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Sample records for egg burden hepatic

  1. Hepatitis B virus burden in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Zampino, Rosa; Boemio, Adriana; Sagnelli, Caterina; Alessio, Loredana; Adinolfi, Luigi Elio; Sagnelli, Evangelista; Coppola, Nicola

    2015-11-14

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has shown an intermediate or high endemicity level in low-income countries over the last five decades. In recent years, however, the incidence of acute hepatitis B and the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen chronic carriers have decreased in several countries because of the HBV universal vaccination programs started in the nineties. Some countries, however, are still unable to implement these programs, particularly in their hyperendemic rural areas. The diffusion of HBV infection is still wide in several low-income countries where the prevention, management and treatment of HBV infection are a heavy burden for the governments and healthcare authorities. Of note, the information on the HBV epidemiology is scanty in numerous eastern European and Latin-American countries. The studies on molecular epidemiology performed in some countries provide an important contribution for a more comprehensive knowledge of HBV epidemiology, and phylogenetic studies provide information on the impact of recent and older migratory flows.

  2. Hepatitis B virus burden in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Zampino, Rosa; Boemio, Adriana; Sagnelli, Caterina; Alessio, Loredana; Adinolfi, Luigi Elio; Sagnelli, Evangelista; Coppola, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has shown an intermediate or high endemicity level in low-income countries over the last five decades. In recent years, however, the incidence of acute hepatitis B and the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen chronic carriers have decreased in several countries because of the HBV universal vaccination programs started in the nineties. Some countries, however, are still unable to implement these programs, particularly in their hyperendemic rural areas. The diffusion of HBV infection is still wide in several low-income countries where the prevention, management and treatment of HBV infection are a heavy burden for the governments and healthcare authorities. Of note, the information on the HBV epidemiology is scanty in numerous eastern European and Latin-American countries. The studies on molecular epidemiology performed in some countries provide an important contribution for a more comprehensive knowledge of HBV epidemiology, and phylogenetic studies provide information on the impact of recent and older migratory flows. PMID:26576083

  3. Disease burden of chronic hepatitis C among immigrants in Canada.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Krahn, M

    2015-12-01

    Immigrants with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in Canada have doubled risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. To measure the burden of CHC among immigrants in Canada. A decision analytic model was developed to compare immigrants with CHC and age-matched immigrants without CHC for survival years, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and medical costs per life year. Hepatitis C epidemiology among immigrants was based on hepatitis C prevalence in their home countries. A cohort of immigrant patients was retrospectively followed up to estimate fibrosis stage distribution, treatment patterns and prognosis of compensated cirrhosis. Other model variables were based on published sources. Base case analysis, one-way sensitivity analysis and probabilistic sensitivity analysis were performed to measure the burden of CHC and assess the impact of uncertainty associated with model variables on the burden of CHC. CHC could reduce survival by 9.6 years [95% credible interval (CI): 8.0-10.9 years], reduce QALYs by 9.5 years (95% CI: 6.0-13.8 years) and increase medical costs per life year by $1950 (95% CI: $1518 to $2486, 2006 Canadian dollars). Because nearly half of immigrants with CHC were not diagnosed until the development of cirrhosis, the burden of CHC was highly sensitive to the risks of liver-related complications and mortality but insensitive to pegylated interferon plus ribavirin. The burden of CHC among immigrants in Canada is substantial mainly due to liver-related complications and mortality. The delay in diagnosis was another important contributor to the burden of CHC among immigrants.

  4. Hepatitis C virus infection in Argentina: Burden of chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    Ridruejo, Ezequiel; Bessone, Fernando; Daruich, Jorge R; Estes, Chris; Gadano, Adrián C; Razavi, Homie; Villamil, Federico G; Silva, Marcelo O

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the progression of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemic and measure the burden of HCV-related morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Age- and gender-defined cohorts were used to follow the viremic population in Argentina and estimate HCV incidence, prevalence, hepatic complications, and mortality. The relative impact of two scenarios on HCV-related outcomes was assessed: (1) increased sustained virologic response (SVR); and (2) increased SVR and treatment. RESULTS: Under scenario 1, SVR raised to 85%-95% in 2016. Compared to the base case scenario, there was a 0.3% reduction in prevalent cases and liver-related deaths by 2030. Given low treatment rates, cases of hepatocellular carcinoma and decompensated cirrhosis decreased < 1%, in contrast to the base case in 2030. Under scenario 2, the same increases in SVR were modeled, with gradual increases in the annual diagnosed and treated populations. This scenario decreased prevalent infections 45%, liver-related deaths 55%, liver cancer cases 60%, and decompensated cirrhosis 55%, as compared to the base case by 2030. CONCLUSION: In Argentina, cases of end stage liver disease and liver-related deaths due to HCV are still growing, while its prevalence is decreasing. Increasing in SVR rates is not enough, and increasing in the number of patients diagnosed and candidates for treatment is needed to reduce the HCV disease burden. Based on this scenario, strategies to increase diagnosis and treatment uptake must be developed to reduce HCV burden in Argentina. PMID:27239258

  5. Tackling the Hepatitis B Disease Burden in India

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    Globally, approximately 240 people have been infected worldwide with hepatitis B Virus (HBV). India has approximately HBV carrier rate of 3.0% with a high prevalence rate in the tribal population. With a population of more than 1.25 billion, India has more than 37 million HBV carriers and contributes a large proportion of this HBV burden. While horizontal transmission in childhood appears to be a major route of transmission, the role of vertical transmission is probably underestimated. Blood transfusion and unsafe therapeutic injections continue to be important modes of transmission of HBV. There is a need for large field studies to better understand HBV epidemiology and identify high prevalence areas, and public health measures to prevent disease transmission and decrease the burden of the disease. PMID:25755578

  6. Comparative hatchability of lake trout eggs differing in contaminant burden and incubation conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mac, M.J.; Berlin, W.H.; Rottiers, D.V.

    1981-01-01

    In 1972, fertilized eggs of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the Marquette (Michigan) State Fish Hatchery (where levels of contaminants are relatively low) and eggs from lake trout collected in Michigan waters of Lake Michigan near Saugatuck and Charlevoix (where levels of PCB's and DDE are elevated) were incubated at hatchery temperatures (6° C) and at temperatures simulating the natural temperature cycle of Lake Michigan (1-8° C). Survival to yolk absorption of larvae from these three sources ranged from 40.3 to 65.5%, and no correlation was observed between survival and the level of PCB's and DDE in the eggs. Additional studies in 1975 with lake trout eggs from the same three sources confirmed previous observations that the elevated levels of PCB's and DDE in eggs from Lake Michigan did not appear to affect the percent hatch of lake trout eggs or survival of the fry to the swim-up stage. When fry hatched from eggs with an elevated contaminant burden were starved for several weeks, we observed no abnormal increase in posthatching mortality during the period when the yolk stores were being consumed.

  7. [Financial burden of hepatitis C infection and its treatment].

    PubMed

    Makara, Mihály; Hunyady, Béla

    2015-05-24

    The worldwide prevalence of hepatitis C infection is 2-3%. In addition to its individual consequences, it generates huge financial impact on national level. In particular, lack of recognition or late diagnosis of the disease is associated with high rate of liver cirrhosis related complications (hepatic encephalopathy, ascites, variceal bleeding, hepatocellular carcinoma) and/or demands liver transplantation. Loss of quality assisted life years and/or those spent in employment, reduced work productivity, as well as costs of antiviral therapy also contribute to the financial burden. The costs of new interferon-free therapies may exceed the prices of previous pegylated interferon based therapies with or without protease inhibitors; however, shorter treatment durations and extremely low rates of severe side-effects with much less related expenses can reduce total costs of these treatments. In addition to the moral obligations, published cost-effectiveness analyses conclude that early diagnosis and treatment of this primarily iatrogenic infection through organized screening programs and wide access to effective therapies may lead to long term financial benefit.

  8. The burden of hepatic encephalopathy in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Dávalos Moscol, Milagros; Bustios Sanchez, Carla

    2011-06-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric syndrome characterized by changes in cognitive function, behavior, and personality, as well as by transient neurological symptoms and electroencephalographic changes, which occur in the context of acute or chronic liver failure. Cirrhosis is the main disease associated to HE, and it is known that its incidence is increasing worldwide. As a cause of mortality, cirrhosis is ranked 14 worldwide, but 10 in developed countries. It has been demonstrated that the incidence of liver disease is increasing, in part because of the ascending prevalence of NAFLD, HCV, HCC, as well of alcohol consumption. The real incidence of cirrhosis in Latin America is unknown, although in some Latin American countries that provided national data, cirrhosis death rates were between 5 and 17/100,000 for men and 3 and 5/100,000 for women. Disability, quality of life, and social aspects should be considered when assessing the impact of a disease. In this context, preliminary estimates of the global burden of disease attributable to chronic liver disease seem to be substantial. Hepatic encephalopathy, a main complication of liver failure, occurs in 30-45% of patients as overt encephalopathy, but when subclinical or minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is considered, estimates of the incidence of encephalopathy vary from 20 to 60%. In USA, the 2009 NIH Report on the Costs of Digestive Diseases stated that liver disease was the second most costly disease in direct and indirect costs (13.1 billion dollars). Although the economic cost of HE has not been assessed, it is obvious that the economic impact of HE on daily activities of living is extremely high, as the costs of diminished work performance and lost wages are substantial.

  9. The use of chorioallantoic membranes as predictors of egg organochlorine burden

    SciTech Connect

    Pastor, D.; Albaiges, J.; Ruiz, X.; Jover, L.

    1996-02-01

    The distribution of organochlorine pollutants between yolks, embryos, and chorioallantoic membranes (CAMs) in piping eggs of Audouin`s gulls from the Ebro Delta was determined to assess the usefulness of CAMs as surrogates for predicting whole egg pollutant burdens. The reliability of predictions was checked using a concordance analysis based on four different parameters. The most abundant pollutants found were PCBs and DDTs, whereas levels of HCHs were much lower.Generally, the largest concentrations of contaminants were found in yolk sacs, followed by embryos and CAMs. The latter contained only 1.21% of the total concentration of organochlorines detected. Results show that CAMs could provide good predictions only for those pollutants being almost completely excreted to the CAM (e.g., hexachlorocyclohexanes, PCB52, and DDD). In the other organochlorines tested, the prediction obtained is too weak to recommend the use of CAMs for the estimation of their total burden in the eggs of Audouin`s gull. This suggests that the reliability of CAMs as surrogates should be tested for each chemical and species, prior to their use in nonlethal monitoring programs.

  10. The global burden of viral hepatitis from 1990 to 2013: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    PubMed Central

    Stanaway, Jeffrey D; Flaxman, Abraham D; Naghavi, Mohsen; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Vos, Theo; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Raddad, Laith J; Assadi, Reza; Bhala, Neeraj; Cowie, Benjamin; Forouzanfour, Mohammad H; Groeger, Justina; Hanafiah, Khayriyyah Mohd; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; James, Spencer L; MacLachlan, Jennifer; Malekzadeh, Reza; Martin, Natasha K; Mokdad, Ali A; Mokdad, Ali H; Murray, Christopher J L; Plass, Dietrich; Rana, Saleem; Rein, David B; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Sanabria, Juan; Saylan, Mete; Shahraz, Saeid; So, Samuel; Vlassov, Vasiliy V; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Wiersma, Steven T; Younis, Mustafa; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Cooke, Graham S

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background With recent improvements in vaccines and treatments against viral hepatitis, an improved understanding of the burden of viral hepatitis is needed to inform global intervention strategies. We used data from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study to estimate morbidity and mortality for acute viral hepatitis, and for cirrhosis and liver cancer caused by viral hepatitis, by age, sex, and country from 1990 to 2013. Methods We estimated mortality using natural history models for acute hepatitis infections and GBD’s cause-of-death ensemble model for cirrhosis and liver cancer. We used meta-regression to estimate total cirrhosis and total liver cancer prevalence, as well as the proportion of cirrhosis and liver cancer attributable to each cause. We then estimated cause-specific prevalence as the product of the total prevalence and the proportion attributable to a specific cause. Disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were calculated as the sum of years of life lost (YLLs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). Findings Between 1990 and 2013, global viral hepatitis deaths increased from 0·89 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 0·86–0·94) to 1·45 million (1·38–1·54); YLLs from 31·0 million (29·6–32·6) to 41·6 million (39·1–44·7); YLDs from 0·65 million (0·45–0·89) to 0·87 million (0·61–1·18); and DALYs from 31·7 million (30·2–33·3) to 42·5 million (39·9–45·6). In 2013, viral hepatitis was the seventh (95% UI seventh to eighth) leading cause of death worldwide, compared with tenth (tenth to 12th) in 1990. Interpretation Viral hepatitis is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Unlike most communicable diseases, the absolute burden and relative rank of viral hepatitis increased between 1990 and 2013. The enormous health loss attributable to viral hepatitis, and the availability of effective vaccines and treatments, suggests an important opportunity to improve public health. Funding Bill & Melinda

  11. The Economic Burden of Hepatitis A, B, and C in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Shon, Changwoo; Choi, Hyung-Yun; Shim, Jae-Jun; Park, So-Youn; Lee, Kyung Suk; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Oh, In-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of hepatitis in South Korea is relatively high compared to that in other high-income countries. For this reason, viral hepatitis infection not only affects the population's health, but also impacts national healthcare costs. This study was performed in order to estimate the individual economic costs of the hepatitis A, B, and C viruses as well as to determine, using nationally representative data, the trends in South Korea with respect to these viruses during the 2008-2011 period. The study found that the prevalence of hepatitis A had decreased, but those of hepatitis B and C had increased overall. The mortality rate of hepatitis C was higher than that of the other two types. The mortality rate of hepatitis B had changed little, whereas that of hepatitis C had risen. The total cost of hepatitis A had decreased, from US $62.2 million to US $45.7 million, although a notable exception occurred in 2009, when the cost was US $126.6 million. Conversely, the total cost of hepatitis B had increased rapidly during the same period, from US $501.4 million to US $607.8 million. Finally, the total cost of hepatitis C had also increased from US $63.9 million to US $90.7 million. The direct costs of hepatitis A, B, and C were estimated to account for approximately 35.5%, 46.6%, and 58.0% of the total, respectively. These findings demonstrate the economic burden associated with hepatitis A, B, and C, and demonstrate the need to establish an effective prevention and management policy for future planning in South Korea.

  12. Predicting maternal body burdens of organochlorine pesticides from eggs and evidence of maternal transfer in Alligator mississippiensis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rauschenberger, R.H.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Wiebe, J.J.; Szabo, N.J.; Gross, T.S.

    2004-01-01

    Few data exist regarding maternal-embryonal transfer of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in reptiles. The objective of the present study was to evaluate maternal transfer of OCPs in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from low-, intermediate-, and high-OCP-exposure sites. Overall, total OCP burdens ranged from less than 0.8 ppb in blood to more than 44,000 ppb in abdominal adipose tissue (wet wt concentrations). Lipid-adjusted ratios of maternal adipose burdens (total OCPs) to yolk burdens were close to one (0.94 ?? 0.31:1), suggesting that animals were in steady state and that OCPs in eggs originated from adipose lipids. In contrast, lipid-adjusted muscle and liver OCP burdens were greater than yolk OCP burdens, suggesting that lipids in muscle were not utilized during oogenesis and that nonlipid liver tissue sequesters OCPs. Predictive equations were derived for several tissues and several OCP analytes with r2 values ranging from 0.40 to 0.99 (p < 0.05). We suggest that yolk burdens are predictive of maternal tissue burdens for certain tissues and OCPs and that certain OCPs are maternally transferred in the American alligator. Furthermore, we suggest that future studies should investigate the applicability of these predictive equations for assessing maternal exposure in other crocodilian species.

  13. Modeling the Health and Economic Burden of Hepatitis C Virus in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Müllhaupt, Beat; Bruggmann, Philip; Bihl, Florian; Blach, Sarah; Lavanchy, Daniel; Razavi, Homie; Semela, David; Negro, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is a major cause of liver disease in Switzerland and carries a significant cost burden. Currently, only conservative strategies are in place to mitigate the burden of hepatitis C in Switzerland. This study expands on previously described modeling efforts to explore the impact of: no treatment, and treatment to reduce HCC and mortality. Furthermore, the costs associated with untreated HCV were modeled. Methods Hepatitis C disease progression and mortality were modeled. Baseline historical assumptions were collected from the literature and expert interviews and strategies were developed to show the impact of different levels of intervention (improved drug cure rates, treatment and diagnosis) until 2030. Results Under the historical standard of care, the number of advanced stage cases was projected to increase until 2030, at which point the annual economic burden of untreated viremic infections was projected to reach €96.8 (95% Uncertainty Interval: €36 – €232) million. Scenarios to reduce HCV liver-related mortality by 90% by 2030 required treatment of 4,190 ≥F2 or 3,200 ≥F3 patients annually by 2018 using antivirals with a 95% efficacy rate. Delaying the implementation of these scenarios by 2 or 5 years reduced the impact on mortality to 75% and 57%, respectively. Conclusions With today’s treatment efficacy and uptake rates, hepatitis C disease burden is expected to increase through 2030. A substantial reduction in disease burden can be achieved by means of both higher efficacy drugs and increased treatment uptake. However, these efforts cannot be undertaken without a simultaneous effort to diagnose more infections. PMID:26107467

  14. Trends in the Burden of Hepatitis B in a Southern Brazilian State

    PubMed Central

    Marcon, Chaiana Esmeraldino Mendes; Schneider, Ione Jayce Ceola; Schuelter-Trevisol, Fabiana; Traebert, Jefferson

    2015-01-01

    Background: Viral hepatitis is a major health problem in Brazil and worldwide. The state of Santa Catarina has high endemic areas, and the disease burden is unknown. Objectives: To estimate and analyze the burden of hepatitis B in the state of Santa Catarina, in 2005 - 2010. Materials and Methods: A time-series analysis was conducted using notification data of incidence and mortality rates from hepatitis B. The Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALY) and the components Years of Life Lost (YLL) and Years Lived with Disability (YLD) were calculated. The annual variation was estimated using segmented linear regression, identifying the points at which there were changes in the trend. Results: The state of Santa Catarina showed an increase of 11.9% (95% CI 0.9, 24.2) per year in YLL rates. A significant increase was observed for men and within the 70 - 79 age group. There was a significant decrease of -9.4% (95% CI -16.1, -2.2) in the YLD rates per year. The decline was significant for women and within the 15-34 age group. Regarding the DALY rates, the state of Santa Catarina showed a decline of -6.6% (95% CI: -11.0, -2.0) per year. Significant decreases occurred for females and within the 15 - 29 and 45 - 59 age groups. However, there was a significant increase within the 70 - 79 age range. Conclusions: The state of Santa Catarina has reduced the disease burden rates attributed to disability from hepatitis B, but there has been an increase in the burden of premature mortality from 2005 to 2010. PMID:26834790

  15. Assessment of the risk of foodborne transmission and burden of hepatitis E in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Müller, Alexandra; Collineau, Lucie; Stephan, Roger; Müller, Andrea; Stärk, Katharina D C

    2017-02-02

    The objective of this study was i) to quantify the risk of hepatitis E for Swiss consumers by specified pork products and ii) to estimate the total burden of human food-borne hepatitis E in Switzerland. A quantitative risk assessment from slaughter to consumption was carried out according to the Codex Alimentarius framework. In the hazard characterization, assumptions were made due to the lack of a dose-response relationship for oral exposure to hepatitis E virus (HEV). The prevalence of HEV in 160 pig livers of 40 different Swiss fattening farms was examined and determined to be 1.3% (CI 0.3%; 4.4%). This result was used as input in the risk assessment model, together with data from other published studies. The annual burden of hepatitis E was estimated in terms of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY), using data about hepatitis E cases diagnosed between 2010 and 2015 at two major hospitals located in the canton Ticino. Only the risk of foodborne hepatitis E from products containing pork liver was evaluated, as those containing only pork meat could not be evaluated because of lack of data on HEV load in pork. Assuming that successful oral infection occurs in 1% of servings contaminated with high HEV loads (>10(5) genome copies), and that acute illness develops in 5% of susceptible consumers, the most likely annual number of foodborne hepatitis E cases in Switzerland was estimated to be 1481 (95% CI 552; 4488) if all products containing pork liver were considered. If only high-risk products, such as plain pork liver and liver sausages (e.g. Saucisse au Foie), were considered, the annual number of cases was estimated to be 176 (95% CI 64; 498). We were unable to calculate the total burden of hepatitis E in Switzerland due to lack of data. Yet, for the canton Ticino, it was shown that a significant increase had occurred from <5 DALY per 100,000 inhabitants before 2012 to >50 DALY per 100,000 inhabitants in 2015. This change could partly be due to an increased

  16. Reducing the neglected burden of viral hepatitis in Africa: strategies for a global approach.

    PubMed

    Lemoine, Maud; Eholié, Serge; Lacombe, Karine

    2015-02-01

    The burden of liver disease may dramatically increase in the near future in Africa, where screening and access to care and treatment are hampered by inadequate disease surveillance, lack of high-quality tools to assess chronic liver disease, and underestimated needs for human and financial resources. Chronic hepatitis may be considered as silent and neglected killer, fuelled by many years of global inertia from stakeholders and policy makers alike. However, the global battle against viral hepatitis is facing a new era owing to the advent of highly effective drugs, innovative tools for screening and clinical follow-up, and recent signs that governments, advocacy groups and global health organizations are mobilizing to advocate universal access-to-treatment. This review details the barriers to prevention, screening and treatment of viral hepatitis on the African continent, focuses on the urgent need for operational and research programmes, and suggests integrated ways to tackle the global epidemic.

  17. Percutaneous biliary drainage catheter insertion in patients with extensive hepatic metastatic tumor burden

    PubMed Central

    Langman, Eun L.; Suhocki, Paul V.; Hurwitz, Herbert I.; Morse, Michael A.; Burbridge, Rebecca A.; Smith, Tony P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with metastatic disease of the liver can have hyperbilirubinemia due to a number of reasons, including biliary obstruction. The purpose of this study was to analyze patient outcomes after percutaneous biliary drainage (PBD) catheter insertion in patients with extensive hepatic metastatic tumor burden. Methods Out of 746 PBD insertions, 44 patients (24 males, 20 females, mean age 57.4 years, range, 34–80 years) had metastatic malignancy with a hepatic tumor burden of greater than 20% parenchymal volume based on pre-procedure computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Laboratory data before and after PBD insertion were compared. Survival and outcomes analysis performed. A subanalysis was performed on patients with CT-demonstrated catheter traversal of tumoral tissue. Results A PBD catheter was successfully inserted in all patients. The mean serum bilirubin level decreased significantly from 10.9±6.4 mg/dL immediately prior to PBD insertion to 7.1±5.6 mg/dL (P<0.001) within one month post PBD insertion. Four patients (11%) demonstrated normalization of bilirubin levels to less than 1.6 mg/dL. Of the 14 patients with a post-procedure CT or MRI, the PBD catheter traversed a tumor in 11 (79%). One of these patients required a transfusion after the procedure and one had recurrent catheter exchanges due to pericatheter leakage. The 30-day overall survival was 41% with a median survival of 19 days. The percentage decrease in serum bilirubin after PBD insertion and pre-procedure international normalized ratio (INR) were correlated with improved survival (OR =3.7, P=0.010 and OR =4.9, P=0.028 respectively). The PBD-associated major complication rate was 16%. Conclusions In patients with hyperbilirubinemia and extensive hepatic metastatic disease burden, survival was dismal after PBD catheter insertion. Serum bilirubin level normalization occurred rarely. PMID:28078111

  18. Egg whites from eggs of chickens infected experimentally with avian hepatitis E virus contain infectious virus, but evidence of complete vertical transmission is lacking.

    PubMed

    Guo, H; Zhou, E M; Sun, Z F; Meng, X-J

    2007-05-01

    Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) is genetically and antigenically related to human HEV. Vertical transmission of HEV has been reported in humans, but not in other animals. In this study, we showed that avian HEV could be detected in chicken egg-white samples. Subsequently, avian HEV in egg white was found to be infectious, as evidenced by the appearance of viraemia, faecal virus shedding and seroconversion in chickens inoculated with avian HEV-positive egg white, but not in chickens inoculated with HEV-negative egg white. To further assess the possibility of vertical transmission of avian HEV, batches of embryonated eggs from infected hens were hatched, and hatched chicks were monitored for evidence of avian HEV infection. However, no virus was detected in samples collected from the hatched chicks throughout this study, suggesting that avian HEV could not complete the vertical transmission cycle. The possible implications of our findings are also discussed.

  19. Global burden of HIV, viral hepatitis, and tuberculosis in prisoners and detainees.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Kate; Wirtz, Andrea L; Moazen, Babak; Ndeffo-Mbah, Martial; Galvani, Alison; Kinner, Stuart A; Courtney, Ryan; McKee, Martin; Amon, Joseph J; Maher, Lisa; Hellard, Margaret; Beyrer, Chris; Altice, Fredrick L

    2016-09-10

    The prison setting presents not only challenges, but also opportunities, for the prevention and treatment of HIV, viral hepatitis, and tuberculosis. We did a comprehensive literature search of data published between 2005 and 2015 to understand the global epidemiology of HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and tuberculosis in prisoners. We further modelled the contribution of imprisonment and the potential impact of prevention interventions on HIV transmission in this population. Of the estimated 10·2 million people incarcerated worldwide on any given day in 2014, we estimated that 3·8% have HIV (389 000 living with HIV), 15·1% have HCV (1 546 500), 4·8% have chronic HBV (491 500), and 2·8% have active tuberculosis (286 000). The few studies on incidence suggest that intraprison transmission is generally low, except for large-scale outbreaks. Our model indicates that decreasing the incarceration rate in people who inject drugs and providing opioid agonist therapy could reduce the burden of HIV in this population. The prevalence of HIV, HCV, HBV, and tuberculosis is higher in prison populations than in the general population, mainly because of the criminalisation of drug use and the detention of people who use drugs. The most effective way of controlling these infections in prisoners and the broader community is to reduce the incarceration of people who inject drugs.

  20. Risk and burden associated with the acquisition of viral hepatitis A and B in the corporate traveler.

    PubMed

    Bunn, William B

    2008-08-01

    As the number of international business travelers continues to grow, so does the list of destinations, many of which are endemic for both hepatitis A and B. Generally, travelers are unaware of the risks of acquiring viral hepatitis when traveling; many are unsure of modes of transmission and do not seek pretravel advice or do not follow the recommendations of travel health professionals. Infected employees can result in increased health care costs and reduced productivity in the workplace. Safe and efficacious monovalent vaccines and a combined hepatitis A and B vaccine are available. Successful corporate health and immunization programs can prevent hepatitis A and B when employees are abroad on business. This article examines the distribution, risks, costs, burden, and prevention of hepatitis A and B in the international business traveler.

  1. The relationship between haematological indices, serum gamma-glutamyl transferase and glutamate dehydrogenase, visual hepatic damage and worm burden in cattle infected with Fasciola gigantica.

    PubMed

    Molina, E C; Lozano, S P; Barraca, A P

    2006-09-01

    The association between visual hepatic damage, burden of Fasciola gigantica, serum levels of gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) is described from an abattoir study of 70 cattle in the Philippines. In another abattoir study of 60 cattle, the relationship between burden of F. gigantica and haematological indices was investigated. The degree of visual hepatic damage and burden of F. gigantica were significantly positively related to levels of GGT and GLDH. Red blood cell counts and packed cell volume were significantly inversely related to worm burden, but animals compensated for reduced numbers of red blood cells by increasing red cell haemoglobin content.

  2. [Study of disease burden of chronic hepatitis B and C patients in Shanghai based on Bronfenbrenner' s ecological systems theory: a community-based survey].

    PubMed

    Ren, H; Shi, Y; Meng, W; Hu, J Y; Chen, Y H; Pan, Q C

    2017-01-10

    Objective: To systemically analyze family burden, quality of life of chronic hepatitis B and C patients in Shanghai and related influencing factors. Methods: A representative sample of chronic hepatitis patients (n=1 478) and their family members (n=1 478) was randomly selected through a multi-stage cluster sampling from 30 communities in 10 districts of Shanghai. One patient and one family member of each family were interviewed using different questionnaires to collect related information. Based on Bronfenbrenner' s ecological systems, psychological measurement, two-level random intercept model and multivariable structural equation model were applied to determine the effects and directions of the factors between life quality of chronic hepatitis patients and family burden. Results: The mean score of quality of life of chronic hepatitis patients in Shanghai was 78.70 ± 13.25, the score of " specific module" was highest and the score of " social function" was lowest. Additionally, the mean score of burden reported by the family members was 12.62±10.74, the score of " financial burden" was highest, and the score of " effect on family member' s health" was lowest. Multivariable structural equation model indicated that eight factors were related with life quality and family burden of patients with chronic hepatitis. Among them, HCV infection, elevated serum alanine aminotransferase level, average monthly cost for patient >3 000 yuan (RMB) and poor health of family members were the direct risk factors for the life quality of the patients as well as family burden. The factor of drinking more than once a week influenced the patients' life quality directly and family burden indirectly. On the contrary, the factors of local household registration, hospitalization and family member's indifferent attitude to hepatitis B vaccination influenced the family burden of the chronic hepatitis patients directly and the life quality of the patients indirectly. Conclusion: The

  3. Economic Burden of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Different Stages of Disease: A Report From Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Zare, Fatemeh; Fattahi, Mohammad Reza; Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Safarpour, Ali Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major blood-borne infection which imposes high economic cost on the patients. Objectives The current study aimed to evaluate the total annual cost due to chronic HCV related diseases imposed on each patient and their family in Southern Iran. Patients and Methods Economic burden of chronic hepatitis C-related liver diseases (chronic hepatitis C, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma) were examined. The current retrospective study evaluated 200 Iranian patients for their socioeconomic status, utilization (direct and indirect costs) and treatment costs and work days lost due to illness by a structured questionnaire in 2015. Costs of hospital admissions were extracted from databases of Nemazee hospital, Shiraz, Iran. The outpatient expenditure per patient was measured through the rate of outpatient visits and average cost per visit reported by the patients; while the inpatient costs were calculated through annual rate of hospital admissions and average expenditure. Self-medication and direct non-medical costs were also reported. The human capital approach was used to measure the work loss cost. Results The total annual cost per patient for chronic hepatitis C, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) based on purchasing power parity (PPP) were USD 1625.50, USD 6117.2, and USD 11047.2 in 2015, respectively. Conclusions Chronic hepatitis C-related liver diseases impose a substantial economic burden on patients, families and the society. The current study provides useful information on cost of treatment and work loss for different disease states, which can be further used in cost-effectiveness evaluations. PMID:27257424

  4. Reduction in the hepatitis B related burden of disease--measuring the success of universal immunisation programs.

    PubMed

    Williams, Alison

    2002-01-01

    There is collective evidence from countries of both low and high endemicity that administration of hepatitis B vaccination at birth saves lives and reduces the burden of disease from acute and chronic infection. However, a discussion on the cost-effectiveness of vaccination for HBV is beyond the scope of this article. In Australia, longer term follow-up of HBV disease burden is required following the more recent introduction of routine and universal infant vaccination. Universal vaccination for HBV at birth can be seen as a 'safety-net' against infection at a very young age. However, it is estimated that the effect of universal infant vaccination will not be evident for at least another 15 years in Australia. The obstacles to vaccination with HBV, which have historically included fears that the vaccine may be linked to multiple sclerosis, should be put to rest, and concerns about the thiomersal content allayed by communicating the current availability of thiomersal-free vaccines to all providers and parents or care-givers. Furthermore, ongoing adverse events surveillance should be in place to detect any rare adverse events which may be related to the vaccine. Currently, more than one half of the world's infants are still not being immunised for HBV, and the need for a global initiative for universal infant hepatitis B vaccination is apparent. This is especially true for countries with high prevalence, and the costing issues and logistics of such an initiative still remain to be addressed. In addition, there is a need to address the implementation of guidelines for screening and vaccination of families who have immigrated to Australia from countries with a high prevalence of hepatitis B.

  5. Economic burden of hepatitis B virus infection in different stages of disease; a report from southern iran.

    PubMed

    Kavosi, Zahra; Zare, Fateme; Jafari, Abdosaleh; Fattahi, Mohammad Reza

    2014-07-01

    BACKGROUND To estimate the total annual cost due to chronic hepatitis B (CHB)-related diseases imposed on each patient and his/her family in Iran. METHODS Economic burden of CHB-related diseases (CHB, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma) were examined. In this retrospective study, 100 Iranian patients were identified to obtain their socioeconomic status, utilization (direct and indirect costs) and costs of treatment, and work days lost due to illness with a structured questionnaire during 2012. Costs of hospital admissions were extracted from databases of Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz, Iran. The outpatient expenditure per patient was measured through the rate of outpatient visits and average cost per visit reported by the patients, while the inpatient costs were calculated through annual rate of hospital admissions and average expenditure. Self-medication and direct non-medical costs were also reported. The Human Capital Approach was used to measure the work loss cost. RESULTS The total annual cost per patient for CHB, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma were US$ 3094.5, US$17483, and US$ 32958 during 2012, respectively. CONCLUSION CHB-related diseases impose a substantial economic burden on patients, families, and the society. This study provides useful information on cost of treatment and work loss for different disease states, which can be further used in cost-effectiveness evaluations.

  6. The present and future disease burden of hepatitis C virus infections with today's treatment paradigm - volume 3.

    PubMed

    Sibley, A; Han, K H; Abourached, A; Lesmana, L A; Makara, M; Jafri, W; Salupere, R; Assiri, A M; Goldis, A; Abaalkhail, F; Abbas, Z; Abdou, A; Al Braiki, F; Al Hosani, F; Al Jaberi, K; Al Khatry, M; Al Mulla, M A; Al Quraishi, H; Al Rifai, A; Al Serkal, Y; Alam, A; Alavian, S M; Alashgar, H I; Alawadhi, S; Al-Dabal, L; Aldins, P; Alfaleh, F Z; Alghamdi, A S; Al-Hakeem, R; Aljumah, A A; Almessabi, A; Alqutub, A N; Alswat, K A; Altraif, I; Alzaabi, M; Andrea, N; Babatin, M A; Baqir, A; Barakat, M T; Bergmann, O M; Bizri, A R; Blach, S; Chaudhry, A; Choi, M S; Diab, T; Djauzi, S; El Hassan, E S; El Khoury, S; Estes, C; Fakhry, S; Farooqi, J I; Fridjonsdottir, H; Gani, R A; Ghafoor Khan, A; Gheorghe, L; Gottfredsson, M; Gregorcic, S; Gunter, J; Hajarizadeh, B; Hamid, S; Hasan, I; Hashim, A; Horvath, G; Hunyady, B; Husni, R; Jeruma, A; Jonasson, J G; Karlsdottir, B; Kim, D Y; Kim, Y S; Koutoubi, Z; Liakina, V; Lim, Y S; Löve, A; Maimets, M; Malekzadeh, R; Matičič, M; Memon, M S; Merat, S; Mokhbat, J E; Mourad, F H; Muljono, D H; Nawaz, A; Nugrahini, N; Olafsson, S; Priohutomo, S; Qureshi, H; Rassam, P; Razavi, H; Razavi-Shearer, D; Razavi-Shearer, K; Rozentale, B; Sadik, M; Saeed, K; Salamat, A; Sanai, F M; Sanityoso Sulaiman, A; Sayegh, R A; Sharara, A I; Siddiq, M; Siddiqui, A M; Sigmundsdottir, G; Sigurdardottir, B; Speiciene, D; Sulaiman, A; Sultan, M A; Taha, M; Tanaka, J; Tarifi, H; Tayyab, G; Tolmane, I; Ud Din, M; Umar, M; Valantinas, J; Videčnik-Zorman, J; Yaghi, C; Yunihastuti, E; Yusuf, M A; Zuberi, B F; Schmelzer, J D

    2015-12-01

    The total number, morbidity and mortality attributed to viraemic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections change over time making it difficult to compare reported estimates from different years. Models were developed for 15 countries to quantify and characterize the viraemic population and forecast the changes in the infected population and the corresponding disease burden from 2014 to 2030. With the exception of Iceland, Iran, Latvia and Pakistan, the total number of viraemic HCV infections is expected to decline from 2014 to 2030, but the associated morbidity and mortality are expected to increase in all countries except for Japan and South Korea. In the latter two countries, mortality due to an ageing population will drive down prevalence, morbidity and mortality. On the other hand, both countries have already experienced a rapid increase in HCV-related mortality and morbidity. HCV-related morbidity and mortality are projected to increase between 2014 and 2030 in all other countries as result of an ageing HCV-infected population. Thus, although the total number of HCV countries is expected to decline in most countries studied, the associated disease burden is expected to increase. The current treatment paradigm is inadequate if large reductions in HCV-related morbidity and mortality are to be achieved.

  7. Nematode burdens and immunological responses following natural challenge in Romney lambs selectively bred for low or high faecal worm egg count.

    PubMed

    Bisset, S A; Vlassoff, A; Douch, P G; Jonas, W E; West, C J; Green, R S

    1996-02-01

    Breeding lines of Romney sheep, selected as lambs for consistently low or high faecal nematode egg count (FEC) following periods of natural challenge, have been maintained at Wallaceville for some years. In order to determine the extent to which FECs in low and high genotypes reflected their ability to resist the establishment of gastro-intestinal nematode burdens, we investigated the infection status and immune responses in 8- to 9-month-old progeny of selected rams from low and high FEC breeding lines following a period of grazing without anthelmintic treatment in autumn/early winter. In each of the 2 years of the study, outcross male progeny of the two lowest FEC (LFEC) (i.e. most 'resistant') and two highest FEC (HFEC) (i.e. most 'susceptible') rams from the divergent lines were slaughtered shortly after autumn/early winter FECs had been analysed. Post-mortem worm counts and examination of intestinal histology were then undertaken. Blood samples collected before slaughter in the second year of the study were assayed to measure serum levels of Trichostrongylus colubriformis-specific antibody and immunoglobulins (IgG1 and IgM), and numbers of circulating eosinophils. Overall, correlations between pre-slaughter FEC and total trichostrongyle burdens in the lambs proved to be very high (0.91 and 0.85, respectively, for the 2 years studied). In the first year, LFEC lambs, which were shedding only 28.6% as many strongyle eggs as their HFEC counterparts at slaughter, were found to harbour 37.6% as many adult trichostrongyle worms, while in the second year, LFEC lambs, which were shedding 16.1% as many strongyle eggs as their HFEC counterparts at slaughter, were found to harbour 33.5% as many adult trichostrongyle worms. Results, particularly in the second year, confirmed that significantly fewer worms of most of the important abomasal and small intestinal nematode species which infest lambs in New Zealand (i.e. Haemonchus contortus, Ostertagia circumcincta, Cooperia

  8. Annual economic burden of hepatitis B virus-related diseases among hospitalized patients in twelve cities in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S; Ma, Q; Liang, S; Xiao, H; Zhuang, G; Zou, Y; Tan, H; Liu, J; Zhang, Y; Zhang, L; Feng, X; Xue, L; Hu, D; Cui, F; Liang, X

    2016-03-01

    A nationwide survey of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated economic burden has not previously been performed in China. The purpose of this study was to examine the direct, indirect, and intangible costs of HBV-related diseases within the span of one year. A random sample was taken from specialty and general hospitals across 12 cities in six provinces of China. Intangible costs were estimated based on willingness to pay or open-ended answers provided by patients. The results showed that 27 hospitals were enrolled, with a sample population of 4726 patients (77.7% response rate). The average annual costs were $4454.0 (direct), $924.3 (indirect), and $6611.10 (intangible), corresponding to 37.3%, 7.7%, and 55.1% of the total costs, respectively. The direct medical fees were substantially greater than the non-medical fees. Annual indirect costs were divided into outpatient ($112.9) and inpatient ($811.40) loss of income. The intangible costs of chronic HBV were notably higher than either the direct or indirect costs, consistent with the social stigma in China. The comparison amongst individual cities for the average ratio of direct to indirect costs revealed that the sizes of ratios were negatively correlated with the socioeconomic status of the regions. This study suggested that as a whole in China, the HBV-related diseases caused a heavy financial burden which was positively associated with disease severity. Although the intangible costs coincided with a high prevalence of discrimination against CHB patients in Chinese society, our study may serve as future reference for detailed exploration.

  9. Land, irrigation water, greenhouse gas, and reactive nitrogen burdens of meat, eggs, and dairy production in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Eshel, Gidon; Shepon, Alon; Makov, Tamar; Milo, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Livestock production impacts air and water quality, ocean health, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on regional to global scales and it is the largest use of land globally. Quantifying the environmental impacts of the various livestock categories, mostly arising from feed production, is thus a grand challenge of sustainability science. Here, we quantify land, irrigation water, and reactive nitrogen (Nr) impacts due to feed production, and recast published full life cycle GHG emission estimates, for each of the major animal-based categories in the US diet. Our calculations reveal that the environmental costs per consumed calorie of dairy, poultry, pork, and eggs are mutually comparable (to within a factor of 2), but strikingly lower than the impacts of beef. Beef production requires 28, 11, 5, and 6 times more land, irrigation water, GHG, and Nr, respectively, than the average of the other livestock categories. Preliminary analysis of three staple plant foods shows two- to sixfold lower land, GHG, and Nr requirements than those of the nonbeef animal-derived calories, whereas irrigation requirements are comparable. Our analysis is based on the best data currently available, but follow-up studies are necessary to improve parameter estimates and fill remaining knowledge gaps. Data imperfections notwithstanding, the key conclusion—that beef production demands about 1 order of magnitude more resources than alternative livestock categories—is robust under existing uncertainties. The study thus elucidates the multiple environmental benefits of potential, easy-to-implement dietary changes, and highlights the uniquely high resource demands of beef. PMID:25049416

  10. A review of the burden of hepatitis C virus infection in China, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Heather; Waser, Nathalie; Johnston, Karissa; Kao, Jia-Horng; Lim, Young-Suk; Duan, Zhong-Ping; Lee, Youn-Jae; Wei, Lai; Chen, Chien-Jen; Sievert, William; Yuan, Yong; Li, Hong

    2015-07-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with substantial clinical and economic burden and is an important public health issue in Asia. The objective of this review was to characterize HCV epidemiology and related complications in China, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan. A search of electronic databases and conference abstracts identified 71 potentially relevant articles. Of those, 55 were included in the epidemiology review and 9 in the review of HCV-related complications. HCV prevalence in the general population was 1.6% in China, 0.6-0.9% in Japan, 0.6-1.1% in South Korea and 1.8-5.5% in Taiwan. Prevalence was higher for injecting drug users (48-90%) and those with human immunodeficiency virus coinfection (32-85%) and was lower for blood donors (<1%). Annual incidence of HCV in China was 6.01 per 100,000. HCV genotype 1b was associated with the highest incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Five-year survival for patients with liver cirrhosis was 73.8%, decreasing to 39.2% following liver transplantation; the majority of deaths were attributable to HCC. Limitations were that the majority of studies included in the epidemiology review were small, regional studies conducted in specific populations, and there was an absence of large population-based studies. Thus, estimates may not be representative of the epidemiology of HCV for each country. The prevalence HCV in China and HCV incidence in the Asian region remain largely unknown, and they are likely underestimated. Further epidemiologic and clinical data are needed to provide more precise estimates for use by public health agencies.

  11. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hepatitis KidsHealth > For Teens > Hepatitis Print A A A ... to a liver condition called hepatitis . What Is Hepatitis? The liver is one of the body's powerhouses. ...

  12. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Hepatitis KidsHealth > For Kids > Hepatitis Print A A A ... an important digestive liquid called bile . What Is Hepatitis? Hepatitis is an inflammation (say: in-fluh-MAY- ...

  13. Aflatoxin B1 and clinoptilolite in feed for laying hens: effects on egg quality, mycotoxin residues in livers, and hepatic mixed-function oxygenase activities.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, L; Simioli, M; Roncada, P; Zaghini, A

    2003-05-01

    Ninety-six laying hens were allocated to four groups administered different diets (group 0-0 received a complete diet, group 0-AF received a diet supplemented with 2.5 ppm of aflatoxin B1 [AFB1], group 2-0 received a diet supplemented with 2% clinoptilolite [CPL], and group 2-AF received a diet supplemented with 2% CPL and 2.5 ppm of AFB1) for 4 weeks to evaluate the effect of AFBI and/or CPL on egg quality and the ability of CPL to interact with the oral administration of AFB1. The possible effects of AFB1 on cytochrome P450-dependent hepatic mixed-function oxygenase (MFO) activities were also evaluated. Mycotoxin reduced yolk weight, while CPL influenced albumen percentage relative to that of eggs laid by chickens in group 0-AF Eggs laid by chickens in groups 0-AF and 2-AF had stronger shells and weighed less than the eggs of other groups. The eggs of treated groups were lighter in color than those of the control group (P < 0.01), and the tendency to yellowness in eggs was increased by CPL, probably through the affinity of red pigments for adsorbents and a consequent prevalence of yellow tonality. Color parameters might be connected with AFB1's interference with lipid metabolism and pigment deposition. The livers of hens in groups 0-AF and 2-AF showed very low mycotoxin concentrations that were significantly different (P < 0.01). The highest levels observed were those in the livers of the hens receiving the diet supplemented with the mycotoxin alone. AFB1 did not exert any significant effects on the hepatic MFO activities examined.

  14. Hepatic lipogenesis gene expression in two experimental egg-laying lines divergently selected on residual food consumption

    PubMed Central

    Lagarrigue, Sandrine; Daval, Stéphanie; Bordas, André; Douaire, Madeleine

    2000-01-01

    Two Rhode Island Red egg-laying lines have been divergently selected on residual food intake (low intake R- line, high intake R+ line) for 19 generations. In addition to direct response, correlated responses have altered several other traits such as carcass adiposity and lipid contents of several tissues, the R+ animals being leaner than the R- ones. In a search for the biological origin of the differences observed in fat deposit, the hepatic mRNA amounts of genes involved in lipid metabolism were investigated. No difference was found between lines for mRNA levels of ATP citrate-lyase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α, a transcription factor acting on several lipogenesis genes. The genes coding for stearoyl-CoA desaturase and apolipoprotein A1 displayed significantly lower mRNA levels in the R+ cockerels compared to the R-. All together these mRNA levels explained 40% of the overall variability of abdominal adipose tissue weight, suggesting an important role of both genes in the fatness variability. PMID:14736402

  15. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... clotting problems or chronic liver disease. previous continue Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Although hep A is a ... does — through direct contact with infected body fluids. Hepatitis B and C are even more easily passed in ...

  16. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... A if they've been vaccinated against it. Hepatitis B Hepatitis B is a more serious infection. It may lead ... of which cause severe illness and even death. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is transmitted from person to person ...

  17. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Hepatitis Page Content Article Body Hepatitis means “inflammation of ... it has been associated with drinking contaminated water. Hepatitis Viruses Type Transmission Prognosis A Fecal-oral (stool ...

  18. Epidemiology, Disease Burden, and Treatment Strategies of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infections in Saudi Arabia in the New Treatment Paradigm Shift

    PubMed Central

    Aljumah, Abdulrahman A.; Abaalkhail, Faisal; Al-Ashgar, Hamad; Assiri, Abdullah; Babatin, Mohamed; Al Faleh, Faleh; Alghamdi, Abdullah; Al-Hakeem, Raafat; Hashim, Almoataz; Alqutub, Adel; Razavi, Homie; Sanai, Faisal M.; Al-Swat, Khalid; Schmelzer, Jonathan; Altraif, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Around 101,000 individuals are estimated to be viremic for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) in 2014; however, only about 20% have been diagnosed. We aim to assess baseline epidemiology, disease burden, and evaluate strategies to eliminate HCV in KSA. Materials and Methods: The infected population and disease progression were modeled using age- and gender-defined cohorts to track HCV incidence, prevalence, hepatic complications, and mortality. Baseline assumptions and transition probabilities were extracted from the literature. The impacts of two scenarios on HCV-related disease burden were considered through increases in treatment efficacy alone or treatment and diagnosis. Results: In 2030, it is estimated by the base scenario that viremic prevalence will increase to 103,000 cases, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to 470, decompensated and compensated cirrhosis cases to 1,300 and 15,400, respectively, and liver-related mortality to 670 deaths. Using high efficacy treatment alone resulted in 2030 projection of 80,700 viremic cases, 350 HCC cases, 480 liver-related deaths, and 850 and 11,500 decompensated and compensated cirrhosis cases, respectively. With an aggressive treatment strategy, in 2030 there will be about 1,700 viremic cases, 1 HCC case, about 20 liver-related deaths, and 5 and 130 cases of decompensated and compensated cirrhosis, respectively. Delaying this strategy by one year would result in 360 additional deaths by 2030. Conclusions: HCV in KSA remains constant, and cases of advanced liver disease and mortality continue to rise. Considered increases in treatment efficacy and number treated would have a significantly greater impact than increased treatment efficacy alone. The projected impact will facilitate disease forecasting, resource planning, and strategies for HCV management. Increased screening and diagnosis would likely be required as part of a national strategy. PMID:27488321

  19. Is hepatic cytochrome P4501A1 expression predictive of hepatic burdens of dioxins, furans, and PCBs in Atlantic tomcod from the Hudson River estuary?

    PubMed

    Yuan, Z; Wirgin, M; Courtenay, S; Ikonomou, M; Wirgin, I

    2001-10-01

    Hepatic cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) expression in fishes is frequently used to evaluate bioavailable aromatic hydrocarbon contamination of aquatic ecosystems. In controlled laboratory experiments, CYP1A1 expression in naïve fishes is usually dose-responsive to aromatic hydrocarbons and in field studies levels of gene expression in natural populations often correspond with known levels of sediment-borne contaminants. We quantified CYP1A1 mRNA levels in juvenile Atlantic tomcod Microgadus tomcod from 42 sites in the Hudson River estuary to evaluate the correspondence between hepatic CYP1A1 expression and hepatic concentrations of persistent halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and to determine the utility of CYP1A1 expression as a biomarker in evaluating the microgeographic distribution of bioavailable contaminants within a large aquatic ecosystem. We found significant spatial heterogeneity in CYP1A1 mRNA levels among collection sites with levels of gene expression differing in some cases by 23-34 folds. CYP1A1 mRNA expression was highest in tomcod from the Newark Bay complex and lowest in tomcod from the most upriver collection sites in the main stem of the Hudson River. Although levels of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs expressed as TCDD TEQs and CYP1A1 mRNA were highest in tomcod from the Newark Bay complex, there was no relationship between hepatic halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon levels and hepatic CYP1A1 mRNA in tomcod from sites in the main stem of the Hudson River. These results suggest that levels of CYP1A1 expression in fish from sites highly polluted with mixtures of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and other xenobiotics may not always be reflective of levels of bioavailable aromatic hydrocarbon contaminants. Based on these results and earlier controlled laboratory experiments, we hypothesize that elevated levels of CYP1A1 expression in tomcod from the Hudson River may be due primarily to PAHs or other contaminants not measured in this study.

  20. Hepatitis C virus/human T lymphotropic virus 1/2 co-infection: Regional burden and virological outcomes in people who inject drugs

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Erika; Roger, Elena

    2016-01-01

    This review analyses current data concerning co-infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-1/2 in people who inject drugs (PWID), with a particular focus on disease burden and global implications for virological outcome. In addition, the available treatment options for HTLV-1/2 are summarized and the ongoing and likely future research challenges are discussed. The data in this review was obtained from 34 articles on HCV/HTLV-1/2 co-infection in PWID retrieved from the PubMed literature database and published between 1997 and 2015. Despite unavailable estimates of the burden of HCV/HTLV-1/2 co-infection in general, the epidemiologic constellation of HTLV-1/2 shows high incidence in PWID with history of migration, incarceration, and other blood-borne infectious diseases such as HCV or human immunodeficiency virus. The most recent research data strongly suggest that HTLV-1 co-infection can influence HCV viral load, HCV sustained virological response to α-interferon treatment, and HCV-related liver disease progression. In short, outcome of HCV infection is worse in the context of HTLV-1 co-infection, yet more studies are needed to gain accurate estimations of the burden of HCV/HTLV-1/2 co-infections. Moreover, in the current era of new direct-acting antiviral treatments for HCV and proven HTLV-1/2 treatment options, prospective clinical and treatment studies should be carried out, with particular focus on the PWID patient population, with the aim of improving virological outcomes. PMID:27175351

  1. Coinfection with the intestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus markedly reduces hepatic egg-induced immunopathology and proinflammatory cytokines in mouse models of severe schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Bazzone, Lindsey E; Smith, Patrick M; Rutitzky, Laura I; Shainheit, Mara G; Urban, Joseph F; Setiawan, Tommy; Blum, Arthur M; Weinstock, Joel V; Stadecker, Miguel J

    2008-11-01

    Infection with the trematode helminth Schistosoma mansoni results in a parasite egg-induced, CD4 T-cell-mediated, hepatointestinal granulomatous and fibrosing inflammation that varies greatly in severity, with a higher frequency of milder forms typically occurring in regions where the disease is endemic. One possible explanation for this is that in these regions the degree of inflammation is lessened by widespread concurrent infection with gastrointestinal nematodes. We tested this hypothesis by establishing a murine coinfection model in which mice were infected with the intestinal nematode parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus prior to infection with S. mansoni. In CBA mice that naturally display a severe form of schistosomiasis, preinfection with H. polygyrus resulted in a marked reduction in schistosome egg-induced hepatic immunopathology, which was associated with significant decreases in the levels of interleukin-17 (IL-17), gamma interferon, tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-23, IL-6, and IL-1beta and with increases in the levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and transforming growth factor beta in mesenteric lymph node cells, purified CD4 T cells, and isolated liver granuloma cells. There also were increases in liver Ym1 and forkhead box P3 transcription factor expression. In another model of high-pathology schistosomiasis induced in C57BL/6 mice by immunization with schistosome egg antigens in complete Freund's adjuvant, coinfection with the nematodes also resulted in a marked inhibition of hepatic immunopathology accompanied by similar shifts in cytokine production. These findings demonstrate that intestinal nematodes prevent Th1- and Th17-cell-mediated inflammation by promoting a strong Th2-polarized environment associated with increases in the levels of alternatively activated macrophages and T regulatory cells, which result in significant amelioration of schistosome-induced immunopathology.

  2. A Budget Impact Analysis of Newly Available Hepatitis C Therapeutics and the Financial Burden on a State Correctional System.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, John T; Rich, Josiah D; Brockmann, Bradley W; Vohr, Fred; Spaulding, Anne; Montague, Brian T

    2015-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection continues to disproportionately affect incarcerated populations. New HCV drugs present opportunities and challenges to address HCV in corrections. The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of the treatment costs for HCV infection in a state correctional population through a budget impact analysis comparing differing treatment strategies. Electronic and paper medical records were reviewed to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis C within the Rhode Island Department of Corrections. Three treatment strategies were evaluated as follows: (1) treating all chronically infected persons, (2) treating only patients with demonstrated fibrosis, and (3) treating only patients with advanced fibrosis. Budget impact was computed as the percentage of pharmacy and overall healthcare expenditures accrued by total drug costs assuming entirely interferon-free therapy. Sensitivity analyses assessed potential variance in costs related to variability in HCV prevalence, genotype, estimated variation in market pricing, length of stay for the sentenced population, and uptake of newly available regimens. Chronic HCV prevalence was estimated at 17% of the total population. Treating all sentenced inmates with at least 6 months remaining of their sentence would cost about $34 million-13 times the pharmacy budget and almost twice the overall healthcare budget. Treating inmates with advanced fibrosis would cost about $15 million. A hypothetical 50% reduction in total drug costs for future therapies could cost $17 million to treat all eligible inmates. With immense costs projected with new treatment, it is unlikely that correctional facilities will have the capacity to treat all those afflicted with HCV. Alternative payment strategies in collaboration with outside programs may be necessary to curb this epidemic. In order to improve care and treatment delivery, drug costs also need to be seriously reevaluated to be more accessible and equitable now that HCV

  3. Burden of HIV, Syphilis, and Hepatitis B and C Among Inmates in a Prison State System in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Belaunzaran-Zamudio, Pablo F; Mosqueda-Gomez, Juan L; Macias-Hernandez, Alejando; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Beyrer, Chris

    2017-03-06

    We studied the prevalence of HIV, syphilis, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and associated risk behaviors in the prison state system of Guanajuato, Mexico between September 2011 and February 2012. Blood samples were drawn from adult inmates in all State prisons who agreed to participate in this cross-sectional study. Data on risk behaviors were collected by using self-administered questionnaires. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, HBV, and HCV infection was 0.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.2-1.1], 0.7% (95% CI = 0.4-1.0), 0.4 (95% CI = 0.04-0.74), and 4.8 (95% CI = 3.6-5.9), respectively. Female inmates had a higher prevalence of HIV (1.5% vs. 0.6%, p = .05), whereas male inmates had a higher prevalence of HCV (1% vs. 5%, p = .008). Twenty percent (n = 443, 95% CI = 15-26) of the participants were tattooed during incarceration, and most of them were tattooed with recycled materials. Around 60% (57%, 95% CI = 49-65) used drugs before incarceration, and 9.2% (n = 205) used injected drugs. During incarceration, 30% (95% CI = 23-39) used drugs and 43 continued injecting (20% of users). Consistent condom use was low among men before incarcerations but decreased by half during incarceration. The highest consistent condom use before incarceration was among men who have sex with men (MSM) (17.7%, 95% CI = 14-22), but it decreased (9%, 95% CI = 3-14) during incarceration. The prevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV, and syphilis in these inmates is higher than that of the local adult population. Most inmates had sex in prison, but few used condoms consistently. Access to condoms is apparently harder for MSM. Interventions to increase condom use, reduce use of shared or recycled materials for tattooing and injecting drugs, and treatment for drug abuse are needed.

  4. Dopamine Burden Triggers Neurodegeneration via Production and Release of TNF-α from Astrocytes in Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Ding, Saidan; Wang, Weikan; Wang, Xuebao; Liang, Yong; Liu, Leping; Ye, Yiru; Yang, Jianjing; Gao, Hongchang; Zhuge, Qichuan

    2016-10-01

    Dopamine (DA)-induced learning and memory impairment is well documented in minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE), but the contribution of DA to neurodegeneration and the involved underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, the effect of DA on neuronal apoptosis was initially detected. The results showed that MHE/DA (10 μg)-treated rats displayed neuronal apoptosis. However, we found that DA (10 μM) treatment did not induce evident apoptosis in primary cultured neurons (PCNs) but did produce TNF-α in primary cultured astrocytes (PCAs). Furthermore, co-cultures between PCAs and PCNs exposed to DA exhibited increased astrocytic TNF-α levels and neuronal apoptosis compared with co-cultures exposed to the vehicle, indicating the attribution of the neuronal apoptosis to astrocytic TNF-α. We also demonstrated that DA enhanced TNF-α production from astrocytes by activation of the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway, and secreted astrocytic TNF-α-potentiated neuronal apoptosis through inactivation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Overall, the findings from this study suggest that DA stimulates substantial production and secretion of astrocytic TNF-α, consequently and indirectly triggering progressive neurodegeneration, resulting in cognitive decline and memory loss in MHE.

  5. Eggs: good or bad?

    PubMed

    Griffin, Bruce A

    2016-08-01

    Eggs have one of the lowest energy to nutrient density ratios of any food, and contain a quality of protein that is superior to beef steak and similar to dairy. From a nutritional perspective, this must qualify eggs as 'good'. The greater burden of proof has been to establish that eggs are not 'bad', by increasing awareness of the difference between dietary and blood cholesterol, and accumulating sufficient evidence to exonerate eggs from their associations with CVD and diabetes. After 60 years of research, a general consensus has now been reached that dietary cholesterol, chiefly from eggs, exerts a relatively small effect on serum LDL-cholesterol and CVD risk, in comparison with other diet and lifestyle factors. While dietary guidelines have been revised worldwide to reflect this view, associations between egg intake and the incidence of diabetes, and increased CVD risk in diabetes, prevail. These associations may be explained, in part, by residual confounding produced by other dietary components. The strength of evidence that links egg intake to increased CVD risk in diabetes is also complicated by variation in the response of serum LDL-cholesterol to eggs and dietary cholesterol in types 1 and 2 diabetes. On balance, the answer to the question as to whether eggs are 'bad', is probably 'no', but we do need to gain a better understanding of the effects of dietary cholesterol and its association with CVD risk in diabetes.

  6. Soluble Egg Antigens of Schistosoma japonicum Induce Senescence of Activated Hepatic Stellate Cells by Activation of the FoxO3a/SKP2/P27 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinling; Zhu, Dandan; Wang, Jianxin; Sun, Xiaolei; Chen, Liuting; Wu, Liting

    2016-01-01

    Background Liver fibrosis was viewed as a reversible process. The activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a key event in the process of liver fibrosis. The induction of senescence of HSCs would accelerate the clearance of the activated HSCs. Previously, we demonstrated that soluble egg antigens (SEA) of Schistosoma japonicum promoted the senescence of HSCs via STAT3/P53/P21 pathway. In this paper, our study was aimed to explore whether there are other signaling pathways in the process of SEA-induced HSCs aging and the underlying effect of SKP2/P27 signal on senescent HSCs. Methodology/Principal findings Human hepatic stellate cell line, LX-2 cells, were cultured and stimulated with SEA. Western blot and cellular immunofluorescence analysis were performed to determine the expression of senescence-associated protein, such as P27, SKP2 and FoxO3a. Besides, RNA interfering was applied to knockdown the expression of related protein. The senescence of HSCs was determined by senescence-associated β-gal staining. We found that SEA increased the expression of P27 protein, whereas it inhibited the expression of SKP2 and FoxO3a. Knockdown of P27 as well as overexpression of SKP2 both suppressed the SEA-induced senescence of HSCs. In addition, the nuclear translocation of FoxO3a from the nucleus to the cytoplasm was induced by SEA stimulation. Conclusions/Significance The present study demonstrates that SEA promotes HSCs senescence through the FoxO3a/SKP2/P27 pathway. PMID:28036393

  7. Hepatic capillariasis in Maine presenting as a hepatic mass.

    PubMed

    Klenzak, Jennifer; Mattia, Anthony; Valenti, August; Goldberg, John

    2005-05-01

    We report the first case of hepatic capillariasis in Maine. The patient was a 54-year-old male carpenter who presented with a subacute history of severe abdominal pain, fevers, and weight loss. Initial diagnostic studies suggested a hepatic mass associated with para-aortic lymphadenopathy. The patient underwent open laparotomy for resection of the mass. He was found to have an eosinophilic granuloma in the liver; further evaluation revealed degenerating Capillaria hepatica. The exact route of infection in this case is unknown but is most likely due to accidental ingestion of soil contaminated with mature capillaria eggs. This patient had a low parasite burden and did not exhibit significant peripheral eosinophilia. After treatment with thiabendazole, he recovered uneventfully.

  8. Soluble egg antigens of Schistosoma japonicum induce senescence in activated hepatic stellate cells by activation of the STAT3/p53/p21 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinling; Pan, Jing; Wang, Jianxin; Song, Ke; Zhu, Dandan; Huang, Caiqun; Duan, Yinong

    2016-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is characterized by the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Recent findings suggest that senescence of activated HSCs might limit the development of liver fibrosis. Based on previously observed anti-fibrotic effects of soluble egg antigens from Schistosoma japonicum in vitro, we hypothesized that SEA might play a crucial role in alleviating liver fibrosis through promoting senescence of activated HSCs. We show here that SEA inhibited expression of α-SMA and pro-collagen I and promoted senescence of activated HSCs in vitro. In addition, SEA induced an increased expression of P-p53 and p21. Knockdown of p53 inhibited the expression of p21 and failed to induce senescence of activated-HSCs. Phosphorylated STAT3 was elevated upon SEA stimulation, while loss of STAT3 decreased the level of p53 and senescence of HSCs. Results from immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that SOCS3 might be involved in the SEA-induced senescence in HSCs through its interaction with p53. This study demonstrates the potential capacity of SEA in restricting liver fibrosis through promoting senescence in HSCs. Furthermore, a novel STAT3-p53-p21 pathway might participate in the observed SEA-mediated senescence of HSCs. Our results suggest that SEA might carry potential therapeutic effects of restraining liver fibrosis through promoting senescence. PMID:27489164

  9. Effect of tea polyphenols on production performance, egg quality, and hepatic antioxidant status of laying hens in vanadium-containing diets.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Z H; Zhang, K Y; Ding, X M; Luo, Y H; Bai, S P; Zeng, Q F; Wang, J P

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of tea polyphenols (TP) on production performance, egg quality, and hepatic-antioxidant status of laying hens in vanadium-containing diets. A total of 300 Lohman laying hens (67 wk old) were used in a 1 plus 3 × 3 experiment design in which hens were given either a diet without vanadium and TP supplementation (control) or diets supplemented with 5, 10, or 15 mg V/kg and TP (0, 600, 1,000 mg/kg) diets for 8 wk, which included 2 phases: a 5-wk accumulation phase and a 3-wk depletion phase. During the accumulation phase, dietary vanadium addition decreased (linear, P < 0.01) albumen height and Haugh unit (HU), and TP supplementation mitigated (linear effect, P < 0.01) this reduction effect induced by vanadium. Eggshell thickness (linear, P < 0.01), redness (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05), and yellowness (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05) were decreased by vanadium and increased by the effect of TP when a vanadium-containing diet was fed. In the depletion phase, the bleaching effect on eggshells induced by vanadium disappeared one wk after vanadium withdrawal. Eggshell thickness, eggshell strength, albumen height, and HU were lower (P < 0.05) in the 15 mg/kg vanadium group compared with the control diet until 2 wk post vanadium challenge, but hens fed 15 mg/kg vanadium and 600 mg/kg TP showed no difference from the control diet only after 1 wk withdrawal. In the liver, the activity of glutathione S-transferases and glutathione peroxidase was increased (linear, P < 0.01) with the TP addition at 5 wk in the accumulation phase in the vanadium-containing diet; the malondialdehyde content increased (linear effect, P = 0.02) with the addition of vanadium. The results indicate that supplementation of 10 and 15 mg/kg vanadium resulted in reduced albumen quality, bleaching effect on eggshell color, and antioxidant stress in the liver. The effect of TP addition can prevent laying hens from the adverse effect of vanadium on egg

  10. Balancing Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Theory predicts that an egg-shaped body should rest in stable equilibrium when on its side, balance vertically in metastable equilibrium on its broad end and be completely unstable on its narrow end. A homogeneous solid egg made from wood, clay or plastic behaves in this way, but a real egg will not stand on either end. It is shown that this…

  11. Egg laying sequence influences egg mercury concentrations and egg size in three bird species: Implications for contaminant monitoring programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.; Yee, Julie L.; Hartman, C. Alex

    2016-01-01

    Bird eggs are commonly used in contaminant monitoring programs and toxicological risk assessments, but intra-clutch variation and sampling methodology could influence interpretability. We examined the influence of egg laying sequence on egg mercury concentrations and burdens in American avocets, black-necked stilts, and Forster's terns. The average decline in mercury concentrations between the first and last egg laid was 33% for stilts, 22% for terns, and 11% for avocets, and most of this decline occurred between the first and second eggs laid (24% for stilts, 18% for terns, and 9% for avocets). Trends in egg size with egg laying order were inconsistent among species and overall differences in egg volume, mass, length, and width were <3%. We summarized the literature and, among 17 species studied, mercury concentrations generally declined by 16% between the first and second eggs laid. Despite the strong effect of egg laying sequence, most of the variance in egg mercury concentrations still occurred among clutches (75%-91%) rather than within clutches (9%-25%). Using simulations, we determined that to accurately estimate a population's mean egg mercury concentration using only a single random egg from a subset of nests, it would require sampling >60 nests to represent a large population (10% accuracy) or ≥14 nests to represent a small colony that contained <100 nests (20% accuracy).

  12. Patterns of Healthcare Utilization Among Veterans Infected With Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Coinfected With HIV/HCV: Unique Burdens of Disease

    PubMed Central

    Katrak, Shereen; Park, Lawrence P.; Woods, Christopher; Muir, Andrew; Hicks, Charles; Naggie, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Background. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of cirrhosis and the primary cause of liver transplantation in the United States, and coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) increases the risk of comorbidities. However, healthcare utilization (HCU) patterns among HIV/HCV-coinfected patients are poorly understood. This study compared the rates of HCU and reasons for hospital admission among HCV-infected, HIV-infected, and HIV/HCV-coinfected veterans. Methods. Hepatitis C virus- and HIV-infected and HIV/HCV-coinfected veterans in care with the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) from 1998 to 2009 (n = 335 371, n = 28 179, n = 13 471, respectively) were identified by HIV- and HCV-associated International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes from the clinical case registry. We assessed rates of HCU using emergency department (ED) visits, outpatient visits, and hospitalization and primary diagnoses associated with hospitalization. Independent risk factors associated with hospitalization were also examined. Results. Rates of outpatient and ED visits increased over the 11-year study period for all groups, with inpatient admission rates remaining stable. The HCU rates were consistently higher for the coinfected than other cohorts. The primary reason for hospital admission for all groups was psychiatric disease/substance use, accounting for 44% of all admissions. Nadir CD4 <350 cells/mm3 was associated with higher rates of hospitalization versus nadir CD4 >500 cells/mm3. Conclusions. As the current population of HCV-infected, HIV-infected, and HIV/HCV-coinfected veterans age, they will continue to place a substantial and increasing demand on the US healthcare system, particularly in their utilization of ED and outpatient services. These data suggest the need for an ongoing investment in mental health and primary care within the VA healthcare system. PMID:27704025

  13. Egg Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... also means asking questions when eating out at restaurants or at a friend's home. The word "egg" ... albuminate Simplesse vitellin When you eat in a restaurant or at a friend's house, try to find ...

  14. Adult Schistosoma mansoni worms positively modulate soluble egg antigen-induced inflammatory hepatic granuloma formation in vivo. Stereological analysis and immunophenotyping of extracellular matrix proteins, adhesion molecules, and chemokines.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, W.; Bogers, J.; Deelder, A.; Wéry, M.; Van Marck, E.

    1997-01-01

    Synchronized liver granulomas were induced by injecting Sepharose beads to which SEA soluble egg antigen (SEA) or the concanavalin A binding fraction of SEA had been coupled into a mesenteric vein in naive, single-sex (35 days) and bisexually (28 days) Schistosoma mansoni-infected and Plasmodium berghei-immunized mice. Stereological analysis revealed that peak granuloma formation was already reached 8 days after injection in single-sex infected mice compared with 16 days in naive animals. No difference in granuloma formation between naive and P. berghei-immunized animals and between unisexually and bisexually S. mansoni-infected mice was observed. This suggests that the positive immunomodulatory effect on the granulomogenesis is worm specific and not likely to be due to arousal of the immune system by unrelated factors, nor is it influenced by the gender or degree of maturation of female worms. At all stages in time, the concanavalin A binding-fraction-induced granulomas reached only 65 to 70% of the volume of SEA-induced granulomas. Immunophenotyping of extracellular matrix proteins around deposited heads revealed that fibronectin was the dominant extracellular matrix protein and that also type I and IV collagen and laminin were deposited. Temporal analysis of the expression of the adhesion molecules ICAM-1, LFA-1, VLA-4, and VLA-6 was performed. Morphological evidence is presented for the role of adhesion molecules in the initiation and maintenance of hepatic granuloma formation. The chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 was expressed in the granuloma and in hepatic artery branches. From these data, it is concluded that adult S. mansoni worms positively modulate schistosomal hepatic granuloma formation in vivo. Adhesion molecules and chemokines play important roles in schistosomal granuloma formation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9176396

  15. In an Egg Shell: Egg to Chick to Egg.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon Electric Company, Chula Vista, CA.

    The goals of this program include enabling students to learn about the anatomy of an avian egg, egg formation, bird embryo development, and the process of egg incubation. This guide is designed to accompany the hands-on experience of incubation and hatching chicken eggs and is organized in three sections. The teaching materials section includes…

  16. Egg-laying sequence influences egg mercury concentrations and egg size in three bird species: Implications for contaminant monitoring programs.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Herzog, Mark P; Yee, Julie L; Hartman, C Alex

    2016-06-01

    Bird eggs are commonly used in contaminant monitoring programs and toxicological risk assessments, but intraclutch variation and sampling methodology could influence interpretability. The authors examined the influence of egg-laying sequence on egg mercury concentrations and burdens in American avocets, black-necked stilts, and Forster's terns. The average decline in mercury concentrations between the first and last eggs laid was 33% for stilts, 22% for terns, and 11% for avocets, and most of this decline occurred between the first and second eggs laid (24% for stilts, 18% for terns, and 9% for avocets). Trends in egg size with egg-laying order were inconsistent among species, and overall differences in egg volume, mass, length, and width were <3%. The authors summarized the literature, and among 17 species studied, mercury concentrations generally declined by 16% between the first and second eggs laid. Despite the strong effect of egg-laying sequence, most of the variance in egg mercury concentrations still occurred among clutches (75-91%) rather than within clutches (9%-25%). Using simulations, the authors determined that accurate estimation of a population's mean egg mercury concentration using only a single random egg from a subset of nests would require sampling >60 nests to represent a large population (10% accuracy) or ≥14 nests to represent a small colony that contained <100 nests (20% accuracy). Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1458-1469. Published 2015 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  17. Microbiological Spoilage of Eggs and Egg Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shebuski, Joseph R.; Freier, Timothy A.

    Chicken eggs are the eggs most commonly consumed by humans. The US per capita consumption was 255 eggs in 2005. Approximately 77 billion eggs were produced in the USA in 2005 (American Egg Board, 2005). Of these about 30% were further processed in some manner and the remainder were consumed as whole shell eggs. The greatest increase in production and consumption of eggs, however, is in the developing countries. China is now the number one producer of eggs, with the USA second, and India third. In fact, developing countries currently have >67% of the global egg production share (Clark, 2007). Only a small percentage of eggs are exported because shell eggs are relatively difficult to transport.

  18. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Hepatitis B » Hepatitis B Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Hepatitis B Entire Lesson for Veterans and the Public ...

  19. Hepatitis A transmitted by food.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Anthony E

    2004-03-01

    Hepatitis A is caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV). Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route, either by direct contact with an HAV-infected person or by ingestion of HAV-contaminated food or water. Foodborne or waterborne hepatitis A outbreaks are relatively uncommon in the United States. However, food handlers with hepatitis A are frequently identified, and evaluation of the need for immunoprophylaxis and implementation of control measures are a considerable burden on public health resources. In addition, HAV-contaminated food may be the source of hepatitis A for an unknown proportion of persons whose source of infection is not identified.

  20. Immigration and viral hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Suraj; Carballo, Manuel; Feld, Jordan J; Janssen, Harry L A

    2015-08-01

    WHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and iatrogenic transmission of HBV and HCV, as well as poor access to healthcare. In 2013, 3.2% of the global population (231 million individuals) migrated into a new host nation. Migrants predominantly originate from the developing countries of the south, into the developed economies of North America and Western Europe. This mass migration of individuals from areas of high-prevalence of viral hepatitis poses a unique challenge to the healthcare systems of the host nations. Due to a lack of universal standards for screening, vaccination and treatment of viral hepatitis, the burden of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma continues to increase among migrant populations globally. Efforts to increase case identification and treatment among migrants have largely been limited to small outreach programs in urban centers, such that the majority of migrants with viral hepatitis continue to remain unaware of their infection. This review summarizes the data on prevalence of viral hepatitis and burden of chronic liver disease among migrants, current standards for screening and treatment of immigrants and refugees, and efforts to improve the identification and treatment of viral hepatitis among migrants.

  1. Trichuris trichiura egg (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... is the classical appearance of the Trichuria (whipworm) egg. The eggs are highly infectious. After a person eats contaminated food, the worms hatch from the eggs and live in the intestine, causing vomiting and ...

  2. [Epidemiology of viral hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Kaić, Bernard; Vilibić-Cavlek, Tatjana; Filipović, Sanja Kurecić; Nemeth-Blazić, Tatjana; Pem-Novosel, Iva; Vucina, Vesna Visekruna; Simunović, Aleksandar; Zajec, Martina; Radić, Ivan; Pavlić, Jasmina; Glamocanin, Marica; Gjenero-Margan, Ira

    2013-10-01

    A is a rare disease occurring sporadically, which is a consequence of improved sanitation and hygiene, hepatitides B and C are the main causes of viral hepatitis in Croatia. The introduction of universal mandatory hepatitis B vaccination of schoolchildren in 1999 resulted in a decrease in the incidence of hepatitis B, which is most pronounced in adolescents and young adults, and further decrease in the incidence and prevalence is expected as the pool of susceptible individuals decreases through vaccination. The incidence of hepatitis C is decreasing as well. In spite of a relatively favorable epidemiological situation, hepatitis B and C are still a significant public health burden with an estimated 25,000 persons chronically infected with HBV and about 40,000 persons chronically infected with HCV in Croatia.

  3. 7 CFR 1250.306 - Commercial eggs or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commercial eggs or eggs. 1250.306 Section 1250.306... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.306 Commercial eggs or eggs. Commercial eggs or eggs...

  4. 7 CFR 1250.306 - Commercial eggs or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commercial eggs or eggs. 1250.306 Section 1250.306... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.306 Commercial eggs or eggs. Commercial eggs or eggs...

  5. 7 CFR 1250.306 - Commercial eggs or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial eggs or eggs. 1250.306 Section 1250.306... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.306 Commercial eggs or eggs. Commercial eggs or eggs...

  6. 7 CFR 1250.306 - Commercial eggs or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial eggs or eggs. 1250.306 Section 1250.306... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.306 Commercial eggs or eggs. Commercial eggs or eggs...

  7. 7 CFR 1250.306 - Commercial eggs or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial eggs or eggs. 1250.306 Section 1250.306... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.306 Commercial eggs or eggs. Commercial eggs or eggs...

  8. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis A Hepatitis A Hepatitis A is a contagious viral infection that can easily affect children and adults. It is one of the most common types of hepatitis virus. Often when you hear about hepatitis A ...

  9. EGGS and SCIENCE in Katmandu.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Georgeanne; Lonsdale, Stephen M.

    1986-01-01

    Provides examples of science experiments and demonstrations that are centered on the theme of eggs. Activity explanations include: (1) the floating egg; (2) egg-in-the-bottle; (3) walking on eggs; and (4) egg balancing. (ML)

  10. The Egg Joust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosworth, Wade A.; Wilkinson, John

    2008-01-01

    The use of eggs and mousetraps in physics is commonplace in most American high school physics classrooms. The egg drops, the egg walk, and the great Canadian egg race, as well as the mousetrap cars, have all been well-documented in this journal. These types of collaborative, competitive projects are a great way to motivate students. Students at…

  11. Contamination of fox hair with eggs of Toxocara canis.

    PubMed

    Roddie, G; Holland, C; Stafford, P; Wolfe, A

    2008-12-01

    Eighty-seven red foxes were investigated for the presence of Toxocara eggs on a sample of their hair from the peri-anal region. The worm burden of Toxocara in each fox intestine was also assessed and the relationship between eggs on the hair and worms in the intestine explored. Twenty-eight per cent of the foxes were found to have Toxocara eggs on their hair, with an average of 1.31 +/- 3.21 eggs per gram of hair (+/- SD). Sixty-one per cent of foxes harboured Toxocara worms within their intestines, with a mean worm burden (+/- SD) of 4 +/- 8. Host age and sex did not significantly influence the observed eggs on the hair or the worm burden. No significant correlation was found between the numbers of eggs on the hair and the worm burden within the intestine. These data collected from foxes are explored in the context of data from stray dogs and the possible epidemiological differences are discussed.

  12. Global Burden of Stroke.

    PubMed

    Feigin, Valery L; Norrving, Bo; Mensah, George A

    2017-02-03

    On the basis of the GBD (Global Burden of Disease) 2013 Study, this article provides an overview of the global, regional, and country-specific burden of stroke by sex and age groups, including trends in stroke burden from 1990 to 2013, and outlines recommended measures to reduce stroke burden. It shows that although stroke incidence, prevalence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life-years rates tend to decline from 1990 to 2013, the overall stroke burden in terms of absolute number of people affected by, or who remained disabled from, stroke has increased across the globe in both men and women of all ages. This provides a strong argument that "business as usual" for primary stroke prevention is not sufficiently effective. Although prevention of stroke is a complex medical and political issue, there is strong evidence that substantial prevention of stroke is feasible in practice. The need to scale-up the primary prevention actions is urgent.

  13. Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... Châu và vùng Thái Bình Dương Hepatitis C Hepatitis C What is hepatitis C? Hepatitis C is a viral infection that ... can cure most cases of hepatitis C. Acute hepatitis C Acute hepatitis C is a short-term ...

  14. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... Châu và vùng Thái Bình Dương Hepatitis C Hepatitis A What is hepatitis A? Hepatitis A is a viral infection that ... spreading hepatitis A to others . How common is hepatitis A? In the United States, hepatitis A has ...

  15. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... Châu và vùng Thái Bình Dương Hepatitis C Hepatitis B What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a viral infection that ... to prevent spreading hepatitis B to others . Acute hepatitis B Acute hepatitis B is a short-term ...

  16. Burden of Mental Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Greenwald S, Weissman MM, Mann JJ. Rates of lifetime suicide attempt and rates of lifetime major depression in ... ER, Davidson JR, Ballenger JC, Fyer AJ. The economic burden of anxiety disorders in the 1990s. J ...

  17. Viral Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Public Home » For Veterans and the Public Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... the Public Veterans and Public Home How is Hepatitis C Treated? Find the facts about the newest ...

  18. Autoimmune Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cholangitis Wilson Disease Liver Disease A-Z Autoimmune Hepatitis What is autoimmune hepatitis? Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic—or long lasting— ... bacteria, viruses, toxins, and medications. What causes autoimmune hepatitis? A combination of autoimmunity, environmental triggers, and a ...

  19. Viral Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... with hepatitis? How does a pregnant woman pass hepatitis B virus to her baby? If I have hepatitis B, what does my baby need so that she ... Can I breastfeed my baby if I have hepatitis B? More information on viral hepatitis What is hepatitis? ...

  20. The Egg Joust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosworth, Wade A.; Wilkinson, John

    2008-09-01

    The use of eggs and mousetraps in physics is commonplace in most American high school physics classrooms. The egg drops,1,2 the egg walk,3 and the great Canadian egg race,4 as well as the mousetrap cars,5 have all been well-documented in this journal. These types of collaborative, competitive projects are a great way to motivate6 students. Students at Greendale High School in suburban Milwaukee, WI, participate in an annual egg-jousting competition that combines the energy of a mousetrap with the delicateness of an egg. For this evening event, students gather in costume for a night of medieval intrigue where parents and friends witness the peril of two eggs colliding while atop their trusty steed.

  1. 21 CFR 160.140 - Egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Egg whites. 160.140 Section 160.140 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.140 Egg whites. (a) Egg whites, liquid egg whites, liquid egg albumen is the food obtained from eggs of...

  2. 21 CFR 160.140 - Egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Egg whites. 160.140 Section 160.140 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.140 Egg whites. (a) Egg whites, liquid egg whites, liquid egg albumen is the food obtained from eggs of...

  3. 21 CFR 160.140 - Egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Egg whites. 160.140 Section 160.140 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.140 Egg whites. (a) Egg whites, liquid egg whites, liquid egg albumen is the food obtained from eggs of...

  4. 21 CFR 160.140 - Egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Egg whites. 160.140 Section 160.140 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.140 Egg whites. (a) Egg whites, liquid egg whites, liquid egg albumen is the food obtained from eggs of...

  5. 21 CFR 160.140 - Egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Egg whites. 160.140 Section 160.140 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.140 Egg whites. (a) Egg whites, liquid egg whites, liquid egg albumen is the food obtained from eggs of...

  6. Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... your doctor may want you to get the hepatitis B vaccine (and maybe the hepatitis A vaccine, too), if you don't already have these viruses. If you have hepatitis C, you are more likely to catch hepatitis A or hepatitis B, which would cause more damage to your liver. ...

  7. Spinning eggs and ballerinas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction between the egg and the surface on which it spins.

  8. Odd-Boiled Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminsky, Kenneth; Scheman, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    At a Shabbat lunch in Madrid not long ago, the conversation turned to the question of boiling eggs. One of the guests mentioned that a Dutch rabbi he knew had heard that in order to make it more likely that boiled eggs be kosher, you should add an egg to the pot if the number you began with was even. According to the laws of Kashruth, Jews may not…

  9. The three eggs experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin Bülbül, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The three eggs experiment concerns 37 pre-service science teachers’ predictions about the impact shapes of three uncooked eggs dropped from different heights. This experiment looks at energy transformation from potential to kinetic energy, where the smaller parts of the egg shell spread far from the center of the impact. This experience encouraged the pre-service science teachers to use their familiar models, such as a fried egg, omelet, puddle, dropping or explosions, to explain their predictions. These models from everyday life presented can be used as a tool to explain unfamiliar phenomena.

  10. Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis C Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Hepatitis C is a viral infection that causes liver inflammation, sometimes leading to serious liver damage. The hepatitis C virus (HCV) spreads through contaminated ...

  11. Toxic Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Toxic hepatitis Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Toxic hepatitis is an inflammation of your liver in reaction to certain substances to which you're exposed. Toxic hepatitis can be caused by alcohol, chemicals, drugs or ...

  12. Diagnosis of hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jeong Eun

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major global health problems leading to severe liver disease such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HBV is a circular, partly double-stranded DNA virus with various serological markers: hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HBs, anti-HBc IgM and IgG, and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and anti-HBe. It is transmitted by sexual, parenteral and vertical route. One significant method to diminish the burden of this disease is timely diagnosis of acute, chronic and occult cases of HBV. First step of HBV diagnosis is achieved by using serological markers for detecting antigens and antibodies. In order to verify first step of diagnosis, to quantify viral load and to identify genotypes, quantitative or qualitative molecular tests are used. In this article, the serological and molecular tests for diagnosis of HBV infection will be reviewed. PMID:27761442

  13. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen eggs. 160.110 Section 160.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.110 Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by...

  14. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen eggs. 160.110 Section 160.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.110 Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by...

  15. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen eggs. 160.110 Section 160.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.110 Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by...

  16. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen eggs. 160.110 Section 160.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.110 Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by...

  17. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen eggs. 160.110 Section 160.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.110 Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by...

  18. Spinning Eggs and Ballerinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction…

  19. Food Crystalization and Eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food Crystalization and Eggs Deana R. Jones, Ph.D. USDA Agricultural Research Service Egg Safety and Quality Research Unit Athens, Georgia, USA Deana.Jones@ars.usda.gov Sugar, salt, lactose, tartaric acid and ice are examples of constituents than can crystallize in foods. Crystallization in a foo...

  20. Egg Bungee Jump!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Brand, Lance

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors present an egg bungee jumping activity. This activity introduces students to ways that engineers might apply calculations of failure to meet a challenge. Students are required to use common, everyday materials such as rubber bands, string, plastic bags, and eggs. They will apply technological problem solving, material…

  1. Hepatitis B and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Problems : Hepatitis B Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Hepatitis B What is Hepatitis? Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. This condition ... our related pages, Hepatitis A and Hepatitis C . Hepatitis B and HIV About 10% of people living ...

  2. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... transaminase enzyme levels Treatment There is no specific treatment for hepatitis A. You should rest when the symptoms are ... and have not had hepatitis A or the hepatitis A vaccine. Common reasons for getting one or both of these treatments include: You live with someone who has hepatitis ...

  3. Methylmercury content of eggs in yellow perch related to maternal exposure in four Wisconsin lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammerschmidt, Chad R.; Wiener, James G.; Frazier, Brdaley E.; Rada, Ronald G.

    1999-01-01

    We examined the influence of maternal mercury and selected lacustrine variables on the mercury content of eggs from yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Total mercury, methylmercury, and inorganic mercury were determined in eggs and carcasses (less eggs) from three seepage lakes with a pH range of 6.1a??7.0 and a fourth lake in which pH was experimentally increased from 5.5 to 6.8 by addition of alkaline groundwater. The concentration of total mercury in eggs was strongly correlated with that in the maternal carcass. Concentrations and burdens of mercury in eggs and carcasses were inversely correlated with lake water pH, acid-neutralizing capacity, calcium, and dissolved organic carbon. In eggs containing more than 30 ng/g dry weight (4.5 ng/g wet weight) of total mercury, methylmercury averaged 91% of total mercury and ranged from 85% to 96%. Mean burdens of total mercury in individual eggs varied greatly among lakes (range, 2.3a??63 pg), and the egg mass averaged 1.9% of the whole-body burden. We conclude that exposure of the developing yellow perch embryo to methylmercury is strongly affected by maternal bioaccumulation, which can vary substantially among and within lakes; however, the toxicological significance of the observed exposure of embryos to methylmercury is unclear.

  4. Global burden of COPD.

    PubMed

    López-Campos, José Luis; Tan, Wan; Soriano, Joan B

    2016-01-01

    It is estimated that the world population will reach a record 7.3 billion in 2015, and the high burden of chronic conditions associated with ageing and smoking will increase further. Respiratory diseases in general receive little attention and funding in comparison with other major causes of global morbidity and mortality. In particular, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been a major public health problem and will remain a challenge for clinicians within the 21st century. Worldwide, COPD is in the spotlight, since its high prevalence, morbidity and mortality create formidable challenges for health-care systems. This review emphasizes the magnitude of the COPD problem from a clinician's standpoint by drawing extensively from the new findings of the Global Burden of Disease study. Updated, distilled information on the population distribution of COPD is useful for the clinician to help provide an appreciation of the relative impact of COPD in daily practice compared with other chronic conditions, and to allocate minimum resources in anticipation of future needs in care. Despite recent trends in reduction of COPD standardized mortality rates and some recent successes in anti-smoking efforts in a number of Western countries, the overarching demographic impact of ageing in an ever-expanding world population, joined with other factors such as high rates of smoking and air pollution in Asia, will ensure that COPD will continue to pose an ever-increasing problem well into the 21st century.

  5. Comparisons of egg quality traits, egg weight loss and hatchability between striped and normal duck eggs.

    PubMed

    Yuan, J; Wang, B; Huang, Z; Fan, Y; Huang, C; Hou, Z

    2013-01-01

    1. The egg quality of striped and normal duck eggs was compared to determine why striped eggs show decreased hatchability. A total of 430 eggs, obtained from a Pekin duck breeder flock aged 50-65 wks, were used in three experiments. The eggs were weighed and assigned randomly to measure egg quality traits, egg weight (EW) loss and hatchability during incubation. 2. There were no significant differences between egg types in terms of egg shape index, eggshell strength and thickness, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk colour, weight of the eggshell with or without membranes, calcium, phosphorus, copper and manganese contents in the eggshell (with the inner and outer membranes or without the inner membrane), albumen weight, dry matter of albumen, crude protein (CP) of thick albumen and pH of the thick albumen. 3. The weight of eggshells with membranes, weight of thick albumen and CP of thin albumen in striped eggs were lower than those in normal eggs. 4. The thin albumen in striped eggs was heavier than that in normal eggs. The pH of the thin albumin in striped egg was significantly higher than that in normal eggs. 5. There were no significant differences in EW loss during incubation or duckling weight between striped and normal eggs. However, the hatchability of striped eggs was lower. 6. The lower weight of the eggshell inner membrane and thick albumen, lower CP content and higher pH in the thin albumen of striped eggs might contribute to lower hatchability.

  6. Dinosaur Eggs and Babies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth; Hirsch, Karl F.; Horner, John R.

    1996-01-01

    In the last couple of decades the study of dinosaur eggs and babies has proved to be one of the most exciting and profitable areas of dinosaur research. This is the first book solely devoted to this topic and reviews, in scientific detail, our present state of knowledge about this exciting area of palaeontology. Chapters in the book discuss all aspects of the science including the occurrence of eggs, nests and baby skeletons, descriptive osteology of juvenile skeletons, comparative histology of juvenile bone, analyses of eggs and egg shells, palaeoenvironments of nesting sites, nesting behaviour and developmental growth of baby dinosaurs. The volume will be an invaluable addition to the book collections of vertebrate palaeontologists and their graduate students.

  7. Factors Affecting Egg Processing Microbiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eggs are designed to limit bacterial contamination of egg contents as well as to protect and nourish a developing embryo; these qualities contribute to eggs being wholesome and nutritious for humans. When eggs are involved in human enteritis, there is usually temperature abuse and pooling of raw pr...

  8. Dynamic egg color mimicry.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Daniel; Šulc, Michal; Brennan, Patricia L R; Hauber, Mark E; Grim, Tomáš; Honza, Marcel

    2016-06-01

    Evolutionary hypotheses regarding the function of eggshell phenotypes, from solar protection through mimicry, have implicitly assumed that eggshell appearance remains static throughout the laying and incubation periods. However, recent research demonstrates that egg coloration changes over relatively short, biologically relevant timescales. Here, we provide the first evidence that such changes impact brood parasite-host eggshell color mimicry during the incubation stage. First, we use long-term data to establish how rapidly the Acrocephalus arundinaceus Linnaeus (great reed warbler) responded to natural parasitic eggs laid by the Cuculus canorus Linnaeus (common cuckoo). Most hosts rejected parasitic eggs just prior to clutch completion, but the host response period extended well into incubation (~10 days after clutch completion). Using reflectance spectrometry and visual modeling, we demonstrate that eggshell coloration in the great reed warbler and its brood parasite, the common cuckoo, changes rapidly, and the extent of eggshell color mimicry shifts dynamically over the host response period. Specifically, 4 days after being laid, the host should notice achromatic color changes to both cuckoo and warbler eggs, while chromatic color changes would be noticeable after 8 days. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the perceived match between host and cuckoo eggshell color worsened over the incubation period. These findings have important implications for parasite-host coevolution dynamics, because host egg discrimination may be aided by disparate temporal color changes in host and parasite eggs.

  9. The Burden of Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, William W.; Martins, Silvia S.; Nestadt, Gerald; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Clarke, Diana; Alexandre, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    In the last decade, there has been an increase in interest in the burden of chronic and disabling health conditions that are not necessarily fatal, such as the mental disorders. This review systematically summarizes data on the burden associated with 11 major mental disorders of adults. The measures of burden include estimates of prevalence, mortality associated with the disorders, disabilities and impairments related to the disorders, and costs. This review expands the range of mental disorders considered in a report on the global burden of disease, updates the literature, presents information on the range and depth of sources of information on burden, and adds estimates of costs. The purpose is to provide an accessible guide to the burden of mental disorders, especially for researchers and policy makers who may not be familiar with this subfield of epidemiology. PMID:18806255

  10. Putative novel genotype of avian hepatitis E virus, Hungary, 2010.

    PubMed

    Bányai, Krisztián; Tóth, Ádám György; Ivanics, Éva; Glávits, Róbert; Szentpáli-Gavallér, Katalin; Dán, Ádám

    2012-08-01

    To explore the genetic diversity of avian hepatitis E virus strains, we characterized the near-complete genome of a strain detected in 2010 in Hungary, uncovering moderate genome sequence similarity with reference strains. Public health implications related to consumption of eggs or meat contaminated by avian hepatitis E virus, or to poultry handling, require thorough investigation.

  11. 9 CFR 590.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 590.905... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT)...

  12. 9 CFR 590.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 590.905... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT)...

  13. 9 CFR 590.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 590.905... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT)...

  14. 9 CFR 590.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 590.905... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT)...

  15. 9 CFR 590.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 590.905... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT)...

  16. Hepatitis C: Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Public Home » Hepatitis C » Hepatitis C Treatment Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Hepatitis C Treatment for Veterans and the Public Treatment ...

  17. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis A, is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The disease spreads through contact with ... washed in untreated water Putting into your mouth a finger or object that came into contact with ...

  18. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... commonly used with viral hepatitis and related conditions. Web Resources American Liver Foundation A national nonprofit organization ... other liver diseases through research, education, and advocacy. Web site features a database directory of hepatitis clinical ...

  19. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000279.htm Hepatitis B To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis B is irritation and swelling (inflammation) of the ...

  20. Autoimmune hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Lupoid hepatitis; Chronic acute liver disease ... This form of hepatitis is an autoimmune disease . The body's immune system cannot tell the difference between healthy body tissue and harmful, outside ...

  1. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... times more infectious than HIV. Which adults need hepatitis B vaccine? Any sexually active adult who is not in ... share needles, syringes, or other drug-injection equipment. Hepatitis B vaccine is available alone or in a combination with ...

  2. Sperm-egg interaction.

    PubMed

    Evans, Janice P

    2012-01-01

    A crucial step of fertilization is the sperm-egg interaction that allows the two gametes to fuse and create the zygote. In the mouse, CD9 on the egg and IZUMO1 on the sperm stand out as critical players, as Cd9(-/-) and Izumo1(-/-) mice are healthy but infertile or severely subfertile due to defective sperm-egg interaction. Moreover, work on several nonmammalian organisms has identified some of the most intriguing candidates implicated in sperm-egg interaction. Understanding of gamete membrane interactions is advancing through characterization of in vivo and in vitro fertilization phenotypes, including insights from less robust phenotypes that highlight potential supporting (albeit not absolutely essential) players. An emerging theme is that there are varied roles for gamete molecules that participate in sperm-egg interactions. Such roles include not only functioning as fusogens, or as adhesion molecules for the opposite gamete, but also functioning through interactions in cis with other proteins to regulate membrane order and functionality.

  3. New treatment options for alcoholic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Shasthry, Saggere Muralikrishna; Sarin, Shiv Kumar

    2016-04-21

    The burden of alcoholic liver disease has rapidly grown in the past two decades and is expected to increase further in the coming years. Alcoholic hepatitis, the most florid presentation of alcoholic liver disease, continues to have high morbidity and mortality, with significant financial and healthcare burden with limited treatment options. Steroids remain the current standard of care in severe alcoholic hepatitis in carefully selected patients. No specific treatments are available for those patients who are steroid ineligible, intolerant or unresponsive. Liver transplant has shown good short-term outcome; however, feasibility, ethical and economic concerns remain. Modification of gut microbiota composition and their products, such as lipopolysaccharide, nutritional interventions, immune modulation, increasing steroid sensitivity, genetic polymorphism and epigenetic modification of alcohol induced liver damage, augmenting hepatic regeneration using GCSF are potential therapeutic avenues in steroid non-responsive/ineligible patients. With better understanding of the pathophysiology, using "Omics" platforms, newer options for patients with alcoholic hepatitis are expected soon.

  4. Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis C, is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It usually spreads through contact with ... childbirth. Most people who are infected with hepatitis C don't have any symptoms for years. If ...

  5. 21 CFR 160.100 - Eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Eggs. 160.100 Section 160.100 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.100 Eggs... identity for the food commonly known as eggs....

  6. 21 CFR 160.100 - Eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eggs. 160.100 Section 160.100 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.100 Eggs... identity for the food commonly known as eggs....

  7. 21 CFR 160.100 - Eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Eggs. 160.100 Section 160.100 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.100 Eggs... identity for the food commonly known as eggs....

  8. 21 CFR 160.100 - Eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Eggs. 160.100 Section 160.100 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.100 Eggs... identity for the food commonly known as eggs....

  9. 21 CFR 160.100 - Eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Eggs. 160.100 Section 160.100 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.100 Eggs... identity for the food commonly known as eggs....

  10. Burden sharing or burden shifting Armaments cooperation within NATO

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    This study has explored the nature of decision-making under conditions of conflicting political and economic imperatives. The participants want the cooperative program to succeed. They also want to bear the least burden necessary for success by shifting it to others. The concepts of burden sharing and burden shifting have been explored in the context of armaments cooperation through analysis of six armaments cooperation cases. The cases ranged from the NATO Sea Sparrow Missile System to the 155MM Autonomous Precision Guided Missile. Ideal models of burden sharing and burden shifting were developed to aid the analysis. The resultant theoretical framework of armaments cooperation within the NATO alliance has been used to explain success or lack of success in cooperative programs. Each case study addressed the categories of: Political Environment, Program Inception, Management Structure, and Results. Comparative analysis between programs was facilitated by using similar criteria for success or failure throughout. Each of the hypotheses making up the ideal models for burden sharing and burden shifting were examined considering the individual cases. An assessment of validity was made. Comparative analysis of selected case pairs facilitated isolation of factors that may have contributed to different results. These assessments were combined and formed the basis for the final conclusions on each hypothesis and their respective importance. This study adds to the theoretical understanding of alliance politics by examining in depth these concepts. It also supports future efforts to understand alliance politics by providing a framework for examining and testing deductively derived propositions against experience.

  11. Hypertension burden in Luxembourg

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Castell, Maria; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Kuemmerle, Andrea; Schritz, Anna; Barré, Jessica; Delagardelle, Charles; Krippler, Serge; Schmit, Jean-Claude; Stranges, Saverio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hypertension is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but it remains the main cause of death in Luxembourg. We aimed to estimate the current prevalence of hypertension, associated risk factors, and its geographic variation in Luxembourg. Cross-sectional, population-based data on 1497 randomly selected Luxembourg residents aged 25 to 64 years were collected as part of the European Health Examination Survey from 2013 to 2015. Hypertension was defined as systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg, self-report of a physician diagnosis or on antihypertensive medication. Standard and Bayesian regressions were used to examine associations between hypertension and covariates, and also geographic distribution of hypertension across the country. Nearly 31% of Luxembourg residents were hypertensive, and over 70% of those were either unaware of their condition or not adequately controlled. The likelihood of hypertension was lower in men more physically active (odds ratio [95% credible region] 0.6 [0.4, 0.9]) and consuming alcohol daily (0.3 [0.1, 0.8]), and higher in men with a poor health perception (1.6 [1.0, 2.7]) and in women experiencing depressive symptoms (1.8 [1.3, 2.7]). There were geographic variations in hypertension prevalence across cantons and municipalities. The highest odds ratio was observed in the most industrialized region (South-West) (1.2 [0.9, 1.6]) with a positive effect at 90% credible region. In Luxembourg, the vast majority of people with hypertension are either unaware of their condition or not adequately controlled, which constitutes a major, neglected public health challenge. There are geographic variations in hypertension prevalence in Luxembourg, hence the role of individual and regional risk factors along with public health initiatives to reduce disease burden should be considered. PMID:27603374

  12. Viral Hepatitis Surveillance--India, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Tripurari; Shrivastava, Aakash; Kumar, Anil; Laserson, Kayla F; Narain, Jai P; Venkatesh, Srinivasaraghavan; Chauhan, Lakhbir S; Averhoff, Francisco

    2015-07-24

    The burden of viral hepatitis in India is not well characterized. In 2009, the national Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP) began conducting surveillance across all Indian states for epidemic-prone diseases, including foodborne and waterborne forms of viral hepatitis (e.g., hepatitis A and E). Information on outbreaks of all forms of viral hepatitis, including A, B, C, and E, also is collected. This report summarizes viral hepatitis surveillance and outbreak data reported to IDSP during 2011-2013. During this period, 804,782 hepatitis cases and 291 outbreaks were reported; the virus type was unspecified in 92% of cases. Among 599,605 cases tested for hepatitis A, 44,663 (7.4%) were positive, and among 187,040 tested for hepatitis E, 19,508 (10.4%) were positive. At least one hepatitis outbreak report was received from 23 (66%) of 35 Indian states. Two-thirds of outbreaks were reported from rural areas. Among 163 (56%) outbreaks with known etiology, 78 (48%) were caused by hepatitis E, 54 (33%) by hepatitis A, 19 (12%) by both hepatitis A and E, and 12 (7%) by hepatitis B or hepatitis C. Contaminated drinking water was the source of most outbreaks. Improvements in water quality and sanitation as well as inclusion of hepatitis A vaccine in childhood immunization programs should be considered to reduce the public health burden of hepatitis in India. Efforts to decrease the proportion of cases for which the etiology is unspecified, including expanding the IDSP to support hepatitis B and C testing, might help further elucidate the epidemiology of these diseases.

  13. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Belchiolina Beatriz; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; de Melo, Roberta Torres; Mendonça, Eliane Pereira; Coelho, Letícia Ríspoli; Nalevaiko, Priscila Christen; Rossi, Daise Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile) after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health. PMID:24948916

  14. 9 CFR 590.35 - Eggs and egg products outside official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eggs and egg products outside official... OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Relation to Other Authorities § 590.35 Eggs and egg products outside official plants. Any...

  15. 9 CFR 590.950 - Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labeling of containers of eggs or egg... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.950 Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for...

  16. 9 CFR 590.950 - Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Labeling of containers of eggs or egg... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.950 Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for...

  17. 9 CFR 590.35 - Eggs and egg products outside official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eggs and egg products outside official... OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Relation to Other Authorities § 590.35 Eggs and egg products outside official plants. Any...

  18. 9 CFR 590.35 - Eggs and egg products outside official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eggs and egg products outside official... OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Relation to Other Authorities § 590.35 Eggs and egg products outside official plants. Any...

  19. 9 CFR 590.950 - Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling of containers of eggs or egg... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.950 Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for...

  20. 9 CFR 590.35 - Eggs and egg products outside official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eggs and egg products outside official... OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Relation to Other Authorities § 590.35 Eggs and egg products outside official plants. Any...

  1. 9 CFR 590.410 - Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shell eggs and egg products required..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.410 Shell eggs and egg products required to be...

  2. 9 CFR 590.410 - Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shell eggs and egg products required..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.410 Shell eggs and egg products required to be...

  3. 9 CFR 590.950 - Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of containers of eggs or egg... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.950 Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for...

  4. 9 CFR 590.410 - Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shell eggs and egg products required..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.410 Shell eggs and egg products required to be...

  5. 9 CFR 590.410 - Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shell eggs and egg products required..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.410 Shell eggs and egg products required to be...

  6. 9 CFR 590.410 - Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shell eggs and egg products required..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.410 Shell eggs and egg products required to be...

  7. 9 CFR 590.950 - Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Labeling of containers of eggs or egg... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.950 Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for...

  8. 9 CFR 590.35 - Eggs and egg products outside official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eggs and egg products outside official... OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Relation to Other Authorities § 590.35 Eggs and egg products outside official plants. Any...

  9. Experience with hepatitis A and B vaccines.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jeffrey P

    2005-10-01

    The lengthy history of efforts to understand the pathogenesis and means of preventing and controlling both hepatitis A and B is noteworthy for many exceptional scientific achievements. Among these are the development of vaccines to prevent the spread of infection through induction of active immunity to hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). The first plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine was licensed in the United States in 1981 and was replaced by recombinant hepatitis B vaccines in 1986 and 1989. Vaccines to prevent HAV infection were licensed in the United States in 1995 and 1996. Subsequently, combination vaccines that included both hepatitis A and B vaccine components, or the hepatitis B component in combination with other commonly administered vaccines, were licensed in the United States. Despite significant reductions in hepatitis-related morbidity and mortality that have resulted from widespread use of these vaccines, vaccine-preventable morbidity and mortality still occur. The purposes of this article are to review clinical trial and other experience with hepatitis A and B vaccines in healthy individuals as well as in those with chronic liver disease, infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, or requiring hemodialysis; describe the impact that these vaccines and national recommendations for vaccination have had on reducing the incidence of HAV and HBV infection; and recommend expansion of these recommendations to include universal vaccination of adults as a means of further reducing the burden of viral hepatitis.

  10. Egg Donation Brokers

    PubMed Central

    Holwell, Eve; Keehn, Jason; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Sauer, Mark V.; Klitzman, Robert

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare Websites of agencies that broker the services women who provide human eggs for in vitro fertilization versus clinics that recruit egg providers. STUDY DESIGN We examined 207 websites, of which 128 were egg provider agency (40%) or clinic (60%) websites that recruited providers online. We compared them regarding several variables related to adherence to American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) guidelines. RESULTS According to their respective websites, agencies were more likely than clinics to mention ASRM guidelines, be located in the West/Pacific, indicate compensation, offer a fee range, set their minimum > $5,000, specify preferable traits, cap provider age at ≤ 31,require an education minimum, allow both parties to meet, discuss short-term risks, and not acknowledge a possible cancer risk. Only 25.5% of agencies and 19.5% of clinics mention psychological/emotional risks, and 11.8% and 5.2%, respectively, mention risks, to future fertility. CONCLUSIONS This research, the first to systematically compare several key aspects of egg provider agencies versus clinics, suggests significant differences in adherence to guidelines, raising several concerns and suggesting needs for consideration of improved monitoring and regulation by ASRM or others. PMID:25552124

  11. Hatching Eggs in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    This article provides detailed instructions on how to hatch chicken eggs. Sections include: (1) making the incubator; (2) making the brooder; (3) guidelines for hatching eggs; (4) from incubator to brooder; and (5) recommended readings. (JMK)

  12. Hepatitis Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  13. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... Victoria Cargill talks to students about HIV and AIDS at the opening of a National Library of ...

  14. The FDP Faculty Burden Survey

    PubMed Central

    Rockwell, Sara

    2010-01-01

    To better understand the administrative burdens placed on faculty who perform research, the Faculty Standing Committee of the Federal Demonstration Partnership (FDP) invited 23,325 full-time faculty members who were Principal Investigators (PI) or Co-Principal Investigators (Co-PI) on active federally funded research grants to participate in a web-based survey that contained questions on the nature, size, and impact of the administrative tasks associated with their research projects. The responses of the 6,081 faculty respondents show that the administrative burden on faculty is very significant: 42% of the time spent by an average PI on a federally funded research project was reported to be expended on administrative tasks related to that project rather than on research. This administrative burden does not stem from one or a few exceptionally onerous tasks, but instead reflects the cumulative effect of the many administrative burdens imposed by different funding agencies, different offices within agencies, auditing and accrediting agencies, and academic institutions. The lack of institutional assistance contributes to the administrative workload of the faculty. Many burdens are remarkably constant across funding agencies, universities, disciplines, and faculty subgroups. The report documents the negative effect reported for these administrative burdens on the productivity of researchers, the careers of young faculty members, and the training of students. PMID:20563268

  15. The burden of infectious diseases in the Brazilian Southern state of Santa Catarina.

    PubMed

    Traebert, Jefferson; Nickel, Daniela A; Traebert, Eliane; Escalante, Juan J C; Schneider, Ione J C

    2016-01-01

    Infectious diseases are still significant causes of deaths in Brazil. The objective of this study was to estimate the burden of selected infectious diseases in the Brazilian Southern state of Santa Catarina in 2011. An ecological study was conducted. The infectious diseases included were HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, Chagas disease, diarrheal diseases and other infectious diseases. Data were collected from official health information systems. Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) were estimated by the sum of Years of Life Lost (YLL) and Years Lived with Disability (YLD). 45,237.33 DALYs were estimated, with a rate of 685.46 DALYs per 100,000 population. 92.9% was due to YLL and 7.1% to YLD. Men and the age range of 0-4 years presented higher burden. The highest burden was attributed to HIV/AIDS. There was a high concentration of burden rates in the coast regions of the state. It could be concluded that more than 90% of the burden was attributed to the early mortality component. The highest burden was observed among men, children under 5 years of age and at the coast regions of the state. The highest levels of burden were due to HIV/AIDS.

  16. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table ... from all walks of life are affected by hepatitis, especially hepatitis C, the most common form of ...

  17. Hepatitis A through E (Viral Hepatitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... travelers How can hepatitis B be prevented? The hepatitis B vaccine offers the best protection. All infants and unvaccinated ... should receive hepatitis B immune globulin and the hepatitis B vaccine within 12 hours of birth to help prevent ...

  18. Nurturing the Nest Egg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2008-01-01

    Seemingly arcane new federal rules about supplemental retirement plans have sparked a seismic shift in responsibility for school districts, thrusting them into the retirement business with new oversight--and burdens--involving their employees' 403(b) accounts. Once merely paper-pushers between their employees and investment choices, district…

  19. Hepatitis C Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hepatitis C Antibody; Anti-HCV; HCV-PCR; HCV-RNA; Hepatitis C Viral Load Formal name: Viral Hepatitis C Antibody Screen; Viral Hepatitis C RNA by PCR; Hepatitis C Virus Genotype Related tests: ...

  20. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Living with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Alcohol Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one of the ...

  1. Hepatitis C: Clinical Trials

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Public Home » Hepatitis C » Treatment Decisions Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... can I find out about participating in a hepatitis C clinical trial? Many trials are being conducted ...

  2. Hepatitis (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Hepatitis KidsHealth > For Parents > Hepatitis Print A A A ... to Call the Doctor en español Hepatitis About Hepatitis The word hepatitis simply means an inflammation of ...

  3. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chapter 3 - Hepatitis A Chapter 3 - Hepatitis C Hepatitis B Francisco Averhoff INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis B is ... their exposures. Map 3-04. Prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection among adults PDF Version (printable) ...

  4. 9 CFR 590.955 - Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... eggs or egg products for importation. 590.955 Section 590.955 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.955 Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or...

  5. 9 CFR 590.955 - Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... eggs or egg products for importation. 590.955 Section 590.955 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.955 Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or...

  6. 9 CFR 590.955 - Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... eggs or egg products for importation. 590.955 Section 590.955 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.955 Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or...

  7. 9 CFR 590.955 - Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... eggs or egg products for importation. 590.955 Section 590.955 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.955 Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or...

  8. 9 CFR 590.955 - Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... eggs or egg products for importation. 590.955 Section 590.955 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.955 Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or...

  9. Managing the changing burden of cancer in Asia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Asia accounts for 60% of the world population and half the global burden of cancer. The incidence of cancer cases is estimated to increase from 6.1 million in 2008 to 10.6 million in 2030, due to ageing and growing populations, lifestyle and socioeconomic changes. Striking variations in ethnicity, sociocultural practices, human development index, habits and dietary patterns are reflected in the burden and pattern of cancer in different regions. The existing and emerging cancer patterns and burden in different regions of Asia call for political recognition of cancer as an important public health problem and for balanced investments in public and professional awareness. Prevention as well as early detection of cancers leads to both better health outcomes and considerable savings in treatment costs. Cancer health services are still evolving, and require substantial investment to ensure equitable access to cancer care for all sections of the population. In this review, we discuss the changing burden of cancer in Asia, along with appropriate management strategies. Strategies should promote healthy ageing via healthy lifestyles, tobacco and alcohol control measures, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, cancer screening services, and vertical investments in strengthening cancer healthcare infrastructure to improve equitable access to services. PMID:24400922

  10. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... inflammation of the liver.” This inflammation can be caused by a wide variety of toxins, drugs, and metabolic diseases, as well as infection. There are at least 5 hepatitis viruses. Hepatitis A is contracted when a child eats food or drinks water that is contaminated with the virus or has ...

  11. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... B to come back?Should I get the hepatitis B vaccine?What are the side effects of antiviral medicines?Will my liver ever be normal again? Last Updated: October 1996 This article ... B, hepatitis virus, Interferon alpha-2b, jaundice, Lamivudine, liver ...

  12. Burden of Proof in Bioethics.

    PubMed

    Koplin, Julian J; Selgelid, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    A common strategy in bioethics is to posit a prima facie case in favour of one policy, and to then claim that the burden of proof (that this policy should be rejected) falls on those with opposing views. If the burden of proof is not met, it is claimed, then the policy in question should be accepted. This article illustrates, and critically evaluates, examples of this strategy in debates about the sale of organs by living donors, human enhancement, and the precautionary principle. We highlight general problems with this style of argument, and particular problems with its use in specific cases. We conclude that the burden ultimately falls on decision-makers (i.e. policy-makers) to choose the policy supported by the best reasons.

  13. Egg maturation, egg resorption and the costliness of transient egg limitation in insects.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenheim, J A; Heimpel, G E; Mangel, M

    2000-01-01

    Although there is widespread agreement that the cost of oviposition underlies selective oviposition in insects, there is no consensus regarding which factors mediate the cost of oviposition. Models have suggested that egg costs are often paramount in those insects that do not continue to mature eggs during the adult stage (pro-ovigenic insects). Here we address the hypothesis that egg costs are generally less significant in synovigenic insects, which can replenish oocyte supplies through continuous egg maturation. A dynamic optimization model based on the biology of a highly synovigenic parasitoid, Aphytis aonidiae, suggests that the maximum rate of egg maturation is insufficient to balance the depletion of eggs when opportunities to oviposit are abundant. Transient egg limitation therefore occurs, which imposes opportunity costs on reproducing females. Thus, whereas the most fundamental constraint acting on the lifetime reproductive success of pro-ovigenic species is the fixed total number of eggs that they carry at eclosion, the most fundamental constraint acting on a synovigenic species is the maximum rate of oocyte maturation. Furthermore, the ability of synovigenic species to reverse the flow of nutrients from the soma to oocytes (i.e. egg resorption) has a dramatic influence on the cost of oviposition. Whereas females in hostrich environments may experience oviposition-mediated egg limitation, females in host-poor environments may experience oosorption-mediated egg limitation. Both forms of egg limitation are costly. Contrary to initial expectations, the flexibility of resource allocation that typifies synovigenic reproduction actually appears to broaden the range of conditions under which costly egg limitation occurs. Egg costs appear to be fundamental in mediating the trade-off between current and future reproduction, and therefore are an important factor favouring selective insect oviposition. PMID:11007333

  14. BURDEN FALLS ROADLESS AREA, ILLINOIS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klasner, John S.; Thompson, Robert M.

    1984-01-01

    The Burden Falls Roadless Area lies in the Shawnee National Forest of southern Illinois, about 5 mi west of the western edge of the Illinois-Kentucky fluorspar district. Geologic mapping and geochemical surveys indicate that the area has little promise for the occurrence of fluorspar and associated minerals; other special studies also indicate little promise for oil and gas and construction materials. Traces of gold and silver were detected in some geochemical samples but follow-up studies indicate little promise for the occurrence of resources of these metals within the Burden Falls Roadless Area.

  15. Prevention of hepatitis A by Havrix: a review.

    PubMed

    Van Herck, Koen; Van Damme, Pierre

    2005-08-01

    Hepatitis A is one of the most common vaccine-preventable infectious diseases in the world. With at least 1.5 million cases of hepatitis A worldwide each year, disease management constitutes a substantial economic burden. The first effective vaccine against hepatitis A, Havrix was introduced in 1992. This review summarizes data accumulated following more than a decade of clinical experience with this vaccine and compares clinical data with other currently available hepatitis A vaccines. Based on this data and on the current immunological knowledge, a recent consensus concluded that hepatitis A vaccines induce lifelong protection, and thus booster vaccinations against hepatitis A are unnecessary in fully immunized, healthy people. In view of this, current regulatory recommendations for the use of hepatitis A vaccines are reviewed and possible future strategies identified.

  16. Hepatitis B Management in the Pregnant Patient: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Ayoub, Walid S.; Cohen, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Chronic hepatitis B is a worldwide disease, with significant burden on health care systems. While universal vaccination programs have led to an overall decrease in incidence of transmission of hepatitis B, unfortunately, there remain large areas in the world where vaccination against hepatitis B is not practiced. In addition, vertical transmission of hepatitis B persists as a major concern. Hepatitis B treatment of the pregnant patient requires a thorough assessment of disease activity and close monitoring for flares, regardless of initiation of antiviral therapy. We discuss, in this article, the current and emergent strategies which aim to reduce the rate of transmission of hepatitis B from the pregnant mother to the infant and we review the updated guidelines regarding management of liver disease in pregnant women with hepatitis B. PMID:27777892

  17. Egg Phospholipids and Cardiovascular Health

    PubMed Central

    Blesso, Christopher N.

    2015-01-01

    Eggs are a major source of phospholipids (PL) in the Western diet. Dietary PL have emerged as a potential source of bioactive lipids that may have widespread effects on pathways related to inflammation, cholesterol metabolism, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function. Based on pre-clinical studies, egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sphingomyelin appear to regulate cholesterol absorption and inflammation. In clinical studies, egg PL intake is associated with beneficial changes in biomarkers related to HDL reverse cholesterol transport. Recently, egg PC was shown to be a substrate for the generation of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a gut microbe-dependent metabolite associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. More research is warranted to examine potential serum TMAO responses with chronic egg ingestion and in different populations, such as diabetics. In this review, the recent basic science, clinical, and epidemiological findings examining egg PL intake and risk of CVD are summarized. PMID:25871489

  18. 7 CFR 57.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 57.905 Section 57.905... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS...

  19. 7 CFR 57.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 57.905 Section 57.905... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS...

  20. 7 CFR 57.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 57.905 Section 57.905... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS...

  1. 7 CFR 57.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 57.905 Section 57.905... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS...

  2. 7 CFR 57.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 57.905 Section 57.905... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS...

  3. The Physical Burdens of Secrecy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slepian, Michael L.; Masicampo, E. J.; Toosi, Negin R.; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    The present work examined whether secrets are experienced as physical burdens, thereby influencing perception and action. Four studies examined the behavior of people who harbored important secrets, such as secrets concerning infidelity and sexual orientation. People who recalled, were preoccupied with, or suppressed an important secret estimated…

  4. Development of a method to control the water evaporation of hatching eggs during incubation.

    PubMed

    Ohi, A; Inoue, N; Furuta, H; Sugawara, M; Ohta, Y

    2010-03-01

    Three experiments were conducted to develop methods to control the amount of water loss and to evaluate the metabolic effects of water condition in the White Leghorn breeder eggs during incubation. One hundred twenty, 54, and 90 Julia strain White Leghorn breeder eggs were incubated at 37.8 degrees C, 60% RH in experiments 1, 2, and 3. In experiment 1, eggs were drilled with various bore diameters of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mm on the blunt end of the eggshell. In experiment 2, 4 x 4 mm(2) windows were cut into the eggs or the eggs were drilled with 5 holes of bore diameter 2 mm on the blunt end of eggshell. In experiment 3, eggs were drilled with 1, 3, 5, and 7 holes of diameter 2 mm on the blunt end of eggshell. Eggs were treated on d 3 of each experiment and the amount of water loss was recorded on d 19 of incubation. Embryo growth was evaluated in experiments 2 and 3. In addition, the livers of embryos were collected in the 0-, 1-, 3-, and 5-hole treatment groups after weighing eggs to determine 3-hydroxy acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase activity. In experiment 1, although higher water loss was observed in all windowed eggs than in control, there were no differences in amount of water loss among all bore diameters. Accordingly, that was not successful to control amount of water loss. In experiment 2, higher water loss was observed in drilled eggs at the same levels in windowed eggs as in control. Drilling holes was a more useful treatment to control amount of water loss on incubated eggs than windowing. In experiment 3, amount of water loss increased linearly with increasing number of holes on the blunt end of eggshell. Hepatic 3-hydroxy acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase activity increased with increasing the number of drilled holes.

  5. 40 CFR 22.24 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Burden of presentation; burden of... Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard. (a) The complainant has the burdens of presentation and persuasion that the violation occurred as set forth in...

  6. Disparities between research attention and burden in liver diseases: implications on uneven advances in pharmacological therapies in Europe and the USA

    PubMed Central

    Ndugga, Nambi; Lightbourne, Teisha G; Javaherian, Kavon; Verma, Neha; Barritt, A Sidney; Bataller, Ramon

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Effective oral therapies for hepatitis B and C have recently been developed, while there are no approved pharmacological therapies for alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (ALD and NAFLD). We hypothesise that fewer advances in fatty liver diseases could be related to disparities in research attention. Methods We developed the Attention-to-Burden Index (ABI) that compares the research activities during 2010–2014, and an estimate of disease burden of these 4 major liver diseases. The resulting ratio reflects either overattention (positive value) or inadequate attention (negative value) compared with disease burden. The mean research attention and disease burden were calculated from 5 and 6 different parameters, respectively. The efficacy rate of current pharmacological therapies was assessed from published clinical trials. Findings The mean research attention for hepatitis B and C was 31% and 47%, respectively, while NAFLD and ALD received 17% and 5%. The overall burden was 5% and 28% for hepatitis B and C, and 17% and 50% for NAFLD and ALD. The calculated ABI for hepatitis B and C revealed a +6.7-fold and +1.7-fold overattention, respectively. NAFLD received an appropriate attention compared with its burden, while ALD received marked inadequate attention of −9.7-fold. The efficacy rate of current pharmacological agents was 72% for hepatitis B, 89% for hepatitis C, 25% for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and 13% for alcoholic hepatitis. Importantly, we found a positive correlation between the mean attention and the efficacy rate of current therapies in these 4 major liver diseases. Interpretation There are important disparities between research attention and disease burden among the major liver diseases. While viral hepatitis has received considerable attention, there is a marked inadequate attention to ALD. There is a critical need to increase awareness of ALD in the liver research community. PMID:28336739

  7. Integration of hepatitis B vaccination into national immunisation programmes. Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board.

    PubMed Central

    Van Damme, P.; Kane, M.; Meheus, A.

    1997-01-01

    Hepatitis B is a major public health problem even though safe and effective vaccines have been available for over 10 years. Because hepatitis B infection is largely asymptomatic with long term complications occurring after many years it has not received the attention it deserves. Strategies to immunise those at high risk have failed to control the disease. Delegates to the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organisation recommended in May 1992 that all countries should integrate hepatitis B vaccination into their national immunisation programmes by 1997. Some western European countries remain unconvinced that the burden of disease warrants the expense of universal vaccination. However, epidemiological data and economic evaluation show that universal hepatitis B vaccination is cost effective in countries with low endemicity and that it will control hepatitis B, reinforcing the necessity for action. PMID:9112852

  8. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... bowel movements Loss of appetite Low-grade fever Dark urine Joint pain Yellowing of the skin and ... person ingests even tiny amounts of contaminated fecal matter. The hepatitis A virus infects liver cells and ...

  9. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When ... travel through your body until they reach your brain, causing mental and physical symptoms of HE. Hepatic ...

  10. Hepatitis E

    MedlinePlus

    ... with a positive-sense, single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) genome. The virus has at least 4 different ... RT-PCR) to detect the hepatitis E virus RNA in blood and/or stool; this assay requires ...

  11. Autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Heneghan, Michael A; Yeoman, Andrew D; Verma, Sumita; Smith, Alastair D; Longhi, Maria Serena

    2013-10-26

    Autoimmune hepatitis is a disease of the hepatic parenchyma that can present in acute or chronic forms. In common with many autoimmune diseases, autoimmune hepatitis is associated with non-organ-specific antibodies in the context of hepatic autoimmunity. This dichotomy has made definition of a unifying hypothesis in the pathophysiology of the disease difficult, although data from the past 8 years have drawn attention to the role of regulatory T cells. Several triggers have been identified, and the disease arises in genetically susceptible individuals. Clinical and biochemical remission is achievable in up to 85% of cases. For the remaining patients, alternative immunosuppression strategies are an option. Liver transplantation provides an excellent outcome for patients with acute liver failure or complications of end-stage liver disease, including hepatocellular carcinoma. Variant or overlapping syndromes are worthy of consideration when unexpected disease features arise.

  12. Hepatitis E.

    PubMed

    Krawczynski, K; Aggarwal, R; Kamili, S

    2000-09-01

    Hepatitis E, previously known as enterically transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis, is an infectious viral disease with clinical and morphologic features of acute hepatitis. Its causative agent, hepatitis E virus, consists of small, 32- to 34-nm diameter, icosahedral, nonenveloped particles with a single-stranded, positive-sense, 7.5-kb RNA. The virus has two main geographically distinct strains, Asian and Mexican; recently, novel isolates from nonendemic areas and a genetically related swine HEV have been described. HEV is responsible for large epidemics of acute hepatitis and a proportion of sporadic hepatitis cases in the Indian subcontinent, southeast and central Asia, the Middle East, parts of Africa, and Mexico. The virus is excreted in feces and is transmitted predominantly by fecal-oral route, usually through contaminated water. Person-to-person transmission is uncommon. Clinical attack rates are the highest among young adults. Recent evidence suggests that humans with subclinical HEV infection and animals may represent reservoirs of HEV; however, further data are needed. Diagnosis of hepatitis E is usually made by detection of specific IgM antibody, which disappears rapidly over a few months; IgG anti-HEV persists for at least a few years. Clinical illness is similar to other forms of acute viral hepatitis except in pregnant women, in whom illness is particularly severe with a high mortality rate. Subclinical and unapparent infections may occur; however, chronic infection is unknown. No specific treatment is yet available. Use of clean drinking water and proper sanitation is currently the most effective method of prevention. Passive immunization has not been proved to be effective, and recombinant vaccines for travelers to disease-endemic areas and for pregnant women currently are being developed.

  13. Hepatitis A Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Hepatitis A Testing Share this page: Was this page ... HAV-Ab total; Anti-HAV Formal name: Viral Hepatitis A Antibody Related tests: Hepatitis B Testing ; Hepatitis ...

  14. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3 - Helminths, Soil-Transmitted Chapter 3 - Hepatitis B Hepatitis A Noele P. Nelson, Trudy V. Murphy INFECTIOUS ... hepatitis/HAV Table 3-02. Vaccines to prevent hepatitis A VACCINE TRADE NAME (MANUFACTURER) AGE (Y) DOSE ...

  15. Hepatitis B Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... worldwide 2 Billion People have been infected with Hepatitis B Worldwide The Hepatitis B Foundation is working ... of people living with hepatitis B. Learn About Hepatitis B in 11 Other Languages . Resource Video See ...

  16. Hepatitis A FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professional Resources Patient Education Resources Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Viral Hepatitis Hepatitis A Questions and Answers for the Public Recommend ...

  17. Hepatitis (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... people at risk for contracting hepatitis. But frequent hand washing and good hygiene practices can reduce this risk. ... After Having Hepatitis B? Hepatitis B (HBV) Hepatitis Hand Washing Blood Transfusions Body Piercing Tattoos Contact Us Print ...

  18. Egg White Phantoms for HIFU

    SciTech Connect

    Divkovic, Gabriela; Jenne, Juergen W.

    2005-03-28

    We used fresh egg white and polyacrylamide to create a transparent tissue mimicking phantom. Heating of phantoms by HIFU leads to egg white protein denaturation and creation of visible white lesions. We measured the acoustical and thermal properties and investigated the possibility to use such phantoms to study the lesion formation during the HIFU therapy.

  19. Advances in therapeutics for chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ninghan; Bertoletti, Antonio

    2016-03-01

    Chronic hepatitis B infection remains a major disease burden globally, and leads to high risk of hepatocellular carcinoma development. Current therapies of nucleot(s)ide analogues and interferon alpha treatment remain limited in their efficacy. Several key findings in the hepatitis B virus (HBV) life cycle have led to the development of novel antiviral drugs to inhibit viral replication and persistence. In addition, recent studies on HBV-specific innate and adaptive immune responses have advanced development of immunotherapy to restore immune mediated virus control in chronic hepatitis B patients. In this review, we discuss potential new therapeutic strategies targeting HBV or the host immune system that might lead to a sustained cure for chronic hepatitis B.

  20. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention Past Issues / Spring 2009 ... No appetite Fever Headaches Diagnosis To check for hepatitis viruses, your doctor will test your blood. You ...

  1. Intensity of Schistosoma mansoni, hepatitis B, age, and sex predict levels of hepatic periportal thickening/fibrosis (PPT/F): a large-scale community-based study in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Berhe, Nega; Myrvang, Bjørn; Gundersen, Svein G

    2007-12-01

    To elucidate determinants of morbidity in schistosomiasis mansoni, a community-based study was undertaken involving 2,451 subjects (mean age, 18.8 +/- 15.3 [SD] years) from four endemic sites in Ethiopia. Overall prevalence of infection was 65.9%, reported blood in stools was 35.8%, and schistosomal periportal thickening/fibrosis (PPT/F) was 4.6%. Similarly, 43.2% were positive for at least one marker of hepatitis B virus (HBV), 5.3% were HBsAg positive, and 1.3% were anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) positive. Prevalence of PPT/F increased significantly with increasing community prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni infection. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, intensity of egg excretion, markers of HBV infection, age, and male sex were significantly associated with PPT/F, whereas co-infection with other intestinal helminths was associated with lower odds for PPT/F. HCV was not associated with S. mansoni infection or with schistosomal PPT/F. In conclusion, integrated helminth control targeting school-aged children, who have the highest burden infection, should be used to substantially reduce the risk of periportal fibrosis.

  2. Disease Burden of 32 Infectious Diseases in the Netherlands, 2007-2011

    PubMed Central

    Bouwknegt, Martijn; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E.; Mangen, Marie-Josée J.; Wallinga, Jacco; de Melker, Hester E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Infectious disease burden estimates provided by a composite health measure give a balanced view of the true impact of a disease on a population, allowing the relative impact of diseases that differ in severity and mortality to be monitored over time. This article presents the first national disease burden estimates for a comprehensive set of 32 infectious diseases in the Netherlands. Methods and Findings The average annual disease burden was computed for the period 2007–2011 for selected infectious diseases in the Netherlands using the disability-adjusted life years (DALY) measure. The pathogen- and incidence-based approach was adopted to quantify the burden due to both morbidity and premature mortality associated with all short and long-term consequences of infection. Natural history models, disease progression probabilities, disability weights, and other parameters were adapted from previous research. Annual incidence was obtained from statutory notification and other surveillance systems, which was corrected for under-ascertainment and under-reporting. The highest average annual disease burden was estimated for invasive pneumococcal disease (9444 DALYs/year; 95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 8911–9961) and influenza (8670 DALYs/year; 95% UI: 8468–8874), which represents 16% and 15% of the total burden of all 32 diseases, respectively. The remaining 30 diseases ranked by number of DALYs/year from high to low were: HIV infection, legionellosis, toxoplasmosis, chlamydia, campylobacteriosis, pertussis, tuberculosis, hepatitis C infection, Q fever, norovirus infection, salmonellosis, gonorrhoea, invasive meningococcal disease, hepatitis B infection, invasive Haemophilus influenzae infection, shigellosis, listeriosis, giardiasis, hepatitis A infection, infection with STEC O157, measles, cryptosporidiosis, syphilis, rabies, variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, tetanus, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, and poliomyelitis. The very low burden for the latter five

  3. The Eagle's EGGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-12-01

    VLT ISAAC Looks for Young Stars in the Famous "Pillars of Creation" Summary Through imaging at infrared wavelengths, evidence has been found for recent star formation in the so-called "Pillars of Creation" in the Eagle Nebula (also known as Messier 16 ), made famous when the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) obtained spectacular visible-wavelength images of this object in 1995. Those huge pillars of gas and dust are being sculpted and illuminated by bright and powerful high-mass stars in the nearby NGC 6611 young stellar cluster . The Hubble astronomers suggested that perhaps even younger stars were forming inside. Using the ISAAC instrument on the VLT 8.2-m ANTU telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory , European astronomers have now made a wide-field infrared image of the Messier 16 region with excellent spatial resolution, enabling them to penetrate the obscuring dust and search for light from newly born stars . Two of the three pillars are seen to have very young, relatively massive stars in their tips. Another dozen or so lower-mass stars seem to be associated with the small "evaporating gaseous globules (EGGs)" that the Hubble astronomers had discovered scattered over the surface of the pillars. These findings bring new evidence to several key questions about how stars are born . Was the formation of these new stars triggered as the intense ultraviolet radiation from the NGC 6611 stars swept over the pillars, or were they already there? Will the new stars be prematurely cut off from surrounding gas cloud, thus stunting their growth? If the new stars have disks of gas and dust around them, will they be destroyed before they have time to form planetary systems? PR Photo 37a/01 : Full wide-field ISAAC image of the Eagle Nebula. PR Photo 37b/01 : Close-up view of the ISAAC image , showing the famous "Pillars of Creation". PR Photo 37c/01 : Enlargement of the head of Column 1 . PR Photo 37d/01 : Enlargement of the head of Column 2 . PR Photo 37e/01

  4. Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... Our Accomplishments Annual Reports Our Videos What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  5. Hepatitis C: Sex and Sexuality

    MedlinePlus

    ... with Hepatitis » Sex and Sexuality: Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... hepatitis C virus through sex. Can you pass hepatitis C to a sex partner? Yes, but it ...

  6. Pediatric hepatitis B treatment

    PubMed Central

    Inui, Ayano; Fujisawa, Tomoo

    2017-01-01

    Although the introduction of hepatitis B vaccine has been contributing to the reduction in the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers worldwide, the treatment of children with chronic HBV infection is a challenge to be addressed. HBeAg seroconversion, which induces low replication of HBV, is widely accepted as the first goal of antiviral treatment in children with chronic hepatitis B. However, spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion is highly expected in children with chronic HBV infection. Therefore, the identification of children who need antiviral treatment to induce HBeAg seroconversion is essential in the management of chronic HBV infection. Guidelines and experts’ opinion show how to identify children who should be treated and how to treat them. If decompensated cirrhosis is absent, interferon-alpha is the first-line antiviral treatment. Nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs), such as lamivudine, adefovir, entecavir and tenofovir, are also available for the treatment of children, although the approval age differs among them. If decompensated cirrhosis is present, NAs are the first-line antivirals. When the emergence of drug-resistant HBV variants is taken into consideration, entecavir (approved for age 2 years or older) and tenofovir (age 12 years or older), which have high genetic barriers, will play a central role in the treatment of HBV infection. However, the optimal duration of NA treatment and adverse events of long-term NA treatment remain unclear in children. In resource-constrained countries and regions, the financial burden of visiting hospitals, receiving routine blood examination and purchasing antiviral drugs is heavy. Moreover, there is no clear evidence that the induction of HBeAg seroconversion by antiviral treatment prevents the progression of liver disease to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in children with chronic HBV infection. It is thus imperative to clarify the clinical impact of antiviral treatment in children with HBV infection. PMID

  7. The role of egg-nest contrast in the rejection of brood parasitic eggs.

    PubMed

    Aidala, Zachary; Croston, Rebecca; Schwartz, Jessica; Tong, Lainga; Hauber, Mark E

    2015-04-15

    Hosts of avian brood parasites can avoid the reproductive costs of raising genetically unrelated offspring by rejecting parasitic eggs. The perceptual cues and controls mediating parasitic egg discrimination and ejection are well studied: hosts are thought to use differences in egg color, brightness, maculation, size and shape to discriminate between their own and foreign eggs. Most theories of brood parasitism implicitly assume that the primary criteria to which hosts attend when discriminating eggs are differences between the eggs themselves. However, this assumption is confounded by the degree to which chromatic and achromatic characteristics of the nest lining co-vary with egg coloration, so that egg-nest contrast per se might be the recognition cue driving parasitic egg detection. Here, we systematically tested whether and how egg-nest contrast itself contributes to foreign egg discrimination. In an artificial parasitism experiment, we independently manipulated egg color and nest lining color of the egg-ejector American robin (Turdus migratorius), a host of the obligate brood parasitic brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater). We hypothesized that the degree of contrast between foreign eggs and the nest background would affect host egg rejection behavior. We predicted that experimentally decreasing egg-nest chromatic and achromatic contrast (i.e. rendering parasitic eggs more cryptic against the nest lining) would decrease rejection rates, while increasing egg-nest contrast would increase rejection rates. In contrast to our predictions, egg-nest contrast was not a significant predictor of egg ejection patterns. Instead, egg color significantly predicted responses to parasitism. We conclude that egg-egg differences are the primary drivers of egg rejection in this system. Future studies should test for the effects of egg-nest contrast per se in predicting parasitic egg recognition in other host-parasite systems, including those hosts building enclosed nests and

  8. Hepatitis E: A disease of reemerging importance.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Siddharth; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2015-08-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis worldwide. Originally considered to be restricted to humans, it is now clear that HEV and HEV-like viruses have several animal reservoirs with complex ecology and genetic diversity, as exemplified by the recent discovery of HEV in dromedaries, a previously underestimated reservoir of zoonotic viruses prior to the emergence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus. Zoonotic foodborne transmission from pigs and feral animals such as wild boar is of increasing importance in the rapidly industrializing countries of the Asia Pacific region. Such zoonotic hepatitis E infection has particular relevance to the increasing population living with immunosuppression, due to the risk of chronic hepatitis E in these patients. Fortunately, major strides have been made recently in the management of chronic hepatitis E patients. Furthermore, an effective vaccine is also available that promises better control of hepatitis E burden in the near future. This review highlights these major recent developments in the epidemiology, treatment, and prevention of hepatitis E.

  9. [Hepatitis C in Poland in 2009].

    PubMed

    Rosińska, Magdalena; Stepień, Małgorzata

    2011-01-01

    In 2009 in Poland reported cases of hepatitis C we classified independently according to two case definitions. One covered cases with clinical signs or elevated liver function tests confirmed by antibody test (2005 case definition) and the other one, implemented in 2009, all laboratory confirmed cases. In 2009 there were 1,939 cases of hepatitis C (2005 definition) registered in Poland, with the incidence rate of 5.08 per 100 000. A continued decrease in incidence of hepatitis C has been observed since 2006. On the other hand 1,891 cases were reported to meet the 2009 case definition. This points to the need of improving reporting completeness and justifies temporary continuation of use of the 2005 definition for the purpose of trend monitoring, although it may not reflect well the burden of illness. There were 82 deaths due to hepatitis C in 2009 in Poland including 2 deaths of acute and 80 of chronic hepatitis C. This constituted the first important decrease in hepatitis C mortality since 1996, when hepatitis C was included as a separate entity in the census mortality data. This decrease coincided with marked improvement of the treatment accessibility and is likely related to it.

  10. Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy Impairs Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Swastik; Umapathy, Sridharan; Dhiman, Radha K.

    2015-01-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is the mildest form of the spectrum of neurocognitive impairment in cirrhosis. It is a frequent occurrence in patients of cirrhosis and is detectable only by specialized neurocognitive testing. MHE is a clinically significant disorder which impairs daily functioning, driving performance, work capability and learning ability. It also predisposes to the development of overt hepatic encephalopathy, increased falls and increased mortality. This results in impaired quality of life for the patient as well as significant social and economic burden for health providers and care givers. Early detection and treatment of MHE with ammonia lowering therapy can reverse MHE and improve quality of life. PMID:26041957

  11. Rigid shells enhance survival of gekkotan eggs.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Robin M

    2015-11-01

    The majority of lizards and snakes produce permeable parchment-shelled eggs that require high moisture conditions for successful embryonic development. One clade of gekkotan lizards is an exception; females produce relatively impermeable rigid-shelled eggs that normally incubate successfully under low moisture conditions. I tested the hypothesis that the rigid-shell increases egg survival during incubation, but only under low moisture conditions. To test this hypothesis, I incubated rigid-shelled eggs of Chondrodactylus turneri under low and under high moisture conditions. Eggs were incubated with parchment-shelled eggs of Eublepharis macularius to insure that incubation conditions were suitable for parchment-shelled eggs. Chondrodactylus turneri eggs had very high survival (>90%) when they were incubated under low moisture conditions. In contrast, eggs incubated under high moisture conditions had low survival overall, and lower survival than those of the parchment-shelled eggs of E. macularius. Mortality of C. turneri and E. macularius eggs incubated under high moisture conditions was the result of fungal infection, a common source of egg mortality for squamates under laboratory and field conditions. These observations document high survival of rigid-shelled eggs under low moisture conditions because eggs escape from fungal infection. Highly mineralized rigid shells also make egg survival independent of moisture availability and may also provide protection from small invertebrates in nature. Enhanced egg survival could thus compensate for the low reproductive output of gekkotans that produce rigid-shelled eggs.

  12. Relationships between hepatic trace element concentrations, reproductive status, and body condition of female greater scaup

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Badzinski, S.S.; Flint, P.L.; Gorman, K.B.; Petrie, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    We collected female greater scaup (Aythya marila) on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska during two breeding seasons to determine if concentrations of 18 trace elements in livers and eggs were elevated and if hepatic concentrations correlated with body condition or affected reproductive status. Fifty-six percent, 5%, and 42% of females, respectively, had elevated hepatic cadmium (Cd: >3 ??g g-1 dry weight [dw]), mercury (Hg: >3 ??g g-1 dw), and selenium (Se: >10 ??g g-1 dw). Somatic protein and lipid reserves were not correlated with hepatic Cd or Hg, but there was a weak negative correlation between protein and Se. Hepatic Cd, Hg, and Se were similar in females that had and had not initiated egg production. In a sample of six eggs, 33% and 100%, respectively, contained Se and Hg, but concentrations were below embryotoxicity thresholds. We conclude that trace element concentrations documented likely were not adversely impacting this study population. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  14. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  15. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by...

  16. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by...

  17. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by...

  18. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  19. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  20. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by...

  1. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by...

  2. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  3. Burden of major musculoskeletal conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Woolf, Anthony D.; Pfleger, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Musculoskeletal conditions are a major burden on individuals, health systems, and social care systems, with indirect costs being predominant. This burden has been recognized by the United Nations and WHO, by endorsing the Bone and Joint Decade 2000-2010. This paper describes the burden of four major musculoskeletal conditions: osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, and low back pain. Osteoarthritis, which is characterized by loss of joint cartilage that leads to pain and loss of function primarily in the knees and hips, affects 9.6% of men and 18% of women aged > 60 years. Increases in life expectancy and ageing populations are expected to make osteoarthritis the fourth leading cause of disability by the year 2020. Joint replacement surgery, where available, provides effective relief. Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory condition that usually affects multiple joints. It affects 0.3-1.0% of the general population and is more prevalent among women and in developed countries. Persistent inflammation leads to joint destruction, but the disease can be controlled with drugs. The incidence may be on the decline, but the increase in the number of older people in some regions makes it difficult to estimate future prevalence. Osteoporosis, which is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration, is a major risk factor for fractures of the hip, vertebrae, and distal forearm. Hip fracture is the most detrimental fracture, being associated with 20% mortality and 50% permanent loss in function. Low back pain is the most prevalent of musculoskeletal conditions; it affects nearly everyone at some point in time and about 4-33% of the population at any given point. Cultural factors greatly influence the prevalence and prognosis of low back pain. PMID:14710506

  4. Predicted burden of venous disease.

    PubMed

    Onida, Sarah; Davies, Alun Huw

    2016-03-01

    Chronic venous disease is a common condition with clinical signs and symptoms ranging from spider veins, to varicose veins, to active venous ulceration. Both superficial and deep venous dysfunction may be implicated in the development of this disease. Socio-economic factors are shaping our population, with increasing age and body mass index resulting in significant pressure on healthcare systems worldwide. These risk factors also lead to an increased risk of developing superficial and/or deep venous insufficiency, increasing disease prevalence and morbidity. In this chapter, the authors review the current and future burden of chronic venous disease from an epidemiological, quality of life and economic perspective.

  5. 45 CFR 672.17 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. 672.17 Section 672.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND HEARING PROCEDURES § 672.17 Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion....

  6. Burden of Fasciola hepatica Infection among children from Paucartambo in Cusco, Peru.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Martha; White, A Clinton; Cabada, Miguel M

    2012-03-01

    There is a high prevalence of fascioliasis in the Peruvian highlands, but most cases remain undiagnosed. The burden of disease caused by chronic subclinical infection is largely unknown. We studied school-age children from a district in Paucartambo Province in Cusco, Peru to evaluate the burden of disease caused by subclinical fascioliasis. Parasite eggs and/or larvae were identified in 46.2% of subjects, including Fasciola hepatica in 10.3% of subjects. Fascioliasis was independently associated with anemia (adjusted odds ratio = 3.01 [1.10-8.23]). Subclinical fascioliasis was common among children and strongly associated with anemia. Anemia should be recognized as an important component of the burden of disease from fascioliasis.

  7. Evaluation and Management of Hepatic Encephalopathy: Current Status and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Suraweera, Duminda; Sundaram, Vinay; Saab, Sammy

    2016-07-15

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a spectrum of neurocognitive manifestations often seen in patients with liver injury or rarely in patients with portosystemic shunting without liver injury. It can be divided into minimal (covert) hepatic encephalopathy and overt hepatic encephalopathy, depending on the severity. Patients with hepatic encephalopathy have compromised clinical outcomes, decreased quality of life, and increased healthcare utilization, often resulting in a heavy financial and personal burden on caregivers. The diagnosis remains largely clinical, with the exclusion of possible other causes for the altered mental status. Current treatment strategies include nonabsorbable disaccharides and antibiotics. This review will focus on the diagnosis, management and clinical impact of hepatic encephalopathy.

  8. Evaluation and Management of Hepatic Encephalopathy: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Suraweera, Duminda; Sundaram, Vinay; Saab, Sammy

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a spectrum of neurocognitive manifestations often seen in patients with liver injury or rarely in patients with portosystemic shunting without liver injury. It can be divided into minimal (covert) hepatic encephalopathy and overt hepatic encephalopathy, depending on the severity. Patients with hepatic encephalopathy have compromised clinical outcomes, decreased quality of life, and increased healthcare utilization, often resulting in a heavy financial and personal burden on caregivers. The diagnosis remains largely clinical, with the exclusion of possible other causes for the altered mental status. Current treatment strategies include nonabsorbable disaccharides and antibiotics. This review will focus on the diagnosis, management and clinical impact of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:27377741

  9. 9 CFR 590.45 - Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prohibition on eggs and egg products... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Eggs and Egg Products Not Intended for Human Food § 590.45 Prohibition...

  10. 9 CFR 590.45 - Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Prohibition on eggs and egg products... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Eggs and Egg Products Not Intended for Human Food § 590.45 Prohibition...

  11. 9 CFR 590.45 - Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Prohibition on eggs and egg products... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Eggs and Egg Products Not Intended for Human Food § 590.45 Prohibition...

  12. 9 CFR 590.45 - Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition on eggs and egg products... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Eggs and Egg Products Not Intended for Human Food § 590.45 Prohibition...

  13. 9 CFR 590.45 - Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Prohibition on eggs and egg products... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Eggs and Egg Products Not Intended for Human Food § 590.45 Prohibition...

  14. Polarity of the Amphibian Egg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malacinski, G. M.

    1983-01-01

    Amphibian egg polarity and the mechanism which generates the polarity is addressed. Of particular concern is the question of whether the activation rotation which responds to gravity is a prerequisite for normal development.

  15. Global Burden of Childhood Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Helen E.

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared tuberculosis (TB) to be responsible for more deaths than any other single infectious disease. The burden of TB among children has frequently been dismissed as relatively low with resulting deaths contributing very little to global under-five all-cause mortality, although without rigorous estimates of these statistics, the burden of childhood TB was, in reality, unknown. Recent work in the area has resulted in a WHO estimate of 1 million new cases of childhood TB in 2014 resulting in 136,000 deaths. Around 3% of these cases likely have multidrug-resistant TB and at least 40,000 are in HIV-infected children. TB is now thought to be a major or contributory cause of many deaths in children under five years old, despite not being recorded as such, and is likely in the top ten causes of global mortality in this age group. In particular, recent work has shown that TB is an under-lying cause of a substantial proportion of pneumonia deaths in TB-endemic countries. Childhood TB should be given higher priority: we need to identify children at greatest risk of TB disease and death and make more use of tools such as active case-finding and preventive therapy. TB is a preventable and treatable disease from which no child should die. PMID:28003956

  16. Mechanical Hatching Egg Sanitization: A Fresh Look

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three to four decades ago, hatching egg sanitization was done by immersion of eggs in an egg-gathering basket (plastic-coated metal wire) into a small vat with a heating element and disinfectant solution. This procedure failed miserably for several reasons. First, the eggs were not subjected to the...

  17. Yolk concentrations of hormones and glucose and egg weight and egg dimensions in unincubated chicken eggs, in relation to egg sex and hen body weight.

    PubMed

    Aslam, M Aamir; Hulst, Marcel; Hoving-Bolink, Rita A H; Smits, Mari A; de Vries, Bonnie; Weites, Ilse; Groothuis, Ton G G; Woelders, Henri

    2013-06-15

    Birds can manipulate offspring sex ratio under natural and experimental conditions and maternal hormones have been shown to be involved in this process. Studies also provided evidence for the presence of sex specific concentrations of yolk hormones in avian eggs. These findings led to the suggestion that yolk hormones could influence genetic sex determination in birds. However, in previous studies, yolk hormone concentrations and egg sex were studied in incubated eggs, although incubation of the eggs and embryonic development can alter yolk hormone concentrations and measured sex ratio. This study is the first to determine a wide array of egg components and hen body weight in relation to the sex of the egg in unincubated eggs. Egg parameters studied were yolk concentrations of testosterone, estradiol, androstenedione, progesterone, dihydrotestosterone, and glucose, and egg weight and dimensions. In addition, we studied the associations among all measured parameters. Associations were found between a number of yolk hormones (progesterone associated with testosterone, estradiol and androstenedione; androstenedione with testosterone; dihydrotestosterone with estradiol and androstenedione) as well as between yolk testosterone and egg length and egg weight. There were no significant overall differences between male and female chicken eggs in any of the measured egg parameters. However, there were a few interactions such as the interaction of egg sex with dihydrotestosterone and with hen body weight which predicted estradiol levels and an interaction of estradiol levels with egg width for predicting sex of egg. Their biological relevance need, however, further study.

  18. Effect of egg shell color on some egg quality in table eggs during storage at refrigerator temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Doǧan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effects of white shell color eggs and brown shell color eggs on some egg quality in table eggs during 28 days of storage at 5 °C. A total of 100 fresh eggs (60-65 g) were obtained from laying hens (Nick chick) that were raised on a local commercial farm. All eggs were collected over a 24 h period. A total of 100 eggs randomly divided into 2 treatments (10 replicates each) with 50 eggs examined in each. Ten eggs from each group were analyzed for eggs weight loss, specific gravity, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk index, and albumen pH after 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage. All eggs were individually marked and weighed at the beginning of the experiment to calculate egg weight loss. The egg weight loss in brown shell color eggs significantly (P<0.01) higher than white shell color eggs at 21 days of storage, but no significant differences were observed among groups other storage periods. The brown shell color eggs showed lower levels of specific gravity than white shell color eggs at day 7, 14, and 21, but there were no significant differences between white shell color eggs and brown shell color eggs at day 28. The albumen height and Haugh unit of white shell color eggs was significantly (P<0.01) higher than that of white shell color eggs during the storage periods. There were no significant differences in yolk index and albumen pH between white shell color eggs and brown shell color eggs during the storage periods. The yolk pH of white shell color eggs was significantly (P<0.01) lower than that of brown shell color eggs at day 7, 14, and 21 of storage period. The results indicated that the white shell color eggs showed better quality than brown shell color eggs at 5 °C for the entire storage period.

  19. Organochlorines, mercury, and selenium in great blue heron eggs from Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Thomas W.; Hines, Randy K.; Stewart, Paul M.; Melancon, Mark J.; Henshel, Diane S.; Spearks, Daniel W.

    1998-01-01

    In 1993, 20 great blue heron (Ardea herodias; GBH) eggs (one per nest) were collected from a colony at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana (INDU). The eggs were artificially incubated until pipping and were then analyzed for organochlorines, mercury, and selenium. Livers of embryos were analyzed for hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) activity. Brains were measured for asymmetry. Egg-laying began in early April and the mean clutch size was 4.2 eggs per clutch. Organochlorine concentrations were generally low (geometric mean p,p’-DDE = 1.6 /μg/g wet weight; polychlorinated biphenyl [PCB] = 4.9 μg/g); however, one egg had elevated concentrations of p,p -DDE (13 /μg/g) and PCBs (56 /μg/g). EROD activity in the embryos analyzed from INDU was not elevated. The frequency (11%) of brain asymmetry was low. Eggshells averaged 3.4% thinner than eggshells collected prior to the use of DDT. Mercury (geometric mean = 0.9 μg/g dry weight) concentrations in GBH eggs were within background levels. Selenium (4.0 μg/g dry weight) concentrations in eggs were above background levels, but below a concentration threshold associated with reproductive impairment.

  20. Molecular changes during egg activation

    PubMed Central

    Krauchunas, Amber R.

    2014-01-01

    Egg activation is the final transition that an oocyte goes through to become a developmentally competent egg. This transition is usually triggered by a calcium-based signal that is often, but not always, initiated by fertilization. Activation encompasses a number of changes within the egg. These include changes to the egg's membranes and outer coverings to prevent polyspermy and support the developing embryo, as well as resumption and completion of the meiotic cell cycle, mRNA poly-adenylation, translation of new proteins, and the degradation of specific maternal mRNAs and proteins. The transition from an arrested, highly differentiated cell, the oocyte, to a developmentally active, totipotent cell, the activated egg or embryo, represents a complete change in cellular state. This is accomplished by altering ion concentrations and widespread changes in both the proteome and the suite of mRNAS present in the cell. Here, we review the role of calcium and zinc in the events of egg activation, and the importance of macromolecular changes during this transition. The latter include the degradation and translation of proteins, protein post-translational regulation through phosphorylation, and the cytoplasmic polyadenylation, or the degradation, of maternal mRNAs. PMID:23287037

  1. Pepsin Egg White Hydrolysate Ameliorates Obesity-Related Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Steatosis in Zucker Fatty Rats

    PubMed Central

    Garcés-Rimón, M.; González, C.; Uranga, J. A.; López-Miranda, V.; López-Fandiño, R.; Miguel, M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the administration of egg white hydrolysates on obesity-related disorders, with a focus on lipid metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress, in Zucker fatty rats. Obese Zucker rats received water, pepsin egg white hydrolysate (750 mg/kg/day) or Rhizopus aminopeptidase egg white hydrolysate (750 mg/kg/day) for 12 weeks. Lean Zucker rats received water. Body weight, solid and liquid intakes were weekly measured. At the end of the study, urine, faeces, different organs and blood samples were collected. The consumption of egg white hydrolysed with pepsin significantly decreased the epididymal adipose tissue, improved hepatic steatosis, and lowered plasmatic concentration of free fatty acids in the obese animals. It also decreased plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and reduced oxidative stress. Pepsin egg white hydrolysate could be used as a tool to improve obesity-related complications. PMID:26985993

  2. Whooping crane egg management: options and consequences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Gee, G.F.

    2001-01-01

    Eggs to build captive whooping crane (Grus americana) flocks and most eggs for reintroduction experiments have come from second viable eggs in 2-egg clutches in Canada. Four years ago, egg removal ceased. Based on reproductive rates for years when second eggs were removed and for years when eggs were not removed, we project numbers of young fledging in the wild and in captivity for the 2 most likely egg-management strategies. From existing data sets, we find that reproductive performance was, on average, better during the era of routine removal of the second viable eggs than when no manipulation occurred. Further, the number of young produced in captivity from the removed eggs, on average, resulted in a doubling of the number of young birds (wild and captive) alive each autumn.

  3. 9 CFR 590.510 - Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products. 590.510 Section 590.510 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG...

  4. 9 CFR 590.510 - Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products. 590.510 Section 590.510 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG...

  5. 9 CFR 590.510 - Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products. 590.510 Section 590.510 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG...

  6. 9 CFR 590.510 - Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products. 590.510 Section 590.510 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG...

  7. 9 CFR 590.510 - Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products. 590.510 Section 590.510 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG...

  8. It’s what’s inside that counts: Egg contaminant concentrations are influenced by estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herzog, Mark; Ackerman, Josh; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Hartman, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In egg contaminant studies, it is necessary to calculate egg contaminant concentrations on a fresh wet weight basis and this requires accurate estimates of egg density and egg volume. We show that the inclusion or exclusion of the eggshell can influence egg contaminant concentrations, and we provide estimates of egg density (both with and without the eggshell) and egg-shape coefficients (used to estimate egg volume from egg morphometrics) for American avocet (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster’s tern (Sterna forsteri). Egg densities (g/cm3) estimated for whole eggs (1.056 ± 0.003) were higher than egg densities estimated for egg contents (1.024 ± 0.001), and were 1.059 ± 0.001 and 1.025 ± 0.001 for avocets, 1.056 ± 0.001 and 1.023 ± 0.001 for stilts, and 1.053 ± 0.002 and 1.025 ± 0.002 for terns. The egg-shape coefficients for egg volume (K v ) and egg mass (K w ) also differed depending on whether the eggshell was included (K v = 0.491 ± 0.001; K w = 0.518 ± 0.001) or excluded (K v = 0.493 ± 0.001; K w = 0.505 ± 0.001), and varied among species. Although egg contaminant concentrations are rarely meant to include the eggshell, we show that the typical inclusion of the eggshell in egg density and egg volume estimates results in egg contaminant concentrations being underestimated by 6–13 %. Our results demonstrate that the inclusion of the eggshell significantly influences estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass, which leads to egg contaminant concentrations that are biased low. We suggest that egg contaminant concentrations be calculated on a fresh wet weight basis using only internal egg-content densities, volumes, and masses appropriate for the species. For the three waterbirds in our study, these corrected coefficients are 1.024 ± 0.001 for egg density, 0.493 ± 0.001 for K v , and 0.505 ± 0.001 for K w .

  9. It's what's inside that counts: egg contaminant concentrations are influenced by estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Mark P; Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Hartman, C Alex

    2016-05-01

    In egg contaminant studies, it is necessary to calculate egg contaminant concentrations on a fresh wet weight basis and this requires accurate estimates of egg density and egg volume. We show that the inclusion or exclusion of the eggshell can influence egg contaminant concentrations, and we provide estimates of egg density (both with and without the eggshell) and egg-shape coefficients (used to estimate egg volume from egg morphometrics) for American avocet (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri). Egg densities (g/cm(3)) estimated for whole eggs (1.056 ± 0.003) were higher than egg densities estimated for egg contents (1.024 ± 0.001), and were 1.059 ± 0.001 and 1.025 ± 0.001 for avocets, 1.056 ± 0.001 and 1.023 ± 0.001 for stilts, and 1.053 ± 0.002 and 1.025 ± 0.002 for terns. The egg-shape coefficients for egg volume (K v ) and egg mass (K w ) also differed depending on whether the eggshell was included (K v  = 0.491 ± 0.001; K w  = 0.518 ± 0.001) or excluded (K v  = 0.493 ± 0.001; K w  = 0.505 ± 0.001), and varied among species. Although egg contaminant concentrations are rarely meant to include the eggshell, we show that the typical inclusion of the eggshell in egg density and egg volume estimates results in egg contaminant concentrations being underestimated by 6-13 %. Our results demonstrate that the inclusion of the eggshell significantly influences estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass, which leads to egg contaminant concentrations that are biased low. We suggest that egg contaminant concentrations be calculated on a fresh wet weight basis using only internal egg-content densities, volumes, and masses appropriate for the species. For the three waterbirds in our study, these corrected coefficients are 1.024 ± 0.001 for egg density, 0.493 ± 0.001 for K v , and 0.505 ± 0.001 for K w .

  10. Optimization of dietary zinc for egg production and antioxidant capacity in Chinese egg-laying ducks fed a diet based on corn-wheat bran and soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Wang, S; Zhang, H X; Ruan, D; Xia, W G; Cui, Y Y; Zheng, C T; Lin, Y C

    2017-03-02

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation on productive performance and antioxidant status in laying ducks. Five-hundred-four laying ducks were divided into 7 treatments, each containing 6 replicates of 12 ducks. The ducks were caged individually and fed a corn-soybean meal and wheat bran basal diet (37 mg Zn/kg) or the basal diet supplemented with 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, or 90 mg Zn/kg (as zinc sulfate). During the early laying period of 10 d (daily egg production <80%), egg production, daily egg mass, and FCR increased quadratically with increasing dietary Zn levels (P < 0.05). The highest egg production and daily egg weight were obtained when 30 or 45 mg Zn/kg diet was supplemented, with lowest FCR. Similarly, the highest egg production and daily egg mass were observed in the group supplemented with 30 or 45 mg Zn/kg during the peak laying period of the subsequent 120 d (daily egg production >80%). Average egg weight and feed intake did not differ among the groups of graded Zn supplementation.The egg quality was not affected by dietary Zn, including the egg shape index, Haugh unit, yolk color score, egg composition, and shell thickness. The activities of plasma activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) increased in a quadratic manner (P < 0.001) with increasing supplemental Zn. Plasma concentration of Zn increased quadratically (P < 0.05) as dietary Zn increased. The hepatic activity of Cu/Zn-SOD and GSH-PX increased quadratically (P < 0.05) with increasing dietary Zn. Plasma Zn concentrations were positively correlated with activities of T-SOD (P < 0.05), and positively with plasma Cu. Plasma concentration of reduced glutathione was correlated with plasma Cu. In conclusion, supplementation of Zn at 30 or 45 mg/kg to a corn-wheat bran and soybean basal diet may improve the productive performance and enhance the antioxidant capacity.

  11. Burden and nutritional deficiencies in opiate addiction- systematic review article.

    PubMed

    Nabipour, Sepideh; Ayu Said, Mas; Hussain Habil, Mohd

    2014-08-01

    Addiction to the illicit and prescribed use of opiate is an alarming public health issue. Studies on addictive disorders have demonstrated severe nutritional deficiencies in opiate abusers with behavioral, physiological and cognitive symptoms. Opiate addiction is also link with a significant number of diseases including Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and other blood borne diseases generally stem from the use of needles to inject heroin. The use of medication assisted treatment for opioid addicts in combination with behavioural therapies has been considered as a highly effective treatment. Methadone is a long-lasting μ-opioid agonist and a pharmacological tool which attenuates withdrawal symptoms effectively replacement therapies. This review article aims to explain opiate addiction mechanisms, epidemiology and disease burden with emphasis on dietary and nutritional status of opiate dependent patients in methadone maintenance therapy.

  12. Burden and Nutritional Deficiencies in Opiate Addiction- Systematic Review Article

    PubMed Central

    NABIPOUR, Sepideh; AYU SAID, Mas; HUSSAIN HABIL, Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Addiction to the illicit and prescribed use of opiate is an alarming public health issue. Studies on addictive disorders have demonstrated severe nutritional deficiencies in opiate abusers with behavioral, physiological and cognitive symptoms. Opiate addiction is also link with a significant number of diseases including Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and other blood borne diseases generally stem from the use of needles to inject heroin. The use of medication assisted treatment for opioid addicts in combination with behavioural therapies has been considered as a highly effective treatment. Methadone is a long-lasting μ-opioid agonist and a pharmacological tool which attenuates withdrawal symptoms effectively replacement therapies. This review article aims to explain opiate addiction mechanisms, epidemiology and disease burden with emphasis on dietary and nutritional status of opiate dependent patients in methadone maintenance therapy. PMID:25927032

  13. Resolution of Hepatic Encephalopathy Following Hepatic Artery Embolization in a Patient with Well-Differentiated Neuroendocrine Tumor Metastatic to the Liver

    SciTech Connect

    Erinjeri, Joseph P. Deodhar, Ajita; Thornton, Raymond H.; Allen, Peter J.; Getrajdman, George I.; Brown, Karen T.; Sofocleous, Constantinos T.; Reidy, Diane L.

    2010-06-15

    Hepatic encephalopathy is considered a contraindication to hepatic artery embolization. We describe a patient with a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor metastatic to the liver with refractory hepatic encephalopathy and normal liver function tests. The encephalopathy was refractory to standard medical therapy with lactulose. The patient's mental status returned to baseline after three hepatic artery embolization procedures. Arteriography and ultrasound imaging before and after embolization suggest that the encephalopathy was due to arterioportal shunting causing hepatofugal portal venous flow and portosystemic shunting. In patients with a primary or metastatic well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor whose refractory hepatic encephalopathy is due to portosystemic shunting (rather than global hepatic dysfunction secondary to tumor burden), hepatic artery embolization can be performed safely and effectively.

  14. Prevalence and burden of gastrointestinal parasites in cattle and buffaloes in Jabalpur, India

    PubMed Central

    Marskole, Priyanka; Verma, Yamini; Dixit, Alok Kumar; Swamy, Madhu

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was conducted to determine the prevalence and burden of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in cattle and buffaloes of Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh. Materials and Methods: The presence of helminths eggs and coccidial oocysts in fecal samples were detected using standard qualitative and quantitative methods. Identification of eggs or oocysts was done on the basis of morphology and size of the eggs or oocysts. Results: Out of 120 cattle and buffaloes examined, 73.33% were found positive for eggs of one or more species of GI parasite. The prevalence of parasitic infection was higher in cattle (75%) as compared to that of buffaloes (70.45%), but the difference was nonsignificant (p>0.05). Sex wise prevalence of GI parasites was higher in males as compared to that of females, but the difference was nonsignificant (p>0.05). The animals above 2 years of age were more affected by GI parasites as compared to animals of 6 months - 2 years of age, but the age wise differences were nonsignificant (p>0.05). Single parasitic infections were more common than mixed infections. The monthly prevalence of GI parasites in cattle and buffaloes were highest in the month of September (81.81%) and least in December (61.11%). The eggs/oocysts per gram in most of the animals, was in the range of 201-300. Conclusion: GI parasites are problem in cattle and buffaloes of Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh. The prevalence rate of GI parasites varied with month. The burden of parasitic infection was moderate in most animals warranting treatment. PMID:27956771

  15. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  16. Hepatitis Risk Assessment

    MedlinePlus

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Hepatitis Risk Assessment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Viral Hepatitis. ... you at risk? Take this 5 minute Hepatitis Risk Assessment developed by the CDC and get a personalized ...

  17. Preventing hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis A is inflammation (irritation and swelling) of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus. You can take several steps to ... reduce your risk of spreading or catching the hepatitis A virus: Always wash your hands thoroughly after ...

  18. Hepatitis B Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Hepatitis B Testing Share this page: Was this page ... known as: HBV Tests; Hep B; anti-HBs; Hepatitis B Surface Antibody; HBsAg; Hepatitis B Surface Antigen; ...

  19. HIV and Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections and Coinfections HIV and Hepatitis C (Last updated 8/31/2016; last reviewed ... the medicines for any side effects. What is hepatitis C? Hepatitis C is a liver disease caused ...

  20. HIV and Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections and Coinfections HIV and Hepatitis B (Last updated 8/31/2016; last reviewed ... should be treated for both diseases. What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a liver disease caused ...

  1. Drug-induced hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Toxic hepatitis ... to get liver damage. Some drugs can cause hepatitis with small doses, even if the liver breakdown ... liver. Many different drugs can cause drug-induced hepatitis. Painkillers and fever reducers that contain acetaminophen are ...

  2. Bioactive Egg Components and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Catherine J.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a normal acute response of the immune system to pathogens and tissue injury. However, chronic inflammation is known to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of numerous chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Thus, the impact of dietary factors on inflammation may provide key insight into mitigating chronic disease risk. Eggs are recognized as a functional food that contain a variety of bioactive compounds that can influence pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. Interestingly, the effects of egg consumption on inflammation varies across different populations, including those that are classified as healthy, overweight, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetic. The following review will discuss the pro- and anti-inflammatory properties of egg components, with a focus on egg phospholipids, cholesterol, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, and bioactive proteins. The effects of egg consumption of inflammation across human populations will additionally be presented. Together, these findings have implications for population-specific dietary recommendations and chronic disease risk. PMID:26389951

  3. New treatment options for alcoholic hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Shasthry, Saggere Muralikrishna; Sarin, Shiv Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The burden of alcoholic liver disease has rapidly grown in the past two decades and is expected to increase further in the coming years. Alcoholic hepatitis, the most florid presentation of alcoholic liver disease, continues to have high morbidity and mortality, with significant financial and healthcare burden with limited treatment options. Steroids remain the current standard of care in severe alcoholic hepatitis in carefully selected patients. No specific treatments are available for those patients who are steroid ineligible, intolerant or unresponsive. Liver transplant has shown good short-term outcome; however, feasibility, ethical and economic concerns remain. Modification of gut microbiota composition and their products, such as lipopolysaccharide, nutritional interventions, immune modulation, increasing steroid sensitivity, genetic polymorphism and epigenetic modification of alcohol induced liver damage, augmenting hepatic regeneration using GCSF are potential therapeutic avenues in steroid non-responsive/ineligible patients. With better understanding of the pathophysiology, using “Omics” platforms, newer options for patients with alcoholic hepatitis are expected soon. PMID:27099434

  4. Epidemiology of Viral Hepatitis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    El-Serag, Hashem B.

    2012-01-01

    Most cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are associated with cirrhosis related to chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Changes in the time trends of HCC and most variations in its age-, sex-, and race-specific rates among different regions are likely to be related to differences in hepatitis viruses that are most prevalent in a population, the timing of their spread, and the ages of the individuals the viruses infect. Environmental, host genetic, and viral factors can affect the risk of HCC in individuals with HBV or HCV infection. This review summarizes the risk factors for HCC among HBV- or HCV-infected individuals, based on findings from epidemiological studies and meta-analyses, as well as determinants of patient outcome and the HCC disease burden, globally and in the US. PMID:22537432

  5. 9 CFR 590.925 - Inspection of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inspection of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.925 Inspection of imported egg products. (a) Except as provided in § 590.960, egg products...

  6. 9 CFR 590.956 - Relabeling of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Relabeling of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.956 Relabeling of imported egg products. (a) Egg products eligible for importation may...

  7. 9 CFR 590.800 - Identification of restricted eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Identification of restricted eggs. 590... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 590.800 Identification...

  8. 9 CFR 590.800 - Identification of restricted eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Identification of restricted eggs. 590... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 590.800 Identification...

  9. 9 CFR 590.925 - Inspection of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inspection of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.925 Inspection of imported egg products. (a) Except as provided in § 590.960, egg products...

  10. 9 CFR 590.925 - Inspection of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.925 Inspection of imported egg products. (a) Except as provided in § 590.960, egg products...

  11. 9 CFR 590.925 - Inspection of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inspection of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.925 Inspection of imported egg products. (a) Except as provided in § 590.960, egg products...

  12. 9 CFR 590.956 - Relabeling of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Relabeling of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.956 Relabeling of imported egg products. (a) Egg products eligible for importation may...

  13. 9 CFR 590.956 - Relabeling of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Relabeling of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.956 Relabeling of imported egg products. (a) Egg products eligible for importation may...

  14. 9 CFR 590.800 - Identification of restricted eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Identification of restricted eggs. 590... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 590.800 Identification...

  15. 9 CFR 590.800 - Identification of restricted eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of restricted eggs. 590... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 590.800 Identification...

  16. 9 CFR 590.925 - Inspection of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inspection of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.925 Inspection of imported egg products. (a) Except as provided in § 590.960, egg products...

  17. 9 CFR 590.800 - Identification of restricted eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Identification of restricted eggs. 590... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 590.800 Identification...

  18. 9 CFR 590.956 - Relabeling of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Relabeling of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.956 Relabeling of imported egg products. (a) Egg products eligible for importation may...

  19. 9 CFR 590.956 - Relabeling of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relabeling of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.956 Relabeling of imported egg products. (a) Egg products eligible for importation may...

  20. Cytoplasmic rearrangements associated with amphibian egg symmetrization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malacinski, G. M.

    1984-01-01

    Cytoplasmic rearrangements which follow fertilization were mentioned in normal and inverted eggs. A set of yolk compartments was resolved by cytological analyses of both normally oriented and inverted eggs. Those compartments were characterized by their yolk platelet compositions and movement during egg inversion. It is found that during egg inversion the yolk compartments shift minor cytoplasmic compartments which line the egg cortex. Those yolk mass shifts occurred only after the inverted egg was activated. The direction of shift of the major yolk components, rather than the sperm entrance site, determines the dorsal/ventral polarity of the inverted egg. Among different spawnings the rate of shift varied. Eggs that displayed the fastest rate of shift exhibited the highest frequency of developmental abnormalities during organogenesis. Interpretation of novel observations on cytoplasmic organization provide criticism of some earlier models. A new density compartment model is presented as a coherent way to view the organization of the egg cytoplasm and the development of bilateral symmetry.

  1. Adult Living with Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS Coinfection Prevention & ... Institute Education & Training Hep B United Coalition Hepatitis Delta Connect 2017 International HBV Meeting National Patient Advocacy ...

  2. Diurnal fluctuations in nematode egg excretion in naturally and in experimentally infected chickens.

    PubMed

    Wongrak, Kalyakorn; Gauly, Matthias; Daş, Gürbüz

    2015-03-15

    We investigated whether nematode egg excretion through feces of naturally or experimentally infected chickens follow certain patterns within a day, which may allow determining the most appropriate sampling time for the highest parasite egg concentration. Feces samples (n=864) from chickens (n=36) with naturally occurring mixed nematode infections (trials N1, N2) or with an experimental Ascaridia galli infection (E) were collected quantitatively every 4h for four consecutive days. Number of eggs per gram of feces (EPG) was determined, and accumulative egg output (AEO) at each sampling time as well as total number of eggs excreted within 24h (eggs per day, EPD) were then estimated. At the end of the collection period, the hens were necropsied and their worm burdens determined. Naturally infected hens harbored Heterakis gallinarum (100%), Capillaria spp. (95.7%) and A. galli (91.3%). The experimental A. galli infection produced patent infections in all the birds. In general, both fecal egg concentration (EPG) and the amount of feces increased (P<0.05) sharply from the early morning to early-noon (10:00 a.m.) and remained at a high level until evenings which thereafter decreased to their initial levels during the night both in naturally and experimentally infected birds. This resulted in a more apparent increase or a decrease in AEO at the corresponding time points, respectively, and led to much higher egg excretions during the daytime than the nights. Despite the apparent within day fluctuations in egg excretion, neither EPG (P=0.704) nor AEO (P=0.499) nor EPD (P=0.149) was significantly different among the four collection days. Similarly, there was no significant interaction (P>0.05) between effects of sampling hours and days on EPG and AEO, suggesting the existence of repeatable diurnal fluctuations within each day. Although an association between climatic parameters (e.g., ambient temperature and relative humidity) and the nematode egg excretion was quantified, a

  3. Who moved my eggs? An experimental test of the egg arrangement hypothesis for the rejection of brood parasitic eggs.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Daniel; Samaš, Peter; Hauber, Mark E; Grim, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Avian brood parasitism is an exceptional reproductive strategy whereby parasites reduce their own costs associated with parental care and impose them on the host parents. Consequently, host species have evolved multiple defensive mechanisms to combat parasitism. The vast majority of research attention to date has examined host defenses to recognize and reject parasitic eggs. The recently proposed "egg arrangement hypothesis" suggests that hosts may not focus solely on individual eggs' features, but instead the overall arrangement of the clutch may also provide a cue that parasitism has occurred. Correlative data revealed that host females maintaining a consistent egg arrangement across the incubation period were more likely to reject foreign egg models than females that did not keep a consistent egg arrangement. Here, we provide the first experimental test of this hypothesis in the European blackbird (Turdus merula). We experimentally parasitized nests such that the egg arrangement was either disrupted or not disrupted. We found no evidence that altered egg arrangement was used as a cue for egg rejection by host females. Therefore, we suggest that females that keep consistent egg arrangement are more likely to eject foreign eggs for other correlated reasons. Thus, egg arrangement does not serve as an independent cue to trigger egg rejection responses to parasitism in this host species.

  4. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... a combination product containing Haemophilus influenzae type b, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Polio Vaccine)

  5. World Health Organization Global Estimates and Regional Comparisons of the Burden of Foodborne Disease in 2010.

    PubMed

    Havelaar, Arie H; Kirk, Martyn D; Torgerson, Paul R; Gibb, Herman J; Hald, Tine; Lake, Robin J; Praet, Nicolas; Bellinger, David C; de Silva, Nilanthi R; Gargouri, Neyla; Speybroeck, Niko; Cawthorne, Amy; Mathers, Colin; Stein, Claudia; Angulo, Frederick J; Devleesschauwer, Brecht

    2015-12-01

    Illness and death from diseases caused by contaminated food are a constant threat to public health and a significant impediment to socio-economic development worldwide. To measure the global and regional burden of foodborne disease (FBD), the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG), which here reports their first estimates of the incidence, mortality, and disease burden due to 31 foodborne hazards. We find that the global burden of FBD is comparable to those of the major infectious diseases, HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. The most frequent causes of foodborne illness were diarrheal disease agents, particularly norovirus and Campylobacter spp. Diarrheal disease agents, especially non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica, were also responsible for the majority of deaths due to FBD. Other major causes of FBD deaths were Salmonella Typhi, Taenia solium and hepatitis A virus. The global burden of FBD caused by the 31 hazards in 2010 was 33 million Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs); children under five years old bore 40% of this burden. The 14 subregions, defined on the basis of child and adult mortality, had considerably different burdens of FBD, with the greatest falling on the subregions in Africa, followed by the subregions in South-East Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean D subregion. Some hazards, such as non-typhoidal S. enterica, were important causes of FBD in all regions of the world, whereas others, such as certain parasitic helminths, were highly localised. Thus, the burden of FBD is borne particularly by children under five years old-although they represent only 9% of the global population-and people living in low-income regions of the world. These estimates are conservative, i.e., underestimates rather than overestimates; further studies are needed to address the data gaps and limitations of the study. Nevertheless, all stakeholders can contribute to improvements in food safety

  6. World Health Organization Global Estimates and Regional Comparisons of the Burden of Foodborne Disease in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Havelaar, Arie H.; Kirk, Martyn D.; Torgerson, Paul R.; Gibb, Herman J.; Hald, Tine; Lake, Robin J.; Praet, Nicolas; Bellinger, David C.; de Silva, Nilanthi R.; Gargouri, Neyla; Speybroeck, Niko; Cawthorne, Amy; Mathers, Colin; Stein, Claudia; Angulo, Frederick J.; Devleesschauwer, Brecht

    2015-01-01

    Illness and death from diseases caused by contaminated food are a constant threat to public health and a significant impediment to socio-economic development worldwide. To measure the global and regional burden of foodborne disease (FBD), the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG), which here reports their first estimates of the incidence, mortality, and disease burden due to 31 foodborne hazards. We find that the global burden of FBD is comparable to those of the major infectious diseases, HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. The most frequent causes of foodborne illness were diarrheal disease agents, particularly norovirus and Campylobacter spp. Diarrheal disease agents, especially non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica, were also responsible for the majority of deaths due to FBD. Other major causes of FBD deaths were Salmonella Typhi, Taenia solium and hepatitis A virus. The global burden of FBD caused by the 31 hazards in 2010 was 33 million Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs); children under five years old bore 40% of this burden. The 14 subregions, defined on the basis of child and adult mortality, had considerably different burdens of FBD, with the greatest falling on the subregions in Africa, followed by the subregions in South-East Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean D subregion. Some hazards, such as non-typhoidal S. enterica, were important causes of FBD in all regions of the world, whereas others, such as certain parasitic helminths, were highly localised. Thus, the burden of FBD is borne particularly by children under five years old–although they represent only 9% of the global population–and people living in low-income regions of the world. These estimates are conservative, i.e., underestimates rather than overestimates; further studies are needed to address the data gaps and limitations of the study. Nevertheless, all stakeholders can contribute to improvements in food safety

  7. Immunization of pigs against experimental Ascaris suum infection by feeding ultraviolet-attenuated eggs.

    PubMed

    Tromba, F G

    1978-08-01

    Pigs fed Ascaris suum eggs attenuated by short-wave ultraviolet radiation developed a resistance to challenge infections that varied according to the protocols used. Two doses of eggs irradiated at total exposures (ET) of 150 muW-min/cm2 resulted in a reduction of adult worm burden in 3 groups challenged with 50, 100, or 500 eggs by 45, 35, and 49%, respectively. However, these results were not statistically significant (P greater than 0.05). Three other groups were fed eggs as follows: Group 1, 3 doses irridated at ET's of 150, 150 and 150; Group 2, 3 doses irradiated at ET's of 150, 150, 100; and Group 3, 3 doses irradiated at ET's of 150, 100, and 75. All of these regimens provided significant protection: Group 1 (P less than 0.02), Group 2 (P less than 0.05), Group 3 (P less than 0.001). An analysis of the lengths of worms recovered showed that in controls fed varying doses of eggs, worm sizes were inversely related to the number of eggs in the challenge dose. Measurements of worms from vaccinated animals showed that 23 of 116 adult worms recovered were probably survivors of one or more of the vaccinating doses. A ratio of 18 female to 5 male worms indicated that males are more susceptible to ultraviolet radiation than females.

  8. Antimicrobial potential of egg yolk ovoinhibitor, a multidomain Kazal-like inhibitor of chicken egg.

    PubMed

    Bourin, Marie; Gautron, Joël; Berges, Magali; Attucci, Sylvie; Le Blay, Gwenaelle; Labas, Valérie; Nys, Yves; Rehault-Godbert, Sophie

    2011-12-14

    Chicken egg ovoinhibitor is a multidomain Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor with unknown function. Comparison of expression between different tissues indicated that ovoinhibitor is highly expressed in the magnum and liver followed by the uterus, which secrete egg white, egg yolk, and eggshell precursors, respectively. The results also revealed that ovoinhibitor expression is increased in the liver during sexual maturation followed by a subsequent decrease in mature hens. Ovoinhibitor was purified from the egg yolk plasma from nonfertilized eggs using two consecutive affinity chromatographies and gel filtration. Purified egg yolk ovoinhibitor was shown to inhibit trypsin and subtilisin. It was shown that purified egg yolk ovoinhibitor exhibited antimicrobial activities against Bacillus thuringiensis . The results suggest that this anti-protease plays a significant role in antibacterial egg defense against Bacillus spp., preventing contamination of table eggs (nonfertilized eggs) and protecting the chick embryo (fertilized eggs).

  9. Terminology and the Psychosocial Burden of Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolt, David

    2004-01-01

    Various denotations and connotations of the word "blindness" are examined and the inference is drawn that they constitute a psychosocial burden that perpetuates prejudice. The analysis leads on to a hypothesis in which a more progressive terminology could lead to reduction of this burden.

  10. 40 CFR 179.91 - Burden of going forward; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... persuasion. 179.91 Section 179.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...; burden of persuasion. (a) The party whose request for an evidentiary hearing was granted has the burden... FFDCA has the burden of persuasion in the hearing on that issue, whether the proceeding concerns...

  11. Rotten Egg Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Violent gas collisions that produced supersonic shock fronts in a dying star are seen in a new, detailed image from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope.

    The picture, taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, is online at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . The camera was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

    Stars like our Sun will eventually die and expel most of their material outward into shells of gas and dust. These shells eventually form some of the most beautiful objects in the universe, called planetary nebulae.

    'This new image gives us a rare view of the early death throes of stars like our Sun. For the first time, we can see phenomena leading to the formation of planetary nebulae. Until now, this had only been predicted by theory, but had never been seen directly,' said Dr. Raghvendra Sahai, research scientist and member of the science team at JPL for the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2.

    The object is sometimes called the Rotten Egg Nebula, because it contains a lot of sulphur, which would produce an awful odor if one could smell in space. The object is also known as the Calabash Nebula or by the technical name OH231.8+4.2.

    The densest parts of the nebula are composed of material ejected recently by the central star and accelerated in opposite directions. This material, shown as yellow in the image, is zooming away at speeds up to one and a half million kilometers per hour (one million miles per hour). Most of the star's original mass is now contained in these bipolar gas structures.

    A team of Spanish and American astronomers used NASA's Hubble Space Telescope to study how the gas stream rams into the surrounding material, shown in blue. They believe that such interactions dominate the formation process in planetary nebulae. Due to the high speed of the gas, shock-fronts are formed on impact and heat the surrounding gas. Although computer calculations have predicted the existence and

  12. Rotten Egg Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Violent gas collisions that produced supersonic shock fronts in a dying star are seen in a new, detailed image from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope.

    The picture, taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, is online at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . The camera was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

    Stars like our Sun will eventually die and expel most of their material outward into shells of gas and dust. These shells eventually form some of the most beautiful objects in the universe, called planetary nebulae.

    'This new image gives us a rare view of the early death throes of stars like our Sun. For the first time, we can see phenomena leading to the formation of planetary nebulae. Until now, this had only been predicted by theory, but had never been seen directly,' said Dr. Raghvendra Sahai, research scientist and member of the science team at JPL for the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2.

    The object is sometimes called the Rotten Egg Nebula, because it contains a lot of sulphur, which would produce an awful odor if one could smell in space. The object is also known as the Calabash Nebula or by the technical name OH231.8+4.2.

    The densest parts of the nebula are composed of material ejected recently by the central star and accelerated in opposite directions. This material, shown as yellow in the image, is zooming away at speeds up to one and a half million kilometers per hour (one million miles per hour). Most of the star's original mass is now contained in these bipolar gas structures.

    A team of Spanish and American astronomers used NASA's Hubble Space Telescope to study how the gas stream rams into the surrounding material, shown in blue. They believe that such interactions dominate the formation process in planetary nebulae. Due to the high speed of the gas, shock-fronts are formed on impact and heat the surrounding gas. Although computer calculations have predicted the existence and

  13. The state of hepatitis B and C in the Mediterranean and Balkan countries: report from a summit conference.

    PubMed

    Hatzakis, A; Van Damme, P; Alcorn, K; Gore, C; Benazzouz, M; Berkane, S; Buti, M; Carballo, M; Cortes Martins, H; Deuffic-Burban, S; Dominguez, A; Donoghoe, M; Elzouki, A-N; Ben-Alaya Bouafif, N; Esmat, G; Esteban, R; Fabri, M; Fenton, K; Goldberg, D; Goulis, I; Hadjichristodoulou, C; Hadjichristodoulou, T; Hatzigeorgiou, T; Hamouda, O; Hasurdjiev, S; Hughes, S; Kautz, A; Malik, M; Manolakopoulos, S; Matičič, M; Papatheodoridis, G; Peck, R; Peterle, A; Potamitis, G; Prati, D; Roudot-Thoraval, F; Reic, T; Sharara, A; Shennak, M; Shiha, G; Shouval, D; Sočan, M; Thomas, H; Thursz, M; Tosti, M; Trépo, C; Vince, A; Vounou, E; Wiessing, L; Manns, M

    2013-08-01

    The burden of disease due to chronic viral hepatitis constitutes a global threat. In many Balkan and Mediterranean countries, the disease burden due to viral hepatitis remains largely unrecognized, including in high-risk groups and migrants, because of a lack of reliable epidemiological data, suggesting the need for better and targeted surveillance for public health gains. In many countries, the burden of chronic liver disease due to hepatitis B and C is increasing due to ageing of unvaccinated populations and migration, and a probable increase in drug injecting. Targeted vaccination strategies for hepatitis B virus (HBV) among risk groups and harm reduction interventions at adequate scale and coverage for injecting drug users are needed. Transmission of HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in healthcare settings and a higher prevalence of HBV and HCV among recipients of blood and blood products in the Balkan and North African countries highlight the need to implement and monitor universal precautions in these settings and use voluntary, nonremunerated, repeat donors. Progress in drug discovery has improved outcomes of treatment for both HBV and HCV, although access is limited by the high costs of these drugs and resources available for health care. Egypt, with the highest burden of hepatitis C in the world, provides treatment through its National Control Strategy. Addressing the burden of viral hepatitis in the Balkan and Mediterranean regions will require national commitments in the form of strategic plans, financial and human resources, normative guidance and technical support from regional agencies and research.

  14. The Chicken and Egg Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkon, Ivette

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a project on chickens and eggs undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. It describes the three phases of the project and includes photographs and other documentation of the children's work.

  15. Sampling and detection of Salmonella in eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The detection of Salmonella in the edible internal contents of shell eggs provides the most incontrovertible and epidemiologically relevant evidence that laying flocks might threaten consumers. Accordingly, dependable tests for Salmonella in eggs remain essential for achieving public health objectiv...

  16. Effect of storage temperature on egg quality traits in table eggs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Doǧan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effects of storage temperature on some egg quality in table eggs during 28 days. A total of 100 fresh eggs were obtained from laying hens (Nick chick) that were raised on a local commercial farm. All eggs were collected over a 24 h period. A total of 100 eggs randomly divided into 2 treatments (5 °C and 22 °C; 10 replicates each) with 50 eggs examined in each. Ten eggs from each group were analyzed for eggs weight loss, specific gravity, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk index, and albumen pH after 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage at 5 and 22 °C. All eggs were individually marked and weighed at the beginning of the experiment to calculate egg weight loss. The egg weight loss in eggs stored at 5 °C significantly (P<0.01) lower than the eggs stored at 22 °C group for the entire storage period. The eggs stored at 5 °C showed higher levels of specific gravity than eggs stored at 22 °C throughout 28 days of storage (P<0.01; P<0.05). The albumen height, Haugh unit, and yolk index of eggs stored at 5 °C was significantly (P<0.01) higher than that of eggs stored at 22 °C during the storage periods. The albumen pH of eggs stored at 5 °C was significantly (P<0.01) lower than that of eggs stored at 22 °C during storage period. The results indicated that the eggs stored at 5 °C are better off in terms of protecting quality compared to the eggs stored at 22 °C throughout 28 days of storage.

  17. Hepatitis B (HBV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hepatitis B (HBV) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hepatitis B (HBV) A A A What's in this article? ... poisons). There are several different types of hepatitis . Hepatitis B is a type that can move from one ...

  18. 76 FR 55642 - Regulations for the Inspection of Eggs (Shell Egg Surveillance), Request for Extension and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Regulations for the Inspection of Eggs (Shell Egg... approved information collection in support of the shell egg surveillance portion of the Regulation for the Inspection of Eggs--7 CFR part 57. DATES: Comments received by November 7, 2011 will be considered....

  19. [Masturbation device (EGG) as a new penile rehabilitation tool: a pilot study].

    PubMed

    Sato, Yoshikazu; Tanda, Hitoshi; Nakajima, Hisao; Nitta, Toshikazu; Akagashi, Keigo; Hanzawa, Tatsuo; Tobe, Musashi; Haga, Kazunori; Uchida, Kosuke; Honma, Ichiya

    2013-05-01

    Erectile dysfunction following radical prostatectomy (RP) is still a significant burden as a post-operative morbidity, despite advances in nerve-sparing techniques and penile (erectile function) rehabilitation (PR) programs. We assessed the effects of stimulation with the masturbation device "EGG" on enhancement of erectile response along with administration of phospho diesterase type 5 inhibitor. We also studied the change of self-esteem and motivation for continuation of PR after stimulation with EGG. Eight nonresponders for PDE5-I who underwent retropubic RP were enrolled. Patients' median age was 71.5 years old. No patients received adjuvant therapy for prostate cancer. The patients' erectile response in the penile rehabilitation session (masturbation) with PDE5-I+manual stimulation and PDE5-I+stimulation with EGG were evaluated by erection hardness score (EHS). Changes of self-esteem and motivation for penile rehabilitation were assessed by the self-esteem subscale of the Self-Esteem and Relationship (SEAR) questionnaire and one original question, respectively. PDE5-I + stimulation with EGG significantly enhanced EHS compared to PDE5-I+manual stimulation in the eight patients (p=0.027). Transformed score of self-esteem subscale score of SEAR questionnaire was significantly increased in the PR session with EGG compared to the PR session with manual stimulation (p=0.043). Six patients who showed a better erectile response with EGG retained motivation for continuation of PR. PDE5-I+stimulation with EGG improved the erectile response in post-RP patients. EGG as a masturbation device may have a potential for contribution to successful PR.

  20. Cryptic cuckoo eggs hide from competing cuckoos

    PubMed Central

    Gloag, Ros; Keller, Laurie-Anne; Langmore, Naomi E.

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific arms races between cuckoos and their hosts have produced remarkable examples of mimicry, with parasite eggs evolving to match host egg appearance and so evade removal by hosts. Certain bronze-cuckoo species, however, lay eggs that are cryptic rather than mimetic. These eggs are coated in a low luminance pigment that camouflages them within the dark interiors of hosts' nests. We investigated whether cuckoo egg crypsis is likely to have arisen from the same coevolutionary processes known to favour egg mimicry. We added high and low luminance-painted eggs to the nests of large-billed gerygones (Gerygone magnirostris), a host of the little bronze-cuckoo (Chalcites minutillus). Gerygones rarely rejected either egg type, and did not reject natural cuckoo eggs. Cuckoos, by contrast, regularly removed an egg from clutches before laying their own and were five times more likely to remove a high luminance model than its low luminance counterpart. Given that we found one-third of all parasitized nests were exploited by multiple cuckoos, our results suggest that competition between cuckoos has been the key selective agent for egg crypsis. In such intraspecific arms races, crypsis may be favoured over mimicry because it can reduce the risk of egg removal to levels below chance. PMID:25122227

  1. Cryptic cuckoo eggs hide from competing cuckoos.

    PubMed

    Gloag, Ros; Keller, Laurie-Anne; Langmore, Naomi E

    2014-10-07

    Interspecific arms races between cuckoos and their hosts have produced remarkable examples of mimicry, with parasite eggs evolving to match host egg appearance and so evade removal by hosts. Certain bronze-cuckoo species, however, lay eggs that are cryptic rather than mimetic. These eggs are coated in a low luminance pigment that camouflages them within the dark interiors of hosts' nests. We investigated whether cuckoo egg crypsis is likely to have arisen from the same coevolutionary processes known to favour egg mimicry. We added high and low luminance-painted eggs to the nests of large-billed gerygones (Gerygone magnirostris), a host of the little bronze-cuckoo (Chalcites minutillus). Gerygones rarely rejected either egg type, and did not reject natural cuckoo eggs. Cuckoos, by contrast, regularly removed an egg from clutches before laying their own and were five times more likely to remove a high luminance model than its low luminance counterpart. Given that we found one-third of all parasitized nests were exploited by multiple cuckoos, our results suggest that competition between cuckoos has been the key selective agent for egg crypsis. In such intraspecific arms races, crypsis may be favoured over mimicry because it can reduce the risk of egg removal to levels below chance.

  2. "Egg Races" and Other Practical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    This article presents ideas behind science and technology challenges and shares experiences of "egg races." Different challenges were set, but there was always the need to transport an egg across some obstacle course without breaking it. It was so popular in the 1980s that the term "egg race" came to mean any kind of simple…

  3. Minimizing risk in anonymous egg donation.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, K K; Simons, E G; Nair, S; Rimington, M R; Armar, N A

    2003-11-01

    Assisted conception carries with it known and putative medical and surgical risks. Exposing healthy women to these risks in order to harvest eggs for donation when a safer alternative exists is morally and ethically unacceptable. Egg sharing minimizes risk and provides a source of eggs for donation. Anonymity protects all parties involved and should not be removed.

  4. Viral Hepatitis B: Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Gregory S.; Thompson, Alexander J.

    2014-01-01

    It is now 50 years since the discovery of the hepatitis B virus (HBV), and, despite the availability of a prophylactic vaccine for more than 20 years, HBV infection remains a disease of significant global health burden. It is estimated that more than 240 million people are chronically infected with HBV and, therefore, are at risk for the development of cirrhosis, hepatic decompensation, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The risk of clinical complications has traditionally been higher in older males with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)–positive disease, high-grade liver necroinflammation, and progressive fibrosis. Recent advances in the understanding of the natural history of chronic HBV infection have identified an important role for plasma HBV DNA levels as a marker of risk for clinical outcomes. Among adults, persistent high-level HBV replication is associated with an increased risk of cirrhosis, as well as HCC development. This has led to the therapeutic focus on achieving sustained viral suppression. There is an emerging role for quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) levels as a marker of natural history. Low levels of HBsAg have been associated with sustained immune control, HBsAg seroclearance, as well as lower risk of HCC. In this work, we review the natural history of HBV infection, with a focus on the determinants of clinical outcomes in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection. PMID:25359547

  5. Hepatic and Intestinal Schistosomiasis: Review

    PubMed Central

    Elbaz, Tamer; Esmat, Gamal

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is an endemic disease in Egypt caused by the trematode Schistosoma which has different species. Hepatic schistosomiasis represents the best known form of chronic disease with a wide range of clinical manifestations. The pathogenesis of schistosomiasis is related to the host cellular immune response. This leads to granuloma formation and neo angiogenesis with subsequent periportal fibrosis manifested as portal hypertension, splenomegaly and esophageal varices. Intestinal schistosomiasis is another well identified form of chronic schistosomal affection. Egg deposition and granuloma formation eventually leads to acute then chronic schistosomal colitis and is commonly associated with polyp formation. It frequently presents as abdominal pain, diarrhea, tenesmus and anal pain. Definite diagnosis of schistosomiasis disease depends on microscopy and egg identification. Marked progress regarding serologic diagnosis occurred with development of recent PCR techniques that can confirm schistosomal affection at any stage. Many antischistosomal drugs have been described for treatment, praziquantel being the most safe and efficient drug. Still ongoing studies try to develop effective vaccines with identification of many target antigens. Preventive programs are highly needed to control the disease morbidity and to break the cycle of transmission. PMID:25685451

  6. Dietary effects on liver tumor burden in mice treated with the hepatocellular carcinogen diethylnitrosamine

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Marin E.; Chow, Jenny D.Y.; Byrne, Frances L.; Breen, David S.; Leitinger, Norbert; Li, Chien; Lackner, Carolin; Caldwell, Stephen H.; Hoehn, Kyle L.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Mice exposed to the hepatocellular carcinogen diethylnitrosamine at 2 weeks of age have a high risk of developing primary liver tumors later in life. Previous studies have demonstrated that diethylnitrosamine-treated mice have increased tumor burden when fed an obesigenic “Western” diet rich in lard fat and sugar. However, the role of dietary fats versus sugars in the promotion of liver cancer is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine how altering dietary fats versus sugars affects tumor burden in the diethylnitrosamine model. Methods C57BL/6N mice were treated with diethylnitrosamine at 2 weeks of age and, from 6 to 32 weeks of age, fed one of five diets that differed in fat and sugar content including normal chow, ketogenic, and Western diets. Results Mice fed sugar-rich diets had the greatest tumor burden irrespective of dietary fat content. In contrast, mice fed a high-fat low-sugar diet had the least tumor burden despite obesity and glucose intolerance. When evaluated as independent variables, tumor burden was positively correlated with hepatic fat accumulation, postprandial insulin, and liver IL-6, and inversely correlated with serum adiponectin. In contrast, tumor burden did not correlate with adiposity, fasting insulin, or glucose intolerance. Furthermore, mice fed high sugar diets had lower liver expression of p21 and cleaved caspase-3 compared to mice fed low sugar diets. Conclusions These data indicate that dietary sugar intake contributes to liver tumor burden independent of excess adiposity or insulin resistance in mice treated with diethylnitrosamine. PMID:25450719

  7. Detection of Schistosoma mansoni Eggs in Feces through their Interaction with Paramagnetic Beads in a Magnetic Field

    PubMed Central

    Fagundes Teixeira, Candida; Neuhauss, Erli; Ben, Renata; Romanzini, Juliano; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Background Diagnosis of intestinal schistosomiasis in low endemic areas is a problem because often control measures have reduced egg burdens in feces to below the detection limits of classical coproparasitological methods. Evaluation of molecular methods is hindered by the absence of an established standard with maximum sensitivity and specificity. One strategy to optimize method performance, where eggs are rare events, is to examine large amounts of feces. A novel diagnostic method for isolation of Schistosoma mansoni eggs in feces, and an initial evaluation of its performance is reported here. Methodology/Principal Findings Known amounts of S. mansoni eggs were seeded into 30 g of normal human feces and subjected to a sequence of spontaneous sedimentation, sieving, Ritchie method, incubation and isolation through interaction with paramagnetic beads. Preliminary tests demonstrated the efficacy of lectins as ligands, but they also indicated that the paramagnetic beads alone were sufficient to isolate the eggs under a magnetic field through an unknown mechanism. Eggs were identified by microscopic inspection, with a sensitivity of 100% at 1.3 eggs per gram of feces (epg). Sensitivity gradually decreased to 25% at a concentration of 0.1 epg. In a preliminary application of the new method to the investigation of a recently established focus in southern Brazil, approximately 3 times more eggs were detected than with the thick-smear Kato-Katz method. Conclusions/Significance The novel S. mansoni detection method may significantly improve diagnosis of infections with low burdens in areas of recent introduction of the parasite, areas under successful control of transmission, or in infected travelers. It may also improve the evaluation of new treatments and vaccines. PMID:18060086

  8. 9 CFR 590.570 - Pasteurization of liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurization of liquid eggs. 590.570... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.570 Pasteurization of liquid eggs. (a) Pasteurization...

  9. 9 CFR 590.402 - Egg products inspection certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Egg products inspection certificates... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Certificates § 590.402 Egg products inspection certificates. (a) Upon request of the applicant or the...

  10. 9 CFR 590.570 - Pasteurization of liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pasteurization of liquid eggs. 590.570... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.570 Pasteurization of liquid eggs. (a) Pasteurization...

  11. 9 CFR 590.570 - Pasteurization of liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pasteurization of liquid eggs. 590.570... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.570 Pasteurization of liquid eggs. (a) Pasteurization...

  12. 9 CFR 590.515 - Egg cleaning operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Egg cleaning operations. 590.515... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.515 Egg cleaning operations. (a) The following requirements...

  13. 9 CFR 590.570 - Pasteurization of liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pasteurization of liquid eggs. 590.570... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.570 Pasteurization of liquid eggs. (a) Pasteurization...

  14. 9 CFR 590.515 - Egg cleaning operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg cleaning operations. 590.515... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.515 Egg cleaning operations. (a) The following requirements...

  15. 9 CFR 590.570 - Pasteurization of liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pasteurization of liquid eggs. 590.570... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.570 Pasteurization of liquid eggs. (a) Pasteurization...

  16. 9 CFR 590.402 - Egg products inspection certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Egg products inspection certificates... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Certificates § 590.402 Egg products inspection certificates. (a) Upon request of the applicant or the...

  17. 9 CFR 590.402 - Egg products inspection certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg products inspection certificates... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Certificates § 590.402 Egg products inspection certificates. (a) Upon request of the applicant or the...

  18. 9 CFR 590.402 - Egg products inspection certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Egg products inspection certificates... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Certificates § 590.402 Egg products inspection certificates. (a) Upon request of the applicant or the...

  19. 9 CFR 590.402 - Egg products inspection certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Egg products inspection certificates... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Certificates § 590.402 Egg products inspection certificates. (a) Upon request of the applicant or the...

  20. Systematic analysis of funding awarded for viral hepatitis-related research to institutions in the United Kingdom, 1997-2010.

    PubMed

    Head, M G; Fitchett, J R; Cooke, G S; Foster, G R; Atun, R

    2015-03-01

    Viral hepatitis is responsible for great health, social and economic burden both globally and in the UK. This study aimed to assess the research funding awarded to UK institutions for viral hepatitis research and the relationship of funded research to clinical and public health burden of viral hepatitis. Databases and websites were systematically searched for information on infectious disease research studies funded for the period 1997-2010. Studies specifically related to viral hepatitis research were identified and categorized in terms of funding by pathogen, disease and by a research and development value chain describing the type of science. The overall data set included 6165 studies (total investment £2.6 billion) of which £76.9 million (3.0%) was directed towards viral hepatitis across 323 studies (5.2%). By pathogen, there were four studies specifically investigating hepatitis A (£3.8 million), 69 studies for hepatitis B (21.4%) with total investment of £14.7 million (19.1%) and 236 (73.1%) hepatitis C studies (£62.7 million, 81.5%). There were 4 studies investigating hepatitis G, and none specifying hepatitis D or E. By associated area, viral hepatitis and therapeutics research received £17.0 million, vaccinology £3.1 million and diagnostics £2.9 million. Preclinical research received £50.3 million (65.4%) across 173 studies, whilst implementation and operational research received £19.4 million (25.3%) across 128 studies. The UK is engaged in much hepatology research, but there are areas where the burden is great and may require greater focus, such as hepatitis E, development of a vaccine for hepatitis C, and further research into hepatitis-associated cancers. Private sector data, and funding information from other countries, would also be useful in priority setting.

  1. Quality of eggs from different laying hen production systems, from indigenous breeds and specialty eggs.

    PubMed

    Lordelo, M; Fernandes, E; Bessa, R J B; Alves, S P

    2016-11-02

    Consumers are concerned about the quality of commercially available eggs. Eggs used in this study were marketed in Portugal and originated from laying hens raised in cages, barns, free-range, organic eggs, and eggs enriched with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and from native Portuguese breeds. The eggs were analyzed for chemical and physical properties. Results indicated that yolk color was lighter in organic eggs and darker in n-3 PUFA enriched eggs. Eggs from caged hens had lower Haugh units in contrast with organic eggs. Caged hens produced eggs with a higher protein content while organic eggs had the lowest level of protein in the albumen. As might be expected, eggs enriched in n-3 PUFA had the highest n-3 PUFA content. Choosing an egg by its production system or labeling specificities may not be a guarantee of superior product quality. The layer genotype, age, diet, and the quality of the range also may affect egg properties. Due to a different layer diet, enriched eggs seem to be of superior quality.

  2. Transfer rates and pattern of PCB isomers and congeners and p,p'-DDE from mother to egg in Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae)

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, S.; Surbramanian, A.; Hidaka, H.; Tatsukawa, R.

    1986-03-01

    Mother to egg transfer of PCB isomers and congeners and p,p'-DDE was examined in Adelie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) from Antarctica. Transfer rate to a clutch of two eggs was estimated to be small, accounting to about 4.0% for both PCBs and p,p-DDE to the burden in mother. No significant difference was found in the concentration ratios of individual PCB isomers and congeners between mother and egg, which apparently differed from those between mother and fetus of striped dolphin previously reported.

  3. Mercury accumulation and loss in mallard eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed diets containing 5, 10, or 20 ppm mercury as methylmercury chloride. One egg was collected from each bird before the start of the mercury diets and 15 eggs were collected from each bird while it was being fed mercury. The mercury diets were then replaced by uncontaminated diets, and each female was allowed to lay 29 more eggs. Mercury levels in eggs rose to about 7,18, and 35 ppm wet-weight in females fed 5,10, or 20 ppm mercury, respectively. Mercury levels fell to about 0.16,0.80, and 1.7 ppm in the last egg laid by birds that had earlier been fed 5, 10, or 20 ppm mercury, respectively. Higher concentrations of mercury were found in egg albumen than in yolk, and between 95 and 100% of the mercury in the eggs was in the form of methylmercury.

  4. Xenopus egg cytoplasm with intact actin.

    PubMed

    Field, Christine M; Nguyen, Phuong A; Ishihara, Keisuke; Groen, Aaron C; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    We report optimized methods for preparing Xenopus egg extracts without cytochalasin D, that we term "actin-intact egg extract." These are undiluted egg cytoplasm that contains abundant organelles, and glycogen which supplies energy, and represents the least perturbed cell-free cytoplasm preparation we know of. We used this system to probe cell cycle regulation of actin and myosin-II dynamics (Field et al., 2011), and to reconstitute the large, interphase asters that organize early Xenopus embryos (Mitchison et al., 2012; Wühr, Tan, Parker, Detrich, & Mitchison, 2010). Actin-intact Xenopus egg extracts are useful for analysis of actin dynamics, and interaction of actin with other cytoplasmic systems, in a cell-free system that closely mimics egg physiology, and more generally for probing the biochemistry and biophysics of the egg, zygote, and early embryo. Detailed protocols are provided along with assays used to check cell cycle state and tips for handling and storing undiluted egg extracts.

  5. Economic Study of Global Tobacco Burden

    Cancer.gov

    In an interview on Cancer Currents, Dr. Mark Parascandola discusses findings from an economics study showing that, globally, tobacco use burdens economies with more than US $1 trillion annually in health care costs and lost productivity.

  6. The Burden of Diabetes in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    González, Lorena; Caporale, Joaquín E.; Elgart, Jorge F.; Gagliardino, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To measure the economic burden of diabetes in Argentina by age, gender and region for the year 2005, in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Methods: DALYs were estimated by the sum of years of life lost due to premature death (YLL) and years of life lived with disability (YLD). Results: In the population studied (20 to 85 years), the burden of diabetes without complications was 1.3 million DALYs, 85% of which were caused by disabilities. Whereas mortality rates (YLL) increased as a function of age, YLD showed the opposite relationship. Women had higher burden of disease values, represented by 51 and 61% of YLL and YLD, respectively, independently of age. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that disabilities are a key component of diabetes burden; its regular and systematic estimation would allow to design effective prevention strategies, to assess the impact of their implementation and to optimize resource allocation based on objective evidence. PMID:25948443

  7. Easing the Burden of External Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoGrasso, Marc F.

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, the author presents suggestions for improving the effectiveness of external reporting while minimizing burden. Recommendations include repurposing existing internal reports to address the needs of external reports.

  8. Relationships between egg-recognition and egg-ejection in a grasp-ejector species.

    PubMed

    Soler, Manuel; Ruiz-Raya, Francisco; Roncalli, Gianluca; Ibáñez-Álamo, Juan Diego

    2017-01-01

    Brood parasitism frequently leads to a total loss of host fitness, which selects for the evolution of defensive traits in host species. Experimental studies have demonstrated that recognition and rejection of the parasite egg is the most common and efficient defence used by host species. Egg-recognition experiments have advanced our knowledge of the evolutionary and coevolutionary implications of egg recognition and rejection. However, our understanding of the proximate mechanisms underlying both processes remains poor. Egg rejection is a complex behavioural process consisting of three stages: egg recognition, the decision whether or not to reject the putative parasitic egg and the act of ejection itself. We have used the blackbird (Turdus merula) as a model species to explore the relationship between egg recognition and the act of egg ejection. We have manipulated the two main characteristics of parasitic eggs affecting egg ejection in this grasp-ejector species: the degree of colour mimicry (mimetic and non-mimetic, which mainly affects the egg-recognition stage of the egg-rejection process) and egg size (small, medium and large, which affects the decision to eject), while maintaining a control group of non-parasitized nests. The behaviour of the female when confronted with an experimental egg was filmed using a video camera. Our results show that egg touching is an indication of egg recognition and demonstrate that blackbirds recognized (i.e., touched) non-mimetic experimental eggs significantly more than mimetic eggs. However, twenty per cent of the experimental eggs were touched but not subsequently ejected, which confirms that egg recognition does not necessarily mean egg ejection and that accepting parasitic eggs, at least sometimes, is the consequence of acceptance decisions. Regarding proximate mechanisms, our results show that the delay in egg ejection is not only due to recognition problems as usually suggested, given that experimental eggs are not

  9. Relationships between egg-recognition and egg-ejection in a grasp-ejector species

    PubMed Central

    Soler, Manuel; Ruiz-Raya, Francisco; Roncalli, Gianluca; Ibáñez-Álamo, Juan Diego

    2017-01-01

    Brood parasitism frequently leads to a total loss of host fitness, which selects for the evolution of defensive traits in host species. Experimental studies have demonstrated that recognition and rejection of the parasite egg is the most common and efficient defence used by host species. Egg-recognition experiments have advanced our knowledge of the evolutionary and coevolutionary implications of egg recognition and rejection. However, our understanding of the proximate mechanisms underlying both processes remains poor. Egg rejection is a complex behavioural process consisting of three stages: egg recognition, the decision whether or not to reject the putative parasitic egg and the act of ejection itself. We have used the blackbird (Turdus merula) as a model species to explore the relationship between egg recognition and the act of egg ejection. We have manipulated the two main characteristics of parasitic eggs affecting egg ejection in this grasp-ejector species: the degree of colour mimicry (mimetic and non-mimetic, which mainly affects the egg-recognition stage of the egg-rejection process) and egg size (small, medium and large, which affects the decision to eject), while maintaining a control group of non-parasitized nests. The behaviour of the female when confronted with an experimental egg was filmed using a video camera. Our results show that egg touching is an indication of egg recognition and demonstrate that blackbirds recognized (i.e., touched) non-mimetic experimental eggs significantly more than mimetic eggs. However, twenty per cent of the experimental eggs were touched but not subsequently ejected, which confirms that egg recognition does not necessarily mean egg ejection and that accepting parasitic eggs, at least sometimes, is the consequence of acceptance decisions. Regarding proximate mechanisms, our results show that the delay in egg ejection is not only due to recognition problems as usually suggested, given that experimental eggs are not

  10. 9 CFR 590.920 - Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs and egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... inspection of imported eggs and egg products. 590.920 Section 590.920 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.920 Importer to make application for inspection...

  11. 9 CFR 590.920 - Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs and egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... inspection of imported eggs and egg products. 590.920 Section 590.920 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.920 Importer to make application for inspection...

  12. 9 CFR 590.920 - Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs and egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... inspection of imported eggs and egg products. 590.920 Section 590.920 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.920 Importer to make application for inspection...

  13. 9 CFR 590.920 - Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs and egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... inspection of imported eggs and egg products. 590.920 Section 590.920 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.920 Importer to make application for inspection...

  14. 9 CFR 590.920 - Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs and egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... inspection of imported eggs and egg products. 590.920 Section 590.920 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.920 Importer to make application for inspection...

  15. Hepatic capillariasis in captive ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Zordan, Martin; Tirado, Marcela; López, Claudia

    2012-06-01

    A female ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) and her two cubs held in a zoo in Chile exhibited signs of severe hepatic insufficiency. In spite of supportive treatment, the three animals died a few days after the onset of signs. Postmortem examination revealed ascites and fibrotic lesions in the liver of all the individuals. Histologically, the liver of two of them showed a severe parasitic ova infection and lipidosis, the morphologic characteristics of the parasitic ovas were consistent with Capillaria hepatica (syn. Calodium hepatica) eggs. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first clinical case report of hepatic capillariasis in prosimians, and its implications are discussed.

  16. Infectious disease burden and cognitive function in young to middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Gale, Shawn D; Erickson, Lance D; Berrett, Andrew; Brown, Bruce L; Hedges, Dawson W

    2016-02-01

    Prior research has suggested an association between exposure to infectious disease and neurocognitive function in humans. While most of these studies have explored individual viral, bacterial, and even parasitic sources of infection, few have considered the potential neurocognitive burden associated with multiple infections. In this study, we utilized publically available data from a large dataset produced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that included measures of neurocognitive function, sociodemographic variables, and serum antibody data for several infectious diseases. Specifically, immunoglobulin G antibodies for toxocariasis, toxoplasmosis, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, cytomegalovirus, and herpes 1 and 2 were available in 5662 subjects. We calculated an overall index of infectious-disease burden to determine if an aggregate measure of exposure to infectious disease would be associated with neurocognitive function in adults aged 20-59 years. The index predicted processing speed and learning and memory but not reaction time after controlling for age, sex, race-ethnicity, immigration status, education, and the poverty-to-income ratio. Interactions between the infectious-disease index and some sociodemographic variables were also associated with neurocognitive function. In summary, an index aggregating exposure to several infectious diseases was associated with neurocognitive function in young- to middle-aged adults.

  17. Hepatitis Information for the Public

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Viral Hepatitis Contact Us Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Local Partners & Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Hepatitis Information for the Public Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  18. [Vaccines against hepatitis A and B in Chile].

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, M Teresa

    2009-06-01

    The mode of transmission and epidemiological approach for hepatitis A and B are different. However, both are preventable with vaccines whose efficacy and long lasting protection has been demonstrated. This review describes the secular tendency of both infections in Chile, their risk factors that have contributed to their persistence in the country and the interventions that have been carried out to reduce the disease burden. Although the vaccine for hepatitis B was incorporated to the immunization program in 2005, the vaccine for hepatitis A persists in the list of interventions that must be assumed with priority by the Ministry of Health. If Chilean health authorities pretend to reach the enteric disease indicators of developed countries, they must accelerate the epidemiological transition towards the elimination of hepatitis A.

  19. Fluctuating wing asymmetry and hepatic concentrations of persistent organic pollutants are associated in European shag (Phalacrocorax aristotelis) chicks.

    PubMed

    Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Aarnes, Jon Birger; Murvoll, Kari-Mette; Herzke, Dorte; Nygård, Torgeir

    2010-01-01

    In aquatic birds, high body burdens of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been associated with developmental effects related to growth, increased fluctuating wing asymmetry, and disruption of the thyroid hormone, vitamin A (retinol) and vitamin E (tocopherol) homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to examine if morphological variables (body mass, liver mass, wing length, tarsus length and head length), fluctuating asymmetry of the wings and tarsus, growth rates and endocrine variables (thyroid hormones, retinol and tocopherol) were associated with hepatic levels of POPs (PCBs, OCPs and PBDEs) in 21 day old chicks of European shag (Phalacrocorax aristotelis). Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis showed that fluctuating asymmetry of wing bone length (FA(WBL)) was affected by PCB-105, -118, -138, -153, and -180 (r(2)x=0.88, r(2)y=0.35, q(2)=0.29). Bivariate correlation confirmed significant positive relationships between FA(WBL) and each of these PCB congeners. In the PLS model no other biological variables were significantly affected by any of the POPs. Levels of POPs were much lower in the shag chicks than in eggs and in hatchlings from the same breeding colony, most likely due to growth dilution of the compounds. We suggest that the effects of the PCBs on FA(WBL) may be due to effects of these compounds on bone growth and bone structure. FA(WBL) may have functional effects on the fitness if it persists after fledging.

  20. Hepatitis B and concomitant hepatic steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chong Teik

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is becoming more common in Asia with prevalence becoming as common as Western countries. Concomitant Hepatitis B and hepatic steatosis is increasingly encountered in clinical practice. The interaction between the two concomitant conditions at both molecular level and clinical outcome remains to be explored. The present review is aimed at summarizing the existing literature on the complex interaction of the two-concomitant disease. PMID:28251117

  1. Salmonella and eggs: from production to plate.

    PubMed

    Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2015-02-26

    Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption.

  2. Salmonella and Eggs: From Production to Plate

    PubMed Central

    Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption. PMID:25730295

  3. A standardised faecal collection protocol for intestinal helminth egg counts in Asian elephants, Elephas maximus

    PubMed Central

    Lynsdale, Carly L.; Santos, Diogo J. Franco dos; Hayward, Adam D.; Mar, Khyne U.; Htut, Win; Aung, Htoo Htoo; Soe, Aung Thura; Lummaa, Virpi

    2015-01-01

    The quantitative assessment of parasite infection is necessary to measure, manage and reduce infection risk in both wild and captive animal populations. Traditional faecal flotation methods which aim to quantify parasite burden, such as the McMaster egg counting technique, are widely used in veterinary medicine, agricultural management and wildlife parasitology. Although many modifications to the McMaster method exist, few account for systematic variation in parasite egg output which may lead to inaccurate estimations of infection intensity through faecal egg counts (FEC). To adapt the McMaster method for use in sampling Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), we tested a number of possible sources of error regarding faecal sampling, focussing on helminth eggs and using a population of over 120 semi-captive elephants distributed across northern Myanmar. These included time of day of defecation, effects of storage in 10% formalin and 10% formol saline and variation in egg distribution between and within faecal boluses. We found no significant difference in the distribution of helminth eggs within faecal matter or for different defecation times, however, storage in formol saline and formalin significantly decreased egg recovery. This is the first study to analyse several collection and storage aspects of a widely-used traditional parasitology method for helminth parasites of E. maximus using known host individuals. We suggest that for the modified McMaster technique, a minimum of one fresh sample per elephant collected from any freshly produced bolus in the total faecal matter and at any point within a 7.5 h time period (7.30am–2.55 pm) will consistently represent parasite load. This study defines a protocol which may be used to test pre-analytic factors and effectively determine infection load in species which produce large quantities of vegetative faeces, such as non-ruminant megaherbivores. PMID:26236632

  4. Rheological behaviour of egg white and egg yolk from different poultry specimen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumbár, V.; Nedomová, Š.; Votava, J.; Buchar, J.

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of this study is differences in rheological behaviour of hen (ISA BROWN), goose (Anser anser f. domestica) and Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) egg white and egg yolk. The rheological behaviour of egg white and egg yolk was studied using a concentric cylinder viscometer. Rheological behaviour was pseudoplastic and flow curves were fitted by the Herschel–Bulkley model and Ostwald–de Waele model with high values of coeficients of determination R2. The meaning of rheological parameters on friction factors during flow of egg white and egg yolk in real tube has been shown. Preliminary information on time–dependent behaviour of tested liquids has been also obtained.

  5. Cracking the shell on egg-hypersensitive patients and egg-containing vaccines.

    PubMed

    Chernin, Leah R; Swender, David; Hostoffer, Robert W

    2011-10-01

    Hens' eggs are a common food in the American diet. They are consumed as a primary food source and added as an ingredient to other foods. In individuals who are hypersensitive to eggs, egg-containing foods can cause mild to severe allergic reactions if ingested. These individuals may also have adverse reactions to vaccines produced on egg media. Vaccines that are created on egg media include those for measles, mumps, and rubella; rabies; yellow fever; and influenza. The authors discuss recent developments in the use of egg-containing vaccines in hypersensitive patients.

  6. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy: A review.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Raffaele; Taylor, Alexandra C; Höller, Yvonne; Brigo, Francesco; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Trinka, Eugen

    2016-10-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is the earliest form of hepatic encephalopathy and can affect up to 80% of patients with liver cirrhosis. By definition, MHE is characterized by cognitive function impairment in the domains of attention, vigilance and integrative function, but obvious clinical manifestation are lacking. MHE has been shown to affect daily functioning, quality of life, driving and overall mortality. The diagnosis can be achieved through neuropsychological testing, recently developed computerized psychometric tests, such as the critical flicker frequency and the inhibitory control tests, as well as neurophysiological procedures. Event related potentials can reveal subtle changes in patients with normal neuropsychological performances. Spectral analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) and quantitative analysis of sleep EEG provide early markers of cerebral dysfunction in cirrhotic patients with MHE. Neuroimaging, in particular MRI, also increasingly reveals diffuse abnormalities in intrinsic brain activity and altered organization of functional connectivity networks. Medical treatment for MHE to date has been focused on reducing serum ammonia levels and includes non-absorbable disaccharides, probiotics or rifaximin. Liver transplantation may not reverse the cognitive deficits associated with MHE. We performed here an updated review on epidemiology, burden and quality of life, neuropsychological testing, neuroimaging, neurophysiology and therapy in subjects with MHE.

  7. Proteomic Identification of IPSE/alpha-1 as a Major Hepatotoxin Secreted by Schistosoma mansoni Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Abdulla, Maha-Hamadien; Lim, Kee-Chong; McKerrow, James H.; Caffrey, Conor R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Eggs deposited in the liver of the mammalian host by the blood fluke parasite, Schistosoma mansoni, normally drive a T-helper-2 (Th2)-mediated granulomatous response in immune-competent mice. By contrast, in mice deprived of T-cells and incapable of producing granulomata, egg-secreted proteins (ESP) induce acute hepatic injury and death. Previous work has shown that one such ESP, the T2 ribonuclease known as omega-1, is hepatotoxic in vivo in that specific antisera to omega-1 prevent hepatocyte damage. Methodology/Principal Findings Using an in vitro culture system employing mouse primary hepatocytes and alanine transaminase (ALT) activity as a marker of heptocyte injury, we demonstrated that S. mansoni eggs, egg-secreted proteins (ESP), soluble-egg antigen (SEA), and omega-1 are directly hepatotoxic and in a dose-dependent manner. Depletion of omega-1 using a monoclonal antibody abolished the toxicity of pure omega-1 and diminished the toxicity in ESP and SEA by 47 and 33%, respectively. Anion exchange chromatography of ESP yielded one predominant hepatotoxic fraction. Proteomics of that fraction identified the presence of IPSE/alpha-1 (IL-4 inducing principle from S. mansoni eggs), a known activator of basophils and inducer of Th2-type responses. Pure recombinant IPSE/alpha-1 also displayed a dose-dependent hepatotoxicity in vitro. Monoclonal antibody depletion of IPSE/alpha-1 abolished the latter's toxicity and diminished the total toxicity of ESP and SEA by 32 and 35%, respectively. Combined depletion of omega-1 and IPSE/alpha-1 diminished hepatotoxicity of ESP and SEA by 60 and 58% respectively. Conclusions We identified IPSE/alpha-1 as a novel hepatotoxin and conclude that both IPSE/alpha-1 and omega-1 account for the majority of the hepatotoxicity secreted by S. mansoni eggs. PMID:22039561

  8. Epidemiology of Hepatitis B in the Gezira Region of Sudan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    mansoni infected persons was 615 rate in Khalawaat than in Saleim for most age ± 1,041 eggs/gram. and S. haematobium sub- groups (Table 2). jects averaged...and infection with est in the young. A similar pattern of early S. mansoni . When seropositivity for all hepatitis childhood infection is found in...treatment, suits from perinatal transmission.’ 8 Perinatal tattoos, jaundice. infection with S. mansoni , and transmission could also account for

  9. Are Cuckoos Maximizing Egg Mimicry by Selecting Host Individuals with Better Matching Egg Phenotypes?

    PubMed Central

    Antonov, Anton; Stokke, Bård G.; Fossøy, Frode; Ranke, Peter S.; Liang, Wei; Yang, Canchao; Moksnes, Arne; Shykoff, Jacqui; Røskaft, Eivin

    2012-01-01

    Background Avian brood parasites and their hosts are involved in complex offence-defense coevolutionary arms races. The most common pair of reciprocal adaptations in these systems is egg discrimination by hosts and egg mimicry by parasites. As mimicry improves, more advanced host adaptations evolve such as decreased intra- and increased interclutch variation in egg appearance to facilitate detection of parasitic eggs. As interclutch variation increases, parasites able to choose hosts matching best their own egg phenotype should be selected, but this requires that parasites know their own egg phenotype and select host nests correspondingly. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared egg mimicry of common cuckoo Cuculus canorus eggs in naturally parasitized marsh warbler Acrocephalus palustris nests and their nearest unparasitized conspecific neighbors having similar laying dates and nest-site characteristics. Modeling of avian vision and image analyses revealed no evidence that cuckoos parasitize nests where their eggs better match the host eggs. Cuckoo eggs were as good mimics, in terms of background and spot color, background luminance, spotting pattern and egg size, of host eggs in the nests actually exploited as those in the neighboring unparasitized nests. Conclusions/Significance We reviewed the evidence for brood parasites selecting better-matching host egg phenotypes from several relevant studies and argue that such selection probably cannot exist in host-parasite systems where host interclutch variation is continuous and overall low or moderate. To date there is also no evidence that parasites prefer certain egg phenotypes in systems where it should be most advantageous, i.e., when both hosts and parasites lay polymorphic eggs. Hence, the existence of an ability to select host nests to maximize mimicry by brood parasites appears unlikely, but this possibility should be further explored in cuckoo-host systems where the host has evolved discrete egg

  10. Hepatitis B Foundation Newsletter: B Informed

    MedlinePlus

    ... Our Accomplishments Annual Reports Our Videos What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  11. Hepatitis C in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Marinaki, Smaragdi; Boletis, John N; Sakellariou, Stratigoula; Delladetsima, Ioanna K

    2015-01-01

    Despite reduction of hepatitis C prevalence after recognition of the virus and testing of blood products, hemodialysis (HD) patients still comprise a high risk group. The natural history of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in dialysis is not fully understood while the clinical outcome differs from that of the general population. HD patients show a milder liver disease with lower aminotransferase and viral levels depicted by milder histological features on liver biopsy. Furthermore, the “silent” clinical course is consistent with a slower disease progression and a lower frequency of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Potential explanations for the “beneficial” impact of uremia and hemodialysis on chronic HCV infection are impaired immunosurveillance leading to a less aggressive host response to the virus and intradialytic release of “hepatoprotective” cytokines such as interferon (IFN)-α and hepatocyte growth factor. However, chronic hepatitis C is associated with a higher liver disease related cardiovascular and all-cause mortality of HD patients. Therapy is indicated in selected patients groups including younger patients with low comorbidity burden and especially renal transplant candidates, preferably after performance of a liver biopsy. According to current recommendations, choice of treatment is IFN or pegylated interferon with a reported sustained viral response at 30%-40% and a withdrawal rate ranging from 17% to 30%. New data regarding combination therapy with low doses of ribavirin which provide higher standard variable rates and good safety results, offer another therapeutic option. The new protease inhibitors may be the future for HCV infected HD patients, though data are still lacking. PMID:25848478

  12. Hemostasis and Hepatic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Eeson, Gareth; Karanicolas, Paul J

    2016-04-01

    Operative blood loss is a major source of morbidity and even mortality for patients undergoing hepatic resection. This review discusses strategies to minimize blood loss and the utilization of allogeneic blood transfusion pertaining to oncologic hepatic surgery.

  13. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000216.htm Delta agent (Hepatitis D) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Delta agent is a type of virus called hepatitis ...

  14. Know More Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Boomers Hepatitis Risk Assessment Campaign Materials Fact Sheets Posters Infographics Videos Buttons & Badges Email Signatures Radio Ads and Scripts Know More Hepatitis Logos Presentation Templates Guidelines for using materials and logos About ...

  15. Hepatitis A - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... hepatitis A. Children can get hepatitis A at day care center from other children or from child care ... treatment with immunoglobulin therapy. If your child attends day care: Make sure the children and staff at the ...

  16. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... related side effects. The hepatic function panel evaluates: Alanine aminotransferase (ALT). This enzyme, found in the liver, ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Mononucleosis Hepatitis Blood Test: Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT, or SGPT) Blood Test: Aspartate Aminotransferase ( ...

  17. Hepatitis Foundation International

    MedlinePlus

    ... million people globally. admin / 03/17/2015 Viral Hepatitis An estimated 4.4 million Americans from all ... Events section below. EVENTS FULL CALENDAR Loading… VIRAL HEPATITIS DISPARITIES HARD TO REACH, HARD TO TREAT™ AFRICAN ...

  18. Hepatitis virus panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  19. Hepatitis B -- children

    MedlinePlus

    ... at birth: Newborn babies should receive their first hepatitis B vaccine and one dose of immunoglobulins (IG) within 12 hours. The baby should complete all hepatitis B vaccines as recommended during the first six months. Some ...

  20. Hepatitis B (HBV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... special immune injection and the first dose of hepatitis B vaccine at birth. How Is It Prevented? Because people ... B virus. Doctors recommend that teens get a hepatitis B immunization (vaccine). It's a series of three shots over a ...

  1. Hepatitis C (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis C is a virus-caused liver inflammation which may cause jaundice, fever and cirrhosis. Persons who are most at risk for contracting and spreading hepatitis C are those who share needles for injecting drugs ...

  2. Effect of various sources and levels of iodine, as well as the kind of diet, on the performance of young laying hens, iodine accumulation in eggs, egg characteristics, and morphotic and biochemical indices in blood.

    PubMed

    Słupczyńska, M; Jamroz, D; Orda, J; Wiliczkiewicz, A

    2014-10-01

    Young hens were fed over a period of 150 d with 2 kinds of diets including corn and soybean meal or corn, soybean, and rapeseed meal. Diets were enriched with potassium iodide (KI) or potassium iodate (KIO3) as an I source in amounts equal to 1, 3, or 5 mg of supplemented I/kg of feed. The hen performance, egg quality, hematological and morphotic indices in blood, hepatic enzyme activity, lipid indices in blood serum as well as I accumulation in wet egg content were determined. Introduction of 00-variety rapeseed meal into the diet improved the laying rate and feed conversion (P < 0.05); however, better egg weight was noted by feeding the hens with a diet without rapeseed meal. Use of KI as an I source enhanced the egg weight. The increased I level in the diet had an equivocal influence on egg weight, improved the feed conversion per 1 kg of eggs, and decreased the proportion of damaged eggs. The use of corn, soybean, and rapeseed meal in hen diets significantly improved yolk color; similar results were noted after an increase in I levels in the diets after 3 mo of feeding. Hematological indices of hen blood demonstrated significantly higher red blood cells numbers and hemoglobin concentrations with the use of KI. The use of a diet containing rapeseed meal led to an enhancement of hepatic enzyme activity, especially of alkaline phosphatase (P = 0.007). Lipid metabolism indices were not influenced by the kind of diet or the I source or level. The accumulation of I in wet egg content was negatively influenced by the use of a diet containing rapeseed meal (P = 0.000). The application of KI as an I source enhanced (P = 0.003) the accretion of I in eggs after 5 mo of treatment. Enhanced I supply significantly increased accumulation of I in eggs (P = 0.000) after 3 and 5 mo of the experiment from 260 and 310 to 1,011 and 1,256 µg/kg of wet egg content, respectively.

  3. Hatching the Cleidoic Egg: The Role of Thyroid Hormones

    PubMed Central

    De Groef, Bert; Grommen, Sylvia V.H.; Darras, Veerle M.

    2013-01-01

    A major life stage transition in birds and other oviparous sauropsids is the hatching of the cleidoic egg. Not unlike amphibian metamorphosis, hatching in these species can be regarded as a transition from a relatively well-protected “aqueous” environment to a more hazardous and terrestrial life outside the egg, a transition in which thyroid hormones (THs) (often in concert with glucocorticoids) play an important role. In precocial birds such as the chicken, the perihatch period is characterized by peak values of THs. THs are implicated in the control of muscle development, lung maturation and the switch from chorioallantoic to pulmonary respiration, yolk sac retraction, gut development and induction of hepatic genes to accommodate the change in dietary energy source, initiation of thermoregulation, and the final stages of brain maturation as well as early post-hatch imprinting behavior. There is evidence that, at least for some of these processes, THs may have similar roles in non-avian sauropsids. In altricial birds such as passerines on the other hand, THs do not rise significantly until well after hatching and peak values coincide with the development of endothermy. It is not known how hatching-associated processes are regulated by hormones in these animals or how this developmental mode evolved from TH-dependent precocial hatching. PMID:23755041

  4. Burden of serious fungal infections in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Faini, Diana; Maokola, Werner; Furrer, Hansjakob; Hatz, Christoph; Battegay, Manuel; Tanner, Marcel; Denning, David W; Letang, Emilio

    2015-10-01

    The incidence and prevalence of fungal infections in Tanzania remains unknown. We assessed the annual burden in the general population and among populations at risk. Data were extracted from 2012 reports of the Tanzanian AIDS program, WHO, reports, Tanzanian census, and from a comprehensive PubMed search. We used modelling and HIV data to estimate the burdens of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP), cryptococcal meningitis (CM) and candidiasis. Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and tuberculosis data were used to estimate the burden of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA). Burdens of candidaemia and Candida peritonitis were derived from critical care and/or cancer patients' data. In 2012, Tanzania's population was 43.6 million (mainland) with 1,500,000 people reported to be HIV-infected. Estimated burden of fungal infections was: 4412 CM, 9600 PCP, 81,051 and 88,509 oral and oesophageal candidiasis cases respectively. There were 10,437 estimated post-tuberculosis CPA cases, whereas candidaemia and Candida peritonitis cases were 2181 and 327 respectively. No reliable data exist on blastomycosis, mucormycosis or fungal keratitis. Over 3% of Tanzanians suffer from serious fungal infections annually, mostly related to HIV. Cryptococcosis and PCP are major causes of mycoses-related deaths. National surveillance of fungal infections is urgently needed.

  5. Burden of childhood-onset arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Juvenile arthritis comprises a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases causing erosive arthritis in children, often progressing to disability. These children experience functional impairment due to joint and back pain, heel pain, swelling of joints and morning stiffness, contractures, pain, and anterior uveitis leading to blindness. As children who have juvenile arthritis reach adulthood, they face possible continuing disease activity, medication-associated morbidity, and life-long disability and risk for emotional and social dysfunction. In this article we will review the burden of juvenile arthritis for the patient and society and focus on the following areas: patient disability; visual outcome; other medical complications; physical activity; impact on HRQOL; emotional impact; pain and coping; ambulatory visits, hospitalizations and mortality; economic impact; burden on caregivers; transition issues; educational occupational outcomes, and sexuality. The extent of impact on the various aspects of the patients', families' and society's functioning is clear from the existing literature. Juvenile arthritis imposes a significant burden on different spheres of the patients', caregivers' and family's life. In addition, it imposes a societal burden of significant health care costs and utilization. Juvenile arthritis affects health-related quality of life, physical function and visual outcome of children and impacts functioning in school and home. Effective, well-designed and appropriately tailored interventions are required to improve transitioning to adult care, encourage future vocation/occupation, enhance school function and minimize burden on costs. PMID:20615240

  6. Patterns of contamination by organochlorines and mercury in the eggs of two river passerines in Britain and Ireland with reference to individual PCB congeners.

    PubMed

    Ormerod, S J; Tyler, S J

    1992-01-01

    Unhatched eggs were collected in 1988 and 1990 from nests of the Eurasian Dipper Cinclus cinclus and the Grey Wagtail Motacilla cinerea in Wales, eastern Scotland and south-western Ireland. Mercury concentrations in Dipper eggs (geometric means 0.45-0.91 ppm (microg g(-1)) dry mass) were significantly lower in eastern Scotland than in either south-western Ireland or Wales, where the incidence of detectable residues increased markedly between 1988 (2% of eggs) and 1990 (69%). By contrast, DDE (geometric means 0.63-3.54 ppm in lipid), TDE (<0.01-1.80 ppm), DDT (<0.01-0.65 ppm), total PCBs (3.99-10.47 ppm), HEOD (0.39-0.61 ppm) and HCB (0.02-0.13 ppm) were all significantly higher in Scottish eggs than others. Around 33-46% of the total PCB burden in Dipper and Grey Wagtail eggs could be accounted for by six congeners (IUPAC numbers 118, 180, 101, 153, 138 and 170). Amongst these attributable PCBs, Dipper eggs from eastern Scotland were dominated by congener 153 (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl), whilst Welsh and Irish eggs were dominated by congener 118 (2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl). With the latter exception, all the individual congeners were found at significantly higher concentrations in Scottish eggs than others. Grey Wagtail eggs were dominated by congeners 118 and 101 (2,2,4,5,5'-pentachlorobiphenyl). In general, these congeners are common, widespread, and dominant components in the eggs of other wild birds for which data are available. Consistent with the low to medium levels of contaminants found in Dipper eggs, there was only slight evidence of any toxic effects. These included moderate shell thinning in relation to increasing DDE, and some evidence that contaminants had contributed to egg failure.

  7. Precision, repeatability and representative ability of faecal egg counts in Heterakis gallinarum infected chickens.

    PubMed

    Daş, Gürbüz; Savaş, Türker; Kaufmann, Falko; Idris, Ahmad; Abel, Hansjörg; Gauly, Matthias

    2011-12-29

    This study investigated whether a precise and repeatable quantification of Heterakis gallinarum egg excretion, which considerably reflects the actual worm burdens, can be achieved based on collection of the daily total amount of faeces from chickens. Three-week-old birds (N=64) were infected with 200 embryonated eggs of H. gallinarum, and placed into individual cages 3 wk after infection for 5 wk to collect daily faeces (N=2240). The total daily faeces was mixed and a randomly taken sample per bird was analyzed to estimate the numbers of eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) and total number of eggs excreted within 24h (EPD). A total of 235 daily faecal collections were randomly selected and further examined to determine between and within sample variations of EPG counts as a measure of precision. For this, two random faecal samples were taken from the daily produced faeces by a bird, and the EPG was determined for each of the samples (EPG1 and EPG2). The second faecal sample was analyzed once more to determine a parallel EPG2 count (EPG2a) of the suspended sample. Precision of an EPG count was defined as its relative closeness to the average of two EPG counts using a relative asymmetry index (Index(EPG)). At an age of 11 wk, i.e. 8 wk p.i. the birds were slaughtered and their worm burdens were determined. There were no significant differences between EPG1 and EPG2 (P=0.764) nor between EPG2 and EPG2a (P=0.700), suggesting that the differences between or within the samples were not different from zero. Correlations between EPG counts, as between and within sample coherences, were r=0.85 and r=0.86, respectively. Precision of EPG counts, as measured by Index(EPG), was not influenced by consistency (P=0.870) and total amount of faeces (P=0.088). However, concentration of eggs in faeces (mean EPG) had a significant effect on the precision of the EPG counts (P<0.001). Similar results were also observed for the within sample precision (Index(EPG2)). A segmented regression

  8. Hepatitis C-related cirrhosis. Current status.

    PubMed

    Conde, Isabel; Vinaixa, Carmen; Berenguer, Marina

    2017-01-20

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects around 150 million people. It is a leading cause of liver related morbidity and mortality through its predisposition to liver fibrosis, cirrhosis and end-stage liver complications. New treatments based on direct-acting antivirals have opened a new era in the management of HCV cirrhosis. They allow for HCV eradication without substantial side effects in almost all cirrhotic patients, reducing the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma, liver decompensation and mortality. This review provides an update on HCV cirrhosis. The paper focuses on the disease burden and major progresses in the diagnosis, follow-up and treatment of this patient subgroup.

  9. 40 CFR 22.24 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard. 22.24 Section 22.24 Protection of Environment... complaint and any response or evidence with respect to the appropriate relief. The respondent has...

  10. High Schistosoma mansoni disease burden in a rural district of western Zambia.

    PubMed

    Mutengo, Mable M; Mwansa, James C L; Mduluza, Takafira; Sianongo, Sandie; Chipeta, James

    2014-11-01

    Schistosoma mansoni disease is endemic in most parts of rural Zambia, and associated complications are common. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 754 people in rural communities of Kaoma District, western Zambia to determine the burden of S. mansoni infection and associated morbidity. Parasitology and ultrasonography assessments were conducted on consenting participants. The overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection and geometric mean egg count (GMEC) were 42.4% (304) and 86.6 eggs per gram (95% confidence interval = 75.6-99.6), respectively. Prevalence was highest in the age group of 15-19 years old (adjusted prevalence ratio = 1.70, P = 0.017). S. mansoni-related portal fibrosis was detected in 26% of the participants screened. Participants above 39 years old were 2.93 times more likely to have fibrosis than the 7-9 years old age group (P = 0.004). The study highlights the high burden of S. mansoni disease in this area and calls for immediate interventions to avert complications associated with the disease.

  11. Hepatitis E Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lhomme, Sébastien; Marion, Olivier; Abravanel, Florence; Chapuy-Regaud, Sabine; Kamar, Nassim; Izopet, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Although most hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are asymptomatic, some can be severe, causing fulminant hepatitis and extra-hepatic manifestations, including neurological and kidney injuries. Chronic HEV infections may also occur in immunocompromised patients. This review describes how our understanding of the pathogenesis of HEV infection has progressed in recent years. PMID:27527210

  12. What Is Hepatitis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... عربي 中文 English Français Русский Español What is hepatitis? Online Q&A Reviewed July 2016 Q: What ... Question and answer archives Submit a question World Hepatitis Day Know hepatitis - Act now Event notice Key ...

  13. Quail Egg compared to a quarter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Quail eggs are small (shown here with a quarter for scale) and develop quickly, making them ideal for space experiments. The Avian Development Facility (ADF) supports 36 eggs in two carousels (below), one of which rotates to provide a 1-g control for comparing to eggs grown in microgravity. The ADF originated in NASA's Shuttle Student Involvement program in the 1980s and was developed under the NASA Small Business Irnovation Research program. In late 2001, the ADF made its first flight and carried eggs used in two investigations, Development and function of the inner-ear balance system in normal and altered gravity environments, and Skeletal development in embryonic quail.

  14. [Allergy to egg proteins in children].

    PubMed

    Góngora-Meléndez, Marco Antonio; Magaña-Cobos, Armando; Montiel-Herrera, Juan Manuel; Pantoja-Minguela, Cinthya Lorena; Pineda-Maldonado, Mario Luis; Piñeyro-Beltrán, Eduardo Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy prevalence has increased during the last years, affecting 15-20% of children, in this case, egg allergy affects from 0.5-2.5%. Most of the egg allergic reactions are type I or IgE mediated antibodies against egg proteins. Five major proteins have been identified: ovomucoid (Gal d1), ovoalbumin (Gal d2), ovotransferrin (Gal d3), lysozyme (Gal d4) and albumin (Gal d5). Ovomucoid protein, which is found in the egg white, is heat resistant and enzyme resistant. This protein is the most allergenic and the most common in egg composition. Clinical diagnosis requires a detailed questionnaire. Skin prick test or Ige specific diagnosis are made as first choice. Skin prick tests are quick and useful to determine the presence of IgE specific antibodies to egg. Specific IgE for egg can be measured using standarized IgE studies in vitro, making a quantitative measure. Traditionally with the clinical history a diagnosis can be made. Standarized oral double blinded-placebo controlled challenge continues to be the gold standard for food allergy diagnosis. The identification and elimination of egg proteins from the diet is the primary treatment and the only one validated to this food, but there are more studies needed to stablish protocols for each specific egg allergen before the oral inmunotherapy becomes a routine practice.

  15. Egg freezing: a breakthrough for reproductive autonomy?

    PubMed

    Harwood, Karey

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the relatively new technology of freezing human eggs and examines whether egg freezing, specifically when it is used by healthy women as 'insurance' against age-related infertility, is a legitimate exercise of reproductive autonomy. Although egg freezing has the potential to expand women's reproductive options and thus may represent a breakthrough for reproductive autonomy, I argue that without adequate information about likely outcomes and risks, women may be choosing to freeze their eggs in a commercially exploitative context, thus undermining rather than expanding reproductive autonomy.

  16. Hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Burra, Patrizia

    2009-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of end-stage liver disease worldwide and the most common indication for liver transplantation in the United States and Europe. HCV nearly always recurs in liver-transplanted patients, and 10 to 25% of them develop cirrhosis within 5 to 10 years. One of the strategies suggested to limit virological HCV recurrence is pretransplant antiviral treatment, but studies are warranted on the pharmacokinetics of antiviral drugs in cirrhotic patients, the benefits of fixed or escalating antiviral drug dosage schedules, the duration of the treatment, and the indications for using growth factors. Several risk factors are associated with a more aggressive recurrent HCV and early allograft failure, such as an older donor age. The relationship between immunosuppression and fibrosis progression in HCV recurrence remains uncertain. Concerning the antiviral treatment, treating established recurrent disease with a combination of interferon and ribavirin has been the mainstay of management to date, but when it is best to start and how to manage the side effects are still controversial issues. Antiviral treatment should be started once the disease has been confirmed by a biopsy when the fibrosis develops, providing that ongoing acute or chronic rejection, biliary obstruction, vascular damage, autoimmune diseases and sepsis, and any other standard contraindications for antiviral therapy, have been excluded. HCV recurrence after liver transplantation may well lead to graft failure and become an indication for retransplantation, but this is done in a relatively small number of cases, accounting for only 3 to 5% of retransplanted patients, since retransplantation is associated with much worse results than primary liver transplant procedures. We must be prepared for the fact that increasing numbers of HCV-positive recipients with allografts failing due to recurrent HCV will be asking to be retransplanted-and we do not know yet how to respond to this

  17. The Burden of Human African Trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Fèvre, Eric M.; Wissmann, Beatrix v.; Welburn, Susan C.; Lutumba, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, or sleeping sickness) is a protozoan parasitic infection caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense or Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. These are neglected tropical diseases, and T.b. rhodesiense HAT is a zoonosis. We review current knowledge on the burden of HAT in sub-Saharan Africa, with an emphasis on the disability-adjusted life year (DALY), data sources, and methodological issues relating to the use of this metric for assessing the burden of this disease. We highlight areas where data are lacking to properly quantify the impact of these diseases, mainly relating to quantifying under-reporting and disability associated with infection, and challenge the HAT research community to tackle the neglect in data gathering to enable better evidence-based assessments of burden using DALYs or other appropriate measures. PMID:19104653

  18. Influenza Burden and Transmission in the Tropics.

    PubMed

    Ng, Sophia; Gordon, Aubree

    Each year, influenza causes substantial mortality and morbidity worldwide. It is important to understand influenza in the tropics because of the significant burden in the region and its relevance to global influenza circulation. In this review, influenza burden, transmission dynamics, and their determinants in the tropics are discussed. Environmental, cultural, and social conditions in the tropics are very diverse and often differ from those of temperate regions. Theories that account for and predict influenza dynamics in temperate regions do not fully explain influenza epidemic patterns observed in the tropics. Routine surveillance and household studies have been useful in understanding influenza dynamics in the tropics, but these studies have been limited to only some regions; there is still a lack of information regarding influenza burden and transmission dynamics in many tropical countries. Further studies in the tropics will provide useful insight on many questions that remain.

  19. Burden attributable to child maltreatment in Australia.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sophie E; Scott, James G; Ferrari, Alize J; Mills, Ryan; Dunne, Michael P; Erskine, Holly E; Devries, Karen M; Degenhardt, Louisa; Vos, Theo; Whiteford, Harvey A; McCarthy, Molly; Norman, Rosana E

    2015-10-01

    Child maltreatment is a complex phenomenon, with four main types (childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect) highly interrelated. All types of maltreatment have been linked to adverse health consequences and exposure to multiple forms of maltreatment increases risk. In Australia to date, only burden attributable to childhood sexual abuse has been estimated. This study synthesized the national evidence and quantified the burden attributable to the four main types of child maltreatment. Meta-analyses, based on quality-effects models, generated pooled prevalence estimates for each maltreatment type. Exposure to child maltreatment was examined as a risk factor for depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm using counterfactual estimation and comparative risk assessment methods. Adjustments were made for co-occurrence of multiple forms of child maltreatment. Overall, an estimated 23.5% of self-harm, 20.9% of anxiety disorders and 15.7% of depressive disorders burden in males; and 33.0% of self-harm, 30.6% of anxiety disorders and 22.8% of depressive disorders burden in females was attributable to child maltreatment. Child maltreatment was estimated to cause 1.4% (95% uncertainty interval 0.4-2.3%) of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in males, and 2.4% (0.7-4.1%) of all DALYs in females in Australia in 2010. Child maltreatment contributes to a substantial proportion of burden from depressive and anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm in Australia. This study demonstrates the importance of including all forms of child maltreatment as risk factors in future burden of disease studies.

  20. Genetic parameters of egg defects and egg quality in layer chickens.

    PubMed

    Wolc, A; Arango, J; Settar, P; O'Sullivan, N P; Olori, V E; White, I M S; Hill, W G; Dekkers, J C M

    2012-06-01

    Genetic parameters were estimated for egg defects, egg production, and egg quality traits. Eggs from 11,738 purebred brown-egg laying hens were classified as salable or as having one of the following defects: bloody, broken, calcium deposit, dirty, double yolk, misshapen, pee-wee, shell-less, and soft shelled. Egg quality included albumen height, egg weight, yolk weight, and puncture score. Body weight, age at sexual maturity, and egg production were also recorded. Heritability estimates of liability to defects using a threshold animal model were less than 0.1 for bloody and dirty; between 0.1 and 0.2 for pee-wee, broken, misshapen, soft shelled, and shell-less; and above 0.2 for calcium deposit and double yolk. Quality and production traits were more heritable, with estimates ranging from 0.29 (puncture score) to 0.74 (egg weight). High-producing hens had a lower frequency of egg defects. High egg weight and BW were associated with an increased frequency of double yolks, and to a lesser extent, with more shell quality defects. Estimates of genetic correlations among defect traits that were related to shell quality were positive and moderate to strong (0.24-0.73), suggesting that these could be grouped into one category or selection could be based on the trait with the highest heritability or that is easiest to measure. Selection against defective eggs would be more efficient by including egg defect traits in the selection criterion, along with egg production rate of salable eggs and egg quality traits.

  1. Using 3D printed eggs to examine the egg-rejection behaviour of wild birds.

    PubMed

    Igic, Branislav; Nunez, Valerie; Voss, Henning U; Croston, Rebecca; Aidala, Zachary; López, Analía V; Van Tatenhove, Aimee; Holford, Mandë E; Shawkey, Matthew D; Hauber, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    The coevolutionary relationships between brood parasites and their hosts are often studied by examining the egg rejection behaviour of host species using artificial eggs. However, the traditional methods for producing artificial eggs out of plasticine, plastic, wood, or plaster-of-Paris are laborious, imprecise, and prone to human error. As an alternative, 3D printing may reduce human error, enable more precise manipulation of egg size and shape, and provide a more accurate and replicable protocol for generating artificial stimuli than traditional methods. However, the usefulness of 3D printing technology for egg rejection research remains to be tested. Here, we applied 3D printing technology to the extensively studied egg rejection behaviour of American robins, Turdus migratorius. Eggs of the robin's brood parasites, brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater, vary greatly in size and shape, but it is unknown whether host egg rejection decisions differ across this gradient of natural variation. We printed artificial eggs that encompass the natural range of shapes and sizes of cowbird eggs, painted them to resemble either robin or cowbird egg colour, and used them to artificially parasitize nests of breeding wild robins. In line with previous studies, we show that robins accept mimetically coloured and reject non-mimetically coloured artificial eggs. Although we found no evidence that subtle differences in parasitic egg size or shape affect robins' rejection decisions, 3D printing will provide an opportunity for more extensive experimentation on the potential biological or evolutionary significance of size and shape variation of foreign eggs in rejection decisions. We provide a detailed protocol for generating 3D printed eggs using either personal 3D printers or commercial printing services, and highlight additional potential future applications for this technology in the study of egg rejection.

  2. Using 3D printed eggs to examine the egg-rejection behaviour of wild birds

    PubMed Central

    Nunez, Valerie; Voss, Henning U.; Croston, Rebecca; Aidala, Zachary; López, Analía V.; Van Tatenhove, Aimee; Holford, Mandë E.; Shawkey, Matthew D.; Hauber, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    The coevolutionary relationships between brood parasites and their hosts are often studied by examining the egg rejection behaviour of host species using artificial eggs. However, the traditional methods for producing artificial eggs out of plasticine, plastic, wood, or plaster-of-Paris are laborious, imprecise, and prone to human error. As an alternative, 3D printing may reduce human error, enable more precise manipulation of egg size and shape, and provide a more accurate and replicable protocol for generating artificial stimuli than traditional methods. However, the usefulness of 3D printing technology for egg rejection research remains to be tested. Here, we applied 3D printing technology to the extensively studied egg rejection behaviour of American robins, Turdus migratorius. Eggs of the robin’s brood parasites, brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater, vary greatly in size and shape, but it is unknown whether host egg rejection decisions differ across this gradient of natural variation. We printed artificial eggs that encompass the natural range of shapes and sizes of cowbird eggs, painted them to resemble either robin or cowbird egg colour, and used them to artificially parasitize nests of breeding wild robins. In line with previous studies, we show that robins accept mimetically coloured and reject non-mimetically coloured artificial eggs. Although we found no evidence that subtle differences in parasitic egg size or shape affect robins’ rejection decisions, 3D printing will provide an opportunity for more extensive experimentation on the potential biological or evolutionary significance of size and shape variation of foreign eggs in rejection decisions. We provide a detailed protocol for generating 3D printed eggs using either personal 3D printers or commercial printing services, and highlight additional potential future applications for this technology in the study of egg rejection. PMID:26038720

  3. Share of Afghanistan populace in hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection's pool: is it worthwhile?

    PubMed

    Khan, Sanaullah; Attaullah, Sobia

    2011-05-11

    There is a notable dearth of data about Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) prevalence in Afghanistan. Awareness program and research capacity in the field of hepatitis are very limited in Afghanistan. Number of vulnerabilities and patterns of risk behaviors signal the need to take action now. Thirty one studies dating from October 2003 to 2011 were included, consisting the data of 132,981 individuals for HBV and 132,500 individuals for HCV. Percentage prevalence was 1.9% for HBV and 1.1% for HCV in all available Afghanistan population. Most at risk population to hepatitis include injecting drug users who share needles and female sex workers, while truck drivers, prisoners and homosexual men needs attention, as their statistical figure are missing. Data suggests that high incidence of intravenous drug use, sexual activities, unsafe blood transfusion procedures and mobility are major risk factors for hepatitis transmission. This review is based on analysis of the limited available data in Afghanistan. Although there are many underlying vulnerability factors, it appears that Afghanistan remains at an early epidemic phase. Further research is required to determine the seroprevalence and prevalent genotype(s) of HBV and HCV in all provinces in Afghanistan. This article provides some key insights into the potential and likely future transmission dynamics of hepatitis which will serve as a guide in the identification of priority areas in term of high risk groups and risk behaviours in the country and will assist to develop urgent strategic plans to combat the future burden of hepatitis in Afghanistan.

  4. Strategies to control hepatitis B: Public policy, epidemiology, vaccine and drugs.

    PubMed

    Locarnini, Stephen; Hatzakis, Angelos; Chen, Ding-Shinn; Lok, Anna

    2015-04-01

    The last 50 years of hepatitis B research has resulted in the development of effective screening assays for surveillance, vaccines for prevention and antiviral drugs that significantly improve patient clinical outcomes. Not surprisingly then, the global epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is set to change dramatically over the next decade. For example, the success and the high coverage of universal HBV vaccination and the ageing cohorts of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) will result in reductions of incidence and prevalence of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and probably hepatocellular carcinoma. This will be further accelerated by the impressive progress in the treatment outcomes for patients with CHB. In spite of this success, challenges remain, such as planning for the impact of migration from countries with high prevalence rates to those countries with low rates of HBV infection. The recent establishment of the World Health Organisation Global Hepatitis Program with the provision of a framework for global action has become the cornerstone for all countries to now frame their own particular national responses to control hepatitis B. An effective policy framework can prevent new infections, ensure people can access clinical care, and in doing so reduce the burden of infection at an individual, country and regional level. These developments present a real opportunity to reduce the significant, social and economic burden of global hepatitis B, ultimately the critical next steps to render the world hepatitis B free.

  5. Effects of processing on barriers of bacterial invasion in shell eggs and egg products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To project a developing embryo, there are many physical and chemical barriers inherent in eggs for the prevention of invasion by bacteria and other microorganisms. As versatile as they are nutritious, eggs are subjected to many types of processing – from washing, grading, and packing shell eggs to ...

  6. Interspecific differences in egg production affect egg trace element concentrations after a coal fly ash spill.

    PubMed

    Van Dyke, James U; Beck, Michelle L; Jackson, Brian P; Hopkins, William A

    2013-12-03

    In oviparous vertebrates, trace elements transfer from mother to offspring during egg production. For animals that produce eggs slowly, like turtles, the trace element concentration of each egg reflects an integration of dietary and stored accumulation over the duration of vitellogenesis. Because turtles also produce eggs synchronously, all eggs within a clutch should exhibit uniform trace element concentrations. In contrast, for animals that produce eggs in sequence and primarily from current dietary resources, like many birds, the trace element concentrations of eggs should be less uniform within a clutch, and likely reflect short-term changes in dietary exposure. We tested the hypothesis that stinkpot turtle (Sternotherus odoratus) clutches exhibit lower variability and higher repeatability in barium, selenium, strontium, and thallium concentrations than those of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) from a site impacted by a recent coal ash spill. All four trace elements exhibited significantly lower variability and significantly higher repeatability in stinkpot clutches than in swallow clutches. Mean trace element concentrations of stinkpot eggs were also significantly higher than those of swallow eggs although both species feed primarily on aquatic invertebrates. Variability in swallow egg trace element concentrations was partially due to significant laying order effects. Our results support the hypothesis that interspecific variation in the source of resources and in the synchronicity and rate of egg production can lead to interspecific differences in the variability of egg trace element concentrations.

  7. Short preincubations during egg storage increase hatchability and chick quality in long-stored broiler eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have investigated the efficacy of the SPIDES (short pre-incubations during egg storage) regimen in restoration of hatchability of broiler eggs during 21-day cool storage. Prolonged cool storage reduced hatchability of stored eggs from 92% to 71%. Alternatively, the SPIDES treatment, which consi...

  8. Penetration depth of UV in liquid egg white and whole egg

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nonthermal pasteurization of apple cider using UV light is a well established commercial process. Yet, the extension of UV technology to pasteurizing liquid egg has not occurred, partially due to the limited penetration depth of UV in egg. Therefore, in designing thin film UV reactors for egg produc...

  9. Egg freezing and egg banking: empowerment and alienation in assisted reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, John A.

    2014-01-01

    With the development of rapid freezing of human oocytes, many programs have reported IVF success rates comparable to those achieved with fresh eggs and thawed frozen embryos. Egg freezing is now gaining professional and regulatory acceptance as a safe and effective technique for women who wish to avoid discarding excess embryos, who face fertility-threatening medical treatments, or who want to preserve their eggs for use when they are better situated to have a family. This article focuses on the uses of and justification for egg freezing, the path to professional acceptance, the variability in success rates, and the controversy over freezing eggs for social rather than medical reasons. It also addresses the emergence of egg banking as a separate sector in the infertility industry, the regulatory issues that it poses, and its effect on egg donation. Key here is the legal control of stored eggs by banking women and their options when they wish to dispose of those eggs. The analysis is framed around empowerment and alienation. Egg freezing is generally empowering for women, but the donation or sale of unused eggs to infertile women, egg bankers, and researchers also raises issues of alienation. PMID:27774158

  10. Egg freezing and egg banking: empowerment and alienation in assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Robertson, John A

    2014-06-01

    With the development of rapid freezing of human oocytes, many programs have reported IVF success rates comparable to those achieved with fresh eggs and thawed frozen embryos. Egg freezing is now gaining professional and regulatory acceptance as a safe and effective technique for women who wish to avoid discarding excess embryos, who face fertility-threatening medical treatments, or who want to preserve their eggs for use when they are better situated to have a family. This article focuses on the uses of and justification for egg freezing, the path to professional acceptance, the variability in success rates, and the controversy over freezing eggs for social rather than medical reasons. It also addresses the emergence of egg banking as a separate sector in the infertility industry, the regulatory issues that it poses, and its effect on egg donation. Key here is the legal control of stored eggs by banking women and their options when they wish to dispose of those eggs. The analysis is framed around empowerment and alienation. Egg freezing is generally empowering for women, but the donation or sale of unused eggs to infertile women, egg bankers, and researchers also raises issues of alienation.

  11. Effects of egg size on Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) egg composition and hatchling phenotype.

    PubMed

    Dzialowski, Edward M; Reed, Wendy L; Sotherland, Paul R

    2009-02-01

    Maternal investment of yolk and albumen in avian eggs varies with egg mass and contributes to variation in hatchling mass. Here we use the natural variation in mass and composition of Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) eggs to examine consequences of variation in yolk and albumen mass on hatchling phenotype. The Double-crested Cormorant, a large bird with altricial young, lays eggs ranging in mass from 40 to 60 g and containing an average of 82% albumen and 18% yolk. Variation in Cormorant egg mass arises primarily from variation in the amount of albumen and water in the eggs; yolk mass remains relatively constant, contributing only 10% to egg mass variation. Likewise, variation in hatchling mass correlates positively with albumen mass and albumen solids contribute to hatchling dry mass. Thus, variation in Cormorant egg mass is primarily the result of variation in the amount of egg albumen, which contributes most to variation in hatchling mass. Similarities in egg composition of altricial birds, along with data presented here, suggest that variation in hatchling mass of all altricial birds may depend most on the amount of egg albumen, unlike species with precocial young that hatch from eggs with substantially more yolk.

  12. 9 CFR 590.549 - Dried egg storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dried egg storage. 590.549 Section 590.549 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary,...

  13. 7 CFR 57.925 - Inspection of imported eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inspection of imported eggs. 57.925 Section 57.925... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Imports § 57.925 Inspection...

  14. 9 CFR 590.532 - Liquid egg holding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Liquid egg holding. 590.532 Section 590.532 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary,...

  15. 9 CFR 590.530 - Liquid egg cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Liquid egg cooling. 590.530 Section 590.530 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary,...

  16. 7 CFR 1250.304 - Egg Board or Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Egg Board or Board. 1250.304 Section 1250.304... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.304 Egg Board or Board. Egg Board or Board or...

  17. 9 CFR 590.549 - Dried egg storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dried egg storage. 590.549 Section 590.549 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary,...

  18. 7 CFR 57.35 - Eggs in commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eggs in commerce. 57.35 Section 57.35 Agriculture... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Relation to Other Authorities §...

  19. 9 CFR 590.530 - Liquid egg cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Liquid egg cooling. 590.530 Section 590.530 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary,...

  20. 7 CFR 57.925 - Inspection of imported eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inspection of imported eggs. 57.925 Section 57.925... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Imports § 57.925 Inspection...

  1. 7 CFR 1250.304 - Egg Board or Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg Board or Board. 1250.304 Section 1250.304... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.304 Egg Board or Board. Egg Board or Board or...

  2. 9 CFR 590.532 - Liquid egg holding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liquid egg holding. 590.532 Section 590.532 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary,...

  3. 7 CFR 1250.305 - Egg producer or producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Egg producer or producer. 1250.305 Section 1250.305... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.305 Egg producer or producer. Egg producer or...

  4. 9 CFR 590.530 - Liquid egg cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Liquid egg cooling. 590.530 Section 590.530 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary,...

  5. 7 CFR 1250.304 - Egg Board or Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Egg Board or Board. 1250.304 Section 1250.304... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.304 Egg Board or Board. Egg Board or Board or...

  6. 7 CFR 57.925 - Inspection of imported eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inspection of imported eggs. 57.925 Section 57.925... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Imports § 57.925 Inspection...

  7. 9 CFR 590.549 - Dried egg storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dried egg storage. 590.549 Section 590.549 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary,...

  8. 9 CFR 590.549 - Dried egg storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dried egg storage. 590.549 Section 590.549 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary,...

  9. 7 CFR 1250.304 - Egg Board or Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Egg Board or Board. 1250.304 Section 1250.304... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.304 Egg Board or Board. Egg Board or Board or...

  10. 7 CFR 57.35 - Eggs in commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eggs in commerce. 57.35 Section 57.35 Agriculture... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Relation to Other Authorities §...

  11. 7 CFR 1250.304 - Egg Board or Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Egg Board or Board. 1250.304 Section 1250.304... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.304 Egg Board or Board. Egg Board or Board or...

  12. 7 CFR 1250.305 - Egg producer or producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Egg producer or producer. 1250.305 Section 1250.305... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.305 Egg producer or producer. Egg producer or...

  13. 9 CFR 590.530 - Liquid egg cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liquid egg cooling. 590.530 Section 590.530 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary,...

  14. 7 CFR 57.35 - Eggs in commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eggs in commerce. 57.35 Section 57.35 Agriculture... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Relation to Other Authorities §...

  15. 7 CFR 1250.305 - Egg producer or producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg producer or producer. 1250.305 Section 1250.305... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.305 Egg producer or producer. Egg producer or...

  16. 7 CFR 57.925 - Inspection of imported eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection of imported eggs. 57.925 Section 57.925... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Imports § 57.925 Inspection...

  17. 9 CFR 590.549 - Dried egg storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dried egg storage. 590.549 Section 590.549 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary,...

  18. 7 CFR 1250.305 - Egg producer or producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Egg producer or producer. 1250.305 Section 1250.305... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.305 Egg producer or producer. Egg producer or...

  19. 9 CFR 590.532 - Liquid egg holding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Liquid egg holding. 590.532 Section 590.532 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary,...

  20. 7 CFR 1250.305 - Egg producer or producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Egg producer or producer. 1250.305 Section 1250.305... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.305 Egg producer or producer. Egg producer or...

  1. 9 CFR 590.532 - Liquid egg holding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Liquid egg holding. 590.532 Section 590.532 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary,...

  2. 9 CFR 590.530 - Liquid egg cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Liquid egg cooling. 590.530 Section 590.530 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary,...

  3. 7 CFR 57.925 - Inspection of imported eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inspection of imported eggs. 57.925 Section 57.925... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Imports § 57.925 Inspection...

  4. 9 CFR 590.532 - Liquid egg holding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Liquid egg holding. 590.532 Section 590.532 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary,...

  5. Burden of end-stage kidney disease: North Africa.

    PubMed

    Barsoum, Rashad S

    Geographical, ecological, and genetic factors result in many similarities among the six main countries of the African Sahara, including the epidemiology of kidney disease. With an average incidence of 182 and prevalence of 522 patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) per million population, North Africa (NA) spends $650 million on dialysis and transplantation despite an estimated annual loss of 600,000 life years. The health burden of ESKD is not limited to its directly-related morbidity and mortality but affects even more significantly other body systems, particularly the cardiovascular system. In addition, dialysis units are reservoirs for infectious agents, such as hepatitis-C (HCV) and -B (HBV) viruses, and methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRSA), which threaten the health of the community. Shortage of financial resources eventually creates inequity of health care at large since only the rich are able to find their way around the limited public services. ESKD is no exception; inequity being even further augmented by the trade of organs, particularly in Egypt. This is attributed to high demand in the absence of a deceased donor program and in the presence of a pool of young, healthy, unemployed potential donors who have no access to any social security plans. Many attempts to face the challenge of accommodating ESKD management in NA are underway, including relevant legislations, promoting deceased donor transplants, chronic kidney disease (CKD) prevention and early detection programs, and generating nontraditionally directed financial resources.

  6. Effects of the mosquito larvicide GB-1111 on bird eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Albers, P.H.; Melancon, M.J.; Miles, A.K.

    2004-01-01

    Golden Bear Oil (GB-1111; legal trade name for GB-1313) is a petroleum distillate used in the United States and other countries as a mosquito larvicide. As part of an evaluation of the potential effects of GB-1111 on birds, fertile eggs of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) were incubated in the laboratory, and treated on day 4 of incubation with external applications equivalent to either 0, 1/3, 1, 3 or 10 times the maximum rate (X) of 47 l/ha (5 gal/A) of field application of GB-1111. Hatching success was significantly reduced in mallards treated at 3 and 10 times the maximum field application, with a calculated approximate LD50 of 1.9 times the maximum field application. Most mortality occurred within a week of treatment. Hepatic P450-associated monooxygenase activity (ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase; EROD) was negatively related to dose. In the 3X group there was a significant increase in the concentration of hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) but a decrease in proteinbound thiols (PBSH). Hatching success of bobwhite was marginally reduced at the highest level of treatment (10X). Other effects at this level in bobwhite included a significant increase in incidence of abnormal embryos or hatchlings, lower body and liver weights, and a twofold increase in hepatic microsomal EROD activity in hatchlings. The recommended maximum rate of field application of GB-1111 is unlikely to impair the survival or development of bobwhite embryos but is potentially toxic to mallard embryos under conditions of larvicide drift or spray overlap.

  7. Eggs under pressure: components of water potential of chameleon eggs during incubation.

    PubMed

    Adams, Geoffrey K; Andrews, Robin M; Noble, Lydia M

    2010-01-01

    Water exchange of squamate eggs is driven by the difference between the water potentials of eggs and of their nest environment. While osmotic potential is generally assumed to dominate the net water potential of eggs, resistance of the eggshell to stretching also affects egg water potential. We therefore determined osmotic potentials and pressure potentials (mechanical pressure) of eggs of the veiled chameleon Chamaeleo calyptratus over the course of incubation. Because embryos are diapausing gastrulae when eggs are laid and diapause persists several months, the water potential of eggs can be evaluated before it is influenced by the developing embryo. Water uptake during the first 2 wk of incubation was rapid as a result of the large difference between the total water potential of the egg (-848 kPa) and that of its incubation substrate. After about 2 wk, water potential of the egg stabilized at -460 kPa. By day 80 of incubation, the developing embryo and allantois affected water exchange of the egg. The allantoic fluid was initially very dilute, but its osmotic potential decreased to about -200 kPa by the end of incubation. Pressure potential of the egg averaged 25 kPa, with no systematic trend during incubation. The pressure potential exerted by the eggshell reduced the difference between the water potential of the egg and the water potential of the environment, that is, the ability of eggs to take up water. At the time of oviposition, this effect was relatively small, producing a 4%-6% reduction in water potential difference. Once the yolk osmotic potential stabilized, however, the reduction was 12% or more. This observation means that the dynamics of water uptake by squamate eggs cannot be fully understood without consideration of the pressure that is exerted on the contents of eggs by their shells.

  8. 9 CFR 82.8 - Interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area. 82.8 Section 82.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... Interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area. (a) Eggs, other than...

  9. 77 FR 28518 - Reducing Regulatory Burden

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... the least burden on society, consistent with obtaining the regulatory objectives, taking into account..., consistent with applicable law, agencies select, in choosing among alternative regulatory approaches, those... rules in accordance with the law and to the best of its analytic capability, it is difficult to...

  10. 77 FR 47328 - Reducing Regulatory Burden

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... regulations to impose the least burden on society, consistent with obtaining the regulatory objectives, taking...; and that, consistent with applicable law, agencies select, in choosing among alternative regulatory... accordance with the law and to the best of its analytic capability, it is difficult to be certain of...

  11. Shift Would Add Burden on Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killion, Joellen

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how the transition from district-centered to school-based staff development can add to the burden on principals. This column first presents a brief review of the efforts of Braxton Hinsdale, a staff development director who advocated for moving professional development resources from the district level to the…

  12. Burden of neurological conditions in Canada.

    PubMed

    Gaskin, J; Gomes, J; Darshan, S; Krewski, D

    2016-05-03

    Neurological conditions are among the leading causes of disability in the Canadian population and are associated with a large public health burden. An increase in life expectancy and a declining birth rate has resulted in an aging Canadian population, and the proportion of age-adjusted mortality due to non-communicable diseases has been steadily increasing. These conditions are frequently associated with chronic disability and an increasing burden of care for patients, their families and caregivers. The National Population Health Study of Neurological Conditions (NPHSNC) aims to improve knowledge about neurological conditions and their impacts on individuals, their families, caregivers and health care system. The Systematic Review of Determinants of Neurological Conditions, a specific objective within the NPHSNC, is a compendium of systematic reviews on risk factors affecting onset and progression of the following 14 priority neurological conditions: Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), brain tumours (BT), cerebral palsy (CP), dystonia, epilepsy, Huntington's disease (HD), hydrocephalus, multiple sclerosis (MS), muscular dystrophies (MD), neurotrauma, Parkinson's disease (PD), spina bifida (SB), and Tourette's syndrome (TS). The burden of neurological disease is expected to increase as the population ages, and this trend is presented in greater detail for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease because the incidence of these two common neurological diseases increases significantly with age over 65 years. This article provides an overview of burden of neurological diseases in Canada to set the stage for the in-depth systematic reviews of the 14 priority neurological conditions presented in subsequent articles in this issue.

  13. Acute Gastroenteritis and Recreational Water: Highest Burden ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    OBJECT I VES : To provide summary estimates of gastroenteritis risks and illness burden associated with recreational water exposure and determine whether children have higher risks and burden.METHODS: We combined individual participant data from 13 prospective cohorts at marine and freshwater beaches throughout the United States (n = 84 411). We measured incident outcomes within 10 days of exposure: diarrhea, gastrointestinal illness, missed daily activity (work, school, vacation), and medical visits. We estimated the relationship between outcomes and 2 exposures: body immersion swimming and Enterococcus spp. fecal indicator bacteria levels in the water. We also estimated the population-attributable risk associated with these exposures.RESULTS: Water exposure accounted for 21% of diarrhea episodes and 9% of missed daily activities but was unassociated with gastroenteritis leading to medical consultation. Children aged 0 to 4 and 5 to 10 years had the most water exposure, exhibited stronger associations between levels of water quality and illness, and accounted for the largest attributable illness burden.CONCLUSIONS: The higher gastroenteritis risk and associated burden in young children presents important new information to inform future recreational water quality guidelines designed to protect public health. Meta-analysis of 13 beach sites and nearly 90,000 subjects found that swimming at the beach increased diarrhea incidence and individuals who swam in water

  14. Hospitalization Burden among Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lokhandwala, Tasneem; Khanna, Rahul; West-Strum, Donna

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the inpatient care burden among individuals with autism using the 2007 Health Care Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample [HCUP NIS]). There were approximately 26,000 hospitalizations among individuals with autism in 2007, with an overall rate of 65.6/100,000 admissions. Rates of hospitalizations…

  15. OPERATOR BURDEN IN METAL ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Amy M; Love, Lonnie J

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is an emerging manufacturing process that creates usable machine parts via layer-by-layer joining of a stock material. With this layer-wise approach, high-performance geometries can be created which are impossible with traditional manufacturing methods. Metal AM technology has the potential to significantly reduce the manufacturing burden of developing custom hardware; however, a major consideration in choosing a metal AM system is the required amount of operator involvement (i.e., operator burden) in the manufacturing process. The operator burden not only determines the amount of operator training and specialization required but also the usability of the system in a facility. As operators of several metal AM processes, the Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Labs is uniquely poised to provide insight into requirements for operator involvement in each of the three major metal AM processes. The paper covers an overview of each of the three metal AM technologies, focusing on the burden on the operator to complete the build cycle, process the part for final use, and reset the AM equipment for future builds.

  16. Effects of natural exposure to copper and zinc on egg size and larval copper tolerance in white sucker (Catostomus commersoni)

    SciTech Connect

    Munkittrick, K.R.; Dixon, D.G. )

    1989-08-01

    Sucker eggs were collected from a metal-contaminated site where previous collections had documented a maternal yolk factor associated with an increased larval copper tolerance during yolk nutrition. In this study, white sucker eggs were divided into groups which were water hardened and/or incubated at the contaminated site or a reference (control) site. Incubation at the contaminated site was associated with a decreased egg size and an increased deformity rate, but had no effect on fertilization rate or larval size. Incubation in contaminated streams increased the larval whole-body metal content, and decreased the tolerance and resistance of larvae exposed to copper in laboratory bioassays. An increase in water temperature accelerated the developmental rate of the larvae, but had no detectable effect on copper tolerance. Although metals did enter the eggs during water hardening, there was no difference in egg metallothionein content, and the lack of obvious hepatic activity until several days after hatching may prevent the formation of protective proteins. The authors hypothesize that the transfer of metals to white sucker eggs in association with yolk precursors, and the subsequent mobilization of these metals during yolk utilization, can account for the observed differences in larval tolerance and growth.

  17. Palaeontology: pterosaur egg with a leathery shell.

    PubMed

    Ji, Qiang; Ji, Shu-An; Cheng, Yen-Nien; You, Hai-Lu; Lü, Jun-Chang; Liu, Yong-Qing; Yuan, Chong-Xi

    2004-12-02

    The recent discovery of a pterosaur egg with embryonic skeleton and soft tissues from the Yixian Formation confirmed that the flying pterosaurs were oviparous. Here we describe another pterosaur egg whose exquisite preservation indicates that the shell structure was soft and leathery.

  18. Teaching Science: Air Pressure "Eggs-periments."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses how teachers can introduce students to various scientific concept concerning motion, air composition, and heat by conducting an experiment: A peeled, hard-boiled egg is sucked into a bottle neck slightly smaller than the egg, after the bottle has been filled and emptied of hot water. Also discusses how students' understanding of the…

  19. Alternative antimicrobial commercial egg washing procedures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial table eggs are washed prior to packaging. Standard wash procedures use an alkaline pH and warm water. If a cool water method could be developed that would still provide a microbiologically safe egg, the industry may save energy costs associated with water heating. Four wash procedures ...

  20. Female Zebra Finches Smell Their Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Golüke, Sarah; Dörrenberg, Sebastian; Krause, E. Tobias; Caspers, Barbara A.

    2016-01-01

    Parental investment in unrelated offspring seems maladaptive from an evolutionary perspective, due to the costs of energy and resources that cannot be invested in related offspring at the same time. Therefore selection should favour mechanisms to discriminate between own and foreign offspring. In birds, much emphasis has been placed on understanding the visual mechanisms underlying egg recognition. However, olfactory egg recognition has almost been completely ignored. Here, we investigated whether female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) are able to discriminate between their own and a conspecific egg based on olfactory cues alone. Zebra finches are colonial—breeding songbirds. Eggs are monomorphic, i.e. without any spotting pattern, and intraspecific brood parasitism frequently occurs. In a binary choice experiment, female zebra finches were given the choice between the scent of their own and a conspecific egg. After the onset of incubation, females chose randomly and showed no sign of discrimination. However, shortly before hatching, females preferred significantly the odour of their own egg. The finding that females are capable to smell their own egg may inspire more research on the potential of olfaction involved in egg recognition, especially in cases where visual cues might be limited. PMID:27192061

  1. 21 CFR 160.105 - Dried eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... liquid eggs. The quantity used and the time of reaction are sufficient to substantially reduce the... addition of dilute, chemically pure hydrochloric acid, and controlled fermentation is maintained by adding... reaction are sufficient to substantially reduce the glucose content of the liquid eggs. (c) The name of...

  2. 21 CFR 160.105 - Dried eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... liquid eggs. The quantity used and the time of reaction are sufficient to substantially reduce the... addition of dilute, chemically pure hydrochloric acid, and controlled fermentation is maintained by adding... reaction are sufficient to substantially reduce the glucose content of the liquid eggs. (c) The name of...

  3. 21 CFR 160.105 - Dried eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... liquid eggs. The quantity used and the time of reaction are sufficient to substantially reduce the... addition of dilute, chemically pure hydrochloric acid, and controlled fermentation is maintained by adding... reaction are sufficient to substantially reduce the glucose content of the liquid eggs. (c) The name of...

  4. A theoretical analysis of the electrogastrogram (EGG).

    PubMed

    Calder, Stefan; Cheng, Leo K; Peng Du

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a boundary element model was developed to investigate the relationship between the gastric electrical activity, also known as slow waves, and the electrogastrogram (EGG). A dipole was calculated to represent the equivalent net activity of gastric slow waves. The dipole was then placed in an anatomically-realistic torso model to simulate EGG. The torso model was constructed from a laser-scanned geometry of an adult male torso phantom with 190 electrode sites equally distributed around the torso so that simulated EGG could be directly compared between the physical model and the mathematical model. The results were analyzed using the Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT), spatial distribution of EGG potential and a resultant EGG based on a 3-lead configuration. The FFT results showed both the dipole and EGG contained identical dominant frequency component of 3 cycles per minute (cpm), with this result matching known physiological phenomenon. The -3 dB point of the EGG was 110 mm from the region directly above the dipole source. Finally, the results indicated that electrode coupling could theoretically be used in a similar fashion to ECG coupling to gain greater understanding of how EGG correlate to gastric slow waves.

  5. Salmonella and Impact on Egg Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a strong association between the incidence of human illness and the prevalence of Salmonella Enteritidis in commercial egg-producing poultry. Although most egg-associated disease around the world has been attributed to S. Enteritidis, other serovars are sometimes implicated. The deposition ...

  6. Experiments with the Viability of Chicken Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garigliano, Leonard J.

    1975-01-01

    Presents the results of an experiment designed to test two hypotheses: (1) a delay of two weeks at room temperature will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs and (2) refrigeration will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs. Experimenters were the author and two ninth-grade students. (PEB)

  7. Microbiology and Safety of Table Eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the microbiology of table eggs, effects of processing, regulatory influences, relative risk of egg-borne disease, and the role of retail and consumer practices in outbreaks. Effects of washing, refrigeration, and facility sanitation in US commercial facilities will be describe...

  8. Persistent environmental pollutants in eggs of aplomado falcons from Northern Chihuahua, Mexico, and south Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Mora, M A; Montoya, A B; Lee, M C; Macías-Duarte, A; Rodríguez-Salazar, R; Juergens, P W; Lafón-Terrazas, A

    2008-01-01

    The northern aplomado falcon (Falco femoralis septentrionalis) disappeared from south Texas in the 1940s. Due to great success in the release of captive-reared aplomado falcons in south Texas, there are currently more than 40 established nesting pairs in the region. Addled eggs from aplomado falcons nesting in northern Chihuahua and south Texas were analyzed to determine organochlorine (OC) and inorganic element contaminant burdens and their potential association with egg failures and effects on reproduction. Among the OCs, DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene] was present at the highest concentrations (range 262-21487 ng/g wet weight) followed by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, range 88-3274 ng/g ww). DDE was greater (P=0.03) in eggs from El Sueco (Chihuahua, Mexico) than in those from Matagorda Island (Texas, USA). DDE concentrations in eggs of aplomado falcons from El Sueco were elevated; however, reproductive success in the two Chihuahuan populations did not seem to be affected by DDE. DDE and metals in potential avian prey of the aplomado falcon from Matagorda Island were very low and below levels in the diet at which some negative effects might be expected. Except for mercury (Hg), metal concentrations in eggs were fairly low and were not different among locations in Chihuahua and south Texas. Hg was somewhat elevated and was greater (P<0.001) in Texas than in the Chihuahua locations. Periodic monitoring of Hg concentrations in addled eggs of aplomado falcons in south Texas is recommended to continue evaluating potential negative effects on their recovery.

  9. Persistent environmental pollutants in eggs of aplomado falcons from Northern Chihuahua, Mexico, and South Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mora, M.A.; Montoya, A.B.; Lee, M.C.; Macias-Duarte, Alberto; Rodriguez-Salazar, R.; Juergens, P.W.; Lafon-Terrazas, A.

    2008-01-01

    The northern aplomado falcon (Falco femoralis septentrionalis) disappeared from south Texas in the 1940s. Due to great success in the release of captive-reared aplomado falcons in south Texas, there are currently more than 40 established nesting pairs in the region. Addled eggs from aplomado falcons nesting in northern Chihuahua and south Texas were analyzed to determine organochlorine (OC) and inorganic element contaminant burdens and their potential association with egg failures and effects on reproduction. Among the OCs, DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene] was present at the highest concentrations (range 262-21487??ng/g wet weight) followed by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, range 88-3274??ng/g ww). DDE was greater (P = 0.03) in eggs from El Sueco (Chihuahua, Mexico) than in those from Matagorda Island (Texas, USA). DDE concentrations in eggs of aplomado falcons from El Sueco were elevated; however, reproductive success in the two Chihuahuan populations did not seem to be affected by DDE. DDE and metals in potential avian prey of the aplomado falcon from Matagorda Island were very low and below levels in the diet at which some negative effects might be expected. Except for mercury (Hg), metal concentrations in eggs were fairly low and were not different among locations in Chihuahua and south Texas. Hg was somewhat elevated and was greater (P < 0.001) in Texas than in the Chihuahua locations. Periodic monitoring of Hg concentrations in addled eggs of aplomado falcons in south Texas is recommended to continue evaluating potential negative effects on their recovery. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The burden of Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Landfeldt, Erik; Lindgren, Peter; Bell, Christopher F.; Schmitt, Claude; Guglieri, Michela; Straub, Volker; Lochmüller, Hanns

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to estimate the total cost of illness and economic burden of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Methods: Patients with DMD from Germany, Italy, United Kingdom, and United States were identified through Translational Research in Europe–Assessment & Treatment of Neuromuscular Diseases registries and invited to complete a questionnaire online together with a caregiver. Data on health care use, quality of life, work status, informal care, and household expenses were collected to estimate costs of DMD from the perspective of society and caregiver households. Results: A total of 770 patients (173 German, 122 Italian, 191 from the United Kingdom, and 284 from the United States) completed the questionnaire. Mean per-patient annual direct cost of illness was estimated at between $23,920 and $54,270 (2012 international dollars), 7 to 16 times higher than the mean per-capita health expenditure in these countries. Indirect and informal care costs were substantial, each constituting between 18% and 43% of total costs. The total societal burden was estimated at between $80,120 and $120,910 per patient and annum, and increased markedly with disease progression. The corresponding household burden was estimated at between $58,440 and $71,900. Conclusions: We show that DMD is associated with a substantial economic burden. Our results underscore the many different costs accompanying a rare condition such as DMD and the considerable economic burden carried by affected families. Our description of the previously unknown economic context of a rare disease serves as important intelligence input to health policy evaluations of intervention programs and novel therapies, financial support schemes for patients and their families, and the design of future cost studies. PMID:24991029

  11. How to measure the burden of mortality?

    PubMed Central

    Bonneux, L

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To explore various methods to quantify the burden of mortality, with a special interest for the more recent method at the core of calculations of disability adjusted life years (DALY). Design: Various methods calculating the age schedule at death are applied to two historical life table populations. One method calculates the "years of life lost", by multiplying the numbers of deaths at age x by the residual life expectancy. This residual life expectancy may be discounted and age weighted. The other method calculates the "potential years of life lost" by multiplying the numbers of deaths at age x by the years missing to reach a defined threshold (65 years or 75 years). Methods: The period life tables describing the mortality of Dutch male populations from 1900–10 (high mortality) and from 1990–1994 (low mortality). Results: A standard life table with idealised long life expectancy increases the burden of death more if mortality is lower. People at old age, more prevalent if mortality is low, lose more life years in an idealised life table. The discounted life table decreases the burden of death strongly if mortality is high: the life lost by a person dying at a young age is discounted. Age weighting the discounted life table balances the effect of discounting. Conclusions: For the purpose of description of the burden of mortality, the aggregate life table of the studied populations gives the better description of the age schedule at death. Discounting and the use of idealised lifetables as a standard increase the burden of mortality of degenerative disease at the end of life. The age weighted discounted life table violates the principle of parsimony. PMID:11812812

  12. Financial Burden of Health Care Expenditures: Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Sulku, S Nur; Bernard, D Minbay

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examine whether and to what extent the health insurance system in Turkey provided adequate protection against high out of pocket expenditures in the period prior to “The Health Transformation Programme”. Furthermore, we examine the distribution of out of pocket expenditures by demographic characteristics, poverty status, health service type, access to health care and self-reported health status. We employ the 2002/03 National Household Health Expenditure Survey data to analyze financial burden of health care expenditure. Following the literature, we define high burdens as expenses above 10 and 20% of income. We find that 19% of the nonelderly population were living in families spending more than 10% of family income and that 14% of the nonelderly population were living in families spending more than 20% of family income on health care. Furthermore, the poor and those living in economically less developed regions had the greatest risk of high out of pocket burdens. The risk of high financial burdens varied by the type of insurance among the insured due to differences in benefits among the five separate public schemes that provided health insurance in the pre-reform period. Our results are robust to three alternative specifications of the burden measure and including elderly adults in the sample population. We see that prior to the reforms there were not adequate protection against high health expenditures. Our study provides a baseline against which policymakers can measure the success of the health care reform in terms of providing financial protection. PMID:23113149

  13. Burden of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and advanced fibrosis in a Texas Hispanic community cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jen-Jung; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P; Chen, Chaoru; Feldstein, Ariel E; McCormick, Joseph B; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Beretta, Laura; Fallon, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the potential burden of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and advanced fibrosis in a hispanic community. METHODS: Four hundred and forty two participants with available ultrasonography data from the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort were included in this study. Each participant completed a comprehensive questionnaire regarding basic demographic information, medical history, medication use, and social and family history including alcohol use. Values of the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease fibrosis score (NFS), FIB4 index, BARD score, and Aspartate aminotransferase to Platelet Ratio Index (APRI) were computed using the blood samples collected within 6 mo of liver ultrasonography from each participant. Hepatic steatosis was determined by ultrasonography. As part of univariable analysis, for continuous variables, comparisons among groups were performed with student-t test, one way analysis of variance, and Mann-Whitney test. Pearson χ2 and the Fisher exact test are used to assess differences in categorical variables. For multivariable analyses, logistic regression analyses were performed to identify characteristics associated with hepatic steatosis. All reported P values are based two-sided tests, and a P value of less than 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. RESULTS: The mean age and body mass index (BMI) of the study participants were 49.1 years and 31.3 kg/m2, respectively. Among them, 65.6% were females, 52% had hepatic steatosis, 49.5% had metabolic syndrome, and 29% had elevated aminotransferases. Based on established cut-offs for diagnostic panels, between 17%-63% of the entire cohort was predicted to have NASH with indeterminate or advanced fibrosis. Participants with hepatic steatosis had significantly higher BMI (32.9 ± 5.6 kg/m2 vs 29.6 ± 6.1 kg/m2, P < 0.001) and higher prevalence rates of elevation of ALT (42.2% vs 14.6%, P < 0.001), elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (38.7% vs 18.9%, P < 0.001), and

  14. Strength in numbers: high parasite burdens increase transmission of a protozoan parasite of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus).

    PubMed

    de Roode, Jacobus C; Chi, Jean; Rarick, Rachel M; Altizer, Sonia

    2009-08-01

    Parasites often produce large numbers of offspring within their hosts. High parasite burdens are thought to be important for parasite transmission, but can also lower host fitness. We studied the protozoan Ophryocystis elektroscirrha, a common parasite of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus), to quantify the benefits of high parasite burdens for parasite transmission. This parasite is transmitted vertically when females scatter spores onto eggs and host plant leaves during oviposition; spores can also be transmitted between mating adults. Monarch larvae were experimentally infected and emerging adult females were mated and monitored in individual outdoor field cages. We provided females with fresh host plant material daily and quantified their lifespan and lifetime fecundity. Parasite transmission was measured by counting the numbers of parasite spores transferred to eggs and host plant leaves. We also quantified spores transferred from infected females to their mating partners. Infected monarchs had shorter lifespans and lower lifetime fecundity than uninfected monarchs. Among infected females, those with higher parasite loads transmitted more parasite spores to their eggs and to host plant leaves. There was also a trend for females with greater parasite loads to transmit more spores to their mating partners. These results demonstrate that high parasite loads on infected butterflies confer a strong fitness advantage to the parasite by increasing between-host transmission.

  15. Taurine drinking ameliorates hepatic granuloma and fibrosis in mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yan-Rong; Ni, Xian-Qiang; Huang, Jie; Zhu, Yong-Hong; Qi, Yong-Fen

    2016-04-01

    In schistosomiasis, egg-induced hepatic granuloma formation is a cytokine-mediated, predominantly CD4(+) Th2 immune response that can give rise to hepatic fibrosis. Hepatic fibrosis is the main cause of increased morbidity and mortality in humans with schistosome infection. Taurine has various physiological functions and hepatoprotective properties as well as anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity. However, little is known about the role of taurine in schistosome egg-induced granuloma formation and fibrosis. We aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of taurine as preventative treatment for Schistosoma japonicum infection. Mice infected with S. japonicum cercariae were supplied with taurine drinking water (1% w/v) for 4 weeks starting at 4 weeks post-infection. Taurine supplementation significantly improved the liver pathologic findings, reduced the serum levels of aminotransferases and area of hepatic granuloma, and prevented fibrosis progression. In addition, taurine decreased the expression of the granulomatous and fibrogenic mediators transforming growth factor β1, tumor necrosis factor α, monocyte chemotactic protein 1α and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α as well as the endoplasmic reticulum stress marker glucose-regulated protein 78. Thus, taurine can significantly attenuate S. japonicum egg-induced hepatic granuloma and fibrosis, which may depend in part on the downregulation of some relevant cytokine/chemokines and reducing the endoplasmic reticulum stress response.

  16. Taurine drinking ameliorates hepatic granuloma and fibrosis in mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yan-Rong; Ni, Xian-Qiang; Huang, Jie; Zhu, Yong-Hong; Qi, Yong-Fen

    2016-01-01

    In schistosomiasis, egg-induced hepatic granuloma formation is a cytokine-mediated, predominantly CD4+ Th2 immune response that can give rise to hepatic fibrosis. Hepatic fibrosis is the main cause of increased morbidity and mortality in humans with schistosome infection. Taurine has various physiological functions and hepatoprotective properties as well as anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity. However, little is known about the role of taurine in schistosome egg-induced granuloma formation and fibrosis. We aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of taurine as preventative treatment for Schistosoma japonicum infection. Mice infected with S. japonicum cercariae were supplied with taurine drinking water (1% w/v) for 4 weeks starting at 4 weeks post-infection. Taurine supplementation significantly improved the liver pathologic findings, reduced the serum levels of aminotransferases and area of hepatic granuloma, and prevented fibrosis progression. In addition, taurine decreased the expression of the granulomatous and fibrogenic mediators transforming growth factor β1, tumor necrosis factor α, monocyte chemotactic protein 1α and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α as well as the endoplasmic reticulum stress marker glucose-regulated protein 78. Thus, taurine can significantly attenuate S. japonicum egg-induced hepatic granuloma and fibrosis, which may depend in part on the downregulation of some relevant cytokine/chemokines and reducing the endoplasmic reticulum stress response. PMID:27054062

  17. Evolution and manipulation of parasitoid egg load.

    PubMed

    Gandon, Sylvain; Varaldi, Julien; Fleury, Frédéric; Rivero, Ana

    2009-11-01

    In proovigenic parasitoids such as Leptopilina boulardi, the female emerges with a limited egg load and no further eggs are produced during its adult life. A female thus runs the risk of exhausting this limited supply of eggs before the end of her life. Given that the production of an egg is costly, what is the evolutionarily stable egg load at emergence? This question has attracted a lot of attention in the last decade. Here, we analyze a model that allows us to track both the evolution and the population dynamics of a solitary, proovigenic parasitoid. First, we show how host-parasitoid dynamics feedbacks on the evolution of parasitoid egg load. Second, we use this model to consider the situation in which the parasitoid can be infected by a virus that manipulates the oviposition behavior of the females. In particular, we model the effect of the LbFV virus in L. boulardi, a virus that is known to enhance its horizontal transmission by increasing superparasitism (i.e., the laying of eggs in a host already parasitized). Specifically, we model (1) the effect of the virus on parasitoid egg load strategies, and (2) the evolution of egg load manipulation by the virus. This analysis yields two alternative, yet not mutually exclusive, adaptive explanations for the observation that females infected by the virus harbor higher egg loads than uninfected females. Infected females could either respond plastically to the infection status, or be manipulated by the virus. Further experimental work is required to distinguish between these two hypotheses. In a broader context, we present a general theoretical framework that allows us to study the epidemiology, the evolution, the coevolution, and the evolution of manipulation of various reproductive strategies of parasitoids.

  18. Light Dulls and Darkens Bird Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Johanna Y.; Lahti, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Although egg color is generally consistent within individual birds and robust to environmental variation, recent evidence suggests a degree of susceptibility to environmental perturbation or modulation of egg color. Most of this variation manifests via the physiology of the laying female, but some direct impacts of the environment on laid eggs have also been discovered. Here we test whether light changes bird egg color and we quantify its effect, by subjecting variable blue-green eggs of Rüppell's weaver (Ploceus galbula) to a broad-spectrum light source under laboratory conditions, and measuring egg reflectance every few hours. Eggshells gradually decreased in reflectance across the entire measured wavelength spectrum of 250–800 nm. Reflectance peaks were disproportionately affected, such that the height decreased of both the blue-green peak and the smaller UV peak typical of blue-green eggs. The reflectance of lighter eggs was affected slightly more than that of darker eggs. These changes are similar to previous results for changes over long periods of time in darkness, suggesting that light might hasten the same process of pigment degradation that proceeds even without light. Comparison between the experimental light source and both sunlight and typical artificial lighting situations raises the possibility that significant color change might occur during incubation in some birds, but indicates that eggshell illumination in museums for short periods of study is unlikely to affect their color to a detectable extent. Additional research should be performed on eggs of other species and in other light environments, with an eye to an eventual generalized model of the effect of light on eggshell color. PMID:25541724

  19. Age, gender, kinship and caregiver burden in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tramonti, Francesco; Bongioanni, Paolo; Leotta, Rebecca; Puppi, Irene; Rossi, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease that affects the motor neurons and causes progressive physical impairment. Also, other functions, such as breathing, swallowing and speech are compromised, and the loss of independence makes caregiver burden extremely high. The present study aimed at evaluating the differences in the caregiver burden due to age, gender and kinship. Women reported a higher physical and social burden than men, and partners scored higher in several dimensions of the caregiver burden when compared to sons and daughters. With respect to adult child caregivers, daughters reported higher levels of developmental burden than sons. Age has a significant impact on the caregiver burden, especially for the time dedicated to assistance and physical burden; disease severity is significantly related to the physical burden as well, and also with the developmental burden.

  20. Burden of virus-associated liver cancer in the Arab world, 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Khan, Gulfaraz; Hashim, M Jawad

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is amongst the top three cancer causes of death worldwide with hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV/HCV) as the main etiological agents. An up-to-date descriptive epidemiology of the burden of HBV/HCV-associated HCC in the Arab world is lacking. We therefore determined the burden of HBV/HCV- associated HCC deaths in the Arab world using the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2010 dataset. GBD 2010 provides, for the first time, deaths specifically attributable to viral-associated HCC. We analyzed the data for the 22 Arab countries by age, sex and economic status from 1990 to 2010 and compared the findings to global trends. Our analysis revealed that in 2010, an estimated 752,101 deaths occurred from HCC worldwide. Of these 537,093 (71%) were from HBV/HCV-associated HCC. In the Arab world, 17,638 deaths occurred from HCC of which 13,558 (77%) were HBV/HCV-linked. From 1990 to 2010, the burden of HBV and HCV-associated HCC deaths in the Arab world increased by 137% and 216% respectively, compared to global increases of 62% and 73%. Age-standardized death rates also increased in most of the Arab countries, with the highest rates noted in Mauritania and Egypt. Male gender and low economic status correlated with higher rates. These findings indicate that the burden of HBV/HCV-associated HCC in the Arab world is rising at a much faster rate than rest of the world and urgent public health measures are necessary to abate this trend and diminish the impact on already stretched regional healthcare systems.

  1. Global numbers of infection and disease burden of soil transmitted helminth infections in 2010

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Quantifying the burden of parasitic diseases in relation to other diseases and injuries requires reliable estimates of prevalence for each disease and an analytic framework within which to estimate attributable morbidity and mortality. Here we use data included in the Global Atlas of Helminth Infection to derive new global estimates of numbers infected with intestinal nematodes (soil-transmitted helminths, STH: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the hookworms) and use disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) to estimate disease burden. Methods Prevalence data for 6,091 locations in 118 countries were sourced and used to estimate age-stratified mean prevalence for sub-national administrative units via a combination of model-based geostatistics (for sub-Saharan Africa) and empirical approaches (for all other regions). Geographical variation in infection prevalence within these units was approximated using modelled logit-normal distributions, and numbers of individuals with infection intensities above given thresholds estimated for each species using negative binomial distributions and age-specific worm/egg burden thresholds. Finally, age-stratified prevalence estimates for each level of infection intensity were incorporated into the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 analytic framework to estimate the global burden of morbidity and mortality associated with each STH infection. Results Globally, an estimated 438.9 million people (95% Credible Interval (CI), 406.3 - 480.2 million) were infected with hookworm in 2010, 819.0 million (95% CI, 771.7 – 891.6 million) with A. lumbricoides and 464.6 million (95% CI, 429.6 – 508.0 million) with T. trichiura. Of the 4.98 million years lived with disability (YLDs) attributable to STH, 65% were attributable to hookworm, 22% to A. lumbricoides and the remaining 13% to T. trichiura. The vast majority of STH infections (67%) and YLDs (68%) occurred in Asia. When considering YLDs relative to total populations

  2. Hepatic hematoma and hepatic rupture in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Poo, Jorge Luis; Góngora, Julieta

    2006-01-01

    Hepatic perforation is an unusual complication of woman pregnancy associated with a poor outcome. A comprehensive review of epidemiology, clinical spectrum, diagnostic methods and therapeutic options is presented in this short paper.

  3. In vivo imaging of tissue eosinophilia and eosinopoietic responses to schistosome worms and eggs

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Stephen J.; Smith, Steven J.; Lim, K.C.; Zhang, Hongbing; Purchio, Anthony F.; McKerrow, James H.; West, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Using a sensitive transgenic reporter mouse system and in vivo biophotonic imaging techniques, we present a dynamic analysis of eosinophil responses to schistosome infection. Use of this methodology provided previously unattainable detail on the spatial and temporal distribution of tissue eosinophilia and eosinopoietic responses to schistosome worms and eggs. Dramatic hepatic and intestinal eosinophilia in response to the deposition of schistosome eggs, with accompanying eosinopoiesis in the bone marrow, was observed between weeks 8 and 10 p.i., with subsequent downregulation evident by week 11. Contrary to expectations, we also demonstrate that schistosome parasites themselves induce significant intestinal eosinophilia and eosinopoiesis in the bone marrow at very early stages during prepatent infection. PMID:15950229

  4. Hepatitis C Virus in Arab World: A State of Concern

    PubMed Central

    Daw, Mohamed A.; Dau, Aghnaya A.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus has been considered to be one of the most important devastating causes of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatic cellular carcinoma. The prevalence of such virus varies greatly over the world. Arab world has a unique geography and consists over nineteen countries who share the same heritage and customs and do speak the same language. In this area, the epidemiology of hepatitis C is not well understandable. Hepatitis C virus was found to be endemic in Arabia. The serostatus of such virus was found to be variable among these countries with uniform patterns of genotypes. Such prevalence varies tremendously according to the risk factors involved. Blood and blood products, haemodialysis, intravenous, and percutaneous drug users, and occupational, habitual, and social behavior were found to be the important factors involved. Hepatitis C will have major social, economic, and even political burdens on such young and dynamic societies. Thus, strategies and clear policy of intervention are urgently needed to combat the consequences of HCV both regionally and at state level of each country. PMID:22629189

  5. Autophagy in hepatic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Song, Yang; Zhao, Yingying; Wang, Fei; Tao, Lichan; Xiao, Junjie; Yang, Changqing

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hepatic fibrosis is usually associated with chronic liver diseases caused by infection, drugs, metabolic disorders, or autoimmune imbalances. Effective clinical therapies are still lacking. Autophagy is a cellular process that degrades damaged organelles or protein aggregation, which participates in many pathological processes including liver diseases. Autophagy participates in hepatic fibrosis by activating hepatic stellate cells and may participate as well through influencing other fibrogenic cells. Besides that, autophagy can induce some liver diseases to develop while it may play a protective role in hepatocellular abnormal aggregates related liver diseases and reduces fibrosis. With a better understanding of the potential effects of autophagy on hepatic fibrosis, targeting autophagy might be a novel therapeutic strategy for hepatic fibrosis in the near future.

  6. As the egg turns: monitoring egg attendance behavior in wild birds using novel data logging technology.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Scott A; Clatterbuck, Corey A; Kelsey, Emma C; Naiman, Alex D; Young, Lindsay C; VanderWerf, Eric A; Warzybok, Pete; Bradley, Russell; Jahncke, Jaime; Bower, Geoff C

    2014-01-01

    Egg turning is unique to birds and critical for embryonic development in most avian species. Technology that can measure changes in egg orientation and temperature at fine temporal scales (1 Hz) was neither readily available nor small enough to fit into artificial eggs until recently. Here we show the utility of novel miniature data loggers equipped with 3-axis (i.e., triaxial) accelerometers, magnetometers, and a temperature thermistor to study egg turning behavior in free-ranging birds. Artificial eggs containing egg loggers were deployed in the nests of three seabird species for 1-7 days of continuous monitoring. These species (1) turned their eggs more frequently (up to 6.5 turns h(-1)) than previously reported for other species, but angular changes were often small (1-10° most common), (2) displayed similar mean turning rates (ca. 2 turns h(-1)) despite major differences in reproductive ecology, and (3) demonstrated distinct diurnal cycling in egg temperatures that varied between 1.4 and 2.4 °C. These novel egg loggers revealed high-resolution, three-dimensional egg turning behavior heretofore never measured in wild birds. This new form of biotechnology has broad applicability for addressing fundamental questions in avian breeding ecology, life history, and development, and can be used as a tool to monitor birds that are sensitive to disturbance while breeding.

  7. Brood parasite eggs enhance egg survivorship in a multiply parasitized host

    PubMed Central

    Gloag, Ros; Fiorini, Vanina D.; Reboreda, Juan C.; Kacelnik, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Despite the costs to avian parents of rearing brood parasitic offspring, many species do not reject foreign eggs from their nests. We show that where multiple parasitism occurs, rejection itself can be costly, by increasing the risk of host egg loss during subsequent parasite attacks. Chalk-browed mockingbirds (Mimus saturninus) are heavily parasitized by shiny cowbirds (Molothrus bonariensis), which also puncture eggs in host nests. Mockingbirds struggle to prevent cowbirds puncturing and laying, but seldom remove cowbird eggs once laid. We filmed cowbird visits to nests with manipulated clutch compositions and found that mockingbird eggs were more likely to escape puncture the more cowbird eggs accompanied them in the clutch. A Monte Carlo simulation of this ‘dilution effect’, comparing virtual hosts that systematically either reject or accept parasite eggs, shows that acceptors enjoy higher egg survivorship than rejecters in host populations where multiple parasitism occurs. For mockingbirds or other hosts in which host nestlings fare well in parasitized broods, this benefit might be sufficient to offset the fitness cost of rearing parasite chicks, making egg acceptance evolutionarily stable. Thus, counterintuitively, high intensities of parasitism might decrease or even reverse selection pressure for host defence via egg rejection. PMID:22158956

  8. Eggs as energy: revisiting the scaling of egg size and energetic content among echinoderms.

    PubMed

    Moran, A L; McAlister, J S; Whitehill, E A G

    2013-08-01

    Marine organisms exhibit substantial life-history diversity, of which egg size is one fundamental parameter. The size of an egg is generally assumed to reflect the amount of energy it contains and the amount of per-offspring maternal investment. Egg size and energy are thought to scale isometrically. We investigated this relationship by updating published datasets for echinoderms, increasing the number of species over those in previous studies by 62%. When we plotted egg energy versus egg size in the updated dataset we found that planktotrophs have a scaling factor significantly lower than 1, demonstrating an overall trend toward lower energy density in larger planktotrophic eggs. By looking within three genera, Echinometra, Strongylocentrotus, and Arbacia, we also found that the scaling exponent differed among taxa, and that in Echinometra, energy density was significantly lower in species with larger eggs. Theoretical models generally assume a strong tradeoff between egg size and fecundity that limits energetic investment and constrains life-history evolution. These data suggest that the evolution of egg size and egg energy content can be decoupled, possibly facilitating response to selective factors such as sperm limitation which could act on volume alone.

  9. As the Egg Turns: Monitoring Egg Attendance Behavior in Wild Birds Using Novel Data Logging Technology

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Scott A.; Clatterbuck, Corey A.; Kelsey, Emma C.; Naiman, Alex D.; Young, Lindsay C.; VanderWerf, Eric A.; Warzybok, Pete; Bradley, Russell; Jahncke, Jaime; Bower, Geoff C.

    2014-01-01

    Egg turning is unique to birds and critical for embryonic development in most avian species. Technology that can measure changes in egg orientation and temperature at fine temporal scales (1 Hz) was neither readily available nor small enough to fit into artificial eggs until recently. Here we show the utility of novel miniature data loggers equipped with 3-axis (i.e., triaxial) accelerometers, magnetometers, and a temperature thermistor to study egg turning behavior in free-ranging birds. Artificial eggs containing egg loggers were deployed in the nests of three seabird species for 1–7 days of continuous monitoring. These species (1) turned their eggs more frequently (up to 6.5 turns h−1) than previously reported for other species, but angular changes were often small (1–10° most common), (2) displayed similar mean turning rates (ca. 2 turns h−1) despite major differences in reproductive ecology, and (3) demonstrated distinct diurnal cycling in egg temperatures that varied between 1.4 and 2.4°C. These novel egg loggers revealed high-resolution, three-dimensional egg turning behavior heretofore never measured in wild birds. This new form of biotechnology has broad applicability for addressing fundamental questions in avian breeding ecology, life history, and development, and can be used as a tool to monitor birds that are sensitive to disturbance while breeding. PMID:24887441

  10. Economic burden of asthma: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Bahadori, Katayoun; Doyle-Waters, Mary M; Marra, Carlo; Lynd, Larry; Alasaly, Kadria; Swiston, John; FitzGerald, J Mark

    2009-01-01

    Background Asthma is associated with enormous healthcare expenditures that include both direct and indirect costs. It is also associated with the loss of future potential earnings related to both morbidity and mortality. The objective of the study is to determine the burden of disease costs associated with asthma. Methods We performed a systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, CDSR, OHE-HEED, and Web of Science Databases between 1966 and 2008. Results Sixty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Hospitalization and medications were found to be the most important cost driver of direct costs. Work and school loss accounted for the greatest percentage of indirect costs. The cost of asthma was correlated with comorbidities, age, and disease severity. Conclusion Despite the availability of effective preventive therapy, costs associated with asthma are increasing. Strategies including education of patients and physicians, and regular follow-up are required to reduce the economic burden of asthma. PMID:19454036

  11. Mineral lung burden of an urban population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paoletti, L.; Falchi, M.; Batisti, D.; Carrieri, M. P.; Petrelli, M. G.; Ciallella, C.; Donelli, G.

    A study was carried out on mineral lung burden in 85 autopsy cases who died accidentally. Subjects of both sexes aged from 15 to 70 years were selected from all the autopsies performed at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Rome. These subjects were living in an urban area and were not affected by neoplasm diseases. All selected subjects were residing in Rome at the time of their death. Information on years of legal residence in urban areas, smoking habits and occupational history were obtained by interviews with relatives. Lung parenchyma samples were obtained from the right upper lobe. The mineral particulate matter present in the tissue samples was studied by means of analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM) techniques: 16 mineral varieties and 22 metallic elements were identified. Smoke, age and residence seem to have influence on the lung burden.

  12. Caregiver Burden in Fragile X Families

    PubMed Central

    Iosif, Ana-Maria; Sciolla, Andres F.; Brahmbhatt, Khyati; Seritan, Andreea L.

    2013-01-01

    Complex caregiving issues occur in multigenerational families carrying the fragile X mutation and premutation. The same family members may care for children or siblings with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and for elderly parents with fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). Family caregivers experience anxiety, depression, neglect of personal health care needs, employment difficulties, and loss of social support, leading to isolation and further psychiatric consequences. There is growing awareness of caregiver burden with regard to parents of children with FXS, but much less is known about the needs of informal caregivers of patients with FXTAS. In this paper, we review the available literature to date and provide suggestions for further exploration of caregivers' needs. Evidence-based strategies to address these needs are included. Many more research studies exploring caregiver burden in multigenerational fragile X families are needed, as well as studies aimed at investigating interventions and their impact on reduction. PMID:24348279

  13. The burden of osteoporosis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Bruna Coelho Galvão; Guerra, Luiza Paulino; Drummond, Juliana Beaudette; Silva, Barbara C; Soares, Maria Marta Sarquis

    2014-07-01

    Osteoporotic fractures impose severe physical, psychosocial, and financial burden both to the patient and the society. Studies on the prevalence of osteoporosis and fragility fractures in Brazil show a wide variation, due to differences in sample size, the population studied, and methodologies. Few studies have been conducted in Brazil about the cost-effectiveness analyses of different intervention options aimed at the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis. Investigation and treatment strategies based on cost-effectiveness and scientific evidence are essential in the preparation of public health policies with the ultimate goal of reducing the incidence of fractures and, consequently, the direct and indirect costs associated with them. This article reviews the Brazilian burden of osteoporosis in terms of the prevalence and fractures attributable to the disease, the costs related to the investigation and management, as well as the impact of osteoporosis on the population as a whole and on affected individuals.

  14. Preventing hepatitis B or C

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000401.htm Preventing hepatitis B or C To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections cause irritation and ...

  15. Rapid increase in the national treatment costs for hepatitis A infections in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee Suk; Choi, Bo Youl; Kwon, Young Dae

    2012-01-01

    The number of symptomatic hepatitis A cases has progressively been increasing during the last several years in Korea. Available cost estimates indicate a growing burden to the public. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of treatment costs for patients with hepatitis A and to analyze the influential factors with nationwide data. We collected data on 72,921 patients with hepatitis A from 5-year National Health Insurance claim archives between 2004 and 2008. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine influential factors affecting treatment costs for hepatitis A. Total treatment costs for patients with hepatitis A during the 5-year period were US$47,902,087 and increased significantly each year. In total, 91.4% of treatment costs were used for hospitalization, and the proportion of inpatients increased gradually throughout the study period. The most influential factor on treatment costs was treatment duration. Our results show that the soaring number of patients with hepatitis A followed by the hospitalization-focused treatment practice is a major factor associated with the rapid increase in treatment costs. Appropriate policies should be promptly developed to control treatment costs and economic burden of hepatitis A infections.

  16. Covert and Overt Hepatic Encephalopathy: Diagnosis and Management.

    PubMed

    Patidar, Kavish R; Bajaj, Jasmohan S

    2015-11-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is part of a spectrum of neurocognitive changes in cirrhosis. HE is divided into 2 broad categories based on severity: covert hepatic encephalopathy (CHE) and overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE). CHE has a significant impact on a patient's quality of life, driving performance, and recently has been associated with increased hospitalizations and death. Likewise, OHE is associated with increased rates of hospitalizations and mortality, and poor quality of life. Given its significant burden on patients, care takers, and the health care system, early diagnosis and management are imperative. In addition, focus also should be directed on patient and family member education on the disease progression and adherence to medications. Treatment strategies include the use of nonabsorbable disaccharides, antibiotics (ie, rifaximin), and, potentially, probiotics. Other therapies currently under further investigation include L-ornithine-L-aspartate, ornithine phenylacetate, glycerol phenylbutyrate, molecular adsorbent recirculating system, and albumin infusion.

  17. Inhibitor-Based Therapeutics for Treatment of Viral Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Dey, Debajit; Banerjee, Manidipa

    2016-09-28

    Viral hepatitis remains a significant worldwide threat, in spite of the availability of several successful therapeutic and vaccination strategies. Complications associated with acute and chronic infections, such as liver failure, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, are the cause of considerable morbidity and mortality. Given the significant burden on the healthcare system caused by viral hepatitis, it is essential that novel, more effective therapeutics be developed. The present review attempts to summarize the current treatments against viral hepatitis, and provides an outline for upcoming, promising new therapeutics. Development of novel therapeutics requires an understanding of the viral life cycles and viral effectors in molecular detail. As such, this review also discusses virally-encoded effectors, found to be essential for virus survival and replication in the host milieu, which may be utilized as potential candidates for development of alternative therapies in the future.

  18. Inhibitor-Based Therapeutics for Treatment of Viral Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Debajit; Banerjee, Manidipa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Viral hepatitis remains a significant worldwide threat, in spite of the availability of several successful therapeutic and vaccination strategies. Complications associated with acute and chronic infections, such as liver failure, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, are the cause of considerable morbidity and mortality. Given the significant burden on the healthcare system caused by viral hepatitis, it is essential that novel, more effective therapeutics be developed. The present review attempts to summarize the current treatments against viral hepatitis, and provides an outline for upcoming, promising new therapeutics. Development of novel therapeutics requires an understanding of the viral life cycles and viral effectors in molecular detail. As such, this review also discusses virally-encoded effectors, found to be essential for virus survival and replication in the host milieu, which may be utilized as potential candidates for development of alternative therapies in the future. PMID:27777893

  19. Tobacco and the Escalating Global Cancer Burden

    PubMed Central

    Oppeltz, Richard F.; Jatoi, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    The global burden of cancer is escalating as a result of dramatic increases in the use of tobacco in the developing world. The use of tobacco is linked to the development of a broad variety of cancers, mainly lung cancer, the single most common cancer in the world. Tobacco smoking-attributable deaths extends beyond cancer and include stroke, heart attack and COPD. Widening disparities in cancer-related mortality have shifted towards a more dramatic burden in the developing world. Appropriate interventions must be implemented to reduce tobacco use and prevent global mortality that has escalated to epidemic levels. Tobacco control policies, including public health advertisement campaigns, warning labels, adoption of smoke-free laws, comprehensive bans and tax policies are highly effective measures to control tobacco use. Clinicians and academic institutions have to be actively committed to support tobacco control initiatives. The reduction in cancer related morbidity and mortality should be viewed as a global crisis and definitive results will depend on a multilevel effort to effectively reduce the burden of cancer, particularly in underprivileged regions of the world. PMID:21869888

  20. The burden of fungal disease in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Klaus L; Denning, David W; Arendrup, Maiken C

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study is to calculate the burden of fungal disease in Denmark. We identified all published epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates in Denmark. Where no data existed, we used numbers of specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in those populations to estimate national incidence or prevalence. Approximately, one in six Danes will suffer from a fungal infection each year, most of which are skin or mucosal diseases causing disability but no deaths. Good data exist on candidaemia where a national voluntary reporting system is in place and have shown a high rate (9.6 per 100,000 inhabitants) compared other European countries. We present estimates of invasive aspergillosis and chronic pulmonary aspergillosis with rates of 4.4 per 100,000 and 3.1 per 100,000 inhabitants, respectively. Further studies are needed in order to better ascertain high-burden fungal infections such as recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (~1350 cases in 100,000 women) as well as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (~131 cases in 100,000 inhabitants) and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (cases in 100,000 inhabitants). In conclusion, more than 93,000 Danes or about 2% of Denmark's population will have a non-trivial fungal infection during 1 year, which underscores the magnitude of the fungal burden.

  1. Immunity and the burden of herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won Suk; Kwon, Soon Sun; Lee, Jacob; Choi, Su-Mi; Lee, Jin Soo; Eom, Joong Sik; Sohn, Jang Wook; Choeng, Hee Jin

    2014-03-01

    The burden of herpes zoster may be related to patients' immunity, although this has not been studied extensively. This hypothesis was tested in a matched case-control study of patients with herpes zoster who sought treatment at one of seven university hospitals in Korea from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2010. Patients diagnosed with herpes zoster were placed into three groups based on their immune status: severely immunocompromised, mild-to-moderately immunocompromised, and normal immunity. Each patient in the severely immunocompromised group was matched with one patient in the mild-to-moderately immunocompromised group and one patient in the normal immunity group in the same hospital based on age, sex, and date of herpes zoster onset. A total of 582 patients with herpes zoster were included in the analysis: 194 in each of the three groups. Patients in the severely immunocompromised group had the highest herpes zoster-related hospitalization rate as compared to patients in the mild-to-moderately immunocompromised and normal immune groups (P < 0.01). The length of hospital stay and herpes zoster-related medical cost increased significantly with the deterioration of patients' immunity (P < 0.01, respectively). Cutaneous complications occurred more frequently in the severely immunocompromised group than in the other two groups (P < 0.01). An increase in herpes zoster burden was observed as the patients' immunity decreased. Therefore, effective measures are necessary to prevent herpes zoster and reduce its burden in severely immunocompromised patients.

  2. Understanding social support burden among family caregivers.

    PubMed

    Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine; Washington, Karla; Demiris, George; Oliver, Debra Parker; Shaunfield, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Despite the abundance of research on social support, both as a variable in larger studies and as a central focus of examination, there is little consensus about the relationship between social support and health outcomes. Current social support measures typically account only for frequency and size of network, and a paucity of research exists that has explained social support burden, defined as the burden associated with accessing and receiving support from others. We analyzed audio-recorded discussions by hospice family caregivers about their caregiving problems and potential solutions to examine social relationships within networks and identify the processes that influence social support seeking and receiving. Using qualitative thematic analysis, we found that caregivers providing hospice care experience social support burden resulting from perceived relational barriers between friends and family, the inclination to remain in control, recognition of the loss of the patient as a source of social support and guidance in decision making, family dynamics, and decreased availability of emotional support. Social support researchers should consider how the quality of communication and relationships within social networks impacts the provision and subsequent outcomes of social support in varying contexts. Findings from this study suggest that hospice social support resources should be tailored to the caregiver's support needs and include assessment on the type of support to be offered.

  3. Acoustic detectability of squid egg beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foote, Kenneth G.; Hanlon, Roger T.; Henry, Annette E.; Hochstaedter, Alfred; Kvitek, Rikk; Sullivan, Deidre; Yogozawa, Yuko

    2003-10-01

    Egg beds of the market squid (Loligo opalescens) on the bottom of Monterey Bay seem to have been detected by means of sidescan sonar at 420 kHz. Evidence for this is presented in the form of sidescan sonar images and egg-bed distribution maps from the same area, as prepared from camera surveys by scuba divers. The general detectability issue is also considered, with specific reference made to preliminary physical measurements performed on two egg capsules. [Work supported by Sea Grant.

  4. Selenium accumulation and loss in mallard eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Heinz, G.H. )

    1993-04-01

    Five female mallards (Anas platyhynchos) that had just started egg laying were first fed a diet containing 15 ppm selenium in the form of selenomethionine for 20 d and then an untreated diet for 20 d. Selenium levels in eggs peaked (to about 13-20 ppm) in about two weeks on the treated diet and leveled off at a low level (< 5 ppm) after about 10 d back on the untreated diet. Selenium levels in egg whites responded faster than levels in yolks to the females' consumption of treated and untreated diets.

  5. Transfer of thiocyanate into chicken eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Carew, S.N.; Davis, R.H.; Sykes, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    Laying hens were fed thiocyanate (SCN) as a solution of potassium thiocyanate (KSCN) in their drinking water to determine whether dietary SCN was transferred into eggs. The thiocyanate content of their eggs was measured before and during thiocyanate administration. Egg thiocyanate content increased from 6 ..mu..g SCN/g albumen to 31 ..mu..g SCN/g (a 400% increase) in the period immediately following thiocyanate administration and then fell progressively, seeming to stabilize much closer to but still well above control levels.

  6. Rotational Collision Apparatus for Indoor Egg Drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halada, Richard

    2003-05-01

    Our units about momentum and energy are richly illustrated with applications to car crashes and explanations of such safety features as airbags and crumple zones. The main lab exercise, however, is an egg crash (car insurance rates being so much higher). Fairly standard rules apply: Students must devise an "egg-protection package" that will keep a teacher-supplied egg intact through two successive impacts. After the test, they must hand in a written analysis of the specific physics principles they employed, modifications they would make after seeing their project's actual performance, and suggestions for applying their protection system to auto safety.

  7. Predation on lake trout eggs and fry: A modeling approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Fabrizio, Mary C.; Bowen, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    A general model was developed to examine the effects of multiple predators on survival of eggs and fry of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, associated with spawning reefs. Three kinds of predation were simulated: epibenthic egg predators consuming eggs on the substrate surface during spawning, interstitial egg predators that can move in rocky substrate and consume incubating eggs, and fry predators. Also simulated was the effect of water temperature on predation rates. The model predicted that interstitial predation on eggs accounted for most (76 to 81%) of the predation on early life history stages of lake trout; epibenthic egg predation (12 to 19%) and fry predation (0 to 12%) had less effect on lake trout survival. Initial predation conditions chosen for the model were: epibenthic egg predation peaked at 2 eggs/mA?/d over 30 d, insterstitial egg predation at 2 eggs/mA?/d over 180 d, and fry predation at 1 fry/mA?/d over 60 d. With a starting egg density of 100 eggs/mA? and initial predation conditions, no lake trout were estimated to survive to swim-up. At egg densities of 250 eggs/mA?, 36% of the lake trout survived. At the highest egg densities examined, 500 to 1,000 eggs/mA?, estimated survival increased to about 70 to 80%. Simulated survival rates of lake trout decreased dramatically as predation rate increased but were not as sensitive to increases in the duration of predation.

  8. Organochlorine residues in eggs of Alaskan seabirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Bartonek, J.C.; Divoky, G.J.; Klass, E.

    1982-01-01

    One egg from each of 440 clutches of eggs of 19 species of Alaskan seabirds collected in 1973-76 was analyzed for organochlorine residues. All eggs contained DDE; 98.9% contained PCB's; 84.3%, oxychlordane; and 82.7%, HCB. Endrin was found in only one egg, but DDD, DDT, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, mirex, cis-chlordane (or trans-nonachlor), cis-nonachlor, and toxaphene each occurred in at least 22% of the samples.Concentrations of organochlorines in the samples were generally low. Mean concentrations of eight compounds were highest in eggs of glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens) from three sites: DDE (5.16 ppm, wet weight), dieldrin (0.214 ppm), oxychlordane (0.251 ppm), and PCB's (3.55 ppm) in eggs from Bogoslof Island; heptachlor epoxide (0.037 ppm), cis-chlordane (0.075 ppm), and HCB (0.188 ppm) in eggs from Buldir Island; and cis-nonachlor (0.026 ppm) in eggs from the Semidi Islands. Highest concentrations of DDD (0.157 ppm), DDT (0.140 ppm), and toxaphene (0.101 ppm) were in eggs of fork-tailed storm-petrel (Oceanodroma furcata) from Buldir Island, and the highest concentration of mirex (0.044 ppm) was in fork-tailed storm-petrel eggs from the Barren Islands.Both frequency of occurrence and concentration of residues in the eggs differed geographically and by species, apparently reflecting non-uniform distribution of organochlorines in the environment, dissimilar feeding habits and migration patterns of the species, or metabolic differences among the species.The overall frequency of residue occurrence was highest in eggs from the Pribilof Islands, but only three species were represented in the samples collected there. Detectable residues also were more frequent in eggs from the Gulf of Alaska colonies than elsewhere, and the lowest frequency was in eggs from nesting colonies on or near the Seward Peninsula. Regionally, concentrations of DDE and PCB's were usually higher than average in eggs from the Gulf of Alaska and lower than average in eggs from the

  9. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL FEATURES OF CHRONIC VIRUS HEPATITIS B AND C IN THE REPUBLIC SAKHA (YAKUTIA).

    PubMed

    Gerasimova, V V; Maksimova, N R; Levakoval, A; Zhebrun, A B; Mukomolov, S L

    2015-01-01

    High disease burden of chronic virus hepatitis B and C of population in the Republic Sakha (Yakutia) is subject to referring it to endemic territories due to these infections. For a 15-year-old period the disease has been registered at higher rates in the Russian Federation.

  10. Progress towards hepatitis B prevention through vaccination in the Western Pacific, 1990-2014.

    PubMed

    Wiesen, Eric; Diorditsa, Sergey; Li, Xi

    2016-05-27

    Hepatitis B infections are responsible for more than 300 thousand deaths per year in the Western Pacific Region. Because of this high burden, the countries and areas of the Region established a goal of reducing hepatitis B chronic infection prevalence among children to less than 1% by 2017. This study was conducted to measure the progress in hepatitis B prevention and assess the status of achievement of the 2017 Regional hepatitis B control goal. A literature review was conducted to identify studies of hepatitis B prevalence in the countries and areas of the region, both before and after vaccine introduction. A mathematical model was applied to assess infections and deaths prevented by hepatitis B vaccination and hepatitis B prevalence in countries without recent empirical data. The majority of countries and areas (22 out of 36) were estimated to have over 8% prevalence of chronic hepatitis B infection among persons born before vaccine introduction. After introduction of hepatitis B vaccine, most countries and areas (24 out of 36) had chronic infection prevalence of less than 1% among children born after vaccine introduction. It was estimated that in the past 25 years immunization programmes in the Western Pacific Region have averted 7,167,128 deaths that would have occurred in the lifetime of children born between 1990 and 2014 if hepatitis B vaccination programmes had not been established. Regional prevalence among children born in 2012 was estimated to be 0.93%, meaning that the Regional hepatitis B control goal was achieved. While additional efforts are needed to further reduce hepatitis B transmission in the region, this study demonstrates the great success of the hepatitis B vaccination efforts in the Western Pacific Region.

  11. Epidemiology of hepatitis E virus in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Taherkhani, Reza; Farshadpour, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Iran is known as an endemic country for hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection, while there are variations in the epidemiology of HEV infection throughout the country. The available epidemiological studies in different regions of Iran show HEV seroprevalence of 1.1%-14.2% among general population, 4.5% -14.3% among blood donors, 6.1%-22.8% among injecting drug users, 6.3%-28.3% among hemodialysis patients, 1.6%-11.3% among patients infected with other hepatitis viruses, 27.5% among patients with chronic liver disease, 30.8% among kidney transplant recipient patients, and 10%-16.4% among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. These variations reflect differences in the status of public health and hygiene, risk factors, and routes of transmission in different regions and groups. Therefore, it is necessary to review the epidemiology of HEV infection to determine the most prevalent risk factors and routes of transmission, and to evaluate the effectiveness of preventive strategies employed in the public health services of the country. Moreover, the other epidemiological aspects of HEV, including the genotypic pattern, extra hepatic manifestations, and incidence of chronic infection need to be investigated among Iranian population to expand the current knowledge on the epidemiology of HEV and to clarify the real burden of HEV infection. Therefore, this review was performed to provide a general overview regarding the epidemiology of HEV in Iran. PMID:27298557

  12. 43 CFR 4.1394 - Burden of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... requested the determination shall have the ultimate burden of persuasion. (b) If any other person is seeking... ultimate burden of persuasion that the person who requested the determination does or does not have...

  13. Estimation of Vietnam national burden of disease 2008.

    PubMed

    Nhung, Nguyen Thi Trang; Long, Tran Khanh; Linh, Bui Ngoc; Vos, Theo; Huong, Nguyen Thanh; Anh, Ngo Duc

    2014-09-01

    Burden of disease has been used to assess population health status. This article presents the first estimations of burden of disease in Vietnam in 2008 using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). DALYs were calculated using the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) methods. Incidence, prevalence of diseases, and causes of death was extracted from Vietnam data. Disability weights were borrowed from GBD and Dutch research. In 2008, the total burden of disease in Vietnam was 12.3 million DALYs. Noncommunicable diseases dominated the total burden of diseases in Vietnam, accounting for 71% of the total burden, and cardiovascular disease was the leading cause group of premature death. While pneumonia was an important cause of burden in Vietnamese children, stroke and depression were the main causes of disease burden among adults. The study provides a snapshot of Vietnamese health status and offers guidance for health policymaking in Vietnam.

  14. All eggs are made equal: meta-analysis of egg sexual size dimorphism in birds.

    PubMed

    Rutkowska, J; Dubiec, A; Nakagawa, S

    2014-01-01

    Sex-biased resource allocation in avian eggs has gained increasing interest. The adaptive explanations of such allocation are often related to life-history strategies of the studied species. In some species, egg sexual size dimorphism (SSD) was suggested to promote future size differences between adults of each sex. In other species, egg SSD was invoked as an adaptive means by which a mother balances sex-specific nestling mortality. According to the first scenario, mothers should produce bigger eggs for the bigger sex, thus across species, adult SSD should be a significant positive predictor of egg SSD. Under the second scenario, mothers should produce bigger eggs for the smaller sex. If different species use contrasting strategies, then a universal expectation is that there should be a significant relationship between the magnitude of adult SSD and the magnitude of egg SSD, irrespective of the direction of those differences. Our aim was to examine whether the direction of egg SSD is predicted by the direction of adult SSD or whether degree of egg SSD is related to degree of adult SSD. To answer that question, we performed meta-analysis of 63 studies, which included information on egg SSD of 65 effect sizes from 51 avian species. We found that across species, adult SSD does not predict egg SSD. More importantly, the observed variation in effect sizes in our data set was largely explained by sampling error (variance). Although adult SSD is undoubtedly a prominent feature of birds, there is little evidence for egg SSD across avian species.

  15. Egg number-egg size: an important trade-off in parasite life history strategies.

    PubMed

    Cavaleiro, Francisca I; Santos, Maria J

    2014-03-01

    Parasites produce from just a few to many eggs of variable size, but our understanding of the factors driving variation in these two life history traits at the intraspecific level is still very fragmentary. This study evaluates the importance of performing multilevel analyses on egg number and egg size, while characterising parasite life history strategies. A total of 120 ovigerous females of Octopicola superba (Copepoda: Octopicolidae) (one sample (n=30) per season) were characterised with respect to different body dimensions (total length; genital somite length) and measures of reproductive effort (fecundity; mean egg diameter; total reproductive effort; mean egg sac length). While endoparasites are suggested to follow both an r- and K-strategy simultaneously, the evidence found in this and other studies suggests that environmental conditions force ectoparasites into one of the two alternatives. The positive and negative skewness of the distributions of fecundity and mean egg diameter, respectively, suggest that O. superba is mainly a K-strategist (i.e. produces a relatively small number of large, well provisioned eggs). Significant sample differences were recorded concomitantly for all body dimensions and measures of reproductive effort, while a general linear model detected a significant influence of season*parasite total length in both egg number and size. This evidence suggests adaptive phenotypic plasticity in body dimensions and size-mediated changes in egg production. Seasonal changes in partitioning of resources between egg number and size resulted in significant differences in egg sac length but not in total reproductive effort. Evidence for a trade-off between egg number and size was found while controlling for a potential confounding effect of parasite total length. However, this trade-off became apparent only at high fecundity levels, suggesting a state of physiological exhaustion.

  16. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... destroy all viable Salmonella microorganisms. Pasteurization or such other treatment is deemed to permit... render the egg yolks free of viable Salmonella microorganisms, and that are not food additives as...

  17. 21 CFR 160.115 - Liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... viable Salmonella microorganisms. Pasteurization or such other treatment is deemed to permit the adding... liquid eggs free of viable Salmonella microorganisms, and that are not food additives as defined...

  18. 21 CFR 160.115 - Liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... viable Salmonella microorganisms. Pasteurization or such other treatment is deemed to permit the adding... liquid eggs free of viable Salmonella microorganisms, and that are not food additives as defined...

  19. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... destroy all viable Salmonella microorganisms. Pasteurization or such other treatment is deemed to permit... render the egg yolks free of viable Salmonella microorganisms, and that are not food additives as...

  20. 21 CFR 160.115 - Liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... viable Salmonella microorganisms. Pasteurization or such other treatment is deemed to permit the adding... liquid eggs free of viable Salmonella microorganisms, and that are not food additives as defined...