmospheric nitrogen (N2) it needs for growth through the agency of specific bacteria Rhizobium japonicum. Under field conditions fixation usually accounts for only 25-30% of the total nitrogen accumulated by these plants at harvest. Therefore to marginal yield have to optimalise the nitrogen supply of these legume by N-fertilization. Objectives for our experiments were to (1.) comparisons of the plant nutrition performance of different soil nitrogen supply levels by N- fertilization and N- fixation under Mediterranean climate conditions at Hungary, (2.) evaluates the potential for N2 fixation imputs by grain legume based on the soya bean as a means of improving soil fertility, (3

  17. Dynamics of N2 fixation and fate of diazotroph-derived nitrogen in a low nutrient low chlorophyll ecosystem: results from the VAHINE mesocosm experiment (New Caledonia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, S.; Berthelot, H.; Turk-Kubo, K.; Fawcett, S.; Rahav, E.; l'Helguen, S.; Berman-Frank, I.

    2015-12-01

    N2 fixation rates were measured daily in large (~ 50 m3) mesocosms deployed in the tropical South West Pacific coastal ocean (New Caledonia) to investigate the spatial and temporal dynamics of diazotrophy and the fate of diazotroph-derived nitrogen (DDN) in a low nutrient, low chlorophyll ecosystem. The mesocosms were intentionally fertilized with ~ 0.8 μM dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) to stimulate diazotrophy. Bulk N2 fixation rates were replicable between the three mesocosms, averaged 18.5 ± 1.1 nmol N L-1 d-1 over the 23 days, and increased by a factor of two during the second half of the experiment (days 15 to 23) to reach 27.3 ± 1.0 nmol N L-1 d-1. These rates are higher than the upper range reported for the global ocean, indicating that the waters surrounding New Caledonia are particularly favourable for N2 fixation. During the 23 days of the experiment, N2 fixation rates were positively correlated with seawater temperature, primary production, bacterial production, standing stocks of particulate organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase activity, and negatively correlated with DIP concentrations, DIP turnover time, nitrate, and dissolved organic nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. The fate of DDN was investigated during the bloom of the unicellular diazotroph, UCYN-C, that occurred during the second half of the experiment. Quantification of diazotrophs in the sediment traps indicates that ~ 10 % of UCYN-C from the water column were exported daily to the traps, representing as much as 22.4 ± 5.5 % of the total POC exported at the height of the UCYN-C bloom. This export was mainly due to the aggregation of small (5.7 ± 0.8 μm) UCYN-C cells into large (100-500 μm) aggregates. During the same time period, a DDN transfer experiment based on high-resolution nanometer scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS) coupled with 15N2 isotopic labelling revealed that 16 ± 6 % of the DDN was released to the dissolved pool

  18. Selecting matched root architecture in tree pairs to be used for assessing N 2 fixation based on soil- 15N-labelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasr, Hafedh; Ghorbel, Mohamed Habib; Wallander, Håkan; Dommergues, Yvon René

    2005-03-01

    It is commonly assumed that soil- 15N-labelling provides reliable estimates of N 2 fixation in trees by matching N 2-fixing and non-N 2-fixing tree pairs. As root system is a key parameter in determining suitability of the tree pairs, we compared root architecture of Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. and Casuarina glauca Sieber ex. Spreng. (two N 2-fixing trees) with Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. and Ceratonia siliqua L. (two non-N 2-fixing trees) at 4-year-old in Mediterranean-semiarid zone. The rhizobium strain used appeared more motile than Frankia strain. A. cyanophylla and E. camaldulensis had extensive rooting area and volume of fine roots, and both species tended to develop marked horizontal rooting, compared to C. glauca and C. siliqua. Characteristics of fine- and horizontal-root components can be used in selecting matched root systems of N 2-fixing and reference-paired trees. Root architecture of C. glauca was more similar to C. siliqua, than to E. camaldulensis, and that of A. cyanophylla was more similar to E. camaldulensis than to C. siliqua. Accordingly, E. camaldulensis is an appropriate reference to estimate actual N 2 fixation by A. cyanophylla, and C. siliqua is an appropriate reference for C. glauca, when using soil- 15N-labelling method in the prevailing site environment.

  19. Source-sink manipulations suggest an N-feedback mechanism for the drop in N2 fixation during pod-filling in pea and broad bean.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Joachim

    2003-05-01

    Various legume species show a marked decline in N2 fixation during pod-filling. The objective of this study was to clarify whether this is a result of impaired nodule assimilate supply or whether re-moblised N from senescing lower leaves initiates the phenomenon through an N-feedback impact. In model experiments on pea and broad bean plants during vegetative and reproductive growth, 30 or 60% of green leaves were either excised or individually darkened, thus removing the same photosynthetic capacity yet allowing N to be re-mobilised from darkened leaves. Results are consistent with an N-feedback down-regulation of nitrogenase in that 1. leaf darkening reduced N2 fixation to a greater extent then excision, 2. darkened leaves quickly senesced and N from these leaves was re-mobilised in substantial amounts, 3. N and amino acids (AA) accumulated and C/N ratios decreased in nodules of plants with darkened leaves versus excision or untreated controls. These findings further support various indirect evidence that nitrogenase is regulated by an N-feedback mechanism that is not yet fully understood.

  20. Regulation of nif gene expression and the energetics of N2 fixation over the diel cycle in a hot spring microbial mat.

    PubMed

    Steunou, Anne-Soisig; Jensen, Sheila I; Brecht, Eric; Becraft, Eric D; Bateson, Mary M; Kilian, Oliver; Bhaya, Devaki; Ward, David M; Peters, John W; Grossman, Arthur R; Kühl, Michael

    2008-04-01

    Nitrogen fixation, a prokaryotic, O2-inhibited process that reduces N2 gas to biomass, is of paramount importance in biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen. We analyzed the levels of nif transcripts of Synechococcus ecotypes, NifH subunit and nitrogenase activity over the diel cycle in the microbial mat of an alkaline hot spring in Yellowstone National Park. The results showed a rise in nif transcripts in the evening, with a subsequent decline over the course of the night. In contrast, immunological data demonstrated that the level of the NifH polypeptide remained stable during the night, and only declined when the mat became oxic in the morning. Nitrogenase activity was low throughout the night; however, it exhibited two peaks, a small one in the evening and a large one in the early morning, when light began to stimulate cyanobacterial photosynthetic activity, but O2 consumption by respiration still exceeded the rate of O2 evolution. Once the irradiance increased to the point at which the mat became oxic, the nitrogenase activity was strongly inhibited. Transcripts for proteins associated with energy-producing metabolisms in the cell also followed diel patterns, with fermentation-related transcripts accumulating at night, photosynthesis- and respiration-related transcripts accumulating during the day and late afternoon, respectively. These results are discussed with respect to the energetics and regulation of N2 fixation in hot spring mats and factors that can markedly influence the extent of N2 fixation over the diel cycle.

  1. Trophic cascades in the bryosphere: the impact of global change factors on top-down control of cyanobacterial N2 -fixation.

    PubMed

    Kardol, Paul; Spitzer, Clydecia M; Gundale, Michael J; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte; Wardle, David A

    2016-08-01

    Trophic cascades in which predators regulate densities of organisms at lower trophic levels are important drivers of population dynamics, but effects of trophic cascades on ecosystem-level fluxes and processes, and the conditions under which top-down control is important, remain unresolved. We manipulated the structure of a food web in boreal feather mosses and found that moss-inhabiting microfauna exerted top-down control of N2 -fixation by moss-associated cyanobacteria. However, the presence of higher trophic levels alleviated this top-down control, likely through feeding on bacterivorous microfauna. These effects of food-web structure on cyanobacterial N2 -fixation were dependent on global change factors and strongly suppressed under N fertilisation. Our findings illustrate how food web interactions and trophic cascades can regulate N cycling in boreal ecosystems, where carbon uptake is generally strongly N-limited, and shifting trophic control of N cycling under global change is therefore likely to impact ecosystem functioning. PMID:27320725

  2. Efficient Inactivation of Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation Related Genes in Lotus japonicus Using CRISPR-Cas9

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Longxiang; Wang, Longlong; Tan, Qian; Fan, Qiuling; Zhu, Hui; Hong, Zonglie; Zhang, Zhongming; Duanmu, Deqiang

    2016-01-01

    The targeted genome editing technique, CRISPR/Cas9 system, has been widely used to modify genes of interest in a predictable and precise manner. In this study, we describe the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated efficient editing of representative SNF (symbiotic nitrogen fixation) related genes in the model legume Lotus japonicus via Agrobacterium-mediated stable or hairy root transformation. We first predicted nine endogenous U6 genes in Lotus and then demonstrated the efficacy of the LjU6-1 gene promoter in driving expression of single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) by using a split yellow fluorescence protein (YFP) reporter system to restore the fluorescence in Arabidopsis protoplasts. Next, we chose a customized sgRNA targeting SYMRK (symbiosis receptor-like kinase) loci and achieved ~35% mutagenic efficiency in 20 T0 transgenic plants, two of them containing biallelic homozygous mutations with a 2-bp deletion near the PAM region. We further designed two sgRNAs targeting three homologous leghemoglobin loci (LjLb1, LjLb2, LjLb3) for testing the possibility of generating multi-gene knockouts. 20 out of 70 hairy root transgenic plants exhibited white nodules, with at least two LjLbs disrupted in each plant. Compared with the constitutively active CaMV 35S promoter, the nodule-specific LjLb2 promoter was also effective in gene editing in nodules by hairy root transformation. Triple mutant knockout of LjLbs was also obtained by stable transformation using two sgRNAs. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system should greatly facilitate functional analyses of SNF related genes in Lotus japonicus.

  3. Efficient Inactivation of Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation Related Genes in Lotus japonicus Using CRISPR-Cas9

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Longxiang; Wang, Longlong; Tan, Qian; Fan, Qiuling; Zhu, Hui; Hong, Zonglie; Zhang, Zhongming; Duanmu, Deqiang

    2016-01-01

    The targeted genome editing technique, CRISPR/Cas9 system, has been widely used to modify genes of interest in a predictable and precise manner. In this study, we describe the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated efficient editing of representative SNF (symbiotic nitrogen fixation) related genes in the model legume Lotus japonicus via Agrobacterium-mediated stable or hairy root transformation. We first predicted nine endogenous U6 genes in Lotus and then demonstrated the efficacy of the LjU6-1 gene promoter in driving expression of single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) by using a split yellow fluorescence protein (YFP) reporter system to restore the fluorescence in Arabidopsis protoplasts. Next, we chose a customized sgRNA targeting SYMRK (symbiosis receptor-like kinase) loci and achieved ~35% mutagenic efficiency in 20 T0 transgenic plants, two of them containing biallelic homozygous mutations with a 2-bp deletion near the PAM region. We further designed two sgRNAs targeting three homologous leghemoglobin loci (LjLb1, LjLb2, LjLb3) for testing the possibility of generating multi-gene knockouts. 20 out of 70 hairy root transgenic plants exhibited white nodules, with at least two LjLbs disrupted in each plant. Compared with the constitutively active CaMV 35S promoter, the nodule-specific LjLb2 promoter was also effective in gene editing in nodules by hairy root transformation. Triple mutant knockout of LjLbs was also obtained by stable transformation using two sgRNAs. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system should greatly facilitate functional analyses of SNF related genes in Lotus japonicus. PMID:27630657

  4. Efficient Inactivation of Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation Related Genes in Lotus japonicus Using CRISPR-Cas9.

    PubMed

    Wang, Longxiang; Wang, Longlong; Tan, Qian; Fan, Qiuling; Zhu, Hui; Hong, Zonglie; Zhang, Zhongming; Duanmu, Deqiang

    2016-01-01

    The targeted genome editing technique, CRISPR/Cas9 system, has been widely used to modify genes of interest in a predictable and precise manner. In this study, we describe the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated efficient editing of representative SNF (symbiotic nitrogen fixation) related genes in the model legume Lotus japonicus via Agrobacterium-mediated stable or hairy root transformation. We first predicted nine endogenous U6 genes in Lotus and then demonstrated the efficacy of the LjU6-1 gene promoter in driving expression of single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) by using a split yellow fluorescence protein (YFP) reporter system to restore the fluorescence in Arabidopsis protoplasts. Next, we chose a customized sgRNA targeting SYMRK (symbiosis receptor-like kinase) loci and achieved ~35% mutagenic efficiency in 20 T0 transgenic plants, two of them containing biallelic homozygous mutations with a 2-bp deletion near the PAM region. We further designed two sgRNAs targeting three homologous leghemoglobin loci (LjLb1, LjLb2, LjLb3) for testing the possibility of generating multi-gene knockouts. 20 out of 70 hairy root transgenic plants exhibited white nodules, with at least two LjLbs disrupted in each plant. Compared with the constitutively active CaMV 35S promoter, the nodule-specific LjLb2 promoter was also effective in gene editing in nodules by hairy root transformation. Triple mutant knockout of LjLbs was also obtained by stable transformation using two sgRNAs. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system should greatly facilitate functional analyses of SNF related genes in Lotus japonicus. PMID:27630657

  5. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in the fungus gardens of leaf-cutter ants.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Tomás, Adrián A; Anderson, Mark A; Suen, Garret; Stevenson, David M; Chu, Fiona S T; Cleland, W Wallace; Weimer, Paul J; Currie, Cameron R

    2009-11-20

    Bacteria-mediated acquisition of atmospheric N2 serves as a critical source of nitrogen in terrestrial ecosystems. Here we reveal that symbiotic nitrogen fixation facilitates the cultivation of specialized fungal crops by leaf-cutter ants. By using acetylene reduction and stable isotope experiments, we demonstrated that N2 fixation occurred in the fungus gardens of eight leaf-cutter ant species and, further, that this fixed nitrogen was incorporated into ant biomass. Symbiotic N2-fixing bacteria were consistently isolated from the fungus gardens of 80 leaf-cutter ant colonies collected in Argentina, Costa Rica, and Panama. The discovery of N2 fixation within the leaf-cutter ant-microbe symbiosis reveals a previously unrecognized nitrogen source in neotropical ecosystems.

  6. Predictable and efficient carbon sequestration in the North Pacific Ocean supported by symbiotic nitrogen fixation

    PubMed Central

    Karl, David M.; Church, Matthew J.; Dore, John E.; Letelier, Ricardo M.; Mahaffey, Claire

    2012-01-01

    The atmospheric and deep sea reservoirs of carbon dioxide are linked via physical, chemical, and biological processes. The last of these include photosynthesis, particle settling, and organic matter remineralization, and are collectively termed the “biological carbon pump.” Herein, we present results from a 13-y (1992–2004) sediment trap experiment conducted in the permanently oligotrophic North Pacific Subtropical Gyre that document a large, rapid, and predictable summertime (July 15–August 15) pulse in particulate matter export to the deep sea (4,000 m). Peak daily fluxes of particulate matter during the summer export pulse (SEP) average 408, 283, 24.1, 1.1, and 67.5 μmol·m−2·d−1 for total carbon, organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus (PP), and biogenic silica, respectively. The SEP is approximately threefold greater than mean wintertime particle fluxes and fuels more efficient carbon sequestration because of low remineralization during downward transit that leads to elevated total carbon/PP and organic carbon/PP particle stoichiometry (371:1 and 250:1, respectively). Our long-term observations suggest that seasonal changes in the microbial assemblage, namely, summertime increases in the biomass and productivity of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria in association with diatoms, are the main cause of the prominent SEP. The recurrent SEP is enigmatic because it is focused in time despite the absence of any obvious predictable stimulus or habitat condition. We hypothesize that changes in day length (photoperiodism) may be an important environmental cue to initiate aggregation and subsequent export of organic matter to the deep sea. PMID:22308450

  7. Symbiotic functioning and bradyrhizobial biodiversity of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) in Africa

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cowpea is the most important food grain legume in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, no study has so far assessed rhizobial biodiversity and/or nodule functioning in relation to strain IGS types at the continent level. In this study, 9 cowpea genotypes were planted in field experiments in Botswana, South Africa and Ghana with the aim of i) trapping indigenous cowpea root-nodule bacteria (cowpea "rhizobia") in the 3 countries for isolation, molecular characterisation using PCR-RFLP analysis, and sequencing of the 16S - 23S rDNA IGS gene, ii) quantifying N-fixed in the cowpea genotypes using the 15N natural abundance technique, and iii) relating the levels of nodule functioning (i.e. N-fixed) to the IGS types found inside nodules. Results Field measurements of N2 fixation revealed significant differences in plant growth, δ15N values, %Ndfa and amounts of N-fixed between and among the 9 cowpea genotypes in Ghana and South Africa. Following DNA analysis of 270 nodules from the 9 genotypes, 18 strain IGS types were found. Relating nodule function to the 18 IGS types revealed significant differences in IGS type N2-fixing efficiencies. Sequencing the 16S - 23S rDNA gene also revealed 4 clusters, with cluster 2 forming a distinct group that may be a new Bradyrhizobium species. Taken together, our data indicated greater biodiversity of cowpea bradyrhizobia in South Africa relative to Botswana and Ghana. Conclusions We have shown that cowpea is strongly dependant on N2 fixation for its N nutrition in both South Africa and Ghana. Strain IGS type symbiotic efficiency was assessed for the first time in this study, and a positive correlation was discernible where there was sole nodule occupancy. The differences in IGS type diversity and symbiotic efficiency probably accounts for the genotype × environment interaction that makes it difficult to select superior genotypes for use across Africa. The root-nodule bacteria nodulating cowpea in this study all belonged to the

  8. Diel Rates of N 2-fixation and Denitrification in a Transplanted Spartina alternifloraMarsh: Implications for N-flux Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currin, C. A.; Joye, S. B.; Paerl, H. W.

    1996-05-01

    Magnitudes and diel patterns of N 2-fixation (acetylene reduction, AR) and potential denitrification (acetylene block technique, DNF) rates were determined in a transplanted Spartina alternifloramarsh. Rates of AR in transplanted marsh surface sediments exceeded rates in an adjacent natural marsh by 5- to 10-fold. In late May, surface sediments from two sites in the transplanted marsh were inhabited by two distinct cyanobacterial communities, each exhibiting a unique diel pattern of AR. Sediments dominated by filamentous, non-heterocystous cyanobacterial species exhibited a nighttime peak in AR, supplying an estimated N input of 50 mg N m -2 day -1. Sediments dominated by heterocystous and coccoid cyanobacterial species exhibited a daytime peak in AR and an estimated N input of 145 mg N m -2 day -1. In August, surface sediments from five sites in the transplanted marsh were dominated by non-heterocystous cyanobacteria and diatoms. At this time, all sites exhibited a similar diel pattern in AR rates, with a midday minimum and dawn or dusk maxima. The estimated average daily N input was 37 mg N m -2 day -1. There was an inverse relationship between hourly AR and CO 2fixation (estimated by 14CO 2uptake) rates, suggesting an inhibitory effect of oxygenic photosynthesis on AR. Oxygen also appeared to inhibit DNF; in May, low DNF rates were noted during the day with higher rates occurring at night. Overall, DNF rates were three orders of magnitude less than N 2-fixation rates; thus, the balance between these processes results in a significant input of N to the transplanted salt marsh. We hypothesize that the reduced vascular plant canopy and coarser sediment characteristic of transplanted marshes may enhance the development and production of benthic microalgal communities dominated by cyanobacteria. Microbially-mediated N-cycling in young, transplanted salt marshes may differ significantly from values recorded from mature, natural salt marshes.

  9. Nitrogen nutrition and the role of root-shoot nitrogen signalling particularly in symbiotic systems.

    PubMed

    Parsons, R; Sunley, R J

    2001-03-01

    To obtain and concentrate reduced N from the environment, plants have evolved a diverse array of adaptations to utilize soil, biotic and atmospheric N. In symbiotic N(2)-fixing systems the potential for oversupply exists and regulation of activity to match demand is crucial. N status in plants is likely to be most strongly sensed in the shoot and signals translocated to the roots may involve phloem transported amino compounds or very low concentrations of specific signal molecules. The mechanism for sensing N status in plant cells is not understood at the molecular level although it may be expected to be similar in all plants. Mechanisms for the regulation of symbiotic N(2) fixation may be very different in the different symbiotic types. Rhizobia, Frankia and cyanobacteria are all symbiotic with different species of plants and the provision of O(2), carbohydrate or other nutrients may control symbiotic activity to varying extents in the different symbioses.

  10. Measurement of symbiotic nitrogen-fixation in leguminous host-plants grown in heavy metal-contaminated soils amended with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Obbard, J P; Jones, K C

    2001-01-01

    Rates of nitrogen fixation by Rhizobium in symbiosis with leguminous host-plants including white clover, broad bean and peas have been established in soils that have been amended experimentally with heavy metal-contaminated sewage sludges. Results from 15N-dilution experiments for the measurement of N2 fixation have shown that adverse heavy metal effects are apparent on symbiotic N2 fixation rates for white clover grown in inter-specific competition with ryegrass under mixed sward conditions, compared to white clover grown in pure sward. Further experiments on broad bean and pea indicated a significant, but minor-inhibitory metal-related effect on the rate of N2 fixation compared to untreated soils and soils amended with a relatively uncontaminated sludge. The implications of the results with respect to sludge utilisation in agriculture are discussed.

  11. Symbiotic efficiency and phylogeny of the rhizobia isolated from Leucaena leucocephala in arid-hot river valley area in Panxi, Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kai Wei; Penttinen, Petri; Chen, Yuan Xue; Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaoping

    2013-01-01

    In search of effective nitrogen-fixing strains for inoculating Leucaena leucocephala, we assessed the symbiotic efficiency of 41 rhizobial isolates from root nodules of L. leucocephala growing in the arid-hot river valley area in Panxi, China. The genetic diversity of the isolates was studied by analyzing the housekeeping genes 16S rRNA and recA, and the symbiotic genes nifH and nodC. In the nodulation and symbiotic efficiency assay, only 11 of the 41 isolates promoted the growth of L. leucocephala while the majority of the isolates were ineffective in symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Furthermore, one fourth of the isolates had a growth slowing effect on the host. According to the 16S rRNA and recA gene analyses, most of the isolates were Ensifer spp. The remaining isolates were assigned to Rhizobium, Mesorhizobium and Bradyrhizobium. The sequence analyses indicated that the L. leucocephala rhizobia had undergone gene recombination. In contrast to the promiscuity observed as a wide species distribution of the isolates, the results implied that L. leucocephala is preferentially nodulated by strains that share common symbiosis genes. The symbiotic efficiency was not connected to chromosomal background of the symbionts and isolates carrying a similar nifH or nodC showed totally different nitrogen fixation efficiency. PMID:22767181

  12. Mycorrhizal Symbiotic Efficiency on C3 and C4 Plants under Salinity Stress - A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Murugesan; Kim, Kiyoon; Krishnamoorthy, Ramasamy; Walitang, Denver; Sundaram, Subbiah; Joe, Manoharan M; Selvakumar, Gopal; Hu, Shuijin; Oh, Sang-Hyon; Sa, Tongmin

    2016-01-01

    A wide range of C3 and C4 plant species could acclimatize and grow under the impact of salinity stress. Symbiotic relationship between plant roots and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are widespread and are well known to ameliorate the influence of salinity stress on agro-ecosystem. In the present study, we sought to understand the phenomenon of variability on AMF symbiotic relationship on saline stress amelioration in C3 and C4 plants. Thus, the objective was to compare varied mycorrhizal symbiotic relationship between C3 and C4 plants in saline conditions. To accomplish the above mentioned objective, we conducted a random effects models meta-analysis across 60 published studies. An effect size was calculated as the difference in mycorrhizal responses between the AMF inoculated plants and its corresponding control under saline conditions. Responses were compared between (i) identity of AMF species and AMF inoculation, (ii) identity of host plants (C3 vs. C4) and plant functional groups, (iii) soil texture and level of salinity and (iv) experimental condition (greenhouse vs. field). Results indicate that both C3 and C4 plants under saline condition responded positively to AMF inoculation, thereby overcoming the predicted effects of symbiotic efficiency. Although C3 and C4 plants showed positive effects under low (EC < 4 ds/m) and high (>8 ds/m) saline conditions, C3 plants showed significant effects for mycorrhizal inoculation over C4 plants. Among the plant types, C4 annual and perennial plants, C4 herbs and C4 dicot had a significant effect over other counterparts. Between single and mixed AMF inoculants, single inoculants Rhizophagus irregularis had a positive effect on C3 plants whereas Funneliformis mosseae had a positive effect on C4 plants than other species. In all of the observed studies, mycorrhizal inoculation showed positive effects on shoot, root and total biomass, and in nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium (K) uptake. However, it showed negative

  13. Mycorrhizal Symbiotic Efficiency on C3 and C4 Plants under Salinity Stress – A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, Murugesan; Kim, Kiyoon; Krishnamoorthy, Ramasamy; Walitang, Denver; Sundaram, Subbiah; Joe, Manoharan M.; Selvakumar, Gopal; Hu, Shuijin; Oh, Sang-Hyon; Sa, Tongmin

    2016-01-01

    A wide range of C3 and C4 plant species could acclimatize and grow under the impact of salinity stress. Symbiotic relationship between plant roots and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are widespread and are well known to ameliorate the influence of salinity stress on agro-ecosystem. In the present study, we sought to understand the phenomenon of variability on AMF symbiotic relationship on saline stress amelioration in C3 and C4 plants. Thus, the objective was to compare varied mycorrhizal symbiotic relationship between C3 and C4 plants in saline conditions. To accomplish the above mentioned objective, we conducted a random effects models meta-analysis across 60 published studies. An effect size was calculated as the difference in mycorrhizal responses between the AMF inoculated plants and its corresponding control under saline conditions. Responses were compared between (i) identity of AMF species and AMF inoculation, (ii) identity of host plants (C3 vs. C4) and plant functional groups, (iii) soil texture and level of salinity and (iv) experimental condition (greenhouse vs. field). Results indicate that both C3 and C4 plants under saline condition responded positively to AMF inoculation, thereby overcoming the predicted effects of symbiotic efficiency. Although C3 and C4 plants showed positive effects under low (EC < 4 ds/m) and high (>8 ds/m) saline conditions, C3 plants showed significant effects for mycorrhizal inoculation over C4 plants. Among the plant types, C4 annual and perennial plants, C4 herbs and C4 dicot had a significant effect over other counterparts. Between single and mixed AMF inoculants, single inoculants Rhizophagus irregularis had a positive effect on C3 plants whereas Funneliformis mosseae had a positive effect on C4 plants than other species. In all of the observed studies, mycorrhizal inoculation showed positive effects on shoot, root and total biomass, and in nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium (K) uptake. However, it showed negative

  14. Mycorrhizal Symbiotic Efficiency on C3 and C4 Plants under Salinity Stress - A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Murugesan; Kim, Kiyoon; Krishnamoorthy, Ramasamy; Walitang, Denver; Sundaram, Subbiah; Joe, Manoharan M; Selvakumar, Gopal; Hu, Shuijin; Oh, Sang-Hyon; Sa, Tongmin

    2016-01-01

    A wide range of C3 and C4 plant species could acclimatize and grow under the impact of salinity stress. Symbiotic relationship between plant roots and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are widespread and are well known to ameliorate the influence of salinity stress on agro-ecosystem. In the present study, we sought to understand the phenomenon of variability on AMF symbiotic relationship on saline stress amelioration in C3 and C4 plants. Thus, the objective was to compare varied mycorrhizal symbiotic relationship between C3 and C4 plants in saline conditions. To accomplish the above mentioned objective, we conducted a random effects models meta-analysis across 60 published studies. An effect size was calculated as the difference in mycorrhizal responses between the AMF inoculated plants and its corresponding control under saline conditions. Responses were compared between (i) identity of AMF species and AMF inoculation, (ii) identity of host plants (C3 vs. C4) and plant functional groups, (iii) soil texture and level of salinity and (iv) experimental condition (greenhouse vs. field). Results indicate that both C3 and C4 plants under saline condition responded positively to AMF inoculation, thereby overcoming the predicted effects of symbiotic efficiency. Although C3 and C4 plants showed positive effects under low (EC < 4 ds/m) and high (>8 ds/m) saline conditions, C3 plants showed significant effects for mycorrhizal inoculation over C4 plants. Among the plant types, C4 annual and perennial plants, C4 herbs and C4 dicot had a significant effect over other counterparts. Between single and mixed AMF inoculants, single inoculants Rhizophagus irregularis had a positive effect on C3 plants whereas Funneliformis mosseae had a positive effect on C4 plants than other species. In all of the observed studies, mycorrhizal inoculation showed positive effects on shoot, root and total biomass, and in nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium (K) uptake. However, it showed negative

  15. Pesticides reduce symbiotic efficiency of nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and host plants.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jennifer E; Gulledge, Jay; Engelhaupt, Erika; Burow, Matthew E; McLachlan, John A

    2007-06-12

    Unprecedented agricultural intensification and increased crop yield will be necessary to feed the burgeoning world population, whose global food demand is projected to double in the next 50 years. Although grain production has doubled in the past four decades, largely because of the widespread use of synthetic nitrogenous fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation promoted by the "Green Revolution," this rate of increased agricultural output is unsustainable because of declining crop yields and environmental impacts of modern agricultural practices. The last 20 years have seen diminishing returns in crop yield in response to increased application of fertilizers, which cannot be completely explained by current ecological models. A common strategy to reduce dependence on nitrogenous fertilizers is the production of leguminous crops, which fix atmospheric nitrogen via symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia bacteria, in rotation with nonleguminous crops. Here we show previously undescribed in vivo evidence that a subset of organochlorine pesticides, agrichemicals, and environmental contaminants induces a symbiotic phenotype of inhibited or delayed recruitment of rhizobia bacteria to host plant roots, fewer root nodules produced, lower rates of nitrogenase activity, and a reduction in overall plant yield at time of harvest. The environmental consequences of synthetic chemicals compromising symbiotic nitrogen fixation are increased dependence on synthetic nitrogenous fertilizer, reduced soil fertility, and unsustainable long-term crop yields.

  16. Mechanisms of physiological adjustment of N2 fixation in Cicer arietinum L. (chickpea) during early stages of water deficit: single or multi-factor controls.

    PubMed

    Nasr Esfahani, Maryam; Sulieman, Saad; Schulze, Joachim; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2014-09-01

    Drought negatively impacts symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) in Cicer arietinum L. (chickpea), thereby limiting yield potential. Understanding how drought affects chickpea nodulation will enable the development of strategies to biotechnologically engineer chickpea varieties with enhanced SNF under drought conditions. By analyzing carbon and nitrogen metabolism, we studied the mechanisms of physiological adjustment of nitrogen fixation in chickpea plants nodulated with Mesorhizobium ciceri during both drought stress and subsequent recovery. The nitrogenase activity, levels of several key carbon (in nodules) and nitrogen (in both nodules and leaves) metabolites and antioxidant compounds, as well as the activity of related nodule enzymes were examined in M. ciceri-inoculated chickpea plants under early drought stress and subsequent recovery. Results indicated that drought reduced nitrogenase activity, and that this was associated with a reduced expression of the nifK gene. Furthermore, drought stress promoted an accumulation of amino acids, mainly asparagine in nodules (but not in leaves), and caused a cell redox imbalance in nodules. An accumulation of organic acids, especially malate, in nodules, which coincided with the decline of nodulated root respiration, was also observed under drought stress. Taken together, our findings indicate that reduced nitrogenase activity occurring at early stages of drought stress involves, at least, the inhibition of respiration, nitrogen accumulation and an imbalance in cell redox status in nodules. The results of this study demonstrate the potential that the genetic engineering-based improvement of SNF efficiency could be applied to reduce the impact of drought on the productivity of chickpea, and perhaps other legume crops.

  17. Measuring carbon and N2 fixation in field populations of colonial and free-living unicellular cyanobacteria using nanometer-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry(1).

    PubMed

    Foster, Rachel A; Sztejrenszus, Saar; Kuypers, Marcel M M

    2013-06-01

    Unicellular cyanobacteria are now recognized as important to the marine N and C cycles in open ocean gyres, yet there are few direct in situ measurements of their activities. Using a high-resolution nanometer scale secondary ion mass spectrometer (nanoSIMS), single cell N2 and C fixation rates were estimated for unicellular cyanobacteria resembling N2 fixer Crocosphaera watsonii. Crocosphaera watsonii-like cells were observed in the subtropical North Pacific gyre (22°45' N, 158°0' W) as 2 different phenotypes: colonial and free-living. Colonies containing 3-242 cells per colony were observed and cell density in colonies increased with incubation time. Estimated C fixation rates were similarly high in both phenotypes and unexpectedly for unicellular cyanobacteria 85% of the colonial cells incubated during midday were also enriched in (15) N above natural abundance. Highest (15) N enrichment and N2 fixation rates were found in cells incubated overnight where up to 64% of the total daily fixed N in the upper surface waters was attributed to both phenotypes. The colonial cells retained newly fixed C in a sulfur-rich matrix surrounding the cells and often cells of both phenotypes possessed areas (<1 nm) of enriched (15) N and (13) C resembling storage granules. The nanoSIMS imaging of the colonial cells also showed evidence for a division of N2 and C fixation activity across the colony where few individual cells (<34%) in a given colony were enriched in both (15) N and (13) C above the colony average. Our results provide new insights into the ecophysiology of unicellular cyanobacteria. PMID:27007039

  18. Rhizobia with different symbiotic efficiencies nodulate Acaciella angustissima in Mexico, including Sinorhizobium chiapanecum sp. nov. which has common symbiotic genes with Sinorhizobium mexicanum

    PubMed Central

    Rincón-Rosales, Reiner; Lloret, Lourdes; Ponce, Edith; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2009-01-01

    Bacteria from nodules of the legume Acaciella angustissima native to the south of Mexico were characterized genetically and their nodulation and competitiveness were evaluated. Phylogenetic studies derived from rpoB gene sequences indicated that A. angustissima is nodulated by Sinorhizobium mexicanum, Rhizobium tropici, Mesorhizobium plurifarium and Agrobacterium tumefaciens and by bacteria related to Sinorhizobium americanum, Sinorhizobium terangae, Rhizobium etli and Rhizobium gallicum. A new lineage related to S. terangae is recognized based on the sequences of gyrA, nolR, recA, rpoB and rrs genes, DNA–DNA hybridization and phenotypic characteristics. The name for this new species is Sinorhizobium chiapanecum and its type strain is ITTG S70T. The symbiotic genes nodA and nifH were similar to those from S. mexicanum strains, which are Acaciella symbionts as well, with nodA gene sequences grouped within a cluster of nod genes from strains that nodulate plants from the Mimosoideae subfamily of the Leguminosae. Sinorhizobium isolates were the most frequently obtained from A. angustissima nodules and were among the best strains to promote plant growth in A. angustissima and to compete in interstrain nodule competition assays. Lateral transfer of symbiotic genes is not evident among the genera that nodulate A. angustissima (Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium and Mesorhizobium) but may occur among the sympatric and closely related sinorhizobia that nodulate Acaciella. PMID:19120461

  19. Symbiotic Expressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernecky, Robert; Herhut, Stephan; Scholz, Sven-Bodo

    We introduce symbiotic expressions, a method for algebraic simplification within a compiler, in lieu of an SMT solver, such as Yices or the Omega Calculator. Symbiotic expressions are compiler-generated expressions, temporarily injected into a program's abstract syntax tree (AST). The compiler's normal optimizations interpret and simplify those expressions, making their results available for the compiler to use as a basis for decisions about further optimization of the source program. The expressions are symbiotic, in the sense that both parties benefit: an optimization benefits, by using the compiler itself to simplify expressions that have been attached, lamprey-like, to the AST by the optimization; the program being compiled benefits, from improved run-time in both serial and parallel environments.

  20. Comparison of N2 Fixation and Yields in Cajanus cajan between Hydrogenase-Positive and Hydrogenase-Negative Rhizobia by In Situ Acetylene Reduction Assays and Direct 15N Partitioning 1

    PubMed Central

    La Favre, Jeffrey S.; Focht, Dennis D.

    1983-01-01

    Pigeon peas [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] were grown in soil columns containing 15N-enriched organic matter. Seasonal N2 fixation activity was determined by periodically assaying plants for reduction of C2H2. N2 fixation rose sharply from the first assay period at 51 days after planting to a peak of activity between floral initiation and fruit set. N2 fixation (acetylene reduction) activity dropped concomitantly with pod maturation but recovered after pod harvests. Analysis of 15N content of plant shoots revealed that approximately 91 to 94% of plant N was derived from N2 fixation. The effect of inoculation with hydrogenase-positive and hydrogenase-negative rhizobia was examined. Pigeon peas inoculated with strain P132 (hydrogenase-positive) yielded significantly more total shoot N than other inoculated or uninoculated treatments. However, two other hydrogenase-positive strains did not yield significantly more total shoot N than a hydrogenase-negative strain. The extent of nodulation by inoculum strains compared to indigenous rhizobia was determined by typing nodules according to intrinsic antibiotic resistance of the inoculum strains. The inoculum strains were detected in almost all typed nodules of inoculated plants. Gas samples were taken from soil columns several times during the growth cycle of the plants. H2 was never detected, even in columns containing pigeon peas inoculated with hydrogenase-negative rhizobia. This was attributed to H2 consumption by soil bacteria. Estimation of N2 fixation by acetylene reduction activity was closest to the direct 15N method when ethylene concentrations in the gas headspace (between the column lid and soil surface) were extrapolated to include the soil pore space as opposed solely to measurement in the headspace. There was an 8-fold difference between the two acetylene reduction assay methods of estimation. Based on a planting density of 15,000 plants per hectare, the direct 15N fixation rates ranged from 67 (noninoculated

  1. Assessing genotypic diversity and symbiotic efficiency of five rhizobial legume interactions under cadmium stress for soil phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Guefrachi, I; Rejili, M; Mahdhi, M; Mars, M

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of soil phytoremediation using local legume plants coupled with their native root-nodulating bacteria to increase forage yields and preserve contaminated soils in arid regions of Tunisia, we investigated the diversity of bacteria from root nodules of Lathyrus sativus, Lens culinaris, Medicago marina, M. truncatula, and M. minima and the symbiotic efficiency of these five legume symbiosis under Cadmium stress. Fifty bacterial strains were characterized using physiological and biochemical features such heavy metals resistant, and PCR-RFLP of 16S rDNA. Taxonomically, the isolates nodulating L. sativus, and L. culinaris are species within the genera Rhizobium and the ones associated to Medicago sp, within the genera Sinorhizobium. The results revealed also that the cadmium tolerance of the different legumes-rhizobia interaction was as follows: M. minima < M. truncatula < M. marina < L. sativus < L. culinaris indicating that the effect of Cadmium on root nodulation and biomass production is more deleterious on M. minima-S. meliloti and M. truncatula-S. meliloti than in other symbiosis. Knowledge on genetic and functional diversity of M. marina, L. sativus and L. culinaris microsymbiotes is very useful for inoculant strain selection and can be selected to develop inoculants for soil phytoremediation. PMID:23819287

  2. Dynamics of N2 fixation and fate of diazotroph-derived nitrogen in a low-nutrient, low-chlorophyll ecosystem: results from the VAHINE mesocosm experiment (New Caledonia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, Sophie; Berthelot, Hugo; Turk-Kubo, Kendra; Fawcett, Sarah; Rahav, Eyal; L'Helguen, Stéphane; Berman-Frank, Ilana

    2016-05-01

    N2 fixation rates were measured daily in large (˜ 50 m3) mesocosms deployed in the tropical southwest Pacific coastal ocean (New Caledonia) to investigate the temporal variability in N2 fixation rates in relation with environmental parameters and study the fate of diazotroph-derived nitrogen (DDN) in a low-nutrient, low-chlorophyll ecosystem. The mesocosms were fertilized with ˜ 0.8 µM dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) to stimulate diazotrophy. Bulk N2 fixation rates were replicable between the three mesocosms, averaged 18.5 ± 1.1 nmol N L-1 d-1 over the 23 days, and increased by a factor of 2 during the second half of the experiment (days 15 to 23) to reach 27.3 ± 1.0 nmol N L-1 d-1. These later rates measured after the DIP fertilization are higher than the upper range reported for the global ocean. During the 23 days of the experiment, N2 fixation rates were positively correlated with seawater temperature, primary production, bacterial production, standing stocks of particulate organic carbon (POC), nitrogen (PON) and phosphorus (POP), and alkaline phosphatase activity, and negatively correlated with DIP concentrations, DIP turnover time, nitrate, and dissolved organic nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. The fate of DDN was investigated during a bloom of the unicellular diazotroph UCYN-C that occurred during the second half of the experiment. Quantification of diazotrophs in the sediment traps indicates that ˜ 10 % of UCYN-C from the water column was exported daily to the traps, representing as much as 22.4 ± 5.5 % of the total POC exported at the height of the UCYN-C bloom. This export was mainly due to the aggregation of small (5.7 ± 0.8 µm) UCYN-C cells into large (100-500 µm) aggregates. During the same time period, a DDN transfer experiment based on high-resolution nanometer-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS) coupled with 15N2 isotopic labeling revealed that 16 ± 6 % of the DDN was released to the dissolved pool and 21 ± 4

  3. [Construction of high-effective symbiotic bacteria: evolutionary models and genetic approaches].

    PubMed

    Provorov, N A; Onishchuk, O P; Iurgel', S N; Kurchak, O N; Chizhevskaia, E P; Vorob'ev, N I; Zatovskaia, T V; Simarov, B V

    2014-11-01

    Using the example of N2-fixing legume-rhizobial symbiosis, we demonstrated that the origin and evolution of bacteria symbiotic for plants involve the following: 1) the formation of novel sym gene systems based on reorganizations of the bacterial genomes and on the gene transfer from the distant organisms; 2) the loss of genes encoding for functions that are required for autonomous performance but interfere with symbiotic functions (negative regulators of symbiosis). Therefore, the construction of effective rhizobia strains should involve improvement of sym genes activities (for instance, nif, fix, and dct genes, encoding for nitrogenase synthesis or for the energy supply of N2 fixation), as well as the inactivation of negative regulators of symbiosis identified in our lab (eff genes encoding for the transport of sugars, and the production of polysaccharides, and storage compounds, as well as for oxidative-reductive processes).

  4. A vapBC-type toxin-antitoxin module of Sinorhizobium meliloti influences symbiotic efficiency and nodule senescence of Medicago sativa.

    PubMed

    Lipuma, Justine; Cinege, Gyöngyi; Bodogai, Monica; Oláh, Boglárka; Kiers, Aurélie; Endre, Gabriella; Dupont, Laurence; Dusha, Ilona

    2014-12-01

    The symbiotic nitrogen-fixing soil bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti carries a large number of toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules both on the chromosome and megaplasmids. One of them, the vapBC-5 module that belongs to the type II systems was characterized here. It encodes an active toxin vapC-5, and was shown to be controlled negatively by the complex of its own proteins. Different mutants of the vapBC-5 genes exhibited diverse effects on symbiotic efficiency during interaction with the host plant Medicago sativa. The absence of the entire vapBC-5 region had no influence on nodule formation and nitrogen fixation properties. The strain carrying an insertion in the antitoxin gene showed a reduced nitrogen fixation capacity resulting in a lower plant yield. In contrast, when the toxin gene was mutated, the strain developed more efficient symbiosis with the host plant. The nitrogen fixing root nodules had a delayed senescent phenotype and contained elevated level of plant-derived molecules characteristic of later steps of nodule development. The longer bacteroid viability and abundance of active nitrogen fixing zone resulted in increased production of plant material. These data indicate that modification of the toxin/antitoxin production may influence bacteroid metabolism and may have an impact on the adaptation to changing environmental conditions. PMID:25156344

  5. Asparagine: an amide of particular distinction in the regulation of symbiotic nitrogen fixation of legumes.

    PubMed

    Sulieman, Saad; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2013-09-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is tightly regulated by a range of fine processes at the nodule level, over which the host plant has overall control through the whole life of the plant. The operation of this control at the nodule level is not yet fully understood, but greater knowledge will ultimately lead to a better improvement of N2 fixation through the use of crop legumes and genetic engineering of crop plants for higher performance. It has been suggested that, nodule responses to the nutritional complexity of the rhizosphere environment involve a great deal of coordination of sensing and signal transduction. This regulation can be achieved through several mechanisms, including changes in carbon metabolism, oxygen supply and/or overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Recently, the cycling of amino acids observed between the plant and bacteroid fractions suggests a new and important regulatory mechanism involved in nodule responses. Most of the recent transcriptional findings are consistent with the earlier biochemical and physiological reports. Current research revealed unique advances for nodule metabolism, especially on the regulation of asparagine synthetase gene expression and the control of asparagine (ASN) to N2 fixing activity. A large amount of ASN is found accumulating in the root nodules of the symbiotic plants under restricted environments, such as drought, salinity and nutrient deficiency. Exceptionally, ASN phloem feeding has resulted in an increased concentration of the ASN amide in nodules followed by a remarkable decrease in nodule activity. In this review, recent progress concerning the possible role of ASN in whole-plant-based down-regulation of symbiotic N2 fixation will be reviewed.

  6. Identifying abnormalities in symbiotic development between Trifolium spp. and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii leading to sub-optimal and ineffective nodule phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Melino, V. J.; Drew, E. A.; Ballard, R. A.; Reeve, W. G.; Thomson, G.; White, R. G.; O'Hara, G. W.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Legumes overcome nitrogen limitations by entering into a mutualistic symbiosis with N2-fixing bacteria (rhizobia). Fully compatible associations (effective) between Trifolium spp. and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii result from successful recognition of symbiotic partners in the rhizosphere, root hair infection and the formation of nodules where N2-fixing bacteroids reside. Poorly compatible associations can result in root nodule formation with minimal (sub-optimal) or no (ineffective) N2-fixation. Despite the abundance and persistence of strains in agricultural soils which are poorly compatible with the commercially grown clover species, little is known of how and why they fail symbiotically. The aims of this research were to determine the morphological aberrations occurring in sub-optimal and ineffective clover nodules and to determine whether reduced bacteroid numbers or reduced N2-fixing activity is the main cause for the Sub-optimal phenotype. Methods Symbiotic effectiveness of four Trifolium hosts with each of four R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii strains was assessed by analysis of plant yields and nitrogen content; nodule yields, abundance, morphology and internal structure; and bacteroid cytology, quantity and activity. Key Results Effective nodules (Nodule Function 83–100 %) contained four developmental zones and N2-fixing bacteroids. In contrast, Sub-optimal nodules of the same age (Nodule Function 24–57 %) carried prematurely senescing bacteroids and a small bacteroid pool resulting in reduced shoot N. Ineffective-differentiated nodules carried bacteroids aborted at stage 2 or 3 in differentiation. In contrast, bacteroids were not observed in Ineffective-vegetative nodules despite the presence of bacteria within infection threads. Conclusions Three major responses to N2-fixation incompatibility between Trifolium spp. and R. l. trifolii strains were found: failed bacterial endocytosis from infection threads into plant cortical

  7. Key role of symbiotic dinitrogen fixation in tropical forest secondary succession.

    PubMed

    Batterman, Sarah A; Hedin, Lars O; van Breugel, Michiel; Ransijn, Johannes; Craven, Dylan J; Hall, Jefferson S

    2013-10-10

    Forests contribute a significant portion of the land carbon sink, but their ability to sequester CO2 may be constrained by nitrogen, a major plant-limiting nutrient. Many tropical forests possess tree species capable of fixing atmospheric dinitrogen (N2), but it is unclear whether this functional group can supply the nitrogen needed as forests recover from disturbance or previous land use, or expand in response to rising CO2 (refs 6, 8). Here we identify a powerful feedback mechanism in which N2 fixation can overcome ecosystem-scale deficiencies in nitrogen that emerge during periods of rapid biomass accumulation in tropical forests. Over a 300-year chronosequence in Panama, N2-fixing tree species accumulated carbon up to nine times faster per individual than their non-fixing neighbours (greatest difference in youngest forests), and showed species-specific differences in the amount and timing of fixation. As a result of fast growth and high fixation, fixers provided a large fraction of the nitrogen needed to support net forest growth (50,000 kg carbon per hectare) in the first 12 years. A key element of ecosystem functional diversity was ensured by the presence of different N2-fixing tree species across the entire forest age sequence. These findings show that symbiotic N2 fixation can have a central role in nitrogen cycling during tropical forest stand development, with potentially important implications for the ability of tropical forests to sequester CO2.

  8. Are Symbiotic Methanotrophs Key Microbes for N Acquisition in Paddy Rice Root?

    PubMed

    Minamisawa, Kiwamu; Imaizumi-Anraku, Haruko; Bao, Zhihua; Shinoda, Ryo; Okubo, Takashi; Ikeda, Seishi

    2016-01-01

    The relationships between biogeochemical processes and microbial functions in rice (Oryza sativa) paddies have been the focus of a large number of studies. A mechanistic understanding of methane-nitrogen (CH4-N) cycle interactions is a key unresolved issue in research on rice paddies. This minireview is an opinion paper for highlighting the mechanisms underlying the interactions between biogeochemical processes and plant-associated microbes based on recent metagenomic, metaproteomic, and isotope analyses. A rice symbiotic gene, relevant to rhizobial nodulation and mycorrhization in plants, likely accommodates diazotrophic methanotrophs or the associated bacterial community in root tissues under low-N fertilizer management, which may permit rice plants to acquire N via N2 fixation. The amount of N fixed in rice roots was previously estimated to be approximately 12% of plant N based on measurements of (15)N natural abundance in a paddy field experiment. Community analyses also indicate that methanotroph populations in rice roots are susceptible to environmental conditions such as the microclimate of rice paddies. Therefore, CH4 oxidation by methanotrophs is a driving force in shaping bacterial communities in rice roots grown in CH4-rich environments. Based on these findings, we propose a hypothesis with unanswered questions to describe the interplay between rice plants, root microbiomes, and their biogeochemical functions (CH4 oxidation and N2 fixation). PMID:26960961

  9. Key role of symbiotic dinitrogen fixation in tropical forest secondary succession.

    PubMed

    Batterman, Sarah A; Hedin, Lars O; van Breugel, Michiel; Ransijn, Johannes; Craven, Dylan J; Hall, Jefferson S

    2013-10-10

    Forests contribute a significant portion of the land carbon sink, but their ability to sequester CO2 may be constrained by nitrogen, a major plant-limiting nutrient. Many tropical forests possess tree species capable of fixing atmospheric dinitrogen (N2), but it is unclear whether this functional group can supply the nitrogen needed as forests recover from disturbance or previous land use, or expand in response to rising CO2 (refs 6, 8). Here we identify a powerful feedback mechanism in which N2 fixation can overcome ecosystem-scale deficiencies in nitrogen that emerge during periods of rapid biomass accumulation in tropical forests. Over a 300-year chronosequence in Panama, N2-fixing tree species accumulated carbon up to nine times faster per individual than their non-fixing neighbours (greatest difference in youngest forests), and showed species-specific differences in the amount and timing of fixation. As a result of fast growth and high fixation, fixers provided a large fraction of the nitrogen needed to support net forest growth (50,000 kg carbon per hectare) in the first 12 years. A key element of ecosystem functional diversity was ensured by the presence of different N2-fixing tree species across the entire forest age sequence. These findings show that symbiotic N2 fixation can have a central role in nitrogen cycling during tropical forest stand development, with potentially important implications for the ability of tropical forests to sequester CO2. PMID:24037375

  10. Key role of symbiotic dinitrogen fixation in tropical forest secondary succession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batterman, Sarah A.; Hedin, Lars O.; van Breugel, Michiel; Ransijn, Johannes; Craven, Dylan J.; Hall, Jefferson S.

    2013-10-01

    Forests contribute a significant portion of the land carbon sink, but their ability to sequester CO2 may be constrained by nitrogen, a major plant-limiting nutrient. Many tropical forests possess tree species capable of fixing atmospheric dinitrogen (N2), but it is unclear whether this functional group can supply the nitrogen needed as forests recover from disturbance or previous land use, or expand in response to rising CO2 (refs 6, 8). Here we identify a powerful feedback mechanism in which N2 fixation can overcome ecosystem-scale deficiencies in nitrogen that emerge during periods of rapid biomass accumulation in tropical forests. Over a 300-year chronosequence in Panama, N2-fixing tree species accumulated carbon up to nine times faster per individual than their non-fixing neighbours (greatest difference in youngest forests), and showed species-specific differences in the amount and timing of fixation. As a result of fast growth and high fixation, fixers provided a large fraction of the nitrogen needed to support net forest growth (50,000kg carbon per hectare) in the first 12years. A key element of ecosystem functional diversity was ensured by the presence of different N2-fixing tree species across the entire forest age sequence. These findings show that symbiotic N2 fixation can have a central role in nitrogen cycling during tropical forest stand development, with potentially important implications for the ability of tropical forests to sequester CO2.

  11. Are Symbiotic Methanotrophs Key Microbes for N Acquisition in Paddy Rice Root?

    PubMed Central

    Minamisawa, Kiwamu; Imaizumi-Anraku, Haruko; Bao, Zhihua; Shinoda, Ryo; Okubo, Takashi; Ikeda, Seishi

    2016-01-01

    The relationships between biogeochemical processes and microbial functions in rice (Oryza sativa) paddies have been the focus of a large number of studies. A mechanistic understanding of methane–nitrogen (CH4–N) cycle interactions is a key unresolved issue in research on rice paddies. This minireview is an opinion paper for highlighting the mechanisms underlying the interactions between biogeochemical processes and plant-associated microbes based on recent metagenomic, metaproteomic, and isotope analyses. A rice symbiotic gene, relevant to rhizobial nodulation and mycorrhization in plants, likely accommodates diazotrophic methanotrophs or the associated bacterial community in root tissues under low-N fertilizer management, which may permit rice plants to acquire N via N2 fixation. The amount of N fixed in rice roots was previously estimated to be approximately 12% of plant N based on measurements of 15N natural abundance in a paddy field experiment. Community analyses also indicate that methanotroph populations in rice roots are susceptible to environmental conditions such as the microclimate of rice paddies. Therefore, CH4 oxidation by methanotrophs is a driving force in shaping bacterial communities in rice roots grown in CH4-rich environments. Based on these findings, we propose a hypothesis with unanswered questions to describe the interplay between rice plants, root microbiomes, and their biogeochemical functions (CH4 oxidation and N2 fixation). PMID:26960961

  12. Carbon Dioxide Fixation in Roots and Nodules of Alnus glutinosa: I. Role of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase and Carbamyl Phosphate Synthetase in Dark CO(2) Fixation, Citrulline Synthesis, and N(2) Fixation.

    PubMed

    McClure, P R; Coker, G T; Schubert, K R

    1983-03-01

    Detached roots and nodules of the N(2)-fixing species, Albus glutinosa (European black alder), actively assimilate CO(2). The maximum rates of dark CO(2) fixation observed for detached nodules and roots were 15 and 3 micromoles CO(2) fixed per gram dry weight per hour, respectively. The net incorporation of CO(2) in these tissues was catalyzed by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase which produces organic acids, some of which are used in the synthesis of the amino acids, aspartate, glutamate, and citrulline and by carbamyl phosphate synthetase. The latter accounts for approximately 30 to 40% of the CO(2) fixed and provides carbamyl phosphate for the synthesis of citrulline. Results of labeling studies suggest that there are multiple pools of malate present in nodules. The major pool is apparently metabolically inactive and of unknown function while the smaller pool is rapidly utilized in the synthesis of amino acids. Dark CO(2) fixation and N(2) fixation in nodules decreased after treatment of nodulated plants with nitrate while the percentage of the total (14)C incorporated into organic acids increased. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and carbamyl phosphate synthetase play key roles in the synthesis of amino acids including citrulline and in the metabolism of N(2)-fixing nodules and roots of alder. PMID:16662882

  13. Symbiotic performance of herbaceous legumes in tropical cover cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Ibewiro, B; Onuh, M; Sanginga, N; Bernard, V; Merckx, R

    2001-11-10

    Increasing use of herbaceous legumes such as mucuna ( Mucuna pruriens var. utilis [Wright] Bruck) and lablab ( Lablab purpureus [L.] Sweet) in the derived savannas of West Africa can be attributed to their potential to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N2). The effects of management practices on N2 fixation in mucuna and lablab were examined using 15N isotope dilution technique. Dry matter yield of both legumes at 12 weeks was two to five times more in in situ mulch (IM) than live mulch (LM) systems. Land Equivalent Ratios, however, showed 8 to 30% more efficient utilization of resources required for biomass production under LM than IM systems. Live mulching reduced nodule numbers in the legumes by one third compared to values in the IM systems. Similarly, nodule mass was reduced by 34 to 58% under LM compared to the IM systems. The proportion of fixed N2 in the legumes was 18% higher in LM than IM systems. Except for inoculated mucuna, the amounts of N fixed by both legumes were greater in IM than LM systems. Rhizobia inoculation of the legumes did not significantly increase N2 fixation compared to uninoculated plots. Application of N fertilizer reduced N2 fixed in the legumes by 36 to 51% compared to inoculated or uninoculated systems. The implications of cover cropping, N fertilization, and rhizobia inoculation on N contributions of legumes into tropical low-input systems were discussed. PMID:12805778

  14. Combined inoculation with Glomus intraradices and Rhizobium tropici CIAT899 increases phosphorus use efficiency for symbiotic nitrogen fixation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    Tajini, Fatma; Trabelsi, Mustapha; Drevon, Jean-Jacques

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the response of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and rhizobia strain inoculation. Two common bean genotypes i.e. CocoT and Flamingo varying in their effectiveness for nitrogen fixation were inoculated with Glomus intraradices and Rhizobium tropici CIAT899, and grown for 50 days in soil–sand substrate in glasshouse conditions. Inoculation of common bean plants with the AM fungi resulted in a significant increase in nodulation compared to plants without inoculation. The combined inoculation of AM fungi and rhizobia significantly increased various plant growth parameters compared to simple inoculated plants. In addition, the combined inoculation of AM fungi and rhizobia resulted in significantly higher nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation in the shoots of common bean plants and improved phosphorus use efficiency compared with their controls, which were not dually inoculated. It is concluded that inoculation with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi could improve the efficiency in phosphorus use for symbiotic nitrogen fixation especially under phosphorus deficiency. PMID:23961175

  15. Combined inoculation with Glomus intraradices and Rhizobium tropici CIAT899 increases phosphorus use efficiency for symbiotic nitrogen fixation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Tajini, Fatma; Trabelsi, Mustapha; Drevon, Jean-Jacques

    2012-04-01

    This study compared the response of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and rhizobia strain inoculation. Two common bean genotypes i.e. CocoT and Flamingo varying in their effectiveness for nitrogen fixation were inoculated with Glomus intraradices and Rhizobium tropici CIAT899, and grown for 50 days in soil-sand substrate in glasshouse conditions. Inoculation of common bean plants with the AM fungi resulted in a significant increase in nodulation compared to plants without inoculation. The combined inoculation of AM fungi and rhizobia significantly increased various plant growth parameters compared to simple inoculated plants. In addition, the combined inoculation of AM fungi and rhizobia resulted in significantly higher nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation in the shoots of common bean plants and improved phosphorus use efficiency compared with their controls, which were not dually inoculated. It is concluded that inoculation with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi could improve the efficiency in phosphorus use for symbiotic nitrogen fixation especially under phosphorus deficiency. PMID:23961175

  16. Models of symbiotic stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedjung, Michael

    1993-01-01

    One of the most important features of symbiotic stars is the coexistence of a cool spectral component that is apparently very similar to the spectrum of a cool giant, with at least one hot continuum, and emission lines from very different stages of ionization. The cool component dominates the infrared spectrum of S-type symbiotics; it tends to be veiled in this wavelength range by what appears to be excess emission in D-type symbiotics, this excess usually being attributed to circumstellar dust. The hot continuum (or continua) dominates the ultraviolet. X-rays have sometimes also been observed. Another important feature of symbiotic stars that needs to be explained is the variability. Different forms occur, some variability being periodic. This type of variability can, in a few cases, strongly suggest the presence of eclipses of a binary system. One of the most characteristic forms of variability is that characterizing the active phases. This basic form of variation is traditionally associated in the optical with the veiling of the cool spectrum and the disappearance of high-ionization emission lines, the latter progressively appearing (in classical cases, reappearing) later. Such spectral changes recall those of novae, but spectroscopic signatures of the high-ejection velocities observed for novae are not usually detected in symbiotic stars. However, the light curves of the 'symbiotic nova' subclass recall those of novae. We may also mention in this connection that radio observations (or, in a few cases, optical observations) of nebulae indicate ejection from symbiotic stars, with deviations from spherical symmetry. We shall give a historical overview of the proposed models for symbiotic stars and make a critical analysis in the light of the observations of symbiotic stars. We describe the empirical approach to models and use the observational data to diagnose the physical conditions in the symbiotics stars. Finally, we compare the results of this empirical

  17. Population genomics of the symbiotic plasmids of sympatric nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium species associated with Phaseolus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Pérez Carrascal, Olga M; VanInsberghe, David; Juárez, Soledad; Polz, Martin F; Vinuesa, Pablo; González, Víctor

    2016-09-01

    Cultivated common beans are the primary protein source for millions of people around the world who subsist on low-input agriculture, enabled by the symbiotic N2 -fixation these legumes perform in association with rhizobia. Within a single agricultural plot, multiple Rhizobium species can nodulate bean roots, but it is unclear how genetically isolated these species remain in sympatry. To better understand this issue, we sequenced and compared the genomes of 33 strains isolated from the rhizosphere and root nodules of a particular bean variety grown in the same agricultural plot. We found that the Rhizobium species we observed coexist with low genetic recombination across their core genomes. Accessory plasmids thought to be necessary for the saprophytic lifestyle in soil show similar levels of genetic isolation, but with higher rates of recombination than the chromosomes. However, the symbiotic plasmids are extremely similar, with high rates of recombination and do not appear to have co-evolved with the chromosome or accessory plasmids. Therefore, while Rhizobium species are genetically isolated units within the microbial community, a common symbiotic plasmid allows all Rhizobium species to engage in symbiosis with the same host in a single agricultural plot. PMID:27312778

  18. Outbursts in Symbiotic Binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor); Kenyon, Scott J.

    2004-01-01

    Two models have been proposed for the outbursts of symbiotic stars. In the thermonuclear model, outbursts begin when the hydrogen burning shell of a hot white dwarf reaches a critical mass. After a rapid increase in the luminosity and effective temperature, the white dwarf evolves at constant luminosity to lower effective temperatures, remains at optical maximum for several years, and then returns to quiescence along a white dwarf cooling curve. In disk instability models, the brightness rises when the accretion rate from the disk onto the central white dwarf abruptly increases by factors of 5-20. After a few month to several year period at maximum, both the luminosity and the effective temperature of the disk decline as the system returns to quiescence. If most symbiotic stars undergo thermonuclear eruptions, then symbiotics are probably poor candidates for type I supernovae. However, they can then provide approx. 10% of the material which stars recycle back into the interstellar medium. If disk instabilities are the dominant eruption mechanism, symbiotics are promising type Ia candidates but recycle less material into the interstellar medium.

  19. Symbiotic potential and survival of native rhizobia kept on different carriers

    PubMed Central

    Ruíz-Valdiviezo, Víctor Manuel; Canseco, Lucía María Cristina Ventura; Suárez, Luis Antonio Castillo; Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico Antonio; Dendooven, Luc; Rincón-Rosales, Reiner

    2015-01-01

    Native rhizobia are ideal for use as commercial legume inoculants. The characteristics of the carrier used to store the inoculants are important for the survival and symbiotic potential of the rhizobia. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of peat (PEAT), perlite sugarcane bagasse (PSB), carboxymethyl cellulose plus starch (CMCS), and yeast extract mannitol supplemented with mannitol (YEMM) on the survival, nodulation potential and N2 fixation capacity of the native strains Sinorhizobium mexicanum ITTG R7T and Rhizobium calliandrae LBP2-1T and of the reference strain Rhizobium etli CFN42T. A factorial design (4 × 3) with four repetitions was used to determine the symbiotic potential of the rhizobial strains. The survival of the strains was higher for PEAT (46% for strain LBP2-1T, 167% for strain CFN42T and 219% for strain ITTG R7T) than for the other carriers after 240 days, except for CFN42T kept on CMCS (225%). All the strains kept on the different carriers effectively nodulated common bean, with the lowest number of nodules found (5 nodules) when CFN42T was kept on CMCS and with the highest number of nodules found (28 nodules) when ITTG R7T was kept on PSB. The nitrogenase activity was the highest for ITTG R7T kept on PEAT (4911 μmol C2H4 per fresh weight nodule h−1); however, no activity was found when the strains were kept on YEMM. Thus, the survival and symbiotic potential of the rhizobia depended on the carrier used to store them. PMID:26413054

  20. Symbiotic potential and survival of native rhizobia kept on different carriers.

    PubMed

    Ruíz-Valdiviezo, Víctor Manuel; Canseco, Lucía María Cristina Ventura; Suárez, Luis Antonio Castillo; Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico Antonio; Dendooven, Luc; Rincón-Rosales, Reiner

    2015-01-01

    Native rhizobia are ideal for use as commercial legume inoculants. The characteristics of the carrier used to store the inoculants are important for the survival and symbiotic potential of the rhizobia. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of peat (PEAT), perlite sugarcane bagasse (PSB), carboxymethyl cellulose plus starch (CMCS), and yeast extract mannitol supplemented with mannitol (YEMM) on the survival, nodulation potential and N2 fixation capacity of the native strains Sinorhizobium mexicanum ITTG R7(T) and Rhizobium calliandrae LBP2-1(T) and of the reference strain Rhizobium etli CFN42(T). A factorial design (4 × 3) with four repetitions was used to determine the symbiotic potential of the rhizobial strains. The survival of the strains was higher for PEAT (46% for strain LBP2-1(T), 167% for strain CFN42(T) and 219% for strain ITTG R7(T)) than for the other carriers after 240 days, except for CFN42(T) kept on CMCS (225%). All the strains kept on the different carriers effectively nodulated common bean, with the lowest number of nodules found (5 nodules) when CFN42(T) was kept on CMCS and with the highest number of nodules found (28 nodules) when ITTG R7(T) was kept on PSB. The nitrogenase activity was the highest for ITTG R7(T) kept on PEAT (4911 μmol C2H4 per fresh weight nodule h(-1)); however, no activity was found when the strains were kept on YEMM. Thus, the survival and symbiotic potential of the rhizobia depended on the carrier used to store them. PMID:26413054

  1. Symbiotic potential and survival of native rhizobia kept on different carriers.

    PubMed

    Ruíz-Valdiviezo, Víctor Manuel; Canseco, Lucía María Cristina Ventura; Suárez, Luis Antonio Castillo; Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico Antonio; Dendooven, Luc; Rincón-Rosales, Reiner

    2015-01-01

    Native rhizobia are ideal for use as commercial legume inoculants. The characteristics of the carrier used to store the inoculants are important for the survival and symbiotic potential of the rhizobia. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of peat (PEAT), perlite sugarcane bagasse (PSB), carboxymethyl cellulose plus starch (CMCS), and yeast extract mannitol supplemented with mannitol (YEMM) on the survival, nodulation potential and N2 fixation capacity of the native strains Sinorhizobium mexicanum ITTG R7(T) and Rhizobium calliandrae LBP2-1(T) and of the reference strain Rhizobium etli CFN42(T). A factorial design (4 × 3) with four repetitions was used to determine the symbiotic potential of the rhizobial strains. The survival of the strains was higher for PEAT (46% for strain LBP2-1(T), 167% for strain CFN42(T) and 219% for strain ITTG R7(T)) than for the other carriers after 240 days, except for CFN42(T) kept on CMCS (225%). All the strains kept on the different carriers effectively nodulated common bean, with the lowest number of nodules found (5 nodules) when CFN42(T) was kept on CMCS and with the highest number of nodules found (28 nodules) when ITTG R7(T) was kept on PSB. The nitrogenase activity was the highest for ITTG R7(T) kept on PEAT (4911 μmol C2H4 per fresh weight nodule h(-1)); however, no activity was found when the strains were kept on YEMM. Thus, the survival and symbiotic potential of the rhizobia depended on the carrier used to store them.

  2. Association of nitrogen fixation to water use efficiency and yield traits of peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvement of N2 fixation might be an effective strategy in peanut breeding for high yield under drought stress conditions. However, under water limited conditions peanut varieties having high water-use efficiency (WUE) are favorable. A pot experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions at ...

  3. Which role for nitric oxide in symbiotic N2-fixing nodules: toxic by-product or useful signaling/metabolic intermediate?

    PubMed Central

    Boscari, Alexandre; Meilhoc, Eliane; Castella, Claude; Bruand, Claude; Puppo, Alain; Brouquisse, Renaud

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between legumes and rhizobia leads to the establishment of a symbiotic relationship characterized by the formation of new organs called nodules, in which bacteria have the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N2) via the nitrogenase activity. Significant nitric oxide (NO) production was evidenced in the N2-fixing nodules suggesting that it may impact the symbiotic process. Indeed, NO was shown to be a potent inhibitor of nitrogenase activity and symbiotic N2 fixation. It has also been shown that NO production is increased in hypoxic nodules and this production was supposed to be linked – via a nitrate/NO respiration process – with improved capacity of the nodules to maintain their energy status under hypoxic conditions. Other data suggest that NO might be a developmental signal involved in the induction of nodule senescence. Hence, the questions were raised of the toxic effects versus signaling/metabolic functions of NO, and of the regulation of NO levels compatible with nitrogenase activity. The present review analyses the different roles of NO in functioning nodules, and discusses the role of plant and bacterial (flavo)hemoglobins in the control of NO level in nodules. PMID:24130563

  4. Population control in symbiotic corals

    SciTech Connect

    Falkowski, P.G. ); Dubinsky, Z. ); Muscatine, L. ); McCloskey, L. )

    1993-10-01

    Stability in symbiotic association requires control of population growth between symbionts. The population density of zooxanthellae per unit surface area of most symbiotic corals is remarkably consistant. How is the population density of zooxanthellae maintained and what happens to the symbiotic association if the balance between algae and host is perturbed. The answers to these question, examined in this paper, provide a framework for understanding how the size of the component populations is controlled in symbiotic associations. The topic areas covered include the following: carbon economy in a symbiotic coral; effects of nutrient enrichment; the chemostat model of population control; the effects of exposure to ammonium levels. Ammonium ions and organic materials are the factors which maintain the density of zooxanthellae. 32 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Bradyrhizobium japonicum cytochrome c550 is required for nitrate respiration but not for symbiotic nitrogen fixation.

    PubMed Central

    Bott, M; Thöny-Meyer, L; Loferer, H; Rossbach, S; Tully, R E; Keister, D; Appleby, C A; Hennecke, H

    1995-01-01

    Bradyrhizobium japonicum possesses three soluble c-type cytochromes, c550, c552, and c555. The genes for cytochromes c552 (cycB) and c555 (cycC) were characterized previously. Here we report the cloning, sequencing, and mutational analysis of the cytochrome c550 gene (cycA). A B. japonicum mutant with an insertion in cycA failed to synthesize a 12-kDa c-type cytochrome. This protein was detectable in the cycA mutant complemented with cloned cycA, which proves that it is the cycA gene product. The cycA mutant, a cycB-cycC double mutant, and a cycA-cycB-cycC triple mutant elicited N2-fixing root nodules on soybean (Nod+ Fix+ phenotype); hence, none of these three cytochromes c is essential for respiration supporting symbiotic N2 fixation. However, cytochrome c550, in contrast to cytochromes c552 and c555, was shown to be essential for anaerobic growth of B. japonicum, using nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor. PMID:7721713

  6. A phosphate transport system is required for symbiotic nitrogen fixation by Rhizobium meliloti.

    PubMed Central

    Bardin, S; Dan, S; Osteras, M; Finan, T M

    1996-01-01

    The bacterium Rhizobium meliloti forms N2-fixing root nodules on alfalfa plants. The ndvF locus, located on the 1,700-kb pEXO megaplasmid of R. meliloti, is required for nodule invasion and N2 fixation. Here we report that ndvF contains four genes, phoCDET, which encode an ABC-type transport system for the uptake of Pi into the bacteria. The PhoC and PhoD proteins are homologous to the Escherichia coli phosphonate transport proteins PhnC and PhnD. The PhoT and PhoE proteins are homologous to each other and to the E. coli phosphonate transport protein PhnE. We show that the R. meliloti phoD and phoE genes are induced in response to phosphate starvation and that the phoC promoter contains two elements which are similar in sequence to the PHO boxes present in E. coli phosphate-regulated promoters. The R. meliloti ndvF mutants grow poorly at a phosphate concentration of 2 mM, and we hypothesize that their symbiotic phenotype results from their failure to grow during the nodule infection process. Presumably, the PhoCDET transport system is employed by the bacteria in the soil environment, where the concentration of available phosphate is normally 0.1 to 1 microM. PMID:8755882

  7. Nodule morphology, symbiotic specificity and association with unusual rhizobia are distinguishing features of the genus Listia within the southern African crotalarioid clade Lotononis s.l.

    PubMed Central

    Ardley, Julie K.; Reeve, Wayne G.; O'Hara, Graham W.; Yates, Ron J.; Dilworth, Michael J.; Howieson, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The legume clade Lotononis sensu lato (s.l.; tribe Crotalarieae) comprises three genera: Listia, Leobordea and Lotononis sensu stricto (s.s.). Listia species are symbiotically specific and form lupinoid nodules with rhizobial species of Methylobacterium and Microvirga. This work investigated whether these symbiotic traits were confined to Listia by determining the ability of rhizobial strains isolated from species of Lotononis s.l. to nodulate Listia, Leobordea and Lotononis s.s. hosts and by examining the morphology and structure of the resulting nodules. Methods Rhizobia were characterized by sequencing their 16S rRNA and nodA genes. Nodulation and N2 fixation on eight taxonomically diverse Lotononis s.l. species were determined in glasshouse trials. Nodules of all hosts, and the process of infection and nodule initiation in Listia angolensis and Listia bainesii, were examined by light microscopy. Key Results Rhizobia associated with Lotononis s.l. were phylogenetically diverse. Leobordea and Lotononis s.s. isolates were most closely related to Bradyrhizobium spp., Ensifer meliloti, Mesorhizobium tianshanense and Methylobacterium nodulans. Listia angolensis formed effective nodules only with species of Microvirga. Listia bainesii nodulated only with pigmented Methylobacterium. Five lineages of nodA were found. Listia angolensis and L. bainesii formed lupinoid nodules, whereas nodules of Leobordea and Lotononis s.s. species were indeterminate. All effective nodules contained uniformly infected central tissue. Listia angolensis and L. bainesii nodule initials occurred on the border of the hypocotyl and along the tap root, and nodule primordia developed in the outer cortical layer. Neither root hair curling nor infection threads were seen. Conclusions Two specificity groups occur within Lotononis s.l.: Listia species are symbiotically specific, while species of Leobordea and Lotononis s.s. are generally promiscuous and interact with rhizobia of

  8. THE THERAPEUTIC USE OF SYMBIOTICS

    PubMed Central

    FLESCH, Aline Gamarra Taborda; POZIOMYCK, Aline Kirjner; DAMIN, Daniel De Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Functional foods are health promoters and their use is associated with reduced risk of chronic degenerative and non-transmissible diseases. Examples are symbiotic. The association of one (or more) probiotic with a one (or more) prebiotic is called symbiotic, being the prebiotics complementary and probiotics synergistic, thus presenting a multiplicative factor on their individual actions. Objective To assess the evidences on the benefits of the use of symbiotics in the treatment of clinical and surgical situations. Methods The headings symbiotic, probiotic and prebiotic were searched in Pubmed/Medline in the last 15 years, and were selected 25 articles, used for database. Results The use of symbiotic may promote an increase in the number of bifidobacteria, glycemic control, reduction of blood cholesterol, balancing the intestinal flora which aids in reducing constipation and/or diarrhea, improves intestinal permeability and stimulation of the immune system. Clinical indications for these products has been expanded, in order to maximize the individual's physiological functions to provide greater. So, with the high interest in the clinical and nutritional control of disease, many studies have been conducted demonstrating the effectiveness of using symbiotic in improving and/or preventing various and/or symptoms of gastrointestinal diseases. Conclusion Symbiotic behave differently and positively in various pathological situations. PMID:25184774

  9. Symbiotic systems: observations and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, Gerardo

    2016-07-01

    Although there is wide concensus about the binary nature of symbiotic stars, the nature of their central engine, the structure of the accretion flow and the accretion rate are poorly known. Modern observatories are now providing, for the first time, direct information about the central source of power and how it is fueled. The detection of hard (E > 20 keV) X-ray emission from a handful of symbiotics indicates that some symbiotics accrete at a low enough rate for a ˜10^{8} K accretion-disk boundary layer to remain optically thin and generate hard X-rays. Such high temperature is possible if the white dwarf is massive; symbiotics could thus be SNIa progenitors, the pilars of the current cosmological paradigm.

  10. Dihydrogen catalysis: a degradation mechanism for N2-fixation intermediates.

    PubMed

    Asatryan, Rubik; Bozzelli, Joseph W; Ruckenstein, Eli

    2012-11-29

    Molecular hydrogen plays multiple roles in activation of nitrogen. Among others, it inhibits the overall process of N(2)-reduction catalyzed by nitrogenase enzyme. The H(2)-assisted dehydrogenation and the H-atom transfer reactions (called dihydrogen catalysis, DHC) are suggested as possible mechanisms for the degradation and removal of potential intermediates formed during the reduction of nitrogen. Several iron-organic model reactions associated with the core stereospecific reaction (cis-N(2)H(2) + H(2) → N(2) + H(2) + H(2)) are examined using a comprehensive density functional theory and ab initio analysis of the corresponding potential energy surfaces. A variety of energetically feasible decomposition pathways are identified for the DHC-oxidation of iron-bound [N(x)H(y)]-species. A liberated diazene intermediate (HN═NH) is suggested to interact in situ with two proximal hydridic H-atoms of an activated (hydrided) Fe-catalyst to produce N(2) and H(2) with a low or even no activation barrier. The majority of identified pathways are shown to be highly sensitive to the electronic environment and spin configuration of metallocomplexes. The H(2)-assisted transport of a single H-atom from a bound [N(x)H(y)] moiety to either the proximal or distal (Fe, S or N) active centers of a catalyst provides an alternative degradation (interconversion) mechanism for the relevant intermediates. The two types of molecular hydrogen-assisted reactions highlighted above, namely, the H(2)-assisted dehydrogenation and the transport of H-atoms, suggest theoretical interpretations for the observed H(2)-inhibition of N(2) activation and HD formation (in the presence of D(2)). The DHC reactions of various [N(x)H(y)] moieties are expected to play significant roles in the industrial high-pressure hydrodenitrification and other catalytic processes involving the metabolism of molecular hydrogen. PMID:23095090

  11. Denitrification and N2 fixation in the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutsch, Curtis; Gruber, Nicolas; Key, Robert M.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Ganachaud, Alexandre

    2001-06-01

    We establish the fixed nitrogen budget of the Pacific Ocean based on nutrient fields from the recently completed World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). The budget includes denitrification in the water column and sediments, nitrogen fixation, atmospheric and riverine inputs, and nitrogen divergence due to the large-scale circulation. A water column denitrification rate of 48±5 Tg N yr -1 is calculated for the Eastern Tropical Pacific using N* [Gruber and Sarmiento, 1997] and water mass age tracers. On the basis of rates in the literature, we estimate sedimentary denitrification to remove an additional 15±3 Tg N yr-1. We then calculate the total nitrogen divergence due to the large scale circulation through the basin, composed of flows through a zonal transect at 32°S, and through the Indonesian and Bering straits. Adding atmospheric deposition and riverine fluxes results in a net divergence of nitrogen from the basin of -4±12 Tg N yr-1. Pacific nitrogen fixation can be extracted as a residual component of the total budget, assuming steady state. We find that nitrogen fixation would have to contribute 59±14 Tg N yr-1 in order to balance the Pacific nitrogen budget. This result is consistent with the tentative global extrapolations of Gruber and Sarmiento [1997], based on nitrogen fixation rates estimated for the North Atlantic. Our estimated mean areal fixation rate is within the range of direct and geochemical rate estimates from a single location near Hawaii [Karl et al., 1997]. Pacific nitrogen fixation occurs primarily in the western part of the subtropical gyres where elevated N* signals are found. These regions are also supplied with significant amounts of iron via atmospheric dust deposition, lending qualitative support to the hypothesis that nitrogen fixation is regulated in part by iron suppy.

  12. Chemical Abundances of Symbiotic Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gałan, C.; Mikołajewska, J.; Hinkle, K. H.; Joyce, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    High resolution (R ˜ 50000), near-IR spectra were used to measure photospheric abundances of CNO and elements around the iron peak for 24 symbiotic giants. Spectrum synthesis was employed using local thermal equilibrium and hydrostatic model atmospheres. The metallicities are distributed in a wide range with maximum around [Fe/H] ˜-0.4 - - 0.3 dex. Enrichment in 14N indicates that all the sample giants have experienced the first dredge-up. The relative abundance of [Ti/Fe] is generally large in red symbiotic systems.

  13. Carbon budgets in symbiotic associations

    SciTech Connect

    Muscatine, L.; Falkowski, P.G.; Dubinsky, Z.

    1983-01-01

    Methods are described which permit the estimation of daily budgets for photosynthetically fixed carbon in any alga-invertebrate symbiosis. Included is a method for estimating total daily translocation which does not involve the use of C-14. A daily carbon budget for a shallow water symbiotic reef coral is presented.

  14. Discussion on selected symbiotic stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viotti, Roberto; Hack, Margherita

    1993-01-01

    Because of its large variety of aspects, the symbiotic phenomenon is not very suitable for a statistical treatment. It is also not clear whether symbiotic stars really represent a homogeneous group of astrophysical objects or a collection of objects of different natures but showing similar phenomena. However we are especially interested in the symbiotic phenomenon, i.e., in those physical processes occurring in the atmosphere of each individual object and in their time dependence. Such a research can be performed through the detailed analysis of individual objects. This study should be done for a time long enough to cover all the different phases of their activity, in all the spectral ranges. Since the typical time scale of the symbiotic phenomena is up to several years and decades, this represents a problem since, for instance, making astronomy outside the visual region is a quite new field of research. It was a fortunate case that a few symbiotic stars (Z And, AG Dra, CH Cyg, AX Per, and PU Vul) had undergone remarkable light variations (or 'outbursts') in recent years, which could have been followed in the space ultraviolet with IUE, and simultaneously in the optical and IR with ground-based telescopes. But, in general, the time coverage of most of the symbiotic objects is too short to have a complete picture of their behavior. In this regard, one should recall Mayall's remark about the light curve of Z And: 'Z Andromedae is another variable that shows it will require several hundred years of observations before a good analysis can be made of its variations'. This pessimistic remark should be considered as a note of caution for those involved in the interpretation of the observations. We shall discuss a number of individual symbiotic stars for which the amount of observational data is large enough to draw a rather complete picture of their general behavior and to make consistent models. We shall especially illustrate the necessary steps toward an empirical model

  15. Innate immunity underlies symbiotic relationships.

    PubMed

    Kisseleva, E P

    2014-12-01

    Here, the modern data regarding interactions between normal microbiota and barrier tissues in plants, humans and animals are reviewed. The main homeostatic mechanisms responsible for interactions between epithelium and innate immune cells with symbiotic bacteria are described. A key step in this process is recognition of soluble microbial products by ligation to pattern-recognition receptors expressed on the host cells. As a result, epithelial cells secrete mucus, antibacterial peptides and immunoregulatory molecules. The main outcomes from immunological reactions towards symbiotic bacteria involve development of conditions for formation and maintenance of microbial biocenosis as well as providing safety for the host. Also, it is considered important to preserve and transfer beneficial bacteria to progeny.

  16. Innate immunity underlies symbiotic relationships.

    PubMed

    Kisseleva, E P

    2014-12-01

    Here, the modern data regarding interactions between normal microbiota and barrier tissues in plants, humans and animals are reviewed. The main homeostatic mechanisms responsible for interactions between epithelium and innate immune cells with symbiotic bacteria are described. A key step in this process is recognition of soluble microbial products by ligation to pattern-recognition receptors expressed on the host cells. As a result, epithelial cells secrete mucus, antibacterial peptides and immunoregulatory molecules. The main outcomes from immunological reactions towards symbiotic bacteria involve development of conditions for formation and maintenance of microbial biocenosis as well as providing safety for the host. Also, it is considered important to preserve and transfer beneficial bacteria to progeny. PMID:25716721

  17. IUE observations of symbiotic stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sahade, J.; Brandi, E.

    1981-01-01

    The IUE observations suggest that the symbiotic stars can be placed in two broad groups. One of the groups is characterized by strong, narrow emissions arising from a wide range of excitation energies, while the other one typically shows a strong continuum with absorption lines and very few or no emissions at all. Both broad groups appear to suggest that these are binary systems and that they probably differ in the characteristics and extent of the chromosphere-corona formation that is present in the system.

  18. AG Draconis - a symbiotic mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galis, R.; Hric, L.; Smelcer, L.

    2015-02-01

    Symbiotic system AG Draconis regularly undergoes quiescent and active stages which consist of the series of individual outbursts. The period analysis of new and historical photometric data, as well as radial velocities, confirmed the presence of the two periods. The longer one (~550 d) is related to the orbital motion and the shorter one (~355 d) could be due to pulsation of the cool component of AG Dra. In addition, the active stages change distinctively, but the outbursts are repeated with periods from 359 - 375 d.

  19. Molecular Basis of Symbiotic Promiscuity

    PubMed Central

    Perret, Xavier; Staehelin, Christian; Broughton, William J.

    2000-01-01

    Eukaryotes often form symbioses with microorganisms. Among these, associations between plants and nitrogen-fixing bacteria are responsible for the nitrogen input into various ecological niches. Plants of many different families have evolved the capacity to develop root or stem nodules with diverse genera of soil bacteria. Of these, symbioses between legumes and rhizobia (Azorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium, and Rhizobium) are the most important from an agricultural perspective. Nitrogen-fixing nodules arise when symbiotic rhizobia penetrate their hosts in a strictly controlled and coordinated manner. Molecular codes are exchanged between the symbionts in the rhizosphere to select compatible rhizobia from pathogens. Entry into the plant is restricted to bacteria that have the “keys” to a succession of legume “doors”. Some symbionts intimately associate with many different partners (and are thus promiscuous), while others are more selective and have a narrow host range. For historical reasons, narrow host range has been more intensively investigated than promiscuity. In our view, this has given a false impression of specificity in legume-Rhizobium associations. Rather, we suggest that restricted host ranges are limited to specific niches and represent specialization of widespread and more ancestral promiscuous symbioses. Here we analyze the molecular mechanisms governing symbiotic promiscuity in rhizobia and show that it is controlled by a number of molecular keys. PMID:10704479

  20. Influence of the Size of Indigenous Rhizobial Populations on Establishment and Symbiotic Performance of Introduced Rhizobia on Field-Grown Legumes †

    PubMed Central

    Thies, Janice E.; Singleton, Paul W.; Bohlool, B. Ben

    1991-01-01

    significantly increased 85% of the time. Yield was significantly increased in only 6% of the observations when numbers of indigenous rhizobia were greater than 10 cells g of soil-1. A significant response to N application, significant increases in nodule parameters, and greater than 50% nodule occupancy by inoculant rhizobia did not necessarily coincide with significant inoculation responses. No less than a doubling of nodule mass and 66% nodule occupancy by inoculant rhizobia were required to significantly increase the yield of inoculated crops over that of uninoculated crops. However, lack of an inoculation response was common even when inoculum strains occupied the majority of nodules. In these trials, the symbiotic yield of crops was, on average, only 88% of the maximum yield potential, as defined by the fertilizer N treatment. The difference between the yield of N-fertilized crops and that of N2-fixing crops indicates a potential for improving inoculation technology, the N2 fixation capacity of rhizobial strains, and the efficiency of symbiosis. In this study, we show that the probability of enhancing yield with existing inoculation technology decreases dramatically with increasing numbers of indigenous rhizobia. PMID:16348393

  1. Multi Agent Systems with Symbiotic Learning and Evolution using GNP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eguchi, Toru; Hirasawa, Kotaro; Hu, Jinglu; Murata, Junichi

    Recently, various attempts relevant to Multi Agent Systems (MAS) which is one of the most promising systems based on Distributed Artificial Intelligence have been studied to control large and complicated systems efficiently. In these trends of MAS, Multi Agent Systems with Symbiotic Learning and Evolution named Masbiole has been proposed. In Masbiole, symbiotic phenomena among creatures are considered in the process of learning and evolution of MAS. So we can expect more flexible and sophisticated solutions than conventional MAS. In this paper, we apply Masbiole to Iterative Prisoner’s Dilemma Games (IPD Games) using Genetic Network Programming (GNP) which is a newly developed evolutionary computation method for constituting agents. Some characteristics of Masbiole using GNP in IPD Games are clarified.

  2. IUE observations of symbiotic stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hack, M.

    1982-01-01

    The main photometric and spectroscopic characteristics in the ultraviolet and visual range of the most extensively studied symbiotic stars are reviewed. The main data obtained with IUE concern: (1) the determination of the shape of the UV continuum, which, in some cases, proves without doubt the presence of a hot companion; and the determination of the interstellar extinction by means of the lambda 2200 feature; (2) the measurement of emission lines, which enables us to derive the electron temperature and density of the circumstellar envelope, and, taken together with those lines observed in the visual, give more complete information on which spectroscopic mechanisms operate in the envelope; (3) the observation of absorption lines in the UV, which are present in just a few cases.

  3. Circumstellar Dust in Symbiotic Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurkic, T.; Kotnik-Karuza, D.

    2015-12-01

    We present a model of inner dust regions around the cool Mira component of the two symbiotic novae, RR Tel and HM Sge, based on the near-IR photometry, ISO spectra and mid-IR interferometry. The dust properties were determined using the DUSTY code. A compact circumstellar silicate dust shell with inner dust shell temperatures between 900 K and 1300 K and of moderate optical depth can explain all the observations. RR Tel shows the presence of an equatorially enhanced dust density during minimum obscuration. Obscuration events are explained by an increase in optical depth caused by the newly condensed dust. The mass loss rates are significantly higher than in intermediate-period single Miras but in agreement with longer-period O-rich AGB stars.

  4. ZZ Canis Minoris as a symbiotic star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bopp, B. W.

    1984-01-01

    The H-aplha and Na I D-line regions of the M6 giant star ZZ Canis Minoris (ZZ CMi) were observed with the Kitt Peak coude feed telescope and a CCD detector. It is shown that ZZ CMi has similar spectroscopic and photoproperties to the symbiotic star EG And. The data are used to argue for the classification of ZZ CMi as a symbiotic star despite its current listing in the General Catalog of Variable Stars (GCVS) as a semi-regular variable. The infrared magnitudes of ZZ CMi and the known symbiotic stars are compared in a table.

  5. The Bright Symbiotic Mira EF Aquilae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margon, Bruce; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Tejos, Nicolas; Monroe, TalaWanda

    2016-02-01

    An incidental spectrum of the poorly studied long-period variable EF Aquilae shows [O III] emission indicative of a symbiotic star. Strong GALEX detections in the UV reinforce this classification, providing overt evidence for the presence of the hot subluminous companion. Recent compilations of the photometric behavior strongly suggest that the cool component is a Mira variable. Thus EF Aql appears to be a member of the rare symbiotic Mira subgroup.

  6. Circumstellar dust in symbiotic novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurkic, Tomislav; Kotnik-Karuza, Dubravka

    2015-08-01

    Physical properties of the circumstellar dust and associated physical mechanisms play an important role in understanding evolution of symbiotic binaries. We present a model of inner dust regions around the cool Mira component of the two symbiotic novae, RR Tel and HM Sge, based on the long-term near-IR photometry, infrared ISO spectra and mid-IR interferometry. Pulsation properties and long-term variabilities were found from the near-IR light curves. The dust properties were determined using the DUSTY code which solves the radiative transfer. No changes in pulsational parameters were found, but a long-term variations with periods of 20-25 years have been detected which cannot be attributed to orbital motion.Circumstellar silicate dust shell with inner dust shell temperatures between 900 K and 1300 K and of moderate optical depth can explain all the observations. RR Tel showed the presence of an optically thin CS dust envelope and an optically thick dust region outside the line of sight, which was further supported by the detailed modelling using the 2D LELUYA code. Obscuration events in RR Tel were explained by an increase in optical depth caused by the newly condensed dust leading to the formation of a compact dust shell. HM Sge showed permanent obscuration and a presence of a compact dust shell with a variable optical depth. Scattering of the near-IR colours can be understood by a change in sublimation temperature caused by the Mira variability. Presence of large dust grains (up to 4 µm) suggests an increased grain growth in conditions of increased mass loss. The mass loss rates of up to 17·10-6 MSun/yr were significantly higher than in intermediate-period single Miras and in agreement with longer-period O-rich AGB stars.Despite the nova outburst, HM Sge remained enshrouded in dust with no significant dust destruction. The existence of unperturbed dust shell suggests a small influence of the hot component and strong dust shielding from the UV flux. By the use

  7. The Frankia alni symbiotic transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Alloisio, Nicole; Queiroux, Clothilde; Fournier, Pascale; Pujic, Petar; Normand, Philippe; Vallenet, David; Médigue, Claudine; Yamaura, Masatoshi; Kakoi, Kentaro; Kucho, Ken-ichi

    2010-05-01

    The actinobacteria Frankia spp. are able to induce the formation of nodules on the roots of a large spectrum of actinorhizal plants, where they convert dinitrogen to ammonia in exchange for plant photosynthates. In the present study, transcriptional analyses were performed on nitrogen-replete free-living Frankia alni cells and on Alnus glutinosa nodule bacteria, using whole-genome microarrays. Distribution of nodule-induced genes on the genome was found to be mostly over regions with high synteny between three Frankia spp. genomes, while nodule-repressed genes, which were mostly hypothetical and not conserved, were spread around the genome. Genes known to be related to nitrogen fixation were highly induced, nif (nitrogenase), hup2 (hydrogenase uptake), suf (sulfur-iron cluster), and shc (hopanoids synthesis). The expression of genes involved in ammonium assimilation and transport was strongly modified, suggesting that bacteria ammonium assimilation was limited. Genes involved in particular in transcriptional regulation, signaling processes, protein drug export, protein secretion, lipopolysaccharide, and peptidoglycan biosynthesis that may play a role in symbiosis were also identified. We also showed that this Frankia symbiotic transcriptome was highly similar among phylogenetically distant plant families Betulaceae and Myricaceae. Finally, comparison with rhizobia transcriptome suggested that F. alni is metabolically more active in symbiosis than rhizobia. PMID:20367468

  8. Influence of host cultivars and Rhizobium species on the growth and symbiotic performance of Phaseolus vulgaris under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Bouhmouch, Ilham; Souad-Mouhsine, Bouchra; Brhada, Fatiha; Aurag, Jamal

    2005-10-01

    In order to study the effect of salt stress on the Rhizobium-common bean symbiosis, we investigated the response of both partners, separately and in symbiosis. The comparison of the behaviour of five cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris differing in seed colour, growing on nitrates and different concentrations of NaCl, showed genotypic variation with respect to salt tolerance. Coco Blanc was the most sensitive cultivar, whereas SMV 29-21 was the most tolerant one. At the Rhizobium level, two strains previously selected for their salt tolerance were used: Rhizobium tropici strain RP163 and Rhizobium giardinii strain RP161. Their relative growth was moderately decreased at 250mM NaCl, but they were able to grow at a low rate in the presence of 342 mM NaCl. Their viability at the minimal inhibitory concentration was slightly affected. The effect of salinity on Rhizobium-plant association was studied by using the tolerant variety SMV 29-21 and the sensitive one Coco Blanc inoculated separately with both strains. In the absence of salinity, the strains induced a significantly higher number of nodules on the roots of the cultivar SMV 29-21 compared to those of Coco Blanc. Concerning effectiveness, both strains were similarly effective with SMV 29-21, but not with Coco Blanc. In the presence of salinity, Coco Blanc was more severely affected when associated with RP163 than with RP161. Salinity affected the nodulation development more than it affected the infection steps. Neither of the two strains was able to nodulate SMV 29-21 under saline conditions, in spite of the fact that this was considered the most salt-tolerant variety. The unsuccessful nodulation of SMV 29-21 could be related to the inhibition by salt of one or more steps of the early events of the infection process. In conclusion, N-fixing plants were found to be more sensitive to salt stress than those depending on mineral nitrogen. Evidence presented here suggests that a best symbiotic N2 fixation under salinity

  9. Light and the bioenergetics of a symbiotic coral

    SciTech Connect

    Falkowski, P.G.; Dubinsky, Z.; Muscatine, L.; Porter, J.W.

    1984-12-01

    Colonies of coral Stylophora pistillata growing at high light can obtain all the reduced carbon needed for animal respiration from photosynthesis by symbiotic zooxanthellae. In contrast, colonies in shaded reef areas must acquired 60% of their reduced carbon heterotrophically. More than 90% of the carbon fixed by zooxanthellae is translocated to the animal host in both light regimes, but very little is assimilated, apparently because the translocated products are deficient in nitrogen. Thus, the coral's overall growth efficiency is similar to that of aquatic herbivores that forage actively. 29 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  10. Symbiotic Stars in X-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luna, G. J. M.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Mukai, K.; Nelson, T.

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, symbiotic binary systems in which a white dwarf accretes from a red giant were thought to be mainly a soft X-ray population. Here we describe the detection with the X-ray Telescope (XRT) on the Swift satellite of 9 white dwarf symbiotics that were not previously known to be X-ray sources and one that was previously detected as a supersoft X-ray source. The 9 new X-ray detections were the result of a survey of 41 symbiotic stars, and they increase the number of symbiotic stars known to be X-ray sources by approximately 30%. Swift/XRT detected all of the new X-ray sources at energies greater than 2 keV. Their X-ray spectra are consistent with thermal emission and fall naturally into three distinct groups. The first group contains those sources with a single, highly absorbed hard component, which we identify as probably coming from an accretion-disk boundary layer. The second group is composed of those sources with a single, soft X-ray spectral component, which likely arises in a region where low-velocity shocks produce X-ray emission, i.e. a colliding-wind region. The third group consists of those sources with both hard and soft X-ray spectral components. We also find that unlike in the optical, where rapid, stochastic brightness variations from the accretion disk typically are not seen, detectable UV flickering is a common property of symbiotic stars. Supporting our physical interpretation of the two X-ray spectral components, simultaneous Swift UV photometry shows that symbiotic stars with harder X-ray emission tend to have stronger UV flickering, which is usually associated with accretion through a disk. To place these new observations in the context of previous work on X-ray emission from symbiotic stars, we modified and extended the alpha/beta/gamma classification scheme for symbiotic-star X-ray spectra that was introduced by Muerset et al. based upon observations with the ROSAT satellite, to include a new sigma classification for sources with

  11. First detection and characterization of symbiotic stars in M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikołajewska, Joanna; Caldwell, Nelson; Shara, Michael M.

    2014-10-01

    Symbiotic binaries are putative progenitors of Type Ia supernovae. The census of Galactic symbiotic binaries is so incomplete that we cannot reliably estimate the total population of these stars, and use it to check whether that number is consistent with the observed Type Ia supernova rate in spiral galaxies. We have thus begun a survey of the nearest counterpart of our own Galaxy, namely M31, where a relatively complete census of symbiotic stars is achievable. We report the first detections and spectrographic characterizations of 35 symbiotic binaries in M31, and compare these stars with the symbiotic population in the Milky Way. These newly detected M31 symbiotic binaries are remarkably similar to Galactic symbiotics, though we are clearly only sampling (in this feasibility study) the most luminous symbiotics in M31. We have also found, in M31, the symbiotic star (M31SyS J004233.17+412720.7) with the highest ionization level known amongst all symbiotics. An optical outburst of the M31 symbiotic star M31SyS J004322.50+413940.9 was probably a nova-like outburst, the first symbiotic outburst detected outside the Milky Way and Magellanic Clouds.

  12. Overview of the observations of symbiotic stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viotti, Roberto

    1993-01-01

    The term Symbiotic stars commonly denotes variable stars whose optical spectra simultaneously present a cool absorption spectrum (typically TiO absorption bands) and emission lines of high ionization energy. This term is now used for the category of variable stars with composite spectrum. The main spectral features of these objects are: (1) the presence of the red continuum typical of a cool star, (2) the rich emission line spectrum, and (3) the UV excess, frequently with the Balmer continuum in emission. In addition to the peculiar spectrum, the very irregular photometric and spectroscopic variability is the major feature of the symbiotic stars. Moreover, the light curve is basic to identify the different phases of activity in a symbiotic star. The physical mechanisms that cause the symbiotic phenomenon and its variety are the focus of this paper. An astronomical phenomenon characterized by a composite stellar spectrum with two apparently conflicting features, and large variability has been observed. Our research set out to find the origin of this behavior and, in particular, to identify and measure the physical mechanism(s) responsible for the observed phenomena.

  13. The Hot Stars in Symbiotic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muerset, Urs

    1995-01-01

    Symbiotic stars are interacting binaries, consisting of a late giant and a very hot companion, whose radiation ionizes the wind from the cool star. They strike the observers by their complex spectra and variability. A small subgroup, the symbiotic novae, undergo outbursts with an amplitude of several magnitudes and a duration of several decades. The ionizing binary component is usually too hot to be observed in the optical light. It emits mainly EUV photons, and in spectral regions better accessible to observers, nebula and cool star are much brighter than the hot star. Direct observations of hot components have therefore been restricted to special cases. Consequently, our knowledge about the hot components was poor. This thesis presents indirect methods allowing to extract crucial information on the ionizing star from the spectrum of the ionized nebula. Fundamental characteristics such as temperature, radius, and outburst energy are determined. They characterize the nature of the hot star, its outbursts, and the evolutionary status of the system. The IUE archive proved best suited as observational base. It contains thousands of far UV spectra of symbiotic stars. The UV continuum and the He II lambda-1640 recombination line turned out to be particularly sensitive to the hot star's parameters. For one object ROSAT observations of photospheric X-ray emission exist. They confirm the results obtained from IUE spectra. Unfortunately, only a subset of the symbiotics are bright enough to be observable in the UV, and moreover, the outburst of most symbiotic novae started long before the advent of space observatories. Possibilities to use optical spectroscopy are explored for these cases. T* can be derived from the observed ionization stages, and L* can be estimated from UBV magnitudes. The main result is displayed in Figure 1. Typically, the hot component of a symbiotic system has a radius ~0.1~R\\odot, a surface temperature ~100,000~K, and a luminosity ~1000~L\\odot. They

  14. Lignocellulose-degrading enzymes from termites and their symbiotic microbiota.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jinfeng; Tokuda, Gaku

    2013-11-01

    Lignocellulose-the dry matter of plants, or "plant biomass"-digestion is of increasing interest in organismal metabolism research, specifically the conversion of biomass into biofuels. Termites efficiently decompose lignocelluloses, and studies on lignocellulolytic systems may elucidate mechanisms of efficient lignocellulose degradation in termites as well as offer novel enzyme sources, findings which have significant potential industrial applications. Recent progress in metagenomic and metatranscriptomic research has illuminated the diversity of lignocellulolytic enzymes within the termite gut. Here, we review state-of-the-art research on lignocellulose-degrading systems in termites, specifically cellulases, xylanases, and lignin modification enzymes produced by termites and their symbiotic microbiota. We also discuss recent investigations into heterologous overexpression of lignocellulolytic enzymes from termites and their symbionts.

  15. Photophysiology and daily primary production of a temperate symbiotic gorgonian.

    PubMed

    Ferrier-Pagès, C; Reynaud, S; Béraud, E; Rottier, C; Menu, D; Duong, G; Gévaert, F

    2015-01-01

    Gorgonians are one of the most important benthic components of tropical and temperate areas, and play a fundamental role as ecosystem engineers. Although global warming and pollution increasingly threaten them, the acquisition of nutrients, which is a key process in fitness and stress resistance, has been poorly investigated in such species. This study has thus used an advanced in situ incubation chamber for the first time with gorgonians, to assess the daily acquisition of nutrients and the photophysiology of the Mediterranean symbiotic species, Eunicella singularis. The xanthophyll cycle was assessed in parallel. This work has revealed that E. singularis presents a different functioning than the Mediterranean symbiotic corals. This gorgonian indeed relies on both autotrophy and heterotrophy in summer to optimize its energetic budget, while corals mainly shift to autotrophy for their respiratory needs and tissue growth. In addition, although E. singularis lives in the same depths/locations, and harbours the same symbiont genotype than the corals, the photosynthetic performances of their respective symbionts are significantly different. Indeed, E. singularis acquired 2-3 times less autotrophic carbon from its symbionts than corals, but maintained a positive carbon budget by reducing respiration rates, and by presenting maximal photosynthetic rates throughout the day, suggesting a very efficient light utilization. Almost no photoinhibition was observed under very high light levels, because of the induction of a xanthophyll photoprotection process. These results help understanding why gorgonians often dominate many benthic ecosystems.

  16. Photophysiology and daily primary production of a temperate symbiotic gorgonian.

    PubMed

    Ferrier-Pagès, C; Reynaud, S; Béraud, E; Rottier, C; Menu, D; Duong, G; Gévaert, F

    2015-01-01

    Gorgonians are one of the most important benthic components of tropical and temperate areas, and play a fundamental role as ecosystem engineers. Although global warming and pollution increasingly threaten them, the acquisition of nutrients, which is a key process in fitness and stress resistance, has been poorly investigated in such species. This study has thus used an advanced in situ incubation chamber for the first time with gorgonians, to assess the daily acquisition of nutrients and the photophysiology of the Mediterranean symbiotic species, Eunicella singularis. The xanthophyll cycle was assessed in parallel. This work has revealed that E. singularis presents a different functioning than the Mediterranean symbiotic corals. This gorgonian indeed relies on both autotrophy and heterotrophy in summer to optimize its energetic budget, while corals mainly shift to autotrophy for their respiratory needs and tissue growth. In addition, although E. singularis lives in the same depths/locations, and harbours the same symbiont genotype than the corals, the photosynthetic performances of their respective symbionts are significantly different. Indeed, E. singularis acquired 2-3 times less autotrophic carbon from its symbionts than corals, but maintained a positive carbon budget by reducing respiration rates, and by presenting maximal photosynthetic rates throughout the day, suggesting a very efficient light utilization. Almost no photoinhibition was observed under very high light levels, because of the induction of a xanthophyll photoprotection process. These results help understanding why gorgonians often dominate many benthic ecosystems. PMID:25255987

  17. UV-protectant metabolites from lichens and their symbiotic partners.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Khanh-Hung; Chollet-Krugler, Marylène; Gouault, Nicolas; Tomasi, Sophie

    2013-12-01

    Lichens are structurally complex symbiotic organisms that are exposed to a wide variety of external conditions (extreme temperatures, desiccation, UV radiation, etc.). These poikilohydric organisms have developed various mechanisms of photoprotection, such as light scattering, radiation screening, thermal dissipation, activation of antioxidant defense and macromolecules and membrane repair. These unique organisms produce a vast array of compounds, with more than 1000 secondary metabolites known. An important protective mechanism of lichens is the production of UV screening compounds, such as phenolic compounds (depsidones, depsides, diphenyl ethers), anthraquinones, xanthones or shikimic acid derivatives (calycin, mycosporines, scytonemin). Due to the harmful effects of the UVA wavelengths of sunlight, the search for new sunscreens remains important. We herein propose a review that focuses on the UV protectants from lichens and their symbiotic partners (lichenized fungi, green alga, cyanobacteria). In fact, lichens produce unique and/or efficient UV filters such as depsidones (lobaric acid, pannarin, etc.), depsides (atranorin, gyrophoric acid, etc.), diphenyl ethers (epiphorellic acids, buellin), bisxanthones (secalonic acids, etc.), mycosporines and MAAs, scytonemin along with classical pigments (melanin, carotenoids). We propose to classify these compounds with regard to their chemical structures and review the physicochemical properties that act as UV filters. While the most abundant lichen polyfunctionalized aromatic compounds, belonging to orsellinic derivatives, are UVB screens, these organisms produce strong UVA filters, e.g., calycin (pulvinic acid derivatives), bisxanthones (secalonic acids), scytonemin or mycosporines and MAAs with the latter ones exhibiting attractive properties as photoprotectants.

  18. UV-protectant metabolites from lichens and their symbiotic partners.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Khanh-Hung; Chollet-Krugler, Marylène; Gouault, Nicolas; Tomasi, Sophie

    2013-12-01

    Lichens are structurally complex symbiotic organisms that are exposed to a wide variety of external conditions (extreme temperatures, desiccation, UV radiation, etc.). These poikilohydric organisms have developed various mechanisms of photoprotection, such as light scattering, radiation screening, thermal dissipation, activation of antioxidant defense and macromolecules and membrane repair. These unique organisms produce a vast array of compounds, with more than 1000 secondary metabolites known. An important protective mechanism of lichens is the production of UV screening compounds, such as phenolic compounds (depsidones, depsides, diphenyl ethers), anthraquinones, xanthones or shikimic acid derivatives (calycin, mycosporines, scytonemin). Due to the harmful effects of the UVA wavelengths of sunlight, the search for new sunscreens remains important. We herein propose a review that focuses on the UV protectants from lichens and their symbiotic partners (lichenized fungi, green alga, cyanobacteria). In fact, lichens produce unique and/or efficient UV filters such as depsidones (lobaric acid, pannarin, etc.), depsides (atranorin, gyrophoric acid, etc.), diphenyl ethers (epiphorellic acids, buellin), bisxanthones (secalonic acids, etc.), mycosporines and MAAs, scytonemin along with classical pigments (melanin, carotenoids). We propose to classify these compounds with regard to their chemical structures and review the physicochemical properties that act as UV filters. While the most abundant lichen polyfunctionalized aromatic compounds, belonging to orsellinic derivatives, are UVB screens, these organisms produce strong UVA filters, e.g., calycin (pulvinic acid derivatives), bisxanthones (secalonic acids), scytonemin or mycosporines and MAAs with the latter ones exhibiting attractive properties as photoprotectants. PMID:24170172

  19. Unconscious symbiotic fantasy: a ubiquitous therapeutic agent.

    PubMed

    Silverman, L H

    Evidence is presented that supports the proposition that the deliberate or inadvertent activation of unconscious fantasies of symbiotic gratification can have an ameliorative effect on psychopathology of various kinds. The evidence includes (1) clinically based reports scattered in the psychoanalytic literature on the role of symbiotic gratification in everyday living, in nonanalytic therapies viewed as effecting transference improvements, in meditation, in group activity therapies, and in psychoanalytic treatment, and (2) data from a large number of laboratory experiments coonducted with double-blind procedures and other stringent investigatory controls. In addition to providing powerful support for the clinically derived proposition, the laboratory results allow for extending that proposition and for a more precise delineation of the fantasy that produces symptom amelioration, which when expressed in its verbal form, is most often conveyed by the words Mommy and I are one.

  20. Symbiotic options for the conquest of land.

    PubMed

    Field, Katie J; Pressel, Silvia; Duckett, Jeffrey G; Rimington, William R; Bidartondo, Martin I

    2015-08-01

    The domination of the landmasses of Earth by plants starting during the Ordovician Period drastically altered the development of the biosphere and the composition of the atmosphere, with far-reaching consequences for all life ever since. It is widely thought that symbiotic soil fungi facilitated the colonization of the terrestrial environment by plants. However, recent discoveries in molecular ecology, physiology, cytology, and paleontology have brought into question the hitherto-assumed identity and biology of the fungi engaged in symbiosis with the earliest-diverging lineages of extant land plants. Here, we reconsider the existing paradigm and show that the symbiotic options available to the first plants emerging onto the land were more varied than previously thought. PMID:26111583

  1. Symbiotic options for the conquest of land.

    PubMed

    Field, Katie J; Pressel, Silvia; Duckett, Jeffrey G; Rimington, William R; Bidartondo, Martin I

    2015-08-01

    The domination of the landmasses of Earth by plants starting during the Ordovician Period drastically altered the development of the biosphere and the composition of the atmosphere, with far-reaching consequences for all life ever since. It is widely thought that symbiotic soil fungi facilitated the colonization of the terrestrial environment by plants. However, recent discoveries in molecular ecology, physiology, cytology, and paleontology have brought into question the hitherto-assumed identity and biology of the fungi engaged in symbiosis with the earliest-diverging lineages of extant land plants. Here, we reconsider the existing paradigm and show that the symbiotic options available to the first plants emerging onto the land were more varied than previously thought.

  2. Isolation of symbiotic dinoflagellates by centrifugal elutriation

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, A.E.; Quinn, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Centrifugal elutriation, a method combining centripetal liquid flow with centrifugal force, has been used to isolate symbiotic dinoflagellates from a cnidarian host. The elutriated cells were shown to be viable by photosynthetic incorporation of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and low release of photosynthetic products into the incubation medium. The level of contamination by clinging debris was low and by host solids was negligible.

  3. A Legume Genetic Framework Controls Infection of Nodules by Symbiotic and Endophytic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Zgadzaj, Rafal; James, Euan K.; Kelly, Simon; Kawaharada, Yasuyuki; de Jonge, Nadieh; Jensen, Dorthe B.; Madsen, Lene H.; Radutoiu, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Legumes have an intrinsic capacity to accommodate both symbiotic and endophytic bacteria within root nodules. For the symbionts, a complex genetic mechanism that allows mutual recognition and plant infection has emerged from genetic studies under axenic conditions. In contrast, little is known about the mechanisms controlling the endophytic infection. Here we investigate the contribution of both the host and the symbiotic microbe to endophyte infection and development of mixed colonised nodules in Lotus japonicus. We found that infection threads initiated by Mesorhizobium loti, the natural symbiont of Lotus, can selectively guide endophytic bacteria towards nodule primordia, where competent strains multiply and colonise the nodule together with the nitrogen-fixing symbiotic partner. Further co-inoculation studies with the competent coloniser, Rhizobium mesosinicum strain KAW12, show that endophytic nodule infection depends on functional and efficient M. loti-driven Nod factor signalling. KAW12 exopolysaccharide (EPS) enabled endophyte nodule infection whilst compatible M. loti EPS restricted it. Analysis of plant mutants that control different stages of the symbiotic infection showed that both symbiont and endophyte accommodation within nodules is under host genetic control. This demonstrates that when legume plants are exposed to complex communities they selectively regulate access and accommodation of bacteria occupying this specialized environmental niche, the root nodule. PMID:26042417

  4. [Mechanisms of the Effects of Probiotics on Symbiotic Digestion].

    PubMed

    Usakova, N A; Nekrasov, R V; Pravdin, I V; Sverchkova, N V; Kolomiyets, E I; Pavlov, D S

    2015-01-01

    The published data and our own data on the mechanisms of the influence of microbial probiotics, prebiotics, and their combinations on the processes of symbiotic digestion have been considered and generalized. It is shown that the effects on an organism are associated with the enhanced metabolic activity of intestinal bacteria: stimulation of bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates and formation of short-chained fatty acids, an increase in the blotting capacity of the intestines due to elongation of villi and deepening of crypts, and a decrease in secretion of toxic proteolytic products (ammonia, phenols, thiols, indoles, etc.). It has been shown that a combination of probiotics and prebiotic enhances the biological efficiency of a complex preparation, which contributes to activation of carbohydrate, protein, and mineral metabolism.

  5. Differential production of active oxygen species in photo-symbiotic and non-symbiotic bivalves.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, K; Maruyama, T

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the generation of active oxygen species in the bivalves, Crassostrea gigas, Fulvia mutica and Tridacna crocea in order to understand the defensive mechanisms in giant clams that allow a stable association with symbiotic zooxanthellae. C. gigas produced active oxygens, superoxide anion and nitric oxide upon stimulation by phorbol myristate acetate. F. mutica generated a little amount of superoxide anion and nitric oxide, and contained significant phenoloxidase activity which catalyzes formation of quinones. T. crocea did not generate any apparent active oxygen species or quinones. The importance of lacking rapid cytotoxic responses consisting of active oxygen species to foreign organisms in the symbiotic clam is discussed.

  6. Phenotypic, molecular and symbiotic characterization of the rhizobial symbionts of Desmanthus paspalaceus (Lindm.) Burkart that grow in the province of Santa Fe, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Fornasero, Laura Viviana; Del Papa, María Florencia; López, José Luis; Albicoro, Francisco Javier; Zabala, Juan Marcelo; Toniutti, María Antonieta; Pensiero, José Francisco; Lagares, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    exhibiting prominent N2 fixation; thus indicating suitability as candidates for inoculation of D. paspalaceus. PMID:25153989

  7. Phenotypic, Molecular and Symbiotic Characterization of the Rhizobial Symbionts of Desmanthus paspalaceus (Lindm.) Burkart That Grow in the Province of Santa Fe, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Fornasero, Laura Viviana; Del Papa, María Florencia; López, José Luis; Albicoro, Francisco Javier; Zabala, Juan Marcelo; Toniutti, María Antonieta; Pensiero, José Francisco; Lagares, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    ; while exhibiting prominent N2 fixation; thus indicating suitability as candidates for inoculation of D. paspalaceus. PMID:25153989

  8. Symbiotic Fungi Produce Laccases Potentially Involved in Phenol Degradation in Fungus Combs of Fungus-Growing Termites in Thailand†

    PubMed Central

    Taprab, Yaovapa; Johjima, Toru; Maeda, Yoshimasa; Moriya, Shigeharu; Trakulnaleamsai, Savitr; Noparatnaraporn, Napavarn; Ohkuma, Moriya; Kudo, Toshiaki

    2005-01-01

    Fungus-growing termites efficiently decompose plant litter through their symbiotic relationship with basidiomycete fungi of the genus Termitomyces. Here, we investigated phenol-oxidizing enzymes in symbiotic fungi and fungus combs (a substrate used to cultivate symbiotic fungi) from termites belonging to the genera Macrotermes, Odontotermes, and Microtermes in Thailand, because these enzymes are potentially involved in the degradation of phenolic compounds during fungus comb aging. Laccase activity was detected in all the fungus combs examined as well as in the culture supernatants of isolated symbiotic fungi. Conversely, no peroxidase activity was detected in any of the fungus combs or the symbiotic fungal cultures. The laccase cDNA fragments were amplified directly from RNA extracted from fungus combs of five termite species and a fungal isolate using degenerate primers targeting conserved copper binding domains of basidiomycete laccases, resulting in a total of 13 putative laccase cDNA sequences being identified. The full-length sequences of the laccase cDNA and the corresponding gene, lcc1-2, were identified from the fungus comb of Macrotermes gilvus and a Termitomyces strain isolated from the same fungus comb, respectively. Partial purification of laccase from the fungus comb showed that the lcc1-2 gene product was a dominant laccase in the fungus comb. These findings indicate that the symbiotic fungus secretes laccase to the fungus comb. In addition to laccase, we report novel genes that showed a significant similarity with fungal laccases, but the gene product lacked laccase activity. Interestingly, these genes were highly expressed in symbiotic fungi of all the termite hosts examined. PMID:16332742

  9. Exploring the symbiotic pangenome of the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti

    SciTech Connect

    Galardini, Marco; Mengoni, Alessio; Brilli, Matteo; Pini, Francesco; Fioravanti, Antonella; Lucas, Susan; Lapidus, Alla L.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Woyke, Tanja; Mikhailova, Natalia; Ivanova, N; Daligault, Hajnalka E.; Bruce, David; Detter, J. Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Teshima, Hazuki; Mocali, Stefano; Bazzicalupo, Marco; Biondi, Emanuele

    2011-01-01

    Background: Sinorhizobium meliloti is a model system for the studies of symbiotic nitrogen fixation. An extensive polymorphism at the genetic and phenotypic level is present in natural populations of this species, especially in relation with symbiotic promotion of plant growth. AK83 and BL225C are two nodule-isolated strains with diverse symbiotic phenotypes; BL225C is more efficient in promoting growth of the Medicago sativa plants than strain AK83. In order to investigate the genetic determinants of the phenotypic diversification of S. meliloti strains AK83 and BL225C, we sequenced the complete genomes for these two strains. Results: With sizes of 7.14 Mbp and 6.97 Mbp, respectively, the genomes of AK83 and BL225C are larger than the laboratory strain Rm1021. The core genome of Rm1021, AK83, BL225C strains included 5124 orthologous groups, while the accessory genome was composed by 2700 orthologous groups. While Rm1021 and BL225C have only three replicons (Chromosome, pSymA and pSymB), AK83 has also two plasmids, 260 and 70 Kbp long. We found 65 interesting orthologous groups of genes that were present only in the accessory genome, consequently responsible for phenotypic diversity and putatively involved in plant-bacterium interaction. Notably, the symbiosis inefficient AK83 lacked several genes required for microaerophilic growth inside nodules, while several genes for accessory functions related to competition, plant invasion and bacteroid tropism were identified only in AK83 and BL225C strains. Presence and extent of polymorphism in regulons of transcription factors involved in symbiotic interaction were also analyzed. Our results indicate that regulons are flexible, with a large number of accessory genes, suggesting that regulons polymorphism could also be a key determinant in the variability of symbiotic performances among the analyzed strains.

  10. SS 383: A NEW S-TYPE YELLOW SYMBIOTIC STAR?

    SciTech Connect

    Baella, N. O.; Pereira, C. B.; Miranda, L. F.

    2013-11-01

    Symbiotic stars are key objects in understanding the formation and evolution of interacting binary systems, and are probably the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae. However, the number of known symbiotic stars is much lower than predicted. We aim to search for new symbiotic stars, with particular emphasis on the S-type yellow symbiotic stars, in order to determine their total population, evolutionary timescales, and physical properties. The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) (J – H) versus (H – K {sub s}) color-color diagram has been previously used to identify new symbiotic star candidates and show that yellow symbiotics are located in a particular region of that diagram. Candidate symbiotic stars are selected on the basis of their locus in the 2MASS (J – H) versus (H – K {sub s}) diagram and the presence of Hα line emission in the Stephenson and Sanduleak Hα survey. This diagram separates S-type yellow symbiotic stars from the rest of the S-type symbiotic stars, allowing us to select candidate yellow symbiotics. To establish the true nature of the candidates, intermediate-resolution spectroscopy is obtained. We have identified the Hα emission line source SS 383 as an S-type yellow symbiotic candidate by its position in the 2MASS color-color diagram. The optical spectrum of SS 383 shows Balmer, He I, He II, and [O III] emission lines, in combination with TiO absorption bands that confirm its symbiotic nature. The derived electron density (≅10{sup 8-9} cm{sup –3}), He I emission line intensity ratios, and position in the [O III] λ5007/Hβ versus [O III] λ4363/Hγ diagram indicate that SS 383 is an S-type symbiotic star, with a probable spectral type of K7-M0 deduced for its cool component based on TiO indices. The spectral type and the position of SS 383 (corrected for reddening) in the 2MASS color-color diagram strongly suggest that SS 383 is an S-type yellow symbiotic. Our result points out that the 2MASS color-color diagram is a powerful tool in

  11. Nodule carbohydrate catabolism is enhanced in the Medicago truncatula A17-Sinorhizobium medicae WSM419 symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Larrainzar, Estíbaliz; Gil-Quintana, Erena; Seminario, Amaia; Arrese-Igor, Cesar; González, Esther M.

    2014-01-01

    The symbiotic association between Medicago truncatula and Sinorhizobium meliloti is a well-established model system in the legume–Rhizobium community. Despite its wide use, the symbiotic efficiency of this model has been recently questioned and an alternative microsymbiont, S. medicae, has been proposed. However, little is known about the physiological mechanisms behind the higher symbiotic efficiency of S. medicae WSM419. In the present study, we inoculated M. truncatula Jemalong A17 with either S. medicae WSM419 or S. meliloti 2011 and compared plant growth, photosynthesis, N2-fixation rates, and plant nodule carbon and nitrogen metabolic activities in the two systems. M. truncatula plants in symbiosis with S. medicae showed increased biomass and photosynthesis rates per plant. Plants grown in symbiosis with S. medicae WSM419 also showed higher N2-fixation rates, which were correlated with a larger nodule biomass, while nodule number was similar in both systems. In terms of plant nodule metabolism, M. truncatula–S. medicae WSM419 nodules showed increased sucrose-catabolic activity, mostly associated with sucrose synthase, accompanied by a reduced starch content, whereas nitrogen-assimilation activities were comparable to those measured in nodules infected with S. meliloti 2011. Taken together, these results suggest that S. medicae WSM419 is able to enhance plant carbon catabolism in M. truncatula nodules, which allows for the maintaining of high symbiotic N2-fixation rates, better growth and improved general plant performance. PMID:25221545

  12. 3D Models of Symbiotic Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, S.; Booth, R.; Podsiadlowski, Ph.; Ramstedt, S.; Vlemmings, W.; Maercker, M.

    2015-12-01

    Symbiotic binaries consist of a cool, mass-losing giant and an accreting, compact companion. We present 3D Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) models of two such interacting binaries, RS Oph and Mira AB. RS Oph is also a recurrent nova system, thus we model multiple quiescent mass transfer-nova outburst cycles. The resulting circumstellar structures of both systems are highly complex with the formation of spirals, arcs, shells, equatorial and bipolar outflows. We compare the models to recent observations and discuss the implications of our results for related systems, e.g., bipolar nebulae and jets, chemically peculiar stars, and the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae.

  13. Monogamy in a Hyper-Symbiotic Shrimp.

    PubMed

    Baeza, J Antonio; Simpson, Lunden; Ambrosio, Louis J; Guéron, Rodrigo; Mora, Nathalia

    2016-01-01

    Theory predicts that monogamy is adaptive in resource-specialist symbiotic crustaceans inhabiting relatively small and morphologically simple hosts in tropical environments where predation risk away from hosts is high. We tested this prediction in Pontonia manningi, a hyper-symbiotic shrimp that dwells in the mantle cavity of the Atlantic winged oyster Pteria colymbus that, in turn, infects gorgonians from the genus Pseudopterogorgia in the Caribbean Sea. In agreement with theory, P. manningi were found dwelling as heterosexual pairs in oysters more frequently than expected by chance alone. Males and females also inhabited the same host individual independent of the female gravid condition or of the developmental stage of brooded embryos. While the observations above argue in favor of monogamy in P. manningi, there is evidence to suggest that males of the studied species are moderately promiscuous. That females found living solitary in oysters most often brooded embryos, and that males allocated more to weaponry (major claw size) than females at any given size suggest that males might be roaming among host individuals in search of and, fighting for, receptive females. All available information depicts a rather complex mating system in P. manningi: primarily monogamous but with moderately promiscuous males. PMID:26934109

  14. Monogamy in a Hyper-Symbiotic Shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Baeza, J. Antonio; Simpson, Lunden; Ambrosio, Louis J.; Guéron, Rodrigo; Mora, Nathalia

    2016-01-01

    Theory predicts that monogamy is adaptive in resource-specialist symbiotic crustaceans inhabiting relatively small and morphologically simple hosts in tropical environments where predation risk away from hosts is high. We tested this prediction in Pontonia manningi, a hyper-symbiotic shrimp that dwells in the mantle cavity of the Atlantic winged oyster Pteria colymbus that, in turn, infects gorgonians from the genus Pseudopterogorgia in the Caribbean Sea. In agreement with theory, P. manningi were found dwelling as heterosexual pairs in oysters more frequently than expected by chance alone. Males and females also inhabited the same host individual independent of the female gravid condition or of the developmental stage of brooded embryos. While the observations above argue in favor of monogamy in P. manningi, there is evidence to suggest that males of the studied species are moderately promiscuous. That females found living solitary in oysters most often brooded embryos, and that males allocated more to weaponry (major claw size) than females at any given size suggest that males might be roaming among host individuals in search of and, fighting for, receptive females. All available information depicts a rather complex mating system in P. manningi: primarily monogamous but with moderately promiscuous males. PMID:26934109

  15. Phylogeny of Symbiotic Genes and the Symbiotic Properties of Rhizobia Specific to Astragalus glycyphyllos L.

    PubMed Central

    Gnat, Sebastian; Małek, Wanda; Oleńska, Ewa; Wdowiak-Wróbel, Sylwia; Kalita, Michał; Łotocka, Barbara; Wójcik, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    The phylogeny of symbiotic genes of Astragalus glycyphyllos L. (liquorice milkvetch) nodule isolates was studied by comparative sequence analysis of nodA, nodC, nodH and nifH loci. In all these genes phylograms, liquorice milkvetch rhizobia (closely related to bacteria of three species, i.e. Mesorhizobium amorphae, Mesorhizobium septentrionale and Mesorhizobium ciceri) formed one clearly separate cluster suggesting the horizontal transfer of symbiotic genes from a single ancestor to the bacteria being studied. The high sequence similarity of the symbiotic genes of A. glycyphyllos rhizobia (99–100% in the case of nodAC and nifH genes, and 98–99% in the case of nodH one) points to the relatively recent (in evolutionary scale) lateral transfer of these genes. In the nodACH and nifH phylograms, A. glycyphyllos nodule isolates were grouped together with the genus Mesorhizobium species in one monophyletic clade, close to M. ciceri, Mesorhizobium opportunistum and Mesorhizobium australicum symbiovar biserrulae bacteria, which correlates with the close relationship of these rhizobia host plants. Plant tests revealed the narrow host range of A. glycyphyllos rhizobia. They formed effective symbiotic interactions with their native host (A. glycyphyllos) and Amorpha fruticosa but not with 11 other fabacean species. The nodules induced on A. glycyphyllos roots were indeterminate with apical, persistent meristem, an age gradient of nodule tissues and cortical vascular bundles. To reflect the symbiosis-adaptive phenotype of rhizobia, specific for A. glycyphyllos, we propose for these bacteria the new symbiovar “glycyphyllae”, based on nodA and nodC genes sequences. PMID:26496493

  16. Phylogeny of Symbiotic Genes and the Symbiotic Properties of Rhizobia Specific to Astragalus glycyphyllos L.

    PubMed

    Gnat, Sebastian; Małek, Wanda; Oleńska, Ewa; Wdowiak-Wróbel, Sylwia; Kalita, Michał; Łotocka, Barbara; Wójcik, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    The phylogeny of symbiotic genes of Astragalus glycyphyllos L. (liquorice milkvetch) nodule isolates was studied by comparative sequence analysis of nodA, nodC, nodH and nifH loci. In all these genes phylograms, liquorice milkvetch rhizobia (closely related to bacteria of three species, i.e. Mesorhizobium amorphae, Mesorhizobium septentrionale and Mesorhizobium ciceri) formed one clearly separate cluster suggesting the horizontal transfer of symbiotic genes from a single ancestor to the bacteria being studied. The high sequence similarity of the symbiotic genes of A. glycyphyllos rhizobia (99-100% in the case of nodAC and nifH genes, and 98-99% in the case of nodH one) points to the relatively recent (in evolutionary scale) lateral transfer of these genes. In the nodACH and nifH phylograms, A. glycyphyllos nodule isolates were grouped together with the genus Mesorhizobium species in one monophyletic clade, close to M. ciceri, Mesorhizobium opportunistum and Mesorhizobium australicum symbiovar biserrulae bacteria, which correlates with the close relationship of these rhizobia host plants. Plant tests revealed the narrow host range of A. glycyphyllos rhizobia. They formed effective symbiotic interactions with their native host (A. glycyphyllos) and Amorpha fruticosa but not with 11 other fabacean species. The nodules induced on A. glycyphyllos roots were indeterminate with apical, persistent meristem, an age gradient of nodule tissues and cortical vascular bundles. To reflect the symbiosis-adaptive phenotype of rhizobia, specific for A. glycyphyllos, we propose for these bacteria the new symbiovar "glycyphyllae", based on nodA and nodC genes sequences.

  17. Symbiotic empirical ethics: a practical methodology.

    PubMed

    Frith, Lucy

    2012-05-01

    Like any discipline, bioethics is a developing field of academic inquiry; and recent trends in scholarship have been towards more engagement with empirical research. This 'empirical turn' has provoked extensive debate over how such 'descriptive' research carried out in the social sciences contributes to the distinctively normative aspect of bioethics. This paper will address this issue by developing a practical research methodology for the inclusion of data from social science studies into ethical deliberation. This methodology will be based on a naturalistic conception of ethical theory that sees practice as informing theory just as theory informs practice - the two are symbiotically related. From this engagement with practice, the ways that such theories need to be extended and developed can be determined. This is a practical methodology for integrating theory and practice that can be used in empirical studies, one that uses ethical theory both to explore the data and to draw normative conclusions.

  18. Kinematics of the symbiotic system R Aqr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, S.; Corral, L. J.; Steffen, W.

    2014-04-01

    We present the results of the kinematical analysis of the symbiotic system R Aqr. We obtained high dispersion spectra with the MES spectrograph at the 2.1 m telescope of San Pedro Mártir (MEZCAL). The used filter were Ha + [NII], (λc = 6575Å, Δλ = 90Å). We analyse the [NII] λλ6583 line. When the observations are compared with previous ones by Solf (1992) we detected an important change in the projected velocities of the observed knots, supporting the idea of a precessing jet. We are working also in a 3-D kinematic model for the object using the measured velocities and the state of the model is presented.

  19. Symbiote transmission and maintenance of extra-genomic associations.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Benjamin M

    2014-01-01

    Symbiotes can be transmitted from parents to offspring or horizontally from unrelated hosts or the environment. A key question is whether symbiote transmission is similar enough to Mendelian gene transmission to generate and maintain coevolutionary associations between host and symbiote genes. Recent papers come to opposite conclusions, with some suggesting that any horizontal transmission eliminates genetic association. These studies are hard to compare owing to arbitrary differences in modeling approach, parameter values, and assumptions about selection. I show that associations between host and symbiote genes (extra-genomic associations) can be described by the same dynamic model as conventional linkage disequilibria between genes in the same genome. Thus, covariance between host and symbiote genomes depends on population history, geographic structure, selection, and co-transmission rate, just as covariance between genes within a genome. The conclusion that horizontal transmission rapidly erodes extra-genomic associations is equivalent to the conclusion that recombination rapidly erodes associations between genes within a genome. The conclusion is correct in the absence of population structure or selection. However, population structure can maintain spatial associations between host and symbiote traits, and non-additive selection (interspecific epistasis) can generate covariances between host and symbiote genotypes. These results can also be applied to cultural or other non-genetic traits. This work contributes to a growing consensus that genomic, symbiotic, and gene-culture evolution can be analyzed under a common theoretical framework. In terms of coevolutionary potential, symbiotes can be viewed as lying on a continuum between the intimacy of genes and the indifference of casually co-occurring species.

  20. Symbiote transmission and maintenance of extra-genomic associations

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Benjamin M.

    2014-01-01

    Symbiotes can be transmitted from parents to offspring or horizontally from unrelated hosts or the environment. A key question is whether symbiote transmission is similar enough to Mendelian gene transmission to generate and maintain coevolutionary associations between host and symbiote genes. Recent papers come to opposite conclusions, with some suggesting that any horizontal transmission eliminates genetic association. These studies are hard to compare owing to arbitrary differences in modeling approach, parameter values, and assumptions about selection. I show that associations between host and symbiote genes (extra-genomic associations) can be described by the same dynamic model as conventional linkage disequilibria between genes in the same genome. Thus, covariance between host and symbiote genomes depends on population history, geographic structure, selection, and co-transmission rate, just as covariance between genes within a genome. The conclusion that horizontal transmission rapidly erodes extra-genomic associations is equivalent to the conclusion that recombination rapidly erodes associations between genes within a genome. The conclusion is correct in the absence of population structure or selection. However, population structure can maintain spatial associations between host and symbiote traits, and non-additive selection (interspecific epistasis) can generate covariances between host and symbiote genotypes. These results can also be applied to cultural or other non-genetic traits. This work contributes to a growing consensus that genomic, symbiotic, and gene-culture evolution can be analyzed under a common theoretical framework. In terms of coevolutionary potential, symbiotes can be viewed as lying on a continuum between the intimacy of genes and the indifference of casually co-occurring species. PMID:24605109

  1. Fossilized glycolipids reveal past oceanic N2 fixation by heterocystous cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bauersachs, Thorsten; Speelman, Eveline N.; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Schouten, Stefan; Damsté, Jaap S. Sinninghe

    2010-01-01

    N2-fixing cyanobacteria play an essential role in sustaining primary productivity in contemporary oceans and freshwater systems. However, the significance of N2-fixing cyanobacteria in past nitrogen cycling is difficult to establish as their preservation potential is relatively poor and specific biological markers are presently lacking. Heterocystous N2-fixing cyanobacteria synthesize unique long-chain glycolipids in the cell envelope covering the heterocyst cell to protect the oxygen-sensitive nitrogenase enzyme. We found that these heterocyst glycolipids are remarkably well preserved in (ancient) lacustrine and marine sediments, unambiguously indicating the (past) presence of N2-fixing heterocystous cyanobacteria. Analysis of Pleistocene sediments of the eastern Mediterranean Sea showed that heterocystous cyanobacteria, likely as epiphytes in symbiosis with planktonic diatoms, were particularly abundant during deposition of sapropels. Eocene Arctic Ocean sediments deposited at a time of large Azolla blooms contained glycolipids typical for heterocystous cyanobacteria presently living in symbiosis with the freshwater fern Azolla, indicating that this symbiosis already existed in that time. Our study thus suggests that heterocystous cyanobacteria played a major role in adding “new” fixed nitrogen to surface waters in past stratified oceans. PMID:20966349

  2. Taxonomic identity determines N2 fixation by canopy trees across lowland tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Wurzburger, Nina; Hedin, Lars O

    2016-01-01

    Legumes capable of fixing atmospheric N2 are abundant and diverse in many tropical forests, but the factors determining ecological patterns in fixation are unresolved. A long-standing idea is that fixation depends on soil nutrients (N, P or Mo), but recent evidence shows that fixation may also differ among N2-fixing species. We sampled canopy-height trees across five species and one species group of N2-fixers along a landscape P gradient, and manipulated P and Mo to seedlings in a shadehouse. Our results identify taxonomy as the major determinant of fixation, with P (and possibly Mo) only influencing fixation following tree-fall disturbances. While 44% of trees did not fix N2, other trees fixed at high rates, with two species functioning as superfixers across the landscape. Our results raise the possibility that fixation is determined by biodiversity, evolutionary history and species-specific traits (tree growth rate, canopy stature and response to disturbance) in the tropical biome.

  3. AG Pegasi - now a classical symbiotic star in outburst?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomov, T. V.; Stoyanov, K. A.; Zamanov, R. K.

    2016-11-01

    Optical spectroscopy study of the recent AG Pegasi (AG Peg) outburst observed during the second half of 2015 is presented. Considerable variations of the intensity and the shape of the spectral features as well as the changes of the hot component parameters, caused by the outburst, are discussed and certain similarities between the outburst of AG Peg and the outburst of a classical symbiotic stars are shown. It seems that after the end of the symbiotic nova phase, AG Peg became a member of the classical symbiotic stars group.

  4. AG Pegasi - now a classical symbiotic star in outburst?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomov, T. V.; Stoyanov, K. A.; Zamanov, R. K.

    2016-08-01

    Optical spectroscopy study of the recent AG Peg outburst observed during the second half of 2015 is presented. Considerable variations of the intensity and the shape of the spectral features as well as the changes of the hot component parameters, caused by the outburst, are discussed and certain similarities between the outburst of AG Peg and the outburst of a classical symbiotic stars are shown. It seems that after the end of the symbiotic nova phase, AG Peg became a member of the classical symbiotic stars group.

  5. Discovery of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria in corals.

    PubMed

    Lesser, Michael P; Mazel, Charles H; Gorbunov, Maxim Y; Falkowski, Paul G

    2004-08-13

    Colonies of the Caribbean coral Montastraea cavernosa exhibit a solar-stimulated orange-red fluorescence that is spectrally similar to a variety of fluorescent proteins expressed by corals. The source of this fluorescence is phycoerythrin in unicellular, nonheterocystis, symbiotic cyanobacteria within the host cells of the coral. The cyanobacteria coexist with the symbiotic dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae) of the coral and express the nitrogen-fixing enzyme nitrogenase. The presence of this prokaryotic symbiont in a nitrogen-limited zooxanthellate coral suggests that nitrogen fixation may be an important source of this limiting element for the symbiotic association.

  6. Computer symbiosis: Emergence of symbiotic behavior through evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Ikegami, Takashi; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    1989-01-01

    Symbiosis is altruistic cooperation between distinct species. It is one of the most effective evolutionary processes, but its dynamics are not well understood as yet. A simple model of symbiosis is introduced, where we consider interactions between hosts and parasites and also mutations of hosts and parasites. It is found that a symbiotic state emerges for a suitable range of mutation rates. The symbiotic state is not static, but dynamically oscillates. Harmful parasites violating symbiosis appear periodically, but are rapidly extinguished by hosts and other parasites, and the symbiotic state is recovered. The emergence of ''Tit for Tat'' strategy to maintain symbiosis is discussed. 4 figs.

  7. Screening of optimal cellulases from symbiotic protists of termites through expression in the secretory pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Todaka, Nemuri; Nakamura, Risa; Moriya, Sigeharu; Ohkuma, Moriya; Kudo, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Haruo; Ishida, Nobuhiro

    2011-01-01

    For direct and efficient ethanol production from cellulosic materials, we screened optimal cellulases from symbiotic protists of termites through heterologous expression with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. 11 cellulases, belonging to glycoside hydrolase families 5, 7, and 45 endoglucanases (EGs), were confirmed to produce with S. cerevisiae for the first time. A recombinant yeast expressing SM2042B24 EG I was more efficient at degrading carboxylmethyl cellulose than was Trichoderma reesei EG I, a major EG with high cellulolytic activity.

  8. Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation and the Challenges to Its Extension to Nonlegumes

    PubMed Central

    Mus, Florence; Crook, Matthew B.; Garcia, Kevin; Garcia Costas, Amaya; Geddes, Barney A.; Kouri, Evangelia D.; Paramasivan, Ponraj; Ryu, Min-Hyung; Oldroyd, Giles E. D.; Poole, Philip S.; Udvardi, Michael K.; Voigt, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Access to fixed or available forms of nitrogen limits the productivity of crop plants and thus food production. Nitrogenous fertilizer production currently represents a significant expense for the efficient growth of various crops in the developed world. There are significant potential gains to be had from reducing dependence on nitrogenous fertilizers in agriculture in the developed world and in developing countries, and there is significant interest in research on biological nitrogen fixation and prospects for increasing its importance in an agricultural setting. Biological nitrogen fixation is the conversion of atmospheric N2 to NH3, a form that can be used by plants. However, the process is restricted to bacteria and archaea and does not occur in eukaryotes. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is part of a mutualistic relationship in which plants provide a niche and fixed carbon to bacteria in exchange for fixed nitrogen. This process is restricted mainly to legumes in agricultural systems, and there is considerable interest in exploring whether similar symbioses can be developed in nonlegumes, which produce the bulk of human food. We are at a juncture at which the fundamental understanding of biological nitrogen fixation has matured to a level that we can think about engineering symbiotic relationships using synthetic biology approaches. This minireview highlights the fundamental advances in our understanding of biological nitrogen fixation in the context of a blueprint for expanding symbiotic nitrogen fixation to a greater diversity of crop plants through synthetic biology. PMID:27084023

  9. Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation and the Challenges to Its Extension to Nonlegumes.

    PubMed

    Mus, Florence; Crook, Matthew B; Garcia, Kevin; Garcia Costas, Amaya; Geddes, Barney A; Kouri, Evangelia D; Paramasivan, Ponraj; Ryu, Min-Hyung; Oldroyd, Giles E D; Poole, Philip S; Udvardi, Michael K; Voigt, Christopher A; Ané, Jean-Michel; Peters, John W

    2016-07-01

    Access to fixed or available forms of nitrogen limits the productivity of crop plants and thus food production. Nitrogenous fertilizer production currently represents a significant expense for the efficient growth of various crops in the developed world. There are significant potential gains to be had from reducing dependence on nitrogenous fertilizers in agriculture in the developed world and in developing countries, and there is significant interest in research on biological nitrogen fixation and prospects for increasing its importance in an agricultural setting. Biological nitrogen fixation is the conversion of atmospheric N2 to NH3, a form that can be used by plants. However, the process is restricted to bacteria and archaea and does not occur in eukaryotes. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is part of a mutualistic relationship in which plants provide a niche and fixed carbon to bacteria in exchange for fixed nitrogen. This process is restricted mainly to legumes in agricultural systems, and there is considerable interest in exploring whether similar symbioses can be developed in nonlegumes, which produce the bulk of human food. We are at a juncture at which the fundamental understanding of biological nitrogen fixation has matured to a level that we can think about engineering symbiotic relationships using synthetic biology approaches. This minireview highlights the fundamental advances in our understanding of biological nitrogen fixation in the context of a blueprint for expanding symbiotic nitrogen fixation to a greater diversity of crop plants through synthetic biology. PMID:27084023

  10. Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation and the Challenges to Its Extension to Nonlegumes.

    PubMed

    Mus, Florence; Crook, Matthew B; Garcia, Kevin; Garcia Costas, Amaya; Geddes, Barney A; Kouri, Evangelia D; Paramasivan, Ponraj; Ryu, Min-Hyung; Oldroyd, Giles E D; Poole, Philip S; Udvardi, Michael K; Voigt, Christopher A; Ané, Jean-Michel; Peters, John W

    2016-07-01

    Access to fixed or available forms of nitrogen limits the productivity of crop plants and thus food production. Nitrogenous fertilizer production currently represents a significant expense for the efficient growth of various crops in the developed world. There are significant potential gains to be had from reducing dependence on nitrogenous fertilizers in agriculture in the developed world and in developing countries, and there is significant interest in research on biological nitrogen fixation and prospects for increasing its importance in an agricultural setting. Biological nitrogen fixation is the conversion of atmospheric N2 to NH3, a form that can be used by plants. However, the process is restricted to bacteria and archaea and does not occur in eukaryotes. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is part of a mutualistic relationship in which plants provide a niche and fixed carbon to bacteria in exchange for fixed nitrogen. This process is restricted mainly to legumes in agricultural systems, and there is considerable interest in exploring whether similar symbioses can be developed in nonlegumes, which produce the bulk of human food. We are at a juncture at which the fundamental understanding of biological nitrogen fixation has matured to a level that we can think about engineering symbiotic relationships using synthetic biology approaches. This minireview highlights the fundamental advances in our understanding of biological nitrogen fixation in the context of a blueprint for expanding symbiotic nitrogen fixation to a greater diversity of crop plants through synthetic biology.

  11. Symbiotic N nutrition, bradyrhizobial biodiversity and photosynthetic functioning of six inoculated promiscuous-nodulating soybean genotypes.

    PubMed

    Pule-Meulenberg, Flora; Gyogluu, Cynthia; Naab, Jesse; Dakora, Felix D

    2011-04-15

    Six promiscuous soybean genotypes were assessed for their ability to nodulate with indigenous root-nodule bacteria in Ghana, with Bradyrhizobium japonicum WB74 serving as positive control. Although the results revealed free nodulation of all six genotypes in both inoculated and uninoculated plots, there was a marked effect of inoculation on photosynthetic rates and whole-plant C. Inoculation also increased stomatal conductance in TGx1485-1D, TGx1448-2E, TGx1740-2F and TGx1445-3E, leading to significantly elevated transpiration rates in the last two genotypes, and a decrease in TGx1485-1D, TGx1440-1E and Salintuya-1, resulting in reduced leaf transpiration and decreased C accumulation. Nodulation, total plant biomass, plant N concentration and content also increased and ∂(15)N of the six genotypes, except for TGx1448-2E decreased. Significantly higher %Ndfa resulted in all the soybean genotypes tested (except for TGx1485-1D), and the symbiotic N yield in TGx1740-2F and TGx1448-2E doubled. PCR-RFLP revealed 18 distinct IGS types present in root nodules of the six promiscuous soybean genotypes, with IGS type II being isolated from all six genotypes, followed by IGS types X and XI from five out of the six genotypes. Marked differences in strain IGS type symbiotic efficiency were revealed. For example, as sole nodule occupant, IGS type XI produced high symbiotic N in TGx1445-3E, but low amounts in TGx1448-2E. Inoculated Salintuya-1, which trapped nine strain IGS types in its root nodules, was the most promiscuous genotype, but produced less symbiotic N compared to genotypes with fewer strains in their root nodules. PMID:21044808

  12. Symbiotic N nutrition, bradyrhizobial biodiversity and photosynthetic functioning of six inoculated promiscuous-nodulating soybean genotypes.

    PubMed

    Pule-Meulenberg, Flora; Gyogluu, Cynthia; Naab, Jesse; Dakora, Felix D

    2011-04-15

    Six promiscuous soybean genotypes were assessed for their ability to nodulate with indigenous root-nodule bacteria in Ghana, with Bradyrhizobium japonicum WB74 serving as positive control. Although the results revealed free nodulation of all six genotypes in both inoculated and uninoculated plots, there was a marked effect of inoculation on photosynthetic rates and whole-plant C. Inoculation also increased stomatal conductance in TGx1485-1D, TGx1448-2E, TGx1740-2F and TGx1445-3E, leading to significantly elevated transpiration rates in the last two genotypes, and a decrease in TGx1485-1D, TGx1440-1E and Salintuya-1, resulting in reduced leaf transpiration and decreased C accumulation. Nodulation, total plant biomass, plant N concentration and content also increased and ∂(15)N of the six genotypes, except for TGx1448-2E decreased. Significantly higher %Ndfa resulted in all the soybean genotypes tested (except for TGx1485-1D), and the symbiotic N yield in TGx1740-2F and TGx1448-2E doubled. PCR-RFLP revealed 18 distinct IGS types present in root nodules of the six promiscuous soybean genotypes, with IGS type II being isolated from all six genotypes, followed by IGS types X and XI from five out of the six genotypes. Marked differences in strain IGS type symbiotic efficiency were revealed. For example, as sole nodule occupant, IGS type XI produced high symbiotic N in TGx1445-3E, but low amounts in TGx1448-2E. Inoculated Salintuya-1, which trapped nine strain IGS types in its root nodules, was the most promiscuous genotype, but produced less symbiotic N compared to genotypes with fewer strains in their root nodules.

  13. Stress as a Normal Cue in the Symbiotic Environment.

    PubMed

    Schwartzman, Julia A; Ruby, Edward G

    2016-05-01

    All multicellular hosts form associations with groups of microorganisms. These microbial communities can be taxonomically diverse and dynamic, and their persistence is due to robust, and sometimes coevolved, host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions. Chemical and physical sources of stress are prominently situated in this molecular exchange, as cues for cellular responses in symbiotic microbes. Stress in the symbiotic environment may arise from three sources: host tissues, microbe-induced immune responses, or other microbes in the host environment. The responses of microbes to these stresses can be general or highly specialized, and collectively may contribute to the stability of the symbiotic system. In this review, we highlight recent work that emphasizes the role of stress as a cue in the symbiotic environment of plants and animals. PMID:27004825

  14. Towards the minimal nitrogen-fixing symbiotic genome.

    PubMed

    Sanjuán, Juan

    2016-09-01

    diCenzo and coworkers have reverse engineered a rhizobium into a non-nitrogen fixer, creating a genomic platform for gain-of-function genetics studies, which should aid to identify the minimal nitrogen fixing symbiotic genome.

  15. Towards the minimal nitrogen-fixing symbiotic genome.

    PubMed

    Sanjuán, Juan

    2016-09-01

    diCenzo and coworkers have reverse engineered a rhizobium into a non-nitrogen fixer, creating a genomic platform for gain-of-function genetics studies, which should aid to identify the minimal nitrogen fixing symbiotic genome. PMID:27188818

  16. Microbiome change by symbiotic invasion in lichens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Stefanie; Wedin, Mats; Fernandez-Brime, Samantha; Cronholm, Bodil; Westberg, Martin; Weber, Bettina; Grube, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSC) seal the soil surface from erosive forces in many habitats where plants cannot compete. Lichens symbioses of fungi and algae often form significant fraction of these microbial assemblages. In addition to the fungal symbiont, many species of other fungi can inhabit the lichenic structures and interact with their hosts in different ways, ranging from commensalism to parasitism. More than 1800 species of lichenicolous (lichen-inhabiting) fungi are known to science. One example is Diploschistes muscorum, a common species in lichen-dominated BSC that infects lichens of the genus Cladonia. D. muscorum starts as a lichenicolous fungus, invading the lichen Cladonia symphycarpa and gradually develops an independent Diploschistes lichen thallus. Furthermore, bacterial groups, such as Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria, have been consistently recovered from lichen thalli and evidence is rapidly accumulating that these microbes may generally play integral roles in the lichen symbiosis. Here we describe lichen microbiome dynamics as the parasitic lichen D. muscorum takes over C. symphycarpa. We used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene and photobiont-specific ITS rDNA sequencing to track bacterial and algal transitions during the infection process, and employed fluorescence in situ hybridization to localize bacteria in the Cladonia and Diploschistes lichen thalli. We sampled four transitional stages, at sites in Sweden and Germany: A) Cladonia with no visible infection, B) early infection stage defined by the first visible Diploschistes thallus, C) late-stage infection with parts of the Cladonia thallus still identifiable, and D) final stage with a fully developed Diploschistes thallus, A gradual microbiome shift occurred during the transition, but fractions of Cladonia-associated bacteria were retained during the process of symbiotic reorganization. Consistent changes observed across sites included a notable decrease in the relative abundance of

  17. Intracellular pH of symbiotic dinoflagellates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbin, E. M.; Davy, S. K.

    2013-09-01

    Intracellular pH (pHi) is likely to play a key role in maintaining the functional success of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis, yet until now the pHi of the symbiotic dinoflagellates (genus Symbiodinium) has never been quantified. Flow cytometry was used in conjunction with the ratiometric fluorescent dye BCECF to monitor changes in pHi over a daily light/dark cycle. The pHi of Symbiodinium type B1 freshly isolated from the model sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella was 7.25 ± 0.01 (mean ± SE) in the light and 7.10 ± 0.02 in the dark. A comparable effect of irradiance was seen across a variety of cultured Symbiodinium genotypes (types A1, B1, E1, E2, F1, and F5) which varied between pHi 7.21-7.39 in the light and 7.06-7.14 in the dark. Of note, there was a significant genotypic difference in pHi, irrespective of irradiance.

  18. Symbiotic two-species contact process.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Marcelo Martins; Dos Santos, Renato Vieira; Dickman, Ronald

    2012-07-01

    We study a contact process (CP) with two species that interact in a symbiotic manner. In our model, each site of a lattice may be vacant or host individuals of species A and/or B; multiple occupancy by the same species is prohibited. Symbiosis is represented by a reduced death rate μ<1 for individuals at sites with both species present. Otherwise, the dynamics is that of the basic CP, with creation (at vacant neighbor sites) at rate λ and death of (isolated) individuals at a rate of unity. Mean-field theory and Monte Carlo simulation show that the critical creation rate λ(c)(μ) is a decreasing function of μ, even though a single-species population must go extinct for λ<λ(c) (1), the critical point of the basic CP. Extensive simulations yield results for critical behavior that are compatible with the directed percolation (DP) universality class, but with unusually strong corrections to scaling. A field-theoretic argument supports the conclusion of DP critical behavior. We obtain similar results for a CP with creation at second-neighbor sites and enhanced survival at first neighbors in the form of an annihilation rate that decreases with the number of occupied first neighbors. PMID:23005382

  19. Symbiotic two-species contact process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Marcelo Martins; Dos Santos, Renato Vieira; Dickman, Ronald

    2012-07-01

    We study a contact process (CP) with two species that interact in a symbiotic manner. In our model, each site of a lattice may be vacant or host individuals of species A and/or B; multiple occupancy by the same species is prohibited. Symbiosis is represented by a reduced death rate μ<1 for individuals at sites with both species present. Otherwise, the dynamics is that of the basic CP, with creation (at vacant neighbor sites) at rate λ and death of (isolated) individuals at a rate of unity. Mean-field theory and Monte Carlo simulation show that the critical creation rate λc(μ) is a decreasing function of μ, even though a single-species population must go extinct for λ<λc(1), the critical point of the basic CP. Extensive simulations yield results for critical behavior that are compatible with the directed percolation (DP) universality class, but with unusually strong corrections to scaling. A field-theoretic argument supports the conclusion of DP critical behavior. We obtain similar results for a CP with creation at second-neighbor sites and enhanced survival at first neighbors in the form of an annihilation rate that decreases with the number of occupied first neighbors.

  20. Genetic and symbiotic diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from agricultural soils in the western Amazon by using cowpea as the trap plant.

    PubMed

    Azarias Guimarães, Amanda; Duque Jaramillo, Paula Marcela; Simão Abrahão Nóbrega, Rafaela; Florentino, Ligiane Aparecida; Barroso Silva, Karina; de Souza Moreira, Fatima Maria

    2012-09-01

    Cowpea is a legume of great agronomic importance that establishes symbiotic relationships with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. However, little is known about the genetic and symbiotic diversity of these bacteria in distinct ecosystems. Our study evaluated the genetic diversity and symbiotic efficiencies of 119 bacterial strains isolated from agriculture soils in the western Amazon using cowpea as a trap plant. These strains were clustered into 11 cultural groups according to growth rate and pH. The 57 nonnodulating strains were predominantly fast growing and acidifying, indicating a high incidence of endophytic strains in the nodules. The other 62 strains, authenticated as nodulating bacteria, exhibited various symbiotic efficiencies, with 68% of strains promoting a significant increase in shoot dry matter of cowpea compared with the control with no inoculation and low levels of mineral nitrogen. Fifty genotypes with 70% similarity and 21 genotypes with 30% similarity were obtained through repetitive DNA sequence (BOX element)-based PCR (BOX-PCR) clustering. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of strains representative of BOX-PCR clusters showed a predominance of bacteria from the genus Bradyrhizobium but with high species diversity. Rhizobium, Burkholderia, and Achromobacter species were also identified. These results support observations of cowpea promiscuity and demonstrate the high symbiotic and genetic diversity of rhizobia species in areas under cultivation in the western Amazon.

  1. Phylogeny of nodulation genes and symbiotic diversity of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. and A. seyal (Del.) Mesorhizobium strains from different regions of Senegal.

    PubMed

    Bakhoum, Niokhor; Galiana, Antoine; Le Roux, Christine; Kane, Aboubacry; Duponnois, Robin; Ndoye, Fatou; Fall, Dioumacor; Noba, Kandioura; Sylla, Samba Ndao; Diouf, Diégane

    2015-04-01

    Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal are small, deciduous legume trees, most highly valued for nitrogen fixation and for the production of gum arabic, a commodity of international trade since ancient times. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes represents the main natural input of atmospheric N2 into ecosystems which may ultimately benefit all organisms. We analyzed the nod and nif symbiotic genes and symbiotic properties of root-nodulating bacteria isolated from A. senegal and A. seyal in Senegal. The symbiotic genes of rhizobial strains from the two Acacia species were closed to those of Mesorhizobium plurifarium and grouped separately in the phylogenetic trees. Phylogeny of rhizobial nitrogen fixation gene nifH was similar to those of nodulation genes (nodA and nodC). All A. senegal rhizobial strains showed identical nodA, nodC, and nifH gene sequences. By contrast, A. seyal rhizobial strains exhibited different symbiotic gene sequences. Efficiency tests demonstrated that inoculation of both Acacia species significantly affected nodulation, total dry weight, acetylene reduction activity (ARA), and specific acetylene reduction activity (SARA) of plants. However, these cross-inoculation tests did not show any specificity of Mesorhizobium strains toward a given Acacia host species in terms of infectivity and efficiency as stated by principal component analysis (PCA). This study demonstrates that large-scale inoculation of A. senegal and A. seyal in the framework of reafforestation programs requires a preliminary step of rhizobial strain selection for both Acacia species.

  2. Genetic and Symbiotic Diversity of Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria Isolated from Agricultural Soils in the Western Amazon by Using Cowpea as the Trap Plant

    PubMed Central

    Azarias Guimarães, Amanda; Duque Jaramillo, Paula Marcela; Simão Abrahão Nóbrega, Rafaela; Florentino, Ligiane Aparecida; Barroso Silva, Karina

    2012-01-01

    Cowpea is a legume of great agronomic importance that establishes symbiotic relationships with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. However, little is known about the genetic and symbiotic diversity of these bacteria in distinct ecosystems. Our study evaluated the genetic diversity and symbiotic efficiencies of 119 bacterial strains isolated from agriculture soils in the western Amazon using cowpea as a trap plant. These strains were clustered into 11 cultural groups according to growth rate and pH. The 57 nonnodulating strains were predominantly fast growing and acidifying, indicating a high incidence of endophytic strains in the nodules. The other 62 strains, authenticated as nodulating bacteria, exhibited various symbiotic efficiencies, with 68% of strains promoting a significant increase in shoot dry matter of cowpea compared with the control with no inoculation and low levels of mineral nitrogen. Fifty genotypes with 70% similarity and 21 genotypes with 30% similarity were obtained through repetitive DNA sequence (BOX element)-based PCR (BOX-PCR) clustering. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of strains representative of BOX-PCR clusters showed a predominance of bacteria from the genus Bradyrhizobium but with high species diversity. Rhizobium, Burkholderia, and Achromobacter species were also identified. These results support observations of cowpea promiscuity and demonstrate the high symbiotic and genetic diversity of rhizobia species in areas under cultivation in the western Amazon. PMID:22798370

  3. Symbiotic variable V4018 Sgr in outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizabeth O. Waagen

    2012-09-01

    The symbiotic variable V4018 Sgr is undergoing an outburst, according to observations reported to the AAVSO and confirmed by spectroscopy by Ulisse Munari et al. Prompted by an observation and comment from John Bortle (Stormville, NY) (16 June 2012, visual magnitude 12.2) about a possible outburst, Steven O'Connor (St. George's, Bermuda) obtained an observation (10 August 2012, 11.44V) that confirmed V4018 Sgr was bright. His subsequent BVRI observations in September and visual observations by Bortle and Andrew Pearce (Nedlands, Western Australia) show the system brightening and at V magnitude 11.07 as of 2012 Sep. 17.091 UT. Ulisse Munari (INAF Astr. Obs. Padua, Italy) and colleagues Paolo Valisa and Sergio Dallaporta (ANS Collaboration), after being informed by the AAVSO of the bright state of V4018 Sgr, carried out spectroscopy. Munari writes: "A low resolution, absolutely fluxed 4000-8650 Ang spectrum of V4018 Sgr was obtained on Sept 13.90 UT with the 0.6m telescope ! of the Schiaparelli Observatory in Varese (Italy). It shows the spectrum of the M giant overwhelmed by a blue continuum up to 6000 Ang, and all high ionization emission lines typical of quiescence are gone, leaving only hydrogen Balmer and weak HeI lines in emission. The spectrum looks like a template one for a symbiotic star in outburst. CCD photometry was obtained on Sept 13.79 UT and provides V=11.027 ± 0.002, B-V=+0.621 ± 0.003. The B-V color is appreciably bluer and the V magnitude much brighter than typical in quiescence (on average V=13.3, B-V=+1.09; Henden and Munari 2008, Baltic Astronomy 17, 293), and support the idea V4018 Sgr is undergoing an outburst." According to Munari, the last bright outburst of V4018 Sgr was underway in June 1990. Observations in the AAVSO International Database from Albert Jones (Nelson, New Zealand) beginning in May 1992 show the variable at visual magnitude 11.0, with fluctuations between 10.5 and 11.9 through October 1995. Numerous ! other observers

  4. Outbursts In Symbiotic Binaries (FUSE 2000)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During the past year, we made good progress on analysis of FUSE observations of the symbiotic binary Z And. For background, Z And is a binary system composed of a red giant and a hot component of unknown status. The orbital period is roughly 750 days. The hot component undergoes large-scale eruptions every 10-20 yr. An outburst began several years ago, triggering this FUSE opportunity. First, we obtained an excellent set of ground-based optical data in support, of the FUSE observations. We used FAST, a high throughput low resolution spectrograph on the 1.5-m telescope at Mt. Hopkins, Arizona. A 300 g/ mm grating blazed at 4750 A, a 3 in. slit, and a thinned Loral 512 x 2688 CCD gave us spectra covering 3800-7500 A at a resolution of 6 A. The wavelength solution for each spectrum has a probable error of +/- 0.5 A or better. Most of the resulting spectra have moderate signal-to-noise, S/.N approx. greater than 30 per pixel. The time coverage for these spectra is excellent. Typically, we acquired spectra every 1-2 nights during dark runs at Mt. Hopkins. These data cover most of the rise and all of the decline of the recent outburst. The spectra show a wealth of emission lines, including H I, He I, He II, [Fe V11], and the Raman scattering bands at 6830 A and 7088 A. The Raman bands and other high ionization features vary considerably throughout the outburst. These features will enable us to correlate variations in the FUSE spectra with variations in the optical spectra. Second, we began an analysis of FUSE spectra of Z And. We have carefully examined the spectra, identifying real features and defects. We have identified and measured fluxes for all strong emission lines, including the O VI doublet at 1032 A and 1038 A. These and several other strong emission lines display pronounced P Cygni absorption components indicative of outgrowing gas. We will attempt to correlate these velocities with similar profiles observed on optical spectra. The line velocities - together

  5. Comprehensive EST analysis of the symbiotic sea anemone, Anemonia viridis

    PubMed Central

    Sabourault, Cécile; Ganot, Philippe; Deleury, Emeline; Allemand, Denis; Furla, Paola

    2009-01-01

    Background Coral reef ecosystems are renowned for their diversity and beauty. Their immense ecological success is due to a symbiotic association between cnidarian hosts and unicellular dinoflagellate algae, known as zooxanthellae. These algae are photosynthetic and the cnidarian-zooxanthellae association is based on nutritional exchanges. Maintenance of such an intimate cellular partnership involves many crosstalks between the partners. To better characterize symbiotic relationships between a cnidarian host and its dinoflagellate symbionts, we conducted a large-scale EST study on a symbiotic sea anemone, Anemonia viridis, in which the two tissue layers (epiderm and gastroderm) can be easily separated. Results A single cDNA library was constructed from symbiotic tissue of sea anemones A. viridis in various environmental conditions (both normal and stressed). We generated 39,939 high quality ESTs, which were assembled into 14,504 unique sequences (UniSeqs). Sequences were analysed and sorted according to their putative origin (animal, algal or bacterial). We identified many new repeated elements in the 3'UTR of most animal genes, suggesting that these elements potentially have a biological role, especially with respect to gene expression regulation. We identified genes of animal origin that have no homolog in the non-symbiotic starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis genome, but in other symbiotic cnidarians, and may therefore be involved in the symbiosis relationship in A. viridis. Comparison of protein domain occurrence in A. viridis with that in N. vectensis demonstrated an increase in abundance of some molecular functions, such as protein binding or antioxidant activity, suggesting that these functions are essential for the symbiotic state and may be specific adaptations. Conclusion This large dataset of sequences provides a valuable resource for future studies on symbiotic interactions in Cnidaria. The comparison with the closest available genome, the sea

  6. Adaptation of the symbiotic Mesorhizobium-chickpea relationship to phosphate deficiency relies on reprogramming of whole-plant metabolism.

    PubMed

    Nasr Esfahani, Maryam; Kusano, Miyako; Nguyen, Kien Huu; Watanabe, Yasuko; Ha, Chien Van; Saito, Kazuki; Sulieman, Saad; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Tran, L S

    2016-08-01

    Low inorganic phosphate (Pi) availability is a major constraint for efficient nitrogen fixation in legumes, including chickpea. To elucidate the mechanisms involved in nodule acclimation to low Pi availability, two Mesorhizobium-chickpea associations exhibiting differential symbiotic performances, Mesorhizobium ciceri CP-31 (McCP-31)-chickpea and Mesorhizobium mediterranum SWRI9 (MmSWRI9)-chickpea, were comprehensively studied under both control and low Pi conditions. MmSWRI9-chickpea showed a lower symbiotic efficiency under low Pi availability than McCP-31-chickpea as evidenced by reduced growth parameters and down-regulation of nifD and nifK These differences can be attributed to decline in Pi level in MmSWRI9-induced nodules under low Pi stress, which coincided with up-regulation of several key Pi starvation-responsive genes, and accumulation of asparagine in nodules and the levels of identified amino acids in Pi-deficient leaves of MmSWRI9-inoculated plants exceeding the shoot nitrogen requirement during Pi starvation, indicative of nitrogen feedback inhibition. Conversely, Pi levels increased in nodules of Pi-stressed McCP-31-inoculated plants, because these plants evolved various metabolic and biochemical strategies to maintain nodular Pi homeostasis under Pi deficiency. These adaptations involve the activation of alternative pathways of carbon metabolism, enhanced production and exudation of organic acids from roots into the rhizosphere, and the ability to protect nodule metabolism against Pi deficiency-induced oxidative stress. Collectively, the adaptation of symbiotic efficiency under Pi deficiency resulted from highly coordinated processes with an extensive reprogramming of whole-plant metabolism. The findings of this study will enable us to design effective breeding and genetic engineering strategies to enhance symbiotic efficiency in legume crops. PMID:27450089

  7. Adaptation of the symbiotic Mesorhizobium–chickpea relationship to phosphate deficiency relies on reprogramming of whole-plant metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Nasr Esfahani, Maryam; Kusano, Miyako; Nguyen, Kien Huu; Watanabe, Yasuko; Ha, Chien Van; Saito, Kazuki; Sulieman, Saad; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-01-01

    Low inorganic phosphate (Pi) availability is a major constraint for efficient nitrogen fixation in legumes, including chickpea. To elucidate the mechanisms involved in nodule acclimation to low Pi availability, two Mesorhizobium–chickpea associations exhibiting differential symbiotic performances, Mesorhizobium ciceri CP-31 (McCP-31)–chickpea and Mesorhizobium mediterranum SWRI9 (MmSWRI9)–chickpea, were comprehensively studied under both control and low Pi conditions. MmSWRI9–chickpea showed a lower symbiotic efficiency under low Pi availability than McCP-31–chickpea as evidenced by reduced growth parameters and down-regulation of nifD and nifK. These differences can be attributed to decline in Pi level in MmSWRI9-induced nodules under low Pi stress, which coincided with up-regulation of several key Pi starvation-responsive genes, and accumulation of asparagine in nodules and the levels of identified amino acids in Pi-deficient leaves of MmSWRI9-inoculated plants exceeding the shoot nitrogen requirement during Pi starvation, indicative of nitrogen feedback inhibition. Conversely, Pi levels increased in nodules of Pi-stressed McCP-31–inoculated plants, because these plants evolved various metabolic and biochemical strategies to maintain nodular Pi homeostasis under Pi deficiency. These adaptations involve the activation of alternative pathways of carbon metabolism, enhanced production and exudation of organic acids from roots into the rhizosphere, and the ability to protect nodule metabolism against Pi deficiency-induced oxidative stress. Collectively, the adaptation of symbiotic efficiency under Pi deficiency resulted from highly coordinated processes with an extensive reprogramming of whole-plant metabolism. The findings of this study will enable us to design effective breeding and genetic engineering strategies to enhance symbiotic efficiency in legume crops. PMID:27450089

  8. INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF SYMBIOTIC STARS. IX. D-TYPE SYMBIOTIC NOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkle, Kenneth H.; Joyce, Richard R.; Fekel, Francis C.; Wood, Peter E-mail: joyce@noao.edu E-mail: wood@mso.anu.edu.au

    2013-06-10

    Time-series spectra of the near-infrared 1.6 {mu}m region have been obtained for five of the six known D-type symbiotic novae. The spectra map the pulsation kinematics of the Mira component in the Mira-white dwarf binary system and provide the center-of-mass velocity for the Mira. No orbital motion is detected in agreement with previous estimates of orbital periods {approx}>100 yr and semimajor axes {approx}50 AU. The 1-5 {mu}m spectra of the Miras show line weakening during dust obscuration events. This results from scattering and continuum emission by 1000 K dust. In the heavily obscured HM Sge system the 4.6 {mu}m CO spectrum formed in 1000 K gas is seen in emission against an optically thick dust continuum. Spectral features that are typically produced in either the cool molecular region or the expanding circumstellar region of late-type stars cannot be detected in the D-symbiotic novae. This is in accord with the colliding wind model for interaction between the white dwarf and Mira. Arguments are presented that the 1000 K gas and dust are not Mira circumstellar material but are in the wind interaction region of the colliding winds. CO is the first molecule detected in this region. We suggest that dust condensing in the intershock region is the origin of the dust obscuration. This model explains variations in the obscuration. Toward the highly obscured Mira in HM Sge the dust zone is estimated to be {approx}0.1 AU thick. The intershock wind interaction zone appears thinnest in the most active systems. Drawing on multiple arguments masses are estimated for the system components. The Miras in most D-symbiotic novae have descended from intermediate mass progenitors. The large amount of mass lost from the Mira combined with the massive white dwarf companion suggests that these systems are supernova candidates. However, timescales and the number of objects make these rare events.

  9. Arthropod symbiotes of Laonastes aenigmamus (Rodentia:Diatomyidae).

    PubMed

    Bochkov, A V; Abramov, A V; Durden, L A; Apanaskevich, D A; Stekolnikov, A A; Stanyukovich, M K; Gnophanxay, S; Tikhonov, A N

    2011-04-01

    Arthropod symbiotes of the Laotian rock-rat, Laonastes aenigmamus (Rodentia:Diatomyidae), from Laos are examined. This host is a member of Diatomyidae previously thought to have gone extinct >10 million yr ago. Permanent symbiotes are represented by 2 species, a new species of sucking louse, Polyplax sp., near rhizomydis (Phthiraptera:Polyplacidae), and a new species of fur mite, Afrolistrophorus sp., near maculatus (Acariformes:Listrophoridae). The temporary parasites are represented by 18 species, i.e., 1 mesostigmatan species, i.e., a new species of Androlaelaps near casalis (Parasitiformes:Laelapidae); immature stages of 2 tick species, Ixodes granulatus and Haemaphysalis sp. (Parasitiformes:Ixodidae); and a rich fauna of chiggers (Acariformes:Trombiculidae) comprising 8 genera and 15 species. It is hypothesized that this host completely lost its initial fauna of ectosymbiotes and that ancestors of the recorded symbiotes switched to this host from rodents of the superfamily Muroidea.

  10. Dynamic task allocation for a man-machine symbiotic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, L. E.; Pin, F. G.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents a methodological approach to the dynamic allocation of tasks in a man-machine symbiotic system in the context of dexterous manipulation and teleoperation. This report addresses a symbiotic system containing two symbiotic partners which work toward controlling a single manipulator arm for the execution of a series of sequential manipulation tasks. It is proposed that an automated task allocator use knowledge about the constraints/criteria of the problem, the available resources, the tasks to be performed, and the environment to dynamically allocate task recommendations for the man and the machine. The presentation of the methodology includes discussions concerning the interaction of the knowledge areas, the flow of control, the necessary communication links, and the replanning of the task allocation. Examples of task allocation are presented to illustrate the results of this methodolgy.

  11. [Significance of hydrobiont persistent properties for symbiotic interactions].

    PubMed

    Nemtseva, N V

    2012-01-01

    Significance of symbiotic relations formed by associative symbiosis type for autochthonous and allochthonous microflora of natural water bodies is shown. Generality of symbiotic interaction mechanisms of symbionts in limnetic and halophilous communities provided by secreted factors of natural resistance from the side of the host, and by factors of persistence from the side of symbionts is proven based on a set of examples. Features of operation of lysozyme-antilysozyme, histon-antihiston, hydrogen peroxide-catalase functional systems in symbiotic interactions of autotrophic and heterotrophic components of hydrobiocenosis with dominant and associative microflora are presented. Associative microflora of allochthonous origin was shown to actively use the ecologically formed system of interaction between hydrobionts that facilitates survival of these microorganisms and preservation of their persistent potential, and as a result leads to biocenosis disorders. The knowledge obtained open new possibilities and perspectives of research of sanitary and ecological aspects of vital activity of aquatic biocenoses. PMID:22937711

  12. Formation of broad Balmer wings in symbiotic stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Seok-Jun; Heo, Jeong-Eun; Hong, Chae-Lin; Lee, Hee-Won

    2016-07-01

    Symbiotic stars are binary systems composed of a hot white dwarf and a mass losing giant. In addition to many prominent emission lines symbiotic stars exhibit Raman scattered O VI features at 6825 and 7088 Å. Another notable feature present in the spectra of many symbiotics is the broad wings around Balmer lines. Astrophysical mechanisms that can produce broad wings include Thomson scattering by free electrons and Raman scattering of Ly,β and higher series by neutral hydrogen. In this poster presentation we produce broad wings around Hα and H,β adopting a Monte Carlo techinique in order to make a quantitative comparison of these two mechanisms. Thomson wings are characterized by the exponential cutoff given by the termal width whereas the Raman wings are dependent on the column density and continuum shape in the far UV region. A brief discussion is provided.

  13. Symbiotic relationship of Thiothrix spp. with an echinoderm

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R.L.; De Ridder, C.

    1998-09-01

    Thiothrix-like bacteria have been reported as symbionts in invertebrates from sulfide-rich habitats. Isolation of these symbiotic Thiothrix-like bacteria has failed, and the organisms have not been previously identified with certainty. The genus Thiothrix was created for ensheathed filamentous bacteria that oxidize sulfide and deposit sulfur granules internally, attach to substrates, produce gliding gonidia, and form rosettes. Immunoassay procedures were used to investigate the symbiotic relationship of Thiothrix spp. in the intestinal cecum of the spatangoid species Echinocardium cordatum. Thiothrix spp. were identified in nodule samples from E. cordatum digestive tubes based on microscopic examination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and indirect immunofluorescence. Thiothrix spp. protein made up as much as 84% of the total protein content of the nodules. This is the first identification of Thiothrix spp. internally symbiotic with marine invertebrates.

  14. Morphological and genetic diversity of symbiotic cyanobacteria from cycads.

    PubMed

    Thajuddin, Nooruddin; Muralitharan, Gangatharan; Sundaramoorthy, Mariappan; Ramamoorthy, Rengasamy; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Akbarsha, Mohamed Abdulkadar; Gunasekaran, Muthukumaran

    2010-06-01

    The morphological and genetic diversity of cyanobacteria associated with cycads was examined using PCR amplification techniques and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Eighteen symbiotic cyanobacteria were isolated from different cycad species. One of the symbiotic isolates was a species of Calothrix, a genus not previously reported to form symbioses with Cycadaceae family, and the remainder were Nostoc spp. Axenic cyanobacterial strains were compared by DNA amplification using PCR with either short arbitrary primers or primers specific for the repetitive sequences. Based on fingerprint patterns and phenograms, it was revealed that cyanobacterial symbionts exhibit important genetic diversity among host plants, both within and between cycad populations. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that most of the symbiotic cyanobacterial isolates fell into well-separated clades. PMID:20473963

  15. Morphological and genetic diversity of symbiotic cyanobacteria from cycads.

    PubMed

    Thajuddin, Nooruddin; Muralitharan, Gangatharan; Sundaramoorthy, Mariappan; Ramamoorthy, Rengasamy; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Akbarsha, Mohamed Abdulkadar; Gunasekaran, Muthukumaran

    2010-06-01

    The morphological and genetic diversity of cyanobacteria associated with cycads was examined using PCR amplification techniques and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Eighteen symbiotic cyanobacteria were isolated from different cycad species. One of the symbiotic isolates was a species of Calothrix, a genus not previously reported to form symbioses with Cycadaceae family, and the remainder were Nostoc spp. Axenic cyanobacterial strains were compared by DNA amplification using PCR with either short arbitrary primers or primers specific for the repetitive sequences. Based on fingerprint patterns and phenograms, it was revealed that cyanobacterial symbionts exhibit important genetic diversity among host plants, both within and between cycad populations. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that most of the symbiotic cyanobacterial isolates fell into well-separated clades.

  16. Symbiotic fungal associations in 'lower' land plants.

    PubMed Central

    Read, D J; Ducket, J G; Francis, R; Ligron, R; Russell, A

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of the current state of knowledge of symbiotic fungal associations in 'lower' plants is provided. Three fungal phyla, the Zygomycota, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, are involved in forming these associations, each producing a distinctive suite of structural features in well-defined groups of 'lower' plants. Among the 'lower' plants only mosses and Equisetum appear to lack one or other of these types of association. The salient features of the symbioses produced by each fungal group are described and the relationships between these associations and those formed by the same or related fungi in 'higher' plants are discussed. Particular consideration is given to the question of the extent to which root fungus associations in 'lower' plants are analogous to 'mycorrhizas' of 'higher' plants and the need for analysis of the functional attributes of these symbioses is stressed. Zygomycetous fungi colonize a wide range of extant lower land plants (hornworts, many hepatics, lycopods, Ophioglossales, Psilotales and Gleicheniaceae), where they often produce structures analogous to those seen in the vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizas of higher plants, which are formed by members of the order Glomales. A preponderance of associations of this kind is in accordance with palaeohbotanical and molecular evidence indicating that glomalean fungi produced the archetypal symbioses with the first plants to emerge on to land. It is shown, probably for the first time, that glomalean fungi forming typical VA mycorrhiza with a higher plant (Plantago lanceolata) can colonize a thalloid liverwort (Pellia epiphylla), producing arbuscules and vesicles in the hepatic. The extent to which these associations, which are structurally analogous to mycorrhizas, have similar functions remains to be evaluated. Ascomycetous associations are found in a relatively small number of families of leafy liverworts. The structural features of the fungal colonization of rhizoids and underground axes of

  17. Termite digestomes as a potential source of symbiotic microbiota for lignocelluloses degradation: a review.

    PubMed

    Wong, L J; H'ng, P S; Wong, S Y; Lee, S H; Lum, W C; Chai, E W; Wong, W Z; Chin, K L

    2014-08-01

    Termites thrive in great abundance in terrestrial ecosystems and the symbiotic gut microbiota play important roles in digestion of lignocelluloses and nitrogen metabolism. Termites are excellent models of biocatalysts as they inhabit dense microbes in their guts that produce digestive enzymes to decompose lignocelluloses and convert it to end products such as sugars, hydrogen, and acetate. Different of digestive system between lower and higher termites which lower termites dependent on their dual decomposing system, consisting of termite's own cellulases and gut's protists. Higher termites decompose cellulose using their own enzymes, because of the absence of symbiotic protists. Termite gut prokaryotes efficiently support lignocelluloses degradation. In this review, a brief overview of recent experimental works, development and commercialization is discussed. Significant progress has been made to isolate cellulolytic strains from termites and optimise the digestion efficiency of cellulose. Future perspective should emphasize the isolation of cellulolytic strains from termites, genetically modifying or immobilization of the microbes which produce the desired enzyme and thus benefits on the microbiology and biotechnology.

  18. Effect of Subliminal Stimulation of Symbiotic Fantasies on Behavior Modification Treatment of Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Silverman, Lloyd H.

    1978-01-01

    Obese women were treated in behavior modification programs for overeating. Behavior programs were accompanied by subliminal stimulation and by symbiotic and control messages. The symbiotic condition gave evidence of enhancing weight loss. This finding supports the proposition that subliminal stimulation of symbiotic fantasies can enhance the…

  19. SYMBIOTIC STAR BLOWS BUBBLES INTO SPACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A tempestuous relationship between an unlikely pair of stars may have created an oddly shaped, gaseous nebula that resembles an hourglass nestled within an hourglass. Images taken with Earth-based telescopes have shown the larger, hourglass-shaped nebula. But this picture, taken with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, reveals a small, bright nebula embedded in the center of the larger one (close-up of nebula in inset). Astronomers have dubbed the entire nebula the 'Southern Crab Nebula' (He2-104), because, from ground-based telescopes, it looks like the body and legs of a crab. The nebula is several light-years long. The possible creators of these shapes cannot be seen at all in this Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 image. It's a pair of aging stars buried in the glow of the tiny, central nebula. One of them is a red giant, a bloated star that is exhausting its nuclear fuel and is shedding its outer layers in a powerful stellar wind. Its companion is a hot, white dwarf, a stellar zombie of a burned-out star. This odd duo of a red giant and a white dwarf is called a symbiotic system. The red giant is also a Mira Variable, a pulsating red giant, that is far away from its partner. It could take as much as 100 years for the two to orbit around each other. Astronomers speculate that the interaction between these two stars may have sparked episodic outbursts of material, creating the gaseous bubbles that form the nebula. They interact by playing a celestial game of 'catch': as the red giant throws off its bulk in a powerful stellar wind, the white dwarf catches some of it. As a result, an accretion disk of material forms around the white dwarf and spirals onto its hot surface. Gas continues to build up on the surface until it sparks an eruption, blowing material into space. This explosive event may have happened twice in the 'Southern Crab.' Astronomers speculate that the hourglass-shaped nebulae represent two separate outbursts that occurred several thousand years apart

  20. The prototype symbiotic star AX Per is in outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munari, U.; Dallaporta, S.; Righetti, G. L.; Castellani, F.; Cherini, G.

    2014-08-01

    The prototype symbiotic star AX Per is in outburst. This is the third such event in the current series of outbursts, the previous two peaking at V=10.41 on 2009 May 26 and at V=10.03 on 2012 Aug 28, according to ANS Collaboration intensive monitoring.

  1. Discovery in IC10 of the farthest known symbiotic star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Denise R.; Magrini, Laura; Munari, Ulisse; Corradi, Romano L. M.; Costa, Roberto D. D.

    2008-11-01

    We report the discovery of the first known symbiotic star in IC10, a starburst galaxy belonging to the Local Group, at a distance of ~750 kpc. The symbiotic star was identified during a survey of emission-line objects. It shines at V = 24.62 +/- 0.04,V - RC = 2.77 +/- 0.05 and RC - IC = 2.39 +/- 0.02, and suffers from EB- V = 0.85 +/- 0.05 reddening. The spectrum of the cool component well matches that of solar neighbourhood M8III giants. The observed emission lines belong to Balmer series, [SII], [NII] and [OIII]. They suggest a low electronic density, negligible optical depth effects and 35000 < Teff < 90000 K for the ionizing source. The spectrum of the new symbiotic star in IC10 is an almost perfect copy of that of Hen 2-147, a well-known Galactic symbiotic star and Mira. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership. We also retrieved UBVRI images of the `Survey of Local Group Galaxies Currently Forming Stars', Massey et al. (2007). E-mail: denise@ov.ufrj.br

  2. Nodulation outer proteins: double-edged swords of symbiotic rhizobia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizobia are nitrogen-fixing bacteria that establish a nodule symbiosis with legumes. Nodule formation is the result of a complex bacterial infection process, which depends on signals and surface determinants produced by both symbiotic partners. Among them, rhizobial nodulation outer proteins (Nops)...

  3. Characteristics of the hot components of symbiotic stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burmeister, Mari

    2010-08-01

    Symbiotic stars are interacting binaries whose components are a red giant and a small hot star, usually a white dwarf. The intensive stellar wind from the giant is captured by the companion, giving rise to strong emission lines in the spectra and a range of phenomena, which may include the formation of an accretion disk and the ejection of collimated jets. In this thesis, four symbiotic stars, as different as possible, were chosen for a spectral investigation of the symbiotic phenomenon. Of those, Z Andromedae is a so-called classical symbiotic star with a hot companion that shows a characteristic pattern of brightenings (outbursts). AG Draconis is a bright system like Z Andromedae and shows similar activity, but has an unusually hot yellow donor star. CH Cygni and EG Andromedae have, on the contrary, relatively dim white dwarfs. The former shows irregular outbursts, the origin of which is not easy to explain, the latter is one of the quiet symbiotic stars with no outburst yet recorded. Each of those four stars was observed for at least ten years with the 1.5-m telescope at Tartu Observatory. Several outbursts of Z Andromedae and AG Draconis were witnessed, as well as substantial changes in the CH Cygni spectra. The perhaps most surprising result was the discovery of collimated jets in Z Andromedae spectra on two instances, an event never observed in this star before. In CH Cygni, evidence for the existence of an accretion disk in 1998 was discovered. EG Andromedae stayed quiet and the only changes in its spectra could be ascribed to orbital motion. We found that not all the outbursts of Z Andromedae and AG Draconis are accompanied by similar changes in the spectra: during some brightenings the stars become hotter, during some, cooler. The existence of the disk in CH Cygni in 1998 affirms that the formation of such a structure is possible in symbiotic stars. Moreover, as the ejection of jets is associated to an accretion disk, the jets in Z Andromedae can also be

  4. Molecular and biochemical analysis of symbiotic plant receptor kinase complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Douglas R; Riely, Brendan K

    2010-09-01

    DE-FG02-01ER15200 was a 36-month project, initiated on Sept 1, 2005 and extended with a one-year no cost extension to August 31, 2009. During the project period we published seven manuscripts (2 in review). Including the prior project period (2002-2005) we published 12 manuscripts in journals that include Science, PNAS, The Plant Cell, Plant Journal, Plant Physiology, and MPMI. The primary focus of this work was to further elucidate the function of the Nod factor signaling pathway that is involved in initiation of the legume-rhizobium symbiosis and in particular to explore the relationship between receptor kinase-like proteins and downstream effectors of symbiotic development. During the project period we have map-base cloned two additional players in symbiotic development, including an ERF transcription factor and an ethylene pathway gene (EIN2) that negatively regulates symbiotic signaling; we have also further characterized the subcellular distribution and function of a nuclear-localized symbiosis-specific ion channel, DMI1. The major outcome of the work has been the development of systems for exploring and validating protein-protein interactions that connect symbiotic receptor-like proteins to downstream responses. In this regard, we have developed both homologous (i.e., in planta) and heterologous (i.e., in yeast) systems to test protein interactions. Using yeast 2-hybrid screens we isolated the only known interactor of the nuclear-localized calcium-responsive kinase DMI3. We have also used yeast 2-hybrid methodology to identify interactions between symbiotic signaling proteins and certain RopGTPase/RopGEF proteins that regulate root hair polar growth. More important to the long-term goals of our work, we have established a TAP tagging system that identifies in planta interactions based on co-immuno precipitation and mass spectrometry. The validity of this approach has been shown using known interactors that either co-iummnoprecipate (i.e., remorin) or co

  5. Genome-wide association analysis of diverse soybean genotypes reveals novel markers for nitrogen traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen is a primary plant nutrient that plays a major role in achieving maximum economic yield. Insufficient availability most often limits soybean crop growth. Symbiotic N2 fixation in soybean is highly sensitive to limited water availability, and breeding for reduced N2 fixation sensitivity to ...

  6. An Analysis on a Negotiation Model Based on Multiagent Systems with Symbiotic Learning and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Md. Tofazzal

    This study explores an evolutionary analysis on a negotiation model based on Masbiole (Multiagent Systems with Symbiotic Learning and Evolution) which has been proposed as a new methodology of Multiagent Systems (MAS) based on symbiosis in the ecosystem. In Masbiole, agents evolve in consideration of not only their own benefits and losses, but also the benefits and losses of opponent agents. To aid effective application of Masbiole, we develop a competitive negotiation model where rigorous and advanced intelligent decision-making mechanisms are required for agents to achieve solutions. A Negotiation Protocol is devised aiming at developing a set of rules for agents' behavior during evolution. Simulations use a newly developed evolutionary computing technique, called Genetic Network Programming (GNP) which has the directed graph-type gene structure that can develop and design the required intelligent mechanisms for agents. In a typical scenario, competitive negotiation solutions are reached by concessions that are usually predetermined in the conventional MAS. In this model, however, not only concession is determined automatically by symbiotic evolution (making the system intelligent, automated, and efficient) but the solution also achieves Pareto optimal automatically.

  7. Simulations of the Symbiotic Recurrent Nova V407 CYG. I. Accretion and Shock Evolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Kuo-Chuan; Ricker, Paul M.; Taam, Ronald E.

    2015-06-01

    The shock interaction and evolution of nova ejecta with wind from a red giant (RG) star in a symbiotic binary system are investigated via three-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations. We specifically model the 2010 March outburst of the symbiotic recurrent nova V407 Cygni from its quiescent phase to its eruption phase. The circumstellar density enhancement due to wind-white-dwarf interaction is studied in detail. It is found that the density-enhancement efficiency depends on the ratio of the orbital speed to the RG wind speed. Unlike another recurrent nova, RS Ophiuchi, we do not observe a strong disk-like density enhancement, but instead observe an aspherical density distribution with ˜20% higher density in the equatorial plane than at the poles. To model the 2010 outburst, we consider several physical parameters, including the RG mass-loss rate, nova eruption energy, and ejecta mass. A detailed study of the shock interaction and evolution reveals that the interaction of shocks with the RG wind generates strong Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. In addition, the presence of the companion and circumstellar density enhancement greatly alter the shock evolution during the nova phase. Depending on the model, the ejecta speed after sweeping out most of the circumstellar medium decreases to ˜100-300 km s-1, which is consistent with the observed extended redward emission in [N ii] lines in 2011 April.

  8. Formation of photosystem II reaction centers that work as energy sinks in lichen symbiotic Trebouxiophyceae microalgae.

    PubMed

    Guéra, Alfredo; Gasulla, Francisco; Barreno, Eva

    2016-04-01

    Lichens are poikilohydric symbiotic organisms that can survive in the absence of water. Photosynthesis must be highly regulated in these organisms, which live under continuous desiccation-rehydration cycles, to avoid photooxidative damage. Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence induction curves in the lichen microalgae of the Trebouxiophyceae Asterochloris erici and in Trebouxia jamesii (TR1) and Trebouxia sp. (TR9) phycobionts, isolated from the lichen Ramalina farinacea, shows differences with higher plants. In the presence of the photosynthetic electron transport inhibitor DCMU, the kinetics of Q(A) reduction is related to variable fluorescence by a sigmoidal function that approaches a horizontal asymptote. An excellent fit to these curves was obtained by applying a model based on the following assumptions: (1) after closure, the reaction centers (RCs) can be converted into "energy sink" centers (sRCs); (2) the probability of energy leaving the sRCs is very low or zero and (3) energy is not transferred from the antenna of PSII units with sRCs to other PSII units. The formation of sRCs units is also induced by repetitive light saturating pulses or at the transition from dark to light and probably requires the accumulation of reduced Q(A), as well as structural changes in the reaction centers of PSII. This type of energy sink would provide a very efficient way to protect symbiotic microalgae against abrupt changes in light intensity.

  9. Physiological limitations and the genetic improvement of symbiotic nitrogen fixation

    SciTech Connect

    Gara, F.O.; Manian, S. ); Drevon, J.J. )

    1988-01-01

    The rhizobium legume symbiosis continues to be of strategic importance particularly in the context of food production. As the world population grows, it is necessary that new developments take place in crop improvement. The development and application of new technologies in biological sciences over past years has made the entire area of plant-microbial interaction an exciting and challenging research area to be involved in. In view of the importance of symbiotic nitrogen fixation, it is not surprising that it still represents one of the priority areas for commercial development in agricultural biotechnology. Since this symbiosis involves an association between procaryotic and eucaryhotic partners, it requires of necessity a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach. This book focuses on physiological limitations affecting symbiotic nitrogen fixation and the potential for overcoming such limitations by using genetic technologies.

  10. Concept evaluation of nuclear fusion driven symbiotic energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renier, J. P.; Hoffman, T. J.

    An analysis of systems based on D-T and semi-catalyzed D-D fusion-powered U233 breeders is presented. Metallic thorium pebble-bed blankets with a batch reprocessing mode and a molten salt blanket with on-line continuous or batch reprocessing were used. Neutronics depletion calculations are coupled with a scenario optimization and a cost analysis code. The fusion-driven symbiotes are compared with LMFBR-driven energy systems. The analyses of the symbiotic energy systems were performed at equilibrium, at the maximum rate of grid expansion and for a given nuclear power demand. Attractive schemes are identified based on D-T driven fusion-drivers operated with low plasma performance parameters.

  11. Spectrophotometric observations of symbiotic stars and related objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, W. P.; Feibelman, W. A.; Michalitsianos, A. G.; Stencel, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Calibrated optical spectrophotometric observations of 16 symbiotic and symbiotic-like objects are presented. The objects observed include Z And, T CrB, CH Cyg, CI Cyg, V1016 Cyg, V1329 Cyg, AG Dra, YY Her, RS Oph, XX Oph, AG Peg, AX Per, CL Sco, HM Sge, AS 289, and M1-2. Integrated emission-line intensities are tabulated for comparison with ultraviolet and infrared data, as well as with previous optical studies. The reddening to each of the objects is derived by assuming that Balmer lines are emitted in their case B recombination ratios. However, the values so derived are often systematically higher than reddening estimates from the ultraviolet 2200 A feature. Comparisons with the available data from other wavelength ranges are noted.

  12. Leguminous plants: inventors of root nodules to accommodate symbiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Suzaki, Takuya; Yoro, Emiko; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Legumes and a few other plant species can establish a symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia, which enables them to survive in a nitrogen-deficient environment. During the course of nodulation, infection with rhizobia induces the dedifferentiation of host cells to form primordia of a symbiotic organ, the nodule, which prepares plants to accommodate rhizobia in host cells. While these nodulation processes are known to be genetically controlled by both plants and rhizobia, recent advances in studies on two model legumes, Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula, have provided great insight into the underlying plant-side molecular mechanism. In this chapter, we review such knowledge, with particular emphasis on two key processes of nodulation, nodule development and rhizobial invasion.

  13. Ultraviolet observations of the symbiotic star AS 296

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutierrez-Moreno, A.; Moreno, H.; Feibelman, W. A.

    1992-01-01

    AS 296 is a well-known S-type symbiotic star which underwent an optical outburst during 1988. In this paper, UV data based on IUE observations obtained both during the quiescent and outburst stages are presented and discussed, correlating them to observations made in the optical region. It is concluded that the object is a symbiotic nova, in which the outburst is due to a thermonuclear runaway produced in the hydrogen-burning shell of a white dwarf with M of about 0.5 solar masses, accreting from the late-type giant at a rate M(acc) of about 9.7 x 10 exp -9 solar mass/year. It is not possible to determine from the observations if the hydrogen flash is degenerate or nondegenerate.

  14. Sequence evidence for the symbiotic origins of chloroplasts and mitochondria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, D. G.; Hunt, L. T.; Dayhoff, M. O.

    1983-01-01

    The origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts is investigated on the basis of prokaryotic and early-eukaryotic evolutionary trees derived from protein and nucleic-acid sequences by the method of Dayhoff (1979). Trees for bacterial ferrodoxins, 5S ribosomal RNA, c-type cytochromes, the lipid-binding subunit of ATPase, and dihydrofolate reductase are presented and discussed. Good agreement among the trees is found, and it is argued that the mitochondria and chloroplasts evolved by multiple symbiotic events.

  15. Symbiotically integrated organic recycling/renewable energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hamburg, R.A.

    1983-06-01

    Two operating systems designed for the integrated recycling of organic materials and production of renewable energy are described. Both systems include the Chinese design, water-pressure biogas digesters, a solar greenhouse and algae/aquatic plant ponds, all in passive symbiotic relationships with a minimum of high technology sophistication. A discussion of fish ponds and fuel alcohol production is also included since they offer many possibilities for expanded integration.

  16. Outburst Activity of the Symbiotic System AG Dra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gális, R.; Hric, L.; Leedjärv, L.; Kundra, E.

    2015-07-01

    AG Dra is one of the best studied symbiotic systems. A period analysis of new and historical photometric data, as well as radial velocities, confirmed the presence of the two periods — about 550 days, caused by orbital motion, and around 350 days, related to pulsations of the cool component of AG Dra. In addition, the active stages change distinctively, but the outbursts recur with periods from 359 to 375 days.

  17. A rhizobium leguminosarum mutant defective in symbiotic iron acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Nadler, K.D.; Chen, Jing-Wen; John, T.R. ); Johnston, A.W.B. )

    1990-02-01

    Iron acquisition by symbiotic Rhizobium spp. is essential for nitrogen fixation in the legume root nodule symbiosis. Rhizobium leguminosarum 116, an ineffective mutant strain with a defect in iron acquisition, was isolated after nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis of the effective strain 1062. The pop-1 mutation in strain 116 imparted to it a complex phenotype, characteristic of iron deficiency. Several iron(III)-solubilizing agents, such as citrate, hydroxyquinoline, and dihydroxybenzoate, stimulated growth of 116 on low-iron solid medium; anthranilic acid, the R. leguminosarum siderophore, inhibited low-iron growth of 116. The initial rate of {sup 55}Fe uptake by suspensions of iron-starved 116 cells was 10-fold less than that of iron-starved wild-type cells. Electron microscopic observations revealed no morphological abnormalities in the small, white nodules induced by 116. Nodule cortical cells were filled with vesicles containing apparently normal bacteroids. No premature degeneration of bacteroids or of plant cell organelles was evident. The authors mapped pop-1 by R plasmid-mediated conjugation and recombination to the ade-27-rib-2 region of the R. leguminosarum chromosome. No segregation of pop-1 and the symbiotic defect was observed among the recombinants from these crosses. Cosmid pKN1, a pLAFR1 derivative containing a 24-kilobase-pair fragment of R. leguminosarum DNA, conferred on 116 the ability to grow on dipyridyl medium and to fix nitrogen symbiotically.

  18. Symbiotic regulation of plant growth, development and reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, R.J.; Freeman, D. Carl; McArthur, E.D.; Kim, Y.-O.; Redman, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    The growth and development of rice (Oryzae sativa) seedlings was shown to be regulated epigenetically by a fungal endophyte. In contrast to un-inoculated (nonsymbiotic) plants, endophyte colonized (symbiotic) plants preferentially allocated resources into root growth until root hairs were well established. During that time symbiotic roots expanded at five times the rate observed in nonsymbiotic plants. Endophytes also influenced sexual reproduction of mature big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) plants. Two spatially distinct big sagebrush subspecies and their hybrids were symbiotic with unique fungal endophytes, despite being separated by only 380 m distance and 60 m elevation. A double reciprocal transplant experiment of parental and hybrid plants, and soils across the hybrid zone showed that fungal endophytes interact with the soils and different plant genotypes to confer enhanced plant reproduction in soil native to the endophyte and reduced reproduction in soil alien to the endophyte. Moreover, the most prevalent endophyte of the hybrid zone reduced the fitness of both parental subspecies. Because these endophytes are passed to the next generation of plants on seed coats, this interaction provides a selective advantage, habitat specificity, and the means of restricting gene flow, thereby making the hybrid zone stable, narrow and potentially leading to speciation. ?? 2009 Landes Bioscience.

  19. [A psychotic symbiotic child. Clinical and psychopathological study].

    PubMed

    Ledoux, M H

    1993-01-01

    Through the case study of a psychotic girl, we have tried to outline the psychotic mechanisms involved in this mental functioning. Anxieties of an autistic type have been found, as well as anxieties of a more psychotic type (i.e. symbiotic and schizophrenic). Characteristics of this psychotic functioning were: omnipotence, primitive identification mechanisms, fragmenting separation anxiety, search for sameness and for a low of identical repetition, difficulties in accessing to symbolism. Difficulties in defusion from the symbiotic object and the potential role played by this object in the difficulties are noteworthy. But it is not possible to conceptualize them in terms of direct causal relationship, because the object has also a counterphobic function and compensates for the void of subject as well as for the dissolution of the self. Also present is a schizoparanoïd aspect, with a temptation to cuddle inside the object. The sudden breaking through of informations or requirements from reality provokes surprise, panic reactions and retirement from the objectal world. Otherness triggers psychic pain and vacillation of symbiotic bounds. Thus the avoidance of, and retirement from, reality and the recourse to delusional thinking, especially when attempts to controlling with a rigid system are failing and deceiving. Threats of intrusion and loss of control are experienced as a threat of fragmentation and dissolution of the psyche. Far less threatening to the subject's internal balance is the policy of rigidly maintaining sameness and cuddling inside the object. PMID:7689733

  20. Cellulolytic activity and structure of symbiotic bacteria in locust guts.

    PubMed

    Su, L-J; Liu, H; Li, Y; Zhang, H-F; Chen, M; Gao, X-H; Wang, F-Q; Song, A-D

    2014-01-01

    Locusts are able to digest the cellulose of Gramineae plants, resulting in their being considered as major crop pests. To illustrate the mechanism involved in cellulose digestion, the cellulolytic activity and zymography in the gut contents of 16 locust species were determined using carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as substrate. The diversity of gut symbiotic bacteria was studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The results showed that high CMC activity was present in Acrididae gut fluid (mean 356.4 U/g proteins). Of the 5 locust species, Oxya chinensis had the highest diversity of intestinal symbiotic bacteria, characterized by the DGGE profile containing more than 20 bands of 16S rRNA. Klebsiella pneumoniae, in the gut of Locusta migratoria manilensis, was identified as the most abundant symbiotic bacterium by DNA sequencing, with a relative abundance of 19.74%. In comparison, Methylobacterium sp was the most dominant species in the Atractomorpha sinensis gut, with a relative abundance of 29.04%. The results indicated that the cellulolytic enzymes and gut microbial communities probably reflected their phylogenetic relationship with different locust species and associated feeding strategies. PMID:25299108

  1. Chemical Abundance Analysis of the Symbiotic Red Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galan, Cezary; Mikolajewska, Joanna; Hinkle, Kenneth H.

    2015-01-01

    The study of symbiotic stars - the long period, interacting binary systems - composed of red giant donor and a hot, compact companion is important for our understanding of binary stellar evolution in systems where mass loss or transfer take place involving RGB/AGB stars. The elemental abundances of symbiotic giants can track the mass exchange history and can determine their parent stellar population. However, the number of these objects with fairly well determined photospheric composition is insufficient for statistical considerations. Here we present the detailed chemical abundance analysis obtained for the first time for 14 M-type symbiotic giants. The analysis is based on the high resolution (R ˜ 50000), high S/N ˜ 100, near-IR spectra (at H- and K-band regions) obtained with Phoenix/Gemini South spectrometer. Spectrum synthesis employing standard LTE analysis and atmosphere models was used to obtain photospheric abundances of CNO and elements around the iron peak (Sc, Ti, Fe, and Ni). Our analysis reveals mostly slightly sub-solar or near-solar metallicities. We obtained significantly subsolar metallicities for RW Hya, RT Ser, and Hen 3-1213 and slightly super-solar metallicity in V455 Sco. The very low ^{12}C/^{13}C isotopic ratios, ˜6-11, and significant enrichment in nitrogen ^{14}N isotope in almost all giants in our sample indicate that they have experienced the first dredge-up.

  2. Cellulolytic activity and structure of symbiotic bacteria in locust guts.

    PubMed

    Su, L-J; Liu, H; Li, Y; Zhang, H-F; Chen, M; Gao, X-H; Wang, F-Q; Song, A-D

    2014-01-01

    Locusts are able to digest the cellulose of Gramineae plants, resulting in their being considered as major crop pests. To illustrate the mechanism involved in cellulose digestion, the cellulolytic activity and zymography in the gut contents of 16 locust species were determined using carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as substrate. The diversity of gut symbiotic bacteria was studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The results showed that high CMC activity was present in Acrididae gut fluid (mean 356.4 U/g proteins). Of the 5 locust species, Oxya chinensis had the highest diversity of intestinal symbiotic bacteria, characterized by the DGGE profile containing more than 20 bands of 16S rRNA. Klebsiella pneumoniae, in the gut of Locusta migratoria manilensis, was identified as the most abundant symbiotic bacterium by DNA sequencing, with a relative abundance of 19.74%. In comparison, Methylobacterium sp was the most dominant species in the Atractomorpha sinensis gut, with a relative abundance of 29.04%. The results indicated that the cellulolytic enzymes and gut microbial communities probably reflected their phylogenetic relationship with different locust species and associated feeding strategies.

  3. Phase diagram of the symbiotic two-species contact process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Marcelo Martins; Dickman, Ronald

    2014-09-01

    We study the two-species symbiotic contact process, recently proposed by de Oliveira, Santos, and Dickman [Phys. Rev. E 86, 011121 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevE.86.011121]. In this model, each site of a lattice may be vacant or host single individuals of species A and/or B. Individuals at sites with both species present interact in a symbiotic manner, having a reduced death rate μ <1. Otherwise, the dynamics follows the rules of the basic contact process, with individuals reproducing to vacant neighbor sites at rate λ and dying at a rate of unity. We determine the full phase diagram in the λ-μ plane in one and two dimensions by means of exact numerical quasistationary distributions, cluster approximations, and Monte Carlo simulations. We also study the effects of asymmetric creation rates and diffusion of individuals. In two dimensions, for sufficiently strong symbiosis (i.e., small μ), the absorbing-state phase transition becomes discontinuous for diffusion rates D within a certain range. We report preliminary results on the critical surface and tricritical line in the λ-μ-D space. Our results raise the possibility that strongly symbiotic associations of mobile species may be vulnerable to sudden extinction under increasingly adverse conditions.

  4. The Symbiotic System SS73 17 seen with Suzaku

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Randall K.; Mushotzky, Richard; Kallman, Tim; Tueller, Jack; Mukai, Koji; Markwardt, Craig

    2007-01-01

    We observed with Suzaku the symbiotic star SS73 17, motivated by the discovery by the INTEGRAL satellite and the Swift BAT survey that it emits hard X-rays. Our observations showed a highly-absorbed X-ray spectrum with NH > loz3 emp2, equivalent to Av > 26, although the source has B magnitude 11.3 and is also bright in UV. The source also shows strong, narrow iron lines including fluorescent Fe K as well as Fe xxv and Fe XXVI. The X-ray spectrum can be fit with a thermal model including an absorption component that partially covers the source. Most of the equivalent width of the iron fluorescent line in this model can be explained as a combination of reprocessing in a dense absorber plus reflection off a white dwarf surface, but it is likely that the continuum is partially seen in reflection as well. Unlike other symbiotic systems that show hard X-ray emission (CH Cyg, RT Cru, T CrB, GX1+4), SS73 17 is not known to have shown nova-like optical variability, X-ray flashes, or pulsations, and has always shown faint soft X-ray emission. As a result, although it is likely a white dwarf, the nature of the compact object in SS73 17 is still uncertain. SS73 17 is probably an extreme example of the recently discovered and relatively small class of hard X-ray emitting symbiotic systems.

  5. Job planning and execution monitoring for a human-robot symbiotic system

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.

    1989-11-01

    The human-robot symbiosis concept has the fundamental objective of bridging the gap between fully human-controlled and fully autonomous systems to achieve true human-robot cooperative control and intelligence. Such a system would allow improved speed, accuracy, and efficiency of task execution, while retaining the human in the loop for innovative reasoning and decision-making. Earlier research has resulted in the development of a robotic system architecture facilitating the symbiotic integration of teleoperative and automated modes of task execution. This architecture reflects a unique blend of many disciplines of artificial intelligence into a working system, including job or mission planning, dynamic task allocation, human-robot communication, automated monitoring, and machine learning. This report focuses on two elements of this architecture: the Job Planner and the Automated Monitor. 17 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Symbiotic hollow fiber membrane photobioreactor for microalgal growth and bacterial wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Vu, Linh T K; Loh, Kai-Chee

    2016-11-01

    A hollow fiber membrane photobioreactor (HFMP) for microalgal growth and bacterial wastewater treatment was developed. C. vulgaris culture was circulated through one side of the HFMP and P. putida culture was circulated through the other. A symbiotic relationship was demonstrated as reflected by the photo-autotrophic growth of C. vulgaris using CO2 provided by P. putida and biodegradation of 500mg/L glucose by P. putida utilizing photosynthetic O2 produced by C. vulgaris. Performance of the HFMP was significantly enhanced when the microalgal culture was circulated through the lumen side of the HFMP: the average percentage of glucose degraded per 8-h cycle was as high as 98% and microalgal biomass productivity was increased by 69% compared to the reversed orientation. Enhanced glucose biodegradation was achieved in an HFMP packed with more fibers indicating the easy scalability of the HFMP for increased wastewater treatment efficiency. PMID:27497087

  7. Symbiotic digestion of lignocellulose in termite guts.

    PubMed

    Brune, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    Their ability to degrade lignocellulose gives termites an important place in the carbon cycle. This ability relies on their partnership with a diverse community of bacterial, archaeal and eukaryotic gut symbionts, which break down the plant fibre and ferment the products to acetate and variable amounts of methane, with hydrogen as a central intermediate. In addition, termites rely on the biosynthetic capacities of their gut microbiota as a nutritional resource. The mineralization of humus components in the guts of soil-feeding species also contributes to nitrogen cycling in tropical soils. Lastly, the high efficiency of their minute intestinal bioreactors makes termites promising models for the industrial conversion of lignocellulose into microbial products and the production of biofuels.

  8. Large-subunit ribosomal RNA systematics of symbiotic dinoflagellates: morphology does not recapitulate phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, T P

    1998-12-01

    Biochemical, histological, physiological, and genetic evidence indicates that dinoflagellates symbiotic with marine invertebrates are a heterogeneous complex of taxa, representing at least five genera in three orders. Despite a wealth of data regarding morphological, biochemical, and behavioral differences among symbiotic dinoflagellates, knowledge concerning patterns of diversification is limited. I analyzed approximately 900 bp of the 5' end of the large-subunit ribosomal RNA gene from 14 dinoflagellate isolates: six cultured Symbiodinium specimens, two cultured symbiotic Gymnodinium, two algal samples isolated from reef-building corals, an algal sample obtained from cultures of the jellyfish Cassiopea xamachana, and three free-living Gymnodinium isolates. Results show that morphological similarities among the examined symbiotic taxa do not necessarily correspond with molecular phylogeny. The included Symbiodinium taxa represent a paraphyletic assemblage while Gymnodinium is reconstructed as a polyphyletic assemblage. Analysis indicates that all the included symbiotic dinoflagellates descended from a common, symbiotic ancestor (though within the dinoflagellates, symbiosis is a polyphyletic trait). Additionally, two free-living dinoflagellates emerge within the symbiotic clade, suggesting that the symbiotic lifestyle has been lost at least once in this group. It has been hypothesized that rates of evolution within mutualistic endosymbioses should be reduced relative to free-living taxa. However, results indicate that rates of molecular, morphological, biochemical and behavioral change are similar among branches leading to symbiotic and free-living dinoflagellates. PMID:10051396

  9. Primers to block the amplification of symbiotic apostome ciliate 18S rRNA gene in a PCR-based copepod diet study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Guangxing

    2014-05-01

    Pelagic copepods play an important role in the marine food web. However, a full understanding of the ecological status of this zooplankton group depends on the careful study of their natural diets. In previous PCR-based copepod diet studies, we found many apostome ciliates that live symbiotically under the exoskeleton of the copepods, and their sequences were often over-represented in the 18S rRNA gene (18S rDNA) libraries. As a first step to address this issue, we designed three apostome ciliate 18S rDNA blocking primers, and tested their blocking efficiency against apostome ciliate 18s rDNA under various PCR conditions. Using a semi-quantitative PCR method, we optimized the conditions to efficiently amplify the 18S rDNA of the prey while simultaneously excluding the symbiotic apostome ciliates. This technique will facilitate PCR-based diet studies of copepods and other zooplankton in their natural environments.

  10. Transcriptome analyses to investigate symbiotic relationships between marine protists

    PubMed Central

    Balzano, Sergio; Corre, Erwan; Decelle, Johan; Sierra, Roberto; Wincker, Patrick; Da Silva, Corinne; Poulain, Julie; Pawlowski, Jan; Not, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Rhizaria are an important component of oceanic plankton communities worldwide. A number of species harbor eukaryotic microalgal symbionts, which are horizontally acquired in the environment at each generation. Although these photosymbioses are determinant for Rhizaria ability to thrive in oceanic ecosystems, the mechanisms for symbiotic interactions are unclear. Using high-throughput sequencing technology (i.e., 454), we generated large Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) datasets from four uncultured Rhizaria, an acantharian (Amphilonche elongata), two polycystines (Collozoum sp. and Spongosphaera streptacantha), and one phaeodarian (Aulacantha scolymantha). We assessed the main genetic features of the host/symbionts consortium (i.e., the holobiont) transcriptomes and found rRNA sequences affiliated to a wide range of bacteria and protists in all samples, suggesting that diverse microbial communities are associated with the holobionts. A particular focus was then carried out to search for genes potentially involved in symbiotic processes such as the presence of c-type lectins-coding genes, which are proteins that play a role in cell recognition among eukaryotes. Unigenes coding putative c-type lectin domains (CTLD) were found in the species bearing photosynthetic symbionts (A. elongata, Collozoum sp., and S. streptacantha) but not in the non-symbiotic one (A. scolymantha). More particularly, phylogenetic analyses group CTLDs from A. elongata and Collozoum sp. on a distinct branch from S. streptacantha CTLDs, which contained carbohydrate-binding motifs typically observed in other marine photosymbiosis. Our data suggest that similarly to other well-known marine photosymbiosis involving metazoans, the interactions of glycans with c-type lectins is likely involved in modulation of the host/symbiont specific recognition in Radiolaria. PMID:25852650

  11. Transcriptome analyses to investigate symbiotic relationships between marine protists.

    PubMed

    Balzano, Sergio; Corre, Erwan; Decelle, Johan; Sierra, Roberto; Wincker, Patrick; Da Silva, Corinne; Poulain, Julie; Pawlowski, Jan; Not, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Rhizaria are an important component of oceanic plankton communities worldwide. A number of species harbor eukaryotic microalgal symbionts, which are horizontally acquired in the environment at each generation. Although these photosymbioses are determinant for Rhizaria ability to thrive in oceanic ecosystems, the mechanisms for symbiotic interactions are unclear. Using high-throughput sequencing technology (i.e., 454), we generated large Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) datasets from four uncultured Rhizaria, an acantharian (Amphilonche elongata), two polycystines (Collozoum sp. and Spongosphaera streptacantha), and one phaeodarian (Aulacantha scolymantha). We assessed the main genetic features of the host/symbionts consortium (i.e., the holobiont) transcriptomes and found rRNA sequences affiliated to a wide range of bacteria and protists in all samples, suggesting that diverse microbial communities are associated with the holobionts. A particular focus was then carried out to search for genes potentially involved in symbiotic processes such as the presence of c-type lectins-coding genes, which are proteins that play a role in cell recognition among eukaryotes. Unigenes coding putative c-type lectin domains (CTLD) were found in the species bearing photosynthetic symbionts (A. elongata, Collozoum sp., and S. streptacantha) but not in the non-symbiotic one (A. scolymantha). More particularly, phylogenetic analyses group CTLDs from A. elongata and Collozoum sp. on a distinct branch from S. streptacantha CTLDs, which contained carbohydrate-binding motifs typically observed in other marine photosymbiosis. Our data suggest that similarly to other well-known marine photosymbiosis involving metazoans, the interactions of glycans with c-type lectins is likely involved in modulation of the host/symbiont specific recognition in Radiolaria.

  12. 15N discrimination and the sensitivity of nitrogen fixation to changes in dietary nitrogen in Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Meuti, Megan E; Jones, Susan C; Curtis, Peter S

    2010-12-01

    Xylophagous termites possess symbiotic bacteria that fix atmospheric nitrogen (N(2)). Although symbiotic N(2) fixation is central to termite nutrition and ecologically important, it is energetically costly. Using stable isotopes, we tested the hypothesis that symbiotic N(2) fixation would decrease in workers of the eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes Kollar, which were exposed to high nitrogen diets. To calculate the isotope discrimination factor occurring as a result of digestion, Δ(dig), and which occurs as the result of N(2) fixation, Δ(fix), symbiotic N(2) fixation was inhibited via force feeding termites the antibiotic kanamycin. Antibiotic-treated termites and control (N(2)-fixing) termites were exposed to different concentrations of dietary N (0, 0.21, and 0.94% N), their (15)N signatures were obtained, and the percent nitrogen derived from the atmosphere within termite samples was calculated. As we hypothesized, symbiotic N(2) fixation rates were negatively correlated with dietary N, suggesting that high concentrations of dietary N suppressed symbiotic N(2) fixation in R. flavipes. A comparison of the (15)N isotope signatures of antibiotic-treated termites with their food sources demonstrated that Δ(dig) = 2.284‰, and a comparison of the (15)N isotope signatures of antibiotic-treated termites with control termites indicated that Δ(fix) = -1.238‰. These are the first estimates of Δ(dig) for R. flavipes, and the first estimate of Δ(fix) for any N(2)-fixing termite species.

  13. COMPARING SYMBIOTIC NEBULAE AND PLANETARY NEBULAE LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Frankowski, Adam; Soker, Noam E-mail: soker@physics.technion.ac.i

    2009-10-01

    We compare the observed symbiotic nebulae (SyN) luminosity function (SyNLF) in the [O III] lambda5007 A line to the planetary nebulae (PN) luminosity function (PNLF) and find that the intrinsic SyNLF (ISyNLF) of galactic SyNs has-within its uncertainty of 0.5-0.8 mag-very similar cutoff luminosity and general shape to those of the PNLF. The [O III]/(Halpha+[N II]) line ratios of SyNs and PNs are shown to be also related. Possible implications of these results for the universality of the PNLF are briefly outlined.

  14. Symbiotic Performance of Diverse Frankia Strains on Salt-Stressed Casuarina glauca and Casuarina equisetifolia Plants.

    PubMed

    Ngom, Mariama; Gray, Krystelle; Diagne, Nathalie; Oshone, Rediet; Fardoux, Joel; Gherbi, Hassen; Hocher, Valérie; Svistoonoff, Sergio; Laplaze, Laurent; Tisa, Louis S; Sy, Mame O; Champion, Antony

    2016-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen-fixing associations between Casuarina trees and the actinobacteria Frankia are widely used in agroforestry in particular for salinized land reclamation. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of salinity on the establishment of the actinorhizal symbiosis between C. glauca and two contrasting Frankia strains (salt sensitive; CcI3 vs. salt tolerant; CeD) and the role of these isolates in the salt tolerance of C. glauca and C. equisetifolia plants. We show that the number of root nodules decreased with increasing salinity levels in both plants inoculated with CcI3 and CeD. Nodule formation did not occur in seedlings inoculated with CcI3 and CeD, at NaCl concentrations above 100 and 200 mM, respectively. Salinity also affected the early deformation of plant root hairs and reduced their number and size. In addition, expression of symbiotic marker Cg12 gene, which codes for a subtilase, was reduced at 50 mM NaCl. These data suggest that the reduction of nodulation in C. glauca under salt stress is in part due to inhibition of early mechanisms of infection. We also show that prior inoculation of C. glauca and C. equisetifolia with Frankia strains CcI3 and CeD significantly improved plant height, dry biomass, chlorophyll and proline contents at all levels of salinity tested, depending on the Casuarina-Frankia association. There was no correlation between in vitro salt tolerance of Frankia strains and efficiency in planta under salt-stressed conditions. Our results strongly indicate that increased N nutrition, photosynthesis potential and proline accumulation are important factors responsible for salt tolerance of nodulated C. glauca and C. equisetifolia. PMID:27630656

  15. Symbiotic Performance of Diverse Frankia Strains on Salt-Stressed Casuarina glauca and Casuarina equisetifolia Plants

    PubMed Central

    Ngom, Mariama; Gray, Krystelle; Diagne, Nathalie; Oshone, Rediet; Fardoux, Joel; Gherbi, Hassen; Hocher, Valérie; Svistoonoff, Sergio; Laplaze, Laurent; Tisa, Louis S.; Sy, Mame O.; Champion, Antony

    2016-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen-fixing associations between Casuarina trees and the actinobacteria Frankia are widely used in agroforestry in particular for salinized land reclamation. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of salinity on the establishment of the actinorhizal symbiosis between C. glauca and two contrasting Frankia strains (salt sensitive; CcI3 vs. salt tolerant; CeD) and the role of these isolates in the salt tolerance of C. glauca and C. equisetifolia plants. We show that the number of root nodules decreased with increasing salinity levels in both plants inoculated with CcI3 and CeD. Nodule formation did not occur in seedlings inoculated with CcI3 and CeD, at NaCl concentrations above 100 and 200 mM, respectively. Salinity also affected the early deformation of plant root hairs and reduced their number and size. In addition, expression of symbiotic marker Cg12 gene, which codes for a subtilase, was reduced at 50 mM NaCl. These data suggest that the reduction of nodulation in C. glauca under salt stress is in part due to inhibition of early mechanisms of infection. We also show that prior inoculation of C. glauca and C. equisetifolia with Frankia strains CcI3 and CeD significantly improved plant height, dry biomass, chlorophyll and proline contents at all levels of salinity tested, depending on the Casuarina-Frankia association. There was no correlation between in vitro salt tolerance of Frankia strains and efficiency in planta under salt-stressed conditions. Our results strongly indicate that increased N nutrition, photosynthesis potential and proline accumulation are important factors responsible for salt tolerance of nodulated C. glauca and C. equisetifolia.

  16. Complex coevolutionary history of symbiotic Bacteroidales bacteria of various protists in the gut of termites

    PubMed Central

    Noda, Satoko; Hongoh, Yuichi; Sato, Tomoyuki; Ohkuma, Moriya

    2009-01-01

    Background The microbial community in the gut of termites is responsible for the efficient decomposition of recalcitrant lignocellulose. Prominent features of this community are its complexity and the associations of prokaryotes with the cells of cellulolytic flagellated protists. Bacteria in the order Bacteroidales are involved in associations with a wide variety of gut protist species as either intracellular endosymbionts or surface-attached ectosymbionts. In particular, ectosymbionts exhibit distinct morphological patterns of the associations. Therefore, these Bacteroidales symbionts provide an opportunity to investigate not only the coevolutionary relationships with the host protists and their morphological evolution but also how symbiotic associations between prokaryotes and eukaryotes occur and evolve within a complex symbiotic community. Results Molecular phylogeny of 31 taxa of Bacteroidales symbionts from 17 protist genera in 10 families was examined based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Their localization, morphology, and specificity were also examined by fluorescent in situ hybridizations. Although a monophyletic grouping of the ectosymbionts occurred in three related protist families, the symbionts of different protist genera were usually dispersed among several phylogenetic clusters unique to termite-gut bacteria. Similar morphologies of the associations occurred in multiple lineages of the symbionts. Nevertheless, the symbionts of congeneric protist species were closely related to one another, and in most cases, each host species harbored a unique Bacteroidales species. The endosymbionts were distantly related to the ectosymbionts examined so far. Conclusion The coevolutionary history of gut protists and their associated Bacteroidales symbionts is complex. We suggest multiple independent acquisitions of the Bacteroidales symbionts by different protist genera from a pool of diverse bacteria in the gut community. In this sense, the gut could serve as a

  17. Comparative metagenomic analysis of microcosm structures and lignocellulolytic enzyme systems of symbiotic biomass-degrading consortia.

    PubMed

    Wongwilaiwalin, Sarunyou; Laothanachareon, Thanaporn; Mhuantong, Wuttichai; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Eurwilaichitr, Lily; Igarashi, Yasuo; Champreda, Verawat

    2013-10-01

    Decomposition of lignocelluloses by cooperative microbial actions is an essential process of carbon cycling in nature and provides a basis for biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals in biorefineries. In this study, structurally stable symbiotic aero-tolerant lignocellulose-degrading microbial consortia were obtained from biodiversified microflora present in industrial sugarcane bagasse pile (BGC-1), cow rumen fluid (CRC-1), and pulp mill activated sludge (ASC-1) by successive subcultivation on rice straw under facultative anoxic conditions. Tagged 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing revealed that all isolated consortia originated from highly diverse environmental microflora shared similar composite phylum profiles comprising mainly Firmicutes, reflecting convergent adaptation of microcosm structures, however, with substantial differences at refined genus level. BGC-1 comprising cellulolytic Clostridium and Acetanaerobacterium in stable coexistence with ligninolytic Ureibacillus showed the highest capability on degradation of agricultural residues and industrial pulp waste with CMCase, xylanase, and β-glucanase activities in the supernatant. Shotgun pyrosequencing of the BGC-1 metagenome indicated a markedly high relative abundance of genes encoding for glycosyl hydrolases, particularly for lignocellulytic enzymes in 26 families. The enzyme system comprised a unique composition of main-chain degrading and side-chain processing hydrolases, dominated by GH2, 3, 5, 9, 10, and 43, reflecting adaptation of enzyme profiles to the specific substrate. Gene mapping showed metabolic potential of BGC-1 for conversion of biomass sugars to various fermentation products of industrial importance. The symbiotic consortium is a promising simplified model for study of multispecies mechanisms on consolidated bioprocessing and a platform for discovering efficient synergistic enzyme systems for biotechnological application. PMID:23381385

  18. Symbiotic Performance of Diverse Frankia Strains on Salt-Stressed Casuarina glauca and Casuarina equisetifolia Plants

    PubMed Central

    Ngom, Mariama; Gray, Krystelle; Diagne, Nathalie; Oshone, Rediet; Fardoux, Joel; Gherbi, Hassen; Hocher, Valérie; Svistoonoff, Sergio; Laplaze, Laurent; Tisa, Louis S.; Sy, Mame O.; Champion, Antony

    2016-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen-fixing associations between Casuarina trees and the actinobacteria Frankia are widely used in agroforestry in particular for salinized land reclamation. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of salinity on the establishment of the actinorhizal symbiosis between C. glauca and two contrasting Frankia strains (salt sensitive; CcI3 vs. salt tolerant; CeD) and the role of these isolates in the salt tolerance of C. glauca and C. equisetifolia plants. We show that the number of root nodules decreased with increasing salinity levels in both plants inoculated with CcI3 and CeD. Nodule formation did not occur in seedlings inoculated with CcI3 and CeD, at NaCl concentrations above 100 and 200 mM, respectively. Salinity also affected the early deformation of plant root hairs and reduced their number and size. In addition, expression of symbiotic marker Cg12 gene, which codes for a subtilase, was reduced at 50 mM NaCl. These data suggest that the reduction of nodulation in C. glauca under salt stress is in part due to inhibition of early mechanisms of infection. We also show that prior inoculation of C. glauca and C. equisetifolia with Frankia strains CcI3 and CeD significantly improved plant height, dry biomass, chlorophyll and proline contents at all levels of salinity tested, depending on the Casuarina-Frankia association. There was no correlation between in vitro salt tolerance of Frankia strains and efficiency in planta under salt-stressed conditions. Our results strongly indicate that increased N nutrition, photosynthesis potential and proline accumulation are important factors responsible for salt tolerance of nodulated C. glauca and C. equisetifolia. PMID:27630656

  19. Effect of Subliminal Stimulation of Symbiotic Fantasies on College Student Self-Disclosure in Group Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linehan, Edward; O'Toole, James

    1982-01-01

    Studied subliminal symbiotic stimulation as a treatment aid in conjunction with counselor self-disclosures in group counseling. Results showed that subliminal exposure to MOMMY AND I ARE ONE stimulus would lead to more client self-disclosures in group counseling. Suggests impact of symbiotic stimulus can be affected by counselor behavior. (RC)

  20. Gene Expression in Gut Symbiotic Organ of Stinkbug Affected by Extracellular Bacterial Symbiont

    PubMed Central

    Futahashi, Ryo; Tanaka, Kohjiro; Tanahashi, Masahiko; Nikoh, Naruo; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Lee, Bok Luel; Fukatsu, Takema

    2013-01-01

    The bean bug Riptortus pedestris possesses a specialized symbiotic organ in a posterior region of the midgut, where numerous crypts harbor extracellular betaproteobacterial symbionts of the genus Burkholderia. Second instar nymphs orally acquire the symbiont from the environment, and the symbiont infection benefits the host by facilitating growth and by occasionally conferring insecticide resistance. Here we performed comparative transcriptomic analyses of insect genes expressed in symbiotic and non-symbiotic regions of the midgut dissected from Burkholderia-infected and uninfected R. pedestris. Expression sequence tag analysis of cDNA libraries and quantitative reverse transcription PCR identified a number of insect genes expressed in symbiosis- or aposymbiosis-associated patterns. For example, genes up-regulated in symbiotic relative to aposymbiotic individuals, including many cysteine-rich secreted protein genes and many cathepsin protease genes, are likely to play a role in regulating the symbiosis. Conversely, genes up-regulated in aposymbiotic relative to symbiotic individuals, including a chicken-type lysozyme gene and a defensin-like protein gene, are possibly involved in regulation of non-symbiotic bacterial infections. Our study presents the first transcriptomic data on gut symbiotic organ of a stinkbug, which provides initial clues to understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying the insect-bacterium gut symbiosis and sheds light on several intriguing commonalities between endocellular and extracellular symbiotic associations. PMID:23691247

  1. Gene expression in gut symbiotic organ of stinkbug affected by extracellular bacterial symbiont.

    PubMed

    Futahashi, Ryo; Tanaka, Kohjiro; Tanahashi, Masahiko; Nikoh, Naruo; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Lee, Bok Luel; Fukatsu, Takema

    2013-01-01

    The bean bug Riptortus pedestris possesses a specialized symbiotic organ in a posterior region of the midgut, where numerous crypts harbor extracellular betaproteobacterial symbionts of the genus Burkholderia. Second instar nymphs orally acquire the symbiont from the environment, and the symbiont infection benefits the host by facilitating growth and by occasionally conferring insecticide resistance. Here we performed comparative transcriptomic analyses of insect genes expressed in symbiotic and non-symbiotic regions of the midgut dissected from Burkholderia-infected and uninfected R. pedestris. Expression sequence tag analysis of cDNA libraries and quantitative reverse transcription PCR identified a number of insect genes expressed in symbiosis- or aposymbiosis-associated patterns. For example, genes up-regulated in symbiotic relative to aposymbiotic individuals, including many cysteine-rich secreted protein genes and many cathepsin protease genes, are likely to play a role in regulating the symbiosis. Conversely, genes up-regulated in aposymbiotic relative to symbiotic individuals, including a chicken-type lysozyme gene and a defensin-like protein gene, are possibly involved in regulation of non-symbiotic bacterial infections. Our study presents the first transcriptomic data on gut symbiotic organ of a stinkbug, which provides initial clues to understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying the insect-bacterium gut symbiosis and sheds light on several intriguing commonalities between endocellular and extracellular symbiotic associations.

  2. Extensive Differences in Gene Expression Between Symbiotic and Aposymbiotic Cnidarians

    PubMed Central

    Lehnert, Erik M.; Mouchka, Morgan E.; Burriesci, Matthew S.; Gallo, Natalya D.; Schwarz, Jodi A.; Pringle, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Coral reefs provide habitats for a disproportionate number of marine species relative to the small area of the oceans that they occupy. The mutualism between the cnidarian animal hosts and their intracellular dinoflagellate symbionts provides the nutritional foundation for coral growth and formation of reef structures, because algal photosynthesis can provide >90% of the total energy of the host. Disruption of this symbiosis (“coral bleaching”) is occurring on a large scale due primarily to anthropogenic factors and poses a major threat to the future of coral reefs. Despite the importance of this symbiosis, the cellular mechanisms involved in its establishment, maintenance, and breakdown remain largely unknown. We report our continued development of genomic tools to study these mechanisms in Aiptasia, a small sea anemone with great promise as a model system for studies of cnidarian–dinoflagellate symbiosis. Specifically, we have generated de novo assemblies of the transcriptomes of both a clonal line of symbiotic anemones and their endogenous dinoflagellate symbionts. We then compared transcript abundances in animals with and without dinoflagellates. This analysis identified >900 differentially expressed genes and allowed us to generate testable hypotheses about the cellular functions affected by symbiosis establishment. The differentially regulated transcripts include >60 encoding proteins that may play roles in transporting various nutrients between the symbiotic partners; many more encoding proteins functioning in several metabolic pathways, providing clues regarding how the transported nutrients may be used by the partners; and several encoding proteins that may be involved in host recognition and tolerance of the dinoflagellate. PMID:24368779

  3. Extensive differences in gene expression between symbiotic and aposymbiotic cnidarians.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, Erik M; Mouchka, Morgan E; Burriesci, Matthew S; Gallo, Natalya D; Schwarz, Jodi A; Pringle, John R

    2014-02-01

    Coral reefs provide habitats for a disproportionate number of marine species relative to the small area of the oceans that they occupy. The mutualism between the cnidarian animal hosts and their intracellular dinoflagellate symbionts provides the nutritional foundation for coral growth and formation of reef structures, because algal photosynthesis can provide >90% of the total energy of the host. Disruption of this symbiosis ("coral bleaching") is occurring on a large scale due primarily to anthropogenic factors and poses a major threat to the future of coral reefs. Despite the importance of this symbiosis, the cellular mechanisms involved in its establishment, maintenance, and breakdown remain largely unknown. We report our continued development of genomic tools to study these mechanisms in Aiptasia, a small sea anemone with great promise as a model system for studies of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis. Specifically, we have generated de novo assemblies of the transcriptomes of both a clonal line of symbiotic anemones and their endogenous dinoflagellate symbionts. We then compared transcript abundances in animals with and without dinoflagellates. This analysis identified >900 differentially expressed genes and allowed us to generate testable hypotheses about the cellular functions affected by symbiosis establishment. The differentially regulated transcripts include >60 encoding proteins that may play roles in transporting various nutrients between the symbiotic partners; many more encoding proteins functioning in several metabolic pathways, providing clues regarding how the transported nutrients may be used by the partners; and several encoding proteins that may be involved in host recognition and tolerance of the dinoflagellate. PMID:24368779

  4. Characterization of a carbohydrate transporter from symbiotic glomeromycotan fungi.

    PubMed

    Schüssler, Arthur; Martin, Holger; Cohen, David; Fitz, Michael; Wipf, Daniel

    2006-12-14

    The symbiotic relationships between mycorrhizal fungi and plants have an enormous impact on terrestrial ecosystems. Most common are the arbuscular mycorrhizas, formed by fungi belonging to the phylum Glomeromycota. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi facilitate the uptake of soil nutrients by plants and in exchange obtain carbohydrates, thus representing a large sink for atmospheric plant-fixed CO(2). However, how carbohydrates are transported through the symbiotic interface is still unknown. Here we report the characterization of the first known glomeromycotan monosaccharide transporter, GpMST1, by exploiting the unique symbiosis of a glomeromycotan fungus (Geosiphon pyriformis) with cyanobacteria. The GpMST1 gene has a very low GC content and contains six introns with unusual boundaries. GpMST1 possesses twelve predicted transmembrane domains and functions as a proton co-transporter with highest affinity for glucose, then mannose, galactose and fructose. It belongs to an as yet uncharacterized phylogenetic monosaccharide transporter clade. This initial characterization of a new transporter family involved in fungal symbiosis will lead to a better understanding of carbon flows in terrestrial environments.

  5. A statistical anomaly indicates symbiotic origins of eukaryotic membranes.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Suneyna; Mittal, Aditya

    2015-04-01

    Compositional analyses of nucleic acids and proteins have shed light on possible origins of living cells. In this work, rigorous compositional analyses of ∼5000 plasma membrane lipid constituents of 273 species in the three life domains (archaea, eubacteria, and eukaryotes) revealed a remarkable statistical paradox, indicating symbiotic origins of eukaryotic cells involving eubacteria. For lipids common to plasma membranes of the three domains, the number of carbon atoms in eubacteria was found to be similar to that in eukaryotes. However, mutually exclusive subsets of same data show exactly the opposite-the number of carbon atoms in lipids of eukaryotes was higher than in eubacteria. This statistical paradox, called Simpson's paradox, was absent for lipids in archaea and for lipids not common to plasma membranes of the three domains. This indicates the presence of interaction(s) and/or association(s) in lipids forming plasma membranes of eubacteria and eukaryotes but not for those in archaea. Further inspection of membrane lipid structures affecting physicochemical properties of plasma membranes provides the first evidence (to our knowledge) on the symbiotic origins of eukaryotic cells based on the "third front" (i.e., lipids) in addition to the growing compositional data from nucleic acids and proteins.

  6. Symbiotic crabs maintain coral health by clearing sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Hannah L.; Holbrook, Sally J.; Schmitt, Russell J.; Brooks, Andrew J.

    2006-11-01

    Stony corals are the foundation of coral reef ecosystems and form associations with other reef species. Many of these associations may be ecologically important and play a role in maintaining the health and diversity of reef systems, rendering it critical to understand the influence of symbiotic organisms in mediating responses to perturbation. This study demonstrates the importance of an association with trapeziid crabs in reducing adverse effects of sediments deposited on corals. In a field experiment, mortality rates of two species of branching corals were significantly lowered by the presence of crabs. All outplanted corals with crabs survived whereas 45-80% of corals without crabs died within a month. For surviving corals that lacked crabs, growth was slower and tissue bleaching and sediment load were higher. Laboratory experiments revealed that corals with crabs shed substantially more of the sediments deposited on coral surfaces, but also that crabs were most effective at removing grain sizes that were most damaging to coral tissues. The mechanism underlying this symbiotic relationship has not been recognized previously, and its role in maintaining coral health is likely to become even more critical as reefs worldwide experience increasing sedimentation.

  7. Ecology of planktonic foraminifera and their symbiotic algae

    SciTech Connect

    Gastrich, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    Two types of symbiotic algae occurred abundantly and persistently in the cytoplasm of several species of planktonic Foraminifera over a ten year period in different tropical and subtropical areas of the North Atlantic Ocean. These planktonic Foraminifera host species consistently harbored either dinoflagellates or a newly described minute coccoid algal type. There appeared to be a specific host-symbiont relationship in these species regardless of year, season or geographic locality. The larger ovoid dinoflagellates (Pyrrhophycophyta) occur in the spinose species Globigerinoides ruber, Globigerinoides sacculifer, G. conglobatus and Orbulina universa. The smaller alga, from 1.5 to 3.5 um in diameter, occurs in one spinose species Globigerinella aequilateralis and also in the non-spinose species Globigerinita glutinata, Globoquadrina dutertrei, Globorotalia menardii, Globorotalia cristata, Globorotalia inflata, Candeina nitida, in various juvenile specimens and at all seasons except the winter months in Pulleniatina obliquiloculata and Globorotalial hirsuta. Controlled laboratory studies indicated a significant C incorporation into the host cytoplasm and inorganic calcium carbonate test of Globigerinoides ruber. During incubation for up to two hours, the /sup 14/C uptake into the cytoplasm and test in the light was significantly greater than uptake in the dark by living specimens or by dead foraminifers. There appears to be light-enhanced uptake of /sup 14/C into the test with dinoflagellate photosynthesis contributing to host calcification. In culture, symbiotic algae were observed to survive for the duration of the lifespan of their hosts.

  8. Unraveling the nitrogen isotopic signature of symbiotic corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devlin, Q.; Swart, P. K.; Altabet, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Coral reefs thrive in shallow, tropical, low nutrient waters. Nutrient inputs to a reef environment are often interpreted by measuring the nitrogen isotopic composition of reef organisms. The δ15N signature of scleractinian corals has been historically measured to assess the presence of anthropogenic influences such as sewage and fertilizer runoff. The majority of reef building corals form a symbiotic partnership with the dinoflagellate algae, Symbiodinium microadriaticum. The δ15N signature of symbiotic corals is complex as it is not only dependent on nitrogen acquisition by the coral, but also by the algal symbionts that reside within the gastrodermal tissue layer. The relationship between the δ15N of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and the δ15N of coral tissue has not been established. The aim of this study is to identify considerations necessary when interpreting nitrogen sources based on δ15N of coral tissue. Incubations were carried out in order to measure isotopic fractionation associated with nitrate and ammonium incorporation by the Pacific branching coral, Pocillopora damicornis. We investigated the dependence of nitrogen isotope fractionation on species of DIN (nitrate or ammonium), concentration of DIN (range: 1-50 μM N), genetic diversity of algal symbionts (clade C or clade D) and light levels.

  9. Generating the Simple Decision Tree with Symbiotic Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otani, Noriko; Shimura, Masamichi

    In representing classification rules by decision trees, simplicity of tree structure is as important as predictive accuracy especially in consideration of the comprehensibility to a human, the memory capacity and the time required to classify. Trees tend to be complex when they get high accuracy. This paper proposes a novel method for generating accurate and simple decision trees based on symbiotic evolution. It is distinctive of symbiotic evolution that two different populations are evolved in parallel through genetic algorithms. In our method one's individuals are partial trees of height 1, and the other's individuals are whole trees represented by the combinations of the former individuals. Generally, overfitting to training examples prevents getting high predictive accuracy. In order to circumvent this difficulty, individuals are evaluated with not only the accuracy in training examples but also the correct answer biased rate indicating the dispersion of the correct answers in the terminal nodes. Based on our method we developed a system called SESAT for generating decision trees. Our experimental results show that SESAT compares favorably with other systems on several datasets in the UCI repository. SESAT has the ability to generate more simple trees than C5.0 without sacrificing predictive accuracy.

  10. A slowly evolving host moves first in symbiotic interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damore, James; Gore, Jeff

    2011-03-01

    Symbiotic relationships, both parasitic and mutualistic, are ubiquitous in nature. Understanding how these symbioses evolve, from bacteria and their phages to humans and our gut microflora, is crucial in understanding how life operates. Often, symbioses consist of a slowly evolving host species with each host only interacting with its own sub-population of symbionts. The Red Queen hypothesis describes coevolutionary relationships as constant arms races with each species rushing to evolve an advantage over the other, suggesting that faster evolution is favored. Here, we use a simple game theoretic model of host- symbiont coevolution that includes population structure to show that if the symbionts evolve much faster than the host, the equilibrium distribution is the same as it would be if it were a sequential game where the host moves first against its symbionts. For the slowly evolving host, this will prove to be advantageous in mutualisms and a handicap in antagonisms. The model allows for symbiont adaptation to its host, a result that is robust to changes in the parameters and generalizes to continuous and multiplayer games. Our findings provide insight into a wide range of symbiotic phenomena and help to unify the field of coevolutionary theory.

  11. 15N2 Fixation by Bacteria Associated with Maize Roots at a Low Partial O2 Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, David B.; Zuberer, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation by bacteria associated with roots of intact maize plants was measured by exposing the roots to 15N2 at a partial O2 pressure (pO2) of 2 or 10 kPa. The plants were grown in a mixture of Weswood soil and sand and then transferred to plastic cylinders containing an N-free plant nutrient solution. The solution was sparged continuously with a mixture of air and N2 at a pO2 of 2 or 10 kPa. Acetylene reduction was measured after the roots were exposed to the low pO2 overnight. The air-N2 atmosphere in the cylinders was then replaced with an O2-He atmosphere at the same pO2, and the roots were exposed to 20 kPa of 15N2 for 20 to 22 h. Incorporation of 15N into the roots was 200 times greater at 2 kPa of O2 than at 10 kPa of O2. Adding l-malate (1 g of C liter−1) to the nutrient solution increased root-associated nitrogenase activity, producing a strong 15N label which could be traced into the shoots. Fixed 15N was detected in the shoots within 5 days after the plants were returned to unfertilized soil. In a similar experiment with undisturbed plants grown in fritted clay, movement of fixed 15N into the shoots was evident within 4 days after the roots were exposed to 15N2 at 2 kPa of O2. Inoculation with Azospirillum lipoferum yielded no significant differences in shoot dry weight, total nitrogen content, percent nitrogen, or 15N enrichment of plant tissues. Inoculated plants did exhibit greater root dry weight than uninoculated plants, however. PMID:16347968

  12. Multi Groups Cooperation based Symbiotic Evolution for TSK-type Neuro-Fuzzy Systems Design

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yi-Chang; Hsu, Yung-Chi

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a TSK-type neuro-fuzzy system with multi groups cooperation based symbiotic evolution method (TNFS-MGCSE) is proposed. The TNFS-MGCSE is developed from symbiotic evolution. The symbiotic evolution is different from traditional GAs (genetic algorithms) that each chromosome in symbiotic evolution represents a rule of fuzzy model. The MGCSE is different from the traditional symbiotic evolution; with a population in MGCSE is divided to several groups. Each group formed by a set of chromosomes represents a fuzzy rule and cooperate with other groups to generate the better chromosomes by using the proposed cooperation based crossover strategy (CCS). In this paper, the proposed TNFS-MGCSE is used to evaluate by numerical examples (Mackey-Glass chaotic time series and sunspot number forecasting). The performance of the TNFS-MGCSE achieves excellently with other existing models in the simulations. PMID:21709856

  13. Evolution of High Cellulolytic Activity in Symbiotic Streptomyces through Selection of Expanded Gene Content and Coordinated Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Book, Adam J; Lewin, Gina R; McDonald, Bradon R; Takasuka, Taichi E; Wendt-Pienkowski, Evelyn; Doering, Drew T; Suh, Steven; Raffa, Kenneth F; Fox, Brian G; Currie, Cameron R

    2016-06-01

    The evolution of cellulose degradation was a defining event in the history of life. Without efficient decomposition and recycling, dead plant biomass would quickly accumulate and become inaccessible to terrestrial food webs and the global carbon cycle. On land, the primary drivers of plant biomass deconstruction are fungi and bacteria in the soil or associated with herbivorous eukaryotes. While the ecological importance of plant-decomposing microbes is well established, little is known about the distribution or evolution of cellulolytic activity in any bacterial genus. Here we show that in Streptomyces, a genus of Actinobacteria abundant in soil and symbiotic niches, the ability to rapidly degrade cellulose is largely restricted to two clades of host-associated strains and is not a conserved characteristic of the Streptomyces genus or host-associated strains. Our comparative genomics identify that while plant biomass degrading genes (CAZy) are widespread in Streptomyces, key enzyme families are enriched in highly cellulolytic strains. Transcriptomic analyses demonstrate that cellulolytic strains express a suite of multi-domain CAZy enzymes that are coregulated by the CebR transcriptional regulator. Using targeted gene deletions, we verify the importance of a highly expressed cellulase (GH6 family cellobiohydrolase) and the CebR transcriptional repressor to the cellulolytic phenotype. Evolutionary analyses identify complex genomic modifications that drive plant biomass deconstruction in Streptomyces, including acquisition and selective retention of CAZy genes and transcriptional regulators. Our results suggest that host-associated niches have selected some symbiotic Streptomyces for increased cellulose degrading activity and that symbiotic bacteria are a rich biochemical and enzymatic resource for biotechnology.

  14. Evolution of high cellulolytic activity in symbiotic Streptomyces through selection of expanded gene content and coordinated gene expression

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Book, Adam J.; Lewin, Gina R.; McDonald, Bradon R.; Takasuka, Taichi E.; Wendt-Pienkowski, Evelyn; Doering, Drew T.; Suh, Steven; Raffa, Kenneth F.; Fox, Brian G.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2016-06-08

    In this study, the evolution of cellulose degradation was a defining event in the history of life. Without efficient decomposition and recycling, dead plant biomass would quickly accumulate and become inaccessible to terrestrial food webs and the global carbon cycle. On land, the primary drivers of plant biomass deconstruction are fungi and bacteria in the soil or associated with herbivorous eukaryotes. While the ecological importance of plant-decomposing microbes is well established, little is known about the distribution or evolution of cellulolytic activity in any bacterial genus. Here we show that in Streptomyces, a genus of Actinobacteria abundant in soil andmore » symbiotic niches, the ability to rapidly degrade cellulose is largely restricted to two clades of host-associated strains and is not a conserved characteristic of the Streptomyces genus or host-associated strains. Our comparative genomics identify that while plant biomass degrading genes (CAZy) are widespread in Streptomyces, key enzyme families are enriched in highly cellulolytic strains. Transcriptomic analyses demonstrate that cellulolytic strains express a suite of multi-domain CAZy enzymes that are coregulated by the CebR transcriptional regulator. Using targeted gene deletions, we verify the importance of a highly expressed cellulase (GH6 family cellobiohydrolase) and the CebR transcriptional repressor to the cellulolytic phenotype. Evolutionary analyses identify complex genomic modifications that drive plant biomass deconstruction in Streptomyces, including acquisition and selective retention of CAZy genes and transcriptional regulators. Our results suggest that host-associated niches have selected some symbiotic Streptomyces for increased cellulose degrading activity and that symbiotic bacteria are a rich biochemical and enzymatic resource for biotechnology.« less

  15. Evolution of High Cellulolytic Activity in Symbiotic Streptomyces through Selection of Expanded Gene Content and Coordinated Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Book, Adam J; Lewin, Gina R; McDonald, Bradon R; Takasuka, Taichi E; Wendt-Pienkowski, Evelyn; Doering, Drew T; Suh, Steven; Raffa, Kenneth F; Fox, Brian G; Currie, Cameron R

    2016-06-01

    The evolution of cellulose degradation was a defining event in the history of life. Without efficient decomposition and recycling, dead plant biomass would quickly accumulate and become inaccessible to terrestrial food webs and the global carbon cycle. On land, the primary drivers of plant biomass deconstruction are fungi and bacteria in the soil or associated with herbivorous eukaryotes. While the ecological importance of plant-decomposing microbes is well established, little is known about the distribution or evolution of cellulolytic activity in any bacterial genus. Here we show that in Streptomyces, a genus of Actinobacteria abundant in soil and symbiotic niches, the ability to rapidly degrade cellulose is largely restricted to two clades of host-associated strains and is not a conserved characteristic of the Streptomyces genus or host-associated strains. Our comparative genomics identify that while plant biomass degrading genes (CAZy) are widespread in Streptomyces, key enzyme families are enriched in highly cellulolytic strains. Transcriptomic analyses demonstrate that cellulolytic strains express a suite of multi-domain CAZy enzymes that are coregulated by the CebR transcriptional regulator. Using targeted gene deletions, we verify the importance of a highly expressed cellulase (GH6 family cellobiohydrolase) and the CebR transcriptional repressor to the cellulolytic phenotype. Evolutionary analyses identify complex genomic modifications that drive plant biomass deconstruction in Streptomyces, including acquisition and selective retention of CAZy genes and transcriptional regulators. Our results suggest that host-associated niches have selected some symbiotic Streptomyces for increased cellulose degrading activity and that symbiotic bacteria are a rich biochemical and enzymatic resource for biotechnology. PMID:27276034

  16. Evolution of High Cellulolytic Activity in Symbiotic Streptomyces through Selection of Expanded Gene Content and Coordinated Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Bradon R.; Takasuka, Taichi E.; Wendt-Pienkowski, Evelyn; Doering, Drew T.; Raffa, Kenneth F.; Fox, Brian G.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of cellulose degradation was a defining event in the history of life. Without efficient decomposition and recycling, dead plant biomass would quickly accumulate and become inaccessible to terrestrial food webs and the global carbon cycle. On land, the primary drivers of plant biomass deconstruction are fungi and bacteria in the soil or associated with herbivorous eukaryotes. While the ecological importance of plant-decomposing microbes is well established, little is known about the distribution or evolution of cellulolytic activity in any bacterial genus. Here we show that in Streptomyces, a genus of Actinobacteria abundant in soil and symbiotic niches, the ability to rapidly degrade cellulose is largely restricted to two clades of host-associated strains and is not a conserved characteristic of the Streptomyces genus or host-associated strains. Our comparative genomics identify that while plant biomass degrading genes (CAZy) are widespread in Streptomyces, key enzyme families are enriched in highly cellulolytic strains. Transcriptomic analyses demonstrate that cellulolytic strains express a suite of multi-domain CAZy enzymes that are coregulated by the CebR transcriptional regulator. Using targeted gene deletions, we verify the importance of a highly expressed cellulase (GH6 family cellobiohydrolase) and the CebR transcriptional repressor to the cellulolytic phenotype. Evolutionary analyses identify complex genomic modifications that drive plant biomass deconstruction in Streptomyces, including acquisition and selective retention of CAZy genes and transcriptional regulators. Our results suggest that host-associated niches have selected some symbiotic Streptomyces for increased cellulose degrading activity and that symbiotic bacteria are a rich biochemical and enzymatic resource for biotechnology. PMID:27276034

  17. Journal entries facilitating preprofessional scientific literacy and mutualistic symbiotic relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vander Vliet, Valerie J.

    This study explored journal writing as an alternative assessment to promote the development of pre-professional scientific literacy and mutualistic symbiotic relationships between teaching and learning, instruction and assessment, and students and teachers. The larger context of this study is an action reaction project of the attempted transformation of a traditional first year undergraduate pre-professional biology class to sociocultural constructivist principles. The participants were commuter and residential, full and part-time students ranging in age from 18 to 27 and 18/21 were female. The backgrounds of the students varied considerably, ranging from low to upper middle income, including students of Black and Asian heritage. The setting was a medium-sized Midwestern university. The instructor has twenty years of experience teaching Biology at the college level. The data were analyzed using the constant comparative method and the development of grounded theory. The journal entries were analyzed as to their function and form in relationship to the development of multiple aspects of pre-professional scientific literacy. The perceptions of the students as to the significance of the use of journal entries were also determined through the analysis of their use of journal entries in their portfolios and statements in surveys and portfolios. The analysis revealed that journal entries promoted multiple aspects of pre-professional scientific literacy in both students and the instructor and facilitated the development of mutualistic symbiotic relationships between teaching and learning, instruction and assessment, and students and teachers. The function analysis revealed that the journal entries fulfilled the functions intended for the development of multiple aspects of pre-professional scientific literacy. The complexity of journal writing emerged from the form analysis, which revealed the multiple form elements inherent in journal entries. Students perceived journal

  18. Changes of cellular superficial configuration of symbiotic algae during cultivation from two anemones found in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Baohua; Pan, Kehou; Wang, Guangce

    2008-02-01

    Symbiotic algae from two anemones, Radianthus macrodactylus and Stichodactyla mertensii, found in the South China Sea, were cultivated in ASP-8A medium in this study. Changes of superficial configuration of symbiotic algae during the cultivation were studied by means of a microscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). A number of small cavities appeared on the surfaces of symbiotic algae after they were cultivated for 10 h. The cavities enlarged and the cell contents were lost with extended cultivation. Our data suggested that the presence of cavities on symbiotic algae surfaces may be one of the main reasons for failure to culture symbiotic algae in an artificial medium.

  19. Evolutionary signals of symbiotic persistence in the legume–rhizobia mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Gijsbert D. A.; Cornwell, William K.; Cornelissen, Johannes H. C.; Kiers, E. Toby

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the origins and evolutionary trajectories of symbiotic partnerships remains a major challenge. Why are some symbioses lost over evolutionary time whereas others become crucial for survival? Here, we use a quantitative trait reconstruction method to characterize different evolutionary stages in the ancient symbiosis between legumes (Fabaceae) and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, asking how labile is symbiosis across different host clades. We find that more than half of the 1,195 extant nodulating legumes analyzed have a high likelihood (>95%) of being in a state of high symbiotic persistence, meaning that they show a continued capacity to form the symbiosis over evolutionary time, even though the partnership has remained facultative and is not obligate. To explore patterns associated with the likelihood of loss and retention of the N2-fixing symbiosis, we tested for correlations between symbiotic persistence and legume distribution, climate, soil and trait data. We found a strong latitudinal effect and demonstrated that low mean annual temperatures are associated with high symbiotic persistence in legumes. Although no significant correlations between soil variables and symbiotic persistence were found, nitrogen and phosphorus leaf contents were positively correlated with legumes in a state of high symbiotic persistence. This pattern suggests that highly demanding nutrient lifestyles are associated with more stable partnerships, potentially because they “lock” the hosts into symbiotic dependency. Quantitative reconstruction methods are emerging as a powerful comparative tool to study broad patterns of symbiont loss and retention across diverse partnerships. PMID:26041807

  20. [Response of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal lipid metabolism to symbiotic signals in mycorrhiza].

    PubMed

    Tian, Lei; Li, Yuanjing; Tian, Chunjie

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi play an important role in energy flow and nutrient cycling, besides their wide distribution in the cosystem. With a long co-evolution, AM fungi and host plant have formed a symbiotic relationship, and fungal lipid metabolism may be the key point to find the symbiotic mechanism in arbusculart mycorrhiza. Here, we reviewed the most recent progress on the interaction between AM fungal lipid metabolism and symbiotic signaling networks, especially the response of AM fungal lipid metabolism to symbiotic signals. Furthermore, we discussed the response of AM fungal lipid storage and release to symbiotic or non-symbiotic status, and the correlation between fungal lipid metabolism and nutrient transfer in mycorrhiza. In addition, we explored the feedback of the lipolysis process to molecular signals during the establishment of symbiosis, and the corresponding material conversion and energy metabolism besides the crosstalk of fungal lipid metabolism and signaling networks. This review will help understand symbiotic mechanism of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi and further application in ecosystem.

  1. Symbiotic factors in Burkholderia essential for establishing an association with the bean bug, Riptortus pedestris.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyeun Kate; Lee, Bok Luel

    2015-01-01

    Symbiotic bacteria are common in insects and intimately affect the various aspects of insect host biology. In a number of insect symbiosis models, it has been possible to elucidate the effects of the symbiont on host biology, whereas there is a limited understanding of the impact of the association on the bacterial symbiont, mainly due to the difficulty of cultivating insect symbionts in vitro. Furthermore, the molecular features that determine the establishment and persistence of the symbionts in their host (i.e., symbiotic factors) have remained elusive. However, the recently established model, the bean bug Riptortus pedestris, provides a good opportunity to study bacterial symbiotic factors at a molecular level through their cultivable symbionts. Bean bugs acquire genus Burkholderia cells from the environment and harbor them as gut symbionts in the specialized posterior midgut. The genome of the Burkholderia symbiont was sequenced, and the genomic information was used to generate genetically manipulated Burkholderia symbiont strains. Using mutant symbionts, we identified several novel symbiotic factors necessary for establishing a successful association with the host gut. In this review, these symbiotic factors are classified into three categories based on the colonization dynamics of the mutant symbiont strains: initiation, accommodation, and persistence factors. In addition, the molecular characteristics of the symbiotic factors are described. These newly identified symbiotic factors and on-going studies of the Riptortus-Burkholderia symbiosis are expected to contribute to the understanding of the molecular cross-talk between insects and bacterial symbionts that are of ecological and evolutionary importance.

  2. A Remarkable Sample of New Symbiotic Stars Towards the Galactic Bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miszalski, B.; Mikolajewska, J.; Udalski, A.

    2014-12-01

    Symbiotic stars are the longest orbital period interacting binaries, where nova-like outbursts are generated by the accretion of a high mass loss rate red giant wind onto a white dwarf companion. Long-term photometric monitoring surveys such as OGLE and MACHO are ideal platforms to identify nova-like events in symbiotic stars. However, there are only a handful of known systems within the small footprint of these surveys. We introduce a systematic Hα emission line object survey for new symbiotic stars covering 35 deg2 towards the Galactic Bulge that combines deep 2dF/AAOmega spectroscopy with OGLE and MACHO photometry. This powerful combination has uncovered nearly two dozen new symbiotic stars, more than a dozen probable symbiotic stars, and several other unusual Hα emission line stars. While we don't find any nova-like activity, the lightcurves do exhibit semi-regular and Mira pulsations, orbital variations and slower changes due to dust. Here we introduce a few of the new symbiotics, including H1-45, only the fourth known carbon symbiotic Mira. This remarkable discovery may be the first luminous carbon star belonging to the Galactic Bulge, according to its period-luminosity relation distance of 6.2±1.4 kpc, potentially shedding new light on the puzzling lack of luminous carbon stars in the Bulge. We also present two old novae captured in the nebular phase, complementing other surveys to better characterize the old nova population.

  3. [Response of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal lipid metabolism to symbiotic signals in mycorrhiza].

    PubMed

    Tian, Lei; Li, Yuanjing; Tian, Chunjie

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi play an important role in energy flow and nutrient cycling, besides their wide distribution in the cosystem. With a long co-evolution, AM fungi and host plant have formed a symbiotic relationship, and fungal lipid metabolism may be the key point to find the symbiotic mechanism in arbusculart mycorrhiza. Here, we reviewed the most recent progress on the interaction between AM fungal lipid metabolism and symbiotic signaling networks, especially the response of AM fungal lipid metabolism to symbiotic signals. Furthermore, we discussed the response of AM fungal lipid storage and release to symbiotic or non-symbiotic status, and the correlation between fungal lipid metabolism and nutrient transfer in mycorrhiza. In addition, we explored the feedback of the lipolysis process to molecular signals during the establishment of symbiosis, and the corresponding material conversion and energy metabolism besides the crosstalk of fungal lipid metabolism and signaling networks. This review will help understand symbiotic mechanism of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi and further application in ecosystem. PMID:27305777

  4. Identification of new Galactic symbiotic stars with SALT - I. Initial discoveries and other emission line objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miszalski, Brent; Mikołajewska, Joanna

    2014-05-01

    We introduce the first results from an ongoing, systematic survey for new symbiotic stars selected from the AAO/UKST SuperCOSMOS Hα Survey. The survey aims to identify and characterize the fainter population of symbiotic stars under-represented in extant catalogues. The accreting white dwarfs (WDs) in symbiotic stars, fuelled by their red giant donors with high mass-loss rate winds, make them promising candidates for Type Ia supernovae. Several candidates were observed spectroscopically with the Southern African Large Telescope. A total of 12 bona fide and 3 possible symbiotic stars were identified. The most remarkable example is a rare carbon-rich symbiotic star that displays coronal [Fe X] λ6375 emission, suggesting it may be a supersoft X-ray source with a massive WD. Several other emission line objects with near-infrared colours similar to symbiotic stars are listed in an appendix, including six B[e] stars, four planetary nebulae (PNe), two possible Be stars, one [WC9] Wolf-Rayet (WR) central star of a PN and one WC9 WR star. These initial discoveries will help shape and refine the candidate selection criteria that we expect will uncover several more symbiotic stars as the survey progresses.

  5. The symbiotic star TX CVn has entered an active state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munari, U.; Castellani, F.; Valisa, P.; Dallaporta, S.; Cherini, G.; Vagnozzi, A.; Righetti, G. L.; Belligoli, R.

    2014-01-01

    After the last active phase that begun in 2003, the symbiotic star TX CVn has now entered a new active phase. In 2003, TX CVn rose to B=10.5 and there it remained until the end of 2007 (Skopal 2007, AN 328, 909), when we started monitoring the variable with various ANS Collaboration telescopes in BVRI bands. Our observations show that the star has spent the following 6 years on a steady decline at a rate of 0.084 mag per year in the B band, that took it from B=10.55 on December 2007 to B=11.02 on September 2013, when the star begun a rapid brightening, reaching B=10.65 by early December 2013.

  6. On the nature of the symbiotic star BF Cygni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikolajewska, J.; Mikolajewski, M.; Kenyon, S. J.

    1989-01-01

    Optical and ultraviolet spectroscopy of the symbiotic binary BF Cyg obtained during 1979-1988 is discussed. This system consists of a low-mass M5 giant filling about 50 percent of its tidal volume and a hot, luminous compact object similar to the central star of a planetary nebula. The binary is embedded in an asymmetric nebula which includes a small, high-density region and an extended region of lower density. The larger nebula is formed by a slow wind ejected by the cool component and ionized by the hot star, while the more compact nebula is material expelled by the hot component in the form of a bipolar wind. The analysis indicates that disk accretion is essential to maintain the nuclear burning shell of the hot star.

  7. Early Autoregulation of Symbiotic Root Nodulation in Soybeans

    PubMed Central

    Takats, Stephen T.

    1990-01-01

    Autoregulation of symbiotic root nodulation in soybean seedlings (Glycine max L. Merrill cv Pride 216) was studied following double inoculation of primary roots with Bradyrhizobium japonicum 110. When the second inoculation was given 10 or 17 hours after the first, the nodulation in the first-inoculated region of the root was suppressed. The effect was eliminated if B. japonicum 110 containing Tn5 insertions in the `common' nod ABC genes was used for the second inoculation, indicating the requirement for changes in the root mediated by these bacterial genes. When the root cortex in the suppressed basal region was examined 3 days after inoculation, cell division centers were present in numbers not significantly different from the numbers in control roots given a sham second inoculation; their size distribution, however, showed a failure of enlargement compared with controls. PMID:16667864

  8. Symbiotic microorganisms: untapped resources for insect pest control.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Angela E

    2007-08-01

    Symbiotic microorganisms offer one route to meet the anticipated heightened demand for novel insect pest management strategies created by growing human populations and global climate change. Two approaches have particular potential: the disruption of microbial symbionts required by insect pests, and manipulation of microorganisms with major impacts on insect traits contributing to their pest status (e.g. capacity to vector diseases, natural enemy resistance). Specific research priorities addressed in this article include identification of molecular targets against which highly specific antagonists can be designed or discovered, and management strategies to manipulate the incidence and properties of facultative microorganisms that influence insect pest traits. Collaboration with practitioners in pest management will ensure that the research agenda is married to agricultural and public health needs.

  9. Linear polarization of a group of symbiotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandi, E.; García, L. G.; Piirola, V.; Scaltriti, F.; Quiroga, C.

    2000-08-01

    We report linear polarization measurements of a set of symbiotic stars, made at several epochs during the period 1994-1998. Evidence of intrinsic polarization is looked for from the wavelength dependence of the polarization degree and position angle in UBVRI bands. The results have also been analysed to search for temporal variability of polarization. Several objects have shown a polarization spectrum different from that produced by interstellar dust grains and/or polarimetric variations on time scales as short as several days or months, indicating the presence of polarization component of circumstellar origin. Based on observations taken at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO), operated under an agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina, the Secretaría de Ciencia y Tecnología de la Nación and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba and San Juan.

  10. Coral host cells acidify symbiotic algal microenvironment to promote photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Barott, Katie L.; Venn, Alexander A.; Perez, Sidney O.; Tambutté, Sylvie; Tresguerres, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Symbiotic dinoflagellate algae residing inside coral tissues supply the host with the majority of their energy requirements through the translocation of photosynthetically fixed carbon. The algae, in turn, rely on the host for the supply of inorganic carbon. Carbon must be concentrated as CO2 in order for photosynthesis to proceed, and here we show that the coral host plays an active role in this process. The host-derived symbiosome membrane surrounding the algae abundantly expresses vacuolar H+-ATPase (VHA), which acidifies the symbiosome space down to pH ∼4. Inhibition of VHA results in a significant decrease in average H+ activity in the symbiosome of up to 75% and a significant reduction in O2 production rate, a measure of photosynthetic activity. These results suggest that host VHA is part of a previously unidentified carbon concentrating mechanism for algal photosynthesis and provide mechanistic evidence that coral host cells can actively modulate the physiology of their symbionts. PMID:25548188

  11. Discovery of true, likely and possible symbiotic stars in the dwarf spheroidal NGC 205

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Denise R.; Magrini, Laura; de la Rosa, Ignacio G.; Akras, Stavros

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we discuss the photometric and spectroscopic observations of newly discovered (symbiotic) systems in the dwarf spheroidal galaxy NGC 205. The Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph on-off band [O III] 5007 Å emission imaging highlighted several [O III] line emitters, for which optical spectra were then obtained. The detailed study of the spectra of three objects allows us to identify them as true, likely and possible symbiotic systems (SySts), the first ones discovered in this galaxy. SySt-1 is unambiguously classified as a symbiotic star, because of the presence of unique emission lines which belong only to symbiotic spectra, the well-known O VI Raman-scattered lines. SySt-2 is only possibly a SySt because the Ne VII Raman-scattered line at 4881 Å, recently identified in a well-studied Galactic symbiotic as another very conspicuous property of symbiotic, could as well be identified as N III or [Fe III]. Finally, SySt-3 is likely a symbiotic binary because in the red part of the spectrum it shows the continuum of a late giant, and forbidden lines of moderate to high ionization, like [Fe V] 4180 Å. The main source for scepticism on the symbiotic nature of the latter systems is their location in the planetary nebula region in the [O III]4363/Hγ versus [O III]5007/Hβ diagnostic diagram. It is worth mentioning that at least another two confirmed symbiotics, one of the Local Group dwarf spheroidal IC 10 and the other of the Galaxy, are also misplaced in this diagram.

  12. Morula-like cells in photo-symbiotic clams harboring zooxanthellae.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, K; Nishijima, M; Maruyama, T

    1998-06-01

    Symbiosis is observed between zooxanthellae, symbiotic dinoflagellates, and giant clams and related clams which belong to the families Tridacnidae and Cardiidae. We have previously shown that a photo-symbiotic clam Tridacna crocea has three types of hemocytes, the eosinophilic granular hemocyte with phagocytic activity, the agranular cell with electron lucent granules, and the morula-like cell with large (ca. 2 mum in diameter) colorless granules. The function of the morula-like cell is not clear, but it has not been reported in any other bivalves except photo-symbiotic clams T. crocea and Tridacna maxima. In order to clarify whether it is specific to photo-symbiotic clams or not, we studied hemocytes in the photo-symbiotic clams Tridacna derasa (Tridacnidae), Hippopus hippopus (Tridacnidae) and Corculum cardissa (Cardiidae), and a closely related non-symbiotic clam Fulvia mutica (Cardiidae). The eosinophilic granular hemocytes and the agranular cells were found in all of the clams examined. However, the morula-like cells which were packed with many large electron dense granules (ca. 2 mum in diameter), were observed only in the photo-symbiotic clams. In F. mutica, a closely related non-symbiotic clam, this type of hemocyte was not found. Instead a hemocyte with vacuoles and a few large granules containing peroxidase activity was observed. The large granules of F. mutica varied in size from ca. 1-9 mum in diameter. Present data suggests that the presence of morula-like cells is restricted to photo-symbiotic clams and that the hemocytes associated with the morula-like cells may have some functional relationship to symbiosis with zooxanthellae.

  13. Scavenger deterrent factor (SDF) from symbiotic bacteria of entomopathogenic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Gulcu, Baris; Hazir, Selcuk; Kaya, Harry K

    2012-07-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis are symbiotically associated with bacteria in the genera Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus, respectively. The symbiotic bacteria produce a chemical compound(s) that deterred ants from feeding on nematode-killed insects (i.e., cadavers) and has been previously referred to as an Ant Deterrent Factor (ADF). We studied the response of different arthropod scavenger species which included the ant Lepisiota frauenfeldi, cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, wasps Vespa orientalis and Paravespula sp., and calliphorid fly Chrysomya albiceps, to ADF. These scavengers (ants, crickets, and wasps) were exposed to cadavers with and without the nematode/bacterium complex or to Photorhabdus luminescens cultures of different ages on different substrates. The ant, cricket, and wasp species did not feed on nematode-killed insects containing the nematode/bacterium complex that were 2 days old and older but fed on 1-day-old nematode-killed and freeze -killed insects. Crickets consumed 2- to 7-day-old axenic nematode-killed insects, 1-, 4-, and 5-day-old insects killed by the bacterium, Serratia marcescens, and freeze-killed, putrid insects that were up to 10 days old. The crickets only partially consumed 2- and 3-day-old insects killed by S. marcescens which differed significantly from the 1-, 4-, and 5-day-old killed insects by this bacterium. Ants fed only on 5% sucrose solution (control) and 1- to 3- day old cultures of P. luminescens containing 5% sucrose but not on older cultures of P. luminescens. Wasps did not feed on meat treated with P. luminescens supernatant, whereas they fed on meat treated with Escherichia coli supernatant and control meat. Calliphorid flies did not oviposit on meat treated with P. luminescens supernatant but did oviposit on untreated meat. Based on the response of these scavengers, the chemical compound(s) responsible for this deterrent activity should be called "scavenger deterrent factor

  14. Scavenger deterrent factor (SDF) from symbiotic bacteria of entomopathogenic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Gulcu, Baris; Hazir, Selcuk; Kaya, Harry K

    2012-07-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis are symbiotically associated with bacteria in the genera Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus, respectively. The symbiotic bacteria produce a chemical compound(s) that deterred ants from feeding on nematode-killed insects (i.e., cadavers) and has been previously referred to as an Ant Deterrent Factor (ADF). We studied the response of different arthropod scavenger species which included the ant Lepisiota frauenfeldi, cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, wasps Vespa orientalis and Paravespula sp., and calliphorid fly Chrysomya albiceps, to ADF. These scavengers (ants, crickets, and wasps) were exposed to cadavers with and without the nematode/bacterium complex or to Photorhabdus luminescens cultures of different ages on different substrates. The ant, cricket, and wasp species did not feed on nematode-killed insects containing the nematode/bacterium complex that were 2 days old and older but fed on 1-day-old nematode-killed and freeze -killed insects. Crickets consumed 2- to 7-day-old axenic nematode-killed insects, 1-, 4-, and 5-day-old insects killed by the bacterium, Serratia marcescens, and freeze-killed, putrid insects that were up to 10 days old. The crickets only partially consumed 2- and 3-day-old insects killed by S. marcescens which differed significantly from the 1-, 4-, and 5-day-old killed insects by this bacterium. Ants fed only on 5% sucrose solution (control) and 1- to 3- day old cultures of P. luminescens containing 5% sucrose but not on older cultures of P. luminescens. Wasps did not feed on meat treated with P. luminescens supernatant, whereas they fed on meat treated with Escherichia coli supernatant and control meat. Calliphorid flies did not oviposit on meat treated with P. luminescens supernatant but did oviposit on untreated meat. Based on the response of these scavengers, the chemical compound(s) responsible for this deterrent activity should be called "scavenger deterrent factor

  15. New-old hemoglobin-like proteins of symbiotic dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Rosic, Nedeljka N; Leggat, William; Kaniewska, Paulina; Dove, Sophie; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2013-01-01

    Symbiotic dinoflagellates are unicellular photosynthetic algae that live in mutualistic symbioses with many marine organisms. Within the transcriptome of coral endosymbionts Symbiodinium sp. (type C3), we discovered the sequences of two novel and highly polymorphic hemoglobin-like genes and proposed their 3D protein structures. At the protein level, four isoforms shared between 87 and 97% sequence identity for Hb-1 and 78–99% for Hb-2, whereas between Hb-1 and Hb-2 proteins, only 15–21% sequence homology has been preserved. Phylogenetic analyses of the dinoflagellate encoding Hb sequences have revealed a separate evolutionary origin of the discovered globin genes and indicated the possibility of horizontal gene transfer. Transcriptional regulation of the Hb-like genes was studied in the reef-building coral Acropora aspera exposed to elevated temperatures (6–7°C above average sea temperature) over a 24-h period and a 72-h period, as well as to nutrient stress. Exposure to elevated temperatures resulted in an increased Hb-1 gene expression of 31% after 72 h only, whereas transcript abundance of the Hb-2 gene was enhanced by up to 59% by both 1-day and 3-day thermal stress conditions. Nutrient stress also increased gene expression of Hb-2 gene by 70%. Our findings describe the differential expression patterns of two novel Hb genes from symbiotic dinoflagellates and their polymorphic nature. Furthermore, the inducible nature of Hb-2 gene by both thermal and nutrient stressors indicates a prospective role of this form of hemoglobin in the initial coral–algal responses to changes in environmental conditions. This novel hemoglobin has potential use as a stress biomarker. PMID:23610627

  16. Evolution of symbiotic organs and endosymbionts in lygaeid stinkbugs

    PubMed Central

    Matsuura, Yu; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Hosokawa, Takahiro; Koga, Ryuichi; Meng, Xian-Ying; Kamagata, Yoichi; Nikoh, Naruo; Fukatsu, Takema

    2012-01-01

    We investigated seed bugs of the genus Nysius (Insecta: Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) for their symbiotic bacteria. From all the samples representing 4 species, 18 populations and 281 individuals, specific bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences were consistently identified, which formed a distinct clade in the Gammaproteobacteria. In situ hybridization showed that the bacterium was endocellularly localized in a pair of large bacteriomes that were amorphous in shape, deep red in color, and in association with gonads. In the ovary of adult females, the endosymbiont was also localized in the ‘infection zone' in the middle of each germarium and in the ‘symbiont ball' at the anterior pole of each oocyte, indicating vertical transmission of the endosymbiont through the ovarial passage. Phylogenetic analyses based on bacterial 16S rRNA, groEL and gyrB genes consistently supported a coherent monophyly of the Nysius endosymbionts. The possibility of a sister relationship to ‘Candidatus Kleidoceria schneideri', the bacteriome-associated endosymbiont of a lygaeid bug Kleidocerys resedae, was statistically rejected, indicating independent evolutionary origins of the endosymbionts in the Lygaeidae. The endosymbiont genes consistently exhibited AT-biased nucleotide compositions and accelerated rates of molecular evolution, and the endosymbiont genome was only 0.6 Mb in size. The endosymbiont phylogeny was congruent with the host insect phylogeny, suggesting strict vertical transmission and host–symbiont co-speciation over evolutionary time. Based on these results, we discuss the evolution of bacteriomes and endosymbionts in the Heteroptera, most members of which are associated with gut symbiotic bacteria. The designation ‘Candidatus Schneideria nysicola' is proposed for the endosymbiont clade. PMID:21814289

  17. Non-symbiotic hemoglobins in the life of seeds.

    PubMed

    Matilla, Angel J; Rodríguez-Gacio, María del Carmen

    2013-03-01

    Non-symbiotic hemoglobins (nsHbs), ancestors of symbiotic-Hbs, are hexacoordinated dimeric proteins, for which the crystal structure is well described. According to the extent of hexacoordination, nsHbs are classified as belonging to class-1 (nsHbs1) or class-2 (nsHbs2). The nsHbs1 show weak hexacoordination, moderate rates of O(2)-binding, very small rates of O(2) dissociation, and a remarkably high affinity for O(2), all suggesting a function involving O(2) scavenging. In contrast, the nsHbs2 exhibit strong hexacoordination, low rates of O(2)-binding and moderately low O(2) dissociation and affinity, suggesting a sensing role for sustained low (μM) levels of O(2). The existence of spatial and specific expression of nsHbs1 suggests that nsHbs play tissue-specific rather than housekeeping functions. The permeation of O(2) into seeds is usually prevented during the desiccation phase and early imbibition, generating an internal hypoxic environment that leads to ATP limitation. During evolution, the seed has acquired mechanisms to prevent or reduce this hypoxic stress. The nsHbs1/NO cycle appear to be involved in modulating the redox state in the seed and in maintaining an active metabolism. Under O(2) deficit, NADH and NO are synthesized in the seed and nsHbs1 scavenges O(2), which is used to transform NO into NO(3)(-) with concomitant formation of Fe(3+)-nsHbs1. Expression of nsHbs1 is not detectable in dry viable seeds. However, in the seeds cross-talk occurs between nsHbs1 and NO during germination. This review considers the current status of our knowledge of seed nsHbs and considers key issues of further work to better understand their role in seed physiology. PMID:23286879

  18. ISO observations of symbiotic stars. I. HM Sge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, H.; Eyres, S. P. S.; Salama, A.; Evans, A.

    2001-10-01

    We present ISO SWS and LWS observations of the symbiotic star HM Sge. The infrared emission longward of ~ 5 mu m is dominated by a silicate dust shell. There is a number of high ionization emission lines superimposed on the dust continuum. The ISO continuum spectra can be fitted with a single, optically thick silicate dust shell but such a model does not fit other known properties of this system, such as the observed J H K colours, the optical visibility of the red giant and the occurrence of a dust obscuration event. We favour a two component model in which in addition to a partial Mira dust shell, a second dust component is associated with the hot source. This second shell is located at the interface between the Mira dust shell and the dust free region carved out by the hot component. This picture corresponds closely to that deduced independently from radio observations. The two dust components are very different. The dust envelope associated with the Mira is very extended and optically thin, whereas the second dust component is geometrically rather thin but dust rich. The model not only fits the ISO data reasonably well, but is also compatible with other IR properties of HM Sge. The thin dust shell contributes strongly to the dust emission over most of the ISO range. It may be the combination of the two shells that makes a symbiotic a D type. The general agreement of the present models with ISO observations indicate that radiation (rather than collisions) as the main dust heating mechanism is sufficient.

  19. Rhizobium phaseoli symbiotic mutants with transposon Tn5 insertions.

    PubMed Central

    Noel, K D; Sanchez, A; Fernandez, L; Leemans, J; Cevallos, M A

    1984-01-01

    Rhizobium phaseoli CFN42 DNA was mutated by random insertion of Tn5 from suicide plasmid pJB4JI to obtain independently arising strains that were defective in symbiosis with Phaseolus vulgaris but grew normally outside the plant. When these mutants were incubated with the plant, one did not initiate visible nodule tissue (Nod-), seven led to slow nodule development (Ndv), and two led to superficially normal early nodule development but lacked symbiotic nitrogenase activity (Sna-). The Nod- mutant lacked the large transmissible indigenous plasmid pCFN42d that has homology to Klebsiella pneumoniae nitrogenase (nif) genes. The other mutants had normal plasmid content. In the two Sna- mutants and one Ndv mutant, Tn5 had inserted into plasmid pCFN42d outside the region of nif homology. The insertions of the other Ndv mutants were apparently in the chromosome. They were not in plasmids detected on agarose gels, and, in contrast to insertions on indigenous plasmids, they were transmitted in crosses to wild-type strain CFN42 at the same frequency as auxotrophic markers and with the same enhancement of transmission by conjugation plasmid R68.45. In these Ndv mutants the Tn5 insertions were the same as or very closely linked to mutations causing the Ndv phenotype. However, in two mutants with Tn5 insertions on plasmid pCFN42d, an additional mutation on the same plasmid, rather than Tn5, was responsible for the Sna- or Ndv phenotype. When plasmid pJB4JI was transferred to two other R. phaseoli strains, analysis of symbiotic mutants was complicated by Tn5-containing deleted forms of pJB4JI that were stably maintained. Images PMID:6325385

  20. Ingress observations of the 1980 eclipse of the symbiotic star CI Cyngni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stencel, R. E.; Michalitsianos, A. G.; Kafatos, M.; Boyarchuk, A. A.

    1981-01-01

    One of the major results from the IUE may prove to be the knowledge gained by studies of the ultraviolet spectra of symbiotic stars. Symbiotics combine spectral features of a cool M giant like photosphere with strong high excitation emission lines of nebular origin, superposed. The UV spectra are dominated by intense permitted and semiforbidden emission lines and weak continua indicative of hot compact objects and accretion disks. Two symbiotics, AR Pav and CI Cyg are thought to be eclipsing binaries and IUE observations during the 1980 eclipse of CI Cygni are discussed.

  1. Flavonoids and Auxin Transport Inhibitors Rescue Symbiotic Nodulation in the Medicago truncatula Cytokinin Perception Mutant cre1

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Jason Liang Pin; Hassan, Samira; Truong, Thy T.; Hocart, Charles H.; Laffont, Carole; Frugier, Florian; Mathesius, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Initiation of symbiotic nodules in legumes requires cytokinin signaling, but its mechanism of action is largely unknown. Here, we tested whether the failure to initiate nodules in the Medicago truncatula cytokinin perception mutant cre1 (cytokinin response1) is due to its altered ability to regulate auxin transport, auxin accumulation, and induction of flavonoids. We found that in the cre1 mutant, symbiotic rhizobia cannot locally alter acro- and basipetal auxin transport during nodule initiation and that these mutants show reduced auxin (indole-3-acetic acid) accumulation and auxin responses compared with the wild type. Quantification of flavonoids, which can act as endogenous auxin transport inhibitors, showed a deficiency in the induction of free naringenin, isoliquiritigenin, quercetin, and hesperetin in cre1 roots compared with wild-type roots 24 h after inoculation with rhizobia. Coinoculation of roots with rhizobia and the flavonoids naringenin, isoliquiritigenin, and kaempferol, or with the synthetic auxin transport inhibitor 2,3,5,-triiodobenzoic acid, rescued nodulation efficiency in cre1 mutants and allowed auxin transport control in response to rhizobia. Our results suggest that CRE1-dependent cytokinin signaling leads to nodule initiation through the regulation of flavonoid accumulation required for local alteration of polar auxin transport and subsequent auxin accumulation in cortical cells during the early stages of nodulation. PMID:26253705

  2. Metaproteomics of a gutless marine worm and its symbiotic microbial community reveal unusual pathways for carbon and energy use

    SciTech Connect

    Kleiner, Manuel; Wentrop, C.; Lott, C.; Teeling, Hanno; Wetzel, Silke; Young, Jacque C; Chang, Y.; Shah, Manesh B; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Zarzycki, Jan; Fuchs, Georg; Markert, Stephanie; Hempel, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Low nutrient and energy availability has led to the evolution of numerous strategies for overcoming these limitations, of which symbiotic associations represent a key mechanism. Particularly striking are the associations between chemosynthetic bacteria and marine animals that thrive in nutrient-poor environments such as the deep-sea because the symbionts allow their hosts to grow on inorganic energy and carbon sources such as sulfide and CO2. Remarkably little is known about the physiological strategies that enable chemosynthetic symbioses to colonize oligotrophic environments. In this study, we used metaproteomics and metabolomics to investigate the intricate network of metabolic interactions in the chemosynthetic association between Olavius algarvensis, a gutless marine worm, and its bacterial symbionts. We propose novel pathways for coping with energy and nutrient limitation, some of which may be widespread in both free-living and symbiotic bacteria. These include (i) a pathway for symbiont assimilation of the host waste products acetate, propionate, succinate and malate, (ii) the potential use of carbon monoxide as an energy source, a substrate previously not known to play a role in marine invertebrate symbioses, (iii) the potential use of hydrogen as an energy source, (iv) the strong expression of high affinity uptake transporters, and (v) novel energy efficient steps in CO2 fixation and sulfate reduction. The high expression of proteins involved in pathways for energy and carbon uptake and conservation in the O. algarvensis symbiosis indicates that the oligotrophic nature of its environment exerted a strong selective pressure in shaping these associations.

  3. Flavonoids and Auxin Transport Inhibitors Rescue Symbiotic Nodulation in the Medicago truncatula Cytokinin Perception Mutant cre1.

    PubMed

    Ng, Jason Liang Pin; Hassan, Samira; Truong, Thy T; Hocart, Charles H; Laffont, Carole; Frugier, Florian; Mathesius, Ulrike

    2015-08-01

    Initiation of symbiotic nodules in legumes requires cytokinin signaling, but its mechanism of action is largely unknown. Here, we tested whether the failure to initiate nodules in the Medicago truncatula cytokinin perception mutant cre1 (cytokinin response1) is due to its altered ability to regulate auxin transport, auxin accumulation, and induction of flavonoids. We found that in the cre1 mutant, symbiotic rhizobia cannot locally alter acro- and basipetal auxin transport during nodule initiation and that these mutants show reduced auxin (indole-3-acetic acid) accumulation and auxin responses compared with the wild type. Quantification of flavonoids, which can act as endogenous auxin transport inhibitors, showed a deficiency in the induction of free naringenin, isoliquiritigenin, quercetin, and hesperetin in cre1 roots compared with wild-type roots 24 h after inoculation with rhizobia. Coinoculation of roots with rhizobia and the flavonoids naringenin, isoliquiritigenin, and kaempferol, or with the synthetic auxin transport inhibitor 2,3,5,-triiodobenzoic acid, rescued nodulation efficiency in cre1 mutants and allowed auxin transport control in response to rhizobia. Our results suggest that CRE1-dependent cytokinin signaling leads to nodule initiation through the regulation of flavonoid accumulation required for local alteration of polar auxin transport and subsequent auxin accumulation in cortical cells during the early stages of nodulation.

  4. The Recent Evolution of a Symbiotic Ion Channel in the Legume Family Altered Ion Conductance and Improved Functionality in Calcium Signaling[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Venkateshwaran, Muthusubramanian; Cosme, Ana; Han, Lu; Banba, Mari; Satyshur, Kenneth A.; Schleiff, Enrico; Parniske, Martin; Imaizumi-Anraku, Haruko; Ané, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza and the rhizobia-legume symbiosis are two major root endosymbioses that facilitate plant nutrition. In Lotus japonicus, two symbiotic cation channels, CASTOR and POLLUX, are indispensable for the induction of nuclear calcium spiking, one of the earliest plant responses to symbiotic partner recognition. During recent evolution, a single amino acid substitution in DOES NOT MAKE INFECTIONS1 (DMI1), the POLLUX putative ortholog in the closely related Medicago truncatula, rendered the channel solo sufficient for symbiosis; castor, pollux, and castor pollux double mutants of L. japonicus were rescued by DMI1 alone, while both Lj-CASTOR and Lj-POLLUX were required for rescuing a dmi1 mutant of M. truncatula. Experimental replacement of the critical serine by an alanine in the selectivity filter of Lj-POLLUX conferred a symbiotic performance indistinguishable from DMI1. Electrophysiological characterization of DMI1 and Lj-CASTOR (wild-type and mutants) by planar lipid bilayer experiments combined with calcium imaging in Human Embryonic Kidney-293 cells expressing DMI1 (the wild type and mutants) suggest that the serine-to-alanine substitution conferred reduced conductance with a long open state to DMI1 and improved its efficiency in mediating calcium oscillations. We propose that this single amino acid replacement in the selectivity filter made DMI1 solo sufficient for symbiosis, thus explaining the selective advantage of this allele at the mechanistic level. PMID:22706284

  5. The Symbiotic Relationship of Science and Technology in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, A. Emerson

    1999-01-01

    There are many examples in which science and technology complement each other. This is especially evident in biotechnology and genetic engineering. This symbiotic relationship is foundational to the technological culture of contemporary society. (SK)

  6. TIDALLY ENHANCED STELLAR WIND: A WAY TO MAKE THE SYMBIOTIC CHANNEL TO TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA VIABLE

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X.; Han, Z.

    2011-07-10

    In the symbiotic (or WD+RG) channel of the single-degenerate scenario for type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), the explosions occur a relatively long time after star formation. The birthrate from this channel would be too low to account for all observed SNe Ia were it not for some mechanism to enhance the rate of accretion on to the white dwarf. A tidally enhanced stellar wind, of the type which has been postulated to explain many phenomena related to giant star evolution in binary systems, can do this. Compared to mass stripping, this model extends the space of SNe Ia progenitors to longer orbital periods and hence increases the birthrate to about 0.0069 yr{sup -1} for the symbiotic channel. Two symbiotic stars, T CrB and RS Oph, considered to be the most likely progenitors of SNe Ia through the symbiotic channel, are well inside the period-companion mass space predicted by our models.

  7. Toward the functional analysis of uncultivable, symbiotic microorganisms in the termite gut.

    PubMed

    Hongoh, Yuichi

    2011-04-01

    Termites thrive on dead plant matters with the aid of microorganisms resident in their gut. The gut microbiota comprises protists (single-celled eukaryotes), bacteria, and archaea, most of which are unique to the termite gut ecosystem. Although this symbiosis has long been intriguing researchers of both basic and applied sciences, its detailed mechanism remains unclear due to the enormous complexity and the unculturability of the microbiota. In the effort to overcome the difficulty, recent advances in omics, such as metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and metaproteomics have gradually unveiled the black box of this symbiotic system. Genomics targeting a single species of the unculturable microbial members has also provided a great progress in the understanding of the symbiotic interrelationships among the gut microorganisms. In this review, the symbiotic system organized by wood-feeding termites and their gut microorganisms is outlined, focusing on the recent achievement in omics studies of this multilayered symbiotic system.

  8. Construction of an artificial symbiotic community using a Chlorella–symbiont association as a model

    PubMed Central

    Imase, Masato; Watanabe, Keiji; Aoyagi, Hideki; Tanaka, Hideo

    2008-01-01

    Chlorella sorokiniana IAM C-212 produces a polysaccharide gel, termed a sheath, under photoautotrophic conditions. The C. sorokiniana sheath is a suitable habitat for several symbiotic microorganisms because it ensures close proximity between the C. sorokiniana and symbionts. In this study, we established a method for increasing the volume of the sheath produced by C. sorokiniana, and proposed a method for constructing artificial communities of Chlorella and symbiotic microorganisms. The C. sorokiniana sheath was increased by addition of calcium chloride solution. The sheath resulted in coflocculation of C. sorokiniana and the associated symbiotic bacteria, thus strengthening the bacterial–Chlorella symbiotic association. An application of this technique was demonstrated by constructing a complex of C. sorokiniana and a propionate-degrading bacterium (PDS1). Although propionate inhibited the growth of axenic C. sorokiniana, the C. sorokiniana–PDS1 complex showed good growth in a medium containing a high concentration of propionate. PMID:18269632

  9. Swift observations of the 2015 outburst of AG Peg - from slow nova to classical symbiotic outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsay, Gavin; Sokoloski, J. L.; Luna, G. J. M.; Nuñez, N. E.

    2016-10-01

    Symbiotic stars often contain white dwarfs with quasi-steady shell burning on their surfaces. However, in most symbiotics, the origin of this burning is unclear. In symbiotic slow novae, however, it is linked to a past thermonuclear runaway. In 2015 June, the symbiotic slow nova AG Peg was seen in only its second optical outburst since 1850. This recent outburst was of much shorter duration and lower amplitude than the earlier eruption, and it contained multiple peaks - like outbursts in classical symbiotic stars such as Z And. We report Swift X-ray and UV observations of AG Peg made between 2015 June and 2016 January. The X-ray flux was markedly variable on a time-scale of days, particularly during four days near optical maximum, when the X-rays became bright and soft. This strong X-ray variability continued for another month, after which the X-rays hardened as the optical flux declined. The UV flux was high throughout the outburst, consistent with quasi-steady shell burning on the white dwarf. Given that accretion discs around white dwarfs with shell burning do not generally produce detectable X-rays (due to Compton-cooling of the boundary layer), the X-rays probably originated via shocks in the ejecta. As the X-ray photoelectric absorption did not vary significantly, the X-ray variability may directly link to the properties of the shocked material. AG Peg's transition from a slow symbiotic nova (which drove the 1850 outburst) to a classical symbiotic star suggests that shell burning in at least some symbiotic stars is residual burning from prior novae.

  10. Optical Manipulation of Symbiotic Chlorella in Paramecium Bursaria Using a Fiber Axicon Microlens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, K.; Hirota, S.; Nakayama, H.; Kunugihara, D.; Mihara, Y.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, chemically etched axicon fiber was proposed for laser trapping of symbiotic chlorella from paramecium bursaria. We fabricated axicon micro lenses on a single-mode bare optical fiber by selective chemical etching technique. The laser beam from fiber axicon microlens was strongly focused and optical forces were sufficient to move a symbiotic chlorella. From experimental results, it was found that our proposed fiber axicon microlens was a promising tool for cell trapping without physical contact.

  11. Deciphering The Hot Components in Symbiotic Variables: A Brave New Frontier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sion, Edward

    We propose to investigate the physical properties of the hot components of symbiotic variable stars. They are binary star systems consisting of a red giant and a white dwarf (WD) orbiting each other close enough to interact. Material from the outflowing stellar wind of the red giant accretes onto the white dwarf, and an accretion disk may or may not form. Much of the outflowing red giant wind material forms a large nebula around the binary that is partially ionized by radiation from the accreting WD and from thermonuclear burning at its surface. The exact nature of the hot component, the efficiency of such wind-fed accretion, the rate of accretion onto the WD, whether accretion disks are even present, and why the hot components are so much hotter than their cataclysmic variable cousins, all remain poorly know. All previous attempts to determine WD temperatures, luminosities and accretion rates relied upon the modified Zanstra method and crude black body fitting. To deepen our understanding of the hot components, we propose to apply synthetic spectra for high gravity stars and accretion disks generated from state-of-the-art computer codes to the far ultraviolet archival spectra of 40 symbiotic stars, obtained with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) and Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spacecrafts. Since the WD is the most common end-product of stellar evolution ( > 95% of all the stars in the Galaxy evolve into white dwarfs), and the accretion disk whether from wind- fed accretion or Roche lobe overflow, is the most common universal structure resulting from mass transfer with angular momentum, and since both can be directly viewed in CVs in the ultraviolet (UV), an understanding of the consequences of accretion in these systems is the first step in a global understanding of accretion in other systems throughout the universe. These include protostellar objects, X-ray binaries (containing neutron star and black hole accretors), active galactic

  12. The value of biodiversity in legume symbiotic nitrogen fixation and nodulation for biofuel and food production.

    PubMed

    Gresshoff, Peter M; Hayashi, Satomi; Biswas, Bandana; Mirzaei, Saeid; Indrasumunar, Arief; Reid, Dugald; Samuel, Sharon; Tollenaere, Alina; van Hameren, Bethany; Hastwell, April; Scott, Paul; Ferguson, Brett J

    2015-01-01

    Much of modern agriculture is based on immense populations of genetically identical or near-identical varieties, called cultivars. However, advancement of knowledge, and thus experimental utility, is found through biodiversity, whether naturally-found or induced by the experimenter. Globally we are confronted by ever-growing food and energy challenges. Here we demonstrate how such biodiversity from the food legume crop soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) and the bioenergy legume tree Pongamia (Millettia) pinnata is a great value. Legume plants are diverse and are represented by over 18,000 species on this planet. Some, such as soybean, pea and medics are used as food and animal feed crops. Others serve as ornamental (e.g., wisteria), timber (e.g., acacia/wattle) or biofuel (e.g., Pongamia pinnata) resources. Most legumes develop root organs (nodules) after microsymbiont induction that serve as their habitat for biological nitrogen fixation. Through this, nitrogen fertiliser demand is reduced by the efficient symbiosis between soil Rhizobium-type bacteria and the appropriate legume partner. Mechanistic research into the genetics, biochemistry and physiology of legumes is thus strategically essential for future global agriculture. Here we demonstrate how molecular plant science analysis of the genetics of an established food crop (soybean) and an emerging biofuel P. pinnata feedstock contributes to their utility by sustainable production aided by symbiotic nitrogen fixation. PMID:25240795

  13. Discovery of symbiotic nitrogen fixation and chemoautotrophy in cold-water corals.

    PubMed

    Middelburg, Jack J; Mueller, Christina E; Veuger, Bart; Larsson, Ann I; Form, Armin; van Oevelen, Dick

    2015-12-08

    Cold-water corals (CWC) are widely distributed around the world forming extensive reefs at par with tropical coral reefs. They are hotspots of biodiversity and organic matter processing in the world's deep oceans. Living in the dark they lack photosynthetic symbionts and are therefore considered to depend entirely on the limited flux of organic resources from the surface ocean. While symbiotic relations in tropical corals are known to be key to their survival in oligotrophic conditions, the full metabolic capacity of CWC has yet to be revealed. Here we report isotope tracer evidence for efficient nitrogen recycling, including nitrogen assimilation, regeneration, nitrification and denitrification. Moreover, we also discovered chemoautotrophy and nitrogen fixation in CWC and transfer of fixed nitrogen and inorganic carbon into bulk coral tissue and tissue compounds (fatty acids and amino acids). This unrecognized yet versatile metabolic machinery of CWC conserves precious limiting resources and provides access to new nitrogen and organic carbon resources that may be essential for CWC to survive in the resource-depleted dark ocean.

  14. Genetic diversity and symbiotic compatibility among rhizobial strains and Desmodium incanum and Lotus spp. plants

    PubMed Central

    Granada, Camille E.; Strochein, Marcos; Vargas, Luciano K.; Bruxel, Manuela; de Sá, Enilson Luiz Saccol; Passaglia, Luciane M.P.

    2014-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the symbiotic compatibility and nodulation efficiency of rhizobia isolated from Desmodium incanum, Lotus corniculatus, L. subbiflorus, L. uliginosus and L. glaber plants by cross-inoculation. Twelve reference strains and 21 native isolates of rhizobia were genetically analyzed by the BOX-PCR technique, which showed a high genetic diversity among the rhizobia studied. The isolates were also characterized based on their production of indolic compounds and siderophores, as well as on their tolerance to salinity. Fifteen of the 33 rhizobia analyzed were able to produce indolic compounds, whereas 13 produced siderophores. All the tested rhizobia were sensitive to high salinity, although some were able to grow in solutions of up to 2% NaCl. Most of the native rhizobia isolated from L. uliginosus were able to induce nodulation in all plant species studied. In a greenhouse experiment using both D. incanum and L. corniculatus plants, the rhizobia isolate UFRGS Lu2 promoted the greatest plant growth. The results demonstrate that there are native rhizobia in the soils of southern Brazil that have low host specificity and are able to induce nodulation and form active nodules in several plant species. PMID:25071405

  15. Genetic diversity and symbiotic compatibility among rhizobial strains and Desmodium incanum and Lotus spp. plants.

    PubMed

    Granada, Camille E; Strochein, Marcos; Vargas, Luciano K; Bruxel, Manuela; de Sá, Enilson Luiz Saccol; Passaglia, Luciane M P

    2014-06-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the symbiotic compatibility and nodulation efficiency of rhizobia isolated from Desmodium incanum, Lotus corniculatus, L. subbiflorus, L. uliginosus and L. glaber plants by cross-inoculation. Twelve reference strains and 21 native isolates of rhizobia were genetically analyzed by the BOX-PCR technique, which showed a high genetic diversity among the rhizobia studied. The isolates were also characterized based on their production of indolic compounds and siderophores, as well as on their tolerance to salinity. Fifteen of the 33 rhizobia analyzed were able to produce indolic compounds, whereas 13 produced siderophores. All the tested rhizobia were sensitive to high salinity, although some were able to grow in solutions of up to 2% NaCl. Most of the native rhizobia isolated from L. uliginosus were able to induce nodulation in all plant species studied. In a greenhouse experiment using both D. incanum and L. corniculatus plants, the rhizobia isolate UFRGS Lu2 promoted the greatest plant growth. The results demonstrate that there are native rhizobia in the soils of southern Brazil that have low host specificity and are able to induce nodulation and form active nodules in several plant species.

  16. Evidence for an inorganic carbon-concentrating mechanism in the symbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp.

    PubMed

    Leggat, W; Badger, M R; Yellowlees, D

    1999-12-01

    The presence of a carbon-concentrating mechanism in the symbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp. was investigated. Its existence was postulated to explain how these algae fix inorganic carbon (C(i)) efficiently despite the presence of a form II Rubisco. When the dinoflagellates were isolated from their host, the giant clam (Tridacna gigas), CO(2) uptake was found to support the majority of net photosynthesis (45%-80%) at pH 8.0; however, 2 d after isolation this decreased to 5% to 65%, with HCO(3)(-) uptake supporting 35% to 95% of net photosynthesis. Measurements of intracellular C(i) concentrations showed that levels inside the cell were between two and seven times what would be expected from passive diffusion of C(i) into the cell. Symbiodinium also exhibits a distinct light-activated intracellular carbonic anhydrase activity. This, coupled with elevated intracellular C(i) and the ability to utilize both CO(2) and HCO(3)(-) from the medium, suggests that Symbiodinium sp. does possess a carbon-concentrating mechanism. However, intracellular C(i) levels are not as large as might be expected of an alga utilizing a form II Rubisco with a poor affinity for CO(2).

  17. Discovery of symbiotic nitrogen fixation and chemoautotrophy in cold-water corals.

    PubMed

    Middelburg, Jack J; Mueller, Christina E; Veuger, Bart; Larsson, Ann I; Form, Armin; van Oevelen, Dick

    2015-01-01

    Cold-water corals (CWC) are widely distributed around the world forming extensive reefs at par with tropical coral reefs. They are hotspots of biodiversity and organic matter processing in the world's deep oceans. Living in the dark they lack photosynthetic symbionts and are therefore considered to depend entirely on the limited flux of organic resources from the surface ocean. While symbiotic relations in tropical corals are known to be key to their survival in oligotrophic conditions, the full metabolic capacity of CWC has yet to be revealed. Here we report isotope tracer evidence for efficient nitrogen recycling, including nitrogen assimilation, regeneration, nitrification and denitrification. Moreover, we also discovered chemoautotrophy and nitrogen fixation in CWC and transfer of fixed nitrogen and inorganic carbon into bulk coral tissue and tissue compounds (fatty acids and amino acids). This unrecognized yet versatile metabolic machinery of CWC conserves precious limiting resources and provides access to new nitrogen and organic carbon resources that may be essential for CWC to survive in the resource-depleted dark ocean. PMID:26644069

  18. Discovery of symbiotic nitrogen fixation and chemoautotrophy in cold-water corals

    PubMed Central

    Middelburg, Jack J.; Mueller, Christina E.; Veuger, Bart; Larsson, Ann I.; Form, Armin; Oevelen, Dick van

    2015-01-01

    Cold-water corals (CWC) are widely distributed around the world forming extensive reefs at par with tropical coral reefs. They are hotspots of biodiversity and organic matter processing in the world’s deep oceans. Living in the dark they lack photosynthetic symbionts and are therefore considered to depend entirely on the limited flux of organic resources from the surface ocean. While symbiotic relations in tropical corals are known to be key to their survival in oligotrophic conditions, the full metabolic capacity of CWC has yet to be revealed. Here we report isotope tracer evidence for efficient nitrogen recycling, including nitrogen assimilation, regeneration, nitrification and denitrification. Moreover, we also discovered chemoautotrophy and nitrogen fixation in CWC and transfer of fixed nitrogen and inorganic carbon into bulk coral tissue and tissue compounds (fatty acids and amino acids). This unrecognized yet versatile metabolic machinery of CWC conserves precious limiting resources and provides access to new nitrogen and organic carbon resources that may be essential for CWC to survive in the resource-depleted dark ocean. PMID:26644069

  19. Symbiotic bacteria contribute to increasing the population size of a freshwater crustacean, Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Peerakietkhajorn, Saranya; Tsukada, Koji; Kato, Yasuhiko; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Hajime

    2015-04-01

    The filter-feeding crustacean Daphnia is a key organism in freshwater ecosystems. Here, we report the effect of symbiotic bacteria on ecologically important life history traits, such as population dynamics and longevity, in Daphnia magna. By disinfection of the daphniid embryos with glutaraldehyde, aposymbiotic daphniids were prepared and cultured under bacteria-free conditions. Removal of bacteria from the daphniids was monitored by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The population of aposymbiotic daphniids was reduced 10-folds compared with that of the control daphniids. Importantly, re-infection with symbiotic bacteria caused daphniids to regain bacteria and increase their fecundity to the level of the control daphniids, suggesting that symbiotic bacteria regulate Daphnia fecundity. To identify the species of symbiotic bacteria, 16S rRNA genes of bacteria in daphniids were sequenced. This revealed that 50% of sequences belonged to the Limnohabitans sp. of the Betaproteobacteria class and that the diversity of bacterial taxa was relatively low. These results suggested that symbiotic bacteria have a beneficial effect on D. magna, and that aposymbiotic Daphnia are useful tools in understanding the role of symbiotic bacteria in the environmental responses and evolution of their hosts.

  20. [Influence of salt stress on the genetically polymorphic system of Sinorhizobium meliloti-Medicago truncatula].

    PubMed

    Kurchak, O N; Provorov, N A; Onishchuk, O P; Vorobyov, N I; Roumiantseva, M L; Simarov, B V

    2014-07-01

    The impacts of salt stress (75 mM NaC1) on the ecological efficiency of the genetically polymorphic Sinorhizobium meliloti-Medicago truncatula system were studied. Its impact on a symbiotic system results in an increase of the partners' variability for symbiotic traits and of the symbiosis integrity as indicated by: a) the specificity of the partners' interactions--the nonadditive inputs of their genotypes into the variation of symbiotic parameters; and b) the correlative links between these parameters. The structure of the nodDI locus and the content correlates to the efficiency of the symbiosis between S. meliloti and M. truncatula genotypes under stress conditions more sufficiently than in the absence of stress. Correlations between the symbiotic efficiency of rhizobia strains and their growth rate outside symbiosis are expressed under stress conditions, not in the absence of stress. Under salt stress symbiotic effectiveness was decreased for M. truncatula line F83005.5, which was salt sensitive for mineral nutrition. The inhibition of symbiotic activity for this line is linked with decreased nodule formation, whereas for Jemalong 6 and DZA315.16 lines it is associated with repressed N2-fixation. It was demonstrated for the first time that salt stress impairs the M. truncatula habitus (the mass : height ratio increased 2- to 6-fold), which in the salt-resistant cultivar Jemalong 6 is normalized as the result of rhizobia inoculation.

  1. LES ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) Implementation Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafson Jr., WI; Vogelmann, AM

    2015-09-01

    This document illustrates the design of the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) workflow to provide a routine, high-resolution modeling capability to augment the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s high-density observations. LASSO will create a powerful new capability for furthering ARM’s mission to advance understanding of cloud, radiation, aerosol, and land-surface processes. The combined observational and modeling elements will enable a new level of scientific inquiry by connecting processes and context to observations and providing needed statistics for details that cannot be measured. The result will be improved process understanding that facilitates concomitant improvements in climate model parameterizations. The initial LASSO implementation will be for ARM’s Southern Great Plains site in Oklahoma and will focus on shallow convection, which is poorly simulated by climate models due in part to clouds’ typically small spatial scale compared to model grid spacing, and because the convection involves complicated interactions of microphysical and boundary layer processes.

  2. On the nature of the symbiotic binary AX Persei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikolajewska, Joanna; Kenyon, Scott J.

    1992-01-01

    Photometric and spectroscopic observations of the symbiotic binary AX Persei are presented. This system contains a red giant that fills its tidal lobe and transfers material into an accretion disk surrounding a low-mass main-sequence star. The stellar masses - 1 solar mass for the red giant and about 0.4 solar mass for the companion - suggest AX Per is poised to enter a common envelope phase of evolution. The disk luminosity increases from L(disk) about 100 solar luminosity in quiescence to L(disk) about 5700 solar luminosity in outburst for a distance of d = 2.5 kpc. Except for visual maximum, high ionization permitted emission lines - such as He II - imply an EUV luminosity comparable to the disk luminosity. High-energy photons emitted by a hot boundary layer between the disk and central star ionize a surrounding nebula to produce this permitted line emission. High ionization forbidden lines form in an extended, shock-excited region well out of the binary's orbital plane and may be associated with mass loss from the disk.

  3. Evolution of the symbiotic binary system AG Dranconis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikolajewska, Joanna; Kenyon, Scott J; Mikolajewski, Maciej; Garcia, Michael R.; Polidan, Ronald S.

    1995-01-01

    We present an analysis of new and archival photometric and spectroscopic observations of the symbiotic star AG Draconis. This binary has undergone several 1 - 3 mag optical and ultraviolet eruptions during the past 15 years. Our combination of optical and ultraviolet spectroscopic data allow a more complete analysis of this system than in previous papers. AG Dra is composed of a K-type bright giant M(sub g) approximately 1.5 solar mass) and a hot, compact star M(sub h approximatelly 0.4 - 0.6 solar mass) embedded in a dense, low metallicity nebula. The hot component undergoes occasional thermonuclear runaways that produce 2 - 3 mag optical/ultraviolet eruptions. During these eruptions, the hot component develops a low velocity wind that quenches x-ray emission from the underlying hot white dwarf. The photoionized nebula changes its volume by a factor of 5 throughout an eruptin cycle. The K bright giant occults low ionization emission lines during superior conjunctions at all outburst phases but does not occult high ionization lines in outburst (and perhaps quiescence). This geometry and the component masses suggest a system inclination of i approximately 30 deg - 45 deg.

  4. Cristispira from oyster styles: complex morphology of large symbiotic spirochetes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, L.; Nault, L.; Sieburth, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    Crystalline styles (digestive organs) of bivalve mollusks provide the habitat for highly motile bacteria. Styles from freshly-collected oysters, Crassostrea virginica, were studied by electron microscopy; Cristispira spirochetes were abundant in these organs. Detailed study reveals these spirochetes to be among the most complex prokaryotic cells known. More than 600 periplasmic flagella and an adhering outer lipoprotein membrane (e.g., a 270 degrees sillon) form the ultrastructural basis for the "crista," first described by light microscopy. Unique rosette structures corresponding to the "chambers" or "ovoid inclusions" of light microscopy were detected at the periphery of all protoplasmic cylinders. Polar organelles and linearly aligned flagellar insertions are conspicuous. In size and complexity, Cristispira more resembles Pillotina, Diplocalyx, Clevelandina and Hollandina (large spirochetes symbiotic in termites) than it does Treponema. Cristispira pectinis (Gross, 1910), the type species; Spirillum ostrea (Noguchi, 1921); and another, less frequent bacterial symbiont are the predominant inhabitants of the dense style matrix. The ultrastructure of the spirillum and an electron micrograph of the third bacterium are shown.

  5. Symbiotic Stars in X-Rays. III. Suzaku Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuñez, N. E.; Nelson, T.; Mukai, K.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Luna, G. J. M.

    2016-06-01

    We describe the X-ray emission as observed by Suzaku from five symbiotic stars that we selected for deep Suzaku observations after their initial detection with ROSAT, ASCA, and Swift. We find that the X-ray spectra of all five sources can be adequately fit with absorbed optically thin thermal plasma models, with either single- or multi-temperature plasmas. These models are compatible with the X-ray emission originating in the boundary layer between an accretion disk and a white dwarf. The high plasma temperatures of kT > 3 keV for all five targets were greater than expected for colliding winds. Based on these high temperatures as well as previous measurements of UV variability and UV luminosity and the large amplitude of X-ray flickering in 4 Dra, we conclude that all five sources are accretion-powered through predominantly optically thick boundary layers. Our X-ray data allow us to observe a small optically thin portion of the emission from these boundary layers. Given the time between previous observations and these observations, we find that the intrinsic X-ray flux and the intervening absorbing column can vary by factors of three or more on a timescale of years. However, the location of the absorber and the relationship between changes in accretion rate and absorption are still elusive.

  6. Molecular phylogeny of symbiotic dinoflagellates from planktonic foraminifera and radiolaria.

    PubMed

    Gast, R J; Caron, D A

    1996-11-01

    Recent analyses of the small subunit ribosomal DNA (srDNA) from dinoflagellate symbionts of cnidaria have confirmed historical descriptions of a diverse but well-defined clade, Symbiodinium, as well as several other independent symbiont lineages (Rowan 1991; Rowan and Powers 1992; Sadler et al. 1992; McNally et al 1994). Dinoflagellates also occur as intracellular symbionts in a number of pelagic protistan taxa, but the srDNA of these symbionts has not been examined. We analyzed the srDNA sequences of the symbiotic dinoflagellates from four planktonic foraminiferal species and six radiolarian species. The symbionts from these sarcodines formed two distinct lineages within the dinoflagellates. Within each lineage, symbionts obtained from different host species showed few, if any, srDNA sequence differences. The planktonic foraminiferal symbionts were most closely related to Gymnodinium simplex and the Symbiodinium clade, whereas the radiolarian symbionts were most closely related to the dinoflagellate symbiont from the oceanic chondrophore, Velella velella. Therefore, although the dinoflagellate symbionts of foraminifera appear to be a sister taxon of the symbionts from benthic foraminifera and invertebrates, the symbionts of radiolaria are distinct and arose from an independent lineage of dinoflagellate symbionts that shares common ancestry with the symbiont of at least one pelagic metazoan. The lack of srDNA variability within the sarcodine symbiont lineages suggests that coevolution of host and symbiont has not occurred. PMID:8896371

  7. The symbiotic intestinal ciliates and the evolution of their hosts.

    PubMed

    Moon-van der Staay, Seung Yeo; van der Staay, Georg W M; Michalowski, Tadeusz; Jouany, Jean-Pierre; Pristas, Peter; Javorský, Peter; Kišidayová, Svetlana; Varadyova, Zora; McEwan, Neil R; Newbold, C Jamie; van Alen, Theo; de Graaf, Rob; Schmid, Markus; Huynen, Martijn A; Hackstein, Johannes H P

    2014-04-01

    The evolution of sophisticated differentiations of the gastro-intestinal tract enabled herbivorous mammals to digest dietary cellulose and hemicellulose with the aid of a complex anaerobic microbiota. Distinctive symbiotic ciliates, which are unique to this habitat, are the largest representatives of this microbial community. Analyses of a total of 484 different 18S rRNA genes show that extremely complex, but related ciliate communities can occur in the rumen of cattle, sheep, goats and red deer (301 sequences). The communities in the hindgut of equids (Equus caballus, Equus quagga), and elephants (Elephas maximus, Loxodonta africanus; 162 sequences), which are clearly distinct from the ruminant ciliate biota, exhibit a much higher diversity than anticipated on the basis of their morphology. All these ciliates from the gastro-intestinal tract constitute a monophyletic group, which consists of two major taxa, i.e. Vestibuliferida and Entodiniomorphida. The ciliates from the evolutionarily older hindgut fermenters exhibit a clustering that is specific for higher taxa of their hosts, as extant species of horse and zebra on the one hand, and Africa and Indian elephant on the other hand, share related ciliates. The evolutionary younger ruminants altogether share the various entodiniomorphs and the vestibuliferids from ruminants. PMID:24703617

  8. Design and mathematical modelling of a synthetic symbiotic ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Kambam, P K R; Henson, M A; Sun, L

    2008-01-01

    Artificial microbial ecosystems have been increasingly used to understand principles of ecology. These systems offer unique capabilities to mimic a variety of ecological interactions that otherwise would be difficult to study experimentally in a reasonable period of time. However, the elucidation of the genetic bases for these interactions remains a daunting challenge. To address this issue, we have designed and analysed a synthetic symbiotic ecosystem in which the genetic nature of the microbial interactions is defined explicitly. A mathematical model of the gene regulatory network in each species and their interaction through quorum sensing mediated intercellular signalling was derived to investigate the effect of system components on cooperative behaviour. Dynamic simulation and bifurcation analysis showed that the designed system admits a stable coexistence steady state for sufficiently large initial cell concentrations of the two species. The steady-state fraction of each species could be altered by varying model parameters associated with gene transcription and signalling molecule synthesis rates. The design also admitted a stable steady state corresponding to extinction of the two species for low initial cell concentrations and stable periodic solutions over certain domains of parameter space. The mathematical analysis was shown to provide insights into natural microbial ecosystems and to allow identification of molecular targets for engineering system behaviour.

  9. IUE observations and interpretation of the symbiotic star RW Hya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kafatos, M.; Michalitsianos, A. G.; Hobbs, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    The IUE observations of the high excitation symbiotic star RW Hya (gM2 + pec) are discussed. Analysis of the intense UV continuum observed between 1100 A to 2000 A suggests this star is a binary system in which the secondary is identified as a hot subdwarf with T sub eff being approximately 100,000 K. A distance to the system of 1000 pc is deduced. The UV spectrum consists of mainly semiforbidden and allowed transition lines of which the CIV (1548 A, 1550 A) emission lines are particularly strong, and UV continuum at both shorter and longer wavelengths. Strong forbidden lines seem to be absent suggesting the presence of a nebula of high densities. Tidal interaction between the red giant primary and the hot subdwarf is suggested as a likely means to form the observed nebula. RW Hya is suggested as a possible source of soft X-ray emission from material accreting onto the surface of the hot subdwarf. Detection of such emission with HEAO-B would give information if this accretion is taking place via Roche lobe overlow or via capture from a stellar wind emitted by the primary. A general discussion of elemental and ionic abundances in the nebula is also presented.

  10. The anomalous C 4 intensity ratio in symbiotic stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalitsianos, A. G.; Kafatos, M.; Fahey, R. P.

    1988-01-01

    The C IV lambda lambda 1548.2,1550.8 resonance doublet in a symbiotic stars was shown to exhibit anomalous line intensity ratios in which I (lambda 1548.2)/I(lambda 1550.8) less than 1, or less than the optically-thick limit of unity. The R Aquarii-central HII region and RX Puppis exhibit this phenomena. The I(lambda 1548.2)/I(lambda 1550.8) ratio in RX Puppis is found to vary inversely with the total C IV line intensity, and with the FES-visual light, as the object declined over a 5 yr period following a brightening in UV and optical emission which peaked in 1982. This doublet intensity behavior could be explained by a wind which has a narrow velocity range of 600 approx. less than sup v wind approx. less than 1000 km/sec, or by the pumping of the Fe II (mul. 45.01) transition a sup 4 F sub 9/2 - y sup 4 H(o) sub 11/2 by C IV lambda 1548.2, which effectively scatters C IV photons into the Fe II spectrum in these objects.

  11. Genomic evidence for complementary purine metabolism in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and its symbiotic bacterium Buchnera aphidicola.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, J S; MacDonald, S J; Jander, G; Nakabachi, A; Thomas, G H; Douglas, A E

    2010-03-01

    The purine salvage pathway recycles purines to nucleotides, promoting efficient utilization of purine nucleotides. Exceptionally among animals with completely sequenced genomes, the pea aphid lacks key purine recycling genes that code for purine nucleoside phosphorylase and adenosine deaminase, indicating that the aphid can neither metabolize nucleosides to the corresponding purines, nor adenosine to inosine. Purine metabolism genes in the symbiotic bacterium Buchnera complement aphid genes, and Buchnera can meet its nucleotide requirement from aphid-derived guanosine. Buchnera demand for nucleosides may have relaxed the selection for purine recycling in the aphid, leading to the loss of key aphid purine salvage genes. Further, the coupled purine metabolism of aphid and Buchnera could contribute to the dependence of the pea aphid on this symbiosis.

  12. Role of symbiotic and non-symbiotic bacteria in carbon dioxide production from hosts infected with Steinernema riobrave.

    PubMed

    Christen, Jayne M; Campbell, James F; Zurek, Ludek; Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Lewis, Edwin E; Ramaswamy, Sonny B

    2008-09-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes of the family Steinernematidae and their mutualistic bacteria (Xenorhabdus spp.) are lethal endoparasites of insects. We hypothesized that growth of the nematode's mutualistic bacteria in the insect host may contribute to the production of cues used by the infective juveniles (IJs) in responding to potential hosts for infection. Specifically, we tested if patterns of bacterial growth could explain differences in CO2 production over the course of host infection. Growth of Xenorhabdus cabanillasii isolated from Steinernema riobrave exhibited the characteristic exponential and stationary growth phases. Other non-nematode symbiotic bacteria were also found in infected hosts and exhibited similar growth patterns to X. cabanillasii. Galleria mellonella larvae infected with S. riobrave produced two distinct peaks of CO2 occurring at 25.6-36 h and 105-16 h post-infection, whereas larvae injected with X. cabanillasii alone showed only one peak of CO2, occurring at 22.8-36.2h post-injection. Tenebrio molitor larvae infected with S. riobrave or injected with bacteria alone exhibited only one peak of CO2 production, which occurred later during S. riobrave infection (41.4-64.4h post-infection compared to 20.4-35.9h post-injection). These results indicate a relationship between bacterial growth and the first peak of CO2 in both host species, but not for the second peak exhibited in G. mellonella. PMID:18621386

  13. Searching for New Yellow Symbiotic Stars: Positive Identification of StHα63

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baella, N. O.; Pereira, C. B.; Miranda, L. F.; Alvarez-Candal, A.

    2016-04-01

    Yellow symbiotic stars are useful targets for probing whether mass transfer has happened in their binary systems. However, the number of known yellow symbiotic stars is very scarce. We report spectroscopic observations of five candidate yellow symbiotic stars that were selected by their positions in the 2MASS (J - H) versus (H - Ks) diagram and which were included in some emission-line catalogs. Among the five candidates, only StHα63 is identified as a new yellow symbiotic star because of its spectrum and its position in the [TiO]1-[TiO]2 diagram, which indicates a K4-K6 spectral type. In addition, the derived electron density (˜108.4 cm-3) and several emission-line intensity ratios provide further support for that classification. The other four candidates are rejected as symbiotic stars because three of them actually do not show emission lines and the fourth one only Balmer emission lines. We also found that the WISE W3-W4 index clearly separates normal K-giants from yellow symbiotic stars and therefore can be used as an additional tool for selecting candidate yellow symbiotic stars. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán, Calar Alto, jointly operated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Heidelberg) and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), and at the 4.1 m telescope at Cerro Pachón Observatory, Chile.

  14. Hybrid Symbiotic Organisms Search Optimization Algorithm for Scheduling of Tasks on Cloud Computing Environment.

    PubMed

    Abdullahi, Mohammed; Ngadi, Md Asri

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing has attracted significant attention from research community because of rapid migration rate of Information Technology services to its domain. Advances in virtualization technology has made cloud computing very popular as a result of easier deployment of application services. Tasks are submitted to cloud datacenters to be processed on pay as you go fashion. Task scheduling is one the significant research challenges in cloud computing environment. The current formulation of task scheduling problems has been shown to be NP-complete, hence finding the exact solution especially for large problem sizes is intractable. The heterogeneous and dynamic feature of cloud resources makes optimum task scheduling non-trivial. Therefore, efficient task scheduling algorithms are required for optimum resource utilization. Symbiotic Organisms Search (SOS) has been shown to perform competitively with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The aim of this study is to optimize task scheduling in cloud computing environment based on a proposed Simulated Annealing (SA) based SOS (SASOS) in order to improve the convergence rate and quality of solution of SOS. The SOS algorithm has a strong global exploration capability and uses fewer parameters. The systematic reasoning ability of SA is employed to find better solutions on local solution regions, hence, adding exploration ability to SOS. Also, a fitness function is proposed which takes into account the utilization level of virtual machines (VMs) which reduced makespan and degree of imbalance among VMs. CloudSim toolkit was used to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed method using both synthetic and standard workload. Results of simulation showed that hybrid SOS performs better than SOS in terms of convergence speed, response time, degree of imbalance, and makespan. PMID:27348127

  15. Hybrid Symbiotic Organisms Search Optimization Algorithm for Scheduling of Tasks on Cloud Computing Environment.

    PubMed

    Abdullahi, Mohammed; Ngadi, Md Asri

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing has attracted significant attention from research community because of rapid migration rate of Information Technology services to its domain. Advances in virtualization technology has made cloud computing very popular as a result of easier deployment of application services. Tasks are submitted to cloud datacenters to be processed on pay as you go fashion. Task scheduling is one the significant research challenges in cloud computing environment. The current formulation of task scheduling problems has been shown to be NP-complete, hence finding the exact solution especially for large problem sizes is intractable. The heterogeneous and dynamic feature of cloud resources makes optimum task scheduling non-trivial. Therefore, efficient task scheduling algorithms are required for optimum resource utilization. Symbiotic Organisms Search (SOS) has been shown to perform competitively with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The aim of this study is to optimize task scheduling in cloud computing environment based on a proposed Simulated Annealing (SA) based SOS (SASOS) in order to improve the convergence rate and quality of solution of SOS. The SOS algorithm has a strong global exploration capability and uses fewer parameters. The systematic reasoning ability of SA is employed to find better solutions on local solution regions, hence, adding exploration ability to SOS. Also, a fitness function is proposed which takes into account the utilization level of virtual machines (VMs) which reduced makespan and degree of imbalance among VMs. CloudSim toolkit was used to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed method using both synthetic and standard workload. Results of simulation showed that hybrid SOS performs better than SOS in terms of convergence speed, response time, degree of imbalance, and makespan.

  16. Hybrid Symbiotic Organisms Search Optimization Algorithm for Scheduling of Tasks on Cloud Computing Environment

    PubMed Central

    Abdullahi, Mohammed; Ngadi, Md Asri

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing has attracted significant attention from research community because of rapid migration rate of Information Technology services to its domain. Advances in virtualization technology has made cloud computing very popular as a result of easier deployment of application services. Tasks are submitted to cloud datacenters to be processed on pay as you go fashion. Task scheduling is one the significant research challenges in cloud computing environment. The current formulation of task scheduling problems has been shown to be NP-complete, hence finding the exact solution especially for large problem sizes is intractable. The heterogeneous and dynamic feature of cloud resources makes optimum task scheduling non-trivial. Therefore, efficient task scheduling algorithms are required for optimum resource utilization. Symbiotic Organisms Search (SOS) has been shown to perform competitively with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The aim of this study is to optimize task scheduling in cloud computing environment based on a proposed Simulated Annealing (SA) based SOS (SASOS) in order to improve the convergence rate and quality of solution of SOS. The SOS algorithm has a strong global exploration capability and uses fewer parameters. The systematic reasoning ability of SA is employed to find better solutions on local solution regions, hence, adding exploration ability to SOS. Also, a fitness function is proposed which takes into account the utilization level of virtual machines (VMs) which reduced makespan and degree of imbalance among VMs. CloudSim toolkit was used to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed method using both synthetic and standard workload. Results of simulation showed that hybrid SOS performs better than SOS in terms of convergence speed, response time, degree of imbalance, and makespan. PMID:27348127

  17. The Symbiotic Relationship between Scientific Workflow and Provenance (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, E.

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to describe the symbiotic nature of scientific workflows and provenance. We will also discuss the current trends and real world challenges facing these two distinct research areas. Although motivated differently, the needs of the international science communities are the glue that binds this relationship together. Understanding and articulating the science drivers to these communities is paramount as these technologies evolve and mature. Originally conceived for managing business processes, workflows are now becoming invaluable assets in both computational and experimental sciences. These reconfigurable, automated systems provide essential technology to perform complex analyses by coupling together geographically distributed disparate data sources and applications. As a result, workflows are capable of higher throughput in a shorter amount of time than performing the steps manually. Today many different workflow products exist; these could include Kepler and Taverna or similar products like MeDICI, developed at PNNL, that are standardized on the Business Process Execution Language (BPEL). Provenance, originating from the French term Provenir “to come from”, is used to describe the curation process of artwork as art is passed from owner to owner. The concept of provenance was adopted by digital libraries as a means to track the lineage of documents while standards such as the DublinCore began to emerge. In recent years the systems science community has increasingly expressed the need to expand the concept of provenance to formally articulate the history of scientific data. Communities such as the International Provenance and Annotation Workshop (IPAW) have formalized a provenance data model. The Open Provenance Model, and the W3C is hosting a provenance incubator group featuring the Proof Markup Language. Although both workflows and provenance have risen from different communities and operate independently, their mutual

  18. Symbiotic bacteria appear to mediate hyena social odors.

    PubMed

    Theis, Kevin R; Venkataraman, Arvind; Dycus, Jacquelyn A; Koonter, Keith D; Schmitt-Matzen, Emily N; Wagner, Aaron P; Holekamp, Kay E; Schmidt, Thomas M

    2013-12-01

    All animals harbor beneficial microbes. One way these microbes can benefit their animal hosts is by increasing the diversity and efficacy of communication signals available to the hosts. The fermentation hypothesis for mammalian chemical communication posits that bacteria in the scent glands of mammals generate odorous metabolites used by their hosts for communication and that variation in host chemical signals is a product of underlying variation in the bacterial communities inhabiting the scent glands. An effective test of this hypothesis would require accurate surveys of the bacterial communities in mammals' scent glands and complementary data on the odorant profiles of scent secretions--both of which have been historically lacking. Here we use next-generation sequencing to survey deeply the bacterial communities in the scent glands of wild spotted and striped hyenas. We show that these communities are dominated by fermentative bacteria and that the structures of these communities covary with the volatile fatty acid profiles of scent secretions in both hyena species. The bacterial and volatile fatty acid profiles of secretions differ between spotted and striped hyenas, and both profiles vary with sex and reproductive state among spotted hyenas within a single social group. Our results strongly support the fermentation hypothesis for chemical communication, suggesting that symbiotic bacteria underlie species-specific odors in both spotted and striped hyenas and further underlie sex and reproductive state-specific odors among spotted hyenas. We anticipate that the fermentation hypothesis for chemical communication will prove broadly applicable among scent-marking mammals as others use the technical and analytical approaches used here. PMID:24218592

  19. New symbiotic hypothesis on the origin of eukaryotic flagella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing Yan; Wu, Chuan Fen

    2005-07-01

    The origin of eukaryotic flagella has long been a mystery. Here we review the possibility that flagella sprouted evolutionarily from the eukaryotic cell proper seems very unlikely because it is hard to imagine what function and benefit in natural selection the flagella would have provided to the cells when they first emerged as simple buds. Lynn Margulis’ 1970 spirochete hypothesis, though popular still, has never been confirmed. Moreover, the absence of tubulin and axonemal dynein in the spirochetes and the incapability of the bacterial and eukaryotic membranes’ making a continuum now suggest that the hypothesis is outdated. Tubulin genes were recently identified in a new bacteria division, verrucomicrobia, and microtubules have also been found in one of these species, epixenosomes, the defensive ectosymbionts. On the basis of these data, we propose a new symbiotic hypothesis: that the mid-ancestor of eukaryotic cells obtained epixenosomelike verrucomicrobia as defensive ectosymbionts and the ectosymbionts later became endosymbiotic. They still, however, protruded from the surface of their host to play their role. Later, many genes were lost or incorporated into the host genome. Finally, the genome, the bacterial membrane, and the endosymbiotic vesicle membrane were totally lost, and fingerlike protrusions with microtubules formed. As the cells grew larger, the defensive function of the protrusions eventually weakened and then vanished. Some of the protrusions took on a new role in cell movement, which led them to evolve into flagella. The key step in this process was that the dynein obtained from the host evolved into axonemal dyneins, attaching onto the microtubules and forming motile axonemes. Our hypothesis is unproven, but it offers a possible explanation that is consistent with current scientific thought. We hope that our ideas will stimulate additional studies on the origin of eukaryotic flagella and on investigations of verrucomicrobia. Whether such

  20. Symbiotic bacteria appear to mediate hyena social odors.

    PubMed

    Theis, Kevin R; Venkataraman, Arvind; Dycus, Jacquelyn A; Koonter, Keith D; Schmitt-Matzen, Emily N; Wagner, Aaron P; Holekamp, Kay E; Schmidt, Thomas M

    2013-12-01

    All animals harbor beneficial microbes. One way these microbes can benefit their animal hosts is by increasing the diversity and efficacy of communication signals available to the hosts. The fermentation hypothesis for mammalian chemical communication posits that bacteria in the scent glands of mammals generate odorous metabolites used by their hosts for communication and that variation in host chemical signals is a product of underlying variation in the bacterial communities inhabiting the scent glands. An effective test of this hypothesis would require accurate surveys of the bacterial communities in mammals' scent glands and complementary data on the odorant profiles of scent secretions--both of which have been historically lacking. Here we use next-generation sequencing to survey deeply the bacterial communities in the scent glands of wild spotted and striped hyenas. We show that these communities are dominated by fermentative bacteria and that the structures of these communities covary with the volatile fatty acid profiles of scent secretions in both hyena species. The bacterial and volatile fatty acid profiles of secretions differ between spotted and striped hyenas, and both profiles vary with sex and reproductive state among spotted hyenas within a single social group. Our results strongly support the fermentation hypothesis for chemical communication, suggesting that symbiotic bacteria underlie species-specific odors in both spotted and striped hyenas and further underlie sex and reproductive state-specific odors among spotted hyenas. We anticipate that the fermentation hypothesis for chemical communication will prove broadly applicable among scent-marking mammals as others use the technical and analytical approaches used here.

  1. Symbiotic Cell Differentiation and Cooperative Growth in Multicellular Aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Yamagishi, Jumpei F; Saito, Nen; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2016-01-01

    As cells grow and divide under a given environment, they become crowded and resources are limited, as seen in bacterial biofilms and multicellular aggregates. These cells often show strong interactions through exchanging chemicals, as evident in quorum sensing, to achieve mutualism and division of labor. Here, to achieve stable division of labor, three characteristics are required. First, isogenous cells differentiate into several types. Second, this aggregate of distinct cell types shows better growth than that of isolated cells without interaction and differentiation, by achieving division of labor. Third, this cell aggregate is robust with respect to the number distribution of differentiated cell types. Indeed, theoretical studies have thus far considered how such cooperation is achieved when the ability of cell differentiation is presumed. Here, we address how cells acquire the ability of cell differentiation and division of labor simultaneously, which is also connected with the robustness of a cell society. For this purpose, we developed a dynamical-systems model of cells consisting of chemical components with intracellular catalytic reaction dynamics. The reactions convert external nutrients into internal components for cellular growth, and the divided cells interact through chemical diffusion. We found that cells sharing an identical catalytic network spontaneously differentiate via induction from cell-cell interactions, and then achieve division of labor, enabling a higher growth rate than that in the unicellular case. This symbiotic differentiation emerged for a class of reaction networks under the condition of nutrient limitation and strong cell-cell interactions. Then, robustness in the cell type distribution was achieved, while instability of collective growth could emerge even among the cooperative cells when the internal reserves of products were dominant. The present mechanism is simple and general as a natural consequence of interacting cells with

  2. A PRECESSING JET IN THE CH Cyg SYMBIOTIC SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Karovska, Margarita; Gaetz, Terrance J.; Raymond, John C.; Lee, Nicholas P.; Carilli, Christopher L.; Hack, Warren

    2010-02-20

    Jets have been detected in only a few symbiotic binaries to date, and CH Cyg is one of them. In 2001, a non-relativistic jet was detected in CH Cyg for the first time in X-rays. We carried out coordinated Chandra, Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and VLA observations in 2008 to study the propagation of this jet and its interaction with the circumbinary medium. We detected the jet with Chandra and HST and determined that the apex has expanded to the south from {approx}300 AU to {approx}1400 AU, with the shock front propagating with velocity <100 km s{sup -1}. The shock front has significantly slowed down since 2001. Unexpectedly, we also discovered a powerful jet in the NE-SW direction, in the X-ray, optical and radio. This jet has a multi-component structure, including an inner jet and a counterjet at {approx}170 AU, and a SW component ending in several clumps extending out to {approx}750 AU. The structure of the jet and the curvature of the outer portion of the SW jet suggest an episodically powered precessing jet or a continuous precessing jet with occasional mass ejections or pulses. We carried out detailed spatial mapping of the X-ray emission and correlation with the optical and radio emission. X-ray spectra were extracted from the central source, inner NE counterjet, and the brightest clump at a distance of {approx}500 AU from the central source. We discuss the initial results of our analyses, including the multi-component spectral fitting of the jet components and of the central source.

  3. New symbiotic hypothesis on the origin of eukaryotic flagella.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing Yan; Wu, Chuan Fen

    2005-07-01

    The origin of eukaryotic flagella has long been a mystery. Here we review the possibility that flagella sprouted evolutionarily from the eukaryotic cell proper seems very unlikely because it is hard to imagine what function and benefit in natural selection the flagella would have provided to the cells when they first emerged as simple buds. Lynn Margulis' 1970 spirochete hypothesis, though popular still, has never been confirmed. Moreover, the absence of tubulin and axonemal dynein in the spirochetes and the incapability of the bacterial and eukaryotic membranes' making a continuum now suggest that the hypothesis is outdated. Tubulin genes were recently identified in a new bacteria division, verrucomicrobia, and microtubules have also been found in one of these species, epixenosomes, the defensive ectosymbionts. On the basis of these data, we propose a new symbiotic hypothesis: that the mid-ancestor of eukaryotic cells obtained epixenosomelike verrucomicrobia as defensive ectosymbionts and the ectosymbionts later became endosymbiotic. They still, however, protruded from the surface of their host to play their role. Later, many genes were lost or incorporated into the host genome. Finally, the genome, the bacterial membrane, and the endosymbiotic vesicle membrane were totally lost, and fingerlike protrusions with microtubules formed. As the cells grew larger, the defensive function of the protrusions eventually weakened and then vanished. Some of the protrusions took on a new role in cell movement, which led them to evolve into flagella. The key step in this process was that the dynein obtained from the host evolved into axonemal dyneins, attaching onto the microtubules and forming motile axonemes. Our hypothesis is unproven, but it offers a possible explanation that is consistent with current scientific thought. We hope that our ideas will stimulate additional studies on the origin of eukaryotic flagella and on investigations of verrucomicrobia. Whether such

  4. Does a Common Pathway Transduce Symbiotic Signals in Plant–Microbe Interactions?

    PubMed Central

    Genre, Andrea; Russo, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed major advances in our knowledge of plant mutualistic symbioses such as the rhizobium-legume symbiosis (RLS) and arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM). Some of these findings caused the revision of longstanding hypotheses, but one of the most solid theories is that a conserved set of plant proteins rules the transduction of symbiotic signals from beneficial glomeromycetes and rhizobia in a so-called common symbiotic pathway (CSP). Nevertheless, the picture still misses several elements, and a few crucial points remain unclear. How does one common pathway discriminate between – at least – two symbionts? Can we exclude that microbes other than AM fungi and rhizobia also use this pathway to communicate with their host plants? We here discuss the possibility that our current view is biased by a long-lasting focus on legumes, whose ability to develop both AM and RLS is an exception among plants and a recent innovation in their evolution; investigations in non-legumes are starting to place legume symbiotic signaling in a broader perspective. Furthermore, recent studies suggest that CSP proteins act in a wider scenario of symbiotic and non-symbiotic signaling. Overall, evidence is accumulating in favor of distinct activities for CSP proteins in AM and RLS, depending on the molecular and cellular context where they act. PMID:26909085

  5. Light Curves of Symbiotic Stars in Massive Photometric Surveys I: D-Type Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromadzki, M.; Mikołajewska, J.; Whitelock, P.; Marang, F.

    2009-06-01

    ASAS, MACHO, OGLE and SAAO JHKL light curves of 13 stars, that have at some time been classified as D-type symbiotic stars, are analyzed. Most of the near-IR light curves that have been monitored over many years show long-term changes due to variable dust obscuration, in addition to the stellar pulsation. The distances to these objects are derived from the period-luminosity relation and estimates of the mass-loss rates made from the K_0-[12] color. We reclassify AS 245 as an S-type symbiotic star with a semi-regular cool component and a pulsation period of about one year. The periods of the large amplitude pulsations of SS73 38 (463 days), AS 210 (423 days) and H2-38 (395 days) are estimated for the first time, confirming that they are symbiotic Miras. A comparison of the symbiotic Miras with normal Miras of similar pulsation period shows that the symbiotic stars have on average higher values of K_0-[12]. This may indicate that they have higher mass-loss rates, or more likely that the dust which is being lost by the Mira is trapped within the binary system.

  6. Does a Common Pathway Transduce Symbiotic Signals in Plant-Microbe Interactions?

    PubMed

    Genre, Andrea; Russo, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed major advances in our knowledge of plant mutualistic symbioses such as the rhizobium-legume symbiosis (RLS) and arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM). Some of these findings caused the revision of longstanding hypotheses, but one of the most solid theories is that a conserved set of plant proteins rules the transduction of symbiotic signals from beneficial glomeromycetes and rhizobia in a so-called common symbiotic pathway (CSP). Nevertheless, the picture still misses several elements, and a few crucial points remain unclear. How does one common pathway discriminate between - at least - two symbionts? Can we exclude that microbes other than AM fungi and rhizobia also use this pathway to communicate with their host plants? We here discuss the possibility that our current view is biased by a long-lasting focus on legumes, whose ability to develop both AM and RLS is an exception among plants and a recent innovation in their evolution; investigations in non-legumes are starting to place legume symbiotic signaling in a broader perspective. Furthermore, recent studies suggest that CSP proteins act in a wider scenario of symbiotic and non-symbiotic signaling. Overall, evidence is accumulating in favor of distinct activities for CSP proteins in AM and RLS, depending on the molecular and cellular context where they act.

  7. Plant-associated symbiotic Burkholderia species lack hallmark strategies required in mammalian pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Angus, Annette A; Agapakis, Christina M; Fong, Stephanie; Yerrapragada, Shailaja; Estrada-de los Santos, Paulina; Yang, Paul; Song, Nannie; Kano, Stephanie; Caballero-Mellado, Jésus; de Faria, Sergio M; Dakora, Felix D; Weinstock, George; Hirsch, Ann M

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia is a diverse and dynamic genus, containing pathogenic species as well as species that form complex interactions with plants. Pathogenic strains, such as B. pseudomallei and B. mallei, can cause serious disease in mammals, while other Burkholderia strains are opportunistic pathogens, infecting humans or animals with a compromised immune system. Although some of the opportunistic Burkholderia pathogens are known to promote plant growth and even fix nitrogen, the risk of infection to infants, the elderly, and people who are immunocompromised has not only resulted in a restriction on their use, but has also limited the application of non-pathogenic, symbiotic species, several of which nodulate legume roots or have positive effects on plant growth. However, recent phylogenetic analyses have demonstrated that Burkholderia species separate into distinct lineages, suggesting the possibility for safe use of certain symbiotic species in agricultural contexts. A number of environmental strains that promote plant growth or degrade xenobiotics are also included in the symbiotic lineage. Many of these species have the potential to enhance agriculture in areas where fertilizers are not readily available and may serve in the future as inocula for crops growing in soils impacted by climate change. Here we address the pathogenic potential of several of the symbiotic Burkholderia strains using bioinformatics and functional tests. A series of infection experiments using Caenorhabditis elegans and HeLa cells, as well as genomic characterization of pathogenic loci, show that the risk of opportunistic infection by symbiotic strains such as B. tuberum is extremely low.

  8. Viruses of symbiotic Chlorella-like algae isolated from Paramecium bursaria and Hydra viridis

    PubMed Central

    Van Etten, James L.; Meints, Russel H.; Kuczmarski, Daniel; Burbank, Dwight E.; Lee, Kit

    1982-01-01

    We previously reported that isolation of symbiotic Chlorella-like algae from the Florida strain of Hydra viridis induced replication of a virus (designated HVCV-1) in the algae. We now report that isolation of symbiotic Chlorella-like algae from four other sources of green hydra and one source of the protozoan Paramecium bursaria also induced virus synthesis. Algae from one of these hydra contained a virus identical to HVCV-1 (based on its rate of sedimentation, buoyant density, reaction to HVCV-1 antiserum, and DNA restriction fragments) whereas algae from the other three hydra contained another similar, but distinct, virus (designated HVCV-2). The virus from the paramecium algae (designated PBCV-1) was distinct from both HVCV-1 and HVCV-2. The symbiotic algae in the hydra could also be distinguished ultrastructurally. Chloroplasts of both algae that produced HVCV-1 lacked a pyrenoid whereas chloroplasts of the other three symbiotic algae contained pyrenoids. Since all symbiotic eukaryotic algae we have examined have had virus, a potential viral role in symbiosis is suggested. Images PMID:16593198

  9. Chemical abundance analysis of symbiotic giants - III. Metallicity and CNO abundance patterns in 24 southern systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gałan, Cezary; Mikołajewska, Joanna; Hinkle, Kenneth H.; Joyce, Richard R.

    2016-01-01

    The elemental abundances of symbiotic giants are essential to address the role of chemical composition in the evolution of symbiotic binaries, to map their parent population, and to trace their mass transfer history. However, the number of symbiotic giants with fairly well determined photospheric composition is still insufficient for statistical analyses. This is the third in a series of papers on the chemical composition of symbiotic giants determined from high-resolution (R ˜ 50 000), near-infrared spectra. Here we present results for 24 S-type systems. Spectrum synthesis methods employing standard local thermal equilibrium analysis and atmosphere models were used to obtain photospheric abundances of CNO and elements around the iron peak (Fe, Ti, Ni, and Sc). Our analysis reveals metallicities distributed in a wide range from slightly supersolar ([Fe/H] ˜ +0.35 dex) to significantly subsolar ([Fe/H] ˜ -0.8 dex) but principally with near-solar and slightly subsolar metallicity ([Fe/H] ˜ -0.4 to -0.3 dex). The enrichment in 14N isotope, found in all these objects, indicates that the giants have experienced the first dredge-up. This was confirmed in a number of objects by the low 12C/13C ratio (5-23). We found that the relative abundance of [Ti/Fe] is generally large in red symbiotic systems.

  10. [Diversity and function of symbiotic microbes in the gut of lower termites].

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong; Peng, Jian-Xin; Liu, Kai-Yu; Hong, Hua-Zhu

    2006-06-01

    The gut of lower termites harbor a complex microbial community, including eukaryotic flagellates and prokaryotic bacteria and archaea, which play important roles in the wood-cellulose digestion of these termites. The hindguts of lower termites are characterized with an enlarged paunch with steep oxygen and hydrogen gradient and not randomly distributed abundant microorganisms. The symbiotic flagellates in the gut of lower termites, which are normally associated with epibionts or endobionts, are phylogenetically affiliated with Trichomonadida, Hypermastigida and Oxymonadida. They endocytose wood particles and ferment the polysaccharide components to acetate, CO2 and H2, which are further metabolized by symbiotic prokaryotes as energy and nutrition sources in the termites. Cellulose genes such as glycosyl hydrolase family 45 have been identified in gut protists with molecular approach. Phylogenetic analysis have revealed that in the gut of lower termites, such as several Reticulitermites species, most of the dominant bacteria belong to phyla like "Termite group 1", Spirochaetes, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria. These bacteria clones normally form distinct termite clusters in phylogenetic trees, which show the existence of specific microbial diversity in the termite guts. Most of the symbiotic archaea in the gut of lower termites are methanogens and affiliated with the genus Methanobrevibacter by phylogenetic analysis and pure culture. The symbiotic bacteria and archaea may involve in the reduction of CO2 and the metabolism of N2 in these termite guts. However, the functions and metabolic mechanisms of the symbiotic flagellates and prokaryotes in the gut of lower termites are still remaining to be further elucidated.

  11. Metaproteomics of a gutless marine worm and its symbiotic microbial community reveal unusual pathways for carbon and energy use.

    PubMed

    Kleiner, Manuel; Wentrup, Cecilia; Lott, Christian; Teeling, Hanno; Wetzel, Silke; Young, Jacque; Chang, Yun-Juan; Shah, Manesh; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C; Zarzycki, Jan; Fuchs, Georg; Markert, Stephanie; Hempel, Kristina; Voigt, Birgit; Becher, Dörte; Liebeke, Manuel; Lalk, Michael; Albrecht, Dirk; Hecker, Michael; Schweder, Thomas; Dubilier, Nicole

    2012-05-01

    Low nutrient and energy availability has led to the evolution of numerous strategies for overcoming these limitations, of which symbiotic associations represent a key mechanism. Particularly striking are the associations between chemosynthetic bacteria and marine animals that thrive in nutrient-poor environments such as the deep sea because the symbionts allow their hosts to grow on inorganic energy and carbon sources such as sulfide and CO(2). Remarkably little is known about the physiological strategies that enable chemosynthetic symbioses to colonize oligotrophic environments. In this study, we used metaproteomics and metabolomics to investigate the intricate network of metabolic interactions in the chemosynthetic association between Olavius algarvensis, a gutless marine worm, and its bacterial symbionts. We propose previously undescribed pathways for coping with energy and nutrient limitation, some of which may be widespread in both free-living and symbiotic bacteria. These pathways include (i) a pathway for symbiont assimilation of the host waste products acetate, propionate, succinate and malate; (ii) the potential use of carbon monoxide as an energy source, a substrate previously not known to play a role in marine invertebrate symbioses; (iii) the potential use of hydrogen as an energy source; (iv) the strong expression of high-affinity uptake transporters; and (v) as yet undescribed energy-efficient steps in CO(2) fixation and sulfate reduction. The high expression of proteins involved in pathways for energy and carbon uptake and conservation in the O. algarvensis symbiosis indicates that the oligotrophic nature of its environment exerted a strong selective pressure in shaping these associations. PMID:22517752

  12. Symbiotic Activity of Pea (Pisum sativum) after Application of Nod Factors under Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Siczek, Anna; Lipiec, Jerzy; Wielbo, Jerzy; Kidaj, Dominika; Szarlip, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Growth and symbiotic activity of legumes are mediated by Nod factors (LCO, lipo-chitooligosaccharides). To assess the effects of application of Nod factors on symbiotic activity and yield of pea, a two-year field experiment was conducted on a Haplic Luvisol developed from loess. Nod factors were isolated from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GR09. Pea seeds were treated with the Nod factors (10−11 M) or water (control) before planting. Symbiotic activity was evaluated by measurements of nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction assay), nodule number and mass, and top growth by shoot mass, leaf area, and seed and protein yield. Nod factors generally improved pea yield and nitrogenase activity in the relatively dry growing season 2012, but not in the wet growing season in 2013 due to different weather conditions. PMID:24786094

  13. Mid-IR imaging of symbiotics Mira AB and R Aqr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuthill, Peter

    2006-08-01

    Symbiotic stars, in which material from a red-giant donor accretes onto or interacts with a compact companion, provide astrophysics with fascinating (relatively) nearby laboratories displaying phenomena such as astrophysical jets, shocks, accretion disks and colliding winds. Here we request a modest allotment of telescope time to image the two brightest southern-hemisphere symbiotic stars in the mid-infrared. We will exploit the recently commissioned aperture masking facility in the TReCS camera, which has now demonstrated the highest fidelity images ever recovered in the mid-infrared at spatial scales approaching the diffraction limit. This combination of resolving power and imaging dynamic range will be crucial in the study of symbiotic systems, opening a window on the key physics within the deeply dust-enshrouded interaction between the giant and dwarf.

  14. Diverse roles of the GlcP glucose permease in free-living and symbiotic cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Picossi, Silvia; Flores, Enrique; Ekman, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Certain cyanobacteria can form symbiotic associations with plants, where the symbiont supplies the plant partner with nitrogen and in return obtains sugars. We recently showed that in the symbiotic cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme, a glucose specific permease, GlcP, is necessary for the symbiosis to be formed. Results presented here from growth yield measurements of mutant strains with inactivated or overexpressing sugar transporters suggest that GlcP could be induced by a symbiosis specific substance. We also discuss that the transporter may have a role other than nutritional once the symbiosis is established, i.e., during infection, and more specifically in the chemotaxis of the symbiont. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the distribution of GlcP among cyanobacteria is likely influenced by horizontal gene transfer, but also that it is not correlated with symbiotic competence. Instead, regulatory patterns of the transporter in Nostoc punctiforme likely constitute symbiosis specific adaptations. PMID:24675169

  15. Nitrate reduction and nitrogen fixation in symbiotic association Rhizobium-legumes.

    PubMed

    Luciński, Robert; Polcyn, Władysław; Ratajczak, Lech

    2002-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of nitrate on nitrogenase activity in root nodules of legume plants has been known for a long time. The major factor inducing changes in nitrogenase activity is the concentration of free oxygen inside nodules. Oxygen availability in the infected zone of nodule is limited, among others, by the gas diffusion resistance in nodule cortex. The presence of nitrate may cause changes in the resistance to O2 diffusion. The aim of this paper is to review literature data concerning the effect of nitrate on the symbiotic association between rhizobia and legume plants, with special emphasis on nitrogenase activity. Recent advances indicate that symbiotic associations of Rhizobium strains characterized by a high nitrate reductase activity are less susceptible to inhibition by nitrate. A thesis may be put forward that dissimilatory nitrate reduction, catalyzed by bacteroid nitrate reductase, significantly facilitates the symbiotic function of bacteroids.

  16. The secret to a successful relationship: lasting chemistry between ascidians and their symbiotic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Eric W.

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive secondary metabolites are common components of marine animals. In many cases, symbiotic bacteria, and not the animals themselves, synthesize the compounds. Among marine animals, ascidians are good models for understanding these symbioses. Ascidians often contain potently bioactive secondary metabolites as their major extractable components. Strong evidence shows that ~8% of the known secondary metabolites from ascidians are made by symbiotic bacteria, and indirect evidence implicates bacteria in the synthesis of many more. Far from being “secondary” to the animals, secondary metabolites are essential components of the interaction between host animals and their symbiotic bacteria. These interactions have complex underlying biology, but the chemistry is clearly ascidian-species specific. The chemical interactions are ancient in at least some cases, and they are widespread among ascidians. Ascidians maintain secondary metabolic symbioses with bacteria that are phylogenetically diverse, indicating a convergent solution to obtaining secondary metabolites and reinforcing the importance of secondary metabolism in animal survival. PMID:25937788

  17. Diverse roles of the GlcP glucose permease in free-living and symbiotic cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Picossi, Silvia; Flores, Enrique; Ekman, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Certain cyanobacteria can form symbiotic associations with plants, where the symbiont supplies the plant partner with nitrogen and in return obtains sugars. We recently showed that in the symbiotic cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme, a glucose specific permease, GlcP, is necessary for the symbiosis to be formed. Results presented here from growth yield measurements of mutant strains with inactivated or overexpressing sugar transporters suggest that GlcP could be induced by a symbiosis specific substance. We also discuss that the transporter may have a role other than nutritional once the symbiosis is established, i.e., during infection, and more specifically in the chemotaxis of the symbiont. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the distribution of GlcP among cyanobacteria is likely influenced by horizontal gene transfer, but also that it is not correlated with symbiotic competence. Instead, regulatory patterns of the transporter in Nostoc punctiforme likely constitute symbiosis specific adaptations. PMID:24675169

  18. Cropping history affects nodulation and symbiotic efficiency of distinct hairy vetch genotypes with resident soil rhizobia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Presence of compatible rhizobia strains is essential for nodulation and BNF of hairy vetch (Vicia villosa, HV). We evaluated how past HV cultivation affects nodulation and nitrogen fixation across host genotypes. Five groups of HV genotypes were inoculated with soil dilutions from six paired fields,...

  19. Effect of phosphoglycerate mutase and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency on symbiotic Burkholderia phymatum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Ming; Prell, Jurgen; James, Euan K; Sheu, Der-Shyan; Sheu, Shih-Yi

    2012-04-01

    Burkholderia phymatum STM815 is a β-rhizobial strain that can effectively nodulate several species of the large legume genus Mimosa. Two Tn5-induced mutants of this strain, KM16-22 and KM51, failed to form root nodules on Mimosa pudica, but still caused root hair deformation, which is one of the early steps of rhizobial infection. Both mutants grew well in a complex medium. However, KM16-22 could not grow on minimal medium unless a sugar and a metabolic intermediate such as pyruvate were provided, and KM51 also could not grow on minimal medium unless a sugar was added. The Tn5-interrupted genes of the mutants showed strong homologies to pgm, which encodes 2,3-biphosphoglycerate-dependent phosphoglycerate mutase (dPGM), and fbp, which encodes fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase). Both enzymes are known to be involved in obligate steps in carbohydrate metabolism. Enzyme assays confirmed that KM16-22 and KM51 had indeed lost dPGM and FBPase activity, respectively, whilst the activities of these enzymes were expressed normally in both free-living bacteria and symbiotic bacteroids of the parental strain STM815. Both mutants recovered their enzyme activity after the introduction of wild-type pgm or fbp genes, were subsequently able to use carbohydrate as a carbon source, and were able to form root nodules on M. pudica and to fix nitrogen as efficiently as the parental strain. We conclude that the enzymes dPGM and FBPase are essential for the formation of a symbiosis with the host plant. PMID:22282515

  20. Isolation of a Rhizobium phaseoli cytochrome mutant with enhanced respiration and symbiotic nitrogen fixation.

    PubMed Central

    Soberón, M; Williams, H D; Poole, R K; Escamilla, E

    1989-01-01

    Cultured cells of a Rhizobium phaseoli wild-type strain (CE2) possess b-type and c-type cytochromes and two terminal oxidases: cytochromes o and aa3. Cytochrome aa3 was partially expressed when CE2 cells were grown on minimal medium, during symbiosis, and in well-aerated liquid cultures in a complex medium (PY2). Two cytochrome mutants of R. phaseoli were obtained and characterized. A Tn5-mob-induced mutant, CFN4201, expressed diminished amounts of b-type and c-type cytochromes, showed an enhanced expression of cytochrome oxidases, and had reduced levels of N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine, succinate, and NADH oxidase activities. Nodules formed by this strain had no N2 fixation activity. The other mutant, CFN4205, which was isolated by nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis, had reduced levels of cytochrome o and higher succinate oxidase activity but similar NADH and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine oxidase activities when compared with the wild-type strain. Strain CFN4205 expressed a fourfold-higher cytochrome aa3 content when cultured on minimal and complex media and had twofold-higher cytochrome aa3 levels during symbiosis when compared with the wild-type strain. Nodules formed by strain CFN4205 fixed 33% more N2 than did nodules formed by the wild-type strain, as judged by the total nitrogen content found in plants nodulated by these strains. Finally, low-temperature photodissociation spectra of whole cells from strains CE2 and CFN4205 reveal cytochromes o and aa3. Both cytochromes react with O2 at -180 degrees C to give a light-insensitive compound. These experiments identify cytochromes o and aa3 as functional terminal oxidases in R. phaseoli. PMID:2644201

  1. Knockdown of actin and caspase gene expression by RNA interference in the symbiotic anemone Aiptasia pallida.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Simon R; Phillips, Wendy S; Green, Douglas R; Weis, Virginia M

    2007-06-01

    Since the discovery of the ancient eukaryotic process of RNA-mediated gene silencing, the reverse-genetics technique RNA interference (RNAi) has increasingly been used to examine gene function in vertebrate and invertebrate systems. In this study, we report on the use of RNAi, adapted from studies on animal model systems, to manipulate gene expression in a symbiotic marine cnidarian. We describe gene knockdown of actin and of acasp--a cysteine protease, or caspase--in the symbiotic sea anemone Aiptasia pallida. Knockdown was assessed qualitatively with in situ hybridizations for both genes. Quantitative PCR and caspase activity assays were used as a quantitative measure of knockdown for acasp. PMID:17565114

  2. Symbiotic Stars in X-rays. II. Faint Sources Detected with XMM-Newton and Chandra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunez, N. E.; Luna, G. J. M.; Pillitteri, I.; Mukai, K.

    2014-01-01

    We report the detection from four symbiotic stars that were not known to be X-ray sources. These four object show a ß-type X-ray spectrum, that is, their spectra can be modeled with an absorbed optically thin thermal emission with temperatures of a few million degrees. Photometric series obtained with the Optical Monitor on board XMM-Newton from V2416 Sgr and NSV 25735 support the proposed scenario where the X-ray emission is produced in a shock-heated region inside the symbiotic nebulae.

  3. Spectroscopic observations of V443 Herculis - A symbiotic binary with a low mass white dwarf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobrzycka, Danuta; Kenyon, Scott J.; Mikolajewska, Joanna

    1993-01-01

    We present an analysis of new and existing photometric and spectroscopic observations of the symbiotic binary V443 Herculis. This binary system consists of a normal M5 giant and a hot compact star. These two objects have comparable luminosities: about 1500 solar for the M5 giant and about 1000 solar for the compact star. We identify three nebular regions in this binary: a small, highly ionized volume surrounding the hot component, a modestly ionized shell close to the red giant photosphere, and a less dense region of intermediate ionization encompassing both binary components. The system parameters for V443 Her suggest the hot component currently declines from a symbiotic nova eruption.

  4. The small unicellular diazotrophic symbiont, UCYN-A, is a key player in the marine nitrogen cycle.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pérez, Clara; Mohr, Wiebke; Löscher, Carolin R; Dekaezemacker, Julien; Littmann, Sten; Yilmaz, Pelin; Lehnen, Nadine; Fuchs, Bernhard M; Lavik, Gaute; Schmitz, Ruth A; LaRoche, Julie; Kuypers, Marcel M M

    2016-01-01

    Microbial dinitrogen (N2) fixation, the nitrogenase enzyme-catalysed reduction of N2 gas into biologically available ammonia, is the main source of new nitrogen (N) in the ocean. For more than 50 years, oceanic N2 fixation has mainly been attributed to the activity of the colonial cyanobacterium Trichodesmium(1,2). Other smaller N2-fixing microorganisms (diazotrophs)-in particular the unicellular cyanobacteria group A (UCYN-A)-are, however, abundant enough to potentially contribute significantly to N2 fixation in the surface waters of the oceans(3-6). Despite their abundance, the contribution of UCYN-A to oceanic N2 fixation has so far not been directly quantified. Here, we show that in one of the main areas of oceanic N2 fixation, the tropical North Atlantic(7), the symbiotic cyanobacterium UCYN-A contributed to N2 fixation similarly to Trichodesmium. Two types of UCYN-A, UCYN-A1 and -A2, were observed to live in symbioses with specific eukaryotic algae. Single-cell analyses showed that both algae-UCYN-A symbioses actively fixed N2, contributing ∼20% to N2 fixation in the tropical North Atlantic, revealing their significance in this region. These symbioses had growth rates five to ten times higher than Trichodesmium, implying a rapid transfer of UCYN-A-fixed N into the food web that might significantly raise their actual contribution to N2 fixation. Our analysis of global 16S rRNA gene databases showed that UCYN-A occurs in surface waters from the Arctic to the Antarctic Circle and thus probably contributes to N2 fixation in a much larger oceanic area than previously thought. Based on their high rates of N2 fixation and cosmopolitan distribution, we hypothesize that UCYN-A plays a major, but currently overlooked role in the oceanic N cycle. PMID:27617976

  5. Structural and Biochemical Analyses of Glycoside Hydrolase Family 26 β-Mannanase from a Symbiotic Protist of the Termite Reticulitermes speratus*

    PubMed Central

    Tsukagoshi, Hikaru; Nakamura, Akihiko; Ishida, Takuya; Touhara, Kouki K.; Otagiri, Masato; Moriya, Shigeharu; Samejima, Masahiro; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Fushinobu, Shinya; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko; Arioka, Manabu

    2014-01-01

    Termites and their symbiotic protists have established a prominent dual lignocellulolytic system, which can be applied to the biorefinery process. One of the major components of lignocellulose from conifers is glucomannan, which comprises a heterogeneous combination of β-1,4-linked mannose and glucose. Mannanases are known to hydrolyze the internal linkage of the glucomannan backbone, but the specific mechanism by which they recognize and accommodate heteropolysaccharides is currently unclear. Here, we report biochemical and structural analyses of glycoside hydrolase family 26 mannanase C (RsMan26C) from a symbiotic protist of the termite Reticulitermes speratus. RsMan26C was characterized based on its catalytic efficiency toward glucomannan, compared with pure mannan. The crystal structure of RsMan26C complexed with gluco-manno-oligosaccharide(s) explained its specificities for glucose and mannose at subsites −5 and −2, respectively, in addition to accommodation of both glucose and mannose at subsites −3 and −4. RsMan26C has a long open cleft with a hydrophobic platform of Trp94 at subsite −5, facilitating enzyme binding to polysaccharides. Notably, a unique oxidized Met85 specifically interacts with the equatorial O-2 of glucose at subsite −3. Our results collectively indicate that specific recognition and accommodation of glucose at the distal negative subsites confers efficient degradation of the heteropolysaccharide by mannanase. PMID:24570006

  6. Structural and biochemical analyses of glycoside hydrolase family 26 β-mannanase from a symbiotic protist of the termite Reticulitermes speratus.

    PubMed

    Tsukagoshi, Hikaru; Nakamura, Akihiko; Ishida, Takuya; Touhara, Kouki K; Otagiri, Masato; Moriya, Shigeharu; Samejima, Masahiro; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Fushinobu, Shinya; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko; Arioka, Manabu

    2014-04-11

    Termites and their symbiotic protists have established a prominent dual lignocellulolytic system, which can be applied to the biorefinery process. One of the major components of lignocellulose from conifers is glucomannan, which comprises a heterogeneous combination of β-1,4-linked mannose and glucose. Mannanases are known to hydrolyze the internal linkage of the glucomannan backbone, but the specific mechanism by which they recognize and accommodate heteropolysaccharides is currently unclear. Here, we report biochemical and structural analyses of glycoside hydrolase family 26 mannanase C (RsMan26C) from a symbiotic protist of the termite Reticulitermes speratus. RsMan26C was characterized based on its catalytic efficiency toward glucomannan, compared with pure mannan. The crystal structure of RsMan26C complexed with gluco-manno-oligosaccharide(s) explained its specificities for glucose and mannose at subsites -5 and -2, respectively, in addition to accommodation of both glucose and mannose at subsites -3 and -4. RsMan26C has a long open cleft with a hydrophobic platform of Trp(94) at subsite -5, facilitating enzyme binding to polysaccharides. Notably, a unique oxidized Met(85) specifically interacts with the equatorial O-2 of glucose at subsite -3. Our results collectively indicate that specific recognition and accommodation of glucose at the distal negative subsites confers efficient degradation of the heteropolysaccharide by mannanase.

  7. An antifungal compound involved in symbiotic germination of Cypripedium macranthos var. rebunense (Orchidaceae).

    PubMed

    Shimura, Hanako; Matsuura, Mayumi; Takada, Noboru; Koda, Yasunori

    2007-05-01

    Germination of orchid seeds fully depends on a symbiotic association with soil-borne fungi, usually Rhizoctonia spp. In contrast to the peaceful symbiotic associations between many other terrestrial plants and mycorrhizal fungi, this association is a life-and-death struggle. The fungi always try to invade the cytoplasm of orchid cells to obtain nutritional compounds. On the other hand, the orchid cells restrict the growth of the infecting hyphae and obtain nutrition by digesting them. It is likely that antifungal compounds are involved in the restriction of fungal growth. Two antifungal compounds, lusianthrin and chrysin, were isolated from the seedlings of Cypripedium macranthos var. rebunense that had developed shoots. The former had a slightly stronger antifungal activity than the latter, and the antifungal spectra of these compounds were relatively specific to the nonpathogenic Rhizoctonia spp. The level of lusianthrin, which was very low in aseptic protocorm-like bodies, dramatically increased following infection with the symbiotic fungus. In contrast, chrysin was not detected in infected protocorm-like bodies. These results suggest that orchid plants equip multiple antifungal compounds and use them at specific developmental stages; lusianthrin maintains the perilous symbiotic association for germination and chrysin helps to protect adult plants. PMID:17445846

  8. Symbiotic Gesture and the Sociocognitive Visibility of Grammar in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchill, Eton; Okada, Hanako; Nishino, Takako; Atkinson, Dwight

    2010-01-01

    This article argues for the embodied and environmentally embedded nature of second language acquisition (SLA). Through fine-grained analysis of interaction using Goodwin's (2003a) concept of "symbiotic gesture"--gesture coupled with its rich environmental context to produce complex social action--we illustrate how a tutor, learner, and grammar…

  9. Catalase characterization and implication in bleaching of a symbiotic sea anemone.

    PubMed

    Merle, Pierre-Laurent; Sabourault, Cécile; Richier, Sophie; Allemand, Denis; Furla, Paola

    2007-01-15

    Symbiotic cnidarians are marine invertebrates harboring photosynthesizing microalgae (named zooxanthellae), which produce great amounts of oxygen and free radicals upon illumination. Studying antioxidative balance is then crucial to understanding how symbiotic cnidarians cope with ROS production. In particular, it is suspected that oxidative stress triggers cnidarian bleaching, i.e., the expulsion of zooxanthellae from the animal host, responsible for symbiotic cnidarian mass mortality worldwide. This study therefore investigates catalase antioxidant enzymes and their role in bleaching of the temperate symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis. Using specific separation of animal tissues (ectoderm and endoderm) from the symbionts (zooxanthellae), spectrophotometric assays and native PAGE revealed both tissue-specific and activity pattern distribution of two catalase electrophoretypes, E1 and E2. E1, expressed in all three tissues, presents high sensitivity to the catalase inhibitor aminotriazole (ATZ) and elevated temperatures. The ectodermal E1 form is responsible for 67% of total catalase activity. The E2 form, expressed only within zooxanthellae and their host endodermal cells, displays low sensitivity to ATZ and relative thermostability. We further cloned an ectodermal catalase, which shares 68% identity with mammalian monofunctional catalases. Last, 6 days of exposure of whole sea anemones to ATZ (0.5 mM) led to effective catalase inhibition and initiated symbiont expulsion. This demonstrates the crucial role of this enzyme in cnidarian bleaching, a phenomenon responsible for worldwide climate-change-induced mass mortalities, with catastrophic consequences for marine biodiversity. PMID:17189829

  10. Identifying genes involved in nodulation and symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) in Phaseolus vulgaris using RNAseq technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) is one of the most important grain legumes for direct human consumption. It comprises 50% of the grain legumes consumed worldwide and is important as a primary source of dietary protein in developing countries. Legumes form a unique symbiotic relationship with rhizob...

  11. Application of plant genomics for improved symbiotic nitrogen fixation in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because genome sequencing, transcript profiling, proteome analysis, metabolite profiling, mutant analysis, and comparative genomics have progressed at a logarithmic pace, we know more about the plant genes involved in symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) than could have been imagined a decade ago. Howe...

  12. Genome-wide association analysis of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in common bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted to explore the genetic basis of variation for symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) and related traits in the Andean diversity panel (ADP) comprised of 259 common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) genotypes. The ADP was evaluated for SNF and related traits in...

  13. OT2_jsokolos_1: The Origin and Nature of the Emission Nebulae around Symbiotic Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokoloski, J.

    2011-09-01

    There is much controversy concerning the ionized nebula that produces the radio through FIR emission from symbiotic stars. The goal of the proposed Herschel observations is to test two popular models for this emission; whether it is produced by a wind from the red giant that is photoionized by Lyman continuum photons from the hot WD (STB) or it comes from plasma that is shock heated as the winds from the two stars collide by constraining the submm SED and measuring the free-free turnover frequency of the ionised component. These two models predict distinctly different shapes for the submm portion of the SED and different dependence of the turnover frequency on binary separation. Thus, submm photometry of a diverse sample of symbiotic stars with know binary parameters that only Herschel can perform is an ideal way to quantitatively test and discriminate between these models (as well as motivate new ones). In terms of astrophysical significance, determining the origin of the radio-through-FIR emission from symbiotic stars has implications for the nature and geometry of mass transfer in wide binaries, mass loss from accreting compact objects, the shaping of asymmetric nebulae around binary stars (including binary planetary nebulae), and the likelihood that symbiotic stars can explode as type Ia supernovae.

  14. Antimicrobial chemicals in hoopoe preen secretions are produced by symbiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel; Peña, Aránzazu; Peralta-Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Sánchez, Lourdes; Ananou, Samir; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Soler, Juan José

    2010-01-01

    Animals frequently use metabolites produced by symbiotic bacteria as agents against pathogens and parasites. Secretions from the preen gland of birds are used for this purpose, although its chemicals apparently are produced by the birds themselves. European hoopoes Upupa epops and green woodhoopoes Phoeniculus purpureus harbour symbiotic bacteria in the uropygial gland that might be partly responsible for the chemical composition of secretions. Here we investigate the antimicrobial activity of the volatile fraction of chemicals in hoopoe preen secretions, and, by means of experimental antibiotic injections, test whether symbiotic bacteria living within the uropygial gland are responsible for their production. Hoopoes produce two different kinds of secretions that differ drastically in their chemical composition. While the malodorous dark secretions produced by nestlings included a complex mix of volatiles, these chemicals did not appear in white secretions produced by non-nesting birds. All volatiles detected showed strong antibacterial activity, and a mixture of the chemicals at the concentrations measured in nestling glands inhibited the growth of all bacterial strains assayed. We found support for the hypothesized role of bacteria in the production of such antimicrobial chemicals because experimental clearance of bacteria from glands of nestlings with antibiotics resulted in secretions without most of the volatiles detected in control individuals. Thus, the presence of symbiotic bacteria in the uropygial gland provides hoopoes with potent antimicrobials for topical use.

  15. Phylogenetic Relationships of the Symbiotic Bacteria in the Aphid Sitobion avenae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Alkhedir, Hussein; Karlovsky, Petr; Mashaly, Ashraf Mohamed Ali; Vidal, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Aphids have developed symbiotic associations with different bacterial species, and some morphological and molecular analyses have provided evidence of the host relationship between the primary symbiotic bacteria (Buchnera aphidicola) and the aphid while the contrary with the secondary symbiotic bacteria. In this study, we investigated the phylogenetic relationships of the bacterial endosymbionts in the aphid Sitobion avenae (F.). We characterized all bacterial endosymbionts in 10 genetically defined S. avenae clones by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and, from these clones, sequenced the 16S rRNA genes of both the primary endosymbiont, B. aphidicola (for the first time), and the secondary endosymbionts, Regiella insecticola and Hamiltonella defensa (for the first time). The phylogenetic analysis indicated that Buchnera from Sitobion related to those in Macrosiphoni. The analysis of the secondary endosymbionts indicated that there is no host relationship between H. defensa and R. insecticola from Sitobion and those from other aphid species. In this study, therefore, we identified further evidence for the relationship between Buchnera and its host and reported a relationship within the secondary endosymbionts of S. avenae from the same country, even though there were no relationships between the secondary bacteria and their host. We also discussed the diversity within the symbiotic bacteria in S. avenae clones. PMID:26314016

  16. Profile disparity of Raman-scattered O VI in symbiotic stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hee-Won

    2016-07-01

    Symbiotic stars are wide binary systems consisting of a hot compact star (usually a white dwarf) and a mass losing giant. Symbiotic activities are believed to occur through gravitational capture of a fraction of the slow stellar wind from the giant. Raman scattered features of O VI resonance doublet 1032 and 1038 appearing at around 6825 Å and 7082 Å are a unique spectroscopic diagnostic tool to probe the mass transfer process in symbiotic stars. The Raman O VI features often exhibit multiple peak structures and in many cases the blue peak of 7082 features is relatively more suppressed than that of 6825 features. We propose that the disparity of the two profiles is attributed to the local variation of optical depths of O VI, implying that the accretion flow is convergent in the red emission region and divergent in the blue emission region. It is argued in this presentation that Raman scattering by atomic hydrogen is a natural mirror to provide an edge-on view of the accretion disk and a lateral view of the bipolar outflow in symbiotic stars. We discuss the spectropolarimetric implications of this interpretation.

  17. An antifungal compound involved in symbiotic germination of Cypripedium macranthos var. rebunense (Orchidaceae).

    PubMed

    Shimura, Hanako; Matsuura, Mayumi; Takada, Noboru; Koda, Yasunori

    2007-05-01

    Germination of orchid seeds fully depends on a symbiotic association with soil-borne fungi, usually Rhizoctonia spp. In contrast to the peaceful symbiotic associations between many other terrestrial plants and mycorrhizal fungi, this association is a life-and-death struggle. The fungi always try to invade the cytoplasm of orchid cells to obtain nutritional compounds. On the other hand, the orchid cells restrict the growth of the infecting hyphae and obtain nutrition by digesting them. It is likely that antifungal compounds are involved in the restriction of fungal growth. Two antifungal compounds, lusianthrin and chrysin, were isolated from the seedlings of Cypripedium macranthos var. rebunense that had developed shoots. The former had a slightly stronger antifungal activity than the latter, and the antifungal spectra of these compounds were relatively specific to the nonpathogenic Rhizoctonia spp. The level of lusianthrin, which was very low in aseptic protocorm-like bodies, dramatically increased following infection with the symbiotic fungus. In contrast, chrysin was not detected in infected protocorm-like bodies. These results suggest that orchid plants equip multiple antifungal compounds and use them at specific developmental stages; lusianthrin maintains the perilous symbiotic association for germination and chrysin helps to protect adult plants.

  18. Identification of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria from three African leguminous trees in Gorongosa National Park.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Helena; Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana

    2016-07-01

    The symbiosis between leguminous plants and symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria is a key component of terrestrial ecosystems. Woody legumes are well represented in tropical African forests but despite their ecological and socio-economic importance, they have been little studied for this symbiosis. In this study, we examined the identity and diversity of symbiotic-nitrogen fixing bacteria associated with Acacia xanthophloea, Faidherbia albida and Albizia versicolor in the Gorongosa National Park (GNP) in Mozambique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the identity of symbiotic-nitrogen fixing bacteria in this region. 166 isolates were obtained and subjected to molecular identification. BOX-A1R PCR was used to discriminate different bacterial isolates and PCR-sequencing of 16S rDNA, and two housekeeping genes, glnII and recA, was used to identify the obtained bacteria. The gene nifH was also analyzed to assess the symbiotic capacity of the obtained bacteria. All isolates from F. albida and Al. versicolor belonged to the Bradyrhizobium genus whereas isolates from Ac. xanthophloea clustered with Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium or Ensifer strains. Soil chemical analysis revealed significant differences between the soils occupied by the three studied species. Thus, we found a clear delimitation in the rhizobial communities and soils associated with Ac. xanthophloea, F. albida and Al. versicolor, and higher rhizobial diversity for Ac. xanthophloea than previously reported.

  19. AN X-RAY AND OPTICAL LIGHT CURVE MODEL OF THE ECLIPSING SYMBIOTIC BINARY SMC3

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Mariko; Hachisu, Izumi; Mikolajewska, Joanna

    2013-01-20

    Some binary evolution scenarios for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) include long-period binaries that evolve to symbiotic supersoft X-ray sources in their late stage of evolution. However, symbiotic stars with steady hydrogen burning on the white dwarf's (WD) surface are very rare, and the X-ray characteristics are not well known. SMC3 is one such rare example and a key object for understanding the evolution of symbiotic stars to SNe Ia. SMC3 is an eclipsing symbiotic binary, consisting of a massive WD and red giant (RG), with an orbital period of 4.5 years in the Small Magellanic Cloud. The long-term V light curve variations are reproduced as orbital variations in the irradiated RG, whose atmosphere fills its Roche lobe, thus supporting the idea that the RG supplies matter to the WD at rates high enough to maintain steady hydrogen burning on the WD. We also present an eclipse model in which an X-ray-emitting region around the WD is almost totally occulted by the RG swelling over the Roche lobe on the trailing side, although it is always partly obscured by a long spiral tail of neutral hydrogen surrounding the binary in the orbital plane.

  20. Identification of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria from three African leguminous trees in Gorongosa National Park.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Helena; Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana

    2016-07-01

    The symbiosis between leguminous plants and symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria is a key component of terrestrial ecosystems. Woody legumes are well represented in tropical African forests but despite their ecological and socio-economic importance, they have been little studied for this symbiosis. In this study, we examined the identity and diversity of symbiotic-nitrogen fixing bacteria associated with Acacia xanthophloea, Faidherbia albida and Albizia versicolor in the Gorongosa National Park (GNP) in Mozambique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the identity of symbiotic-nitrogen fixing bacteria in this region. 166 isolates were obtained and subjected to molecular identification. BOX-A1R PCR was used to discriminate different bacterial isolates and PCR-sequencing of 16S rDNA, and two housekeeping genes, glnII and recA, was used to identify the obtained bacteria. The gene nifH was also analyzed to assess the symbiotic capacity of the obtained bacteria. All isolates from F. albida and Al. versicolor belonged to the Bradyrhizobium genus whereas isolates from Ac. xanthophloea clustered with Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium or Ensifer strains. Soil chemical analysis revealed significant differences between the soils occupied by the three studied species. Thus, we found a clear delimitation in the rhizobial communities and soils associated with Ac. xanthophloea, F. albida and Al. versicolor, and higher rhizobial diversity for Ac. xanthophloea than previously reported. PMID:27287843

  1. Purine biosynthesis-deficient Burkholderia mutants are incapable of symbiotic accommodation in the stinkbug.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyeun Kate; Jang, Ho Am; Won, Yeo Jin; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Han, Sang Heum; Kim, Chan-Hee; Nikoh, Naruo; Fukatsu, Takema; Lee, Bok Luel

    2014-03-01

    The Riptortus-Burkholderia symbiotic system represents a promising experimental model to study the molecular mechanisms involved in insect-bacterium symbiosis due to the availability of genetically manipulated Burkholderia symbiont. Using transposon mutagenesis screening, we found a symbiosis-deficient mutant that was able to colonize the host insect but failed to induce normal development of host's symbiotic organ. The disrupted gene was identified as purL involved in purine biosynthesis. In vitro growth impairment of the purL mutant and its growth dependency on adenine and adenosine confirmed the functional disruption of the purine synthesis gene. The purL mutant also showed defects in biofilm formation, and this defect was not rescued by supplementation of purine derivatives. When inoculated to host insects, the purL mutant was initially able to colonize the symbiotic organ but failed to attain a normal infection density. The low level of infection density of the purL mutant attenuated the development of the host's symbiotic organ at early instar stages and reduced the host's fitness throughout the nymphal stages. Another symbiont mutant-deficient in a purine biosynthesis gene, purM, showed phenotypes similar to those of the purL mutant both in vitro and in vivo, confirming that the purL phenotypes are due to disrupted purine biosynthesis. These results demonstrate that the purine biosynthesis genes of the Burkholderia symbiont are critical for the successful accommodation of symbiont within the host, thereby facilitating the development of the host's symbiotic organ and enhancing the host's fitness values.

  2. Rhizobium meliloti Genes Encoding Catabolism of Trigonelline Are Induced under Symbiotic Conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Boivin, C; Camut, S; Malpica, CA; Truchet, G; Rosenberg, C

    1990-01-01

    Rhizobium meliloti trc genes controlling the catabolism of trigonelline, a plant secondary metabolite often abundant in legumes, are closely linked to nif-nod genes on the symbiotic megaplasmid pSym [Boivin, C., Malpica, C., Rosenberg, C., Denarie, J., Goldman, A., Fleury, V., Maille, M., Message, B., and Tepfer, D. (1989). In Molecular Signals in the Microbe-Plant Symbiotic and Pathogenic Systems. (Berlin: Springer-Verlag), pp. 401-407]. To investigate the role of trigonelline catabolism in the Rhizobium-legume interaction, we studied the regulation of trc gene expression in free-living and in endosymbiotic bacteria using Escherichia coli lacZ as a reporter gene. Experiments performed with free-living bacteria indicated that trc genes were organized in at least four transcription units and that the substrate trigonelline was a specific inducer for three of them. Noninducing trigonelline-related compounds such as betaines appeared to antagonize the inducing effect of trigonelline. None of the general or symbiotic regulatory genes ntrA, dctB/D, or nodD seemed to be involved in trigonelline catabolism. trc fusions exhibiting a low basal and a high induced [beta]-galactosidase activity when present on pSym were used to monitor trc gene expression in alfalfa tissue under symbiotic conditions. Results showed that trc genes are induced during all the symbiotic steps, i.e., in the rhizosphere, infection threads, and bacteroids of alfalfa, suggesting that trigonelline is a nutrient source throughout the Rhizobium-legume association. PMID:12354952

  3. Phenotypic and Genotypic Comparison of Symbiotic and Free-Living Cyanobacteria from a Single Field Site

    PubMed Central

    West, N. J.; Adams, D. G.

    1997-01-01

    PCR amplification techniques were used to compare cyanobacterial symbionts from a cyanobacterium-bryophyte symbiosis and free-living cyanobacteria from the same field site. Thirty-one symbiotic cyanobacteria were isolated from the hornwort Phaeoceros sp. at several closely spaced locations, and 40 free-living cyanobacteria were isolated from the immediate vicinity of the same plants. One of the symbiotic isolates was a species of Calothrix, a genus not previously known to form bryophyte symbioses, and the remainder were Nostoc spp. Of the free-living strains, two were Calothrix spp., three were Chlorogloeopsis spp. and the rest were Nostoc spp. All of the symbiotic and all but one of the free-living strains were able to reconstitute the symbiosis with axenic cultures of both Phaeoceros and the liverwort Blasia sp. Axenic cyanobacterial strains were compared by DNA amplification using PCR with either short arbitrary primers or primers specific for the regions flanking the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer. With one exception, the two techniques produced complementary results and confirmed for the first time that a diversity of symbiotic cyanobacteria infect Phaeoceros in the field. Symbionts from adjacent colonies were different as often as they were the same, showing that the same thallus could be infected with many different cyanobacterial strains. Strains found to be identical by the techniques employed here were often found as symbionts in different thalli at the same locale but were never found free-living. Only one of the free-living strains, and none of the symbiotic strains, was found at more than one sample site, implying a highly localized distribution of strains. PMID:16535734

  4. Detecting In Situ Copepod Diet Diversity Using Molecular Technique: Development of a Copepod/Symbiotic Ciliate-Excluding Eukaryote-Inclusive PCR Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Carpenter, Edward J.; Liu, Sheng; Lin, Senjie

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of in situ copepod diet diversity is crucial for accurately describing pelagic food web structure but is challenging to achieve due to lack of an easily applicable methodology. To enable analysis with whole copepod-derived DNAs, we developed a copepod-excluding 18S rDNA-based PCR protocol. Although it is effective in depressing amplification of copepod 18S rDNA, its applicability to detect diverse eukaryotes in both mono- and mixed-species has not been demonstrated. Besides, the protocol suffers from the problem that sequences from symbiotic ciliates are overrepresented in the retrieved 18S rDNA libraries. In this study, we designed a blocking primer to make a combined primer set (copepod/symbiotic ciliate-excluding eukaryote-common: CEEC) to depress PCR amplification of symbiotic ciliate sequences while maximizing the range of eukaryotes amplified. We firstly examined the specificity and efficacy of CEEC by PCR-amplifying DNAs from 16 copepod species, 37 representative organisms that are potential prey of copepods and a natural microplankton sample, and then evaluated the efficiency in reconstructing diet composition by detecting the food of both lab-reared and field-collected copepods. Our results showed that the CEEC primer set can successfully amplify 18S rDNA from a wide range of isolated species and mixed-species samples while depressing amplification of that from copepod and targeted symbiotic ciliate, indicating the universality of CEEC in specifically detecting prey of copepods. All the predetermined food offered to copepods in the laboratory were successfully retrieved, suggesting that the CEEC-based protocol can accurately reconstruct the diets of copepods without interference of copepods and their associated ciliates present in the DNA samples. Our initial application to analyzing the food composition of field-collected copepods uncovered diverse prey species, including those currently known, and those that are unsuspected, as copepod prey

  5. Detecting in situ copepod diet diversity using molecular technique: development of a copepod/symbiotic ciliate-excluding eukaryote-inclusive PCR protocol.

    PubMed

    Hu, Simin; Guo, Zhiling; Li, Tao; Carpenter, Edward J; Liu, Sheng; Lin, Senjie

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of in situ copepod diet diversity is crucial for accurately describing pelagic food web structure but is challenging to achieve due to lack of an easily applicable methodology. To enable analysis with whole copepod-derived DNAs, we developed a copepod-excluding 18S rDNA-based PCR protocol. Although it is effective in depressing amplification of copepod 18S rDNA, its applicability to detect diverse eukaryotes in both mono- and mixed-species has not been demonstrated. Besides, the protocol suffers from the problem that sequences from symbiotic ciliates are overrepresented in the retrieved 18S rDNA libraries. In this study, we designed a blocking primer to make a combined primer set (copepod/symbiotic ciliate-excluding eukaryote-common: CEEC) to depress PCR amplification of symbiotic ciliate sequences while maximizing the range of eukaryotes amplified. We firstly examined the specificity and efficacy of CEEC by PCR-amplifying DNAs from 16 copepod species, 37 representative organisms that are potential prey of copepods and a natural microplankton sample, and then evaluated the efficiency in reconstructing diet composition by detecting the food of both lab-reared and field-collected copepods. Our results showed that the CEEC primer set can successfully amplify 18S rDNA from a wide range of isolated species and mixed-species samples while depressing amplification of that from copepod and targeted symbiotic ciliate, indicating the universality of CEEC in specifically detecting prey of copepods. All the predetermined food offered to copepods in the laboratory were successfully retrieved, suggesting that the CEEC-based protocol can accurately reconstruct the diets of copepods without interference of copepods and their associated ciliates present in the DNA samples. Our initial application to analyzing the food composition of field-collected copepods uncovered diverse prey species, including those currently known, and those that are unsuspected, as copepod prey

  6. SU Lyncis, a hard X-ray bright M giant: clues point to a large hidden population of symbiotic stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, K.; Luna, G. J. M.; Cusumano, G.; Segreto, A.; Munari, U.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Lucy, A. B.; Nelson, T.; Nuñez, N. E.

    2016-09-01

    Symbiotic star surveys have traditionally relied almost exclusively on low resolution optical spectroscopy. However, we can obtain a more reliable estimate of their total Galactic population by using all available signatures of the symbiotic phenomenon. Here we report the discovery of a hard X-ray source, 4PBC J0642.9+5528, in the Swift hard X-ray all-sky survey, and identify it with a poorly studied red giant, SU Lyn, using pointed Swift observations and ground-based optical spectroscopy. The X-ray spectrum, the optical to UV spectrum, and the rapid UV variability of SU Lyn are all consistent with our interpretation that it is a symbiotic star containing an accreting white dwarf. The symbiotic nature of SU Lyn went unnoticed until now, because it does not exhibit emission lines strong enough to be obvious in low resolution spectra. We argue that symbiotic stars without shell-burning have weak emission lines, and that the current lists of symbiotic stars are biased in favour of shell-burning systems. We conclude that the true population of symbiotic stars has been underestimated, potentially by a large factor.

  7. Arabitol provided by lichenous fungi enhances ability to dissipate excess light energy in a symbiotic green alga under desiccation.

    PubMed

    Kosugi, Makiko; Miyake, Hirohisa; Yamakawa, Hisanori; Shibata, Yutaka; Miyazawa, Atsuo; Sugimura, Takashi; Satoh, Kazuhiko; Itoh, Shigeru; Kashino, Yasuhiro

    2013-08-01

    Lichens are drought-resistant symbiotic organisms of mycobiont fungi and photobiont green algae or cyanobacteria, and have an efficient mechanism to dissipate excess captured light energy into heat in a picosecond time range to avoid photoinhibition. This mechanism can be assessed as drought-induced non-photochemical quenching (d-NPQ) using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. A green alga Trebouxia sp., which lives within a lichen Ramalina yasudae, is one of the most common green algal photobionts. This alga showed very efficient d-NPQ under desiccation within the lichen thallus, whereas it lost d-NPQ ability when isolated from R. yasudae, indicating the importance of the interaction with the mycobiont for d-NPQ ability. We analyzed the water extracts from lichen thalli that enhanced d-NPQ in Trebouxia. Of several sugar compounds identified in the water extracts by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), mass spectrometry (MS) and gas chromatography (GC) analyses, only d-arabitol recovered d-NPQ in isolated Trebouxia to a level similar to that detected for R. yasudae thallus. Other sugar compounds did not help the expression of d-NPQ at the same concentrations. Thus, arabitol is essential for the expression of d-NPQ to dissipate excess captured light energy into heat, protecting the photobiont from photoinhibition. The relationship between mycobionts and photobionts is, therefore, not commensalism, but mutualism with each other, as shown by d-NPQ expression.

  8. A Versatile Monosaccharide Transporter That Operates in the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Glomus sp Is Crucial for the Symbiotic Relationship with Plants[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Helber, Nicole; Wippel, Kathrin; Sauer, Norbert; Schaarschmidt, Sara; Hause, Bettina; Requena, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    For more than 400 million years, plants have maintained a mutualistic symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. This evolutionary success can be traced to the role of these fungi in providing plants with mineral nutrients, particularly phosphate. In return, photosynthates are given to the fungus, which support its obligate biotrophic lifestyle. Although the mechanisms involved in phosphate transfer have been extensively studied, less is known about the reciprocal transfer of carbon. Here, we present the high-affinity Monosaccharide Transporter2 (MST2) from Glomus sp with a broad substrate spectrum that functions at several symbiotic root locations. Plant cell wall sugars can efficiently outcompete the Glc uptake capacity of MST2, suggesting they can serve as alternative carbon sources. MST2 expression closely correlates with that of the mycorrhiza-specific Phosphate Transporter4 (PT4). Furthermore, reduction of MST2 expression using host-induced gene silencing resulted in impaired mycorrhiza formation, malformed arbuscules, and reduced PT4 expression. These findings highlight the symbiotic role of MST2 and support the hypothesis that the exchange of carbon for phosphate is tightly linked. Unexpectedly, we found that the external mycelium of AM fungi is able to take up sugars in a proton-dependent manner. These results imply that the sugar uptake system operating in this symbiosis is more complex than previously anticipated. PMID:21972259

  9. Aerobic degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether in a closed symbiotic system containing a mixed culture of Chlorella ellipsoidea and Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Weihong; Li, Yixiao; Sun, Kedan; Jin, Jing; Li, Xuanzhen; Zhang, Fuming; Chen, Jianmeng

    2011-01-30

    The contamination of groundwater by methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is one of the most serious environmental problems around the world. MTBE degradation in a closed algal-bacterial symbiotic system, containing a mixed culture of Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1 and Chlorella ellipsoidea, was investigated. The algal-bacterial symbiotic system showed increased MTBE degradation. The MTBE-degradation rate in the mixed culture (8.808 ± 0.007 mg l(-1) d(-1)) was higher than that in the pure bacterial culture (5.664 ± 0.017 mg l(-1) d(-1)). The level of dissolved oxygen was also higher in the mixed culture than that in the pure bacterial culture. However, the improved efficiency of MTBE degradation was not in proportional to the biomass of the alga. The optimal ratio of initial cell population of bacteria to algae was 100:1. An immobilized culture of mixed bacteria and algae also showed higher MTBE degradation rate than the immobilized pure bacterial culture. A mixed culture with algae and PM1 immobilized separately in different gel beads showed higher degradation rate (8.496 ± 0.636 mg l(-1) d(-1)) than that obtained with algae and PM1 immobilized in the same gel beads (5.424 ± 0.010 mg l(-1) d(-1)).

  10. A new α-galactosidase from symbiotic Flavobacterium sp. TN17 reveals four residues essential for α-galactosidase activity of gastrointestinal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Junpei; Shi, Pengjun; Huang, Huoqing; Cao, Yanan; Meng, Kun; Yang, Peilong; Zhang, Rui; Chen, Xiaoyan; Yao, Bin

    2010-12-01

    The α-galactosidase gene, galA17, was cloned from Flavobacterium sp. TN17, a symbiotic bacterium isolated from the gut of Batocera horsfieldi larvae. The 2,205-bp full-length gene encodes a 734-residue polypeptide (GalA17) containing a putative 28-residue signal peptide and a catalytic domain belonging to glycosyl hydrolase family 36 (GH 36). The deduced amino acid sequence of galA17 was most similar to a putative α-galactosidase from Pedobacter sp. BAL39 (EDM38577; 66.6% identity) and a characterized α-galactosidase from Carnobacterium piscicola BA (AAL27305; 30.1%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that GalA17 was similar to GH 36 α-galactosidases from symbiotic bacteria sharing two putative catalytic motifs, KWD and SDXXDXXXR, in which D480, S548, D549, and R556 were essential for α-galactosidase activity based on site-directed mutagenesis. Purified recombinant GalA17 showed apparent optimal activity at pH 5.5 and 45°C; exhibited strong resistance to digestion by trypsin, α-chymotrypsin, collagenase, and proteinase K; and efficiently hydrolyzed several synthetic and natural substrates (p-nitrophenyl-α-D-galactopyranoside, stachyose, melibiose, raffinose, soybean meal, locust bean gum, and guar gum).

  11. Survival of Prokaryotic- and Eukaryotic Symbiotic Rock Inhabiting Organisms in Short- and Long-Term Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Torre, R.; Horneck, G.; Rabbow, E.; Rettberg, P.; Sancho, L. G.; Sanchez Iñigo, F. J.; Onofri, S.; Frias, M.; Mateo-Marti, E.; de Vera, J. P.; Cockell, C.; Olsson, K.; Demets, R.

    2010-04-01

    Three experiments allowed for the first time the demonstration and intercomparision of the high survival capacity of eukaryotic and prokaryotic symbiotic organisms in space: on a short mission (LICHENS and LITHOPANSPERMIA) and on a long mission (LIFE, EXPOSE-E).

  12. Symbiotic lactobacilli stimulate gut epithelial proliferation via Nox-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rheinallt M; Luo, Liping; Ardita, Courtney S; Richardson, Arena N; Kwon, Young Man; Mercante, Jeffrey W; Alam, Ashfaqul; Gates, Cymone L; Wu, Huixia; Swanson, Phillip A; Lambeth, J David; Denning, Patricia W; Neish, Andrew S

    2013-11-27

    The resident prokaryotic microbiota of the metazoan gut elicits profound effects on the growth and development of the intestine. However, the molecular mechanisms of symbiotic prokaryotic-eukaryotic cross-talk in the gut are largely unknown. It is increasingly recognized that physiologically generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) function as signalling secondary messengers that influence cellular proliferation and differentiation in a variety of biological systems. Here, we report that commensal bacteria, particularly members of the genus Lactobacillus, can stimulate NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1)-dependent ROS generation and consequent cellular proliferation in intestinal stem cells upon initial ingestion into the murine or Drosophila intestine. Our data identify and highlight a highly conserved mechanism that symbiotic microorganisms utilize in eukaryotic growth and development. Additionally, the work suggests that specific redox-mediated functions may be assigned to specific bacterial taxa and may contribute to the identification of microbes with probiotic potential.

  13. Addendum to ``Colored-noise-induced discontinuous transitions in symbiotic ecosystems''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauga, Ako; Mankin, Romi

    2005-06-01

    A symbiotic ecosystem with Gompertz self-regulation and with adaptive competition between populations is studied by means of a N -species Lotka-Volterra stochastic model. The influence of fluctuating environment on the carrying capacity of a population is modeled as a dichotomous noise. The study is a follow up of previous investigations of symbiotic ecosystems subjected to the generalized Verhulst self-regulation [Phys. Rev. E 69, 061106 (2004); 65, 051108 (2002)]. In the framework of mean-field approximation the behavior of the solutions of the self-consistency equation for a stationary system is examined analytically in the full phase space of system parameters. Depending on the mutual interplay of symbiosis and competition of species, variation of noise parameters (amplitude, correlation time) can induce doubly unidirectional discontinuous transitions as well as single unidirectional discontinuous transitions of the mean population size.

  14. Narrow- and Broad-Host-Range Symbiotic Plasmids of Rhizobium spp. Strains That Nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Brom, Susana; Martinez, Esperanza; Dávila, Guillermo; Palacios, Rafael

    1988-01-01

    Agrobacterium transconjugants containing symbiotic plasmids from different Rhizobium spp. strains that nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris were obtained. All transconjugants conserved the parental nodulation host range. Symbiotic (Sym) plasmids of Rhizobium strains isolated originally from P. vulgaris nodules, which had a broad nodulation host range, and single-copy nitrogenase genes conferred a Fix+ phenotype to the Agrobacterium transconjugants. A Fix− phenotype was obtained with Sym plasmids of strains isolated from P. vulgaris nodules that had a narrow host range and reiterated nif genes, as well as with Sym plasmids of strains isolated from other legumes that presented single nif genes and a broad nodulation host range. This indicates that different types of Sym plasmids can confer the ability to establish an effective symbiosis with P. vulgaris. Images PMID:16347637

  15. The Role of Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Sustainable Production of Biofuels

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Bandana; Gresshoff, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    With the ever-increasing population of the world (expected to reach 9.6 billion by 2050), and altered life style, comes an increased demand for food, fuel and fiber. However, scarcity of land, water and energy accompanied by climate change means that to produce enough to meet the demands is getting increasingly challenging. Today we must use every avenue from science and technology available to address these challenges. The natural process of symbiotic nitrogen fixation, whereby plants such as legumes fix atmospheric nitrogen gas to ammonia, usable by plants can have a substantial impact as it is found in nature, has low environmental and economic costs and is broadly established. Here we look at the importance of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in the production of biofuel feedstocks; how this process can address major challenges, how improving nitrogen fixation is essential, and what we can do about it. PMID:24786096

  16. Sensitive response of a model of symbiotic ecosystem to seasonal periodic drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rekker, A.; Lumi, N.; Mankin, R.

    2014-11-01

    A symbiotic ecosysytem (metapopulation) is studied by means of the stochastic Lotka-Volterra model with generalized Verhulst self-regulation. The effect of variable environment on the carrying capacities of populations is taken into account as an asymmetric dichotomous noise and as a deterministic periodic stimulus. In the framework of the mean-field theory an explicit self-consistency equation for the system in the long-time limit is presented. Also, expressions for the probability distribution and for the moments of the population size are found. In certain cases the mean population size exhibits large oscillations in time, even if the amplitude of the seasonal environmental drive is small. Particularly, it is shown that the occurrence of large oscillations of the mean population size can be controlled by noise parameters (such as amplitude and correlation time) and by the coupling strength of the symbiotic interaction between species.

  17. Sensitive response of a model of symbiotic ecosystem to seasonal periodic drive

    SciTech Connect

    Rekker, A.; Lumi, N.; Mankin, R.

    2014-11-12

    A symbiotic ecosysytem (metapopulation) is studied by means of the stochastic Lotka-Volterra model with generalized Verhulst self-regulation. The effect of variable environment on the carrying capacities of populations is taken into account as an asymmetric dichotomous noise and as a deterministic periodic stimulus. In the framework of the mean-field theory an explicit self-consistency equation for the system in the long-time limit is presented. Also, expressions for the probability distribution and for the moments of the population size are found. In certain cases the mean population size exhibits large oscillations in time, even if the amplitude of the seasonal environmental drive is small. Particularly, it is shown that the occurrence of large oscillations of the mean population size can be controlled by noise parameters (such as amplitude and correlation time) and by the coupling strength of the symbiotic interaction between species.

  18. Symbiotic lactobacilli stimulate gut epithelial proliferation via Nox-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Rheinallt M; Luo, Liping; Ardita, Courtney S; Richardson, Arena N; Kwon, Young Man; Mercante, Jeffrey W; Alam, Ashfaqul; Gates, Cymone L; Wu, Huixia; Swanson, Phillip A; Lambeth, J David; Denning, Patricia W; Neish, Andrew S

    2013-01-01

    The resident prokaryotic microbiota of the metazoan gut elicits profound effects on the growth and development of the intestine. However, the molecular mechanisms of symbiotic prokaryotic–eukaryotic cross-talk in the gut are largely unknown. It is increasingly recognized that physiologically generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) function as signalling secondary messengers that influence cellular proliferation and differentiation in a variety of biological systems. Here, we report that commensal bacteria, particularly members of the genus Lactobacillus, can stimulate NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1)-dependent ROS generation and consequent cellular proliferation in intestinal stem cells upon initial ingestion into the murine or Drosophila intestine. Our data identify and highlight a highly conserved mechanism that symbiotic microorganisms utilize in eukaryotic growth and development. Additionally, the work suggests that specific redox-mediated functions may be assigned to specific bacterial taxa and may contribute to the identification of microbes with probiotic potential. PMID:24141879

  19. Insights into the morphology of symbiotic shrimp eyes (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae); the effects of habitat demands

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Magnus L.; De Grave, Sammy

    2016-01-01

    Morphometric differences in the optical morphology of symbiotic palaemonid shrimps can be observed among species symbiotic with different host organisms. Discriminant functional analysis revealed three distinct groups within the species examined. Of these, bivalve symbionts appear to have an eye design that is solely unique to this host-symbiont grouping, a design that spans across multiple genera of phylogenetically unrelated animals. Although some taxonomic effects may be evident, this does not explain the difference and similarities in eye morphology that are seen within these shrimps. Therefore evolutionary pressures from their host environments are having an impact on the optical morphology of their eyes however, as indicated by host-hopping events there ecological adaptations occur post host invasion. PMID:27168962

  20. Regulation of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in root nodules of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) infected with Rhizobium meliloti.

    PubMed

    Kamberger, W

    1977-10-24

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation of Rhizobium meliloti bacteroids in Medicago sativa root nodules was suppressed by several inorganic nitrogen sources. Amino acids like glutamine, glutamic acid and aspartic acid, which can serve as sole nitrogen sources for the unnodulated plant did not influence nitrogenase activity of effective nodules, even at high concetrations. Ammonia and nitrate suppressed symbiotic nitrogen fixation in vivo only at concentrations much higher than those needed for suppression of nitrogenase activity in free living nitrogen fixing bacteria. The kinetics of suppression were slow compared with that of free living nitrogen fixing bacteria. On the other hand, nitrite, which acts as a direct inhibitor of nitrogenase, suppressed very quickly and at low concentrations. Glutamic acid and glutamine enhanced the effect of ammonia dramatically, while the suppression by nitrate was enhanced only slightly.

  1. Imaging intracellular pH in a reef coral and symbiotic anemone.

    PubMed

    Venn, A A; Tambutté, E; Lotto, S; Zoccola, D; Allemand, D; Tambutté, S

    2009-09-29

    The challenges corals and symbiotic cnidarians face from global environmental change brings new urgency to understanding fundamental elements of their physiology. Intracellular pH (pHi) influences almost all aspects of cellular physiology but has never been described in anthozoans or symbiotic cnidarians, despite its pivotal role in carbon concentration for photosynthesis and calcification. Using confocal microscopy and the pH sensitive probe carboxy SNARF-1, we mapped pHi in short-term light and dark-incubated cells of the reef coral Stylophora pistillata and the symbiotic anemone Anemonia viridis. In all cells isolated from both species, pHi was markedly lower than the surrounding seawater pH of 8.1. In cells that contained symbiotic algae, mean values of pHi were significantly higher in light treated cells than dark treated cells (7.41 +/- 0.22 versus 7.13 +/- 0.24 for S. pistillata; and 7.29 +/- 0.15 versus 7.01 +/- 0.27 for A. viridis). In contrast, there was no significant difference in pHi in light and dark treated cells without algal symbionts. Close inspection of the interface between host cytoplasm and algal symbionts revealed a distinct area of lower pH adjacent to the symbionts in both light and dark treated cells, possibly associated with the symbiosome membrane complex. These findings are significant developments for the elucidation of models of inorganic carbon transport for photosynthesis and calcification and also provide a cell imaging procedure for future investigations into how pHi and other fundamental intracellular parameters in corals respond to changes in the external environment such as reductions in seawater pH. PMID:19720994

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE MOST LUMINOUS STAR IN M33: A SUPER SYMBIOTIC BINARY

    SciTech Connect

    Mikołajewska, Joanna; Iłkiewicz, Krystian; Caldwell, Nelson; Shara, Michael M.

    2015-01-30

    We present the first spectrum of the most luminous infrared star in M33, and use it to demonstrate that the object is almost certainly a binary composed of a massive O star and a dust-enshrouded red hypergiant. This is the most luminous symbiotic binary ever discovered. Its radial velocity is an excellent match to that of the hydrogen gas in the disk of M33, supporting our interpretation that it is a very young and massive binary star.

  3. Reactive Oxygen Species and Nitric Oxide Control Early Steps of the Legume - Rhizobium Symbiotic Interaction.

    PubMed

    Damiani, Isabelle; Pauly, Nicolas; Puppo, Alain; Brouquisse, Renaud; Boscari, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    The symbiotic interaction between legumes and nitrogen-fixing rhizobium bacteria leads to the formation of a new organ, the nodule. Early steps of the interaction are characterized by the production of bacterial Nod factors, the reorientation of root-hair tip growth, the formation of an infection thread (IT) in the root hair, and the induction of cell division in inner cortical cells of the root, leading to a nodule primordium formation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) have been detected in early steps of the interaction. ROS/NO are determinant signals to arbitrate the specificity of this mutualistic association and modifications in their content impair the development of the symbiotic association. The decrease of ROS level prevents root hair curling and ITs formation, and that of NO conducts to delayed nodule formation. In root hairs, NADPH oxidases were shown to produce ROS which could be involved in the hair tip growth process. The use of enzyme inhibitors suggests that nitrate reductase and NO synthase-like enzymes are the main route for NO production during the early steps of the interaction. Transcriptomic analyses point to the involvement of ROS and NO in the success of the infection process, the induction of early nodulin gene expression, and the repression of plant defense, thereby favoring the establishment of the symbiosis. The occurrence of an interplay between ROS and NO was further supported by the finding of both S-sulfenylated and S-nitrosylated proteins during early symbiotic interaction, linking ROS/NO production to a redox-based regulation of the symbiotic process. PMID:27092165

  4. Reactive Oxygen Species and Nitric Oxide Control Early Steps of the Legume – Rhizobium Symbiotic Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Damiani, Isabelle; Pauly, Nicolas; Puppo, Alain; Brouquisse, Renaud; Boscari, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    The symbiotic interaction between legumes and nitrogen-fixing rhizobium bacteria leads to the formation of a new organ, the nodule. Early steps of the interaction are characterized by the production of bacterial Nod factors, the reorientation of root-hair tip growth, the formation of an infection thread (IT) in the root hair, and the induction of cell division in inner cortical cells of the root, leading to a nodule primordium formation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) have been detected in early steps of the interaction. ROS/NO are determinant signals to arbitrate the specificity of this mutualistic association and modifications in their content impair the development of the symbiotic association. The decrease of ROS level prevents root hair curling and ITs formation, and that of NO conducts to delayed nodule formation. In root hairs, NADPH oxidases were shown to produce ROS which could be involved in the hair tip growth process. The use of enzyme inhibitors suggests that nitrate reductase and NO synthase-like enzymes are the main route for NO production during the early steps of the interaction. Transcriptomic analyses point to the involvement of ROS and NO in the success of the infection process, the induction of early nodulin gene expression, and the repression of plant defense, thereby favoring the establishment of the symbiosis. The occurrence of an interplay between ROS and NO was further supported by the finding of both S-sulfenylated and S-nitrosylated proteins during early symbiotic interaction, linking ROS/NO production to a redox-based regulation of the symbiotic process. PMID:27092165

  5. Whole-Genome Sequence of the Nitrogen-Fixing Symbiotic Rhizobium Mesorhizobium loti Strain TONO

    PubMed Central

    Hirakawa, Hideki; Sato, Shusei; Saeki, Kazuhiko; Hayashi, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Mesorhizobium loti is the nitrogen-fixing microsymbiont for legumes of the genus Lotus. Here, we report the whole-genome sequence of a Mesorhizobium loti strain, TONO, which is used as a symbiont for the model legume Lotus japonicus. The whole-genome sequence of the strain TONO will be a solid platform for comparative genomics analyses and for the identification of genes responsible for the symbiotic properties of Mesorhizobium species. PMID:27795235

  6. Anastomosis behavior differs between asymbiotic and symbiotic hyphae of Rhizophagus clarus.

    PubMed

    Purin, Sonia; Morton, Joseph B

    2013-01-01

    The life history of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, Glomeromycota) consists of a short asymbiotic phase when spores germinate and a longer symbiotic phase where hyphae form a network within roots and subsequently in the rhizosphere. Hyphal anastomosis contributes to colony formation, yet this process has been studied mostly in the asymbiotic phase rather than in mycorrhizal plants because of methodological limitations. We sought to compare patterns of anastomosis during each phase of fungal growth by measuring hyphal fusions in genetically identical and different single spore isolates of Rhizophagus clarus from different environments and geographic locations. These isolates were genotyped with two anonymous markers of microsatellite-flanking regions. Anastomosis of hyphae from germinating spores was examined in axenic Petri dishes. A rhizohyphatron consisting of agar-coated glass slides bridging single or paired mycorrhizal sorghum plants allowed evaluation of anastomosis of symbiotic hyphae. Anastomosis of hyphae within a colony, defined here as a mycelium from an individual germinating spore or from mycorrhizal roots of one plant, occurred with similar frequencies (8-38%). However, anastomosis between paired colonies was observed in germinating spores from either genetically identical or different isolates, but it was never detected in symbiotic hyphae. The frequency of anastomosis in asymbiotic hyphae from paired interactions was low, occurring in fewer than 6% of hyphal contacts. These data suggest that anastomosis is relatively unconstrained when interactions occur within a colony but is confined to asymbiotic hyphae when interactions occur between paired colonies. This pattern of behavior suggests that asymbiotic and symbiotic phases of mycelium development by R. clarus may differ in function. Anastomosis in the asymbiotic phase may provide brief opportunities for gene flow between populations of this and possibly other AMF species.

  7. Treatment of an iatrogenic vertebral artery laceration with the Symbiot self expandable covered stent.

    PubMed

    Katsaridis, Vasilios; Papagiannaki, Chrysanthi; Violaris, Constantinos

    2007-07-01

    Vertebral artery laceration is difficult to treat surgically. Endovascular treatment with balloon expandable covered stents often fails due to their rigidity and poor navigability. We present a case of iatrogenic vertebral artery laceration where endovascular treatment with a balloon expandable covered stent failed. Eventually a self expandable symbiot covered stent was deployed over the laceration, securing hemostasis and preserving the vessel patency. The newer self expandable covered stents seem promising in the treatment of vertebral artery injury.

  8. Spectral Line Variations of Symbiotic Stars EG And, AG Dra, and BX Mon and Its Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Tae Seog; Kim, Soo Hyun; Moon, Hyeonwoo; Kim, Kyu-Seob; Oh, Hyungil

    2013-02-01

    We present some results obtained by high resolution spectroscopic observations for symbiotic stars EG And, AG Dra, and BX Mon in recent years which were performed with 1.8-m reflector and echelle spectrograph BOES at Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory, Youngcheon, South Korea. The variations of Hα emission line during a night and the variations of H Balmer lines and He I emission lines among several analyzed lines over months and years are shown and discussed.

  9. Outburst Activity Driven by Evolved Pulsating Star in the Symbiotic Binary AG Dra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gális, R.; Hric, L.; Leedjärv, L.

    2015-12-01

    The symbiotic system AG Dra regularly undergoes quiescent and active stages which consist of the series of individual outbursts. The period analysis of new and historical photometric data, as well as radial velocities, confirmed the presence of the two periods. The longer one around ≈ 550 d is related to the orbital motion and the shorter one ≈355 d could be due to pulsation of the cool component of AG Dra.

  10. Differential patterns of evolution and distribution of the symbiotic behaviour in nostocacean cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Papaefthimiou, Dimitra; Hrouzek, Pavel; Mugnai, Maria Angela; Lukesova, Alena; Turicchia, Silvia; Rasmussen, Ulla; Ventura, Stefano

    2008-03-01

    Many cyanobacteria commonly identified as belonging to the genus Nostoc are well-known cyanobionts (symbionts) of a wide variety of plants and fungi. They form symbioses with bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms that are considerably different in the type of reciprocal interaction between the host and the cyanobiont. The phylogenetic and taxonomic relationships among cyanobionts isolated from different hosts and Nostoc strains isolated from free-living conditions are still not well understood. We compared phylogeny and morphology of symbiotic cyanobacteria originating from different host plants (genera Gunnera, Azolla, Cycas, Dioon, Encephalartos, Macrozamia and Anthoceros) with free-living Nostoc isolates originating from different habitats. After preliminary clustering with ARDRA (amplified rDNA restriction analysis), phylogeny was reconstructed on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences and compared with morphological characterization, obtaining several supported clusters. Two main Nostoc clusters harboured almost all cyanobionts of Gunnera, Anthoceros and of several cycads, together with free-living strains of the species Nostoc muscorum, Nostoc calcicola, Nostoc edaphicum, Nostoc ellipsosporum and strains related to Nostoc commune. We suggest that the frequent occurrence of symbiotic strains within these clusters is explained by the intensive hormogonia production that was observed in many of the strains studied. However, no evidence for discrimination between symbiotic and free-living strains, either by molecular or morphological approaches, could be found. Sequences of Azolla cyanobiont filaments, taken directly from leaf cavities, clustered tightly with sequences from the planktic cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, from the benthic Anabaena cylindrica 133 and from Anabaena oscillarioides HINDAK 1984/43, with high bootstrap values. The phylogenetic analysis showed that two distinct patterns of evolution of symbiotic behaviour might

  11. Gene-Swapping Mediates Host Specificity among Symbiotic Bacteria in a Beneficial Symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Chavez-Dozal, Alba A.; Gorman, Clayton; Lostroh, C. Phoebe; Nishiguchi, Michele K.

    2014-01-01

    Environmentally acquired beneficial associations are comprised of a wide variety of symbiotic species that vary both genetically and phenotypically, and therefore have differential colonization abilities, even when symbionts are of the same species. Strain variation is common among conspecific hosts, where subtle differences can lead to competitive exclusion between closely related strains. One example where symbiont specificity is observed is in the sepiolid squid-Vibrio mutualism, where competitive dominance exists among V. fischeri isolates due to subtle genetic differences between strains. Although key symbiotic loci are responsible for the establishment of this association, the genetic mechanisms that dictate strain specificity are not fully understood. We examined several symbiotic loci (lux-bioluminescence, pil = pili, and msh-mannose sensitive hemagglutinin) from mutualistic V. fischeri strains isolated from two geographically distinct squid host species (Euprymna tasmanica-Australia and E. scolopes-Hawaii) to determine whether slight genetic differences regulated host specificity. Through colonization studies performed in naïve squid hatchlings from both hosts, we found that all loci examined are important for specificity and host recognition. Complementation of null mutations in non-native V. fischeri with loci from the native V. fischeri caused a gain in fitness, resulting in competitive dominance in the non-native host. The competitive ability of these symbiotic loci depended upon the locus tested and the specific squid species in which colonization was measured. Our results demonstrate that multiple bacterial genetic elements can determine V. fischeri strain specificity between two closely related squid hosts, indicating how important genetic variation is for regulating conspecific beneficial interactions that are acquired from the environment. PMID:25014649

  12. Anastomosis behavior differs between asymbiotic and symbiotic hyphae of Rhizophagus clarus.

    PubMed

    Purin, Sonia; Morton, Joseph B

    2013-01-01

    The life history of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, Glomeromycota) consists of a short asymbiotic phase when spores germinate and a longer symbiotic phase where hyphae form a network within roots and subsequently in the rhizosphere. Hyphal anastomosis contributes to colony formation, yet this process has been studied mostly in the asymbiotic phase rather than in mycorrhizal plants because of methodological limitations. We sought to compare patterns of anastomosis during each phase of fungal growth by measuring hyphal fusions in genetically identical and different single spore isolates of Rhizophagus clarus from different environments and geographic locations. These isolates were genotyped with two anonymous markers of microsatellite-flanking regions. Anastomosis of hyphae from germinating spores was examined in axenic Petri dishes. A rhizohyphatron consisting of agar-coated glass slides bridging single or paired mycorrhizal sorghum plants allowed evaluation of anastomosis of symbiotic hyphae. Anastomosis of hyphae within a colony, defined here as a mycelium from an individual germinating spore or from mycorrhizal roots of one plant, occurred with similar frequencies (8-38%). However, anastomosis between paired colonies was observed in germinating spores from either genetically identical or different isolates, but it was never detected in symbiotic hyphae. The frequency of anastomosis in asymbiotic hyphae from paired interactions was low, occurring in fewer than 6% of hyphal contacts. These data suggest that anastomosis is relatively unconstrained when interactions occur within a colony but is confined to asymbiotic hyphae when interactions occur between paired colonies. This pattern of behavior suggests that asymbiotic and symbiotic phases of mycelium development by R. clarus may differ in function. Anastomosis in the asymbiotic phase may provide brief opportunities for gene flow between populations of this and possibly other AMF species. PMID:23233505

  13. Three Fundamental Periods in an 87 Year Light Curve of the Symbiotic Star MWC 560

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibowitz, Elia M.; Formiggini, Liliana

    2015-08-01

    We construct a visual light curve of the symbiotic star MWC covering the last 87 years of its history. The data were assembled from the literature and from the AAVSO data bank. Most of the periodic components of the system brightness variation can be accounted for by the operation of three basic clocks of the periods P1 = 19,000 days, P2 = 1943 days, and P3 = 722 days. These periods can plausibly, and consistently with the observations, be attributed to three physical mechanisms in the system: the working of a solar-like magnetic dynamo cycle in the outer layers of the giant star of the system, the binary orbit cycle, and the sidereal rotation cycle of the giant star. MWC 560 is the seventh symbiotic star with historical light curves that reveal similar basic characteristics of the systems. The light curves of all these stars are well interpreted on the basis of the current understanding of the physical processes that are the major sources of the optical luminosity of these symbiotic systems.

  14. Sticky plant captures prey for symbiotic bug: is this digestive mutualism?

    PubMed

    Anderson, B; Kawakita, A; Tayasu, I

    2012-11-01

    Many plants capture and kill insects but, until relatively recently, only carnivorous plants with digestive enzymes were known to gain directly from the nutrients of those insects. Recent studies show that some carnivorous plants lack digestive enzymes and have evolved digestive mutualisms with symbiotic insects that digest their prey for them. Rhododendron macrosepalum, a plant with sticky leaves that captures insects, has an association with symbiotic Mirid bugs that consume the insects captured. Here, we determine what the nature of the relationship is between Mirid and plant. We find that R. macrosepalum has no digestive enzymes of its own but that it does not seem to have the ability to absorb hemipteran faeces through its leaf cuticle. Naturally occurring levels of (15) N and (14) N were used to determine that R. macrosepalum gains no nitrogen through its association with the Mirid bugs and that it obtains all of its nitrogen from the soil. The Mirids, on the other hand, seem to obtain nitrogen from insects captured by the plant, as well as from plant tissues. The relationship between plant and Mirid is not a digestive mutualism but more likely an antagonistic relationship. This study adds to our understanding of how digestive mutualisms evolve and shows that insect capture alone, or in combination with a symbiotic insect relationship does not necessarily make a plant 'carnivorous'.

  15. The synthesis of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) by cultured, symbiotic dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    T Banaszak1 A; LaJeunesse; Trench

    2000-06-28

    We tested the hypothesis that there is a relation between phylotypes (phylogenetic types, as determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and partial sequence analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSUrDNA)) and the synthesis of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) by symbiotic dinoflagellates under the influence of ultraviolet radiation (UV-B/A) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). We exposed 27 isolates of symbiotic dinoflagellates simultaneously to UV-B/A and PAR, and subsequently determined the MAAs present in cell extracts and in the media. The algae used included 24 isolates of Symbiodinium spp. originating from jellyfishes, sea anemones, zoanthids, scleractinians, octocorals, and bivalves, and three others in the genera Gymnodinium, Gloeodinium and Amphidinium from a jellyfish, an hydrocoral and a flatworm, respectively. In this study, all of the phylotype A Symbiodinium spp. synthesized up to three identified MAAs. None of the 11 cultured phylotypes B and C Symbiodinium spp. synthesized MAAs. The three non-Symbiodinium symbionts also synthesized up to three MAAs. The results support a conclusion that phylotype A Symbiodinium spp. have a high predilection for the synthesis of MAAs, while phylotypes B and C do not. Synthesis of MAAs by symbiotic dinoflagellates in culture does not appear to relate directly to depths or to the UV exposure regimes from which the consortia were collected.

  16. BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES (IN VITRO) EXHIBITED BY FREE-LIVING AND SYMBIOTIC VIBRIO ISOLATES

    PubMed Central

    NAIR, V.; NISHIGUCHI, M. K.

    2010-01-01

    Adhesion and biofilm forming ability of symbiotic bacteria play a crucial role in host colonization and tissue infection. Bacteria benefit by adhering to their host in a manner that allows them to successfully maintain contact for the exchange of nutrients, hormones, or other necessary products. This study examined pili morphology, motility, and biofilm formation exhibited by Vibrio fischeri strains (free-living and symbiotic). Since these symbiotic factors contribute in some fashion to the interaction between V. fischeri and their squid host, variation between strains may be a contributing factor that leads to specificity among different hosts. V. fischeri strains examined in this study demonstrated considerable variation in their biological properties when observed in vitro. In addition to differences observed between strains isolated from several different host species, we observed variation between strains isolated from the same host species from diverse geographical locations. This study suggests that subtle differences in the biological properties of closely related V. fischeri strains may influence the nature of the interaction among V. fischeri and their sepiolid hosts. PMID:20725603

  17. Sticky plant captures prey for symbiotic bug: is this digestive mutualism?

    PubMed

    Anderson, B; Kawakita, A; Tayasu, I

    2012-11-01

    Many plants capture and kill insects but, until relatively recently, only carnivorous plants with digestive enzymes were known to gain directly from the nutrients of those insects. Recent studies show that some carnivorous plants lack digestive enzymes and have evolved digestive mutualisms with symbiotic insects that digest their prey for them. Rhododendron macrosepalum, a plant with sticky leaves that captures insects, has an association with symbiotic Mirid bugs that consume the insects captured. Here, we determine what the nature of the relationship is between Mirid and plant. We find that R. macrosepalum has no digestive enzymes of its own but that it does not seem to have the ability to absorb hemipteran faeces through its leaf cuticle. Naturally occurring levels of (15) N and (14) N were used to determine that R. macrosepalum gains no nitrogen through its association with the Mirid bugs and that it obtains all of its nitrogen from the soil. The Mirids, on the other hand, seem to obtain nitrogen from insects captured by the plant, as well as from plant tissues. The relationship between plant and Mirid is not a digestive mutualism but more likely an antagonistic relationship. This study adds to our understanding of how digestive mutualisms evolve and shows that insect capture alone, or in combination with a symbiotic insect relationship does not necessarily make a plant 'carnivorous'. PMID:22449033

  18. Composition of symbiotic bacteria predicts survival in Panamanian golden frogs infected with a lethal fungus.

    PubMed

    Becker, Matthew H; Walke, Jenifer B; Cikanek, Shawna; Savage, Anna E; Mattheus, Nichole; Santiago, Celina N; Minbiole, Kevin P C; Harris, Reid N; Belden, Lisa K; Gratwicke, Brian

    2015-04-22

    Symbiotic microbes can dramatically impact host health and fitness, and recent research in a diversity of systems suggests that different symbiont community structures may result in distinct outcomes for the host. In amphibians, some symbiotic skin bacteria produce metabolites that inhibit the growth of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a cutaneous fungal pathogen that has caused many amphibian population declines and extinctions. Treatment with beneficial bacteria (probiotics) prevents Bd infection in some amphibian species and creates optimism for conservation of species that are highly susceptible to chytridiomycosis, the disease caused by Bd. In a laboratory experiment, we used Bd-inhibitory bacteria from Bd-tolerant Panamanian amphibians in a probiotic development trial with Panamanian golden frogs, Atelopus zeteki, a species currently surviving only in captive assurance colonies. Approximately 30% of infected golden frogs survived Bd exposure by either clearing infection or maintaining low Bd loads, but this was not associated with probiotic treatment. Survival was instead related to initial composition of the skin bacterial community and metabolites present on the skin. These results suggest a strong link between the structure of these symbiotic microbial communities and amphibian host health in the face of Bd exposure and also suggest a new approach for developing amphibian probiotics.

  19. Variation in biofilm formation among symbiotic and free-living strains of Vibrio fischeri.

    PubMed

    Chavez-Dozal, Alba; Nishiguchi, Michele K

    2011-10-01

    Persistence and survival under various environmental stresses has been attributed to the capacity of most bacteria to form biofilms. In aquatic environments, the symbiotic bacterium Vibrio fischeri survives variable abiotic conditions during its free-living stage that dictates its ability to colonize the squid host. In the present study, the influence of different abiotic factors such as salt concentration, temperature, static/dynamic conditions, and carbon source availability were tested to determine whether biofilm formation occurred in 26 symbiotic and free-living V. fischeri strains. Statistical analysis indicate that most strains examined were strong biofilm producers under salinity concentrations that ranged between 1-5%, mesophilic temperatures (25-30 °C) and static conditions. Moreover, free-living strains are generally better biofilm formers than the symbiotically competent ones. Geographical location (strain origin) also correlated with biofilm formation. These findings provide evidence that abiotic growth conditions are important for determining whether mutualistic V. fischeri have the capacity to produce complex biofilms, allowing for increased competency and specificity during symbiosis. PMID:21656812

  20. THREE FUNDAMENTAL PERIODS IN AN 87 YEAR LIGHT CURVE OF THE SYMBIOTIC STAR MWC 560

    SciTech Connect

    Leibowitz, Elia M.; Formiggini, Liliana

    2015-08-15

    We construct a visual light curve of the symbiotic star MWC covering the last 87 years of its history. The data were assembled from the literature and from the AAVSO data bank. Most of the periodic components of the system brightness variation can be accounted for by the operation of three basic clocks of the periods P1 = 19,000 days, P2 = 1943 days, and P3 = 722 days. These periods can plausibly, and consistently with the observations, be attributed to three physical mechanisms in the system: the working of a solar-like magnetic dynamo cycle in the outer layers of the giant star of the system, the binary orbit cycle, and the sidereal rotation cycle of the giant star. MWC 560 is the seventh symbiotic star with historical light curves that reveal similar basic characteristics of the systems. The light curves of all these stars are well interpreted on the basis of the current understanding of the physical processes that are the major sources of the optical luminosity of these symbiotic systems.

  1. Composition of symbiotic bacteria predicts survival in Panamanian golden frogs infected with a lethal fungus.

    PubMed

    Becker, Matthew H; Walke, Jenifer B; Cikanek, Shawna; Savage, Anna E; Mattheus, Nichole; Santiago, Celina N; Minbiole, Kevin P C; Harris, Reid N; Belden, Lisa K; Gratwicke, Brian

    2015-04-22

    Symbiotic microbes can dramatically impact host health and fitness, and recent research in a diversity of systems suggests that different symbiont community structures may result in distinct outcomes for the host. In amphibians, some symbiotic skin bacteria produce metabolites that inhibit the growth of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a cutaneous fungal pathogen that has caused many amphibian population declines and extinctions. Treatment with beneficial bacteria (probiotics) prevents Bd infection in some amphibian species and creates optimism for conservation of species that are highly susceptible to chytridiomycosis, the disease caused by Bd. In a laboratory experiment, we used Bd-inhibitory bacteria from Bd-tolerant Panamanian amphibians in a probiotic development trial with Panamanian golden frogs, Atelopus zeteki, a species currently surviving only in captive assurance colonies. Approximately 30% of infected golden frogs survived Bd exposure by either clearing infection or maintaining low Bd loads, but this was not associated with probiotic treatment. Survival was instead related to initial composition of the skin bacterial community and metabolites present on the skin. These results suggest a strong link between the structure of these symbiotic microbial communities and amphibian host health in the face of Bd exposure and also suggest a new approach for developing amphibian probiotics. PMID:25788591

  2. Composition of symbiotic bacteria predicts survival in Panamanian golden frogs infected with a lethal fungus

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Matthew H.; Walke, Jenifer B.; Cikanek, Shawna; Savage, Anna E.; Mattheus, Nichole; Santiago, Celina N.; Minbiole, Kevin P. C.; Harris, Reid N.; Belden, Lisa K.; Gratwicke, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Symbiotic microbes can dramatically impact host health and fitness, and recent research in a diversity of systems suggests that different symbiont community structures may result in distinct outcomes for the host. In amphibians, some symbiotic skin bacteria produce metabolites that inhibit the growth of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a cutaneous fungal pathogen that has caused many amphibian population declines and extinctions. Treatment with beneficial bacteria (probiotics) prevents Bd infection in some amphibian species and creates optimism for conservation of species that are highly susceptible to chytridiomycosis, the disease caused by Bd. In a laboratory experiment, we used Bd-inhibitory bacteria from Bd-tolerant Panamanian amphibians in a probiotic development trial with Panamanian golden frogs, Atelopus zeteki, a species currently surviving only in captive assurance colonies. Approximately 30% of infected golden frogs survived Bd exposure by either clearing infection or maintaining low Bd loads, but this was not associated with probiotic treatment. Survival was instead related to initial composition of the skin bacterial community and metabolites present on the skin. These results suggest a strong link between the structure of these symbiotic microbial communities and amphibian host health in the face of Bd exposure and also suggest a new approach for developing amphibian probiotics. PMID:25788591

  3. Azide resistance in Rhizobium ciceri linked with superior symbiotic nitrogen fixation.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, V Vijay

    2004-12-01

    Isolated azide resistant (AzR) native R. ciceri strain 18-7 was resistant to sodium azide at 10 microg/ml. To find if nif-reiteration is responsible for azide resistance and linked to superior symbiotic nitrogen fixation, transposon (Tn5) induced azide sensitive mutants were generated. Using 4 kb nif-reiterated Sinorhizobium meliloti DNA, a clone C4 that complemented azide sensitivity was isolated by DNA hybridization from genomic library of chickpea Rhizobium strain Rcd301. EcoRI restriction mapping revealed the presence of 7 recognition sites with a total insert size of 19.17 kb. Restriction analysis of C4 clone and nif-reiterated DNA (pRK 290.7) with EcoRI and XhoI revealed similar banding pattern. Wild type strain 18-7, mutant M126 and complemented mutant M126(C4) were characterized for symbiotic properties (viz., acetylene reduction assay, total nitrogen content, nodule number and fresh and dry weight of the infected plants) and explanta nitrogenase activity. Our results suggested that azide resistance, nif-reiteration, and superior symbiotic effectiveness were interlinked with no correlation between ex-planta nitrogenase activity and azide resistance in R. ciceri.

  4. Symbiotic prokaryotic communities from different populations of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta

    PubMed Central

    Fiore, Cara L; Jarett, Jessica K; Lesser, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    The prokaryotic community composition of the ecologically dominant sponge, Xestospongia muta, and the variability of this community across in different populations of sponges from the Caribbean and Bahamas were quantified using 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The symbiotic prokaryotic communities of X. muta were significantly different than the surrounding bacterioplankton communities while an analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) of the sponge prokaryotic symbionts from three geographically distant sites showed that both symbiont and bacterioplankton populations were significantly different between locations. Comparisons of individual sponges based on the UniFrac P-test also revealed significant differences in community composition between individual sponges. The sponges harbored a variety of phylum level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) common to many sponges, including Cyanobacteria, Poribacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Gemmatimonadetes, but four additional symbiotic phyla, previously not reported for this sponge, were observed. Additionally, a diverse archaeal community was also recovered from X. muta including sequences representing the phyla Euryarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota. These results have important ecological implications for the understanding of host–microbe associations, and provide a foundation for future studies addressing the functional roles these symbiotic prokaryotes have in the biology of the host sponge and the nutrient biogeochemistry of coral reefs. PMID:24124112

  5. Xenorhabdus bovienii Strain Diversity Impacts Coevolution and Symbiotic Maintenance with Steinernema spp. Nematode Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Murfin, Kristen E.; Lee, Ming-Min; McDonald, Bradon R.; Larget, Bret; Forst, Steven; Stock, S. Patricia; Currie, Cameron R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microbial symbionts provide benefits that contribute to the ecology and fitness of host plants and animals. Therefore, the evolutionary success of plants and animals fundamentally depends on long-term maintenance of beneficial associations. Most work investigating coevolution and symbiotic maintenance has focused on species-level associations, and studies are lacking that assess the impact of bacterial strain diversity on symbiotic associations within a coevolutionary framework. Here, we demonstrate that fitness in mutualism varies depending on bacterial strain identity, and this is consistent with variation shaping phylogenetic patterns and maintenance through fitness benefits. Through genome sequencing of nine bacterial symbiont strains and cophylogenetic analysis, we demonstrate diversity among Xenorhabdus bovienii bacteria. Further, we identified cocladogenesis between Steinernema feltiae nematode hosts and their corresponding X. bovienii symbiont strains, indicating potential specificity within the association. To test the specificity, we performed laboratory crosses of nematode hosts with native and nonnative symbiont strains, which revealed that combinations with the native bacterial symbiont and closely related strains performed significantly better than those with more divergent symbionts. Through genomic analyses we also defined potential factors contributing to specificity between nematode hosts and bacterial symbionts. These results suggest that strain-level diversity (e.g., subspecies-level differences) in microbial symbionts can drive variation in the success of host-microbe associations, and this suggests that these differences in symbiotic success could contribute to maintenance of the symbiosis over an evolutionary time scale. PMID:26045536

  6. Transcriptomics of Actinorhizal Symbioses Reveals Homologs of the Whole Common Symbiotic Signaling Cascade1[W

    PubMed Central

    Hocher, Valérie; Alloisio, Nicole; Auguy, Florence; Fournier, Pascale; Doumas, Patrick; Pujic, Petar; Gherbi, Hassen; Queiroux, Clothilde; Da Silva, Corinne; Wincker, Patrick; Normand, Philippe; Bogusz, Didier

    2011-01-01

    Comparative transcriptomics of two actinorhizal symbiotic plants, Casuarina glauca and Alnus glutinosa, was used to gain insight into their symbiotic programs triggered following contact with the nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium Frankia. Approximately 14,000 unigenes were recovered in roots and 3-week-old nodules of each of the two species. A transcriptomic array was designed to monitor changes in expression levels between roots and nodules, enabling the identification of up- and down-regulated genes as well as root- and nodule-specific genes. The expression levels of several genes emblematic of symbiosis were confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. As expected, several genes related to carbon and nitrogen exchange, defense against pathogens, or stress resistance were strongly regulated. Furthermore, homolog genes of the common and nodule-specific signaling pathways known in legumes were identified in the two actinorhizal symbiotic plants. The conservation of the host plant signaling pathway is all the more surprising in light of the lack of canonical nod genes in the genomes of its bacterial symbiont, Frankia. The evolutionary pattern emerging from these studies reinforces the hypothesis of a common genetic ancestor of the Fabid (Eurosid I) nodulating clade with a genetic predisposition for nodulation. PMID:21464474

  7. Active phases and flickering of a symbiotic recurrent nova T CrB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iłkiewicz, Krystian; Mikołajewska, Joanna; Stoyanov, Kiril; Manousakis, Antonios; Miszalski, Brent

    2016-11-01

    T CrB is a symbiotic recurrent nova known to exhibit active phases, characterized by apparent increases in the hot component temperature and the appearance of flickering, i.e. changes in the observed flux on the time-scale of minutes. Historical UV observations have ruled out orbital variability as an explanation for flickering and instead suggest flickering is caused by variable mass transfer. We have analysed optical and X-ray observations to investigate the nature of the flickering as well as the active phases in T CrB. The spectroscopic and photometric observations confirm that the active phases follow two periods of ˜1000d and ˜5000d. Flickering in the X-rays is detected and follows an amplitude-flux relationship similar to that observed in the optical. The flickering is most prominent at harder X-ray energies, suggesting that it originates in the boundary layer between the accretion disc and the white dwarf. The X-ray radiation from the boundary layer is then reprocessed by a thick accretion disc or a nebula into UV radiation. A more detailed understanding of flickering would benefit from long-term simultaneous X-ray and optical monitoring of the phenomena in symbiotic recurrent novae and related systems such as Z And type symbiotic stars.

  8. NPR1 Protein Regulates Pathogenic and Symbiotic Interactions between Rhizobium and Legumes and Non-Legumes

    PubMed Central

    Peleg-Grossman, Smadar; Golani, Yael; Kaye, Yuval; Melamed-Book, Naomi; Levine, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Background Legumes are unique in their ability to establish symbiotic interaction with rhizobacteria from Rhizobium genus, which provide them with available nitrogen. Nodulation factors (NFs) produced by Rhizobium initiate legume root hair deformation and curling that entrap the bacteria, and allow it to grow inside the plant. In contrast, legumes and non-legumes activate defense responses when inoculated with pathogenic bacteria. One major defense pathway is mediated by salicylic acid (SA). SA is sensed and transduced to downstream defense components by a redox-regulated protein called NPR1. Methodology/Principal Findings We used Arabidopsis mutants in SA defense pathway to test the role of NPR1 in symbiotic interactions. Inoculation of Sinorhizobium meliloti or purified NF on Medicago truncatula or nim1/npr1 A. thaliana mutants induced root hair deformation and transcription of early and late nodulins. Application of S. meliloti or NF on M. truncatula or A. thaliana roots also induced a strong oxidative burst that lasted much longer than in plants inoculated with pathogenic or mutualistic bacteria. Transient overexpression of NPR1 in M. truncatula suppressed root hair curling, while inhibition of NPR1 expression by RNAi accelerated curling. Conclusions/Significance We show that, while NPR1 has a positive effect on pathogen resistance, it has a negative effect on symbiotic interactions, by inhibiting root hair deformation and nodulin expression. Our results also show that basic plant responses to Rhizobium inoculation are conserved in legumes and non-legumes. PMID:20027302

  9. DT Serpentis: neither a symbiotic star nor a planetary nebula associate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frew, David J.; Bento, Joao; Bojičić, Ivan S.; Parker, Quentin A.

    2014-12-01

    We present an alternative interpretation for the putative symbiotic star DT Serpentis, and its proposed planetary nebula (PN), recently announced by Munari et al. Our analysis is based on their data combined with additional archival data trawled from Virtual Observatory data bases. We show that the star known as DT Ser is not a symbiotic star, and is merely superposed on the newly discovered but unrelated background PN. There is no evidence for any periodic variability for DT Ser as expected for a symbiotic star. We further establish that there is no physical association between DT Ser and the PN, which has a considerably higher extinction, befitting the larger distance we estimate. The significantly different radial velocities of the star and nebula also likely preclude any association. Finally, we show that the mid-infrared source detected by the IRAS and WISE surveys is actually coincident with the PN so there is no evidence for DT Ser being a dusty post-asymptotic giant branch star.

  10. DETECTION OF X-RAYS FROM THE SYMBIOTIC STAR V1329 Cyg

    SciTech Connect

    Stute, Matthias; Luna, Gerardo J. M.; Sokoloski, Jennifer L.

    2011-04-10

    We report the detection of X-ray emission from the symbiotic star V1329 Cyg with XMM-Newton. The spectrum from the EPIC pn, MOS1, and MOS2 instruments consists of a two-temperature plasma with k T{sub 1} = 0.11{sup +0.02}{sub -0.02} keV and k T{sub 2} = 0.93{sup +0.12}{sub -0.14} keV. Unlike the vast majority of symbiotic stars detected in X-rays, the soft component of the spectrum seems to be absorbed only by interstellar material. The shock velocities corresponding to the observed temperatures are about 300 km s{sup -1} and about 900 km s{sup -1}. We did not find either periodic or aperiodic X-ray variability, with upper limits on the amplitudes of such variations being 46% and 16% (rms), respectively. We also did not find any ultraviolet variability with an rms amplitude of more than approximately 1%. The derived velocities and the unabsorbed nature of the soft component of the X-ray spectrum suggest that some portion of the high energy emission could originate in shocks within a jet and beyond the symbiotic nebula. The lower velocity is consistent with the expansion velocity of the extended structure present in Hubble Space Telescope observations. The higher velocity could be associated with an internal shock at the base of the jet or with shocks in the accretion region.

  11. Genomic characterization of symbiotic mycoplasmas from the stomach of deep-sea isopod bathynomus sp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Huang, Jiao-Mei; Wang, Shao-Lu; Gao, Zhao-Ming; Zhang, Ai-Qun; Danchin, Antoine; He, Li-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Deep-sea isopod scavengers such as Bathynomus sp. are able to live in nutrient-poor environments, which is likely attributable to the presence of symbiotic microbes in their stomach. In this study we recovered two draft genomes of mycoplasmas, Bg1 and Bg2, from the metagenomes of the stomach contents and stomach sac of a Bathynomus sp. sample from the South China Sea (depth of 898 m). Phylogenetic trees revealed a considerable genetic distance to other mycoplasma species for Bg1 and Bg2. Compared with terrestrial symbiotic mycoplasmas, the Bg1 and Bg2 genomes were enriched with genes encoding phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems (PTSs) and sodium-driven symporters responsible for the uptake of sugars, amino acids and other carbohydrates. The genome of mycoplasma Bg1 contained sialic acid lyase and transporter genes, potentially enabling the bacteria to attach to the stomach sac and obtain organic carbons from various cell walls. Both of the mycoplasma genomes contained multiple copies of genes related to proteolysis and oligosaccharide degradation, which may help the host survive in low-nutrient conditions. The discovery of the different types of mycoplasma bacteria in the stomach of this deep-sea isopod affords insights into symbiotic model of deep-sea animals and genomic plasticity of mycoplasma bacteria. PMID:27312602

  12. Proteome changes in Oncidium sphacelatum (Orchidaceae) at different trophic stages of symbiotic germination.

    PubMed

    Valadares, R B S; Perotto, S; Santos, E C; Lambais, M R

    2014-07-01

    Mutualistic symbioses between plants and fungi are a widespread phenomenon in nature. Particularly in orchids, association with symbiotic fungi is required for seed germination and seedling development. During the initial stages of symbiotic germination, before the onset of photosynthesis, orchid protocorms are fully mycoheterotrophic. The molecular mechanisms involved in orchid symbiotic germination and development are largely unknown, but it is likely that changes in plant energy metabolism and defense-related responses play a central role in these processes. We have used 2D-LC-MS/MS coupled to isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantification to identify proteins with differential accumulation in Oncidium sphacelatum at different stages of mycorrhizal protocorm development (achlorophyllous and green protocorms) after seed inoculation with a Ceratobasidium sp. isolate. We identified and quantified 88 proteins, including proteins putatively involved in energy metabolism, cell rescue and defense, molecular signaling, and secondary metabolism. Quantitative analysis showed that the expected changes in carbon metabolism in green protocorms were accompanied by enhanced accumulation of proteins involved in the modulation of reactive oxygen species homeostasis, defense-related responses, and phytoalexins and carotenoid biosynthesis. Our results suggest profound metabolic changes in orchid protocorms during the switch from the fully mycoheterotrophic to the photosynthetic stage. Part of these changes may be also related to the obligatory nature of the interaction with the endomycorrhizal fungus.

  13. The synthesis of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) by cultured, symbiotic dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    T Banaszak1 A; LaJeunesse; Trench

    2000-06-28

    We tested the hypothesis that there is a relation between phylotypes (phylogenetic types, as determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and partial sequence analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSUrDNA)) and the synthesis of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) by symbiotic dinoflagellates under the influence of ultraviolet radiation (UV-B/A) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). We exposed 27 isolates of symbiotic dinoflagellates simultaneously to UV-B/A and PAR, and subsequently determined the MAAs present in cell extracts and in the media. The algae used included 24 isolates of Symbiodinium spp. originating from jellyfishes, sea anemones, zoanthids, scleractinians, octocorals, and bivalves, and three others in the genera Gymnodinium, Gloeodinium and Amphidinium from a jellyfish, an hydrocoral and a flatworm, respectively. In this study, all of the phylotype A Symbiodinium spp. synthesized up to three identified MAAs. None of the 11 cultured phylotypes B and C Symbiodinium spp. synthesized MAAs. The three non-Symbiodinium symbionts also synthesized up to three MAAs. The results support a conclusion that phylotype A Symbiodinium spp. have a high predilection for the synthesis of MAAs, while phylotypes B and C do not. Synthesis of MAAs by symbiotic dinoflagellates in culture does not appear to relate directly to depths or to the UV exposure regimes from which the consortia were collected. PMID:10841936

  14. Variation in biofilm formation among symbiotic and free-living strains of Vibrio fischeri

    PubMed Central

    Chavez-Dozal, Alba; Nishiguchi, Michele K.

    2013-01-01

    Persistence and survival under various environmental stresses has been attributed to the capacity of most bacteria to form biofilms. In aquatic environments, the symbiotic bacterium Vibrio fischeri survives variable abiotic conditions during its free-living stage that dictates its ability to colonize the squid host. In the present study, the influence of different abiotic factors such as salt concentration, temperature, static/dynamic conditions, and carbon source availability were tested to determine whether biofilm formation occurred in 26 symbiotic and free-living V. fischeri strains. Statistical analysis indicate that most strains examined were strong biofilm producers under salinity concentrations that ranged between 1–5%, mesophilic temperatures (25–30 °C) and static conditions. Moreover, free-living strains are generally better biofilm formers than the symbiotically competent ones. Geographical location (strain origin) also correlated with biofilm formation. These findings provide evidence that abiotic growth conditions are important for determining whether mutualistic V. fischeri have the capacity to produce complex biofilms, allowing for increased competency and specificity during symbiosis. PMID:21656812

  15. Starch metabolism in Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the symbiotic fungus of leaf-cutting ants.

    PubMed

    Silva, A; Bacci, M; Pagnocca, F C; Bueno, O C; Hebling, M J A

    2006-01-01

    Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the symbiotic fungus of the leaf-cutting ants, degrades starch, this degradation being supposed to occur in the plant material which leafcutters forage to the nests, generating most of the glucose which the ants utilize for food. In the present investigation, we show that laboratory cultures of L. gongylophorus produce extracellular alpha-amylase and maltase which degrade starch to glucose, reinforcing that the ants can obtain glucose from starch through the symbiotic fungus. Glucose was found to repress alpha-amylase and, more severely, maltase activity, thus repressing starch degradation by L. gongylophorus, so that we hypothesize that: (1) glucose down-regulation of starch degradation also occurs in the Atta sexdens fungus garden; (2) glucose consumption from the fungus garden by A. sexdens stimulates degradation of starch from plant material by L. gongylophorus, which may represent a mechanism by which leafcutters can control enzyme production by the symbiotic fungus. Since glucose is found in the fungus garden inside the nests, down-regulation of starch degradation by glucose is supposed to occur in the nest and play a part in the control of fungal enzyme production by leafcutters.

  16. A role for the mevalonate pathway in early plant symbiotic signaling

    PubMed Central

    Venkateshwaran, Muthusubramanian; Jayaraman, Dhileepkumar; Chabaud, Mireille; Genre, Andrea; Balloon, Allison J.; Maeda, Junko; Forshey, Kari; den Os, Désirée; Kwiecien, Nicholas W.; Coon, Joshua J.; Barker, David G.; Ané, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi produce signals that are perceived by host legume receptors at the plasma membrane and trigger sustained oscillations of the nuclear and perinuclear Ca2+ concentration (Ca2+ spiking), which in turn leads to gene expression and downstream symbiotic responses. The activation of Ca2+ spiking requires the plasma membrane-localized receptor-like kinase Does not Make Infections 2 (DMI2) as well as the nuclear cation channel DMI1. A key enzyme regulating the mevalonate (MVA) pathway, 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl CoA Reductase 1 (HMGR1), interacts with DMI2 and is required for the legume–rhizobium symbiosis. Here, we show that HMGR1 is required to initiate Ca2+ spiking and symbiotic gene expression in Medicago truncatula roots in response to rhizobial and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal signals. Furthermore, MVA, the direct product of HMGR1 activity, is sufficient to induce nuclear-associated Ca2+ spiking and symbiotic gene expression in both wild-type plants and dmi2 mutants, but interestingly not in dmi1 mutants. Finally, MVA induced Ca2+ spiking in Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cells expressing DMI1. This demonstrates that the nuclear cation channel DMI1 is sufficient to support MVA-induced Ca2+ spiking in this heterologous system. PMID:26199419

  17. Genomic characterization of symbiotic mycoplasmas from the stomach of deep-sea isopod bathynomus sp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Huang, Jiao-Mei; Wang, Shao-Lu; Gao, Zhao-Ming; Zhang, Ai-Qun; Danchin, Antoine; He, Li-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Deep-sea isopod scavengers such as Bathynomus sp. are able to live in nutrient-poor environments, which is likely attributable to the presence of symbiotic microbes in their stomach. In this study we recovered two draft genomes of mycoplasmas, Bg1 and Bg2, from the metagenomes of the stomach contents and stomach sac of a Bathynomus sp. sample from the South China Sea (depth of 898 m). Phylogenetic trees revealed a considerable genetic distance to other mycoplasma species for Bg1 and Bg2. Compared with terrestrial symbiotic mycoplasmas, the Bg1 and Bg2 genomes were enriched with genes encoding phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems (PTSs) and sodium-driven symporters responsible for the uptake of sugars, amino acids and other carbohydrates. The genome of mycoplasma Bg1 contained sialic acid lyase and transporter genes, potentially enabling the bacteria to attach to the stomach sac and obtain organic carbons from various cell walls. Both of the mycoplasma genomes contained multiple copies of genes related to proteolysis and oligosaccharide degradation, which may help the host survive in low-nutrient conditions. The discovery of the different types of mycoplasma bacteria in the stomach of this deep-sea isopod affords insights into symbiotic model of deep-sea animals and genomic plasticity of mycoplasma bacteria.

  18. Effects of culture age on symbiotic infectivity of Rhizobium japonicum

    SciTech Connect

    Bhuvaneswari, T.V.; Mills, K.K.; Crist, D.K.; Evans, W.R.; Bauer, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    The infectivity of the soybean symbiont Rhizobium japonicum changed two- to fivefold with culture age for strains 110 ARS, 138 Str Spc, and 123 Spc, whereas culture age had relatively little effect on the infectivity of strains 83 Str and 61A76 Str. Infectivity was measured by determining the number of nodules which developed on soybean primary roots in the zone which contained developing and preemergent root hairs at the time of inoculation. Root cells in this region of the host root are susceptible to Rhizobium infection, but this susceptibility is lost during acropetal development and maturation of the root cells within a period of 4 to 6 h. Profiles of nodulation frequency at different locations on the root were not affected by the age of the R. japonicum cultures, indicating that culture age affected the efficiency of Rhizobium infection rather than how soon infections were initiated after inoculation. Inoculum dose-response experiments also indicated that culture age affected the efficiency of infection. Two strains, 61A76 Str and 83 Str, were relatively inefficient at all culture ages, particularly at low inoculum doses. Changes in infectivity with culture age were reasonably well correlated with changes in the proportion of cells in a culture capable of binding soybean lectin. Suspensions of R. japonicum in water were found to retain their viability and infectivity. 15 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  19. IPHAS and the symbiotic stars . II. New discoveries and a sample of the most common mimics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradi, R. L. M.; Valentini, M.; Munari, U.; Drew, J. E.; Rodríguez-Flores, E. R.; Viironen, K.; Greimel, R.; Santander-García, M.; Sabin, L.; Mampaso, A.; Parker, Q.; DePew, K.; Sale, S. E.; Unruh, Y. C.; Vink, J. S.; Rodríguez-Gil, P.; Barlow, M. J.; Lennon, D. J.; Groot, P. J.; Giammanco, C.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Walton, N. A.

    2010-01-01

    Context. Knowledge of the total population of symbiotic stars in the Galaxy is important for understanding basic aspects of stellar evolution in interacting binaries and the relevance of this class of objects in the formation of supernovae of type Ia. Aims: In a previous paper, we presented the selection criteria needed to search for symbiotic stars in IPHAS, the INT Hα survey of the Northern Galactic plane. IPHAS gives us the opportunity to make a systematic, complete search for symbiotic stars in a magnitude-limited volume. Methods: Follow-up spectroscopy at different telescopes worldwide of a sample of sixty two symbiotic star candidates is presented. Results: Seven out of nineteen S-type candidates observed spectroscopically are confirmed to be genuine symbiotic stars. The spectral type of their red giant components, as well as reddening and distance, were computed by modelling the spectra. Only one new D-type symbiotic system, out of forty-three candidates observed, was found. This was as expected (see discussion in our paper on the selection criteria). The object shows evidence for a high density outflow expanding at a speed ≥65 km s-1. Most of the other candidates are lightly reddened classical T Tauri stars and more highly reddened young stellar objects that may be either more massive young stars of HAeBe type or classical Be stars. In addition, a few notable objects have been found, such as three new Wolf-Rayet stars and two relatively high-luminosity evolved massive stars. We also found a helium-rich source, possibly a dense ejecta hiding a WR star, which is surrounded by a large ionized nebula. Conclusions: These spectroscopic data allow us to refine the selection criteria for symbiotic stars in the IPHAS survey and, more generally, to better understand the behaviour of different Hα emitters in the IPHAS and 2MASS colour-colour diagrams. Based on observations obtained at; the 2.6 m Nordic Optical Telescope operated by NOTSA; the 2.5 m INT and 4.2 m

  20. Symbiotic stars and other Hα emission-line stars towards the Galactic bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miszalski, Brent; Mikołajewska, Joanna; Udalski, Andrzej

    2013-07-01

    Symbiotic stars are interacting binaries with the longest orbital periods, and their multicomponent structure makes them rich astrophysical laboratories. The accretion of a high-mass-loss-rate red giant wind on to a white dwarf (WD) makes them promising Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) progenitors. Systematic surveys for new Galactic symbiotic stars are critical to identify new promising SN Ia progenitors (e.g. RS Oph) and to better estimate the total population size to compare against SN Ia rates. Central to the latter objective is building a complete census of symbiotic stars towards the Galactic bulge. Here we report on the results of a systematic survey of Hα emission-line stars covering 35 deg2. It is distinguished by the combination of deep optical spectroscopy and long-term light curves that improve the certainty of our classifications. A total of 20 bona fide symbiotic stars are found (13 S-types, 6 D-types and 1 D'-type), 35 per cent of which show the symbiotic specific Raman-scattered O VI emission bands, as well as 15 possible symbiotic stars that require further study (six S-types and nine D-types). Light curves show a diverse range of variability including stellar pulsations (semi-regular and Mira), orbital variations and slow changes due to dust. Orbital periods are determined for five S-types and Mira pulsation periods for three D-types. The most significant D-type found is H1-45 and its carbon Mira with a pulsation period of 408.6 d, corresponding to an estimated period-luminosity relation distance of ˜6.2 ± 1.4 kpc and MK = -8.06 ± 0.12 mag. If H1-45 belongs to the Galactic bulge, then it would be the first bona fide luminous carbon star to be identified in the Galactic bulge population. The lack of luminous carbon stars in the bulge is a longstanding unsolved problem. A possible explanation for H1-45 may be that the carbon enhancement was accreted from the progenitor of the WD companion. A wide variety of unusual emission-line stars were also

  1. Increasing Nitrogen Fixation and Seed Development in Soybean Requires Complex Adjustments of Nodule Nitrogen Metabolism and Partitioning Processes.

    PubMed

    Carter, Amanda M; Tegeder, Mechthild

    2016-08-01

    Legumes are able to access atmospheric di-nitrogen (N2) through a symbiotic relationship with rhizobia that reside within root nodules. In soybean, following N2 fixation by the bacteroids, ammonia is finally reduced in uninfected cells to allantoin and allantoic acid [1]. These ureides present the primary long-distance transport forms of nitrogen (N), and are exported from nodules via the xylem for shoot N supply. Transport of allantoin and allantoic acid out of nodules requires the function of ureide permeases (UPS1) located in cells adjacent to the vasculature [2, 3]. We expressed a common bean UPS1 transporter in cortex and endodermis cells of soybean nodules and found that delivery of N from nodules to shoot, as well as seed set, was significantly increased. In addition, the number of transgenic nodules was increased and symbiotic N2 fixation per nodule was elevated, indicating that transporter function in nodule N export is a limiting step in bacterial N acquisition. Further, the transgenic nodules showed considerable increases in nodule N assimilation, ureide synthesis, and metabolite levels. This suggests complex adjustments of nodule N metabolism and partitioning processes in support of symbiotic N2 fixation. We propose that the transgenic UPS1 plants display metabolic and allocation plasticity to overcome N2 fixation and seed yield limitations. Overall, it is demonstrated that transporter function in N export from nodules is a key step for enhancing atmospheric N2 fixation and nodule function and for improving shoot N nutrition and seed development in legumes.

  2. Effects of aposymbiotic and symbiotic aphids on parasitoid progeny development and adult oviposition behavior within aphid instars.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Rui-Xia; Meng, Ling; Li, Bao-Ping

    2010-04-01

    This study aims at exploring the potential relationship between aphidiine parasitoid development and the primary endosymbiont in aphids by focusing on specific aphid instars and the relative effects on parasitoid oviposition behavior and progeny development. Lysiphlebus ambiguus (Aphidiidae, Hymenoptera) is a solitary parasitoid of several species of aphids, including Aphis fabae. In this study, A. fabae was treated with antibiotic rifampicin to obtain aposymbiotic hosts and exposed to parasitism. L. ambiguus launched significantly more attacks on symbiotic L(2) (the second instar), aposymbiotic L(3) (the third instar) and L(4) (the forth instar) hosts than on the corresponding hosts at the same age. L. ambiguus also parasitized more L(1) aphids compared with adults irrespective of whether the aphid was asymbiotic or not. Pupa mortality rate of parasitoid progeny was significantly lower from aposymbiotic hosts than from the corresponding symbiotics at all stages. Female-biased parasitoid progeny was produced from aposymbiotic aphids without respect to host ages, but female progeny increased linearly with host ages at parasitism from symbiotic aphids. Body size of parasitoid progeny increased linearly with host instars at parasitism in symbiotic aphids but did not significantly change across host instars in aposymbiotic aphids. The offspring parasitoids turned out to be generally large in body size from attacking aposymbiotic aphids compared with the symbiotics. Development time of egg-to-adult of parasitoid progeny decreased with host instars in both symbiotic and aposymbiotic aphids but was generally much longer in aposymbiotic aphids than in symbiotic aphids. Our study suggests that age or body size of host aphids may not be the only cue exercised by L. ambiguus to evaluate host quality and that offspring parasitoids may be able to compensate for the nutrition stress associated with disruption of primary endosymbiotc bacteria in aposymbiotic aphids.

  3. Molecular quantification of symbiotic dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium.

    PubMed

    Loram, Jeannette E; Boonham, Neil; O'Toole, Peter; Trapido-Rosenthal, Henry G; Douglas, Angela E

    2007-06-01

    The dinoflagellate microalga Symbiodinium is the dominant algal symbiont in corals and related marine animals. To explore the incidence of mixed infections, methods employing real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were developed. In experiments focusing on Symbiodinium clades A and B, QPCR and FISH results were well correlated and generally more precise and sensitive than those from the endpoint PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLP) traditionally used for this application, thus increasing the detected incidence of mixed infections. For example, the prevalence of mixed infections in the sea anemone Condylactis gigantea was 40% by PCR-RFLP and 80%-90% by QPCR and FISH. However, the use of QPCR and FISH was limited by inter-host variation in the rRNA gene copy number per Symbiodinium cell, precluding any single conversion factor between QPCR signal and Symbiodinium cell number; and one FISH probe that gave excellent hybridization efficiency with cultured Symbiodinium yielded variable results with Symbiodinium from symbioses. After controlling for these caveats, QPCR studies revealed that field-collected hosts previously described as universally unialgal bore up to 1.6% of the alternative clade. Further research is required to establish the contribution that algal cells at low density in symbiosis and external to the symbiosis make to the minor clade. PMID:17565115

  4. Comparison of inhibition of N2 fixation and ureide accumulation under water deficit in four common bean genotypes of contrasting drought tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Coleto, I.; Pineda, M.; Rodiño, A. P.; De Ron, A. M.; Alamillo, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Drought is the principal constraint on world production of legume crops. There is considerable variability among genotypes in sensitivity of nitrogen fixation to drought, which has been related to accumulation of ureides in soybean. The aim of this study was to search for genotypic differences in drought sensitivity and ureide accumulation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) germplasm that may be useful in the improvement of tolerance to water deficit in common bean. Methods Changes in response to water deficit of nitrogen fixation rates, ureide content and the expression and activity of key enzymes for ureide metabolism were measured in four P. vulgaris genotypes differing in drought tolerance. Key Results A variable degree of drought-induced nitrogen fixation inhibition was found among the bean genotypes. In addition to inhibition of nitrogen fixation, there was accumulation of ureides in stems and leaves of sensitive and tolerant genotypes, although this was higher in the leaves of the most sensitive ones. In contrast, there was no accumulation of ureides in the nodules or roots of stressed plants. In addition, the level of ureides in the most sensitive genotype increased after inhibition of nitrogen fixation, suggesting that ureides originate in vegetative tissues as a response to water stress, probably mediated by the induction of allantoinase. Conclusions Variability of drought-induced inhibition of nitrogen fixation among the P. vulgaris genotypes was accompanied by subsequent accumulation of ureides in stems and leaves, but not in nodules. The results indicate that shoot ureide accumulation after prolonged exposure to drought could not be the cause of inhibition of nitrogen fixation, as has been suggested in soybean. Instead, ureides seem to be produced as part of a general response to stress, and therefore higher accumulation might correspond to higher sensitivity to the stressful conditions. PMID:24638821

  5. Role of a Ferredoxin Gene Cotranscribed with the nifHDK Operon in N2 Fixation and Nitrogenase “Switch-Off” of Azoarcus sp. Strain BH72

    PubMed Central

    Egener, Tanja; Martin, Dietmar E.; Sarkar, Abhijit; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    The endophytic diazotroph Azoarcus sp. strain BH72 is capable of infecting rice roots and of expressing the nitrogenase (nif) genes there. In order to study the genetic background for nitrogen fixation in strain BH72, the structural genes of nitrogenase (nifHDK) were cloned and sequenced. The sequence analysis revealed an unusual gene organization: downstream of nifHDK, a ferredoxin gene (fdxN; 59% amino acid sequence identity to R. capsulatus FdxN) and open reading frames showing 52 and 36% amino acid sequence identity to nifY of Pseudomonas stutzeri A15 and ORF1 of Azotobacter vinelandii were located. Northern blot analysis, reverse transcriptase PCR and primer extension analysis revealed that these six genes are located on one transcript transcribed from a ς54-type promoter. Shorter transcripts sequentially missing genes of the 3′ part of the full-length mRNA were more abundantly detected. Mutational analyses suggested that FdxN is an important but not the essential electron donor for dinitrogenase reductase. An in-frame deletion of fdxN resulted in reduced growth rates (59% ± 9%) and nitrogenase activities (81%) in nitrogen-fixing pure cultures in comparison to the wild type. Nitrogenase activity was fully complemented in an fdxN mutant which carried a nifH promoter-driven fdxN gene in trans. Also, in coculture with the ascomycete Acremonium alternatum, where strain BH72 develops intracytoplasmic membrane stacks, the nitrogenase activity in the fdxN deletion mutant was decreased to 56% of the wild-type level. Surprisingly, the fdxN deletion also had an effect on the rapid “switch-off” of nitrogenase activity in response to ammonium. Wild-type strain BH72 and the deletion mutant complemented with fdxN in trans showed a rapid reversible inactivation of acetylene reduction, while the deletion mutant did not cease to reduce acetylene. In concordance with the hypothesis that changes in the redox state of NifH or electron flux towards nitrogenase may be involved in the mechanism of physiological nitrogenase switch-off, our results suggest that the ferredoxin may be a component involved in this process. PMID:11371540

  6. On the influence of "non-Redfield" dissolved organic nutrient dynamics on the spatial distribution of N2 fixation and the size of the marine fixed nitrogen inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somes, Christopher J.; Oschlies, Andreas

    2015-07-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and phosphorus (DOP) represent the most abundant form of their respective nutrient pool in the surface layer of the oligotrophic oceans and play an important role in nutrient cycling and productivity. Since DOP is generally more labile than DON, it provides additional P that may stimulate growth of nitrogen-fixing diazotrophs that supply fixed nitrogen to balance denitrification in the ocean. In this study, we introduce semirecalcitrant components of DON and DOP as state variables in an existing global ocean-atmosphere-sea ice-biogeochemistry model of intermediate complexity to assess their impact on the spatial distribution of nitrogen fixation and the size of the marine fixed nitrogen inventory. Large-scale surface data sets of global DON and Atlantic Ocean DOP are used to constrain the model. Our simulations suggest that both preferential DOP remineralization and phytoplankton DOP uptake are important "non-Redfield" processes (i.e., deviate from molar N:P = 16) that need to be accounted for to explain the observed patterns of DOP. Additional non-Redfield DOP sensitivity experiments testing dissolved organic matter (DOM) production rate uncertainties that best reproduce the observed spatial patterns of DON and DOP stimulate additional nitrogen fixation that increases the size of the global marine fixed nitrogen inventory by 4.7 ± 1.7% compared to the simulation assuming Redfield DOM stoichiometry that underestimates the observed nitrogen inventory. The extra 8 Tg yr-1 of nitrogen fixation stimulated in the Atlantic Ocean is mainly responsible for this increase due to its large spatial separation from water column denitrification, which buffers any potential nitrogen surplus in the Pacific Ocean. Our study suggests that the marine fixed nitrogen budget is sensitive to non-Redfield DOP dynamics because access to the relatively labile DOP pool expands the ecological niche for nitrogen-fixing diazotrophs.

  7. Soil spatial variability and symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes

    SciTech Connect

    Reichardt, K. )

    1990-09-01

    The isotope dilution method for the estimation of N{sub 2} fixation by legumes is analyzed, comparing the application of {sup 15}N-enriched fertilizer with {sup 15}N-labeled soil. Soil variability of other dynamic processes in the soil are discussed in light of the distribution of the {sup 15}N label in the system. Field data were collected along six transects, 45 m long, with 30 plots (replicates) each. The legume (Vicia faba L.) was used as a fixing crop, barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and oil radish (Raphinus sativus L.) as nonfixing standard crops. Isotope methods were also compared with the yield difference method. Results show that isotope methods were very sensitive to the distribution of the label in the soil and that dynamic processes involving N can significantly affect this distribution over a whole field. Best results were obtained with {sup 15}N-labeled soil. The particular site used, having been farmed for more than 20 years with {sup 15}N trials, showed a homogeneous residual {sup 15}N label that made it possible to estimate N{sub 2} fixation without the application of extra label. Estimates of N{sub 2} fixation with the isotope method were well correlated with the yield difference method when fertilizer use efficiency of the fixing and nonfixing crops were similar. Results also indicate that a good reference crop for one method might not be the best for the other method, and one reason for this is the variability of soil parameters and of dynamic processes occurring in the soil.

  8. Relationships between host and symbiont cell cycles in sea anemones and their symbiotic dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Dimond, James L; Pineda, Rea R; Ramos-Ascherl, Zullaylee; Bingham, Brian L

    2013-10-01

    The processes by which cnidarians and their algal endosymbionts achieve balanced growth and biomass could include coordination of host and symbiont cell cycles. We evaluated this theory with natural populations of sea anemones hosting symbiotic dinoflagellates, focusing on the temperate sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima symbiotic with Symbiodinium muscatinei in Washington State, USA, and the tropical anemone Stichodactyla helianthus associating with unknown Symbiodinium spp. in Belize. By extruding symbiont-containing gastrodermal cells from the relatively large tentacles of these species and using nuclear staining and flow cytometry, we selectively analyzed cell cycle distributions of the symbionts and the host gastrodermal cells that house them. We found no indications of diel synchrony in host and symbiont G2/M phases, and we observed evidence of diel periodicity only in Symbiodinium spp. associated with S. helianthus but not in the anemone itself. Seasonally, S. muscatinei showed considerable G2/M phase variability among samples collected quarterly over an annual period, while the G2/M phase of its host varied much less. Within samples taken at different times of the year, correlations between host and symbiont G2/M phases ranged from very weakly to very strongly positive, with significant correlations in only half of the samples (two of four A. elegantissima samples and one of two S. helianthus samples). Overall, the G2/M phase relationships across species and sampling periods were positive. Thus, while we found no evidence of close cell cycle coupling, our results suggest a loose, positive relationship between cell cycle processes of the symbiotic partners. PMID:24243963

  9. Occurrence of Diatom-Cyanobacterial symbiotic relationship in the coastal surface waters of Northern Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    khomayis, hisham; Sommer, Ulrich; Al-Aidaroos, Ali; Kürten, Benjamin; Devassy, Reny

    2013-04-01

    The phenomenon of Diatom-Cyanobacterial symbiotic association is widely noticed from different marine ecosystems around the world especially in the tropical and subtropical regions. The fixation of atmospheric nitrogen in the oligotrophic ocean is an important source of new nitrogen to surface waters, stimulating phytoplankton productivity and fueling the biological pump. The most common cyanobacterium that carry out the so called nitrogen fixation in marine system is Trichodesmium. The other major representative of this diazotrophic group is the heterocystous endosymbiotic cyanobacterium known as Richelia intracellularis which always seen in symbiotic relationship with other phytoplankton and is well-known for its capability to fix the atmospheric nitrogen in oligotrophic waters. Planktonic diatom- cyanobaterial symbioses play a significant role in the ecology and biogeochemistry of the surface oceans. Studies suggest that these particular diazotroph communities contribute annually 4.79 × 1012 gm of nitrogen to the water which comes almost one quarter of the total nitrogen input to the sea. The endosymbiont Richelia normally occupies the periplasmic space between the plasmalemma and the cell wall of the host and it provides a source of nutrient availability to the host where it is associated. They are expected to release the fixed nitrogen as either ammonium or dissolved organic nitrogen, which is then available to the particular host which lives in nutrient-starved condition. It is mainly known to be associated with the centric diatoms like Rhizosolenia, Hemialus, and Guinardia. The present observation of the Rhizosolenia-Richelia and Hemialus-Richelia symbiotic relation from the coastal waters of northern red sea implies much attention to the ecology of the particular area. While considering the oligotrophic nature of the region, the particular association helps the phytoplankton to avoid the limited growth due to the scarcity of nitrogen to a great extent. The

  10. Symbiotic essential amino acids provisioning in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus) under various dietary conditions.

    PubMed

    Ayayee, Paul A; Larsen, Thomas; Sabree, Zakee

    2016-01-01

    Insect gut microbes have been shown to provide nutrients such as essential amino acids (EAAs) to their hosts. How this symbiotic nutrient provisioning tracks with the host's demand is not well understood. In this study, we investigated microbial essential amino acid (EAA) provisioning in omnivorous American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana), fed low-quality (LQD) and comparatively higher-quality dog food (DF) diets using carbon stable isotope ratios of EAAs (δ (13)CEAA). We assessed non-dietary EAA input, quantified as isotopic offsets (Δ(13)C) between cockroach (δ (13)CCockroach EAA) and dietary (δ (13)CDietary EAA) EAAs, and subsequently determined biosynthetic origins of non-dietary EAAs in cockroaches using (13)C-fingerprinting with dietary and representative bacterial and fungal δ (13)CEAA. Investigation of biosynthetic origins of de novo non-dietary EAAs indicated bacterial origins of EAA in cockroach appendage samples, and a mixture of fungal and bacterial EAA origins in gut filtrate samples for both LQD and DF-fed groups. We attribute the bacteria-derived EAAs in cockroach appendages to provisioning by the fat body residing obligate endosymbiont, Blattabacterium and gut-residing bacteria. The mixed signatures of gut filtrate samples are attributed to the presence of unassimilated dietary, as well as gut microbial (bacterial and fungal) EAAs. This study highlights the potential impacts of dietary quality on symbiotic EAA provisioning and the need for further studies investigating the interplay between host EAA demands, host dietary quality and symbiotic EAA provisioning in response to dietary sufficiency or deficiency.

  11. Raman Scattered He II 4332 and Photoionization Model in the Symbiotic Star V1016 Cygni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.-W.; Heo, J.-E.; Lee, B.-C.

    2014-08-01

    Symbiotic stars are wide binary systems of a white dwarf and a mass losing giant. They exhibit unique Raman scattered features as a result of inelastic scattering of far UV line photons by atomic hydrogen. Co-existence of a far UV He II emission region and a thick H I region in symbiotic stars is necessary for the formation of Raman-scattered features blueward of hydrogen Balmer emission lines. Being a single electron atom, He II has the same atomic structure as the hydrogen atom and hence emits far UV emission lines that are slightly blueward of hydrogen Lyman lines. These far UV He II emission lines can be Raman scattered to appear blueward of hydrogen Balmer lines. In particular, the symbiotic star V1016 Cyg is found to exhibit Raman scattered He II 4332 feature in the BOES high resolution spectrum. Our profile fitting of Raman scattered He II 4332 is consistent with the mass loss geometry proposed by Jung & Lee (2004). We use the photoionization code ‘ CLOUDY' to estimate the far UV He II emission lines and make comparisons with the observed Raman scattered He II 4332 blueward of Hγ in the high resolution echelle V1016 Cyg. The emission nebula is assumed to be of uniform density of 108 cm-3 that is illuminated by a black body characterized by its temperature and total luminosity. With our comparisons we conclude that the Raman scattered He II features are consistent with the existence of a photoionized nebula by a hot black body source with temperature 7-8× 104 K with a luminosity 1038erg s-1.

  12. Micro-particle transporting system using galvanotactically stimulated apo-symbiotic cells of Paramecium bursaria.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Shunsuke; Karaki, Chiaki; Kawano, Tomonori

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that Paramecium species including green paramecia (Paramecium bursaria) migrate towards the anode when exposed to an electric field in a medium. This type of a cellular movement is known as galvanotaxis. Our previous study revealed that an electric stimulus given to P bursaria is converted to a galvanotactic cellular movement by involvement of T-type calcium channel on the plasma membrane [Aonuma et al. (2007), Z. Naturforsch. 62c, 93-102]. This phenomenon has attracted the attention of bioengineers in the fields of biorobotics or micro-robotics in order to develop electrically controllable micromachineries. Here, we demonstrate the galvanotactic controls of the cellular migration of P bursaria in capillary tubes (diameter, 1-2 mm; length, 30-240 mm). Since the Paramecium cells take up particles of various sizes, we attempted to use the electrically stimulated cells of P bursaria as the vehicle for transportation of micro-particles in the capillary system. By using apo-symbiotic cells of P bursaria obtained after forced removal of symbiotic algae, the uptake of the particles could be maximized and visualized. Then, electrically controlled transportations of particle-filled apo-symbiotic P bursaria cells were manifested. The particles transported by electrically controlled cells (varying in size from nm to /m levels) included re-introduced green algae, fluorescence-labeled polystyrene beads, magnetic microspheres, emerald green fluorescent protein (EmGFP)-labeled cells of E. coli, Indian ink, and crystals of zeolite (hydrated aluminosilicate minerals with a micro-porous structure) and some metal oxides. Since the above demonstrations were successful, we concluded that P bursaria has a potential to be employed as one of the micro-biorobotic devices used in BioMEMS (biological micro-electro-mechanical systems).

  13. Symbiotic essential amino acids provisioning in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus) under various dietary conditions

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Thomas; Sabree, Zakee

    2016-01-01

    Insect gut microbes have been shown to provide nutrients such as essential amino acids (EAAs) to their hosts. How this symbiotic nutrient provisioning tracks with the host’s demand is not well understood. In this study, we investigated microbial essential amino acid (EAA) provisioning in omnivorous American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana), fed low-quality (LQD) and comparatively higher-quality dog food (DF) diets using carbon stable isotope ratios of EAAs (δ13CEAA). We assessed non-dietary EAA input, quantified as isotopic offsets (Δ13C) between cockroach (δ13CCockroach EAA) and dietary (δ13CDietary EAA) EAAs, and subsequently determined biosynthetic origins of non-dietary EAAs in cockroaches using 13C-fingerprinting with dietary and representative bacterial and fungal δ13CEAA. Investigation of biosynthetic origins of de novo non-dietary EAAs indicated bacterial origins of EAA in cockroach appendage samples, and a mixture of fungal and bacterial EAA origins in gut filtrate samples for both LQD and DF-fed groups. We attribute the bacteria-derived EAAs in cockroach appendages to provisioning by the fat body residing obligate endosymbiont, Blattabacterium and gut-residing bacteria. The mixed signatures of gut filtrate samples are attributed to the presence of unassimilated dietary, as well as gut microbial (bacterial and fungal) EAAs. This study highlights the potential impacts of dietary quality on symbiotic EAA provisioning and the need for further studies investigating the interplay between host EAA demands, host dietary quality and symbiotic EAA provisioning in response to dietary sufficiency or deficiency. PMID:27231663

  14. Evolutionary transition in symbiotic syndromes enabled diversification of phytophagous insects on an imbalanced diet.

    PubMed

    Sudakaran, Sailendharan; Retz, Franziska; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Kost, Christian; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Evolutionary adaptations for the exploitation of nutritionally challenging or toxic host plants represent a major force driving the diversification of phytophagous insects. Although symbiotic bacteria are known to have essential nutritional roles for insects, examples of radiations into novel ecological niches following the acquisition of specific symbionts remain scarce. Here we characterized the microbiota across bugs of the family Pyrrhocoridae and investigated whether the acquisition of vitamin-supplementing symbionts enabled the hosts to diversify into the nutritionally imbalanced and chemically well-defended seeds of Malvales plants as a food source. Our results indicate that vitamin-provisioning Actinobacteria (Coriobacterium and Gordonibacter), as well as Firmicutes (Clostridium) and Proteobacteria (Klebsiella) are widespread across Pyrrhocoridae, but absent from the sister family Largidae and other outgroup taxa. Despite the consistent association with a specific microbiota, the Pyrrhocoridae phylogeny is neither congruent with a dendrogram based on the hosts' microbial community profiles nor phylogenies of individual symbiont strains, indicating frequent horizontal exchange of symbiotic partners. Phylogenetic dating analyses based on the fossil record reveal an origin of the Pyrrhocoridae core microbiota in the late Cretaceous (81.2-86.5 million years ago), following the transition from crypt-associated beta-proteobacterial symbionts to an anaerobic community localized in the M3 region of the midgut. The change in symbiotic syndromes (that is, symbiont identity and localization) and the acquisition of the pyrrhocorid core microbiota followed the evolution of their preferred host plants (Malvales), suggesting that the symbionts facilitated their hosts' adaptation to this imbalanced nutritional resource and enabled the subsequent diversification in a competition-poor ecological niche. PMID:26023876

  15. [Effects of different fungi on symbiotic seed germination of two Dendrobium species].

    PubMed

    Zi, Xiao-meng; Gao, Jiang-yun

    2014-09-01

    The epiphytic orchid, Dendrobium aphyllum and D. devonianum are used as traditional Chinese medicine, and became locally endangered in recent years because of over-collection. We test the effect of inoculations of endophytic fungi FDaI7 (Tulasnella sp.), FDd1 (Epulorhiza sp. ) and FCb4 (Epulorhiza sp.), which isolated from D. aphyllum, D. denonianum and Cymbidium mannii, respectively, on artificial substrate in these two Dendrobium species. In the symbiotic germination experiment, FDaI7 and FDd1 were effective for protocorm formation and seedling development of D. aphyllum and D. denonianum separately. After 60 days, 14.46% of the D. aphyllum seeds grown to protocorms and 12.07% developed to seedlings inoculated only with FDaI7, while contrasted with 0 when inoculated the other two isolates and non-inoculation treatment. However, in D. denonianum, seeds only grown to protocorms and developed to seedlings when inoculated with FDd1, the percentages were 44.36% and 42.91% distinguishingly. High specificity was shown in symbiotic germination on artificial substrate of Dendrobium. Protocorms could further develop to seedlings within or without light when inoculated the compatible fungi. However, light condition (12/12 h Light/Dark) produced the normal seedlings, while dark condition (0/24 h L/D) produced the abnormal seedlings. These may suggest that the development of young seedlings require light based on the effective symbiotic fungi. These findings will aid in seedling production of simulation-forestry ecology cultivation, conservation and reintroduction of Dendrobium.

  16. Lichens as a Model-System for Symbiotic Organisms under Simulated Extreme Space Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vera, J.; Horneck, G.; Rettberg, P.; Ott, S.

    As a consequence of the symbiotic state of lichens both the bionts are able to colonize habitats where the separate bionts would not be able to survive. The symbiosis of lichens reflects a high degree of complexity and plasticity. The combination of the different bionts enables these organisms to colonize most extreme habitats worldwide from the Arctic and Alpine zones to the Antarctic. Besides the already well investigated microorganisms lichens are good model -systems to examine adaptation strategies to most extreme environments. Because of the symbiotic nature of the lichens a 3-component -system can be used for investigations: the mycobiont (fungi), the photobiont (algae) and the lichen itself. Our investigations are based on such a system related to simulated extreme conditions. The influence of different doses of UV A, B, C (>200nm) on the vitality of fungal (mycobiont) fruiting bodys and their spores and the germination process has been investigated. The spores are cultivated on a variety of different substrates, especially on a Martian Regolith Simulant JSC - 1-A g a r- Extract for testing the influence of the UV radiation related to the dependency of different soil-substrate-extracts. The influence of vacuum conditions has been investigated. The aim of this research is to test the reaction of a symbiotic organism complex and its respective bionts to highly extreme space conditions looking forward to a possibly survival strategy of lichenized associations in space; probably supporting the theory of Panspermia. For the interpretation of results especially refering to the vitality potential of the photobionts in damaged and healthy lichens the method of modern confocal lasermicroscopy (CLSM) - a novel method in lichenology is presented.

  17. [Effects of different fungi on symbiotic seed germination of two Dendrobium species].

    PubMed

    Zi, Xiao-meng; Gao, Jiang-yun

    2014-09-01

    The epiphytic orchid, Dendrobium aphyllum and D. devonianum are used as traditional Chinese medicine, and became locally endangered in recent years because of over-collection. We test the effect of inoculations of endophytic fungi FDaI7 (Tulasnella sp.), FDd1 (Epulorhiza sp. ) and FCb4 (Epulorhiza sp.), which isolated from D. aphyllum, D. denonianum and Cymbidium mannii, respectively, on artificial substrate in these two Dendrobium species. In the symbiotic germination experiment, FDaI7 and FDd1 were effective for protocorm formation and seedling development of D. aphyllum and D. denonianum separately. After 60 days, 14.46% of the D. aphyllum seeds grown to protocorms and 12.07% developed to seedlings inoculated only with FDaI7, while contrasted with 0 when inoculated the other two isolates and non-inoculation treatment. However, in D. denonianum, seeds only grown to protocorms and developed to seedlings when inoculated with FDd1, the percentages were 44.36% and 42.91% distinguishingly. High specificity was shown in symbiotic germination on artificial substrate of Dendrobium. Protocorms could further develop to seedlings within or without light when inoculated the compatible fungi. However, light condition (12/12 h Light/Dark) produced the normal seedlings, while dark condition (0/24 h L/D) produced the abnormal seedlings. These may suggest that the development of young seedlings require light based on the effective symbiotic fungi. These findings will aid in seedling production of simulation-forestry ecology cultivation, conservation and reintroduction of Dendrobium. PMID:25522604

  18. Symbiotic essential amino acids provisioning in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus) under various dietary conditions.

    PubMed

    Ayayee, Paul A; Larsen, Thomas; Sabree, Zakee

    2016-01-01

    Insect gut microbes have been shown to provide nutrients such as essential amino acids (EAAs) to their hosts. How this symbiotic nutrient provisioning tracks with the host's demand is not well understood. In this study, we investigated microbial essential amino acid (EAA) provisioning in omnivorous American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana), fed low-quality (LQD) and comparatively higher-quality dog food (DF) diets using carbon stable isotope ratios of EAAs (δ (13)CEAA). We assessed non-dietary EAA input, quantified as isotopic offsets (Δ(13)C) between cockroach (δ (13)CCockroach EAA) and dietary (δ (13)CDietary EAA) EAAs, and subsequently determined biosynthetic origins of non-dietary EAAs in cockroaches using (13)C-fingerprinting with dietary and representative bacterial and fungal δ (13)CEAA. Investigation of biosynthetic origins of de novo non-dietary EAAs indicated bacterial origins of EAA in cockroach appendage samples, and a mixture of fungal and bacterial EAA origins in gut filtrate samples for both LQD and DF-fed groups. We attribute the bacteria-derived EAAs in cockroach appendages to provisioning by the fat body residing obligate endosymbiont, Blattabacterium and gut-residing bacteria. The mixed signatures of gut filtrate samples are attributed to the presence of unassimilated dietary, as well as gut microbial (bacterial and fungal) EAAs. This study highlights the potential impacts of dietary quality on symbiotic EAA provisioning and the need for further studies investigating the interplay between host EAA demands, host dietary quality and symbiotic EAA provisioning in response to dietary sufficiency or deficiency. PMID:27231663

  19. Performance of an age series of alnus-cardamom plantations in the Sikkim Himalaya: productivity, energetics and efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Sharma, G; Sharma, E; Sharma, R; Singh, K K

    2002-03-01

    Biomass, net primary productivity, energetics and energy efficiencies were estimated in an age series of Alnus-cardamom plantations in the eastern Himalaya. The impact of stand age (5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 40 years) on the performance of mixtures of N2-fixing (Alnus nepalensis) and non-N2-fixing (large cardamom) plants was studied. Large cardamom (Amomum subulatum) is the most important perennial cash crop in the region and is cultivated predominantly under Alnus trees. Net primary productivity was lowest (7 t ha(-1) per year) in the 40-year-old stand and was more than three times higher (22 t ha(-1) per year) in the 15-year-old stand. Agronomic yield of large cardamom peaked between 15 and 20 years of age. Cardamom productivity doubled from the 5- to the 15-year-old stand, and then decreased with plantation age to reach a minimum in the 40-year-old stand. Performance of cardamom in association of N2-fixing Alnus remained beneficial until 20 years of age. Annual net energy fixation was highest (444 x 10(6) kJ ha(-1) per year) in the 15-year-old stand, being 1.4 times that of the 5-year-old stand and 2.9-times that of the 40-year-old stand. Inverse relationships of production efficiency, energy conversion efficiency and energy utilized in N2-fixation against stand age, and a positive relationship between production efficiency and energy conversion efficiency suggest that the younger plantations are more productive. The Alnus-cardamom plantation system will be sustainable by adopting a rotational cycle of 15 to 20 years.

  20. Performance of an age series of alnus-cardamom plantations in the Sikkim Himalaya: productivity, energetics and efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Sharma, G; Sharma, E; Sharma, R; Singh, K K

    2002-03-01

    Biomass, net primary productivity, energetics and energy efficiencies were estimated in an age series of Alnus-cardamom plantations in the eastern Himalaya. The impact of stand age (5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 40 years) on the performance of mixtures of N2-fixing (Alnus nepalensis) and non-N2-fixing (large cardamom) plants was studied. Large cardamom (Amomum subulatum) is the most important perennial cash crop in the region and is cultivated predominantly under Alnus trees. Net primary productivity was lowest (7 t ha(-1) per year) in the 40-year-old stand and was more than three times higher (22 t ha(-1) per year) in the 15-year-old stand. Agronomic yield of large cardamom peaked between 15 and 20 years of age. Cardamom productivity doubled from the 5- to the 15-year-old stand, and then decreased with plantation age to reach a minimum in the 40-year-old stand. Performance of cardamom in association of N2-fixing Alnus remained beneficial until 20 years of age. Annual net energy fixation was highest (444 x 10(6) kJ ha(-1) per year) in the 15-year-old stand, being 1.4 times that of the 5-year-old stand and 2.9-times that of the 40-year-old stand. Inverse relationships of production efficiency, energy conversion efficiency and energy utilized in N2-fixation against stand age, and a positive relationship between production efficiency and energy conversion efficiency suggest that the younger plantations are more productive. The Alnus-cardamom plantation system will be sustainable by adopting a rotational cycle of 15 to 20 years. PMID:12096738

  1. An ongoing, record-breaking outburst of the unique symbiotic binary MWC 560 = V694 Mon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munari, U.; Righetti, G. L.; Dallaporta, S.; Moretti, S.; Graziani, M.; Valisa, P.

    2016-02-01

    The unique symbiotic binary MWC 560 = V694 Mon is on a steep rise in brightness, about to surpass the record level attained during the last - and much studied - outburst of 1990 (Tomov et al. 1990, Nature 346, 637), the brightest event in the historical light-curve of the object (Leibowitz and Formiggini 2014, AJ 150, 52). At that time MWC 560 attracted special interest by showing deep and broad absorptions, blue-shifted by 6000 km/s and completely detached from corresponding emission lines, as if originating in discrete blobs, ejected from the central star and rapidly accelerated to large velocities.

  2. The symbiotic relationship between waste burning and safety in liquid metal reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J.V.; Dobbin, K.D.; Kessler, S.F.; Wootan, D.W.; Omberg, R.P.; Waltar, A.E.

    1993-06-01

    The relationship between the transmutation of minor actinides and fission products, and safety related reactivity feedbacks in liquid metal reactors (LMR) was explored. Several design features appear promising for performing waste transmutation while retaining the desirable safety characteristics. Innovative variations of conventional LMR configurations and compositions establish symbiotic relationships between plutonium fuel, minor actinides, and fission products. These relationships enhance safety characteristics of the core and provide acceptable fuel and burnup performance. Although a specific design has not been developed, an LMR capable of transmuting the minor actinides and fission products from up to 10 comparable light water reactors while retaining desirable safety features, appears to be feasible.

  3. Symbiotic seed germination and protocorm development of Aa achalensis Schltr., a terrestrial orchid endemic from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Sebastián, Fracchia; Vanesa, Silvani; Eduardo, Flachsland; Graciela, Terada; Silvana, Sede

    2014-01-01

    Aa achalensis is an endangered terrestrial orchid endemic from Argentina. In vitro symbiotic seed germination was evaluated for its propagation. Five different fungal strains were isolated from this species: two Rhizoctonia-like related to Thanatephorus cucumeris and three ascomicetaceous fungi belonging to Phialophora graminicola and one to an uncultured Pezizaceae. All five isolates promoted seed germination being one T. cucumeris strain the most effective. After 16 weeks of growth, 30% of A. achalensis protocorms developed until seedlings with two/four leaves in this treatment. These findings open an opportunity to the knowledge and preservation of this species.

  4. Ecological strategies of protists and their symbiotic relationships with prokaryotic microbes.

    PubMed

    Gast, Rebecca J; Sanders, Robert W; Caron, David A

    2009-12-01

    Protistan species are found in almost every environment on our planet, and have adapted in many ways to survive and thrive under dramatically different conditions. Some of the most diverse adaptations involve symbiotic relationships with prokaryotes. Described symbioses primarily involve heterotrophic protists, including ciliates, Rhizaria (amoebae, foraminifera, radiolaria) and flagellate taxa. Recently there has been an increase in reports of environmental isolates that represent novel associations, which suggest that the symbioses are probably more widespread than conventionally thought. Future work will need to explore the function, abundance and distribution of what have been considered rare or unusual interactions.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectra of IPHAS symbiotic stars (Rodriguez-Flores+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Flores, E. R.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Mampaso, A.; Garcia-Alvarez, D.; Munari, U.; Greimel, R.; Rubio-Diez, M. M.; Santander-Garcia, M.

    2014-04-01

    We obtained spectra for 18 candidate symbiotic stars in May, June, and December 2012 at the 10.4m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (La Palma, Spain). The OSIRIS instrument was used in its long-slit mode. The combination of grism R1000B and a slit width of 1" provides a spectral dispersion of 2.1Å per (binned x2) pixel, a resolution of 7Å, and a spectral coverage from 3650 to 7850Å. Exposure times ranged between 100s and 800s, depending of the magnitude of each object. (2 data files).

  6. Dissection of the Bradyrhizobium japonicum NifA+sigma54 regulon, and identification of a ferredoxin gene (fdxN) for symbiotic nitrogen fixation.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Felix; Pessi, Gabriella; Friberg, Markus; Weber, Christoph; Rusca, Nicola; Lindemann, Andrea; Fischer, Hans-Martin; Hennecke, Hauke

    2007-09-01

    Hierarchically organized regulatory proteins form a complex network for expression control of symbiotic and accessory genes in the nitrogen-fixing soybean symbiont Bradyrhizobium japonicum. A genome-wide survey of regulatory interactions was made possible with the design of a custom-made gene chip. Here, we report the first use of the microarray in a comprehensive and complete characterization of the B. japonicum NifA+sigma(54) regulon which forms an important node in the entire network. Comparative transcript profiles of anaerobically grown wild-type, nifA, and rpoN (1/2) mutant cells were complemented with a position-specific frequency matrix-based search for NifA- and sigma(54)-binding sites plus a simple operon definition. One of the newly identified NifA+sigma(54)-dependent genes, fdxN, encodes a ferredoxin required for efficient symbiotic nitrogen fixation, which makes it a candidate for being a direct electron donor to nitrogenase. The fdxN gene has an unconventional, albeit functional sigma(54 )promoter with the dinucleotide GA instead of the consensus GC motif at position -12. A GC-containing mutant promoter and the atypical GA-containing promoter of the wild type were disparately activated. Expression analyses were also carried out with two other NifA+sigma(54) targets (ectC; ahpC). Incidentally, the tiling-like design of the microarray has helped to arrive at completely revised annotations of the ectC- and ahpC-upstream DNA regions, which are now compatible with promoter locations. Taken together, the approaches used here led to a substantial expansion of the NifA+sigma(54 )regulon size, culminating in a total of 65 genes for nitrogen fixation and diverse other processes.

  7. Healthy effects exerted by prebiotics, probiotics, and symbiotics with special reference to their impact on the immune system.

    PubMed

    Jirillo, Emilio; Jirillo, Felicita; Magrone, Thea

    2012-06-01

    Pre-, pro-, and symbiotics are endowed with a broad spectrum of beneficial effects when administered to animals and humans. A series of experimental and clinical studies have clearly demonstrated that prebiotics, probiotics, or their combination are very effective in attenuating chronic inflammatory conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease or obesity. In addition, these natural products are able to prevent or arrest tumor development, acting on the intestinal microbiota as well as potentiating the immune response.Aging is characterized by a dramatic reduction of both innate and adaptive immune responses, the so-called immunosenescence. This leads to an increased incidence of infections, autoimmune diseases, and cancer in the elderly. Pre-, pro-, and symbiotic administration has been shown to ameliorate the immune response in aging. In particular, administration of a symbiotic to free-living elderly was able to potentiate the release of interleukin-8, thus increasing neutrophils in the host, perhaps explaining the reduced frequency of winter infections in the elderly.

  8. Chloroplast gene sequence data suggest a single origin of the predisposition for symbiotic nitrogen fixation in angiosperms.

    PubMed Central

    Soltis, D E; Soltis, P S; Morgan, D R; Swensen, S M; Mullin, B C; Dowd, J M; Martin, P G

    1995-01-01

    Of the approximately 380 families of angiosperms, representatives of only 10 are known to form symbiotic associations with nitrogen-fixing bacteria in root nodules. The morphologically based classification schemes proposed by taxonomists suggest that many of these 10 families of plants are only distantly related, engendering the hypothesis that the capacity to fix nitrogen evolved independently several, if not many, times. This has in turn influenced attitudes toward the likelihood of transferring genes responsible for symbiotic nitrogen fixation to crop species lacking this ability. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences for the chloroplast gene rbcL indicates, however, that representatives of all 10 families with nitrogen-fixing symbioses occur together, with several families lacking this association, in a single clade. This study therefore indicates that only one lineage of closely related taxa achieved the underlying genetic architecture necessary for symbiotic nitrogen fixation in root nodules. PMID:7708699

  9. Taxonomic and symbiotic diversity of bacteria isolated from nodules of Acacia tortilis subsp. raddiana in arid soils of Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Fterich, A; Mahdhi, M; Lafuente, A; Pajuelo, E; Caviedes, M A; Rodriguez-Llorente, I D; Mars, M

    2012-06-01

    A collection of rhizobia isolated from Acacia tortilis subsp. raddiana nodules from various arid soils in Tunisia was analyzed for their diversity at both taxonomic and symbiotic levels. The isolates were found to be phenotypically diverse. The majority of the isolates tolerated 3% NaCl and grew at 40 °C. Genetic characterization emphasized that most of the strains (42/50) belong to the genus Ensifer, particularly the species Ensifer meliloti, Ensifer garamanticus, and Ensifer numidicus. Symbiotic properties of isolates showed diversity in their capacity to nodulate their host plant and to fix atmospheric nitrogen. The most effective isolates were closely related to E. garamanticus. Nodulation tests showed that 3 strains belonging to Mesorhizobium genus failed to renodulate their host plant, which is surprising for symbiotic rhizobia. Furthermore, our results support the presence of non-nodulating endophytic bacteria belonging to the Acinetobacter genus in legume nodules. PMID:22616625

  10. Forced symbiosis between Synechocystis spp. PCC 6803 and apo-symbiotic Paramecium bursaria as an experimental model for evolutionary emergence of primitive photosynthetic eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Ohkawa, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Naoko; Furukawa, Shunsuke; Kadono, Takashi; Kawano, Tomonori

    2011-06-01

    Single-cell green paramecia (Paramecium bursaria) is a swimming vehicle that carries several hundred cells of endo-symbiotic green algae. Here, a novel model for endo-symbiosis, prepared by introducing and maintaining the cells of cyanobacterium (Synechocystis spp. PCC 6803) in the apo-symbiotic cells of P. bursaria is described.

  11. Identification and characterization of a symbiotic alga from soil bryophyte for lipid profiles

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jia; Guo, Yuning; Zhang, Xiujuan; Wang, Guihua; Lv, Junping; Liu, Qi; Xie, Shulian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A symbiotic alga was successfully isolated from the soil moss Entodon obtusatus found in the Guandi Mountains, Shanxi Province, China, and cultivated under axenic conditions. Morphological observations showed that the symbiotic alga was similar to Chlorococcum. Based on phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA and rbcL genes and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, Chlorococcum sp. GD was identified as Chlorococcum sphacosum. The three data sets were congruent for those aspects of the topologies that were relatively robust, and differed for those parts of the topologies that were not. This strain was cultured in BG11 medium to test its growth and biodiesel properties. It produced a lipid content of nearly 40%, and achieved biomass concentration of 410 mg l−1 and lipid productivity of 6.76 mg l−1 day−1, with favorable C16:0 (23.10%) and C18:1 (21.62%) fatty acid content. This alga appears to have potential for use in biodiesel production. PMID:27543061

  12. Symbiotic state influences life-history strategy of a clonal cnidarian.

    PubMed

    Bingham, Brian L; Dimond, James L; Muller-Parker, Gisèle

    2014-08-22

    Along the North American Pacific coast, the common intertidal sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima engages in facultative, flexible symbioses with Symbiodinium muscatinei (a dinoflagellate) and Elliptochloris marina (a chlorophyte). Determining how symbiotic state affects host fitness is essential to understanding the ecological significance of engaging in such flexible relationships with diverse symbionts. Fitness consequences of hosting S. muscatinei, E. marina or negligible numbers of either symbiont (aposymbiosis) were investigated by measuring growth, cloning by fission and gonad development after 8.5-11 months of sustained exposure to high, moderate or low irradiance under seasonal environmental conditions. Both symbiotic state and irradiance affected host fitness, leading to divergent life-history strategies. Moderate and high irradiances led to a greater level of gonad development in individuals hosting E. marina, while high irradiance and high summer temperature promoted cloning in individuals hosting S. muscatinei and reduced fitness of aposymbiotic anemones. Associating with S. muscatinei may contribute to the success of A. elegantissima as a spatial competitor on the high shore: (i) by offsetting the costs of living under high temperature and irradiance conditions, and (ii) by promoting a high fission rate and clonal expansion. Our results suggest that basic life-history characteristics of a clonal cnidarian can be affected by the identity of the endosymbionts it hosts. PMID:25009060

  13. Profiling molecular and behavioral circadian rhythms in the non-symbiotic sea anemone Nematostella vectensis

    PubMed Central

    Oren, Matan; Tarrant, Ann M.; Alon, Shahar; Simon-Blecher, Noa; Elbaz, Idan; Appelbaum, Lior; Levy, Oren

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous circadian clocks are poorly understood within early-diverging animal lineages. We have characterized circadian behavioral patterns and identified potential components of the circadian clock in the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis: a model cnidarian which lacks algal symbionts. Using automatic video tracking we showed that Nematostella exhibits rhythmic circadian locomotor activity, which is persistent in constant dark, shifted or disrupted by external dark/light cues and maintained the same rate at two different temperatures. This activity was inhibited by a casein kinase 1δ/ε inhibitor, suggesting a role for CK1 homologue(s) in Nematostella clock. Using high-throughput sequencing we profiled Nematostella transcriptomes over 48 hours under a light-dark cycle. We identified 180 Nematostella diurnally-oscillated transcripts and compared them with pre