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Sample records for effortful control ego

  1. The Role of Socialization, Effortful Control, and Ego Resiliency in French Adolescents' Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofer, Claire; Eisenberg, Nancy; Reiser, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The relations among effortful control, ego resiliency, socialization, and social functioning were examined with a sample of 182 French adolescents (14-20 years old). Adolescents, their parents, and/or teachers completed questionnaires on these constructs. Effortful control and ego resiliency were correlated with adolescents' social functioning,…

  2. The Relations of Effortful Control and Ego Control to Children's Resiliency and Social Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; Fabes, Richard A.; Smith, Cynthia L.; Reiser, Mark; Shepard, Stephanie A.; Losoya, Sandra H.; Guthrie, Ivanna K.; Murphy, Bridget C.; Cumberland, Amanda J.

    2003-01-01

    Examined relations of effortful control and ego control to children's resiliency, social status, and social competence concurrently (Time 3) and over time. Found that at Time 3, resiliency mediated the unique relations of effortful and reactive control to social status, and effortful control directly predicted socially appropriate behavior.…

  3. The Role of Socialization, Effortful Control, and Ego Resiliency in French Adolescents’ Social Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Hofer, Claire; Eisenberg, Nancy; Reiser, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The relations among effortful control, ego resiliency, socialization, and social functioning were examined with a sample of 182 French adolescents (14–20 years old). Adolescents, their parents, and/or teachers completed questionnaires on these constructs. Effortful control and ego resiliency were correlated with adolescents’ social functioning, especially with low externalizing and internalizing behaviors and sometimes with high peer competence. Furthermore, aspects of socialization (parenting practices more than family expressiveness) were associated with adolescents’ effortful control, ego resiliency, and social functioning. Effortful control and ego resiliency mediated the relations between parental socialization and adolescents’ peer competence and internalizing problems. Furthermore, effortful control mediated the relations between socialization and adolescents’ externalizing behavior. Findings are discussed in terms of cultural and developmental variation. PMID:21228912

  4. Longitudinal Relations of Intrusive Parenting and Effortful Control to Ego-Resiliency During Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Zoe E.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Widaman, Keith F.

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal relations among ego-resiliency, effortful control, and observed intrusive parenting were examined at 18, 30, and 42 months of age (Ns = 256, 230, and 210) using structural equation modeling. Intrusive parenting at 18 and 30 months negatively predicted effortful control a year later, over and above earlier levels. Effortful control at 30 months mediated the negative relation between 18-month intrusive parenting and ego-resiliency at 42 months when controlling for stability of the variables. Ego-resiliency did not predict effortful control. The findings suggest that intrusive parenting may have a negative effect on children’s personality resiliency through its effects on the abilities to regulate attention and behavior. PMID:23379965

  5. Relations of parenting style to Chinese children's effortful control, ego resilience, and maladjustment.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Chang, Lei; Ma, Yue; Huang, Xiaorui

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relations of authoritative parenting and corporal punishment to Chinese first and second graders' effortful control (EC), impulsivity, ego resilience, and maladjustment, as well as mediating relations. A parent and teacher reported on children's EC, impulsivity, and ego resilience; parents reported on children's internalizing symptoms and their own parenting, and teachers and peers reported on children's externalizing symptoms. Authoritative parenting and low corporal punishment predicted high EC, and EC mediated the relation between parenting and externalizing problems. In addition, impulsivity mediated the relation of corporal punishment to externalizing problems. The relation of parenting to children's ego resilience was mediated by EC and/or impulsivity, and ego resilience mediated the relations of EC and impulsivity to internalizing problems.

  6. Relations of parenting style to Chinese children’s effortful control, ego resilience, and maladjustment

    PubMed Central

    EISENBERG, NANCY; CHANG, LEI; MA, YUE; HUANG, XIAORUI

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relations of authoritative parenting and corporal punishment to Chinese first and second graders’ effortful control (EC), impulsivity, ego resilience, and maladjustment, as well as mediating relations. A parent and teacher reported on children’s EC, impulsivity, and ego resilience; parents reported on children’s internalizing symptoms and their own parenting, and teachers and peers reported on children’s externalizing symptoms. Authoritative parenting and low corporal punishment predicted high EC, and EC mediated the relation between parenting and externalizing problems. In addition, impulsivity mediated the relation of corporal punishment to externalizing problems. The relation of parenting to children’s ego resilience was mediated by EC and/or impulsivity, and ego resilience mediated the relations of EC and impulsivity to internalizing problems. PMID:19338693

  7. Longitudinal Relations of Intrusive Parenting and Effortful Control to Ego-Resiliency during Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Zoe E.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Widaman, Keith F.

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal relations among ego-resiliency (ER), effortful control (EC), and observed intrusive parenting were examined at 18, 30, and 42 months of age ("Ns" = 256, 230, and 210) using structural equation modeling. Intrusive parenting at 18 and 30 months negatively predicted EC a year later, over and above earlier levels. EC at…

  8. Longitudinal Relations of Intrusive Parenting and Effortful Control to Ego-Resiliency during Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Zoe E.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Widaman, Keith F.

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal relations among ego-resiliency (ER), effortful control (EC), and observed intrusive parenting were examined at 18, 30, and 42 months of age ("Ns" = 256, 230, and 210) using structural equation modeling. Intrusive parenting at 18 and 30 months negatively predicted EC a year later, over and above earlier levels. EC at…

  9. Longitudinal relations of intrusive parenting and effortful control to ego-resiliency during early childhood.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Zoe E; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L; Widaman, Keith F

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal relations among ego-resiliency (ER), effortful control (EC), and observed intrusive parenting were examined at 18, 30, and 42 months of age (Ns = 256, 230, and 210) using structural equation modeling. Intrusive parenting at 18 and 30 months negatively predicted EC a year later, over and above earlier levels. EC at 30 months mediated the negative relation between 18-month intrusive parenting and ER at 42 months when controlling for stability of the variables. ER did not predict EC. The findings suggest that intrusive parenting may have a negative effect on children's ego-resiliency through its effects on children's abilities to regulate attention and behavior.

  10. Prosociality during the transition from late adolescence to young adulthood: the role of effortful control and ego-resiliency.

    PubMed

    Alessandri, Guido; Luengo Kanacri, Bernadette Paula; Eisenberg, Nancy; Zuffianò, Antonio; Milioni, Michela; Vecchione, Michele; Caprara, Gian Vittorio

    2014-11-01

    The present prospective study examined the prediction of prosociality from effortful control and ego-resiliency from late adolescence to emerging adulthood. Participants were 476 young adults (239 males and 237 females) with a mean age of 16 years (SD = .81) at T1, 18 years (SD = .83) at T2, 20 years (SD = .79) at T3, 22 years (SD = .81) at T4, and 26 years (SD = .81) at T5. Controlling for the stability of the examined variables and the effect of potential confounding variables (i.e., sex, socioeconomic status [SES], and age), results supported a model in which a temperamental dimension, effortful control, positively predicted a specific behavioral tendency (i.e., prosociality) indirectly through mediation by a personality factor (i.e., ego-resiliency). Practical implications of the results are discussed in terms of the importance of early prevention efforts designed to enhance the capacity to cope effectively with emotional reactions and difficult situations.

  11. The Developmental Continuity of Ego Control and Ego Resiliency: Some Accomplishments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Jack; Block, Jeanne H.

    This paper reports on part of a longitudinal study of personality and cognitive development in young children, specifically, efforts to identify and measure the concepts of ego control and ego resiliency. The concept of ego control refers to the disposition or threshold of an individual with regard to the expression or containment of impulses and…

  12. Using the Networked Fire Chief for ego-depletion research: measuring dynamic decision-making effort and performance.

    PubMed

    Barber, Larissa K; Smit, Brandon W

    2014-01-01

    This study replicated ego-depletion predictions from the self-control literature in a computer simulation task that requires ongoing decision-making in relation to constantly changing environmental information: the Network Fire Chief (NFC). Ego-depletion led to decreased self-regulatory effort, but not performance, on the NFC task. These effects were also buffered by task enjoyment so that individuals who enjoyed the dynamic decision-making task did not experience ego-depletion effects. These findings confirm that past ego-depletion effects on decision-making are not limited to static or isolated decision-making tasks and can be extended to dynamic, naturalistic decision-making processes more common to naturalistic settings. Furthermore, the NFC simulation provides a methodological mechanism for independently measuring effort and performance when studying ego-depletion.

  13. Ego Depletion and the Strength Model of Self-Control: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagger, Martin S.; Wood, Chantelle; Stiff, Chris; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L. D.

    2010-01-01

    According to the strength model, self-control is a finite resource that determines capacity for effortful control over dominant responses and, once expended, leads to impaired self-control task performance, known as "ego depletion". A meta-analysis of 83 studies tested the effect of ego depletion on task performance and related outcomes,…

  14. Ego Depletion and the Strength Model of Self-Control: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagger, Martin S.; Wood, Chantelle; Stiff, Chris; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L. D.

    2010-01-01

    According to the strength model, self-control is a finite resource that determines capacity for effortful control over dominant responses and, once expended, leads to impaired self-control task performance, known as "ego depletion". A meta-analysis of 83 studies tested the effect of ego depletion on task performance and related outcomes,…

  15. Personality Development from Childhood to Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study of Ego-Control and Ego-Resiliency in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, Susan S.; Lamb, Michael E.; Hwang, C. Philip

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the development of ego-control (EC) and ego-resiliency (ER) over a 13-year period in a cohort of Swedish children first assessed at 2 years of age. Children became more ego-controlled over time although individual differences in EC remained stable. Children's levels of resiliency increased from 2 to 3 years of age and then declined…

  16. Ego depletion and the strength model of self-control: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hagger, Martin S; Wood, Chantelle; Stiff, Chris; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D

    2010-07-01

    According to the strength model, self-control is a finite resource that determines capacity for effortful control over dominant responses and, once expended, leads to impaired self-control task performance, known as ego depletion. A meta-analysis of 83 studies tested the effect of ego depletion on task performance and related outcomes, alternative explanations and moderators of the effect, and additional strength model hypotheses. Results revealed a significant effect of ego depletion on self-control task performance. Significant effect sizes were found for ego depletion on effort, perceived difficulty, negative affect, subjective fatigue, and blood glucose levels. Small, nonsignificant effects were found for positive affect and self-efficacy. Moderator analyses indicated minimal variation in the effect across sphere of depleting and dependent task, frequently used depleting and dependent tasks, presentation of tasks as single or separate experiments, type of dependent measure and control condition task, and source laboratory. The effect size was moderated by depleting task duration, task presentation by the same or different experimenters, intertask interim period, dependent task complexity, and use of dependent tasks in the choice and volition and cognitive spheres. Motivational incentives, training on self-control tasks, and glucose supplementation promoted better self-control in ego-depleted samples. Expecting further acts of self-control exacerbated the effect. Findings provide preliminary support for the ego-depletion effect and strength model hypotheses. Support for motivation and fatigue as alternative explanations for ego depletion indicate a need to integrate the strength model with other theories. Findings provide impetus for future investigation testing additional hypotheses and mechanisms of the ego-depletion effect.

  17. A California Q-set alexithymia prototype and its relationship to ego-control and ego-resiliency.

    PubMed

    Haviland, M G; Reise, S P

    1996-12-01

    The primary purposes of the present study were to use the Q-sort method to develop a measure of alexithymia and to locate the construct within a two-dimensional (ego-control and ego-resiliency) model of personality. Thirteen professional judges described the characteristics of the alexithymic personality with the 100-item California Q-set. Scores from the sorts were aggregated to form the Alexithymia Prototype, which had a Spearman-Brown reliability of 0.99. Alexithymic people were described as having difficulties experiencing and expressing emotion, lacking imagination, and being literal, socially conforming, and utilitarian; they lack insight, are humorless, and experience meaninglessness; and anxiety and tension find outlet in bodily symptoms. This description is consistent, for the most part, with modern formulations of the alexithymia construct. In the language of the two-dimensional personality model, alexithymic individuals appear to be overcontrolling and lacking ego-resiliency (i.e., constricted, anxious, rigid, and withdrawn). We, therefore, compared the Alexithymia Prototype with two independently developed prototypes, Overcontrol and Ego-Resiliency. The Q-correlations between alexithymia and overcontrol and between alexithymia and ego-resiliency were 0.45 and -0.70, respectively. Although item analyses confirmed moderate overlap between alexithymia and overcontrol and considerable overlap between alexithymia and lacking ego-resiliency (ego-brittle), item differences suggest that alexithymia, indeed, is a unique personality construct.

  18. Ego-syntonicity and ego-dystonicity of eating-related intrusive thoughts in patients with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Roncero, María; Belloch, Amparo; Perpiñá, Conxa; Treasure, Janet

    2013-06-30

    The main objective of the present study was to analyse the role of the ego-dystonicity and ego-syntonicity of eating disorder intrusive thoughts (EDITs) in the genesis and maintenance of eating disorders (EDs). Participants were 98 female patients with EDs, 56 Spanish and 42 English (27.19±9.59 years; body mass index (BMI): 18.72±2.87). All of them completed the eating attitudes test, the Eating Attitudes Test, the Eating Intrusive Thoughts Inventory, the Ego-Dystonicity Questionnaire-Reduced version, and the Ego-Syntonicity Questionnaire. Patients indicated that their EDITs were rational and also undesirable and immoral, suggesting that EDITs are not fully ego-syntonic or ego-dystonic. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicated no differences in ego-syntonicity and ego-dystonicity across ED subtypes. Path analyses were performed to investigate the mediating role of the EDITs' ego-syntonicity and ego-dystonicity in their interference, dysfunctional appraisals and control strategies. They showed, first, that the more interference an EDIT caused, the more ego-syntonic and the less ego-dystonic it was and, second, that when the EDITs were assessed as ego-syntonic, patients tried to do what they indicated, whereas when they were assessed as ego-dystonic, patients made efforts to neutralise them. Clinical implications for the conceptualisation and treatment of ED are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Benefits of Self-Set Goals: Is Ego Depletion Really a Result of Self-Control Failure?

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Mario; Zahn, Daniela; Rowland, Zarah; Kubiak, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Research on ego depletion aims at explaining self-control failures in daily life. Both resource models and motivational accounts have been proposed for explanation. The aim of the present research was to test the different assumptions in two dual-task experiments where we operationalized ego depletion as a performance deviation from a self-set goal. In two experiments, we found evidence for this deviation contradicting motivational accounts of ego depletion: Participants experiencing ego depletion set themselves a stricter instead of a more lenient goal than controls, in that they chose to eat less cookies or wanted to perform better. Moreover, only participants without an initial self-control task could adhere to their self-set goal, whereas participants in the ego depletion condition in both experiments could not follow through with their more ambitious intentions. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the importance of goals in ego depletion research.

  20. The Benefits of Self-Set Goals: Is Ego Depletion Really a Result of Self-Control Failure?

    PubMed Central

    Zahn, Daniela; Rowland, Zarah; Kubiak, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Research on ego depletion aims at explaining self-control failures in daily life. Both resource models and motivational accounts have been proposed for explanation. The aim of the present research was to test the different assumptions in two dual-task experiments where we operationalized ego depletion as a performance deviation from a self-set goal. In two experiments, we found evidence for this deviation contradicting motivational accounts of ego depletion: Participants experiencing ego depletion set themselves a stricter instead of a more lenient goal than controls, in that they chose to eat less cookies or wanted to perform better. Moreover, only participants without an initial self-control task could adhere to their self-set goal, whereas participants in the ego depletion condition in both experiments could not follow through with their more ambitious intentions. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the importance of goals in ego depletion research. PMID:27280531

  1. The role of implicit affective responses and trait self-control in ego resource management.

    PubMed

    Buczny, Jacek; Layton, Rebekah L; Muraven, Mark

    Exertion of self-control requires reliance on ego resources. Impaired performance typically results once those resources have been depleted by previous use. Yet the mechanism behind the depletion processes is little understood. Beliefs, motivation, and physiological changes have been implicated, yet the source behind these remains unknown. We propose that implicit may form the fundamental building blocks that these processes rely upon to operate. Implicit affective responses to energy may trigger management of ego resources after depletion. Findings suggest that inhibitory trait self-control may interact with the depletion effect, indicating the importance of taking individual differences in chronic availability of ego-resources into account. After depletion, individuals high in trait self-control may be less motivated to conserve remaining resources than those low in self-control. This mechanism may also help explain the conservation of resources observed when expecting multiple tasks requiring self-control.

  2. An Analysis of University Students' Levels of Self-Control According to Their Ego States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaygusuz, Canani; Ozpolat, Ahmet Ragip

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Although it is well known that parents' methods of raising their children significantly affect their children's personalities and how they face life, this study has been designed because there is a lack of specific research on which ego states of adults are associated with self-control. In the present study, self-control and ego…

  3. The Influence of Chronic Ego Depletion on Goal Adherence: An Experience Sampling Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ligang; Tao, Ting; Fan, Chunlei; Gao, Wenbin; Wei, Chuguang

    2015-01-01

    Although ego depletion effects have been widely observed in experiments in which participants perform consecutive self-control tasks, the process of ego depletion remains poorly understood. Using the strength model of self-control, we hypothesized that chronic ego depletion adversely affects goal adherence and that mental effort and motivation are involved in the process of ego depletion. In this study, 203 students reported their daily performance, mental effort, and motivation with respect to goal directed behavior across a 3-week time period. People with high levels of chronic ego depletion were less successful in goal adherence than those with less chronic ego depletion. Although daily effort devoted to goal adherence increased with chronic ego depletion, motivation to adhere to goals was not affected. Participants with high levels of chronic ego depletion showed a stronger positive association between mental effort and performance, but chronic ego depletion did not play a regulatory role in the effect of motivation on performance. Chronic ego depletion increased the likelihood of behavior regulation failure, suggesting that it is difficult for people in an ego-depletion state to adhere to goals. We integrate our results with the findings of previous studies and discuss possible theoretical implications.

  4. The Influence of Chronic Ego Depletion on Goal Adherence: An Experience Sampling Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ligang; Tao, Ting; Fan, Chunlei; Gao, Wenbin; Wei, Chuguang

    2015-01-01

    Although ego depletion effects have been widely observed in experiments in which participants perform consecutive self-control tasks, the process of ego depletion remains poorly understood. Using the strength model of self-control, we hypothesized that chronic ego depletion adversely affects goal adherence and that mental effort and motivation are involved in the process of ego depletion. In this study, 203 students reported their daily performance, mental effort, and motivation with respect to goal directed behavior across a 3-week time period. People with high levels of chronic ego depletion were less successful in goal adherence than those with less chronic ego depletion. Although daily effort devoted to goal adherence increased with chronic ego depletion, motivation to adhere to goals was not affected. Participants with high levels of chronic ego depletion showed a stronger positive association between mental effort and performance, but chronic ego depletion did not play a regulatory role in the effect of motivation on performance. Chronic ego depletion increased the likelihood of behavior regulation failure, suggesting that it is difficult for people in an ego-depletion state to adhere to goals. We integrate our results with the findings of previous studies and discuss possible theoretical implications. PMID:26562839

  5. The Interrelationship of Social Anxiety with Anxiety, Depression, Locus of Control, Ways of Coping and Ego Strength amongst University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Robin-Marie; Edelman, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    This is the first study to investigate the interrelationship of social anxiety with the variables anxiety, depression, locus of control, ego strength and ways of coping in a sample of university students. There were high scores of social anxiety which were related to high scores on measures of anxiety and depression, low ego strength, external…

  6. Peer Victimization and Effortful Control

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Roopa V.; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky; Eisenberg, Nancy; Thompson, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    The relations among peer victimization, effortful control, school engagement, and academic achievement were examined in a group of 390 (212 boys and 178 girls) racially diverse (38.20% Latino and 46.70% White) 6- to 10-year-old children. Specifically, a multimethod, multi-informant approach was used in which data were gathered using self-report, peer-report, and teacher-report questionnaires at three points in time: twice during the initial year of the study when children were in first and third grades and once in the fall of their second-grade and fourth-grade years, respectively. Findings showed that peer victimization was negatively correlated with effortful control; however, longitudinal analyses conducted to examine causal priority were inconclusive. Results from structural equation modeling were consistent with the hypotheses that school engagement mediated the relations between peer victimization and academic achievement, as well as between effortful control and academic achievement. PMID:23105166

  7. Ego-Resilience through Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Jack

    This paper reports the results of an ongoing study of individuals' ego control and ego resiliency. The study began with 130 subjects in 1969 when the subjects were in nursery school. At the most recent assessment, 104 participants still remained. Ego control is defined as the degree and kind of control individuals exert over their impulses, and…

  8. Stigma as ego depletion: how being the target of prejudice affects self-control.

    PubMed

    Inzlicht, Michael; McKay, Linda; Aronson, Joshua

    2006-03-01

    This research examined whether stigma diminishes people's ability to control their behaviors. Because coping with stigma requires self-regulation, and self-regulation is a limited-capacity resource, we predicted that individuals belonging to stigmatized groups are less able to regulate their own behavior when they become conscious of their stigmatizing status or enter threatening environments. Study 1 uncovered a correlation between stigma sensitivity and self-regulation; the more Black college students were sensitive to prejudice, the less self-control they reported having. By experimentally activating stigma, Studies 2 and 3 provided causal evidence for stigma's ego-depleting qualities: When their stigma was activated, stigmatized participants (Black students and females) showed impaired self-control in two very different domains (attentional and physical self-regulation). These results suggest that (a) stigma is ego depleting and (b) coping with it can weaken the ability to control and regulate one's behaviors in domains unrelated to the stigma.

  9. Reverse ego-depletion: Acts of self-control can improve subsequent performance in Indian cultural contexts.

    PubMed

    Savani, Krishna; Job, Veronika

    2017-10-01

    The strength model of self-control has been predominantly tested with people from Western cultures. The present research asks whether the phenomenon of ego-depletion generalizes to a culture emphasizing the virtues of exerting mental self-control in everyday life. A pilot study found that whereas Americans tended to believe that exerting willpower on mental tasks is depleting, Indians tended to believe that exerting willpower is energizing. Using dual task ego-depletion paradigms, Studies 1a, 1b, and 1c found reverse ego-depletion among Indian participants, such that participants exhibited better mental self-control on a subsequent task after initially working on strenuous rather than nonstrenuous cognitive tasks. Studies 2 and 3 found that Westerners exhibited the ego-depletion effect whereas Indians exhibited the reverse ego-depletion effect on the same set of tasks. Study 4 documented the causal effect of lay beliefs about whether exerting willpower is depleting versus energizing on reverse ego-depletion with both Indian and Western participants. Together, these studies reveal the underlying basis of the ego-depletion phenomenon in culturally shaped lay theories about willpower. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Heritability in the Personality Control System: Ego Strength (C), Super Ego Strength (G) and the Self Sentiment (Q3); by the MAVA Model, Q-Data, and Maximum Likelihood Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cattell, R. B.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Strength, super ego strength, ego, self sentiment, and both forms of the High School Personality Questionnaire were administered to 688 brothers and 2973 unrelated boys. Multiple abstract variance analysis (MAVA) Q-Data, and maximum likelihood analysis were used to assess heritability in their personality control system. (ABB)

  11. What Is Ego Depletion? Toward a Mechanistic Revision of the Resource Model of Self-Control.

    PubMed

    Inzlicht, Michael; Schmeichel, Brandon J

    2012-09-01

    According to the resource model of self-control, overriding one's predominant response tendencies consumes and temporarily depletes a limited inner resource. Over 100 experiments have lent support to this model of ego depletion by observing that acts of self-control at Time 1 reduce performance on subsequent, seemingly unrelated self-control tasks at Time 2. The time is now ripe, therefore, not only to broaden the scope of the model but to start gaining a precise, mechanistic account of it. Accordingly, in the current article, the authors probe the particular cognitive, affective, and motivational mechanics of self-control and its depletion, asking, "What is ego depletion?" This study proposes a process model of depletion, suggesting that exerting self-control at Time 1 causes temporary shifts in both motivation and attention that undermine self-control at Time 2. The article highlights evidence in support of this model but also highlights where evidence is lacking, thus providing a blueprint for future research. Though the process model of depletion may sacrifice the elegance of the resource metaphor, it paints a more precise picture of ego depletion and suggests several nuanced predictions for future research. © The Author(s) 2012.

  12. Ego constriction.

    PubMed

    Brakel, Linda A W

    2004-09-01

    The terms ego constriction, ego inhibition, and ego restriction have not been clearly differentiated in their usage in the literature. In this paper a rationale for "ego constriction" as an entity distinct from both ego inhibition and ego restriction is given, despite its clear similarities to each. In a person with an ego inhibition, the ego inhibits a part of its own functioning because a particular function is linked to an unacceptable impulse. It is an internalized conflict. The person with an ego restriction, in contrast, avoids psychological pain triggered from an area in the outside world by restricting activity in that area. Like each of these problems but different, a person with an ego constriction first externalizes an internalized conflict associated with important functions or activities. Then, only through a series of particular obligatory steps can the person "overcome" the ego constriction--albeit temporarily. It is noted in this paper that the function of the specified obligatory steps is structurally parallel to the rigid obligatory behavior necessary for genital gratification in the perversions. As the recognition of this distinction arose in the course of an analysis of a mental health professional, something of the necessarily shared nature of analytic work is noticeable, shining through as the background for the work of this paper.

  13. Lying and executive control: an experimental investigation using ego depletion and goal neglect.

    PubMed

    Debey, Evelyne; Verschuere, Bruno; Crombez, Geert

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated whether lying requires executive control using a reaction-time based lie test. We hypothesized that (1) goal neglect induced by a long response-stimulus interval (RSI; 5-8s) would make lying harder relative to a short RSI (.2 s) that promoted attentional focus, and (2) participants whose executive control resources were depleted by an initial executive control task would experience more difficulty to lie than control participants who performed a task that required little executive control. Across two experiments, the ego depletion manipulation did not reliably affect lying. Both experiments revealed that the cognitive cost associated with lying was larger for the long compared to the short RSI. This finding supports the idea that lying requires more executive control than truth telling. The manipulation of RSI may provide a simple, yet effective means to improve lie detection accuracy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Differential Effects of Hypnosis, Biofeedback Training, and Trophotropic Responses on Anxiety, Ego Strength, and Locus of Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, John D.

    1980-01-01

    College students were randomly assigned to one of four groups: hypnotic treatment, biofeedback treatment, trophotropic treatment, and control. Results indicated hypnosis was more effective in lowering anxiety levels. With regard to increasing ego strength, both the hypnotic and biofeedback training groups proved to be significant. Presented at the…

  15. Differential Effects of Hypnosis, Biofeedback Training, and Trophotropic Responses on Anxiety, Ego Strength, and Locus of Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, John D.

    1980-01-01

    College students were randomly assigned to one of four groups: hypnotic treatment, biofeedback treatment, trophotropic treatment, and control. Results indicated hypnosis was more effective in lowering anxiety levels. With regard to increasing ego strength, both the hypnotic and biofeedback training groups proved to be significant. Presented at the…

  16. Death Anxiety, Locus of Control and Life Satisfaction in the Elderly: Toward a Definition of Ego-Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehrke, Milton F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    In order to test Erikson's statements regarding ego integrity vs. despair, 20 men and 20 women from each of three residential settings (general community, public housing and nursing homes) were given life satisfaction, locus of control and death anxiety scales. Erikson's hypothesis was supported only by the public housing data. (Author)

  17. Tobacco control efforts in Europe.

    PubMed

    Britton, John; Bogdanovica, Ilze

    2013-05-04

    Smoking is prevalent across Europe, but the severity and stage of the smoking epidemic, and policy responses to it, vary substantially between countries. Much progress is now being made in prohibition of paid-for advertising and in promotion of smoke-free policies, but mass media campaigns are widely underused, provision of services for smokers trying to quit is generally poor, and price policies are undermined by licit and illicit cheap supplies. Monitoring of prevalence is inadequate in many countries, as is investment in research and capacity to address this largest avoidable cause of death and disability across Europe. However, grounds for optimism are provided by progress in implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and in the development of a new generation of nicotine-containing devices that could enable more widespread adoption of harm-reduction strategies. The effect of commercial vested interests has been and remains a major barrier to progress.

  18. Ego depletion in sports: highlighting the importance of self-control strength for high-level sport performance.

    PubMed

    Englert, Chris

    2017-08-01

    Athletes are constantly confronted with self-control demands, but previous research has delivered sound empirical evidence that athletes are not always capable of dealing with these demands. According to the strength model of self-control, individuals have a limited amount of self-control strength, which can become temporarily depleted following self-control demands (e.g., attention regulation). When self-control strength is depleted, that is, in a state of ego depletion, athletes are less persistent during strenuous physical exercise, are less likely to follow their exercise regimens, and tend to perform worse under pressure. The aim of this review article is to highlight the importance of ego depletion in the field of sports and exercise and to discuss the recent research and controversies surrounding it. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Art Therapy to Promote Ego Development in Disturbed Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Ellen A.

    The paper discusses the six major ego functions, ego disturbances in mentally retarded children, and case examples of the use of art therapy to promote ego development. Identified are the following ego functions: control and regulation of instinctual drives, autonomous functions, reality testing, object relationships, defense, and synthesis. The…

  20. Unsuccessful attempts to replicate effects of self control operations and glucose on ego-depletion pose an interesting research question that demands explanation.

    PubMed

    Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D; Hagger, Martin S

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis that sugar-containing drinks counteract depletion of self-control or ego resources is elegant and provocative because it entails that the origins of ego-energy and self-control operations can be traced to a physiological substrate. However, this hypothesis has not withstood scientific scrutiny. Lange and Eggert presented two unsuccessful attempts to replicate effects of glucose on ego-depletion. Chatzisarantis and Hagger argued that inconsistent findings may be due to experimental designs that expose participants to similar acts of self-control. This methodology may not provide a rigorous test of the counteracting effects of glucose on ego-depletion because it does not control for factors (i.e., motivation) that interfere with glucose effects. In this article, we address Lange's comments and explore the possibility that findings reported by Lange and Eggert's and Hagger and Chatzisarantis' studies are consistent. In addition, we discuss a factor that researchers may wish to take into consideration when designing experiments that aim to test effects of glucose, or glucose rinsing, on ego-depletion. This factor is related to ego-depleting value of self-control tasks. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. NRC; Smog control efforts off mark

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-06

    This paper reports that the National Research Council says the U.S. regulatory programs to control smog may have been misdirected the past 20 years, and more emphasis needs to be placed on limiting nitrogen oxide emissions. An NRC study the ozone control efforts have focused mainly on controlling volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions. However, in many parts of the country controlling emissions of nitrogen oxides would be more effective, it the, noting VOCs and nitrogen oxides are precursors of ozone.

  2. Aerobic Exercise As a Potential Way to Improve Self-Control after Ego-Depletion in Healthy Female College Students

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Zhiling; Liu, Yang; Xie, Jing; Huang, Xiting

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To test whether aerobic exercise can help build self-control stamina in healthy female young adults. Stamina in this context is defined as the capability to endure ego depletion, which can be measured with a self-control task following another activity also requiring self-control. Methods: Forty-five healthy undergraduate women were randomized to either an experimental group or control group. Participants in the experimental group were required to run in their campus running field for 30 min for a period of 5 weeks. Individuals in the control group were required to do diary entries regarding self-control in their daily lives, also for a period of 5 weeks. Before and after the 5-week intervention, participants completed a pain threshold test, a color word Stroop task and the following Cold Pressor Task (CPT) (with and without a distraction component). Results: There was significant decrease of pain tolerance in session 2 relative to session 1 in the control group, but no such decline was found in the experimental group (though the improvement of pain tolerance was not significant), possibly suggesting successful self-control against this kind of decline. Conclusions: Five weeks of aerobic exercise increased self-control after ego depletion in terms of pain tolerance. These findings suggest that aerobic exercise may serve as a potential effective intervention for enhancing self-control in a college female population. PMID:27148113

  3. Aerobic Exercise As a Potential Way to Improve Self-Control after Ego-Depletion in Healthy Female College Students.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhiling; Liu, Yang; Xie, Jing; Huang, Xiting

    2016-01-01

    To test whether aerobic exercise can help build self-control stamina in healthy female young adults. Stamina in this context is defined as the capability to endure ego depletion, which can be measured with a self-control task following another activity also requiring self-control. Forty-five healthy undergraduate women were randomized to either an experimental group or control group. Participants in the experimental group were required to run in their campus running field for 30 min for a period of 5 weeks. Individuals in the control group were required to do diary entries regarding self-control in their daily lives, also for a period of 5 weeks. Before and after the 5-week intervention, participants completed a pain threshold test, a color word Stroop task and the following Cold Pressor Task (CPT) (with and without a distraction component). There was significant decrease of pain tolerance in session 2 relative to session 1 in the control group, but no such decline was found in the experimental group (though the improvement of pain tolerance was not significant), possibly suggesting successful self-control against this kind of decline. Five weeks of aerobic exercise increased self-control after ego depletion in terms of pain tolerance. These findings suggest that aerobic exercise may serve as a potential effective intervention for enhancing self-control in a college female population.

  4. Quadratic Programming for Allocating Control Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Gurkirpal

    2005-01-01

    A computer program calculates an optimal allocation of control effort in a system that includes redundant control actuators. The program implements an iterative (but otherwise single-stage) algorithm of the quadratic-programming type. In general, in the quadratic-programming problem, one seeks the values of a set of variables that minimize a quadratic cost function, subject to a set of linear equality and inequality constraints. In this program, the cost function combines control effort (typically quantified in terms of energy or fuel consumed) and control residuals (differences between commanded and sensed values of variables to be controlled). In comparison with prior control-allocation software, this program offers approximately equal accuracy but much greater computational efficiency. In addition, this program offers flexibility, robustness to actuation failures, and a capability for selective enforcement of control requirements. The computational efficiency of this program makes it suitable for such complex, real-time applications as controlling redundant aircraft actuators or redundant spacecraft thrusters. The program is written in the C language for execution in a UNIX operating system.

  5. Ego depletion increases ad-lib alcohol consumption: investigating cognitive mediators and moderators.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Paul; Cole, Jon C; Field, Matt

    2012-04-01

    When self-control resources are depleted ("ego depletion"), alcohol-seeking behavior becomes closely associated with automatic alcohol-related processing biases (e.g., Ostafin, Marlatt, & Greenwald, 2008). The current study aimed to replicate and extend these findings, and also to investigate whether the effects of ego depletion on drinking behavior would be mediated by temporary impairments in executive function or increases in impulsivity. Eighty heavy social drinkers (46 female) initially completed measures of automatic approach tendencies (stimulus response compatibility [SRC] task) and attentional bias (visual probe task) elicited by alcohol-related cues. Participants were then exposed to either an ego depletion manipulation or a control manipulation, before completing a bogus taste test in order to assess ad-lib alcohol consumption. In a subsequent testing session, we examined effects of the ego depletion manipulation (vs. control manipulation) on 3 aspects of executive function (inhibitory control, phonemic fluency, and delay discounting). Results indicated that the ego depletion manipulation increased ad-lib drinking, relative to the control manipulation. Automatic approach tendencies, but not attentional bias, predicted ad-lib drinking, although this effect was not moderated by ego depletion. Ego depletion had inconsistent effects on measures of executive function and impulsivity, and none of these measures mediated the effect of ego depletion on ad-lib drinking. However, the effect of ego depletion on ad-lib drinking was mediated by self-reported effort in suppressing emotion and thoughts during the manipulation. Implications for the effects of self-control strength on drinking behavior, and cognitive mediators of these effects, are discussed.

  6. Ego depletion and attention regulation under pressure: is a temporary loss of self-control strength indeed related to impaired attention regulation?

    PubMed

    Englert, Chris; Zwemmer, Kris; Bertrams, Alex; Oudejans, Raôul R

    2015-04-01

    In the current study we investigated whether ego depletion negatively affects attention regulation under pressure in sports by assessing participants' dart throwing performance and accompanying gaze behavior. According to the strength model of self-control, the most important aspect of self-control is attention regulation. Because higher levels of state anxiety are associated with impaired attention regulation, we chose a mixed design with ego depletion (yes vs. no) as between-subjects and anxiety level (high vs. low) as within-subjects factor. Participants performed a perceptual-motor task requiring selective attention, namely, dart throwing. In line with our expectations, depleted participants in the high-anxiety condition performed worse and displayed a shorter final fixation on bull's eye, demonstrating that when one's self-control strength is depleted, attention regulation under pressure cannot be maintained. This is the first study that directly supports the general assumption that ego depletion is a major factor in influencing attention regulation under pressure.

  7. Cognitive trait anxiety, situational stress, and mental effort predict shifting efficiency: Implications for attentional control theory.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Elizabeth J; Edwards, Mark S; Lyvers, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Attentional control theory (ACT) predicts that trait anxiety and situational stress interact to impair performance on tasks that involve attentional shifting. The theory suggests that anxious individuals recruit additional effort to prevent shortfalls in performance effectiveness (accuracy), with deficits becoming evident in processing efficiency (the relationship between accuracy and time taken to perform the task). These assumptions, however, have not been systematically tested. The relationship between cognitive trait anxiety, situational stress, and mental effort in a shifting task (Wisconsin Card Sorting Task) was investigated in 90 participants. Cognitive trait anxiety was operationalized using questionnaire scores, situational stress was manipulated through ego threat instructions, and mental effort was measured using a visual analogue scale. Dependent variables were performance effectiveness (an inverse proportion of perseverative errors) and processing efficiency (an inverse proportion of perseverative errors divided by response time on perseverative error trials). The predictors were not associated with performance effectiveness; however, we observed a significant 3-way interaction on processing efficiency. At higher mental effort (+1 SD), higher cognitive trait anxiety was associated with poorer efficiency independently of situational stress, whereas at lower effort (-1 SD), this relationship was highly significant and most pronounced for those in the high-stress condition. These results are important because they provide the first systematic test of the relationship between trait anxiety, situational stress, and mental effort on shifting performance. The data are also consistent with the notion that effort moderates the relationship between anxiety and shifting efficiency, but not effectiveness.

  8. egoSlider: Visual Analysis of Egocentric Network Evolution.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanhong; Pitipornvivat, Naveen; Zhao, Jian; Yang, Sixiao; Huang, Guowei; Qu, Huamin

    2016-01-01

    Ego-network, which represents relationships between a specific individual, i.e., the ego, and people connected to it, i.e., alters, is a critical target to study in social network analysis. Evolutionary patterns of ego-networks along time provide huge insights to many domains such as sociology, anthropology, and psychology. However, the analysis of dynamic ego-networks remains challenging due to its complicated time-varying graph structures, for example: alters come and leave, ties grow stronger and fade away, and alter communities merge and split. Most of the existing dynamic graph visualization techniques mainly focus on topological changes of the entire network, which is not adequate for egocentric analytical tasks. In this paper, we present egoSlider, a visual analysis system for exploring and comparing dynamic ego-networks. egoSlider provides a holistic picture of the data through multiple interactively coordinated views, revealing ego-network evolutionary patterns at three different layers: a macroscopic level for summarizing the entire ego-network data, a mesoscopic level for overviewing specific individuals' ego-network evolutions, and a microscopic level for displaying detailed temporal information of egos and their alters. We demonstrate the effectiveness of egoSlider with a usage scenario with the DBLP publication records. Also, a controlled user study indicates that in general egoSlider outperforms a baseline visualization of dynamic networks for completing egocentric analytical tasks.

  9. Relations of Temperament to Maladjustment and Ego Resiliency in At-Risk Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Haugen, Rg; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Hofer, Claire; Chassin, Laurie; Zhou, Qing; Kupfer, Anne; Smith, Cynthia L.; Valiente, Carlos; Liew, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The relations of control/regulation-related temperamentally based dispositions (effortful control (EC), impulsivity, and approach/avoidance) to externalizing problems and personality ego resiliency were examined in a sample of 467 children (M age = 7.46 years), some of whom were children of alcoholics (COAs). In addition, we examined if the…

  10. Ego depletion in color priming research: self-control strength moderates the detrimental effect of red on cognitive test performance.

    PubMed

    Bertrams, Alex; Baumeister, Roy F; Englert, Chris; Furley, Philip

    2015-03-01

    Colors have been found to affect psychological functioning. Empirical evidence suggests that, in test situations, brief perceptions of the color red or even the word "red" printed in black ink prime implicit anxious responses and consequently impair cognitive performance. However, we propose that this red effect depends on people's momentary capacity to exert control over their prepotent responses (i.e., self-control). In three experiments (Ns = 66, 78, and 130), first participants' self-control strength was manipulated. Participants were then primed with the color or word red versus gray prior to completing an arithmetic test or an intelligence test. As expected, self-control strength moderated the red effect. While red had a detrimental effect on performance of participants with depleted self-control strength (ego depletion), it did not affect performance of participants with intact self-control strength. We discuss implications of the present findings within the current debate on the robustness of priming results. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  11. The concept of ego threat in social and personality psychology: is ego threat a viable scientific construct?

    PubMed

    Leary, Mark R; Terry, Meredith L; Batts Allen, Ashley; Tate, Eleanor B

    2009-08-01

    Although widely invoked as an explanation for psychological phenomena, ego threat has been conceptualized and induced in a variety of ways. Most contemporary research conceptualizes ego threat as a threat to a person's self-image or self-esteem, but experimental operationalizations of ego threat usually confound threats to self-esteem with threats to public image or decreased control over negative events, leading to an inability to distinguish the effects of threats to people's personal egos from threats to public image or threats to feelings of control. This article reviews research on ego threat, discusses experimental manipulations that confound ego threat with other processes, and makes recommendations regarding the use of ego threat as a construct in personality and social psychology.

  12. Ego identity of adolescent children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Gavriel-Fried, Belle; Teichman, Meir

    2007-01-01

    The study examines the issue of ego identity among adolescent sons of alcoholic fathers. Forty-four adolescent sons of alcoholic fathers, age of 15-18, constituted the sample. They were drawn from public alcohol treatment center in Israel. The control group included 60 adolescents none of their parents is known as an alcoholic, sampled from integrative schools in the same neighborhood and matched by age. Ego identity was measured by Tzuriel's "Adolescent Ego Identity Scale" (AEIS). It was hypothesized that adolescent children of alcoholics will show lower scores of ego identity and of its dimensions. The hypothesis was not confirmed. To the contrary, adolescent children of alcoholics reported higher scores of "ego identity-total" and of four of the seven ego identity dimensions. One possible explanation is that children of alcoholics are maturing early in age compared to their controls. They have developed different coping strategies that facilitate creating a more "stable" ego identity compared to their peers. Another explanation is that children of alcoholics apply defense mechanisms that enhance the development of an "adaptive self."

  13. Action orientation overcomes the ego depletion effect.

    PubMed

    Dang, Junhua; Xiao, Shanshan; Shi, Yucai; Mao, Lihua

    2015-04-01

    It has been consistently demonstrated that initial exertion of self-control had negative influence on people's performance on subsequent self-control tasks. This phenomenon is referred to as the ego depletion effect. Based on action control theory, the current research investigated whether the ego depletion effect could be moderated by individuals' action versus state orientation. Our results showed that only state-oriented individuals exhibited ego depletion. For individuals with action orientation, however, their performance was not influenced by initial exertion of self-control. The beneficial effect of action orientation against ego depletion in our experiment results from its facilitation for adapting to the depleting task. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Control effort exacerbates invasive-species problem.

    PubMed

    Rinella, Matthew J; Maxwell, Bruce D; Fay, Peter K; Weaver, Theodore; Sheley, Roger L

    2009-01-01

    Ecosystem managers face a difficult decision when managing invasive species. If they use aggressive practices to reduce invader abundances, they will likely reduce invaders' competitive impacts on natives. But it is often difficult or impossible to reduce invaders without damaging natives. So a critical question becomes: Which is worse for native biota, invaders or things done to control invaders? We attempted to answer this question for a common scenario. We studied several grassland natives exhibiting long-term coexistence with an invader and asked how aggressive management (herbicide use) affected the natives. Whether or not grazing was excluded, one-time herbicide use made two native forbs exceedingly rare for our entire 16-year study period. Herbicide also made several other native forbs rare, but only when grazing was excluded, and there is evidence that the dominant invader became more abundant in response to the decreases in native-forb abundances. Throughout the world, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are receiving herbicide applications for exotic-species control. Some of the applications are doubtless warranted because they target small invader patches or larger areas with virtually no remaining natives. However, other herbicide applications occur where large native populations occur, and our data suggest that these applications can be ill advised. Our cautionary tale is told using an herbicide-treated grassland, but our results should be considered wherever invasive-species management damages native species.

  15. Effortful Control and Academic Achievement in Rural China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li; Rao, Nirmala

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: This study investigated the relationships between effortful control and early literacy and mathematics achievement. A total of 181 children (85 girls and 96 boys) from rural China were assessed when they were in Grades 1 and 2. Path analyses controlling for maternal education indicated that effortful control at the beginning of…

  16. [Guangdong calls for stronger birth control effort].

    PubMed

    1981-08-20

    The Guangzhou Municipal CCP and Revolutionary Committees recently decided that the rural areas of Guangzhou must spend a concentrated period in the second 1/2 of this year in all-round implementation of the policies and measures on planned parenthood, to ensure that this year's target of keeping natural population growth rate below 10.5/1000 is met. Guangzhou Municipality has failed for 4 successive years to meet the population control target assigned by the provincial authorities. The natural population growth rate in 1979 was the highest of 10 major cities. In 1980 the city lagged behind 20 provinces and municipalities in the whole country in this respect. There was a serious rise in the birth rate in the city's suburban counties from January-July this year. As a result, the number of births in the area was 1700 more than in the same period last year. At the same time, there were 39% more marriages in the first 1/2 of the year in the municipality than in the same period last year. Thus, there is bound to be an increase in the number of legal births in the second 1/2 of the year. At present, an extremely conspicuous problem is the many rural pregnancies which are not covered by the plans and involved some 15,000 persons. The municipal CCP and revolutionary committees have therefore issued a circular demanding that all counties and districts spend some time in September and November to concentrate the leaders, cadres, and technical forces, create public opinion in a big way, conduct extensive propaganda, and mobilization, and do a good job in ideological work, to mobilize those who pregnancies are not covered by the plan to take remedial measures, and achieve a big rise in the rate of permanent contraception. The circular reiterated the policy principles in setting population targets, that is, advocating having only 1 child, strictly controlling the birth of a 2nd child according to the conditions, and forbidding the birth of a 3rd. The urban units must vigorously

  17. Effortful Control, Surgency, and reading skills in middle childhood

    PubMed Central

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Mullineaux, Paula Y.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Thompson, Lee A.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the associations between components of temperament and children’s word and pseudo-word reading skills, in a school-age sample using a within-family internal-replication design. We estimated the statistical prediction of word and pseudo-word reading in separate regression equations that included the main effects of, and two-way interaction between, Surgency and Effortful Control. Children with better Effortful Control scores showed better reading skills. Surgency was unrelated to reading skills, but moderated the effect of Effortful Control. The positive association between reading skills and Effortful Control was present only for children who were low in Surgency. Thus, reading achievement in school-age children is optimized by strong Effortful Control, but these processes may be disrupted for those children who are high in Surgency. PMID:20526377

  18. Self-affirmation and self-control: affirming core values counteracts ego depletion.

    PubMed

    Schmeichel, Brandon J; Vohs, Kathleen

    2009-04-01

    Research has established that acts of self-control deplete a resource required for subsequent self-control tasks. The present investigation revealed that a psychological intervention-self-affirmation-facilitates self-control when the resource has been depleted. Experiments 1 and 2 found beneficial effects of self-affirmation on self-control in a depleted state. Experiments 3 and 4 suggested that self-affirmation improves self-control by promoting higher levels (vs. lower levels) of mental construal. Self-affirmation therefore holds promise as a mental strategy that reduces the likelihood of self-control failure. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Ego depletion in visual perception: Ego-depleted viewers experience less ambiguous figure reversal.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Marina C; Stirk, Steven; Hancock, Peter J B

    2017-02-22

    This study examined the effects of ego depletion on ambiguous figure perception. Adults (N = 315) received an ego depletion task and were subsequently tested on their inhibitory control abilities that were indexed by the Stroop task (Experiment 1) and their ability to perceive both interpretations of ambiguous figures that was indexed by reversal (Experiment 2). Ego depletion had a very small effect on reducing inhibitory control (Cohen's d = .15) (Experiment 1). Ego-depleted participants had a tendency to take longer to respond in Stroop trials. In Experiment 2, ego depletion had small to medium effects on the experience of reversal. Ego-depleted viewers tended to take longer to reverse ambiguous figures (duration to first reversal) when naïve of the ambiguity and experienced less reversal both when naïve and informed of the ambiguity. Together, findings suggest that ego depletion has small effects on inhibitory control and small to medium effects on bottom-up and top-down perceptual processes. The depletion of cognitive resources can reduce our visual perceptual experience.

  20. Are Effortful and Reactive Control Unique Constructs in Young Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Edwards, Alison; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Sallquist, Julie; Eggum, Natalie D.; Reiser, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine whether effortful control (EC; effortful regulation), reactive undercontrol (IMP; e.g., impulsivity, speed of approach), and reactive overcontrol (NOV; inhibition to novelty) were 3 distinct constructs at 30 months (Time 1; n = 216), 42 months (Time 2; n = 192), and 54 months (Time 3; n = 168) of age.…

  1. Are Effortful and Reactive Control Unique Constructs in Young Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Edwards, Alison; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Sallquist, Julie; Eggum, Natalie D.; Reiser, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine whether effortful control (EC; effortful regulation), reactive undercontrol (IMP; e.g., impulsivity, speed of approach), and reactive overcontrol (NOV; inhibition to novelty) were 3 distinct constructs at 30 months (Time 1; n = 216), 42 months (Time 2; n = 192), and 54 months (Time 3; n = 168) of age.…

  2. Ego Functioning During Latency

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Milton S.

    1979-01-01

    The latency period is an extremely important transition between the preschool years and adolescence. Normal ego functioning is described, especially cognition, socialization, motor development, and defensive functions. PMID:529320

  3. Ego depletion impairs implicit learning.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kelsey R; Sanchez, Daniel J; Wesley, Abigail H; Reber, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Implicit skill learning occurs incidentally and without conscious awareness of what is learned. However, the rate and effectiveness of learning may still be affected by decreased availability of central processing resources. Dual-task experiments have generally found impairments in implicit learning, however, these studies have also shown that certain characteristics of the secondary task (e.g., timing) can complicate the interpretation of these results. To avoid this problem, the current experiments used a novel method to impose resource constraints prior to engaging in skill learning. Ego depletion theory states that humans possess a limited store of cognitive resources that, when depleted, results in deficits in self-regulation and cognitive control. In a first experiment, we used a standard ego depletion manipulation prior to performance of the Serial Interception Sequence Learning (SISL) task. Depleted participants exhibited poorer test performance than did non-depleted controls, indicating that reducing available executive resources may adversely affect implicit sequence learning, expression of sequence knowledge, or both. In a second experiment, depletion was administered either prior to or after training. Participants who reported higher levels of depletion before or after training again showed less sequence-specific knowledge on the post-training assessment. However, the results did not allow for clear separation of ego depletion effects on learning versus subsequent sequence-specific performance. These results indicate that performance on an implicitly learned sequence can be impaired by a reduction in executive resources, in spite of learning taking place outside of awareness and without conscious intent.

  4. Evaluating cognitive effort in a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Turner, Travis H; Renfroe, Jenna B; Morella, Kristen; Marriott, Bernadette P

    2016-09-01

    Many randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of neuropsychiatric conditions involve cognitive outcome measures; however, validity of cognitive data relies on adequate effort during testing, and such screening is seldom performed. Given well-established rates of 10 to 30% poor effort in clinical settings, this is not a trivial concern. This preliminary study evaluated effort during cognitive testing in an RCT of omega-3 supplementation to reduce suicidality in a high-risk psychiatric population. An interim analysis of sustained attentions measures from the Connors Performance Test (CPT-2) at baseline for the first 60 participants was conducted. Previously validated cut points to detect insufficient effort on the CPT-2 were applied. At baseline, 12% (7) were identified as giving poor effort. Follow-up analyses indicated less psychiatric distress and suicidality among those who gave poor effort. Results suggest comparable likelihood of a poor effort on cognitive testing in clinical and RCT participation. Reduced psychiatric distress in the poor effort group raises concern regarding interpretation of other measures. The importance of screening cognitive data for effort in RCTs is highlighted. Future studies will examine effort at follow-up visits, and explore relationships to attrition, adherence, and response to treatment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Control and Effort Costs Influence the Motivational Consequences of Choice

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan-Toole, Holly; Richey, John A.; Tricomi, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    The act of making a choice, apart from any outcomes the choice may yield, has, paradoxically, been linked to both the enhancement and the detriment of intrinsic motivation. Research has implicated two factors in potentially mediating these contradictory effects: the personal control conferred by a choice and the costs associated with a choice. Across four experiments, utilizing a physical effort task disguised as a simple video game, we systematically varied costs across two levels of physical effort requirements (Low-Requirement, High-Requirement) and control over effort costs across three levels of choice (Free-Choice, Restricted-Choice, and No-Choice) to disambiguate how these factors affect the motivational consequences of choosing within an effortful task. Together, our results indicated that, in the face of effort requirements, illusory control alone may not sufficiently enhance perceptions of personal control to boost intrinsic motivation; rather, the experience of actual control may be necessary to overcome effort costs and elevate performance. Additionally, we demonstrated that conditions of illusory control, while otherwise unmotivating, can through association with the experience of free-choice, be transformed to have a positive effect on motivation. PMID:28515705

  6. Synchronous Control Effort Minimized for Magnetic-Bearing-Supported Shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.

    2001-01-01

    Various disturbances that are synchronous with the shaft speed can complicate radial magnetic bearing control. These include position sensor target irregularities (runout) and shaft imbalance. The method presented here allows the controller to ignore all synchronous harmonics of the shaft position input (within the closed-loop bandwidth) and to respond only to asynchronous motions. The result is reduced control effort.

  7. The modality effect of ego depletion: Auditory task modality reduces ego depletion.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiong; Wang, Zhenhong

    2016-08-01

    An initial act of self-control that impairs subsequent acts of self-control is called ego depletion. The ego depletion phenomenon has been observed consistently. The modality effect refers to the effect of the presentation modality on the processing of stimuli. The modality effect was also robustly found in a large body of research. However, no study to date has examined the modality effects of ego depletion. This issue was addressed in the current study. In Experiment 1, after all participants completed a handgrip task, one group's participants completed a visual attention regulation task and the other group's participants completed an auditory attention regulation task, and then all participants again completed a handgrip task. The ego depletion phenomenon was observed in both the visual and the auditory attention regulation task. Moreover, participants who completed the visual task performed worse on the handgrip task than participants who completed the auditory task, which indicated that there was high ego depletion in the visual task condition. In Experiment 2, participants completed an initial task that either did or did not deplete self-control resources, and then they completed a second visual or auditory attention control task. The results indicated that depleted participants performed better on the auditory attention control task than the visual attention control task. These findings suggest that altering task modality may reduce ego depletion. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Control of robotic assistance using poststroke residual voluntary effort.

    PubMed

    Makowski, Nathaniel S; Knutson, Jayme S; Chae, John; Crago, Patrick E

    2015-03-01

    Poststroke hemiparesis limits the ability to reach, in part due to involuntary muscle co-activation (synergies). Robotic approaches are being developed for both therapeutic benefit and continuous assistance during activities of daily living. Robotic assistance may enable participants to exert less effort, thereby reducing expression of the abnormal co-activation patterns, which could allow participants to reach further. This study evaluated how well participants could perform a reaching task with robotic assistance that was either provided independent of effort in the vertical direction or in the sagittal plane in proportion to voluntary effort estimated from electromyograms (EMG) on the affected side. Participants who could not reach targets without assistance were enabled to reach further with assistance. Constant anti-gravity force assistance that was independent of voluntary effort did not reduce the quality of reach and enabled participants to exert less effort while maintaining different target locations. Force assistance that was proportional to voluntary effort on the affected side enabled participants to exert less effort and could be controlled to successfully reach targets, but participants had increased difficulty maintaining a stable position. These results suggest that residual effort on the affected side can produce an effective command signal for poststroke assistive devices.

  9. Ego depletion increases risk-taking.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Peter; Kastenmüller, Andreas; Asal, Kathrin

    2012-01-01

    We investigated how the availability of self-control resources affects risk-taking inclinations and behaviors. We proposed that risk-taking often occurs from suboptimal decision processes and heuristic information processing (e.g., when a smoker suppresses or neglects information about the health risks of smoking). Research revealed that depleted self-regulation resources are associated with reduced intellectual performance and reduced abilities to regulate spontaneous and automatic responses (e.g., control aggressive responses in the face of frustration). The present studies transferred these ideas to the area of risk-taking. We propose that risk-taking is increased when individuals find themselves in a state of reduced cognitive self-control resources (ego-depletion). Four studies supported these ideas. In Study 1, ego-depleted participants reported higher levels of sensation seeking than non-depleted participants. In Study 2, ego-depleted participants showed higher levels of risk-tolerance in critical road traffic situations than non-depleted participants. In Study 3, we ruled out two alternative explanations for these results: neither cognitive load nor feelings of anger mediated the effect of ego-depletion on risk-taking. Finally, Study 4 clarified the underlying psychological process: ego-depleted participants feel more cognitively exhausted than non-depleted participants and thus are more willing to take risks. Discussion focuses on the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

  10. Ego development in college.

    PubMed

    Loevinger, J; Cohn, L D; Bonneville, L P; Redmore, C D; Streich, D D; Sargent, M

    1985-04-01

    Using the Sentence Completion Test for ego development, we studied several cohorts of students between 1971 and 1979 at a technological institute (Tech) and between 1974 and 1979 at a predominantly liberal arts university (MU). Ego level tended to rise slightly except among women at MU, for whom there was a slight but consistent loss. This particular finding challenges one assumption of a widely accepted version of Piagetian theory: that stage development is irreversible. Women tended to enter MU slightly ahead of men in ego level, but left at the same level. Contrary to expectation, men and women appeared to gain more at Tech than at MU; the difference was significant only for women.

  11. Ego functions and ego development: defense mechanisms and intelligence as predictors of ego level.

    PubMed

    Cramer, P

    1999-10-01

    This study considers the contribution of two ego functions--intelligence and defense mechanisms--to ego developmental level. Two independent assessments of ego level were related to IQ and defense mechanism use in a sample of 89 young adults. Whereas IQ and defense were themselves found to be unrelated, both variables predicted ego level: The relation with IQ was linear, whereas the relation with defense was curvilinear. In addition, the relation between defense and ego level varied as a function of IQ level. At low levels of IQ, stronger use of Denial and Projection was associated with higher ego levels. At high IQ levels, strong use of Denial was associated with lower ego levels, whereas moderate use of Projection was associated with higher ego levels.

  12. Extrapunitive and intropunitive individuals activate different parts of the prefrontal cortex under an ego-blocking frustration.

    PubMed

    Minamoto, Takehiro; Osaka, Mariko; Yaoi, Ken; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Different people make different responses when they face a frustrating situation: some punish others (extrapunitive), while others punish themselves (intropunitive). Few studies have investigated the neural structures that differentiate extrapunitive and intropunitive individuals. The present fMRI study explored these neural structures using two different frustrating situations: an ego-blocking situation which blocks a desire or goal, and a superego-blocking situation which blocks self-esteem. In the ego-blocking condition, the extrapunitive group (n = 9) showed greater activation in the bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, indicating that these individuals prefer emotional processing. On the other hand, the intropunitive group (n = 9) showed greater activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, possibly reflecting an effortful control for anger reduction. Such patterns were not observed in the superego-blocking condition. These results indicate that the prefrontal cortex is the source of individual differences in aggression direction in the ego-blocking situation.

  13. Extrapunitive and Intropunitive Individuals Activate Different Parts of the Prefrontal Cortex under an Ego-Blocking Frustration

    PubMed Central

    Minamoto, Takehiro; Osaka, Mariko; Yaoi, Ken; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Different people make different responses when they face a frustrating situation: some punish others (extrapunitive), while others punish themselves (intropunitive). Few studies have investigated the neural structures that differentiate extrapunitive and intropunitive individuals. The present fMRI study explored these neural structures using two different frustrating situations: an ego-blocking situation which blocks a desire or goal, and a superego-blocking situation which blocks self-esteem. In the ego-blocking condition, the extrapunitive group (n = 9) showed greater activation in the bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, indicating that these individuals prefer emotional processing. On the other hand, the intropunitive group (n = 9) showed greater activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, possibly reflecting an effortful control for anger reduction. Such patterns were not observed in the superego-blocking condition. These results indicate that the prefrontal cortex is the source of individual differences in aggression direction in the ego-blocking situation. PMID:24454951

  14. The Development of Effortful Control in Children Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poehlmann, Julie; Schwichtenberg, A. J. Miller; Shah, Prachi E.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Hahn, Emily; Maleck, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal study examined emerging effortful control skills at 24- and 36-months postterm in 172 children born preterm (less than 36 weeks gestation). Infant (neonatal health risks), family (sociodemographic risks), and maternal risk factors (depressive symptoms, anger expressions during play interactions) were assessed at six…

  15. Mothers' Teaching Strategies and Children's Effortful Control: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Vidmar, Masa; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eggum, Natalie D.; Edwards, Alison; Gaertner, Bridget; Kupfer, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Findings on the relation of maternal verbal teaching strategies to children's effortful control (EC; i.e., self-regulation) are limited in quantity and somewhat inconsistent. In this study, children's EC was assessed at 18, 30, and 42 months (ns = 255, 229, and 209, respectively) with adults' reports and a behavioral measure. Mothers' verbal…

  16. Attachment and Effortful Control: Relationships With Maladjustment in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heylen, Joke; Vasey, Michael W.; Dujardin, Adinda; Vandevivere, Eva; Braet, Caroline; De Raedt, Rudi; Bosmans, Guy

    2017-01-01

    Based on former research, it can be assumed that attachment relationships provide a context in which children develop both the effortful control (EC) capacity and the repertoire of responses to regulate distress. Both are important to understand children's (mal)adjustment. While the latter assumption has been supported in several studies, less is…

  17. Children's Effortful Control and Academic Achievement: Mediation through Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; Haugen, Rg; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Hofer, Claire; Liew, Jeffrey; Kupfer, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to test the premise that children's effortful control (EC) is prospectively related to their academic achievement and to specify mechanisms through which EC is related to academic success. We used data from 214 children (M age at Time 1 [T1] = 73 months) to test whether social functioning (e.g.,…

  18. Origins of Effortful Control: Infant and Parent Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartstein, Maria A.; Bridgett, David J.; Young, Brandi N.; Panksepp, Jaak; Power, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Effortful control (EC) refers to the ability to inhibit a dominant response to perform a subdominant one and has been shown as protective against a myriad of difficulties. Research examining precursors of EC has been limited to date, and in this study, infancy contributors to toddler EC were examined. Specifically, parent/family background…

  19. Mothers' Teaching Strategies and Children's Effortful Control: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Vidmar, Masa; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eggum, Natalie D.; Edwards, Alison; Gaertner, Bridget; Kupfer, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Findings on the relation of maternal verbal teaching strategies to children's effortful control (EC; i.e., self-regulation) are limited in quantity and somewhat inconsistent. In this study, children's EC was assessed at 18, 30, and 42 months (ns = 255, 229, and 209, respectively) with adults' reports and a behavioral measure. Mothers' verbal…

  20. The Development of Effortful Control in Children Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poehlmann, Julie; Schwichtenberg, A. J. Miller; Shah, Prachi E.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Hahn, Emily; Maleck, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal study examined emerging effortful control skills at 24- and 36-months postterm in 172 children born preterm (less than 36 weeks gestation). Infant (neonatal health risks), family (sociodemographic risks), and maternal risk factors (depressive symptoms, anger expressions during play interactions) were assessed at six…

  1. Attachment and Effortful Control: Relationships With Maladjustment in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heylen, Joke; Vasey, Michael W.; Dujardin, Adinda; Vandevivere, Eva; Braet, Caroline; De Raedt, Rudi; Bosmans, Guy

    2017-01-01

    Based on former research, it can be assumed that attachment relationships provide a context in which children develop both the effortful control (EC) capacity and the repertoire of responses to regulate distress. Both are important to understand children's (mal)adjustment. While the latter assumption has been supported in several studies, less is…

  2. Predicting Preschool Effortful Control from Toddler Temperament and Parenting Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cipriano, Elizabeth A.; Stifter, Cynthia A.

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study assessed whether maternal behavior and emotional tone moderated the relationship between toddler temperament and preschooler's effortful control. Maternal behavior and emotional tone were observed during a parent-child competing demands task when children were 2 years of age. Child temperament was also assessed at 2 years…

  3. The Efficacy of Air Pollution Control Efforts: Evidence from AURA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickerson, Russell R.; Canty, Tim; Duncan, Bryan N.; Hao, He; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Stehr, Jeffrey W.; Vinnikov, Konstatin

    2014-01-01

    Observations of NO2, SO2, and H2CO from OMI on AURA provide an excellent record of pollutant concentrations for the past decade. Abatement strategies to control criteria pollutants including ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) have met with varying degrees of success. Sulfur controls had a profound impact on local SO2 concentrations and a measurable impact on PM2.5. Although substantial effort has gone into VOC control, ozone in the eastern US has responded dramatically to NOx emissions controls.

  4. Ego Depletion Impairs Implicit Learning

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Kelsey R.; Sanchez, Daniel J.; Wesley, Abigail H.; Reber, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Implicit skill learning occurs incidentally and without conscious awareness of what is learned. However, the rate and effectiveness of learning may still be affected by decreased availability of central processing resources. Dual-task experiments have generally found impairments in implicit learning, however, these studies have also shown that certain characteristics of the secondary task (e.g., timing) can complicate the interpretation of these results. To avoid this problem, the current experiments used a novel method to impose resource constraints prior to engaging in skill learning. Ego depletion theory states that humans possess a limited store of cognitive resources that, when depleted, results in deficits in self-regulation and cognitive control. In a first experiment, we used a standard ego depletion manipulation prior to performance of the Serial Interception Sequence Learning (SISL) task. Depleted participants exhibited poorer test performance than did non-depleted controls, indicating that reducing available executive resources may adversely affect implicit sequence learning, expression of sequence knowledge, or both. In a second experiment, depletion was administered either prior to or after training. Participants who reported higher levels of depletion before or after training again showed less sequence-specific knowledge on the post-training assessment. However, the results did not allow for clear separation of ego depletion effects on learning versus subsequent sequence-specific performance. These results indicate that performance on an implicitly learned sequence can be impaired by a reduction in executive resources, in spite of learning taking place outside of awareness and without conscious intent. PMID:25275517

  5. Self-regulation, ego depletion, and inhibition.

    PubMed

    Baumeister, Roy F

    2014-12-01

    Inhibition is a major form of self-regulation. As such, it depends on self-awareness and comparing oneself to standards and is also susceptible to fluctuations in willpower resources. Ego depletion is the state of reduced willpower caused by prior exertion of self-control. Ego depletion undermines inhibition both because restraints are weaker and because urges are felt more intensely than usual. Conscious inhibition of desires is a pervasive feature of everyday life and may be a requirement of life in civilized, cultural society, and in that sense it goes to the evolved core of human nature. Intentional inhibition not only restrains antisocial impulses but can also facilitate optimal performance, such as during test taking. Self-regulation and ego depletion- may also affect less intentional forms of inhibition, even chronic tendencies to inhibit. Broadly stated, inhibition is necessary for human social life and nearly all societies encourage and enforce it. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Framing tobacco control efforts within an ethical context

    PubMed Central

    Fox, B

    2005-01-01

    Public health efforts to promote tobacco control are not performed within a vacuum. They are subject to interpretation and misinterpretation by consumers and policymakers based largely upon the initial framing of the issues. This paper notes how the tobacco industry has established a particular frame that it is the protector of individual rights and that the public health community is trying to eliminate those rights. This paper then shows how the public health community uses metaphors that may unintentionally support this framing and suggests that by reframing public health efforts in accordance with core ethical principles, the public health community can create more positive messages. A public health ethical framework is proposed to examine how the application of the principles can influence the tobacco control movement. Through the increased use of ethics in tobacco control, the public health community may be better positioned to claim the high road as the protector of the public's interests. PMID:16046701

  7. Cognitive effort and pupil dilation in controlled and automatic processes.

    PubMed

    Querino, Emanuel; Dos Santos, Lafaiete; Ginani, Giuliano; Nicolau, Eduardo; Miranda, Débora; Romano-Silva, Marco; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    The Five Digits Test (FDT) is a Stroop paradigm test that aims to evaluate executive functions. It is composed of four parts, two of which are related to automatic and two of which are related to controlled processes. It is known that pupillary diameter increases as the task's cognitive demand increases. In the present study, we evaluated whether the pupillary diameter could distinguish cognitive effort between automated and controlled cognitive processing during the FDT as the task progressed. As a control task, we used a simple reading paradigm with a similar visual aspect as the FDT. We then divided each of the four parts into two blocks in order to evaluate the differences between the first and second half of the task. Results indicated that, compared to a control task, the FDT required higher cognitive effort for each consecutive part. Moreover, the first half of every part of the FDT induced dilation more than the second. The differences in pupil dilation during the first half of the four FDT parts were statistically significant between the parts 2 and 4 (p=0.023), and between the parts 3 and 4 (p=0.006). These results provide further evidence that cognitive effort and pupil diameter can distinguish controlled from automatic processes.

  8. Cognitive effort and pupil dilation in controlled and automatic processes

    PubMed Central

    Querino, Emanuel; dos Santos, Lafaiete; Ginani, Giuliano; Nicolau, Eduardo; Miranda, Débora; Romano-Silva, Marco; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    The Five Digits Test (FDT) is a Stroop paradigm test that aims to evaluate executive functions. It is composed of four parts, two of which are related to automatic and two of which are related to controlled processes. It is known that pupillary diameter increases as the task’s cognitive demand increases. In the present study, we evaluated whether the pupillary diameter could distinguish cognitive effort between automated and controlled cognitive processing during the FDT as the task progressed. As a control task, we used a simple reading paradigm with a similar visual aspect as the FDT. We then divided each of the four parts into two blocks in order to evaluate the differences between the first and second half of the task. Results indicated that, compared to a control task, the FDT required higher cognitive effort for each consecutive part. Moreover, the first half of every part of the FDT induced dilation more than the second. The differences in pupil dilation during the first half of the four FDT parts were statistically significant between the parts 2 and 4 (p=0.023), and between the parts 3 and 4 (p=0.006). These results provide further evidence that cognitive effort and pupil diameter can distinguish controlled from automatic processes. PMID:28123801

  9. Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) spending and tobacco control efforts.

    PubMed

    Jayawardhana, Jayani; Bradford, W David; Jones, Walter; Nietert, Paul J; Silvestri, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether the distributions to the states from the Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) in 1998 is associated with stronger tobacco control efforts. We use state level data from 50 states and the District of Columbia from four time periods post MSA (1999, 2002, 2004, and 2006) for the analysis. Using fixed effect regression models, we estimate the relationship between MSA disbursements and a new aggregate measure of strength of state tobacco control known as the Strength of Tobacco Control (SoTC) Index. Results show an increase of $1 in the annual per capita MSA disbursement to a state is associated with a decrease of -0.316 in the SoTC mean value, indicating higher MSA payments were associated with weaker tobacco control measures within states. In order to achieve the initial objectives of the MSA payments, policy makers should focus on utilizing MSA payments strictly on tobacco control activities across states.

  10. Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) Spending and Tobacco Control Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Jayawardhana, Jayani; Bradford, W. David; Jones, Walter; Nietert, Paul J.; Silvestri, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether the distributions to the states from the Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) in 1998 is associated with stronger tobacco control efforts. We use state level data from 50 states and the District of Columbia from four time periods post MSA (1999, 2002, 2004, and 2006) for the analysis. Using fixed effect regression models, we estimate the relationship between MSA disbursements and a new aggregate measure of strength of state tobacco control known as the Strength of Tobacco Control (SoTC) Index. Results show an increase of $1 in the annual per capita MSA disbursement to a state is associated with a decrease of −0.316 in the SoTC mean value, indicating higher MSA payments were associated with weaker tobacco control measures within states. In order to achieve the initial objectives of the MSA payments, policy makers should focus on utilizing MSA payments strictly on tobacco control activities across states. PMID:25506827

  11. Ego Development and Adolescent Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bursik, Krisanne; Martin, Timothy A.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated ego developmental differences in adolescent academic orientations and academic achievement. A sample of 142 male and female high school students completed the Washington University Sentence Completion Test and self-report measures assessing academic locus of control, learning orientation (LO), and grade orientation (GO).…

  12. Ego Identity of Adolescent Children of Alcoholics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavriel-Fried, Belle; Teichman, Meir

    2007-01-01

    The study examines the issue of ego identity among adolescent sons of alcoholic fathers. Forty-four adolescent sons of alcoholic fathers, age of 15-18, constituted the sample. They were drawn from public alcohol treatment center in Israel. The control group included 60 adolescents none of their parents is known as an alcoholic, sampled from…

  13. Ego development in female-to-male transsexual couples.

    PubMed

    Fleming, M; Costos, D; MacGowan, B

    1984-12-01

    The ego development of 22 postoperative female-to-male transsexuals and their spouses or lovers with whom they had been living for a year or more was investigated. The transsexuals, their spouses, and a control group of 22 couples were administered the Washington University Sentence Completion Test of Ego Development, a projective measure of ego functioning. Ego development refers to the framework of meaning that the individual brings to an experience. The construct of ego development incorporates a series of sequential stages that integrate various frames of reference including cognitive style, interpersonal style, conscious preoccupation, and impulse control. These processes have received little attention in studies on female-to-male transsexuals who have successfully negotiated the social barrier of cross-living to the extent that they are living the male role in a heterosexual relationship. No significant differences in the distribution of ego development scores were found between the transsexuals and the control males, or between the transsexuals' spouses and the control spouses. Over 93% of the transsexuals and their spouses scored above the conformist level of ego development. These findings are discussed in terms of some of the previous literature on conformist thinking by transsexuals.

  14. Publication bias and the limited strength model of self-control: has the evidence for ego depletion been overestimated?

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Evan C.; McCullough, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Few models of self-control have generated as much scientific interest as has the limited strength model. One of the entailments of this model, the depletion effect, is the expectation that acts of self-control will be less effective when they follow prior acts of self-control. Results from a previous meta-analysis concluded that the depletion effect is robust and medium in magnitude (d = 0.62). However, when we applied methods for estimating and correcting for small-study effects (such as publication bias) to the data from this previous meta-analysis effort, we found very strong signals of publication bias, along with an indication that the depletion effect is actually no different from zero. We conclude that until greater certainty about the size of the depletion effect can be established, circumspection about the existence of this phenomenon is warranted, and that rather than elaborating on the model, research efforts should focus on establishing whether the basic effect exists. We argue that the evidence for the depletion effect is a useful case study for illustrating the dangers of small-study effects as well as some of the possible tools for mitigating their influence in psychological science. PMID:25126083

  15. Publication bias and the limited strength model of self-control: has the evidence for ego depletion been overestimated?

    PubMed

    Carter, Evan C; McCullough, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Few models of self-control have generated as much scientific interest as has the limited strength model. One of the entailments of this model, the depletion effect, is the expectation that acts of self-control will be less effective when they follow prior acts of self-control. Results from a previous meta-analysis concluded that the depletion effect is robust and medium in magnitude (d = 0.62). However, when we applied methods for estimating and correcting for small-study effects (such as publication bias) to the data from this previous meta-analysis effort, we found very strong signals of publication bias, along with an indication that the depletion effect is actually no different from zero. We conclude that until greater certainty about the size of the depletion effect can be established, circumspection about the existence of this phenomenon is warranted, and that rather than elaborating on the model, research efforts should focus on establishing whether the basic effect exists. We argue that the evidence for the depletion effect is a useful case study for illustrating the dangers of small-study effects as well as some of the possible tools for mitigating their influence in psychological science.

  16. The relationship between early ego strength and adolescent responses to the threat of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Andrekus, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    Ego resiliency and ego control, measured when subjects were 3 or 4 years old, were related to expectation of war, concern for the future, and activism in response to the threat of nuclear war, measured when subjects were 18 years old. Data from 92 participants in a longitudinal study of ego and cognitive development conducted by Jeanne and Jack Block at the University of California, Berkeley were used to test hypotheses. Assessments with the California Child Q-set, composited across multiple independent observers, provide measures of ego resiliency and ego control. Adolescent interviews regarding the perception of likelihood of nuclear war, how this affects their future, and their antinuclear and general political activism were scaled and rated. Early ego resiliency and ego under control were hypothesized to account for the variance in adolescent nuclear responses and activism. The only significant longitudinal relationships were in the female sample, where ego under control was found to be a significant predictor of both general political activism (p<.01) and ideas of the future being affected by the nuclear threat (p<.05). Among males, the relationship between early ego resiliency and adolescent antinuclear activism approached significance (p<.10). Adolescent personality was significantly related to several measures of nuclear response. In girls, adolescent ego under control related to perception of likelihood of nuclear war (p<.05) and antinuclear activism (p<.05), and the interaction of ego resiliency and ego under control predicted general political activism (p<.0005). In boys, adolescent ego resiliency correlated with antinuclear activism (p<.05). These findings were discussed in terms of antecedent parenting styles, and conceptual links were drawn between children's ego resiliency and security of attachment, perspective taking, and moral development.

  17. DC Control Effort Minimized for Magnetic-Bearing-Supported Shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.

    2001-01-01

    A magnetic-bearing-supported shaft may have a number of concentricity and alignment problems. One of these involves the relationship of the position sensors, the centerline of the backup bearings, and the magnetic center of the magnetic bearings. For magnetic bearings with permanent magnet biasing, the average control current for a given control axis that is not bearing the shaft weight will be minimized if the shaft is centered, on average over a revolution, at the magnetic center of the bearings. That position may not yield zero sensor output or center the shaft in the backup bearing clearance. The desired shaft position that gives zero average current can be achieved if a simple additional term is added to the control law. Suppose that the instantaneous control currents from each bearing are available from measurements and can be input into the control computer. If each control current is integrated with a very small rate of accumulation and the result is added to the control output, the shaft will gradually move to a position where the control current averages to zero over many revolutions. This will occur regardless of any offsets of the position sensor inputs. At that position, the average control effort is minimized in comparison to other possible locations of the shaft. Nonlinearities of the magnetic bearing are minimized at that location as well.

  18. DC Control Effort Minimized for Magnetic-Bearing-Supported Shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.

    2001-01-01

    A magnetic-bearing-supported shaft may have a number of concentricity and alignment problems. One of these involves the relationship of the position sensors, the centerline of the backup bearings, and the magnetic center of the magnetic bearings. For magnetic bearings with permanent magnet biasing, the average control current for a given control axis that is not bearing the shaft weight will be minimized if the shaft is centered, on average over a revolution, at the magnetic center of the bearings. That position may not yield zero sensor output or center the shaft in the backup bearing clearance. The desired shaft position that gives zero average current can be achieved if a simple additional term is added to the control law. Suppose that the instantaneous control currents from each bearing are available from measurements and can be input into the control computer. If each control current is integrated with a very small rate of accumulation and the result is added to the control output, the shaft will gradually move to a position where the control current averages to zero over many revolutions. This will occur regardless of any offsets of the position sensor inputs. At that position, the average control effort is minimized in comparison to other possible locations of the shaft. Nonlinearities of the magnetic bearing are minimized at that location as well.

  19. Investigating ego modules and pathways in osteosarcoma by integrating the EgoNet algorithm and pathway analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, X Y; Chen, Y H; Zhang, L J; Wang, Y; Tong, Z C

    2017-02-16

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary bone malignancy, but current therapies are far from effective for all patients. A better understanding of the pathological mechanism of OS may help to achieve new treatments for this tumor. Hence, the objective of this study was to investigate ego modules and pathways in OS utilizing EgoNet algorithm and pathway-related analysis, and reveal pathological mechanisms underlying OS. The EgoNet algorithm comprises four steps: constructing background protein-protein interaction (PPI) network (PPIN) based on gene expression data and PPI data; extracting differential expression network (DEN) from the background PPIN; identifying ego genes according to topological features of genes in reweighted DEN; and collecting ego modules using module search by ego gene expansion. Consequently, we obtained 5 ego modules (Modules 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6) in total. After applying the permutation test, all presented statistical significance between OS and normal controls. Finally, pathway enrichment analysis combined with Reactome pathway database was performed to investigate pathways, and Fisher's exact test was conducted to capture ego pathways for OS. The ego pathway for Module 2 was CLEC7A/inflammasome pathway, while for Module 3 a tetrasaccharide linker sequence was required for glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis, and for Module 6 was the Rho GTPase cycle. Interestingly, genes in Modules 4 and 5 were enriched in the same pathway, the 2-LTR circle formation. In conclusion, the ego modules and pathways might be potential biomarkers for OS therapeutic index, and give great insight of the molecular mechanism underlying this tumor.

  20. Investigating ego modules and pathways in osteosarcoma by integrating the EgoNet algorithm and pathway analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, X.Y.; Chen, Y.H.; Zhang, L.J.; Wang, Y.; Tong, Z.C.

    2017-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary bone malignancy, but current therapies are far from effective for all patients. A better understanding of the pathological mechanism of OS may help to achieve new treatments for this tumor. Hence, the objective of this study was to investigate ego modules and pathways in OS utilizing EgoNet algorithm and pathway-related analysis, and reveal pathological mechanisms underlying OS. The EgoNet algorithm comprises four steps: constructing background protein-protein interaction (PPI) network (PPIN) based on gene expression data and PPI data; extracting differential expression network (DEN) from the background PPIN; identifying ego genes according to topological features of genes in reweighted DEN; and collecting ego modules using module search by ego gene expansion. Consequently, we obtained 5 ego modules (Modules 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6) in total. After applying the permutation test, all presented statistical significance between OS and normal controls. Finally, pathway enrichment analysis combined with Reactome pathway database was performed to investigate pathways, and Fisher's exact test was conducted to capture ego pathways for OS. The ego pathway for Module 2 was CLEC7A/inflammasome pathway, while for Module 3 a tetrasaccharide linker sequence was required for glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis, and for Module 6 was the Rho GTPase cycle. Interestingly, genes in Modules 4 and 5 were enriched in the same pathway, the 2-LTR circle formation. In conclusion, the ego modules and pathways might be potential biomarkers for OS therapeutic index, and give great insight of the molecular mechanism underlying this tumor. PMID:28225867

  1. When can efforts to control nuisance and invasive species backfire?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zipkin, E.F.; Kraft, C.E.; Cooch, E.G.; Sullivan, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Population control through harvest has the potential to reduce the abundance of nuisance and invasive species. However, demographic structure and density-dependent processes can confound removal efforts and lead to undesirable consequences, such as overcompensation (an increase in abundance in response to harvest) and instability (population cycling or chaos). Recent empirical studies have demonstrated the potential for increased mortality (such as that caused by harvest) to lead to overcompensation and instability in plant, insect, and fish populations. We developed a general population model with juvenile and adult stages to help determine the conditions under which control harvest efforts can produce unintended outcomes. Analytical and simulation analyses of the model demonstrated that the potential for overcompensation as a result of harvest was significant for species with high fecundity, even when annual stage-specific survivorship values were fairly low. Population instability as a result of harvest occurred less frequently and was only possible with harvest strategies that targeted adults when both fecundity and adult survivorship were high. We considered these results in conjunction with current literature on nuisance and invasive species to propose general guidelines for assessing the risks associated with control harvest based on life history characteristics of target populations. Our results suggest that species with high per capita fecundity (over discrete breeding periods), short juvenile stages, and fairly constant survivorship rates are most likely to respond undesirably to harvest. It is difficult to determine the extent to which overcompensation and instability could occur during real-world removal efforts, and more empirical removal studies should be undertaken to evaluate population-level responses to control harvests. Nevertheless, our results identify key issues that have been seldom acknowledged and are potentially generic across taxa

  2. Children's negative emotions and ego-resiliency: longitudinal relations with social competence.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Zoe E; Eisenberg, Nancy; VanSchyndel, Sarah K; Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D; Spinrad, Tracy L

    2014-04-01

    We examined the relations of negative emotions in toddlerhood to the development of ego-resiliency and social competence across early childhood. Specifically, we addressed whether fear and anger/frustration in 30-month-old children (N = 213) was associated with the development of ego-resiliency across 4 time points (42 to 84 months), and, in turn, whether ego-resiliency predicted social competence at 84 months. Child anger/frustration negatively predicted the intercept of ego-resiliency at 42 months (controlling for prior ego-resiliency at 18 months) as well as the slope. Fear did not significantly predict either the intercept or slope of ego-resiliency in the structural model, although it was positively correlated with anger/frustration and was negatively related to ego-resiliency in zero-order correlations. The slope of ego-resiliency was positively related to children's social competence at 84 months; however, the intercept of ego-resiliency (set at 42 months) was not a significant predictor of later social competence. Furthermore, the slope of ego-resiliency mediated the relations between anger/frustration and children's later social competence. The results suggest that individual differences in anger/frustration might contribute to the development of ego-resiliency, which, in turn, is associated with children's social competence.

  3. Children’s Negative Emotions and Ego-Resiliency: Longitudinal Relations With Social Competence

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Zoe E.; Eisenberg, Nancy; VanSchyndel, Sarah K.; Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D.; Spinrad, Tracy L.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the relations of negative emotions in toddlerhood to the development of ego-resiliency and social competence across early childhood. Specifically, we addressed whether fear and anger/frustration in 30-month-old children (N = 213) was associated with the development of ego-resiliency across 4 time points (42 to 84 months), and, in turn, whether ego-resiliency predicted social competence at 84 months. Child anger/frustration negatively predicted the intercept of ego-resiliency at 42 months (controlling for prior ego-resiliency at 18 months) as well as the slope. Fear did not significantly predict either the intercept or slope of ego-resiliency in the structural model, although it was positively correlated with anger/frustration and was negatively related to ego-resiliency in zero-order correlations. The slope of ego-resiliency was positively related to children’s social competence at 84 months; however, the intercept of ego-resiliency (set at 42 months) was not a significant predictor of later social competence. Furthermore, the slope of ego-resiliency mediated the relations between anger/frustration and children’s later social competence. The results suggest that individual differences in anger/frustration might contribute to the development of ego-resiliency, which, in turn, is associated with children’s social competence. PMID:24364850

  4. Evidence based abreactive ego state therapy for PTSD.

    PubMed

    Barabasz, Arreed

    2013-07-01

    A single 5-6 hours manualized abreactive ego state therapy session has recently been subjected to two placebo-controlled investigations meeting evidence-based criteria. Ego state therapy was found to be a highly effective and durable treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. Apparently, ego state therapy works because it is emotion focused, activates sub-cortical structures, and because the supportive, interpretive therapist reconstructs the patient's personality to be resilient and adaptive. In this article the author reviews the treatment procedures and presents the findings of both studies.

  5. Individual differences in dopamine level modulate the ego depletion effect.

    PubMed

    Dang, Junhua; Xiao, Shanshan; Liu, Ying; Jiang, Yumeng; Mao, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    Initial exertion of self-control impairs subsequent self-regulatory performance, which is referred to as the ego depletion effect. The current study examined how individual differences in dopamine level, as indexed by eye blink rate (EBR), would moderate ego depletion. An inverted-U-shaped relationship between EBR and subsequent self-regulatory performance was found when participants initially engaged in self-control but such relationship was absent in the control condition where there was no initial exertion, suggesting individuals with a medium dopamine level may be protected from the typical ego depletion effect. These findings are consistent with a cognitive explanation which considers ego depletion as a phenomenon similar to "switch costs" that would be neutralized by factors promoting flexible switching. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Pragmatism of Ego Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meers, Dale R.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews conceptual schemata and organizing principles that ego psychology has contributed to our understanding of emotional disturbance. Argues that ego psychology can be converted to testable, pragmatic, and usable precepts for psychotherapeutic practice. Finds theory particularly well suited to practice domain of clinical social work. (JBJ)

  7. What makes a reach movement effortful? Physical effort discounting supports common minimization principles in decision making and motor control.

    PubMed

    Morel, Pierre; Ulbrich, Philipp; Gail, Alexander

    2017-06-01

    When deciding between alternative options, a rational agent chooses on the basis of the desirability of each outcome, including associated costs. As different options typically result in different actions, the effort associated with each action is an essential cost parameter. How do humans discount physical effort when deciding between movements? We used an action-selection task to characterize how subjective effort depends on the parameters of arm transport movements and controlled for potential confounding factors such as delay discounting and performance. First, by repeatedly asking subjects to choose between 2 arm movements of different amplitudes or durations, performed against different levels of force, we identified parameter combinations that subjects experienced as identical in effort (isoeffort curves). Movements with a long duration were judged more effortful than short-duration movements against the same force, while movement amplitudes did not influence effort. Biomechanics of the movements also affected effort, as movements towards the body midline were preferred to movements away from it. Second, by introducing movement repetitions, we further determined that the cost function for choosing between effortful movements had a quadratic relationship with force, while choices were made on the basis of the logarithm of these costs. Our results show that effort-based action selection during reaching cannot easily be explained by metabolic costs. Instead, force-loaded reaches, a widely occurring natural behavior, imposed an effort cost for decision making similar to cost functions in motor control. Our results thereby support the idea that motor control and economic choice are governed by partly overlapping optimization principles.

  8. What makes a reach movement effortful? Physical effort discounting supports common minimization principles in decision making and motor control

    PubMed Central

    Ulbrich, Philipp; Gail, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    When deciding between alternative options, a rational agent chooses on the basis of the desirability of each outcome, including associated costs. As different options typically result in different actions, the effort associated with each action is an essential cost parameter. How do humans discount physical effort when deciding between movements? We used an action-selection task to characterize how subjective effort depends on the parameters of arm transport movements and controlled for potential confounding factors such as delay discounting and performance. First, by repeatedly asking subjects to choose between 2 arm movements of different amplitudes or durations, performed against different levels of force, we identified parameter combinations that subjects experienced as identical in effort (isoeffort curves). Movements with a long duration were judged more effortful than short-duration movements against the same force, while movement amplitudes did not influence effort. Biomechanics of the movements also affected effort, as movements towards the body midline were preferred to movements away from it. Second, by introducing movement repetitions, we further determined that the cost function for choosing between effortful movements had a quadratic relationship with force, while choices were made on the basis of the logarithm of these costs. Our results show that effort-based action selection during reaching cannot easily be explained by metabolic costs. Instead, force-loaded reaches, a widely occurring natural behavior, imposed an effort cost for decision making similar to cost functions in motor control. Our results thereby support the idea that motor control and economic choice are governed by partly overlapping optimization principles. PMID:28586347

  9. Control effort associated with model reference adaptive control for vibration damping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messer, Richard Scott; Haftka, Raphael T.

    1991-01-01

    The performance of Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC) is studied in numerical simulations with the objective of understanding the effects of differences between the plant and the reference model. MRAC is applied to two structural systems with adjustable error between the reference model and the actual plant. Performance indices relating to control effort and response characteristics are monitored in order to determine what effects small errors have on the control effort and performance of the two systems. It is shown that reasonable amounts of error in the reference model can cause dramatic increases in both the control effort and response magnitude (as measured by energy integrals) of the plant.

  10. Mothers' teaching strategies and children's effortful control: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Vidmar, Masa; Spinrad, Tracy L; Eggum, Natalie D; Edwards, Alison; Gaertner, Bridget; Kupfer, Anne

    2010-09-01

    Findings on the relation of maternal verbal teaching strategies to children's effortful control (EC; i.e., self-regulation) are limited in quantity and somewhat inconsistent. In this study, children's EC was assessed at 18, 30, and 42 months (ns = 255, 229, and 209, respectively) with adults' reports and a behavioral measure. Mothers' verbal teaching strategies were assessed while the mother and child worked on a task together. Children's general vocabulary also was measured. In a structural panel model taking into account prior levels of constructs and correlations within time, as well as the relations of EC and teaching strategies to children's vocabulary, socioeconomic status, age, and sex of the child, 18-month EC positively predicted mothers' 30-month cognitive assistance and questioning strategies and negatively predicted 30-month maternal directive strategies. In addition, high 30-month EC predicted greater 42-month maternal cognitive assistance and fewer directive strategies. Thus, mothers' teaching strategies were predicted by individual differences in self-regulatory skills, supporting potential evocative child effects on mothers' teaching strategies.

  11. Origins of Effortful Control: Infant and Parent Contributions

    PubMed Central

    Gartstein, Maria A.; Bridgett, David J.; Young, Brandi N.; Panksepp, Jaak; Power, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Effortful control (EC) refers to the ability to inhibit a dominant response to perform a subdominant one and has been shown as protective against a myriad of difficulties. Research examining precursors of EC has been limited to date, and in this study, infancy contributors to toddler EC were examined. Specifically, parent/family background variables (e.g., education, income), maternal temperament, perceived stress, and internalizing symptoms were addressed, along with infant temperament: positive affectivity/surgency (PAS), negative emotionality (NE), and regulatory capacity/orienting (RCO); and laboratory observation-based indicators of attention. Infant attention indexed by the latency to look away after initially orienting to the presented stimuli emerged as an important predictor of later EC, after accounting for other child and parent/family attributes, with shorter latencies predicting higher levels of EC. Mothers’ extraversion and parenting stress were the only parent/family attributes to significantly contribute to the prediction of toddler EC, with the former promoting and the latter undermining the development of EC. Infant temperament factors were also examined as a moderator of parent/family influences, with results indicating a significant interaction between mothers’ EC and infant RCO, so that children with greater RCO and mothers high in EC exhibited the highest EC scores in toddlerhood. PMID:26269695

  12. Temperament features in adolescents with ego-syntonic or ego-dystonic obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Marchesi, Carlo; Ampollini, Paolo; DePanfilis, Chiara; Maggini, Carlo

    2008-09-01

    The present study evaluated whether different patterns of temperament may predict a different threshold of acceptability of obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms in adolescents. OC symptomatology was detected with the Leyton Obsessional Inventory-Child Version (LOI-CV) and temperament was assessed using the tridimensional personality questionnaire in 2,775 high-school students. According to the LOI-CV scores, the adolescents were classified as high interference (interfering, ego-dystonic symptoms) (HI), supernormal (noninterfering, ego-syntonic symptoms) (Sn) and controls (C) HI were 119 (4.3%), Sn 85 (3.1%) and C 2,571 (92.6%). The best predictor of belonging to HI or Sn groups was the temperament configuration of high Harm Avoidance (HA) and high Persistence (P). The feature that mainly distinguishes the two symptomatic groups were Novelty Seeking (NS) levels. Our data suggest that people characterized by pessimistic worry in anticipation of future problems, passive avoidant behaviour, rapid fatigability (high HA) and irresoluteness, ambitiousness, perseverance, perfectionism, enduring feelings of frustration (high P) might develop OC symptoms. Whether OC symptoms become ego-syntonic or ego-dystonic seems to mainly depend on NS levels: low NS might protect people (with the prevention of "exploratory and active behaviours" that may elicit loss of control on symptoms) from the development of interfering OC symptoms.

  13. Choice and ego-depletion: the moderating role of autonomy.

    PubMed

    Moller, Arlen C; Deci, Edward L; Ryan, Richard M

    2006-08-01

    The self-regulatory strength model maintains that all acts of self-regulation, self-control, and choice result in a state of fatigue called ego-depletion. Self-determination theory differentiates between autonomous regulation and controlled regulation. Because making decisions represents one instance of self-regulation, the authors also differentiate between autonomous choice and controlled choice. Three experiments support the hypothesis that whereas conditions representing controlled choice would be egodepleting, conditions that represented autonomous choice would not. In Experiment 3, the authors found significant mediation by perceived self-determination of the relation between the choice condition (autonomous vs. controlled) and ego-depletion as measured by performance.

  14. Alternative Images of Professional Socialization: Controls, Roles, and Student Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylor, Coleen R.

    Students within certain seniority levels of a nursing program were studied to assess the influence of educational evaluation on student effort. The subjects were 114 students from a baccalaureate nursing program in the San Francisco Bay Area, California. Focus was on understanding two perspectives of how evaluations within a nursing education…

  15. The function of wisdom dimensions in ego-identity development among Chinese university students.

    PubMed

    Bang, Hyeyoung; Zhou, Yuchun

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the relationship between wisdom and ego-identity among university students in China. Using Marcia's ego-identity statuses and Ardelt's wisdom dimensions as the theoretical and conceptual framework, the study investigates 356 university students in China. After exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, four factors from wisdom and five factors from ego-identity were retrieved. A structural equation model was then conducted to analyse the relationships. The findings were: (1) among wisdom dimensions, cognitive, and reflective wisdom, especially perspective-taking best predicted achievement, (2) all three dimensions of wisdom predicted moratorium, but reflective wisdom was the most pronounced predictor, (3) all three dimensions of wisdom predicted diffusion, but resentment items from reflective wisdom were the most pronounced predictors, and (4) gender was a significant predictor of ego-identity achievement and diffusion. These findings suggest that efforts to build reflective wisdom might contribute to healthier ego-identity formation.

  16. Coparenting Behavior Moderates Longitudinal Relations between Effortful Control and Preschool Children's Externalizing Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Weldon, Arielle H.; Cook, J. Claire; Davis, Evan F.; Buckley, Catherine K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Temperamental effortful control involves the voluntary control of attention and behavior. Deficits in effortful control put children at risk for developing externalizing behavior problems. Coparenting behavior, or the extent to which parents support or undermine each other's parenting efforts, has also been identified as an important…

  17. Associations between Effortful Control, Psychological Control and Proactive and Reactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathert, Jamie; Fite, Paula J.; Gaertner, Alden E.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined relations between effortful control (ones ability to focus and shift attention in an adaptive manner), psychological control (caregiver attempts to manipulate the child's internal world) and proactive and reactive aggression. Participants were 69 children (54% male) ranging from 9 to 12 years of age (M = 10.35, SD =…

  18. Associations between Effortful Control, Psychological Control and Proactive and Reactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathert, Jamie; Fite, Paula J.; Gaertner, Alden E.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined relations between effortful control (ones ability to focus and shift attention in an adaptive manner), psychological control (caregiver attempts to manipulate the child's internal world) and proactive and reactive aggression. Participants were 69 children (54% male) ranging from 9 to 12 years of age (M = 10.35, SD =…

  19. Internal Controls Over the Army Military Equipment Baseline Valuation Effort

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-29

    Valuation Effort 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER...7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Department of Defense Inspector General,ODIG-AUD,400 Army Navy Drive,Arlington,VA,22202-4704 8...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM( S ) 11. SPONSOR

  20. A Multilab Preregistered Replication of the Ego-Depletion Effect.

    PubMed

    Hagger, Martin S; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D; Alberts, Hugo; Anggono, Calvin Octavianus; Batailler, Cédric; Birt, Angela R; Brand, Ralf; Brandt, Mark J; Brewer, Gene; Bruyneel, Sabrina; Calvillo, Dustin P; Campbell, W Keith; Cannon, Peter R; Carlucci, Marianna; Carruth, Nicholas P; Cheung, Tracy; Crowell, Adrienne; De Ridder, Denise T D; Dewitte, Siegfried; Elson, Malte; Evans, Jacqueline R; Fay, Benjamin A; Fennis, Bob M; Finley, Anna; Francis, Zoë; Heise, Elke; Hoemann, Henrik; Inzlicht, Michael; Koole, Sander L; Koppel, Lina; Kroese, Floor; Lange, Florian; Lau, Kevin; Lynch, Bridget P; Martijn, Carolien; Merckelbach, Harald; Mills, Nicole V; Michirev, Alexej; Miyake, Akira; Mosser, Alexandra E; Muise, Megan; Muller, Dominique; Muzi, Milena; Nalis, Dario; Nurwanti, Ratri; Otgaar, Henry; Philipp, Michael C; Primoceri, Pierpaolo; Rentzsch, Katrin; Ringos, Lara; Schlinkert, Caroline; Schmeichel, Brandon J; Schoch, Sarah F; Schrama, Michel; Schütz, Astrid; Stamos, Angelos; Tinghög, Gustav; Ullrich, Johannes; vanDellen, Michelle; Wimbarti, Supra; Wolff, Wanja; Yusainy, Cleoputri; Zerhouni, Oulmann; Zwienenberg, Maria

    2016-07-01

    Good self-control has been linked to adaptive outcomes such as better health, cohesive personal relationships, success in the workplace and at school, and less susceptibility to crime and addictions. In contrast, self-control failure is linked to maladaptive outcomes. Understanding the mechanisms by which self-control predicts behavior may assist in promoting better regulation and outcomes. A popular approach to understanding self-control is the strength or resource depletion model. Self-control is conceptualized as a limited resource that becomes depleted after a period of exertion resulting in self-control failure. The model has typically been tested using a sequential-task experimental paradigm, in which people completing an initial self-control task have reduced self-control capacity and poorer performance on a subsequent task, a state known as ego depletion Although a meta-analysis of ego-depletion experiments found a medium-sized effect, subsequent meta-analyses have questioned the size and existence of the effect and identified instances of possible bias. The analyses served as a catalyst for the current Registered Replication Report of the ego-depletion effect. Multiple laboratories (k = 23, total N = 2,141) conducted replications of a standardized ego-depletion protocol based on a sequential-task paradigm by Sripada et al. Meta-analysis of the studies revealed that the size of the ego-depletion effect was small with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) that encompassed zero (d = 0.04, 95% CI [-0.07, 0.15]. We discuss implications of the findings for the ego-depletion effect and the resource depletion model of self-control. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. "When the going gets tough, who keeps going?" Depletion sensitivity moderates the ego-depletion effect.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Stefanie J; Adriaanse, Marieke A; De Vet, Emely; Fennis, Bob M; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2014-01-01

    Self-control relies on a limited resource that can get depleted, a phenomenon that has been labeled ego-depletion. We argue that individuals may differ in their sensitivity to depleting tasks, and that consequently some people deplete their self-control resource at a faster rate than others. In three studies, we assessed individual differences in depletion sensitivity, and demonstrate that depletion sensitivity moderates ego-depletion effects. The Depletion Sensitivity Scale (DSS) was employed to assess depletion sensitivity. Study 1 employs the DSS to demonstrate that individual differences in sensitivity to ego-depletion exist. Study 2 shows moderate correlations of depletion sensitivity with related self-control concepts, indicating that these scales measure conceptually distinct constructs. Study 3 demonstrates that depletion sensitivity moderates the ego-depletion effect. Specifically, participants who are sensitive to depletion performed worse on a second self-control task, indicating a stronger ego-depletion effect, compared to participants less sensitive to depletion.

  2. The observing ego as voyeur.

    PubMed

    Josephs, Lawrence

    2003-08-01

    A resistance to self-observation and self-reflection is discussed in which there is a perversion of the observing ego. The observing ego has been unconsciously recruited in the service of enacting an unconscious fantasy: the fantasy of being an excited observer of a primal scene who is punished for making forbidden observations. This voyeuristic observing ego is pathologically enmeshed in a love triangle with the patient's seductive superego (i.e. identification with the desired but unfaithful parent) and with the patient's punitive superego (i.e. identification with the rivalrous parent). This unconscious scenario is played out in the clinical situation as the patient unreflectively cycles through phases of denial (i.e. self-seduction) and moral masochism (i.e. self-betrayal). A case study illustrates how humor may be employed to free the observing ego from being enthralled by a perverse superego. Humor may unconsciously enable a rebellious attitude toward the omnipotent sadism of a perversely oppressive superego and thus enable the observing ego to break free from its pathological enmeshment.

  3. If ego depletion cannot be studied using identical tasks, it is not ego depletion.

    PubMed

    Lange, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis that human self-control capacities are fueled by glucose has been challenged on multiple grounds. A recent study by Lange and Eggert adds to this criticism by presenting two powerful but unsuccessful attempts to replicate the effect of sugar drinks on ego depletion. The dual-task paradigms employed in these experiments have been criticized for involving identical self-control tasks, a methodology that has been argued to reduce participants' willingness to exert self-control. The present article addresses this criticism by demonstrating that there is no indication to believe that the study of glucose effects on ego depletion should be restricted to paradigms using dissimilar acts of self-control. Failures to observe such effects in paradigms involving identical tasks pose a serious problem to the proposal that self-control exhaustion might be reversed by rinsing or ingesting glucose. In combination with analyses of statistical credibility, the experiments by Lange and Eggert suggest that the influence of sugar on ego depletion has been systematically overestimated.

  4. Racial Differences in Indices of Ego Functioning Relevant to Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessing, Elise E.

    The following hypotheses were investigated: (1) Negro children have lower academic achievement than whites, (2) the ego variables of sense personal control and willingness to delay gratification are significantly related to academic achievement and (3) Negro children score significantly lower on both ego variables. Subjects included 237 eighth…

  5. Ego Depletion Effects on Mathematics Performance in Primary School Students: Why Take the Hard Road?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Deborah Ann; Yates, Gregory C. R.

    2010-01-01

    Reduction in performance level following on from brief periods of self-control is referred to as ego depletion. This study aimed to investigate if a brief ego depletion experience would impact upon primary school students working through an online mathematics exercise involving 40 computational trials. Seventy-two students participated in the…

  6. Ego Strength Development of Adolescents Involved in Adult-Sponsored Structured Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markstrom, Carol A.; Li, Xaioming; Blackshire, Shana L.; Wilfong, Juanita J.

    2005-01-01

    A psychosocial conception of ego strengths is presented in relation to adolescent involvement in adult-sponsored structured youth activities. Five-hundred and seventeen high school students completed measures on their involvement in structured activities and on 8 ego strengths. Gender, age, and SES were controlled in a MANCOVA procedure and it was…

  7. Control Beliefs, Coping Efforts, and Adjustment to Chronic Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Mark P.; Karoly, Paul

    1991-01-01

    Examined adaptation to chronic pain in 118 patients. Control appraisals, ignoring pain, using coping self-statements, and increasing activities were positively related to psychological functioning. Control appraisals, diverting attention, ignoring pain, and using coping self-statements were positively related to activity level for patients…

  8. Carrying on or giving in: the role of automatic processes in overcoming ego depletion.

    PubMed

    Alberts, Hugo J E M; Martijn, Carolien; Greb, Judith; Merckelbach, Harald; de Vries, Nanne K

    2007-06-01

    Research has shown that repeated exercise of self-control leads to impaired performance on subsequent self-control tasks, a phenomenon labelled ego depletion. The current research investigates the influence of automatic processes on self-control performance. Study 1 shows that activation of persistence leads to stable self-control performance and may help to overcome effects of ego depletion. Initially depleted participants kept their physical self-control performances constant when primed with persistence. If such a prime was absent, self-control performance of depleted participants decreased indicating ego depletion. Using a different manipulation, these findings were replicated in Study 2.

  9. Kindergarten Adjustment Difficulty: The Contribution of Children's Effortful Control and Parental Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Lori; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Brock, Laura L.

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: This paper examines the extent to which children's effortful control and early family experiences predict difficulty in kindergarten adjustment. One hundred and eighty-two children from 31 kindergarten classrooms in rural elementary schools in the Southeast participated. Teachers reported on children's difficulty with…

  10. Kindergarten Adjustment Difficulty: The Contribution of Children's Effortful Control and Parental Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Lori; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Brock, Laura L.

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: This paper examines the extent to which children's effortful control and early family experiences predict difficulty in kindergarten adjustment. One hundred and eighty-two children from 31 kindergarten classrooms in rural elementary schools in the Southeast participated. Teachers reported on children's difficulty with…

  11. Arms Control: US and International efforts to ban biological weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons Convention, the treaty that bans the development, production, and stockpiling and acquisition of biological weapons was opened for signature in 1972 and came into force in 1975 after being ratified by 22 governments, including the depository nations of the USA, the United Kingdom, and the former Soviet Union. In support of the Convention, the USA later established export controls on items used to make biological weapons. Further, in accordance with the 1990 President`s Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative, actions were taken to redefine and expand US export controls, as well as to encourage multilateral controls through the Australia Group. Thus far, the Convention has not been effective in stopping the development of biological weapons. The principal findings as to the reasons of the failures of the Convention are found to be: the Convention lacks universality, compliance measures are effective, advantage of verification may outweigh disadvantages. Recommendations for mitigating these failures are outlined in this report.

  12. Concurrent and longitudinal associations of peers' acceptance with emotion and effortful control in kindergarten.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Maciel M; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; Diaz, Anjolii; VanSchyndel, Sarah K; Berger, Rebecca H; Terrell, Nathan; Silva, Kassondra M; Spinrad, Tracy L; Southworth, Jody

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate bidirectional associations between peer acceptance and both emotion and effortful control during kindergarten (N = 301). In both the fall and spring semesters, we obtained peer nominations of acceptance, measures of positive and negative emotion based on naturalistic observations in school (i.e., classroom, lunch/recess), and observers' reports of effortful control (i.e., inhibitory control, attention focusing) and emotions (i.e., positive, negative). In structural equation panel models, peer acceptance in fall predicted higher effortful control in spring. Effortful control in fall did not predict peer acceptance in spring. Negative emotion predicted lower peer acceptance across time for girls but not for boys. Peer acceptance did not predict negative or positive emotion over time. In addition, we tested interactions between positive or negative emotion and effortful control predicting peer acceptance. Positive emotion predicted higher peer acceptance for children low in effortful control.

  13. The Achievement Drive and Ego Strength of Highly Creative Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lett, W. R.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Shows that the "highly creative" group did not differ significantly from the control group on measures of ego strength or nonconforming achievement. Indicates that the highly creative group was more conforming than the control group in their need for achievement. (Author/RL)

  14. Elementary Students' Effortful Control and Academic Achievement: The Mediating Role of Teacher-Student Relationship Quality.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Maciel M; Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; Berger, Rebecca H; Spinrad, Tracy L; VanSchyndel, Sarah K; Silva, Kassondra M; Southworth, Jody; Thompson, Marilyn S

    This study evaluated the association between effortful control in kindergarten and academic achievement one year later (N = 301), and whether teacher-student closeness and conflict in kindergarten mediated the association. Parents, teachers, and observers reported on children's effortful control, and teachers reported on their perceived levels of closeness and conflict with students. Students completed the passage comprehension and applied problems subtests of the Woodcock-Johnson tests of achievement, as well as a behavioral measure of effortful control. Analytical models predicting academic achievement were estimated using a structural equation model framework. Effortful control positively predicted academic achievement even when controlling for prior achievement and other covariates. Mediation hypotheses were tested in a separate model; effortful control positively predicted teacher-student closeness and strongly, negatively predicted teacher-student conflict. Teacher-student closeness and effortful control, but not teacher-student conflict, had small, positive associations with academic achievement. Effortful control also indirectly predicted higher academic achievement through its positive effect on teacher-student closeness and via its positive relation to early academic achievement. The findings suggest that teacher-student closeness is one mechanism by which effortful control is associated with academic achievement. Effortful control was also a consistent predictor of academic achievement, beyond prior achievement levels and controlling for teacher-student closeness and conflict, with implications for intervention programs on fostering regulation and achievement concurrently.

  15. Guilt and Effortful Control: Two Mechanisms that Prevent Disruptive Developmental Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Barry, Robin A.; Jimenez, Natasha B.; Hollatz, Amanda L.; Woodard, Jarilyn

    2009-01-01

    Children's guilt associated with transgressions and their capacity for effortful control are both powerful forces that inhibit disruptive conduct. We examined how guilt and effortful control, repeatedly observed from toddler to preschool age, jointly predict children's disruptive outcomes in two multi-method multi-trait longitudinal studies (N's 57 and 99). Disruptive outcomes were rated by mothers at 73 months (Study 1) and mothers, fathers, and teachers at 52 and 67 months (Study 2). In both studies, guilt moderated effects of effortful control: For highly guilt-prone children, variations in effortful control were unrelated to future disruptive outcomes, but for children who were less guilt prone, effortful control predicted such outcomes. Guilt may inhibit transgressions through an automatic response due to negative arousal triggered by memories of past wrongdoing, regardless of child capacity for deliberate inhibition. Effortful control that engages a deliberate restraint may offset risk for disruptive conduct conferred by low guilt. PMID:19634978

  16. Healthy narcissism and ego state therapy.

    PubMed

    McNeal, Shirley

    2008-01-01

    The term narcissism is often pejorative and associated with the diagnosis of narcissistic personality disorder. However, some degree of narcissism can be viewed as essential when considering the ingredients of a healthy personality. The ego state literature contains references to the maturation of ego states, the creation of helpful ego states, transformation of the function of ego states, and the strengthening of healthy ego states as components of the development of a "harmonious family of self." For an individual to develop healthy narcissism and eventually self-esteem, it's assumed that these ego state interventions are involved and produce changes in internal psychic structure. This article explores theories and therapy regarding the development of healthy narcissism, self-esteem, and a well-functioning sense of entitlement. Case material is summarized to illustrate how ego state therapy can be an important part of this process.

  17. Multidimensional Perfectionism and Ego Defenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Wendy L.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between multidimensional perfectionism and ego defense style among 130 college students. Cluster analysis results facilitated the identification of groups of adaptive perfectionists, maladaptive perfectionists, and non-perfectionists. The researchers found that identified maladaptive perfectionists used…

  18. Ego Identity in Mature Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcia, James E.; Miller, Elizabeth C.

    The relationship between psychosocial development and ego identity was explored among a group of 29 married women, 21-59 years old. After being interviewed, subjects were assigned to one of four categories of identity status, based on their statements regarding decision-making and commitment. There were significant differences between identity…

  19. Retirement: An Ego Alien View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Helen

    1977-01-01

    Since knowledge of ego development can be used in professional work, a needed classification of attitudes toward the work ethic is advanced. A radical departure from our retirement policy towards those over 65 years of age requires additional competence on the part of counselors in the field of aging. (Author)

  20. Multidimensional Perfectionism and Ego Defenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Wendy L.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between multidimensional perfectionism and ego defense style among 130 college students. Cluster analysis results facilitated the identification of groups of adaptive perfectionists, maladaptive perfectionists, and non-perfectionists. The researchers found that identified maladaptive perfectionists used…

  1. Effortful Control, Explicit Processing, and the Regulation of Human Evolved Predispositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Kevin B.

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzes the effortful control of automatic processing related to social and emotional behavior, including control over evolved modules designed to solve problems of survival and reproduction that were recurrent over evolutionary time. The inputs to effortful control mechanisms include a wide range of nonrecurrent…

  2. Effortful Control, Explicit Processing, and the Regulation of Human Evolved Predispositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Kevin B.

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzes the effortful control of automatic processing related to social and emotional behavior, including control over evolved modules designed to solve problems of survival and reproduction that were recurrent over evolutionary time. The inputs to effortful control mechanisms include a wide range of nonrecurrent…

  3. One Community’s Effort to Control Genetic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Puffenberger, Erik G.; Morton, D. Holmes

    2012-01-01

    In 1989, we established a small community health clinic to provide care for uninsured Amish and Mennonite children with genetic disorders. Over 20 years, we have used publicly available molecular data and sophisticated technologies to improve diagnostic efficiency, control laboratory costs, reduce hospitalizations, and prevent major neurological impairments within a rural underserved community. These actions allowed the clinic’s 2010 operating budget of $1.5 million to save local communities an estimated $20 to $25 million in aggregate medical costs. This exposes an unsettling fact: our failure to improve the lot of most people stricken with genetic disease is no longer a matter of scientific ignorance or prohibitive costs but of choices we make about how to implement existing knowledge and resources. PMID:22594747

  4. The influence of ego depletion on sprint start performance in athletes without track and field experience.

    PubMed

    Englert, Chris; Persaud, Brittany N; Oudejans, Raôul R D; Bertrams, Alex

    2015-01-01

    We tested the assumption that ego depletion would affect the sprint start in a sample of N = 38 athletes without track and field experience in an experiment by applying a mixed between- (depletion vs. non-depletion) within- (T1: before manipulation of ego depletion vs. T2: after manipulation of ego depletion) subjects design. We assumed that ego depletion would increase the possibility for a false start, as regulating the impulse to initiate the sprinting movement too soon before the starting signal requires self-control. In line with our assumption, we found a significant interaction as there was only a significant increase in the number of false starts from T1 to T2 for the depletion group while this was not the case for the non-depletion group. We conclude that ego depletion has a detrimental influence on the sprint start in athletes without track and field experience.

  5. The influence of ego depletion on sprint start performance in athletes without track and field experience

    PubMed Central

    Englert, Chris; Persaud, Brittany N.; Oudejans, Raôul R. D.; Bertrams, Alex

    2015-01-01

    We tested the assumption that ego depletion would affect the sprint start in a sample of N = 38 athletes without track and field experience in an experiment by applying a mixed between- (depletion vs. non-depletion) within- (T1: before manipulation of ego depletion vs. T2: after manipulation of ego depletion) subjects design. We assumed that ego depletion would increase the possibility for a false start, as regulating the impulse to initiate the sprinting movement too soon before the starting signal requires self-control. In line with our assumption, we found a significant interaction as there was only a significant increase in the number of false starts from T1 to T2 for the depletion group while this was not the case for the non-depletion group. We conclude that ego depletion has a detrimental influence on the sprint start in athletes without track and field experience. PMID:26347678

  6. Relations of effortful control, reactive undercontrol, and anger to Chinese children's adjustment.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Ma, Yue; Chang, Lei; Zhou, Qing; West, Stephen G; Aiken, Leona

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the zero-order and unique relations of effortful attentional and behavioral regulation, reactive impulsivity, and anger/frustration to Chinese first and second graders' internalizing and externalizing symptoms, as well as the prediction of adjustment from the interaction of anger/frustration and effortful control or impulsivity. A parent and teacher reported on children's anger/frustration, effortful control, and impulsivity. Parents reported on children's internalizing symptoms, and teachers and peers reported on children's externalizing symptoms. Children were classified as relatively high on externalizing (or comorbid), internalizing, or nondisordered. High impulsivity and teacher-reported anger/frustration, and low effortful control, were associated with externalizing problems, whereas low effortful control and high parent-reported anger were predictive of internalizing problems. Unique prediction from effortful and reactive control was obtained and these predictors (especially when reported by teachers) often interacted with anger/frustration when predicting problem behavior classification.

  7. Efforts to control radiation build-up in Ringhals

    SciTech Connect

    Egner, K.; Aronsson, P.O.; Erixon, O.

    1995-03-01

    It is well known that good control of the primary chemistry in a PWR is essential in order to minimize material problems and fuel damages. It has also been well established that the water chemistry has a great influence on accumulation of corrosion products on the fuel and the radiation build-up on primary system surfaces. Ringhals was one of the pioneers to increase operating pH in order to reduce radiation build-up and has now been operating for ten years with pH at 7.4 or (in later years) 7.2. Our experience is favourable and includes low radiation levels in the new (1989) steam generators of Ringhals 2. Ringhals 4 has operated almost its whole life at pH 7.2 or higher and it remains one of the cleanest PWRs of its vintage. In addition to strict adherence to a stable operating chemistry, Ringhals is now working on a program with the aim to find optimum shut-down and start-up chemistry to reduce activity levels in the primary systems. A particular goal is to use the shut-down and start-up chemistry at the 1994 outage in Ringhals 3 in order to reduce doserates in preparation for the planned steam generator replacement in 1995. The paper summarizes the experience to date of the established operating chemistry, on-going tests with modified shut-down and start-up chemistry and other measures to limit or reduce the activity build-up.

  8. A comparison between the effort-reward imbalance and demand control models.

    PubMed

    Ostry, Aleck S; Kelly, Shona; Demers, Paul A; Mustard, Cameron; Hertzman, Clyde

    2003-02-27

    To compare the predictive validity of the demand/control and reward/imbalance models, alone and in combination with each other, for self-reported health status and the self-reported presence of any chronic disease condition. Self-reports for psychosocial work conditions were obtained in a sample of sawmill workers using the demand/control and effort/reward imbalance models. The relative predictive validity of task-level control was compared with effort/reward imbalance. As well, the predictive validity of a model developed by combining task-level control with effort/reward imbalance was determined. Logistic regression was utilized for all models. The demand/control and effort/reward imbalance models independently predicted poor self-reported health status. The effort-reward imbalance model predicted the presence of a chronic disease while the demand/control model did not. A model combining effort-reward imbalance and task-level control was a better predictor of self-reported health status and any chronic condition than either model alone. Effort reward imbalance modeled with intrinsic effort had marginally better predictive validity than when modeled with extrinsic effort only. Future work should explore the combined effects of these two models of psychosocial stress at work on health more thoroughly.

  9. Imagery Measures of Ego, Id, Superego, and Identity: Validity Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, D.; DeBruin, J.

    1988-01-01

    Five validity studies of the id, ego, superego, and identity scales of the Study of Imagery are reported, using undergraduate students. Multistage Bonferroni procedures are used to evaluate the significance of results. The scales are related to each other and to toughmindedness, self-control, and behavioral conflict. (TJH)

  10. Adjustment among Youth in Military Families: The Protective Roles of Effortful Control and Maternal Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Age, Tolonda Ricard

    2009-01-01

    This study examined coping, effortful control, and mental health among 65 youth (ages 9-15) residing in families where at least one parent was serving in the United States military. Parents provided basic demographic and deployment information. Youth reported on their coping, effortful control, and adjustment using standardized self-report…

  11. Adjustment among Youth in Military Families: The Protective Roles of Effortful Control and Maternal Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Age, Tolonda Ricard

    2009-01-01

    This study examined coping, effortful control, and mental health among 65 youth (ages 9-15) residing in families where at least one parent was serving in the United States military. Parents provided basic demographic and deployment information. Youth reported on their coping, effortful control, and adjustment using standardized self-report…

  12. Prediction of Children's Empathy-Related Responding from Their Effortful Control and Parents' Expressivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; Fabes, Richard A.; Shepard, Stephanie A.; Cumberland, Amanda; Losoya, Sandra H.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the linear and interactive relations of children's effortful control and parents' emotional expressivity to children's empathy-related responses were examined. Participants were 214 children, 4.5 to 8 years old. Children's effortful control was negatively related to their personal distress and was positively related to their…

  13. The Contribution of Adolescent Effortful Control to Early Adult Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Hiatt Racer, Kristina; Fosco, Gregory M.; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Effortful control has been proposed as a set of neurocognitive competencies that is relevant to self-regulation and educational attainment (Posner & Rothbart, 2007). This study tested the hypothesis that a multiagent report of adolescents' effortful control (age 17) would be predictive of academic persistence and educational attainment (age…

  14. The Contribution of Adolescent Effortful Control to Early Adult Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Hiatt Racer, Kristina; Fosco, Gregory M.; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Effortful control has been proposed as a set of neurocognitive competencies that is relevant to self-regulation and educational attainment (Posner & Rothbart, 2007). This study tested the hypothesis that a multiagent report of adolescents' effortful control (age 17) would be predictive of academic persistence and educational attainment (age…

  15. Do the Associations between Exuberance and Emotion Regulation Depend on Effortful Control?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Tracy A.; Hong, Melanie; Solomon, Beylul

    2010-01-01

    Temperamentally exuberant children may be at risk for emotion regulation problems, but this may also depend on their capacity for effortful control. To examine this issue, we assessed 72 typically-developing 3- to 5-year-olds. Child exuberance, effortful control, and emotion regulation were assessed via maternal report and observations of child…

  16. Relations of Young Children's Agreeableness and Resiliency to Effortful Control and Impulsivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumberland-Li, Amanda; Eisenberg, Nancy; Reiser, Mark

    2004-01-01

    The hypothesis that the relations of effortful control and impulsivity to children's agreeableness would be at least partly indirect through their resiliency was tested. Eighty-two children (M age = 58.67 mos.) were participants. Children nominated peers on agreeableness and completed a behavioral measure of effortful control. Teachers and a…

  17. Prediction of Children's Academic Competence From Their Effortful Control, Relationships, and Classroom Participation.

    PubMed

    Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Swanson, Jodi; Reiser, Mark

    2008-02-01

    The authors examined the relations among children's effortful control, school relationships, classroom participation, and academic competence with a sample of 7- to 12-year-old children (N = 264). Parents and children reported on children's effortful control, and teachers and children reported on children's school relationships and classroom participation. Children's grade point averages (GPAs) and absences were obtained from school-issued report cards. Significant positive correlations existed between effortful control, school relationships, classroom participation, and academic competence. Consistent with expectations, the teacher-child relationship, social competence, and classroom participation partially mediated the relation between effortful control and change in GPA from the beginning to the end of the school year. The teacher-child relationship and classroom participation also partially mediated the relation between effortful control and change in school absences across the year.

  18. Prediction of Children’s Academic Competence From Their Effortful Control, Relationships, and Classroom Participation

    PubMed Central

    Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Swanson, Jodi; Reiser, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the relations among children’s effortful control, school relationships, classroom participation, and academic competence with a sample of 7- to 12-year-old children (N = 264). Parents and children reported on children’s effortful control, and teachers and children reported on children’s school relationships and classroom participation. Children’s grade point averages (GPAs) and absences were obtained from school-issued report cards. Significant positive correlations existed between effortful control, school relationships, classroom participation, and academic competence. Consistent with expectations, the teacher–child relationship, social competence, and classroom participation partially mediated the relation between effortful control and change in GPA from the beginning to the end of the school year. The teacher–child relationship and classroom participation also partially mediated the relation between effortful control and change in school absences across the year. PMID:21212831

  19. The Impact of an Ego Depletion Manipulation on Performance-Based and Self-Report Assessment Measures.

    PubMed

    Charek, Daniel B; Meyer, Gregory J; Mihura, Joni L

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the impact of ego depletion on selected Rorschach cognitive processing variables and self-reported affect states. Research indicates acts of effortful self-regulation transiently deplete a finite pool of cognitive resources, impairing performance on subsequent tasks requiring self-regulation. We predicted that relative to controls, ego-depleted participants' Rorschach protocols would have more spontaneous reactivity to color, less cognitive sophistication, and more frequent logical lapses in visualization, whereas self-reports would reflect greater fatigue and less attentiveness. The hypotheses were partially supported; despite a surprising absence of self-reported differences, ego-depleted participants had Rorschach protocols with lower scores on two variables indicative of sophisticated combinatory thinking, as well as higher levels of color receptivity; they also had lower scores on a composite variable computed across all hypothesized markers of complexity. In addition, self-reported achievement striving moderated the effect of the experimental manipulation on color receptivity, and in the Depletion condition it was associated with greater attentiveness to the tasks, more color reactivity, and less global synthetic processing. Results are discussed with an emphasis on the response process, methodological limitations and strengths, implications for calculating refined Rorschach scores, and the value of using multiple methods in research and experimental paradigms to validate assessment measures. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Alcohol Control Efforts in Comprehensive Cancer Control Plans and Alcohol Use Among Adults in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Henley, S. Jane; Kanny, Dafna; Roland, Katherine B.; Grossman, Melissa; Peaker, Brandy; Liu, Yong; Gapstur, Susan M.; White, Mary C.; Plescia, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Aims To understand how US cancer control plans address alcohol use, an important but frequently overlooked cancer risk factor, and how many US adults are at risk. Methods We reviewed alcohol control efforts in 69 comprehensive cancer control plans in US states, tribes and jurisdictions. Using the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we assessed the prevalence of current alcohol use among US adults and the proportion of these drinkers who exceeded guidelines for moderate drinking. Results Most comprehensive cancer control plans acknowledged alcohol use as a cancer risk factor but fewer than half included a goal, objective or strategy to address alcohol use. More than half of US adults reported current alcohol use in 2011, and two of three drinkers exceeded moderate drinking guidelines at least once in the past month. Many states that did not address alcohol use in comprehensive cancer control plans also had a high proportion of adults at risk. Conclusion Alcohol use is a common cancer risk factor in the USA, but alcohol control strategies are not commonly included in comprehensive cancer control plans. Supporting the implementation of evidence-based strategies to prevent the excessive use of alcohol is one tool the cancer control community can use to reduce the risk of cancer. PMID:25313255

  1. From Self-Disorders to Ego Disorders.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    While the concept of disorders of basic self-experience as the clinical core of schizophrenia spectrum disorders has gained increasing significance and empirical support, several questions remain still unresolved. One major problem is to understand how the basic and prodromal self-disturbances are related to Schneider's first rank symptoms, in particular to the so-called 'ego disorders' found in acute psychotic episodes. The study of the transition from prodromal to first rank symptoms, for example from alienated thoughts to thoughts aloud or thought insertions, is of particular importance for understanding the nature and course of schizophrenia. The paper analyses the emergence of ego disorders from basic self-disorders in phenomenological terms, taking the examples of motor passivity experiences and thought insertion. It is argued that full-blown delusions of alien control are ultimately based on a disturbance of the intentionality of thinking, feeling and acting. This disturbance, for its part, may be traced back to anomalies of self-experience in prodromal stages of schizophrenia.

  2. Coparenting Behavior Moderates Longitudinal Relations between Effortful Control and Preschool Children’s Externalizing Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Weldon, Arielle H.; Cook, J. Claire; Davis, Evan F.; Buckley, Catherine K.

    2010-01-01

    Background Temperamental effortful control involves the voluntary control of attention and behavior. Deficits in effortful control put children at risk for developing externalizing behavior problems. Coparenting behavior, or the extent to which parents support or undermine each other’s parenting efforts, has also been identified as an important correlate of children’s socioemotional adjustment. The present study tested whether coparenting behavior moderated longitudinal relations between preschool children’s effortful control and their externalizing behavior. Methods Ninety-two families (mother, father, 4-year-old child) participated. Parents’ coparenting behavior was observed during family interaction, and children’s effortful control was rated by parents. At that time and one year later, mothers and teachers reported on children’s externalizing behavior. Results Supportive coparenting behavior moderated longitudinal relations between children’s effortful control and mothers’ and teachers’ reports of their externalizing behavior, even when taking into account initial levels of externalizing behavior. Conclusions Effective coparenting served as a buffer for children, such that when parents displayed high levels of supportive coparenting behavior, the link between low effortful control and increases in externalizing behavior was not observed. PMID:19207627

  3. Associations Among Parental Education, Home Environment Quality, Effortful Control, and Preacademic Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Merz, Emily C.; Landry, Susan H.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Barnes, Marcia A.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos; Assel, Michael; Taylor, Heather B.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Phillips, Beth M.; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine

    2014-01-01

    This study used a longitudinal design to examine whether effortful control mediated the associations of parental education and home environment quality with preacademic knowledge in toddlers and young preschoolers. The sample consisted of 226 children (2 to 4 years of age at T1) from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds. Parents provided data on parent education and home environment quality. Children completed effortful control, early literacy, and early math assessments. T2 effortful control partially mediated the associations of T1 parental education and T1 home environment quality with T3 emergent literacy after accounting for child age, gender, race/ethnicity, T1 effortful control, and T2 early literacy. T2 effortful control partially mediated the association between T1 parental education and T3 emergent math after accounting for child age, gender, race/ethnicity, T1 effortful control, and T2 early math. Prior to entry into preschool, parental education and home environment quality may shape effortful control which in turn influences preacademic knowledge. PMID:25110382

  4. Racial Differences in Indices of Ego Functioning Relevant to Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessing, Elise E.

    1969-01-01

    This study of eighth graders and eleventh graders found that blacks score lower than whites on academic achievement and on the ego variables of sense of personal control and willingness to delay gratification. (MH)

  5. Maternal sensitivity and latency to positive emotion following challenge: pathways through effortful control.

    PubMed

    Conway, Anne; McDonough, Susan C; Mackenzie, Michael; Miller, Alison; Dayton, Carolyn; Rosenblum, Katherine; Muzik, Maria; Sameroff, Arnold

    2014-01-01

    The ability to self-generate positive emotions is an important component of emotion regulation. In this study, we focus on children's latency to express positive emotions following challenging situations and assess whether this ability operates through early maternal sensitivity and children's effortful control. Longitudinal relations between maternal sensitivity, infant negative affect, effortful control, and latency to positive emotion following challenge were examined in 156 children who were 33 months of age. Structural equation models supported the hypothesis that maternal sensitivity during infancy predicted better effortful control and, in turn, shorter latencies to positive emotions following challenge at 33 months. Directions for future research are discussed.

  6. Reduced delay of gratification and effortful control among young children with autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Faja, Susan; Dawson, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    We explored internal control of behavior using direct observation and parent report. Previous research has found that both the delay gratification task and parent-reported effortful control predict later social ability and more positive outcomes in typically developing children. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have previously been reported to have reduced effortful control, whereas delay of gratification ability has not been tested in a group with ASD. The current study compared 21 children with ASD and 21 typically developing children between 6 and 7 years of age – all of whom had cognitive ability at or above the average range. Children with ASD were less able to delay gratification and their parents reported significantly reduced effortful control; however, scores on these measures were unrelated within the group with ASD. Among the children with ASD, lower effortful control was associated with more severe clinician-observed social symptoms. PMID:24335116

  7. Conceptions of Ability and Related Affects in Task Involvement and Ego Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jagacinski, Carolyn M.; Nicholls, John G.

    1984-01-01

    Five studies were conducted to determine if college students employ different conceptions of ability in self-referenced (task-involving) and interpersonally competitive (ego-involving) situations. Competence and positive affects were associated with higher effort in task-involving situations but negatively associated with higher effort in…

  8. Linking academic social environments, ego-identity formation, ego virtues, and academic success.

    PubMed

    Good, Marie; Adams, Gerald R

    2008-01-01

    This study used Structural Equation Modeling to test an Eriksonian conceptual model linking academic social environments (relationships with faculty and fellow students), ego-identity formation, ego virtues, and academic success. Participants included 765 first-year students at a university in southern Ontario, Canada. Results indicated that supportive relationships with faculty was directly related to higher average grades and perceived academic ability, whereas positive relationships with fellow students was indirectly related to academic success through ego virtues. Positive ego-identity formation (identity achievement) was also indirectly related to academic success through ego virtues.

  9. Quantifying control effort of biological and technical movements: an information-entropy-based approach.

    PubMed

    Haeufle, D F B; Günther, M; Wunner, G; Schmitt, S

    2014-01-01

    In biomechanics and biorobotics, muscles are often associated with reduced movement control effort and simplified control compared to technical actuators. This is based on evidence that the nonlinear muscle properties positively influence movement control. It is, however, open how to quantify the simplicity aspect of control effort and compare it between systems. Physical measures, such as energy consumption, stability, or jerk, have already been applied to compare biological and technical systems. Here a physical measure of control effort based on information entropy is presented. The idea is that control is simpler if a specific movement is generated with less processed sensor information, depending on the control scheme and the physical properties of the systems being compared. By calculating the Shannon information entropy of all sensor signals required for control, an information cost function can be formulated allowing the comparison of models of biological and technical control systems. Exemplarily applied to (bio-)mechanical models of hopping, the method reveals that the required information for generating hopping with a muscle driven by a simple reflex control scheme is only I=32 bits versus I=660 bits with a DC motor and a proportional differential controller. This approach to quantifying control effort captures the simplicity of a control scheme and can be used to compare completely different actuators and control approaches.

  10. Quantifying control effort of biological and technical movements: An information-entropy-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeufle, D. F. B.; Günther, M.; Wunner, G.; Schmitt, S.

    2014-01-01

    In biomechanics and biorobotics, muscles are often associated with reduced movement control effort and simplified control compared to technical actuators. This is based on evidence that the nonlinear muscle properties positively influence movement control. It is, however, open how to quantify the simplicity aspect of control effort and compare it between systems. Physical measures, such as energy consumption, stability, or jerk, have already been applied to compare biological and technical systems. Here a physical measure of control effort based on information entropy is presented. The idea is that control is simpler if a specific movement is generated with less processed sensor information, depending on the control scheme and the physical properties of the systems being compared. By calculating the Shannon information entropy of all sensor signals required for control, an information cost function can be formulated allowing the comparison of models of biological and technical control systems. Exemplarily applied to (bio-)mechanical models of hopping, the method reveals that the required information for generating hopping with a muscle driven by a simple reflex control scheme is only I =32bits versus I =660bits with a DC motor and a proportional differential controller. This approach to quantifying control effort captures the simplicity of a control scheme and can be used to compare completely different actuators and control approaches.

  11. The Contribution of Adolescent Effortful Control to Early Adult Educational Attainment

    PubMed Central

    Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Racer, Kristina Hiatt; Fosco, Gregory M.; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Effortful control has been proposed as a set of neurocognitive competencies that is relevant to self-regulation and educational attainment (Posner & Rothbart, 2007). This study tested the hypothesis that a multiagent report of adolescents’ effortful control (age 17) would be predictive of academic persistence and educational attainment (age 23–25), after controlling for other established predictors (family factors, problem behavior, grade point average, and substance use). Participants were 997 students recruited in 6th grade from 3 urban public middle schools (53% males; 42.4% European American; 29.2% African American). Consistent with the hypothesis, the unique association of effortful control with future educational attainment was comparable in strength to that of parental education and students’ past grade point average, suggesting that effortful control contributes to this outcome above and beyond well-established predictors. Path coefficients were equivalent across gender and ethnicity (European Americans and African Americans). Effortful control appears to be a core feature of the self-regulatory competencies associated with achievement of educational success in early adulthood. These findings suggest that the promotion of self-regulation in general and effortful control in particular may be an important focus not only for resilience to stress and avoidance of problem behavior, but also for growth in academic competence. PMID:25308996

  12. Effortful Control Moderates Bidirectional Effects Between Children’s Externalizing Behavior and their Mothers’ Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Olson, Sheryl L.; Sameroff, Arnold J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined bidirectional associations between mothers’ depressive symptoms and children’s externalizing behavior and whether they were moderated by preschool-age effortful control and gender. Mothers and teachers reported on 224 primarily White, middle-class children at ages 3, 5, and 10. Effortful control was assessed via behavioral battery and mother ratings. Structural equation modeling indicated that maternal depressive symptoms at child age 3 predicted more externalizing behavior at age 10 among children with low effortful control and among boys. Externalizing behavior at age 3 predicted fewer depressive symptoms at the age 10 assessments among mothers of children with high effortful control. Boys with suboptimal self-regulation exposed to high levels of maternal depressive symptoms were at greatest risk for school-age behavioral problems. PMID:23668713

  13. Command and Control: Toward Arctic Unity of Command and Unity of Effort

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-19

    is the most effective command and control structure to provide the requisite unity of command and unity of effort in the Arctic? (Maximum 200 Words...frame discusses recent climate change effects on transportation, shipping, resources, and international relationships. Four potential problems are...chief, what is the most effective command and control structure to provide the requisite unity of command and unity of effort in the Arctic? Looking

  14. A new perspective on the interplay between self-control and cognitive performance: Modeling progressive depletion patterns.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Christoph; Nagy, Gabriel; Ramos Arhuis, Wolfgang Andreas; Retelsdorf, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Exerting self-control in a first task weakens self-control performance in a subsequent unrelated task (ego depletion). In self-control research new strategies are required to investigate the ego-depletion effect, which has recently been shown to be more fragile than previously assumed. Moreover, the relation between ego depletion and trait self-control is still unclear, as various studies have reported heterogeneous findings concerning the interplay of both variables. We addressed these lacunas by drawing on a sample of N = 120 students, who participated in two test sessions. In the first test session, we assessed trait self-control and several control variables. The second test session followed an experimental design and tested the effects of ego depletion on invested effort and cognitive performance trajectories in an ecologically valid computer-based assessment setting (i.e., a 30-minute mathematical problem-solving and reasoning test). Trait self-control was then used as a moderator of the ego-depletion effect. Combining an established ego-depletion paradigm (i.e., the sequential-task paradigm) with multilevel modeling of time-on-task and performance changes, our results indicate (1) that trait self-control predicted the motivation to solve cognitive tasks, (2) that ego depletion led to a progressive performance decrease, and (3) that the negative effect of ego depletion on performance was stronger for students with high trait self-control. Additional analyses revealed that our results could not be alternatively explained by fatigue effects. All effects were robust even after controlling for the students' cognitive abilities, which are known to be closely related to mathematical performance. Our results provide evidence that the self-control invested in order to keep performance at a consistently high level wanes over time. By modeling progressive ego-depletion effects while considering trait self-control, we provide an alternative approach that may help future

  15. Finding the self by losing the self: Neural correlates of ego-dissolution under psilocybin.

    PubMed

    Lebedev, Alexander V; Lövdén, Martin; Rosenthal, Gidon; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J; Carhart-Harris, Robin L

    2015-08-01

    Ego-disturbances have been a topic in schizophrenia research since the earliest clinical descriptions of the disorder. Manifesting as a feeling that one's "self," "ego," or "I" is disintegrating or that the border between one's self and the external world is dissolving, "ego-disintegration" or "dissolution" is also an important feature of the psychedelic experience, such as is produced by psilocybin (a compound found in "magic mushrooms"). Fifteen healthy subjects took part in this placebo-controlled study. Twelve-minute functional MRI scans were acquired on two occasions: subjects received an intravenous infusion of saline on one occasion (placebo) and 2 mg psilocybin on the other. Twenty-two visual analogue scale ratings were completed soon after scanning and the first principal component of these, dominated by items referring to "ego-dissolution", was used as a primary measure of interest in subsequent analyses. Employing methods of connectivity analysis and graph theory, an association was found between psilocybin-induced ego-dissolution and decreased functional connectivity between the medial temporal lobe and high-level cortical regions. Ego-dissolution was also associated with a "disintegration" of the salience network and reduced interhemispheric communication. Addressing baseline brain dynamics as a predictor of drug-response, individuals with lower diversity of executive network nodes were more likely to experience ego-dissolution under psilocybin. These results implicate MTL-cortical decoupling, decreased salience network integrity, and reduced inter-hemispheric communication in psilocybin-induced ego disturbance and suggest that the maintenance of "self"or "ego," as a perceptual phenomenon, may rest on the normal functioning of these systems. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Ego Development and Social Network Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansell, Stephen

    This research investigated the relationship between ego development and social network structure in grades 9 through 12 in a private school. Students filled out a sentence completion test for ego development and named friends with whom they spent the most time in school on a sociometric questionnaire. Popularity, mutuality in dyads, and choices…

  17. Ego Identity Formation in Middle Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaVoie, Joseph C.

    Assumed determinants of ego identity were investigated in this study using sophomore, junior, and senior high school males and females. Subjects were administered the Marcia Ego Identity Status Scale and measures of sex-role identification, personality development, psychological functioning, self concept, and parental socialization practices. Data…

  18. Income and the Development of Effortful Control as Predictors of Teacher Reports of Preschool Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Stephanie F.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Zalewski, Maureen; Moran, Lyndsey

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relations of income and children’s effortful control to teacher reports of preschoolers’ social competence and adjustment problems. This study tested whether changes in effortful control accounted for the effects of income on children’s adjustment. A community sample (N=306) of preschool-age children (36-40 mos.) and their mothers, representing the full range of income (29% at or near poverty, 28% at or below the local median income), was used. Path analyses were used to test the prospective effects of income on rank-order changes in two aspects of effortful control, executive control and delay ability, which in turn, predicted teacher-reported adjustment problems and social competence. Lower income predicted smaller rank-order change in executive control, but did not predict changes in delay ability. Smaller rank-order change in delay ability predicted greater adjustment problems above the effect of income. Larger rank-order change in executive control predicted greater social competence and fewer adjustment problems above the effect of income. These findings provided some support for the hypothesis that disruptions in the development of effortful control related to low income might account for the effects of low income on young children’s adjustment. Effortful control is potentially a fruitful target for intervention, particularly among children living in low income and poverty. PMID:24223473

  19. Income and the Development of Effortful Control as Predictors of Teacher Reports of Preschool Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Stephanie F; Lengua, Liliana J; Zalewski, Maureen; Moran, Lyndsey

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the relations of income and children's effortful control to teacher reports of preschoolers' social competence and adjustment problems. This study tested whether changes in effortful control accounted for the effects of income on children's adjustment. A community sample (N=306) of preschool-age children (36-40 mos.) and their mothers, representing the full range of income (29% at or near poverty, 28% at or below the local median income), was used. Path analyses were used to test the prospective effects of income on rank-order changes in two aspects of effortful control, executive control and delay ability, which in turn, predicted teacher-reported adjustment problems and social competence. Lower income predicted smaller rank-order change in executive control, but did not predict changes in delay ability. Smaller rank-order change in delay ability predicted greater adjustment problems above the effect of income. Larger rank-order change in executive control predicted greater social competence and fewer adjustment problems above the effect of income. These findings provided some support for the hypothesis that disruptions in the development of effortful control related to low income might account for the effects of low income on young children's adjustment. Effortful control is potentially a fruitful target for intervention, particularly among children living in low income and poverty.

  20. Pathways from maternal effortful control to child self-regulation: The role of maternal emotional support.

    PubMed

    Zeytinoglu, Selin; Calkins, Susan D; Swingler, Margaret M; Leerkes, Esther M

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the direct and indirect pathways from maternal effortful control to 2 aspects of children's self-regulation-executive functioning and behavioral regulation-via maternal emotional support. Two hundred seventy-eight children and their primary caregivers (96% mothers) participated in laboratory visits when children were 4 and 5 years, and teachers reported on children's behavior at kindergarten. At the 4-year assessment, maternal effortful control was measured using the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (Evans & Rothbart, 2007) and maternal emotional support was observed during a semistructured mother-child problem-solving task. At the 5-year assessment, children's executive functioning was measured using laboratory tasks designed to assess updating/working memory, inhibitory control, and cognitive flexibility, whereas behavioral regulation was assessed via teacher-report questionnaires on children's attention control, discipline and persistence, and work habits. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that, after controlling for child gender and minority status, and maternal education, maternal effortful control was indirectly associated with both child executive functioning and behavioral regulation through maternal emotional support. Maternal effortful control had a direct association with children's teacher-reported behavioral regulation but not observed executive functioning. These findings suggest that maternal effortful control may be a key contributing factor to the development of children's self-regulatory competencies through its impact on maternal emotional support. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. The Interaction between Negative Emotionality and Effortful Control in Early Social-emotional Development

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Lyndsey R.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Zalewski, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between reactive and regulatory dimensions of temperament may be particularly relevant to children’s adjustment but are examined infrequently. This study investigated these interactions by examining effortful control as a moderator of the relations of fear and frustration reactivity to children’s social competence, internalizing, and externalizing problems. Participants included 306 three-year-old children and their mothers. Children’s effortful control was measured using observational measures, and reactivity was assessed with both observational and mother-reported measures. Mothers reported on children’s adjustment. Significant interactions indicated that children with higher mother-reported fear or higher observed frustration and lower executive control showed higher externalizing problems whereas children with higher observed fear and higher delay ability demonstrated lower externalizing problems. These results highlight effortful control as a moderator of the relation between reactivity and adjustment, and may inform the development of interventions geared toward the management of specific negative affects. PMID:25429192

  2. The Interaction between Negative Emotionality and Effortful Control in Early Social-emotional Development.

    PubMed

    Moran, Lyndsey R; Lengua, Liliana J; Zalewski, Maureen

    2013-05-01

    Interactions between reactive and regulatory dimensions of temperament may be particularly relevant to children's adjustment but are examined infrequently. This study investigated these interactions by examining effortful control as a moderator of the relations of fear and frustration reactivity to children's social competence, internalizing, and externalizing problems. Participants included 306 three-year-old children and their mothers. Children's effortful control was measured using observational measures, and reactivity was assessed with both observational and mother-reported measures. Mothers reported on children's adjustment. Significant interactions indicated that children with higher mother-reported fear or higher observed frustration and lower executive control showed higher externalizing problems whereas children with higher observed fear and higher delay ability demonstrated lower externalizing problems. These results highlight effortful control as a moderator of the relation between reactivity and adjustment, and may inform the development of interventions geared toward the management of specific negative affects.

  3. Children's effortful control and academic achievement: do relational peer victimization and classroom participation operate as mediators?

    PubMed

    Valiente, Carlos; Swanson, Jodi; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Berger, Rebecca H

    2014-08-01

    Given that early academic achievement is related to numerous developmental outcomes, understanding processes that promote early success in school is important. This study was designed to clarify how students' (N=291; M age in fall of kindergarten=5.66 years, SD=0.39 year) effortful control, relational peer victimization, and classroom participation relate to achievement, as students progress from kindergarten to first grade. Effortful control and achievement were assessed in kindergarten, classroom participation and relational peer victimization were assessed in the fall of first grade, and achievement was reassessed in the spring of first grade. Classroom participation, but not relational peer victimization, mediated relations between effortful control and first grade standardized and teacher-rated achievement, controlling for kindergarten achievement. Findings suggest that aspects of classroom participation, such as the ability to work independently, may be useful targets of intervention for enhancing academic achievement in young children.

  4. Modeling Psychological Empowerment among Youth Involved in Local Tobacco Control Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Debra J.; Evans, W. Douglas; Hinnant, Laurie W.; Messeri, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The American Legacy Foundation funded 13 state health departments for their Statewide Youth Movement Against Tobacco Use in September 2000. Its goal was to create statewide tobacco control initiatives implemented with youth leadership. The underlying theory behind these initiatives was that tobacco control efforts can best be accomplished by…

  5. Temperament and the Development of Conscience: The Moderating Role of Effortful Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stifter, Cynthia A.; Cipriano, Elizabeth; Conway, Anne; Kelleher, Rachael

    2009-01-01

    In this longitudinal study we examined whether two components of effortful control, behavioral control, and executive function moderated the relation between temperament and conscience development. Temperament was assessed when participants were two years of age, and three temperament groups were formed: inhibited, exuberant, and low reactive. At…

  6. Genetic Relations between Effortful and Attentional Control and Symptoms of Psychopathology in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Doelger, Lisa; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2008-01-01

    Elucidating the genetic and environmental aetiology of effortful control (mother and father reports at two time points), attentional control (observer reports), and their associations with internalizing and externalizing symptoms (mother and father reports) is the central focus of this paper. With a sample of twins in middle childhood…

  7. Temperament and the Development of Conscience: The Moderating Role of Effortful Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stifter, Cynthia A.; Cipriano, Elizabeth; Conway, Anne; Kelleher, Rachael

    2009-01-01

    In this longitudinal study we examined whether two components of effortful control, behavioral control, and executive function moderated the relation between temperament and conscience development. Temperament was assessed when participants were two years of age, and three temperament groups were formed: inhibited, exuberant, and low reactive. At…

  8. Reduced Delay of Gratification and Effortful Control among Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faja, Susan; Dawson, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    We explored internal control of behavior using direct observation and parent report. Previous research has found that both the delay of gratification task and parent-reported effortful control predict later social ability and more positive outcomes in typically developing children. Children with autism spectrum disorder have previously been…

  9. Modeling Psychological Empowerment among Youth Involved in Local Tobacco Control Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Debra J.; Evans, W. Douglas; Hinnant, Laurie W.; Messeri, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The American Legacy Foundation funded 13 state health departments for their Statewide Youth Movement Against Tobacco Use in September 2000. Its goal was to create statewide tobacco control initiatives implemented with youth leadership. The underlying theory behind these initiatives was that tobacco control efforts can best be accomplished by…

  10. Reduced Delay of Gratification and Effortful Control among Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faja, Susan; Dawson, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    We explored internal control of behavior using direct observation and parent report. Previous research has found that both the delay of gratification task and parent-reported effortful control predict later social ability and more positive outcomes in typically developing children. Children with autism spectrum disorder have previously been…

  11. Volume-controlled Ventilation Does Not Prevent Injurious Inflation during Spontaneous Effort.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Takeshi; Nakahashi, Susumu; Nakamura, Maria Aparecida Miyuki; Koyama, Yukiko; Roldan, Rollin; Torsani, Vinicius; De Santis, Roberta R; Gomes, Susimeire; Uchiyama, Akinori; Amato, Marcelo B P; Kavanagh, Brian P; Fujino, Yuji

    2017-09-01

    Spontaneous breathing during mechanical ventilation increases transpulmonary pressure and Vt, and worsens lung injury. Intuitively, controlling Vt and transpulmonary pressure might limit injury caused by added spontaneous effort. To test the hypothesis that, during spontaneous effort in injured lungs, limitation of Vt and transpulmonary pressure by volume-controlled ventilation results in less injurious patterns of inflation. Dynamic computed tomography was used to determine patterns of regional inflation in rabbits with injured lungs during volume-controlled or pressure-controlled ventilation. Transpulmonary pressure was estimated by using esophageal balloon manometry [Pl(es)] with and without spontaneous effort. Local dependent lung stress was estimated as the swing (inspiratory change) in transpulmonary pressure measured by intrapleural manometry in dependent lung and was compared with the swing in Pl(es). Electrical impedance tomography was performed to evaluate the inflation pattern in a larger animal (pig) and in a patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Spontaneous breathing in injured lungs increased Pl(es) during pressure-controlled (but not volume-controlled) ventilation, but the pattern of dependent lung inflation was the same in both modes. In volume-controlled ventilation, spontaneous effort caused greater inflation and tidal recruitment of dorsal regions (greater than twofold) compared with during muscle paralysis, despite the same Vt and Pl(es). This was caused by higher local dependent lung stress (measured by intrapleural manometry). In injured lungs, esophageal manometry underestimated local dependent pleural pressure changes during spontaneous effort. Limitation of Vt and Pl(es) by volume-controlled ventilation could not eliminate harm caused by spontaneous breathing unless the level of spontaneous effort was lowered and local dependent lung stress was reduced.

  12. A twin study of problematic internet use: its heritability and genetic association with effortful control.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengjiao; Chen, Jie; Li, Naishi; Li, Xinying

    2014-08-01

    Our goal was to estimate genetic and environmental sources of influence on adolescent problematic internet use, and whether these individual differences can be explained by effortful control, an important aspect of self-regulation. A sample of 825 pairs of Chinese adolescent twins and their parents provided reports of problematic internet use and effortful control. Univariate analysis revealed that genetic factors explained 58-66% of variance in problematic internet use, with the rest explained by non-shared environmental factors. Sex difference was found, suggesting boys' problematic internet use was more influenced by genetic influences than girls' problematic internet use. Bivariate analysis indicated that effortful control accounted for a modest portion of the genetic and non-shared environmental variance in problematic internet use among girls. In contrast, among boys, effortful control explained between 6% (parent report) and 20% (self-report) of variance in problematic internet use through overlapping genetic pathways. Adolescent problematic internet use is heritable, and poor effortful control can partly explain adolescent problematic internet use, with effects stronger for boys. Implications for future research are discussed.

  13. Hospital outbreak control requires joint efforts from hospital management, microbiology and infection control.

    PubMed

    Ransjö, U; Lytsy, B; Melhus, A; Aspevall, O; Artinger, C; Eriksson, B-M; Günther, G; Hambraeus, A

    2010-09-01

    An outbreak of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae producing the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase CTX-M15 affected 247 mainly elderly patients in more than 30 wards in a 1000-bedded swedish teaching hospital between May 2005 and August 2007. A manual search of the hospital administrative records for possible contacts between cases in wards and outpatient settings revealed a complex chain of transmission. Faecal screening identified twice as many cases as cultures from clinical samples. Transmission occurred by direct and indirect patient-to-patient contact, facilitated by patient overcrowding. Interventions included formation of a steering group with economic power, increased bed numbers, better compliance with alcohol hand disinfection and hospital dress code, better hand hygiene for patients and improved cleaning. The cost of the interventions was estimated to be euro3 million. Special infection control policies were not necessary, but resources were needed to make existing policies possible to follow, and for educational efforts to improve compliance. Copyright 2010 The Hospital Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ego-motion based on EM for bionic navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Xiaofeng; Wang, L. J.; Liu, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    Researches have proved that flying insects such as bees can achieve efficient and robust flight control, and biologists have explored some biomimetic principles regarding how they control flight. Based on those basic studies and principles acquired from the flying insects, this paper proposes a different solution of recovering ego-motion for low level navigation. Firstly, a new type of entropy flow is provided to calculate the motion parameters. Secondly, EKF, which has been used for navigation for some years to correct accumulated error, and estimation-Maximization, which is always used to estimate parameters, are put together to determine the ego-motion estimation of aerial vehicles. Numerical simulation on MATLAB has proved that this navigation system provides more accurate position and smaller mean absolute error than pure optical flow navigation. This paper has done pioneering work in bionic mechanism to space navigation.

  15. Maternal parenting as a mediator of the relationship between intimate partner violence and effortful control.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Hanna C; Cox, Martha J; Blair, Clancy

    2012-02-01

    The current study examined the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV), maternal parenting behaviors, and child effortful control in a diverse sample of 705 families living in predominantly low-income, rural communities. Using structural equation modeling, the authors simultaneously tested whether observed sensitive parenting and/or harsh-intrusive parenting over the toddler years mediated the relationship between early IPV and later effortful control. Results suggest that parenting behaviors fully mediate this relationship. Although higher levels of IPV were associated with both higher levels of harsh-intrusive parenting and lower levels of sensitive supportive parenting, only sensitive supportive parenting was associated with later effortful control when both parenting indices were considered in the same model.

  16. A geospatial evaluation of Aedes vigilax larval control efforts across a coastal wetland, Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kurucz, N; Whelan, P I; Carter, J M; Jacups, S P

    2009-12-01

    Adjacent to the northern suburbs of Darwin is a coastal wetland that contains important larval habitats for Aedes vigilax (Skuse), the northern salt marsh mosquito. This species is a vector for Ross River virus and Barmah Forest virus, as well as an appreciable human pest. In order to improve aerial larval control efforts, we sought to identify the most important vegetation categories and climatic/seasonal aspects associated with control operations in these wetlands. By using a generalized linear model to compare aerial control for each vegetation category, we found that Schoenoplectus/mangrove areas require the greatest amount of control for tide-only events (30.1%), and also extensive control for tide and rain events coinciding (18.2%). Our results further indicate that tide-affected reticulate vegetation indicated by the marsh grasses Sporobolus virginicus and Xerochloa imberbis require extensive control for Ae. vigilax larvae after rain-only events (44.7%), and tide and rain events coinciding (38.0%). The analyses of vector control efforts by month indicated that September to January, with a peak in November and December, required the most control. A companion paper identifies the vegetation categories most associated with Aedes vigilax larvae population densities in the coastal wetland. To maximize the efficiency of aerial salt marsh mosquito control operations in northern Australia, aerial control efforts should concentrate on the vegetation categories with high larval densities between September and January.

  17. Negative Affectivity and Effortful Control in Mothers With Borderline Personality Disorder and in Their Young Children.

    PubMed

    Mena, Christina G; Macfie, Jenny; Strimpfel, Jennifer M

    2016-07-07

    Research has examined temperament in individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) but not in their offspring, despite offspring's risk of developing BPD and the importance of temperament in the etiology of BPD. We recruited a low-socioeconomic sample of 36 mothers with BPD and their children ages 4 through 7, and 34 normative comparisons. Replicating prior studies, mothers with BPD reported themselves as having more negative affectivity (frustration, fear) and less effortful control (inhibitory control, attentional control, activation control) than did comparisons. Mothers with BPD also reported that their offspring had more negative affectivity (anger/frustration, fear) and less effortful control (inhibitory control, attentional focusing) than did comparisons. We were concerned about potential bias and shared method variance. We therefore provided validity support for mothers' ratings of their children with teacher ratings of child behavior and child self-report via their story-stem completion narratives. We discuss children's temperamental vulnerability versus differential susceptibility to the environment.

  18. The Interplay of Maternal Sensitivity and Gentle Control When Predicting Children's Subsequent Academic Functioning: Evidence of Mediation by Effortful Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopystynska, Olena; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Seay, Danielle M.; Eisenberg, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work was to examine the complex interrelation of mothers' early gentle control and sensitivity in predicting children's effortful control (EC) and academic functioning. Maternal gentle control, maternal sensitivity, and children's EC were measured when children were 18, 30, and 42 months of age (T1, T2, and T3, respectively), and…

  19. The Interplay of Maternal Sensitivity and Gentle Control When Predicting Children's Subsequent Academic Functioning: Evidence of Mediation by Effortful Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopystynska, Olena; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Seay, Danielle M.; Eisenberg, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work was to examine the complex interrelation of mothers' early gentle control and sensitivity in predicting children's effortful control (EC) and academic functioning. Maternal gentle control, maternal sensitivity, and children's EC were measured when children were 18, 30, and 42 months of age (T1, T2, and T3, respectively), and…

  20. Temperament and the Development of Conscience: The Moderating Role of Effortful Control

    PubMed Central

    Stifter, Cynthia A.; Cipriano, Elizabeth; Conway, Anne; Kelleher, Rachael

    2013-01-01

    In this longitudinal study we examined whether two components of effortful control, behavioral control and executive function, moderated the relation between temperament and conscience development. Temperament was assessed when participants were 2 years of age, and three temperament groups were formed; inhibited, exuberant, and low reactive. At 4.5 years of age children’s behavioral control and executive function were assessed. Moral behavior, emotionality during an empathy film, and false-belief understanding were measured at 5.5 years of age as components of conscience. Results indicate that inhibited children may benefit most from higher levels of effortful control. Inhibited children with higher levels of behavioral control performed better on false-belief understanding tasks whereas inhibited children who scored higher on executive function tests reported less emotional response to the evocative film. Finally, as a group, inhibited children exhibited more moral behavior than exuberant and low reactive children. PMID:24077331

  1. The Effect of the Demand Control and Effort Reward Imbalance Models on the Academic Burnout of Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jayoung; Puig, Ana; Lee, Sang Min

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the Demand Control Model (DCM) and the Effort Reward Imbalance Model (ERIM) on academic burnout for Korean students. Specifically, this study identified the effects of the predictor variables based on DCM and ERIM (i.e., demand, control, effort, reward, Demand Control Ratio, Effort Reward…

  2. The Effect of the Demand Control and Effort Reward Imbalance Models on the Academic Burnout of Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jayoung; Puig, Ana; Lee, Sang Min

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the Demand Control Model (DCM) and the Effort Reward Imbalance Model (ERIM) on academic burnout for Korean students. Specifically, this study identified the effects of the predictor variables based on DCM and ERIM (i.e., demand, control, effort, reward, Demand Control Ratio, Effort Reward…

  3. Food for thought: ego-dystonicity and fear of self in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Purcell Lalonde, Magali; O'Connor, Kieron; Aardema, Frederick; Coelho, Jennifer S

    2015-05-01

    Degree of ego-dystonicity in obsessions is clinically relevant to the conceptualization and treatment of eating disorders (EDs). Obsessive-compulsive disorder research has suggested that the transformation of intrusive thoughts into obsessions is linked to the degree to which intrusive thoughts threaten core perceptions of the self. This study aims to explore the relationship between the ego-dystonic nature of obsessions in ED patients and a fear of self, the link between ED symptom severity and ego-dystonicity in obsessions, and differences between non-clinical and individuals with EDs in the presence of ego-dystonic thoughts and a fear of self. Ego-dystonicity (Ego-dystonicity Questionnaire (EDQ)) and feared self (Fear of Self Questionnaire (FSQ)) degrees were measured in a clinical sample (n = 57 with EDs) and a non-clinical sample (n = 45). EDQ and FSQ scores were highly correlated in both samples. EDQ scores were not significantly correlated to ED symptom severity with the exception of the EDQ Irrationality subscale, which was strongly related to compulsion severity. Participants with an ED had significantly higher EDQ and FSQ scores compared with controls.

  4. Self-concept and ego development in deaf adolescents: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    van Gent, Tiejo; Goedhart, Arnold W; Knoors, Harry E T; Westenberg, P Michiel; Treffers, Philip D A

    2012-01-01

    Self-concept and ego development, two intertwined aspects of self-indicating well-being and social-cognitive maturation, respectively, were examined in a representative sample of deaf adolescents of normal intelligence (N = 68), using translated and adapted versions of Harter's (1988, Manual for the self-perception profile for adolescents. Denver, CO: University of Denver) multidimensional measure of self-concept and Loevinger's (1998, Technical foundations for measuring ego development. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum) measure of ego development. Compared to hearing norm groups, deaf adolescents showed lower levels of self-perceived social acceptance, close friendships and ego development and higher physical appearance. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses controlling for sociodemographic variables showed positive associations of global self-worth with support for signing during childhood and quality of parent-child communication and of ego development with attending a regular school. Cluster analysis identified three social competence profiles: uniformly low competence, uniformly high competence, and low social acceptance with high physical appearance. Cluster membership was associated with school type, ego development, and (past) neurological disorder. The results are discussed in reference to interventions aimed at the well-being of deaf youth.

  5. Reciprocal Relations Between Emotional Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Ego-Resiliency across Time

    PubMed Central

    Milioni, Michela; Alessandri, Guido; Eisenberg, Nancy; Castellani, Valeria; Zuffianò, Antonio; Vecchione, Michele; Caprara, Gian Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study examined the longitudinal relations of adolescents’ self-reported ego-resiliency to their emotional self-efficacy beliefs in expressing positive emotions and in managing negative emotions as they moved into early adulthood. Method Participants were 239 females and 211 males with a mean age of 17 years (SD = .80) at T1, 19 years (SD = .80) at T2, 21 years (SD = .82) at T3, and 25 years (SD = .80) at T4. A four-wave cross-lagged regression model and mediational analyses were used. Results In a panel structural equation model controlling for the stability of the constructs, reciprocal relationships across time were found between ego-resiliency and emotional self-efficacy beliefs related to the expression of positive emotions and to the management of negative emotions. Moreover, the relation between ego-resiliency assessed at T1 and T3, and ego-resiliency assessed at T2 and T4 was mediated through emotional self-efficacy beliefs (at T2 and T3, respectively), and vice versa. Conclusions The posited conceptual model accounted for a significant portion of variance in ego-resiliency and has implications for understanding the development of ego-resiliency. PMID:25204666

  6. Evaluation of a program on self-esteem and ego-identity for Korean nursing students.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Jung

    2016-09-01

    Nursing students with high levels of self-esteem and a strong ego-identity maintain a level of self-integrity that enables them to participate successfully in shared group values and interests while simultaneously meeting their own needs. Self-esteem and ego-identity are associated with academic achievement, major (area of study) satisfaction, and life satisfaction in undergraduate students. This study evaluated a brief group program for Korean nursing students that focused on promoting positive self-esteem and ego-identity development. Twenty-three Korean nursing school students participated. Changes in the students' ego-identity and self-esteem were quantitatively examined. Scores for ego-identity and self-esteem increased significantly for the students who participated in the group, while scores in the control group remained the same. The program is judged as an effective method for nursing educators or college mental health providers to utilize in order to promote affirmative ego-identity and self-esteem in nursing students. Additionally, the program contributes to helping students achieve developmental goals during their college life.

  7. Reciprocal Relations Between Emotional Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Ego-Resiliency Across Time.

    PubMed

    Milioni, Michela; Alessandri, Guido; Eisenberg, Nancy; Castellani, Valeria; Zuffianò, Antonio; Vecchione, Michele; Caprara, Gian Vittorio

    2015-10-01

    The present study examined the longitudinal relations of adolescents' self-reported ego-resiliency to their emotional self-efficacy beliefs in expressing positive emotions and in managing negative emotions as they moved into early adulthood. Participants were 239 females and 211 males with a mean age of 17 years (SD = .80) at T1, 19 years (SD = .80) at T2, 21 years (SD = .82) at T3, and 25 years (SD = .80) at T4. A four-wave cross-lagged regression model and mediational analyses were used. In a panel structural equation model controlling for the stability of the constructs, reciprocal relationships across time were found between ego-resiliency and emotional self-efficacy beliefs related to the expression of positive emotions and to the management of negative emotions. Moreover, the relation between ego-resiliency assessed at T1 and T3, and ego-resiliency assessed at T2 and T4, was mediated through emotional self-efficacy beliefs (at T2 and T3, respectively), and vice versa. The posited conceptual model accounted for a significant portion of variance in ego-resiliency and has implications for understanding the development of ego-resiliency.

  8. Relations of Maternal Socialization and Toddlers' Effortful Control to Children's Adjustment and Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Gaertner, Bridget; Popp, Tierney; Smith, Cynthia L.; Kupfer, Anne; Greving, Karissa; Liew, Jeffrey; Hofer, Claire

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the relations of maternal supportive parenting to effortful control and internalizing problems (i.e., separation distress, inhibition to novelty), externalizing problems, and social competence when toddlers were 18 months old (n = 256) and a year later (n = 230). Mothers completed the Coping With Toddlers' Negative Emotions…

  9. Pathways to Problem Behaviors: Chaotic Homes, Parent and Child Effortful Control, and Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Reiser, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Guided by Belsky's and Eisenberg, Cumberland, and Spinrad's heuristic models, we tested a process model with hypothesized paths from parents' effortful control (EC) and family chaos to indices of parenting to children's EC, and finally children's externalizing problem behavior. Parents reported on all constructs and children (N = 188; M age = 9.55…

  10. Concurrent and Longitudinal Associations of Peers' Acceptance with Emotion and Effortful Control in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernández, Maciel M.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; Diaz, Anjolii; VanSchyndel, Sarah K.; Berger, Rebecca H.; Terrell, Nathan; Silva, Kassondra M.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Southworth, Jody

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate bidirectional associations between peer acceptance and both emotion and effortful control during kindergarten (N = 301). In both the fall and spring semesters, we obtained peer nominations of acceptance, measures of positive and negative emotion based on naturalistic observations in school (i.e., classroom,…

  11. Contextual Risk and Parenting as Predictors of Effortful Control and Social Competence in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Honorado, Elizabeth; Bush, Nicole R.

    2007-01-01

    Using a short-term longitudinal design (6 months), this study examined cumulative contextual risk as a predictor of effortful control (EC) and social competence in a community sample of children (N = 80, ages 33-40 months at time 1). Maternal parenting was examined as a mediator of contextual risk. EC was assessed using laboratory tasks, and…

  12. Parenting and Child "DRD4" Genotype Interact to Predict Children's Early Emerging Effortful Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Heather J.; Sheikh, Haroon I.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Olino, Thomas M.; Laptook, Rebecca S.; Durbin, C. Emily; Hayden, Elizabeth P.; Singh, Shiva M.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2012-01-01

    Effortful control (EC), or the trait-like capacity to regulate dominant responses, has important implications for children's development. Although genetic factors and parenting likely influence EC, few studies have examined whether they interact to predict its development. This study examined whether the "DRD4" exon III variable number tandem…

  13. Pathways to Problem Behaviors: Chaotic Homes, Parent and Child Effortful Control, and Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Reiser, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Guided by Belsky's and Eisenberg, Cumberland, and Spinrad's heuristic models, we tested a process model with hypothesized paths from parents' effortful control (EC) and family chaos to indices of parenting to children's EC, and finally children's externalizing problem behavior. Parents reported on all constructs and children (N = 188; M age = 9.55…

  14. Kindergartners' Temperament, Classroom Engagement, and Student-Teacher Relationship: Moderation by Effortful Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiente, Carlos; Swanson, Jodi; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether kindergartners' (N = 291; M age = 5 years) effortful control (EC), impulsivity, anger, or shyness predict their classroom participation, school liking, and student-teacher relationship. Parents and teachers reported on children's temperament. Children's EC and impulsivity were also assessed with…

  15. The Relations of Effortful Control and Impulsivity to Children's Sympathy: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Michalik, Nicole; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Hofer, Claire; Kupfer, Anne; Valiente, Carlos; Liew, Jeffrey; Cumberland, Amanda; Reiser, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The relations of children's (n=214 at Time 1; M age=6 years at Time 1) dispositional sympathy to adult-reported and behavioral measures of effortful control (EC) and impulsivity were examined in a longitudinal study including five assessments, each two years apart. Especially for boys, relatively high levels of EC and growth in EC were related to…

  16. Children's Responses to Daily Social Stressors: Relations with Parenting, Children's Effortful Control, and Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Swanson, Jodi

    2009-01-01

    Background: We examined children's coping and involuntary stress responses as mediators of the relations between parenting or children's effortful control (EC) and adjustment. Method: Two hundred and forty primarily Mexican American 7- to 12-year-old children reported on their EC, coping, involuntary stress responses, and problem behaviors.…

  17. Effortful Control and Impulsivity as Concurrent and Longitudinal Predictors of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Haugen, Rg; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Kupfer, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test if both effortful control (EC) and impulsivity, a reactive index of temperament, uniquely predict adolescents' academic achievement, concurrently and longitudinally (Time 1: "N" = 168, X-bar[subscript age] = 12 years). At Time 1, parents and teachers reported on students' EC and impulsivity.…

  18. Effortful Control in "Hot" and "Cool" Tasks Differentially Predicts Children's Behavior Problems and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sanghag; Nordling, Jamie Koenig; Yoon, Jeung Eun; Boldt, Lea J.; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2013-01-01

    Effortful control (EC), the capacity to deliberately suppress a dominant response and perform a subdominant response, rapidly developing in toddler and preschool age, has been shown to be a robust predictor of children's adjustment. Not settled, however, is whether a view of EC as a heterogeneous rather than unidimensional construct may offer…

  19. ERP Correlates of Effortful Control in Children with Varying Levels of ADHD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiersema, Jan R.; Roeyers, Herbert

    2009-01-01

    As effortful control (EC), the self-regulation aspect of temperament, has been argued to play a key role in the normal and psychopathological course of development, research adding to the construct validity of EC is needed. In the current study, interrelations between the temperament construct of EC and the efficiency of the executive attention…

  20. Effortful Control in Typically Developing Boys and in Boys with ADHD or Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samyn, Vicky; Roeyers, Herbert; Bijttebier, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased interest in the role of effortful control (EC) in developmental disorders, few studies have focused on EC in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and no study so far has directly compared children with ASD and children with ADHD. A first aim of this study was to investigate whether typically developing (TD) boys, boys with ADHD and…

  1. Effortful Control in "Hot" and "Cool" Tasks Differentially Predicts Children's Behavior Problems and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sanghag; Nordling, Jamie Koenig; Yoon, Jeung Eun; Boldt, Lea J.; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2013-01-01

    Effortful control (EC), the capacity to deliberately suppress a dominant response and perform a subdominant response, rapidly developing in toddler and preschool age, has been shown to be a robust predictor of children's adjustment. Not settled, however, is whether a view of EC as a heterogeneous rather than unidimensional construct may offer…

  2. Child ADHD and Personality/Temperament Traits of Reactive and Effortful Control, Resiliency, and Emotionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martel, Michelle M.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest developmental influences may feed into components of the disorder separately from associated disruptive behavior problems. We investigated this in terms of key personality/temperament traits of Reactive and Effortful Control, Resiliency, and Emotionality. Methods: A…

  3. Effortful Control, Social Information Processing, and the Prevention of Aggression in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Alan Reid

    2012-01-01

    Early aggression is a problem in its own right and a risk factor for further developmental problems. Although both effortful control and social information processing (SIP) skills are negatively associated with aggression and are targeted by aggression prevention programs, little is known about the relation between them or about their joint…

  4. Effortful Control and Adaptive Functioning of Homeless Children: Variable-Focused and Person-Focused Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obradovic, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Homeless children show significant developmental delays across major domains of adaptation, yet research on protective processes that may contribute to resilient adaptation in this highly disadvantaged group of children is extremely rare. This study examined the role of effortful control for adaption in 58 homeless children, ages 5-6, during their…

  5. Children's Sleep and Academic Achievement: The Moderating Role of Effortful Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Anjolii; Berger, Rebecca; Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; VanSchyndel, Sarah K.; Tao, Chun; Spinrad, Tracy; Doane, Leah D.; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Silva, Kassondra M.; Southworth, Jody

    2017-01-01

    Poor sleep is thought to interfere with children's learning and academic achievement (AA). However, existing research and theory indicate there are factors that may mitigate the academic risk associated with poor sleep. The purpose of this study was to examine the moderating role of children's effortful control (EC) on the relation between sleep…

  6. Children's Sleep and Academic Achievement: The Moderating Role of Effortful Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Anjolii; Berger, Rebecca; Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; VanSchyndel, Sarah K.; Tao, Chun; Spinrad, Tracy; Doane, Leah D.; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Silva, Kassondra M.; Southworth, Jody

    2017-01-01

    Poor sleep is thought to interfere with children's learning and academic achievement (AA). However, existing research and theory indicate there are factors that may mitigate the academic risk associated with poor sleep. The purpose of this study was to examine the moderating role of children's effortful control (EC) on the relation between sleep…

  7. Child ADHD and Personality/Temperament Traits of Reactive and Effortful Control, Resiliency, and Emotionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martel, Michelle M.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest developmental influences may feed into components of the disorder separately from associated disruptive behavior problems. We investigated this in terms of key personality/temperament traits of Reactive and Effortful Control, Resiliency, and Emotionality. Methods: A…

  8. Preschoolers' Effortful Control and Negative Emotionality, Immediate Reactions to Disappointment, and Quality of Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew, Jeffrey; Eisenberg, Nancy; Reiser, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Relations among effortful control/low negative emotionality, immediate reactions in a situation that usually calls for the masking of disappointment (i.e., the use of display rules), and social competence/adjustment were investigated for 78 preschool children (mean age=4.87 years). Parents, teachers, and peers rated children on negative…

  9. The Influence of Effortful Control and Empathy on Perception of School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorza, Juan P.; Marino, Julián; Mesas, Alberto Acosta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the predictive power of effortful control (EC) and empathy for perception of school climate. Self-report measures of EC, dispositional empathy, and perception of school climate were obtained for 398 students (204 females) aged 12 to 13. Sociometric status was peer-evaluated, and academic achievement was…

  10. Concurrent and Longitudinal Associations of Peers' Acceptance with Emotion and Effortful Control in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernández, Maciel M.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; Diaz, Anjolii; VanSchyndel, Sarah K.; Berger, Rebecca H.; Terrell, Nathan; Silva, Kassondra M.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Southworth, Jody

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate bidirectional associations between peer acceptance and both emotion and effortful control during kindergarten (N = 301). In both the fall and spring semesters, we obtained peer nominations of acceptance, measures of positive and negative emotion based on naturalistic observations in school (i.e., classroom,…

  11. The Influence of Effortful Control and Empathy on Perception of School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorza, Juan P.; Marino, Julián; Mesas, Alberto Acosta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the predictive power of effortful control (EC) and empathy for perception of school climate. Self-report measures of EC, dispositional empathy, and perception of school climate were obtained for 398 students (204 females) aged 12 to 13. Sociometric status was peer-evaluated, and academic achievement was…

  12. Parenting and Child "DRD4" Genotype Interact to Predict Children's Early Emerging Effortful Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Heather J.; Sheikh, Haroon I.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Olino, Thomas M.; Laptook, Rebecca S.; Durbin, C. Emily; Hayden, Elizabeth P.; Singh, Shiva M.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2012-01-01

    Effortful control (EC), or the trait-like capacity to regulate dominant responses, has important implications for children's development. Although genetic factors and parenting likely influence EC, few studies have examined whether they interact to predict its development. This study examined whether the "DRD4" exon III variable number tandem…

  13. Effortful Control and Adaptive Functioning of Homeless Children: Variable-Focused and Person-Focused Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obradovic, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Homeless children show significant developmental delays across major domains of adaptation, yet research on protective processes that may contribute to resilient adaptation in this highly disadvantaged group of children is extremely rare. This study examined the role of effortful control for adaption in 58 homeless children, ages 5-6, during their…

  14. Predicting Young Children's Externalizing Problems: Interactions among Effortful Control, Parenting, and Child Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karreman, Annemiek; van Tuijl, Cathy; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Dekovi, Maja

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated interactions between observed temperamental effortful control and observed parenting in the prediction of externalizing problems. Child gender effects on these relations were examined. The relations were examined concurrently when the child was 3 years old and longitudinally at 4.5 years. The sample included 89 two-parent…

  15. Impact of Fathers’ Alcohol Problems on the Development of Effortful Control in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Adkison, Sarah E.; Grohman, Kerry; Colder, Craig R.; Leonard, Kenneth; Orrange-Torchia, Toni; Peterson, Ellen; Eiden, Rina D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the association between fathers’ alcohol problems and children’s effortful control during the transition from middle childhood to early adolescence (fourth to sixth grade). Additionally, we examined the role of two potential moderators of this association, fathers’ antisocial behavior and child gender. Method: The sample consisted of 197 families (102 nonalcoholic [NA]; 95 father alcoholic [FA], in which only the father met diagnostic criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence). The sample was recruited from New York State birth records when the children were 12 months old. This analysis focused on 12-month alcohol problem data and child effortful control data measured in the fourth and sixth grades. Results: Structural equation modeling revealed that FA status was associated with lower effortful control on the Stroop Color and Word and Tower of London tasks in the sixth grade, but antisocial behavior did not moderate this association. Multiple group analysis revealed that FA status was associated with higher Stroop interference scores in fourth and sixth grade and lower move scores on the Tower of London task for boys but not girls. Conclusions: The association between FA status and effortful control may be attenuated in middle childhood (fourth grade) but emerge again in early adolescence (sixth grade). The results indicate that sons of alcoholics may be particularly vulnerable to poor self-regulatory strategies and that early adolescence may be an important time for intervening with these families to facilitate higher self-regulation before the transition to high school. PMID:23948526

  16. Is Changing Sexual Orientation a Viable Option for Ego-Dystonic Homosexuality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keener, Dana Ray

    This paper addresses the issue of homosexuals who want to change their sexual orientation. It is noted that many ego-dystonic homosexuals who want to become heterosexual, despite encouragement from psychotherapists to accept their homosexuality, are turning to self-help groups in an effort to change their sexual orientation. Studies that have…

  17. Competence and Affect in Task Involvement and Ego Involvement: The Impact of Social Comparison Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jagacinski, Carolyn M.; Nicholls, John G.

    1987-01-01

    Two studies investigated the impact of information about the effort and performance of others on students' anticipated affects and judgments of competence given success in task-involving and ego-involving contexts. Without social comparison information, competence and positive affects were judged higher when students were asked to imagine…

  18. Ego-Dissolution and Psychedelics: Validation of the Ego-Dissolution Inventory (EDI)

    PubMed Central

    Nour, Matthew M.; Evans, Lisa; Nutt, David; Carhart-Harris, Robin L.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The experience of a compromised sense of “self”, termed ego-dissolution, is a key feature of the psychedelic experience. This study aimed to validate the Ego-Dissolution Inventory (EDI), a new 8-item self-report scale designed to measure ego-dissolution. Additionally, we aimed to investigate the specificity of the relationship between psychedelics and ego-dissolution. Method: Sixteen items relating to altered ego-consciousness were included in an internet questionnaire; eight relating to the experience of ego-dissolution (comprising the EDI), and eight relating to the antithetical experience of increased self-assuredness, termed ego-inflation. Items were rated using a visual analog scale. Participants answered the questionnaire for experiences with classical psychedelic drugs, cocaine and/or alcohol. They also answered the seven questions from the Mystical Experiences Questionnaire (MEQ) relating to the experience of unity with one’s surroundings. Results: Six hundred and ninety-one participants completed the questionnaire, providing data for 1828 drug experiences (1043 psychedelics, 377 cocaine, 408 alcohol). Exploratory factor analysis demonstrated that the eight EDI items loaded exclusively onto a single common factor, which was orthogonal to a second factor comprised of the items relating to ego-inflation (rho = −0.110), demonstrating discriminant validity. The EDI correlated strongly with the MEQ-derived measure of unitive experience (rho = 0.735), demonstrating convergent validity. EDI internal consistency was excellent (Cronbach’s alpha 0.93). Three analyses confirmed the specificity of ego-dissolution for experiences occasioned by psychedelic drugs. Firstly, EDI score correlated with drug-dose for psychedelic drugs (rho = 0.371), but not for cocaine (rho = 0.115) or alcohol (rho = −0.055). Secondly, the linear regression line relating the subjective intensity of the experience to ego-dissolution was significantly steeper for psychedelics

  19. Ego-Dissolution and Psychedelics: Validation of the Ego-Dissolution Inventory (EDI).

    PubMed

    Nour, Matthew M; Evans, Lisa; Nutt, David; Carhart-Harris, Robin L

    2016-01-01

    The experience of a compromised sense of "self", termed ego-dissolution, is a key feature of the psychedelic experience. This study aimed to validate the Ego-Dissolution Inventory (EDI), a new 8-item self-report scale designed to measure ego-dissolution. Additionally, we aimed to investigate the specificity of the relationship between psychedelics and ego-dissolution. Sixteen items relating to altered ego-consciousness were included in an internet questionnaire; eight relating to the experience of ego-dissolution (comprising the EDI), and eight relating to the antithetical experience of increased self-assuredness, termed ego-inflation. Items were rated using a visual analog scale. Participants answered the questionnaire for experiences with classical psychedelic drugs, cocaine and/or alcohol. They also answered the seven questions from the Mystical Experiences Questionnaire (MEQ) relating to the experience of unity with one's surroundings. Six hundred and ninety-one participants completed the questionnaire, providing data for 1828 drug experiences (1043 psychedelics, 377 cocaine, 408 alcohol). Exploratory factor analysis demonstrated that the eight EDI items loaded exclusively onto a single common factor, which was orthogonal to a second factor comprised of the items relating to ego-inflation (rho = -0.110), demonstrating discriminant validity. The EDI correlated strongly with the MEQ-derived measure of unitive experience (rho = 0.735), demonstrating convergent validity. EDI internal consistency was excellent (Cronbach's alpha 0.93). Three analyses confirmed the specificity of ego-dissolution for experiences occasioned by psychedelic drugs. Firstly, EDI score correlated with drug-dose for psychedelic drugs (rho = 0.371), but not for cocaine (rho = 0.115) or alcohol (rho = -0.055). Secondly, the linear regression line relating the subjective intensity of the experience to ego-dissolution was significantly steeper for psychedelics (unstandardized regression

  20. Effortful control as a moderator of the relation between contextual risk factors and growth in adjustment problems.

    PubMed

    Lengua, Liliana J; Bush, Nicole R; Long, Anna C; Kovacs, Erica A; Trancik, Anika M

    2008-01-01

    Effortful control was examined as a moderator of the relations of three domains of contextual risk factors to growth in internalizing and externalizing problems in a community sample (N = 189) of children (8-12 years at Time 1). Socioeconomic, maternal, and environmental risk factors were examined as predictors of initial levels and growth in children's adjustment problems across 3 years. The effects of the risk factors depended on children's level of effortful control. For children lower in effortful control, socioeconomic risk was related to significantly higher initial levels of internalizing and externalizing problems and decreases over time. However, children lower in effortful control had higher levels of problems at all three time points than children higher in effortful control. Maternal risk was associated with increases in internalizing for children lower in effortful control, and environmental risk was related to increases in internalizing and externalizing problems for children lower in effortful control, but not those higher in effortful control. Children who were lower in effortful control appeared to experience more adverse effects of contextual risk than those higher in effortful control, suggesting that interventions aimed at improving children's effortful control might serve to protect children from increased risk of adjustment problems associated with contextual risk factors.

  1. Chinese children's effortful control and dispositional anger/frustration: relations to parenting styles and children's social functioning.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun; Reiser, Mark

    2004-05-01

    Relations among authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles, children's effortful control and dispositional anger/frustration, and children's social functioning were examined for 425 first and second graders (7-10 years old) in Beijing, China. Parents reported on parenting styles; parents and teachers rated children's effortful control, anger/frustration, externalizing problems, and socially appropriate behaviors: and peers rated aggression and leadership/sociability. High effortful control and low dispositional anger/frustration uniquely predicted Chinese children's high social functioning, and the relation of anger/frustration to social functioning was moderated by effortful control. Authoritarian parenting was associated with children's low effortful control and high dispositional anger/frustration, which (especially effortful control) mediated the negative relation between authoritarian parenting and children's social functioning. Effortful control weakly mediated the positive relation of authoritative parenting to social functioning.

  2. Relations of Maternal Socialization and Toddlers' Effortful Control to Children's Adjustment and Social Competence

    PubMed Central

    Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Gaertner, Bridget; Popp, Tierney; Smith, Cynthia L.; Kupfer, Anne; Greving, Karissa; Liew, Jeffrey; Hofer, Claire

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the relations of maternal supportive parenting to effortful control and internalizing problems (i.e., separation distress, inhibition to novelty), externalizing problems, and social competence when toddlers were 18 months old (n = 256) and a year later (n = 230). Mothers completed the Coping With Toddlers' Negative Emotions Scale, and their sensitivity and warmth were observed. Toddlers' effortful control was measured with a delay task and adults' reports (Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire). Toddlers' social functioning was assessed with the Infant/Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment. Within each age, children's regulation significantly mediated the relation between supportive parenting and low levels of externalizing problems and separation distress, and high social competence. When using stronger tests of mediation, controlling for stability over time, the authors found only partial evidence for mediation. The findings suggest these relations may be set at an early age. PMID:17723043

  3. Ego Development, Ego Strengths, and Ethnic Identity among First Nation Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gfellner, Barbara M.; Armstrong, Helen D.

    2012-01-01

    Three conceptualizations of psychosocial development were investigated among Canadian First Nation adolescents. Loevinger's social cognitive model of ego development reflects the way in which an individual views the self and social reality. From Eriksonian theory, ego strengths refer to the emergent values or outcomes that represent resolution of…

  4. The Id, Ego and Super-Ego in "Pride and Prejudice"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Yamin

    2011-01-01

    This paper mainly analyses the the id, ego, and super-ego which exists in the main character Elizabeth from several aspects, such as her pursuit for love, her prejudice towards Mr. Darcy, and the changes in her attitudes towards Wickham. This analysis helps readers appreciate this masterpiece from a different aspect which is related to the…

  5. Linking Academic Social Environments, Ego-Identity Formation, Ego Virtues, and Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Marie; Adams, Gerald R.

    2008-01-01

    This study used Structural Equation Modeling to test an Eriksonian conceptual model linking academic social environments (relationships with faculty and fellow students), ego-identity formation, ego virtues, and academic success. Participants included 765 first-year students at a university in southern Ontario, Canada. Results indicated that…

  6. Ego Development, Ego Strengths, and Ethnic Identity among First Nation Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gfellner, Barbara M.; Armstrong, Helen D.

    2012-01-01

    Three conceptualizations of psychosocial development were investigated among Canadian First Nation adolescents. Loevinger's social cognitive model of ego development reflects the way in which an individual views the self and social reality. From Eriksonian theory, ego strengths refer to the emergent values or outcomes that represent resolution of…

  7. Ego Structuralization in Late Adolescence as Seen through Early Memories and Ego Identity Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroger, Jane

    1990-01-01

    Examined relationship between ego identity status and early memory themes of 73 late adolescents/young adults to detect possible phases in adolescent ego structuralization. Found identity achievements most frequently expressed themes of moving contentedly alone or alongside others, but themes of moving away from familiar were most common among…

  8. Contextual risk and parenting as predictors of effortful control and social competence in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Lengua, Liliana J; Honorado, Elizabeth; Bush, Nicole R

    2007-01-01

    Using a short-term longitudinal design (6 months), this study examined cumulative contextual risk as a predictor of effortful control (EC) and social competence in a community sample of children (N = 80, ages 33-40 months at time 1). Maternal parenting was examined as a mediator of contextual risk. EC was assessed using laboratory tasks, and parenting was assessed using observational ratings. Time 1 contextual risk was negatively related to time 2 EC after controlling for time 1 EC. Mothers' limit setting and scaffolding predicted higher time 2 EC and accounted for the effect of contextual risk. Time 1 EC, contextual risk, and parenting predicted time 2 social competence, and contextual risk had an indirect effect on social competence through parenting. Results suggest that contextual risk predicts smaller relative increases in EC and that parenting accounts for this effect. Knowledge of the factors that divert or promote effortful control can provide targets for intervention to enhance effortful control abilities and better adjustment.

  9. Contextual risk and parenting as predictors of effortful control and social competence in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Honorado, Elizabeth; Bush, Nicole R.

    2011-01-01

    Using a short-term longitudinal design (6 months), this study examined cumulative contextual risk as a predictor of effortful control (EC) and social competence in a community sample of children (N = 80, ages 33–40 months at time 1). Maternal parenting was examined as a mediator of contextual risk. EC was assessed using laboratory tasks, and parenting was assessed using observational ratings. Time 1 contextual risk was negatively related to time 2 EC after controlling for time 1 EC. Mothers’ limit setting and scaffolding predicted higher time 2 EC and accounted for the effect of contextual risk. Time 1 EC, contextual risk, and parenting predicted time 2 social competence, and contextual risk had an indirect effect on social competence through parenting. Results suggest that contextual risk predicts smaller relative increases in EC and that parenting accounts for this effect. Knowledge of the factors that divert or promote effortful control can provide targets for intervention to enhance effortful control abilities and better adjustment. PMID:21687825

  10. Temperament and environmental contributions to stuttering severity in children: the role of effortful control.

    PubMed

    Jo Kraft, Shelly; Ambrose, Nicoline; Chon, HeeCheong

    2014-05-01

    We investigated the contribution of temperament and external environment to the severity of children who stutter. Sixty-nine children who stutter, ages 2;4 to 5;9 (years; months), with a mean age of 3;7, were assessed for temperament, home environment, and significant life events. Temperament was assessed using the Children's Behavior Questionnaire. Home environment and life events were assessed using the Confusion, Hubbub and Order Scale (CHAOS) scale and the Life Events Checklist. Results indicated mother (parent)-reported stuttering severity and clinician-reported stuttering severity to be correlated with child temperament scores in the domain of Effortful Control. When temperament, home environment, and life events were combined, no statistically predictive outcomes were evident in corresponding severity ratings. The current study suggests the temperament domain of Effortful Control in children who stutter is a significant underlying mechanism influencing stuttering severity. Clinical implications are discussed.

  11. Risk for Depression and Anxiety in Youth: The Interaction between Negative Affectivity, Effortful Control, and Stressors

    PubMed Central

    Gulley, Lauren D.; Hankin, Benjamin L.; Young, Jami F.

    2015-01-01

    Theories of temperament suggest that individual differences in affective reactivity (e.g., negative affectivity) may confer risk for internalizing psychopathology in youth and that self-regulatory aspects of temperament (e.g., effortful control) may protect against the deleterious effects of high negative affective reactivity. However, no study to date has examined how the relationship between temperament and youth internalizing psychopathology may be moderated by stress. The current study used a prospective longitudinal design to test the interaction of temperament (e.g., negative affectivity and effortful control) and stressors as a predictor of youth (ages 7–16; 56% female; N = 576) depressive and anxious symptoms over a 3-month period. Findings show that at low levels of stress, high levels of effortful control protect against the development of depressive and anxious symptoms among youth with high levels of negative affectivity. However, at high levels of stress, this buffering effect is not observed. Gender and grade did not moderate this relationship. Overall, findings extend current understanding of how the interaction of individual psychosocial vulnerabilities and environmental factors may confer increased or decreased risk for depressive and anxious symptoms. PMID:25870113

  12. Did unprogrammed tobacco control efforts over seven years decrease smoking prevalence in the medical school?

    PubMed

    Karlıkaya, Celal; Ozdemir, Levent

    2011-01-01

    Medical students will have significant roles in combating against death tool of tobacco. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether any decrease in the smoking prevalence of the medical students over seven years of many tobacco control efforts. A self-administered questionnaire was carried out among 764 of 854 (89.4%) medical students in order to determine the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors towards tobacco use. Chi-square tests, Student's t-test and multiple logistic regression methods were used. Results were compared with the historical control study that was done seven years ago with same methods. 25.9% of the students were smoker (36.6% of males, 16.3% of females), 4.9% was exsmoker and 69.2% was non-smoker. Quit rate was high among males than females (6.8% versus 3.3%, p< 0.05). When compared with historical cohort in 1999, smoking rate decreased only 3.8% for males and 5.5% for females, and quit rates were not higher. Lower curriculum year, and lower knowledge level about the harms of smoking and environmental tobacco smoke in lower grades, living in bachelor homes, easy access to smuggled cigarettes, using non-cigarette tobacco products were main factors for smoking. There was little decline in smoking rates of medical students despite of many local and national tobacco control efforts over seven years. Special attention and organized, programmed efforts are needed in medical schools in Turkey.

  13. Risk for Depression and Anxiety in Youth: The Interaction between Negative Affectivity, Effortful Control, and Stressors.

    PubMed

    Gulley, Lauren D; Hankin, Benjamin L; Young, Jami F

    2016-02-01

    Theories of temperament suggest that individual differences in affective reactivity (e.g., negative affectivity) may confer risk for internalizing psychopathology in youth and that self-regulatory aspects of temperament (e.g., effortful control) may protect against the deleterious effects of high negative affective reactivity. However, no study to date has examined how the relationship between temperament and youth internalizing psychopathology may be moderated by stress. The current study used a prospective longitudinal design to test the interaction of temperament (e.g., negative affectivity and effortful control) and stressors as a predictor of youth (ages 7-16; 56 % female; N = 576) depressive and anxious symptoms over a 3-month period. Findings show that at low levels of stress, high levels of effortful control protect against the development of depressive and anxious symptoms among youth with high levels of negative affectivity. However, at high levels of stress, this buffering effect is not observed. Gender and grade did not moderate this relationship. Overall, findings extend current understanding of how the interaction of individual psychosocial vulnerabilities and environmental factors may confer increased or decreased risk for depressive and anxious symptoms.

  14. Child ADHD and personality/temperament traits of reactive and effortful control, resiliency, and emotionality.

    PubMed

    Martel, Michelle M; Nigg, Joel T

    2006-11-01

    Models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest developmental influences may feed into components of the disorder separately from associated disruptive behavior problems. We investigated this in terms of key personality/temperament traits of Reactive and Effortful Control, Resiliency, and Emotionality. A sample of 179 children (age 6-12, 63% boys), of whom 92 had ADHD, 52 were Controls, and 35 were borderline or not otherwise specified cases of ADHD, were examined. Dispositional trait scores were derived from parent-completed California Q-sort and the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire. Child ADHD symptoms were evaluated using maternal structured diagnostic interview and teacher-completed symptom ratings. Traits were differentially associated with symptoms. Reactive Control was related to hyperactivity-impulsivity as rated by both parents and teachers. Negative Emotionality was related to oppositional-defiance. Resiliency was primarily related to inattention-disorganization as rated by both parents and teachers; Effortful Control was related uniquely to inattention in parent but not teacher data. A moderation effect emerged; the relationship between parent-rated Negative Emotionality and teacher-rated ADHD symptoms was stronger for children with high levels of both Reactive and Effortful Control. Results are interpreted in relation to a two-pathway model of ADHD; regulation problems contribute to the emergence of symptoms of inattention-disorganization, reactive or motivational control problems to the emergence of hyperactivity-impulsivity, and these are distinct from negative affectivity. Children with regulation deficits and a reactive motivational style are especially at risk for the development of ADHD.

  15. Delayed Ego Strength Development in Opioid Dependent Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Abramoff, Benjamin A.; Lange, Hannah L. H.; Matson, Steven C.; Cottrill, Casey B.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; Bonny, Andrea E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate ego strengths, in the context of Erikson's framework, among adolescents and young adults diagnosed with opioid dependence as compared to non-drug using youth. Methods. Opioid dependent (n = 51) and non-drug using control (n = 31) youth completed the self-administered Psychosocial Inventory of Ego Strengths (PIES). The PIES assesses development in the framework of Erikson's ego strength stages. Multivariate linear regression modeling assessed the independent association of the primary covariate (opioid dependent versus control) as well as potential confounding variables (e.g., psychiatric comorbidities, intelligence) with total PIES score. Results. Mean total PIES score was significantly lower in opioid dependent youth (231.65 ± 30.39 opioid dependent versus 270.67 ± 30.06 control; p < 0.01). Evaluation of the PIES subscores found significant (p < 0.05) delays in all ego strength areas (hope, will, purpose, competence, fidelity, love, care, and wisdom). When adjusting for potential confounders, opioid dependence remained a significant (p < 0.001) independent predictor of total PIES score. Conclusion. Adolescents with opioid dependence demonstrated significant delays in ego strength development. A treatment approach acknowledging this delay may be needed in the counseling and treatment of adolescents with opioid dependence. PMID:26664819

  16. Cultural Socialization Attitudes and Behaviors: Examining Mothers' Centrality, Discrimination Experiences, and Children's Effortful Control as Moderators.

    PubMed

    Derlan, Chelsea L; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Jahromi, Laudan B; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2017-09-04

    The current study examined whether mothers' cultural socialization attitudes predicted cultural socialization behaviors. In addition, we tested whether this association was moderated by children's effortful control, mothers' ethnic-racial centrality, and mothers' experiences of ethnic discrimination. Mexican-origin young mothers (N = 181; Mage = 20.97 years) completed the Cultural Socialization Attitudes Measure, a revised version of the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity, the Child Behavior Questionnaire-Very Short Form, and the Perceived Discrimination Scale during an interview and then completed the Cultural Socialization Behaviors Measure a year later. Findings indicated that mothers' cultural socialization attitudes when their children were 4 years of age positively predicted their cultural socialization behaviors 1 year later. Furthermore, experiencing higher ethnic discrimination strengthened the association between mothers' cultural socialization attitudes and behaviors. In addition, mothers' ethnic-racial centrality and children's effortful control were positively associated with mothers' cultural socialization behaviors. These findings contribute to the literature by underscoring the role of individual characteristics and context in cultural socialization efforts with young children over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Optimal allocation of testing effort during testing and debugging phases: a control theoretic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapur, P. K.; Pham, Hoang; Chanda, Udayan; Kumar, Vijay

    2013-09-01

    Allocation of efforts to a software development project during the testing phase is a multifaceted task for software managers. The challenges become stiffer when the nature of the development process is considered in the dynamic environment. Many software reliability growth models have been proposed in last decade to minimise the total testing-effort expenditures, but mostly under static assumption. The main purpose of this article is to investigate an optimal resource allocation plan to minimise the cost of software during the testing and operational phase under dynamic condition. An elaborate optimisation policy based on the optimal control theory is proposed and numerical examples are illustrated. This article also studies the optimal resource allocation problems for various conditions by examining the behaviour of the model parameters and also suggests policy for the optimal release time of the software. The experimental results greatly help us to identify the contribution of each selected parameter and its weight.

  18. Methylphenidate blocks effort-induced depletion of regulatory control in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Sripada, Chandra; Kessler, Daniel; Jonides, John

    2014-06-01

    A recent wave of studies--more than 100 conducted over the last decade--has shown that exerting effort at controlling impulses or behavioral tendencies leaves a person depleted and less able to engage in subsequent rounds of regulation. Regulatory depletion is thought to play an important role in everyday problems (e.g., excessive spending, overeating) as well as psychiatric conditions, but its neurophysiological basis is poorly understood. Using a placebo-controlled, double-blind design, we demonstrated that the psychostimulant methylphenidate (commonly known as Ritalin), a catecholamine reuptake blocker that increases dopamine and norepinephrine at the synaptic cleft, fully blocks effort-induced depletion of regulatory control. Spectral analysis of trial-by-trial reaction times revealed specificity of methylphenidate effects on regulatory depletion in the slow-4 frequency band. This band is associated with the operation of resting-state brain networks that produce mind wandering, which raises potential connections between our results and recent brain-network-based models of control over attention.

  19. Strategy of arm movement control is determined by minimization of neural effort for joint coordination.

    PubMed

    Dounskaia, Natalia; Shimansky, Yury

    2016-06-01

    Optimality criteria underlying organization of arm movements are often validated by testing their ability to adequately predict hand trajectories. However, kinematic redundancy of the arm allows production of the same hand trajectory through different joint coordination patterns. We therefore consider movement optimality at the level of joint coordination patterns. A review of studies of multi-joint movement control suggests that a 'trailing' pattern of joint control is consistently observed during which a single ('leading') joint is rotated actively and interaction torque produced by this joint is the primary contributor to the motion of the other ('trailing') joints. A tendency to use the trailing pattern whenever the kinematic redundancy is sufficient and increased utilization of this pattern during skillful movements suggests optimality of the trailing pattern. The goal of this study is to determine the cost function minimization of which predicts the trailing pattern. We show that extensive experimental testing of many known cost functions cannot successfully explain optimality of the trailing pattern. We therefore propose a novel cost function that represents neural effort for joint coordination. That effort is quantified as the cost of neural information processing required for joint coordination. We show that a tendency to reduce this 'neurocomputational' cost predicts the trailing pattern and that the theoretically developed predictions fully agree with the experimental findings on control of multi-joint movements. Implications for future research of the suggested interpretation of the trailing joint control pattern and the theory of joint coordination underlying it are discussed.

  20. Guntrip's concept of the regressed ego.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores what is perhaps the most important contribution of Harry Guntrip to psychoanalysis: namely his concept of the "regressed ego." In the course of his psychoanalytic work, he found certain concepts to be problematic. Therefore, while he valued some of Freud's ideas, he challenged his emphasis upon the importance of the instincts. Guntrip then drew extensively on the more object relational approach of Fairbairn and Winnicott. Nevertheless, although Guntrip believed that all these figures described important dimensions of psychological experience, he felt that they failed to acknowledge that layer which he called the "regressed ego." In his analysis of the "regressed ego," Guntrip made a valuable contribution to psychoanalytic theory and practice. However, because he thought that with this idea he had discovered the underlying cause of most psychological disturbances, he engaged in a form of reductionism and therefore undermined the value of his observations about this layer of psychological experience.

  1. Ego-Syntonic Aspects of Adult Play and Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolucha, Larry; Smolucha, Francine

    Creativity research has traditionally regarded the creative process as involving a full or partial regression of the ego to a more primitive state of consciousness. An alternative interpretation involves an ego-syntonic concept. This developmental model of ego-syntonic play and its role in creativity is derived from a synergistic combination of…

  2. Detection of linear ego-acceleration from optic flow.

    PubMed

    Festl, Freya; Recktenwald, Fabian; Yuan, Chunrong; Mallot, Hanspeter A

    2012-07-20

    Human observers are able to estimate various ego-motion parameters from optic flow, including rotation, translational heading, time-to-collision (TTC), time-to-passage (TTP), etc. The perception of linear ego-acceleration or deceleration, i.e., changes of translational velocity, is less well understood. While time-to-passage experiments indicate that ego-acceleration is neglected, subjects are able to keep their (perceived) speed constant under changing conditions, indicating that some sense of ego-acceleration or velocity change must be present. In this paper, we analyze the relation of ego-acceleration estimates and geometrical parameters of the environment using simulated flights through cylindrical and conic (narrowing or widening) corridors. Theoretical analysis shows that a logarithmic ego-acceleration parameter, called the acceleration rate ρ, can be calculated from retinal acceleration measurements. This parameter is independent of the geometrical layout of the scene; if veridical ego-motion is known at some instant in time, acceleration rate allows updating of ego-motion without further depth-velocity calibration. Results indicate, however, that subjects systematically confuse ego-acceleration with corridor narrowing and ego-deceleration with corridor widening, while veridically judging ego-acceleration in straight corridors. We conclude that judgments of ego-acceleration are based on first-order retinal flow and do not make use of acceleration rate or retinal acceleration.

  3. A Model of Reward- and Effort-Based Optimal Decision Making and Motor Control

    PubMed Central

    Rigoux, Lionel; Guigon, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Costs (e.g. energetic expenditure) and benefits (e.g. food) are central determinants of behavior. In ecology and economics, they are combined to form a utility function which is maximized to guide choices. This principle is widely used in neuroscience as a normative model of decision and action, but current versions of this model fail to consider how decisions are actually converted into actions (i.e. the formation of trajectories). Here, we describe an approach where decision making and motor control are optimal, iterative processes derived from the maximization of the discounted, weighted difference between expected rewards and foreseeable motor efforts. The model accounts for decision making in cost/benefit situations, and detailed characteristics of control and goal tracking in realistic motor tasks. As a normative construction, the model is relevant to address the neural bases and pathological aspects of decision making and motor control. PMID:23055916

  4. Reliability of the Ego-Grasping Scale.

    PubMed

    Lester, David

    2012-04-01

    Research using Knoblauch and Falconer's Ego-Grasping Scale is reviewed. Using a sample of 695 undergraduate students, the scale had moderate reliability (Cronbach alpha, odd-even numbered items, and test-retest), but a principal-components analysis with a varimax rotation identified five components, indicating heterogeneity in the content of the items. Lower Ego-Grasping scores appear to be associated with better psychological health. The scale has been translated and used with Korean, Kuwaiti, and Turkish students, indicating that the scale can be useful in cross-cultural studies.

  5. Promotoras' roles in integrative validity and treatment fidelity efforts in randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Keller, Colleen; Records, Kathie; Coe, Kathryn; Ainsworth, Barbara; Vega López, Sonia; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Permana, Paska

    2012-01-01

    Promotoras from the communities in which interventions are implemented can be effective contributors to validity and fidelity efforts. This article describes a 48-week randomized controlled trial Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health) and illustrates the use of promotoras as collaborative members of the research team to contribute to attaining integrative validity and treatment fidelity. Madres para la Salud implements a culturally tailored physical activity program to effect changes in body fat, systemic and fat tissue inflammation, and depression symptoms. The significance of Madres para la Salud treatment validity and fidelity processes includes cultural tailoring of a social support intervention, and a promotora model to incorporate initial and ongoing fidelity monitoring.

  6. Temperamental Effortful Control Modulates Gender Differences in Late Positive Potentials Evoked by Affective Pictures in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenhai; Suo, Tao; Zhang, Ping; Zhao, Cancan; Liao, Caizhi; Zhang, Liwei; Li, Hong

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether effort control (EC) modulates gender differences in late positive potential (LPP) evoked by affective pictures. We collected EEG data from 46 healthy adolescents while they viewed 90 affective pictures. Relative to neutral pictures, boys showed larger LPP amplitudes for positive pictures compared to girls while girls showed larger LPP amplitudes for negative pictures compared to boys. Temperamental EC in boys negatively predicted LPP amplitudes for positive pictures, whereas EC in girls negatively predicted LPP amplitudes for negative pictures. These observations increase our understanding of the relationship between EC and gender difference in electrocortical maturation.

  7. ARMS CONTROL: U.S. Efforts to Control the Transfer of Nuclear-Capable Missile Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-11

    and methodology of our work are described in appendix VII. Results in Brief The State and Commerce Departments-the U.S. export licensing authorities...risk of diversion is an important part of its analysis, Commerce focuses its reviews on certain countries that are developing nuclear-capable missiles...During the first 29 months of the MTCR, Commerce identified 128 license applications subject to missile technology controls, which involved up to 13

  8. Viewpoint: evaluating the impact of malaria control efforts on mortality in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Alexander K; Steketee, Richard W; Arnold, Fred; Wardlaw, Tessa; Basu, Suprotik; Bakyaita, Nathan; Lama, Marcel; Winston, Carla A; Lynch, Matthew; Cibulskis, Richard E; Shibuya, Kenji; Ratcliffe, Amy A; Nahlen, Bernard L

    2007-12-01

    To describe an approach for evaluating the impact of malaria control efforts on malaria-associated mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, where disease-specific mortality trends usually cannot be measured directly and most malaria deaths occur among young children. Methods for evaluating changes in malaria-associated mortality are examined; advantages and disadvantages are presented. All methods require a plausibility argument-i.e., an assumption that mortality reductions can be attributed to programmatic efforts if improvements are found in steps of the causal pathway between intervention scale-up and mortality trends. As different methods provide complementary information, they can be used together. We recommend following trends in the coverage of malaria control interventions, other factors influencing childhood mortality, malaria-associated morbidity (especially anaemia), and all-cause childhood mortality. This approach reflects decreases in malaria's direct and indirect mortality burden and can be examined in nearly all countries. Adding other information can strengthen the plausibility argument: trends in indicators of malaria transmission, information from demographic surveillance systems and sentinel sites where malaria diagnostics are systematically used, and verbal autopsies linked to representative household surveys. Health facility data on malaria deaths have well-recognized limitations; however, in specific circumstances, they could produce reliable trends. Model-based predictions can help describe changes in malaria-specific burden and assist with program management and advocacy. Despite challenges, efforts to reduce malaria-associated mortality in Africa can be evaluated with trends in malaria intervention coverage and all-cause childhood mortality. Where there are resources and interest, complementary data on malaria morbidity and malaria-specific mortality could be added.

  9. Chinese Children's Effortful Control and Dispositional Anger/Frustration: Relations to Parenting Styles and Children's Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun; Reiser, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Relations among authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles, children's effortful control and dispositional anger/frustration, and children's social functioning were examined for 425 first and second graders (7-10 years old) in Beijing, China. Parents reported on parenting styles; parents and teachers rated children's effortful control,…

  10. Effortful Control Moderates Bidirectional Effects between Children's Externalizing Behavior and Their Mothers' Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choe, Daniel E.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Sameroff, Arnold J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined bidirectional associations between mothers' depressive symptoms and children's externalizing behavior and whether they were moderated by preschool-age effortful control and gender. Mothers and teachers reported on 224 primarily White, middle-class children at ages 3, 5, and 10. Effortful control was assessed via…

  11. Effortful Control, Behavior Problems and Peer Relations: What Predicts Academic Adjustment in Kindergarteners from Low-income Families?

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Amanda Sheffield; John, Aesha; Halliburton, Amy L.; Morris, Michael D. S.; Robinson, Lara R.; Myers, Sonya S.; Aucoin, Katherine J.; Keyes, Angela W.; Terranova, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role of effortful control, behavior problems, and peer relations in the academic adjustment of 74 kindergarten children from primarily low-income families using a short-term longitudinal design. Teachers completed standardized measures of children’s effortful control, internalizing and externalizing problems, school readiness, and academic skills. Children participated in a sociometric interview to assess peer relations. Research Findings: Correlational analyses indicate that children’s effortful control, behavior problems in school, and peer relations are associated with academic adjustment variables at the end of the school year, including school readiness, reading skills, and math skills. Results of regression analyses indicate that household income and children’s effortful control primarily account for variation in children’s academic adjustment. The associations between children’s effortful control and academic adjustment did not vary across sex of the child or ethnicity. Mediational analyses indicate an indirect effect of effortful control on school readiness, through children’s internalizing problems. Practice or Policy: Effortful control emerged as a strong predictor of academic adjustment among kindergarten children from low-income families. Strategies for enhancing effortful control and school readiness among low-income children are discussed. PMID:24163572

  12. Chinese Children's Effortful Control and Dispositional Anger/Frustration: Relations to Parenting Styles and Children's Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun; Reiser, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Relations among authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles, children's effortful control and dispositional anger/frustration, and children's social functioning were examined for 425 first and second graders (7-10 years old) in Beijing, China. Parents reported on parenting styles; parents and teachers rated children's effortful control,…

  13. Effortful Control, Behavior Problems and Peer Relations: What Predicts Academic Adjustment in Kindergarteners from Low-income Families?

    PubMed

    Morris, Amanda Sheffield; John, Aesha; Halliburton, Amy L; Morris, Michael D S; Robinson, Lara R; Myers, Sonya S; Aucoin, Katherine J; Keyes, Angela W; Terranova, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role of effortful control, behavior problems, and peer relations in the academic adjustment of 74 kindergarten children from primarily low-income families using a short-term longitudinal design. Teachers completed standardized measures of children's effortful control, internalizing and externalizing problems, school readiness, and academic skills. Children participated in a sociometric interview to assess peer relations. Research Findings: Correlational analyses indicate that children's effortful control, behavior problems in school, and peer relations are associated with academic adjustment variables at the end of the school year, including school readiness, reading skills, and math skills. Results of regression analyses indicate that household income and children's effortful control primarily account for variation in children's academic adjustment. The associations between children's effortful control and academic adjustment did not vary across sex of the child or ethnicity. Mediational analyses indicate an indirect effect of effortful control on school readiness, through children's internalizing problems. Practice or Policy: Effortful control emerged as a strong predictor of academic adjustment among kindergarten children from low-income families. Strategies for enhancing effortful control and school readiness among low-income children are discussed.

  14. Prediction of Kindergartners' Academic Achievement from Their Effortful Control and Emotionality: Evidence for Direct and Moderated Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Swanson, Jodi

    2010-01-01

    The relations between effortful control, emotionality (anger, sadness, and shyness), and academic achievement were examined in a short-term longitudinal study of 291 kindergartners. Teachers and parents reported on students' effortful control and emotionality. Students completed the Continuous Performance Task and the Letter-Word, Passage…

  15. Effortful Control Moderates Bidirectional Effects between Children's Externalizing Behavior and Their Mothers' Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choe, Daniel E.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Sameroff, Arnold J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined bidirectional associations between mothers' depressive symptoms and children's externalizing behavior and whether they were moderated by preschool-age effortful control and gender. Mothers and teachers reported on 224 primarily White, middle-class children at ages 3, 5, and 10. Effortful control was assessed via…

  16. Parenting and the Development of Effortful Control from Early Childhood to Early Adolescence: A Transactional Developmental Model

    PubMed Central

    Capaldi, Deborah M.; Kerr, David C. R.; Bertrand, Maria; Pears, Katherine C.; Owen, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Poor effortful control is a key temperamental factor underlying behavioral problems. The bidirectional association of child effortful control with both positive parenting and negative discipline was examined from ages approximately 3 to 13–14 years, involving 5 time points, and using data from parents and children in the Oregon Youth Study-Three Generational Study (N = 318 children from 150 families). Based on a dynamic developmental systems approach, it was hypothesized that there would be concurrent associations between parenting and child effortful control and bidirectional effects across time from each aspect of parenting to effortful control and from effortful control to each aspect of parenting. It was also hypothesized that associations would be more robust in early childhood, from ages 3 to 7 years, and would diminish as indicated by significantly weaker effects at the older ages, 11–12 to 13–14 years. Longitudinal feedback or mediated effects were also tested. Findings supported (a) stability in each construct over multiple developmental periods; (b) concurrent associations, which were significantly weaker at the older ages; (c) bidirectional effects, consistent with the interpretation that at younger ages children’s effortful control influenced parenting, whereas at older child ages, parenting influenced effortful control; and (d) a transactional effect, such that maternal parenting in late childhood was a mechanism explaining children’s development of effortful control from midchildhood to early adolescence. PMID:27427809

  17. How do different components of Effortful Control contribute to children’s mathematics achievement?

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Pérez, Noelia; Fuentes, Luis J.; Pina, Violeta; López-López, Jose A.; González-Salinas, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This work sought to investigate the specific contribution of two different components of Effortful Control (EC) -attentional focusing (AF) and inhibitory control- to children’s mathematics achievement. The sample was composed of 142 children aged 9–12 year-old. EC components were measured through the Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire (TMCQ; parent’s report); math achievement was measured via teacher’s report and through the standard Woodcock–Johnson test. Additionally, the contribution of other cognitive and socio-emotional processes was taken into account. Our results showed that only AF significantly contributed to the variance of children’s mathematics achievement; interestingly, mediational models showed that the relationship between effortful attentional self-regulation and mathematics achievement was mediated by academic peer popularity, as well as by intelligence and study skills. Results are discussed in the light of the current theories on the role of children’s self-regulation abilities in the context of school. PMID:26441758

  18. Coparenting Conflict and Academic Readiness in Children of Teen Mothers: Effortful Control as a Mediator.

    PubMed

    Jahromi, Laudan B; Zeiders, Katharine H; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Bayless, Sara Douglass

    2017-04-24

    Children's exposure to coparenting conflict has important implications for their developmental functioning, yet limited work has focused on such processes in families with diverse structures or ethnically and culturally diverse backgrounds. This longitudinal study examined the processes by which Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' coparenting conflict with their 3-year-old children's grandmothers and biological fathers (N = 133 families) were linked to children's academic and social skills at 5 years of age, and whether children's effortful control at 4 years of age mediated the link between coparenting conflict and indices of children's academic readiness. Findings revealed that adolescent mothers' coparenting conflict with their child's biological father was linked to indices of children's academic and social school readiness through children's effortful control among girls, but not boys, whereas conflict with grandmothers was directly linked to boys' and girls' social functioning 2 years later. Findings offer information about different mechanisms by which multiple coparenting units in families of adolescent mothers are related to their children's outcomes, and this work has important implications for practitioners working with families of adolescent mothers. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  19. Supporting, Evaluating, and Planning Avalanche Control Efforts with Lidar-Derived Snow Depth Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deems, J. S.; Evanczyk, R.; Vellone, D.; Greene, E. M.; Weldon, T.; Finnegan, D. C.; Gadomski, P. J.; LeWinter, A.

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the applicability and potential for ground-based lidar mapping to support avalanche control operations. High-resolution maps of snow depth and snow depth change derived from repeat lidar surface elevation surveys reveal detailed patterns of accumulation, scour, and loading due to the complex precipitation and redistribution processes in mountain environments. The ability to map starting zone depth patterns from a safe distance provides a unique capability to assess loading patterns, plan mitigation strategies, and evaluate the effectiveness of control efforts. We present results from two ongoing pilot projects in collaboration with Arapahoe Basin Ski Area and the Colorado Department of Transportation. Applications of the lidar-derived snow depth data products include targeting of explosive rounds, planning of explosives delivery tramway locations, and evaluation of results from Gazex application.

  20. Concerted Efforts to Control or Eliminate Neglected Tropical Diseases: How Much Health Will Be Gained?

    PubMed Central

    Hontelez, Jan A. C.; Bakker, Roel; Blok, David J.; Cai, Rui; Houweling, Tanja A. J.; Kulik, Margarete C.; Lenk, Edeltraud J.; Luyendijk, Marianne; Matthijsse, Suzette M.; Redekop, William K.; Wagenaar, Inge; Jacobson, Julie; Nagelkerke, Nico J. D.; Richardus, Jan H.

    2016-01-01

    Background The London Declaration (2012) was formulated to support and focus the control and elimination of ten neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), with targets for 2020 as formulated by the WHO Roadmap. Five NTDs (lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminths and trachoma) are to be controlled by preventive chemotherapy (PCT), and four (Chagas’ disease, human African trypanosomiasis, leprosy and visceral leishmaniasis) by innovative and intensified disease management (IDM). Guinea worm, virtually eradicated, is not considered here. We aim to estimate the global health impact of meeting these targets in terms of averted morbidity, mortality, and disability adjusted life years (DALYs). Methods The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2010 study provides prevalence and burden estimates for all nine NTDs in 1990 and 2010, by country, age and sex, which were taken as the basis for our calculations. Estimates for other years were obtained by interpolating between 1990 (or the start-year of large-scale control efforts) and 2010, and further extrapolating until 2030, such that the 2020 targets were met. The NTD disease manifestations considered in the GBD study were analyzed as either reversible or irreversible. Health impacts were assessed by comparing the results of achieving the targets with the counterfactual, construed as the health burden had the 1990 (or 2010 if higher) situation continued unabated. Principle Findings/Conclusions Our calculations show that meeting the targets will lead to about 600 million averted DALYs in the period 2011–2030, nearly equally distributed between PCT and IDM-NTDs, with the health gain amongst PCT-NTDs mostly (96%) due to averted disability and amongst IDM-NTDs largely (95%) from averted mortality. These health gains include about 150 million averted irreversible disease manifestations (e.g. blindness) and 5 million averted deaths. Control of soil-transmitted helminths accounts for one third of all

  1. Concerted Efforts to Control or Eliminate Neglected Tropical Diseases: How Much Health Will Be Gained?

    PubMed

    de Vlas, Sake J; Stolk, Wilma A; le Rutte, Epke A; Hontelez, Jan A C; Bakker, Roel; Blok, David J; Cai, Rui; Houweling, Tanja A J; Kulik, Margarete C; Lenk, Edeltraud J; Luyendijk, Marianne; Matthijsse, Suzette M; Redekop, William K; Wagenaar, Inge; Jacobson, Julie; Nagelkerke, Nico J D; Richardus, Jan H

    2016-02-01

    The London Declaration (2012) was formulated to support and focus the control and elimination of ten neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), with targets for 2020 as formulated by the WHO Roadmap. Five NTDs (lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminths and trachoma) are to be controlled by preventive chemotherapy (PCT), and four (Chagas' disease, human African trypanosomiasis, leprosy and visceral leishmaniasis) by innovative and intensified disease management (IDM). Guinea worm, virtually eradicated, is not considered here. We aim to estimate the global health impact of meeting these targets in terms of averted morbidity, mortality, and disability adjusted life years (DALYs). The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2010 study provides prevalence and burden estimates for all nine NTDs in 1990 and 2010, by country, age and sex, which were taken as the basis for our calculations. Estimates for other years were obtained by interpolating between 1990 (or the start-year of large-scale control efforts) and 2010, and further extrapolating until 2030, such that the 2020 targets were met. The NTD disease manifestations considered in the GBD study were analyzed as either reversible or irreversible. Health impacts were assessed by comparing the results of achieving the targets with the counterfactual, construed as the health burden had the 1990 (or 2010 if higher) situation continued unabated. Our calculations show that meeting the targets will lead to about 600 million averted DALYs in the period 2011-2030, nearly equally distributed between PCT and IDM-NTDs, with the health gain amongst PCT-NTDs mostly (96%) due to averted disability and amongst IDM-NTDs largely (95%) from averted mortality. These health gains include about 150 million averted irreversible disease manifestations (e.g. blindness) and 5 million averted deaths. Control of soil-transmitted helminths accounts for one third of all averted DALYs. We conclude that the projected health

  2. Overview of Altair's Thermal Control System and the Associated Technology Development Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, Ryan A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In early 2004, President Bush announced a bold vision for space exploration. One of the goals included in this vision is a return to the moon by 2020. In response to this vision, NASA established the Constellation Program, which includes several project offices. One of the Constellation projects is Altair, which is the next generation Lunar Lander. The future Altair missions are very different than the Lunar missions accomplished during the Apollo era. As such, there are several project risks and design challenges that have never before been addressed. Due to the unique thermal environment associated with this mission, many of these risks and design challenges are associated with the vehicle's thermal control system. NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) includes the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP). ETDP consists of several technology development projects. The project chartered with mitigating the aforementioned risks and design challenges is the Thermal Control System Development for Exploration Project. The current paper will summarize the Altair mission profile, the operational phases, and the thermal design challenges unique to this particular vehicle. The paper will also describe the technology development efforts being performed to mitigate the risks and design challenges. The technology development project is performing a rigorous development effort that includes thermal control system fluids, evaporators, heat exchangers, and Lunar surface radiators. Constellation Program, there are several project offices. One of these projects includes the development of NASA's new lunar lander vehicle. The overall mission architecture for this vehicle, Altair, is very similar to Apollo's architecture. This paper will provide the reader with an overview of the Altair vehicle. In addition, Altair's thermal control system, including the functionality and the hardware, will be discussed. The paper will also describe the technology

  3. Turning passive into active: a building block of ego and fundamental mechanism of defense.

    PubMed

    Corradi, Richard B

    2007-01-01

    Turning passive into active is an ego function that plays an important role in managing anxiety associated with passive feelings of helplessness and powerlessness. Its use in childhood aids the ego in constructing a basic sense of mastery, a secure sense of being in control, both of oneself and of one's circumstances. Functioning first as a building block of ego, it subsequently becomes a versatile mechanism of defense with utility throughout the life cycle. This article discusses both the developmental and defensive uses of the passive into active mechanism of defense and illustrates them with clinical examples. Often regarded only as a byproduct of defense, its importance in mastering core developmental anxieties and their adult revivals warrants its inclusion in the glossary of discrete defenses.

  4. Too exhausted to see the truth: ego depletion and the ability to detect deception.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, Marc-André; Scharmach, Martin; Stahlberg, Dagmar

    2013-12-01

    In two experiments, recent findings showing the detrimental role of regulatory depletion in decision making are extended to the field of deception detection. In both experiments, the state of ego depletion was induced by having judges inhibit versus non-inhibit a dominant response while transcribing a text. Subsequently they judged true or deceptive messages of different stimulus persons with regard to their truthfulness. In both experiments, ego-depleted judges scored significantly lower on detection accuracy than control judges. Signal detection measures showed that this effect was not due to differences in judgmental bias between the two conditions. In Experiment 2, it was shown that the lower detection accuracy in the state of ego depletion was due to a feeling of difficulty of relying on verbal content information. Practical implications of the current findings are discussed.

  5. Sex Differences in Intellectual and Ego Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alishio, Kip C.; Schilling, Karen Maitland

    Perry's scheme of intellectual and ethical development was examined for sex differences with respect to content areas for which sex differences have elsewhere been suggested: occupational choice, interpersonal relationships, and sexual identity. In addition, the content area religion and ego development, as measured by Loevinger's sentence…

  6. Androgyny, Ego Development and Psychosocial Crisis Resolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prager, Karen J.; Bailey, John M.

    The present study examined the relationship of psychological androgyny with ego development in the context of Loevinger's theory, and with psychosocial crisis resolution from the perspective of Erikson's theory. A sample of 30 male and 30 female adults completed the Bem Sex Role Inventory, the Washington University Sentence Completion Test and the…

  7. Ego Boundaries and Attainments in FL Pronunciation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran-Lucarz, Malgorzata

    2012-01-01

    The paper reports on a study designed to examine the relationship between the thickness of ego boundaries and attainments in FL pronunciation after a clearly structured form-focused practical course of phonetics. The research involved 45 first-year students of the Institute of English Studies in Wroclaw, Poland, who had attended around thirty…

  8. Erikson's concept of ego identity reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Wallerstein, R S

    1998-01-01

    This paper explores and attempts to explain the paradox that Erik Erikson--after Freud, undoubtedly the psychoanalyst best known, most deeply esteemed, and most widely influential in the sociohistorical surround of world culture--has at the same time never been properly integrated into the psychoanalytic mainstream, but has instead been marginalized, consigned to a persisting psychoanalytic limbo. Two successive contexts within the historical unfolding of psychoanalysis in America, the milieu in which Erikson worked, would seem to account for this neglect. First, Erikson's monumental contributions to our understanding of the psychosocial developmental process, of the epigenesis of the ego, of the phase-specific developmental tasks across the eight postulated stages of the life cycle, and of the intergenerational cogwheeling of the life cycles were made during the 1950s and 1960s and could not easily be integrated into the ego psychology metapsychological paradigm then monolithically regnant within American psychoanalysis. And, second, as a major paradigm shift took place in America, beginning in the 1970s, toward a more relational, interpersonal, and intersubjective framework, Erikson's contributions, couched as they were in the structural language of the ego psychology of his time, were overlooked and went unremarked as seminal precursors of the newly emerging emphases. The clear relationship of Erikson's concepts of (ego) identity to emerging conceptions of self in relation to objects was simply not noticed, and his work continues to this day to be neglected and unintegrated within psychoanalysis.

  9. Residual Excitation and Ego-Defensive Attributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gollwitzer, Peter M.; Earle, Walter B.

    It has been suggested that egotistical attributions for success and failure are mediated by the affective reactions resulting from achievement outcomes. To establish the motivational impact of failure-related affect on subsequent ego-defensive attributions, an excitation transfer paradigm was used to manipulate the negative feelings elicited by…

  10. Sweet delusion. Glucose drinks fail to counteract ego depletion.

    PubMed

    Lange, Florian; Eggert, Frank

    2014-04-01

    Initial acts of self-control have repeatedly been shown to reduce individuals' performance on a consecutive self-control task. In addition, sugar containing drinks have been demonstrated to counteract this so-called ego-depletion effect, both when being ingested and when merely being sensed in the oral cavity. However, since the underlying evidence is less compelling than suggested, replications are crucially required. In Experiment 1, 70 participants consumed a drink containing either sugar or a non-caloric sweetener between two administrations of delay-discounting tasks. Experiment 2 (N=115) was designed to unravel the psychological function of oral glucose sensing by manipulating the temporal delay between a glucose mouth rinse and the administration of the consecutive self-control task. Despite applying powerful research designs, no effect of sugar sensing or ingestion on ego depletion could be detected. These findings add to previous challenges of the glucose model of self-control and highlight the need for independent replications.

  11. Effortful control and parenting: associations with HPA axis reactivity in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Kryski, Katie R; Dougherty, Lea R; Dyson, Margaret W; Olino, Thomas M; Laptook, Rebecca S; Klein, Daniel N; Hayden, Elizabeth P

    2013-07-01

    While activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is an adaptive response to stress, excessive HPA axis reactivity may be an important marker of childhood vulnerability to psychopathology. Parenting, including parent affect during parent-child interactions, may play an important role in shaping the developing HPA system; however, the association of parent affect may be moderated by child factors, especially children's emerging self-regulatory skills. We therefore tested the relationship between parent affectivity and 160 preschoolers' cortisol reactivity during a laboratory visit, examining children's effortful control (EC) as a moderator. Greater parent negative affectivity was related to greater initial and increasing cortisol over time, but only when children were low in EC. Higher parent positive affectivity was related to a higher baseline cortisol for children with low EC and lower baseline cortisol for children with high EC. Results indicate that children's EC moderates the extent to which parent affect shapes stress reactive systems in early childhood.

  12. Children's Sleep and Academic Achievement: The Moderating Role of Effortful Control.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Anjolii; Berger, Rebecca; Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; VanSchyndel, Sarah; Tao, Chun; Spinrad, Tracy L; Doane, Leah D; Thompson, Marilyn S; Silva, Kassondra M; Southworth, Jody

    2017-03-01

    Poor sleep is thought to interfere with children's learning and academic achievement (AA). However, existing research and theory indicate there are factors that may mitigate the academic risk associated with poor sleep. The purpose of this study was to examine the moderating role of children's effortful control (EC) on the relation between sleep and AA in young children. One hundred and three 4.5- to 7-year-olds (M = 5.98 years, SD = 0.61) wore a wrist-based actigraph for five continuous weekday nights. Teachers and coders reported on children's EC. EC was also assessed with a computer-based task at school. Additionally, we obtained a standardized measure of children's AA. There was a positive main effect of sleep efficiency to AA. Several relations between sleep and AA were moderated by EC and examination of the simple slopes indicated that the negative relation between sleep and AA was only significant at low levels of EC.

  13. Academic performance and social competence of adolescents: predictions based on effortful control and empathy.

    PubMed

    Zorza, Juan P; Marino, Julián; de Lemus, Soledad; Acosta Mesas, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the predictive power of effortful control (EC) on empathy, academic performance, and social competence in adolescents. We obtained self-report measures of EC and dispositional empathy in 359 students (197 girls and 162 boys) aged between 12 and 14 years. Each student provided information about the prosocial behavior of the rest of his/her classmates and completed a sociogram. At the end of the school year, we calculated the mean grade of each student and the teacher responsible for each class completed a questionnaire on the academic skills of his/her students. The study confirmed the existence of a structural equation model (SEM) in which EC directly predicted academic performance and social competence. Additionally, empathic concern partially mediated the effect of EC on social competence. Finally, social competence significantly predicted academic performance. The article discusses the practical applications of the model proposed.

  14. Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia, Shyness, and Effortful Control in Preschool-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Sulik, Michael J.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Silva, Kassondra M.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Kupfer, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and shyness were examined as predictors of effortful control (EC) in a sample of 101 preschool-age children. Resting RSA was calculated from respiration and heart rate data collected during a neutral film; shyness was measured using parents’, preschool teachers’, and classroom observers’ reports; and EC was measured using four laboratory tasks in addition to questionnaire measures. Principal components analysis was used to create composite measures of EC and shyness. The relation between RSA and EC was moderated by shyness, such that RSA was positively related to EC only for children high in shyness. This interaction suggests that emotional reactivity affects the degree to which RSA can be considered a correlate of EC. This study also draws attention to the need to consider the measurement context when assessing resting psychophysiology measures; shy individuals may not exhibit true baseline RSA responding in an unfamiliar laboratory setting. PMID:23127725

  15. Measuring Effortful Control Using the Children's Behavior Questionnaire-Very Short Form: Modeling Matters.

    PubMed

    Backer-Grøndahl, Agathe; Nærde, Ane; Ulleberg, Pål; Janson, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Effortful control (EC) is an important concept in the research on self-regulation in children. We tested 2 alternative factor models of EC as measured by the Children's Behavior Questionnaire-Very Short Form (CBQ-VSF; Putnam & Rothbart, 2006 ) in a large sample of preschoolers (N = 1,007): 1 lower order and 1 hierarchical second-order structure. Additionally, convergent and predictive validity of EC as measured by the CBQ-VSF were investigated. The results supported a hierarchical model. Moderate convergent validity of the second-order latent EC factor was found in that it correlated with compliance and observed EC tasks. Both CBQ-VSF EC measures were also negatively correlated with child physical aggression. The results have implications for the measurement, modeling, and interpretation of EC applying the CBQ.

  16. The relationship between effortful control, current psychopathology and interpersonal difficulties in adulthood.

    PubMed

    De Panfilis, Chiara; Meehan, Kevin B; Cain, Nicole M; Clarkin, John F

    2013-07-01

    This study examined whether the relationship between low effortful control (EC), general psychopathology and interpersonal maladjustment previously reported among children extends to adulthood. Two hundred and forty undergraduate students were assessed using the EC scale of the Adult Temperament Questionnaire, the General Severity Index of the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-GSI) and the interpersonal distress index of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Short Circumplex (IIP-distress). Both the BSI-GSI and the IIP-distress scores were related to low levels of EC. Furthermore, interpersonal distress mediated the association between low EC and greater psychopathology severity. These results suggest that deficits in regulatory temperament among adults may be associated with experiencing greater psychopathology distress, and that this relationship may be explained by an impairment in interpersonal adjustment. Such preliminary findings may constitute a useful starting point for investigating this hypothesis among clinical populations.

  17. The folly of effort: ironic effects in the mental control of pain.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, J D; Gaskovski, P; Bowers, K S

    1998-01-01

    During exposure to pain, participants who were engaged in hypnotic analgesia or stress inoculation provided pain reports every 5 s and 45 s, respectively. It was found that the frequency of pain reporting had a significant effect on participants' level of experienced pain. This finding is discussed in the context of important methodological implications for laboratory investigations of analgesia. Furthermore, preliminary evidence was obtained suggesting that high hypnotizables in hypnotic analgesia remained relatively undisrupted by frequent pain reporting. Based on Wegner's (1994) ironic process theory, it is argued that this pattern of results is inconsistent with theories of hypnosis that propose that hypnotized individuals intentionally engender responses while remaining unaware of their sustained, deliberate effort. The obtained pattern of results was, however, predicted from the dissociated control model of hypnosis (Bowers, 1990, 1992).

  18. Early school competence: the roles of sex-segregated play and effortful control.

    PubMed

    Fabes, Richard A; Martin, Carol Lynn; Hanish, Laura D; Anders, Mary C; Madden-Derdich, Debra A

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the role that young children's same-sex peer interactions play in influencing early school competence. The authors also examined the degree to which effortful control (EC) moderated these relations. The same-sex play preferences of 98 young children (50 boys and 48 girls; mean age = 54.77 months) were observed during the fall semester. At the end of the fall semester, one set of teachers reported on children's EC, and at the end of the following springsemester, another set reported on children's school competence (social, academic, and perceptual-motor). Results revealed that EC moderated the relations of children's same-sex play to their school competence. These patterns differed for boys and girls such that same-sex play was positively related to school outcomes for boys high in EC and for girls low in EC.

  19. Too exhausted to remember: ego depletion undermines subsequent event-based prospective memory.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Bin; Nie, Yan-Gang; Zeng, Min-Xia; Huntoon, Meghan; Smith, Jessi L

    2013-01-01

    Past research has consistently found that people are likely to do worse on high-level cognitive tasks after exerting self-control on previous actions. However, little has been unraveled about to what extent ego depletion affects subsequent prospective memory. Drawing upon the self-control strength model and the relationship between self-control resources and executive control, this study proposes that the initial actions of self-control may undermine subsequent event-based prospective memory (EBPM). Ego depletion was manipulated through watching a video requiring visual attention (Experiment 1) or completing an incongruent Stroop task (Experiment 2). Participants were then tested on EBPM embedded in an ongoing task. As predicted, the results showed that after ruling out possible intervening variables (e.g. mood, focal and nonfocal cues, and characteristics of ongoing task and ego depletion task), participants in the high-depletion condition performed significantly worse on EBPM than those in the low-depletion condition. The results suggested that the effect of ego depletion on EBPM was mainly due to an impaired prospective component rather than to a retrospective component.

  20. Risk assessment, eradication, and biological control: global efforts to limit Australian acacia invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, John R.U.; Gairifo, Carla; Gibson, Michelle R.; Arianoutsou, Margarita; Bakar, Baki B.; Baret, Stephane; Celesti-Grapow, Laura; DiTomaso, Joseph M.; Dufour-Dror, Jean-Marc; Kueffer, Christoph; Kull, Christian A.; Hoffman, John H.; Impson, Fiona A.C.; Loope, Lloyd L.; Marchante, Elizabete; Harchante, Helia; Moore, Joslin L.; Murphy, Daniel J.; Tassin, Jacques; Witt, Arne; Zenni, Rafael D.; Richardson, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Aim Many Australian Acacia species have been planted around the world, some are highly valued, some are invasive, and some are both highly valued and invasive. We review global efforts to minimize the risk and limit the impact of invasions in this widely used plant group. Location Global. Methods Using information from literature sources, knowledge and experience of the authors, and the responses from a questionnaire sent to experts around the world, we reviewed: (1) a generalized life cycle of Australian acacias and how to control each life stage, (2) different management approaches and (3) what is required to help limit or prevent invasions. Results Relatively few Australian acacias have been introduced in large numbers, but all species with a long and extensive history of planting have become invasive somewhere. Australian acacias, as a group, have a high risk of becoming invasive and causing significant impacts as determined by existing assessment schemes. Moreover, in most situations, long-lived seed banks mean it is very difficult to control established infestations. Control has focused almost exclusively on widespread invaders, and eradication has rarely been attempted. Classical biological control is being used in South Africa with increasing success. Main conclusions A greater emphasis on pro-active rather than reactive management is required given the difficulties managing established invasions of Australian acacias. Adverse effects of proposed new introductions can be minimized by conducting detailed risk assessments in advance, planning for on-going monitoring and management, and ensuring resources are in place for long-term mitigation. Benign alternatives (e.g. sterile hybrids) could be developed to replace existing utilized taxa. Eradication should be set as a management goal more often to reduce the invasion debt. Introducing classical biological control agents that have a successful track-record in South Africa to other regions and identifying new

  1. The influence of social cognition on ego disturbances in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Schimansky, Jenny; Rössler, Wulf; Haker, Helene

    2012-01-01

    Subjects experiencing ego disturbances can be classified as a distinct subgroup of schizophrenia patients. These symptoms imply a disturbance in the ego-world boundary, which in turn implies aberrations in the perception, processing and understanding of social information. This paper provides a comparison of a group of schizophrenia patients and a group of healthy controls on a range of social-cognitive tasks. Furthermore, it analyzes the relationship between ego disturbances and social-cognitive as well as clinical variables in the schizophrenia subsample. Two groups - 40 schizophrenia patients and 39 healthy subjects - were compared. In the source monitoring task, subjects performed simple computer mouse movements and evaluated the partially manipulated visual feedback as either self- or other-generated. In a second step, participants indicated the confidence of their decision on a 4-point rating scale. In an emotion-recognition task, subjects had to identify 6 basic emotions in the prosody of spoken sentences. In the 'reading-the-mind-in-the-eyes' test, subjects had to infer mental states from pictures that depicted others' eyes. In an attribution task, subjects were presented with descriptions of social events and asked to attribute the cause of the event either to a person, an object or a situation. Additionally, all subjects were tested for cognitive functioning levels. The schizophrenia patient group performed significantly worse on all social-cognitive tasks than the healthy control group. Correlation analysis showed that ego disturbances were related to deficits in person attribution and lower levels of confidence in the source monitoring task. Also, ego disturbances were related to higher PANSS positive scores and a higher number of hospitalizations. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that social-cognitive variables explained 48.0% of the variance in the ego-disturbance score and represented the best predictors for ego disturbances. One particular

  2. Progress Towards Fuselage Drag Reduction via Active Flow Control: A Combined CFD and Experimental Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaeffler, Norman W.; Allan, Brian G.; Lienard, Caroline; LePape, Arnaud

    2010-01-01

    A combined computational and experimental effort has been undertaken to study fuselage drag reduction on a generic, non-proprietary rotorcraft fuselage by the application of active ow control. Fuselage drag reduction is an area of research interest to both the United States and France and this area is being worked collaboratively as a task under the United States/France Memorandum of Agreement on Helicopter Aeromechanics. In the first half of this task, emphasis is placed on the US generic fuselage, the ROBIN-mod7, with the experimental work being conducted on the US side and complementary US and French CFD analysis of the baseline and controlled cases. Fuselage simulations were made using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes ow solvers and with multiple turbulence models. Comparisons were made to experimental data for numerical simulations of the isolated fuselage and for the fuselage as installed in the tunnel, which includes modeling of the tunnel contraction, walls, and support fairing. The numerical simulations show that comparisons to the experimental data are in good agreement when the tunnel and model support are included. The isolated fuselage simulations compare well to each other, however, there is a positive shift in the centerline pressure when compared to the experiment. The computed flow separation locations on the rear ramp region had only slight differences with and without the tunnel walls and model support. For the simulations, the flow control slots were placed at several locations around the flow separation lines as a series of eight slots that formed a nearly continuous U-shape. Results from the numerical simulations resulted in an estimated 35% fuselage drag reduction from a steady blowing flow control configuration and a 26% drag reduction for unsteady zero-net-mass flow control configuration. Simulations with steady blowing show a delayed flow separation at the rear ramp of the fuselage that increases the surface pressure acting on the ramp

  3. The ego according to Klein: return to Freud and beyond.

    PubMed

    Blass, Rachel B

    2012-02-01

    This paper explores fundamental dimensions of Melanie Klein's concept of the ego through a detailed study of the writings of Klein and her early colleagues (Paula Heimann, Susan Isaacs and Joan Riviere). The study examines three central issues: (a) the basic theoretical framework for Klein's conceptualization of the ego, and specifically how her conceptualization builds on Freud's structural and dual instinct models; (b) the processes involved in the development of the ego and its capacities (including the development from id to ego and from ego to superego); and (c) the view of the ego as an object of phantasy. Through this examination, the study demonstrates that Klein's conceptualization of the ego is firmly grounded both in Freud's formulations about the ego and in his theoretical and metapsychological approach to thinking about the ego. This counters the prevalent view that Klein was only focused on clinical understandings, unconcerned with theory and fuzzy in her abstract thinking. More specifically, it counters the view that Klein did not really have a concept of the ego in any well-structured sense of the term (Britton, 2003; Hinshelwood, 1994; Segal, 2001). The study considers the sources of these misconceived views. Finally, it argues that discarding such views allows us to appreciate better the richness of Klein's thinking, her theoretical affinities to Freud, and the role of theory in the development and justification of psychoanalysis. Copyright © 2011 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  4. Late Adolescents' Home-Leaving Strategies: Predicting Ego Identity and College Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Stephen A.; Fleming, William Michael

    1986-01-01

    Four interrelated yet distinct variables, economic independence, separate residence, personal control, and emotional attachment to parents, were highly significant predictors of both ego identity and college adjustment. The results confirm earlier preliminary investigations and support a broader definition of leaving home than those typically…

  5. Externalizing symptoms, effortful control, and intrusive parenting: A test of bidirectional longitudinal relations during early childhood.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Taylor, Zoe E; Widaman, Keith F; Spinrad, Tracy L

    2015-11-01

    At approximately 30, 42, and 54 months of age (N = 231), the relations among children's externalizing symptoms, intrusive maternal parenting, and children's effortful control (EC) were examined. Both intrusive parenting and low EC have been related to psychopathology, but children's externalizing problems and low EC might affect the quality of parenting and one another. Mothers' intrusive behavior with their children was assessed with observations, children's EC was measured with mothers' and caregivers' reports, and children's externalizing symptoms were assessed with mothers', fathers', and caregivers' reports. In a structural equation panel model, bidirectional relations between intrusive parenting and EC were found: EC at 30 and 42 months predicted low levels of intrusive parenting a year later, controlling for prior levels of parenting and vice versa. Moreover, high levels of children's externalizing problems at both 30 and 42 months negatively predicted EC a year later, controlling for prior levels of EC. Although externalizing problems positively predicted high EC over time, this appeared to be a suppression effect because these variables had a strong negative pattern in the zero-order correlations. Moreover, when controlling for the stability of intrusive parenting, EC, and externalizing (all exhibited significant stability across time) and the aforementioned cross-lagged predictive paths, EC and externalizing problems were still negatively related within the 54-month assessment. The findings are consistent with the view that children's externalizing behavior undermines their EC and contributes to intrusive mothering and that relations between intrusive parenting and EC are bidirectional across time. Thus, interventions that focus on modifying children's externalizing problems (as well as the quality of parenting) might affect the quality of parenting they receive and, hence, subsequent problems with adjustment.

  6. Decreasing prevalence of brucellosis in red deer through efforts to control disease in livestock.

    PubMed

    Serrano, E; Cross, P C; Beneria, M; Ficapal, A; Curia, J; Marco, X; Lavín, S; Marco, I

    2011-10-01

    When a pathogen infects a number of different hosts, the process of determining the relative importance of each host species to the persistence of the pathogen is often complex. Removal of a host species is a potential but rarely possible way of discovering the importance of that species to the dynamics of the disease. This study presents the results of a 12-year programme aimed at controlling brucellosis in cattle, sheep and goats and the cascading impacts on brucellosis in a sympatric population of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the Boumort National Game Reserve (BNGR; NE Spain). From February 1998 to December 2009, local veterinary agencies tested over 36 180 individual blood samples from cattle, 296 482 from sheep and goats and 1047 from red deer in the study area. All seropositive livestock were removed annually. From 2006 to 2009 brucellosis was not detected in cattle and in 2009 only one of 97 red deer tested was found to be positive. The surveillance and removal of positive domestic animals coincided with a significant decrease in the prevalence of brucellosis in red deer. Our results suggest that red deer may not be able to maintain brucellosis in this region independently of cattle, sheep or goats, and that continued efforts to control disease in livestock may lead to the eventual eradication of brucellosis in red deer in the area.

  7. Decreasing prevalence of brucellosis in red deer through efforts to control disease in livestock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serrano, E.; Cross, P.C.; Beneria, M.; Ficapal, A.; Curia, J.; Marco, X.; Lavin, S.; Marco, I.

    2011-01-01

    When a pathogen infects a number of different hosts, the process of determining the relative importance of each host species to the persistence of the pathogen is often complex. Removal of a host species is a potential but rarely possible way of discovering the importance of that species to the dynamics of the disease. This study presents the results of a 12-year programme aimed at controlling brucellosis in cattle, sheep and goats and the cascading impacts on brucellosis in a sympatric population of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the Boumort National Game Reserve (BNGR; NE Spain). From February 1998 to December 2009, local veterinary agencies tested over 36 180 individual blood samples from cattle, 296 482 from sheep and goats and 1047 from red deer in the study area. All seropositive livestock were removed annually. From 2006 to 2009 brucellosis was not detected in cattle and in 2009 only one of 97 red deer tested was found to be positive. The surveillance and removal of positive domestic animals coincided with a significant decrease in the prevalence of brucellosis in red deer. Our results suggest that red deer may not be able to maintain brucellosis in this region independently of cattle, sheep or goats, and that continued efforts to control disease in livestock may lead to the eventual eradication of brucellosis in red deer in the area.

  8. Relations among maternal socialization, effortful control, and maladjustment in early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eggum, Natalie D.; Silva, Kassondra M.; Reiser, Mark; Hofer, Claire; Smith, Cynthia L.; Gaertner, Bridget M.; Kupfer, Anne; Popp, Tierney; Michalik, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    In a sample of 18-, 30-, and 42-month-olds, the relations among parenting, effortful control (EC), and maladjustment were examined. Parenting was assessed with mothers’ reports and observations; EC was measured with mothers’ and caregivers’ reports, as well as a behavioral task; and externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed with parents’ and caregivers’ reports. Although 18-month unsupportive (vs. supportive) parenting negatively predicted EC at 30 months, when the stability of these variables was taken into account, there was no evidence of additional potentially causal relations between these two constructs. Although EC was negatively related to both internalizing and externalizing problems within all three ages as well as across 1 year, EC did not predict maladjustment once the stability of the constructs and within time covariation between the constructs were taken into account. In addition, externalizing problems at 30 months negatively predicted EC at 42 months, and internalizing problems at 30 months positively predicted EC at 42 months, but only when the effects of externalizing on EC were controlled. The findings are discussed in terms of the reasons for the lack of causal relations over time. PMID:20576175

  9. Vitamin A deficiency disorders: international efforts to control a preventable "pox".

    PubMed

    Underwood, Barbara A

    2004-01-01

    Visual symptoms (night blindness) of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) were among the earliest diet-related deficiencies documented. Knowledge of vitamin A chemistry, metabolism and deficiency consequences accrued rapidly during the first eight decades of the 20th century. A series of disorders were described in animals, including impaired growth, reproduction, epithelial integrity, and disease resistance that were relieved by consumption of both animal and plant sources of the vitamin. Identification of the intestinal beta-carotene cleavage enzyme in the laboratory of James Allen Olson was seminal to understanding the mechanism for formation of vitamin A from ingested carotenoids. WHO's 1990 estimate of about 40 million children annually with clinical eye signs of VAD was revised upward to 140-250 million at risk of vitamin A deficiency disorders (VADD) when epidemiological and clinical trials demonstrated morbidity and mortality risk even in the absence of ocular signs. Alternative methods for VAD status assessment and more reliable analytical techniques were developed, several in Dr. Olson's laboratory. The last decade has seen global progress in VADD control by expanding distribution of medicinal supplements, fortification of foods and dietary diversification through horticulture and education programs. Experience shows that achievements gained through narrowly focused interventions are fragile and vulnerable to national political and economic instability. Contextually relevant, community-centered strategies that improve household food and nutrition security and self-reliance are critical to sustaining international efforts to control the VADD "pox."

  10. The ego and the id revisited Freud and Damasio on the body ego/self.

    PubMed

    Sletvold, Jon

    2013-10-01

    Freud's statement in The Ego and the Id (1923) that the ego is first and foremost a bodily ego is well known. This paper tempts to clarify the premises underlying Freud's thesis. Particular attention is paid to Freud's investigation of internal perceptions. Freud argued that internal perceptions are more primordial than perceptions arising externally. In Freud's opinion the roots of the ego, the id, are to be found in body sensations and feelings, but he had to admit that very little was known about these sensations and feelings. Only much later was neuroscience in a position to offer evidence that feelings can be the direct perception of the internal state of the body. Damasio (2010) has recently suggested that the core of the self might be found in what he, like Freud, terms primordial feelings. Not only was Freud able to conceive of the ego as the perception and feeling of our own body but also to conceive of knowing the mental life of another by means of recreating the bodily state of another through imitation.

  11. Effortful echolalia.

    PubMed

    Hadano, K; Nakamura, H; Hamanaka, T

    1998-02-01

    We report three cases of effortful echolalia in patients with cerebral infarction. The clinical picture of speech disturbance is associated with Type 1 Transcortical Motor Aphasia (TCMA, Goldstein, 1915). The patients always spoke nonfluently with loss of speech initiative, dysarthria, dysprosody, agrammatism, and increased effort and were unable to repeat sentences longer than those containing four or six words. In conversation, they first repeated a few words spoken to them, and then produced self initiated speech. The initial repetition as well as the subsequent self initiated speech, which were realized equally laboriously, can be regarded as mitigated echolalia (Pick, 1924). They were always aware of their own echolalia and tried to control it without effect. These cases demonstrate that neither the ability to repeat nor fluent speech are always necessary for echolalia. The possibility that a lesion in the left medial frontal lobe, including the supplementary motor area, plays an important role in effortful echolalia is discussed.

  12. The effect of ego depletion on sprint start reaction time.

    PubMed

    Englert, Chris; Bertrams, Alex

    2014-10-01

    In the current study, we consider that optimal sprint start performance requires the self-control of responses. Therefore, start performance should depend on athletes' self-control strength. We assumed that momentary depletion of self-control strength (ego depletion) would either speed up or slow down the initiation of a sprint start, where an initiation that was sped up would carry the increased risk of a false start. Applying a mixed between- (depletion vs. nondepletion) and within- (before vs. after manipulation of depletion) subjects design, we tested the start reaction times of 37 sport students. We found that participants' start reaction times decelerated after finishing a depleting task, whereas it remained constant in the nondepletion condition. These results indicate that sprint start performance can be impaired by unrelated preceding actions that lower momentary self-control strength. We discuss practical implications in terms of optimizing sprint starts and related overall sprint performance.

  13. To do it or to let an automatic tool do it? The priority of control over effort.

    PubMed

    Osiurak, François; Wagner, Clara; Djerbi, Sara; Navarro, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to provide experimental data relevant to the issue of what leads humans to use automatic tools. Two answers can be offered. The first is that humans strive to minimize physical and/or cognitive effort (principle of least effort). The second is that humans tend to keep their perceived control over the environment (principle of more control). These two factors certainly play a role, but the question raised here is to what do people give priority in situations wherein both manual and automatic actions take the same time - minimizing effort or keeping perceived control? To answer that question, we built four experiments in which participants were confronted with a recurring choice between performing a task manually (physical effort) or in a semi-automatic way (cognitive effort) versus using an automatic tool that completes the task for them (no effort). In this latter condition, participants were required to follow the progression of the automatic tool step by step. Our results showed that participants favored the manual or semi-automatic condition over the automatic condition. However, when they were offered the opportunity to perform recreational tasks in parallel, the shift toward manual condition disappeared. The findings give support to the idea that people give priority to keeping control over minimizing effort.

  14. Performance in a Computerized Self-Control Task by Rhesus Macaques ("Macaca Mulatta"): The Combined Influence of Effort and Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Theodore A.

    2007-01-01

    The variables of delay and effort have been found to influence self-control predictably and in similar fashion when tested independently, but it is unclear how they influence self-control interactively. In the present study, I tested these two variables simultaneously to gain better understanding of their combined influence on self-control. A…

  15. Performance in a Computerized Self-Control Task by Rhesus Macaques ("Macaca Mulatta"): The Combined Influence of Effort and Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Theodore A.

    2007-01-01

    The variables of delay and effort have been found to influence self-control predictably and in similar fashion when tested independently, but it is unclear how they influence self-control interactively. In the present study, I tested these two variables simultaneously to gain better understanding of their combined influence on self-control. A…

  16. Critical size of ego communication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing; Gao, Jian; Zhou, Tao; Hu, Zheng; Tian, Hui

    2016-06-01

    With the help of information and communication technologies, studies on the overall social networks have been extensively reported recently. However, investigations on the directed Ego Communication Networks (ECNs) remain insufficient, where an ECN stands for a sub network composed of a centralized individual and his/her direct contacts. In this paper, the directed ECNs are built on the Call Detail Records (CDRs), which cover more than 7 million people of a provincial capital city in China for half a year. Results show that there is a critical size for ECN at about 150, above which the average emotional closeness between ego and alters drops, the balanced relationship between ego and network collapses, and the proportion of strong ties decreases. This paper not only demonstrate the significance of ECN size in affecting its properties, but also shows accordance with the “Dunbar's Number”. These results can be viewed as a cross-culture supportive evidence to the well-known Social Brain Hypothesis (SBH).

  17. No Evidence of the Ego-Depletion Effect across Task Characteristics and Individual Differences: A Pre-Registered Study

    PubMed Central

    Lurquin, John H.; Michaelson, Laura E.; Barker, Jane E.; Gustavson, Daniel E.; von Bastian, Claudia C.; Carruth, Nicholas P.; Miyake, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Ego-depletion, a psychological phenomenon in which participants are less able to engage in self-control after prior exertion of self-control, has become widely popular in the scientific community as well as in the media. However, considerable debate exists among researchers as to the nature of the ego-depletion effect, and growing evidence suggests the effect may not be as strong or robust as the extant literature suggests. We examined the robustness of the ego-depletion effect and aimed to maximize the likelihood of detecting the effect by using one of the most widely used depletion tasks (video-viewing attention control task) and by considering task characteristics and individual differences that potentially moderate the effect. We also sought to make our research plan transparent by pre-registering our hypotheses, procedure, and planned analyses prior to data collection. Contrary to the ego-depletion hypothesis, participants in the depletion condition did not perform worse than control participants on the subsequent self-control task, even after considering moderator variables. These findings add to a growing body of evidence suggesting ego-depletion is not a reliable phenomenon, though more research is needed that uses large sample sizes, considers moderator variables, and pre-registers prior to data collection. PMID:26863227

  18. No Evidence of the Ego-Depletion Effect across Task Characteristics and Individual Differences: A Pre-Registered Study.

    PubMed

    Lurquin, John H; Michaelson, Laura E; Barker, Jane E; Gustavson, Daniel E; von Bastian, Claudia C; Carruth, Nicholas P; Miyake, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Ego-depletion, a psychological phenomenon in which participants are less able to engage in self-control after prior exertion of self-control, has become widely popular in the scientific community as well as in the media. However, considerable debate exists among researchers as to the nature of the ego-depletion effect, and growing evidence suggests the effect may not be as strong or robust as the extant literature suggests. We examined the robustness of the ego-depletion effect and aimed to maximize the likelihood of detecting the effect by using one of the most widely used depletion tasks (video-viewing attention control task) and by considering task characteristics and individual differences that potentially moderate the effect. We also sought to make our research plan transparent by pre-registering our hypotheses, procedure, and planned analyses prior to data collection. Contrary to the ego-depletion hypothesis, participants in the depletion condition did not perform worse than control participants on the subsequent self-control task, even after considering moderator variables. These findings add to a growing body of evidence suggesting ego-depletion is not a reliable phenomenon, though more research is needed that uses large sample sizes, considers moderator variables, and pre-registers prior to data collection.

  19. Mending fences: repairing boundaries through ego state therapy.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Maggie

    2013-07-01

    Ego state therapy has often been cited as an effective treatment to help repair fragmentation related to posttraumatic stress and dissociative disorders. This article explores how specialized work with ego states can help to clarify and strengthen internal and external boundaries, create greater boundary flexibility, and contribute to containment and self-regulation. Applications of direct and indirect hypnosis to repair boundary issues through ego state therapy are emphasized, and clinical case examples are used to illustrate results.

  20. Predicting childhood effortful control from interactions between early parenting quality and children's dopamine transporter gene haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Sulik, Michael J; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Stover, Daryn A; Verrelli, Brian C

    2016-02-01

    Children's observed effortful control (EC) at 30, 42, and 54 months (n = 145) was predicted from the interaction between mothers' observed parenting with their 30-month-olds and three variants of the solute carrier family C6, member 3 (SLC6A3) dopamine transporter gene (single nucleotide polymorphisms in intron8 and intron13, and a 40 base pair variable number tandem repeat [VNTR] in the 3'-untranslated region [UTR]), as well as haplotypes of these variants. Significant moderating effects were found. Children without the intron8-A/intron13-G, intron8-A/3'-UTR VNTR-10, or intron13-G/3'-UTR VNTR-10 haplotypes (i.e., haplotypes associated with the reduced SLC6A3 gene expression and thus lower dopamine functioning) appeared to demonstrate altered levels of EC as a function of maternal parenting quality, whereas children with these haplotypes demonstrated a similar EC level regardless of the parenting quality. Children with these haplotypes demonstrated a trade-off, such that they showed higher EC, relative to their counterparts without these haplotypes, when exposed to less supportive maternal parenting. The findings revealed a diathesis-stress pattern and suggested that different SLC6A3 haplotypes, but not single variants, might represent different levels of young children's sensitivity/responsivity to early parenting.

  1. Exploring dimensionality of effortful control using hot and cool tasks in a sample of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Allan, Nicholas P; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2014-06-01

    Effortful control (EC) is an important developmental construct associated with academic performance, socioemotional growth, and psychopathology. EC, defined as the ability to inhibit or delay a prepotent response typically in favor of a subdominant response, undergoes rapid development during children's preschool years. Research involving EC in preschool children can be aided by ensuring that the measured model of EC matches the latent structure of EC. Extant research indicates that EC may be multidimensional, consisting of hot (affectively salient) and cool (affectively neutral) dimensions. However, there are several untested assumptions regarding the defining features of hot EC. Confirmatory factor analysis was used in a sample of 281 preschool children (Mage=55.92months, SD=4.16; 46.6% male and 53.4% female) to compare a multidimensional model composed of hot and cool EC factors with a unidimensional model. Hot tasks were created by adding affective salience to cool tasks so that hot and cool tasks varied only by this aspect of the tasks. Tasks measuring EC were best described by a single factor and not distinct hot and cool factors, indicating that affective salience alone does not differentiate between hot and cool EC. EC shared gender-invariant associations with academic skills and externalizing behavior problems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mothers’ Teaching Strategies and Children’s Effortful Control: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Vidmar, Maša; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eggum, Natalie D.; Edwards, Alison; Gaertner, Bridget; Kupfer, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Findings on the relation of maternal verbal teaching strategies to children’s effortful control (EC; i.e., self-regulation) are limited in quantity and somewhat inconsistent. In this study, children’s EC was assessed at 18, 30, and 42 months (ns = 255, 229, and 209, respectively) with adults’ reports and a behavioral measure. Mothers’ verbal teaching strategies were assessed while the mother and child worked on a task together. Children’s general vocabulary also was measured. In a structural panel model taking into account prior levels of constructs and correlations within time, as well as the relations of EC and teaching strategies to children’s vocabulary, socioeconomic status, age, and sex of the child, 18-month EC positively predicted mothers’ 30-month cognitive assistance and questioning strategies and negatively predicted 30-month maternal directive strategies. In addition, high 30-month EC predicted greater 42-month maternal cognitive assistance and fewer directive strategies. Thus, mothers’ teaching strategies were predicted by individual differences in self-regulatory skills, supporting potential evocative child effects on mothers’ teaching strategies. PMID:20822239

  3. Effortful Control and Context Interact in Shaping Neuroendocrine Stress Responses during Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Stefanie E.; Abelson, James L.; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.

    2014-01-01

    Trait and contextual factors can shape individual and group differences in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) response to stress; but the ways in which these factors may interact with each other to modulate stress activity has rarely been examined. Here, we investigated whether the association between a temperamental self-regulatory trait – Effortful Control (EC) – and HPA axis stress response is moderated by type of laboratory stress in sixty-five children (35 boys). EC was measured at age 3 and 6 using age-appropriate laboratory batteries as well as mother reports. HPA axis responses were measured at age 7 by randomly assigning children to one of two laboratory stress tasks (frustration vs. fear). Results indicated that EC interacted with stress context in predicting cortisol response. Specifically, lower EC was associated with greater cortisol response (steeper reactivity slopes) in the context of a frustration stressor but this was reversed in a fear context where lower EC was associated with flatter, more gradual activation. It is likely that different components of EC, such as emotion regulation and attention, differentially interact with the stress context. These types of effects and interactions need to be more thoroughly understood in order to meaningfully interpret cortisol reactivity data and better characterize the role of the HPA axis in human psychopathology. PMID:25019964

  4. Exploring Dimensionality of Effortful Control Using Hot and Cool Tasks in a Sample of Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Nicholas P.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Effortful control (EC) is an important developmental construct associated with academic performance, socioemotional growth, and psychopathology. EC, defined as the ability to inhibit or delay a prepotent response typically in favor of a subdominant response, undergoes rapid development during children’s preschool years. Research involving EC in preschool children can be aided by ensuring that the measured model of EC matches the latent structure of EC. Extant research indicates that EC may be multidimensional, consisting of hot (affectively salient) and cool (affectively neutral) dimensions. However, there are several untested assumptions regarding the defining features of hot EC. Confirmatory factor analysis was used in a sample of 281 preschool children (Mage = 55.92 - months, SD = 4.16; 46.6% male and 53.4% female) to compare a multidimensional model composed of hot and cool EC factors with a unidimensional model. Hot tasks were created by adding affective salience to cool tasks so that hot and cool tasks varied only by this aspect of the tasks. Tasks measuring EC were best described by a single factor and not distinct hot and cool factors, indicating that affective salience alone does not differentiate between hot and cool EC. EC shared gender-invariant associations with academic skills and externalizing behavior problems. PMID:24518050

  5. Pollution control and environmental monitoring efforts at DOE's Coal-Fired Flow Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Attig, R.C.; Crawford, L.W.; Lynch, T.P.; Sheth, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    Proof-of-Concept (POC) scale demonstration of such technology is currently being carried out at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), located at The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) in Tullahoma, Tennessee and at the Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana. The CFFF is dedicated to the evaluation of downstream (steam cycle) components and technology that may be considered for a full-scale MHD system. The objectives of the CFFF testing include the demonstration of various pollution control devices and techniques at a scale sufficient for future scale-up. The CFFF offers a unique test environment in which emissions control techniques can be developed and evaluated through emissions and environmental monitoring. Results thus far have demonstrated the ability of sulfur oxide (SO{sub x}), nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) and particulate emissions well below the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). Regeneration of the potassium sulfate to produce sulfur-free compounds also has been demonstrated. The experimental program at the CFFF is now aimed at determining the optimum conditions for future commercial scale designs. Because of increased interests in Air Toxics, measurements of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), a potential greenhouse gas, priority pollutants (inorganic as well as organics), and chlorine-containing species (Cl{sub 2} and HCl) are also included in our ongoing efforts. Environmental monitoring activities are being pursued to develop an environmental impact assessment data base. These include the use of three ambient air sites to determine the impacts of gaseous and particulate emissions, five lake water sites to determine impacts due to process water discharges and seven sites to collect terrestrial data on possible soil contamination and tree growth. In this paper, we will summarize the status of our ongoing environmental program. 16 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Ego, drives, and the dynamics of internal objects

    PubMed Central

    Boag, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between the ego, id, and internal objects. While ego psychology views the ego as autonomous of the drives, a less well-known alternative position views the ego as constituted by the drives. Based on Freud’s ego-instinct account, this position has developed into a school of thought which postulates that the drives act as knowers. Given that there are multiple drives, this position proposes that personality is constituted by multiple knowers. Following on from Freud, the ego is viewed as a composite sub-set of the instinctual drives (ego-drives), whereas those drives cut off from expression form the id. The nature of the “self” is developed in terms of identification and the possibility of multiple personalities is also established. This account is then extended to object-relations and the explanatory value of the ego-drive account is discussed in terms of the addressing the nature of ego-structures and the dynamic nature of internal objects. Finally, the impact of psychological conflict and the significance of repression for understanding the nature of splits within the psyche are also discussed. PMID:25071640

  7. Behavior and weight correlates of weight-control efforts in Australian women living in disadvantage: The READI study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With increasing obesity rates worldwide, more and more people are actively attempting to lose weight or avoid weight gain, but relatively little is known about what specific behaviors comprise these efforts and which, if any, are associated with better weight control over time. Methods This paper reports relationships between body weight, weight-control efforts and related behaviors over a three-year period in 1,634 Australian women. The women were purposefully recruited from 80 disadvantaged neighborhoods in Victoria, Australia. Weight loss efforts were categorized as trying to lose weight, trying to prevent weight gain and no weight-control efforts. Behavioral correlates examined included different kinds of physical activity and consumption of a number of specific foods types. Results and discussion Self-reported body weight at baseline was higher in women trying to lose weight. Frequency of consumption of low energy density foods was positively associated with reported weight-control efforts, as was frequency of reported total and leisure-time physical activity. Longitudinal associations between changes in weight-control efforts and changes in behaviors were consistent with the cross-sectional findings. At three-year follow up, however, weight-control efforts were not associated with change in body weight. More detailed analyses of specific food choices suggested that part of the explanation of no effect of reported weight-control efforts and weight over time might be that people are not as well-informed as they should be about the energy density of some common foods. In particular, those reporting engagement in weight-control efforts reported reducing consumption of carbohydrate-containing foods such as bread and potatoes more than is justified by their energy content, while they reported increasing consumption of some high energy density foods (e.g., cheese and nuts). Conclusion It is tentatively concluded that women living in disadvantaged

  8. Does HPA-Axis Dysregulation Account for the Effects of Income on Effortful Control and Adjustment in Preschool Children?

    PubMed Central

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Zalewski, Maureen; Fisher, Phil; Moran, Lyndsey

    2014-01-01

    The effects of low income on children's adjustment might be accounted for by disruptions to hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA)-axis activity and to the development of effortful control. Using longitudinal data and a community sample of preschool-age children (N = 306, 36–39 months) and their mothers, recruited to over-represent low-income families, we explored the associations among diurnal cortisol levels and effortful control, and we tested a model in which diurnal cortisol and effortful control account for the effects of family income on child adjustment. Continuous indicators of morning cortisol level and diurnal slope, as well as dichotomous indicators reflecting low morning levels and flat diurnal slope, were examined as predictors of rank-order changes in two dimensions of effortful control, executive control and delay ability. Low income was related to a flat diurnal cortisol slope, and above the effects of family income, a flat diurnal cortisol slope predicted lower social competence. Low morning cortisol level predicted smaller gains in executive control and higher total adjustment problems. Further, delay ability predicted lower adjustment problems above the effects of income and diurnal cortisol levels. The results suggest that HPA-axis dysregulation and effortful control contribute additively to children's adjustment. PMID:25414597

  9. Does HPA-Axis Dysregulation Account for the Effects of Income on Effortful Control and Adjustment in Preschool Children?

    PubMed

    Lengua, Liliana J; Zalewski, Maureen; Fisher, Phil; Moran, Lyndsey

    2013-09-01

    The effects of low income on children's adjustment might be accounted for by disruptions to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity and to the development of effortful control. Using longitudinal data and a community sample of preschool-age children (N = 306, 36-39 months) and their mothers, recruited to over-represent low-income families, we explored the associations among diurnal cortisol levels and effortful control, and we tested a model in which diurnal cortisol and effortful control account for the effects of family income on child adjustment. Continuous indicators of morning cortisol level and diurnal slope, as well as dichotomous indicators reflecting low morning levels and flat diurnal slope, were examined as predictors of rank-order changes in two dimensions of effortful control, executive control and delay ability. Low income was related to a flat diurnal cortisol slope, and above the effects of family income, a flat diurnal cortisol slope predicted lower social competence. Low morning cortisol level predicted smaller gains in executive control and higher total adjustment problems. Further, delay ability predicted lower adjustment problems above the effects of income and diurnal cortisol levels. The results suggest that HPA-axis dysregulation and effortful control contribute additively to children's adjustment.

  10. “When the going gets tough, who keeps going?” Depletion sensitivity moderates the ego-depletion effect

    PubMed Central

    Salmon, Stefanie J.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; De Vet, Emely; Fennis, Bob M.; De Ridder, Denise T. D.

    2014-01-01

    Self-control relies on a limited resource that can get depleted, a phenomenon that has been labeled ego-depletion. We argue that individuals may differ in their sensitivity to depleting tasks, and that consequently some people deplete their self-control resource at a faster rate than others. In three studies, we assessed individual differences in depletion sensitivity, and demonstrate that depletion sensitivity moderates ego-depletion effects. The Depletion Sensitivity Scale (DSS) was employed to assess depletion sensitivity. Study 1 employs the DSS to demonstrate that individual differences in sensitivity to ego-depletion exist. Study 2 shows moderate correlations of depletion sensitivity with related self-control concepts, indicating that these scales measure conceptually distinct constructs. Study 3 demonstrates that depletion sensitivity moderates the ego-depletion effect. Specifically, participants who are sensitive to depletion performed worse on a second self-control task, indicating a stronger ego-depletion effect, compared to participants less sensitive to depletion. PMID:25009523

  11. Stress and eating: the effects of ego-threat and cognitive demand on food intake in restrained and emotional eaters.

    PubMed

    Wallis, D J; Hetherington, M M

    2004-08-01

    Restrained and emotional eaters overeat in response to stress. To compare differential effects of cognitive demand and ego-threatening stressors on subsequent chocolate intake, 38 females completed a neutral (control), an ego threatening and an incongruent Stroop colour-naming task on three separate occasions. Participants were assigned to four groups based on median-split scores on the restrained and emotional eating scales of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire-high restraint/high emotional, high restraint/low emotional, low restraint/high emotional and low restraint/low emotional. Higher response latencies were observed in the incongruent task, confirming its greater cognitive (attentional) demand. Overall intake was enhanced by 23% after ego-threat and 15% after the incongruent Stroop task relative to control. Restraint was associated with greater intake after both ego-threat and the incongruent task than in the control condition. In contrast, emotional eating was associated with greater intake after only the ego-threat, relative to control. A positive association between reaction time and subsequent intake in all conditions for high restraint/low emotional eaters provided support for the limited capacity hypothesis. Enhanced intake in emotional eaters is proposed to relate to escape from self-awareness. These findings demonstrate differential effects of threat and demand on stress-related eating in restrained and emotional eaters.

  12. Too Depleted to Try? Testing the Process Model of Ego Depletion in the Context of Unhealthy Snack Consumption.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Ashleigh; Kemps, Eva; Moffitt, Robyn

    2016-11-01

    The process model proposes that the ego depletion effect is due to (a) an increase in motivation toward indulgence, and (b) a decrease in motivation to control behaviour following an initial act of self-control. In contrast, the reflective-impulsive model predicts that ego depletion results in behaviour that is more consistent with desires, and less consistent with motivations, rather than influencing the strength of desires and motivations. The current study sought to test these alternative accounts of the relationships between ego depletion, motivation, desire, and self-control. One hundred and fifty-six undergraduate women were randomised to complete a depleting e-crossing task or a non-depleting task, followed by a lab-based measure of snack intake, and self-report measures of motivation and desire strength. In partial support of the process model, ego depletion was related to higher intake, but only indirectly via the influence of lowered motivation. Motivation was more strongly predictive of intake for those in the non-depletion condition, providing partial support for the reflective-impulsive model. Ego depletion did not affect desire, nor did depletion moderate the effect of desire on intake, indicating that desire may be an appropriate target for reducing unhealthy behaviour across situations where self-control resources vary. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  13. Relations of Children's Effortful Control and Teacher-Child Relationship Quality to School Attitudes in a Low-Income Sample.

    PubMed

    Silva, Kassondra M; Spinrad, Tracy L; Eisenberg, Nancy; Sulik, Michael J; Valiente, Carlos; Huerta, Snjezana; Edwards, Alison; Eggum, Natalie D; Kupfer, Anne S; Lonigan, Christopher J; Phillips, Beth M; Wilson, Shauna B; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Landry, Susan H; Swank, Paul R; Assel, Michael A; Taylor, Heather B

    2011-01-01

    RESEARCH FINDINGS: The purpose of this study was to examine the relations of children's effortful control and quality of relationships with teachers to school attitudes longitudinally in an ethnically diverse and economically disadvantaged sample. Data were collected as part of a larger intervention project during mid-fall, winter, and late spring (ns = 823, 722, and 758, respectively) for 2 cohorts of 3- to 5-year-olds (collected during 2 different school years). Children's effortful control was assessed in the fall with parents' and teachers' reports and 2 behavioral measures. Teacher-child relationship quality was assessed mid-year with teachers' reports of closeness and conflict. Attitudes toward school were assessed in late spring using teachers' and students' reports of school avoidance and liking. Effortful control, in general, was positively correlated with teacher-child closeness and school liking and negatively correlated with conflict and school avoidance. Using structural equation modeling and controlling for sex and ethnicity, we found that effortful control was positively related to teacher-child relationship quality, which in turn was positively related to school attitudes. Furthermore, the relation of effortful control to school attitudes was mediated by teacher-child relationship quality. PRACTICE OR POLICY: Results provide evidence for the importance of relational processes that take place within the classroom context and have implications for teachers and clinicians working to increase school success in ethnic minority and low-income children.

  14. Relations of Growth in Effortful Control to Family Income, Cumulative Risk, and Adjustment in Preschool-age Children

    PubMed Central

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Moran, Lyndsey; Zalewski, Maureen; Ruberry, Erika; Kiff, Cara; Thompson, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The study examined growth in effortful control (executive control, delay ability) in relation to income, cumulative risk (aggregate of demographic and psychosocial risk factors), and adjustment in 306 preschool-age children (50% girls, 50% boys) from families representing a range of income (29% at- or near-poverty; 28% lower-income; 25% middle-income; 18% upper-income), with 4 assessments starting at 36–40 mos. Income was directly related to levels of executive control and delay ability. Cumulative risk accounted for the effects of income on delay ability but not executive control. Higher initial executive control and slope of executive control and delay ability predicted academic readiness, whereas levels, but not growth, of executive control and delay ability predicted social competence and adjustment problems. Low income is a marker for lower effortful control, which demonstrates additive or mediating effects in the relation of income to children’s preschool adjustment. PMID:25253079

  15. Relations of growth in effortful control to family income, cumulative risk, and adjustment in preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Lengua, Liliana J; Moran, Lyndsey; Zalewski, Maureen; Ruberry, Erika; Kiff, Cara; Thompson, Stephanie

    2015-05-01

    The study examined growth in effortful control (executive control, delay ability) in relation to income, cumulative risk (aggregate of demographic and psychosocial risk factors), and adjustment in 306 preschool-age children (50 % girls, 50 % boys) from families representing a range of income (29 % at- or near-poverty; 28 % lower-income; 25 % middle-income; 18 % upper-income), with 4 assessments starting at 36-40 month. Income was directly related to levels of executive control and delay ability. Cumulative risk accounted for the effects of income on delay ability but not executive control. Higher initial executive control and slope of executive control and delay ability predicted academic readiness, whereas levels, but not growth, of executive control and delay ability predicted social competence and adjustment problems. Low income is a marker for lower effortful control, which demonstrates additive or mediating effects in the relation of income to children's preschool adjustment.

  16. Brief quiet ego contemplation reduces oxidative stress and mind-wandering

    PubMed Central

    Wayment, Heidi A.; Collier, Ann F.; Birkett, Melissa; Traustadóttir, Tinna; Till, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive self-concern increases perceptions of threat and defensiveness. In contrast, fostering a more inclusive and expanded sense of self can reduce stress and improve well-being. We developed and tested a novel brief intervention designed to strengthen a student’s compassionate self-identity, an identity that values balance and growth by reminding them of four quiet ego characteristics: detached awareness, inclusive identity, perspective taking, and growth. Students (N = 32) in their first semester of college who reported greater self-protective (e.g., defensive) goals in the first 2 weeks of the semester were invited to participate in the study. Volunteers were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: quiet ego contemplation (QEC), QEC with virtual reality (VR) headset (QEC-VR), and control. Participants came to the lab three times to engage in a 15-min exercise in a 30-days period. The 15-min QEC briefly described each quiet ego characteristic followed by a few minutes time to reflect on what that characteristic meant to them. Those in the QEC condition reported improved quiet ego characteristics and pluralistic thinking, decreases in a urinary marker of oxidative stress, and reduced mind-wandering on a cognitive task. Contrary to expectation, participants who wore the VR headsets while listening to the QEC demonstrated the least improvement. Results suggest that a brief intervention that reduces self-focus and strengthens a more compassionate self-view may offer an additional resource that individuals can use in their everyday lives. PMID:26483734

  17. Brief quiet ego contemplation reduces oxidative stress and mind-wandering.

    PubMed

    Wayment, Heidi A; Collier, Ann F; Birkett, Melissa; Traustadóttir, Tinna; Till, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Excessive self-concern increases perceptions of threat and defensiveness. In contrast, fostering a more inclusive and expanded sense of self can reduce stress and improve well-being. We developed and tested a novel brief intervention designed to strengthen a student's compassionate self-identity, an identity that values balance and growth by reminding them of four quiet ego characteristics: detached awareness, inclusive identity, perspective taking, and growth. Students (N = 32) in their first semester of college who reported greater self-protective (e.g., defensive) goals in the first 2 weeks of the semester were invited to participate in the study. Volunteers were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: quiet ego contemplation (QEC), QEC with virtual reality (VR) headset (QEC-VR), and control. Participants came to the lab three times to engage in a 15-min exercise in a 30-days period. The 15-min QEC briefly described each quiet ego characteristic followed by a few minutes time to reflect on what that characteristic meant to them. Those in the QEC condition reported improved quiet ego characteristics and pluralistic thinking, decreases in a urinary marker of oxidative stress, and reduced mind-wandering on a cognitive task. Contrary to expectation, participants who wore the VR headsets while listening to the QEC demonstrated the least improvement. Results suggest that a brief intervention that reduces self-focus and strengthens a more compassionate self-view may offer an additional resource that individuals can use in their everyday lives.

  18. Adolescent emotionality and effortful control: Core latent constructs and links to psychopathology and functioning

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Hannah R.; Gulley, Lauren D.; Bijttebier, Patricia; Hartman, Catharina A.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Mezulis, Amy; Young, Jami F.; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2015-01-01

    Temperament is associated with important outcomes in adolescence, including academic and interpersonal functioning and psychopathology. Rothbart’s temperament model is among the most well-studied and supported approaches to adolescent temperament, and contains three main components: positive emotionality (PE), negative emotionality (NE), and effortful control (EC). However, the latent factor structure of Rothbart’s temperament measure for adolescents, the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire Revised (EATQ-R, Ellis & Rothbart, 2001) has not been definitively established. To address this problem and investigate links between adolescent temperament and functioning, we used confirmatory factor analysis to examine the latent constructs of the EATQ-R in a large combined sample. For EC and NE, bifactor models consisting of a common factor plus specific factors for some sub-facets of each component fit best, providing a more nuanced understanding of these temperament dimensions. The nature of the PE construct in the EATQ-R is less clear. Models replicated in a hold-out dataset. The common components of high NE and low EC where broadly associated with increased psychopathology symptoms, and poor interpersonal and school functioning, while specific components of NE were further associated with corresponding specific components of psychopathology. Further questioning the construct validity of PE as measured by the EATQ-R, PE factors did not correlate with construct validity measures in a way consistent with theories of PE. Bringing consistency to the way the EATQ-R is modeled and using purer latent variables has the potential to advance the field in understanding links between dimensions of temperament and important outcomes of adolescent development. PMID:26011660

  19. Controlling for varying effort in count surveys --an analysis of Christmas Bird Count Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    The Christmas Bird Count (CBC) is a valuable source of information about midwinter populations of birds in the continental U.S. and Canada. Analysis of CBC data is complicated by substantial variation among sites and years in effort expended in counting; this feature of the CBC is common to many other wildlife surveys. Specification of a method for adjusting counts for effort is a matter of some controversy. Here, we present models for longitudinal count surveys with varying effort; these describe the effect of effort as proportional to exp(B effortp), where B and p are parameters. For any fixed p, our models are loglinear in the transformed explanatory variable (effort)p and other covariables. Hence we fit a collection of loglinear models corresponding to a range of values of p, and select the best effort adjustment from among these on the basis of fit statistics. We apply this procedure to data for six bird species in five regions, for the period 1959-1988.

  20. Performance in a computerized self-control task by rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): The combined influence of effort and delay

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Theodore A.

    2007-01-01

    The variables of delay and effort have been found to influence self-control predictably and in similar fashion when tested independently, but it is unclear how they influence self-control interactively. In the present study, I tested these 2 variables simultaneously to gain better understanding of their combined influence on self-control. A computerized task was employed in which monkey participants could sequence 1 or more digital images before “cashing-out,” after which they would receive their accumulated rewards. Delay was manipulated by adjusting the speed of the cursor used to select images. Cognitive effort was manipulated by presenting image sets that appeared in either a constant or a randomized configuration. For most monkeys, an interaction was found between the effects of delay and effort on the number of images selected before cashing-out. The results suggest that, when combined, these 2 variables have a complex influence on self-control. PMID:18701940

  1. Child Effortful Control, Teacher-Student Relationships, and Achievement in Academically At-Risk Children: Additive and Interactive Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew, Jeffrey; Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N.

    2010-01-01

    The joint contributions of child effortful control (using inhibitory control and task accuracy as behavioral indices) and positive teacher-student relationships at first grade on reading and mathematics achievement at second grade were examined in 761 children who were predominantly from low-income and ethnic minority backgrounds and assessed to…

  2. Child Effortful Control, Teacher-Student Relationships, and Achievement in Academically At-Risk Children: Additive and Interactive Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew, Jeffrey; Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N.

    2010-01-01

    The joint contributions of child effortful control (using inhibitory control and task accuracy as behavioral indices) and positive teacher-student relationships at first grade on reading and mathematics achievement at second grade were examined in 761 children who were predominantly from low-income and ethnic minority backgrounds and assessed to…

  3. The Relations of Temperament Reactivity and Effortful Control to Children's Adjustment Problems in China and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Qing; Lengua, Liliana J.; Wang, Yun

    2009-01-01

    The relations of parents' and teachers' reports of temperament anger-irritability, positive emotionality, and effortful control (attention focusing and inhibitory control) to children's externalizing and internalizing problems were examined in Chinese (N = 382) and U.S. (N = 322) samples of school-age children. Results suggested that in both…

  4. Relating Effortful Control, Executive Function, and False Belief Understanding to Emerging Math and Literacy Ability in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Clancy; Razza, Rachel Peters

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the role of self-regulation in emerging academic ability in one hundred and forty-one 3- to 5-year-old children from low-income homes. Measures of effortful control, false belief understanding, and the inhibitory control and attention-shifting aspects of executive function in preschool were related to measures of math and…

  5. Disability status, disease parameters, defense styles, and ego strength associated with psychiatric complications of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hyphantis, Thomas N; Christou, Konstantinos; Kontoudaki, Stavroula; Mantas, Christos; Papamichael, George; Goulia, Panagiota; Konitsiotis, Spyros; Mavreas, Venetsanos

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify disease parameters, defensive styles and ego strength measurements associated with various forms of psychiatric complications in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Seventy-nine patients with MS participated in the study and 158 healthy subjects matched for age and sex served as controls. A wide range of clinical information was collected and the following self-report instruments were used: General Health Questionnaire, Symptom Distress Check List, Defense Style Questionnaire, MMPI Ego Strength Scale and Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire. The odds of being assessed with a psychiatric diagnosis upon interview were 6.7 times greater among patients compared to controls and 9.3 times greater among patients with recent-onset MS compared to patients with long-term disease. Psychiatric complications of MS were closely associated with age of the disease onset and the degree of disability due to MS. Additionally, higher rates of introverted hostility, adoption of maladaptive ego defenses and weakened ego strength were also closely associated with several forms of psychological distress, especially depressive symptoms. MS patients experience elevated symptoms of psychological distress, especially depressive symptoms, which are most closely associated with disease parameters. However, the crucial role of various personality traits such as ego defenses and hostility features in the psychiatric symptom formation also appear to contribute to the development of depressive symptoms. Clinicians involved in the clinical management of patients with MS should identify and modify treatment if these specific personality markers that indicate the exhaustion of the patient's resources to cope with the physical and psychological stress of the illness are present.

  6. EgoNet: identification of human disease ego-network modules

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mining novel biomarkers from gene expression profiles for accurate disease classification is challenging due to small sample size and high noise in gene expression measurements. Several studies have proposed integrated analyses of microarray data and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks to find diagnostic subnetwork markers. However, the neighborhood relationship among network member genes has not been fully considered by those methods, leaving many potential gene markers unidentified. The main idea of this study is to take full advantage of the biological observation that genes associated with the same or similar diseases commonly reside in the same neighborhood of molecular networks. Results We present EgoNet, a novel method based on egocentric network-analysis techniques, to exhaustively search and prioritize disease subnetworks and gene markers from a large-scale biological network. When applied to a triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) microarray dataset, the top selected modules contain both known gene markers in TNBC and novel candidates, such as RAD51 and DOK1, which play a central role in their respective ego-networks by connecting many differentially expressed genes. Conclusions Our results suggest that EgoNet, which is based on the ego network concept, allows the identification of novel biomarkers and provides a deeper understanding of their roles in complex diseases. PMID:24773628

  7. Racial and Ego Identity Development in Black Caribbean College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Delida

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses among 255 Black Caribbean college students in the Northeast United States. Findings indicated that racial identity attitudes were predictive of ego identity statuses. Specifically, preencounter racial identity attitudes were predictive of lower scores…

  8. The Role of Ego-Identity Status in Mating Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkel, Curtis S.; Papini, Dennis R.

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the role ego-identity plays in the mating preferences of late adolescents. In addition to examining the variance in mating preferences explained by ego-identity status, it was hoped that the results could assist in testing the competing Sexual Strategies (Buss & Schmitt, 1993) and Social Role (Eagly & Wood, 1999)…

  9. Racial and Ego Identity Development in Black Caribbean College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Delida

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses among 255 Black Caribbean college students in the Northeast United States. Findings indicated that racial identity attitudes were predictive of ego identity statuses. Specifically, preencounter racial identity attitudes were predictive of lower scores…

  10. [The concept analysis of ego-integrity in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Chang, Sung Ok; Kong, Eun Sook; Kim, Kwuy Bun; Kim, Nam Cho; Kim, Ju Hee; Kim, Chun Gill; Kim, Hee Kyung; Song, Mi Soon; Ahn, Soo Yeon; Lee, Kyung Ja; Lee, Young Whee; Chon, Si Ja; Cho, Nam Ok; Cho, Myung Ok; Choi, Kyung Sook

    2004-12-01

    Ego-integrity in Erikson's stage theory is used frequently among health team members related to the care of the elderly and has specific meanings within the context of quality of life in later life. However, the concept of ego-integrity in the elderly has not been well articulated in the literature. This study was conducted clarify and conceptualize the phenomena of ego-integrity in the elderly. A Hybrid Model of concept development was applied to develop a concept of ego-integrity, which included a field study carried out in Seoul, South Korea using in-depth interviews with old adults who were admitted as a right person for research subject according to attributes of ego-integrity analysed in the theoretical phase. The concept of ego-integrity emerged as a complex phenomenon having meanings in several different dimensions which encompassed several attributes. Ego-integrity is a concept having needs that should be treated in a specific way and it is possible to enrich the meaning and methods to manage ego-integrity in nursing interventions for promoting quality of life so that its application may have effects that have positive impacts on the elderly's well being.

  11. An Empirical Test of Erikson's Theory of Ego Identity Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, James E.; Levine, Charles G.

    1989-01-01

    This study explores interrelationships among the following components of Erik Erikson's theory of ego identity formation: (1) the identity crisis; (2) the institutionalized moratoria; (3) the ego-superego struggle for dominance of the personality; and (4) the value orientation stages. Humanistically oriented adolescents are more likely to have a…

  12. RET [Rational Emotive Therapy] Abolishes Most of the Human Ego.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Albert

    Rational-emotive therapy (RET) holds that much of what we call the human "ego" has little or no legitimacy and, when conceived of and given a global rating (e.g., the individual gets rated as "worthwhile" or "worthless"), interferes with survival and happiness. Certain aspects of "ego" do have a verifiable existence and lead to beneficial results:…

  13. Adolescent Ego-Development Trajectories and Young Adult Relationship Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hennighausen, Katherine H.; Hauser, Stuart T.; Billings, Rebecca L.; Schultz, Lynn Hickey; Allen, Joseph P.

    2006-01-01

    Adolescent ego-development trajectories were related to close-relationship outcomes in young adulthood. An adolescent sample completed annual measures of ego development from ages 14 through 17. The authors theoretically determined and empirically traced five ego-development trajectories reflecting stability or change. At age 25, the sample completed a close-relationship interview and consented for two peers to rate the participants’ego resiliency and hostility. Participants who followed the profound-arrest trajectory in adolescence reported more mundane sharing of experiences, more impulsive or egocentric conflict-resolution tactics, and less mature interpersonal understanding in their young adult relationships, and their young adult peers described these participants as more hostile. Participants who attained or maintained higher levels of ego development in adolescence reported more complex sharing of experiences, more collaborative conflict-resolution strategies, and greater interpersonal understanding, and their young adult peers rated them as less hostile and as more flexible. PMID:17404603

  14. Have the Basic Requirements of Arms Control Changed Since Efforts Were First Made?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    Athertan playwright 9 Aristophanes produced threp comedies, the Aicharnians, Peace, and Lysistre’., in an effort to influence public opinion in...support of , tr, :e with Sparta. In Lysistrata , Aristoohanes presents a most simplistic method to end the war. Amazingly. the wives of soldiers on both

  15. Rising College Costs and an Illinois Effort to Control Them: A Preliminary Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, Teresa Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Rising college costs are of increasing concern. At the 12 public universities in Illinois, average increases in tuition were modest, generally in the 4% range, until 1999 when individual campuses begin to increase tuition at double digit rates. In 2002-2003, the overall average increase in tuition/fees more than doubled at 13.79%. In an effort to…

  16. A new perspective on the interplay between self-control and cognitive performance: Modeling progressive depletion patterns

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Gabriel; Ramos Arhuis, Wolfgang Andreas; Retelsdorf, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Exerting self-control in a first task weakens self-control performance in a subsequent unrelated task (ego depletion). In self-control research new strategies are required to investigate the ego-depletion effect, which has recently been shown to be more fragile than previously assumed. Moreover, the relation between ego depletion and trait self-control is still unclear, as various studies have reported heterogeneous findings concerning the interplay of both variables. We addressed these lacunas by drawing on a sample of N = 120 students, who participated in two test sessions. In the first test session, we assessed trait self-control and several control variables. The second test session followed an experimental design and tested the effects of ego depletion on invested effort and cognitive performance trajectories in an ecologically valid computer-based assessment setting (i.e., a 30-minute mathematical problem-solving and reasoning test). Trait self-control was then used as a moderator of the ego-depletion effect. Combining an established ego-depletion paradigm (i.e., the sequential-task paradigm) with multilevel modeling of time-on-task and performance changes, our results indicate (1) that trait self-control predicted the motivation to solve cognitive tasks, (2) that ego depletion led to a progressive performance decrease, and (3) that the negative effect of ego depletion on performance was stronger for students with high trait self-control. Additional analyses revealed that our results could not be alternatively explained by fatigue effects. All effects were robust even after controlling for the students’ cognitive abilities, which are known to be closely related to mathematical performance. Our results provide evidence that the self-control invested in order to keep performance at a consistently high level wanes over time. By modeling progressive ego-depletion effects while considering trait self-control, we provide an alternative approach that may help

  17. A study of outflow activity around EGO sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, C.; Paron, S.; Ortega, M.; Astort, A.; Rubio, M.

    2013-06-01

    Extended green objects (EGOs) were identified in Spitzer-IRAC images as they present a particular extended "green" emission at 4.5 μm, hence their name. An EGO is probably a massive young stellar object driving outflows, with the extended emission at 4.5 μm likely due to H2 lines and CO band-heads excited by the shock of the outflow propagating in the interstellar medium. Therefore, the dedicated observation and study of EGOs and their close environments can provide additional insight into our understanding of massive-star formation processes. In this context, based on previous studies we have selected a set of particularly interesting EGOs with the aim of analysing and characterising their outflow activity and its impact on the interstellar medium around them. This is a work in progress in which new observations at molecular and near-infrared wavelengths have recently been carried out towards some of the selected EGOs and more observations will be done in the following semesters. Here we report the results obtained so far from the data analysis of the images towards EGO, G45.47+0.05 and EGO, G35.04-0.47. For these two targets the molecular line observations were acquired using the Atacama Submillimiter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) and the near-infrared images for EGO, G45.47+0.05 were taken with Gemini-NIRI. The near future plans of this project include new images from WHT-LIRIS for EGO, G035.20-0.74 and EGO, G035.03+0.35.

  18. A mire of highly subjective and ineffective voluntary guidelines: tobacco industry efforts to thwart tobacco control in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Assunta, M; Chapman, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe tobacco industry efforts in Malaysia to thwart government efforts to regulate tobacco promotion and health warnings. Methods: Systematic keyword and opportunistic website searches of formerly private tobacco industry internal documents made available through the Master Settlement Agreement and secondary websites; relevant information from news articles and financial reports. Results: Commencing in the 1970s, the industry began to systematically thwart government tobacco control. Guidelines were successfully promoted in the place of legislation for over two decades. Even when the government succeeded in implementing regulations such as health warnings and advertising bans they were compromised and acted effectively to retard further progress for years to come. Conclusion: Counter-measures to delay or thwart government efforts to regulate tobacco were initiated by the industry. Though not unique to Malaysia, the main difference lies in the degree to which strategies were used to successfully counter stringent tobacco control measures between 1970 and 1995. PMID:15564220

  19. Adaptive and Effortful Control and Academic Self-efficacy Beliefs on Achievement: A Longitudinal Study of 1 through 3 Graders.

    PubMed

    Liew, Jeffrey; McTigue, Erin; Barrois, Lisa; Hughes, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The linkages between self-regulatory processes and achievement were examined across three years in 733 children beginning at 1(st) grade (M = 6.57 years, SD = .39 at 1(st) grade) who were identified as lower achieving in literacy. Accounting for consistencies in measures (from one year prior) and for influences of child's age, gender, IQ, ethnicity and economic adversity on achievement, results indicate that adaptive/effortful control at 1(st) grade contributed to both academic self-efficacy beliefs at 2(nd) grade, and reading (but not math) achievement at 3(rd) grade. Although academic self-efficacy did not partially mediate the linkage between adaptive/effortful control and achievement, academic self-efficacy beliefs were positively correlated with reading and math. Results support the notion that early efforts to promote children's self-regulatory skills would enhance future academic self-beliefs and achievement, particularly in literacy.

  20. A mire of highly subjective and ineffective voluntary guidelines: tobacco industry efforts to thwart tobacco control in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Assunta, M; Chapman, S

    2004-12-01

    To describe tobacco industry efforts in Malaysia to thwart government efforts to regulate tobacco promotion and health warnings. Systematic keyword and opportunistic website searches of formerly private tobacco industry internal documents made available through the Master Settlement Agreement and secondary websites; relevant information from news articles and financial reports. Commencing in the 1970s, the industry began to systematically thwart government tobacco control. Guidelines were successfully promoted in the place of legislation for over two decades. Even when the government succeeded in implementing regulations such as health warnings and advertising bans they were compromised and acted effectively to retard further progress for years to come. Counter-measures to delay or thwart government efforts to regulate tobacco were initiated by the industry. Though not unique to Malaysia, the main difference lies in the degree to which strategies were used to successfully counter stringent tobacco control measures between 1970 and 1995.

  1. Ego depletion and positive illusions: does the construction of positivity require regulatory resources?

    PubMed

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Frey, Dieter

    2007-09-01

    Individuals frequently exhibit positive illusions about their own abilities, their possibilities to control their environment, and future expectations. The authors propose that positive illusions require resources of self-control, which is considered to be a limited resource similar to energy or strength. Five studies revealed that people with depleted self-regulatory resources indeed exhibited a less-optimistic sense of their own abilities (Study 1), a lower sense of subjective control (Study 2), and less-optimistic expectations about their future (Study 3). Two further studies shed light on the underlying psychological process: Ego-depleted (compared to nondepleted) individuals generated/retrieved less positive self-relevant attributes (Studies 4 and 5) and reported a lower sense of general self-efficacy (Study 5), which both partially mediated the impact of ego depletion on positive self-views (Study 5).

  2. Examining the Dimensionality of Effortful Control in Preschool Children and Its Relation to Academic and Socioemotional Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Nicholas P.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Effortful control (EC) is an important developmental construct, associated with socioemotional growth, academic performance, and psychopathology. EC is defined as the ability to execute goal-directed behavior to inhibit or delay a prepotent response in favor of a subdominant response. Extant research indicates that EC may be multidimensional.…

  3. Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia, Effortful Control, and Parenting as Predictors of Children's Sympathy across Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Zoe E.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine physiological and environmental predictors of children's sympathy (an emotional response consisting of feelings of concern or sorrow for others who are distressed or in need) and whether temperamental effortful control mediated these relations. Specifically, in a study of 192 children (23% Hispanic; 54%…

  4. Characterizing Preschool Children's Attention Regulation in Parent-Child Interactions: The Roles of Effortful Control and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Ruby C.; Robinson, Julia B.; Chang, Florence; Burns, Barbara M.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined relations among effortful control, motivation, and attention regulation in preschoolers within the context of parent-child interactions. Sixty-one low-income children and their mothers participated in a puzzle-matching task. One week later, the children completed a puzzle-matching task independently. Hierarchical regression…

  5. Does HPA-Axis Dysregulation Account for the Effects of Income on Effortful Control and Adjustment in Preschool Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Zalewski, Maureen; Fisher, Phil; Moran, Lyndsey

    2013-01-01

    The effects of low income on children's adjustment might be accounted for by disruptions to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity and to the development of effortful control. Using longitudinal data and a community sample of preschool-age children (N?=?306, 36-39?months) and their mothers, recruited to over-represent low-income…

  6. Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia, Effortful Control, and Parenting as Predictors of Children's Sympathy across Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Zoe E.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine physiological and environmental predictors of children's sympathy (an emotional response consisting of feelings of concern or sorrow for others who are distressed or in need) and whether temperamental effortful control mediated these relations. Specifically, in a study of 192 children (23% Hispanic; 54%…

  7. Longitudinal Relations of Children's Effortful Control, Impulsivity, and Negative Emotionality to Their Externalizing, Internalizing, and Co-Occurring Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Cumberland, Amanda; Liew, Jeffrey; Reiser, Mark; Zhou, Qing; Losoya, Sandra H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relations of effortful control (EC), impulsivity, and negative emotionality to at least borderline clinical levels of symptoms and change in maladjustment over four years. Children's (N = 214; 77% European American; M age = 73 months) externalizing and internalizing symptoms were rated by parents and…

  8. Effortful Control and Parents' Emotion Socialization Patterns Predict Children's Positive Social Behavior: A Person-Centered Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Rachel L.; Dunsmore, Julie C.; Smith, Cynthia L.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: We examined relations of effortful control with parent emotion socialization practices and child social behavior using a person-centered approach in children ages 18 months to 5 years. A total of 76 parents (66 mothers, 10 fathers) completed questionnaires at screening and 6-month follow-up. There were no age differences in…

  9. Empathy and Effortful Control Effects on Early Adolescents' Aggression: When Do Students' Perceptions of Their School Climate Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batanova, Milena; Loukas, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Guided by the social emotional learning framework, this study examined whether early adolescents' social awareness (empathic concern, perspective taking) and self-management (effortful control) would uniquely contribute to early adolescents' subsequent forms of aggression, and whether perceptions of their school climate (friction, cohesion,…

  10. Relations of Children's Effortful Control and Teacher-Child Relationship Quality to School Attitudes in a Low-Income Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Kassondra M.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Sulik, Michael J.; Valiente, Carlos; Huerta, Snjezana; Edwards, Alison; Eggum, Natalie D.; Kupfer, Anne S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Phillips, Beth M.; Wilson, Shauna B.; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Landry, Susan H.; Swank, Paul R.; Assel, Michael A.; Taylor, Heather B.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine the relations of children's effortful control and quality of relationships with teachers to school attitudes longitudinally in an ethnically diverse and economically disadvantaged sample. Data were collected as part of a larger intervention project during mid-fall, winter, and late spring…

  11. Effortful Control and Parents' Emotion Socialization Patterns Predict Children's Positive Social Behavior: A Person-Centered Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Rachel L.; Dunsmore, Julie C.; Smith, Cynthia L.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: We examined relations of effortful control with parent emotion socialization practices and child social behavior using a person-centered approach in children ages 18 months to 5 years. A total of 76 parents (66 mothers, 10 fathers) completed questionnaires at screening and 6-month follow-up. There were no age differences in…

  12. Empathy and Effortful Control Effects on Early Adolescents' Aggression: When Do Students' Perceptions of Their School Climate Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batanova, Milena; Loukas, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Guided by the social emotional learning framework, this study examined whether early adolescents' social awareness (empathic concern, perspective taking) and self-management (effortful control) would uniquely contribute to early adolescents' subsequent forms of aggression, and whether perceptions of their school climate (friction, cohesion,…

  13. Does HPA-Axis Dysregulation Account for the Effects of Income on Effortful Control and Adjustment in Preschool Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Zalewski, Maureen; Fisher, Phil; Moran, Lyndsey

    2013-01-01

    The effects of low income on children's adjustment might be accounted for by disruptions to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity and to the development of effortful control. Using longitudinal data and a community sample of preschool-age children (N?=?306, 36-39?months) and their mothers, recruited to over-represent low-income…

  14. The growth and transformation of American ego psychology.

    PubMed

    Wallerstein, Robert S

    2002-01-01

    The roots of ego psychology trace back to Sigmund Freud's The Ego and the Id (1923) and "Inhibitions, Symptoms and Anxiety" (1926), works followed by two additional fundaments, Anna Freud's The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense (1936) and Heinz Hartmann's Ego Psychology and the Problem of Adaptation (1939). It was brought to full flowering in post-World War II America by Hartmann and his many collaborators, and for over two decades it maintained a monolithic hegemony over American psychoanalysis. Within this framework the conceptions of the psychoanalytic psychotherapies evolved as specific modifications of psychoanalytic technique directed to the clinical needs of the spectrum of patients not amenable to psychoanalysis proper. This American consensus on the ego psychology paradigm and its array of technical implementations fragmented several decades ago, with the rise in America of Kohut's self psychology, geared to the narcissistic disorders, and with the importation from Britain of neo-Kleinian and object-relational perspectives, all coinciding with the rapid growth of the varieties of relational psychoanalysis, with its shift in focus to the two-person, interactive, and co-constructed transference-countertransference matrix. Implications of this intermingled theoretical pluralism (as contrasted with the unity of the once dominant ego psychology paradigm) for the evolution of the American ego psychology are spelled out.

  15. Dominating sets and ego-centered decompositions in social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudourides, M. A.; Lenis, S. T.

    2016-09-01

    Our aim here is to address the problem of decomposing a whole network into a minimal number of ego-centered subnetworks. For this purpose, the network egos are picked out as the members of a minimum dominating set of the network. However, to find such an efficient dominating ego-centered construction, we need to be able to detect all the minimum dominating sets and to compare all the corresponding dominating ego-centered decompositions of the network. To find all the minimum dominating sets of the network, we are developing a computational heuristic, which is based on the partition of the set of nodes of a graph into three subsets, the always dominant vertices, the possible dominant vertices and the never dominant vertices, when the domination number of the network is known. To compare the ensuing dominating ego-centered decompositions of the network, we are introducing a number of structural measures that count the number of nodes and links inside and across the ego-centered subnetworks. Furthermore, we are applying the techniques of graph domination and ego-centered decomposition for six empirical social networks.

  16. How effortful is cognitive control? Insights from a novel method measuring single-trial evoked beta-adrenergic cardiac reactivity.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, Mithras; Richter, Michael; Scheepers, Daan; Immink, Maarten A; Sjak-Shie, Elio; van Steenbergen, Henk

    2017-09-01

    The ability to adjust attentional focus to varying levels of task demands depends on the adaptive recruitment of cognitive control processes. The present study investigated for the first time whether the mobilization of cognitive control during response-conflict trials in a flanker task is associated with effort-related sympathetic activity as measured by changes in the RZ-interval at a single-trial level, thus providing an alternative to the pre-ejection period (PEP) which can only be reliably measured in ensemble-averaged data. We predicted that response conflict leads to a physiological orienting response (i.e. heart rate slowing) and increases in effort as reflected by changes in myocardial beta-adrenergic activity (i.e. decreased RZ interval). Our results indeed showed that response conflict led to cardiac deceleration and decreased RZ interval. However, the temporal overlap of the observed heart rate and RZ interval changes suggests that the effect on the latter reflects a change in cardiac pre-load (Frank-Starling mechanism). Our study was thus unable to provide evidence for the expected link between cognitive control and cardiovascular effort. However, it demonstrated that our single-trial analysis enables the assessment of transient changes in cardiac sympathetic activity, thus providing a promising tool for future studies that aim to investigate effort at a single-trial level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Tobacco control efforts in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries: achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Hassounah, S; Rawaf, D; Khoja, T; Rawaf, S; Hussein, M S; Qidwai, W; Majeed, A

    2014-08-19

    This paper reports a review into the current state of tobacco use, governance and national commitment for control, and current intervention frameworks in place to reduce the use of tobacco among the populations of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) member states and Yemen. It further reviews structured policy-oriented interventions (in line with the MPOWER package of 6 evidence-based tobacco control measures) that represent government actions to strengthen, implement and manage tobacco control programmes and to address the growing epidemic of tobacco use. Our findings show that tobacco control in the GCC countries has witnessed real progress over the past decades. These are still early days but they indicate steps in the right direction. Future investment in implementation and enforcement of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, production of robust tobacco control legislation and the establishment of universally available tobacco cessation services are essential to sustain and strengthen tobacco control in the GCC region.

  18. The relations of temperament reactivity and effortful control to children's adjustment problems in China and the United States.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing; Lengua, Liliana J; Wang, Yun

    2009-05-01

    The relations of parents' and teachers' reports of temperament anger-irritability, positive emotionality, and effortful control (attention focusing and inhibitory control) to children's externalizing and internalizing problems were examined in Chinese (N = 382) and U.S. (N = 322) samples of school-age children. Results suggested that in both cultures, low effortful control and high anger-irritability were associated with high externalizing problems, although the relations were stronger in the Chinese sample than in the U.S. sample. Low positive emotionality was associated with high internalizing problems in both cultures. However, high positive emotionality was associated with noncomorbid externalizing problems (teachers' reports) in the Chinese sample but not in the U.S. sample. These findings suggest that there are considerable cross-cultural similarities in the temperament-adjustment associations, although some cross-cultural differences might exist. Implications of the findings for the detection and intervention of adjustment problems in Chinese children are discussed.

  19. Child Effortful Control, Teacher-student Relationships, and Achievement in Academically At-risk Children: Additive and Interactive Effects.

    PubMed

    Liew, Jeffrey; Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N

    2010-01-01

    The joint contributions of child effortful control (using inhibitory control and task accuracy as behavioral indices) and positive teacher-student relationships at first grade on reading and mathematics achievement at second grade were examined in 761 children who were predominantly from low-income and ethnic minority backgrounds and assessed to be academically at-risk at entry to first grade. Analyses accounted for clustering effects, covariates, baselines of effortful control measures, and prior levels of achievement. Even with such conservative statistical controls, interactive effects were found for task accuracy and positive teacher-student relationships on future achievement. Results suggest that task accuracy served as a protective factor so that children with high task accuracy performed well academically despite not having positive teacher-student relationships. Further, positive teacher-student relationships served as a compensatory factor so that children with low task accuracy performed just as well as those with high task accuracy if they were paired with a positive and supportive teacher. Importantly, results indicate that the influence of positive teacher-student relationships on future achievement was most pronounced for students with low effortful control on tasks that require fine motor skills, accuracy, and attention-related skills. Study results have implications for narrowing achievement disparities for academically at-risk children.

  20. Child Effortful Control, Teacher-student Relationships, and Achievement in Academically At-risk Children: Additive and Interactive Effects

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Jeffrey; Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N.

    2009-01-01

    The joint contributions of child effortful control (using inhibitory control and task accuracy as behavioral indices) and positive teacher-student relationships at first grade on reading and mathematics achievement at second grade were examined in 761 children who were predominantly from low-income and ethnic minority backgrounds and assessed to be academically at-risk at entry to first grade. Analyses accounted for clustering effects, covariates, baselines of effortful control measures, and prior levels of achievement. Even with such conservative statistical controls, interactive effects were found for task accuracy and positive teacher-student relationships on future achievement. Results suggest that task accuracy served as a protective factor so that children with high task accuracy performed well academically despite not having positive teacher-student relationships. Further, positive teacher-student relationships served as a compensatory factor so that children with low task accuracy performed just as well as those with high task accuracy if they were paired with a positive and supportive teacher. Importantly, results indicate that the influence of positive teacher-student relationships on future achievement was most pronounced for students with low effortful control on tasks that require fine motor skills, accuracy, and attention-related skills. Study results have implications for narrowing achievement disparities for academically at-risk children. PMID:20161421

  1. Psychological and neural mechanisms associated with effort-related cardiovascular reactivity and cognitive control: An integrative approach.

    PubMed

    Silvestrini, Nicolas

    2017-09-01

    Numerous studies have assessed cardiovascular (CV) reactivity as a measure of effort mobilization during cognitive tasks. However, psychological and neural processes underlying effort-related CV reactivity are still relatively unclear. Previous research reliably found that CV reactivity during cognitive tasks is mainly determined by one region of the brain, the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), and that this region is systematically engaged during cognitively demanding tasks. The present integrative approach builds on the research on cognitive control and its brain correlates that shows that dACC function can be related to conflict monitoring and integration of information related to task difficulty and success importance-two key variables in determining effort mobilization. In contrast, evidence also indicates that executive cognitive functioning is processed in more lateral regions of the prefrontal cortex. The resulting model suggests that, when automatic cognitive processes are insufficient to sustain behavior, the dACC determines the amount of required and justified effort according to task difficulty and success importance, which leads to proportional adjustments in CV reactivity and executive cognitive functioning. These propositions are discussed in relation to previous findings on effort-related CV reactivity and cognitive performance, new predictions for future studies, and relevance for other self-regulatory processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Monitoring the capacity of working memory: Executive control and effects of listening effort

    PubMed Central

    Amichetti, Nicole M.; Stanley, Raymond S.; White, Alison G.

    2013-01-01

    In two experiments, we used an interruption-and-recall (IAR) task to explore listeners’ ability to monitor the capacity of working memory as new information arrived in real time. In this task, listeners heard recorded word lists with instructions to interrupt the input at the maximum point that would still allow for perfect recall. Experiment 1 demonstrated that the most commonly selected segment size closely matched participants’ memory span, as measured in a baseline span test. Experiment 2 showed that reducing the sound level of presented word lists to a suprathreshold but effortful listening level disrupted the accuracy of matching selected segment sizes with participants’ memory spans. The results are discussed in terms of whether online capacity monitoring may be subsumed under other, already enumerated working memory executive functions (inhibition, set shifting, and memory updating). PMID:23400826

  3. Combining control measures for more effective management of fisheries under uncertainty: quotas, effort limitation and protected areas

    PubMed Central

    Stefansson, Gunnar; Rosenberg, Andrew A.

    2005-01-01

    We consider combinations of three types of control measures for the management of fisheries when the input information for policy decisions is uncertain. The methods considered include effort controls, catch quotas and area closures. We simulated a hypothetical fishery loosely based on the Icelandic cod fishery, using a simple spatially explicit dynamic model. We compared the performance with respect to conserving the resource and economic return for each type of control measure alone and in combination. In general, combining more than one type of primary direct control on fishing provides a greater buffer to uncertainty than any single form of fishery control alone. Combining catch quota control with a large closed area is a most effective system for reducing the risk of stock collapse and maintaining both short and long-term economic performance. Effort controls can also be improved by adding closed areas to the management scheme. We recommend that multiple control methods be used wherever possible and that closed areas should be used to buffer uncertainty. To be effective, these closed areas must be large and exclude all principal gears to provide real protection from fishing mortality. PMID:15713593

  4. Bloodborne Pathogen Control Efforts for Physical Education and Athletic Programs in Southern States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiddon, Sue; Horodyski, MaryBeth

    1996-01-01

    Study examined roles assumed by state departments of education in bloodborne pathogen exposure control to protect physical educators and athletic coaches from contracting HIV and hepatitis B. Surveys indicated that 75% of states required written exposure control plans, but many failed to require full compliance with mandated federal guidelines.…

  5. Bloodborne Pathogen Control Efforts for Physical Education and Athletic Programs in Southern States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiddon, Sue; Horodyski, MaryBeth

    1996-01-01

    Study examined roles assumed by state departments of education in bloodborne pathogen exposure control to protect physical educators and athletic coaches from contracting HIV and hepatitis B. Surveys indicated that 75% of states required written exposure control plans, but many failed to require full compliance with mandated federal guidelines.…

  6. Advanced Quality Control Theory for Training and Education: A Guide to Optimizing Training and Education Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heppler, Brad

    2008-01-01

    This is a book about quality and how to control quality through deliberate actions on the part of the professionals developing and implementing the instances of instruction available at an organization. Quality control theory favors no particular learning philosophy and is only directed towards aspects of how, what, where and when measurements are…

  7. How Ego Depletion Affects Sexual Self-Regulation: Is It More Than Resource Depletion?

    PubMed

    Nolet, Kevin; Rouleau, Joanne-Lucine; Benbouriche, Massil; Carrier Emond, Fannie; Renaud, Patrice

    2015-12-21

    Rational thinking and decision making are impacted when in a state of sexual arousal. The inability to self-regulate arousal can be linked to numerous problems, like sexual risk taking, infidelity, and sexual coercion. Studies have shown that most men are able to exert voluntary control over their sexual excitation with various levels of success. Both situational and dispositional factors can influence self-regulation achievement. The goal of this research was to investigate how ego depletion, a state of low self-control capacity, interacts with personality traits-propensities for sexual excitation and inhibition-and cognitive absorption, to cause sexual self-regulation failure. The sexual responses of 36 heterosexual males were assessed using penile plethysmography. They were asked to control their sexual arousal in two conditions, with and without ego depletion. Results suggest that ego depletion has opposite effects based on the trait sexual inhibition, as individuals moderately inhibited showed an increase in performance while highly inhibited ones showed a decrease. These results challenge the limited resource model of self-regulation and point to the importance of considering how people adapt to acute and high challenging conditions.

  8. Evaluating rehabilitation efforts following the Milford Flat Fire: successes, failures, and controlling factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duniway, Michael C.; Palmquist, Emily C.; Miller, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    response to moister conditions, seeded forage species. These results suggest the post-fire rehabilitation efforts conducted in the lower elevation regions affected by the Milford Flat Fire were not generally successful. Though dry conditions are likely to blame for the lack of success, the low and variable precipitation characteristic of these regions suggest future post-fire rehabilitation decisions must assume that precipitation is going to be insufficient and plan rehabilitation efforts that are resilient to dry conditions.

  9. Predicting Early Adolescents' Academic Achievement, Social Competence, and Physical Health from Parenting, Ego Resilience, and Engagement Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; O'Brien, T. Caitlin

    2011-01-01

    This study examined ego resilience and engagement coping as mediators of the relationships between supportive and controlling parenting practices and early adolescents' academic achievement, social competence, and physical health. Participants were 240 predominantly Mexican American early adolescents, their parents, and their teachers. There were…

  10. Integrated pest management and allocation of control efforts for vector-borne diseases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, H.S.

    2001-01-01

    Applications of various control methods were evaluated to determine how to integrate methods so as to minimize the number of human cases of vector-borne diseases. These diseases can be controlled by lowering the number of vector-human contacts (e.g., by pesticide applications or use of repellents), or by lowering the proportion of vectors infected with pathogens (e.g., by lowering or vaccinating reservoir host populations). Control methods should be combined in such a way as to most efficiently lower the probability of human encounter with an infected vector. Simulations using a simple probabilistic model of pathogen transmission suggest that the most efficient way to integrate different control methods is to combine methods that have the same effect (e.g., combine treatments that lower the vector population; or combine treatments that lower pathogen prevalence in vectors). Combining techniques that have different effects (e.g., a technique that lowers vector populations with a technique that lowers pathogen prevalence in vectors) will be less efficient than combining two techniques that both lower vector populations or combining two techniques that both lower pathogen prevalence, costs being the same. Costs of alternative control methods generally differ, so the efficiency of various combinations at lowering human contact with infected vectors should be estimated at available funding levels. Data should be collected from initial trials to improve the effects of subsequent interventions on the number of human cases.

  11. Self-control, negative affect and neural activity during effortful cognition in deprived smokers

    PubMed Central

    Sayette, Michael A.; Fiez, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of attempts to quit smoking cigarettes are unsuccessful. Negative affect (NA) is one of the primary factors contributing to smoking relapse, in part because it interferes with psychological processes that are essential for self-regulation and coping. Converging evidence suggests that NA may be less of a problem for smokers with high relative to low dispositional self-control, but very little is known about the mechanisms that underlie this effect. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to address this issue by examining the associations between trait self-control, state levels of NA and patterns of brain activation in nicotine-deprived smokers (n = 117) during the performance of a verbal n-back paradigm (a task requiring cognitive processes that support self-regulation). While the activation of several brain regions linked to executive control correlated positively and negatively with state NA and trait self-control, respectively, an interaction between these factors was identified in only one region: the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). We conclude that the functions supported by the vmPFC are an important source of variability in smokers’ self-regulatory functioning and propose that the region may contribute to the use of implicit forms of self-control under demanding circumstances. PMID:23620601

  12. A Psychometric Examination of Rasmussen's Ego Identity Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enright, Robert D.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examines Rasmussen's Ego Identity Scale for internal consistency reliability and construct validity. Subjects included 114 primarily White and middle-class seventh- and twelfth-grade students. Implications for identity assessment are drawn. (Author/RH)

  13. Military Exceptionalism or Tobacco Exceptionalism: How Civilian Health Leaders' Beliefs May Impede Military Tobacco Control Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Ruth E.

    2013-01-01

    Smoking impairs the readiness and performance of military personnel, yet congressional opposition has thwarted military tobacco control initiatives. Involvement of civilian organizations might alter this political dynamic. We interviewed 13 leaders of national civilian public health and tobacco control organizations to explore their perspectives on military tobacco control, inductively analyzing data for themes. Leaders believed that military tobacco use was problematic but lacked specific knowledge. Most supported smoke-free policies and prohibiting smoking in uniform; however, they opposed banning tobacco use, arguing that it would violate smokers’ rights. Most leaders inappropriately applied civilian models of policy development to the military context. A tobacco-free military is unlikely to be achieved without military–civilian partnerships that include educating civilian health leaders about military policy development and implementation. PMID:23409898

  14. Sociodemographic Risk, Parenting, and Effortful Control: Relations to Salivary Alpha-amylase and Cortisol in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Zoe E.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; VanSchyndel, Sarah K.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Huynh, Jacqueline; Sulik, Michael J.; Granger, Douglas A.

    2012-01-01

    Early sociodemographic risk, parenting, and temperament were examined as predictors of the activity of children’s (N = 148; 81 boys, 67 girls) hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system. Demographic risk was assessed at 18 months (T1), intrusive-overcontrolling parenting and effortful control were assessed at 30 months (T2), and salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase were collected at 72 (T3) months of age. Demographic risk at T1 predicted lower levels of children’s effortful control and higher levels of mothers’ intrusive-overcontrolling parenting at T2. Intrusive-overcontrolling parenting at T2 predicted higher levels of children’s cortisol and alpha-amylase at T3, but effortful control did not uniquely predict children’s cortisol or alpha-amylase. Findings support the open nature of stress responsive physiological systems to influence by features of the early caregiving environment and underscore the utility of including measures of these systems in prevention trials designed to influence child outcomes by modifying parenting behavior. PMID:22949301

  15. Sociodemographic risk, parenting, and effortful control: relations to salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Zoe E; Spinrad, Tracy L; VanSchyndel, Sarah K; Eisenberg, Nancy; Huynh, Jacqueline; Sulik, Michael J; Granger, Douglas A

    2013-12-01

    Early sociodemographic risk, parenting, and temperament were examined as predictors of the activity of children's (N = 148; 81 boys, 67 girls) hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system. Demographic risk was assessed at 18 months (T1), intrusive/overcontrolling parenting and effortful control were assessed at 30 months (T2), and salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase were collected at 72 (T3) months of age. Demographic risk at T1 predicted lower levels of children's effortful control and higher levels of mothers' intrusive/overcontrolling parenting at T2. Intrusive/overcontrolling parenting at T2 predicted higher levels of children's cortisol and alpha-amylase at T3, but effortful control did not uniquely predict children's cortisol or alpha-amylase levels. Findings support the open nature of stress responsive physiological systems to influence by features of the early caregiving environment and underscore the utility of including measures of these systems in prevention trials designed to influence child outcomes by modifying parenting behavior. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Neuroanatomical bases of effortful control: evidence from a large sample of young healthy adults using voxel-based morphometry

    PubMed Central

    Nouchi, Rui; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Effortful control (EC) is a base of individuality in cognition and psychological adjustment. EC is defined as a capacity to control responses and behaviors. We investigated associations between individual differences of EC and regional gray and white matter volume (rGMV/rGMV) in 374 men and 306 women (age, 20.61 ± 1.82 years) using Japanese version of Effortful control scale (J-ECS). J-ECS consists of three subscales such as inhibitory control (IC), activation control (ACTC), and attentional control (ATC). Results showed that (a) IC was associated with larger rGMV in the dorsal part of anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), the supplementary motor area (SMA) and the pre SMA and larger rWMV in the dACC, (b) ACTC was correlated with smaller rGMV in the insula and the putamen, and (c) ATC was associated with larger rWMV in the inferior frontal gyrus, orbital frontal gyrus, ACC, and insula. Our study revealed key neuroanatomical correlations between EC and rGMV and rWMV. PMID:27503843

  17. Countering the Consequences of Ego Depletion: The Effects of Self-Talk on Selective Attention.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, Jón; Hatzigeorgiadis, Antonis; Galanis, Evangelos; Comoutos, Nikos; Papaioannou, Athanasios

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the effects of a self-talk intervention on selective attention in a state of ego depletion. Participants were 62 undergraduate students with a mean age of 20.02 years (SD = 1.17). The experiment was conducted in four consecutive sessions. Following baseline assessment, participants were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. A two-session training was conducted for the two groups, with the experimental group using self-talk. In the final assessment, participants performed a selective attention test, including visual and auditory components, following a task inducing a state of ego depletion. The analysis showed that participants of the experimental group achieved a higher percentage of correct responses on the visual test and produced faster reaction times in both the visual and the auditory test compared with participants of the control group. The results of this study suggest that the use of self-talk can benefit selective attention for participants in states of ego depletion.

  18. Reforestation Efforts in Indiana Following the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977

    Treesearch

    Stephen D. Fillmore; John W. Groninger

    2004-01-01

    During the summer of 2002, data were collected from 22 post-Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act sites in southwestern Indiana. Tree growth across these sites was generally poor, with site index values typically less than 40 feet (base age 50) for upland oaks. Robinina pseudoacacia (black locust) was observed to be the primary overstory tree...

  19. Hands-on Workshops Aim to Strengthen Tobacco Control Efforts in Indonesia

    Cancer.gov

    The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), conducted in 2011 by the Indonesian National Institute of Health Research and Development and the U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention, showed that more than 67% of men and almost 40% of boys aged 13-15 use tobacco.

  20. Markov Modeling of Component Fault Growth over a Derived Domain of Feasible Output Control Effort Modifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bole, Brian; Goebel, Kai; Vachtsevanos, George

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel Markov process formulation of stochastic fault growth modeling, in order to facilitate the development and analysis of prognostics-based control adaptation. A metric representing the relative deviation between the nominal output of a system and the net output that is actually enacted by an implemented prognostics-based control routine, will be used to define the action space of the formulated Markov process. The state space of the Markov process will be defined in terms of an abstracted metric representing the relative health remaining in each of the system s components. The proposed formulation of component fault dynamics will conveniently relate feasible system output performance modifications to predictions of future component health deterioration.

  1. Comparing global alcohol and tobacco control efforts: network formation and evolution in international health governance

    PubMed Central

    Gneiting, Uwe; Schmitz, Hans Peter

    2016-01-01

    Smoking and drinking constitute two risk factors contributing to the rising burden of non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Both issues have gained increased international attention, but tobacco control has made more sustained progress in terms of international and domestic policy commitments, resources dedicated to reducing harm, and reduction of tobacco use in many high-income countries. The research presented here offers insights into why risk factors with comparable levels of harm experience different trajectories of global attention. The analysis focuses particular attention on the role of dedicated global health networks composed of individuals and organizations producing research and engaging in advocacy on a given health problem. Variation in issue characteristics and the policy environment shape the opportunities and challenges of global health networks focused on reducing the burden of disease. What sets the tobacco case apart was the ability of tobacco control advocates to create and maintain a consensus on policy solutions, expand their reach in low- and middle-income countries and combine evidence-based research with advocacy reaching beyond the public health-centered focus of the core network. In contrast, a similar network in the alcohol case struggled with expanding its reach and has yet to overcome divisions based on competing problem definitions and solutions to alcohol harm. The tobacco control network evolved from a group of dedicated individuals to a global coalition of membership-based organizations, whereas the alcohol control network remains at the stage of a collection of dedicated and like-minded individuals. PMID:26733720

  2. Ranking Malaria Risk Factors to Guide Malaria Control Efforts in African Highlands

    PubMed Central

    Protopopoff, Natacha; Van Bortel, Wim; Speybroeck, Niko; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Baza, Dismas; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Coosemans, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Malaria is re-emerging in most of the African highlands exposing the non immune population to deadly epidemics. A better understanding of the factors impacting transmission in the highlands is crucial to improve well targeted malaria control strategies. Methods and Findings A conceptual model of potential malaria risk factors in the highlands was built based on the available literature. Furthermore, the relative importance of these factors on malaria can be estimated through “classification and regression trees”, an unexploited statistical method in the malaria field. This CART method was used to analyse the malaria risk factors in the Burundi highlands. The results showed that Anopheles density was the best predictor for high malaria prevalence. Then lower rainfall, no vector control, higher minimum temperature and houses near breeding sites were associated by order of importance to higher Anopheles density. Conclusions In Burundi highlands monitoring Anopheles densities when rainfall is low may be able to predict epidemics. The conceptual model combined with the CART analysis is a decision support tool that could provide an important contribution toward the prevention and control of malaria by identifying major risk factors. PMID:19946627

  3. Radio astronomy Explorer-B in-flight mission control system development effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutsky, D. A.; Bjorkman, W. S.; Uphoff, C.

    1973-01-01

    A description is given of the development for the Mission Analysis Evaluation and Space Trajectory Operations (MAESTRO) program to be used for the in-flight decision making process during the translunar and lunar orbit adjustment phases of the flight of the Radio Astronomy Explorer-B. THe program serves two functions: performance and evaluation of preflight mission analysis, and in-flight support for the midcourse and lunar insertion command decisions that must be made by the flight director. The topics discussed include: analysis of program and midcourse guidance capabilities; methods for on-line control; printed displays of the MAESTRO program; and in-flight operational logistics and testing.

  4. Tuberculosis comorbidity with communicable and non-communicable diseases: integrating health services and control efforts.

    PubMed

    Marais, Ben J; Lönnroth, Knut; Lawn, Stephen D; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Mwaba, Peter; Glaziou, Philippe; Bates, Matthew; Colagiuri, Ruth; Zijenah, Lynn; Swaminathan, Soumya; Memish, Ziad A; Pletschette, Michel; Hoelscher, Michael; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Hasan, Rumina; Zafar, Afia; Pantaleo, Guiseppe; Craig, Gill; Kim, Peter; Maeurer, Markus; Schito, Marco; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2013-05-01

    Recent data for the global burden of disease reflect major demographic and lifestyle changes, leading to a rise in non-communicable diseases. Most countries with high levels of tuberculosis face a large comorbidity burden from both non-communicable and communicable diseases. Traditional disease-specific approaches typically fail to recognise common features and potential synergies in integration of care, management, and control of non-communicable and communicable diseases. In resource-limited countries, the need to tackle a broader range of overlapping comorbid diseases is growing. Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS persist as global emergencies. The lethal interaction between tuberculosis and HIV coinfection in adults, children, and pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa exemplifies the need for well integrated approaches to disease management and control. Furthermore, links between diabetes mellitus, smoking, alcoholism, chronic lung diseases, cancer, immunosuppressive treatment, malnutrition, and tuberculosis are well recognised. Here, we focus on interactions, synergies, and challenges of integration of tuberculosis care with management strategies for non-communicable and communicable diseases without eroding the functionality of existing national programmes for tuberculosis. The need for sustained and increased funding for these initiatives is greater than ever and requires increased political and funder commitment. Copyright © 2013 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd/Inc/BV. All rights reserved. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Education and Public Outreach at EGO/Virgo: past experiences and future projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razzano, Massimiliano

    2015-08-01

    We are approaching the new generation Gravitational Wave (GW) detector Era and in the next months a new exiting period for GW scientists will start enforcing collaboration and interactions among different scientific communities. We aim to reach a wider audience to spread this enthusiasm in the general public about our every day activities and let them know how it will change our understanding of the Universe, once revealed the Gravitational waves. In this talk, we will report about the activities of the last years and about the EGO/Virgo outreach plans for the future. The main goal of the Virgo/EGO outreach activity is to raise awareness and curiosity about the GW research projects. In the past years we informed the general public about science we do at EGO/Virgo site, trying to attract students in doing research, letting them know about the Virgo detector and involving them in small research activities. We run a regular program of site visits, and we often organized astronomical observations and science cafe' events which attracted a large number of people. Efforts were made also to involve kids in understanding our scientific job. We started a series of regular events in which art and science were fused.We are strengthening our outreach activities with common efforts in the Virgo laboratories which are spread all over in Europe.We plan to make available a scientific path within Virgo, where the public can do little experiences of science or for example tile, for a day, the activity of our researchers.

  6. Cancer survival probability as a function of ego defense (adaptive) mechanisms versus depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Beresford, Thomas P; Alfers, Julie; Mangum, Laura; Clapp, Lori; Martin, Brandon

    2006-01-01

    Psychological treatment studies, uncontrolled for ego defense (adaptive) styles, report conflicting survival results. The authors hypothesized that "immature" adaptive styles and frequent depression symptoms would independently predict lower survival rates. This study followed 86 consecutive, mostly late-stage, cancer outpatients for up to 5 years; their survival data were analyzed in relation to the Beck Depression Inventory and the Defense Style Questionnaire scores at study entry. Cumulative survival probability curves contrasted the extreme cases: the most (N=15) to the least (N=21) depressed, and the "immature" (N=14) to the "mature" (N=16) adaptors. Depression did not separate the groups until 30 months after diagnosis. Ego defense style separated them at 8 months; by 18 months, the "immature" survival probability had dropped to 50%, versus 87% for the "mature." At 36 months, survival probabilities were 19% and 57%, respectively. These data direct clinical attention toward ego defense mechanisms as indicators of distress and lowered survival in cancer patients. They further suggest that the maturity of adaptive mechanisms must be controlled for in behavioral-treatment trials of cancer patients.

  7. A quiet ego quiets death anxiety: humility as an existential anxiety buffer.

    PubMed

    Kesebir, Pelin

    2014-04-01

    Five studies tested the hypothesis that a quiet ego, as exemplified by humility, would buffer death anxiety. Humility is characterized by a willingness to accept the self and life without comforting illusions, and by low levels of self-focus. As a consequence, it was expected to render mortality thoughts less threatening and less likely to evoke potentially destructive behavior patterns. In line with this reasoning, Study 1 found that people high in humility do not engage in self-serving moral disengagement following mortality reminders, whereas people low in humility do. Study 2 showed that only people low in humility respond to death reminders with increased fear of death, and established that this effect was driven uniquely by humility and not by some other related personality trait. In Study 3, a low sense of psychological entitlement decreased cultural worldview defense in response to death thoughts, whereas a high sense of entitlement tended to increase it. Study 4 demonstrated that priming humility reduces self-reported death anxiety relative to both a baseline and a pride priming condition. Finally, in Study 5, experimentally induced feelings of humility prevented mortality reminders from leading to depleted self-control. As a whole, these findings obtained from relatively diverse Internet samples illustrate that the dark side of death anxiety is brought about by a noisy ego only and not by a quiet ego, revealing self-transcendence as a sturdier, healthier anxiety buffer than self-enhancement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Narcissism and other-derogation in the absence of ego threat.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun W; Colvin, C Randall

    2015-06-01

    The relation between narcissism and other-derogation has been examined primarily in the context of ego threat. In three studies, we investigated whether narcissistic individuals derogate others in the absence of ego threat. In Study 1, 79 judges watched four videotaped dyadic interactions and rated the personality of the same four people. In Study 2, 66 judges rated the personality of a friend. In Study 3, 72 judges considered the average Northeastern University student and rated the personality of this hypothetical person. Across the three studies, targets' personality characteristics were described on the 100-item California Adult Q-Sort (CAQ; Block, 2008). Judges' ratings of targets were compared to a CAQ prototype of the optimally adjusted person to assess target-derogation. Judges' narcissism and other-derogation were positively related in Studies 1 and 2. Narcissism positively predicted and self-esteem negatively predicted target-derogation after controlling for each other in Study 3. Narcissistic individuals derogate others more than non-narcissistic individuals regardless of whether ego threat is present or absent.

  9. Job characteristics and safety climate: the role of effort-reward and demand-control-support models.

    PubMed

    Phipps, Denham L; Malley, Christine; Ashcroft, Darren M

    2012-07-01

    While safety climate is widely recognized as a key influence on organizational safety, there remain questions about the nature of its antecedents. One potential influence on safety climate is job characteristics (that is, psychosocial features of the work environment). This study investigated the relationship between two job characteristics models--demand-control-support (Karasek & Theorell, 1990) and effort-reward imbalance (Siegrist, 1996)--and safety climate. A survey was conducted with a random sample of 860 British retail pharmacists, using the job contents questionnaire (JCQ), effort-reward imbalance indicator (ERI) and a measure of safety climate in pharmacies. Multivariate data analyses found that: (a) both models contributed to the prediction of safety climate ratings, with the demand-control-support model making the largest contribution; (b) there were some interactions between demand, control and support from the JCQ in the prediction of safety climate scores. The latter finding suggests the presence of "active learning" with respect to safety improvement in high demand, high control settings. The findings provide further insight into the ways in which job characteristics relate to safety, both individually and at an aggregated level.

  10. Small-Area Estimation and Prioritizing Communities for Tobacco Control Efforts in Massachusetts

    PubMed Central

    Land, Thomas; Zhang, Zi; Keithly, Lois; Kelsey, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We developed a method to evaluate geographic and temporal variations in community-level risk factors and prevalence estimates, and used that method to identify communities in Massachusetts that should be considered high priority communities for smoking interventions. Methods. We integrated individual-level data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System from 1999 to 2005 with community-level data in Massachusetts. We used small-area estimation models to assess the associations of adults’ smoking status with both individual- and community-level characteristics and to estimate community-specific smoking prevalence in 398 communities. We classified communities into 8 groups according to their prevalence estimates, the precision of the estimates, and temporal trends. Results. Community-level prevalence of current cigarette smoking among adults ranged from 5% to 36% in 2005 and declined in all but 16 (4%) communities between 1999 and 2005. However, less than 15% of the communities met the national prevalence goal of 12% or less. High smoking prevalence remained in communities with lower income, higher percentage of blue-collar workers, and higher density of tobacco outlets. Conclusions. Prioritizing communities for intervention can be accomplished through the use of small-area estimation models. In Massachusetts, socioeconomically disadvantaged communities have high smoking prevalence rates and should be of high priority to those working to control tobacco use. PMID:19150913

  11. Using supervirtual first arrivals in controlled-source hardrock seismic imaging—well worth the effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Place, Joachim; Malehmir, Alireza

    2016-07-01

    Varied applications of seismic interferometry have arisen in the last decade; however, the potential of the method to improve reflection seismic processing in hardrock environments has not explicitly been regarded. Therefore, in this paper we investigate the potential of retrieving the first arrivals originally hindered by high noise level in the exploitation of controlled-source data acquired over the iron-oxide apatite-rich deposit at Grängesberg (Sweden) and its mining-induced structures. The supervirtual first arrivals retrieved using interferometry methodologies allowed first breaks to be picked more extensively than in the original data. Revised static corrections significantly improved the linearity of the first arrivals and continuity of reflections in the source gathers. Especially, reflections considerably enhanced in the source gathers stacked constructively in the final section. Comparison with geological data, supported by traveltime forward modelling, indicates that these reflections represent the unmined part of the deposit. Other reflections at shallower depth are interpreted as anthropogenic faults possibly located at lithological contacts. Tomographic inversion was also run using the augmented traveltime data. The greater resolution and penetration of this new tomographic image allowed better bridging with the results of the reflection seismic section. Velocity anomalies depict the presence of mining-induced structures and a potential `Brewery fault', which is believed to put at risks an urban area. Even though the potential of first-arrival retrieval seems to be case-dependent, this study illustrates that interferometry may substantially improve the accuracy of static corrections and subsequent stack for hardrock imaging, as well as in the penetration and resolution of traveltime tomograms.

  12. A cluster-based randomized controlled trial promoting community participation in arsenic mitigation efforts in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective To reduce arsenic (As) exposure, we evaluated the effectiveness of training community members to perform water arsenic (WAs) testing and provide As education compared to sending representatives from outside communities to conduct these tasks. Methods We conducted a cluster based randomized controlled trial of 20 villages in Singair, Bangladesh. Fifty eligible respondents were randomly selected in each village. In 10 villages, a community member provided As education and WAs testing. In a second set of 10 villages an outside representative performed these tasks. Results Overall, 53% of respondents using As contaminated wells, relative to the Bangladesh As standard of 50 μg/L, at baseline switched after receiving the intervention. Further, when there was less than 60% arsenic contaminated wells in a village, the classification used by the Bangladeshi and UNICEF, 74% of study households in the community tester villages, and 72% of households in the outside tester villages reported switching to an As safe drinking water source . Switching was more common in the outside-tester (63%) versus community-tester villages (44%). However, after adjusting for the availability of arsenic safe drinking water sources, well switching did not differ significantly by type of As tester (Odds ratio =0.86[95% confidence interval 0.42-1.77). At follow-up, among those using As contaminated wells who switched to safe wells, average urinary As concentrations significantly decreased. Conclusion The overall intervention was effective in reducing As exposure provided there were As-safe drinking water sources available. However, there was not a significant difference observed in the ability of the community and outside testers to encourage study households to use As-safe water sources. The findings of this study suggest that As education and WAs testing programs provided by As testers, irrespective of their residence, could be used as an effective, low cost approach to reduce As

  13. Tuberculosis knowledge, attitudes, and practices among northern Ethiopian prisoners: Implications for TB control efforts

    PubMed Central

    Adane, Kelemework; Spigt, Mark; Johanna, Laturnus; Noortje, Dorscheidt; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Dinant, Geert-Jan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Although awareness is an important component in tuberculosis (TB) control, we do not know how much Ethiopian prisoners know about TB. This study assessed the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of prisoners about TB in eight northern Ethiopian prisons. Methods Data were collected cross-sectionally from 615 prisoners using a standardized questionnaire between March and May 2016. The outcome variables were defined considering the basic elements about TB. Results Out of 615 prisoners, only 37.7% mentioned bacteria as a cause of TB while 21.7% related TB to exposure to cold wind. Eighty-eight per cent correctly mentioned the aerial route of TB transmission and 27.3% had perceived stigma towards TB. The majority (63.7%) was not aware of the possibility of getting multi-drug-resistant strains when they would not adhere to treatment. Overall, only 24% knew the basic elements about TB, 41% had favorable attitudes, and 55% had a good practice. Prisoners who were urban residents were generally more knowledgeable than rural residents (adjusted OR = 2.16; 95% CI = 1.15–4.06). Illiterates were found to be less knowledgeable (adjusted OR = 0.17; 95% CI = 0.06–0.46), less likely to have a favorable attitude (adjusted OR = 0.31; 95% CI = 0.15–0.64), and less good practice (adjusted OR = 0.35; 95% CI = 0.18–0.69). Significant differences were also observed between the different study prisons. Conclusions Knowledge of prisoners regarding the cause of TB and consequences of non-adherence to TB treatment was low. Knowledge on the transmission, symptoms, and prevention was fairly high. Health education interventions, focused on the cause and the translation of the knowledge to appropriate practices, are needed in all the study prisons. Special attention should be given to less educated prisoners, and to prisons with a high number of prisoners and those in remote areas. PMID:28358877

  14. The Relations of Temperament Reactivity and Effortful Control to Children’s Adjustment Problems in China and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qing; Lengua, Liliana J.; Wang, Yun

    2014-01-01

    The relations of parents’ and teachers’ reports of temperament anger-irritability, positive emotionality, and effortful control (attention focusing and inhibitory control) to children’s externalizing and internalizing problems were examined in Chinese (N = 382) and U.S. (N = 322) samples of school-age children. Results suggested that in both cultures, low effortful control and high anger–irritability were associated with high externalizing problems, although the relations were stronger in the Chinese sample than in the U.S. sample. Low positive emotionality was associated with high internalizing problems in both cultures. However, high positive emotionality was associated with noncomorbid externalizing problems (teachers’ reports) in the Chinese sample but not in the U.S. sample. These findings suggest that there are considerable cross-cultural similarities in the temperament-adjustment associations, although some cross-cultural differences might exist. Implications of the findings for the detection and intervention of adjustment problems in Chinese children are discussed. PMID:19413428

  15. Ego, my double. (The Golyadkin phenomenon).

    PubMed

    Markidis, M

    1986-01-01

    A man is haunted by his Double. The great romantic tradition lends Dostoyevsky one of its dearest subjects. The Double, not only the exact physical duplication of the hero, but also a man with the same name, plots against Mr. Golyadkin, impersonates him both at work and in his private life, leads him to madness. This essay represents an attempt to clarify the stages of the adventurous relation of the subject to its Double, starting from the Hegelian "Phenomenology of the Spirit" and the Lacanian "Mirror Stage". If the construction of the human Ego is a narcissistic alienation to the image reflected by the mirror, the potential exit from the alienation lies in the Symbolic Order inhabited by the institution of the language. The Dostoyevskian hero gets into the Order of the language already trapped by the image of his mirror, by his projection. This projection (which constitutes his paranoia) will lead him to his annihilation, because Mr. Golyadkin cannot grasp its inner meaning.

  16. [Development and validation of an inventory of ego functions and self regulation (Hannover Self-Regulation Inventory, HSRI)].

    PubMed

    Jäger, B; Schmid-Ott, G; Ernst, G; Dölle-Lange, E; Sack, M

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to construct and validate a short self-rating questionnaire for the assessment of ego functions and ability of self regulation. An item pool of 120 items covering 6 postulated dimensions was reduced by two steps in independent samples (n = 136 + 470) via factor and item analyses to the final version consisting of 35 items. The 5 resulting questionnaire scales "interpersonal disturbances", "frustration tolerance and impulse control", "identity disturbances", "affect differentiation and affect tolerance" and "self-esteem" were well interpretable and showed in confirmatory factor analysis the best fit to the data (CHI²/df = 3.48; RMSEA = 0.73). Total scores were found to differentiate well between diagnostic groups of patients with more or less ego pathology (FANOVA = 9.8; df = 11; p < 0.001), thus proving good concurrent validity. Reliability was shown by testing internal consistency and test-retest correlations. The "Hannover self-regulation questionnaire" (HSRQ) evidently is an appropriate and reliable screening instrument in order to assess ego functions and capacities of self regulation in an economic and user-friendly means. The scale structure allows differentiated diagnostics of weak vs. stable ego functions and may be used for detailed therapy planning. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Regret causes ego-depletion and finding benefits in the regrettable events alleviates ego-depletion.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hongmei; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Fang; Xu, Yan; Hong, Ying-Yi; Jiang, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that experiencing regret would result in ego-depletion, while finding benefits (i.e., "silver linings") in the regret-eliciting events counteracted the ego-depletion effect. Using a modified gambling paradigm (Experiments 1, 2, and 4) and a retrospective method (Experiments 3 and 5), five experiments were conducted to induce regret. Results revealed that experiencing regret undermined performance on subsequent tasks, including a paper-and-pencil calculation task (Experiment 1), a Stroop task (Experiment 2), and a mental arithmetic task (Experiment 3). Furthermore, finding benefits in the regret-eliciting events improved subsequent performance (Experiments 4 and 5), and this improvement was mediated by participants' perceived vitality (Experiment 4). This study extended the depletion model of self-regulation by considering emotions with self-conscious components (in our case, regret). Moreover, it provided a comprehensive understanding of how people felt and performed after experiencing regret and after finding benefits in the events that caused the regret.

  18. A Complex Interplay among the Parent-Child Relationship, Effortful Control, and Internalized, Rule-Compatible Conduct in Young Children: Evidence from Two Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Kim, Sanghag

    2014-01-01

    We propose a model linking the early parent-child mutually responsive orientation (MRO), children's temperament trait of effortful control, and their internalization of conduct rules. In a developmental chain, effortful control was posited as a mediator of the links between MRO and children's internalization. MRO was further posited as a moderator…

  19. A Complex Interplay among the Parent-Child Relationship, Effortful Control, and Internalized, Rule-Compatible Conduct in Young Children: Evidence from Two Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Kim, Sanghag

    2014-01-01

    We propose a model linking the early parent-child mutually responsive orientation (MRO), children's temperament trait of effortful control, and their internalization of conduct rules. In a developmental chain, effortful control was posited as a mediator of the links between MRO and children's internalization. MRO was further posited as a moderator…

  20. A complex interplay among the parent-child relationship, effortful control, and internalized, rule-compatible conduct in young children: evidence from two studies.

    PubMed

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Kim, Sanghag

    2014-01-01

    We propose a model linking the early parent-child mutually responsive orientation (MRO), children's temperament trait of effortful control, and their internalization of conduct rules. In a developmental chain, effortful control was posited as a mediator of the links between MRO and children's internalization. MRO was further posited as a moderator of the links between effortful control and internalization (i.e., moderated mediation): Variations in effortful control were expected to be more consequential for internalization in suboptimal relationships, with low MRO, than in optimal ones, with high MRO. The model was tested in 2 studies that employed comparable observational measures. In Family Study (N = 102 community mothers, fathers, and children), MRO was assessed at 25 months, effortful control at 38 months, and children's internalization at 67 months. In Play Study (N = 186 low-income, diverse mothers and children), MRO was assessed at 30 months, effortful control at 33 months, and children's internalization at 40 months. MRO was observed in lengthy naturalistic interactions, effortful control in standardized tasks, and internalized, rule-compatible conduct in parent-child interactions and in standardized paradigms without surveillance. Structural equation modeling analyses, with internalized, rule-compatible conduct modeled as a latent variable, supported moderated mediation across mother- and father-child relationships and both studies. In optimal, mutually responsive relationships, multiple mechanisms other than capacity for effortful control may also operate effectively to promote internalization, thus reducing the relative importance of variations in child temperament.

  1. Surgency and negative affectivity, but not effortful control, are uniquely associated with obesogenic eating behaviors among low-income preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Leung, Christy Y Y; Lumeng, Julie C; Kaciroti, Niko A; Chen, Yu Pu; Rosenblum, Katherine; Miller, Alison L

    2014-07-01

    Despite increased attention to the role of temperament in children's obesogenic eating behaviors, there is a paucity of research examining whether different dimensions of temperament may be differentially associated with specific eating behaviors among preschool-age children. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether three temperament dimensions (surgency, negative affectivity, and effortful control) were uniquely associated with six obesogenic eating behaviors (caregiver-reported food responsiveness, enjoyment of food, emotional overeating, satiety responsiveness, and tantrums over food; and observed eating in the absence of hunger) among low-income preschool-age children, covarying home environment quality. Results showed that temperament dimensions were differentially associated with different eating behaviors. Specifically, preschoolers with higher surgency were more likely to overeat in response to external cues, have frequent desire to eat, derive pleasure from food, and eat in the absence of hunger. In contrast, preschoolers with higher negative affectivity were more likely to have tantrums over being denied food and less likely to eat in the absence of hunger. Effortful control was not uniquely associated with obesogenic eating behavior. Findings remained significant even when home chaos was accounted for, suggesting that child surgency and negative affectivity are important to consider, independent of home environment. Results are discussed with regard to theoretical implications for the study of childhood obesity and for applied prevention implications.

  2. Longitudinal relations among parents' reactions to children's negative emotions, effortful control, and math achievement in early elementary school.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Bradley, Robert H; Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D

    2014-01-01

    Panel mediation models and fixed-effects models were used to explore longitudinal relations among parents' reactions to children's displays of negative emotions, children's effortful control (EC), and children's math achievement (N = 291; M age in fall of kindergarten = 5.66 years, SD = .39 year) across kindergarten through second grade. Parents reported their reactions and children's EC. Math achievement was assessed with a standardized achievement test. First-grade EC mediated the relation between parents' reactions at kindergarten and second-grade math achievement, beyond stability in constructs across study years. Panel mediation model results suggested that socialization of EC may be one method of promoting math achievement in early school; however, when all omitted time-invariant covariates of EC and math achievement were controlled, first-grade EC no longer predicted second-grade math achievement. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  3. Vocational Identity and Ego Identity Status in Korean Nursing Students.

    PubMed

    Koo, Hyun-Young; Kim, Eun-Jung

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between vocational identity and ego identity status among Korean nursing students. The participants were 311 nursing students in South Korea who were attending either a 4-year bachelor's program or a 3-year diploma program. Data were collected using self-report questionnaires that addressed vocational identity, ego identity status, and demographic information. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, one-way analysis of variance, t test, and Chi-square test. In terms of ego identity status, 31.5% of nursing students were classified as being in diffusion status, followed by 28.3% in low profile moratorium status, 14.8% in moratorium status, 14.1% in foreclosure status, and 11.3% in achievement status. Vocational identity differed according to ego identity status; vocational identity among students who were in achievement status was higher than for those in all other statuses. Vocational identity also differed according to grade level and monthly family income. Ego identity status was related to the type of program enrolled in, grade level, and monthly family income. These findings show that nursing students in identity achievement status have secure and clear vocational identities. Further longitudinal and qualitative studies are needed to find out if identity formation among nursing students changes with age. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Malaria in Uganda: challenges to control on the long road to elimination. I. Epidemiology and current control effort

    PubMed Central

    Yeka, Adoke; Gasasira, Anne; Mpimbaza, Arthur; Achan, Jane; Nankabirwa, Joaniter; Nsobya, Sam; Staedke, Sarah G.; Donnelly, Martin J.; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Talisuna, Ambrose; Dorsey, Grant; Kamya, Moses R.; Rosenthal, Philip J.

    2012-01-01

    In the recent past there have been several reports of successes in malaria control, leading some public health experts to conclude that Africa is witnessing an epidemiological transition, from an era of failed malaria control to progression from successful control to elimination. Successes in control have been attributed to increased international donor support leading to increased intervention coverage. However, these changes are not uniform across Africa. In Uganda, where baseline transmission is very high and intervention coverage not yet to scale, the malaria burden is not declining and has even likely increased in the last decade. In this article we present perspectives for the future for Uganda and other malaria endemic countries with high baseline transmission intensity and significant health system challenges. For these high burden areas,malaria elimination is currently not feasible, and early elimination programs are inappropriate, as they would further fragment already fragmented and inefficient malaria control systems. Rather, health impacts will be maximized by aiming to achieve universal coverage of proven interventions in the context of a strengthened health system. PMID:21756863

  5. Malaria in Uganda: challenges to control on the long road to elimination. I. Epidemiology and current control efforts

    PubMed Central

    Yeka, Adoke; Gasasira, Anne; Mpimbaza, Arthur; Achan, Jane; Nankabirwa, Joaniter; Nsobya, Sam; Staedke, Sarah G.; Donnelly, Martin J.; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Talisuna, Ambrose; Dorsey, Grant; Kamya, Moses R.; Rosenthal, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    Malaria remains one of the leading health problems of the developing world, and Uganda bears a particularly large burden from the disease. Our understanding is limited by a lack of reliable data, but it is clear that the prevalence of malaria infection, incidence of disease, and mortality from severe malaria all remain very high. Uganda has made progress in implementing key malaria control measures, in particular distribution of insecticide impregnated bednets, indoor residual spraying of insecticides, utilization of artemisinin-based combination therapy to treat uncomplicated malaria, and provision of intermittent preventive therapy for pregnant women. However, despite enthusiasm regarding the potential for the elimination of malaria in other areas, there is no convincing evidence that the burden of malaria has decreased in Uganda in recent years. Major challenges to malaria control in Uganda include very high malaria transmission intensity, inadequate health care resources, a weak health system, inadequate understanding of malaria epidemiology and the impact of control interventions, increasing resistance of parasites to drugs and of mosquitoes to insecticides, inappropriate case management, inadequate utilization of drugs to prevent malaria, and inadequate epidemic preparedness and response. Despite these challenges, prospects for the control of malaria have improved, and with attention to underlying challenges, progress toward the control of malaria in Uganda can be expected. PMID:21420377

  6. Predicting obsessions and compulsions according to superego and ego characteristics: A comparison between scrupulosity and non-religious obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Besharat, Mohammad Ali; Kamali, Zeynab Sadat

    2016-02-01

    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is characterized by intrusive images or impulses and/or ritualistic and rigid behaviors. Symptoms of OCD have different contents including contamination, harming and symmetry. Religion is one of the themes that has been observed in the context of OCD frequently. The aim of the present study was to examine the power of superego and ego characteristics in predicting scrupulosity and non-religious obsessions and compulsions, as well as comparing the two sets of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Sixty six Iranian (19 men, 47 women) participated in the study. All participants were asked to complete Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory, Penn Inventory of Scrupulosity, Perfectionism Cognitions Inventory, the Multidimensional Anger Inventory, and Ego Strength Scale. Results showed that perfectionism and anger were positively correlated with scrupulosity and non-religious obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Ego control was negatively correlated with scrupulosity, while ego resiliency was not correlated with any of these two sets of symptoms. Regression analysis indicated that among these variables, anger was the best predictor of non-religious obsessive-compulsive symptoms, while perfectionism and ego control were the best predictors of scrupulosity.

  7. Ego Network Analysis of Upper Division Physics Student Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewe, Eric

    2017-01-01

    We present the analysis of student networks derived from a survey of upper division physics students. Ego networks focus on the connections that center on one person (the ego). The ego networks in this talk come from a survey that is part of an overall project focused on understanding student retention and persistence. The theory underlying this work is that social and academic integration are essential components to supporting students continued enrollment and ultimately graduation. This work uses network analysis as a way to investigate the role of social and academic interactions in retention and persistence decisions. We focus on student interactions with peers, on mentoring interactions with physics department faculty, and on engagement in physics groups and how they influence persistence. Our results, which are preliminary, will help frame the ongoing research project and identify ways in which departments can support students. This work supported by NSF grant #PHY 1344247.

  8. Nurse faculty members' ego states: transactional analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Keçeci, Ayla; Taşocak, Gülsün

    2009-10-01

    This study uses a Transactional Analysis Approach (TA) to investigate communication between faculty and students in nursing education. The research population was comprised of nurse faculty members (N=33) employed at a school of nursing and students (N=482) registered at the same school. The research sample was comprised of 26 faculty members and 325 students. Data collection was performed via questionnaires, focus group interviews and observation. Qualitative data were analyzed using descriptive analysis methods, and quantitative data were evaluated using the Mann-Whitney U test and the Pearson moment correlation coefficients technique. Using the Transactional Analysis Approach (TA), faculty members viewed themselves as an Adult and felt they used the Critical Parent ego state the least. Students also perceived that faculty members used the Adult ego state the most and used the Free Child ego state the least.

  9. The vaded ego state and the invisible bridging induction.

    PubMed

    Emmerson, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Ego state therapy is based on the assumption that personality is composed of parts. When people switch from 1 state to another, they take their ego identification with them, while their levels of affect, intellect, confidence, and skill change. A vaded ego state has become overwhelmed by fear or rejection such that when it becomes executive, it interferes with normal function and emotional stability. The angst these states carry are the root cause of psychological addictions, OCD, panic disorder, PTSD, a sense of unworthiness of love, extreme competitiveness, and much more. The invisible bridge is an induction technique that uses the somatic experience of the vaded state to provide a focus for hypnotic induction and a bridge to the original sensitizing event that vaded the previously normal state. This article contextualizes the vaded state within abnormal psychology and describes the invisible bridge induction.

  10. Macrostructure from Microstructure: Generating Whole Systems from Ego Networks

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new simulation method to make global network inference from sampled data. The proposed simulation method takes sampled ego network data and uses Exponential Random Graph Models (ERGM) to reconstruct the features of the true, unknown network. After describing the method, the paper presents two validity checks of the approach: the first uses the 20 largest Add Health networks while the second uses the Sociology Coauthorship network in the 1990's. For each test, I take random ego network samples from the known networks and use my method to make global network inference. I find that my method successfully reproduces the properties of the networks, such as distance and main component size. The results also suggest that simpler, baseline models provide considerably worse estimates for most network properties. I end the paper by discussing the bounds/limitations of ego network sampling. I also discuss possible extensions to the proposed approach. PMID:25339783

  11. The Psychosocial Inventory of Ego Strengths: Examination of Theory and Psychometric Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markstrom, Carol A.; Marshall, Sheila K.

    2007-01-01

    The psychosocial inventory of ego strengths (PIES) was devised as a measure of Erikson's eight ego strengths. The present investigation extended previous research through examination of the validity and reliability of the PIES among 502 high school students. The study also included an appraisal of Erikson's ego strengths as indices of psychosocial…

  12. How Gaining Knowledge and Awareness of Ego Strength Will Assist Teachers in Understanding Learners Better

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanday, L. A.; Venter, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    This article gives a historical overview of the development as well as the current usage of the term ego strength. The factors involved in the development of ego strength, the impact of ego strength on learners and the necessity for teachers' awareness are discussed. A combined quantitative-qualitative research design was followed, where a group…

  13. How Gaining Knowledge and Awareness of Ego Strength Will Assist Teachers in Understanding Learners Better

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanday, L. A.; Venter, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    This article gives a historical overview of the development as well as the current usage of the term ego strength. The factors involved in the development of ego strength, the impact of ego strength on learners and the necessity for teachers' awareness are discussed. A combined quantitative-qualitative research design was followed, where a group…

  14. The Psychosocial Inventory of Ego Strengths: Examination of Theory and Psychometric Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markstrom, Carol A.; Marshall, Sheila K.

    2007-01-01

    The psychosocial inventory of ego strengths (PIES) was devised as a measure of Erikson's eight ego strengths. The present investigation extended previous research through examination of the validity and reliability of the PIES among 502 high school students. The study also included an appraisal of Erikson's ego strengths as indices of psychosocial…

  15. Effects of Parent Training on Callous-Unemotional Traits, Effortful Control, and Conduct Problems: Mediation by Parenting.

    PubMed

    Elizur, Yoel; Somech, Lior Y; Vinokur, Amiram D

    2017-01-01

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits and effortful control (EC) are personality and temperament traits implicated in early-onset antisocial trajectories. This secondary analysis of Hitkashrut's randomized controlled trial first tested parent training's effects on EC and CU traits while controlling for more general treatment effects on conduct problems (CP), and subsequently tested mediation by parenting. Prekindergarten teachers in three Israeli cities identified 209 3-5 year-old (163 boys; 46 girls) preschoolers with subclinical-clinical range conduct problems. All participants were Jewish ranging from ultra-orthodox to secular. They were assigned to 14-session co-parent training groups (n = 140 couples), or to minimal intervention control groups with referral to local services as necessary (n = 69 couples). We employed averaged indices of pre- and post-intervention questionnaires completed by both parents. The testing of all hypothesized models controlled for treatment effects on CP in order to strengthen the robustness of the analyses. We found significant concurrent treatment effects on CP and on either CU traits or EC. All effects were mediated by ineffective parenting (IP): a latent variable that was indicated by negative/inconsistent practices and perceived parenting inefficacy. This is the first demonstration of parenting mediated treatment effects on both EC and CU traits in a randomized controlled study conducted in everyday practice contexts. This finding supports a disruption model of change: the reduction of IP facilitates a caregiving environment that affects children's behavior and developing personality. The changing of personality and temperament characteristics implicated in early-onset pathways suggests an innovative prevention strategy for disruptive behavior disorders.

  16. Relations Among Positive Parenting, Children’s Effortful Control, and Externalizing Problems: A Three-Wave Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Zhou, Qing; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos; Fabes, Richard A.; Liew, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    In a 3-wave longitudinal study (with assessments 2 years apart) involving 186 early adolescents (M ages of approximately 9.3, 11.4, and 13.4), the hypothesis that parental warmth/positive expressivity predicts children’s effortful control (EC) (a temperamental characteristic contributing to emotion regulation) 2 years later, which in turn predicts low levels of externalizing problems another 2 years later, was examined. The hypothesis that children’s EC predicts parenting over time was also examined. Parents were observed interacting with their children; parents and teachers reported children’s EC and externalizing problems; and children’s persistence was assessed behaviorally. Children’s EC mediated the relation between positive parenting and low levels of externalizing problems (whereas there was no evidence that children’s EC predicted parenting). PMID:16150002

  17. Examining the Dimensionality of Effortful Control in Preschool Children and its Relation to Academic and Socio-emotional Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Nicholas P.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Effortful control (EC) is an important developmental construct, associated with socio-emotional growth, academic performance, and psychopathology. EC is defined as the ability to execute goal directed behavior to inhibit or delay a prepotent response in favor of a subdominant response. Extant research indicates that EC might be multidimensional. Confirmatory factor analysis with a sample of 234 preschoolers was used to determine if tasks designed to measure EC were best described by hot (affectively salient) and cool (affectively neutral) dimensions or by a single factor. Analyses revealed that EC is best described by a single factor, even when variance associated with children’s language skills was removed. This EC factor was strongly related to measures of academic performance and significantly less related to measures of socio-emotional development. PMID:21553957

  18. Development of computerized materials, protection, control and accountability systems in the former Soviet republics: a joint effort

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteson, R.; Ryan, R.H.; Seitz, S.; Landry, R.P.

    1996-07-01

    The laboratory-to-laboratory programs of cooperation between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Institutes of the Russian Federation and the government-to-government programs between the US and Russia have the goal of reducing the danger of nuclear weapons proliferation by strengthening systems of nuclear materials protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A). As part of these programs, DOE is making available to sites in the former Soviet Republics a new-generation nuclear materials accountability system similar to one developed for DOE sites. This new system, the Core Materials Accountability System (COREMAS), is designed for international use. It is a core system to which facility-specific extensions are expected to be made. This paper describes the joint efforts of US personnel and software development teams at sites in Russia, Kazakhstan, and the Ukraine to develop sophisticated computerized MPC&A systems that are customized for the site-specific needs of each facility.

  19. Examining the dimensionality of effortful control in preschool children and its relation to academic and socioemotional indicators.

    PubMed

    Allan, Nicholas P; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2011-07-01

    Effortful control (EC) is an important developmental construct, associated with socioemotional growth, academic performance, and psychopathology. EC is defined as the ability to execute goal-directed behavior to inhibit or delay a prepotent response in favor of a subdominant response. Extant research indicates that EC may be multidimensional. Confirmatory factor analysis with a sample of 234 preschoolers was used to determine if tasks designed to measure EC were best described by hot (affectively salient) and cool (affectively neutral) dimensions or by a single factor. Analyses revealed that EC is best described by a single factor, even when variance associated with children's language skills was removed. This EC factor was strongly related to measures of academic performance and significantly less related to measures of socioemotional development. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  20. Ego Identity, Self Esteem and Substance Use During Adolescence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-24

    RD-A173 665 EGO IDENTITY SELF ESTEEM AND SUBSTANCE USE DURING - /i ADOLESCENCE(U) ARIZONA UNIV TUCSON COLL OF MEDICINE R M JONES ET AL 24 AUG 85 UARZ...Security Classification) Ego Identity, Self Esteem and Substance Use during Adolescence. 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Jnnp5. Randall M-6 Hortmann- Rarhara R 13a...Adolescents. Drinking. Drug Use. 05 J 10 Self - Esteem . Smoking. Drug Abuse. Interpersonal Communi- 06 1 15 lratinn" Tnterprrnna1 Relatinn-hipn Sprnndarv

  1. Annual Research Review: On the relations among self-regulation, self-control, executive functioning, effortful control, cognitive control, impulsivity, risk-taking, and inhibition for developmental psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Nigg, Joel T

    2017-04-01

    Self-regulation (SR) is central to developmental psychopathology, but progress has been impeded by varying terminology and meanings across fields and literatures. The present review attempts to move that discussion forward by noting key sources of prior confusion such as measurement-concept confounding, and then arguing the following major points. First, the field needs a domain-general construct of SR that encompasses SR of action, emotion, and cognition and involves both top-down and bottom-up regulatory processes. This does not assume a shared core process across emotion, action, and cognition, but is intended to provide clarity on the extent of various claims about kinds of SR. Second, top-down aspects of SR need to be integrated. These include (a) basic processes that develop early and address immediate conflict signals, such as cognitive control and effortful control (EC), and (b) complex cognition and strategies for addressing future conflict, represented by the regulatory application of complex aspects of executive functioning. Executive function (EF) and cognitive control are not identical to SR because they can be used for other activities, but account for top-down aspects of SR at the cognitive level. Third, impulsivity, risk-taking, and disinhibition are distinct although overlapping; a taxonomy of the kinds of breakdowns of SR associated with psychopathology requires their differentiation. Fourth, different aspects of the SR universe can be organized hierarchically in relation to granularity, development, and time. Low-level components assemble into high-level components. This hierarchical perspective is consistent across literatures. It is hoped that the framework outlined here will facilitate integration and cross-talk among investigators working from different perspectives, and facilitate individual differences research on how SR relates to developmental psychopathology. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  2. Interrelationship between insistence on sameness, effortful control and anxiety in adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

    PubMed

    Uljarević, Mirko; Richdale, Amanda L; Evans, David W; Cai, Ru Ying; Leekam, Susan R

    2017-01-01

    Both self-regulation and insistence on sameness (IS) are related to anxiety, which is a common feature of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we aimed to characterise the IS-self-regulation-anxiety interrelationship by investigating the potential contribution made by self-regulation, assessed via effortful control (EC), to the IS-anxiety relationship in a sample of adolescents and young adults with ASD. Seventy-one older adolescents and younger adults with ASD (49 males, 22 females; Mage = 18.71 years, SD = 2.51, range 14.42-24.81) completed the Adult Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire-2, Effortful Control Scale of the Adult Temperament Questionnaire and the DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales. IS was associated with both EC (r = -.39, p = .001) and anxiety (r = .45, p < .001), and anxiety was in turn associated with EC (r = -.44, p < .001). To characterise the nature of this interrelationship, two mediation analyses were performed using the serial mediation model in PROCESS with 5000 resamples in bootstrapping. There was a significant indirect effect of EC on anxiety, through IS (b = -.06; BCa 95% CI [-.13, -.02]), and indirect effect on anxiety through EC (b = 1.62; BCa 95% CI [.59, 3.24]) with the mediators accounting for 29.07 and 26.04% of the total effect, respectively. Our study provides the first exploration of the IS-anxiety-self-regulation link in ASD. The finding that lower levels of self-regulation are related both to anxiety and IS behaviours points to self-regulation as a viable intervention target for both anxiety and IS behaviours.

  3. George Kuzmycz Training Center : 5 years of American-Ukrainian efforts in the field of material control and accounting

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrilyuk, V. I.; Gavrylyuk, A. V.; Kirischuk, V. I.; Romanova, O. P.; Robinson, P.; Dickerson, S.; Kuzminski, J.; Sheppard, G. A.

    2004-01-01

    The George Kuzmycz Training Center for Physical Protection, Control and Accounting of Nuclear Material (GKTC) was established in October 1998 at the Kiev Institute for Nuclear Research. During the past six years, about 700 professionals from all Ukrainian nuclear installations, executive and regulatory bodies were trained at the GKTC. Future Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) training courses are going to be held even more frequently because Ukraine has already signed the Additional Model Protocol and its ratification by Ukrainian Parliament is expected to happen very soon. Additionally, a number of new training courses will be developed. US DOE trough Argonne National Laboratory has made significant efforts to transfer Automated Inventory/Material Accounting System (AIMAS) software to Ukraine. As a result, AIMAS software can be used as a basic code for the development of the Computerized MC&A System for all Ukrainian nuclear facilities despite their differences. In 2003, a new laboratory for Nondestructive Assay (NDA) was established with assistance from the U.S. Department of Energy. As a result, GKTC training capabilities will increase substantially. Furthermore, in order to increase the efficiency of NDA laboratory, it is planned to use the NDA equipment for a program of interdiction of illicit traffic of nuclear materials in Ukraine. American-Ukrainian MC&A efforts for the last 6 years, the problems encountered and the solutions to these problems, as well as comments, suggestions and recommendations for future activity at GKTC to promote and improve the nuclear material management culture in Ukraine are discussed in detail.

  4. Ego depletion decreases trust in economic decision making

    PubMed Central

    Ainsworth, Sarah E.; Baumeister, Roy F.; Vohs, Kathleen D.; Ariely, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments tested the effects of ego depletion on economic decision making. Participants completed a task either requiring self-control or not. Then participants learned about the trust game, in which senders are given an initial allocation of $10 to split between themselves and another person, the receiver. The receiver receives triple the amount given and can send any, all, or none of the tripled money back to the sender. Participants were assigned the role of the sender and decided how to split the initial allocation. Giving less money, and therefore not trusting the receiver, is the safe, less risky response. Participants who had exerted self-control and were depleted gave the receiver less money than those in the non-depletion condition (Experiment 1). This effect was replicated and moderated in two additional experiments. Depletion again led to lower amounts given (less trust), but primarily among participants who were told they would never meet the receiver (Experiment 2) or who were given no information about how similar they were to the receiver (Experiment 3). Amounts given did not differ for depleted and non-depleted participants who either expected to meet the receiver (Experiment 2) or were led to believe that they were very similar to the receiver (Experiment 3). Decreased trust among depleted participants was strongest among neurotics. These results imply that self-control facilitates behavioral trust, especially when no other cues signal decreased social risk in trusting, such as if an actual or possible relationship with the receiver were suggested. PMID:25013237

  5. Documentary effort.

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    This spring, Virtua Health, the largest health system in Southern New Jersey, launched an innovative campaign aimed at raising overall awareness of its facilities by documenting real-life patients undergoing a variety of experiences (e.g., breast cancer, high-risk pregnancy, spine surgery, and minimally-invasive knee replacement surgery). The effort, called "The Virtua Experience" became a 30-minute hospital documentary that aired on Philadelphia's NBC affiliate this summer.

  6. Sensation Seeking, Coping With Stress, and Readiness to Engage in Therapy: Does Ego Development Influence the Psychosocial Functioning of Substance-Abusing Mothers?

    PubMed Central

    David, Daryn H.; McMahon, Thomas J.; Luthar, Suniya L.; Suchman, Nancy E.

    2012-01-01

    Ego development, the capacity to derive coherent, nuanced meaning from one’s life experiences, often has significant impact on psychosocial adjustment during adulthood. Research with nonclinical populations has indicated links between higher ego development and healthy emotional coping and interpersonal relationships. Emerging research with substance-abusing mothers suggests that higher levels of ego development are associated with improved parenting but also with increased rates of psychopathology. Less is known about how ego development is related to other psychosocial factors important for substance-abusing mothers’ functioning and capacity to parent, including the proclivity to engage in risky behaviors, adaptive coping behaviors, and readiness to engage in psychotherapy. The present study examines these links. Participants included 182 methadone-maintained women who expressed interest in a randomized clinical trial testing the efficacy of a relational parenting intervention for substance-abusing mothers (Luthar, Suchman, & Altomare, 2007). Data were analyzed using a series of MANCOVAs and ANCOVAs controlling for maternal IQ and depression. Mothers with higher levels of ego development reported more adaptive coping techniques and greater readiness to engage in psychotherapy but also reported a heightened desire for strong sensations. Findings are discussed in light of mothers’ psychological processes and parenting capacities. The significance of findings for developing parenting interventions for substance-abusing mothers is also discussed. PMID:22506525

  7. Sensation seeking, coping with stress, and readiness to engage in therapy: does ego development influence the psychosocial functioning of substance-abusing mothers?

    PubMed

    David, Daryn H; McMahon, Thomas J; Luthar, Suniya L; Suchman, Nancy E

    2012-04-01

    Ego development, the capacity to derive coherent, nuanced meaning from one's life experiences, often has significant impact on psychosocial adjustment during adulthood. Research with nonclinical populations has indicated links between higher ego development and healthy emotional coping and interpersonal relationships. Emerging research with substance-abusing mothers suggests that higher levels of ego development are associated with improved parenting but also with increased rates of psychopathology. Less is known about how ego development is related to other psychosocial factors important for substance-abusing mothers' functioning and capacity to parent, including the proclivity to engage in risky behaviors, adaptive coping behaviors, and readiness to engage in psychotherapy. The present study examines these links. Participants included 182 methadonemaintained women who expressed interest in a randomized clinical trial testing the efficacy of a relational parenting intervention for substance-abusing mothers (Luthar, Suchman, & Altomare, 2007). Data were analyzed using a series of MANCOVAs and ANCOVAs controlling for maternal IQ and depression. Mothers with higher levels of ego development reported more adaptive coping techniques and greater readiness to engage in psychotherapy but also reported a heightened desire for strong sensations. Findings are discussed in light of mothers' psychological processes and parenting capacities. The significance of findings for developing parenting interventions for substance-abusing mothers is also discussed.

  8. School climate and delinquency among Chinese adolescents: analyses of effortful control as a moderator and deviant peer affiliation as a mediator.

    PubMed

    Bao, Zhenzhou; Li, Dongping; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yanhui

    2015-01-01

    School climate is the quality and character of school life and reflects the norms, goals, values, interpersonal relationships, teaching and learning practices, and the organizational structure of a school. There is substantial literature documenting the negative association between positive school climate and adolescent delinquency, but little is known about the moderating and mediating mechanisms underlying this relationship. The aim of this study was to examine whether the direct and indirect pathways between school climate and adolescent delinquency would be moderated by effortful control. A sample of 2,758 Chinese adolescents (M age = 13.53 years, SD = 1.06) from 10 middle schools completed anonymous questionnaires regarding school climate, effortful control, deviant peer affiliation, and delinquency. After gender, age, geographical area, and socioeconomic status were included as covariates, the results revealed that school climate was significantly associated with adolescent delinquent behavior. This direct association was moderated by effortful control, such that the negative relationship between positive school climate and delinquency was only significant among adolescents low in effortful control. Moreover, the indirect association between school climate and delinquency via deviant peer affiliation was also moderated by effortful control. Specifically, the moderating effect of effortful control was not only manifested in the relationship between school climate and deviant peer affiliation, but also in the relationship between deviant peer affiliation and delinquency. These findings contribute to understanding the mechanisms through which positive school climate might reduce delinquent behavior and have important implications for prevention efforts aimed at diminishing adolescent delinquency.

  9. The mediating role of interpersonal cognition on the relationships between personality and adolescent ego development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yih-Lan

    2013-01-01

    The author investigated whether interpersonal cognition mediated the relationships between defense, social sensitivity, and ego development. Participants (N = 616; M age = 15.66 years, SD = .52 year; 276 boys) from northwestern Taiwan completed a battery of questionnaires. Structural equation modeling and mediation analyses supported the hypothesis that interpersonal cognition would mediate the path between defense and ego development, and the path between social sensitivity and ego development. Defense and social sensitivity were found to have direct effects on ego development. The study provides evidence of the mediating effect of interpersonal cognition on the association between personality and ego development.

  10. Continuity and Change from Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood: Adolescence-Limited vs. Life-Course-Persistent Profound Ego Development Arrests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billings, Rebecca L.; Hauser, Stuart T.; Allen, Joseph P.

    2008-01-01

    Participants (n = 36) with consistent Pre-conformist ego development levels during multiple adolescent assessments were studied to determine whether and how their ego levels had changed at age 25. Those (n = 12) whose ego levels remained at the Pre-conformist level were assigned to a "life-course-persistent profound ego development arrest"…

  11. Effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation combined with effortful swallowing on post-stroke oropharyngeal dysphagia: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Park, J-S; Oh, D-H; Hwang, N-K; Lee, J-H

    2016-06-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been used as a therapeutic intervention for dysphagia. However, the therapeutic effects of NMES lack supporting evidence. In recent years, NMES combined with traditional swallowing therapy has been used to improve functional recovery in patients with post-stroke dysphagia. This study aimed to investigate the effects of effortful swallowing combined with neuromuscular electrical stimulation on hyoid bone movement and swallowing function in stroke patients. Fifty stroke patients with mild dysphagia who were able to swallow against the resistance applied by using NMES and cooperate actively in training were included. This study was designed as a 6-week single-blind, randomised, controlled study. In the experimental group, two pairs of electrodes were placed horizontally in the infrahyoid region to depress the hyoid bone. The NMES intensity was increased gradually until the participants felt a grabbing sensation in their neck and performed an effortful swallow during the stimulation. In the placebo group, the same procedure was followed except for the intensity, which was increased gradually until the participants felt an electrical sensation. All participants underwent this intervention for 30 min per session, 5 sessions per week, for 6 weeks. Videofluoroscopic swallowing studies (VFSS) were carried out before and after the intervention and kinematics of the hyoid bone and swallowing function were analysed based on the VFSS. The experimental group revealed a significant increase in anterior and superior hyoid bone movement and the pharyngeal phase of the swallowing function. This intervention can be used as a novel remedial approach in dysphagic stroke patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. ICA-Derived EEG Correlates to Mental Fatigue, Effort, and Workload in a Realistically Simulated Air Traffic Control Task.

    PubMed

    Dasari, Deepika; Shou, Guofa; Ding, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Electroencephalograph (EEG) has been increasingly studied to identify distinct mental factors when persons perform cognitively demanding tasks. However, most of these studies examined EEG correlates at channel domain, which suffers the limitation that EEG signals are the mixture of multiple underlying neuronal sources due to the volume conduction effect. Moreover, few studies have been conducted in real-world tasks. To precisely probe EEG correlates with specific neural substrates to mental factors in real-world tasks, the present study examined EEG correlates to three mental factors, i.e., mental fatigue [also known as time-on-task (TOT) effect], workload and effort, in EEG component signals, which were obtained using an independent component analysis (ICA) on high-density EEG data. EEG data were recorded when subjects performed a realistically simulated air traffic control (ATC) task for 2 h. Five EEG independent component (IC) signals that were associated with specific neural substrates (i.e., the frontal, central medial, motor, parietal, occipital areas) were identified. Their spectral powers at their corresponding dominant bands, i.e., the theta power of the frontal IC and the alpha power of the other four ICs, were detected to be correlated to mental workload and effort levels, measured by behavioral metrics. Meanwhile, a linear regression analysis indicated that spectral powers at five ICs significantly increased with TOT. These findings indicated that different levels of mental factors can be sensitively reflected in EEG signals associated with various brain functions, including visual perception, cognitive processing, and motor outputs, in real-world tasks. These results can potentially aid in the development of efficient operational interfaces to ensure productivity and safety in ATC and beyond.

  13. The contribution of children's temperamental fear and effortful control to restraint and seclusion during inpatient treatment in a psychiatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Bridgett, David J; Valentino, Kristin; Hayden, Lisa C

    2012-12-01

    The current study examined temperament characteristics as risk factors for restraint and seclusion (R/S) events in psychiatrically hospitalized youth, extending work that has sought to identify R/S risk factors and research examining temperament-behavior problem associations that has largely relied upon community samples. It was anticipated that children with poor effortful control (EC) and greater frustration would have more instances of R/S during psychiatric hospitalization. The contribution of children's fearfulness to R/S was also examined. A measure of temperament was completed by youths' clinicians and youths (n = 52) completed objective measures of EC. The frequency of R/S events for each participant was obtained from hospital records. After controlling for R/S risk factors, lower EC and higher fearfulness predicted increased R/S occurrences during the first 2 weeks of hospitalization and over the course of children's entire hospitalization. These findings indicate that temperament should potentially be considered in individualized treatment plans targeting the prevention and/or reduction of R/S. Additional implications of the findings are also discussed.

  14. The Role of Ego Networks in Studies of Substance Use Disorder Recovery.

    PubMed

    Stone, Ariel; Jason, Leonard A; Light, John M; Stevens, Edward B

    Those who study treatment and recovery from alcohol use disorder (AUD) and substance use disorder (SUD) generally agree that an individual's social context impacts his or her success (or failure) in recovery. Recently, as the use of social network analysis has increased, studies on SUD recovery and treatment have adopted ego networks as a research tool. This review aims to tie together a thread of research for an efficient and effective summary. We selected peer-reviewed articles on individuals receiving treatment an intervention for SUD or AUD that used ego network measures of individual social networks. Ego networks have been studied as treatment outcomes, predictors of treatment outcomes in general, and how an individual's ego network might be used to predict what specific treatment is most likely to succeed. We discuss relevant findings of studies using ego networks, the strengths and weaknesses of ego network approaches, and how future studies may benefit from the use of ego networks.

  15. Ego Development and Preferred Social Distance from Persons with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheaffer, Beverly L.; Sias, Shari M.; Toriello, Paul J.; Cubero, Christopher G.

    2008-01-01

    Bias toward persons with disabilities (PWD) is of particular interest in the rehabilitation counseling and allied health professions since negative attitudes among providers can marginalize the treatment of PWD. This exploratory study examined the influence of socio cognitive development, as measured by ego development (Hy & Loevinger, 1996), on…

  16. Ego Identity, Self Esteem and Substance Use during Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Randall M.; Hartmann, Barbara R.

    The similarity of factors which mediate psychosocial maturity and those which are associated with substance use or abuse suggests a reciprocal relationship between ego identity development and behavior. Because substance use has increased in our society, has become socially acceptable in some contexts, and has an effect on the perception of…

  17. Construct Validity of the Sentence Completion Test of Ego Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loevinger, Jane

    1979-01-01

    Evidence for the construct validity of Washington University's Sentence Completion Test of Ego Development is reviewed. The test has adequate validity for research purposes but is neither valid nor reliable enough to be used as a clinical instrument without further confirming data. (BH)

  18. Ego Develoopment and Psychopathology: A Study of Hospitalized Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noam, Gil G.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Achenbach and Edelbrock Child Behavior Checklist factor scores were compared with ego stage through correlational and multiple regression analyses. Findings indicated significant negative correlations with the externalizing and internalizing factors and with a variety of behavioral subscales. A significant relationship was found between the total…

  19. Ego Development and Preferred Social Distance from Persons with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheaffer, Beverly L.; Sias, Shari M.; Toriello, Paul J.; Cubero, Christopher G.

    2008-01-01

    Bias toward persons with disabilities (PWD) is of particular interest in the rehabilitation counseling and allied health professions since negative attitudes among providers can marginalize the treatment of PWD. This exploratory study examined the influence of socio cognitive development, as measured by ego development (Hy & Loevinger, 1996), on…

  20. Physical Activity Perceptions of Task- and Ego-Oriented Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruickshanks, Carla M.

    2010-01-01

    Children begin to show sedentary behaviors around the age of 12 and increased mortality is associated with sedentary behaviors in children and adults. This case study examined physical activity (PA) perceptions of task oriented and ego oriented children. Research has addressed perceptions based on goal orientations and how perception of PA changes…

  1. Ego Identity Status: A Step in the Differentiation Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Patrick; Buboltz, Walter C., Jr.; Seemann, Eric

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relationship between identity development and differentiation levels in young adults. A total of 259 participants completed the Extended Version of the Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status, the Differentiation of Self Inventory, and demographic questions. Results showed that each identity status had a unique effect on the various…

  2. Ego Develoopment and Psychopathology: A Study of Hospitalized Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noam, Gil G.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Achenbach and Edelbrock Child Behavior Checklist factor scores were compared with ego stage through correlational and multiple regression analyses. Findings indicated significant negative correlations with the externalizing and internalizing factors and with a variety of behavioral subscales. A significant relationship was found between the total…

  3. Confronting Task Difficulty in Ego Involvement: Change in Performance Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Shamala; Jagacinski, Carolyn M.

    2011-01-01

    Both Dweck (1986) and Nicholls (1984) proposed that when ego-involved individuals encounter difficulty, they would begin to doubt their level of ability, and as a consequence, their commitment to the goal of demonstrating high ability would decline. As difficulty continued, perceived ability would decline, and eventually the goal would be…

  4. Promoting Ego Development and Multicultural Competence during Internship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Edward P.; Frank, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    This research involved an exploratory intervention to determine the effectiveness of using a deliberate psychological education (DPE) approach that incorporated issues of ethics, multicultural competence, oppression and diversity. The study attempted to discern if the DPE model used could make a difference in the promotion of ego development…

  5. Physical Activity Perceptions of Task- and Ego-Oriented Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruickshanks, Carla M.

    2010-01-01

    Children begin to show sedentary behaviors around the age of 12 and increased mortality is associated with sedentary behaviors in children and adults. This case study examined physical activity (PA) perceptions of task oriented and ego oriented children. Research has addressed perceptions based on goal orientations and how perception of PA changes…

  6. Linking psychoanalysis with neuroscience: the concept of ego.

    PubMed

    Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Semi, Antonio Alberto; Fabbri-Destro, Maddalena

    2014-03-01

    Through his whole life Marc Jeannerod was fascinated by Freud's thinking. His interest in Freud is witnessed by several of his writings in which he expresses interest in building a bridge between psychoanalysis and cognitive neuroscience. Following Jeannerod's ideas we discuss here a fundamental point of Freud's construction, the concept of ego, from a neurophysiological point of view. We maintain that, in order both to act coherently and to have a basic, first person, understanding of the behavior of others, it is necessary to posit the existence of a neurophysiological "motor" ego similar to the "rider" of the Freudian metaphor. We review then a series of neurophysiological findings showing that the systems underlying the organization of action and conscious perception are both mediated by a cortical motor network formed by parieto-frontal circuits. In conclusion, we show that the activity of this network has strong similarities to that postulated by Freud for the conscious part of ego. We also propose that the default-mode network might represent that part of ego that is mostly involved in unconscious processes. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. A Longitudinal Study of Ego Identity Status Interview Domains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroger, Jane

    1988-01-01

    Interviewed 76 late adolescent New Zealanders to assess ego identity status two years after their initial assessments. Found some support for a "focal model" of domain resolution, whereby psychosocial identity issues are addressed sequentially rather than concurrently, and few sex differences in either developmental patterns of change or…

  8. A Six-Year Predictive Test of Adolescent Family Relationship Quality and Effortful Control Pathways to Emerging Adult Social and Emotional Health

    PubMed Central

    Fosco, Gregory M.; Caruthers, Allison S.; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined how a multimethod (youth report, parent report, direct observation) assessment of family relationship quality (cohesion and conflict) in adolescence (age 16 –17) predicted growth and maintenance of effortful control across ages 17, 22, and 23 years old, and, ultimately, subjective well-being, emotional distress, and aggressive behavior in emerging adulthood (23). A diverse sample of 792 youth at age 17 and their families, and youth at ages 22 and 23, were studied to examine family cohesion and conflict and the growth and maintenance of effortful control as predictors of emerging adult social and emotional health. Results indicated that family cohesion and conflict during late adolescence and mean-level effortful control at age 22 each served as unique pathways to emerging adult adjustment. These findings underscore the importance of family functioning during adolescence and the maintenance of effortful control into emerging adulthood for understanding adjustment during the emerging adulthood period. PMID:22709261

  9. The effect of motivation and positive affect on ego depletion: Replenishment versus release mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ze; Li, Jian; Zhang, Bo; Li, Ye; Zhang, Houcan

    2015-11-12

    In this study, 2 experiments were conducted to investigate whether motivation and positive affect can alleviate ego depletion and to elucidate their possible mechanisms. In Experiment 1, a crossing-out-letter task was adapted to reach an ego depletion state for Chinese participants. Participants were then randomly assigned to the extrinsic motivation group, the positive affect group or the depletion control group. After the experimental treatment, a dumbbell task was used to measure participants' remaining self-regulatory resources. The results showed that participants in the motivation and positive affect groups performed better on the dumbbell task than participants in the depletion control group. Experiment 2 was similar to Experiment 1 except that participants were asked to perform an additional unexpected dumbbell task after a neutral video following the above procedure. The results of Experiment 1 were replicated; however, participants' performance on the additional dumbbell task differed. The positive affect group performed better than the depletion control group, indicating an increase in self-regulatory resources and thus supporting the replenishment effect of positive affect. No significant difference was found between the motivation group and the depletion control group.

  10. Vagal cardiac control throughout the day: the relative importance of effort-reward imbalance and within-day measurements of mood, demand and satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Hanson, E K; Godaert, G L; Maas, C J; Meijman, T F

    2001-03-01

    The effects of variables derived from a work stress theory (the effort-reward imbalance theory) on the power in the high frequency (HF_HRV) band of heart rate (0.14-0.40 Hz) throughout a work day, were determined using multilevel analysis. Explanatory variables were analysed at two levels: at the lowest level (within-day level), the effects of positive mood, negative mood, demand, satisfaction, demand-satisfaction ratio, and time of day were assessed. At the highest level (the subject level), the effects of sleep quality, effort, reward, effort-reward imbalance, need for control, type of work (profession), negative affectivity, gender and smoking on HF_HRV were assessed. Need for control has a negative effect on HF_HRV after controlling for time of day effects, i.e. subjects with a high need for control have a lower vagal control of the heart. In the long run, these subjects may be considered to be at increased health risk, because they have less of the health protective effects of vagal tone. The interaction between effort-reward imbalance and time of day has a positive effect on HF_HRV, i.e. the cardiac vagal control of subjects with a high effort-reward imbalance increases as the day progresses. It is discussed that this probably reflects reduced effort allocation, ensuing from disengagement from the work demands.

  11. The effect of ego-motion on environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Uri; Yacobi, Tamar; Levy, Ilan; Moltchanov, Sharon A; Cole-Hunter, Tom; Fishbain, Barak

    2015-11-15

    Air pollution has a proven impact on public health. Currently, pollutant levels are obtained by high-priced, sizeable, stationary Air Quality Monitoring (AQM) stations. Recent developments in sensory and communication technologies have made relatively low-cost, micro-sensing units (MSUs) feasible. Their lower power consumption and small size enable mobile sensing, deploying single or multiple units simultaneously. Recent studies have reported on measurements acquired by mobile MSUs, mounted on cars, bicycles and pedestrians. While these modes of transportation inherently present different velocity and acceleration regimes, the effect of the sensors' varying movement characteristics have not been previously accounted for. This research assesses the impact of sensor's motion on its functionality through laboratory measurements and a field campaign. The laboratory setup consists of a wind tunnel to assess the effect of air flow on the measurements of nitrogen dioxide and ozone at different velocities in a controlled environment, while the field campaign is based on three cars mounted with MSUs, measuring pollutants and environmental variables at different traveling speeds. In both experimental designs we can regard the MSUs as a moving object in the environment, i.e. having a distinct ego-motion. The results show that MSU's behavior is highly affected by variation in speed and sensor placement with respect to direction of movement, mainly due to the physical properties of installed sensors. This strongly suggests that any future design of MSU must account for the speed effect from the design stage all the way through deployment and results analysis. This is the first report examining the influence of airflow variations on MSU's ability to accurately measure pollutant levels.

  12. The Relation between Effortful Control and Language Competence—A Small But Mighty Difference between First and Second Language Learners

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Karin; Troesch, Larissa M.; Loher, Sarah; Grob, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The present longitudinal study evaluates the effect of effortful control (EC) as a core dimension of temperament on early language competence. We assume that first and second language competence is influenced by EC, and that immigrant children with low EC are thus at risk of an unfavorable language development. The sample consisted of n = 351 dual language learners (DLLs) with an immigrant background and n = 78 monolingual children. Language competence was measured with a standardized language test at age 4.9 years and at age 6.3 years. EC was captured with the Child Behavior Questionnaire, completed by teachers. Results of regression analyses revealed a significant effect of EC on second language development. DLLs with lower EC were found to have not only lower language competence at the beginning and the end of kindergarten but also a less favorable language development. Comparisons between the effect of EC on first and second language provide evidence that EC plays a bigger role in subsequent second language competence compared to first language competence. Overall, the results emphasize the small yet significant role of EC in the second language development of DLLs. PMID:27458410

  13. Warm Parenting and Effortful Control in Toddlerhood: Independent and Interactive Predictors of School-Age Externalizing Behavior.

    PubMed

    Reuben, Julia D; Shaw, Daniel S; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D

    2016-08-01

    Externalizing symptoms, such as aggression, impulsivity, and inattention, represent the most common forms of childhood maladjustment (Campbell et al. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 467-488, 2000). Several dimensions of parenting behavior, including overreactive and warm parenting, have been linked to children's conduct problems. However, the majority of these studies involve biologically-related family members, thereby limiting understanding of the role of genetic and/or environmental underpinnings of parenting on child psychopathology. This study extends previous research by exploring associations between overreactive and warm parenting during toddlerhood and school-age externalizing problems, as well as the potential moderating effects of child effortful control (EC) on such associations using a longitudinal adoption design. The sample consisted of 225 adoption-linked families (adoptive parents, adopted child [124 male and 101 female] and birth parent[s]), thereby allowing for a more precise estimate of environmental influences on the association between parenting and child externalizing problems. Adoptive mothers' warm parenting at 27 months predicted lower levels of child externalizing problems at ages 6 and 7. Child EC moderated this association in relation to teacher reports of school-age externalizing problems. Findings corroborate prior research with biological families that was not designed to unpack genetic and environmental influences on associations between parenting and child externalizing problems during childhood, highlighting the important role of parental warmth as an environmental influence.

  14. The Relation between Effortful Control and Language Competence-A Small But Mighty Difference between First and Second Language Learners.

    PubMed

    Keller, Karin; Troesch, Larissa M; Loher, Sarah; Grob, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The present longitudinal study evaluates the effect of effortful control (EC) as a core dimension of temperament on early language competence. We assume that first and second language competence is influenced by EC, and that immigrant children with low EC are thus at risk of an unfavorable language development. The sample consisted of n = 351 dual language learners (DLLs) with an immigrant background and n = 78 monolingual children. Language competence was measured with a standardized language test at age 4.9 years and at age 6.3 years. EC was captured with the Child Behavior Questionnaire, completed by teachers. Results of regression analyses revealed a significant effect of EC on second language development. DLLs with lower EC were found to have not only lower language competence at the beginning and the end of kindergarten but also a less favorable language development. Comparisons between the effect of EC on first and second language provide evidence that EC plays a bigger role in subsequent second language competence compared to first language competence. Overall, the results emphasize the small yet significant role of EC in the second language development of DLLs.

  15. Warm Parenting and Effortful Control in Toddlerhood: Independent and Interactive Predictors of School-Age Externalizing Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Reuben, Julia D.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D.

    2016-01-01

    Externalizing symptoms, such as aggression, impulsivity, and inattention, represent the most common forms of childhood maladjustment (Campbell, Shaw, & Gilliom, 2000). Several dimensions of parenting behavior, including overreactive and warm parenting, have been linked to children’s conduct problems. However, the majority of these studies involve biologically-related family members, thereby limiting understanding of the role of genetic and/or environmental underpinnings of parenting on child psychopathology. This study extends previous research by exploring associations between overreactive and warm parenting during toddlerhood and school-age externalizing problems, as well as the potential moderating effects of child effortful control (EC) on such associations using a longitudinal adoption design. The sample consisted of 225 adoption-linked families (adoptive parents, adopted child [124 male and 101 female] and birth parent[s]), thereby allowing for a more precise estimate of environmental influences on the association between parenting and child externalizing problems. Adoptive mothers’ warm parenting at 27 months predicted lower levels of child externalizing problems at ages 6 and 7. Child EC moderated this association in relation to teacher reports of school-age externalizing problems. Findings corroborate prior research with biological families that was not designed to unpack genetic and environmental influences on associations between parenting and child externalizing problems during childhood, highlighting the important role of parental warmth as an environmental influence. PMID:26496906

  16. Effect of running therapy on depression (EFFORT-D). Design of a randomised controlled trial in adult patients [ISRCTN 1894

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The societal and personal burden of depressive illness is considerable. Despite the developments in treatment strategies, the effectiveness of both medication and psychotherapy is not ideal. Physical activity, including exercise, is a relatively cheap and non-harmful lifestyle intervention which lacks the side-effects of medication and does not require the introspective ability necessary for most psychotherapies. Several cohort studies and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have been performed to establish the effect of physical activity on prevention and remission of depressive illness. However, recent meta-analysis's of all RCTs in this area showed conflicting results. The objective of the present article is to describe the design of a RCT examining the effect of exercise on depressive patients. Methods/Design The EFFect Of Running Therapy on Depression in adults (EFFORT-D) is a RCT, studying the effectiveness of exercise therapy (running therapy (RT) or Nordic walking (NW)) on depression in adults, in addition to usual care. The study population consists of patients with depressive disorder, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) ≥ 14, recruited from specialised mental health care. The experimental group receives the exercise intervention besides treatment as usual, the control group receives treatment as usual. The intervention program is a group-based, 1 h session, two times a week for 6 months and of increasing intensity. The control group only performs low intensive non-aerobic exercises. Measurements are performed at inclusion and at 3,6 and 12 months. Primary outcome measure is reduction in depressive symptoms measured by the HRSD. Cardio-respiratory fitness is measured using a sub maximal cycling test, biometric information is gathered and blood samples are collected for metabolic parameters. Also, co-morbidity with pain, anxiety and personality traits is studied, as well as quality of life and cost-effectiveness. Discussion Exercise in

  17. Leadership in Two Worlds: Operating in Disparate Realms, One that Pushes Ego and Ambition, the Other that Promotes Personal Values and Principled Acts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goens, George A.

    2011-01-01

    People live in two worlds. The first is the external world of competition, ego, ambition and power. Here they chase the brass ring of success through control and standardized procedures designed to stave off failure. In this context, leaders face politics, conflicting expectations and bottom-line metrics. But in quiet moments of solitude, these…

  18. Leadership in Two Worlds: Operating in Disparate Realms, One that Pushes Ego and Ambition, the Other that Promotes Personal Values and Principled Acts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goens, George A.

    2011-01-01

    People live in two worlds. The first is the external world of competition, ego, ambition and power. Here they chase the brass ring of success through control and standardized procedures designed to stave off failure. In this context, leaders face politics, conflicting expectations and bottom-line metrics. But in quiet moments of solitude, these…

  19. A multi-scale study of Orthoptera species richness and human population size controlling for sampling effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantarello, Elena; Steck, Claude E.; Fontana, Paolo; Fontaneto, Diego; Marini, Lorenzo; Pautasso, Marco

    2010-03-01

    Recent large-scale studies have shown that biodiversity-rich regions also tend to be densely populated areas. The most obvious explanation is that biodiversity and human beings tend to match the distribution of energy availability, environmental stability and/or habitat heterogeneity. However, the species-people correlation can also be an artefact, as more populated regions could show more species because of a more thorough sampling. Few studies have tested this sampling bias hypothesis. Using a newly collated dataset, we studied whether Orthoptera species richness is related to human population size in Italy’s regions (average area 15,000 km2) and provinces (2,900 km2). As expected, the observed number of species increases significantly with increasing human population size for both grain sizes, although the proportion of variance explained is minimal at the provincial level. However, variations in observed Orthoptera species richness are primarily associated with the available number of records, which is in turn well correlated with human population size (at least at the regional level). Estimated Orthoptera species richness (Chao2 and Jackknife) also increases with human population size both for regions and provinces. Both for regions and provinces, this increase is not significant when controlling for variation in area and number of records. Our study confirms the hypothesis that broad-scale human population-biodiversity correlations can in some cases be artefactual. More systematic sampling of less studied taxa such as invertebrates is necessary to ascertain whether biogeographical patterns persist when sampling effort is kept constant or included in models.

  20. Current status of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulatory efforts controlling the disposition of solid materials.

    PubMed

    Paperiello, Carl J

    2006-11-01

    Current efforts of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S. NRC) to develop rules for the disposition of low-activity solid materials and the outcome of U.S. NRC rulemaking activities in this area since the late 1990's are described. International efforts on the disposition of low-activity solid materials and future plans of the U.S. NRC on this subject are also described.

  1. Motivational Climate and Students' Emotional Experiences and Effort in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liukkonen, Jarmo; Barkoukis, Vassilis; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the impact of a self-determined motivational climate including support of autonomy, relatedness, task involvement, and ego-involving climate on students' affective responses and effort in physical education. The sample involved 338 sixth-grade students (11-12 years old) who completed a questionnaire battery…

  2. Motivational Climate and Students' Emotional Experiences and Effort in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liukkonen, Jarmo; Barkoukis, Vassilis; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the impact of a self-determined motivational climate including support of autonomy, relatedness, task involvement, and ego-involving climate on students' affective responses and effort in physical education. The sample involved 338 sixth-grade students (11-12 years old) who completed a questionnaire battery…

  3. Individual differences in components of impulsivity and effortful control moderate the relation between borderline personality disorder traits and emotion recognition in a sample of university students.

    PubMed

    Preti, Emanuele; Richetin, Juliette; Suttora, Chiara; Pisani, Alberto

    2016-04-30

    Dysfunctions in social cognition characterize personality disorders. However, mixed results emerged from literature on emotion processing. Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) traits are either associated with enhanced emotion recognition, impairments, or equal functioning compared to controls. These apparent contradictions might result from the complexity of emotion recognition tasks used and from individual differences in impulsivity and effortful control. We conducted a study in a sample of undergraduate students (n=80), assessing BPD traits, using an emotion recognition task that requires the processing of only visual information or both visual and acoustic information. We also measured individual differences in impulsivity and effortful control. Results demonstrated the moderating role of some components of impulsivity and effortful control on the capability of BPD traits in predicting anger and happiness recognition. We organized the discussion around the interaction between different components of regulatory functioning and task complexity for a better understanding of emotion recognition in BPD samples.

  4. Symptoms of Anxiety, Depression, and Aggression in Non-Clinical Children: Relationships with Self-Report and Performance-Based Measures of Attention and Effortful Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muris, Peter; van der Pennen, Els; Sigmond, Rianne; Mayer, Birgit

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between the regulative trait of effortful control, and in particular attention control, and psychopathological symptoms in a sample of 207 non-clinical children aged 8-12 years. For this purpose, children completed self-report scales for measuring regulative traits and various types of psychopathological…

  5. [The psychopathology of ego disturbances: history and phenomenology].

    PubMed

    Bürgy, M

    2010-09-01

    The phenomena which Kurt Schneider grouped together to form the ego disturbances have always been of particular diagnostic relevance for schizophrenia. While little importance was historically attached to accurately describing and distinguishing psychopathological symptoms, Karl Jaspers' and Kurt Schneider's descriptive psychopathology aims to draw a sharp yet differentiated distinction between psychotic and non-psychotic disorders at the symptom level. New developments in phenomenology including aspects of symptom development are presented. The depersonalization experience is focused on as a transitional phenomenon which is distinguishes from neurotic depersonalization through a disturbed sense of mineness. The ego disturbances indicate that disturbed mineness can be seen as the common denominator of first-rank symptoms of schizophrenia.

  6. Effect of similarity of ego identity status on interpersonal attraction.

    PubMed

    Goldman, J A; Rosenzweig, C M; Lutter, A D

    1980-04-01

    Similarity of ego identity status, assessed by Marcia's four-category classification system, was related to interpersonal attraction. Using male and female college students as subjects, this study found that (1) while all judges preferred targets who had or who are undergoing a crisis to those who have not had a crisis, (2) diffuse judges preferred targets with no commitments to those with commitments, and (3) judges with commitments preferred a foreclosure target more than judges without commitments. Differential evaluations of the targets' intelligence, knowledge of current events, adjustment, and morality were also found. Results are discussed both in terms of previous research positively relating personality similarity to attraction and Erikson's theory of the relationship between ego identity development and intimacy in interpersonal relations.

  7. Beyond Empathy: The Tree of Compassion With Malevolent Ego States.

    PubMed

    Frederick, Claire

    2016-04-01

    Therapy with seriously dissociated patients requires the transformation and integration of malevolent ego states that produce a wide assortment of negative experiences and behaviors in the patient. During the course of therapy, they can present dangers to both patient and therapist, as well as to the therapeutic process (Watkins & Watkins, 1984). Perhaps the greatest challenges for therapists in this work are the development and the maintenance of empathy for these personality aspects. Without some degree of empathy, a healing therapeutic alliance cannot be formed, and absent a secure, healing, intersubjective experience, it is unlikely that malevolent ego states can undergo sufficient transformation for integration. Essential elements for developing and sustaining both the necessary empathy and the compassion, the altruistic activity that empathy engenders, are presented.

  8. Endgame implementations for the Efficient Global Optimization (EGO) algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southall, Hugh L.; O'Donnell, Teresa H.; Kaanta, Bryan

    2009-05-01

    Efficient Global Optimization (EGO) is a competent evolutionary algorithm which can be useful for problems with expensive cost functions [1,2,3,4,5]. The goal is to find the global minimum using as few function evaluations as possible. Our research indicates that EGO requires far fewer evaluations than genetic algorithms (GAs). However, both algorithms do not always drill down to the absolute minimum, therefore the addition of a final local search technique is indicated. In this paper, we introduce three "endgame" techniques. The techniques can improve optimization efficiency (fewer cost function evaluations) and, if required, they can provide very accurate estimates of the global minimum. We also report results using a different cost function than the one previously used [2,3].

  9. Ego-Vehicle Corridors for Vision-Based Driver Assistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ruyi; Klette, Reinhard; Vaudrey, Tobi; Wang, Shigang

    Improving or generalizing lane detection solutions on curved roads with possibly broken lane marks is still a challenging task. This paper proposes a concept of a (virtual) corridor for modeling the space an ego-vehicle is able to drive through, using available (but often incomplete, e.g., due to occlusion, road conditions, or road intersections) information about the lane marks but also about the motion and relative position (with respect to the road) of the ego-vehicle. A corridor is defined in this paper by special features, such as two fixed starting points, a constant width, and a unique relationship with visible lane marks. Robust corridor detection is possible by hypothesis testing based on maximum a posterior (MAP) estimation, followed by boundary selection, and road patch extension. Obstacles are explicitly considered. A corridor tracking method is also discussed. Experimental results are provided.

  10. Ego and Spiritual Transcendence: Relevance to Psychological Resilience and the Role of Age

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The paper investigates different approaches of transcendence in the sense of spiritual experience as predictors for general psychological resilience. This issue is based on the theoretical assumption that resilience does play a role for physical health. Furthermore, there is a lack of empirical evidence about the extent to which spirituality does play a role for resilience. As potential predictors for resilience, ego transcendence, spiritual transcendence, and meaning in life were measured in a sample of 265 people. The main result of a multiple regression analysis is that, in the subsample with people below 29 years, only one rather secular scale that is associated with ego transcendence predicts resilience, whereas for the older subsample of 29 years and above, spiritual transcendence gains both a positive (oneness and timelessness) and a negative (spiritual insight) relevance to psychological resilience. On the one hand, these results concur with previous studies that also found age-related differences. On the other hand, it is surprising that the MOS spiritual insight predicts psychological resilience negatively, the effect is increasing with age. One possible explanation concerns wisdom research. Here, an adaptive way of dealing with the age-related loss of control is assumed to be relevant to successful aging. PMID:24223619

  11. An Ego Depletion Account of Aging Stereotypes' Effects on Health-Related Variables.

    PubMed

    Emile, Mélanie; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne; Cheval, Boris; Amato, Massimiliano; Chalabaev, Aïna

    2015-11-01

    This study examined whether stereotypes may predict health outcomes independently from their internalization into the self. Specifically, we tested whether endorsement of negative age stereotypes in the physical activity (PA) domain is related to decreased subjective vitality among active older adults, illustrating ego depletion. This longitudinal study included 192 retired individuals aged 60-92 years who regularly participated in organized PA, and who completed the measures on three occasions (9-month period). Multilevel growth models tested whether within-person variation in age stereotypes endorsement across waves predicted subjective vitality, after controlling for self-perceptions of aging and relevant covariates. Results showed that (a) within-person increases in endorsement of age stereotypes of self-efficacy (b = 0.17, p < .01) were associated with increases in subjective vitality, (b) between-person mean difference in endorsement of age stereotypes of PA benefits (b = 0.21, p < .05) positively predicted subjective vitality, and (c) subjective vitality mediated the relationship between endorsement of self-efficacy stereotype and self-rated health. This study confirmed that endorsement of age stereotypes of PA predicted subjective vitality among active older adults. These results suggest that stereotypes may be related to health-related outcomes notably through ego depletion effects. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Social Circles Detection from Ego Network and Profile Information

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-19

    way of organizing contacts in personal networks. They are therefore currently implemented in the major social net- working systems, such as Facebook ...inadequate for the task. The corpus is composed of 110 egonets retrieved from Facebook , with their Social Circles manually labelled by the egos. They are...representation contains information of the three levels of friendship , giving a value of 1 to the 1st rank relationship, 0.5 to the 2nd rank

  13. Toward perception-based navigation using EgoSphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Kazuhiko; Peters, R. Alan; Wilkes, Don M.; Koku, Ahmet B.; Sekman, Ali

    2002-02-01

    A method for perception-based egocentric navigation of mobile robots is described. Each robot has a local short-term memory structure called the Sensory EgoSphere (SES), which is indexed by azimuth, elevation, and time. Directional sensory processing modules write information on the SES at the location corresponding to the source direction. Each robot has a partial map of its operational area that it has received a priori. The map is populated with landmarks and is not necessarily metrically accurate. Each robot is given a goal location and a route plan. The route plan is a set of via-points that are not used directly. Instead, a robot uses each point to construct a Landmark EgoSphere (LES) a circular projection of the landmarks from the map onto an EgoSphere centered at the via-point. Under normal circumstances, the LES will be mostly unaffected by slight variations in the via-point location. Thus, the route plan is transformed into a set of via-regions each described by an LES. A robot navigates by comparing the next LES in its route plan to the current contents of its SES. It heads toward the indicated landmarks until its SES matches the LES sufficiently to indicate that the robot is near the suggested via-point. The proposed method is particularly useful for enabling the exchange of robust route informa-tion between robots under low data rate communications constraints. An example of such an exchange is given.

  14. 'Ego-dystonicity' in homosexuality: An Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Maroky, Ami Sebastian; Ratheesh, Aswin; Viswanath, Biju; Math, Suresh Bada; Chandrashekar, Channapatna R; Seshadri, Shekhar P

    2015-06-01

    Homosexual persons are targets of verbal and physical abuse, discrimination and face legal disadvantages in many countries, including India. These external factors could play a role in determining discomfort with their sexuality. We ascertained the association between ego-dystonicity of sexual orientation and indices of perceived acceptance, stigma and awareness of possible normative lifestyles. Fifty-one self-identified adult homosexual men were assessed using online questionnaires that covered information including their socio-demographic details; a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) that measured their degree of discomfort with their sexuality; Reactions to Homosexuality Scale, Perceived Acceptance Scale, Modified China Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) Stigma scale; and trait version of the Positive and Negative Affect Scale. The participants were also asked to provide a written narrative of their experiences which influenced their comfort with their sexuality. Discomfort with sexuality significantly correlated with education, acceptance by friends and family, legal disadvantages, awareness and accessibility to non-heteronormative lifestyles and support systems and trait affect. Only acceptance by friends and awareness showed significance on linear regression. Qualitative analyses revealed external attributions for discomfort. Modifying external factors, reducing legal restrictions and improving societal acceptance and support systems could reduce 'ego-dystonicity'. 'Ego-dystonicity' as a determinant for psychiatric classification and intervention needs to be reexamined. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Cognitive development in very vs. moderately to late preterm and full-term children: can effortful control account for group differences in toddlerhood?

    PubMed

    Voigt, Babett; Pietz, Joachim; Pauen, Sabina; Kliegel, Matthias; Reuner, Gitta

    2012-05-01

    Preterm birth is thought to have an adverse impact on cognitive development and self-regulation. Examining the effect of very vs. moderately to late premature birth on cognitive development and effortful control, as well as evaluating whether effortful control explains the link between preterm birth and poorer cognitive development. Fifty-eight very preterm children (<32 weeks gestation or <1500 g birth weight), 88 moderately to late preterm children (≥32 weeks gestation and ≥1500 birth weight) and 86 full-term children (≥38 weeks gestation and ≥2500 g birth weight) were examined at the corrected age of 24 months. Observational and parent-report measures of effortful control as well as the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID II, Mental Scale) as a measurement of cognitive development were analyzed. Very preterm and moderately to late preterm children showed significantly lower cognitive performance compared to full-term children. Lower effortful control scores (on observational measures, but not on parent-reports) were merely found for very preterm children compared to full-term children. Observational measures of effortful control partially mediated the effects of very preterm birth on cognitive performance, but did not explain the effects of moderately to late preterm birth on cognitive performance. Preterm birth in general is related to poorer cognitive performance in toddlerhood. In addition, effortful control mediates the effects of very preterm birth on cognitive development. Findings suggest that different mechanisms link moderately to late premature birth to poor cognitive development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Transference and countertransference to medication and its implications for ego function.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Eric R

    2007-01-01

    Transference to medication can provide important information about specific ego dysfunction in sicker patients who often need medication. Whether positive or negative or both in content, the organization of the experience provides one example of the illness' effect on the patients' ego and can therefore be a specific diagnostic assessment strategy. Early resistances to medication may reveal the nature of resistances to the therapeutic alliance and to higher-level ego function. Understanding this can guide verbal and pharmacological interventions to strengthen ego function. Countertransference can similarly be helpful because it, too, can be a highly specific diagnostic indicator.

  17. Characterization of biomarkers in stroke based on ego-networks and pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Haixia; Guo, Qianqian

    2017-09-05

    To explore potential biomarkers in stroke based on ego-networks and pathways. EgoNet method was applied to search for the underlying biomarkers in stroke using transcription profiling of E-GEOD-58294 and protein-protein interaction (PPI) data. Eight ego-genes were identified from PPI network according to the degree characteristics at the criteria of top 5% ranked z-sore and degree >1. Eight candidate ego-networks with classification accuracy ≥0.9 were selected. After performed randomization test, seven significant ego-networks with adjusted p value < 0.05 were identified. Pathway enrichment analysis was then conducted with these ego-networks to search for the significant pathways. Finally, two significant pathways were identified, and six of seven ego-networks were enriched to "3'-UTR-mediated translational regulation" pathway, indicating that this pathway performs an important role in the development of stroke. Seven ego-networks were constructed using EgoNet and two significant enriched by pathways were identified. These may provide new insights into the potential biomarkers for the development of stroke.

  18. Anxiety, ego depletion, and sports performance.

    PubMed

    Englert, Chris; Bertrams, Alex

    2012-10-01

    In the present article, we analyzed the role of self-control strength and state anxiety in sports performance. We tested the hypothesis that self-control strength and state anxiety interact in predicting sports performance on the basis of two studies, each using a different sports task (Study 1: performance in a basketball free throw task, N = 64; Study 2: performance in a dart task, N = 79). The patterns of results were as expected in both studies: Participants with depleted self-control strength performed worse in the specific tasks as their anxiety increased, whereas there was no significant relation for participants with fully available self-control strength. Furthermore, different degrees of available self-control strength did not predict performance in participants who were low in state anxiety, but did in participants who were high in state anxiety. Thus increasing self-control strength could reduce the negative anxiety effects in sports and improve athletes' performance under pressure.

  19. Adaptive and Effortful Control and Academic Self-efficacy Beliefs on Achievement: A Longitudinal Study of 1st through 3rd Graders

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Jeffrey; McTigue, Erin; Barrois, Lisa; Hughes, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The linkages between self-regulatory processes and achievement were examined across three years in 733 children beginning at 1st grade (M = 6.57 years, SD = .39 at 1st grade) who were identified as lower achieving in literacy. Accounting for consistencies in measures (from one year prior) and for influences of child’s age, gender, IQ, ethnicity and economic adversity on achievement, results indicate that adaptive/effortful control at 1st grade contributed to both academic self-efficacy beliefs at 2nd grade, and reading (but not math) achievement at 3rd grade. Although academic self-efficacy did not partially mediate the linkage between adaptive/effortful control and achievement, academic self-efficacy beliefs were positively correlated with reading and math. Results support the notion that early efforts to promote children’s self-regulatory skills would enhance future academic self-beliefs and achievement, particularly in literacy. PMID:19169387

  20. Personality traits and ego-network dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Centellegher, Simone; López, Eduardo; Saramäki, Jari; Lepri, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Strong and supportive social relationships are fundamental to our well-being. However, there are costs to their maintenance, resulting in a trade-off between quality and quantity, a typical strategy being to put a lot of effort on a few high-intensity relationships while maintaining larger numbers of less close relationships. It has also been shown that there are persistent individual differences in this pattern; some individuals allocate their efforts more uniformly across their networks, while others strongly focus on their closest relationships. Furthermore, some individuals maintain more stable networks than others. Here, we focus on how personality traits of individuals affect this picture, using mobile phone calls records and survey data from the Mobile Territorial Lab (MTL) study. In particular, we look at the relationship between personality traits and the (i) persistence of social signatures, namely the similarity of the social signature shape of an individual measured in different time intervals; (ii) the turnover in egocentric networks, that is, differences in the set of alters present at two consecutive temporal intervals; and (iii) the rank dynamics defined as the variation of alter rankings in egocentric networks in consecutive intervals. We observe that some traits have effects on the stability of the social signatures as well as network turnover and rank dynamics. As an example, individuals who score highly in the Openness to Experience trait tend to have higher levels of network turnover and larger alter rank variations. On broader terms, our study shows that personality traits clearly affect the ways in which individuals maintain their personal networks. PMID:28253333